Compendium of history and biography of Hillsdale County, Michigan Elon G. Reynolds, editor.
Reynolds, Elon G., 1841-

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Page  VII COPNDU OF HISTORY.AN BIOGRAPHY OF ILJiAUS'TRATEnD. ELON G. REYNOLDS, Editor. "A people that take no pride in the noble achievements of remote ancestors will never achieve anything worthy to be remembered with pride by remote generations. "-MACAULAY. CIIIIC.A GrO A.W. BEOWEF4N & CO. PUBLISHIERS, EMNGR~AVEORS AND BOOR MANUFACTURERS JONESVILLE LIBRARY JONES VLE MCIA

Page  VIII Tell me a tale of the timber landsOf the old-time pioneers; Somepin' a pore man understands With his feelin's well as ears. Tell of the old log house,-about The loft, and the puncheon floreThe old fi-er place, with the crane swung out, And the latch-string thugh the door. -JAMES WHITCOMB RILEY.

Page  IX FOREWORD. From innumerable sources of information-many of them broken, fragmentary, and imperfect-from books, records, manuscripts, private documents and personal information and knowledge, the very capable *editor has gathered much of value respecting this favored cqunty of Hillsdale and its savage and civilized occupancy. The historian and his corps of efficient assistants have zealously endeavored to separate truth from error, fact from fiction, as these have come down to them from the already half-forgotten days in legend, tradition and the annals of the past. The people of the county can well congratulate themselves that so learned a man and so able and conscientious an editor as Mr. Elon G. Reynolds could be obtained. His labors in this connection adds greatly to the long years of service he has given to the institutions of the city and county. His history of Hillsdale College, in this volume, is of high value, comprehensive and exhaustive. The publishers herewith desire to express their thanks to those of the citizens whose patriotic and loyal interest in the county of their birth or residence have caused them to give a generous and loyal assistance to this enterprise, by their financial support rendering its publication possible; to those who have contributed the excellent portraits scattered as fitting illustrations throughout its pages, thereby greatly enhancing the value of the volume; to all whose willing service and unfailing courtesy have ever fully responded to aid in the efforts to make this memorial history a valuable and thoroughly comprehensive exhibit of the events and the people of old Hillsdale county. The publishers feel a satisfaction in being able to so creditably place these writings in an attractive and enduring form, and trust that their faithful efforts will be suitably appreciated. A. W. BOWEN & Co. 75./,o $ 7 J-/>-~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Page  X History may be formed from permanent monuments and records, but lives can only be written from personal knowledge, which is growing every day less and less, and, in a short time, is lost forever. -SAMUEL JOHNSON.

Page  XI CONTENTS OF HISTORY. CHAPTER. PAGE. I. HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN................................... 19 Description-Soil-Rivers and Streams-Prehistoric-The Great Trail-Indian occupancy —Pottawatomies-Baw Beese-Indian execution-Removal of the Indians-Beauty of the landscape-"Oak openings"-"Plains" —Profusion of game, grasses and wild fruitsExtinguishment of Indian title-Description of land ceded-Terms of treaty-Survey of Chicago Road-Early erroneous ideas of Michigan-The first settler-First crop of corn-First "mill"-Benaiah Jones, Jr.-Moses Allen's death and burial. II. EARLY HISTORY-By F. M. Holloway, Esq........................ 26 Treaty of General Cass with Pottawatomies-Coming of immigrants-Blazed trails-The changed view concerning Michigan, how produced-North American Review articles-Locations of first set' ters-The town of VANC(E-Establishment of Hillsdale countyBlack Hawk War-Its influence on proposing settlers-Great scare-Close of preliminary history-HILLSDALE COUNTY: Its Creation, Description and Topography-The Ninth District-First county officers-Townships created-Wheatland-Fayette —First supervisors-First town meetings-Difficulties concerning southern boundary of the State-Boundary war-National interference -Delay in State's admission to the Union-Names and purchases of early pioneers-First store and merchants-First mill-First hotel-First school district-Early schools and teachers. III. EARLY PIONEER CONDITIONS........................................... 32 Early JonesVille-The incoming pioneers-Character of the immigrants —Habits and manners-Charity and kindness-Anecdotes of primitive justice-Jokes-Counterfeiters-Whence came the settlers?-Conditions in Western New York-Pioneers a superior race -Important decisions of local court-Early homes and method of building-Food and cooking-Early crops and prices-Flax and its preparation-Spinning, weaving and the making of clothingSheep and wool-Feather beds-House Furnishings-Spinning bees -Logging bees -Democracy-Moral. IV. LESSONS AND VICISSITUDES......................................... 38 Lessons to be learned-Development of civilization-Object of life.-Dangers to shun-Wherein lies safety-Illustrations of pioneer

Page  XII xii CONTENTS OF HISTORY. CHAPTER. PAGE. living and vicissitudes-Jesse Hill-C. C. Fowler-The Carmichaels -John W. Johnson-H. P. Hitchcock-Norman S. Sharp-Joseph L. Farnham-Samuel Riblet-E. B. Seeley-Pioneer life in Pittsford-Mrs. Southworth's story-Warren Smith. V. PROGRESS OF THE COUNTY......................................... 43 The county in 1838-Railroad building-New courthouse-A great celebration —Program of the exercises-Changes in the county by decades-Present agriculture-Synopsis of county treasurer's report of 1880-Salaries, etc.-Valuation in 1890-Population in 1900 -Intelligence-Politics-Rural free delivery-Improvements, etc. — Banks and banking institutions. VI. EARLY PLACES, PEOPLE, ETC................................ 49 Jonesville-Prominent early settlers-Early lawyers-Physicians -Postoffice-Mail routes-Early industries-Methodist Episcopal church-Presbyterian church-Protestant Episcopal church-Baptist church-Early schools-School districts-Early mentions, births and settlers-First newspaper-Loyalty in Civil War-Deal carriage works-Platting of Jonesville-Its incorporation, etc.,First movement to create a city at Hillsdale-Its first landed proprietors-Township of Hillsdale-Incorporation of city, etc.,-Railroads-Early,business enterprises-Hillsdale village in 1838 and 1839-First sermon-First organized church-First "Fourth of July" celebration-Hillsdale before 1840-Fowler's additionRapid growth-Some prominent citizens of early HillsdaleProgress and development-First postmaster-Railroad construction —Warehouses-First election and officers of Hillsdale village-First school district and school houses-First school board -Odd Fellows and Freemasonry-Early newspapers-Methodist and other churches. VII. ABOUT THE TOWNSHIPS............................................ 57 Adams-North Adams-Allen-Amboy-Cambria-Cambria Mills -Camden-Camden village-Fayette-Jefferson-Osseo-Litchfield -Litchfield village-Moscow-Pittsford-Pittsford village-Scipio -Mosherville-Somerset —Wheatland-Ransom - Reading-Reading village-Woodbridge-Wright. VIII. HILLSDALE COLLEGE-By Elon G. Reynolds......................... 66 Religious thought of the Eighteenth century-Benjamin RandallFree Willers-First Free Will Baptist church-High moral standNeed of an educated ministry-Concerning the establishment of a denominational school in Michigan-Michigan Central CollegeDistinguished early students-Attempts to secure a charter-Erection of buildings-Donations for apparatus and library-Early members of faculty-Charter obtained-First female graduatesUnprecedented growth of school-Change of location agitated

Page  XIII CONTENTS OF HISTORY. xiii CHAPTER. PAGE. Resolution of board of trustees-Visiting committee appointed- Professor Dunn visits Hillsdale-Other prospective locationsColdwater and Hillsdale to compete for the college-Committee in regard to new location-Coldwater's offer-William WaldronHillsdale offers to raise $15,000-Hillsdale secures the collegeLarge contributions-Corner-stone laid at Hillsdale July 4, 1853 -Suit in chancery-Spring Arbor excited-Professor Churchill threatened-Dark days-State constitution prohibited chartersNew law introduced and passed-Hillsdale College organizedFirst trustees-Object of the institution-Raising endowment and other fund's-Scholarships-Geauga Seminary-Merged in Hillsdale College. IX. HILLSDALE COLLEGE, Continued..................................... 72 Opening term of Hillsdale College-Payroll of teachers-Number of students first year-Total number of graduates-Early graduates -Civil War period-Center building destroyed by fire-New buildings to be erected-Knowlton Hall-Fine Arts Hall-Cost of erection-Gymnasium-Treasurer's first report-Annual gain in endowment-Professorships-Large contributors-College libraryProfessor Dunn-Annual statement of 1903-Sources of income for college-List of trustees-Presidents-Excellent financial management-Celebration of semi-centennial of the laying of the cornerstone-Some prominent graduates-Newton J. Corey-Oliver W. Pierce —Hon. Lewis Emery-A. W. and W. W. Mitchell-Will M. Carleton-Hion. Albert J. Hopkins -Bion J. Arnold-Prominent jurists-Prominent educators-Clergymen-Hon. Washington Gardner-Hon. Samuel R. Dresser-Frank D. Baldwin-Captain Charles V. Gridley-Importance, value and character of the college. X. ROSTER OF THE CIVIL W AR........................................ 81

Page  XIV INDEX TO SKETCHES, ETC. Abbott, A. H.............. 427 Ackerly, H. H............... 351 Alamo Mfg. Co.............277 Aldrich, B. F............... 212 Aldrich, H. C..............213 Allen, Moses..........25-26- 58 Alward, B. R............. 451 Alward, J. B............... 352 Archer, M................. 353 Archer, O. M............. 354 Arnold, B............ 79 Ash, J. W................. 116 Ash, P..................... 115 Atterbury, W. H............ 215 Bachelder, K...............217 Baily, E................ 121 Baker, G. W................215 Baker, WV. Y.............. 216 Baker, H. R................ 216 Baker, W................ 218 Baldwin, F. D.............. 80 Barker, L................ 221 Barkman, E................ 219 Barnaby, C. W............. 221 Barnes, N. H............... 222 Barre, C. M................ 330 Barre, H. W................ 355 Barrington, J. 0............ 116 Bates, 0................... 356 Bates, J. A................. 356 Bates, W................. 117 Baxter, H.................. 87 Beecher, C............... 223 Beers, H................... 210 Belden, L.................. 224 Bell, T. H. E............. 357 Benge, W. N............... 123 Benson, E. W..............125 Berry, W................ 457 Bibbins, W. L............. 227 Bishop, B................. 154 Bishopp, S. D.............. 225 Blackman, E. A............ 237 Blackman, H. C............ 237 Blackmar, F. S............. 227 Boone,.................. 227 Bow, H.................... 124 Bowditch, C................ 127 Bowditch, J............. 126 Bower, W. W...............449 Bradley, B. C............... 358 Bradley, J. C............. 359 Brezee, W. H.2............ 22 Briggs, G. W............... 259 Britten, R. R............. 244 Buell, G W............... 231 Buck, A. B.................229 Bump, B. H................232 Burt, E.................... 428 Burt, Thos. Sr. and Jr.....414 Cahalan, J................. 300 Cambria Township......... 133 Carbine, T. P.............. 127 Carmichael, C. & B......... 40 Carpenter, W. A............ 128 Carter, W. E............... 231 Case, D. D................. 91 Case, F. B................. 91 Champlin, E. P............. 92 Chandler, J. Q............ 129 Chandler, L................ 450 Chappell, J. D.............. 233 Chase, M. W............... 230 Chase, P. W...:........... 186 Chester, F................. 360 Chester, G. C............... 112 Chester, 0. D............... 363 Cheney, P................. 172 Childs, W. B.............. 238 Childs, L. H................ 130 Citizens Bank, Allen........ 123 Citizens Bank, Litchfield.... 211 Clement, C.................131 Conger, A. G............... 240 Cook, C.................... 361 Cook, C. F................. 261 Cook, H.................... 329 Cook, J. P................. 260 Cook, N. R................ 239 Cooper, J. C................ 415 Corey, N. J................ 78 Cornell, J. P.............. 242 Cousins, J................. 132 Cox, C.................. 241 Cressy, A.................. 113 Cressy, J. S................ 114 Crommer, D......... 417 Cunningham, E. H..........419 Cunningham, E. W.......... 79 Cunningham, P............. 134 Cummins, T. J............134 Curtis, D. A................ 250 Cutler, M. F................ 434 Cutler, G. W................ 102 Daniels, J. W.............. 135 Darling, J. G............... 135 Darling, J. H............... 137 Davis, A. L................. 137 Davis, E. C.................455 Davis, S. W............... 92 Day, L..................... 147 Dayton, 0................. 242 Deal, J. J................. 244 Denning, J. H............. 247 Dennis, J. I.............253 DeVoe, W. H................ 243 Dibble, E. A............... 285 Dickerson, C. J............. 88 Ditmars, W. H............246 Ditmars, W. R............245 Dobson, B................. 140 Doolittle, C. C...........82- 92 Doty, A. G................. 141 Doty, A. W................. 429 Doty, E.................... 142 Doty, H. F.................. 143 Doty, S.................... 141 Doty, 0....................430 Douglass, A. W............. 248 Douglass, J. F.............. 249 Drake, W................... 436 Dresser, E. H............... 365 Dresser, H. H.............. 365 Dresser, S. R.............. 80 Duryea, M. J............... 252 Duryea, W. H..............251 Edwards, A. C.............. 249 Eldred, H................. 143 Emery, J., Jr............50- 79 Everett, R. A.............. 144 Farnham, J. L.............. 41 Ferguson, A. V............ 253 First National Bank........ 201 First State Savings Bank... 188 Fitzsimnons, J. F.......... 368 Fitzsimm!ons, G............. 368 Ford, B. E................. 145 Fowler, C. C............... 39 Fowler, F................99- 366 Fowler, H.................. 314 Fowle, J................ 441 Fowle, 0.................. 315 Frankhauser, W. H......... 255 Freeman, R. W.............. 434 French, Joseph............. 411 Frisbie, J. L.............102- 146 Fuller, C. E................ 426 Fuller, S. 0................ 371 Gaige, P. S................. 146 Galloway, E. R............. 373 Galloway, J. C.............. 374 Galloway, J. S.............. 186 Gardner, G. F............. 374 Gardner, G. B............... 386 Gier, F. M............ 376 Gier, S. J................. 254 Gilmore, S........... 375 Glasgow, S. W.............. 443

Page  XV INDEX TO SKETCHES, ETC. XV Glasgow, W............... 442 Gorsuch, C. H.............456 Graham, M................. 256 Gray, W.H................ 149 Gregg, N. M................ 149 Green, B. F............... 256 Gregory, E. B..............257 Gridley, C. V............... 80 Grosvenor, E. 0............ 109 Gurney, C. H.............. 112 Hackett, L. S............... 435 Hadley, S. B................ 82 Hadley, Z............... 148 Hall, C. W................. 377 Hall, F. M................. 259 Hall, M. E................. 262 Haggerty, J................ 258 Hancock, J. A.............. 150 Harring, M................. 151 Harris, H................. 263 Hawkins, V................. 439 Hawkins, W. B............. 438 Hawley, J.................. 99 Haynes, H. E.............. 380 Heator, J. J................ 264 Heckman, W. W........... 77 Herring, J................. 267 Herring, M.P.............. 268 H ill, J..................... 39 Hillsdale County Gazette.... 253 Hillsdale Democrat......... 237 Hillsdale Gas Co............ 269 Hillsdale Grocery Co........ 284 Hillsdale Leader............ 351 Hillsdale Savings Bank..... 260 Hinkle, H................ 153 Hirsch, C.................. 265 Hitchcock, H. P............ 40 Holloway, F. M............26-49 Howard, F. J............... 271 Howard, L. A..............271 Hopkins, H.H.............270 Hopkins, S. D:............. 450 Hughes, L.................. 274 Hughes, W................. 273 Hulce, C. P................. 421 Iles, J. C................... 154 Ingersoll, H. J............. 101 Jackson, G. A.............. 275 Johnson, C. C..............275 Johnson, J. W............. 40 Johnson, W. C..............452 Joiner, C................... 152 Jones, B., Jr............. 24- 80 Kellogg, I. H..............382 Kelly, M. W................ 280 Kemp, N. B.............. 283 Kempton, M................. 279 Kennedy, S........... 280 Keough, W................. 274 Kesselring, L............ 283 Kies, C.A.................. 276 Kies, D. C.................. 285 King, J. F.................. 278 Kinney, A. L.............. 383 Kirby Family............... 156 Kirby, J. J................. 157 Kirby, R. S................. 157 Kirby, W.................. 156 Knapp, P................... 287 Knapp, S.................. 286 Koon, C. E.............. 89 Koon, M. B................. 77 Kreiter, P.................. 281 Kroh, J. H................. 159 Lake, E................... 180 Lane, H.................. 160 Lane, O. B................ 443 Lane, R. D................. 175 Lawrence, C. E............. 162 Lawrence, E................ 287 Lazenby C.............. 158 LeFleur, H. B.............. 381 Leonardson, J.............. 402 Leonardson, S.............. 418 Lickly, J. W................ 439 Lindsey, C. C.............. 288 Litchfield Gazette.......... 372 Lloyd, G. W............... 270 Lombard, G. W............. 82 Long, J...................161 Lovejoy, A. J.............. 211 Lovell, E................. 163 Lowe, C. Y................. 164 Lowery, T. J.............. 445 Lyon, F. A............... 166 McCarty, J. B.............. 384 McCowan, H............... 289 M,cCowan, A. L............. 290 McCutcheon, A. J........... 421 McCutcheon, W............423 McDougal, J................ 362 McIntyre, M.............. 292 McKellar, D.............. 168 McKellen, C............... 356 McNabb D................. 290 McNair, J......... 431 McWilliam, J. G............ 387 MacRitchie, W.............. 291 M allory, A.................. 294 Maples, C. A................ 164 March, E. J..............81- 95 Mark, G. A................ 282 Marsh, E. S.............. 167 Masters, F. L.............. 295 Mead, T. S................. 95 M eigs, L....................388 Meigs, M. I.............. 398 Mercer, J. G................295 Mercer, S. A................ 294 Mercer, S. A................ 294 Mercer, W... 378 *Mercer, W. W............. 380 Mickle, J................... 385 Miller, H. C................ 173 M iller, L................... 296,Mitchell, A. W............. 79 Mitchell, C. T............... 138 Mitchell, W. W............. 79 Moore, I............... 389 Moore, J. B................ 79 Morey, F. E...............297 Morgan, C. H............ 297 Mosher, G. W........... 300 Myers, C............... 391 Myers, J.................... 392 Myers, W................. 393 Niblack, J. W............. 390 Nichols, R. L............... 171 Nimocks, C. A.............. 87 Norris, C. S................ 203 Norris, Jason B............ 169 Norris, Joel B.............. 202 Norton, A. L........... 172 Norton, E. P............ 173 Northrop, W. B............. 218 Nye, N. P.............. 174 Oakley, C.................. 87 O'Hanlon, 0................ 176 O'Meara, W................ 303 Omega Cement o.......... 293 Olds, J..................... 52 Oliver, W. A................ 393 Osborn, J. M............... 176 Osius, C. P................. 179 Osius, W. C............... 179 Palmer, W. H............... 422 Parish, J.-H.............. 178 Parsons, C. B.............. 82 Patterson, J. B............ 301 Payne, J. D............... 302 Penoyar, L................. 398 Peterson, R. S.............. 304 Peirce, J. W............... 180 Pettit, W. H. H.............423 Phillips, D................. 181 Pierce,. W.............. 78 Post, M. D. L.............. 183 Post, L. H................ 457 Powell, C. A............... 305 Pratt, D. L................. 266 Pratt, J. H............... 92 Ramsdell, J. J............. 230 Randall, B................. 66 Ranney, L. S............... 303 Ransom, H................. 306 Ransom, W. M............. 307 Rawson, A. P.............. 305 Rawson, M. L.............. 184 Raymond, J. W............ 187 Reed, J. T.................. 185 Reed Family............... 459 Resseguie, W. E............ 454 Reynolds, A................ 396 Reynolds, A. B............ 396 Reynolds, C. B.............. 395 Reynolds, E. G.............234 Reynolds, E. W............. 396 Riblet, S................... 240 Riggs, J. J................. 403 Robe & Tanning Co.........397 Robertson, S. V............ 99 Roethlisberger, F. A....... 1-88 Rogers, F. A............... 400 Rogers, W................. 399 Rose, C.............. 183 Root, L. H.......... 433 Rowley, N. R............ 447 Roy, C. H............... 307 Rumsey, E. H............. 189 Rumsey, G. W............. 182

Page  XVI xvi INDEX TO SKETCHES, ETC. Russ, L. E................. 410 Rutan, W. M............... 308 Sampson, W. J............. 118 Saltzgiber, J................ 424 Sawyer, W. H.............. 170 Schaad, Z.................. 309 Schmitt, F.................. 190 Scott, W. A................ 310 Scowden & Blanchard Co.... 157 Scowden, J................. 158 Seeley, E. B............... 41 Seeley, P. B................ 401 Seelye, R. F................ 452 Severance, M. P............130a Shaneour, J.............. 448 Sharp, N. S................ 40 Sharp, W. D........... 310 Shattuck, E. A.............. 311 Shepard, P. B 3............ 313 Sheriff, I. W.............. 191 Sheriff, S. T.............. 192 Silvernail, P. A.............194 Sinclair, R. A............. 316 Slaght,.................... 197 Slaght, J. A................ 198 Southworth, R. N........... 199 Southworth, T. M........... 200 Smith, C. E................ 198 Smith, C. H............. 315 Smith, F. H............... 317 Smith, G. A................ 318 Smith, Le G. J.............. 319 Smith, L. T............. 320 Smith, S. S................ 370 Smith, W.................. 43 Smith, W. H................ 320 Smith, G. E................404 Sprowls, James............ 407 Sprowls, John.............. 406 St. Anthony's Church....... 299 State Bank, Reading........ 142 Stevens, E.................. 321 Stewart, F. M...............201 Stimson, C.................321 Stock, F. W................ 298 Stoddard, J. A.............405 Stoner, I. J................ 428 Strait, R.................. 346 Sutton, J. R............... 408 Sutton, R. B....... 408 Taylor, W................ 322 Terpening, L. H............ 323 Terwilliger, C. W........... 447 Thomas, A. S...............324 Timms, D. W.............. 394 Tolford, P. B............... 325 Toner, J................ 325 Travis, G. R............... 326 Turner, J. P................ 193 Turrell, H. N............... 328 Tuttle, H. S............... 425 Underwood, G. W.......... 327 Underwood, W. A...........196 Van Aken, C. T............. 329 Veeder, C. S................ 331 Vosper, R................... 95 Vrooman, S. B............. 87 Wade, C. F............... 293 t Wadsworth, T. N...........194 Waldron, H............... 118 Waldron, W............... 120 Walsh, F. H............... 331 W alsh, J. J................. 332 Walworth, H. S............. 207 W ard, J. H................. 333 W ard, J. T................. 333 Warren, H. M.............. 334 Warren, J. M.............. 335 Washburn, E. M............336 Watkins, D. J.............. 195 Watkins, J. H.............. 432 Watkins, J. M............. 130b Watkins, J. R.............. 204 Watkins, L. R............... 122 W atkins, S................. 203 Watkins, W............... 205 Watkins, Mrs. Z. W......... 123 W ay, P..................... 206 Weaver, L. D............... 444 W eir, A.................... 337 W eir, A. B................. 337 Westfall, G. W........... 338 Whelan, A. F.............. 339 W helan, B............... 340 W hite, C. E................. 341 Whitbeck, R. B............. 338 Whitney, A. R.............. 342 Whitney, J. C............... 209 Whitney, W. G............. 89 Whitney, W. G............. 409 Wigent, F. M.............. 453 Wigent, A. J............... 413 W igent, M................. 413 W ight, T................... 42 W illits, M.................. 206 W illiams A................. 341 Williams, C. H............ 459 W illard, J................. 344 vrilson, H. K.............. 343 Winchester, A. M........... 344 W isner, D. A.............. 345 W isner, I. G............... 103 W olf, G. P.............. 347 W olf, J................... 213 W olf, M................... 208 Wood, M. G............... 348 Woodward, E.............. 214 W orden, R................. 42 W orthing, A................ 350 W yllis, G. C................ 348 Wyllis, J. A................ 412 INDE. Grosvenor, E. O.... Frontispiece Bishop, B.......... Facing 154 Barre, C. M........ " 330 Cousins, J.......... " 132 Curtis, W...... " 107 Fowle, B............ 314 Fowle, Mrs. B...... 314 Freeman, R. W....... 434 Freeman, Mrs. R.. " 434 Fuller, C. E......... 146 Fuller, Mrs. C. E.... " 146 Galloway, J. S...... 186 Glasgow, S. W...... " 306 Glasgow, W......... 442 Hopkins, S. D..... " 226 TO ILLUSTRATIONS. Hopkins, Mrs. S. D.. Facing 226 Leonardson, J....... " 402 Leonardson, S...... " 418 Leonardson, Mrs. H. M." 419 AMcDougal, A........ " 362 McDougal, Mrs. A... " 362 McDougal, J........ " 362 McDougal, Mrs. J... 362 Mark, G. A.......... " 282 Mercer, W.......... " 378 Mitchell, C. T...... 139 Norris, J. B........ " 202 Northrop, W. B..... " 218 Pratt, D. L.......... " 266 Russ, L. E......... " 410 Reynolds, E. G......Facing 66 Sawyer, W. H...... " 170 Seelye, R. F........ " 50 Seelye, Mrs. R. F.... " 50 Severance, M. P..... " 146 Severance, Mrs. M. P. 146 Smith, S. S..... " 370 Smith, Mrs. S. S.... " 370 Stock, F. W........ 298 Strait, R........... " 346 Strait, Mrs. R....... 347 Timms, D. W........ 394 Watkins, J. M...... " 80 Watkins, L. R...... " 122 Watkins, Mrs. Z.W. " 123

Page  17 ~PART FIRST HILLSDALE COUNTY MICHIGAN FULLY HISTORICAL Out of monuments, names, words, proverbs, traditions, records, fragments of stone, passages of books, and the like, we doe save and recover somewhat from the deluge of time.-LORD BACON CHICAGO: A. W. BOWEN & CO. 1903

Page  18 We tell today the deeds of story, And legends of the olden time; While voices, like an unseen glory, Still charm us as a silver chime. The old and new join loving hands, The Past before the Present stands; The ages give each other greeting, And years recall their old renown; Their acts of fortitude repeating That won for them historic crown.

Page  19 COMPENDIUM OF HISTORY Or HILLSDDALE CO., MICtHIGAN. This beautiful and productive county is one The name Hillsdale arises from the prevalence of the southern counties of the State. Bounded of "hills" and "dales," and its exquisite natural on the north by Calhoun and Jackson counties, on beauty rivals the artistic work shown by English the east by Lenawee county, on the south by Ohio. landscape gardeners on the large estates of Kent on the west it is bordered by Indiana and Branch and Somersetshire. At the time of its first occucounty. Organized in 1835, it now embraces the pancy by the whites the northern half of the councity of Hillsdale and eighteen organized town- ty was dotted with burr, black and white oaks, ships, Adams, Allen, Amboy, Cambria, Camden, the numerous groves being known as "oak openFayette, Hillsdale, Jefferson, Litchfield, Moscow, ings," the country appearing like a succession of Pittsford, Ransom, Reading, Scipio, Somerset, orchards. The remainder of the county was heavWheatland, Woodbridge and Wright. The very ily timbered with oak, whitewood, black walnut, rich county of Hillsdale lies on the dividing maple, hickory and other trees, many of them ridge between Lake Erie and Lake Michigan, being of large size. The soil varies from a light, and its altitude is about the greatest of any section.dry sand and loam, to a black, rich alluvium, and of the Lower Peninsula, some points attaining all parts of the country have been ever productive, the height of from 600 to 640 feet above Lake yielding the best of crops of grain, grass and roots Erie, something more than I,Ioo feet above the under the skillful touch of intelligent husbandry. tidewater of the ocean. The surface is undula- The mineral products are scarcely worthy of menting, a portion being hilly, marshes are here and tion, consisting, as they do, of small deposits of there interspersed. Many beautiful, clear ponds, iron, lime and only the traces of other metals, but or lakes, dot the country, fed by pure spring wa- there are some fine quarries of excellent sandter; the number runs up into hundreds, one au- stone, suitable for building and for grindstones. thority saying that "there are 365, one for each The county is well watered, for in addition day of the year." In the early days these were to the lakes mentioned, there are numerous full of delicious fish. small streams, among them the St. Joseph river:;:! 't:' x:..'.,

Page  20 20 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. of the Maumee, the St. Joseph of Lake Michigan, the Little St. Joseph, the south branch of the Kalamazoo river, Hog river, and Bean, Goose and Sand creeks. The St. Joseph and. Kalamazoo rivers furnished admirable mill sites and water powers which were early utilized to the manifest benefit of the county. Evidences of a prehistoric race of inhabitants and of their extended residence here is shown by the number of their burial mounds appearing, notably in Jefferson township, where they are quite numerous north of the chain of eight lakes, of which Deer lake is largest, and in the vicinity of Bird lake. Those that have been examined show, besides the skeletons of the buried people, pottery, pipes and other articles, distinctly those of Indian workmanship. The occupation of Hillsdale county before the coming of the whites has left little sign of its existence. Whatever prehistoric peoples may have rambled along its pleasant hillsides or bathed in the limpid waters of its lakes, they departed hence and left no traces except the mounds, which are elsewhere mentioned. The thrilling events of border warfare and of Indian atrocities recorded no deed of bloodshed on this fair land. Tecumseh, Pontiac and other valiant and historic Indian chiefs, concocted their dark designs against the whites in other places, by other streams, and the Indian history of this section is largely one great blank. Probably bands of warriors going to slaughter and destroy, or returning home from savage forays, traversed the great trail crossing the county. Perhaps disconsolate captives were also hurried along its winding way, but no record has been made and the tongues that might tell were palsied by death generations' ago. In the construction of this great Indian trail that led across the state from one great lake to another, and also in its branches, the red men avoided the larger marshes, kept on the highest attainable ground and crossed the streams at the best natural fording places. Entering the county in the township of Somerset, not quite two miles from the northeast corner of the county, the trail ran nearly west to the site of the village of Moscow, thence southwesterly to the crossing of the St. Joseph at Jonesville, thence southwesterly through Allen, leaving the county half a mile north of the center of that township. In the first quarter of the Nineteenth Century a band of less than 200 Pottawatomies made this county their home. They had no permanent abiding place, but frequented, for the greater part of the time, the eastern portion of the county, their migrations ranging from Baw Beese lake and Hillsdale into Pittsford, Jefferson, Adams and Wheatland. They occasiopally made long travels to Lenawee county and into Ohio and Indiana, always returning to the vicinity of Baw Beese lake. They built cabins of bark, but they were not congregated into a village, nor did their occupants remain all of the time in the same location. There were a few small open fields of a few acres each, where the squaws raised corn and beans, but their resources for food were principally hunting and fishing. An old trading-post, owned by one Campau, existed at this period on Allen's Prairie, where the furs they collected were exchanged, for guns, powder, calico, whisky and other desirable commodities. The nominal chief of this band was an ordinary looking, fat, goodnatured Indian, known as Baw Beese. For thirteen years from the coming of the first settlers, Baw Beese and his Pottawatomies lived on terms of perfect amity with the new comers. They were either all "good" Indians, or the influence of Baw Beese was a very potent one. 4 Baw Beese is described as being. always ready to entertain a white man with food or shelter, yet he was still more ready to receive than he was to provide. When visiting a pioneer cabin if he was not invited to partake of refreshments, he would ask for anything that he might desire to eat or drink. During the fishing season the Indians usually camped on the shores of Baw Beese lake, as it was one of the best fishing places of the country, there being no dams on the river to prevent the numerous fish from coming from Lake Michigan. The largest of the cornfields of the Indians was in the north part of the later township of Wright, and consisted of about fifteen acres. Near the eastern line of Wheatland was a log cabin, said to be the home of Baw Beese, but he, with his squaws and pappooses,

Page  21 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 21 were wandering so much that it was rarely if ever occupied by him. It was in connection with an Indian execution that the early settlers first became acquainted with this band. Some time before the coming of the whites one of the Indians discovered that his wife was unfaithful to him. She was given an Indian trial, found guilty and sentenced to death. To a locality in the south part of Jonesville village she was taken, and, in the presence of the assenbled band, she was shot to death by the chosen executioners. From the frequency with which this story was narrated to the whites and the feeling of awe and horror connected with their manner of telling it, it is evident that such crimes and such punishments were very unfrequent among the dark residents of this land. By the treaty of I833, whereby the Pottawattomies ceded their title to the lands of this section, they were to remove within two years to certain specified reservations, but Baw Beese and his band ignored the treaty stipulations, they evading every attempt at removal until I840, the whites of Hillsdale county tacitly acceding to their remaining, as everything was peaceful. The Pottawattomies of St. Joseph and Branch counties were of another character; brawls, fighting and even murders were of frequent occurrence among them and Othe people of those counties hardly felt safe in the occupancy of the land taken from the Indians by the treaty so long as they were in the vicinity, so, in I840, the Federal government made a determined effort to transport them to their allotted reservation at Council Bluffs, Iowa. Various efforts were made during the summer by the U. S. commissioners to accomplish this result, but to no avail. Baw Beese showed great anxiety and fear,, saying: "Sioux kill me. Sioux kill me. Sioux kill us all. Sioux bad Indians, tomahawk squaw, scalp pappoose, ugh!" In November, I840, the Federal government took sterner measures. It sent a detachment of soldiers to aid the commissioners, who formed a camp and sent the troops to bring in the Indians. They did not resist, but the young men would break away whenever they could do so, while the squaws would conceal themselves so adroitly that it required great skill and much time to find them and gather them together. Finally nearly all were "rounded up" and the commissioners made ready for a start. Poor, fat, good-natured Baw Beese wept bitterly when he saw that they must go. To every attempt at consolation he had but one reply: "Sioux kill me. Sioux kill us all." Previous to this event a pioneer would often hear a knock on his door in a cold or stormy night, and, on opening it, a warrior, with his squaw and pappooses, or two or three stalwart braves, would step in with the salutation of "How. How." Then would be said: "Indian cold; squaw cold; pappoose cold; want fire." The settler would pile up the logs in the big, old-fashioned fireplace, and the Indians would lie dowdn on the stone hearth or puncheon floor, as close to the fire as they could get without burning their blankets, and both whites and Indians would slumber peacefully until daybreak. "No one seems to have feared them or to have remembered that their ancestors had engaged in indiscriminate destruction of the Americans in the Revolutionary and other wars, or that some of the very men they were entertaining might have been with Tecumseh in the War of 1812 and taken part in the dreadful scenes that occurred on the banks of the river Raisin." On the day after breaking camp the sorrowful procession passed westward through Jonesville. At the head of the column rode the aged Baw Beese alone in an open buggy drawn by an Indian pony, with his gun between his knees. An' infantry soldier, with a loaded musket on his shoulder, marched before the buggy, while on each side was another guard. The Indian wife of the chief came next, a woman of sixty years, mounted on a pony and escorted by a soldier. After her came Baw Bee, a half-brother of the chief, with about a dozen middle-aged and younger Indians squaws with pappooses on their backs. These were probably the children and grandchillren of the chief, and had an escort of six soldiers. Following these were the rest of the little company, moving in groups of five, ten or twenty each, stretching along the road for halfa-mile or more. A few were on ponies, but most of them were walking; stalwart warriors, with

Page  22 22 h HtLLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. rifles on their shoulders, but with mournful faces; women still more dejected, with blankets drawn over their heads; boys and girls. careless of the future and full of mischievous tricks; and, slung on their mothers' backs, the black-haired, brighteyed, brown-faced pappooses, the cutest-looking creatures in the world, gazing with infant wonder on the unwonted scene. The soldiers guarding the company marched along in single file on either side of the road, but were scattered quite a distance apart. A great number of the settlers had come to witness the departure, and, as the Indians saw one after. another of their friends, they called them by name, saying: "Goodbye." The whites cordially gave them farewell greetings, and these, the last of the Pottawattomies, left forever the home of their ancestors for the, to them, unknown land of the West. The large Iowa reservation whither they were conveyed did not please them, and, after they had repeatedly importuned the Federal government to remove them elsewhere, in I850 they were transferred to a reservation thirty miles square on the Kansas river, seventy-five miles west of its junction with the Missouri, where Baw Beese died of extreme old age. With the passing of Baw Beese and his band of Pottawattomies, Indian occupancy was forever ended on the soil of Hillsdale. It was succeeded by a new era, that of civilized possession. When the few first pioneers looked on this land it was not the landscape of today that they beheld. Although in its peculiar wild and virgin aspect it was wonderfully attractive, still a dense and tangled jungle of heavy cedars, tamaracks and cypress, mingled with maples, elms, oaks, walnuts and other evergreen and deciduous trees covered much of the ground, which, watersoaked and fungus-bearing, was much like that of a swamp, even where extensive swamps did not extend. The rivers and creeks, choked by fallen and rotting logs and the debris of ages, moved languidly in their beds, while smaller streams, now dry or scarcely discernible, kept sinuous course through the extended marshes and forests, and furnished homes for thousands of finny inhabitants, the watery surface being made much more extensive by the numerous dams made by the plentiful beaver. The oak openings and ridge lands presented another aspect. John T. Blois writes of it in 1838: "To the traveller, the country presents an appearance eminently picturesque and delightful. In a considerable portion the surface of the ground is so even and free from underbrush as to admit of carriages being driven through the uncultivated woodlands and plains, with the same facility as over the prairie or the common road. The towering forest and grove, the luxuriant prairie, the crystal lake and limpid rivulet, are so frequently and happily blended together, as to confer additional charms to the high finishing of a landscape, whose beauty is probably unrivalled by any section of country." The settlers found awaiting them a great variety of land and soil. The oak openings, divided into "openings" and "timbered openings" from the difference in growth of trees, consisted mostly of table-lands lying between the streams and often bordering them. They were usually very sparsely covered with oaks of different varieties and of a diminutive height. There was no underbrush and the trees appeared unthrifty, this appearance being caused by the annual fires that ran over the openings. After the fires had been kept out for some years, a rapid growth of timber occurred, showing the real fertility of the soil, which is a loam, with a mixture of clay and sand, generally of a dark color, dry and stiff in its structure, containing lime, which caused a great superiority in the growing of wheat. On some of the uplands were variations of this soil, but the openings were generally of the character we have described. The "plains" resembled the openings, except that there was more sand or gravel in the soil, and they were often covered with a beautiful growth of timber free from underbrush, appearing almost like the orchards the settlers from Western New York left on the hillsides of their 'old home. The prairies were not as large as the settlers might

Page  23 HILLSDALE,-CQ'TY, M- ICQHGAN, have found in Indiana and Illinois,-but those in this county possessed a deep, rich, black soil, in no way less fertile or productive than the larger ones in the above mentioned states. The wild grasses grew with great luxuriance on every kind of land. The blue joint of the prairies attained a height of five or six feet, and the luxuriant wire grass and red top grew in abundance on both openings and prairies, while immense expanses of wild rye, standing from six to eight feet in height, afforded a pleasing sight to the new comer; All of these were nutritious, and the cattle brought from the east had ample provision supplied by nature in great abundance. The ground, especially that of the prairies, was literally covered with a profusion of many kinds of wild flowers of every conceivable hue, crimson, purple, violet, orange, yellow, white, etc. Another attraction to the pioneer was the pure, clear water, plentifully found in all parts of the county. The lands being equally well adapted to tillage and grazing, could please all classes of agriculturists. Deer were in abundance, and other wild animals gave zest to the pioneer's quest for them. The streams, lakes and marshes were inhabited in great numbers by beavers, otters, minks and other fur-bearing animals, whose soft coats were readily exchangeable for such "store goods" as were needed in the pioneer home. Squirrels, both black and gray, and of other varieties, were everywhere. Enormous flocks of wild geese, ducks and swans ruffled the waters of the lakes and ponds, while the wild turkey, the crane, the partridge, the quail, woodcock, snipe, prairie chicken and wild pigeon furnished not only sport to the hunter, but most delicious additions to the primitive larders. It is probable that at this time no other portion of the Union possessed so many waterfowls, or could furnish so many or varied attractions to a sportsman. "Every kind of wild fruit which is, and some kinds that are not, found in the same latitude eastward are not only lavished in superior abundance, but sometimes in superior quality," is the way an early settler of the county wrote of the attractions to the pioneer in that direction. Cranberries were so plentiful in the open, water covered marshes as often to make them appear in the fall like great red fields. When these advantages were known to the people of the eastern states, it is no wonder that a great tide of immigration set in. For at least the third time, a new race was taking "seizin" of the soil. The Indians roamed here and travelled to and fro on their mysterious trail for many successive generations. Here they gathered game and fur and glided away; the fall of their moccasins striking soundless on the yielding forest carpet. The demoralized remnants of a once powerful tribe had been sent to the West, leaving a few, faint, fast-disappearing tokens of their nomadic life, but of the earlier race, the predecessors of the Indians, who can tell aught of them? In this particular portion of the state they left few signs and slight evidences of occupancy, but they were here. They lived, loved, warred, fulfilled their destiny and passed away. The Indian here next existed, fulfilled his destiny and he, too, has gone. Will the record of the third, the Caucasian, race in time to come be that of the others? In the early swarming hither of the pioneers there seems no possibility of such an accomplishment. As we look to-day, in the opening years of the Twentieth Century, at Hillsdale county in its magnificent state of completed civilization arid high intellectual standing, the thought of such a passing away seems the airy nothing of an airy dream, nevertheless, two races have thus passed away. What will be the destiny of the third? The extinguishment of the Indian title to the lands of Hillsdale county was accomplished by the treaty negotiated by General Cass on August 29, 1821. The Chippewa, Ottawa and Pottawattomie tribes were present in numbers, and, after the usual time passed in bargaining and in arranging details, the specific terms of the treaty were agreed upon and reduced to writing. The Pottawattomies, as the occupants of the land, and the other tribes as their allies, ceded to the United States a tract of land extending east and west nearly across the state, its description being: Beginning on the south bank of the St. Joseph

Page  24 24 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. river of Michigan near Parc aux Vaches (a short distance above its mouth); thence south to a line running due east from the southern extremity of Lake Michigan; thence along that line to the tract ceded by the treaty of Fort Meigs in 1817 [which was far to the east of Hillsdale county], or, if that tract should be found to lie entirely south of the line, then to the tract ceded by the treaty of Detroit in 1807 [thewestern boundary of which was twenty miles west of Lake Erie and the Detroit river]; thence northward along that tract to a point due east of the source of the Grand river; thence west to the source of that river; thence down the river on the north bank to its junction with Lake Michigan; thence southward along the east bank of the lake to the mouth of the St. Joseph river; thence up that river to the place of beginning. From the tract thus ceded five reservations were excepted, none of them being in this county, unless one of three miles square, which was described "as situated at the village of Match-ebe-nash-o-wish, at the head of the Kekalamazoo river," might have been partially contained therein. As the Kalamazoo river has several head-water branches, and, as the Indians did not long retain possession of the reservation, there is no means of knowing its exact location, but it was probably in Jackson county. In consideration of this cession, the United States agreed to pay to the Ottawa Indians $I,ooo a year forever, in addition to $r,5oo annually for, fifteen years to support a teacher, a farmer and a blacksmith. The Pottawattomies were to be paid $5,000 annually for twenty years, besides $I,ooo a year to support a teacher and a blacksmith. This treaty is of peculiar interest, as these provisions were among the first attempts made by the U. S. government to civilize the savages. This treaty is the basis of all the land titles of Hilldale county. As the Grand river heads in the northwest corner of the county, a small portion of Somerset township may have been left out of the land thus ceded, as the line runs west to the source of Grand river and thence down that stream to the lake, but, as the land north of this line was also ceded only a short time later, there was no ground left for contention of title. Hillsdale county was now the white man's land, but it lay unsurveyed and roads were not yet existent, nor could the land be purchased by prospective settlers. In 1823 a U. S. land office was established at Monroe for a district which included all the territory of this county. In I824 civilization drew nearer to its confines, as a settlement was made in Lenawee county. In this year, through the influence of Gen. Lewis Cass, who held the office of governor of Michigan with most distinguished ability from I813 to I83I, the Federal government ordered the construction of a public highway, or road of Ioo feet in width, from Detroit to Chicagol (with a branch from near Monroe, striking the main line near the eastern line of Hillsdale county), and appropriated $Io,oo0 to pay for its survey, which was commenced in the spring of the succeeding year, the surveyor planning to run on straight lines. He soon found that this would involve so much labor in cutting a clear space through the dense woods and underbrush, and in spending so large a part of his time in searching for good routes and proper places to bridge the numerous streams, that the appropriation would be expended before the road was surveyed for one-half of the distance. So, to accomplish the duty of fully completing the survey and not exceed the $o,000o, he followed the old trail we have heretofore spoken of, which became known as "the Chicago trail." It has been said that he followed this so faithfully that there was not an angle or a bend in the trail that was not followed by the road. This is doubtless an exaggerated statement, but the road presented enough turns and crookedness to partially justify it. The surveyor was, however, wiser than his critics, for the trail had been selected before him by the greatest masters of woodcraft, the Indians, and probably no better route could have been taken. The road was not opened for use by the government for several years after the survey, but the fact that it was established by the government, and surveyed at an immense cost, caused immigrants to follow its

Page  25 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 25 line and thus was'a determining factor in bringing the land on both sides of the road in touch with the western bound pioneers. And in the very next year after the road was surveyed, in 1826, a few prospecting parties with hunters and trappers, followed its blazes westwardly, and some of them, seeking the best place to locate, went on to Lake Michigan. At this time the blazed road was the only sign of civilization for the most of the many miles of its winding way. No white person had established a home or taken a location in the territory of Michigan west of Lenawee county. The members of the surveying party of I825 returned to their homes with glowing accounts of the magnificent and fertile country they had crossed, which tended largely to send into a state of "innocuous desuetude" the falsities which had been spread broadcast by people interested in the sale of lands in other states, and others who were inimical to Michigan, that the territory was a desert waste of insalubrious climate and its soil a dismal swamp, the home of loathsome reptiles. Even as far back as the early years of the Nineteenth Century these ideas had become prevalent. On May 6, 1812, Congress passed a bill authorizing the survey and location of 2,000,000 acres of public lands in the territory of Michigan to be given as bounty lands to the soldiers then serving against the English, but, on account of representations of the worthlessness of the whole territory for agricultural purposes, the law was repealed in I816 and the lands located in Illinois and Arkansas. There was a resident of Wyandotte, Wayne county, a brave soldier of the War of I812, who is said to have been one of the road-surveying party. His name was Capt. Moses Allen, a name to be connected forever with Hillsdale county as its pioneer of pioneers. In the first half of the year of I826 Captain Allen, in company with John W. Fletcher and George Hubbard, made an extended prospecting tour through the whole extent of the valley of the St. Joseph river. One especially beautiful and attractive section, a fertile prairie, met his entire approval as a site for a permanent residence, and, although the land was not yet surveyed and no title could be obtained until the survey was made, he took a squatter's privilege, and, in April, I827, arrived here with his family 'and household goods, and located a claim on the east side of this prairie, since bearing the name of Allen's Prairie, but known to the Indians as Mas-co-ot-ab-si-ac, Sandcreek prairie. Not only was Captain Allen's settlement the first within the confines of the present Hillsdale county, but it was also the first known permanent settlement of civilized man in Michigan, west of Tecumseh. Captain Allen was accompanied by a brother, who resided on the prairie for several years, but never acquired title.to land. A rude cabin' of logs with a puncheon floor was soon erected and here the family resided for over a year without a white neighbor.east of them for fifty miles (Tecumseh), west of them for about the same distance (White Pigeon prairie), while southward rolled the forest, relieved by an occasional prairie, and here and there a solitary settler, far down into the state of Ohio and Indiana. There was not a permanent white settler's home between the little cabin of the Allen's and the north pole. During the summer of their advent a crop of corn was raised, for it is known that in the spring of 1828 they had an empty corn crib. Campau's abandoned trading-post, cabin or tent, had formerly stood on this prairie, and the trader had here constructed one of those primitive gristmills, made by hollowing out a large hardwood stump so that the cavity would hold a suitable amount of corn, which was ground, or rather pounded to pieces, by a large wooden pestle fastened to a springpole and worked up and down by hand. This mill was standing all ready for the use of the Allens when their first crop was ready to grind. In June, 1828, Benaiah Jones, Jr. and family and brother came to the county and until they constructed a residence on their location at Jonesville they resided in the empty corn barn of Captain Allen, and here in August, 1828, was born the first white child of the county, Cordas M. Jones, the sixth son of his prolific parents. The land was surveyed and ready for pur

Page  26 26 HILLSDALE 'COUNTY, -MICHIGAN. chase by 1829 and on June 8, Moses Allen and two other settlers, who had come to the county through his representations, Benaiah Jones, Jr., and Edmund Jones appeared at the Monroe land office and there he purchased the quarter section of land on which he had located. His career in the land of his choice was of short duration, however, for he labored hard to get the logs together for a substantial tavern and had the "raising" in the summer of i829, and the building was not quite completed when he was taken with a sickness from which he died in October of the same year in which he purchased his land. His was the first settler's death of the county, and the few neighbors, who had followed him to the infant settlement, cut down a big black-cherry tree and "whip-sawed" it into boards from which a coffin was constructed. He was given the rites of a Christian burial, and the pioneer's memory will ever be kept in fragrant recollection. We willnow present to our readers a history of early events written by F. M. Holloway, Esq., an intelligent gentleman, who long bore a conspicuous part in public affairs and was himself an early pioneer. The manuscript has never been printed. There is in some place a repetition of matters already spoken of by us, but, as the "point of view" is a different one, we think our readers will be pleased to see his presentation of the subjects. CHAPTER II. BY F. M. HOLLOWAY, ESQ. On the I6th of October 1826, General Cass concluded a treaty with the Pottawattomies for all of their possessions east of the Mississippi river, this was identified with our territory. The removal was not carried out until I840. The year of I827 was fraught with but few incidents of general interest, the extinguishment of Indian titles was still progressing, on the I9th of September General Cass concluded the last treaty with the Pottawattomies by which they ceded all of their claims to the lands in southern Michigan, a special necessity existing at this time for the purpose of building the Chicago road through the territory. The year I828 passed in great activity in many parts of this territory. Immigrants with their wagons and a little stock were penetrating the forests by the aid of their compasses, leaving the trees blazed behind them, as a trail for others to follow, and as a line of retreat, if that became necessary. In the record we find nothing of special interest pertaining to this locality. The year of I829 opens with marked interest to us. Our lands had been surveyed and put in market. The great Chicago road had assumed an identity sufficient to indicate where the trail would be. A reaction was taking place in the eastern states, especially in New York, as to Michigan. They could not believe it to be such a vast expanse of sand hills and quagmires as it was represented to be by some of its early explorers, who had been sent to examine it when the government contemplated setting it apart for the benefit of our soldiers of the Revolution and of the War of 1812. And they were strongly fortified in these doubts by a long series of articles in the North American Review, evidently from the pen of one who knew well what he was talking about, and familiar with the country. These articles were extensively copied by the presses of the country. They were historical, in showing the struggles that the territory had passed through; they were statistical in setting forth the resources and capabilities of each and every part of the country with the familiarity of an eyewNitness. They were also convincing to the general government that it had done a great wrong in withdrawing the military arm of protection from around her borders which had ever served as a shield of defense against the savages of the wil-,derness. The forts of the lakes from Detroit to Chicago were strengthened at once. Appropriations were made by Congress for the opening up of the highways so long prayed for. Day began to break in the east and as the rays of the sun began to shoot through the sky, we find the young men of the east following in its light. As

Page  27 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 27 their eye takes in the vision of their imagined Eldorado of the West, their feet strike the trail of what was to be Michigan's great thoroughfare. On the 8th of June in this year we find Edmund and Benaiah Jones, Jr., pitching their tent on the northwest quarter of section No. 4, where Jonesville now stands, and obtaining title thereto from the government. On the same day, Moses Allen secures title to the southeast quarter of section No. io, it being on the east side of Allen's prairie, a part of the same being later owned by Goodwin Howard, Esq. On the i8th of the same month John S. Reed secures title to the east half of the northeast quarter of section No. 17, in the same town and range. On the 26th of October S. N. W. Benson secured title to the lands on section No. 1, where the village of Moscow now stands. On the 29th of this October Gen. Lewis Cass, as governor of Michigan territory by proclamation organized by boundary and name the county of Hillsdale, thereby carrying out the provisions of an act of the legislative councils. But it must not be inferred that we became a community then, a fullfledged and independent nation governing and being governed; for, mark you, our Uncle Sam had parted with but 480 acres of his domain within the county, and this to five individuals, hardly enough to "keep house" with, therefore the providence that was watching over us, deemed it wise to exercise tutelage awhile longer. And in six days after, on the 5th of November, we were christened, as is the custom of all Christian people with their children, and given the name of Vance, as a token of esteem on the part of the officiator to a valued friend, then conspicuous in an'adjoining state. We were put under the guardianship of our elder brother, the county of Lenawee, until further orders, with the one provision that we might, on the first Monday in Aprilof each year,meet at the house of Benaiah. Jones, Jr., and hold high carnival in the ceremony of dividing the spoils of office as should seem meet to us without let or hindrance. In all other particulars we were dependent upon our guardian, Lenawee. To him we must report the result of our political sprees: If we wished to get married we must get his permit; if a land title was to be perpettrated, or difficulties between parties adjudicated by the courts, we must go to Tecumseh to have it done. If we desired to number our population Sheriff Patchen must come up and do it. In I830 an act was passed by the legislative council authorizing Shubel Conant of Monroe, Jared Patchen of Lenawee and Judge Sibley of Detroit to act as commissioners to locate and establish the county seat of Hillsdale county. On their report we find that the governor, by proclamation dated Feb. 15, I83I, fixes it at Jonesville; and now with a county and a county seat it might be inferred that we had come of full age and ready to put on our majority. Such, however, was not the fact. A little cloud was springing up in the western horizon, no bigger than a man's hand, and spreading its blackness over Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana and Michigan. In the northern wilds of the first-named territory lived the powerful and warlike tribes of Sacs and Foxes, and as their names imply, they had sacked and spoiled many a peaceful settlement, even of their own race. These Indians had taken umbrage at some of the treaties heretofore made with them, and they would be revenged. Standing at their head was the renowned warrior and chief, Black Hawk, and his able brother, the Prophet. In solemn council these tribes resolved on war to recover their old possessions, and to drive from the land all of the white intruders. The news of this declaration spread as upon the wings of the wind. It applied to Michigan as well as other territory, at least our people thought that it did. The greatest excitement prevailed. Some gathered their household goods and started for the east, but the greater part kept their powder dry and flints well packed, "awaiting the result." The result was very disastrous to emigration, which received such a blow that it took full1 four years to recover from it. 3ooking at the farce in after years one but can conclude that the fright was uncalled for, and not worthy the consideration of Americans whose sires had bravely met threats like these and resulting war in a former day.

Page  28 28 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. What were the facts in this great scare? Three thousand boisterous fighting savages had declared war against the scattered settlements of a territory more than five hundred miles from their home, without allies or resources only as they could secure them on the warpath. What were their prospects of success? It had been more than a year since they made their declaration; they had tried for allies among other tribes and failed. They had, by declaring war against the settlements, pronounced against the Federal government, at the head of which stood General Jackson, an adept in Indian warfare, and his war minister, General Cass, who was personally acquainted with Black Hawk and all of his tribe and families, with every inch of territory which would suffer. Who that was familiar with these facts could doubt that the war would be closed sharply and quickly if a step should be taken? As the sequel shows the Indians had hardly moved from their stamping-grounds before Generals Atkinson and Dodge laid the prowess of the United States army upon them and the Black Hawk War was at an end. As the clouds rolled away in the west new desires sprang up in the east. Many of her hardy sons were anxious to secure homes from the cheap lands of the western states and territories; a home they had never heretofore enjoyed fully. With these desires they acted, thousands taking their little all, sallying forth with no definite point in view, but trusting to their good judgment to stop when they reached the point destiny had selected for them. So great was this tide, this pushing forward for the land of their hopes in the spring of 1835, that one familiar with sacred history could readily see the panorama of the moving of Israel to the promised land. But we must bring this preliminary history to a close. We have followed acts and incidents until we find we have come to the year I835. We find also that Sheriff Patchen has been here and enrolled our people, that we number 519, all told; and that he has reported 'his doings to the legislative council, and that they, through the governor, have notified us that we are of age on this Ilth day of February, 1835; and that henceforth we must take care of ourselves as one of the independent counties of Michigan. Hillsdale county was granted political and municipal privileges on Feb. II, I835. Its geograpical position is on the southern border of "the state, nearly equi-distant from the Lakes, Erie and Michigan, and definitely described as embracing townships 5, 6, 7, 8, and part of 9, south of the base line, and ranges I, 2, 3 and 4 west of the principal meridian, as established by the U. S. survey, in the subdivision of Michigan territory." It is bounded on the north by Jackson and Calhoun counties, on the east by Lenawee county, on the south by Ohio and Indiana and on the west by Indiana and Branch county, and comprises 6I7 square miles, of 640 acres to the mile, or 394,880 acres. The soil is variable, the north part being mostly a gravelly loam with clay subsoil, while in the southern part a clay loam predominates. It was originally a timbered county, abounding in beech, maple, oak, elm, hickory, basswood, whitewood, black-walnut and cottonwood in all of the towns, and there was not one but had its belt of "oak openings" or "burr-oak plains." The surface is rolling but not hilly, forming a' high table-land, the highest in the state, it being 630 feet above Lake Erie, and 616 above Lake Michigan. It is the source of all the principal rivers of southern Michigan, Grand Kalamazoo, St. Joseph, Little St. Joseph, Tiffin and Raisin, that find 'their feeders in the numerous and beautiful lakes which dot the surface of the county. These lakes, although small, are generally of great depth, with beautiful gravelly bottoms and fine pebbly shores, abounding in the fish usually found in western inland waters. The rivers all have prominence on the maps of our country. The first three traverse the state in a northwesterly direction, discharging into Lake Michigan. The fourth and fifth run in a southerly course until they join hands with the Necaine of the lakes, there to swell its bosom as a feeder to our inland ocean, while the sixth steadily pursues a due east course until it reaches Lake Erie. This is Hills

Page  29 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 29 dale county as it was when its boundaries were established, and given its name on the 29th of October, I829. This is also as it was when organized in 1835, excepting the changes made by the frontiersman, which will be noted under a different heading. By act of the legislative council in 1834, a census of the territory was taken, looking to the formation of a constitution and becoming a state of the Union when the population was sufficient. Eighty thousand was the number this required. Upon canvassing the returns it was found to be more than was required, and, on the 26th of January, I835, the same council passed an act calling a convention to form a state constitution also dividing the territory into election districts, determining their boundaries, and giving a member to each thousand inhabitants as near as practicable. In this assignment we find Hillsdale and Branch counties constituting the Ninth District. The election was fixed for Saturday, April 4, 1835, throughout the territory. On the I th of February following, by another act of the council the county was organized by the appointment of county officers as follows: Sheriff, James D. Van Hoevenburgh; clerk, Chauncey W. Ferris; register, James Olds; treasurer, John P. Cook; judge of probate, Lyman Blackmar, and circuit judge, William A. Fletcher. These constituted the county officers then and to these appointees were committed the trusts and interests of the county in a limited sense as provided by statutes. But by the same statute the full management was to be vested in a board of supervisors consisting of one member from each town. On the I7th of March in this year the legislative council passed an act dividing Hillsdale county or the town of Vance, as it had heretofore been called, into four parts and organizing them as separate townships. The first comprised the territory lying in Range 2, which they named "Wheatland," and appointed the first town meeting to be held at the house of Thomas Gamble on Saturday, April 4, following. The second comprised all the territory lying in Range 2; they named it Moscow, and appointed the first town meeting at the house of Lyman Blackmar, to be held on Saturday, April 4, following. The third comprised the territory lying in Range 3. They named it Fayette and appointed the first town meeting at the house of James D. Van Hoevenburgh, to be held April 4 following. The fourth comprised the territory lying in Range 4. They named it Allen and appointed the first town meeting at the house of Richard Corbus, to be held April 4 following. At these annual meetings we find our people exercising the elective franchise for the first time in the county, and selecting their delegate to the constitutional convention. We find, on canvassing the ballots of this election with the returns from Branch county, that the district made choice of Judge Lewis T. Miller of Moscow as its delegate to the constitutional convention, a man of years, of fine talent, of quick perception, a farmer by occupation and held in high esteem. The first supervisors who constituted the county board were Herman Pratt, of Wheatland; Benjamin Fowle, of Moscow; Brooks Bowman, of Fayette, and Richard Corbus, of Allen. To these belonged the prerogative of raising revenue for county purposes, and through them and by their order must the same be disbursed. To them was committed the county's wards, and by them must refuges of safety be provided by which the reckless could be restrained and the poor and infirm cared for. The convention to form a state constitution met on the 2nd Monday in May in the city of De troit, concluding their duties and adjourning on the 24th of the same month. In giving their boundaries they made their southern one the same as recognized by the ordinance of 1787, and as understood when the territory was found. This constitution was submitted to the people and by them approved and sent to congress for its action, they not doubting the admittance of Michigan as a state as soon as congress assembled. To this boundary Ohio entered protest in congress, and by her legislature and executive, and at once organized her civil and military powers through and over the disputed territory, which was a strip of land about six miles wide on the Indiana line and eight or nine miles wide at the

Page  30 3a HILLSDALE 'COUNTY, 'MICHIGAN. Maumee river. Congress rejected the Michigan application on the I5th of June, 1836, and submitted a proposition to the people of the territory July 25 of the same year, fixing the southern boundary where it is now. In consideration for the change the following grants were to be made: 'First. Section I6 of every township for the use of schools. Second. Seventy-two sections for a state university. Third. Five sections to build a state capitol. Fourth. Twelve salt springs, with six sections of land surrounding each, for the general uses of territory. Fifth. Five-twentieths of the net proceeds.of the public lands (when sold) for public roads and canals. Sixth. Alteration of the northern boundaries to include the upper peninsulas. This proposition was considered by a new convention authorized by the people and held at Ann Arbor, and was accepted on Dec. fI5, 1836, and duly certified to congress, which on the 26th of January, 1837, passed an act admitting Michigan into the Union on an equal footing with the original states. In the meanwhile, thr6ugh all of this compromising and delaying action of the general government and territory, other scenes were transpiring which looked ominous of difficulty. Ohio had placed commissioners in the field to ascertain and establish her northern boundary "from the most northerly cape of Miami bay, to a, point on the east line of Indiana, where it would intersect a line drawn due east from the most southerly pbint of Lake Michigan." This action fixed the heart of young Acting 'Governor Stevens T. Mason, whose loyalty and zeal would not brook such an insult. The militia at his disposal was called into requisition early.in the spring of 1835 and was put upon the trail of the commissioners, whom they actually routed, taking several of the party prisoners on the' line ten miles east of Morenci. These they held for a few days, then discharged some on parole and others on bail to answer in the district court. But the end was not yet!:A majority of those living on the disputed territory in Monroe county were late emigrants from Ohio and Pennsylvania, and they were thoroughly impressed with the importance to them of being a part of Ohio. There was the Port of Toledo just opening to the traffic of the lakes. There were the states of Ohio and Indiana ready to bring in the great Wabash canal, provided it could tap the lake on Ohio's soil, and, besides this, Ohio was an old state and would be able to develop the territory much quicker, that in fact the territorial interest was all centered at Detroit and Toledo, and if it remained to Michigan, would only be a dependency paying tribute. With the sentiments prevailing the governor of Ohio was easily induced to put in force the laws of the state, and issued a proclamation, defining the boundaries of towns and counties in the disputed tract and for the election of officers to complete their organizations. These were quickly held and military companies began to drill in preparation for civil war. The impulsive governol of Michigan promptly ordered General Brown, of Tecumseh, to assemble the entire brigade of his militia, numbering from 1,200 to 1,500 men, with which they marched to Toledo and held the place, the Ohio troops wisely halting at Perrysburgh. The situation was serious and much bloodshed must have occurred if the national commissioners, hastily sent from Washington, had not introduced delaying measures. The Michigan troops went home. Ohio was allowed to resurvey the "Harris line," the basis of her claim, and, after frequent display of troops on either side of the controversy and numerous arrests, in 1837 the people consented to accept the terms of congress and receive admittance into the Union. (F. M. Holloway, so long a citizen of Hillsdale, was a captain in this "Toledo war," as it was termed, in the Ohio troops.) Thus it was that Hillsdale county failed to be twenty-eight miles long instead of twenty-five and one-half; and thus, too, it happened that the southern boundary of the county is not an east and west line, but a line bearing north of east, diverging from a true east line about half a mile in the width of the county. But we have anticipated and must return to the period when Benaiah Jones, Jr., laid out the village of Jonesville January 31, 1831. Judging

Page  31 HILLSDALE COUNTYT MICHIGAN.. 1z., from the light we now have, these first pioneers were men of great hope, living in expectations, reasoning from precedent that every county must have its capital, every community its centre; hence a village was a necessity, although there was but I,280 acres of land sold in the county, and this held 'by about twelve individuals, and these stretched out on a line of seventeen miles. We give the names of these twelve nearly in the order in which they came: Moses Allen, Edmund and Benaiah Jones, Jr., John S. and Thomas S. Reid, S. N. W. Benson, James Olds, Abram F. Boulton, Richard W. Corbus, E. J. Sibley, Martin G. Shellhouse and Benjamin F. Lamed, the last named were probably non-residents. There were a few who had not yet located; among them Thaddeus Wright, Stephen Hickox and others. All of the dwellings up to this date were constructed entirely from logs as there were no mills in the country. In 1832 E. J. Sibley built a sawmill two miles south of Jonesville, on the St. Joseph river, and three years later James Olds and others built another one a mile above the first on the east branch of the same stream. These mills were of incalculable benefit to the people. Improved residences and an impetus to the growth of the village was at once manifest. At the close of 1833 we find but I0,280 acres of land yet located in the county. This was distributed as follows: In Somerset, I,040 acres to James D. Van Hoevenberg, Horace White, Heman Pratt, Elias Branch, Elias Alley, David. Herrington, Ebenezer Gay and Charles Blackmar. In Wheatland, 1,2oo acres to Silas Moore, Richard M. Lewis, Mahlon Brown, Edwin Brown, Lydia Kaniff, Thomas Lewin and Stephen Russel. In Pittsford, 1,760 acres to Charles Ames, Thomas Herdsman, Jesse Smith, William B. Ames, Curran White, Stephen Wilcox, John Gustin, William Flowers, Thomas J. Pannock, Isaiah French and Alpheus Pratt. In Moscow. 3,320 acres to Benjamin Fowle, S. N. W. Benson, Samuel Aiken, O. B. Blackmar, Pontius Hooper, Stephen Scott, David Hiller, Thomas Watts, John Simmons, James Winters, T. C. Delavan, 'Louis T. Miller, Simon Jacobus, Charles T. Delavan, Lucius Lyon, Alonzo Kies, Mary Miller and Charles Stuck. In Scipio, 300 acres to William H. Nelson, Dexter Olds, S. N. W. Benson and Nathaniel Bacon. In Fayette, 1,980 acres to Benaiah and Edmuind Jones, James Olds, M. G. Shellhouse, Abel: Olds, Thaddeus Wight, E. J. Sibley, Benaiah Jbnes, Sr., Peter Martin, B. F. Larned, Artemeddtus Fuller, Nelson and Lyman Nethaway, Alvin Niece, Lemuel White, Stephen Hickox, James Bloss. In Allen, I,720 acres to Moses Allen, John S. and Thomas S. Reid, Richard WV. Corbus, Abram F. Boulton, R. E. and N. Stiles,. John Ewell; Newel Kane, David Stiles, Ichabod Burdick, Henry Clark and Hiram B. Hunt, making but seventy-five landowners in the entire county, and being less in amount than seventeen sections, and not quite equal to a halftownship. In the summer of I834 John P. Cook and Chauncey W. Ferris came to the county and opened in Jonesville the first stock of goods offered for sale in the state west of Tecumseh, except by Indian traders. In the same year Levi Baxter and Cook Sisson commenced to build the Jonesville gristmill, finishing it the next year, it being the first of the kind west of Tecumseh. Many improvements were being made in the village and country. The Fayette House, a large and commodious hotel, had been built by Benaiah Jones in the village. A second stock of goods was opened in the fall by Charles Gregory. A school district was organized in I833 and the first schoolhouse was built in the county, a small log building, I2xI4 feet in size, standing on the grounds west of where the Episcopal church now stands. A private or select school was opened as early as 1831 by Miss Ora Nickelson who, being taken sick, her place was filled by Dr. William Mottram, later of Kalamazoo. He was succeeded by Dr. Chase, who removed to Coldwater, and he was succeeded by Benjamin L. Baxter, later of Tecumseh, then but seventeen years. of age. Taking the position of teacher in the public school on its organization, he became the first public teacher in the county. Civilization had now established here' a strong picket line.

Page  32 32 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. CHAPTER III. EARLY PIONEER CONDITIONS. Immediately after the opening of the Chicago road Jonesville presented daily the appearance of a pioneer camp. All around the little log house of entertainment, where Benaiah and Lois Jones made so comforting a welcome as to cause the wayworn travelers often to forget the discomforts they had experienced in the tangled undergrowth and deep mires of the Cottonwood and Black swamps, which their wearisome journey from the east had compelled them to cross. White-topped wagons were thickly packed together, and men, women and children engaged in earnest conversation. A scene typical of life here will stand for the daily. occasions at most of the little wayside taverns scattered along the Great Trail. Emerging from the forest, coming from the East, would appear a hardy and stalwart pioneer in the prime of life, guiding the oxteam, or teams that bore along all of the family's personal effects. His boys followed, driving perhaps a cow or two and a few pigs and sheep. His wife and daughters, tired of their long tramp of many weary miles through the woods and swamps and over rough roads, trudged scatteringly behind. Sometimes a hale, white-haired patriarch, staff in hand, with head erect and firm steps, would walk at the head of the teams or among his grown-up and married sons and daughters, undaunted by the privations and hardships that he knew so well from former experiences, must be their lot in their new homes. But, with powers still vigorous, he had elected "to go west along with the children" to aid in the starting and the development of their new home in Michigan, or perhaps that his bones might rest in the center of the little plot which eventually would be the final resting-place of every member of the little caravan. Following these might be seen others, and more favored immigrants, who had passed less time on the way, for they rode in covered wagons, drawn by sleek, well-groomed horses, indicating owners in prosperous circumstances. The natural beauty of all of this county caused hope, instead of misgivings, to fill the breast of the pioneer at the thought of venturing the future of his family in the magic land of game and verdure. His glorious wife, who with unfaltering faith, has steadily held on her way in his and their children's company, casting no backward thoughts to the comforts of the eastern home life they had exchanged for hardships and privations, is also touched by the glamour of their bewitching surroundings, while the taller lads of the procession, with flint or caplock guns on their shoulders, are in an ecstacy of bliss at the frequent sight of deer and other game, and imagine themselves to be like Nimrod, "mighty hunters before the Lord." Some of these pioneers were unlettered, particularly those of the earliest era, yet even among their number were men of marked ability, whose talents would dignify and honor any station of life. There were women in these processions whose attainments and culture fitted them to adorn any social circle in the most refined cities of the continent. Even those settlers who were uneducated were not ignorant or uninformed. They possessed strong practical sense and native ability of a high order, fully equal to those who came after them. They were educated in a school that perhaps best fitted them for a life of usefulness in the conditions in which they were to exist. They were accomplished masters in woodcraft. They could handle an ax as deftly as a fencing master his foil. They could construct a cabin as quickly and in accordance with the same natural idea of harmony that a beaver or a muskrat develops in the formation of its residence. Game was abundant everywhere and delicious fish were plenty in the multitudinous lakes and streams. Hunting was not an accomplishment, but an everyday pursuit. The rifle was found in every cabin. Its use was familiar to all from early childhood and the owners had steady nerves and quick sight. The habits and manners of the people corresponded with their rough pursuits and surroundings. Their recreations were those outdoor sports in which a vigorous and athletic people always take great delight. Wrestling was a popular

Page  33 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 33 amusement, universally practiced at log-rollings, "raisings" and on public occasions-elections and the like. The early settlers were remarkably generous and hospitable. Their "latchstrings" ever "hung out." Isolated in the wildness, subject to common hardships, participating in the same simple enjoyments, the living in complete social equality caused true friendship and genuine benevolence to be cultivated and universal. Wealth was not necessarily a passport to respectability. Their charity was the unaffected and genuine charity taught in the Scriptures. They would repair to the cabin of their destitute neighbor, "down with the chills," while his family was "suffering from ager," and with the gentlest kindness, minister to his ailments, relieve his distress and provide for all their needs. If the afflictions they sought to relieve were the result of "shiftlessness," intemperance or other faults, they would administer a just rebuke and endeavor to correct the fault by a wholesome and sometimes a rough reprimand, sometimes by a punishment pronounced as a penalty by a pseudo court. Certain individuals of Jonesville at an early day formed themselves into an organization for the purpose of giving inebriates lessons which should teach them the error of their ways and frighten them into good conduct for the future, if possible. Each case was taken before Dr. Stillman Ralph, and a "post-mortem" examination held. One incorrigible drunkard, known as "Tommy," was, on one occasion, taken before the doctor, and the examination was about to proceed, when Wolcott G. Branch, then practicing law there, entered. Tommy saw and recognized him, and appealed to him for help, saying, they were "going to hold a (hic) post-mort- (hic) ise examination" on him, and he "didn't want them to!" A pound which had been constructed in the south part of the village served as a jail, to which these fun-loving tormentors carried their victims. The gate was off the hinges, but the pound answered every purpose. One poor inebriated. individual was taken to it at one time and pushed in, and he fell flat on his back after staggering a minute. Finally, after gazing upward for some time he exclaimed, "Boys, for (hic) God's sakes, don't leave me in this old jail without any roof on!" Humanity was their distinguishing trait, but exhibited in the rough manner peculiar to the pioneer. Many and many a benefaction was conferred in the form of a huge jest. They throve on practical jokes which were as plentiful as the occasions on which they could be carried out. Even the judge upon the bench was not exempt, his judicial ermine being no protection against the banter of his friends. A circuit judge who officiated at that time was accustomed to ask, on coming to open the court, "what new drive the boys had got?" that he might be prepared to meet their jest. A circuit preacher, who was rather a favorite with the young people, rode into Hillsdale one pleasant Sunday morning on his lean, half-starved horse, minus saddle and shoes, and tying him to a neighboring tree, proceeded to the grove to hold service. The youngsters untied the horse, took him to the nearest shop and had him well shod, and then placing a saddle upon his back, returned him to his previous location. The deed carried with it so much good-nature that the preacher could only gaze with amazement and gratitude upon the changed outfit; but the joke was apparent, when he was afterward obliged to combat the charge of having shod his horse on Sunday. The stranger new-comer was the recipient of a cordial welcome. He was accepted as an equal, considered in every way as a worthy companion until found to be otherwise. All were willing to lend a helping hand in the building or the raising of his cabin or log house, or in the other necessary labors incident to the beginning of life in the "wcodss," "openings" or "prairies." Often did it happen that men of doubtful character, who here settled, by the fair and generous treatment they received, were made good citizens and ever after maintained fair characters. Not such people, however, were the counterfeiters, who, at that period, made their county their headquarters, and from whose presence Bogus island in Baw Beese lake derived its name. Whence came the people that occupied this

Page  34 34 - HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. land of brilliant promise? The roll list of the pioneers would show mostly a former residence in New England —perhaps a later one in New York, and a still later one in Ohio, the emigrant coming hither, as it were, by easy stages. There was a peculiar condition in New York that forced many of its intelligent farmers to seek new homes in a state where land in its virginal beauty and wildness could be purchased at a price that the poorest might be able to pay. Western and Central New York at that time lay in the possession of and paralyzing grasp of great land monopolies like that of the few Dutch merchants of Amsterdam, popularly known as the Holland Land Company (who controlled that great area called the Holland Purchase), the Morris grant, the Pulteney estate and others. The New England states and the Hudson River Valley had sent an intelligent and valuable population thither, who purchased the lands of their choice from these companies on contract, placing their ready money, if such they had, into the clearing and improvements of their farms. Here they gave their labor of years, and, after the inevitable hardships, self-denials, and privations of the first few seasons in the wilderness, most of the settlers had an abundance, much more than enough for their own use. But there was no market. It was only by converting ashes into black salts that they could get money to pay their taxes. The interest upon their debt at the land office was accumulating from year to year. The company was indulgent, but compound interest quickly magnified the amount of indebtedness, and the full sum sooner or later must be paid. The shadow rested on nearly every home. Many sold their contracts for a trifling pittance. These were the people who in a great measure sought new homes in the fertile West, numbers coming to Hillsdale county. To these unfortunate enterprising sons of toil, who had left behind them all the result of years of earnest, industrious labor, this became the land of promise. They hastened to it with strong arms, iron wills and resistless energy to lay the foundations of new communities. The journey now performed almost by the light of a summer's day, then required weeks of travel through wilderness paths and unbridged streams. These settlers represented the best New England ideas of life, duty and religion. They were the finest productions of the Anglo-Saxon stock. Each pioneer as he came into the wilderness was the most perfect embodiment that six thousand years of progress could furnish of all the elements to lay rightly the foundations of new communities. They were a superior race. They built up, transformed and developed the conditions they here found, until, as the ultimate result of their persistent efforts, we find the Hillsdale county of today an aggregate of communities, in which comfort, wealth, intelligence and culture are preponderating factors, and an educational center attracting students from near and faraway sections of the county. Such communities have not appeared as an exhalation. The germ of this superior civilization is in the spirit of Christianity, asserting the divinity, the brotherhood, the equality, the immortality, the infinite worth of man. It was reserved for this county to take a marked advance in the cause of human freedom. A local historian has thus told the incident: "Hon. Henry Packer, who was afterward judge of the Probate Court of Hillsdale county, while justice of the peace, soon after his arrival here, was called upon to issue a warrant for a fugitive slave from Kentucky. When the negro was brought into court and the case was about to proceed, W. W. Murphy, then practicing law here, spoke to Mr. Packer, and the latter decided that in order to recover the negro his alleged owners must bring satisfactory proof that Kentucky was a slave state. It was necessary for the prosecution to go to Detroit to decide the matter, and, failing in finding sufficient evidence, the nian was discharged. A similar case was not long afterward brought up in Philadelphia, Pa., and the decision of Mr. Packer, of Jonesville, Mich., was there cited, and the same decision rendered in that instance also." The period of bark-covered cabins was of short duration. The body of the primitive dwell

Page  35 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 35 ing was made of light poles that could be placed in position by help at hand. As soon as the country began to be settled and sawmills were built where boards could be obtained, the more substantial log house took its place. These were quite uniform in size, usually about 20x24 feet, with a projection in front of ten feet of the roof resting on the beams that supported the chamber floor. This projection was called a "stoop," a word of good Dutch origin, and under this were placed the pots and kettles, the washtub, the wooden washbowl, splint broom, and other necessary utensils of the household. In the construction of this house straight trees of uniform size were drawn to the site chosen for the home, the neighbors within a radius of a dozen miles were invited to the "raising," and all made it a religious duty to attend, unselfishly forgetting the duties of home. No foundation was required except the four logs, marking the size of the building that were laid upon level ground. Then four of the best axemen each took a corner and cut a saddle and notch to hold the logs in position as they were rolled on skids to the proper place. They were usually made a "story-and-a-half" high, the upper portion being the sleeping room of the family, access thither being gained by a ladder or by pins driven into the logs on one side of the house, and, occasionally, rough board stairs. Three or four hours in the afternoon generally sufficed for the "raising," and then occurred a bountiful repast of all of the luxuries of the place and period. When the body of the house was "up," the logs were cut away for the door and windows, (which were usually made of single sashes of four, six or nine 7x9 panes of glass), the floor laid with "puncheons" (split logs with the inside dressed off with an ax or an adz, and laid smoothly up for a solid floor), or urplaned boards, the spaces between the logs filled with split pieces of wood and plastered with mud, the gables boarded, the roof made of "shooks" or shingles, and a log or stone chimney built with jambs, having an iron crane for the pots and kettles, and here was a home where happiness would enter as freely as into the marble palaces of royalty. Af3 ter brick could be obtained, a brick oven was often built on one side of the fireplace, the flue entering the chimney. These ovens were large enough to hold a halfdozen loaves of bread, as many pies, and a pan of pork and beans. Fine dry wood was required to heat the oven for baking, but it is doubtful if the modern range has proven its superiority over this primitive oven. The house without an "oven" would substitute the bake-kettle, a flatbottomed, straight-sided iron.vessel, with legs four inches long and having an iron cover. The baking was performed by surrounding the kettle with live coals in a corner of the fireplace, renewing the coals as occasion required. A loaf of bread, made of three parts of cornmeal and one part of stewed pumpkin, baked in this manner was a great favorite with the pioneer. No better bread was ever made. It was thought that standing over night in the kettle improved the flavor, for, lo! remove the cover in the morning and a brown loaf of a yellow tinge and a most delicious aroma greeted the beholder. This with coffee or tea sweetened with the maple sirup or sugar, which was in general use for "sweetening," made an enjoyable meal. "Johnnycake," or brown bread, baked upon a board or spider tilted before the fire, was also in common use. To cook a "spare-rib," duck or turkey, the fowl was suspended by a tow string before the open fireplace, with an iron vessel underneath to catch the "drippings," from which the cook would baste the fowl with a ladle or spoon, giving it at the same time a whirl that all sides might in turn be presented to the blazing fire. Some of the settlers had a tin or "Dutch" oven. This was a tin frame about two feet long and a foot wide, having a sheetiron pan with a cover of bright tin, when open, standing at an angle of 45 degrees before the blazing fire, and this apparatus, when new and bright, performed the work of baking to perfection, but was not universally popular, for, when it stood before the hearth, it prevented the heat and light from reaching the family. The hinges and latches of the doors were made of wood, and the door was opened from

Page  36 36 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. the outside by a string passing through a gimlet hole in the door, attached to the latch on theinside. When freedom from intrusion was desired the occupant of the house would pull this string through the hole, so that there would be none of it to be seen on the outside, and the door was then securely locked. From this fact arose the pioneer description of a hospitable home, it being one where "the latchstring always hung out." Any person not of the household, who wished to enter the dwelling, would rap with his knuckles on the outside of the door and would be greeted with a hearty "Come in." He would then pull the latchstring and enter. The one room was at once kitchen, dining-room, "sitting-room" and parlor. If the stranger came at mealtime, he was always invited and made welcome to a meal. The early settlers liberally planted apple and other fruit trees and in a very few years' time the fine orchards were so plentiful that in the fall fruit could readily be obtained without cost, by taking the trouble to gather it. By this tirhe improvements had so progressed that the bountiful crops could find no market, wheat selling as low as thirty-five cents per bushel; pork and beef, $2 and $2.50 per hundred, in goods or store paycould not get salt for it; oats, ten cents, and corn, twenty cents per bushel; butter, if very good, brought five cents in I843. In the spring of 1837 flour sold at $9.oo per o00 pounds; oats as high as $2.50; corn was scarce, a frost the previous summer, on August 27, killing most of it. Flour, pork, butter, cheese, dried apples, in fact, most of the necessaries of life, were imported from Ohio. Nearly all of the clothing and linen of the family was made at home. Most of the little clearings had a patch of flax, from which was the business of the farmer to prepare the flax for the spinning wheels of the women. In doing this he used a simple machine called a brake, following this by the hetchel and swingle, thus producing a soft and pliable mass, twisted into a head of flax ready to be spun and woven. In most of the little log cabins, the big and little wheels were in active operation by the mother and larger girls. The mother would sit at the little wheel, distaff in hand, one foot upon the treadle, while perhaps the other was jogging a cradle containing a tiny rosebud of humanity, a low, soothing lullaby, more charming than the cooing of the dove, meanwhile filling the air. One of the girls would be seated beside a basket of tow, carding it, with a pair of hand cards, into bolts one foot long and two inches wide, while a sister would be moving backward and forward with nimble step beside the big wheel of fully twelve feet circumference and spinning the bolts into yarn. Thirty "knots" was an ordinary day's work, some, however, producing forty "knots." Each knot contained forty threads of six feet, two inches in length, or about 250 feet. Occasionally a damsel might be seen who could "spin her forty knots a day," and then pass the evening knitting by the light of the ruddy fire. During the winter and early spring the women had "spun and wove" enough tow and linen cloth for the summer clothing of the family. The men and boys had their clothes made from cloth made of linen warp and tow filling, which was full of "shives," that rasped and scratched the body for weeks like a thousand needles. The mothers and daughters had pure linen cloth for their clothing, for dresses, striping or checking a piece with copperas, and, in this primitive apparel, their eyes shone as brightly and their smile was as bewitching and attractive as can be seen today. During'the summer months the women, as well as the men and boys, went about their home duties with bare feet. The weaving was done by women, one or two skilled in the art dwelling in each neighborhood. The price for weaving plain tow, linen or flannel cloth was about six cents a yard, from six to ten yards being a good day's work. The tow-andlinen cloth was made up into clothing for the "men folks," dress for the "females" and into sheets, pillow-cases and towels, and then came on the making of flannel and winter garments. Nearly all of the farmers owned a flock of sheep, which were carefully yarded nightly to protect them from the wolves, which were so numerous and destructive, that, at nearly every town meeting, the question of bounty on wolves occupied a

Page  37 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 37 large share of the proceedings. The wool taken from the sheep was hurried to Emery's carding mills there to be made into rolls, and soon the girls were again busy at the spinning wheel, their work being valued at seventy-five cents a week. A day's work was thirty knots of warp and forty knots of filling, but some of the more active would spin twice that amount. From this spinning and the subsequent weaving, resulted the chief part of the family's winter clothing, although most of the young women owned one calico dress, the most most popular color being blue. Those "boughten" dresses cost twenty-seven cents a yard and were rarely worn, only being brought to light on Independence Day or at New Year dances and were expected to last for years. During the log cabin era feather beds were considered indispensable. The rough boarding of the gables of the houses would warp and it was frequently the case in winter that the snow would be several inches deep on floor and bed coverings. Hence every well-ordered family had its flock of geese. Each young lady expected to receive upon her marriage at least one or two feather beds to complete the housekeeping outfit of linens and flannels which she had long been preparing. Geese feathers were a ready medium of exchange for goods at the pioneer stores or at the occasional wagon of the peddler. The furniture of the house was extremely plain and inexpensive; square-legged bedsteads, with rope or bark cordage, around which were not infrequently depended a drooping fringe of network or calico, tipped with tasty little tassels, and called a "valance." Sometimes, near the window stood a chest of drawers, near it a squarelegged stand, over which hung a looking-glass brought out by the mother from her eastern home in a feather bed. In close proximity stood the unvarnished, often unpainted, table of natural wood and domestic manufacture, while several splint-bottomed chairs stood in the nooks and corners. 'On shelves against the walls, or in the tall cupboard, in some of the wealthier homes were displayed rows of bright pewter plates standing on edge, most prominent among them being the great pewter platter, always in use at "boiled dinners," when it would be heaped high with cabbage, turnips, beets, potatoes and other vegetables; near its side lying the bag of pudding, stuffed with some kind of wild berries, a tempting slice of which, covered with sweetened cream, wasgiven to each participant of the meal. No carpets were seen on the floors and, as long as this simple life continued, and money was not invoked to bring in luxurious furnishings and surroundings, universal contentment reigned and merriment and cheerful song and jollity were the life, not only of each home, but of the community as well. Spinning-bees were common, especially when one of the matrons fell a victim to malarial fever or other diseases, and was unable to prepare her web of tow and linen cloth for summer use. In such a case someone of the family, with a team loaded with flax and tow, would visit every house within some miles' distance, leaving enough of his load at each house for a day's work of the inmates, with an invitation to a supper at their house some days later. No woman of Hillsdale county was ever known to refuse her share in work of this kind, and, on the appointed day, each, with her skein of yarn under her arm, the roses of health upon her cheeks and with pulsations of generous kindness throbbing in her heart, would enter the sick neighbor's home, where she and all her fellow workers were received with the strongest evidences of friendship and love. In the timber lands logging-bees were common. The neighbors for miles around were invited to come with their ox teams to such a place on a specified day, and, punctually at the appointed time, would be there assembled, sometimes fifty or more men and oftentimes their wives and children. Operations were always begun at the lowest edge of the field, the logs being drawn and rolled into a heap on a down grade more easily. When the men got to work, there was always a strife to see who would first reach the opposite side of the field, and the encouraging shouts of the teamsters to the animals could be heard for miles. The oxen seemed to partake: of the excitement and it was marvelous to seethe speed with which the logs were moved.

Page  38 38 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. After the logging was completed, sport commenced. The strength and activity of the various teams were tried by turning them "tail to" with several feet of slack log chain, and, dropping the hooks together, starting at the word "Go." The best in three trials was declared the winner and the victors were usually the team that made the first start. This finale of the bee created much merriment. The whiskey jug was an important factor at all of these gatherings. It gave strength and activity to the men, it was believed, and increased the hilarity. In no case must the supply be exhausted. The last act in a logging bee drama was a substantial supper of meats, pies, cakes, sauces and all good things of the housewife's larder given in a bountiful profusion. Then the men would go to their homes happy with the thought that each had bestowed his best efforts to foster good will and encourage his neighbor in the battle of life. These were the days of strenuous activity, of rugged earnestness in the development of muscle and brain power to be exercised in the preliminary stages of an ever-advancing civilization. If there were a lack of refinement, it was but the offspring of the peculiar and primitive surrounding circumstances. A genuine democracy existed in these new lands. There were none of the distinctions or favoritisms of these opening years of the Twentieth Century. There were no aristocrats of wealth and fashion that to-day sunder the great heart of humanity. All were on the same plane, few felt themselves independent of their neighbors, and all, cherishing the type of the good Samaritan of old, by their acts, their kindness and their sympathy, proclaimed universal brotherhood to all the world. Toil in these men developed bone, muscle and brain for the struggle of existence. They had not studied men through the mists of centuries in the schools, but met them face to face, and looked direct into their souls. They never read of classic groves, but passed their daily lives among groves just as divine, whose beauty and lessons had sunk deep into their hearts. Some pale trembling beings go forth to the struggle of life with much learning and no health. These men went forth with health and a giant's strength to the battle field. We do not condemn the polish of the schools, but we admire the man endowed by God with power, no matter if its development be rtde. We may safely assume that these sterling men of the early day are now all passed away, but some of their faces, preserved by art, look down upon us from the walls of their former homes, their voices yet linger in our ears, the works of their hands are present with us in the fruitfulness, bloom and beauty of the lands they aided in redeeming on every hill and dale, oak opening and prairie. CHAPTER IV. LESSONS AND VICISSITUDES. Every fable has a moral, and all history should have. There are many impressive social lessons to be learned, even in the changes of events in Hillsdale county during the years that have passed since Captain Allen became the forerunner of the long concourse of westward immigration, which here found abiding homes. They are not lessons peculiar to this soil, but such as our common humanity everywhere teaches. One is the solemn lesson that men do not bear prosperity; that power and capacity for achievement come only from the toil and discipline of sorrow; that men of one generation become strong, and make life too easy for the next. In many cases in this county we have seen the sturdy pioneer come to the annual fairs with his cereals, his flocks and his herds. His children appear with fast horses and costly equipages, while the third generation is seen on foot, empty-handed and hopeless, and the family name is no longer upon the tongues of men. While this has been going on, toiling boys, denied opportunities, have been working their way to opulence and place, to curse their posterity with too much unearned wealth. In physical achievement, since the surveyor's chain first gave the settler freedom to here acquire a home, the dreams of the poet have been surpassed. The achievements of six thousand years have been cumulative and multiplied, or the tree taking root in all of the centuries, fed. by the toil, endurance and suffering of all, has at last sud

Page  39 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 39 denly blossomed and borne fruit. How helpless was the pioneer in the flower-covered wilderness, but his descendants are now citizens of the world, sharers in all of its luxury and glory. Every continent and every sea ministers unto them. It took months for the pioneers to hear from across the sea, yes, even from their old homes in the East; now the world's history of each day is read at every fireside. For years a few horseback carriers conveyed all the mail coming to this county and going past it into the West. Now the almost hourly railroad trains transport tons of mail daily. If the great object of life was splendid structures, the multiplication and diffusion of luxuries, well might men rejoice, but the solemn question, here or elsewhere, is whether all these things are making men better or happier. Every continent is strewn with the voiceless wreck of the works of men's hands and with graves. Nationalities and languages have disappeared. This has not been from convulsions of nature, but from the degeneracy engendered by prosperity. In this very territory are the relics of the Mound Builders. The pioneer planted with hope above their warning graves. The same natural, moral and social laws that gave them life and wrought their destruction, should remind us that there is no exemption from social corruption. The greatest trouble of the civilization of to-day is the power of monopolies, the restlessness of labor, the wildness of the scramble for gold, the violence and blindness of party spirit, and the character of the politicians, who look to their own interests and forget their country. The safety of the land lies in an intelligent agricultural population, which cherishes with wise conservatism the good of the past, and will so value their homes as to make them ever loyal patriots in the lines of national honor. The republic cannot last without the stability of an agricultural interest, which can hold the balance of power and cry "Halt!" whenever the hosts of corruption seem marching the land to political ruin. One successful demagogue, reeking with corruption, yet elevated to place, followed by popular applause and worshiped for successful stealing, while virtue is ridiculed and a drug upon the market, will do more to demoralize young men, than the example of a thousand saintly lives can do to lead them to a better life. All history warns us that Nature has not among its possibilities greater woe than may yet come to Hillsdale county, if men forget God and his laws. No matter what fields may be reclaimed, what temples may be reared, if men and women are not growing better, the pomp and splendor of civilization is as sad as the flowers that embellish graves. To indicate the vicissitudes incident to the pioneer life, which we have written about as existing in this county in the primitive age, we append a few personal illustrations. Jesse Hill, from Wayne county, New York, settled in Wheatland, June 2, I834. He possessed $200, which he invested in land. He was unmarried; built a log house, I2XI4 feet, covered it with bark. The novelty of bachelor life soon wore off, and he married. He and his bride began housekeeping with a tea-kettle, a skillet, and a teapot, for cooking utensils; and for furniture, a pole bedstead, a set of three-legged stools, and a table, which he manufactured out of a log with the aid of his axe. For stock he owned a cow and a yoke of oxen. The following from the pen of Charles C. Fowler, who died in I874, is copied from the records of the Hillsdale County Pioneer Society: "I came in the fall of I836, with my uncle, Ransel Wood, and with but $Io in my pocket. When we arrived at Monroe, we had to pay a sixpence apiece for the privilege of lying on the floor of a deserted grocery store. We remained there three days, waiting for a team to take us to Adrian. I did not stay long, but started for Tecumseh, and there took the Chicago turnpike, and came to Gambleville, in the township now Somerset. I then left the turnpike, determined to go to the southern part of the town, now Wheatland. I came as far as Francis Hill's, who lived on the farm later owned by Charles Doolittle. There was no road, and our only guide was blazed trees. I was now at the end of my journey; had spent my $Io and owed $I.oo more. I immediately set to work chopping and logging for Deacon Bailey.

Page  40 40 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I followed this business for several years, and have helped to clear nearly every farm in this vicinity. I also helped to clear the track for the Michigan Southern Railroad. I helped to build the first sawmill in this vicinity, and many of the first dwellings. My first farm was opposite Charles Doolittle's, later owned by John Wilson. In 1843 I built a log house, and cleared four acres. I did most of my chopping evenings, and days I helped some one else." When Charles and Bradford Carmichael built their pole shanty in Wheatland in October, 1835, they were somewhat fearful of sleeping in it, as the wolves howled around them in such chorus that Charles Carmichael said: "It seemed as if there were a thousand of them." His brother was much frightened, but the elder told him to take the rifle and shoot among them and disperse them, while he lay snugly in his place, pretending not to be alarmed. These animals were the large, gray "timber wolves," and abounded in great numbers. Bears were also plenty, and extremely unscrupulous about making off with stray pigs, sheep or calves. An old sow belonging to Charles Carmichael came in the way of a huge black bear one morning, soon after sunrise, and Bruin coolly captured her and carried her off. While building their homes they boarded with Eli Eastman, and the food consisted of the universal "johnny cake" baked in a "bake-kettle," and jerked venison, 'which was cut into small pieces when fresh, laid in brine a few days and hung up on pegs in the house when ready for use. John W. Johnson came to Woodbridge in January, 1840, to make a home on land previously purchased. His two nearest neighbors were four miles away, one north, the other southeast. The nearest gristmill was at Jonesville and it took three days to make the round trip with the oxteams. The log house, built after his arrival, was occupied before it was completed, a huge fire in the mammoth fireplace was continually burning, to temper the cold air circulating through the unchinked sides of the house. The first winter he cut the timber from ten acres, planting five acres in the spring to potatoes and securing a fair crop. The next fall the ten -acres were seeded with f S f.. f f:~~~ wheat purchased at Jonesville at three "York" shillings a bushel. When this grain began to ripen the numerous children of the family were kept busy in the daytime, frightening away the immense flocks of wild turkeys that would otherwise have destroyed the entire crop. Deer were so tame that they came in numbers during the first winter to browse on the fallen tree tops while the chopper would be at work on the same tree. One of the early settlers of Ransom desiring sash for the windows of his new log house, walked to Jonesville, bought five sash, paid all his money, lashed the sash to his back, and returned without having a mouthful to eat. Another man, desiring some seed-oats, started out, accompanied by his thirteen-year-old boy, in search of some. He bought three bushels three miles west of Hudson. Two bushels were put in one bag, one bushel in the other. The bags were shouldered respectively by father and son, and carried the whole distance home." Horace P. Hitchcock started from Mayville, Chautauqua county, N. Y., in January, 1834, foir Michigan. Leaving his family, he then walked through Pennsylvania and Ohio to the land of lakes, hills and dales and entered eighty acres of government land on section 25, Pittsford township. He then returned to Mayville, purchased an ox-team, and with his family drove through to their new home, the trip occupying twenty-two days. Upon arriving in Pittsford he had but $22 left, and no house wherein to find shelter, but soon a rude log dwelling appeared in the midst of a small clearing. The cooking utensils of the family consisted of a skillet, or spider, a dish kettle, and an iron tea-kettle. Some time in I835, Mr. Hitchcock sold his place in Pittsford and moved to section 26 in Adams, in February, I836. When coming to Adams, he trimmed out the underbrush for a mile and a half, in order to clear a passageway." "Norman S. Sharp once went to Tecumseh to procure grists for four families. He was gone so much longer than usual that the families used up what little flour they had and then took some bran, sifted the "middlings" out of it and used that, and still the flour came not. One day three

Page  41 T TT T t-I 7- A T T / /- 71 T A 'r In 7 71,T.,-rT/- A A I1LLSD)ALE GVU. preachers came to Mrs. Sharp's, and were given supper and lodging. Mrs. Sharp told them she had given them the last food she had in the house, and unless her son came that night they would have to go without breakfast in the morning. The son arrived with his grist within two miles of home that evening, unhitched the oxen and turned them out, walked home and went to bed, and early in the morning walked back and drew the load home in time to have some of it for breakfast." An experience of the family of Joseph L. Farnham, a pioneer settler of Wright, in I836, shows the value attached to cows as a means of subsistence. A local historian has thus described it. "The cows strayed off, and had been gone for several days. Mr. Farnham had vainly tramped many weary miles through the woods. The family, deprived of their principal article of food, were reduced to the verge of starvation. At last Farnham and his wife started out for another look, and, after several hours of weary search, found that instead of finding the cows, they had lost themselves. Sitting down, they talked the matter over, and, as the helplessness of their situation became more and more apparent, as they saw more and more clearly that either in the woods or at home they were seemingly doomed to die of starvation, for not a mouthful of food did they possess, is it any wonder that the horror of their situation overcame them, and that, clasped in one another's arms, they wept many bitter, despairing tears? But the thought of the old mother and those loved daughters spurred them to renewed action, and they at last, tired and hungry, arrived at their cabin. While they were gone, the grandmother looked about to find some scrap or crust that might have been overlooked, which might for a time satisfy her craving for food. Rummaging in an old trunk, she found the string ends of several pieces of dried beef, left after the more edible portion had been shaved off and used. These had been forgotten, and the old lady gathered them, chopped them very fine, soaked them soft, and, by adding a little salt and a few savory ~wild herbs, succeeded in making a very palatable mess of pottage, and had it just ready for the table when the lost cow-hunters appeared.' I 1 Y, IVI.H-1.A1. 41,In 1834 Samuel Riblet became a pioneer settler of Litchfield. Just across the river from his log house was a deers "runway" and they were often pursued by the hungry wolves. There is quite a variety in the howls of these animals; one being the command of the leader of the pack, the old wolves long howl, the cry of the whelps, and yet another one, that sounds like a human voice or like boys shouting to the cows they are driving. One evening, soon after Mr. Riblet moved into his log cabin, as he was driving his cattle home from the marsh, his wife met him with her face beaming with delight. "Samuel," said she, "I have news to tell you." "Well," said he, "I should judge it was good news from your looks." "Yes, it is good news, for we have neighbors just across the river, they will help to support a school, for they have boys, and I heard them driving cattle and the dogs barking. They have one big dog and a number of little ones." Mr. Riblet said she must be mistaken, for no one could cross the river without calling for assistance. Mrs. Riblet thought they came down from the turnpike and did not cross the stream. Mr. Riblet answered that was not probable, for it would take them a week to cut their way through the dense, tangled mass of vines and bushes. "Well, they are there, for I heard the boys plainly." Then she stopped and added: "There, listen, don't you hear them?" Mr. Riblet laughed, he had heard wolves before. One evening, as Elijah B. Seeley and his family of Pittsford were picking over huckleberries gathered during the day, they heard a commotion in the pigpen, accompanied by a frantic squealing. Seizing a lighted fagot, Mr. Seeley at once started for the scene, and found a large bear trying to carry off one of the pigs. Seeing the light, Bruin suspended operations and started for the woods, followed to the edge of the clearing by Mr. Seeley. A party of men were in the woods hunting coons. They had with them a small dog, and hearing the shouts of Mr. Seeley they hastened to him, and, learning the cause, followed after the bear, led by the dog. The bear was soon found up a small tree, and, being fired at by one of the party, he began to descend the tree.

Page  42 r T TT T C" T-1 A T- e ~-1 r 7 'A ~ r" T 7 I r 7 R T ~ A T 42 HNLL3DIALb C(UC As soon as he came within reach, he was attacked in the rear by the dog, and to escape his teeth again climbed up the tree. He was again fired at, and the same performance repeated several times, until he fell dead. It was found that every one of the nine bullets had taken effect. In May, 1834, Robert and Dudley Worden and Samuel Day, with their families, made their homes in this county, Dudley locating in Hudson, the others in Pittsford. Of their pioneer life Robert Worden has very graphically written as follows: 'I built me a house without a single board, except what was made with an axe. I split logs for a floor. The chamber floor was bark peeled from elm logs. Our roof was bark, as were also the gables or ends. Our door was plank, made with an axe, two inches thick, pinned to wooden hinges, fastened to the logs so it would swing inside. With an auger a hole was made in the logs, so it could be pinned on the inside to protect us from the bears and wolves, of which there were a plenty. We had a window hole cut out for a sixlighted window, but had no window to put in it. The principal light came down the chimneyhole. One night the wolves commenced to howl. There were so many of them and so near I became frightened. We were sleeping on the floor, not having even a bedstead. We went up the ladder with our bed, pulled the ladder after us, made our bed on the bark, and should have considered ourselves secure from the wolves, only that we were fearful that the bark would give way and let us fall. And all this fear within two miles of two villages. One village had double the number of houses the other had, and that had two. Currant roots or sprouts were in great demand. I went out to the settlement to obtain some and all I could get were ten pieces about eight inches long, and felt myself fortunate and thankful. I got them of Richard Kent, a little north of Adrian, and from the sprouts I obtained I have supplied many new beginners with roots. The first settlers had an enemy in the deer-mouse. They would crawl through an incredibly small hole, and were very destructive. Before we were aware of it they had got into our trunks, and seriously injured our clothing. We had no place of /JV Y, MICHIGJAlV. security for anything they wanted. My wife had brought with her some starch done up in a paper. One day, wanting to use some, she found the paper that had contained the starch, but no starch. It had been carried off by the mice. and it could not be replenished short of a trip of twenty miles; but some time after we had occasion to use an empty bottle stored away, and in the bottle we found our starch, put there by the mice; it was not possible for them to get into the bottle. We were in great want of a cat to destroy the mice, and they were very scarce. I took a bag and started for Adrian, on foot, to procure a cat if possible. I could find none in Adrian, but heard of some kittens three miles south of Adrian, at Colonel Bradish's. I went to Colonel Bradish's, but they had let the last one go the day before. I then started for home, came about two miles this side of Adrian, and stopped over night with a family of English people. I told the lady of the house of my unsuccessful efforts to find a cat. She sympathized with me, and said they had been similarly situated. When morning came the lady said: "I have been thinking of your troubles all night. I have but one cat, a neat, nice one, and I have concluded to lend it to you.' It brought it home, but it was not long before it was killed." From the narration of Mrs. Roscius Southworth, a daughter of Thaddeus Wight, preserved by the Hillsdale County Pioneer Society, we abstract enough to show the difficulties then encountered in journeying to the West. From Geauga county, Ohio, Mr. Wight, who had sent most of his household goods to St. Joseph by water, started in the early spring of I830 with a bed. cooking utensils, his wife and seven children in a wagon drawn by four oxen, the eldest son following on foot, driving the four cows and some young cattle. On the journey the six-year-old boy fell from the wagon, and two of the wheels in passing over his body, caused internal injuries and a fractured shoulder. Fortunately a physician resided in the nearest house, where they stayed a week. He set the fractured limb and fixed a swinging cot in the wagon for the lad and the journey was renewed. To save a long dis

Page  43 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 43 tance Mr. Wight went through the "cottonwood swamp," his being the first wagon to penetrate its recesses. Two men with oxen, axes, and guns accompanied the family to help them. The first day one of the children was lost in the dark, gloomy woods, but was found after a hunt of two hours. Four large fires were built at night around their tent to keep away the wolves and the men stood sentinel until morning. The second day the brothers and three sisters waded all day long through the water and mud driving the cattle ahead of the wagon. They reached the end of the swamp trail at dark and met a hospitable reception at the little log tavern there located. Resting a day they again went forward. From Tecumseh they had only marked trees to guide them along their roadless way and arrived at Jonesville on the fourth week of their journey. They could go no further, for Mr. Wight's money had dwindled to one dollar and fifty cents and eight children were dependent on him for a livelihood. He soon "squatted" on a place where trappers the fall before had built a cabin twelve feet square. Locating his family here he commenced to plow that he might get in an early crop. While he was doing this his wife and two daughters cut the logs for a larger house, which was "raised" later in the season. Mrs. Southworth goes on thus: "Previous to raising the house, father went for the goods which had been sent by water. There was no road, only an Indian trail, and no bridges. His feet became sore with walking, and for the last three days he had to be helped on and off his wagon. Mother had waited long and patiently for these goods, to make her children comfortable.for the coming winter. The boxes were opened. Alas! Everything was mildewed and spoiled. Nothing of all these precious things she so much needed was left except a large box of dishes. The boat had been wrecked, the goods wet, and laid in that condition three months. Now dishes were plenty, but food was often scarce, especially when father would be detained at Tecumseh in getting grinding done. Mother would then send me and my brother five miles to the prairie-with a small bag of corn to pound it in a stump dug out for the purpose. The pestle was like a well-sweep. We would mount the stump and with our combined strength pound out the little grist and hasten home before sundown, before the wolves began to howl. We would often meet them, and always carried a club to defend ourselves with. Many times the first season we should, have suffered for food had it not been for the Indians bringing in venison or turkeys." In 1839 Warren Smith came to Cambria and his statement of conditions then and for some years existing in that town tells the story for the new lands of the entire county. A bounty of $3 was offered for every wolf's skin, afterwards increased to $5.oo. Deer were plentiful, and would eat with the cattle, showing no timidity. They soon became pets and very seldom were any harmed. Wild turkeys were also occasionally seen feeding with the domestic fowls, and they also enjoyed the same immunity from the bullets of the hunter. Mr. Smith once traveled three days on a round trip to the nearest mill and he worked three days for a bushel of potatoes, and occasionally indulged in a dish of oysters when in Detroit, for which he paid one dollar and a half. He also paid the same price for a bushel of very poor apples." CHAPTER V. PROGRESS OF THE COUNTY. In I840 the pioneer era practically ended, although there was much pioneeringstill to be done, for, with the passing away of hard times and the incoming of numerous settlers, the early difficulties and deprivations ceased to exist and a course of rapid and prosperous development ensued. The State Gazetteer of I838, with other things, says of the county: "This is a new county, and, as yet, but few improvements are made. Various mills and manufactories are going up, and, from the abundance of millstones on the St. Joseph and Kalamazoo rivers, it may in time become a manufacturing region of some note. This is an admirable section for oats, which grow in the greatest possible luxuriance. In some instances great crops of grass are raised, but in general it is not as good a county for grazing as some others. It

Page  44 44 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. belongs to the Monroe land district. It sends one representative, and belongs to the second senatorial district, which sends three senators to the legislature. Population, 4,729." The second of the five principal state, or rather territorial, roads, since the statehood period had not arrived when they were constructed, "the Chicago road," is the one so often alluded to in these pages and the cause of much of the early development of the county. It ran from Detroit to Chicago, 254 miles, and it is probable that the travel on this road was equal to, if not greater, than that on any other road in the United States of equal length, but this did not satisfy the people. Railroads were building in many places and, if the county only had a railroad, the climax of prosperity would be attained. The state legislature held to the theory that the state could profitably build and manage any kind of public works that might be deemed necessary. Accordingly, in March, I84I, a law was passed granting $200,000 to build the Southern Railroad as far west as Hillsdale village. Work was begun along the line between Adrian and Hillsdale, but not very rapidly. In February, 1842, another law was passed authorizing the board of commissioners of internal improvement to pledge the net proceeds of the Southern road for five years, in order to iron the road and to build it from Adrian to Hillsdale. Through I842 the work was continued with much energy. In the spring of I843 the road was completed as far as Hudson, close to the eastern border of Hillsdale county. Renewed efforts were made, and in the autumn of the year it was finished sixteen miles farther, to Hillsdale, and the first locomotive began regular trips in the county. In I846 the state sold the Southern Railroad to a company, which, by the assistance of the people of Jonesville, built the read to that village, completing it in I849. Nor were the people much mistaken in thinking that the railroad would be the harbinger of an era of great prosperity. The road, in connection with the great improvement in business, cert ainly worked marvelous changes in Hillsdale county. The pjoducts of its farms, so long imprisoned by the unfathomable roads between here and Lake Erie, now found ready egress to the East, and brought back returns of money which, in comparison with the supplies of previous years, might be called abundant. New facilities were also furnished for immigration, and for several springs and summers, not a week, hardly a day, passed without some newcomer from the East making his home amid the dense forests or fertile openings of Hillsdale county. Improvement began to be observed in the condition of the farms and character of the buildings. The massive stumps began rapidly to disappear under the destructive influences of time. Although log houses still remained the rule, yet here and there a modest framed house was to be seen even outside of the two villages. On January, I, 1843, a law was enacted declaring that "the present seat of justice of Hillsdale county is hereby vacated" and establishing a new county seat "on the courthouse square in the village of Hillsdale," at which place the courts were directed to be held, and, after the county building was burned with most of the county records in I847, the legislature of 1850 empowered the supervisors to borrow money to built a courthouse, which was completed and occupied in February, I85I. This was ample in convenience and room for many years, and lasted until the erection of the present stately and beautiful building, which was completed and dedicated with imposing ceremonies in the closing year of the last century. To show coming generations how the people celebrated this occasion we give the program of the day and the names of the officers, etc. Program.-8 to Io a. m., reception of distinguished guests. Io:oo a. m., band concert, Hills-, dale City Band, Northwest Band, Deal's Band, Jonesville, Litchfield Band. Io:30 to I:30, bicycle contests, on Howell street: First, quarter mile; second, slow race; third, one-half mile; the fourth, ioo-yards dash. First, second and third prizes, each event. I:30 to 1230, dinner. I2:30, overture by Northwest Band, followed by selections by Jonesville, Litchfield and Hillsdale City Bands. i:oo to I:30 p. m., dedicatory exercises; Invocation, Prof. Ransom Dunn, D. D.; welcome, by Judge Guy M.

Page  45 I HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 45 Chester, President of the day; welcome on behalf of city, Mayor Frank M. Gier; song, "Michigan, My Michigan," chorus of fifty voices, Charles S. Wolcott, leader; dedicatory oration, Judge Martin B. Koon, Minneapolis; song, "Marching Thro' Georgia," by the chorus; remarks, by Judge Victor H. Lane, Judge Watts and Judge Pratt; song, "Tramp, Tramp, Tramp," by the chorus; remarks by Col. O. A. Janes, Judge John B. Shipman, Judge Erastus Peck; song, "When Johnny Comes Marching Home," chorus; remarks, by Congressman Henry Smith, Hon. Grant Fellows, Hon. Will W. Cook; song, "Tenting on the Old Camp Ground," by the chorus; remarks, by favorite local speakers; song, "America," by the entire audience, led by chorus. 3:30 p. m., selections by Deal's Band, of Jonesville. General sports. First, Ioo-yards shoe race. Second, pole vault. Third, egg race. Selection, Litchfield Band. Fourth, high jump. Fifth, Ioo-yards dash. Sixth. bottle race. Selection by the Northwest Band. Seventh, brotherly carrying race. Eighth, Tug-of-war. (Prize box of cigars.) Ninth, greased pole. (Silver dollar on top of pole.) In all events but two, first, second and third prizes were given. 6 p. m., supper. 7:00 to 7:30, band concert. (At point of Waldron Block.) 7:30 p. m., fireworks, finest ever shown in Hillsdale county. Officers: President of the Day, Judge G. M. Chester.. vice-presidents, Allen, Fred Rothlisberger; Amboy, Joseph Edinger; Adams, John M. Williams; Cambria, David S. Card; Camden, Sherman Haughey; Fayette, E. S. Gregory; Jefferson, Andrew' L. Davis; Hillsdale, Henry Hart; Litchfield, L. B. Agard; Moscow, Guy Conklin; Pittsford, Charles Wood; Reading, Fred Rogers; Ransom, A. J. Cornell; Scipio, William Weldon; Somerset, John Mercer; Wheatland, C. W. Williams; Woodbridge, Eugene Divine; Wright, Lewis Hackett. Committees: Program, Marin E. Hall, F. H. Stone, C. F. Cook, C. M. Barre, W. J. Sampson. Finance, First Ward, Wm. O'Meara; Second Ward, J. B. Whitney; Third Ward, W. H. Frankhouser; Fourth Ward, E. O. Galloway, Esq. Advertising, F. P. Robards, G. E. Gillam, H. C. Blackman. Invitation, Judge Chester, C. M. Barre, A. L. Guernsey, O. J. Cornell, L. A. Good rich. Special trains, W. J. Samson, J. B. Whitnev. Grounds and decoration, Frank M. Hall, E. T. Beckhardt, F. O. Hancock, C. A. Shepard, S. D. Bishopp, H. W. Samm, Dr. Whelan. Reception, Mayor F. M. Gier, F. A. Lyon, W. H. Sawyer, Frank Masters, Judge M. McIntyre, Judge D. L. Pratt, A. B. Cummins, Ed. Davis, James O'Melay, J. S. Galloway, George F. Gardner, F.' M. Stewart, E. J. March, George D. Harding, F. W. Stock, President George F. Mosher, C. F. Cook, Wm. MacRitchie, C. E. Lawrence, Amos H. Kendall, A. W. Lewis, F. M. Thompson, Burr Wilbur, F. T. Ward, L. S. Ranney, H. W. Gier, B. E. Sheldon. Music, C. S. Wolcott, F. C. Thatcher, Prof. M. W. Chase, W. H. French. Sports, F. P. Robards, C. W. Terwilliger, L. H. Frensdorf, L. F. Beckhardt, Prof. D. M. Martin. It may not be uninteresting to record that the last case tried in the old courthouse was the divorce suit of Mary A. Campbell vs. Frank Campbell, while the first case heard in the new courthouse was also a divorce suit, in which Myra Chapman was released from her marriage with William Chapman. The population of the county by the census of 1850 was 16,159 and the increase both in population and improvements went steadily forward. The remaining forests were rapidly going down before the woodman's axe, thousands of fertile acres were yearly uncovered to the sun, smiling orchards took the place of gloomy elms and towering oaks. The decade from I850 to I860 also witnessed the change from log houses to framed houses. Outside the villages of Jonesville and Hillsdale there were almost no framed houses erected before 1840. From I840 to I850 a small number had taken the places of their rude predecessors, but between I850 and I86o a majority of the farmers were able to enjoy the luxury of framed, brick and stone houses. Pumps took the place of the picturesque "sweeps,' which in every pioneer's dooryard greeted the eye afar, and from which depended the "old oaken bucket." Changes from inconvenience to convenience were to be seen in every part of the county, and prosperity was the order of the day. In 1851 the railroad company

Page  46 46 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. resumed construction on the railroad, and rapidly rushed the building, going much west of the county line in that year and completing the road to Chicago in 1852. The "crisis" of 1857 only slightly checked the tide. It was so light in comparison with the terrible crash of 1837 that old settlers scarcely considered it as worthy of the name of crisis, and, after a year or two of depression, the business of the county again began to manifest its old vitality. The census of I86o showed a population of 25,675, an increase of fifty-nine per cent. in ten years. The great Civil War affected this county as it did all parts of the North. The taking away of so many young and stalwart men to fill the ranks of the Union army was seriously felt in business circles and in the industrial development, for, until.the war closed in I865, labor was at a premium. With the issuing of "greenbacks" by the government, prices, not only of labor, but of all commodities, greatly increased and a period of inflation was inaugurated, which no doubt was beneficial to the county, as the products sold brought high prices and the large amount of money sent home by the soldiers added to the wealth of the various communities. All kinds of business flourished. Before I870 had closed the Fort Wayne, Jackson & Saginaw Railroad had been built diagonally across the county anr( also the Detroit, Hillsdale & Indiana Railroad, which passed through Hillsdale southwesterly to its junction with the above mentioned road. Notwithstanding the great drain on the population during the first half of the decade, the number of inhabitants increased to 31,688 in 1870, an addition of nearly twenty-four per cent. in ten years. The decade from 1870 to I880 saw the complete fulfillment of the development of the original wilderness. The county had now become as old as the counties of the East from which had come its original settlers, and under the law of progress, the ultimate had been attained. Aside from the reclamation of a few marshes, and the drainage of some low-lying lands, the agricultural possibilities of usual country farming had here been fulfilled. The natural law that draws men to centers and away from the country had commenced its operation, and it is most probable that this era had here the greatest population that the county will reach for many years, the census of I880 showing 32,726 inhabitants. Even with the attempts to introduce industries and industrial plants, for many years Hillsdale county will be most truly an agricultural county and the diligent husbandmen who hold in fee simple its fertile lands will ever have a source of wealth that will render them independent of all financial cataclysms. The character of the farming is changing. Long noted for its grainraising and dairy productions, stockfeeding is largely prevailing. The prosperous farmer purchases cattle in the Chicago markets, brings them to his Michigan home, and, after feeding them for a series of months, sends them, with greatly added weight, to Eastern markets. And yet the same principles of business that brought prosperity to the early pioneer have to be borne in mind if the stockman would be proportionately successful. In I880 the report of the county treasurer shows a total amount received of $68,946.33, and these items appear therein: State tax, $36,651.99; county tax, $20,200; primary school funds, $4,530.33; paid to county officers, $I,965. Real estate as equalized in assessment, $15,204,994, personal estate, $2,845,241, with a total valuation by towns as follows: Amboy, realty, 464,o60; personal, $44,650. Allen, $968,930;$Io2,ooo. Adams, $I,I44, I45; $I43,65I. Camden, $753,I50; $58,335. Cambria, $I,028,650; $I54,765. Fayette, $I,II8,ooo; $326,220. Hillsdale, $410,885; $41,289. Jefferson, $752,920; $88,570. Litchfield, $1,146,250; $158,040. Moscow, $897,000; $I06,6o0. Pittsford, $I,1o6,685; $56,295. Reading, $I,16o,670; $288,I90. Ransom, $634,990; $87,010. Scipio, $711,240; $64,840. Somerset, $747,995; $73,I60.' Wheatland, $I,I73,755; $I I,735. Wright, $834,965; $94,535. Woodbridge, $579,955; $52,600. First and second wards of Hillsdale, $516,770; $288,600. Third and fourth wards, $873,450; $464,220. To give an idea of the value attached to official service in I88o we give the salaries of some of the county officers and resolutions adopted by

Page  47 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 47 the board of supervisors: County clerk, $I,ooo; prosecuting attorney, $I,200; tIeasurer, $,000oo probate register, $200. "Resolved, That the sum of $650 salary, fixed by the board of supervisors of 1878, and the additional amount of $800, or thereabouts, perquisites of the said office are inadequate, and not a fair and just compensation for services rendered this county by said clerk; therefore, Resolved, That the sum of $350 be, and the same is, hereby appropriated and paid to the said clerk as additional pay for clerk hire." The decade from I88o to I890 shows a decrease in population, the census of the latter year giving the number of inhabitants as $30,I60. Nothing out of the regular routine of ordinary business and social life occurred, only a steady improvement in the character of the buildings, some of these rivalling counties of greater wealth, while in Hillsdale and the prominent villages business blocks, that would well adorn the metropolitan cities of the country, contain large and varied stocks of merchandise and attractive professional offices. A slight increase in the wealth is shown by the assessment roll, which gives the valuation of real estate as $15,560,923 and the personal property as $2,557,466, divided among the towns thus: Adams, $I,oo002,390; $I55,330. Allen, $893,668; $Io0,466. Amboy, $463,635; $25,255. Cambria, $880,555; $95,965. Camden, $718,350; $72,650. Fayette, $I,ooo,o80; $267,600. Hillsdale, $350,940; $28,920. Jefferson, $712,870; $84,870. Litchfield, $993,530; $119,220. Ransom, $609,666; $61,530. Reading, $I,088,095; $241,080. Scipio, $655,120; $39,300. Somerset, $709,750; $76,490. Wheatland, $908,445; $io6,80o. Woodbridge, $610,470; $40,210. Wright, $834,590; $83,950. First and second wards of Hillsdale, $484,365; $203,ooo. Third and fourth wards, $970,600; $590,000. The last decade of the Nineteenth Century passed much the same as the previous decade, the national shrinkage in country real estate'being perhaps less felt here than in many localities, the assessment on real estate being only $14,007,555 while the assessed value of personal property increased to $3,698,282. The population, also, is less than that given by either the census of I880 or that of 1890, showing only 29,865 people as residents, distributed thus: Adams, including North Adams Village, 1,552; Allen, 1,328; Amboy, i,137; Cambria, 1,355; Camden, 1,926; village, 376 Fayette, 1,94I; Jonesville, 1,367; Hillsdale city, 4,121; Hillsdale township, 447; Jefferson, I,6oI; Litchfield, 1,617; village, 645; Moscow, I,090; Pittsford, 1,537; Ransom, 1,215; Reading, 2,163, village, I,096; Scipio, 957; Somerset, 1,216; Wheatland, 1,195; Woodbridge, 1,318; Wright, 2,149. Hillsdale county stands at the threshold of the new century full of the honor derived from an honest citizenship and an industrious and loyal people, its distinct intelligence being shown by the fact, that besides the large library of I3,3oo books in Hillsdale College, there were 102 well selected district libraries in the county. Politically it is true to the antecedents of the New England ancestry, for, while it was Democratic in the early years of its settlement, and at' the time of the Know-Nothing excitement party lines were wiped off the political slate, it has been steadily Republican on national issues for many years, the'Democratic party being a worthy opponent, however, and regularly polling a large vote at the polls. The last year of the last century was quite fruitful in happenings of local history. The rural free delivery of the U. S. mails was established in July, three carriers in that month collecting 1,626 letters and packages and delivering 8,035. In September, I902, four carriers were employed, who delivered 35,576 letters, etc., and collected 9,44I. Jonesville completed its fine electric lighting plant and water-works system. The alert, progressive and thriving village of Reading suffered a loss of $80,000 by fire. The beautiful Presbyterian church of Hillsdale was erected at a cost of $I5,000, and the county agricultural society, which has for years been one of the notable institutions of not only the county, but a much wider range of territory, paid out the handsome sum of $12,I60.17 in premiums, etc., showing what a good work it is accomplishing. The dignified, yet attractive and beautiful city of Hillsdale, strong in its position as the county seat, is yearly adding to its conveniences for its

Page  48 48 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAAN. residents and the strangers within its gates, " town's first and oldest established bank. It has Hillsdale College, with its twenty-six instructors and 400 students, being one of its desirable features as a residence town. This celebrated school receives appropriate and full recognition on other pages of this work. The following villages, each possessing distinct merits as a business center, serve to facilitate commercial transactions and to accommodate the public, and of each of them a chapter might be written did the scope of this work permit. They are Jonesville, Reading, Litchfield, North Adams, Camden, Allen, Pittsford, Osseo, Cambria, Moscow, Ransom and Frontier. A concise and comprehensive sketch of the early history of each town, giving the early events in compact form for reference follows later in this history. The healthful financial state of Hillsdale county can be best shown by noting the number and solidity of its banking institutions and we herewith give convincing statistics in corroboratioHn thereof. THE CITIZENS BANK of Allen was established in 1893 by F. A. Roethlisberger. (See his biography elswhere in these pages for further details.) The capital stock is $15,000; surplus and profits, $2,000; loans and discounts, $2I,000; deposits, $I6,0oo. Mr. Roethlisberger is president and W. N. Benge, cashier. THE BANK OF O. D. CHESTER was opened at Camden in I890, to do a banking and real estate business. 0. D. Chester was the proprietor; B. R. Alward, cashier; E. M. Lash, assistant cashier, This bank was closed on November 7, I902, on the death of Mr. Chester, and was succeeded by the Bank of Camden, organized in 1902, with B. R. Alward as cashier. Its correspondents are Chase National Bank, New York City, and the Hillsdale Savings Bank. THE GROSVENOR SAVINGS BANK of Jonesville was established in 1854 and has done a valuable service to the people. In the biography of Mr. Grosvenor and elsewhere in this work a more extended account is given. E. V. Grosvenor is president; W. M. Wetmore, cashier. THE CITIZENS BANK of Litchfield is the a capital of $5,00o and has been ably conducted by.A. J. Lovejoy & Co. Individual responsibility from $50,000 to $75,000. THE EXCHANGE BANK of Litchfield dates from 1894. H. N. Turrell, president; D. R. Hawley, cashier. It has a large and representative class of 'depositors. An exchange business has been done for twenty years. Capital and surplus $IO,ooo. Individual responsibility, $40o000. THE STATE BANK of Reading was organized in December, I889, with a capital of $25,000, and H. F. Doty, president; George G. Clark, vicepresident; W. B. Northrop, cashier. These gentlemen, with A. R. and J. W. Chapman, constituted the directorate. THE FIRST NATIONAL BANK is one of the solid institutions of Hillsdale. It was organized on February 24, I863, being the fifth national bank in Michigan. William Waldron was its first president and its leading spirit until his death, on December I I, 877, when Hon. Henry Waldron succeeded to the presidency. At his death, Rev. Charles N. Waldron was elected president, but declined to serve, and on January 16, 1881, Frank M. Stewart was elected his successor, and for twenty-two years has served as such. Charles F. Stewart is cashier and the directors are W. A. Waldron, F. M. Stewart, C. H. Winchester, H. K. Bradley, C. E. Lawrence and Wm. McRitchie. Its report made to the Comptroller of the Currency on June 9, I903, showed a capital of $55,000; surplus and profits, $47,932.68; deposits, $735,296.27. Total resources, $853,861.86. THE HILLSDALE SAVINGS BANK was organized in June, I884, and Hon. John P. Cook was its first president, but at his death, on December I5, 1884, C. F. Cook was elected, and since that time has been president. A. B. La Fleur is the nominal, but L. D. Walworth the acting cashier. The directors are C. F. Cook, H. S. Walworth, John F. King; John T. Crume and A. B. La Fleur. The official report on June 9, 1903, showed capital of $6o,ooo, surplus and profits, $32,984.72; deposits, $457,266.o6. Total resources, $550,250.78. THE FIRST STATE SAVINGS BANK opened for business on June -6, I902. F. A. Roethlisberger

Page  49 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 49 is president, Paul W. Chase, cashier. The directors are Guy M. Chester, E. Frensdorf, W. N. Benge, F. H. Stone, E. S. Segur, C. M. Barre and F. A. Roethlisberger. Its published report on June 9, I903, showed capital, $50,000; profits, $6,798.50; deposits, $218,883.96. Total resources, $275,682.46. CHAPTER VI. EARLY PLACES, PEOPLE, ETC. JONESVILLE is the oldest village of Hillsdale county. It contained the first taverns, stores, mills, and was the first.county-seat, holding that distinction for twelve years from the organization of the county in I83I. Until Hillsdale came into being it was the most important place of the county, standing high among the early settlements of the entire territory of Michigan. The historic connection of the early settlement of all of this section is inseparably fastened upon Jonesville, and a list of the early settlers of this village includes many men of excellent character and great capabilities, and among distinguished citizens and public officers of the state and country will be found men who took up their abode here in the pioneer days, and won honor, fame and a national reputation, some of whom are John P. Cook, see Hillsdale and biographical sketch elsewhere in this volume; C. W. Ferris, see Hillsdale; Stephen Hickok, the fourth settler of the village; Henry Packer, a member of the state legislature, judge of the Probate Court and the organizer and first president of the Hillsdale Agricultural Society; Jonathan B. Graham, member of the legislature and a delegate to the state constitutional convention, later the leader in the erection of the Jonesville woolen mills; Hon. E. 0. Grosvenor, see sketch; E. P. Champlin, from 1834 to I85I a successful merchant, postmaster from 1840 to 1844, representative and state senator; Gen. George C. Munro, prominent in the agricultural organizations of the county and state, the first president of the village; he formed in this village the first union school of the section and also erected the first brick house of the county; Hon. Levi Baxter, at one time a chief justice of Lenawee county, and, while a resident here, a state senator; Rockwell Manning, postmaster in I838 and I839, landlord of the Fayette House and Hillsdale House at Hillsdale, of which village he was an original proprietor and later the first agent of the railroad at Hillsdale; John G. Gardner, who built the well-known Genesee mills on the St. Joseph river, north of Jonesville; F. M. Holloway, one of the best-known early pioneers and a most popular county official, register of deeds for two years, for twenty-five years secretary ot the county agricultural society, twice a Democratic candidate for auditor-general of Michigan, and in I880 candidate for governor; Hon. W. W. Murphy, who, with W. T. Howell, opened here the first law office of the county, member of the legislature and for nine years U. S. consul-general 'at Frankfort-on-the-Main; John T. Blois, publisher of the first gazetteer of the state in 1838, register of deeds, circuit court commissioner; Hon. W. J. Baxter, prominent in banking and in educational matters of the state, for over a quarter of a century a member of the school board of the village, president o-f the state and county pioneer societies and a state senator. Very few places of even a much greater population can exhibit such a galaxy of distinguished names, and "there are others." Among the early lawyers were George C. Gibbs, who coming here early, had little practice and removed to California; Salem T. King came in 1836 or I837; William T. Howell came about 1837; Hon. W. W. Murphy came in I837; John T. Blois came in 1839 and with S. T. King opened the second law office of Jonesville; Z. M. P. Spaulding, Wolcott G. Branch, J. K. Kinman, I. A. Holbrook and A. P. Hogarth, all came in 1838 or I839. Nathaniel T. Howe, John Manross, C. M. Wisner, J. C. Wyllis, H. Townsend, R. W. Boynton, Luther Hanchett, N. J. Richards, L. M. Hartwick, William N. Hazen and A. H. Nelson were attorneys of later date, many of them being students of Murphy &'Baxter. Hon. W. J. Baxter was a prominent lawyer and public citizen, coming here in 1848. These were the legal lights up to the breaking out of the Civil War. Physicians.-Dr. William Mottram came early

Page  50 50 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. in 1832 and engaged in pedagogy, paying little attention to medicine. Dr. Chase came soon after Mottram, also taught school and gave little time to his profession. Dr. Brooks Bowman came in 1834 and acquired an extensive practice. Then came Dr. Brockway, Dr. Daniel Stillwell, Dr. Stillman Ralph, Dr. Manning and the older Dr. Delavan. Of a still later date were Dr. L. A. Brewer, Dr. W. B. Hawkins, Dr. L. R. Wisner and Dr. G. Chaddock. Dr. H. M. Warren is said to have been the first homeopathic physician of the county. Many of these physicians were able practitioners, who took long rides in all kinds of weather, rain, snow and sunshine, and at any hour of day or night, to relieve suffering humanity. They did their life's chosen work well and in due time were called from their labors to a land where medical services are not needed. Jonesville Postofice: This was established early in I829, with Benaiah Jones, Jr., as first postmaster. Mail was brought from Detroit via Ypsilanti and Clinton, the route extending westward to Chicago, over the well traveled Chicago turnpike. Besides this route, in 1838 the following routes touched Jonesville. Maumee and Jonesville, via Whiteford, Baker's, Unionville, Canandaigua, and Lanesville postoffices; distance, seventy-five miles; mail forwarded and returned once a week. Jonesville and Marshall, via Homer and Eckford; distance, twenty-nine miles; mail forwarded and returned once a week. Adrian and Jonesville, via Rollin and Adams; distance, thirty-five miles; mail forwarded and returned once a week. Early industries: Benaiah Jones, Jr., had evidently a clever knowledge of a pioneer's needs, for, in his journey hither over the deep marshes and almost impassable swamps, he brought a small iron feed-mill of about two feet in diameter, and this ground his grain and for quite a length of time that of the few neighbors. The E. J. Sibley sawmill was built in 1831 or I832 on the St. Joseph river two miles south of Jonesville. This was the first mill constructed in the county. Hon. Levi Baxter, in association with Cook Sisson, erected a mill at Jonesville in 1834, to whichf they made large additions in I840, and '"Air',,, X.... while these additions were in construction, Mr. Baxter received such injuries as to be rendered permanently lame. These mills added much to the prosperity of the county for many years. In I836 and I837 Isaac B. Taylor and G. C. Munro put up a foundry, to which a machine shop was later attached, being at the first a crude affair in a small framed building, a horse being placed inside the large treadwheel to furnish the power, and here the animal not only worked, but ate its food and slept until released from labor by the introduction of a small steam engine. This foundry became one of the leading establishments of southern Michigan, the "Michigan plow" here manufactured being distributed over a large extent of country. Under the later proprietorship of L. and R. T. Miller, the manufacture of plows and agricultural implements was continued, a popular specialty being the "Miller chilled plow." Lewis Emery came to Jonesville from Lyons, N. Y., in February, 1843, and that season erected the first carding mill of the county and of a much wider area. This he conducted until near the close of the Civil War when he removed to Hillsdale and erected the widely known "Emery mills" one mile east of the city. His sons, David and Lewis, won wealth and a national reputation in connection with Pennsylvania oil operations, Lewis being a leading oil operator of Bradford. He is a millionaire and the one independent oil refiner who has successfully resisted for twentyseven years the efforts of the Standard Oil Co. to crush out all competition, and his company has its own pipe lines to the sea and sails its own ships on the ocean, supplying millions of barrels of oil to the world, independent of railroad combinations, trusts and monopolies. A planing mill was quite early in operation, the manufacture of doors, sash and blinds being added later and, for quite a number of years of its earlier history, it was owned and operated by Selfridge, Baxter & Co. The Methodist Episcopal church was the pioneer here in the religious fields. In 1834 a Rev. Mr. Colchazer, a presiding elder, preached the first Methodist sermon of Fayette in the schoolhouse at Jonesville. The first class was organized

Page  51 :i HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. with thirteen members in 1838 by a Rev. Mr. was held by the Rev Manier, the first stationed preacher. From this October 21, 1838. ] time regular services, by properly accredited min- ment from the dioc( isters, have continued to the present time, and a missionary of the ch helpful influence to all good work and labors for December 17 of that the advancement of humanity has resulted. The rector of the parish. first church edifice, a framed one, was erected in he celebrated the he I844. The society is the oldest religious body of time it was administe Fayette. participating. The fi In the summer of 1835 E. P. Champlin and of holy baptism was wife, Sebastian Adams and wife, Nathan Stevens dren of James K. K and wife and a Mr. Carpenter were organized in- ganized on December to the first Presbyterian church of Jonesville. tv-six declared Episc There was no settled pastor until September, 1837, On January 28,. I84I when the "session-house" was completed, and under the statutes. I Rev. Elijah Buck became pastor for two years, tion and cornerstone receiving an annual salary of $500. The Presby- laid on the east end c terian Society of Jonesville effected a legal organ- the village park and ization on September 15, 1837, the trustees being and consecrated on N Joseph Sill, Azariah Wright, E. P. Champlin, a notable and conspic Simon Jacobus, Ransom Gardner and Lewis early days, from the Smith. Mr. Champlin was one of its most gen- the full toned bell i erous friends and the donor of the lots whereon rounding inhabitants the session-house and the succeeding church were The origin of tl erected. The first installed pastor was Rev. S. C. church of Fayette anm Hickok, who died in 1850. A brick church was efforts of Rev. Willia erected in 1854, which was in use until 1878 when organized a society i: it was so enlarged as to be practically a new and pastorate secured the an elegant structure. From the first the church The original organiz; and the society have stood in the front rank of the but a new one was civilizing influences of the community. in the county has s The earlier history and the establishment of time. the Protestant Episcopal church in this county Early Schools.-i was written up very carefully in 1878 by the Rev. lished in 1832, the di W. W. Raymond, then rector of Grace church. ized for a year or tw( From his able paper we transcribe as follows: entire township of ' "The history of the Protestant Episcopal church county of Hillsdale. in Hillsdale county begins with missionary work Harriet Wight taugt in Jonesville. The records of the earliest visitations room of Benaiah Jone and services are quite fragmentary, the most cor- district school was la rect reports coming from the recollections of the the first one of the tov oldest residents. The first service appears to have ty. Benaiah Jones ar been held on Sunday evening, February 7, 1836, officers of the district in the village schoolhouse by the Rev. Wm. N. and hiring and boardi Lyster, rector of St. Peter's church, Tecumseh, of 1832 Dr. Stillman from which place Mr. Lyster had doubtless ridden trict school. In a fe cn horseback for this purpose. The next service by Dr. Chase, who t 5i.Darius Barker on Sunday, He came by formal appointese of Vermont, as the first lurch to this county, and on year he was elected the first On the next Christmas day )ly communion for the first red in the parish, six persons rst administration of the ritz in April, I839, to three chilinman. The parish was or' 17, I838, at the call of twenopalians as "Grace Church.", the parish was reorganized.n August, I844, the foundaof a church building were ~f an oblong square opposite I the edifice was completed ovember 15, 1848, and it was uous mark of devotion in the tower of which, since I850, has summoned all the surto worship." he very prosperous Baptist d Hillsdale is traceable to the im G. Wisner, who, in I842, n Jonesville and, during his erection of a church edifice. ation was dissolved in I86o, soon formed and the work teadily advanced from that. district school was estabstrict not being fully organo later, when it included the Vance, now comprising the In the summer of 1830 Miss it a private school in a bed es's residence, where the first ter taught. Her school was vn and probably of the counid James Olds were the first:, furnishing the schoolroom ing the teachers. In the fall Mottram taught the first disw weeks he was succeeded:aught until the summer of 4 I I

Page  52 52 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I833. The village then contained the Fayette House, part logs and part framed, one small framed dwelling, four log dwellings and two log barns. In the fall of 1833 the Bell (log) house, on Maumee street was fitted up for school purposes, by boring holes in the logs and driving long and large wooden pins into them, on which boards were laid for desks, the pupils facing the walls and sitting on benches. The first teacher was B. L. Baxter, then but eighteen years old, and among his pupils was a son of the Indian chief Baw Beese. In I835 the town was divided into five school districts. The first highway on record was laid out on May 14, 1835. In 1837 a bounty of three dollars was offered for killing a wolf. In 1837 also Nicholas Van Alstyne opened the St. Charles Hotel, which under his management and his successors, Simon Gay, Samuel (Fatty) Smith and others, acquired quite a reputation as a place of innocent jollity, and was kept open for guests for many years. James D. Jones, son of Benaiah Jones, was born in June, I830, the first white child born in the town of Payette and his death in September, 1831, was the first death of any member of a settler's family in the town. The next birth was that of Rosamond Wight, a daughter of Thaddeus Wight, the first settler on the. Chicago road between Jones and Allen, his location being two miles west of Jonesville. She was born on November 6, 1830, the first white female receiving birth within the present limits of the county. James Olds was an early settler. His wife and Mrs. Lois Jones were sisters and that fact decided the family to locate here. They reached Jonesville on October 13, I830, and their first location included a portion of the present village. He bought for his first home the log house Mr. Jones first put up in the town. He was the first register of deeds of Hillsdale county. Among the early settlers of Fayette and the village of Jonesville were Albert Burgess, John M. Warren, Elias G. Dilla, Henry and Furman Hough, Horace R., John J. and Ransom Gardner, Nathaniel Lockwood, John Goforth, Lewis Wales, Adam Howder, Moses Willett, C. E. Attwater, William Bacon, Jesse Bacon, Daniel Aiken, Ambrose I. Nicholson, Gaylon Dowd, Z. M. P. Spaulding,Artemedorus Tuller,Samuel Gilmore, Lewis Emery, Henry Clark, John Lytle, Jacob Benedict, Gustavus Stephens, Hezekiah Griswold, Simon Jacobus, Dan B. Putnam, Reuben M. Gridley, Garry Searles, Orson Bacon, Charles Scott, Horatio N. Bates, Pardon Aldrich, Jacob Clark, John McDermid, Thomas French, Henry Packer, Amaziah Wright, Charles Gregory, C. W. Ferris, J. P. Cook, John Sinclair, Jaduthan Lockwood, G. C. Munro, Levi Baxter, Cook Sisson, Miles St. John, I. B. Taylor< Jesse B]itton, Abram Couzens, SP.eley Blatchley, Horatio W. Bates, J. C. Gage, Chauncey Stimson, Allen Purdy, L. L. Tucker, C. L. Travis, C. H. and 0. F. Guy, H. L. Hewitt and others. First Newspaper.-The Hillsdale County Gazette was established at Jonesville on April 13, I839, and was "published by Charles G. McKay and James K. Kinman, editor, (also J. P.)" A copy of the first number has been preserved and is a queer paper as seen by modern eyes. Ilad we space we should like to give some of its quaint advertisements, with extracts from its "foreign news" and heavy editorials. It did a good work, as extracts from the early issues were copied extensively and found their way to many a western New York farmer desiring to escape from the grip of the Holland Purchase Co. which held mortgages more than covering the entire value of their eastern holdings. S. D. Brewster became the publisher on October 26, I839, and among its contributors were John T. Blois, Robert Alan and others interested in "booming" the new section and in political offices and emoluments. Jeffersonian Democracy had it for an able organ, and yet frequent articles from other points of view appeared in its columns. In May 1843, the office was removed to Hillsdale and it was afterwards, in 1855, taken to Three Rivers by N. P. Welper, who was then its proprietor. On March I3, 1878, the Hillsdale County Gazette was resuscitated at Jonesville by that veteran newspaper man, James I. Dennis, who conducts it in a very creditable manner.

Page  53 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 53 The loyalty of the pioneers and their descendants is sufficiently demonstrated by the names of her sons shown on the muster rolls of the great Civil War, and by these resolutions of the common council of the village passed on June 5, I864. "Resolved, That we appropriate one hundred dollars for fitting and equipping soldiers for the defense of this state and the national flag. Resolved, That we appropriate the sum of $30 for the purchase of a sword and belt for Capt. Moses A. Funk, of the 'Grosvenor Guards,' and that we appoint Col. E. O. Grosvenor and Hon. W. W. Murphy a committee to purchase said sword and belt and to present the same to Capt. Funk in behalf of the citizens of the village of Jonesville." One of the later enterprises founded here which has proven to be one of the most important manufacturing plants ever possessed by the village and town, is the Deal Carriage Works, of which a full history is given in connection with the biographical sketch of Mr. Deal on other pages of this volume. This plant has given employment to many people, and, for a long term of years, has brought an element of prosperity that has conduced to the benefit and advancement of the community. Jonesville is the oldest platted town in the county, and was laid out by Benaiah Jones, Jr., 'the survey being made in August, 1830. It consisted of fifty-eight lots, and extended from East street west to the St. Joseph river, while north and south it included from one tier of lots north of North street to a tier south of South street. The plat is laid on a portion of the northwest quarter of section No. 4, town 6, south of range 3 west. After a long existence as an unincorporated town, on February io, I855, it was incorporated as a village. It is now a delightful place of residence, and with its fine system of water-works and electric lighting, and supporting two bright local newspapers, the Gazette, heretofore mentioned and the Independent, which, founded in I864, is ably conducted by Gregory and Eggleston, it offers great attractions to the lovers of rural life and to the summer visitor. In I835 Hiram Greenman of Utica, N. Y., furnished money to Salem T. King and Alanson G. Budlong to purchase the land now the site of the city of. Hillsdale. In 1834 Jeremiah Arnold had built a shanty here, locating forty acres, now the location of the fair grounds, soon selling it to the company, and here it was proposed to create a city, but as Mr. Budlong, who stipulated to improve the property and lay it out into lots, failed to do so, a suit in chancery was instituted, which caused the present site to be taken. In 1835 Adam Howder built a log house into which he moved the same year. In December, I835, Mr. Greenman sold to Rockwell Manning and George C. Gibbs, the latter soon selling to Chauncey W. Ferris and John P. Cook, who made permanent residence here in I836 and assured the success of the prospective town. They displayed a shrewd sagacity, and their operations attained great scope and importance. William E. Boardman and Charles Gregory acquired interests in this property about 1836, and the owners transacted business as the Hillsdale Company, although the time was not ripe for incorporation. In 1837 Joel McCollom, Cook, Manning and Ferris, purchased the adjacent lands north of the original plat, Bacon street showing their south boundary. The first plats of the city were recorded as follows: Alanson G. Budlong, the southwest quarter of section No. 26, on June 27, I835; also the southeast quarter of section No. 27, on July 3, I835; Henry S. Platt and John W. Miller, the west half of the southeast quarter of section No. 26, on July 22, 1835; Tunis V. Van Brunt, the west half of the northwest quarter of section No. 26, on October I4, I835; Samuel Mosher, the east half of the northwest quarter of section No. 26, on October 26, I835; Centre Lamb, the west half of the northeast quarter of section No. 26, on June i, 1836; Henry S. Platt and John P. Miller, the east half of the northeast quarter of section No. 27, on July 3, I835; Ambrose J. Nicholson, the southwest quarter of the northeast quarter of section No. 27, on August I8, 1835; Nathan B. Kidder and William E. Sill, the southeast quarter of section No. 22, on June 3, I835; Gilbert Reilay, the west half of the southwest quarter of section No. 23, on March 21, 1836;

Page  54 54 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Salem T. King, one quarter of the southeast quarter of section No. 26; Morgan Buchanan, the west half of the northeast quarter of section No. 22, on June 22, 1835; Ransom Gardner, the east half of the northeast quarter of section No. 22, on March 12, 1836. In I855 the south half of Fayette was set off and made the township of Hillsdale, it being six miles in length from east to west with a width of three miles. This embraced the village. of Hillsdale, which, on its incorporation as a city in April, 1869, became a separate civil organization, the city officers becoming George W. Underwood, mayor; Henry J. King, treasurer; Samuel J. Lewis, Edwin J. March, James G. Brent, Benjamin Fisher, William Wilson, William Pettus and Spencer 0. Fisher, aldermen; S. Chandler, clerk. In I9oo the population of the town of Hillsdale was 447, that of the city 4,151. In the winter of 1837 the state projected its system of internal improvements, the commission making two surveys for a railroad from Monroe, on Lake Erie, to New Buffalo, on Lake Michigan, one survey through Adrian and Hillsdale and Branch, west to New Buffalo, the otner trom Monroe to Tecumseh, and on to Jonesville and Coldwater, thence to New Buffalo. The former route was adopted to Hillsdale, though Jonesville was afterwards brought into the line. In 1838 contracts for the construction of the railroad were awarded, but it was not until five years later that it reached Hillsdale. Henry Waldron came to the county as a civil engineer of this road. Discerning the promise of Hillsdale, he made it his residence in 1838, and aided greatly in its prosperity. The same year the first store was opened by Harvey & Co. In I838, also, Adam Howder, whose log house had been the only house of entertainment, erected a new public-house. This building was spacious, being twenty-eight by forty feet, and two stories high. Connected with it was a ballroom in which often assembled the youth and beauty of the county. The music on these occasions must have been primitive, for it was not until July 4, 1840, that a violin made its appearance. Hillsdale Village in 1838 and I839.-In I867 Dr. Joel W. French, the first physician of the county, gave this account of the Hillsdale village and people of his earliest knowledge. "In 1838 on the fair grounds resided C. W. Ferris, John P. Cook, John S. Brown and Adam Howder. East of the river was William T. Howell, residing on East Bacon street. The first framed building was built by J. P. Cook in 1839 on the corner west of the Methodist Episcopal church. The first sawmill was built hy Salmon Sharp, the first gristmill by Ferris & Cook in 1838. About 1839 Chauncey Stimson built a house on the east side of the river. J. S. Brown, Henry and Frederick Fowler were pioneer merchants, as well as Ferris & Cook. John L. Coming was the first grocer, selling goods "wet and dry". Adam Howder kept tavern on the present fair grounds. The first birth was a child of Samuel Simmons and the first to die was a Mr. Brayner in 1838. The first marriage was that of Robert Alan and Electa Smith. The first lawyers were William T. Howell, H. S. Mead, E. H. C. Wilson, Clement E. Babb. Henry Waldron had an office entitled "R. R. and Law office" early in 1839. The first land cultivated as a farm was at the foot of College Hill by Matthew Buchanan. The first schoolhouse was built in 1841 east of the river and the first sermon here preached was its dedication sermon, delivered by the Rev. William' Page, a Presbyterian. The first fatal accident of the county occurred at Hillsdale on April 20, 1845, when "Grandfather" Bates was killed by a train of cars backing over him, and we will here state that in February, 1835, Caleb Bates brought his family from Ohio with six oxen, three cows and three horses, having in 1834 taken up land one mile east of Hillsdale. Horatio, the eldest son, aged twenty, was a great hunter and soon after his arrival, he took a stroll on Wolf Prairie and started up a band of forty deer, while within two weeks from his arrival he had trapped seven wolves on Wolf Point in Baw Beese lake. The first physicians were Joel W. and Frankin French, Griswold and Cressy. In November, 1839, Rev. Darius Barker, an Episcopal clergyman, preached the first sermon delivered in the village in Adam Howder's tavern. In

Page  55 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 55 1837, however, the pioneer church of the county, a Methodist Episcopal one, was organized. The first public celebration of the county was at Hillsdale on the "Fourth" of July, 1840. Henry Waldron was the orator, Horatio Bates the chief musician. Over o00 people were present and "a great time" was had. In 1837 Henry Fowler and his brother Fred purchased land in the northeast part of Hillsdale township and a portion of this was later platted as "Fowler's addition" to the city. They were later drygoods merchants for a time. In 1838 the Gazetteer of Michigan gave Hillsdale a place in its pages saying: "It is a new settlement, has a sawmill and a flouring-mill is building. French creek enters the outlet a short distance from the village. There is said to be a great amount of water power." In this year. John P. Cook and C. W. Ferris constructed a flouring mill and hither moved their business interests from Jonesville, building a store building, therein displaying by far the largest stock of goods of a wide extent of territory, its trade being largely added to by the settlers, who came from many miles around to avail themselves of the great advantage of a gristmill. Mr. Cook was commissioned the first postmaster in 1839 and the postoffice was located "in the next house to the sawmill." At this time the fame of the village of Hillsdale had extended far and wide, and the impressions formed of its importance were greatly exaggerated, for very few buildings had been erected. Most of the city was covered with thick brush, being practically a wilderness. Travelers would frequently stop and inquire of the postmaster how far it was to the village of Hillsdale. In 1840 the growth received a fresh impulse by the erection of several buildings. Among them John P. Cook built a framed residence, and Frederick and Henry Fowler a store. Adam Howder, finding his first location too far away, erected a commodious log hotel in 1841, and christened it the Hillsdale House. A nucleus of a city was so solidly formed now that not alone Mr. Howder, but others, doubting Thomases, from Jonesville and elsewhere, conceded the success of the new town and sought to join in its importance and benefits. From I840 to 1850 the infant town grew lustily. Business interests assumed such magnitude that they crowded each other and courts and lawyers were demanded. Henry S. Mead, the first lawyer, came in I840 or I84I and practiced here until his death in 1852. An able and popular gentleman; he served creditably in the state legislature. William T. Howell, a state representative and also state senator, came in 1841 or 1842, enjoyed a large practice, and removed to Jackson in I853. E. H. C. Wilson and Wolcott Branch came soon after Mead and Howell. Mr. Wilson was "a cultured son of Maryland" and became a Circuit Court judge. Mr. Branch was an efficient county treasurer, as well as an able attorney. Daniel L. Pratt, for many years an honored member of the county bar, located here in 1845. He too, served with great acceptability as a judge of the Circuit Court. Shortly before 1850 there came another strong lawyer, C. J. Dickerson, as a permanent settler. For over twenty-two years he was usefully connected with the county and city, during the Civil War attaining the rank of brevet-brigadier general. In 1843 the construction of the railroad brought great prosperity. Buildings were erected in rapid succession and new faces were seen everywhere seeking opportunities for investment. As the railroad simply delivered its freight, having no facilities for storage, several warehouses were erected and conducted a prosperous business. Among their builders were Weed, Mitchell & Co., Cook & Waldron, Patrick McAdam and Cross & McCollum, and all thrived until the severe fire in I855 spared but one. These storehouses were a great benefit to incoming settlers, and attracted people who without their presence would have gone to other places. The first election was held on April 12, I847, two ballot-boxes being provided, one for the officers, the other for the "license or no license" ticket. The following officers were elected: President, Patrick McAdam; assessor, Chauncey Stimson; trustees, Harvey A. Anderson, Elijah

Page  56 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Hatton, Henry L. Hewitt, Thomas Bolles and Isaac Van Denbergh. The license ticket having received I03 votes was declared elected. In this year licenses "to keep tavern" were granted on the payment of $i each to C. W. Tuttle, W. M. Brace, S. and D. Topliff, W. S. Noble, R. Manning and J. Lowther; to "keep grocery" to Morris Wilcox, M. S. Call, Thomas McKinney, N. M. Folsom; as a "retailer" to L. Mclntire; as a "grocer and victualer" to Seth English; as a "common victualer" to I. Van Denbergh. In the very extensive and comprehensive biographical portion of this work the business interests of importance of today receive full attention. The first school district was organized in 1841. In I842 a small, one-storied building was erected, which fully gave room for the students until 1847, when it was voted to build a new schoolhouse, of either wood, brick or stone, as the school board and their associates might elect, the entire cost not to exceed $2,500. The building was completed in 1848, two stories in height, made of stone, quarried near the city. This, by a careful economy of space, would accommodate 250 pupils, and was in use until I860. C. J. Dickerson, the. last principal, resigned to study law, was admitted to the bar in 1851, won shoulder straps of a lieutenant colonel in the Civil War and had held the office of probate judge for eight years at his death in 1872. In September, I849, the district organized under the state laws. The first school board was: Samuel Chandler, moderator; Robert Alan, director; Haynes Johnson, assessor;' Henry Waldron, Daniel L. Pratt, Andrew Weir and Allen Hammond, trustees. The teachers for I850 were, Rev. S. C. Hickok, principal, who died before the school year closed and was succeeded by S. S. Coryell; Misses Lawrence, Ford and Hammond. From the superior educational advantages here afforded, outside students soon became numerous. The first fraternal organization of Hillsdale was, so far as is known, that of the Odd Fellows, Hillsdale Lodge No. 17, coming into existence on October 14, 1842, in response to an application made to the Grand Lodge, signed by W. W. Owens, J. R. Thomas, J. C. Cross, A. W. Budlong and Henry Waldron. In 1848 the following Freemasons made application for a dispensation "authorizing them to work": David Bagley, Salmon Sharp, Rockwell Manning, Haynes Johnson, J. H. Lancaster, J. Swegles, Jr., Elias Bennett, Delos Manning, A. S. Rockwell and G. A. Spaulding. Their request was granted, and, on May II, 1848, Hillsdale Lodge No. 32; U. D., held its first meeting with David Bagley, W. M.; Salmon Sharp, S. W.; Elias Bennett, J. W. and elected Haynes Johnson, treasurer and John Swegles, Jr.. secretary. From that time Freemasonry has met with a cordial reception from the men of Hillsdale, two strong lodges and chapter, council and commandery organizations, with an influential membership holding regular communications in the city. As is meet in a county-seat city, the press of Hillsdale shows distinct ability. The Democrat, established in I839 andnow conducted by H. C. Blackman, is not only the oldest newspaper of the county in continuous publication. but is one of the strongest Democratic standard bearers in the state outside of the few large cities, while equally vigorous, wielding a great influence, are the Leader, founded in 1882, now published by E. J. March & Co., and the Standard, founded in I846 and now edited and published by Ward & Hayes. The Methodist Episcopal church was the pioneer, the first regular services commencing in I842 at the schoolhouse, with Rev. Thomas Jackson, preacher in charge and Rev. C. H. Shurtleff, junior preacher. In 1845 a small, substantial church edifice was erected. In 1847 Hillsdale was made a station. "The First Presbyterian church of Hillsdale" an important organization, was organized on July 22, I843, with these members: William H. and Nancy Cross, Thomas and Louisa Bolles, Calista Budlong, Amanda Stimson, Isabel Rogers, Herman Barber, Allen Hammond, Isaiah H. McCollum and Byron Hammond. The society within a year purchased the building erected as a county building, where they held services for fully ten years. The church was received into

Page  57 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 57 the Marshall presbytery on January 30, I844. Rev. Elijah Buck was the first minister, resigning in I845. St. Peter's Protestant Episcopal church had its inception in I839, when the Reverend Darius Barker, rector of Grace church, Jonesville, held services one pleasant November Sunday in the tavern of Adam Howder. Services were from time to time thereafter conducted at various places, private houses, the railway station, the Methodist church, etc. As the families of this faith removed from Jonesville to Hillsdale, more and more strength was given to this religious element, and on September Io, 1844, a parish was duly- organized under the present church name. This society has ever been active for good, cooperating with all movements for the uplift of the people and the amelioration of suffering. A Baptist church was organized on November II, I848, with these members: E. P. Purdy, G. W. Bolles, Calvin Bolles, Leonard Olney, Ira Foster, Solomon Whelan, Thomas Hughes, Elsa Hardy, L. B. Brownson, Matilda A. Olney, Mary Bolles, Hannah Bolles, Matilda Coborn, Elizabeth Keating, Mary M. Whelan, Catharine Hughes, Mary Parish and Elizabeth L. Dove. They were recognized as an independent church on December I3, I848. The first pastor was Rev. L. A. Alford. This church went out of existence in January, I855, but October I, I869 a new church of the same faith was organized, with these members: Calvin Bolles, Hannah Bolles (the only ones who were "charter" members in 1848), A. G. Stewart, E. M. Conant, Mrs. A. Conant, Daniel Mills, A. B. Prentice, Mrs. A. B. Prentice, G. E. Ferris, Mrs. N. Ferris, S. J. Henry, Mrs. A. B. Henry, Lucy J. Whipple, Mrs. Elizabeth Dove, Mrs. H. L. Bolster, Mrs. A. Farnam, Miss Louisa Dowe. In I888 they built a neat brick church on Bacon street and are among the leading churches of the city. Rev. J. W. Davis is pastor. November 24, I855, the first Free Will Baptist church was organized with E. B. Fairfield, H. E. Whipple, Alonzo Hopkins, Samuel R. Hawks, A. Wix Munger, W. J. Lindsley and G. P. Ramsey as members. Only the first named is now living. The services of this church were held in the college chapel until a large and commodious brick church building was erected in 1867. On account of its close connection with the college and its supporters this is popularly called the "College church." During its forty-eight years of existence about I,700 different persons have been connected with this church, probably about I,ooo by letter and 700 by baptism. So many have been students of the college that their residence has been only temporary, and the number of resident members at the present time is about 265. Rev. O. D. Patch, D. D., is now pastor. St. Anthony's church (Roman Catholic) has a tasteful brick building, and a prosperous society. The parish was established in I853. The Adventists, Free Methodists and Universalists all have church buildings, but the last named do not now have regular services. An important German element early added value to the village and county and Trinity German Lutheran church had its primal origin, when, in I849, John Schmidt, G. Beck and a Mr. Deider hired a clergyman to preach in Hillsdale every six weeks. CHAPTER VII. ABOUT THE TOWNSHIPS. Adams.-When it was created on March 23, I836, included all the lands in range 2 west in this county south of the portion of Moscow from which it was segregated. Since its organization the towns of Jefferson, Ransom and the eastern half of Amboy have been formed from its original territory. In 1838 only 120 acres of government land remained unsold and there was a popu- lation of 279, owning 217 head of cattle, twelve horses, forty sheep and 276 hogs. The population in 900o was 1,552, which included the thriving village of North Adams, and that the town is an intelligent one is shown from its having well supported a weekly newspaper, the North Adams Advocate, since I895. The first town meeting was held on April 4, I836, in the wood on section No. I6, a large log being at once table, desks and

Page  58 58 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. seats. Salmon Sharp was elected supervisor, Seth Kempton, Jr., clerk, William Cutler, Nicholas Worthington, Horatio Hadley and William Clark, justices. The Methodist Episcopal church of North Adams, was organized in 1836 or 1837 and this society has ever been the leading one of the town. The "First Congregational church of Adams" was formed in 1848, and a church edifice erected soon afterwards., The Baptists were early established here, but no data can be found to inform us of the date. The prosperous and pleasant village of North Adams grew up around the residence of William Cutler, who located on its site in June, 1835, for a long time it was known as Cutler's Corners, where he was the first merchant of the town. The present village was laid out and recorded in 1871. In I863 Adams Lodge of Freemasons was organized, with Albert Kenyon as its first master. Allen.-As formed by act of the legislature, March 17, 1835, included the west one-fourth of the county, embraced in range 4 west of the principal meridian. From it have been formed Litchfield, from township 5 south, range 4 west, Marcii I I, 1837; Reading, from township 7, 8 anc 9 south, same range, at same date; Camden, from townships 8 and 9 south, same range, March 21, 1839, leaving Allen including only township 6 south of range 4 west. The name perpetuates that of Capt. Moses Allen, the first white settler, not only of the town and county, but of a much larger area then extending to the north and west. He made his settlement in 1827 and in October, I829, his was the first death of a white person in the county. His widow married with Hiram Hunt and attained the age of over ninety years. Captain Allen brought in the 'first flock of sheep of the county. The first framed house was built in I835 by Richard Corbus, and he and Thomas Reed set out the first orchards. As the town records of Allen up to 1845 were burned, the early officers cannot be named. In 1838 the township contained 353 people, two sawmills, one store, 242 head of cattle, 51 horses, 42 sheep and 310 hogs. In 9oo0 the population was 1,328, and a local newspaper, the Allen Argus, was established. The first schoolhouse was built of logs, at the Allen settlement, and the Methodist Episcopal church was there organized in I833. The Baptist church was formed in 1841 and its first church edifice was erected in 1845 as a union church, the Wesleyan Methodists joining in the labor and cost. Allen village was quite a thriving hamlet before the land was regularly platted and recorded in i868. Allen Lodge of Freemasons was organized on July 12, i868, with twelve members and B. W. Brockwav the first master. Amnboy.-On March 28, 1850, "so much of the county of Hillsdale, lying in townships 9, south of ranges 2 and 3 west, and the south tier of sections of township 8, south of range 2 and 3 west,' were organized into the town of Amboy. The first town-meeting was held on April 22, 1850, when, among other offices, were elected Nathaniel S. Dewey, supervisor; Gideon G. King, clerk; Nathan Edinger and John King, justices. Like most of the rural towns of the state the population in recent years is slowly but steadily decreasing, in I890 the census showing 1,236 residents, while that of 900o only gives the number as 1,137. The first settler was James H. Fullerton, in February, 1838, when his nearest neighbor to the west was nine miles distant, to the north and northeast about the same distance, to the east nearly twenty miles, while to the south an unbroken wilderness stretched for unnumbered miles. Amos Drake came in December, 1838, with his wife, three sons and three daughters. He owned the first span of horses of the township, erected the first framed barn, was the first postmaster of the first postoffice (Bird), and owned the first reaper and mower, purchased ill I853. His son, Sidney, built the first framed house in I845. The first physician, Dr. W. D. Stout, located near Mr. Drake in 1839. Nathaniel $. Dewey opened the first store in 1846. William Gay built the first sawmill in 1844 and the first gristmill in 1846. The first schoolhouse, a framed one, was built about 1847, and the Baptist church was organized in I850; its first meetinghouse being dedicated on January I, I873. A Protestant Methodist church was formed in I851

Page  59 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 59 and in I856 a Methodist Episcopal class was formed. Cambria, originally a portion of Fayette, was set off as a part of Woodbridge in I840, and, in 184I, a tract of land six miles square. township 27, south of range 3 west, was formed as Cambria. The first election of town officers was held on April 5, I84I, thirty-seven voters being present. Jacob Hancock was chosen supervisor, N. H. Frink, clerk, Pardon Aldrich, Ira Mead, Samuel Orr and Lorenzo Rice, justices. The population in I900 was 1,355. The village of Cambria Mills was platted in 1878, receiving the name from the early locator, John McDermid, who commenced a sawmill in 1835. His brother, Andrew J. McDermid, came shortly afterwards and here erected a gristmill. The Methodist Episcopal church was early established in the town, but not until after the Civil War was an organization effected. More of the town's early history is given elsewhere. Camzdcn is the southwest town of the county, and which in 900.contained 1,926 people, and a newspaper, the Camden Advance, L. M. Rogers, proprietor, was segregated from Reading in the early part of of 1839, the first town meeting, assembling on April I, I839, electing James Fowle, George C. Lewis, Samuel S. Curtiss and Eason T. Chester, justices. James Fowle was the pioneer settler, locating in 1835 and bringing in his family in 1836. Timothy T. Wilkinson was the second settler, being the advance guard of the Perring and Wilkinson families, of whom there were residing before January I, I838, Frederick and Stephen C. Perring, Hiram, Philander and Oren C. Wilkinson and Murray Knowles, they forming what was known as Perrinburgh, later Edinburgh, still later as "the Burgh." James Holcomb came in I836, as did Samuel Seamans. In I837 settlers came in rapidly. Frederick Perring built the first sawmill in 1838, the second being erected by Eason T. Chester, and, on its site on the Little St. Joseph river, have at various times been since constructed a carding mill and gristmills, the waterpower being a fine one. In I846 Nelson Palmer conducted the first store. The village of Camden now having a poI ilation of about 400, was platted in 1867; in 1872 Bell & Chester's addition was laid out, and later Miller's addition. Joseph Tucker was the first merchant. Montgomery was laid out in 1869, the first merchants being A. P. Kellogg, O. M. Hayward and Joshua Dobbs. A steam sawmill was erected in 1872. In 1854 the first Methodist class was formed and a church was built in 1873 and 1874. A Masonic lodge was organized in I865 with George N. Mead as master, and in 1878 an Odd Fellows lodge was constituted. Fayette.-The first town-meeting in Fayette is thus recorded: "At a township-meeting held by the electors of the town of Fayette, Hillsdale county, Michigan territory, at the house of James D. Vanhoevenbergh, on the 6th day of April, in the year of our Lord 1835, James Olds was elected moderator, and John P. Cook, clerk, pro tern. The board being organized according to law, the following officers were chosen or elected: Brooks Bowman, supervisor; Charles Gregory, township clerk; Hezekiah Morris, Daniel Nichols, assessors; James Olds, James Winter, collectors; James D. Vanhoevenbergh, Thaddeus Wight, Truman Cowles, commissioners of highways; James Olds, Joshua Champlin, directors of the poor; Edmund Jones, James Winter, constables; Silas Benson, Charles Gregory, Chauncey W. Ferris, commissioners of schools; Brooks Bowman, John P. Cook, Charles Gregory, Chauncey W. Ferris, Elisha P. Champlin, school inspectors; Elisha P. Champlin, road master District No. i; Silas Benson, of District No. 2; James Winter, District No. 3; and James D. Vanhoevenbergh, James Olds, fence-viewers; Edmund Jones, pound-master." The original township of Fayette, as created on March I, 1835, included all of range three from the northern boundary of the county to the south line of the state, and from it have been since carved the townships of Scipio, Hillsdale, Cambria, Woodbridge and the west half of Amboy. By an act of the legislature passed on March 23, I836, Scipio was formed, including the township 5 south of range 3 west. Jonesville and the northern tier of Fayette sections

Page  60 60 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. thus were a part of Scipio, and so remained for some years. Its population in 1838 was 685, and there were in operation in its extended territory one gristmill and four sawmills, while six merchants were doing business in its corporate limits. In.the whole town there were but 373 head of cattle, oxen included, sixty-nine horses; twenty-nine sheep and 517 hogs. The population in I900 was 1,94I, of which 1,367 were residents of Jonesville. Much of the land entered by actual settlers before 1838 was not occupied for several years and there were many lots entered by non-residents for speculative purposes, while many of the very early residents were squatters, who had no title to the lands they occupied. Sometimes several years elapsed before they became pu. chasers. They had the right of possession, however, and it would have been a brave man who would have dared to "enter" the land a settler had chosen for his home. The early history of the township clusters around Jonesville. The first settler of Fayette township was Benaiah Jones, Jr., who was brought to Hillsdale county by the representations of Captain Allen. On June I, 1838, he arrived in the county with his family coming over the great Chicago road with a double-horse wagon to the home of Captain Allen on Allen Prairie, then the sole residence of a very extended area, and here the family remained from June to October, 1838, living in a corn barn belonging to Captain Allen. During this time Mr. Jones had secured his location, and, with his eldest son, had rolled up a log house on the west side of the St. Joseph river. This location was a portion of section 4, town 6, south of range X west, and included the site of Jonesville, or rather Jonesville as laid out by Mr. Jones in August, I830. This log house was the first and only house of entertainment in Jonesville until he built the Fayette House in I83I-2, and here the good wife of Mr. Jones, "Aunt Lois," dispensed a hospitality as generous and as cordial as that of royalty, and earned the lasting esteem of the rapidly growing community. The Fayette House was destroyed by fire in 1842 and was not rebuilt by Mr. Jones, but a house across the way, built by Artemedorus Tuller, was fitted up for a tavern by N. A. Delavan, and called the Fayette House. Later it became the Waverly House. This house was burned about I876. Jefferson was formed from Adams by a special act of the legislature in 1837 as Florida, which name it had until I850. The first town-, meeting was held on April 3, I837, which elected Henry P. Adams supervisor, Chauncey Leonard clerk, Horatio Hadley, H. P. Adams, William Scoon and William Duryea justices, and other town officers. Mr. Adams refused to serve and a special election on May 4, 1837, elected Jacob Ambler to both offices. In I900 the U. S. census gave the town a population of I,o6I. Around the chain of lakes in the town the early settlers found quite a number of mounds, the probable burial places of a pre-historic people. Methodist ministers preached here in I836, and in 1837 a class of thirteen persons was formed, the first church building not being built until I860. In 1867 the Christian brethren, Disciples, formed the nucleus of The First Christian Church, organized on January I, 1870, in the village of Pittsford, in the towns of Jefferson and Pittsford, and a church was built in 1871. The Free Will Baptist Church of Osseo, organized about 1870, built a church edifice in I873. On January 16, 1857, Star Lodge No. 93, F. & A. M., was instituted, with Lewis Hagadorn as master. The village of Osseo was platted by the Osseo Improvement Co., record being made on March I, I840. It was once the nominal county seat of Hillsdale county, the sites of the county buildings being located and preparations made to erect them. The original proprietors were Harvey Smith, James K. Kinsman, W. W. Murphy, Benjamin E. Smith and George C. Munro. Philo A. Wells 'and Isaiah Green were the first merchants. Litchfield township was segregated from Allen in 1837, and Samuel Riblet, a justice of the peace of Allen, was named by the legislature to select and qualify an election board and to preside over the first election, to be held on the first Monday of April, I837, at which was elected Harvey Eggleston supervisor, James F. Nims

Page  61 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. clerk, Harvey Eggleston, Jesse Stoddard, Philip S. Gage and William Smith, Jr., justices. In the spring of 1834, Henry Stevens and Samuel Riblet made the first settlement, Stevens on section 13 and Riblet on section 15. They were soon followed by John Crandall, Sr., on section 34; Otis Bettis, on section 25; Andrew K. Bushnell, on section 9; David Hiller, on section 5; John Woods, on section 15; Lambert Allen, on section 22; Mr. Murray, on section 5; Nathan Herendeen, on section I; Jesse Stoddard, on section 3; James and Harvey Eggleston, on section 9; Freeman Blair, on section 14; M. P. Herring, on section 22. James Jones, William Smith, Samuel Frisbee, and the three Todd brothers made the first settlement in the timbered land west of Sand Creek in 1836, and Horton Mann, James Valentine, and William Miller settled on Saratoga street the same year. The settlement of the town was slow until 1837, when emigration began to flow in, and the town was soon well filled up, in 1838 having 314 inhabitants, a sawmill, 303 cattle, 145 horses, 978 sheep, 1,182 hogs. In the summer of I836, Hervey Smith bought sixty-five acres on sections io and 15, on which he built a sawmill and platted the village of Litchfield. He then sold the mill and water-power to George C. Munro, of Jonesville, who built a flouring-mill in I84I. The first sermon was delivered by Stephen Wilcox (a missionary), in June, 1835, in Samuel Riblet's log house, to seven hearers, at which time the Methodist society was organized with these members: Samuel and Deborah Riblet, Mrs. Henry Stevens, Daniel Kuhnley, Clarissa Allen and Mary Woods. The first framed house was built by S. Geer in I837, the first framed schoolhouse in 1839 and the first church (the old Methodist) in I84I. The first school was taught by Isaac Agard, Sr., in thr winter of I837-38, in a log schoolhouse. The first furrow was turned on the farm of Henry Stevens, on May 20, I834, when all the inhabitants of the town were present, Henry Stevens and his two hired men, and Samuel and Solomon Riblet, who all took turns at holding the plow. The Baptist church was formed on March.6, 1839, the church building being erected in I84I. The first members were Rev. J. S. Twiss, pastor; Hervey Smith, Morris Todd, Archibald Scott, Noah Chapman, Desire Twiss and Clarissa Smith. The Presbyterian church was organized on July 14, I839, by Rev. E. Buck, and reorganized with a Congregational form of government by Rev. R. B. Bement on March 20, 1841. A framed church was built a few years later, and an imposing one in I870. Litchfield village was organized in 1877, the first election occurring on March 12. This has been an active center of trade, accommodating a wealthy farming community, and supporting a weekly newspaper, The Litchfield Gazette, since I874. The character and intelligence of the people of the town and village have ever stood in the highest rank, the town in I9oo having a population of 1,617 and the village of 645. The business interests and old families are given elsewhere in this work. Moscow had origin as a town on March 17, I835, it being one of the four sub-divisions of the newly created county of Hillsdale and then contained all of range 2 west in the limits of the county. It is now but a small portion of its original tract, as from it during the first fourteen years of its existence were created towns as follows: Adams, March 23, I836, first including the territory in range 2 from the present township of Moscow to the state line on the south; Florida, including townships 7, 8, and fractional 9 south, March I I, 837; township 7 changed to Jefferson, March 17, 1849; Rowland, including townships 8 and fractional 9 south, January 28, 1840, changed to Ransom, March 9, 1848; Bird, from Ransom, April 2, I849, changed back to Ransom, March 28, I850; part of Amboy, March 28, I850. In 1838 the town contained 496 inhabitants, one sawmill, two stores, 460 head of cattle, seventy horses, eighteen sheep and 554 hogs. In I900 the population was I,o09. The first settler was S. N. W. Benson, who, owning a large acreage, made his home on the site of Moscow village in I830, building a tavern and setting out one of the earliest orchards of the county. The second settler was Lyman Blanchard, who built the second brick * \ -I,:

Page  62 62 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. house of the county in 1842 and was the first judge of probate of the county, holding the office twelve years. The first physician was Dr. Wm. J. Delavan who came in I834. The first schoolhouse, erected in 1837, was a framed building. Zachariah Van Duzer was the first supervisor, elected in 1835, but no other records are extant. Moscow village# laid out by Benjamin Fowle in I842, grew quite rapidly for a time after the establishment of George Gale's iron foundry in 1843, where a few years later, were madesome of the best plows used in the state. M. D. Willard owned the first store in 1837 and Brooks Gale the second in I838. The first sawmill was built in 1837 by Benjamin Fowle. Grain was ground early in an iron mill owned by Charles Fowle, worked with a sweep by ox power. This was the first gristmill in the township. In I849-50, a run of stones for feed was placed by George Gale in his foundry. About 1852 these were removed to Benjamin Fowle's sawmill, south of the village. Hamilton Lodge, A. F. & A. M., was organized in I858 with Henry Griswold as master. Pittsford.-The town of Pittsford, township 7 south, range I west, is bounded north by Wheatland, east by Hudson, Lenawee county, south by Wright, and west by Jefferson, and was formed from Wheatland on March 23, I836, then comprising all of range I west, south to the state line. On March 6, I838, Wright was segregated. The first town-meeting was held at thehouse of Alpheus Pratt, on May 2, 1836, when Elijah B. Seeley was chosen supervisor, Urias Treadwell clerk, and John L. Taylor, R. H. Whitehorn, E. B. Seeley and Sidney S. Ford, justices. In I838 there were 5I0 residents, two merchants and 309 cattle, twenty-seven horses, eighteen sheep and 456 hogs. In I9oo the population was 1,557. The "First Presbyterian church of Bean Creek" was organized on February 24, 1836, by Rev. Wm. Wolcott, with twenty-four members. This church later became the Congregational church of Hudson, but the membership was mostly from Pittsford. The nucleus of the strong Methodist organization was created at a quarterly meeting, held in August, 1836, in the barn of Charles Ames in Keene, but not until I840 was the organization of the East. Pittsford M. E. church completed. The first church building was erected in I847 or 1848. The Free Will Baptists organized a church at Locust Grove on September 6, I857, building a church during the time of the Civil War, and, on March 6, I858, a Wesleyan Methodist church was formed, which erected a church building in I86o. In 1853 Pittsford village was established, and a brick business center has since existed there. Hiram Pratt and Elihu Hubbard put up the first residences of the place. On June 7, I833, Charles Ames and Thomas Pennock entered the first lands, Ames taking the southeast quarter of section I and the northeast quarter of section 12, and Pennock the southeast quarter of section 12. They returned east to bring in later in the year the first company of settlers, which comprised Charles Ames, wife and child, Louisa Ball, Elizabeth Ames, Henry Ames, William B. Ames, Ezra Ames, Alpheus Pratt and his wife and child. The whole party joined in erecting a log house on the south line of section 12, for the residence of Charles Ames' family. This was the first civilized home of the town, but, before January I, 1834, Mr. Pratt had built another on section 13. The following purchased lands on and after September 24, I833: Curran White, William Flowers, Thomas Hurdsman, Stephen Wilcox, Wm. B. and Elizabeth Ames, John Gustin and Isaac French. Among the settlers of 1834 and 1835 were Sylvanus and Rufus Estes, Jesse Smith, wife and five children, Samuel Day, Silas Eaton, wife and four children, William Champlin, Lewis Gillett, Ozen Keith, Jesse Maxson, R. H. Whitehorn, Urias Treadwell, Lawrence Rheubottom, Samuel T. Cooley (the first tavernkeeper), Eldad B. Trumbull, Elijah B. Seeley, Isaac A. Colvin (the first storekeeper), Austin Nye. By 1836 settlements were started in all parts of the town and the lands were nearly all purchased. In this year John Griswold, Lewis Monroe and Stephen Johnson were among the more prominent settlers. Ransom.-On March 11, 1837, the township of Rowland was taken from townships 8 and frac

Page  63 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 63 tional 9 south, of Florida, in honor of the first settler, Rowland Bird. After the death of Mr. Bird, on March 9, 1848, the name was changed to Ransom. The people were determined that 'their original intent should be carried and secured the change of name to Bird on April 2, I849. On March 28, I850, another act of the legislature restored the name of Ransom, and, by the same act the township lost the east half of the new town of Amboy, leaving for Ransom, sections I to 30 of township 8, south of range 2 west. Rowland Bird came to Ransom on March 8, 1836, with his wife, seven children and young Leander Candee, who married Lorinda Bird in March, I840, this being the first marriage. Orrin Cobb, the second settler, located on the western border. Thomas and Charles Burt came from England in 1838, Cornelius Deuel then lived one mile south of the Burt location. Orsamus and Nelson Doty came in I839. William and Joseph Phillips, Israel Hodges, Matthew Armstrong and Alexander Palmer were here before I839. The first town election was held on April 6, 1840, when were elected Leander Candee, supervisor; Israel S. Hodges, clerk; Rowland Bird, James H. Babcock, Matthew 'Armstrong, and Henry Cornell, justices. The first school was taught by Lucinda Bird in 1838. On May I9, 1848, the Congregational church was organized, with Stephen and Joan Ingersoll, C. B. and Mary E. Shepard, Jacob T. and Ann Service and Sally Perkins as members. In 1855 a church edifice was completed. The Methodist Episcopal society was formed in I857, a framed church was built in I868-9. The United Brethren have long been strong here, the first society being organized in I86I or 2. The Seventh Day Adventists, organized in I866, built a church in I869. About 1855 Ichabod Stedman opened the first store at the Center, where Ransom postoffice was established in 1847, and where a brick business center soon came into being. Leonard Lodge No. 266, F. & A. M., was here organized in I869 with Chauncey Leonard as its first master. In 900o the town had a population of 1,215. Reading was organized in I837. The first town-meeting was held on April 3, when James Fowle was chosen supervisor, William Berry clerk, John Mickle, James Fowle, Samuel S. Curtiss and William Berry, justices. At its creation it contained 227 inhabitants, I60 head of cattle, nine horses and 13I hogs. In 900o the population was 2,I63, Reading village containing I,o96. At organization the town comprised all of the county lying south of township 6 south. In 1839 Camden was erected from Reading, leaving it six miles square, known as township 7 south, range 4 west. Reading is one of the best agricultural towns in the state and its inhabitants have ever been of an intelligent and highly progressive character, notably among the number being Col. Frederick Fowler, Daniel Kinne, George and John Fitzsimmons and others of high standing, comprising Nelson Turner, the first merchant. The pioneer settler, John Mickle, located here on October 5, 1835, closely followed by Eleazer Gleason, William C. Berry, Charles andl William Powell, Ephraim Wiltsie, William Berry, Horace Palmer, Rennselaer Sutliff. In April, 1836, Wright Redding and Annie Carpenter came, and thus, before the first town-meeting, the nucleus of a strong settlement was established. Up to I850 there was not a store, grocery or a tavern in the town, but many thrifty and prosperous farmers. The Baptist church was organized August 24, I839, with Samuel and Matilda Seamans, Frederick and Abigail Perring, Daniel and Emily A. Weaver, L. C. and Eliza Perring, Aaron Thompson and Ann Morey. In I859 it joined with the Second Free Will Baptist society in building the first completed church edifice of the town. The Free Baptists, as they have been called for a number of years, are strong. Two churches were organized before the Civil War, the first, on March i, 1857, with eighteen members, the second, early in 1858. The former organization completed a church in I858. The Presbyterian church, of ten members, was established on January 5, I868, the church edifice being completed and dedicated on June 22, I873. On January 13, 1858, a Masonic lodge was started U. D. and regularly chartered on January 13, I860, with George Fitzsimmons as master. Masonry has

Page  64 64 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. thriven, a chapter and a council joining with the lodge in exemplifying its principles. The Odd Fellows were late in occupying this field, organizing on November 15, I876. The village of Reading, although a lively center of trade, was not incorporated until April 12, 1873, Asahel B. Strong being the first presi' dent. Manv notable manufacturing industries have had their home in the village, while the first bank of the town was here established in March, 1873, by H. B. and A. R. Chapman. The village has had some reverses, among them the $80,000 fire of I899, but it has steadily risen superior to every adversity. The town supports two local weekly newspapers, The Telephone News, A. W. Dudley, proprietor, founded in 1879, and the Reading Hustler, established in 1891 and now published by Fred A. Rogers. Scipio, originally a part of Fayette, was created on March 23, I836, and comprised township 15, south of range 3 west. Jonesville and the northern tier of sections of the present Fayette were included in Scipio for some years. On January I, I834, there were but 300 acres of land entered in the present Scipio, divided in ownership between. Wm. H. Nelson, Dexter Olds, S. N. W. Benson and Nathaniel Bacon. Entries thereafter were rapidly made, by 1838 the most of-the land was taken. In I835 but few people were living in the town. Among the earliest settlers were Hosea Wheeler, Judge Stevens, Mr. Bucklin, Hezekiah Morris, John Howard, Thomas French, Joseph Riggs, Horace Case, James Sturgis, William Porter, Dr. Stillman Ralph, Silas Benson, Oliver Bates, Oliver C. Pope, Uriah B. Couch, Samuel E. Smith, Cyrus Smith, Lyman Nethaway, Nelson Bates, Hezekiah Morris, Eli R. Sales, Marvin Kimble, James Winters, Rufus Cole, Allen Briggs, Sanford Curtis, Seeley Blatchley, William Whitehead, Wilson Gage, Jeduthan and Alanson Lockwood and others. The first town-meeting was held on April 4, I836, at the house of William Porter, and Stillman Ralph was elected supervisor, Silas Benson town clerk, Oliver Bates, 0. C. Cope, Uriah B. Couch and S. E. Smith, justices of the peace. Mosherville derives its name from the Mosher family, the father, Samuel Mosher, a Quaker residing in the Hudson Valley of New York, entering and purchasing over 800 acres of land in Scipio to secure the excellent water power. Here his sons developed the land and village, The gristmill, erected in I850, was the second of the'township, the first being the Genesee mills, erected by John Gardner on the St. Joseph river. The first school was taught in I847. The population in 1838 was 469 and the town contained a sawmill, one merchant, 294 head of cattle, seventy horses, twenty sheep, 356 hogs. In I9oc the population was 957. "The Methodist Episcopal" was the first religious society here organized, holding services, however, long before the first church was built in I86I. Somerset, set off from Wheatland on March 20, 1837, being township 5 of range 3 west, occupies the northeast corner of the county. In 1838 the town was well settled for that period, containing 441 residents, two sawmills, one merchant, 326 head of cattle, forty horses, ninetythree sheep, 603 hogs. The census of 900o gave its population as 1,216. During the wheatraising period of the agricultural operations of the county, Somerset always stood high in the amount of this cereal. The first white settler was James D. Vanhoevenbergh, who located in 1832 or 1833, and kept the first tavern. In 1835 or 6 the first store was opened at Gambleville. Several little centers of business have been developed, and a lodge of Odd Fellows was organized in I877. In the early day wolves were exceedingly troublesome, the town voting to pay $io bounty for a scalp. The first town-meeting was held on April 3, 1837, when were elected Heman Pratt, supervisor; John McKnight, clerk; Warner Bundy, HIeman Pratt, Amos Fairchild and William Weaver, justices. The first school was taught in the summer of 1834 and the first religious society, the Presbyterian, was organized in 1836, which erected a church building in the early forties. One of the leading industries for many years was the manufacture of brick and tile. Wheatla.nd.-On the original division of the newly created county of Hillsdale on March 17, I835, the eastern quarter of the territory, range

Page  65 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 65 I, was organized as the town of Wheatland. From it have been taken Somerset, on March 20, 1837; Pittsford, on March 23, 1836, and Wright, set off on March 6, 1838. These segregations left Wheatland containing only township 6, south of range I west, containing some of the highest land of the state. The township had then 729 people, a postoffice, a sawmill, 309 cattle, ten horses, eighteen sheep and 387 hogs. In I9oo the population was I,I95. On January I, 1834, but 1,200 acres of land had been taken within the limits of the present town, the owners being Silas Moore, R. M. Lewis, Mahlon Brown, Edwin Brown, Lydia Kaniff, Thomas Sewin and Stephen Russell. In this year also came the first settler, Edmund B. Brown, locating on section ii. Eli Eastman came on January 8, 1835, and was long a prominent citizen, keeping the first house of entertainment. Henry Cook, his brother-in-law, accompanied him. Mrs. Cook died in April,' I836, the first death in the town. Her infant child, who survived its mother but a short time, was the first white child born in Wheatland. In 1835 came Charles and Bradford Carmichael, Isaac Lamb, Stephen Knapp, Ebenezer Trumbull, Elihu Gillett, Robert Cox, A. A. Van Alstine, Harvey McGee, and perhaps others. On the first Monday in April, I836, the following persons were elected to office: Supervisor, Heman Pratt; township clerk, John MdKnight; justices of the peace, Heman Pratt, Nelson R. Rowley, Elias Branch, and Aaron Van Vleet. This is the first recorded election. The First Baptist church of Wheatland was organized in the winter of 1837-8. The church records say: "There met at the house of John Bailey, in the town of Wheatland, Hillsdale county, Mich., John Bailey, Lewis Gillet. Moses Densmore, John Timmons, Adna Lull, Mary E. Lull, Polly Bailey, Ann Timms, Matilda Gillet, Roxana Densmore, Harriet Bailey,'Joseph H. Padelford, holding letters from Baptist churches, and, on consultation, mutually agreed to organize themselves into a conference for the support of the worship of God and the order of his Kingdom." The first church, a log one, was built in 184I. The Free Will Baptists and Methodists occupied this religious field early, both forming organized societies as early as I838. The Congregational church of Church's Corners was organized in a framed schoolhouse in the southwest part of the town on March 4, 1843, with a large membership for the place and period. A framed church was erected about I845. Woodridge-Was formed from Fayette on January 28, 1840, and originally comprised in addition to its present territory Cambria and the west half of Amboy;after the segregation of these towns Woodbridge contained thirty square miles. The first settler was William Saxton, who here located, with his wife and four sons, in the winter of 1834-5. The second settler, Jacob Black, in December, I836, located on the later site of the village of Frontier with his five children, driving in a splendid span of horses. Daniel Saxton came in 1837, as did Samuel Wheeler, Richard Bryan and sons William, Richard, John and Ezra; Harvey Fish, Romanta and Luther Phinney came in 1838. The first town meeting was held on the first Monday of April, I840, but no records exist to show who were chosen as officers. The Methodist Episcopals had an organized society here in 1842 and the Methodist Protestants were in organized force in I850, while the United Brethren organized a church on January 29, 1853, with twelve members, and, in I86I, they erected a church. The Free Will Baptist church, with thirty-nine members, was created on March I7, I860, and a meeting house was dedicated in I869. The first schoolhouse was built in 1844. The first store was opened at Frontier by Warren Atwood in 1863. A slight decrease in the population occurred from I890, when the U. S. census gave 1,343 residents, to I9oo, when the same authority gave the population as 1,318. Wright.-On March 23, I836, what is now the town of Wright was segregated from Wheatland to become a part of Pittsford, and the legislative act of March 6, I838, constituted the thirty-six sections of town 8 south, range I west, sections i to 6, inclusive, and fractional sections 7 to I2, inclusive, of town 9 south, range west, in all about 28,000 acres, as the town of Canaan. At the first town meeting held in April, 1838, Timothy John

Page  66 66 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. son was chosen supervisor, Arthur Lucas clerk, John M. Lickley, Russell Coman, R. T. Crawford and Calvin Pixley, justices. On February 24, I844, the name was changed to Wright, and, in 1900, the number of residents was 2,149. A Baptist church was formed on October 29, 1847, and shortly after 1850 the Methodist Episcopals formed a class with two male members, while in I860 the Christion or Disciples church was created. In 1867 the United Brethren organized a society with eleven members and the same year witnessed an important society of Wesleyan Methodists come into being. CHAPTER VIII. HILLSDALE COLLEGE. For fifty years past Hillsdale College has been one of the institutions of Hillsdale county, and, more than men are apt to think, has it done to build up the city, county and state. It came to stay, and its history will ever be inseparably connected with that of this county. ~ It will therefore be proper to note briefly something of the origin and early history of the Free Will Baptist denomination, under whose auspices the college is represented as having been founded. A century and a quarter ago the churches of New England were Calvinistic, generally believing that some are "elected to be saved and others to be damned," "the people were faithfully indoctrinated in the tenets of personal, unconditional election and reprobation," and "the doctrine of election was so explained as to limit the provisions of the gospel to the chosen few." In proof of this we quote from Neal's History of New England, which says: "The whole body of the New England clergy are Calvinists," and from Mather, who says "In two hundred churches not one is Arminian." Baptist ministers were decidedly Calvinistic, holding to the views of John Calvin, a noted theologian of Geneva: in fact, Calvinism, in its most unlovely forms, held undisputed sway. Some able, honest thinkers could not believe man a machine.; that he is responsible for his acts and yet cannot do otherwise; but contended that, while God provides a full and free salvation, man's will is free to accept or reject it. Among these was one Benjamin Randall, who was converted by the powerful preaching of George Whitefield, in 1770, on his last visit to America, and on whom the mantle of Whitefield is said to have fallen. Whitefield died unexpectedly September 30, I770, at Newburyport, Mass., and Randall heard him for the last time two days before his death. In the troublous times of the spring of I775, and a few days before the battle of Bunker Hill, Randall entered the army, and did not really begin to preach until the spring of I777. He invited all to come and partake of the gospel feast; the "people heard him gladly," and many were converted. He preached the Bible as he understood it, and did not realize that his doctrines were so different from those of his brethren, but in I779 he was called upon in public, to give a reason why he did not preach the doctrine of election as Calvin held it. Quick as a flash came the bold but honest replv-"Because I do not believe it." Later in the same year Mr. Randall was summoned to.answer for his "errors" before a public assembly, and, after a debate which lasted nearly two days, the minister who conducted it on the part of the Calvinists arose and publicly declared "I have no fellowship with Brother Randall in his principles." Mr.. Randall, stepping upon a seat, said: "It makes no odds with me who disowns me so long as I know that the Lord owns me." His courage reminds us of Luther at the Diet of Worms, and of Paul before Agrippa. The believers in high Calvinism, which then included most of the Baptists, had no sympathy with those who advocated "free grace" and "free will," and there was, therefore, a practical, before there was a real, separation, and the term "free will" was at first reproachfully used, and later deliberately adopted as part of the denominational name. To whom could the Freewillers go? The Congregationalists were ten times as strong in that locality as was any other denomination, but with them infant baptism was an almost universal

Page  67 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 67 practice, so that not one in twenty received baptism when admitted to the church. Randall's first connection was with the Congregationalists, and his third child, at the request of the mother, was sprinkled, but he made a careful study of the Bible, came to believe that the immersion of believers only was the baptism of the Bible, as fully as he believed in the doctrine of free will, was himself immersed, and on June 30, I780, he organized the first Free Will Baptist church at New Durham, N. H..The denomination has always had its largest growth in New England,. over one-third of its present membership being there located. Born of righteous convictions, and ever loyal to what it has regarded truth, the denomination has been right on all public questions. Its original views have not only been scripturally sustained, but have also been generally accepted and historically endorsed by so many other denominations that it has dropped the "Will", and is now known as Free Baptist. In I839, its General Conference refused to admit slaveholders to communion, and made it a test of fellowship. This was unpopular then, but the church has lived to see slavery abolished by public enactment. The.denomination might have been a much larger one had it not refused to unite with other branches of the church, kindred in name and in scriptural views, but less rigid in their requirements. Its ministers very early perceived the need of an educated ministry, and some of them, in the west notably Rev. David Marks, Rev. Samuel Whitcomb, Rev. Elijah Cook and Rev. H. S. Limbocker, the last three residing in Michigan, were open and avowed advocates of the establishment of an educational institution in this state. Finally, at the yearly meeting held at the home of Rev. Ira A. Reynolds, brother of Rev. Chauncey Reynolds, in Franklin, Lenawee county, in June,, I844, a resolution was adopted establishing a denominational school within the territorial limits of the yearly meeting, providing for the appointment of a committee to draft a constitution and by-laws, and for a convention to be held later, at Jackson, to adopt the same. This convention was held in July or August of the same year, and adopted the constitution and by-laws reported by the committee, and also elected a board of trustees as therein provided. The convention also voted to locate the school where the best inducements should be offered, regard being had to the healthfulness of the place, and employed Rev. Cyrus Coltrin as financial agent. In the summer and fall of 1844, Elder Coltrin canvassed the churches of the denomination throughout the state, soliciting subscriptions for the new college. Rev. Chauncey Reynolds pledged eighty acres of land when it could be sold for $600. His, oldest son was at that time fourteen years of age, and another one was twelve, and these could soon attend college. Meantime efforts were made at Cook's Prairie, in Calhoun county, and at Jackson, Leoni and Spring Arbor, all in Jackson county, to secure the school, and Spring Arbor having obtained the largest subscription was successful. The board of trustees appointed at Jackson met at Spring Arbor in October, I844, and voted to call the institution Michigan Central College, and elected Daniel M. Graham as its president. There was now a college, but in name and prospect only-no endowment, no charter, no library and no apparatus-simply faith and pluck. The trustees appointed a committee. to get a charter from the legislature, and advertised the school to open on December 4, 1844. It was so opened, in a small, old, wood-colored, story-and-a-half building, formerly used as a store and then deserted, having one room on the first floor and one on the second. There was one teacher, the president (who constituted the whole faculty) and but five students. This was a very humble beginning, it is true, but yet it augured well for the future, for of those five students (they were Clinton B. Fisk, Andrew J. Graham, George L. Cornell, Moses Benedict, Jr., and Miss Livonia E. Benedict,) one was later a candidate for president of the United States, another was the author of one of the main systems of short-hand writing yet produced in this country, and another, the first lady to receive a classical degree in Michi 5

Page  68 68 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. gan, and the first, except a few at Oberlin, to receive such a degree, so far as we are able to learn, from any college in the country. The committee appointed to procure a charter pushed its efforts to that end, but the policy of the state had been not to give any institution in the state, except the University, power to confer collegiate degrees, and, in pursuance of this policy, the legislature of 1845 refused to give the new college a charter, but did, in an act approved on March I9, 1845, give it a legal organization by making it a body corporate, naming nine trustees, and giving power to hold $30,000 worth of property. During that year two new framed buildings were erected, the land given by C. Reynolds (the largest gift made to Michigan Central College by any individual), having been exchanged for lumber. These buildings were two stories high, 35x60 feet in size, and stood on high stone walls which were built by Daniel Dunakin, a stone mason, who laid the corner stone of the first of said buildings. Rev. L. B. Potter, with a coldchisel and a hammer, hewed out the corner stone from a sandstone boulder procured in that vicinity, and with his own hands tended the mason while laying the foundation. The number of students kept increasing until a third building became necessary, and the lack of teachers made the need of more endowment very imperative. In 1847, the General Conference of the denomination had voted $500 for apparatus, and several hundred books had been donated for a library, the president of Harvard College, Edward Everett, and Amos Lawrence, of Boston, giving more than half of them. In 1848, Rev. E. B. Fairfield was elected president in place of D. M. Graham, and additional members of the faculty were elected as follows: In 1851, Rev. Charles H. Churchill; in January, I852, Rev. Ransom Dunn, and in January, 1853, Rev. Henry E. Whipple. The college had continued its efforts to get a charter, and, by an act of the Legislature approved on March 20, I850, the authority, to confer degrees was given, and this act also granted power to hold property worth $00o,ooo. This was not only the first college charter granted by the Legislature of Michigan, but it was also the first college in the Free Will Baptist denomination. The power to confer degrees was given only upon condition "that the course of study in said college shall be in all respects as comprehensive as that required in the University of Michigan," and it has been believed by many that the Legislature supposed that Michigan Central College could not comply with that condition, or this power would not have been granted. For a quarter of a century before the University admitted ladies as students, however, this little college had established co-education, and boldly announced its advantages open to all, "irrespective of nationality, creed, color or sex," and some students were well advanced in their courses when this "new departure" in the educational policy of the state was taken. In I85I, Miss Elizabeth D. Camp, of Palmyra, N. Y., completed the scientific course and received the degree of Bachelor of Science-the first lady to receive a degree from a Michigan college. The next year, (1852,) Miss Livonia E. Benedict completed the classical course and was the first lady to receive the degree of Bachelor of Arts in Michigan. In I85I, I852 and in 1853, thirteen students were graduated in all-nine from the scientific course and four from the classical-five gentlemen and eight ladies. The growth of the school was unprecedented and remarkable. The trustees and faculty appealed to the people of Spring Arbor and vicinity for funds with which to erect additional buildings, intending to raise the endowment by canvassing the denomination at large.. The number of students had increased to 300, and something had to be done. The matter was presented by President Fairfield and Professor Dunn at a public meeting of citizens, called by the faculty, but there was no response to their appeal. It was at this meeting that the first public hint was given that, unless help should come locally, the school must remove, but the people seemed to think the institution had become a fixture, and they need not give it further support. The trustees, however, saw in the situation only a -dwarfed life,

Page  69 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 69 and began to agitate the question of removal. returned home. The former had received a liberAnother motive which influenced some was a de- al offer at Coldwater and seemed to favor its acsire to secure a location with better railroad fa- ceptance. The latter had received no'definite ofcilities. At the first it was deemed an advantage fer, but liked the spirit shown at Hillsdale, and to be located away from the temptations and al- so they decided to let Coldwater and Hillsdale lurements of the city, and the most of this was enter into competition for the college. Hillsdale made by the college in advertising, but the eight had appointed a committee consisting of D. L. years of experience with the inconvenience of Pratt, G. W. Underwood, C. J. Dickerson, and going and coming eight miles to or from the near- Daniel Beebe, who were not known at Spring est railroad station had convinced them of their Arbor, and they attended the adjourned meetmistake, and the idea of isolation being a benefit ing of the trustees there, Professor Dunn being in was practically outgrown. the secret, and therefore purposely treating them The initial step towards locating the college as strangers. They saw the school in operation and elsewhere was taken on January 5, 1853, when deemed it a prize worth securing. the board of trustees passed the following: The trustees voted to continue the school at "Resolved, That we will consider the ex- Spring Arbor until the end of that year, and, afpediency of removing Michigan Central College ter the committee in regard to a new location had to some point more suitable for its location as reported, appointed a committee of five trustees, soon as conveniences can be procured." viz: Ransom Dunn, Daniel Dunakin, Charles H. A committee of five trustees, viz, E. B. Fair- Churchill, George L. Foster and Eli T. Chase, to field, R. Dunn, H. S, Limbocker, J. E. Beebe and locate the college at Jackson, Adrian, Hillsdale, G. L. Foster, was appointed to visit Jackson, Coldwater or Marshall, provided, that the localMarshall, Adrian, Coldwater, and other places, ity chosen should raise $I5,ooo for building purand learn what inducements they would severally poses. Jackson knew something of the college offer for the location of the college. Fairfield and at Spring Arbor, distant only eight miles southDunn went to Coldwater, were well received and west, but because the sentiment of the college favorably impressed. While the former remained people was strongly anti-slavery, and 'the proat Coldwater, Professor Dunn drove to Hillsdale. slavery element dominated Jackson, no interest This was on the I4th day of January, 1853. He could be aroused in favor of the removal to that soon met Dr. Alonzo Cressy, who was the first point. Adrian and Marshall seemed indifferent, man to whom he revealed the object of his mis- and as both Coldwater and Hillsdale were on the sion. The doctor called in several other citizens line of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern who determined to call a public meeting at the Railroad, where no institution of learning had courthouse that evening. The meeting was well yet been located, and as both wanted the college, attended, and was addressed very enthusiastically the efforts of the committee on location were conby Professor Dunn, who was then thirty-four centrated upon these two points. Coldwater ofyears of age, and a magnetic public speaker. fered $Io,ooo and thought she would get it. The meeting voted to try to get the location of William Waldron has not been very generally the college in Hillsdale, and appointed a commit- credited with large educational aspirations, or tee to have the matter in charge. The next day very great interest in the college, but, while the Professor Dunn with some of the citizens looked college committee was laboring with the Coldwaat several locations, but the one on the eminence ter people, he shrewdly planned to have a Toledo north of the St. Joe river, now called "College young man at Coldwter, ostensibly to settle there hill," seemed most fitting. This was on January and make investments. He knew what was going I5, 1853, and the trustees at Spring Arbor had on and kept his chief posted. adjourned to January I9, so President Fair- When.the committee arrived in Hillsdale no field and Professor Dunn met at Jonesville and bids were made, and at first the committee was _ i;_;:::-j::::::::~-,:;,:.:~:~;~

Page  70 70 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. nonplussed, but finally the citizen's committee asked them what amount they would take to, locate the college in Hillsdale and consider no other offers. After consultation the location committee replied that it would accept $I5,000, which should be used for building purposes. The citizen's, committee met them with the offer to raise that amount in the township of Hillsdale, provided that the college would raise an equal additional amount for the same purpose, so as to secure better buildings. This proposition was accepted on condition that they be allowed to raise the second $I5,000 in Hillsdale county, which was granted, and the location of the college was then and there determined, except the ratification by the board of trustees at Spring Arbor, which was secured on the I6th of February, I853. The board made provision to raise the money required for buildings, and Trustees E. B. Fairfield, Daniel Dunakin, H. S. Limbocker, H. E. Whipple and C. H. Churchill were appointed a prudential committee, and C. W. Ferris was elected treasurer. Hon. Esbon Blackmar, of Newark, N. Y., had a large tract of land bordering the village of Hillsdale, and Daniel Beebe acted as his agent. He was sent to interview Mr. Blackmar, who generously gave a deed of twenty-five acres for the campus, which was called worth $500, and also subscribed $500 to be paid in money. Messrs. C. W. Ferris, C. T. Mitchell, G. W. Underwood, Henry Waldron and William Waldron each subscribed $1,000, and later John P. Cook also $I,ooo. Messrs. J. B. Baldy, Daniel Beebe, C. J. Dickerson, N. M. Folsom, Allen Hammond, H. L. Hewitt, I. H. McCollum, H. S. Mead, D. L. Pratt, C. H. Russell, C. W. Westfall and E. H. C. Wilson subscribed an aggregate of $4,00o. Other citizens of the village and township increased the amount to over $r5,ooo. Some of the faculty at Spring Arbor canvassed the county outside of the township of Hillsdale, but President Fairfield secured most of the subscriptions, and on May 25, I853, considerably more than the $30,000 required for buildings in the agreement made four months earlier was reported to the trustees as subscribed, and the board then determined to raise an endowmeht of $Ioo,ooo, and elected Henry J. King as secretary of the corporation. The trustees had so far proceeded upon the theory that they could remove the belongings of the college, charter and all, to some other locality, and with this in view they planned to continue the school so as not to forfeit its charter, as they would by a year's cessation from teaching. Partly for this purpose Prof. Churchill remained and taught a select school for the academic year of I853 and I854. Practically, however, Michigan Central College ceased to exist with the exercises of commencement day, July 6, 1853, two days after the cornerstone of the first college building at Hillsdale had been laid with imposing ceremonies. The trustees met at Spring Arbor and empowered Prof. Dunn to dispose of the property there to pay the debts of the institution. The buildings were not worth moving, and the personal property was not very valuable. The citizens up to this time had thought the talk of removal was a mere "bluff," but they now began to realize that they were to be without a school, and resorted to legal measures to prevent its removal. August 27, I853, a bill was filed in chancery in Jackson county against the college and fifteen named trustees, among whom were C. H. Churchill, Ransom Dunn, L. B. Potter, L. J. Thompson, Elijah Cook, Daniel Dunakin, Chauncey Reynolds, Eli T. Chase, H. S. Limbocker, E. B. Fairfield, H. E. Whipple and John Thomas-all connected later with Hillsdale College. This bill prayed for an injunction to restrain the trustees from selling or removing the college property at Spring Arbor, and from collecting money or building a college at Hillsdale. A preliminary injunction was granted, and this, of course, tied things up pretty thoroughly for the time being, and kept matters in suspense at Hillsdale. The trustees were uneasy, because the charter at Spring Arbor provided that "the trustees shall be jointly and severally liable for all judgments obtained against the corporation," and the above named twelve men were the aggressive promoters of the new college at Hillsdale. A decision adverse to them meant financial loss and possible ruin. On November 8. 1853, the college entered

Page  71 t HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 7I its demurrer to the bill, and on January 19, 1854, general laws. The trustees, on December I9, Elijah Cook alone answered, disclaiming intent. I854, had resolved, if possible, to procure the They then awaited the court's decision. passage of such a law, and they held their last At Spring Arbor excitement ran high, and the meeting on January 3, I855. At this meeting it friends of removal hardly felt themselves safe was announced that the suit at Jackson had been from personal violence. The citizens were in a argued, and the circuit judge had dismissed the rage and actually threatened Professor Churchill bill and dissolved the injunction. with a coat of tar and feathers. The last night of The present college law was introduced in the his stay there Trustee Potter and others barricad- legislature especially on behalf of Hillsdale Coled the doors of his home, and were prepared with lege, but it was general in its nature and was supshotguns to defend him from bodily harm, and it ported by the friends of other denominational said that some of the faculty went armed. schools, and vigorously opposed by the friends The secretary's book of records was in the of the University. Messrs. Cressy and Dunakin hands of the removal party, and the other faction worked together, and rallied the friends of the very much wanted it. They took out a search other schools throughout the state that were aswarrant and tried to obtain it from the secretary, piring to be colleges. The law was passed and L. J. Thompson, but he had secretly put it into approved by the governor, with immediate effect, the possession of Trustee Potter. The officer on February 19, I855. "smelled a mice" and followed the two out of town The friends of the college project at Hillsdale and actually looked over into a wagon-box where now took new courage and published a call for the book lay covered with straw without see- a meeting to organize under the new law. This ing it. After dark that night Trustee Potter car- meeting was held in the Presbyterian church on ried it "across lots" through standing grain and the 22nd of March, 1855, and articles of associagrass to Jackson, successfully concealed it and tion adopted, and the next day were elected thirtyafterwards delivered it to the Hillsdale party. five trustees. The preamble of the constitution At Hillsdale these were felt to be, as they must recited that "$6o,ooo have been subscribed and ever be regarded, as the "dark days" of Hillsdale $20,000 have been paid in." College. Little was done in the way of building, The third article of the constitution sets forth Mr. Perkins working alone for months laying the object as follows: "The object of this instibrick, and, when the walls were up one story high tution is to furnish to all persons who wish, irrethey were covered with boards and the work st:s- spective of nationality, color or sex, a literary and pended. scientific education, as comprehensive and thorThe attempt to utilize the charter of Michigan ough as is usually pursued in the colleges of this Central College was abandoned and the effort country, and to combine with this, such moral turned toward securing legislative action. The and social instruction as will best develop the times seemed propitious for this. The Republican minds and improve the hearts of the pupils." party, which had been organized at Jackson in A majority of the trustees originally elected July of that year, had triumphed in the state elec- were residents of Hillsdale county, and this protion that fall, and the Free Will Baptist voters all portion has ever since been maintained, and the over the state had allied themselves with it. college has thus availed itself of the best business Hillsdale county elected Dr. Alonzo Cressy to the and educational talent of the county. After this State Senate, and Daniel Dunakin was elected to first election of trustees, all energies were bent to the House of Representatives from Calhoun the completion of the building, the faculty meancounty. while continuing their canvass for endowment. The state constitution adopted in 1850 prohib- Other agents were also employed. The plan for ited special charters for colleges, and educational raising funds at the start, both for buildings and institutions must be incorporated, if at all, under endowment, was by the sale of scholarships, grant

Page  72 72 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. ing perpetual tuition, for one student at a time, for $Ioo, and for shorter specified periods of time, for smaller sums. All holding these scholarships, or orders for their use, (which now cost, as a rule, only fifty cents per term each), have their instruction free, their only expense (except matriculation fee of three dollars paid at first entrance as a student, and never afterwards), being the cost of fuel, janitor, use of library, gymnasium, and other such incidental expenses, for this payment no fund has ever been established. In 1842 a seminary was opened at Chester Cross Roads, Geauga county, Ohio, which came to be known as "Geauga Seminary." Among its founders were Hon. S. B. Philbrick, Rev. David Marks, Rev. R. Dunn, Rev. A. K. Moulton'and Rev. S. D. Bates. Rev. Daniel Branch became its principal in 1845, Rev. George H. Ball in I849, and Rev. George T. Day in 1851. All these, except David Marks, afterward became connected with Hillsdale College as teachers or trustees. To Doctor Ball and Professor Dunn, James A. Garfield, afterward general in the army and president of the United States, recited as a student. In I843 a charter was granted to the seminary, but, as it prohibited colored persons from attending the school, it was not accepted until modified so as to admit them. Beginning in I862 its effects were sold, and the avails, amounting to over $2,ooo, and some of'its apparatus and library, were transferred to Hillsdale College, when even that was quite a help. Thus were the two institutions which started in Ohio and Michigan in 1842 and I844 respectively merged into one. CHAPTER IX. H ILLSDALE COLLEGE-CONTINUED. HILLSDALE COLLEGE was opened to students on the 7th of November, I855, although the building was not entirely finished and furnished. For a time, in part of the rooms, nail kegs had to do duty for chairs, floors serve as bedsteads, etc., yet there was little complaint. Expenses were at a minimum. Most students had scholarships, and gentlemen paid seventy-five cents, for incidentals, per term; ladies, fifty cents. This is all it cost students who did not board or room in the building. Board in the college dining-hall was $I.50 per week, twenty-five cents extra for tea and coffee, but not many indulged in these luxuries. Room rent in the college building varied according to the story in which the room was located: Second story, gentlemen, $2.50 each per term; ladies, $2.oo; third story, gentlemen, $2.00; ladies, $1.75; fourth story, gentlemen, $1.75. The Imatriculation fee was not charged till the fall term of I864. The terms were ten weeks in length originally and were called "quarters." The payroll of the teachers the first year was as follows: President Fairfield, (taught first quarter) $250; Professor Whipple and Professor Churchill each, $525; Mrs. V. G. Ramsey, lady principal, $212.50; Miss Sarah Mahoney, assistant principal, $I87.50; students who taught classes, $67.95. Total paid for teaching first year, $I.767.95. The number of students the first quarter was I6I-85 gentlemen, 76 ladies. The second quarter it was I95- I4 gentlemen, 8I ladies. For the third quarter, which closed the year, it was I67 -104 gentlemen, 63 ladies. Many of the students were from farmers' families, and their help was needed at home in the spring. The attendance has almost always been the smallest in spring terms. The total number of different students the first year was 273, of which I6I, or fifty-nine per cent., were gentlemen, and 112, or forty-one per cent., were ladies. These are about the average percentages, as to sex, for the whole time since the college opened. Of the 273 in attendance the first year, I26, forty-six per cent., resided in Hillsdale county, and 147, fifty-four per cent., outside the county. Of the 126 county residents, sixty are now known to be living, fifty-four to be dead, and the whereabouts of twelve are unknown. The total number of different students which the college has had since the beginning cannot now be told, or even guessed, with any accuracy. The music, art, elocution and commercial departments have not always reported their attendance by terms, and one year, while the faculty settled with the students, their names were not entered in the books. These slips defeat accuracy of statement

Page  73 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 73 for all time. The number, however, for the year as being "in the army." Excitement ran high, referred to, is known, and the average for the 144 two or three companies were formed among the terms the college has been running, not including students, who were furnished with old army musmusic, art, elocution or commercial students has kets with bayonets, and learned to go through'all been 251, and the number of terms work as of the infantry movements, Professor Whipple doing one student has been 36,166. the honors of colonel commanding. The total number of graduates (not including The latest histories of the Amphictyon and the commercial department, for the reason that Alpha Kappa Phi societies show 104 and seventytheir number is not known), is I,oI9, of which ty-seven of their members, respectively, to have 593, fifty-eight per cent., have been gentlemen, been in the Civil War from I86I to I865. Jacob and 426, forty-two per cent., have been ladies. H. Stark, of North Adams, was the first student This percentage of lady graduates is about the to enlist, for he became so impatient at what to same as of lady students. The college has grad- him seemed slowness in getting up a company u.ated one Japanese and six colored people-three here that he went to York state and enlisted in from the classical course. One blind person has the Fifth New York Infantry, later was in Durbeen graduated and another is now in the Sopho- yea's Zouaves, and still later in Co. K of the new more class. Forty-three persons have each grad- Fourth Michigan Infantry, from which he was uated from two courses, and two others from mustered out on March I6, I865. three courses each. Classified as to departments, Twenty-six of the I8I student members of the graduates have been as follows: From the these two societies. lost their lives while in the academic, 843; theological, 105; music, 73; art, army: Six were killed in battle, six were mor17; elocution, 26. Ninety-six have received state tally wounded, dying later, and fourteen died teachers' certificates. The number of academic, from disease, in hospital, or while at home on furas will be seen is eight times the number of theo- lough. Sewell A. Jennison, Fourth Michigan logical, which shows the principal field of college Infantry, a brother-in-law of President Fairfield, work. Of the I,OI9 graduates, 175, or more than was the first Hillsdale student to lose his life for one-sixth, were born in Hillsdale county. his country, dying on March 30, I862, from exThe first ladies to graduate were Clariet Ca- posure at the battle of Antietam. Lieut. John T. pron and Eliza A. Scott, who had studied else- Storer, the second, on April 7, I862. Lieut. W. where, the latter at Spring Arbor, and completed W. Wallace, Second and Twenty-fourth Michigan the ladies' course in I856. The latter, now Mrs. Infantries, was the first one killed, on July I, 1863, Potter, is living at Grinnell, Iowa. The oldest at the battle of Gettysburg, and Captain James graduate, Philip C. Tolford, is also now living. Hawley, Second Michigan Cavalry, on staff of The first lady to graduate from the classical General Stanley, the next, on September 20, 1863, course and receive the degree of Bachelor of at the battle of Chickamauga. Arts was Mrs. Mary A. Seaman, in I86I. Fran- June 20, 1895, a monument, which had been cis Cadwell, who graduated in I860 at the age of erected on the college campus, was unveiled and eighteen and is now circuit judge at Le Sueur, dedicated to the memory of the warrior dead of Minn., was the youngest person ever to graduate the Alpha Kappa Phi Society. Also a monument from the classical course. at the grave of Capt. R. W. Melendy, in Oak The first experience particularly out of the or- Grove cemetery, was dedicated with appropriate dinary run of events in common student life was exercises the same day. at the outbreak of the Civil War in the spring of The most trying experience the college has I86I, when, as was common that year among in- ever had since its opening in 1855 was when, on telligent, patriotic collections of young men, the March 6, 1874, the center building, and all west students went to war by the score, the catalogue of it, was destroyed by fire. This was in vacation, of October, I86I, having sixty-one names starred yet the students stood loyally by the college, and

Page  74 74 I Or HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. although they had to recite in the remnant of the old building, in the church, in the professors' rooms at their homes, and in other hired rooms, the attendance the following term, although a spring term, was exactly the same as the term before-212. The next catalogue, issued in the following November, said "On the 6th of March last the greater part of the college edifice was destroyed by fire. In view of the need long felt for a larger amount of room, the Board of Trustees decided to rebuild on a plan comprising five separate buildings. Three of these were put under contract in June, and two of them are rapidly approaching completion. The corner-stone of the main college edifice was laid on August 18, I874, and the building will be ready for occupancy on January 1, I875." The catalogue of the next year reported the west building-Knowlton Hall-complete, except the interior finishing by the alumni and gentlemen's literary societies, which was "in process," and the east building-Fine Arts Hall-was inclosed and to be finished during the year. It also reported funds being raised for the fourth building, to be built by the commercial department, and in June, I878, this building was reported to the trustees as completed, and occupied the fall before. The college furnished $3,000 towards its construction, which was never returned, and, in 1896, purchased the rights of the' commercial department. The catalogue of I875 further said: "For the fifth building of the group, being the one east of the center building, time is to be taken until it shall seem wise to transform the old part standing in its place into the form as represented in the cut," which was made from the photographed design of the group adopted by the trustees. In I893, Colonel Fowler gave $8,ooo with the expectation that a new, modern style, brick building, should be erected in the place of the old East Hall in conformity with the general style of the group, and the money was so accepted, the faculty and prudential committee favoring a science building. The contract price of the first three of the new buildings was as follows: Center building, $27, 157.98; Knowlton Hall, $10,735.99; Fine Arts Hall, $Io,318 —total, $48,211.97. The college received $29,940.82 for insurance on the portion of the old building burned, and appealed to its friends to help in this crisis, hired $5,ooo in November, 1875, for five years at eight per cent., and in I879 put Professor Fisk in the field for several months and raised most of the deficit. In 1884 a subscription was raised for building a gymnasium, headed by Mr. F. B. Dickerson, of Detroit, after whom it was named, and it was erected and opened the following year. With baths and other improvements since made, it.has cost about $4,00o. This was the first gymnasium possessed by any college in the state. At the first annual meeting of the trustees, in June, 1856, the treasurer reported that $48,978.88 had been subscribed for 'buildings, of which $30,242.74 had been collected, and that the total amount subscribed for endowment at that time was $42.4II.62, making the aggregate subscriptions, for both buildings and endowment, at end of first year, $91,390.50. The total cost of building and its appurtenances, with furniture, etc., was reported to be $36,707.76. At this meeting Spencer J. Fowler was appointed professor of mathematics, and George S. Bradley, tutor. The work of raising endowment progressed from year to year and the following statement shows the gain in endowment each year since the college was founded, and the total endowment of all kinds as shown by the treasurer's annual reports: June 1856............... " 1857................... " 1858.................. Aug. 1859.................. " 1860................... June 1861................... " 1862................... " 1863................... " 1864................... " 1865................... " 1866................... 1867................... " 1868................... " 1869................... " 1870................... " 1871................... " 1872................... " 1873................... GAIN...io*... 1,806.70 1,885.55 3,063.04 3,359.12 2,100.30 3,233.55 8,963.57 9,541.73 13,158.79 10,693.44 5,193.71 *-3,337.57 3,023.52 2,564.85 3,712.80 7,236.34 6,350.57 TOTAL. 990.61 2,807.31 4,692.86 7,555.90 11,115.02 13,215.32 16,448.87 25,411.44 34,953.17 48,111.96 58,805.40 63,999.11 60,661.54 63,685.06 66,249.91 69,962.71 77,199.05 83,549.62

Page  75 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 75 1874................... 1875................... " 1876................... 1877................... 1878................... 1879................... " 1880................... 1881.................. " 1882................... 1" 883................ " 1884.................. " 1885................... " 1886................... " 1887................... " 1888................... " 1889................... " 1890................... " 1891................... " 1892................... " 1893................... 1894................... " 1895................... " 1896................... 1897................... 1898................... "1899. " 1900................... " 1901................... " 1902................... " 1903................... 2,194.97 2,354.78 2,837.95 2,368.13 1,616.45 624.70 3,269.52 33,652.25 592.81 2,025.21 3,574.30 777.86 3,307.53 735.90 17,222.94 6,727.97 1,660.47 16,319.88 16,198.76 13,236.41 2,726.22 13,543.72 1,992.62 662.21 2,377.23 * —1,574.11 1,161.42 2,605.31 3,530.70 4,336.13 85,744.54 88,099.37 90,937.32 93,305.45 94,921.90 95,546.60 98,815.12 131,467.37 132,060.18 134,085.39 137,659.69 138,437.55 141,745.08 142,480.98 159,703.92 166,421.89 168,082.36 184,402.24 200,601.00 213,837.41 216,563.63 230,107.35 232,099.97 232,762.18 235,139.41 233,565.30 234,726.72 237,332.03 240,862.73 245,798.86 *$6,692.86 transferred to Building Fund and Bills Receivable. *$1,450.00 shrinkage in gift lands sold. It will be seen from the above that the amount of endowment actually paid in during the first half of the forty-eight years the college has been running was $95,546.60, while the amount collected during the last half of said time has been $149,652.26, or $54,105.66 more than in the first half. During the said latter half there have been five gifts of $Io,ooo or more each, viz., in I880, to endow the Waldron professorship, $15,000, by Rev. C. N. Waldron, Mrs. Caroline M. Waldron and Mrs. Mary Waterman; I88I, for the theological endowment, $17,000, by the Free Baptist Education Society; I885, to endow a professorship (theological), $Io,ooo, by Rev. and Mrs. S. F. Smith; I888 and later, to endow a professorship, etc. (theological), $I7,0OO, by A. B. and Mrs. Mary P. De Wolf; I89I and later, to endow a professorship (mathematics), $I5,0oo, by John S. Hart. These gifts, aggregating $74,000, were all procured by the personal solicitation and influence of Rev. R. Dunn, who obtained enough other notes and subscriptions, together with his own gifts, to make a total aggregate of $IO6,849,14. The other agents residing in the county, who raised the next largest amounts, as reported in the books, were: Rev. D. L. Rice, $42,956.59; Prof. S. J. Fowler, $23,0o8; Rev. L. S. Parmelee, $I7,050. For buildings and endowment, Hon. Henry Waldron gave $6,000, Col. Frederick Fowler, $8,000 and Aaron Worthing, $9,500. In 1890 Rev. and Mrs. Schuyler Aldrich gave property of $Io,ooo to endow a professorship, and other professorships have been named for William Burr, David Marks, Spencer J. Fowler and Ransom Dunn. The Woman's Commission has raised $5,ooo towards completing the endowment of the Lady Principal's chair and Mrs. Delia Whipple Wheelock, the first lady elected lady principal has paid something over $5,ooo for a memorial fund for her brother, Prof. H. E. Whipple. The Alumni have paid over $Io,oo0 towards the endowment of their professorship, and the trustees have themselves paid over $I5,OOO towards the endowment of the president's chair. Albion S. Jaquith, who graduated in 1871, gave 400 acres of land in Kansas, which has this year been sold for $7,ooo, for a library fund. The library of the college has grown till it now contains over I,ooo volumes, besides magazines and pamphlets, and it is being used more and more by the students, and is consulted by those doing club work in the city and in towns around, and by those of culture and literary tastes over the country. Now that, by the gifts of Rev. Truman Parks, Albion S. Jaquith and others, an annual income of $500 or more is assured, additions of valuable books can be made each year. In the first four catalogues Professor Dunn's name appeared on the faculty page as "Professor of Mental' and Moral Philosophy and Natural Theology," and in the next three catalogues as "Lecturer on Natural Theology and Evidences of Christianity." He had classes and gave lectures more or less of the time to those who had the ministry in view, but there was no theological department established. In I862 the General Conference of the denomination appropriated $3,000 from the profits of the printing establishment, as the nucleus for the endowment of a theological professorship, and the next year Professor Dunn

Page  76 76 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. was appointed Burr Professor of Biblical Theology. The endowment of the chair was raised to $io,ooo. The first to graduate from this department were four who completed their courst in 1873, and thus Hillsdale College was the first institution in the state to confer theological degrees. According to the annual statement of the college treasurer made to the trustees in June, 1903, the value of the college property is as follows: Buildings and grounds, $80,000; library, apparatus, museum and other personal property, $38,o37.I0; endowment, $245,398.86; other credits, $4,892.58; making a total of $368,328.54, less claims against same of $14,126.50, leaving a net value of $354,202.04. Besides this there are notes and other resources not yet realized of $49,oi6.o2, making on hand and promised about $400,000. The total amount paid for salaries and teaching for the forty-eight years has been $417,492.48, an average of $8,697.76 per year. The highest amount paid in any year was $12,735, in 1893-4. The regular salary of a professor has been $900 a year for over twenty years. The amount paid out for fuel, catalogues, printing, repairs and other miscellaneous expenses, added to tne amount paid for salaries and teaching, makes an aggregate of over half a million dollars expended by the college since it was planted here, and, from the nature of things, the most of this has gone into the channels of trade right here in Hillsdale county, fully establishing our claim that the college is an important institution to the county. Only about one-fourth of the income of the college from first to last has come from the students. That they do not pay for teaching is evident from the fact that the interest on notes given. for endowment, etc., until the notes were paid, and on the funds actually paid in and invested, together with the matriculation fees and the small amount of tuition paid by the few who do not have scholarships or orders for their use, slightly exceed the amount paid for salaries and teaching. It will be borne in mind that the general rule has been to use money raised in the county for buildings, and to raise the endowment outside of the county. After the fire of I874, most of the amount then raised for rebuilding was raised outside the county. The fact is that most of the endowment has actually been raised out of the state and its income expended here. From first to last, responsible for its management, 155 different trustees have been elected, seventy-six of whom have resided wholly or partly in Hillsdale county. In about a dozen cases those elected as residents moved out or vice versa. That these are leading, representative citizens of Hillsdale county witness the following list, the figures after the names indicating the number of years, including the present, which they have served: Samuel R. Hawks, I; Isaiah H. McCollum, 11; Edward H. C. Wilson, ii; David H. Lord, 17; Calvin Clark, 3; Frederick Fowler, 48; Major Barrett, 2; David L. Rice, 32; Henry Packer, I3; Daniel Beebe, 23; Lewis J. Thompson, I7; Daniel L. Pratt, 24;: Frederick M. Holloway, 37; James B. Baldy, 6; Elihu Davis, 9; Edmund B. Fairfield, io; Henry E. Whipple, I6; Ransom Dunn, 42; Azariah Mallory, 4; Alonzo Hopkins, 9; Spencer J. Fowler, 19; Linus S. Parmelee, I7; Charles T. Mitchell, 35; Franklin P. Augir, 15; Charles H. Churchill, 3; Allen Hammond, 3; Chauncey Reynolds, 22; John P. Cook, 22; Charles B. Mills, 24; Daniel M. Graham, I5; James Calder, I5;, 'Jeremiah Baldwin, Io; Horace Blackmar, 19; Henry J. King, 15; James W. Winsor, 27; Caleb C johnson, 35; Leonard Olney, 20; John Corey, 5; Ebenezer 0. Grosvenor, 1; Henry Waldron, I5; Nicholas Vineyard, 20; Frederick R. Gallaher, I; DeWitt C. Durgin, I4; Ezra L. Koon, 17; Oscar A. Janes, 26; Elon G. Reynolds, 25; Jerome L. Higbee, 20; Hugh Cook, I5; J. William Mauck, I5; Charles N. Waldron, 7; Arthur E. Haynes, 10; Frank M. Stewart, I9; John S. Copp, o0; Ashmun T. Salley, 10; Horatio P. Parmelee, 12; Kingsbury Bachelder, 5; George F. Mosher, 17; Henry M. Ford, I3; Eli B. Rogers, 7; F. Hart Smith, 8; Edwin M. Washburn, 4; Walter H. Sawyer, I I; Aaron Worthing, I4; Harvey B. Rowlson, I; Herbert 0. Alger, 9; Mary A. W. Bachelder, 9; George W. Myers, 9; John R. Mowry, 5; Edward R. Galloway,.; Alice L. Hulce, 7; Charles S. Hayes, 5; Walter H. French, 4; Grover A. Jackson, 4; Harry S.

Page  77 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 77 Myers, I; Dwight A. Curtis, 3; Chauncey F. Cook, I. There have been six presidents, as follows: Reverend Edmund B. Fairfield, D.D., LL.D., D. C. L., fourteen years, (five years at Spring Arbor and two years ad interim); Rev. James Calder, D. D., two years; Rev. Daniel M. Graham, three years, (four years at Spring Arbor); Rev. DeWitt C. Durgin, D.D., ten years; Hon. George F. Mosher, LL.D., fifteen years; Joseph William Mauck, LL.D., two years. Rev. Ransom Dunn, D. D. and Prof. Charles H. Gurney, A. M., have each been acting presidents one or two years. Hon. Martin B. Koon, LL.D., for thirtythree years a resident of Hillsdale county, later a judge on the bench at Minneapolis, and now an able attorney there, in 1894 was chairman of the finance committee of the board of trustees of Hillsdale College, and wrote the committee's report, which was signed by the committee and adopted by the board. The following is an extract: "We have carefully investigated the methods pursued by the treasurers and finance committee in regard to making loans, and we believe the financial affairs of this college, so far as the investment and care of its funds are concerned, as shown by the results so far, have been conducted in a manner which shows extreme prudence, excellent business judgment, and superior care in every detail; and we believe that the percentage of loss will be found to be less than almost any other institution of business of the same magnitude and same character will show. Instead of being a proper subject of criticism, your committee are firmly impressed with the idea that the management of the finances of this college, during the past seventeen years, to which our attention has been particularly called, should be and is a source of congratulation and pleasure to those who are interested in its welfare." Hon. W. W. Heckman, of Chicago, a graduate in the class of 1874, also an able attorney and successful business man, now Legal Counsel and Business Manager of the University of Chicago, with its millions of dollars' worth of property, as chairman of the trustees' finance committee in I897, reported-"Your committee desire to commend the management of the college finances for the year, and find that the difficult task imposed by the board by the adoption of the report of its finance committee of last year, requiring the keeping of the expenditures of the college within its income, seems to have been faithfully executed. In view of the prevailing financial distress the result is regarded by your committee as highly gratifying." The recent celebration of the semi-centennial anniversary of the laying of the corner-stone of the first college building on July 4, I853, the ground having been broken on June 13, 1853, calls to mind the exercises of fifty years ago. The county turned out almost en masse, and the day was given up to a regular Fourth of July celebration. In the forenoon President Fairfield delivered an oration "down town," on "True National Greatness". In the afternoon came the laying of the corner-stone, on what has ever since been called "College Hill." Hon. Henry Waldron was president of the day, Col. Frederick M. Holloway and Dr. Daniel Beebe were marshals. President Fairfield gave an address on "The College and the Republic". Professor Dunn made the prayer, and many people have since spoken of it as the most remarkable prayer they ever heard. Dr. Fairfield himself last year said: "The thing which will be longest remembered in connection with the laying of the comerstone was the prayer of Professor Dunn. I think it was the most impressive public prayer that I ever heard". At the laying of the corner-stone of the new Center Building, after the fire of March 6, 1874, on August I8, 1874, Hon. John P. Cook was president of the day, and Dr. Daniel Beebe was again marshall. Addresses were delivered by Professor Dunn, Dr. Fairfield, Hon. Henry Waldron, Rev. Dr. W. H. Perrine, (a graduate of Spring Arbor in I852,) and Hon. W. J. Baxter. On July 4, I903, at the exercises held on the college campus, President J. W. Mauck was master of ceremonies and gave the opening address. Responses were given by President James B.

Page  78 78 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Angell, of Michigan University; Rev. Henry Churchill King, president of Oberlin College; Henry W. Magee, of Chicago, president of the Alumni Association; a congratulatory address by United Statesl Senator Russell A. Alger, the formal address of the day by Rev. Dr. Lathan A. Crandall, of Chicago, on "Has the Small College a Permanent Educational Function?," a poem, with "The College and Nation" for its theme, by Will M. Carleton, class of I869. The program was divided by a basket picnic beneath the shade of the beautiful groves planted by the early students. After dinner speeches were made by ex-Presidents Durgin and Mosher, Rev. Charles H. Churchill, a former professor in Michigan Central, Hillsdale and Oberlin Colleges, Hon. Joseph B. Moore, a justice of the Michigan Supreme Court; Rev. George H. Ball, president of Keuka College; Prof. W. W. Payne, of Carleton College; Prof. W. L. Beals, of the Michigan Agricultural College and Will M. Carleton, and held the audience almost till the going down of the sun. Badges were provided for those who were present fifty years ago, and there were from 200 to 300 people who applied for these and wore them with pride. Mrs. Gridley, mother of Captain Charles V. Gridley, who died soon after his splendid fighting in the battle of Manilla, was present and had with her the flag made for him while on board the U. S. S. Kearsarge. From Mrs. Sophie Baker Randolph, whose name was the first entered in the college books as a student, down to Ethel, the daughter of "Lulu" Pierce (Hartley,) the "East Hall baby" of fourand-forty years ago, all had a good time. The face of "Father" Tolford beamed with its usual genial smile and the occasion was marred only by the absence of Dr. Fairfield, whose presence had been anticipated with so much pleasure, but who, at the age of now past eighty-two years, was not able to be present. He and Professor Churchill, seventy-nine years of age, who was present, are the only ones of those who were members of the faculty at Spring Arbor, who participated in the removal of the college to Hillsdale, and of the early professors of Hillsdale college, who are now living. All those who participated in the establishment of the first college in I844 are now dead. How Hillsdale college has helped some of those born in Hillsdale county to achieve prominence may be seen by noting the following: William W. Payne, Ph. D., was born in Somerset on May 19, I837, and graduated from the classical course in I863. After studying law at Ann Arbor and Chicago he taught school at Mantorville, Minn., and edited The Minnesota Teacher till 1871, when he became professor in Carleton College, at Northfield, Minn., where he has been ever since. He has edited and written for astronomical magazines, his present position being professor of mathematics and astronomy and director of observatory. He is a member of several scientific societies in this and other countries. Newton J. Corey was born in Hillsdale on January 31, I86o, and, after graduating from the philosophical course in I880, during which.coutse he had studied music under Prof. M. W. Chase, he went to Boston, where he remained ten years and became one of the most prominent organists, as well as ablest musical lecturers, in America. In I891 he became organist of the Fort Street Presbyterian church in Detroit, and is also teacher of organ, theory and musical history in the Michigan Conservatory of Music. Oliver Willard Pierce was born in Hillsdale on February I9, I869, so is now but thirty-four years of age. When eighteen years old, in I887, he graduated from the music department of Hillsdale college. The next year he studied with Dr. Louis Maas, of Boston, taught music a year in the university at Delaware, Ohio, and then completed the classical course at Hillsdale, when twenty-two years of age, in I89I, taking the D. M. Martin mathematical prize and the Crandall prize. In the fall of that year he went to Germany, and, after being for a time in the Royal High School of Music at Berlin, he went to the famous Moscowski, whose favored and devoted pupil he became, and whom he accompanied to Switzerland. He returned home in 1893 and resumed his position as teacher at Delaware University. For seven years past he has been one of

Page  79 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 79 the three owners of the Metropolitan School of Music in Indianapolis, and is called at home Indiana's greatest musician. As a pianist his technique is especially fine, and he is a professional concert-piano soloist, and has appeared in concerts in many American cities, and twice played the concerto for the Thomas Orchestra, an honor highly regarded by musicians. There have been some Hillsdale county students who did not graduate, yet have gone away up towards the top. Probably the one to amass the greatest wealth is the Hon. Lewis Emery, Jr., whose father built the Emery mills just east of the city. Young Lewis was a student of the college the first year and also later, taught two years in Wheatland township and worked for his father in the flouring-mill. In 1863, he married a bright lady, with whom he became acquainted while a student, as many another young man has done, one, and not the least, of the advantages of coeducation, and later removed to western Pennsylvania and "struck ile," becoming one of the leading producers in the field. The panic of 1873 "busted him up" and left him badly in debt. With lots of pluck left as almost his only asset, he leased 14,000 acres of oil lands, and again went to boring, finally having nearly 500 wells in operation. He "struck it rich," and his is one of the leading plants in the world for refining crude petroleum, covering six and one-half acres, located at Bradford, Pa. His supply is obtained from his own wells, and it takes 250 miles of pipe to bring the petroleum to his refinery. Its capacity is over 50,ooo barrels a month. His company has its own pipe-lines to the sea, and sails its own ships on the ocean, marketing millions of barrels of oil all over the world. The Standard Oil Company, although it has fought him for twenty-seven years, has not been able to buy him out or break down his business. He is a millionaire, possibly a multi-millionaire, and has made it by push. Austin W. Mitchell and William W. Mitchell, sons of Hon. Charles T. Mitchell, both born in Hillsdale, entered college in the spring of I869 and fall of 1871 respectively, and after some years in college engaged in the lumber business at Cadillac, Mich., and achieved great success. These two and Mr. Emery, just mentioned, are the only Hillsdale college students whom the writer has ever seen rated as millionaires in any authoritative list. Among the leading graduates of the college, not the products of Hillsdale county (the figures immediately after names denote year of graduation), may be mentioned Will M. Carleton, I869, who was born only four miles out of the county, and whose poems may be found the world over, who was at the laying of the corner-stone on July 4, 1853, as a seven-year-old lad, and who came back as poet of the occasion at the semicentennial celebration of that event on July 4, 1903; Hon. Albert J. Hopkins, I870, who was eighteen years in the national House of Representatives, and now, at the age of fifty-seven, has reached the highest goal of all Americans to whom is denied the privilege of being presidenta seat in the United States Senate; Bion J. Arnold, 1884, whose father fifty years ago lived in Cambria, also took the Martin mathematical prize in college, is now forty-two years old, is an electrical authority, and.the president of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. If you keep your eye on Bion Arnold you will have to look up, for he undertakes mammoth enterprises and does what he undertakes. Hon. Joseph B. Moore, who entered the college in September, I865, held various offices in Lapeer county, was elected circuit judge in 1887, was elected justice of the Supreme Court of Michigan in 1895, for ten years,.and will soon be chief justice; Hon. Edwin W. Cunningham, I866, is now on the Supreme Bench in Kansas. Others who have been circuit judges are Joseph T. Hoke, LL.D., now U. S. consul at Windsor, Nova Scotia, and Francis Cadwell, both of the class of I870; William H. Sherman, I86I; Moses A. Luce and John M. Van Fleet, LL.D., both of I866; Charles S. Bentley and John H. Goff, both of 1870; Herbert E. Winsor, I873; George W. Smith, 1874; Martin B. Koon, LL.D., and Guy M. Chester. Those who have been most prominent in the teaching profession besides Professor Payne, are

Page  80 80o HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Hiram Collier, LL.D., I864, who, at his death, was professor of chemistry in Nebraska State University; Bela P. McKoon, I864, for years a professor in Cornell University, and Henri L. Ambler, I864, a professor in Western Reserve University, at Cleveland, 0.; John F. Downey, I870, professor of mathematics and astronomy, and Arthur E. Haynes, Ph. D., I875, professor of engineering mathematics, both in Minnesota University; LeVant Dodge, 1872, and Bruce S. Hunting, 1873, both professors in Berea College, Kentucky; D. J. H. Ward, 1878, professor in Kansas Agricultural College; 0. L. Waller, 1883, professor in Pullman College, Washington; Frank Smith, I885, professor of natural history in Illinois State University; B. W. Aldrich, 1887, is professor of Greek in Moore's Hill College, Indiana, and Elias P. Lyon, 1891, at thirty-five years of age, is assistant professor of physiology in Chicago University. He also took both the Martin mathematical prize and the Crandall literary prize at the completion of his course in 1892, as 0. W. Pierce had done in I89I, the only two students who have ever taken both. R. M. Lawrence, 1873, was the president of Parker College, Minnesota, for several years, and E. W. Van Aken, 1899, now holds this position; E. O. Dickinson, 1875, has been president of Ridgeville College, Indiana; Joseph William Mauck, LL.D., I875, chancellor of South Dakota University six years, and is now president of Hillsdale College; Rev. J. R. H. Latchaw, D. D., I88i, has been president of Findlay and Defiance colleges, in Ohio, and is now president of Palmer University, at Muncie, Ind., and Henry T. MacDonald, I897, is president of Storer College, W. Va. And Hillsdale College has furnished from its graduates not only many of the members of its own faculty, but also largely furnished the faculties of Keuka College, N. Y., and Parker College, Minn. Besides Rev. Dr. Crandall, who is pastor of the Memorial Baptist church of Chicago, some of those who have filled important pastorates in the Free Baptist denomination are Rev. Rivington D. Lord, D. D., 1877, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Rev. James H. Parsons, I876, Buffalo, N. Y.; Rev. George R. Holt, 1873, Hilton, N. Y., and Rev. Thomas C. Lawrence, I892, Cleveland, Ohio. Rev. A. M. Gould, D. D., of Kalamazoo, Mich., is a leading Methodist minister in the state. In medicine, James N. Martin, I880, has been for years one of the medical faculty of the University of Michigan, and has become celebrated. Ellen Smith, A. M., I866, has been professor and registrar in Nebraska State University; Ruth Brockett, I87I, is lady principal of Rio Grande College, Ohio, and L. Adella Sloan, I885, of the Normal School at Mt. Pleasant, Mich. In politics, besides U. S. Senator Hopkins, Hon. Washington Gardner, of this district, and Solomon R. Dresser, the latter born in Litchfield township, are in Congress. Mr. Dresser has also become quite an inventor of oil and gas specialties, and exhibited his inventions at the Pan-American Exhibition at Buffalo. In the army and navy, Hillsdale students, because of their intelligence and prowess were rapidly promoted and held many and important offices. Frank D. Baldwin, who served in the Civil War, entered college in the fall of I865, and, after leaving college, enlisted in the regular army. He was promoted through the regular grades of office to colonel, and was sent to the Philippines, where, on account of conspicuous bravery, he was made a brigadier-general. The story of his storming the Moro forts with his command deserves to be ranked with the charge of the famous Six Hundred at Balaklava. Charles V. Gridley, a Hillsdale boy, entered college in the spring of I857, and was appointed. a cadet in the Annapolis Naval Academy in I860 by Hon. Henry Waldron. He became captain in I897 and commanded Admiral-Dewey's flagship at the battle of Manilla, when that famous officer said, "Gridley, when you are ready, fire." He was always ready, and it was one of his broadsides which sunk the Spanish admiral's flagship. In fact, Hillsdale College, in proportion to its numbers and wealth, occupies an enviable rank among the colleges 6f the country, in the position which its graduates and students hold in the professions and spheres of life they enter. Is not this naturally to be expected, when

Page  81 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 8 the denomination which planted it pioneered the way to broadened views of religious thought, afterwards accepted by the very denominations which originally opposed them, and when this college itself blazed the trees marking the way to the now existent reforms in education, as seen by its record of having been the first college in the state to admit women to! equal rights and honors with men, to receive colored students on an equality with white, to erect a gymnasium for physical culture, so as to have a sound body for a well-developed mind, and to comply with the law granting state teacher's certificates to graduates. Coeducation had not only blossomed here, but was in full fruitage before it was adopted by most of the universities of the country, and the superiority of its literary societies in the past has given a quality of drill in public speaking and an acquaintance with parliamentary usage which has called their members to the front in public meetings and conventions. It can at once be seen that, while the college is denominational, it is not sectarian, for three lady principals have respectively been Presbyterian, Methodist and Congregationalist. At the Michigan conference of the Methodist denomination held in Hillsdale a few years ago, thirteen members of that conference were former students of Hillsdale College. Five denominations are at present represented on the board of trustees and as many among the faculty and teachers, seven different denominations upon the managerial and teaching forces, so it is very evident that religiously the college is cosmopolitan in character. The commercial value of which mention has been made, however great that may be, is too low a basis on which to measure the importance of the college to the community, for the real value of educational institutions is not to be estimated by the number, size and grandeur of their buildings, nor by the magnificence of their endowments and equipments, but by the increase of the mental power and moral force which they confer upon those who make use of their advantages. * 13ge*s3^- ^3 8 ] S~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ CHAPTER X. ROSTER OF THE CIVIL WAR. Very few of the old counties in the North responded so well to the call to arms in the Civil War of 1861-5 as did patriotic Hillsdale. As the names of the gallant soldiers have had only a limited publication in the county we republish them and thereby give an added reference value to this volume. Twenty-one men served in the First Michigan Infantry: Luther S. Millard, Co. C; killed at Gaines' Mill, Va., June 27, 1862. Eliab F. Rogers, Co. C; died Sept. 18, 1862, of wounds received at Bull Run. John Ball, Jr., Co. C; died. John E. Crane, Co. C; died at Fortress Monroe, Va., Sept. 21, 1862. George Garrett, Co. C; died at Washington, D. C., Oct. 1, 1862. John Smalts, Co. C; died at Washington, D. C., Oct. 10, 1862. Truman A. Hodgkins, Co. H; missing in action, Jan. 15, 1864. Ambrose Cole, Co. I; died of wounds, July 2, 1864. Isaac Smith, Co. C; died near Alexandria, Va. Michael Helmick, Co. C; discharged for disability, April 3, 1862. John C. Iles, Co. C; discharged at Point Lookout, Md., Feb. 1, 1863. James McDougall, Co. C; discharged to re-enlist as veteran, Feb. 17, 1864. Wm. R. Newman, Co. C; discharged to re-enlist as veteran, Dec. 25, 1863. Cornelius Fuller, Co. H; discharged to re-enlist as veteran, Feb. 17, 1864. Allen 0. Goodrich, Co. C; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, July 1, 1863. James McDougall, Co. C; mustered out July 9, 1865. Julius R. Newman, Co. C; mustered out, Oct. 24, 1864. Wm. H. Pettit, Co. C; mustered out Nov. 19, 1864. Cornelius Fuller, Co. H; mustered out July 9, 1865. Charles D. Hodgkin, Co. H; discharged for disability, Feb. 15, 1863. Philo M. Palmer, Co,. K; mustered out July 9, 1865. The Second Infantry contained these men: Edwin J. March (previously capt. of the 27th Inf.), app. lieut-col. April 1, 1864; wounded before Petersburg, June -, 1864; cor. col. Sept. 30, 1864; resigned April 17, 1865. Richard W. Ricaby, appointed capt. April 1, 1864; wounded June 24, 1864; com. lieut-col. Dec. 1864; disch. for disability Dec. 14. 1864. Edward A. Sherman, cor. 1st lieut. April 1, 1864; wounded near Petersburg, June, 1864; died Aug. 1864. Hurlbert Regg, corn. 2d lieut. April 1, 1864; wounded July 17; disch. Oct. 14, 1864. Franklin Burns, Co. A; killed near Petersburg, Va., June 18, 1864. Mathew M. Ormsby, Co. A; died of wounds June 19, 1864.

Page  82 82 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Sanford Rogers, Co. A; died of wounds Aug. 16, 1864, at David's Island, N. Y. Edwin C. Holmes, Co. D; killed near Petersburg, Va., June 16, 1864. George Hatch, Co. D; died of wounds at Washington, D. C., Aug 2, 1864. George Crisp, Co. G; died of wounds at Washington, D. C., July 28, 1864. Roselle S. Dickson, Co. D; died at Washington, D. C., July 28, 1864. Samuel B. Rogers, Co. A; missing near Petersburg, Va., July 30, 1864. Richard Hogarth, Co. A; missing near Petersburg, Va., July 30, 1864. Warren Copeland, Co. A; missing in action near Petersburg, Va., Sept. 30, 1864. John Tracy, Co. A. Charles W. Daniels, Co. D. James Beard, Co. D. Alvin E. Hank, Co. D. Luke Stage, Co. A; died of wounds Oct. 27, 1864. Thomas Weston, Co. D; killed near Petersburg, Va., Feb. 23, 1865. William Priestly, Co. D; died of wounds May 18, 1865, at Philadelphia, Pa. Emanuel Eddinger, Co. E; died of wounds June 26, 1864, at City Point, Va. William Cartwright, Co. F; killed near Petersburg, Va., Feb. 22, 1865. John Tracy, Co. A; died at Salisbury, N. C., Feb. 18, 1865. George Crisp, Co. D; died at Washington, D. C., July 28, 1864. Edward M. Brown, band; mustered out Aug. 1, 1862. William L. Mapes, Co. B; discharged for wounds Aug. 25, 1862. Warren Eddinger, Co. E; discharged for disability Sept. 26, 1864. Alexander Campbell, Co. K; discharged for disability, July 1, 1864. Lavant Palmer, Co. B; discharged Dec. 31, 1863, to reenlist as veteran. Edward Bohner, Co. A; mustered out June 2, 1865. Thos. H. Curtis, Co. A; mustered out Aug. 2, 1865. Lucius E. Gridley, Co. A; mustered out July 28, 1865. Warren Muller, Co. A; mustered out July 28, 1865. Franklin Russell, Co. A; mustered out June 2, 1865. B. Franklin Sweet, Co. A; mustered out May 25, 1865. George Touse, Co. A; mustered out July 28, 1865. Adna M. Woolsey, Co. A; mustered out July 28, 1865. William Young, Co. A; mustered out July 28, 1865. John W. Stone, Co. D; mustered out Aug. 19, 1865. James Beard, Co. D; mustered out July 18, 1865. Dewitt C. Cherington, Co. D; mustered out July 28, 1865. Levi Dunn, Co. D; mustered out July 28, 1865. Michael Overly, Co. D; mustered out June 7, 1865. Thos. C. Rudabaugh, Co. D; must. out Aug 3, 1865. Alvin E. Hank, Co. D; mustered out July 28, 1865. Charles W. Daniels, Co. D; must. out July 28, 1865. Andrew A. Ewing, Co. D; must. out July 28, 1865. William Beard, Co. D; must. out July 28, 1865. Freeman Havens, Co. D; must. out July 28, 1865. Frederick Knecht, Co. D; discharged for disability, May 22, 1865. Wm. W. Marshall, Co. D; must. out July 28, 1865. Christian Knecht, Co. D; must. out July 28, 1865. Ebenezer W. Warren, Co. D; disch. June 26, 1865. George Hart, Co. D; must. out June 20, 1865. Henry Freld, Co. D; must. out July 28; 1865. Samuel H. Helsel, Co. D; must. out July 28, 1865. Franklin D. Ford, Co. D; must. out June 20, 1865. James N. Root, Co. D; must. out-July 28, 1865. Myron H. Smith, Co. D; must, out July 28, 1865. William Morley, Co. D; must. out May 24, 1865. Andrew Hall, Co. D; disch. July 30, 1865. John Ackerman, Co. D; must. out July 28, 1865. Joseph H. Crisp, Co. D; must. out May 12, 1865. John Truax, Co. D; disch. for disability, May 26, 1865. Henry M. Ewing, Co. D; disch. for disability, June 23, 1865. Marshall Crandall, Co. D; must. out July 28, 186'. Sidney Jackson, Co. D; must. out June 16, 1865. Orrin C. Fry, Co. D; must. out June 24, 1865. DaVid L. Havens, Co. D; must. out June 20, 1865. John T. Corwin, Co. F; disch. from V. R. C., May 30, 1865. Alvarus Derthick, Co. F; must. out July 28, 1865. Wm. H. Vandebogart, Co. F; must. out May 11, 1865. George Carpenter, Co. F; must. out July 28, 1865. William Havens, Co,. F; disch. June 17, 1865. William B. May, Co. K; must. out July 28, 1865. The first and second Fourth Regiments of Infantry has this long roll of gallant defenders of the Union: George W. Lombard, corn. capt. May 16, 1861; lieutcol. July 1, 1862; col., July 3, 1863; mortally wounded in battle of the Wilderness, May 5, 1864; died May 6, 1864. C. C. Doolittle, com. 1st lieut. May 16, 1861; capt., Aug. 20, 1861; wounded at Gaines' Mill, June 27, 1862; col. 18th Infantry, July 27, 1862; brig-gen. of vols., May 11, 1865; brev. maj.-gen. of vols., June 13, 1865; must. out Nov. 31, 1865. Simon B. Hadley, com. 1st. lieut. May 16, 1861; resigned; re-app. as capt. Feb. 1, 1863; res. May 31, 1864, to accept app. as asst. adj.-gen. with rank of capt.; finally res. Jan. 1, 1865. Moses A. Funk, com. capt. May 16, 1861; resigned. Charles B. Parsons, com. 2d lieut. May 16, 1861; wounded at Gaines' Mills, June 27, 1862; res. March 7, 1863. William H. McConnell, cor. 2d lieut. May 16, 1861; res. Jan. 2, 1862. Charles Marvin, com. 2d lieut., 1861; 1st lieut., 1862; capt. 1862; res. Jan. 2. 1863. Robert Campbell, com. qr.-mr. Sept. 1, 1862; must. out June 30, 1864. Josiah D. Emerson, com. 2d lieut. Sept. 3, 1862; 1st lieut. Dec. 13, 1862; must. out June 30, 1864. William H. Sherman, com. 1st lieut. April 5, 1864; res. Sept. 13, 1864. Horatio G. Lombard, com. 1st lieut. Nov. 14, 1862; captured at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863. Jacob H. Stark, com. 1st lieut. Sept. 13, 1864; must. out May 26, 1866. George A. Knickerbocker, com. as capt. July 26, 1864; res. Jan. 31, 1865. Samuel S. Walker, com. 2d lieut. July, 1862; must. out on expiration of service. Levi J. Courtright, Co. E; killed at Halls' Hill, Sept. 4, 1861. Truman K. Blatchley, Co. H; killed at Malvern Hill, July 1, 1862. Henry L. Morehouse, Co. H; killed at Malvern Hill, July 1, 1862.

Page  83 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 83 Oliver C. Vanderpool, Co. H; killed at Malvern Hill, July 1, 1862. William H. Worden, Co. E; died near Falmouth, Va., March 30, 1863. David Cronk, Co. F; died at Adrian, Mich. June 10, 1861. Isaac Coleman, Co. H; died at Harrison's Landing, Va., July 12, 1862. Columbus L. Bradley, Co. H; died Aug. 7, 1862. David C. Brock, Co. E; killed at Malvern Hill, Va., July 1, 1862. Alfred H. Dolph, Co. E; killed at Malvern Hill, Va., July 1, 1862. Frank B. Forncrook, Co. E; killed at Malvern Hill, Va:, July 1, 1862. Thos. Van Valkenburg, Co. E; killed at Malvern Hill, Va., July 1, 1862. Thos. Prestol, Co. E; died July 15, 1862, of wounds. John Millions, Co. H; killed at Gaines' Mills, Va., June 27, 1862. Avery Randall, Co. E; died Dec. 18, 1861. David Worden, Co. E; died April 20, 1862. Oliver Gilbert, Co. H; died Oct. 27, 1861. William H. Sloan, Co. H; died Dec. 3, 1861. Madison Van Meter, Co. H; died Aug. 23, 1861. Francis Yawger, Co. H; died Nov. 16, 1861. James T. Wood, Co. H; died Aug. 25, 1862. Watson W. Fuller, Co. H; missing at Malvern Hill, Va., July 1, 1862. Charles W. Gregory, Co. H; killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863. James H. Pendleton, Co. H; killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863. Edwin G. Tripp, Co. H; died at Gettysburg, Pa., of wounds, July 12, 1863. Sewell A. Jennison, Co. E; died in camp, March 30, 1863. Elam J. Todd, Co. H; died at Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 18, 1862. Cyrenus Cargill, Co. 0; missing at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863. Riley N. Ainsworth, Co. E; died in rebel prison. Wm. R. Fuller, Co. E; missing at Gettysburg, Pa. John Tarsney, Co. E; missing at Gettysburg, Pa. George A. Walker, Co. E; returned. James R. Stillwell, Co. H; returned. Chester Yawger, Co. H; returned. Seth English, Co. C; died of wounds, June 22, 1864. near Petersburg. George W. Teachout, Co. C; killed at North Anna, Va., May 23, 1864. Heman S. Thewing, Co. C; died of wounds, June 19, 1864, at Washington, D. C. James Tarsney, Co. E; killed in the Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864. James Terwilliger, Co. E; killed in the Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864. Amon C. Lake, Co. E; died May 14, 1864, of wounds received in the Wilderness. Benjamin Best, Co. E; killed at Wilderness, May 15, 1864. George A. Walker, Co. E; killed at Spottsylvania, Va., May 9, 1864. John P. Fuller, Co.. F; died at Fredericksburg, Va., of wounds, June 20, 1864. John Goodenberger, Co. F; died at Washington, D. C., of wounds, May 22, 1864. Ira Worden, Co. H; killed near Richmond, Va., June 3, 1864. 6 Emery B. Kelly, Co. I; killed at Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864. Stephen C. Bond, Co. C; died at Baltimore, Md. Edward Rhodes, Co. C; missing while on picket, Aug. 21, 1864. John W. Vanness, Co. C; missing while on picket, Aug. 21, 1864. Timothy B. Burch, Co. E; missing at Wilderness, Va., Nov. 23, 1863. Wm. H. Smith, Co. E; missing at Wilderness, Va., Nov. 23, 1863. Horatio B. Parker, Co. H; died at Harrison's Landing, Va., Aug. 4, 1862. Charles W. Page, Co. F; died at Hatcher's Run, Feb. 6, 1865. John Hardy, Co. H; died at White Oak Swamp, Va., June 14, 1864. Wm. T. Fiester, Co. E; trans. to new 4th inf., June 28, 1865. James H. Harrison, Co. E; trans. to new 4th inf., June 28, 1865. Charles T. Hartson, Co. E; trans. to new 4th Inf., June 28, 1865. Thomas Taroney Co. E; trans. to new 4th Inf., June 28, 1865. Allen Freeman, Co. F; trans. to new 4th Inf., June 28, 1865. Harvey B. Braddock, Co. F; trans. to new 4th Inf., June 28, 1865. Warren M. Champlain, Co. F; trans. to new 4th Inf., June 28, 1865. Wm. B. Duryea, Co. F; trans. to, new 4th Inf., June 28, 1865. James H. Duryea, Co. F; trans. to new 4th Inf., June 28, 1865. John A. Alden, Co. H; trans. to new 4th Inf., June 28, 1865. John Dean, Co. H; trans. to new 4th Inf., June 28, 1865. Origen H. Getter, Co. H; trans. to new 4th Inf., June 28, 1865. Asher Lafleur, Col. H; trans to new 4th Inf., June 28, 1865. Wm. Marks, Co. H; trans. to new 4th Inf., June 28, 1865. Enos S. Nobles, Co. H; trans. to new 4th Inf., June 28, 1865. Wm. Robinson, Co. H; trans. to new 4th Inf., June 28, 1865. Joseph Sandbar, Co. H; trans. to new 4th Inf., June 28, 1865. Andrew J. Cook, Co. I; trans. to new 4th Inf., June 28, 1865. John Wallace, Co. I; trans. to new 4th Inf., June 28, 1865. Jesse D. Critchfield, Co. E; disch. for disability, April 20, 1862. George Comfort, Co. E; disch. for disability, March 5, 1852. Isaac Chase, Co. E; disch. for disability, Jan. 20, 1862. Charles M. Drake, Co. E; disch. March 6, 1865. Newton Green, Co. E; disch. Sept. 6, 1861. Alvro F. Gleason, Co. E; disch. July 15, 1861. George E. Gates, Co. E; disch. July 15, 1861. John D. Neal, Co. E; disch. April 24, 1862. Justin Russell, Co. E;'disch. June 24, 1861. Watson C. Simmons, Co. E; dlsch. for disability,April 22, 1862. John W. Brown, Co. E; disch. Dec. 18, 1861.

Page  84 84 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Eli Burk, Co. E; disch. Aug. 13, 1861. George E. Beebe, Co. E; disch. for disability. William H. Ross, Co. E; disch. for disability, Oct. 6, 1862. Billings B. Merritt, Co. E; disch. for disability, Oct. 27, 1862. P. Brown, Co. E; disch. for disability, Aug 4, 1862. William R. Bird, Co. E; disch. for disability, Nov. 14, 1862. Marc A. Merrifield, Co. E; disch. for disability, Nov. 18, 1862. Walter W. Wright, Co. E; disch. for disability, Nov. 18, 1862. Chauncy A. Brown, Co. E; disch. for disability, Oct. 18, 1862. Wm. F. D. McCarty, Co. E; disch. Nov. 3, 1862, to enl. in regular service. Lawrence Wright, Co. E; disch. Nov. 3, 1862, to enl. in regular service. Albert W. Wilson, Co. E; disch. for disability, Dec. 2, 1862. Joseph Stevens, Co. E; disch. for disability, Dec. 3, 1862. Oliver P. Stone, Co. E; disch. Nov. 20, 1862, to enl. in regular service. Charles T. Jeffers, Co. H; disch. for disability, Dec. 12, 1861. William Lindsley, Co. H; disch. for disability, May 5, 1862. Charles S. Birdsall, Co. H; disch. for disability,April 29, 1862. Allen Anderson, Co. H; discli. for disability, Jan. 13, 1862. John Warren, Co. H; disch. for disability, July 29, 1861. Jesse L. Hadley, Co. H; disch. for disability, Dec. 18, 1861. Marion F. Howe, Co. H; disch. for disability, Dec. 9, 1861. George W. Jeffers, Co. H; disch. for disability, Sept. 6, 1861. Michael Miller, Co. H; disch. for disability, Nov. 21, 1861. Ira Murdock, Co. H; disch. for disability, July 29, 1861. Byron F. Nutton, Co. H; disch. for disability, Nov. 21, 1861. James H. Ostrander, Co. H; disch. for disability, Sept. 16, 1861. Samuel S. Parker, Co. H; disch. for disability, Jan. 6, 1862. Erastus W. Page, Co. H; disch. for disability, Jan. 15, 1862. John Pittwood, Co. H; disch. for disability, July 29, 1861. Mosley S. Ten Eyck, Co. H; disch. for disability, Sept. 24, 1861. Henry Upthegrove, Co. H; disch. for disability, Jan. 2, 1862. Charles P. White, Co. H; disch. for disability, Nov. 21, 1861. William Wilder, Co. H; disch. for disability, July 29, 1861. Jules L. Williams, Co. H; disch. for disability, Jan. 2, 1862. Linden H. Alien, Co. H; disch. for disability, Sept. 27, 1862. Martin McConnell, Co. H; disch. for disability, July 19, 1862. Olney J. Smith, Co. H; disch for disability, Nov. 17, 1862. Cornelius M. Hadley, Co. H; disch. for disabiliy, Oct. 23, 1862. Orson L. Parks, Co. H; disch. for disability, Nov. 12, 1862. William Smith, Co. H; disch. for disability, Oct. 25, 1862. Lafayette Young, Co. H; disch. for disability, Sept. 18, 1862. Charles S. Duncan, Co. B; disch. for disability, Jan. 2, 1863. Jarvis D. Rolfe, Co. E; disch. for disability, Jan. 1, 1863. Ira Williams, Co. E; disch. for disability, Dec. 26, 1862. Orlando Gilchrist, Co. E; disch. for disability, Nov. 30, 1862. Thomas VanValkenburg, Co. E; disch. for disability, Feb. 4, 1863. Charles H. Smith, Co. E; disch. for promotion March 27, 1863. Edward Gavitt, Co. E; disch. by order, Sept. 15, 1863. George B. Brown, Co. E; disch. for disability, April 14, 1863. William L. Worden, Co. E; disch. for disability, Feb. 16, 1863. Debzon C. Allen, Co. E; disch. for disability, Jan. 24, 1863. Webster H. Abbott, Co. E; disch. for disability, Aug. 1, 1863. Gilbert D. Ward, Co. E; disch. for disability, Oct. 14, 1863. Orlando F. Weaver, Co. E; disch. for disability, Oct. 13, 1863. Orlando Nash, Co. H; disch. for disability, Jan. 2, 1863. Alonzo B. Vanscoter, Co. H; disch. for disability, Dec. 22, 1862. William G. Gay, Co. H; disch. for disability, Jan. 12, 1863. William Morehouse, Co. H; disch. for disability, Jan. 31, 1863. William Dover, Co. H; disch. for disability, April 6, 1863. David W. Todd, Co. H; disch. for disability, Jan. 26, 1863. Edward L. Walter, Co. HI; disch. for disability, Feb. 20, 1863. James Henry, Co. H; disch. for disability, Jan. 25, 1863. Manley Rood, Co. H; disch. for disability, Feb. 28, 1863. Miles Jones, Co. H; disch. for disability, March 13, 1863. George Krimer, Co. H; disch. for disability, Dec. 1862. Darius Van Allen, Co. H; 'disch; December, 1862. John Coleman, Co. H; disch. by order, July 1, 1863. Lyman Osborne, Co. H; disch. by order, Oct. 1, 1863. Charles Duncan, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service June 30, 1864. Charles Coppins, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Nov. 7, 1864. George W. Coffin, Co. E; disch. at expiration of service, Nov. 11, 1863. Oscar B. Abbott, Co. E; disch. at expiration of service, Nov. 11, 1863. Charles A. Fletcher, Co. E; disch. at expiration of service, June 28, 1864. Sidney A. Willis, Co. H; disch. by order, Sept. 15; '63. Henry W. McGee, Co. E; disch. at expiration of service, June 28, 1864. Marion F. Hunt, Co. E; disch. at expiration of service, June 28, 1864. William R. Fuller, Co. E; disch. at expiration of service, June 28. 1864.

Page  85 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 85 William F. Bristol, Co. E; disch. at expiration of serv- James H. Quackenbush, Co. E; disch. to re-enl. as vetice, June 28, 1864. eran, Dec. 29, 1863. Augustus R. Barker, Co. E; disch. at expiration of Seth Bolles, Co. E; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Dec. service, June 28, 1864. 29, 1863. Benjamin Best, Co. E; disch. a expiration of service, Charles W. Decker, Co. E; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, June 28, 1864. Dec. 29, 1863. Timothy H. Burtch, Co. E; disch. at expiration of Amos Strong, Co. E; disch. to re-enl. as veteran. Dec. service, June 28, 1864. 29, 1863. Chauncey V. Burnette, Co. E; disch. at expiration of William T. Feister, Co. E; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, service, June 28, 1864. Dec. 29, 1863. William H. H. Birge, Co. E; disch. at expiration of Thomas Tarsney, Co. E; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, service, June 28, 1864. Dec. 29, 1863. Joseph Crisler, Co. E; disch. at expiration of service, Asher B. Lafleur, Co. H; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, June 28, 1864. Dec. 29, 1863. John F. Dugan, Co. E; disch. at expiration of service, Enos S. Nobles, Co. H; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, June 28, 1864. Dec. 29. 1863. Win. H. Dildine, Co. E; disch. at expiration of serv- John A. Alden, Co. H; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, ice, June 28, 1864. Dec. 29, 1863. David Fox, Co. E; disch. at expiration of service, Henry L. Case, Co. H; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Dec. June 28, 1864. 29, 1863. John Fleming, Co. E; disch. at expiration of service, John Dean, Co. H; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Dec. June 28, 1864. 29, 1863. John Farley, Co. E; disch. at expiration of service, John D. Hardy, Co. H; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, June 28, 1864. Dec. 29, 1863. James H. Hullinger, Co. E; disch. at expiration of William H. Marks, Co. H; disch. to re-enl. as veteran service, June 28, 1864. Dec. 29, 1863. Thaddeus Huff, Co. E; disch. at expiration of service, William W. Robinson, Co. H; disch. to re-enl. as vetJune 28 1864. eran, Dec. 29, 1863. Hiram L. Hartson Co. E; disch. at expiration of serv- Ira Worden, Co. H; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Dec. ice, June 28, i864. 29, 1863. John Hewitt, Co. E; disch. at exp'iration of service, Archibald Gilchrist, Co. E; disch. for disability, Jan. June 28, 1864.29 1863. George W. Hughes, Co. E; disch. at expiration of George Moon, Co. E; disch. for disability, Oct. 23. service, June 28, 1864. 1862. Frank Miller, Co. E; disch. at expiration of service, Amos Strong, Co. E; must. out Aug. 5, 1865. June 28, 1864. Albert M. Wilbur, Co. E; discjh. for disability, Dec. 2, Stephen H. Mallory, Co. E; disch. at expiration of 1862. service, June 28 1864. George Ward Co. E; disch. at expiration of service, Charles H. Rupert, Co. E; disch. at expiration of June 28, 1864. service, June 28, 1864. Clarence L. Northrup, Co. E; disch. at expiration of Philip Stanback. Co. E; disoh. at expiration of service, service, March 18, 1865. June 28c, 1864. Henry S. Saeger, Co. E; disch. at expiration of service, George H. Stacy, Co. E; disch. at expiration of serv- Sept. 2, 1864. ice, June 28, 1864. Thomas Terwilliger, Co. E; disch. at expiration of William H. Smith, Co. E; disch. at expiration of serv- service, Sept. 12, 1864. ice, June 28, 1864. Franklin Shadbolt, Co. E; must. out Sept. 11, 1865. James K. Spence Co. E; disch. at expiration of serv- Herbert D. Bryan, Co. E; must. out June5, 1865. ice, June 28, 1864. Joseph H. Jagger, Co. E; must. out June 5, 1865. Mark W. Taylor, Co. E; disch. at expiration of serv- William Washburn, Co. E; must. out June 5, 1865. ice, June 28, 1864. George L. Brewster, Co. E; must. out June 5, 1865. Archibald Wier, Co. E; disch. at expiration of serv- S. Spencer, Co. E; must. out June 5, 1865. ice, June 28, 1864. Henry M. Brodock, Co. F; disch. May 1, 1863. Francis C. Waller, Co. E; disch. at expiration of serv- Henry L. Case, Co. H; disch. June 9, 1865. ice, June 28, 1864. David T. Cobb, Co. H; disch. for disability, Jan. 27, Sylvanus Atherton, Co. H; disch. for disability, June 1865. 24, 1863. George Kinney, Co. H; disch. June 4, 1862. Martin V. B. Rhodes, Co. H; disch. at expiration of William H. H. Marsh, Co H; must. out Sept. 26, 1865. service, Dec. 22, 1863. Wrilliam Robinson, Co. H; must. out July 31, 1865. William H. Sutherland, Co. H; disch. at expiration of James Stillwell, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, service, Nov. 11, 1863Jan. 13, 1865. John Staley, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Chester Yauger Co. H; disc. at expiration of service, June 30, 1864. Jan. 4, 1865. Herbert D. Smith, Co. H; disch. at expiration of serv- ice, ice, June 30, 1864. Sept. 3, 1864. Hiram Dodge, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service,David G. Cornell, Co. I must. out May 12,1865. June 30, 1864. Charles E. Nichols, Co. I; must. out June 15, 1865. James Cooley, Co. H; disch. by order, Nov. 16, 1863. NEW FOURTH. Alvin Dodge, Co. H; disch. March 9, 1864. Frank Shadbolt, Co. E; disch. to re-enl. as vet. Jan. Arthur D. Pierce, non-commissioned staff; died at 20, 1864. Murfreesboro, Tenn., Jan. 7y 1865. James H. Harroun, Co. E; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Thomas Weir, non-com, staff; died at Hillsdale, Mich., Feb. 13, 1864. Jan. 30, 1865.

Page  86 86 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. George Austine, Co. A; died at San Antonio, Tex., Oct. 8, 1865. William Greening, Co. A; died at San Antonio, Tex., Nov. 8 1865. Lewis A. Hill, Co. A; died at Huntsville, Ala., March 6, 1865. Giles C. Hodgman, Co. A; died at Knoxville, Tenn., March 30, 1865. Horace J. Mosher, Co. A; died at Nashville, Tenn., Tenn., Dec. 28, 1864. Samuel McLane, Co. A; died at Nashville, Tenn., March 18, 1865. George W. Norton, Co. A; died at St. Louis, Mo., Dec. 31, 1864. Hamlin Treat, Co. A; died at Jeffersonville, Ind., Jan. 17, 1865. Cicero S. Taylor, Co. A; died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., May 18, 1865. Floyd Thomas, Co. A; died at Larkinsville, Ala. Nov. 13, 1864. Jehiel Wisner, Co. A; died at Nashville, Tenn., May 14, 1865. Alvin Wisner, Co. A; died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., March 18, 1865. William C. Norton, Co. A; died at San Antonio, Texas Oct. 22, 1865. George Duryee, Co. A; died at Nashville, Tenn., May 3, 1865. William Darling, Co. A; died at Huntsville, Ala., Jan. 25, 1865. Daniel S. Chapman, Co. A; died at Huntsville, Ala. Jan. 25, 1865. Alfred M. Davis, Co. A; died at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 9, 1865. George S. Donaldson, Co. A; died at St. Louis, Mo., Dec. 25, 1865. Nathan Smith, Co. B; died at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 18, 1865. William G. Straight, Co. B; died at Nashville, Tenn., June 7, 1865. Asa W. Houghton, Co. E; died at Nashville, Tenn., May 23, 1865. Samuel Richardson, Co. E; died a Adrian, Mich., Oct. 15, 1864. John Holtslander, Co. E; died at Nashville, Tenn., May 30, 1865. A. Wisner, Co. I; died at Nashville, Tenn., March 23, 1865. Samuel A. Alden, Co. K; died at Petersburg, Va., Aug. 10, 1864. Harvey C. Beam, Co. K; died at Green Lake, Texas, Aug. 3, 1865. Stephen C. Bond, Co. K; died at Baltimore, Md., July 1, 1864. Henry A. Chapman, Co. K; died at Philadelphia, Pa., June 20, 1865. Cyrus P. Cobb, Co. K; died at Washington, D. C., June 1865. Seth English, Co. K; died of wounds received June 22. 1865. Thomas King, Jr., Co. K; died at Hudson, Mich., Sept. 19, 1864. Justus Macoy, Co. K; died at Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 6, 1864. Washington Pease, Co. K; died at Washington, D. C., May 25, 1865. Charles B. Raynor, Co. K; died at Alexandria, Va., June 26, 1864. George W. Teachout, Co. K; died at North Anna, Va., May 22, 1864. Thomas S. Thewing, Co. K; died at Washington, D. C., March 19, 1864. Rynear Van Wagner, Co. K; died at Alexandria, Va. Laban A. Howard, N. C. S.; must. out June 12, 1866. James H. Thiell, Co. A; must. out May 28, 1866. Orrin E. Nichols, Co. A; must. out June 14, 1865. Thomas J. Lowery, Co. A; must. out Aug. 30, 1865. Dexter C. Avery, Co. A; must. out'May 26, 1866. Charles F. Clark, Co. A; must. out June 20, 1865. Jacob Pepper, Co. A; must. out May 26, 1866. Warren Clements, Co. A; must. out May 23, 1865. Corydon Barnes, Co. A; must. out Aug. 8, 1865. James E. Herbert, Co. A; must. out March 3, 1865. William H. Bailey, Co. A'; mus. out Jan. 18, 1866. Nelson F. Abbott, Co. A; must. out Aug. 3, 1865. James Blanks, Co. A; must. out May 26, 1866. Thos. E. Bishop, Co. A; must. out Aug. 18, 1865. Joseph Baker, Co. A; must. out May 26, 1866. John W. Bagerly, Co. A; must. out June 3, 1865. Myres Brodock, Co. A; must. out May 26, 1866. John Beems, Co. A; must. out May 26, 1866. Edmund Buck, Co. A; must. out May 26, 1866. Leroy Brown, Co. A; must. out May 26, 1866. William Burch, Co. A; must. out Aug. 26, 1865. DeForest J. Carroll, Co. A; must. out Aug. 18, 1865. Henry T. Clark, Co. A; must. out May 30, 1865. Charles Carlton, Co. A; must. out May 26, 1866. William Carolton, Co. A; must. out May 26, 1865. Walter L. Fink, Co. A; disch. by order, June 2, 1865. George Q. Fitzsimons, Co. A; must. out July 13, 1865. Frank Greening, Co. A; must. out May 8, 1866. Orville W. Hodge. Co. A; must. out June 22, 1865. William P. Holden, Co. A; must. out June 1, 1865. Edward Haggar, Co. A; must. out May 26, 1866. Joseph Howard. Co. A; must. out May 8, 1866. George Hungiton, Co. A; must. out March 6, 1866. Silas W. Haynes, Co. A; must. out May 26, 1866. George Kimball, Co. A; must. out May 26, 1866. John Millson, Co. A; must. out May 26, 1866. William Moore, Co. A; must. out June 21, 1865. Benjamin F. Ogden, Co. A; must. out May 23, 1865. Loren Ostrand, Co. A; must. out Jan. 18, 1866. Leonard Parish, Co. A; must. out May 26, 1866. Rollin L. Rice. Co. A; must. out May 26, 1866. Charles E. Riker, Co. A; must. out June 14, 1866. Crawford Stourk, Co. A; must. out July 31, 1865. Frederick L. Storm, Co. A; disch. June 9, 1865. Archibald Storm, Co. A; disch. by order, June 9, 1865. Byron G. Saxton, Co. A; must. out May 26, 1866. Thomas Williams, Co. A; must. out June 12, 1866. James Thompson, Co. A; must. out May 26, 1866. Reeves E. Taylor, Co. A; must. out Aug. 14, 1865. Cornelius Vaneeter, Co. A; must. out May 26, 1866. Alexander Vrooman, Co. A; must. out May 26, 1866. Robert Wilson, Co. A; must. out May 26, 1866. Thomas A. R. Wilcox, Co. A; disch. June 6, 1865. John S. Pierson, Co. A; disch. April 13, 1866. George A. Losey, Co. B; must. out May 26, 1866. Alanson T. Teed, Co. B; disch. by order Aug. 17, 1865. Orlando Miner, Co. B; must. out May 26, 1866. Jerome Wilcox, Co. B; must. out May 26, 1866. Jonathan Burton, Co. B; must. out Jan. 17, 1866. Lewis Britton, Co. B; disch. by order, July 13, 1865. Augustus Blurton, Co. B; must. out May 26, 1866. Henry Barnes, Co. B; must. out May 26, 1866. David Carlisle, Co. B; must. out July 26, 1865. Martin Carpenter, Co. B; must. out May 26, 1866. William H. Carpenter, Co, B; must. out June 16, 1865. George H. Dennis, Co. B; must. out Jan. 25, 1866. Charles H. Fairbanks, Co. B; must. out May 25, 1866. Stephen G. Fuller, Co. B; must. out May 25, 1866. Thomas W: Lea, Co. B; disch. by order, May 23, 1865. Henry A. Piper, Co. B; must. out May 26, 1866. i

Page  87 HILLSDALE CO U Sylvanus Soles, Co. B; must out May 26, 1866. Franklin Tayer, Co. B; must. out May 23, 1865. Elbridge Williams, Co. B; must. out Aug. 31, 1865. Daniel Wean, Co. B; disch. by order, June 5, 1865. Asher Lefleur, Co. B; must. out June 5, 1865. Enos S. Nobles, Co. C; must. out Feb. 26, 1866. William T. Feister, Co. C; must. out Feb. 26, 1866. John Alden, Co. C; disch. by order, Sept. 11, 1865. Seth Bowles, Co. C; must. out Feb. 1866. David Cornell, Co. C; disch. by order, May 12, 1865. Warren H. Champlin, Co. C; must. out Jan. 15, 1866. John Dean, Co. C; must. out Feb. 26, 1866. James H. Harman, Co. C; must. out Feb. 26, 1866. Charles E. Nichols, Co. C; disch. June 15, 1866. William H. Robinson, Co. C; must. out Feb. 10, 1866. Amos Strong, Co. C; must. out Sept. 11, 1865. Frank Shadbolt, Co. C; must. out Aug. 5, 1866. George H. Southwick, Co. D; must. out May 26, 1866. Edward Crisher, Co. E; must. out May 26, 1866. Andrew J. Earles, Co. E; must. out May 23, 1865. Charles H. Foote, Co. E; must. out May, 1866. William Sawyer, Co. E; must. out Oct. 10, 1865. Cassius M. Windsor, Co. F; must. out Sept. 21, 1865. Robert Seeley, Co. F; must. out Aug. 7. 1865. William Brooks, Co. F; must. out Aug. 5, 1865. James H. Kelley, Co. F; must. out May 26, 1866. Hugh Keeney, Co. F; must. out July 3, 1865. Lawrence Miner, Co. F; must. out Nov. 12, 1865. Atcheson Mellen, Co. F; must. out April 10, 1865. George N. Mayson, Co. F; must. out July 13, 1865. George M. D. Southworth, Co. F; must. out May 26, 1866. Myron Vancloke, Co. F; must. out May 26, 1866. Charles Town, Co. F; must. out Sept. 29, 1865. Henry Van Vleet, Co. F; disch. by order, Sept. 12, 1865. Francis E. Hill, Co. F; must. out Aug. 29, 1865. Edwin D. Plumb, Co. F; disch. March 23, 1866. Andrew Walters, Co. F; disch. March 7, 1866. Calvin Maloney, Co. F; disch. March 7, 1866. Quincy Farmer, Co. F; disch. March 27, i866. J. S. Bush, Co. K; must. out May 26, 1866. William E. Newell, Co. K; must. out May 26, 1866. Amos English, Co. K; must. out May 26, 1866. Wm. B. Duryee, Co. K; must. out May 26, 1866. Alfred A. Irish, Co. K; must. out May 26, 1866. Luman H. Dillon, Co. I; must. out May 26, 1866. Albert W. Vanness, Co. K; must. out May 26, 1866. Charles Buchanan, Co. K; must. out May 26, 1866. Almon S. Bassett. Co. K; must. out May 26, 1866. Henry M. Brodock, Co. K; must. out June 14, 1865. William Bryant, Co. K; must. out May 4, 1865. George W. Booth, Co. K; must. out Feb. 28, 1865. Marcus H. Cole, Co. K; must. out May 26, 1866. Andrew J. Cook, Co. K; must. out May 26, 1866. James Duryea, Co. K; must. out May 26, 1866. Adelbert Delameter, Co. K; disch. Feb. 23, 1866. Samuel A. Delameter, Co. K; must. out June 10, 1865. C. W. Decker, Co. K; disch. by order, Feb. 23, 1866. John W. Fowler, Co. K; must. out May 30, 1865. Ezra M. Fish, Co. K; must. out Sept. 9, 1865. Francis E. Hill, Co. K; must. out Aug. 29, 1865. Oscar A. James, Co. K, must. out Nov. 15, 1864. J. B. Jones, Co. K; must. out June 8, 1865. Lawrence King, Co. K; must. out Sept. 25, 1865. William Long, Co. K; must. out July 3, 1865. Ira G. Miller, Co. K; must. out May 30, 1865. Barzilla S. Miller, Co. K; must. out Aug. 29, 1865. Henry C. Petier, Co. K; must. out Nov. 26,1864. Edward Rhodes, Co. K; must. out June 8, 1865. VTY, MICHIGAN. 87 William H. Ross, Co. K; must. out Feb. 23, 1866. Jacob H. Stark, Co. K; must. out March 16, 1865. Alphonso Shafer, Co. K; must. out Feb. 23, 1866. Henry S. Wells, Co. K; must. out June 8, 1865. James A. Wright, Co. K; must. out Feb. 23, 1866. Peter Whitmore, Co. K; must. out June 14, 1865. Andrew J. Franklin, Co. K; must. out April 18, 1866. Milton E. Fisher, must. out Aug. 9, 1865. Enoch Dowling; must. out Aug. 6, 1865. Matthew Dowling; must. out Aug. 6, 1865. Norman B. Cole; must. out May 4, 1865. SEVENTH INFANTRY. Henry Baxter, com. capt. Aug. 19, 1861; lieut.-col. May 22, 1862; wounded at Antietam; severely wounded at Fredericksburg; corn. brig.-gen. March 12, 1863; wounded in the Wilderness; brev. maj.-gen. for gallant conduct; must. out Aug. 24, 1865. Sidney B. Vrooman, com. 1st lieut. June 19, 1861; capt. May 22, 1862; wounded at Gettysburg; must. out Oct. 5, 1864. William W. Wade, com. 2d lieut. June 19, 1861; res. Jan. 30, 1862. Gilbert Chaddock, appointed surg. Jan. 15, 1862; must. out at end of service. Charles A. Nimocks, com. 2d lieut. Jan. 1, 1863; wounded at Gettysburg; com. 1st lieut. Oct. 2, 1863; capt. April 7, 1864; must. out Oct. 5, 1864. John C. Tracy, com. 1st lieut. Oct. 2, 1863; wounded May 3, 1864; discharged on account of wounds, Sept. 6, 1864. Charles Oakley, com. 1st lieut. April 3, 1864; wounded at North Anna River, May 24, 1864; died of wounds May 25, 1864. Lewis D. Locklin, com. 1st lieut. Sept. 6, 1863; capt. June 20, 1864; must. out July 5, 1865. James B. Coates, com. 2d lieut. May 22, 1862; died at Harper's Ferry, Va., Nov. 13, 1862. Alonzo Smith, com. 1st lieut. June 12, 1864; must. out July 5, 1865. John S. Edwards, Co. C; killed at Fair Oaks, Va., May 30, 1862. George T. Storer, Co. C; killed at Fair Oaks, Va., May 31, 1862. Elliott Todd, Co. C; killed at Fair Oaks, Va., May 31, 1862. J. Henry Lewis, Co. -; died at Harrison's Landing, Va., July 12, 1862. Appleton M. Crary, Co. C; died at Ship Point, Va., May 14, 1862. Nelson Warden, Co. C; died at Camp Benton, Nov. 7, 1862. James Williams, Co. C; died at Camp Benton, Feb. 4, 1862. William White, Co. C; died at Camp Benton, Nov. 7, 1862. Delos W. Harris, Co. C; killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1862. John M. Fitterling, Co. C; killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1862. Alex McGregor, Co. C; missing at Reams' Station, Va., Aug. 25, 1864. Thomas E. Cooney, Co. C; missing at Hatcher's Run, Va., Oct. 28, 1864; returned. Henry L. Hartshorn, Co. C; killed at Antietam, Md., Sept. 17, 1862. Robert B. Vanslyke, Co. C; died at Washington, D. C., Nov. 29, 1862. I I

Page  88 88 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Byron Cusick, Co. C; died at Andersonville, Ga., June 18, 1864. Oliver Park, Co. C; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, March 8, 1864. George Manning, Co. C; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864. Perry E. Babcock, Co. C; trans. to 6th Mich. Cavalry. William H. Sinclair, disch. for promotion, Oct, 1861. Robert O. Sinclair, Co. C; discharged. A. A. Foreman, Co. C; disch. Nov. 12, 1862. Samuel E. Gear, Co. C; disch. for disability, Nov. 29, 1862. Christopher Myers, Co. C; disch. for wounds, Oct. 24, 1862. Wrm. N. Vanderpool, Co. C; disch. for disability, Nov. 15, 1862. Henry O. Tucker, Co. C; disch. for wounds, Dec. 12, 1862. Ezekiel C. Estus, Co. C; disch. by order, Aug. 8, 1863. Sidney Barber, Co. C; disch. for disability, Feb. 27, 1863. Joel E. Gray, Co. C; disch. for disability, Feb. 14, 1863. William T. Brain, Co. C; disch. for disability, Feb. 6, 1863. William I. Graves, Co. C; disch. for disability, Jan. 10, 1863. William T. Searles, Co. C; disch. by order. Charles Welkins, Co. C; disch. for disability, Feb. 6, 1863. Charles St. John, Co. C; disch. for disability, March 30, 1863. C. Berbeck, Co. C; disch. for disability, April 24, 1863. T. H. McMillan, Co. C; disch. by order, July 16, 1863. Leverett N. Case, Co. C; disch. at Detroit, Mich., July 1, 1862. Arthur Cheney, Co. C; disch. at expiration of service, Sep. 9,1865. Jacob M. Lair, Co. C; disch. at expiration of service, Aug. 26, 1864. Orril W. Avery, Co. C; disch. at expiration of service, Aug. 22, 1864. Alex. Worden, Co. Q; disch. at expiration of service, Aug. 24, 1864. Seymour Underwood, Co. C; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Dec. 16, 1863. John Bowen, Co. C; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Dec. 18, 1863. John L. Rice, Co. C; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Dec. 19, 1863. James O. Hall, Co. C; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Dec. 16, 1863. Byron C. Ellis, N. C. S.; must. out July 5, 1865. William A. Herring, band; must. out July 5, 1865. Jacob W. Snyder, Co. A; must. out July 5, 1865. William N. Dunn, Co. B; must. out July 5, 1865. John R. Randall, Co. C; disch. for promotion in 18th Inf., July 27, 1862. Clark R. Warren, Co. C; must. out July 5, 1865. Clark W. Blair, Co. C; disch. for disability, July 18, 1862. Philip Fox, Co. C; disch. for disability, Sept. 28, 1862. John R. Fullerton, Co. C; disch. for disability, Feb. 27, 1863. Joseph W. Fullerton, Co. C; disch. for disability, Feb. 28, 1863. Wm. F. Nelson, Co. C; must. out July 5, 1865. James H. Warring, Co. C; wounded at Fair Oaks; disch. Nov. 20, 1862; re-enl. in 46th N. Y. Inf. Aug. 14, 1864; in battles of Hatcher's Run, Peebles' Farm, and Petersburg; must. out June 20, 1865. James Gibson, Co. C; dish. Robert Gibson, Co. C; must. out July 5, 1865. Robert D. Glasgow, Co. C; disch. Dec. 19, 1862. Geo. O. Nimocks, Co. C; disch. by order, May 6, 1865. Thomas Caldwell, Co. F; must. out July 5, 1865. Thomas A. Cooney, Co. C; must. out July 5, 1865. Walter Nichols, Co. K; disch. for disability, March 1, 1865. John Spillane, Co. K; must. out July 5, 1865. TENTH INFANTRY. Christopher J. Dickerson, cor. lieut.-col. Nov. 20, 1861; wounded and captured at Buzzard's Roost, Ga., Feb. 25, 1864; com. col. 6th Inf., Nov. 12, 1864; app. brevet brig.-gen. of vols., March 13, 1865. Ethel Judd, com. cap. Oct. 1, 1861; res. July, 1862. John T. Storer, corn. 1st lieut. Oct. 1, 1861; res. June 21, 1862. Avery A. Smith, com. 2d lieut. June 23, 1862; 1st lieut. March 31, 1863; res. Nov. 8, 1864. George H. Sherman, cor. 1st lieut. Feb. 24, 1865; must. out July 19, 1865. John Cronk, Co. K; died June 3, 1862. Horace F. Crosby, Co. K; died at Camp Farmington, May 3, 1862. Alexander Robb, Co. K; died at Camp Thompson. Norman Doolittle, Co. K; died at Camp Dennison, Ohio, July 12, 1862. Alonzo Wood, Co. K; died at Camp Dennison, Ohio, July 12, 1862. Homer Northrup, Co. K; died at Keokuk, Iowa, Aug. 18, 1862. James Fuller, Co. K; died at Keokuk, Iowa, Aug. 18, 1862. Alexander Williams, Co. K; died. Emory C. Yost, Co. K; died. Wm. Russell, Co. K; died at Evansville, Ind., Sept. 9, 1862. John McGuiggan, Co. K; died at Stevenson, Ala., Oct. 6, 1863. Samuel Fuller, Co. K; died at Nashville, Tenn., March 18, 1863. Nelson Judd, Co. K; died at Keokuk, Iowa, Nov. 4, 1862. John~ Van Deger, Co. K; killed near Dalton, Ga., Feb. 25, 1864. Adriel Gibson, Co. K; killed at Jonesboro, Ga., Sept. 1, 1864, Thcs. Rusqell, Co. K; killed at Jonesboro, Ga., Sept. 1, 1864. Joseph Wolfe. Co. K; killed at Buzzard's Roost, Ga., Feb. 25, 1864. Warren Merritt, Co. K; disch. for disability, July 29, 1862. Thomas Dean, Co. K; disch. for disability, July 29, 1862. Paul Fifield, Co. K; disch. for disability, Oct 8, 1862. Lothario Chase, Co. K; disch. for disability. Eugene Cronk, Co. K; disch. for disability. James Fifield, Co. K; disch. for disability. Ampton Otto, Co. K; disch. for disability, July 25, 1862. Charles H. Spencer, Co. K; disch. for disability, Sept. 30, 1862. Peter West, Co. K; disch. to enl. in marine service. Jacob U: Squier, Co. K; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864. John F. Cleveland, Co. K; disch. for minority, May 15, 1863.

Page  89 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 89 Frederick J. 3aker Feb. 6, 1864. Jasper Bryan, Co. 6, 1864. Christian Howold, eran, Feb. 6, Giles P.'Mesick, C Feb. 6, 1864. John C. Ollin, Co. 6, 1864. George Rose, Co. B 6, 1864. Gideon H. ShermaI Feb. 6, 1864. Philip B. Spencer, Feb. 6, 1864. John Vandusen, C Feb. 6, 1864. Willard F. Lamb, ( Frederick S. Bake Samuel Sanford, C ice, Feb. 6, 186 Marshall Bartlett, service, Feb. 6 Albert Bates, Co. Feb. 6, 1865. Sheldon W. Curtis 1865. Thomas Faulkner, Charles Goodrich, Eben M. Lewis, Co. William Otto, Co. Valentine Riggs, C Benjamin F. Vreels Wayne Vosburg, C George Young, Co. Emery Yost, Co. K George G. Spencer, Peter Ackerman, C Abram Stall, Co. I Feb. 6, 1865. Abram Stall, Co. I Feb. 6, 1865. George Salmon, Cc ice, Feb. 6, 186 Er Arvin T. Whelan, Oct. 13, 1862; 1, 1863; brevet out Jan. 28, 18 Chauncey E. Koon lieut. Jan. 7, 1' at end of servi William G. Whitn wounded at Chi capt. March 1, John Bosenbark, c( 31, 1865. Justus Witherell, c May 31, 1865; Charles D. Pierce, out Sept. 16, 1 Charles D. Pierce, out Sept. 16, 1 Silas M. Kelley, Co 1862. Bennett Smetts, Co 1862. 7, Co. K; disch. to reenl. as veteran, Stephen Bradshaw, Co. B; died at Bardsown, Ky. Jan. 28, 1862. K; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Feb. Richard E. Stone, Co. B; died at Bardstown, Ky., March 18, 1862. Jr., Co. K; disch. to re-enl. as vet- Edward Sherman, Co. B; died at Bardstown, Ky., 1864. March 17, 1862. Io. K; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Andrew J. M. Wood, Co. C; died Jan. 24, 1862. Benjamin F. Cay, Co. F; died Feb. 4, 1862. K; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Feb. Joseph W. Fearnley, Co. F; died April 6, 1862. John Masters, Co. F; died May 28, 1862. i; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Feb. Elias Sloan, Co. F; died Feb. 16, 1862. John W. Wisner, Co. F; died April 15, 1862. n, Co. K; disch. to re-enl. at veteran, Pelatiah Hyde, Co. G; died Jan. 8, 1862. Daniel Hure, Co. G; died Jan. 8, 1862. Co. K; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Cyrus Sherman, Co. C. N. Myron Comstock Co. F; missing at Stone River, ]o. K; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1862. Wm. Spafford, Co. F; missing at Stone River, Tenn., Co. K; disch. July 8, 1862. Dec. 31, 1862. r, Co. K; must. out July 19, 1865. Stillman Hedges, Co. H; cap. at Stone River; paroled; -o. K; disch. at expiration of serv- died before exchange. 5. A. J. Silverwood, Co. B; died Jan. 2, 1863, of wounds Co. K; disch. at expiration of received at Stone River. i, 1865. Joseph Miller, Co. K; died Jan. 2, 1863, of wounds reK; disch. at expiration of service, ceived at Stone River. James W. Seelay, Co. K; died of wounds, March 10, s, Co. K; disch. by order, May 16, 1863, at Nashville, Tenn. George C. Barnes, Co. F; died at Nashville, Tenn. Co. K; must. out July 19, 1865. * John Duffey, Co. G; died at Nashville, Tenn., March Co. K; must. out July 19, 1865. 9, 1863. K; must. out July 19, 1865. Horace Weaver, Co. F; missing at Chickamauga, K; disch. for disability. Tenn., Sept. 20, 1863. lo. K; must. out. July 19, 1865. Isaac C. Masher, Co. B; died at Danville, Va., of and, Co. K; must. out July 19, 1865. wounds received at Chickamauga. lo. K; must. out July 19, 1865. James Pierce, Co. B; died in service. K; must. out July 19, 1865. Thomas Pixley, Co. F; killed near Dallas, Ga., May [; must. out July 19, 1865. 31, 1864.,Co. K; must. out July 19, 1865. David Sloan, Co. F; died Dec. 22, 1863, of wounds, to. K; disch. by order, June, 1865. at Chickamauga, Tenn. K; d'isch. at expiration of service, George Slayton, Co. B; disch. to enl. in regulars, Nov. 25, 1862. K; disch. at expiration of service, Charles Hull, Co. F; drowned in Sequeachie Creek, Nov. 23, 1863. ). K; Disch. at expiration of serv- John Metcalf, Co. F; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, April '5. 10, 1864. John Vance, Co. F; died Jan. 18, 1863, at Murfrees-.EVENTH INFANTRY. boro, Tenn. William Coplin, Co. B; trans. to 16th Mich. Inf. Sept. app. asst. surg. Nov. 12, 1861: res. 20, 1861. app. surg. 1st sharpshooters, Jan. Charles B. Raynor, Co. B; disch. for disability, June ted lieut.-col. March 13, 1865; must. 4, 1862. 65. John Russell, Co. B; disch. for disability, Oct. 10, 1862. com. 2d lieut. Nov. 26, 1862; 1st Charles Sylvester, Co. B; disch. for disability, Oct. 863; capt. June 17, 1864; must. out 11, 1862. ce, Sept. 30, 1864. Enoch H. Goodrich, Co. F; disch. for disability, June ey, com. 2d lieut. Jan. 7, 1863; 7, 1862. ickamauga; 1st lieut. June 17,1864; George Baker, Co. F; disch. for disability, Oct. 21, 1865; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. 1861. om. capt. March 1, 1865; res. May Simon Kelly, Co. F; disch. for disability, April 25, 1862.;om. 1st lieut. March 1, 1865; capt. Orville Palmer, Co. F; disch. for disability, Oct. 26, must. out Sept. 16, 1865. 1861. con. 1st lieut. May 31, 1865; must. David W. Stroud, Co. F; disch. for disability, March.865. 17, 1862. com. 1st lieut. May 31, 1865; must. Eugene Worden, Co. F; disch. for disability, July 6, 865. 1862. i. G; killed at Stone River, Dec. 31, David Warren, Co. F; disch. for disability, March 17, 1862.. C; killed at Stone River, Dec. 31, Clement Tubbs, Co. F; disch. for disability, Aug. 9, 1862.

Page  90 90 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Milo Scovill, Co. F; disch. for disability, Aug. 27, 1862. Phillips Abel, Co. G; disch. for disability, Feb. 23, 1862. Franklin Bobbitt, Co. G; disch. for disability, Feb. 24, 1862. Lewis Britton, Co. G; disch. for disability, Feb. 13, 1862. William K. Leonard, Co. G; disch. for disability William Rogers, Co. K; disch. for disability, June 3, 1862. Lewis H. Storer, Co. K; disch. for disability, July 11, 1862. Henry Palmeter, Co. K; disch. for disability, Dec. 3, 1862. Warren Clemens, Co. B; disch. for disability, Feb. 1, 1863. John Caldwell, Co. B; disch. for disability, May 23, 1863. Charles Wilson, Co. F; disch. for disability, April 20, 1863. Thomas E. A. Cooney, Co. K; disch. for disability, Feb. 18, 1863. Albert Palmeter, Co. K; disch. for disability, March 1, 1863. James Fields, Co. B; trans. to U. S. Engineers, July 20, 1864. Orrin J. Ford, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Randall C. West, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30. 1864. Oscar F. Avery, Co. B; wounded in service, disch. at exp. of serv., Sept. 30, 1864. Dillison S. Avery, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Halley M. Mills, Co,. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Bradley Mosher, Co. B; wounded at Stone River; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. James S. Raynor, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. William Spencer, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. O. J. Ford, sergt. Henry V. Whitehead, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Clark Marsh, 1st sergt.; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Horace Weaver, Co. F; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. George W. Whitney, disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Myron M. Comstock, Co. F; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. John M. Rhodes, Co. F; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. William C. Clark, Co. F; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. John Jubinville, Co.. F; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. William B. Moon, Co. F; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Samuel A. Oldfield, Co. F; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Marion Perry, Co. F; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. John O. Taylor, Co. F; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Alexander Weaver, Co. F; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Reuben Wilson, Co. F; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Samuel German, Co. G; disch for disability, July 20, 1864. James Crocker Co. G; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. James Quilhot, Co. G; disch. at expiration of service, Sept, 30. 1864. Wray T. Thorn, Co. G; d'isch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. William C. Johnson, Co. K; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Carlos B. Johnson, Co. K; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. William H. Marrel, Co. K; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Walter Myers, Co. K; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Peter Seeley, Co. K; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. James Fields, Co. B; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Jan. 30, 1864. Stephen Caner, Co. C; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, March 24, 1864. Watts Sherman, Co. C; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Feb. 27, 1864. Samuel H. Fellows, Co. B; disch. for disability, April 20, 1863. Cyrus Sherman, Co. C; disch. at expiration of service, Dec. 9, 1864. Stephen A. Caner, Co. C; disch. Sept. 26. 1865. Urbane Hart, Co. D; disch. by order, May 29, 1865. Thomas C. Filson, Co. F; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. James Thorp, Co. F; disch. for disability. James Long, Co. K; disch. by order, June 16, 1865. Morris Slayton, Co. B; died at Bardstown, Ky., April 19, 1862, Cornelius H. Van Schaik, Co. F; died at Bardstown, Ky., Feb. 28, 1862. Byron D. Foster, Co. C; died at Chattanooga Tenn., May 31, 1865. Leroy Geer, Co. E; died at Chattanooga, Tenn., May 6, 1865. Charles Martin, Co. E; died at Nashville, Tenn., April 2 1865. Frank Jennings, Co. I; died at Chattanooga, Tenn., April 14, 1865. Joseph Whaley, Co. I; died at Chattanooga, Tenn., April 19, 1865. Ed A. Bassett, Co. A; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. James D. Beyer, Co. A; must. out Sept. 16. 1865. Melvin Mosher, Co. A; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Edwin M. Wilson, Co. A; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. W. Whitney, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Alfred Bush, Co. C; must. out Sept. 16. 1865. Winfield S. Mapes, Co. C; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. George Rush, Co. C; must. out Sept.. 16, 1865. Allen Anderson, Co. E; must. out Sept, 16, 1865. Edward E. Clapp, Co. E; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. John Coleman, Co. E; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. John P. Johnson, Co. E; must. out Sept. 30, 1865. William Maybee, Co. E; must. out May 6, 1865. Frank W. May, Co. E; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Freeman Pettis, Co. E; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Edwin B. Sheldon, Co. E; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. James S. Whitney, Co. E; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Albert H. Mendel, Co. F; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Horatio M. Townsend, Co. H; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Joseph T. Bolger, Co. H; must. out Sept. 16, 1865.

Page  91 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 9I Adoniram J. Burroughs, Co. H; must. out Sept. 16, 186i. George M. Cooper, Co. H; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. George Pratt, Co. H; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Levi warrens, Co. H; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Hiram S. Ames, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Lewis Baler, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. William Barnard, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Benjamin Candee, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. James E. Case, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. George A. Converse, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. William Cook, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Warren H. Green, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. John Gordon, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Charles L. Laper, Co. I; must. out Aug. 15, 1865. Freeman W. Lindsley, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Charles H. Lindsley, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Sanford Miller, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Sumner Manning, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Francis M. Rustine, Co. I; must. out Sept. 30 1865. Byron Rustine, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Peter Silvernail, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Jacob E. Smith, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Francis Squier, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Orlando Shark, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Emerson S. Trumbull, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Solomon B. Trumbull, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. William E. Williams, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Allen E. Worden, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. John H. Wells, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Charles W. White, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Alanson Wales, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Christ Young, Co. I; must. out Aug. 30, 1865. Cyrus J. Dewey, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. John Roberts, Co. K; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. James Wilkinson, Co. K; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Franklin Van Schaik, Co. K; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. FIFTEENTH INFANTRY. Franklin B. Case, Jr., com. 2d lieut. Oct. 29, 1862; 1st lieut., Aug. 13, 1863; capt. March 30, 1865; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Daniel D. Case, com. 2d lieut. Feb 1, 1863; 1st lieut., June 6, 1865; must. out Aug 13, 1865. James C. Kellogg, com. 1st lieut. March 30, 1865; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Charles E. K. Baxter, com. 1st lieut. March 30, 1865; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. John W. Hughes, Co. F; died July 3, 1862. Charles Hughes, Co. F; died May 3, 1862. Eugene Godfrey, Co. K; killed at Jonesboro', Ga., Sept. 1, 1864. George Hewitt, Co. K; killed at Rome, Ga., July 28, 1865. Royal Willson, Co. F; disch. March 26, 1862. Jeremiah Harris, Co. I; disch. June 12, 1862. James Hughes, Co. F; disch. July 17, 1862. Chauncey Tupper, Co. F; disch. July 16, 1862. Reuben Wilson, Co. F;'disch. Sept. 2, 1862. Cyrus Lawrence, Co. A; disch. by order, May 30, 1865. Frederick Just, Co. A; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Walter B. Harrison, Co. A; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Edward G. Latham, Co. A; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Anthony Cooley, Co. B; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Calvin Weldin, Co. B; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. John Patten, Co. B; disch. by order, June 29, 1865. Chauncey A. Perham, Co. B; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. John V. Robbins, Co. B; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Stephen Old, Co. C; disch. by order, May 30, 1865. Volney White, Co. C; disch. by order, July 19, 1865. George Weaver, Co. C; disch. by order, May 30, 1865. Hemy Fash, Co. D; must. out Aug. 1., 1865. Aionzo Noyes, Co. E; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Charles La Carge, Co. E; disch. July 17, 1865. James Mcjreery, Co. E; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Richard Martin, Co. E; must. out Aug 13, 1865. Thomas R. Gallagher, Co. F; disch. for disabilitiy, July 16, 1862. James B. Hughes, Co. F; disch. at expiration of service, Jan. 29, 1865. Henry Upthegrove, Co. F; disch. Sept. 12, 1865. Sibley P. Wilder, Co. F; disch. for disability, May 6, 1862. Horace Cory, Co. F; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. James Silver, Co. F; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Charles F. Butler, Co. G; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. John Spoor, Co. G; must. out Aug 13, 1865. Almon Cary, Co. H; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Henry Coy, Co. H; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Joel B. Myers, Co. H; must. out July 19, 1865. John Crelley, Jr., Co. I; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. William Lake, Co. I; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Herman Terril, Co. I; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. George Mackay, Co. I; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. John C. Cooley, Co. K; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. George Sevick, Co. K; disch. by order, Aug. 1865. John W. Resdorph, Co. K; disch. May 22, 1865. John Cruthers, Co. K; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. George H. Godfrey, Co. K; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. George Nisle, Co. K; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. John H. Bradshaw, Co. K; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Washington J. Engle, Co. K; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. SIXTEENTH INFANTRY. James R. Hall, Co. D; killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863. William Simmons, Co. E; died of wounds. Joseph Cilliway, Co. C; killed at Spottsylvania, Va., May 8. 1864. Curtis Blanchard, Co. C; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps in July, 1863. James N. Ish, Co. D; disch. Feb. 26, 1863. Wm. Coplin, Co. F; disch. Oct. 24, 1862. Samuel Halstead, Co. C; disch. Sept. 7, 1864. Abram Whitbeck, Co. C; disch. to re-enlist, Dec. 24, 1863. James Spatch, Co. E; disch. to re-enlist, Dec. 21, 1863. Reuben Weston, Co. F; disch. to re-enl. Dec. 21, 1863. Wm. Ryan, Co. C; disch. July 8, 1865. Nathaniel Millard, Co. E; disch. for disability, April 16, 1863. Patrick Meehan, Co. E; disch. for disability, Jan. 21, 1863. James Parker, Co. E; disch. for disability, Jan. 15, 1863. David Bellington, Co. C; killed at Malvern Hill, Va., July 1, 1862. Malcolm McClellan, Co. E; killed at Gaines' Mills, Va., June 27, 1862. Patrick Meehan, Co. E; killed at Gaines' Mills, Va., June 27, 1862. Ephraim H. Hewlett, Co. B; died at Annapolis, Md., Oct. 11, 1862. Henry Peck, Co. E; died at Baltimore, Md., Nov. 25, 1862. Thomas Cilliway, Co. C; disch. for disability, Feb, 24, 1862. Alphonso Wakefield, Co. C; disch. for disability.

Page  92 92 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. EIGHTEENTH INFANTRY. Charles E. Doolittle (formerly of 4th Inf.), com. col. July 27, 1862; brig.-gen. of vols., May 11, 1865; brevet maj.-gen. of vols., May 11, 1865; must. out Nov. 30, 1865. Simeon P. Root, com. surg. Aug. 7, 1862; res. Feb. 25, 1863. James H. Pratt, cor. 1st lieut. and qr.-mr. Aug. 2, 1862; assist. qr.-mr. U. S. Vols., March 29, 1863; must. out Jan. 8, 1866. John R. Randall, com. 1st lieut., July 27, 1862; capt., Feb. 18, 1863; res. April 16, 1864. George W. Bullock, cor. capt. July 27, 1862; res. March 27, 1865. Jacob 0. Ames, cor. 1st lieut. July 27, 1862; res. Jan. 16, 1863. James G. Bunt, cor. 2d lieut. July 27, 1862; 1st lieut., Dec. 13, 1862; capt. March 21, 1865; must. out June 26, 1865. Stanley W. Turner, cor. 2d lieut. July 27, 1862; res. Jan. 16, 1863. Alonzo E. Clark, cor. 2d lieut. July 27, 1862; 1st lieut. Feb. 18, 1863; must. out June 26, 1865. Stanley W. Davis, cor. 2d lieut. Jan. 31, 1863; wounded and captured at Athens Ala., Sept. 24, 1864; paroled Nov. 14, 1864; must. out June 26, 1865. Edward P. Champlin, cor. 2d lieut. Jan. 16, 1863; 1st lieut. and qr.-mr., Sept. 28, 1863; assist. qr.-mr. U. S. Vols., June 30, 1864. Seymour H. Adams, cor. 2d lieut. Feb. 18, 1863; 1st lieut. Aug. 16, 1864; must. out June 26, 1865. Charles B. Hoyt, cor. 2d lieut. May 30, 1863; res. Jan. 9, 1865. George W. Brewster, cor. 2d lieut. Aug. 1, 1863; 1st lieut. March 21, 1865; must. out June 26, 1865. Albert C. Smith, com. 2d lieut. Jan. 9, 1865; must. out June 26, 1865. Clinton 'S. Norris, com. 2d lieut. Aug. 16, 1864; must. out June 26, 1865. John Massaker, Co. D; died at Lexington, Ky., Oct. 25, 1862. William G. Granger, Co. G; died at Camp Smith, Ky., Oct. 16, 1862. Ashur T. Strong, Co. G; died at Covington, Ky., Oct. 2, 1862. Daniel S. Foster, Co. D; died at Nashville, Tenn., July 3, 1863. William T. Hart, Co. D; died at Nashville, Tenn., June 22, 1863. Alonzo H. Orvis, Co. D; died at Lexington, Ky., Jan. 5, 1863. William Folger, Co. D; died at Lexington, Ky., Jan. 7, 1863. John Richey, Co. D; died at Lexington, Ky., Jan. 16, 1863. Chauncey Ashley, Co. F; died at Nashville, Tenn., May 28, 1863. Robert H. Cowgill, Co. F; died at Lexington, Ky., March 7, 1863. John Croup, Co. F; died at Lexington, Ky., Feb. 8, 1863. Albert S. Thorn, Co. F; died at Lexington, Ky., Jan. 8, 1863. Loren M. Hammond, Co. F; died at Lexington, Ky., Jan. 21, 1863. Charles E. Merrick, Co. G; died at Lexington, Ky., Feb. 19, 1863. Francis Hunt, Co. G; died at Danville, Ky; March 23, 1$63. Byron Barber, Co. G; died at Danville, Ky., April 10, 1863. John B. Webster, Co. G; died at Lexington, Ky., April 8. 1863. William McCarthy, Co. G; died at Nashville, Tenn., May 4, 1863. Seth Petrie, Co. G; died at Nashville, Tenn., May 23, 1863. Ira E. Gay, Co. G; died at Nashville, Tenn., July 24, 1863. Helon Vanscoy, Co. H; died at Louisville, Ky., July 27, 1863. Irving Bramen, Co. H; died at Lexington, Ky., Feb. 10, 1863. George W. Hughes, Co. H; died at Lexington, Ky., Feb. 13, 1863. Eli Alvord, Co. H; died at Lexington, Ky., Jan. 22, 1863. Ralph E. Stout, Co. F; killed at Courtland, Ala., June 27, 1864. Samuel D. Douglass, Co. A; died at Nashville Tenn., Jan. 9, 1864. Charles W. Davis, Co. A; shot at Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 27, 1863. William McGaffee, Co. D; died at Nashville, Tenn., Feb, 18, 1864. Charles H. Baker, Co. D; died at Nashville, Tenn., March 14, 1864. Henry D. Narcott, Co. D; died at Nashville, Tenn., April 20, 1864. Pliny Pettis, Co. D; died at Nashville, Tenn., March 10, 1864. James W. Camp, Co. D; died at Decatur, Ala., Aug. 14, 1864. William F. Cook, Co. D; accidentally shot Nov. 27, 1863. Milton Rice, Co. F; died at Reading, Mich., Dec. 29, 1863. Philip J. Conklin, Co. F; died at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 8, 1864. Sheldon Carey, Co. F; died at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 30, 1864. John C. Hindes, Co. F; died at Nashville, Tenn., March 18, 1864. Jacob Beiry, Co. F; died at Nashville, Tenn., March 22, 1864. Henry H. Davis, Co. F; died at Nashville, Tenn., April 17, 1864. Albert Tilotson, Co. F; died at Nashville, Tenn., May 12, 1864. James Lickley, Co. F; died at Decatur, Ala., Sept. 11, 1864. Willis M. Woods, Co. F; died at Decatur, Ala., Sept. 11, 1864. Nelson L. Lyon, Co. G; died at Nashville, Tenn., March 24, 1864. William B. Burt, Co. G; died at Nashville, Tenn., April 6, 1864. Norman G. Markman, Co. G; djed at Nashville, Tenn., April 4, 1864. William D. Storer, Co. H; died at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 22. 1864. Nelson Slocum, Co. G; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 15, 1864. James L. Avery, Co. D; killed at Athens, Ala., Sept. 24. 1864. Levi Courtleff, Co. D; killed at Athens, Ala., Sept. 24, 1864. Wm. H. Finch, Co. D; killed by explosion of steamer "Sultana," April 28, 1865.

Page  93 HILLSDALE CO Ul John F. Schermerhorn, Co. F; killed at Athens, Ala., Sept. 24, 1864. Jonathan Robbins, Co. A; killed by explosion of "Sultana," April 28, 1865. William Moore, Co. D; died at Lexington, Ky., Dec. 27, 1862. Albert W. Lawrence, Co. D; killed by explosion of "Sultana," April 28, 1865. John E. Bird, Co. D; killed by explosion of steamer "Sultana," April 28, 1865. Wm. Young, Co. D; killed by explosion of steamer "Sultana," April 28, 1865. Silas C. Dodge, Co. D; died at Huntsville, Ala., March 12, 1865. Edwin Ford, Co. D; killed by explosion, April 28, 1865. Lemon Nelson, Co. D; killed by explosion, April 28, 1865. Benjamin Morton, Co. D; died at Danville, Ky., April 8, 1863. F. M. Sawyer, Co. D; died at Decatur, Ala., Dec. 17, 1864. James Watkins, Co. D; killed by "Sultana," explosion. Ward Wilson, Co. D; died in rebel prison, Cahawba, Ala., Nov. 17, 1864. Washington Mann, Co. D; killed by "Sultana," explosion. Levi J. Hoyle, Co. D; died at Decatur, Ala., Dec. 17, 1864. Albert W. Barber, Co. F; died at Cahawba, Ala., in rebel prison, Sept. 24, 1864. Alfred Dewell, Co. F; died at Nashville, Tenn., April 17, 1864. Alexander Fuller, Co. F; killed by "Sultana" explosion. Orris Gale, Co. F; killed by "Sultana" explosion. Morgan L. Holmes, Co. F; killed by "Sultana" explosion. Sherman Rupert, Co. F; died in Cahawba prison, Ala., Feb. 25, 1865. George W. Vangorden, Co. F; killed by "Sulana" explosion. George Lockler, Co. F; killed by "Sultana" explosion. James Caldwell, Co. G; killed by "Sultana" explosion. Foster Colby, Co. G; died at Vicksburg, Miss., April 5, 1865. William F. Fanrat, Co. G; killed by "Sultana" explosion. Patrick Lackey, Co. G; killed by "Sultana" explosion. George W. Palmer, Co. G; killed by "Sultana" explosion. Frederick D. Zeeley, Co. G; killed by "Sultana" explosion. Jason Vanata, Co. G; killed by "Sultana" explosion. Charles A. West, Co. G; killed by "Sultana" explosion. Wm. Springer, Co. G; died at Huntsville, Ala., May 6, 1865. Henry Thompson, Co. G; killed by "Sultana" explosion. Simon Matison, Co. H; killed by "Sultana" explosion. George W. Angel, Co. H; died at Indianapolis, Ind., Jan. 9, 1865. Henry H. Loper, Co. D; trans. to 9th Mich. Inf. Sylvester Lyman, Co. D; trans. to 9th Mich. Inf. William Wilson, Co. D; trans. to 9th Mich. Inf. Russell J. Ellis, Co. D; trans. to 9th Mich. Inf. Milo M. Titus, Co. D; trans. to 9th Mich. Inf. David Cowan, Co. D; trans. to 9th Mich. Inf. Charles Richardson, Co. D; trans. to 9th Mich. Inf. Sidney J. Smithson, Co. F; trans. to 9th Mich. Inf. Andrew B. Crandall, Co. F; trans. to 9th Inf. VTY, MICHIGAN. 93 Thomas T. Cox, Co. F; trans. to 9th Mich. Inf. William H. Smith, Co. G; trans to 9th Mich. Inf. Luther Benedict, Co. G; trans. to 9th Mich. Inf. Edward Aiken, Co. G; trans. to 9th Mich. Inf. John R. Duessler, Co. D; disch. for disability, Oct. 4, 1862. John Beaver, Co. H; disch. for disability, Sept. 2, 1862. Donald T. McCall, Co. A; disch. for disability, Jan. 3, 1863. William B. Evatt, Co. A; disch. for disability, March 12, 1863. Washington Pease, Co. D; disch. for disability, Jan. 26, 1863. James H. Thill, Co. D; disch. for disability, Feb. 4, 1863. Henry Hermance, Co. D; disch. for disability, Feb. 4, 1863. James H. Wheeler, Co. D; disch. for disability, Feb. 4, 1863. Henry C. Cole, Co. D; disch. for disability, March 20, 1863. George Warren, Co. D; disch. for disability, May 23, 1863. William O. Truman, Co. D; disch. for disability, June 1, 1863. Charles H. Baker, Co. D; disch. for disability, June 14, 1863. Hugh Killen, Co. D; disch. for disability, Oct. 15, 1863. Francis Furry, Co. F; discfl. for disability, March 26, 1863. William Siddal, Co. F; disch. for disability, June 22, 1863. Charles H. Randolph, Co. G; disch. for disability, April 23, 1863. Orrin E. Nichols, Co. G; disch. for disability, April 23, 1863. A. V. Ammerman, Co. G; disch. for disability, May 1, 1863. Albert Bayer, Co. G; disch. for disability, May 27, 1863. Cornelius Anable, Co. G; disch. for disability, June 8, 1863. Charles E. K. Baxter, Co. G; disch. for disability, Sept. 15, 1863. George Hancock, Co. H; disch. for disability, March 26, 1863. Charles Button, Co. D; disch. for disability, June 15, 1864. William W. Noe, Co. D; disch. by order, July 10, 1864. James D. Smith, Co. F; disch. for disabiliy, Jan. 15, 1864. Lewis P. Swift, Co. G; disch. for promotion, April 20, 1864. Marion I. Dillon, Co. A; must. out June 26,1865. Nathaniel W. Foglesang, Co. A; must. out June 21, 1865. Nelson Hinckley, Co. A; must. out June 10, 1865. Benjamin B. Martin, Co. A; must. out June 26, 1865. Harvey Pixley, Co. A; must. out June 26, 1865. Philo Stafford, Co. A; disch. for disability, Dec. 26, 1862. Peter Vanderowligan, Co. A; must. out June 26, 1865. Charles H. Levens, N. C. S., must. out June 26, 1865. David H. Perry, Co. A; must. out June 26, 1865. Thomas S. Finch, Co. A; must. out June 26, 1865. Ephraim W. Benson, Co. A; must. out June 26, 1865. Lyman Carr, Co. A; disch. for disability, Dee. 26 1862. John H. Purdy, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. Henry C. Wood, Co. D; must. out June 22, 1865. Joseph A. Mathews, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865.::

Page  94 94 HILLSDALE CO L E. G. Kellogg, Co. D; disch. Dee. 27, 1862. Charles N. Howland, Co. D; disch. Dec. 27, 1862. Luther B. Walcott, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. Aaron F. Brown, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. John Acker, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. Louis J. Barnes, Co. D; disch. for disability, Feb. 18, 1865. Hiram M. Clark, Co. D; lost right arm at Decatur, Ala., Oct. 26, 1864: disch. on account of wounds, March 23, 1865. William Crisp, Co. D; must. out June 22, 1865. Nelson Clark, Co. D; must. out June 30, 1865. George W. Drake, Co. D; disch. Dec. 26, 1862. James Ellis, Co. D; disch. for disability, Dec. 26, 1862. George W. Duesler, Co. D; must. out June 22, 1865. Ephraim Gillet, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. Qharles Hutchings, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. William'Y. Henry, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. George N. Jones, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. A. Jennings, Co. D; must. out July 10, 1865. William N. Kinney, Co. D; must. out June 9, 1865. Jacob Kausen, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. William Lee, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. Michael Mosher, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. John Miles, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. John McKee, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. Harrison Matison, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. Nicholas G. Massaker, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. Sampson Orenden, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. Samuel Prescott, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. Robert Scott, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. Franklin Shaw, Co. D; must. out June 10, 1865. Amos Sawyer, Co. D; must. out June 21, 1865. Alvah Sawyer, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. Oscar Tindell, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. William Torry, Co. D; must. out Sept. 11, 1865. Galusha Turner, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. Ambrose C. Tyler, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. John Warner, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. George Williams, Co. D; must. out. June 26, 1865. David J. Watkins, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. Hiram J. Wilson, Co. D; disch. Dec. 26, 1862. William T. Whitney, Co. D; disch. May 21, 1865. Henry S. Woodruff, Co. D; must. out June 26, 1865. John W. Norcutt, Co. D; must. out July 19, 1865. Foshen Smith, Co. D; must. out June 10, 1865. Aaron Wood, Co. D; must. out June 24, 1865. Isaac Coffin, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. John Williams, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Commodore Smith, Co. F; must. out July 25, 1865. Judah P. Cornell, Co. F; must. out June 10, 1865. Albert Hancock, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Orlando Cole, Co. F; must. out June 29, 1865. Peter G. Clow, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. John T. Young, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Sidney Dodge, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865 Nelson Benedict, Co. F; must. out July 6, 1865. Erastus Bates, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Ira Brvant, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Isaac Brown, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Miles O. Bailey, Co. F;. must. out June 26, 1865. John Burns, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. George E. Carter, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. George H. Cornell, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Edward L. Cutter, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Loren W. Chapin, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Samuel Carlisle, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Daniel Clehane, Co. F; must. out June 10, 1865. John Capon, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Henry R. Davis, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. 7NTY, MICHIGAN. James N. Davis, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Jacob M. Divine, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Lewis Dewell, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Franklin Fuller, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Franklin J. Farnham, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. D. Eddy Haskins, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Michael S. Howland, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Thomas Hodson, Co. F; must. out May 29, 1865. Sylvester B. Kimball, Co. F; disch. in March, 1863. Allen D. Lite, Co. F; must. out June 10, 1865. Daniel W. Litchfield, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Le Grand B. Lamb, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Gad McDowell, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Joel F. Nevins, Co. F; must. out July 6, 1865. Charles J. Owens, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. William H. Petrie, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. John Palmer, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. William Rose, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. William H. Shepherd, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Ransom Scovill, Co. F; must. out June 10, 1865. S. B. Stubberfield, Co. F; must. out July 5, 1865. Richard Shepardson, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. James D. Smith, Co. F; disch. Jan. 16, 1863. Martin V. Stuck, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. George W. Sturdevant, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Charles W. Sackrider, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Alonzo Van Vlack, Co. F; must. out July 6, 1865. William W. Wilson, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. Luther W. Woods, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. John Wear, Co. F; disch. for disability, April 12, 1865. Nelson P. Woodruff, Co. F;. must. out June 26, 1865. Hiram A. Cole, Co. F; must. out June 26, 1865. John P. Freeland, Co. F; disch. Dec. 26, 1862. Thaddeus C. Ayres, Co. G; must, out June 26, 1865. Horace C. Aldrich, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Marion F. Howe, Co. G; must. out June 21, 1865. John M. O. Smith, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. James A. Tyler, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. TWENTY-FOURTH INFANTRY. Almon M. Pierce, Co. G; disch. Dec. 25, 1862. Alfred Hopkins, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. George W. Ankless, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Allen G. Brindage, Co. G; must. out May 17, 1865. George W. Baker, Co. G; must. out June 26. 1865. Daniel A. Benedict, Co. G; disch. Jan. 18, 1865. Wesley Brooks, Co. G; must. out June 26, i865. Henry C. Bennett, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Nilare Branch, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Samuel D. Brown, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Edward Bemis, Co. G; must. out June 12. 1865. John P. Cooper, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Peter Card, Co. G; must. out-June 26, 1865. George Curris, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. George W. Crawford, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Corridor Cassidy, Co. G; must. out June 29, 1865. Martin W. Decker, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Door Darling, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Eli A. Fuller, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Lyman Havens, Co. G; mus. out June 15, 1865. Richard W:V Hawkins, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Thomas J. Harris, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Allen C. Howe, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. George C. Howe, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Ensign Johnson, Co. G; must. out May 22, 1865. Benjamin Kaltenback, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Ira Kinney, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Julius Lewis, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Joseph W. Mullen, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865.

Page  95 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 95 John Mull, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Bradley O. Moore, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Sylvester Miller, Co. G; disch. Dec. 25, 1862. Oscar C. Nash, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Philemon Plumer, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Elisha Remele, Co. G; disch. Dec. 26, 1862. John J. Riggs, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Levi Riker, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Cyrus W. Simons, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. David Stevens, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. David Turner, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Cornelius Veli, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Edward A. Wright, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. George W. Walker, Co. G; must. out June 26, 1865. Willis W. Wright, Co. G; must. out June 28, 1865. W. C. Seymour, Co. G; must. out June 9, 1865. John C. Curtiss, Co. G; must. out May 14, 1865. James Bradley, Co. H; disch. Dec. 25, 1862. Jacob Barrett, Co. H; must. out June 26, 1865. Theodore S. Bloomer, Co. H; must. out June 26, 1865. James Barrett, Co. H; must. out June 26, 1865. Christian German, Co. H; must. out June 26, 1865. David Hand, Co. H; must. out June 26, 1865. John Kurton, Co. H; must. out June 26, 1865. Benjamin Osborn, Co. H; must. out June 26, 1865. Henry Quanee, Co. H; must. out June 26, 1865. Henry R. Stivers, Co. H; must. out June 26, 1865. William D. Storer, Co. H; must. out June 26, 1865. John Jibb, Co. I; disch. July 1, 1865. John Kirkly, Co. I; disch. May 22, 1865. Henry J. Phillips, Co. K; died at Camp Butler, Ill., April 7, 1865. Jerome Pierce, Co. B; must. out June 30, 1865. Charles Dobson, Co. B; must. out June 30, 1865. William Millard, Co. D; must. out June 30, 1865. DaVid J. Kendall, Co. D; must. out June 30, 1865. Edward Webster, Co. D; must. out June 30, 1865. John A. Devoe, Co. D; must. out June 30, 1865. John S. Ensign, Co. F; must. out June 30, 1865. Michael Cassidy, Co. G; must. out June 30, 1865. Thomas Delano, Co. G; must. out June 30, 1865. Hub Lull, Co. G; must. out June 30, 1865. John Lyon, Co. G; must. out June 30, 1865. James Smith, Co. G; must. out June 30, 1865. Mathus Shinners, Co. G; must. out June 30, 1865. Angus Matherson, Co. H; must. out June 30, 1865. Edward F. Staples, Co. H; must. out June 30, 1865. Anselm Ball, Co. I; must. out June 30, 1865. James K. P. Heath, Co. K; must. out June 30, 1865. James K. Thompson, Co. K; must. out June 30, 1865. Stephen Underhill, Co. K; must. out June 30, 1865. William Wright, Co. K; must. out June 28, 1865. TWENTY-SEVENTH INFANTRY. Edwin J. March, com. capt. Dec. 30, 1863; trans. as lieut.-col. to the 2d Inf. April 1, 1864; afterwards wounded before Petersburg; com. col. and res. April 1, 1864. James W. Niblack, app. asst. surg. Dec. 15, 1863; must. out July 26, 1865. Oscar Hancock, com. 1st lieut. Dec. 15, 1863; res. Nov. 5, 1864. Richard Vosper, com. 2d lieut.. in the 2d Ind. Co., 27, 1864; wounded near Petersburg, June 18, 1864; res. Sept. 27, 1864. Thomas S. Mead, com. 1st lieut. 2d Ind. Co., Feb. 27, 1864; wounded near Petersburg, June 17, 1864; also at Poplar Grove Church, Sept. 30, 1864; died of wounds Oct. 16, 1864. Albert C. Dunn, Co. G; killed at Petersburg, Va., June 3, 1864. Nelson Kellogg, Co. G; killed at Petersburg, Va., June 3, 1864. Harlow Haines, Co. G; killed at Petersburg, Va., June 3, 1864. James P. Todd, Co. G; died of wounds, July 19, 1864. Jacob Rarick, Co. K; killed at Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864. Henry Rich, Co. K; killed at Petersburg, Va., August 1864. David Smith, Co. K; died of wounds, June 29, 1864, at Washington, D. C. Albert Blunt, Co. K; died of wounds, May 6, 1864, at Wilderness, Va. Paul Fifield, Co. K; died of wounds, May 6, 1864, at Wilderness, Va. Pulard Sappson, Co. K; died of wounds, May 12, 1864, at Wilderness, Va. Leander Squires, Co. K; died of wounds, May 19, 1864, at Wilderness, Va. John Ayres; Co. K; died of wounds, May 1t, i864, at Spottsylvania, Va. Frederick Ostrander, Co. K; died of wounds, May 12, 1864, at Spottsylvania, Va. David O. Smith, Co. K; died of wounds, June 1, 1864, at Petersburg, Va. Conrad Straub, Co. K; died of wounds, May 12, 1864, at Spottsylvania, Va. Jason Wordon, Co. K; died of wounds, June 17, 1864, at Petersburg, Va. Samuel Ostrahurt, Co. K; died of wounds, May 12, 1864, at Spottsylvania, Va. Austin Paustle, Co. K; died of wounds, July 30, 1864, at Petersburg, Va. Horace Drake, Co. K; died of wounds, June 23, 1864. William D. Belden, Co. K; died of wounds, June 25, 1864, at Washington, D. C. A. B. Culver, Co. K; died at Washington, D. C., Aug. 1, 1864. Stephen Patch, Co. K; died at Annapolis, Md., Oct. 3, 1864. John B. Burdick, Co. K; died at home, January, 1864. James P. Todd, Co. G; missing'in action, May 26, 1864. Byron Brine, Co. G; missing in action, May 25, 1864. D. G. Van Allen, Co. K; missing in action at Wilderness, Va., May 6, 1864. E. D. Van Allen, Co. K; missing in action at Wilderness, Va., May 6, 1864. John Anderson, Co. K; missing at Wilderness, Va., May 8, 1864. E. W. Elliott, Co. K; missing at Petersburg, Va., July 30, 1864. Stephen Patch, Co. K; missing at Petersburg, Va., July 30, 1864. William H. Cole, Co. K; missing at Petersburg, Va., July 30, 1864. Charles E. Duel, Co. D of regt.; died of.wounds, May 12, 1864. Nelson Winfield, killed before Petersburg, Va., July 30, 1864. William B. Thorn, Co. G; died Dec. 2, 1864. William H. Cole, Co. K; died at Danville, Va., Dec. 8, 1864. Ira V. Strough, Co. K; died at Annapolis, Md., March 26, 1865. Cicero D. Van Allen, Co. K; died at Andersonville, Ga., Nov. 26, 1864. Henry M. Bird, missing in action May 12, 1864. ii

Page  96 96 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Franklin Smith, Co. D; trans. to V. R. Corps, May 1, 1865. John Noonin, Co. K; trans. to V. R. Corps, Oct. 17, 1864. Joseph M. Dolph, trans. to V. R. Corps. Franklin Hoover, Co. D; must. out July 26, 1865. William Dillon, Co. D; must. out July 26, 1865. Charles Hannibal, Co. D; must. out June 19, 1865. James Hoover, Co. D; must. out July 26, 1865. James Lukes, Co. D; must. out June 12, 1865. James McCluklin, Co. D; must. out July 26, 1865. David Slaybaugh, Co. D; must. out June 15, 1865. Levi N. Forrester, Co. D; must. out Aug. 11, 1865, Asahel Parks, Co. D; must. out June 13, 1865. Charles Parks, Co. D; must. out July 26, 1865. Charles Myers, Co. D; must. out July 26, 1865. Birdsey S. Remmley, Co. D; must. out July 26, 1865. Elmer Farry, Co. E; must. out May 27, 1865. Thomas Brayman, Co. F; must. out July 26, 1865. Byron Brine, Co. G; must. out Aug. 24, 1865. Nathaniel Millard, Co. G; must. out July 28, 1865. Wm. N. Younglove, Co. G; must. out Sept. 4, 1865, J eslle Hackett, Co. G; must. out July 26, 1865. Elisha Wilcox, Co. G; must. out July 26, 1865. George Care. Co. G; must. out July 26, 1865. John Cleveland, Co. G; must. out July 26, 1865. Samuel H. Dillon, Co. G; must. out July 26, 1865. Thomas W. Dillon, Co. G; must. out July 26, 1865. Mathew Fifield, Co. G; must. out July 26, 1865. Martin W. Holmes, Co. G; must. out July 26, 1865. Rodney D. Johnson, Co. G; must. out July 26, 1865. John Jobnson, Co. G; must. out July 26, 1865. Charles S. Marsh. Co. G; must. out July 26, 1865. Michael O'Hara, Co. G; must. out July 26, 1865. Eugene D. Putney, Co. G; must. out July 26, 1865. Christopher Purchase, Co. G; must. out July 26, 1865. John W. Rose. Co. G; must. out July 26, 1865. Isaac Walter. Co. G; must. out July 26, 1865. Christopher Wood, Co. G; must. out July 26, 1865. Nathaniel Winans, Co. G; must. out July 26, 1865. William C. Cook, Co. H; disch. Jan. 27, 1865, for wounds received Aug. 16, 1864. Michael Schmolder, Co. H; must. out May 27, 1865. Charles T. Jeffers, Co. K; disch. in Sept. 1864, for promotion in U. S. C. T. Lewis A. Briggs, Co. K; disch. for wounds, Dec. 24, 1864. Marcus Hatch, Co K: mustered out July 26, 1865. Christopher Myers, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Truman C. Baker, Co. K; must. out May 31, 1865. Cyrus W. Elliott, Co. K; must. out May 27,1865. Peter Cook, Co. K; must. out June 6, 1865. Wm. H. H. Dunn, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Samuel G. Wright, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. William C. Farnham, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. William Kent, Co. K; must. out Aug. 7, 1865. Solomon Armstrong, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. John Anderson, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Horace A. Brockway, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. John D. Burgess, Co. K; must. Out June 2, 1865. John Beaver, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Albert W. Bates, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. John Corcoran, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Alexander Coleman, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Stephen P. Choate, Co. K; must. out June 5, 1865 Henry A. Clow, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Martin Collar. Co. Ki must. out July 26, 1865. Samuel Cressev, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Isaac Chase, Co. K; must. out June 7, 1865. Wilbur D. Dolph, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Gilbert Ellis, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. James Fifield, Co. K; must. out July 25, 1865. John Greening, Co. K; must. out June 9, 1865. Charles Harris, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. John W. Huff, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Marks H. Hyliard, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Benjamin E. Hyliard, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Alpheus W. Hammond, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. John Herwath, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Marion Kink, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Nathan B. Lewis, Co. K; must. out June 28, 1865. Thomas Lozier, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Alfred J. Marks, Co. K; must. out May 26, 1865. Henry McLean, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Wellington Mickle, Co. K; must. out June 13, 1865. James McDougall, Co. K; muist. out July 26, 1865. John W. Osterhout, Co. K; must. out July 31, 1865, Albert W. Potter, Co. K; disch. for disability, Feb. 22, 1865. Samuel L. Parsons, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. William Rutan, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. William L. Rurick, Co. K; must. out Aug. 7, 1865. Gilbert H. Rurick, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Huron (or Aaron )Rose, Co. K; disch. May 6, 1865. Milo Rich, Co. K; must. out June 6, 1865. Oshea F. Reyner, Co. K; disch. for wounds, Dec. 5, 1864. Jacob Rhodes, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Francis Sanderson, Co. K; must. out June 12, 1865. John Snyder, Co. K; must. out Aig. 3, 1865. Justus Stewart, Co. K; must. out Aug. 7, 1865. George Sparks, Co. K; must. out June 10, 1865. Christopher Shultz, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. James H. Smith, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Charles St. John, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Thomas H. Twist, Co. K; mus. out July 26, 1865. James Todd, Co. K; must. out May 26, 1865. Duane Van Dreisen, Co. K; disch. for disability, June 28, 1865. Jonathan Washburn, Jr., Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Solomon T. Worden, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Patrick W. Welch, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. ' Alexander Wilkins, Co. K; must. out May 26, 1865. Dennis Wright, Co. K; must. out May 30, 1865. Peter Winters, Co. K; must. out June 10, 1865. Charles Jorobman, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. SECOND INDEPENDENT COMPANY OF SHARPSHOOTERS, ATTACHED TO TWENTY-SEVENTH INFANTRY. William W. Wilkins, killed at Spottsylvania, Va., June 12, 1864. James McHughes, killed at Cold Harbor, Va., June 6, 1864. Leroy A. Button, killed at Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864. William L. Riggs, killed at Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864. Andrew Hillard, killed at North Anna, Va., May 20, 1864. George F. Anderson, killed at Petersburg, Va., July 30, 1864. Martin Winfield, killed at Petersburg, Va., July 30, 1864. William Allen, killed at Petersburg, Va., June 24. 1865. Jacob S. Conklin, died of wounds, May 10, 1864, at Fredericksburg, Va. Patrick Donnelly, died of wounds, June 29, 1864, at Washington, D. C. Ira Norton, died of wounds, June 11, 1864, at WhiteHouse, Va.

Page  97 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGA IN. 97 William Pierce, died of wounds, June 17, 1864. Lewis Smith, died of wounds, Aug. 1, 1864. William E. C. McGowan, died of wounds, Aug. 19, 1864. Ed H. Blackman, missing in action at Petersburg, Va., July 30, 1864. Fred Paskett, missing in action at Petersburg, Va. July 30, 1864. George Wartzwig, missing in action at Petersburg, Va., July 30, 1864. George H. Adams, must. out Oct. 18, 1865. John S. Blackmer, must. out July 26, 1865. Urial O. Chase, must. out Aug. 8, 1865. Daniel D. Dunks, must. out May 31, 1865. E. K. Eastman, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. William R. Filkins, must. out July 26, 1865. Abraham Frisbie, must. out July 26, 1865. Albert Frantz, must. out July 26, 1865. James Graham, must. out May 18, 1865. William Hoolihan, must. out July 26, 1865. Joseph Hoolihan, must. out July 26, 1865. Ira J. Knickerbocker, must. out June 23, 1865. John E. Lewis, must. out Aug. 18. 1865. Ismel Lozier, disch. for disability, March 13, 1865. Scott Marshall, disch. May 4, 1865. Timothy D. Porter, must. out June 17, 1865. Joseph R. Philips, disch. for disability, Jan. 20, 1865. Franklin S. Peck, must. out June 24, 1865. David L. Reynolds, must. out June 9, 1865. George F. Smith, must. out May 29, 1865. George Shrutt, must. out June 30. 1865. James W. Stephens, disch. by order, June 7, 1865. Frederick Wolf. must. out July 26, 1865.,Charles Wilkins, must. out July 26, 1865. George Wenetig, disch. for disability, June 13, 1865. Joseph Warwick, Jr., disch. June 20, 1865. William Wilson, must. out Aug. 16, 1865. Martin Winfield, must. out July 26, 1865. James P. Young, must. out July 26, 1865. Joseph Marvin, must. out July 8, 1865. THIRTIETH INFANTRY. George A. Douglass, commissioned capt. Nov. 28, 1864; mustered out June 30, 1865. William C. Campbell, com. 1st lieut. Nov. 28, 1864; must. out June 30, 1865. John A. Forbes, com. 2d lieut. Nov. 28, 1864; must. out June 30, 1865. Orr'in S. Davis, Co. G; died at Jackson, Mich., May 23, 1865. Irving S. Hill, Co. G; died at Detroit, Mich., Jan. 15, 1865. Byron Pierce, Co. C; must. out June 30, 1865, at close of war with the following comrades: Eugene Reeves, Co. C; John Benjamin, Jr., Co. C; William Handyside, Co. C; Israel King, Co. C; Francis Smith, Co. C; John Scanow, Co. C; Parker K. Allen, Co. E: Wm. Ernest Lockwood, Co. H; David Fox, Co. H; Joseph Totten, Co. H; Henry HumDhrey, Co. H; Edwin N. Douglass, Co. H; Eugene J. Olney, Co. H; Willard Hattell, Co. H; Aaron B. Ranney, Co. H; William J. Stone, Co. H; Andrew C. Peterson, Co. H; Walter C. Browning, Co. H; William Ramsev, Co. G; Alfred E. Archibald, Co.;-: William E. Aldrich, Co. G; John Arch, Co. G; Matthew Burt, Co. G; George Britton. Co. G; John Boone, Co. GT; Bernard A. Cook, Co. G; James M. Cutler, Co. G; Homer A. Campbell, Co. G; Elijah W. Craig, Co. G; George E. Conant, Co. G; Alvin Drake, Co. G; John F. Delamater, Co.-G; George A. Davenport, Co. G; Charles R. Dean, Co. G; Charles H. Dean, Co. G; Charles B. Fowler, Co. G; George D. Gray, Co. G; Charles W. Goodale, Co. G; Martin G. Hitchcock, Co. G; John Howland, Co. G; Alpheus F. Haas, Co. G; George D. Irish, Co. G; Ferdinand Kelsey, Co. G; Levi H. Kinney, Co. G; Charles Lockwood, Co. G; Franklin Lewis, Co. G; Wm. R. Montgomery, Jr., Co. G; Alpheus D. Maloney, Co. G; James H. Miller, Co. G; Chester Martin, Co. G; Charles Martin, Co. G; John C. Moore, Co. G; Reuben Moses, Co. G; James H. Newell, Co. G; Frank Nicholson, Co. G; Edgar J. Older, Co. G; Darwin Odell, Co. G; Samuel Odell, Co. G; John Pettit, Co. G; Newton W. Piper, Co. G; David W. Perry, Co. G; James R. Quigley, Co. G; John B. Robins, Co. G; Burtis Robins, Co. G; Seth Robins, Co. G; Frank W. Ralph, Co. G; Stephen N. Rowley, Co. G; David L. Stone, Co. G; Daniel Snyder, Co. G; Seth J. Spitter, Co. G; Martin U. B. Stranahan, Co. G; Theodore Silvernail, Co. G; Milton Shepardson, Co. G; Franklin Stuck, Co. G; Michael R. Spellman, Co. G; Arvid S. Thomas, Co. G; Stephen G. Updyke, Co. G; Stephen G. Vandyer, Co. G; Charles E. Vandyer. Co. G; Lewis T. Worden, Co. G; Arthur A. Walters, Co. G; Gilbert D. Walmsley, Co. G; Wm. H. Kelley, Co. K; Wm. Levanway, Co. K; John T. Porter, Co. K; Daniel Morehouse, Co. K; Ezra W. Weaver, Co. K. FIRST SHARPSHOOTERS. Lucien Meigs, com. capt., March 31, 1863; res. Aug. 9, 1864. William Clark, corn. 1st lieut., March 31, 1863; res. May 3, 1864. Thomas R. Fowler, com. 1st lieut., March 31, 1863; capt. Aug. 15, 1864; disch. for disability, Oct. 16, 1864. Asahel R. Strong, com. asst. surg., Jan. 15, 1864; disch. for disability, July 9, 1864. Leverett N. Case, com. 1st lieut., Oct. 14, 1864; cap., March 7, 1865, and brev. maj., April 2, 1865, for bravery before Petersburg. Francis Wh'ipple, cor. 1st lieut., March 31, 1863; disch. for disability, Sept. 13, 1864. Albert P. Thomas, com. 2d lieut., March 31, 1863; disch. for disability, Sept. 13, 1864. Matthew C. Sharp, Co. C; died at Chicago, Ill., Oct. 17, 1863. James G. Stombaugh, Co. C; died at Dearborn, Mich., July 5, 1863. Reuben Evy, Co. B; died of wounds, June 6, 1864. James Fullerton, Co. B; killed near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864. Alexander Wallace, Co. B; died of wounds, June 23, 1864, at Annapolis, Junc., Md., Sylvester M. Osborn, Co. B; killed at Spottsylvania, Va.. May 12, 1864. Elias Fullerton, Co. B; killed at Spottsylvania, Va., May 12, 1864. Charles Quance, Co. B; killed at Spottsylvania, Va., Mav 12, 1864. Clark Fox, Jr., Co. B; killed at Spottsylvania, Va., May 12, 1864. John Beck. Co. B; killed at North Anna River, Va., May 25, 1864. John B. Gilbert, Co. C; killed near Petersburg, Va., June 28, 1864.

Page  98 98 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Alonzo B. Walls, Co. C; killed near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864. Warren Sharp, Co. C; died of wounds, near Petersburg, Va., July 13, 1864. Gilbert Morehouse, Co. C; died of wounds near Petersburg, June 22, 1864. Roland Mills, Co. C; died of wounds, near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864. John S. Vader, Co. C; killed in the Wilderness, Va., May 6, 1864. Randolph Betts, Co. C; killed at Spottsylvania, Va., May 12, 1864. Charles Fox, Co. B; died at Annapolis, Md., March 28, 1864. James Signs, Co. B; died at Camp Douglas, Ill., March 29, 1864. Charles A. Vliet, Co. C; killed accidentally on railroad, Feb. 8, 1864. Albert C. Baker, Co. C; died at Camp Douglas, Ill., Feb. 21, 1864. William M. Cummings, Co. C; died at Alexandria, Va., July 3, 1864. Willard Barnes, Co. C; died at City Point, Va., Aug. 19, 1864. Nicholas Crilley, Co. C; died. James Larronay, Co. C; died at City Point, Va., Aug. 12, 1864. Lucius P. Spencer, Co. C; died at David's Island, N. Y., July 24, 1864. Hiram Pierce, Co. C; died at Reading, Mich., Sept. 7, 1864. Lafayette Weston, Co. C; died at Annapolis, Md., Oct. 27, 1864. Joseph Crawford, Co. C; died at Annapolis, Md., March 31, 1864. Francis Urie, Co. C; missing near Petersburg, Va., July 30, 1864; returned. Stanley W. Turner, Co. C; missing near Petersburg, Va., July 30, 1864; returned. Milo Osterhout, Co. H; missing near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864; returned. Daniel Cross, Co. C; trans. to V. R. C., Jan. 15, 1864. George W. Wainer, N. C. S.; disch. Sept. 10, 1864. Charles H. Field, Co. C; killed near Petersburg, Va., March 29, 1865. Clark Fox, Sr., Co. B; died at Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 27, 1864. Cyrus Face, Co. B; died at Andersonville, Ga., Sept. 9, 1864. Augustus H. Ferris, Co. C; died at Salisbury, N. C., June 5, 1865. Russell T. Lawrence, Co. C; died at Alexandria, Va., Dec. 2, 1864. William O. Clemens, Co. C; died at Andersonville, Ga., July 25, 1864. Alfred Davis, Co. C; died on hospital boat, Oct. 15, 1864. Nathan J. Cahon, Co. H; died at Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 13, 1864. Judson Eldred, Co. C.; disch. Sept. 16, 1863. James Scoby, Co. C.; disch. June 16. 1863. Silas Beckworth, Co. C; disch. for disability. Theodore V. Purdy, N. C. S.; must. out July 28, 1865. Albert H. Keating, N. C. S.; must. out July 28, 1865. George W. Crisler, Co. A; must. out Sept. 6, 1865. Daniel Fisher, Co. A; must. out May 12, 1865. William R. Branyan, Co. A; must. out June 24, 1865. Henry Doile, Co. A; disch. by order. John B. Eaton, Co. A; disch. by order. Osborn Sheeley, Co. A; disch. by order. Joseph Stevens, Co. B; must. out June 2, 1865. Ralph McClellan, Co. B; must. out June 2,1865 George W. Barnes, Co. B; must. out July 28, 1865. William Bryant, Co. B; must. out July 28, 1865. Henry Burton, Co. B; must. out July 28, 1865. Peter Demarest, Co. B; must. out July 28, 1865. Andrew H. Face, Co. B; must. out June 13, 1865. Benjamin Hosmer, Co. B; must. out July 28, 1865. Marvin Maloney, Co. B; must. out July 28, 1865. Chester R. Phillips, Co. B; musjt. out July 28, 1865. Albert Quance, Co. B; disch. June 20, 1865. Harrison Snyder, Co. B; must. out July 28, 1865. Colland Stafford, Co. B; must. out July 1, 1865. Charles Stafford, Co. B; must. out July 28, 1865. John H. Sweet, Co. B; must. out Aug. 14, 1865. Irwin Stocker, Co. B; must. out July 28, 1865. William W. Wells, Co. B; must. out July 28, 1865. Orion Hopkins, Co. B; must. out Aug. 14. 1865. Charles W. Lake, Co. C; disch. Jan. 7, 1865. William C. Hughes, Co. C; must. out July 28, 1865. James S. Adams, Co. C; must. out. Lewis C. Adams, Co. C; must. out July 28, 1865. Andrew Bailey, Co. C; must. out July 28, 1865. Spencer Beard, Co. C; must. out Aug. 7, 1865. William Burroughs, Co. C; disch. Dec. 15, 1864. Albert H. Cook, Co. C; must. out July 28, 1865. George Davis, Co. C; must. out Aug. 5, 1865. John D. Evans, Co. C; must. out July 28, 1865. Jedediah Grey, Co. C; d'isch. May 8, 1865. William H. Guy, Co. C; must. out Aug. 14, 1865. Amos Hoffman, Co. C; disch. March 3, 1865. John D. Hunt, Co. C; must. out July 28, 1865. Joel B. Haynes, Co. C; must. out May 31, 1865. George D. Lenhart, Co. C; must. out July 28, 1865. James McConnell, Co. C; must. out July 28, 1865. John W. Potter, Co. C; disch. May 9, 1865. Job Priest, Co. C; must. out July 28, 1865. Augustus Ransom, Co. C; must out July 28, 1865. Zina D. Ransom, Co. C; must out May 29, 1865. William C. Raymond, Co. C. Nathaniel Rogers, Co. C; must. out Aug. 19, 1865. Andrew J. Savage, Co. C; must. out July 28, 1865. Alonzo B. Smith, Co. C; must. out July 28. 1865. John H. Spencer, Co. C; must. out July 28, 1865. Eugene A. Taylor, Co. C; must. out Aug. 11, 1865. Thomas Urie, Co. C; must. out June 7, 1865. William Wagner, Co. C; must. out Aug. 14, 1865. Eliphalet Barber, Co. C; disch. by writ of habeas corpus, May 2, 1863. Charles E. Nichols, Co. C; must. out. Aug. 14, 1865. Alexander Cahon, Co. C; must. out July 28, 1865. John W. Lathrop, Co. C; must. out June 8, 1865. Almond C. Abbott, Co. C; must. out July 28, 1865. Leman C. Abbott, Co. C; must. out June 6, 1865. Franklin Palmer, Co. C; must. out June 5, 1865. Franklin Bell, Co. C; must. out July 28, 1865. Levi J. Faulk, Co. C; must. out July 14, 1865. Stanley W. Turner, Co. C; must. out June 13, 1865. Daniel Teachout, Co. E; must. out July 28, 1865. James B. Haight, Co. E; disch. Feb. 28, 1865. Peter Hagerman, Co. E; must. out July 28, 1865. George C. Dean, Co. F; must. out June 3, 1865. Frank McClelland, Co. F; must. out June 3, 1865. Alfred D. Nobles, Co. F; must. out June 3, 1865. Edward P. Robbins, Co. F; must. out June 7, 1865. Oliver Sharp, Co. F; must. out June 7, 1865. Cornelius Youngs, Jr., Co. I; must. out Aug. 14, 1865. Josiah Walker, Co. I; must. out June 26, 1865. Riley Wilson, Co. I; must. out June 2, 1865. Joseph WiCkham, Co, I; must. out June 2 1865. Stephen W. Wickham, Co. I; must. out June 2, 1865.

Page  99 HILLSDALE CO FIRST ENGINEERS AND MECHANICS. Caleb A. Ensign, corn. 2d lieut., Dec. 8, 1863; Is lieut., March 11, 1864. Jacob Shafer, Co. H; died Dec. 20, 1862. Anson R. Eddy, Co. H; died of wounds Oct. 10, 1862 at Perryville, Ky. Simeon Hicks, Co. B; died at Evansville, Ind., Jan. 3 1864. George Shafer, Co. I; died at Cartersville, Ga., Sept 7 1864. Christopher Kinney, Co. E; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps Hiram Carey, Co. A; disch. for dis. Nov. 17, 1862. John Price, Co. H; disch. for dis. June 21, 1862. Jeremiah Gardner, Co. A: disch. March 9, 1863. John D. Shoemaker, Co. G; disch. June 18, 1863. Edwin Smith, Co. A; disch. at end of service, Oct. 31 1864. John Pittswood, Co. D; disch. at end of service, Oct 31, 1864. Albert Roberts, Co. H; disch. at end of service, Oct 31, 1864. Harmon S. Wood, Co. K; disch. for dis. Dec. 26, 1863 Albert M. Wells, Co. K; disch. at end of service, Oct 31, 1864. James B. Lyon, Co. H; disch. to re-enlist, Jan. 1, 1864 Wm. Hedden, Co. K; disch to re-enlist, Feb. 14, 1864. Benj. F. Edwards, N. C. S.; disch. at ex. of service Oct. 31, 1864. John W. Covert, Co. E; disch. by order, June 6, 1865 Freeman Fuller, Co. F; disch. by order, July 7, 1865 Peleg G. Roberts, Co. K; disch. by order, Sept. 9, 1862 The following were mustered out at Nashville Tenn., Sept. 22, 1865: Edgar A. Shattuck, Co. A George A. Hicks, Co. B; Henry J. Devoe, Co. G; Al fred Phillips, Co. G; Samuel J. Hoot, Co. G; Eucl'i Hubbard, Co. G; George Carlow, Co. H; Jonathan D Butler, Co. H; Daniel Bolles, Co. I. SECOND CAVALRY. Frederick Fowler, com. capt., Sept. 2, 1861; lieut.-col. Dec. 1862; res. May 2, 1863. Jasper A. Waterman, com. 1st lieut., Sept. 2, 1861 res. Sept. 8, 1862. James Hawley, com. 2d lieut., Sept. 2, 1861; 1st lieut. Sept. 8, 1862; capt., Jan. 30, 1863; killed al Chickamauga on staff of Gen. Stanley, Sept. 20 1863. Robert Taylor, app. chap. Sept. 4, 1862; res. Feb. 10 1864. Samuel V. Robertson, com. 2d lieut., May 2, 1863; lsl lieut., March 1, 1864; capt., Dec. 1, 1864; must. oul Aug. 17, 1865. F. Byron Cutler, com. 2d lieut., June 9, 1862; res. Ma; 2, 1863. Edwin Eddy, com. 2d lieut., March 1, 1864; res. Nov 19, 1864. Joseph Palmer, corn. 1st lieut., Oct. 22, 1864; must out Aug. 17, 1864. Warren Bowen, com. 2d lieut., Dec. 31, 1864; 1st lieut. 1865; must. out with regt. Jerry Arnold, Co. G; died at New Madrid, April 14 1862. James E. Ainsworth, Co. G; died at Rienzi, Miss. July 15, 1862. William Ashley, Co. G; died at Camp Benton, Mo. Feb. 14, 1862. William Brock, Co. G; died at Reading, Mich., May 25 1862. UNTY, MICHIGAN. 99 Austin Cone, Co. G; died at Farmington, Miss., June 16, 1862. t Alton S. Ford, Co. G; died at Jefferson, Mich., May 22, 1862. Ansel Fleetwood, Co. G; died at New Madrid, Mo., ', April 11, 1862. William Tuttle, Co. G; died at Camp Benton, Mo., Dec. 4, 1861. Norman Benedict, Co. G; died at Keokuk, Iowa. Darwin E. Brown, Co. G; died at Keokuk, Iowa. Robert H. Cowan, Co. M; died at New Madrid, Mo., April 10, 1862. Hiram J. Harris, Co. M; died at St. Louis, Mo., May 31, 1862. Ezra W. Norcutt, Co. M; died April 3, 1862. Clement C. Hutton, Co. M; died at Rienzi, Miss., Aug. 11, 1862. J. H. Ndrton, Co. G; died at Nicholasville, Ky., on Sept. 1, 1863. Martin Williams, Co. G; killed at Chattanooga, Tenn., Oct. 8, 1863. Owen W. McManus, Co. M; killed at Florence, Ala., Sept. 7, 1864. William H. Graves, Co. G; died at Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 12, 1863. Warren B. Narcott, Co. M; died at Franklin, Tenn., Aug. 24, 1864. Israel P. Bates, Co. G; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864. Nathaniel Keith, Co. G; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 15, 1864. Joseph L. Long, Co. G; killed at Tuscaloosa, Ala., April 3, 1865. William Price, Co. G; killed at Franklin, Tenn., Nov. 30, 1864. John A. Carny, Co. G; died of wounds, April 4, 1864, at Nashville, Tenn. William B. Martin, Co. G; died at Chattanooga, Tenn., Oct. 8, 1863. Bradley I. Wilson, Co. G; died at Richmond, Va., Nov. 3, 1863. Comstock Maples, Co. M; died at Louisville, Ky., Dec. 13, 1864. Charles Mapes, Co. M; died at Nashville, Tenn., Nov. 15, 1864. t George W. Baker, Co. G; trans. to 2d Mich. Bat.,Michael McIntyre, Co. G; trans. to 3d Mich. Cav., Nov. 1, 1861., Warren D. Collatimus, Co. G; disch. for disability. Liberty Straw, Co. G; disch. for disability, June 6, t 1862. t Grove S. Bartholomew, Co. G; disch. for disability, March 16, 1862. Henry H. Farris, Co. G; disch. for disability, Feb. 14, 1862. William Hughes, Co. G; disch. March 17, 1862. Sylvester H. Kellogg, Co. G; disch. for disability, Feb. 17, 1862. Aymour R. Shannon, Co. G; disch. for disability. William A. Brown, Co. G; disch. for disability, April 5, 1862. Byron J. Day, Co. G; disch. for disability, Nov. 21, 1862., Jonathan B. Somers, Co. G; disch. for disability, Sept. 26, 1862.,Harvey Wilson, Co. G; disch. for disability, Dec. 18, 1862., William A. Vanhorn, Co. G; disch. for disability, Sept. 8, 1862.,:;::: -' -::,:::::!: ~::~ ~ '::::::-:::-i - ~:i.-

Page  100 I0' HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. James A. Taylor, Co. G; disch. for disability, Sept. 9, 1862. Clarence H. Chapman, Co. G; disch. for disability, July 12, 1862. Otis F. Packard, Co. G; disch. for disability, July 3, 1862. Samuel Wheaton, Co. G; disch. for disability, Sept. 10, 1862. George Perkins, Co. G; disch. for disability. Royal B. Ames, Co. G; disch. for disability, Sept. 15, 1862. John Forquer, Co. G; disch. for disability. Cornelius M. Gregory, Co. G; discharged for disability. Horace W. Titus, Co. G; disch. for disability, Sept. 11, 1862. James Appleton, Co. G; disch. for disability, Sept. 11, 1862. John Pease, Co. G; disch. for disability, Oct. 15, 1862. William H. Barrett, Co. G; disch. for disability, Oct. 15, 1862. Homer H. Kidder, Co. G; disch. for disability, Oct. 3, 1862. Thaddeus M. Southworth, Co. M; disch. for disability, May 2, 1862. Robert Wilson, Co. M; disch. for disability, Sept. 27, 1862. Andrew Peterson, Co. B.; disch. for disability, April 4, 1863. A. J. Filkins, Co. D; disch. for disability, March 21, 1863. John H. Stage, Co. D; disch. for disability, July 14, 1863. Ralph Bailey, Co. G; disch. for disability, Nov. 13, 1863. Jabez H. Moses, Co. G; disch. for disability, March 30, 1863. John B. Harrington, Co. G; disch. for disability, May 1, 1863. Arthur Walter, Co. G; disch. for disability, Aug. 5, 1863. Nicholas Tibbits, Co. G; disch. for disability, Aug. 6, 1863. Walter B. Straw, Co. G; disch. for disability, Aug. 11, 1863. Austin Winney, Co. K; disch. for disability, May 20, 1863. Stephen Turner, Co. G; disch. Oct. 27, 1863. Wm. Davenport, Co. G; disch. Jan. 24, 1863. James Thompson, Co. G; disch. Oct. 1, 1864. George A. Douglas, Co. G; disch. Oct. 1, 1864. William C. Campbell, Co. G; disch. Oct. 1, 1864. Hugh Longhey, Co. G; disch. Oct. 1, 1864. Charles Vanderburg, Co. G; disch. Oct. 1, 1864. Joshua Henry, Co. G; disch. Oct. 1, 1864. Judah Reed, Co. G; disch. Oct. 1, 1864. Joseph Sturdevant, Co. G; disch. Oct. 1, 1864. Theron D. Walters, Co. G; disch. Oct. 1, 1864. Ephraim B. Briggs, Co. G; disch Oct. 1, 1864. Nelson E. Kidder, Co. G; disch. Oct. 1, 1864. Thomas O'Brien, Co. M; disch. in Jan., 1863. Sidney R. Smith, Co. M; must. out Aug. 17, 1865. John Aulsbro, Co. G; disch. to re-enl. as vet., Jan. 5, 1864. Charles S. BeckWith, Co. G; disch. to re-enl. as vet., Jan. 5, 1864. Washington J. Bulson, Co. G; disch. to re-enl. as vet., Jan. 5, 1864. James Burt, Co. G; disch. to re-enl. as vet., Jan. 5, 1864. Even H. Dunton, Co. G; disch. to re-enl. as vet., Jan. 5, 1864. Eli R. Forquer, Co. G; disch. to re-enl. as vet., Jan. 5, 1864. Richard Morrison, Co. G; disch. to re-enl. as vet., Jan. 5, 1864. Abram F. Pierce,.Co. G; disch. to re-enl. as vet., Jan. 5, 1864. Gabriel See, Co. G; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Jan. 5, 1864. Charles Wooster, Co. G; disch. to re-enl. as vet., Jan. 5, 1864. Frank L. Weston, Co. G; disch. to re-enl. as vet., Jan. 5, 1864. Owen McManus, Co. M; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Jan. 5, 1864. Friend Alvord, Co. A; must. out Aug. 17, 1865. Henry Jones, Co. B; must. out Aug. 17, 1865. Sylvester J. Olmstead, Co. B; must. out June 20, 1865. Wilbur Showler, Co. B; must. out, June 20, 1865. Reuben D. Bowen, Co. B; must. out -June 27, 1865. William Carson, Co. C; must. out June 6, 1865. Patrick Doolin, Co. C; Aug. 25, 1865. David B. Finn, Co. G; Aug. 17, 1865. Merrick G. Blood, Co. D; must. out Aug. 17, 1865. Roderick C. Phillip, Co. E; must. out Aug. 17, 1865. Peter Keefer, Co. F; must. out June 13, 1865. Henry Zupp, Co. F; disch. for disability, July 28, 1864. Wells W. Gates, Co. G; must. out Aug. 17, 1865. Frank H. Proctor, Co. G; disch. May 3, 1865. Henry H. Brown, Co. G; disch. June 10, 1865. Warren Bowen, Co. G; must. out Aug. 17, 1865. Leander Birdsall, Co. G; must. out Aug. 17, 1865. Oscar H. Duncan, Co. G; must. out Aug. 30, 1865. Joseph Fitzgerald, Co. G; must. out Aug. 30, 1865. George A. Munger, Co. G; must. out Aug. 30, 1865. Chauncey L. Howell, Co. G; must. out Aug. 17, 1865. John F. Howell, Co. G; must. out Aug. 17, 1865. Isaac McCurdy, Co. G; must. out Aug. 17, 1865. Robert McDougal, Co. G; disch. June 13, 1865. James Y. Mesick, Co. G; must. out. Aug. 31, 1865. Alonzo S. Milliken, Co. G; must. out Aug. 17, 1865. Oscar D. Nulton,-Co. G; disch. June 2, 1863. William H. Vandewalker, Co. G; disch. Oct. 22, 1864. Burdett S. Waldo, Co. G; must. out Aug. 17, 1865. Porter Yates, Co. G; must. out June 21, 1865. William C. Howell, Co. G; must. out June 21, 1865. Charles M. Hanna, Co. G; must. out June 21, 1865. John B. Milliken, Co. G; must. out June 8, 1865. Alonzo Alsbo, Co. G; must. out June 21, 1865. John A. White, Co. G; must. out June 21, 1865. William Howe, Co. G; must out June 21, 1865. George W. Burt, Co. G; must. out June 21, 1865. Andrew I. Armdon, Co. G; must. out June 21, 1865. David McDuffie, Co. G; must. out May 15, 1866. Francis E. Bird, Co. G; must. out June 21, 1865. Edward C. Smith, Co. G; must. out June 21, 1865. Jefferson M. Campbell, Co. G; disch. for disability, July 17, 1865. Reuben Vickers, Co. G; must. cut June 21, 1865. William W. Taylor, Co. G; must. out June 21, 1865. Christopher Wansley, Co. G; must. out June 3, 1865. Erasmus Wilbur, Co. G; must. out June 3 1865. Philip R. Bowen, Co. G; must. out June 21, 1865. Zachariah Kemp, Co. G; must. out Aug. 1, 1865. Sevmour F. Smith, Co. G; must. out May 17, 1865. Maricn Harriq, Co. K; must. out Aug. 31, 1865. William Birdsall, Co. M; disch. April 17, 1865. James Beddon, Co. M; must. out Aug. 30, 1865. William A. Case, Co. M; must. out Aug. 17, 1865. Samuel Williams, Co. M; must.'out Aug. 17, 1865. Benjamin Ayres, Co. M; dJisch. May 26, 1865. Richard Phillips, Co. M; must. out Sept. 7, 1865.

Page  101 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. FOURTH CAVALRY. Wilford Bates, appointed assistant surgeon, March 10, 1865; not must. Isaac T. Birdsell, Co. G; died at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 8, 1863. Levi R. Watkins, Co. B; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, April 30, 1864. John F. Wagner, Co. F; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864. Nelson Higgins, Co. F; died at Chattanooga, Tenn., June 17, 1864. Alfred Hall, Co. G; died at Memphis, Tenn., Feb. 9, 1865. William A. Lamb, Co. F; disch. for disability, Feb. 3, 1863. J. G. Robb, Co. F; disch. for disability, March 22, 1863. Henry O'Neil, Co. G; disch. for disability, Feb. 4, 1863. Jackson Pardee, Co. G; disch. for disability, May 8, 1863. Henry Rynes, Co. I; disch. for disability, March 18, 1863. Albert S. Wilson, N. C. S.; must. out July 1, 1865. R. Blackmer, Co. F; disch. by order, July 19, 1865. Ira W. Harrington, Co. F; must. out July 1, 1865. Lyman P. Pitts, Co. F; must. out July 1, 1865. Orange C. Smith, Co. F; must out July 1, 1865. George W. Temple, Co. F; must. out July 1, 1865. George W. Tagsgold, Co. F; must. out July 1, 1865. Horace Wilcox, Co. F; must. out July 1, 1865. Peter Walker, Co. F; disch. Dec. 26, 1864. Oscar Wilder, Co. F; must. out July 1, 1865. John O. Williams, Co. F; must. out July 1, 1865. George F. Whitman, Co. F; must. out July 1, 1865. George W. Williams, Co. F; must. out July 1, 1865. William Wright, Co. F; must. out July 1, 1865. Thomas Gorman, Co. F; must. out July 1. 1865. William Chase, Co. F; disch for disability. M. Winchester, Co. F; disch. Feb. 11, 1863. William F. True, Co. F; must. out July 1, 1865. Henry Braddock, Co. F; must. out Aug. 15, 1865. Howard Dickerson, Co. F; must. out Aug. 15, 1865. Delaski W. Fish, Co. F; must. out Aug. 15, 1865. Francis Gurmid, Co. F; disch. by order, May 3, 1865. Simon B. Hadley, Co,. G; disch. for promotion, Feb. 9, 1865. Charles E. Lockwood, Co. G; disch. July 13, 1865. Alonzo Fox, Co. G; must. out July 1, 1865. George B. Allen, Co. G; must. out July 1, 1865. Denison D. Burch, Co. G; must. out July 1, 1865. Lawrence C. Carr, Co. G; must. out July 1, 1865. John Plunkett, Co. G; must. out July 1, 1865. John Sullivan, Co. G; must. out July 1, 1865. Hughes S. Hill, Co. H; must. out July 1, 1865. SEVENTH CAVALRY. Hiram J. Ingersoll, com. 2d lieut., Oct. 15, 1862; 1st lieut., Feb. 28, 1863; must. out Dec. 15, 1865. Henry Guir. Co. F; killed at Falling Waters, Md., July 14, 1863. George W. Lundy, Co. F; died at Gettysburg, Pa., July 15, 1863. C. P. White, Co. F; must. out Nov. 21, 1865. Wm. C. Armstrong, Co. F; must. out Nov. 21, 1865. Asa SDrague, Co. I; missing at Gainesville, Va., Oct. 14, 1863. Jacob Paule, Co. F; killed at Yellow Haven, Va., May 11, 1864. Thomas C. Mercer, Co. F; killed at Smithfield, Va., Aug. 29, 1864. Abraham Hoagland, Co. F; died at Washington, D. C., Feb. 18, 1864. Clark A. Stewart, Co. F; died at Andersonville, Ga., June. 30, 1864. Henry Chaplin, Co. F; tran. V. R. C., Feb. 15, 1864. Linus N. Dillon, Co. F; trans. to V. R. C., Nov. 15, 1863. J. H. Armstrong, Co. F; died of wounds, about May 20, 1864, at Richmond, Va. Stephen Mosher, Co. I; died in Andersonville prison, Ga., Sept. 9, 1864. John E. Covey, Co. F; disch. May 25, 1863. George Arnold, Co. I; disch. July 11, 1863. H. J. Wright, Co. F; disch. March 3. 1864. Isaac Van Vleet, Co. F; disch. Nov. 17, 1863. Henry DeGraff, N. C. S.; must. out Dec. 11, 1865. Norris W. McHurd, Co. E; must. out Dec. 23, 1865. Benton H. Spear, Co. E; must. out Dec. 15, 1865. George Taylor, Co. E; must. out Dec. 15, 1865. Jasper Braden, Co. F; must. out Dec. 15, 1865. Lucton Fairchild, Co. F; must. out Nov. 21, 1865. William Phelps, Co. F; must. out Dec. 15, 1865. William Trealy, Co. F; must. out July 10, 185. Charles Dapp, Co. F; must. out Dec. 15, 1865. Perry Wilson, Co. F; must. out Dec. 15, 1865. Orlando Hammond, Co. G; must out Dec. 15, 1865. Andrew Westcott, Co. I; must. out June 24, 1865. John W. Dunn, Co. I; must. out Dec. 15, 1865. Hiram Leclear, Co. I; must. out Dec. 15, 1865. Washington M. Smith, Co. I; must. out Dec. 15, 1865. Alonzo Wakefield, Co. I; must. out Dec. 15, 1865. This organization is distinguished as being the captors of the daring Rebel raider, Gen. John H. Morgan, whom, after a long chase, they overtook at Buffington Island, Ohio, whlere, after a spirited engagement, in which many of the raiders were killed and wounded, the General and 217 men surrendered. The roster of Hillsdale county men follows: EIGHTH CAVALRY. Charles Billings, Co. B; missing, Macon, Ga., Aug. 3, 1864. E. Papsworth, Co. G. Leander King, Co. G. Milo Rich, Co. B; died. Sidney A. Acker, Co. C; died at Lynchburg, Va., June 30, 1863. Daniel H. Parker, Co. K; died at Athens, Ga., May 16, 1864. Caleb Hale, Co. A; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Freeman Kelly, Co. A; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Hiram Young, Co. A;.must. out Sept. 22, 1865. E. S. Cole, Co. A; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Edward Rossman, Co. A; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Henry Nottage, Co. A; must. out June,16, 1865. James E. O'Dell, Co. A; must. out June 16, 1865. Francis M. Townsend, Co. A; must. out June 16, 1865. Thomas M. Wright, Co. B; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Eli M. Cope, Co. B; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. George P. Tuttle, Co. B; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Monsieur Davison, Co. B; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. John H. Beckwith, Co. C; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Frank A. Bacon, Co. C; must. out Sept. P2. 1865. William J. McElihlne, Co. C; must. out Sept. 22, 1865.

Page  102 I02 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. George W. Asken, Co. C; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. James S. Albro, Co. C; must. out Oct. 10, 1865. William Rosewell, Co. C; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Theodore E. Regston, Co. C; must. out Sept.?2, 1865. Henry B. Strickland, Co. C; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Edward G. Taylor, Co. C; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Oscar B. Abbott, Co. C; must. out June 16, 1865. Adelbert Chapman, Co. C; must. out June 16, 1865. Palerman Castle, Co. C; must. out June 16, 1865. Franklin Foulk, Co. C; must. out June 16, 1865. William C. Gibson, Co. C; must. out June 17, 1865. Herbert C. Hickox, Co. C; must. out July 15, 1865. Samuel B. Nixon, Co. C; must. out June 16, 1865. George W. Southworth, Co. C; must. out June 16, 1865. Delson Allen, Co. C; must. out Dec. 4, 1865. John A. Anable, Co. G; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Levans Bachelor, Co. G; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Byron Brainerd, Co. G; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. James A. Drake, Co. G; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. William H. Eldridge, Co. G; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Albert E. French, Co. G; must. out Oct. 10, 1865. Edward R. Fitzsimmons, Co. G; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. John M. Farquar, Co. G; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Ezra Green, Co. G; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Edward M. Gilbert, Co. G; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. James L. Hickox, Co. G; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. James A. Lards, Co. G; must. out Oct. 10, 1865. Thomas O'Brien, Co. G; must. out Oct. 10, 1865. Franklin Saxton, Co. G; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. George Silkworth, Co. G; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. James S. Stackus, Co. G; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Abram Shafer, Co. G; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Franklin Walston, Co. G; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. John L. Williams, Co. G; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Charles Marvin, Co. G; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. James W. Caruthers, Co. G; must. out June 16, 1865. Albert Maher, Co. H; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. John Nolen, Co. H; must. out July 7, 1865. Alfred E. Papsworth, Co. H; must. out Sept. 22. 1865. Gottfried Aupperle, Co. H; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Wilson S. Blair, Co. K; must. out June 16, 1865. Daniel Fullerton, Co. K; must. out June 16, 1865. Leroy Blair, Co. K; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Joseph Cough, Co. K; must. out June 16, 1865. John B. Harrington, Co. K; must. out June 16, 1865. Charles L. Hews, Co. K; must. out June 16, 1865. Franklin Horton, Co,. K; must. out June 16, 1865. Joseph Hagerman, Co. K; must. out June 16, 1865. William A. Northrup, Co. K; must. out June 16, 1865. A. F. Terpenning, Co. K; must. out June 16, 1865. John Carey, Co. L; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. F. Pitts, Co. M; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Milo Brittain, Co. M; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. William Hughes, Co. M; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Edgar C. Kilborn, Co. M; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Armour Lockman, Co. M; disch. Aug. 17, 1865. George L. Mapes, Co. M; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Charles H. O'Neill, Co. M; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Edgar Rodgers, Co. M; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Wilson Tucker, Co. M; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Andrew I. Webster, Co. M; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Ephraim B. Warner, Co. M; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Jonathan F. Wines, Co. M; must. out Sept. 12, 1865. Lorenzo Cummings, Co. M; must. out June 28, 1865. Andrew Johnson; Co. M; must. out Aug. 12, 1865. ELEVENTH CAVALRY. John D. Frisbie, com. 1st lieut. Aug. 1, 1863; capt., Jan. 15, 1864; res. April 7, 1865. George W. Cutler, com. 2d lieut., Aug. 1, 1863; wounded and captured at Saltville, Va., Oct. 2, 1864; exchanged Feb. 21, 1865; disch. May 15, 1865. William S. Mapes, com. 2d lieut., Oct. 29, 1864; must. out Aug. 10, 1865. Daniel R. Rozelle, com. 2d lieut., Oct. 29, 1864; trans. to 8th cav.; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. William C. Fitzsimmons, com, 2d lieut., Jan. 21, 1865. Charles S. Linds, Co. A; died at Lexington, Ky., March 9, 1864. Peter McLouth, Co. D; died at Lexington, Ky., March 20, 1864. John Swick, Co. L; died at Camp Nelson, Ky., May 18, 1864. Joseph W. Gould, Co. B; missing at Saltville, Va., Oct. 2, 1864; returned. Oscar L. Niles, Co. B; died at Lexington, Ky., April, 1865. Warner Perham, Co. D; died at Lexington, Ky., Sept. 21, 1864. Stephen Fitzsimmons, Co. I; died at Lexington, Ky., Jan. 2, 1865. Samuel C. Everts, Co. K; died at Saltville, Va., of wounds, Oct. 3, 1864. Carlos Pomeroy, Co. L; died at Greenville, Va., April 25, 1865. J. J. Purdy, Co. M; missing at Andersonville, S. C., May 20, 1865. L. J. Smith, Co. M; missing at Andersonville, S. C., May 20, 1865. George L. Nicoll, Co. D, and A. C. Barnard, Co. D. were transferred to U. S. colored regiments, and the following to the 8th Michigan Cavalry: Albert E. French, Co. A; Edward R. Fitzsimmons, Co. A; John M. Farquar, Co. A; Abram Shapes, Co. A; John A. Anable, Co. A; Levens Bachelor, Co. A; William C. Burns, Co. A; James A. Drake, Co. A; William H. Eldridge, Co. A; Ezra Green, Co. A; Edward M. Gilbert, Co. A; James Hickox, Co. A; James A. Lards, Co. A; Thomas O'Brien, Co. A; Franklin Saxton, Co. A; George Silkworth, Co. A; James S. Stackas, Co. A; Philip Veille, Co. A; Franklin Walston, Co. A; John L. Williams, Co. A; John F. Craig, Co. B; Joseph M. Gould, Co. B; Charles Marvin, Co. B; Thomas Pitts, Co. C; Milo Britton, Co. D; Lorenzo Cummings, Co. D; William Hughes, Co. D; Edgar C. Kilburn, Co. D; Armour Lockmer, Co. D; George L. Mapes, Co. D; Charles H. Miner, Co. D; Charles O'Neill, Co. D; Thomas Rooney, Co. D; William Rooney, Co. D; Edgar Rogers, Co. D; Andrew J. Webster, Co. D; Ephraim Warner, Co. D; Jonathan F. Wines, Co. D; Daniel Fullerton, Co. E; Daniel H. Parker, Co. E; A. F. Terpenning, Co. F; Joseph Cough, Co. F; John B. Harrington. Co. F; William A. Northrup, Co. F; Charles F. Hawes, Co. F; Wilson L. Blair, Co. F; Leroy Blair, Co. F; Franklin Hunter, Co. F; Thomas Wright, Co. G; Ephraim B. Cooper, Co. H; Cyrus Robertson, Co. H; Elias M. Cope, Co. H; Wm. A Place, Co. H; George Tuttle. Co. H; Mons Davison, Co. I; Hiram Young, Co. I; E. S. Cole, Co. K; Edward Rossman, Co. K; James Odell, Co. K; Francis M. Townsend, Co. K; Henry Nettage, Co. K; John H. Beckwith, Co. L; Frank A. Bacon, Co. L; W. J. McElishine, Co. L; Adelbert R. Chapman, Co. L; Alanson M. Chapman, Co. L; Wm. C. Gibson, Co. L; Palerman Castle, Co. L; Henry B. Strickland, Co. M; Edward G. Taylor, Co. M; James S. Albro, Co. M; Jackson Pennoyer, Co. M: George W. Asken, Co. M; Oscar B. Abell, Co. M; Delyon C. Allen, Co. M; Sidney A. Acker, Co. M; Samuel B. Nixon, Co. M; James Odell, Co. M; Wm.

Page  103 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I03 Roswell, Co. M; Theodore M. Regston, Co. M; George W. Southworth, Co. M; Daniel B. Shipman, Co. M. Edgar Davidson, Co. K; wa's transferred to the Ist Sharpshooters, the remainder of the Roster being as follows: Joseph Milton, Co. K; disch. for dis. Aug. 8, 1864. Samuel P. Humphreys, Co. L; disch. July 22, 1864. Charles M. Wade, Co. A; disch. for promotion. Edwin Smith, Co. A; must. out May 18, 1865. Eliphalet Barber, Co. A; must. out May 29, 1865. Robert M. Cox, Co. A; disch. by order, Aug. 10, 1865. Garrett W. Carr. Co. A; disch. by order, Aug. 10, 1865. Emery Forbes, Co. A; must. out June 12, 1865. Harvey Hilton, Co. A; disch. Aug. 10, 1865. Josiah C. Jennison, Co. A; mus. out May 15, 1865. Walter Razell, Co. A; must. out May 15, 1865. Warren Sprague, Co. A; disch. Aug. 10, 1865. James E. Carruthers, Co. B; must. out June 16, 1865. Franklin B. Stevens Co. B; must. out May 5, 1865. George A. Webster, Co. D; disch. Aug. 10, 1865. Webster Cooley, Co. D; disch. Aug. 10, 1865. William A. Collins, Co. D; must. out May 18, 1865. Horace M. Gay, Co. D; must. out May 18, 1865. John H. Ireland, Co. D; must. out Oct. 17, 1865. Orrin C. Kelley, Co. D; disch. Aug. 10, 1865. Marcus Young, Co. D; must. out June 23, 1865. Albert Trine, Co. F; must. out May 17, 1865. Bradley Teachout, Co. G; must. out June 16, 1865. R. E. Whipple, Co. H; disch. for promotion. Alfred Boyliss, Co. H; disch. Aug. 10, 1865. Amos D. Olds, Co. I; disch. Aug. 10, 1865. Wm. A. Keys, Co. I; disch. for promotion, July 12, 1864. Joseph Fisher, Co. K; disch. for dis. Dec. 22, 1864. Dyer Freeman, Co. K; disch. for dis. June 16, 1865. Anthony M. Moore, Co. K; disch. June 10, 1865. G. I. Bartholomew, Co. L; must. out May 22, 1865. Alfred H. Wayne, Co. L; must. out June 15, 1865. Benj. F. Foulk, Co. L; must. out June 15, 1865. Benj. D. Kingsley, Co. M; disch. July 12, 1865. Herbert H. Hickok, Co. M; must. out July 15, 1865. Samuel C. Briggs, Co. M; must. out June 1, 1865. Oscar G. Hart, Co. M; disch. Aug. 10, 1865. FIRST LIGHT ARTILLERY. Ira G. Wisner. com. 2d lieut. Bat. G, 1st Light Art., April 18, 1864; 1st lieut. April 6, 1865; must. out Aug. 6, 1865. George W. Baker, Bat. B; died at Cahawba, Ala., 1862. Israel Rameler, Bat. C; died at New Machias, Mo., April 14, 1862. John C. Sinclair, Bat. C; disch. for disability, June 10, 1862. Emanuel Ish, Bat. C; disch. for disability, June 10, 1862. Hamilton Lee, Bat. D; died at Louisville, Ky., Jan. 14, 1862. Chester S. Randall, Bat. B; died at White Pigeon, Mich. John Van Meter, Bat. F; disch. for disability, June 12, 1862. Henry C. Williams, Bat. G; disch. for disability, April 11, 1862. John Truax, Bat. G; disch. for disability, June 20, 1862. George Graham, Bat. G; killed at Thompson's Hill, May 1, 1863. Ira L. Strong, Bat. I; died at Washington, D. C., Jan. 29, 1863. Daniel Boyer, Bat. I; died at Harper's Ferry, Va., Aug. 16, 1863. Gleason F. Reynolds, Bat. F; died at Mumfordsville, Ky., Feb. 19, 1863. James H. Henndun, Bat. F; died at Mumfordsville, Ky., Sept. 1, 1863. Dorris H. Howe, Bat. G; died at St. Louis, Mo., April 9, 1863. Horace B. Doty, Bat. G; died at Milliken's Bend, La., April, 1863. Oscar Barnes, Bat. G; died at Memphis, Tenn., July 23, 1863. Sylvanus R. Plumb, Bat. G; died at Vicksburg, Miss., Aug. 9, 1863. Norman P. Austin, Bat. F; killed near Atlanta, Ga., July 21, 1864. Edgar A. Sprague, Bat. A; died at Louisville, Ky., June 13, 1864. Henry B. Turner, Bat. B; died at Rome, Ga., Aug. 13, 1864. William Vernon, Bat. B; died at Jeffersonville, Ind., Aug. 22, 1864. Smith B. Champlin, Bat. E; died at Jeffersonville, Ind., July 12, 1864. Lorenzo D. Barnes, Bat. E; died at Marietta, Ga., Oct. 2, 1864. Orville Palmer, Bat. I; died at Chattanooga, Tenn., Aug. 4, 1864. Enos C. Plumb, Bat. G; trans. to V. R. C., Sept. 30, 1863. James C. Cooper, Bat. I; trans. to V. R. C., Jan. 15, 1864. Wilson Little, Bat. I; trans. to, V. R. C., Jan. 15, 1864. Jeremiah Gardner. Bat. C; killed at Edisto River, S. C., Feb. 9, 1865. Robert T. Phillips, Bat. D; died in service. William Day, Bat. F; died at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 9, 1865. Andrew J. Cross, Bat. G; died at Portland, Ohio, Oct. 19, 1862. Philemon Cook, Bat. G; died at New Orleans, La., Jan. 19, 1865. Benjamin S. Gunn, Bat. G; drowned in Mobile Bay, Ala., Nov. 20, 1864. Philotus Wheeler, Bat. I; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps. John H. Baker, Bat. B; disch. for promotion, June 22, 1863. Joseph Woolston, Bat. G; disch. for disability, March 28, 1863. Orsamus Doty, Bat. G; disch. for disability, March 26, 1863. Martin Collar, Bat. G; disch. for disability, June 6, 1863. Charles Baker, Bat. G; disch for, disability, Sept. 8, 1863. Christopher H. Britton, Bat. G; disch. for disability, Sept. 23, 1863. Henry W. Loomis, Bat. L; disch. for disability, June 20, 1863. Sylvester Dwight, Bat. A; disch. at exp. of service, May 31, 1864. Watson B. Conklin, Bat. A; disch. at exp. of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Caleb A. Ensign, Bat. C; disch. by order, Dec. 3, 1863. Wesley Davis, Bat. D; disch. for disability, Sept. 2, 1862. James H. Thompson, Bat. D; disch. for disability, July 13, 1862. John Homer Smith, Bat. F; disch. for disability, Jan. 6, 1863. I A;;

Page  104 I04 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. James C. Cooper, Bat. I; disch. for disability, Dec. 26, 1863. Isaiah Libby, Bat. I; disch. for disability, Feb. 24, 1864. Zachariah Layton, Bat. I; disch. for disability, March 7, 1864. Thomas J. Harris, Bat. A; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Feb. 11, 1864. Ira Smith, Bat. C; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Feb. 21, 1864. Henry Carlisle, Bat. F; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, March 26, 1864. James Van Valkenburg, Bat. F; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, March 26, 1864. George W. Jeffers, Bat. A; must. out July 28, 1865. Ozial B. Taylor, Bat. A; must. out July 28, 1865. John Vanmeter, Bat. A; must. out July 28, 1865. Abijah P. Lyke, Bat. A; must. out July 28, 1865. Lewis Martin, Bat. A; disch. by order, May 26, 1865. Daniel H. Mills, Bat. A; must. out July 28, 1865. Melvin Bailey, Bat. B; must. out June 14, 1865. Henry Zupp, Bat. C; disch. for disability, March 25, 1865. William Derby, Bat. C; must. out June 22, 1865. James H. Ostrander, Bat. C; must. out June 22, 1865. William S. Platt, Bat. C; must. out June 22, 1865. Harper V. D. Baker, Bat. D; disch. Sept. 17, 1864. Almond K. Herrington, Bat. D; disch. for disability. Luman Ward, Bat. D. disch. April 28, 1862. Ira Hodges, Bat. D; disch. July 18, 1863. Martin J. English, Bat. D; disch. Dec. 9, 1862. Newman Curtis, Bat. D; disch. Sept. 17, 1864. John D. Fuller, Bat. D; disch. July 28, 1862. Elijah Pond, Bat. D; disch. Sept. 17, 1864. George Plumb, Bat. D; disch. Oct. 31, 1864. Edmund R. Phillips, Bat. D; disch. May 22, 1862. William H. Plumb, Bat. D; disch. Nov. 2, 1864. George W. Sawyer, Bat. D; disch. at Louisville, Ky. John Warren, Bat. D; disch. Oct. 31, 1864. Orel C. Warrener, Bat. D; must. out Aug. 3, 1865. William Aldrich, Bat. F; must. out July 1, 1865. J. Wesley Austin, Bat. F; disch. Jan. 14, 1865. Orson Austin, Bat. F; disch. Aug. 14, 1862. Martin L. Burleson, Bat. F; must. out July 1, 1865. Martin Furlong, Bat. F; must. out July 1, 1865. William W. Fillio, Bat. F; must. out July 1, 1865. Amri Johnson, Bat. F; disch. Jan. 14, 1865. John B. Kelley, Bat. F; must. out July 1, 1865. Daniel E. Maxon, Bat. F; disch. Jan. 12, 1865. Myron Porter, Bat. F; must. out July 1, 1865. Levi C. Smith, Bat. F; disch. Nov. 18, 1862. Michael Selles, Bat. F; disch. April 19, 1865. James C. Vanamel, Bat. F; disch. Dec. 10, 1862. John Higley, Bat. F; must. out July 1, 1865. Stephen S. Johnson, Bat. F; must. out July 1, 1865. Henry M. Johnson, Bat. F; disch. May 18, 1865. Lewis M. Hibbs, Bat. F; must. out July 1, 1865. Henry M. Nichols, Bat. F; must. out July 1, 1865. Henry H. Root, Bat. F; must. out July 1, 1865. Jacob Swartout, Bat. F; must. out July 1, 1865. David Miller, Bat. F; must. out July 1, 1865. Andrew Foster, Bat. F; must. out July 1, 1865. Harvey Lucas, Bat. F; must. out July 1, 1865. Edwin Porter, Bat. F; must. out July 1, 1865. M. Barron Solomon, Bat. G; disch. Jan. 28, 1865. Richard E. Rich, Bat. F; must. out July 1, 1865. John Vantuyl, Bat. F; must. out July 1, 1865. Jacob D. Waldorf, Bat. F; disch. to accept com. in U. S. Col. H. Art., July 23, 1864. Abraham Cooper, Bat. G; disch. to enl. in regular service, Nov. 25, 1862. Oliver Franklin, Bat. G; disch. Jan. 28, 1865. Richard Hart, Bat. G; disch. Jan. 28, 1865. William B. Britton, Bat. G; disch. Jan. 28, 1865. Horace Bellinger, Bat. G; disch. to enl. in regular service, Nov. 25, 1862. Ira K. Bailey, Bat. G; disch. to enl. in regular service, Nov. 25, 1862. Philemon Cook, Bat. G; disch. Jan. 28, 1865. John H. Gillett, Bat. G; disch. Jan. 28, 1865. Wallace Glazier, Bat. G; disch. to enl. in regular service, Nov. 25, 1862. William H. Hall, Bat. G; disch. Jan. 28, 1865. David Litchfield, Bat. G; disch. to enl. in regular service, Nov. 25, 1862. Orrin Olds, Bat. G; disch. Jan. 28, 1865. William H. Palmer, Bat. G; disch. Jan. 28, 1865. Sidney Palmer, Bat. G; dish. Jan. 28, 1865. Edward D. Plumb, Bat. G; disch. Jan. 28, 1865. Edward A. Ryker, Bat. G; disch. Jan. 28, 1865. Chauncey Smith, Bat. G; disch. Jan. 28, 1865. George W. Shultz, Bat. G; disch. Jan. 28, 1865. William Smeadmer, Bat. G; disch. Oct. 25, 1862. Joseph Thierman, Bat. G; disch. Jan. 28, 1865. Isaac S. Vanakin, Bat. G; disch. Jan. 28, 1865. Charles L. Wilcox, Bat. G; disch. Jan. 28, 1865. John G. Williams, Bat. G; disch. Jan. 28, 1865. Warren W. Wilkinson, Bat. G; disch. to enl. in regular service, Nov. 25, 1862. Welcome Merchant, Bat. G; must. out Aug. 6, 1865. William Curtiss, Bat. G; disch. June 12, 1865. Henry N. Dugan, Bat. G; must. out Aug. 6, 1865. Albert H. Gowdy, Bat. G; disch. Aug. 17, 1865. William J. Bunting, Bat. H; must. out July 22, 1865. Edwin J. Codner, Bat. H; must out July 22, 1865. David C. Davey, Bat. H; must. out July 22, 1865. George A. Linch, Bat. H; must. out July 22, 1865. Raphael Thomas, Bat. H; must. out July 22, 1865. Thomas Wilkinson, Bat. H; must. out July 22, 1865. Hasey E. Barker, Bat. I; must. out July 14, 1865. George W. Jennings, Bat. I; disch. May 26, 1864. Dexter C. Bartlett, Bat. I; must. out July 14, 1865. James H. Beard, Bat. I; must. out July 14, 1865. Elkanah S. Becker, Bat. I; must. out July 14, 1865. James Deems, Bat. I; must. out July 14, 1865. Cheney Hall, Bat. I; must. out July 14, 1865. Levi C. Lee, Bat. I; must. out July 14, 1865. Phillander Millard, Bat. I; must. out July 14, 1865. William Manning, Bat. I; disch. Dec. 22, 1864. James E. Nickaloy, Bat. I; must. out July 14, 1865. Robert O'Mealey, Bat. I; must. out July 14, 1865. William O'Mealey, Bat. I; disch. Oct. 23, 1862. William A. Potter. Bat. I; must. out July 14, 1865. James W. Potter, Bat. I; must. out July 14, 1865. Joseph B. Patterson, Bat. I; must. out July 14, 1865. Levi Rickard, Bat. I; must. out July 14, 1865. Ambrose Roate, Bat. I; must. out July 14, 1865. Aluheus B. St. John, Bat. I; must. out July 14, 1865. John Tucker, Bat. I; must. out July 14, 1865. Ira C. Wyckoff, Bat. I; must. out July 14, 1865. Andrew J. Weeks, Bat. I; must. out July 14, 1865. David W. Stroud, Bat. I; must. out July 14, 1865. Henry Cromer, Bat. I; must. out July 14, 1865. Charles A. Stroud, Bat. I; disch. for disability, Dec. 16, 1864. Charles Barnes, Bat. L; must. out Aug. 22, 1865. John S. Devoe, Bat. L; must. out Aug. 22, 1865. Spencer Welch, Bat. F; disch. by order, June 10, 1865.

Page  105 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Iq5 OTHER SOLDIERS. Besides the soldiers who enlisted in the above organizations there were a considerable number from this county, who enlisted in other States, and of whom no record is to be found in Michigan. Some of these we here give: THIRD INFANTRY. John P. Palmer, died at Yorktown, Va., April 27, 1862. FIFTH INFANTRY. Robert A. Everett, com. ass't. surg., July 3, 1861; surg. 16th inf., April 18, 1863; must. out at end of service. John E. Porter, Co. D; must. out July 23, 1865. Osmer C. Brown, Co. C; must. out May 31, 1865. SIXTH INFANTRY. Oscar Chapel, Co. C; killed at Baton Rouge, La., Aug. 5, 1862. Nelson Nethaway, Co. I; died of wounds, July 22, 1863, at Baton Rouge, La. Dexter Pearsell, Co. K; died at Helena, Ark., Aug. 21, 1864. Alexander Getty, Co. B; died at Fort Morgan, Ala., Nov. 5, 1864. Richard Cheney, Co. C; died at New Orleans, La., Nov. 27, 1864. Warren Tompkins, Co. C; disch. Sept. 5, 1865. Leander Fitzgerald, Co. D; must. out Aug. 20, 1865. Sylvester Kenyon, Co. K; must. out Aug. 20, 1865. Robert Wheeler, Co. K; must. out Aug. 20, 1865. EIGHTH INFANTRY. Reuben S. Cheney, com. 1st lieut., Sept. 24, 1861; res. April 13, 1862. William P. Miner, com. 2d lieut. Sept. 24, 1861; res. Feb. 19, 1862. Alonzo Cheney, cor. 2d lieut. March 27, 1863; 1st lieut. May 6, 1864; must. out Oct. 19, 1864. Isaiah Crispell, Co. B; died at Cold Harbor, Va., June 8, 1864. Abraham L. Harding, Co. A; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 30, 1864. Andrew Petsa, Co. A; disch. by order, May 29, 1865. Ira Green, Co. A; disch. for disability, Dec. 23, 1864. George D. Drury, Co. A; must. out July 30, 1865. Orsamus J. Hoppins, Co. B; must. out July 30, 1865. Martin Kavana, Co. D; disch. June 30. 1865. Charles H. Seavey, Co. K; disch. May 20, 1865. Lorenzo W. Finch, Co. K; disch. May 20, 1865. NINTH INFANTRY. Hawkins King, app. ass't. surg., March 28, 1865; res. Aug. 5, 1865. Hugh Webster, Co. G; killed at Murfreesboro, Tenn., July 13, 1862. Abraham W. Vanness, Co. A; died at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 12, 1865. John Harmon, Co. D; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Ovid M. Thompson, Co. D; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Russell Ellis, Co. E; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Sylvester Lyman, Co. E; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Milo M. Titus, Co. E; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. William Wilson, Co. E; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Thomas Cox, Co. H; must. out July 18, 1865. Andrew Crandall, Co. H; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Elias Whitcomb, Co. I; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Joseph Laduke, Co. K; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. TWELFTH INFANTRY. Timothy Giddings, Co. D; died at Duval's Bluff, Ark., May 27, 1865. Bennett Gregg, Co. D; disch. Aug. 22, 1865. John Houghtaling, Co. D; disch. Oct. 7, 1865. William Holcombe, Co. D; disch. Oct. 7, 1865. Holden White, Co. E; disch. Oct. 13, 1865. Clarence Morey, Co. G; must. out Feb. 15, 1866. Elry P. Parsons, Co. H; disch. Nov. 26, 1864. FOURTEENTH INFANTRY. Jonathan Snyder, Co. H; died at Chattanooga, Tenn., Feb. 13, 1865. Warren Young, Co. H; died at Savannah, Ga., April 10, 1865. Charles H. Weed, Co. C; must. out July 18, 1865. William Barrett, Co. D; must. out July 18, 1865. Andrew Hoard, Co. D; must. out July 18, 1865. Garrett Tennell, Co. G; must. out July 18, 1865. Jonas Smith, Co. I; must. out July 18, 1865. Henry Bogard, Co. I; must. out July 18, 1865. Michael Young, Co. I; must. out July 24, 1865. Cassius Bancroft, Co. K; must. out July 18, 1865. Edmund Crandall, Co. K; must. out July 18, 1865. William Smith, Co. K; must. out July 18, 1865. Elisha L. Davis, Co. K; must. out July 18, 1865. Charles Salmon, Co. K; must. out July 18, 1865. SEVENTEENTH INFANTRY. Thomas P. May, cor. 2d lieut. May 26, 1865. Newman Crane, Co. H; died of wounds at Frederick, Md., Oct. 9, 1862. Francis Strunk, Co. A; died at Detroit, Mich. James Bradshaw, Co. G; died of accidental wounds, June 17, 1863. Lewis Wilson, Co. G; died at Knoxville, Tenn., Sept. 26, 1863. Edwin M. Scott, Co. H; died at City Point, Va., Aug. 26, 1864. Louis Searles, Co. H; died at Florence, S. C., Dec. 20, 1864. Ramson P. Howe, Co. H; trans. to 8th Michigan Inf., Oct. 15, 1862. John G. Fullmer, Co. H; must. out June 3, 1865. Alva J. Hiccott, Co. H; disch. by order, May 30, 1865. Milton Herring, Co. H; must. out June 3, 1865. NINTEENTH INFANTRY. Samuel Knapp, Co. H; died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., Aug. 23, 1863. TWENTY-FIRST INFANTRY. George W. Woodward, com. 2d lieut., July 30, 1862; 1st lieut. Jan 15, 1863; capt. Dec. 2, 1863; brevet maj. March 13, 1865; must. out June 8, 1865. TWENTY-SECOND INFANTRY, Orman Barden, Co. H; trans. to 29th Mich. Infantry. TWENTY-SIXTH INFANTRY. Wm. M. Rogers, Co. B; must. out April 27, 1865. Milton H. Saviers, Co. F; disch. for disability, Oct. 27, 1864.

Page  106 io6 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. TWENTY-NINTH INFANTRY. Henry Mersell, Co. B; must. out Sept. 6, 1865. Christian Jensen, Co. D; must. out Sept. 6, 1865. PROVOST GUARD. Eli Banker, must. out May 9, 1865. Joseph Cressey, must. out May 9, 1865. John A. Merchant, must. out May 9, 1865. Albert Merrill, must. out May 9, 1865. James Riddin, must. out May 9, 1865. Oscar E. Wells, must. out May 9, 1865. ONE HUNDRED AND FORTY-EIGHTH NEW YORK INFANTRY. D. D. Sanford, Co. G; wounded at Petersburg, June 18, 1864; must. out June 22, 1865. FIRST UNITED STATES SHARPSHOOTERS. William Doyle, Co. C; died March 27, 1862. George Zimmerman, Co. C; died Dec. 29, 1861. Leander Ballard, Co. I; killed at Locust Grove, Va., Nov. 27, 1863. Henry A. Gilchrist, Co. C; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, March 31, 1864. Jay L'ibbey, Co. I; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. I, 1863. Charles Button, Co. C; disch. Oct. 2, 1861. Archibald Storms, Co. C; disch. Dec. 9, 1862. FIRST CAVALRY. William A. Drake, Co. A; died in hospital. James H. Armstrong, Co. B; must. out March 10, 1866. Donald T. McCall, Co. D; must. out March 10, 1866. James P. Turner, Co. D; must. out March 10, 1866. Peter H. Cole, Co. E; must. out Dec. 5, 1865. Charles W. Cole, Co. E; must. out Dec. 5, 1865. David Madden, Co. E; must out. March 10, 1865. Jacob Van Ettan, Co. E; must. out July 24, 1865. Asahel Richardson, Co. H; must. out March 25, 1866. THIRD CAVALRY. Michael McIntyre, com. 2d lieut. June 11, 1862; 1st lieut. Nov. 1, 1862; honorably disch. Feb. 28, 1865. Sanford B. Goodrich, leader band; died on board hospital boat, May, 1862. Charles Hatton, disch. for disability, June 9, 1862. Silas P. Gainard, Co. F; disch. at expiration of service, Oct. 24, 1864. Francis B. Henry, Co. F; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Jan. 19, 1864. Chauncey H. Davis, Co. F; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Jan. 19, 1864. Charles Hurley, Co. K; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Jan. 20, 1864. Locke V. Mosher, Co. B; disch. Jan. 22, 1862. William Hurley, Co. G; must. out Feb. 12, 1866. FIFTH CAVALRY. Peter H. Cole, Co. E; trans. to 1st Mich. Cavalry. Charles W. Cole, Co. E; trans. to 1st Mich. Cavalry. Norris W. McHurd, Co. I; trans. to 7th Mich. Cavalry. O. J. Hammond, Co. K; trans. to 7th Mich. Cavalry. Burton H. Spear, Co. L; trans. to 7th Mich. Cavalry. George Taylor, Co. L; trans. to 7th Mich. Cavalry. Morris McHerd, Co. L; trans. to 7th Mich. Cavalry. Meredith C. Smith, Co. M; trans. to 7th Mich. Cavalry. Edgar Harris, Co. M; must out June 19, 1865. SIXTH CAVALRY. Donald T. McCall, Co. B; trans. to 1st Mich. Cavalry; Nov. 17, 1865, James P. Turner, Co. B; trans. to 1st Mich. Cavalry, Nov. 17, 1865, Jacob Van Etten, Co. B; trans. to 1st Mich. Cavalry, Nov. 17, 1865. Abel Richardson, Co. D; trans. to 1st Mich. Cavalry, Nov. 17, 1865. Robert C. Jackson, Co. K; disch. June 19, 1865. NINTH CAVALRY. Francis M. Jones, commis. 2d lieut. Feb. 24, 1865; not mustered. John Morehouse, Co. F; trans. to 11th Mich. Battery, May 8, 1863. Samuel Miller, Co. F; trans. to 11th Mich. Battery, May 8, 1863. Benjamin Norton, Co. F; trans. to 11th Mich. Battery, May 8, 1863. Leander Perry, Co. F; trans. to 11th Mich. Battery, May 8, 1865. Henry A. Hunt, Co. I; trans. to 11th Mich. Battery, May 1, 1863. Edwin A. Packer, Co. I; trans. to 11th Mich. Battery, May 1, 1863. Allen R. Walker, Co. I; trans. to 11th Mich. Battery, May 1, 1863. James H. Walker, Co. I; trans. to 11th Mich. Battery, May 1, 1863. Harvey Mott, Co. B; must. out Aug. 11, 1865. Frederick Smith. Co. B; must. out July 21, 1865. Isaac R. Howe, Co. L; must. out July 21, 1865. Joseph Howe, Co. L; must. out July 21, 1865. TENTH CAVALRY. William E. Smith, com. 2d lieut. April 8, 1865; must. out Nov. 11, 1865. L. E. Bayless, Co. M; died Jan. 11, 1865. Charles B. Norton, Co. B; must. out May 13, 1865. Edward W. Smith, Co. M; disch. Oct. 2, 1864. MERRILL HORSE. Chauncey W. Rickard, Co. I; must. out Sept. 18, 1865. FOURTEENTH BATTERY. Darwin E. Beebe, must. out July 1, 1865. Ransom Ball, must. out July 1, 1865. John J. Daniels, must. out July 1, 1865. John H. Davis, must. out July 1, 1865. Gabriel C. Morehouse, mus. out July 1, 1865. Patrick Turner, must. out July 1, 1865. FIRST MISSOURI ENGINEERS. Cyrus H. Lewis, Co. E; enl. as veteran, Jan. 4, 1864. QNE HUNDRED AND SECOND U. S. COLORED TROOPS. Augustus Steward, Co. C; must. out Sept. 30, 1865. Hezekiah Madry, Co. D; must. out Selt. 30, 1865. James M. Crummell, Co,. F; must. out Sept. 30, 1865. Robert Lee, Co. F; must. out Sept. 30, 1865. William Wesley, Co. F; must. out Sept. 30, 1865. George G. White, Co. G; must. out Sept. 30, 1865. Charles Gilbert, Co. G; must. out Sept. 30, 1865. John F. Sinclair, Co. H; must. out Sept. 30, 1865.

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Page  107 PART SECOND HILLSDALE COUNTY MICHIGAN LARGELY BIOGRAPHICAL We have undertaken to discourse for a little upon Men, their manner of appearance in our World's business, how they have shaped themselves in the World's history, what ideas other men have formed of them, what work they did.-CARLYLE. CHICAGO: A. W. BOWEN & CO. 1903

Page  108 The wheels now roll in fire and thunder, To bear us on with startling speed; They shake the dust of Nations under The flowers of forest, mount and mead. The old-time worthies still are near; The spirit of the Past is here: And, where we tread, the old mound builders Looked forward through the mist of Time As we look back. The scene bewilders, And all the distance is sublime.

Page  109 COMPENDIUM OF BIOGRAPHY or HILLSDALE CO., MICHIGAN. HON. EBENEZER OLIVER GROSVENOR. This prominent, successful and venerated merchant and banker of Jonesville, who is one of the best known and most highly esteemed men in Hillsdale county, whose life is one of the most useful and conspicuous among her thousands of population, was born at Stillwater, Saratoga county, New York, on January 26, I820. He was the third in order of birth of the nine children who constituted his father's family, three of whom are yet living, being the son of Ebenezer 0. and Mary Ann (Livermore) Grosvenor, natives of Massachusetts and prominent among the honored pioneers of southern Michigan. The father had been a successful and popular teacher in his New York homes, deeply and intelligently interested in the cause of public education. He was also forward in the advocacy of every good cause and gave freely of his time and substance to aid in the promotion of all that promised well for the county and state. He died on April 6, I87I, having accomplished more than eighty-seven years of age. His wife, a lady of high culture and great refinement, was a broadminded and progressive woman, whose death oc curred at Albion, Michigan, in 1849. The paternal grandfather of Hon. E. O. Grosvenor, Rev. Daniel Grosvenor, was a captain in the Revolutionary War. Hon. Ebenezer O. Grosvenor was reared and thoroughly educated in his native state, finishing at the noted Chittenango (N. Y.) Polytechnic Academy, which he entered at the age of thirteen years, and where, during a two-years' course of earnest study, he gained a high rank for brilliant scholarship. Having decided to devote himself to a business career, at the age of sixteen he left school and for a year was employed in a clerical capacity in a store at Chittenango. In June, 1837, when but seventeen years old, he left the parental roof-tree and trod boldly with adventurous foot into the wilds of Michigan, then but recently admitted into the Union as a state, and, upon his arrival here, entered the employ of an older brother in what was one of the earliest established stores of Albion. In I839 he went to Monroe and served for a year as assistant bookkeeper in the office of the State Railroad Commissioner, during the construction of the Michigan Southern Railway, then in the hands of the state.

Page  110 IIO HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. In the summer of I840 Mr. Grosvenor became a citizen of Jonesville, coming hither to take a position as clerk in a drygoods store, where he was employed until April, I844. He then, with R. S; Varnum as a partner, established himself in a mercantile business and this firm conducted a flourishing enterprise until 1847 when Mr. Varnum sold his interests to Elisha P. Champlin, the father-in-law of Mr. Grosvenor, who, in 185I, bought the interest of Mr. Champlin, and thereafter carried it on alone until I864, when le admitted some young men who had been in his employ for a number of years to a share in its mianagement and profits. Under the new order of thing's the business grew and flourished, and, in 1875, another change was made, which still farther enlarged its volume and usefulness, the firm becoming Sibbald, Spalding & Co., with Mr. Grosvenor as a silent partner. For many years outside interests have taken much of Mr. Grosvenor's time. One venture, in which he was busily engaged for some time, was buying and selling the general produce of this part of the state, and in this line it was his invariable rule to always pay cash for his commodities. In 1854, under the title of the Exchange Bank of Grosvenor & Co., at Jonesville he established the bank of which he has ever been the ruling spirit and chief owner. This institution was successful and prosperous from its inception, and has poured widening streams of benefaction out among the people of this comtkunity. Other enterprises of value to the community in which he has been interested are the Ft. Wayne, Jackson & Saginaw Railroad, of which he is a stockholder, and, during an important period of its history, the vice-president; the Michigan Mutual Life Insurance Co., of Detroit, of which he was one of the organizers; the Detroit Fire & Marine Insurance Co., of which he was an early stockholder and director; the Michigan State Fire Insurance Co., of Adrian; the Jonesville Cotton Manufacturing Co., of which he was the first treasurer and for some time the very efficient president. His vitalizing force, his wise counsel, his far-seeing and sagacious wisdom, financial ability and superior admin istrative and executive powers have been potent factors militating for success in many other organizations for the promotion of the county and the state's welfare and progress. He has contributed much to the cause of education, having been president of the school board at Jonesville for over thirty-five years and is still in office. Mr. Grosvenor was married on February 22, 1844, to Miss Sally Ann Champlin, a daughter of Hon. Elisha P. Champlin, one of the first settlers in Lenawee county. They have one child, a daughter, who was married in 1873 to Charles E. White, of Jonesville, where they are living in a pleasant home enlivened by the presence of their two sons, Charles Grosvenor and Oliver S. White. Mrs. Grosvenor is a devout Presbyterian, Mr. Grosvenor being also a regular attendant of that church. For more than three score years this meritorious couple have walked life's troubled way together, sustaining and aiding each other, presenting a beautiful example of peaceful ard happy domestic life. From his advent into the county, Mr. Grosvenor has been active and conspicuous in public affairs and he has many times been called upon to do valuable work in public office. In the long Iecord of his public life no odium has ever been attached to his name, no selfish motives have been imputed to him, no charge of infidelity to a trust has ever been made against him, and he has had full credit for a wide knowledge of affairs, a clearness and correctness of judgment concerning them, a firm and unwavering adherence to his convictions about them and a high order of capacity and executive ability in maintaining and establishing his views and securing desired results. He was at an early day elected in turn to every important office in the township, being the first supervisor after Fayette township was organized, in this office following a term as supervisor before the new township was made. In I858 he was elected to the State Senate; in I861 he was commissioned colonel on the staff of Governor Blair and also received an appointment on the military contract board, of which he was made president, and he afterward held the position of president of the state military board. In

Page  111 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Ill I i862 he again became State Senator and he took an important part in the legislation of the ensuing sessions as the chairman of the committee on finance. Mr. Grosvenor was elected lieutenant governor in I864 on the ticket with Governor Crapo, and, by virtue of this office, he was president of the Senate during the ensuing term and also of the state board of equalization in I866. In the fall of I868 he was elected state treasurer, and he discharged the duties of this office so well and displayed such a high order of capacity for them, that he was kept in the position by successive reelections until I871. In April of that year he was appointed a member of the board of state building commissioners, created for the purpose of erecting a new state capitol, his appointment being confirmed in a joint session of the two houses of the Legislature without a dissenting vote. He became the vice-president of this board and its presiding officer in the absence of the governor. His work on this commission was of the most efficient and satisfactory character. The building itself, which seems to have met every requirement and satisfied every judicious critic, and with which no fault was found even by the carping or hypercritical, stands forth as the best evidence of the wisdom and skill which were invoked in its construction, and the business capacity which presided over every part of its creation from foundation to capstone. During the period of the commission's existence 147 meetings were held, of which 103 were regular and forty-four special, occupying in all 2-58 days. The commission never failed to have a quorum in attendance, and, in no case during the whole progress of the work, was any contractor or other person, having a claim against the state on account of the construction of the capitol, obliged to wait, even a day, by reason of failure of the board to meet and act upon the claim. The commissioners not only saw that the work was well done, but, what is very unusual with a large structure, public or private, they kept the costs within the estimates and appropriations. In each one of five different funds there was a small balance when the building was turned over to the state. Out of the appropriations, aggregating $1,430,000, there was a total balance exceeding $4,000 thus remaining. The whole work of the commission was a notable instance of systematic and faithful attention to official dity. Since the papers relating to the capitol construction were sealed up and filed with the secretary of state in May, I879, it has never been necessary to reopen them in order to settle any question or claim. The state of Michigan is also greatly indebted to Mr. Grosvenor for faithful and efficient service in behalf of her great university at Ann Arbor. In the spring of 1879 he was elected a regent of that institution, and in January, I880 he took his seat. In this connection he soon had another opportunity to do the state good service. The Rose-Douglas controversy was then at its height and the quarrel was injuring the university, both in the Legislature and with the public. Mr. Grosvenor was earnestly importuned by both sides of the controversy to commit himself to their views, but he could not be manipulated. He investigated for himself and concluded that the interest of the state would be best served by bringing the whole matter to a speedy termination. His old associate, Mr. Shearer, who had been elected as a regent at the same time, accepted his conclusions and the two carried through the board a resolution which stopped the wasteful expenditures for litigation and soon put the matter at rest. During the eight years of his tenure of this position he served as the chairman of the financial committee, was a member of the executive committee for four years, while for six he was chairman of the medical committee. He served without compensation and his zeal was commensurate in every way with his disinterestedness and unselfishness. During the early history of Hillsdale Col lege he served for several years as a trustee of that institution. In fraternal relations Mr. Grosvenor has been a member of the Masonic order since 1855, a period of nearly half-a-century, and he has always been ardent in devotion and faithful in service to the fraternity. He is also an Odd Fellow and was a charter member of the lodge of this or

Page  112 112 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. der organized at Jonesville in I840. Since the formation of the Republican party in 1854 he has been a staunch and loyal member of that organization, before that time being a Whig in political faith.* For nearly the entire duration of a human life, as fixed by the sacred writer, Mr. Grosvenor has lived and labored among his people. Among them all there is none but does him reverence. If asked for an example of her best citizenship in every way, the state of Michigan can exultingly point to him. HON. GUY C. CHESTER. Hon. Guy C. Chester, judge of the First Judicial Circuit, one of the youngest judges in the state, perhaps the youngest the circuit ever had, is a native of Camden, Hillsdale county, born on March Io, I859. His parents were Frederick and Martha (Fowle) Chester, the former a native of New York and the latter of Hillsdale county. The father came to Hillsdale county in I833. Their son, the Judge, received his early education in the'public schools of his native place and completed his scholastic training at Hillsdale College, meanwhile working between times on the home farm, and at intervals teaching school. He took a business course at Toledo, Ohio, and then was a cultivator of the soil until 1884. In that year he entered the law office of E. L. Koon, Esq., as a student, and, after a due course of study, was admitted to practice in I886. He remained in Mr. Koon's office and there began his practice. His rise in his profession was rapid and continuous. The first year after his admission to the bar he was elected circuit court commissioner for a term of two years, thereafter being reelected for a second term. Later he was made city attorney and served in that capacity for two terms. In I892 he was elected prosecuting attorney for the county and was reelected at the end of his term. In 1897 he was appointed circuit judge to hold office until the next general election to fill the unexpired term of Hon. Victor H. Lane, and, in I898, he was elected to this office for the unexpired term of two years, and, at its close in I900oo, he was chosen to the same office for a term of six years. Judge Chester has always been an ardent Republican in politics, has rendered his party valuable service on the hustings from time to time, and, at all times, he has had a potential voice in its councils. He was chairman of the county committee in I896, the trying year of the silver issue, and, by his aggressiveness and his wisdom, his untiring zeal and his capacity as a tactician, his personal influence and his knowledge of men, he greatly aided in winning a signal victory for his cause. For years he has been a zealous and devoted Freemason, showing his interest in the fraternity by a constant attention to its welfare, by valuable service in behalf of its progress and by insisting on the maintenance of a high standard of excellence in every phase of its life. In the lodge he has filled important offices, in the chapter he has well and wisely administered the functions of every leading position, in the commandery he has occupied the highest offices with credit to himself and benefit to the organization. He is also a noble of the Mystic Shrine, the re-. nowned social body of this order. The only other fraternal order to which he belongs is that of the Knights of Pythias. In 1893 the Judge was united in marriage with Miss -Martha Frankhauser, a sister of W. H. Frankhauser, of whom a sketch appears in another part of this work. Judge Chester has two daughters, Dorothy and Helen. PROF. CHARLES H. GURNEY. Public education in America is the sheet anchor on which the Ship of State relies with confidence and hope. The Fathers of the Republic proclaimed it a necessary constituent of popular government. The experience of more than a hundred years has proven the wisdom of their contention. While they exhibited abundant solicitude for the higher halls of learning, they much more insisted on schools for the masses, believing that even the commonest sense of the plain people might not be safely relied upon for a wise exercise of citizenship without some training for its duties. Judicious attention to the natural evolutions in this department of the science of government has brought about a close relationship

Page  113 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 113 and a mutual dependence between the higher and the common schools; and, among the best representatives and most careful conservators of this helpful union, is Prof. Charles H. Gurney, now the acting president of Hillsdale College. As an educator he is almost wholly a product of the public school system of this country, as a college professor he is broad, progressive and wise, combining in his views and methods the most useful features of the two lines of pedagogical activity. Professor Gurney was born at Stanfordville, Dutchess county, New York, on July 17, 1847, the son of Benjamin A. and Caroline E. (Hull) Gurney, who were also natives of that State. The father passed much of his life in the nursery business, but is now merchandising in llinois. His ancesters were English Quakers, some of whom found a peaceful and profitable residence in this country about I750. From that time the family has been prominent in commercial, industrial and social life wherever its members have lived in the United States. The Professor passed the first ten years of his life in his native place without incident worthy of note, or different from those in the lives of other country boys of that section, at the end of that period removing with the rest of the family to Henry county, Illinois, In that state he continued at the public schools the education he had begun in those of New York, remaining at home until I868, when he came to Michigan and matriculated at Hillsdale College, from which alma mater he was graduated in 1873, having in the meantime taught school and worked at various other occupations to earn the money necessary to complete his course. In 1874 he again began teaching, being employed at Salem, Nebraska, as principal of the schools for two years. He then removed to Iowa and became the principal of the Villisca schools. Holding the position for four years, at the end of this time of service he took up his residence at Shenandoah, Iowa, there to serve as city superintendent for eight years. His next place of usefulness was Marengo, Iowa, where he rendered three years of excellent service as city superintendent. In I891 he came to Hillsdale and ac cepted the position of principal of the normal department of Hillsdale College, and also became alumni professor of belles-lettres. In the fall of I9OI, he became the acting president of the college, a position which he has held without interruption since that date. During the many years of his service as school superintendent in various places he was almost continually employed in institute work, laboring effectively in Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Ohio and Michigan, winning high commendation as a successful and popular institute director. The Professor married on April 3, 1878, at Salem,, Nebraska, with Miss Mary A. Rising, a native of Illinois. They have three children, daughters, May B., F. Ethel and Ruth R. In educational circles throughout a wide extent of country Professor Gurney is well and favorably known as a far-seeing and highly productive pedagogical force, and, at the college over which he presides, he has given strong proofs of his executive ability, business capacity and accurate knowledge of human nature; while in the social circles of the city and county all of the members of the family are most highly esteemed for their culture, genial dispositions, agreeable manners and winning graces of every kind, exhibited in a social atmosphere wherein the standard is elevated and the taste exacting. DR. ALONZO CRESSY,. The community in which the late Dr. Alonzo Cressy so long lived and labored, felt when he died that a superior man had passed away. He was a native of Scipio, Cayuga county, New York, born on November 26, I8o8. From his earliest years he evinced unusual mental activity, an insatiable thirst for knowledge. His opportunities for education at the schools were, however, limited, comprising only the facilities afforded by the unsettled frontier at that period of more than ordinary depression and poverty in our history which succeeded the War of 1812. By great exertion on his part and well-chosen sacrifice on that of some of his family, he was able to supplement the meager instruction he had acquired by an attendance of two years at a select school in

Page  114 II4 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. the town of Skaneateles; the rest of his mental development and knowledge of mankind, however, came through the hard discipline of the exacting but effective school of experience, which was so complete and thorough that, at the age of sixteen, he was able to begin the study of his profession and to complete the usual preparatory reading and attend two full courses of lectures at the Fairfield Medical College by the time he was nineteen, then passing the required examination for the degree of M. D. Under the rules of this institution his diploma was withheld until he was of full legal age, but, soon after leaving the college, he began practicing his profession at Lima, N. Y., and, two years later, when he received his diploma, he married with a daughter of Dr. Justin Smith, of that town. In I831, before he was twenty-three, he left Lima and came to Clinton in Lenawee county, this state, and here began an active practice. The next year, I832, was memorable in western history for the outbreak of the Black HawK War and the prevalence of the cholera. Doctor Cressy, in the capacity of a medical practitioner, accompanied a detachment of troops in their march through the wilderness to Chicago, there to meet General Scott and assist in repelling an expected attack upon the Rock River settlements. Many of the troops suffered severely from the fatigue and exposure of the march, and six of their number died within six hours after their arrival at the cholera hospital in Chicago. The Doctor was appointed chief medical officer of the camp, and, in the cholera hospital, he had ample opportunity to study the dread malady, which he did to such good purpose, that, in the autumn of the year, General Scott offered him a choice of positions if he would remain with the troops, but he preferred to return to his family. In I836 he was elected to the Territorial Legislature and was of great service to the people in securing proper legislation for the educational interests of the territory and through the passage of the law providing for a geological survey, which was the means of bringing Michigan's great mineral resources to the notice of the world. Doctor Cressy took up his residence at Hills dale in I844, being then thirty-six years old. In 1854 he was elected to the State Senate and, near the close of the ensuing session, in the absence of the lieutenant-governor, he was chosen to preside over the body. His most considerable and most appreciated service in his senatorial term was procuring the enactment of a law providing for the organization of a college at Hillsdale and for the completion of the temporarily abandoned building intended as its seat. This bill he carried through the legislature in the face of strenuous opposition from the friends of the State University, and thus secured the establishment here of the institution which has poured such widening streams of benefaction out among the people of this and surrounding counties. In early and middle life Doctor Cressy was an anti-slavery Whig, remaining loyal to that party until the Republican organization rose Phoenix-like from its ashes, when he joined the new political entity to which, until his death, he gave earnest support. When the long-impending cloud of sectional war broke in full fury on our unhappy country, his son, Justin Smith Cressy, who had seen service in the Mexican War when a mere lad, enlisted in the Twenty-first Massachusetts Infantry, went to the front with General Burnside, was in the front rank of the unrolling columns in many bloody engagements, falling, badly wounded, at Chantilly, on September I, I862, not far from the spot on that disastrous battlefield which was hallowed by the expiring agonies of Gen. Phil Kearney. For two days and nights young Cressy lay unattended within the enemy's lines, but at last he was relieved by the ministrations of a Confederate surgeon and was paroled on the next day. He was taken to the hospital on September 8, where,. on October 2, he died. Before his death he had won the commission of lieutenant in General Reno's brigade. His colonel said of him: "He has proven himself intelligent, faithful and brave." Doctor Cressy, from the time of his location at Hillsdale, was diligent and faithful in the practice of his profession, going promptly and unobtrusively where duty called him, everywhere inspiring hope by his presence, dispensing bless

Page  115 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAtN. II5 ings by his sagacity and skill as a practitioner. On the morning of March 22, 1881, he received his summons to lay down his trust, and departed this life, leaving behind him his faithful wife, who had walked life's way through sunshine and through shadow with him for fifty-two years, and two married daughters, Mrs. R. G. Wilbur, of Hillsdale, and Mrs. J. B. Fuller, of San Francisco, Calif. Doctor Cressy's daughter, Mary Irene, died on September 8, 1867, at an early age, just as life seemed brightest; of her, sweet remembrances will live in many hearts until they cease to beat. The interest of Doctor Cressy in public affairs, especially in everything involving the welfare and general progress of the community, was strong and abiding. He was twice president of the municipality of Hillsdale, dignifying this office and conducting its affairs with signal ability and conscientious devotion to the public weal. His extensive reading, his ripe scholarship and his vast fund of general information made him an industrious and also a valued contributor to the public journals of his time and section, and his articles were eagerly read and highly prized. In domestic life, in professional work, in social circles and in political activities he was a model among men, and, to the end' of his days, he was firmly fixed in the high and universal esteem of the people, being everywhere looked up to as one of the leading citizens of the county, one of the best and most useful of men. PELEG ASH. In many families for generations the element of tragedy is strong and ever present, destroying hope after hope and driving men and women to other resources and lines of activity with rapid succession. It was so in the case of Peleg Ash, one of the best-known farmers and most representative nien of Jefferson township in Hillsdale county. He was born in Lenawee county, this state, on September 30, 1843, the son of John and Esther (Haviland) Ash. His father was a native of England and his mother of New York. His paternal grandfather was killed by fire-damp 8 in the coal mines of England, and the widow died when her children were quite young. When the father of Mr. Ash was fifteen, in company with a brother who was a year and somewhat more younger, he came to Quebec, and from there they made their way by work to Michigan, and here found employment as farm laborers on the homestead of Peleg C. Haviland, a prosperous farmer of Lenawee county, whose daughter John Ash afterwards married. He resided in that county until 1852, when he came to Hillsdale county and purchased the very farm of IOO acres on which his son, Peleg, now lives. There was a small log house on the land in which his family was sheltered, and he here set to work with diligence and assiduous labor to clear the land and make them a home. But in December of that same year, he died, leaving his widow with seven small children to rear and support in the almost unbroken wilderness. She was, however, a woman of resolute spirit and unfailing courage, and gave herself to the task before her with commendable cheerfulness and energy. In time she paid for the land and saw her children engaged in useful occupations, well established in public esteem and ranking among the useful and productive elements of society around her. Some time after the death of her first husband she married with Thomas Partridge, who died two years after the marriage, leaving one child, Thomas Partridge. And a few years later she married William Brant, who died soon after the wedding, leaving her a widow for the third time. In religious belief she was a Quaker and strongly devoted to the faith. Her death occurred on December 5, I902. Peleg Ash grew to manhood on the family homestead, and aided in its cultivation. After reaching years of maturity, in association with his brother, John, he bought the interests of the other heirs, and these two still own the place, to which they have since added IOI acres by purchase, aggregating now 201 acres. Mr. Ash married in I863 Miss Ellen C. Decker, a daughter of Hiram and Harriet (Loomis) Decker, early settlers in Jefferson township. Three children have blessed their union, John H., James L. and

Page  116 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Alwillda B., wife of E. H. Raymond. In politics Mr. Ash is a Republican, but not an active partisan. He belongs to the Masonic order, and both himself and wife are charter members of the local grange of the Patrons of Husbandry, No. 182, at Jefferson. John W. Ash, a brother of Peleg, was born in Lenawee county, Michigan, in 1845, and came to Hillsdale county with the other members of the family in 1852. He attained manhood on the farm under the same circumstances as did his brother, and, as he did, aided in its clearing and in the carrying on of its operations under the direction of their mother. He was married in Hillsdale county, in I869, to Miss Cordelia J. Decker, a sister of his brother's wife, and they also have three children, Harriet E., wife of W. M. Morgan; Lottie M., wife of B. L. Snyder; William L. Originally Mr. Ash was a Whig in politics, but when the party was superseded by the Republican he joined the new organization and has ever since been a true and loyal adherent of its principles, giving to its candidates an earnest support, but seeking none of its favors for himself. Both husband and wife are charter members of the Jefferson grange, and Mr. Ash is an active working member of the Masonic fraternity. He has a one-half interest in the home farm, which he and his brother are carrying on jointly with success and a cumulative prosperity. JOHN O. BARRINGTON. Crowned with the good record of more than three score and ten years of useful life, fifty of which have been passed in helping to civilize and develop this county, and secure in the lasting esteem and veneration of the residents here who have seen the excellence of and shared in the benefits of his labors, John O. Barrington, of Cambria township, stands forth in the evening of his days one of the best types of American citizenship, illustrating in his long and worthy service to mankind the most admirable attributes of sterling manhood and elevated character. He is a native of Somersetshire, England, where the ancestors of his mother, whose maiden name was Charlotte Barrington, lived for many generations, and where he was born on August 23, 1812. His father, Sydenham Barrington, was born and reared in Devonshire, England, and was a stonemason and bridgebuilder. Changing his residence to Somersetshire, he there met and married his wife, and, while his son and only offspring, John 0., was yet in his infancy, he was called from earth. His widow, by a second marriage, became the mother of two children, a son and a daughter. The family remained in their native land until I849, and there Mr. Barrington learned the duties of life by experience, receiving only a limited education in the public schools, which, however, he supplemented and enlarged by careful reading and study. He entered zealously into the public affairs of his country, taking an active interest in all that pertained to its welfare. He was an interested spectator of the coronation of Queen Victoria, and his voice added to the tumultuous applause which welcomed that glorious sovereign to her long and beneficent reign. In 1849, the family, then consisting of the mother, stepfather and three children, came to this country and located near Norwalk, in Huron county, Ohio. There Mr Barrington was engaged in farming until 1853, when he removed to this county and purchased forty acres of land in Cambria township, being a part of the farm on which he now lives, which he has increased by sube.quent purchases to I I acres. On his new domain, which was as yet nothing but the primeval forest, there was a log cabin, and, after two years of most diligent effort to make the property habitable and productive, in I855 he returned to Ohio, and there was united in marriage with Miss Sarah A. Sparks, a native of New York, but for years previous to her marriage a resident of Huron county, Ohio. They became the parents of five children, who are now living: George E.; Martha E., wife of Ira Snyder, of this county; Bertha B., wife of Clifford Brown, of Cambria township; Mary A., wife of M. Watkins, of Reading, this county; James L., living at home. At the venerable age of sixtythree years, their mother died on July I3, I895. In politics Mr. Barrington has been a Repub

Page  117 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 117 lican from the organization of that party, but has never been an active partisan nor accepted public office. For many years he and his family have belonged to the Presbyterian church and been potent elements in its works of beneficence and charity. Among the people of Hillsdale county no man is better known, or more highly respected, than is this patriarch and pioneer and none has more richly deserved an exalted place in public esteem and confidence. With fidelity and industry, without self-seeking or ostentation, he has performed the daily duties of life found ever at his elbow, being content.with the consciousness of doing his part well and worthily. DR. WILFRED BATES. One of the pioneer physicians of Hillsdale county,. whose life was ever a full current of active goodness, devoted to the service of his fellow men and which closed amid universal sorrow and regret when he was sixty-five years of age, Dr. Wilfred Bates, a native of the county, was born two miles east of Hillsdale, on November I9, 1836. He was deeply and sincerely attached to the county. Within its borders his useful life began; among its people he lived and labored until his spirit passed on to the activities that know no weariness; in their midst he accumulated property of much value, being personally benefited by the operation of the forces of improvement and development he aided in starting and sustaining; to their elements of moral, intellectual and social elevation he contributed a continued active support and the vitalizing influence of a great example. [The Bates family of Massachusetts claim descent from Clement Bates, the emigrant, of Weymouth, in 1838.] The parents of Dr. Wilfred Bates were Caleb and Maria (White) Bates, who were both born and reared in Massachusetts as farmers, coming to Michigan about I834. Locating in Hillsdale county, they entered government land and began the arduous, but inspiring, labor of carving out a farm from the primeval forest, which farm became their permanent home and on which they died. The Doctor's grandfather was also Caleb Bates, and he, too, came to this county, and, full of years and of esteem, here he passed away and was laid to rest under its sod. Dr. Wilfred Bates was the youngest of twelve children, only one of whom is living, a sister who resides in the state of New York. The Doctor received his elementary and preliminary scholastic training in the good country schools, and, after leaving them, had the advantage of a year passed in study at Hillsdale College. He then entered the office of Dr. Franklin French as a medical student and remained under his competent instruction for two years. At the end of that period he passed one year at the Ann Arbor Medical College, after which he matriculated at Rush Medical College, Chicago, and from that institution he was graduated in I86o. He had, however, practiced prior to his graduation, and, on leaving college, at once resumed professional activity at what was then known as Ransom Center, in this county. There he continued in a busy and increasing practice until his death, on November I6, I89I, his practice and his business acumen making him a large real-estate owner at his death, but, throughout his life, he was attentive to every duty, with primary reference to the general good, rather than to his personal benefit. In 1865, before the close of the Civil War, he was commissioned assistant surgeon of the Fourth Michigan Cavalry, and started to join his regiment for field duty, but was unable to do this, being detained four months in hospital work at Nashville, Tennessee. He then returned to his home and resumed his practice. In I86I he was married to Miss Harriet Eggleston, a daughter of Bradford and Harriet (Hicks) Eggleston, the former a native of England and the latter of New York. Her father came to the United States in infancy, and in I849 settled in Lenawee county, this state, where he died. Dr. and Mrs. Bates were the parents of three children, two of whom are living, James W., one of the leading business men of Hillsdale, and Glenn M., living at home with his mother, who is still a resident of the city. The second son, Rea W., who died in. early manhood, was a graduate of the Detroit Medical College and

Page  118 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. for eighteen months before his death practiced in association with his father. Doctor Bates was an ardent Republican, but never accepted public office. He belonged to the State Medical Sociey and to other kindred organizations. He was also a Freemason and an Odd Fellow. WARNER J. SAMPSON. Warner J. Sampson, one of the oldest and most successful lawyers at the Hillsdale bar, is a native of this county, born on August 27, I847. His parents were John W. and Mary (Couriwright) Sampson, natives of Wayne county, New York, pioneers of 1844 in Michigan. Prosperous farmers they continued in active management of their farm until I865, when they retired from active pursuits and took up their residence at Hillsdale, where the father died in I892 and the mother is now living at the age of eighty years. Mr. Sampson's paternal grandfather was Newland Sampson, of New York state, who learned and worked at his trade as a carpenter for a number of years, then entered the ministry in the Methodist church, and, during a large part of the rest of his life, was actively engaged in preaching at various places. He came to this cotiMty in I855, remained ten years, removed to Porter county, Ind., and again worked at his trade and also preached at times. He had a large family of sons and daughters, all of whom are deceased, one son losing his life at the terrible battle of the Wilderness in the Civil War. Mr. Sampson himself had two sisters, one of whom is dead, and the other lives in the state of Alabama. Warner J. Sampson was educated in the public schools of this county and at Hillsdale College, entering this institution in I860, when he was but little more than twelve years old. In I865 he began business for himself as a grocer and he continued in this line of mercantile life for four or five years. In I87I he started a cigar factory in partnership association with H. H. Frankinfield, which he helped to conduct until I873, when the firm was dissolved and he went to Kansas, soon thereafter moving to southern Indiana, where he remained until I875. He then returned to Michigan, and, locating at Marcellus, in Cass county, began the study of law under the direction of Judge Carr, the present circuit judge of that county, was admitted to practice at the Cass county bar in I879, and continued professional labors in. that county until 1890, when he came back t6 Hillsdale county. In I89I he was appointed patent clerk in the office of the Secretary of State, but, while he held this position, he continued to practice law at Hillsdale. In October, I897, the firm of Sampson & Barre was formed and was continued until October, I902, when Mr. Barre retired. Fred O'Melay was then admitted to a partnership in the business, wnich is still in active life and practice, with Mr. Sampson at its head, a large body of patrons in its clientele and a rank at the bar that is second to none. In politics Mr. Sampson is an ardent Democrat, devoted to the interests of his party, eloquent and forceful in advocacy of its cause. He is a captivating and convincing speaker, a strong reasoner, a shrewd and resourceful tactician, an effective organizer; he has been the candidate of his party for the office of prosecuting attorney and for other positions, but has always led a forlorn hope, going to defeat because of the large Republican majority in the county. In I867 he was married to Miss Emma J. Allison, who died in I89I. They had three children, of whom but one, their daughter, Jessie M., wife of C. J. Bradt, of Marcellus, is living. Their two sons, Edward and Wilford, died in 1879, one aged seven and the other nine years. Mr. Sampson's second marriage was to Miss Mary E. Avery, a native of this state, and occurred in 1893. He belongs to the Masonic fraternity in both lodge and chapter organizations, is also an Odd Fellow and Knight of Pythias. HON. HENRY WALDRON. Among the men who were foremost in helping to develop the rich resources of southern Michigan and lifting it into prominence as one of the rising communities of the West, none has a more enviable record or is entitled to a higher regard than Hon. Henry Waldron. As a civil en

Page  119 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I9 gineer in his early manhood, a promoter and de- house of the State Legislature, and, in I848, he veloper of industrial and transportation enter- was one of the electors on the Taylor and Fillprises, a banker and financier, a judicious and more ticket. In 1854 he was chosen to represent broad-minded dealer in real estate, a public serv- his district in the National House of Representaant of distinguished ability and usefulness, he tives, and was thereafter twice reelected to this stands forth in each field of service, conspicuous exalted position, serving six consecutive years in the admiration and esteem of the whole people, at that time. His service covered a most imporwho venerate his memory with a full and unre- tant period in our history and he met the requireserved respect. He was born on October I, ments of the situation in a masterful manner, givI8I9, at Albany, N. Y., where his father was a ing his constituents great satisfaction while their prominent and a successful merchant, who died representative. when his son was but thirteen years old. The In I868 Mr. Waldron was a delegate from latter was, however, carefully educated, pursuing Michigan to the National Republican Convention, his studies at the Albany Academy until he was which nominated General Grant the first time for fifteen, then entering Rutger's College, from the presidency, and was the Michigan vice-presiwhich he was duly graduated two years later. In dent of the body. In 1870 he was again elected to 1837 he came to Michigan, which had just then Congress, then serving three consecutive terms assumed the dignity of statehood, and he was at in the great legislative assembly, in 1876, declinonce employed as a civil engineer in the prelimin- ing a fourth term, on account of his pressing priary surveys of the Michigan Southern Railroad. vate business. In the exalted forum, wherein he He remained in the service of this enterprise un- was so long a conspicuous figure, he displayed the til the completion of the road, after which he took same manly qualities of courage, stability, enterup his residence at Hillsdale and continued to prise, industry and masterful grasp of conditions, live in that city until his death. Deeply interest- that made him so successful in his private busied in the development of this section of the state, ness, and to his public duties he gave as consciforeseeing with the clearness of vision for which entious and devoted care and serviceable attenhe was noted through life, its possibilities in a tion as he bestowed on his personal affairs. He commercial and industrial way, in I843 he built so bore himself in public life that he won and reand operated the first warehouse on the line of the tained the lasting respect of his political opponrailroad, and, from I846 to 1848, served the road ents as well as the cordial esteem of his aids and as a director. He was also active in the con- supporters. In all her brilliant history Michigan struction of the Detroit; Hillsdale & Southwest- has never had a more zealous, high-minded, faithern Railroad rendering service as its first presi- ful, or a more upright representative in the halls dent. He was one of the founders of the Second of Congress, a more energetic, far-seeing or capaNational Bank of Hillsdale. He conducted its af- ble business man or a more public spirited, progfairs as its president from its organization until ressive or patriotic citizen. Mr. Waldron was 1876, when he became president of the First Na- married on July I8, I844, to Miss Caroline M. tional Bank, a position which he held until his Bard, a native of Port Byron, N. Y., in Hillsdale. death. The interests of this bank and his large She was a daughter of Joseph and Phoebe (Hazreal-estate operations engaged his time and facul- zard) Bard, also natives of New York, who came ties almost exclusively in a business way during to Michigan in the fall of I843. Settling at Hillsthe closing years of his life. dale, her father engaged in the milling business. In politics Mr. Waldron was first a Whig. He died in I849, while crossing the plains on his When that party yielded place to the Republican, way. to California. His wife died in Hillsdale he joined the new organization, adopting its prin- in I885. Mr. and Mrs. Waldron had one child, ciples with earnestness, and he adhered to them which died in infancy. Mr. Waldron died on loyally through life. In 1842, when but twenty- September 13, i880, and his ivife passed away three years of age, he was elected to the lower from earth on March 22, 1889. ~ ~g,_,~;

Page  120 I20 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. WILLIAM WALDRON. The strong, true men of a people are always public benefactors. Their usefulness in the immediate and specific labors they perform can be defined by metes and bounds. The good they do through the forces they put in motion and through the inspiration of their presence and example, is immeasurable by any finite gauge or by any standard of value. The death of any one of such men is a public calamity, because by it the country loses not only his active energy, but the stimulus and fecundating power of his present personal influence. There is, however, some compensation for this loss in the memory of his services, the effect of his example, and the continuing fruitfulness of the activities he quickened into life. The late William Waldron, of Hillsdale, was such a man. To fully tell the story of his life and describe his character within the limits which this work allows is impossible to mortal utterance. The most that can be done within the allotted compass is to briefly epitomize the salient points and leave to inference the coloring of the narrative. Mr. Waldron was a native of Albany, N. Y., born in November, I824, and his death occurred at the Cleveland Water Cure Sanitarium on December ii, I877. Yet, although he fell beneath the fatal shaft at the comparatively early age of fifty-three, the record of his achievements in a public way and in private life is one of which many an octogenarian would be proud. It so impressed the age and body of his time, thatnotwithstanding more than a quarter of a century of time has passed since he surrendered his trust at the behest of the Great Disposer, his memory still lingers as a fragrant and living potency in the business world, of which he was in life so essential a part, and his influence on mercantile and fiscal conditions is still felt and heeded. He was reared and educated in his native city, and, in I843, came to Hillsdale as a young man of nineteen years. For a time he was here employed as a clerk in a commission warehouse owned and operated by his brother. Subsequently, in partnership with Chatncey W. Ferris, he conducted a merchandising business for a few years. In I850 he purchased the interest of his partner and formed a new firm in association with James B. Baldy. They continued the business along the same lines as heretofore conducted, and it steadily increased in volume and value, until this firm controlled the largest trade in the county, embracing in its sweep not only operations in general merchandising, as the term is usually understood, but also' extensive dealings in wool, wheat and various other commodities. In I86o these enterprising gentlemen closed out their mercantile industry, and, three years later, organized the First National Bank of Hillsdale, with Mr. Waldron as president and Mr. Baldy as cashier. The banking business was more in accordance. with the tastes and the genius of Mr. Waldron. Giving this institution his close and careful personal attention, he established it firmly on a broad basis of sound business principles, inspiring its management with a spirit of liberality, breadth and progressiveness that soon made it a potent factor in the commercial world of the community and laid all the surrounding country under tribute to its prosperity. To the day of his death, Mr. Waldron continued to manage and direct its policy as its president, keeping it ever in the front rank of banking institutions, enlarging its scope' and multiplying its functions to meet the requirements of every new condition in the domains of finance, exhibiting also in a marked degree all of the attributes of a prompt, positive, upright and inflexible business man. It was one of his invariable rules to settle all disputes in business out of couht, if that were possible without a sacrifice of principle or of honor; in consequence of this rule he presented the remarkable example of a man actively engaged in business on an enormous scale for a period of thirty years without ever being himself, or having any establishment with which he was connected, either a plaintiff or a defendant in a legal proceeding of any kind. Mr. Waldron was twice married, in 1848 to Miss Mary Moon, of Lima, Ind.; in I874 to Miss Carrie Osband, of Cleveland, Ohio. At his death he left a widow and three children as his survivors. His private life was as beautiful as his busi

Page  121 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 121 ness career was successful and productive. He was liberal in support of public enterprises and private charity, and, if royal often in dispensing his bounty, he was likewise princely in the silence he maintained concerning it. In friendships he was firm, loyal and enduring; in social life an ornament and an inspiration to society; at his domestic hearth he was the soul of hospitality, the compass and the anchor of the family, the exemplar and sustenance of every moral and educational force. No man of his day stood higher in public estimation, none was more cordially esteemed in the circles of personal friendship; none had a cleaner record in business, none a more exalted ideal in private character. EDWARD BAILY. For fifty-seven years a resident of this county in Litchfield township, for seventeen years an efficient supervisor of the township, Edward Baily has been a potent force in the development and progress of the county and is widely known and respected as one of its makers and builders. He is a native of Orleans county, New York, born on December 9, I842, the son of William and Sarah (Weed) Baily, the former English by nativity, born and reared in Somersetshire, and the latter a product of Eairfield county, Connecticut, who first saw the light of this world at Stamford. The father was a farmer in Connecticut, whither he came as a young man, and later in New York. In I844 he brought his young family to the wilds of Michigan, armed with a resolute heart and high hopes of future competence and consequence, furnished with the energy, persistence and the capability to win his way even through the hard conditions of frontier life with its inevitable privations, dangers and constant calls for stern endurance. He located first in Scipio township in this county, but, after a residence of two years in that location, removed to Litchfield township, where he settled on forty acres of wild land which he purchased, it being a part of the highly developed and well-improved farm on which his son, Edward, now resides. As he got his land cleared and under cultivation he purchased additional tracts until he owned 115 acres, and, at the time of his death, he had all of this in a good state of fertility, provided with comfortable buildings and with other improvements. His life ended in I885, that of his widow in I898. They had three children, two sons and one daughter, of whom Edward and one sister, Mrs. A. H. Knapp, are residents of Hillsdale county. The maternal grandfather, Ebenezer Weed, was a soldier in the Revolution, who upheld the family name with credit on many bloody battlefields of the memorable struggle for Independence. Since his day, whether in peace or war, the representatives of both sides of the house, wherever they have been found, have sustained the cause of their country and aided materially in the promotion of its best interests. Edward Baily grew to manhood on his father's farm and assisted in clearing and cultivating it, having the usual allowance of opportunity enjoyed by country boys in his day and section for common-school advantages, and, it must be said to his credit, that he made good use of them. At the death of his father he inherited the farm, on which he has since lived, adding to its extent from time to time by purchase, until it comprises 206 acres of excellent land, adding also to its value otherwise, by careful and progressive husbandry, until it has become one of the most desirable and complete fa-rm homes in this part of the county. He was married in Monroe county, New York, in I869, to Miss Lucinda Fuller, a daughter of Holloway H. and Miriam B. (Watson) Fuller, prominent farmers who lived and died in New York, where the father was born and whither the mother moved from her native state of Maine. Mr. and Mrs. Baily have one child, their daughter, Marion. While he has been a lifelong Republican in political faith, true and loyal to his party, and, while he has a deep and abiding interest in public affairs involving the welfare of the community, Mr. Bailey has not sought office; he has, however, on occasion consented to serve the township and county in important places, and has served it well. He was for ten years a justice of the peace and for seventeen a supervisor, and in both

Page  122 122. HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. positions contributed materially to the preservation of law and order among the people and the advancement and elevation of their best interests in every way. He very capably served as chairman of the county board of supervisors for several years, also being the president of the Farmers' Mutual Insurance Company of Hillsdale county for a definite length of time. In fraternal relations he has for many years been a member of the Masonic lodge at Jonesville. As hI has been one of the most serviceable citizens of the township, so he is now one of the most respected for his ability and worth. DR. LESTER R. WATKINS. The pen of the biographer has seldom a more engaging theme than the life story of a good citizen who has grown old in the service of his people, and has lived to see the fruit of his labors in their prosperity and happiness and the established success of valued public institutions, to whose creations and development he has essentially contributed. Such a theme is presented in the career of Dr. Lester R. Watkins, one of the pioneer physicians of Hillsdale county, who departed this life on February 4, I880, after a successful practice of his profession of over thirty-four years in Allen township. He was a native of Hopewell, Ontario county, New York, born on September 3, I821, a son of.Ephraim and Deborah (Whitney) Watkins, natives of Massachusetts, who spent the last years of their life in the place of his birth. His father was a farmer and the family consisted of three sons and six daughters. One daughter, Mrs. Susan Metcalf, of Rochester, New York, is still living. His son, Lester, was a student by nature and manifested his bent early in life. After leaving the primary schools of his native town he entered Canandaigua Academy, and upon the completion of his course there he began the study of medicine under the capable direction of Doctor Holden, of Hopewell. Before he was twenty-one years of age he entered Geneva (N. Y.) Medical College, and in 1846 he was graduated from that institution with the degree of M. D. He located in Hillsdale county, Michigan, at Allen, made that place his home for the rest of his life, and, throughout all of the surrounding country, he was soon well known as an energetic and skillful physician and surgeon, finding himself favorably launched on the flood tide of a large and successful practice. He was a close and thoughtful student, an attentive and discriminating observer, a resourceful and intelligent practitioner. Throughout his entire life he was faithful to every duty, holding broad and progressive views in reference to the development and moral standard of the community in which he had cast his lot. Churches, schools, all educational and moral forces, received his earnest and active support, while in social life he was genial and companionable to such an extent that his presence was ever a stimulus to good humor and the better and loftier aspirations of the human mind. The literature of his profession enlisted his continual and studious interest, as did the organizations formed among his professional brethren for the purposes of mutual benefit and the common good, which were aided and elevated by his active membership and the valued contributions he drew from his extensive experience and ripe judgment. Doctor Watkins belonged to the county and state medical societies and was a zealous and useful member also of the Tri-State Medical Association. In politics he was an unwavering Republican, and, although not an active partisan, he took great interest in the public local affairs. He served as the township clerk for many years, being wise in counsel and diligent in his action in behalf of every public enterprise. He was a charter member of the Masonic lodge at Allen, in which he kept up his active membership to the day of his death. His early practice was in a wild, unbroken country, with bridle paths and Indian trails as the only thoroughfares of travel in many places, and over these for long years he rode on horseback day after day, in all weathers and under all kinds of trying circumstances. Through the exposure to which he was thus subjected he contracted a chronic rheumatism, the disease ending his life at the age of nearly sixty years, reaching and paralyzing his heart in one of its acute attacks. On April 27, I852, at the home of the bride

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Page  123 HJLLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I23 at Gorham, Ontario county, N. Y., Doctor Watkins married with Miss Zeruah W. Pickett, a daughter of Ansel and Charlotte (St. John) Pickett, the former a native of Litchfield, Connecticut, and the latter of Saratoga county, New York. After their marriage her parents settled at Gorham, subsequently removing to Phelps, in the same county, where the father died in I866. The mother then divided her time between the home of Mrs. Watkins and that of a daughter at Rochester, N. Y., dying at the Watkins home in Allen township, Michigan, on June 3, i88i. MRS. ZERUAH W. (PICKETT) WATKINS was born at Gorham, Ontario county, New York, May 3, I826, where the earlier years of her life were spent. On April 27, 1852, she was given in marriage to Doctor Watkins, and she came directly to Allen, where the remainder of her life was passed at her well-known home. Two children were born to Doctor and Mrs. Watkins; one a son, died in infancy; the other, Charlotte A., at the age of four years. On the evening of November 9, I902, Mrs. Watkins.suffered her second stroke of paralysis, from which she made some progress toward recovery. On December 26, the third stroke fell upon the afflicted lady, and from this she had not strength sufficient to rally, gradually losing her hold upon life, until the evening of January 27, I903, when the worn and weary spirit left its tenement of clay, to be "forever with the Lord." During the long weeks of her last sickness, Mrs. Watkins was tenderly cared for by her only niece, Mrs. Josie Bainbridge Maynard, who chanced to be with her aunt when the blow fell upon her, and later, by her only sister, Mrs. L. H. Haskins, of Morgantown, North Carolina, and also by her lifelong friend, Mrs. M. L. Wyrick, of Saginaw, and Mrs. Watkins' faithful companion, Mrs. Jane Hamburg. The only brother, J. H. Pickett, of Geneva, New York, was unable to be present at the bedside of his sister, owing to his own bodily affliction, from paralysis. Funeral services were held at the Baptist church on Saturday, January 31, conducted by Rev. R. J. Lobb, a former pastor, assisted by Rev. Jordan, the choir rendering the appropriate selections in a manner befitting the occasion. The re mains were tenderly laid at rest in Allen village cemetery, beside those of her beloved companion, who passed suddenly to the Great Beyond twenty-three years ago. The casket was literally covered with floral offerings of exceptional beauty, the flowers the deceased so loved in life. Soon after her removal to Allen, Mrs. Watkins was received into the membership of the Baptist church, and since that time her first thought, outside of her own home, was for the church of her choice and the tender memory and fragrance of her quiet, Christian life rests like a benediction over the community. THE CITIZENS BANK OF ALLEN. The Citizens Bank of Allen, Michigan, was founded in I893, by F. A. Roethlisberger and conducted by him as a private banking institution until June, I902. He then disposed of it to William N. Benge, who has since carried on its business in the same manner and on the same basis. It is one of the well-known and firmly established financial institutions of Hillsdale county, having a high reputation for the accommodating spirit which pervades it and for the success and vigor with which its affairs are conducted. Mr. Benge is a native of Allen township, where he is doing an extensive business in several lines, and he was reared and educated within its borders. He was born on June 26, I868, one of the eleven children of his parents, eight of whom are living, four sons and four daughters, and all of the sons are residents of Hillsdale and Branch counties. His parents are John and Mary A. (Goldsmith) Benge, natives of Kent county, England, who came to the United States in I850, and, after a residence of four years in the state of New York, moved to Hillsdale county, Michigan, settling in Allen township. Receiving a sunstroke on a hot summer day, the father was obliged to retire from all active labor, and is now living in quiet retirement in Allen township, surviving his wife, who died in I882. His son, William N. Benge, began life for himself as a clerk for Messrs. Hill & Roethlisberger,

Page  124 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 124 remaining in the employ of Mr. Roethlisberger seven years. He then engaged in merchandising on his own account in association with F. A. Wagner, under the firm name of Benge & Wagner. This firm was in business three years, and, at the end of that time, Mr. Wagner sold his interest to Mr. Roethlisberger and the firm name was changed to Benge & Co., and so continued for five years, when Mr. Wagner became a partner, the firm from that time being Benge & Wagner again. This business is in no way connected with the bank, but both interests are conducted with the energy which has ever characterized Mr. Benge's operations. He is also a director in the First State Savings-Bank of Hillsdale, and has interests in other financial and mercantile enterprises. Mr. Benge married in this county in I889 with Miss May E. Raplee, a native of the county and a daughter of Andrew J. and Rebecca Raplee, who were early settlers in this part of the state. Their union has been blessed with two children, A. J., who died in infancy, and Wilhelmina. HORACE BOW. For nearly sixty years a resident of Hillsdale county, during all that period being earnestly and actively interested in the growth and development of this section, Horace Bow, of Cambria township, is justly held in high esteem as one of the forceful pioneers of Southern Michigan, as one whose life has been a benefaction to the state, and is well worthy of honorable mention in any narrative of the doings and achievements of the progressive men of this portion of her domain. He was born in York, Livingston county, New York, on March 2, I816, the son of Charles and Lydia (Bills) Bow, natives of Pittsfield, Mass., where the father was a prosperous farmer of that section and time. About the year I8I5 he moved to New York and there remained until I843, when he came to this county and purchased I60 acres of land in Jefferson township, which he partially cleared, and on which he lived until his death, two years later, on April 7, I845, he having survived his wife twelve years, her death occurring in New York in I833. Their family consisted of four sons and three daughters, all now deceased, except Horace. His grandfather was a native of Massachusetts, who farmed in that state for a number of years, then moved to Livingston county, New York, where he died in the fullness of years. Horace Bow grew to manhood and was educated in New York, remaining there until he was twenty-three years old. In the autumn of I840 he made a trip to Michigan, traveling on the Erie canal to Buffalo, from that city across. Lake Erie to Toledo, occupying six days in the voyage. He journeyed by rail from Toledo to Adrian, from there by stage to Tecumseh, where he spent the winter. After a short visit to Ypsilanti he returned to New York, but in 1844 he came to reside permanently in this state and purchased a tract of uncultivated and unimproved land in Jefferson township, which he partially cleared and made his residence for two years. He then moved to Pittsford township, where he cleared a farm on which he lived until 1862, in I86o making a trip to California for his health. From Pittsford township he moved to Cambria in 1862 and settled on the farm, which has ever since been his home, and which was partially improved when he bought it. This he has since greatly impraved and has brought to a very high state of cultivation, making it one of the most attractive and desirable country homes of the township. In 1845, he was married to Miss Cynthia Turner, a daughter of Delonza and Orissia (Rush) Turner, natives of Massachusetts, who removed to New York in early life, and, in I836, became residents of Adams township in this county, where the father died in I848 and the mother in I88I. Of the children born to Mr. and Mrs. Bow, their son, Charles, is deceased, and their daughter, Ella, is the wife of Wills D. Osborne, of Cambria township. Mr. Bow is an old-time Democrat, with unwavering fidelity to the principles of his party. Mrs. Bow is a devout and active member of the Methodist church. Both are valued members of society and most highly respected in all parts of the county.

Page  125 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I25 EPHRAIM W. BENSON. With a martial spirit in his ancestry, who dfew in love of liberty with the very air they breathed in the Green Mountain region of Vermont, which showed itself on the maternal side in Ethan Allen, the very renowned Revolutionary hero, who was one of her progenitors, and on the paternal side in his father, who was a veteran of the War of 1812, twice wounded in that contest, it is not strange that Ephraim W. Benson, of Pittsford township, should have shouldered his musket at the call of his country for volunteers in the defense of the Union when armed resistance threatened its continuance, to go forward to the front in the greatest war of modern times, although he is essentially a man of peace and his life has otherwise been devoted to its productive and peaceful industries. He was born in Ontario county, New York, at the town of Richmond, on April 23, 1835, his parents being David and Clara (Briggs) Benson, natives of Vermont, who were born and reared near Rutland in that state. The father was a farmer and also a soldier in the U. S. regular army for a period of five years, which covered the time occupied in the second War with England. During that struggle with the mother country he was in active service all of the time, fighting gallantly wherever occasion required, sealing his devotion to the cause with his blood on the field of Chippewa, where he was shot in the side, and again on that of Lundy's Lane, where he received another serious wound. After the close of his military service, he settled in Vermont, where he married, and where three of his children, Allen, Joshua and Adelia, were born. Five other children were born in New York after his removal to that state, Chloe J., Rhoda F., Ephrair. W., Emory W. and David. All are now deceased, excepting Joshua, IEphraim and David. Their mother died in New York in 1843, and twenty years later, in I863, the father came to Michigan, where he ended his days at the home of his eldest son, in Barry county, dying there in I866 or 1867. Ephraim W. Benson remained at the New York home of the family in his native county until he reached the age of nineteen, assisting in the duties of the farm, gathering strength and suppleness of body, acquiring habits of industry and thrift, and attending the schools of the vicinity, where he secured a limited education. In 1854 he started out to inake his own way in the world, coming to this state and, soon after his arrival, locating in Pittsford township, where he worked as a farm hand for four years. On September 28, 1858, he married with Miss Elizabeth Clement, and, about the time of his marriage, he purchased forty acres of land, now a part of his present farm. He, however, remained with his father-in-law, Mr. Christopher Clement, until I862, and assisted in the work on the productive farm of that prominent and honored citizen of Pittsford township, who was born in the town of Root, now Canajoharie, Montgomery county, New York, and came with his parents to this county in I836, where he became a potential factor in the development and improvement of the township, and a power of great service in pushing forward every line of fruitful energy in this section, all of his efforts being ably aided by his energetic and diligent wife, whose maiden name was Alice Fish, and to whom he was married on September 28, I837. They became the parents of four children, Mrs. Benson; Henry, who lives in Chicago; Kate, wife of Robert Stewart, of Anderson county, Kansas; and Eveline, widow of Philo Long, of Pittsford township. Mrs. Benson is a niece of Cornelius Clement, an account of whose life appears on another page. Instead of settling on his farm, as he intended to do, Mr. Benson enlisted in August, I862, in the Union army, as a member of Co. A, Eighteenth Michigan Infantry, which became a part of the Army of the Cumberland. His first baptism of fire came at Cincinnati, where his regiment was a part of the force employed in repelling the invasion of Ohio by Gen. Kirby Smith. He afterward saw active service in the campaigns in Alabama, participated in the battles of Decatur and Athens in that state, in that of Danville, Kentucky, and in many others in that part of the country; but much of his time

Page  126 126 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. was passed on detached duty as a teamster and a dispatch carrier. He served to the close of the war, and after his discharge returned to this county and settled on his farm, where he has since resided, in the cultivation and improvement of which his energies have been continuously employed. He has added to his domain until it now numbers I40 acres, improved it with good buildings of every needed kind, until, in condition of tillage and character and completeness of equipment, it is one of the best in the township. His family consists of four children, Clara D., wife of Charles Voorhees, of Grand Rapids; Alice, wife of Frank Preston, of Chicago; Leroy and Bina, who are living at home. The last named married with Miss Anna Driscol, of North Adams, and they have one son, Otis Benson. A Republican in political affiliation, Mr. Benson has served five years as the township treasurer, several years as highway commissioner, and also several on the board of review. He is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic and of the Patrons of Husbandry. Both Mr. and Mrs. Benson are regular attendants at the services of the Free Baptists. JOHN BOWDITCH. John Bowditch, of Jefferson township, where he conducts one of the most attractive and best managed farms in this portion of the county, is a brother of Charles G. Bowditch, a sketch of whom also appears in this work, and the son of i\ichael and Charlotte (Trivett) Bowditch, natives of England, where he was born on February I5, I844. His native place was Devonshire, where his parents were then living, and where he remained until he was thirteen years of age. In I857 he came to the United States in company with a cousin. They landed in New York and went direct to Canada, where they were met by an uncle, William Trivett, who brought.Mr. Bowditch to this county. The young emigrant made his home with his uncle, attending school in the winter and working on the farm at other times, for fourteen years. His uncle made him a present of eighty acres of land, which, at that time, cost $I,8o0, which he still owns, and which was his home for a number of years, until he purchased the farm on which he now resides. He owns a tract of 400 acres, all well-improved and in an advanced state of cultivation. Thirty years ago he began dealing in stock, and he has increased his operations in this industry until his average sales are now from thirty to forty carloads a year. He has also given special attention to the breeding of Shorthorn cattle and PolandChina hogs, and in this field has been very successful, winning high commendation and a ready market for his product, becoming by study and observation an acknowledged authority on all matters pertaining to these breeds of stock. Mr. Bowditch was married, on February II, I869, to Miss Elizabeth Viele, a daughter of Abraham and Eleanor (Schermerhorn) Viele, both natives of New York. Her father came to Michigan in 1835 and entered a tract of I60 acres of government land in Wheatland township, this county, and in I837 he built a log house on the place and moved his family into it, and then began the clearing up of the farm to make it habitable and productive. He was a carpenter and found plenty of work at his craft in building houses and barns for the new settlers. By diligence and persistent effort, he succeeded in clearing I30 acres of his land before his death, which occurred at the home of his son-in-law in I891. His wife preceded him to the Silent Land more than a quarter of a century, passing away in I865. They had six children, all now deceased, except Mrs. Bowditch and one son. One of her brothers died while a soldier in the Civil War, from the effects of a wound received in attacking a Kentucky town. Mr. and Mrs. Bowditch have two sons, Burton A. and John Bowditch, Jr. They also had a daughter, Mabel, who died some years ago. She was the wife of Dr. Clarence W. Harris, of Allen, this county, and left a son of the same name, who makes his home with Mr. Bowditch. In political faith Mr. Bowditch has always been an active and zealous Republican. He served for years on the county central committee of his party, and for two terms was the township treasurer. He belongs to the Patrons of Husbandry and has been the treasurer of his grange for fifteen years, and during the

Page  127 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 127 same length of time Mrs. Bowditch has been its lecturer. She is also a member of the Baptist church at Hillsdale. Both are highly esteemed throughout the township, and elsewhere in the county where they are known, being among the most respectable and substantial citizens of this part of the state, well deserving by their upright and progressive lives the estimation in which they are held. THEODORE P. CARBINE. Cambria township is indebted to the great state of New York for many of her most progressive and highly respected families. Among the number is Theodore P. Carbine, now living near the village of Cambria, who was born in that state, in Cayuga county, on April 29, I828. His parents were Horace and Clara (Harrington) Carbine, also New Yorkers by birth. The father was a farmer and came with his family to Michigan in I849, where he settled on a tract of I60 acres of land in Woodbridge township, this county, which he had purchased three years before. His land was all in a state of nature at the time, and he began operations in the effort to make a home of it by building a plank house, 20x30 feet in dimensions, and also clearing a small tract. In February, I850, death ended his labors, and left the land for his widow and children to clear and occupy, which they did. The mother died in 1877, after a hard struggle, ending in comfort and peace, being in full enjoyment of the respect and regard of all her neighbors. Eight children of the large family, four sons and three daughters, grew to maturity, and of these only three are now living, Theodore being the only one who resides in Hillsdale county. The grandfather, Zebulon Carbine, a native of New York, was a farmer and sawmill man, who was killed in raising a barn on January I, I800. His father, Francis Carbine, was a soldier in the French and American armies during the American Revolution. He left his native France for this country at the close of the French Revolution, in which he participated and was an officer. He died in I795, having resume4 the prac tice of his profession, the law, in America, after our independence was established. The spirit of patriotism which imbued him has been in the family ever since. The father of Theodore was a soldier in the War of I812. and'all members of the family for generations have manifested a deep and serviceable interest in the welfare of their country. Theodore P. Carbine was educated in the public schools of Ohio, where he was reared, his parents having moved to that state when he was a child of five years. He accompanied them to Michigan in I849, here assisted in clearing the farm and making it habitable and productive, taking charge of it after his father's death and aiding his mother in rearing the younger members of the family. He now owns a portion of the home farm, but makes his home in the village of Cambria. In 1853. he was married, in this county, to Miss Susan M. Fitzsimmons, a daughter of Thomas Fitzsimmons, one of the respected pioneers of Wheatland township. She died in March. I900, and he married a second time on December 22, 1901, being then united with Miss Cora Colburn, a native of Vermont. He is a Republican in politics, but has never taken an active part in the campaigns of his party. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, zealous in the service of the organization. Having come to the county when it was in a state of primeval wilderness and passing the whole of his subsequent life within its borders, he has witnessed its progress to its present splendid development and noted all the stages of the advance. At every stage he has been at hand to aid in promoting all good enterprises and giving proper trend and his aid to public sentiment and the spirit of improvement. CHARLES BOWDITCH. This prominent Jefferson township farmer is a native of Somersetshire, England, born on October IO, 1848. His parents were Michael and Charlotte (Trivett) Bowditch, of the same nativity as himself, descended from families long resident in that part of England. The father

Page  128 128 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. was a dairyman, and passed his life in his native land, dying there in 1882. The mother lives in Hillsdale, this county. They had three sons and four daughters, all now living but one, and all are residents of this county, except one daughter, who lives in England. Charles Bowditch passed the first sixteen years of his life in England, where he was educated in the schools of that country. In I865 he came to the United States and joined his uncle, William Trivett, in Hillsdale county. Some years were passed at the home of his uncle and in his employ, and then, in 1873, Mr. Bowditch married Miss Sylvia Blunt, a daughter of Avery and Phoebe Blunt, who were among the earliest settlers in the county. Her mother how resides at Osseo, in Jefferson township. After his marmiage, Mr. Bowditch rented his uncle's farm and subsequently became its owner. It comprises 240 acres of excellent land, well improved with good buildings, which has been brought by skillful cultivation to a high state of productiveness. Mr. and Mrs. Bowditch have two children, their sons, Fred A. and Trivett. The father is a Republican in politics, a firm believer in the principles of the party and cordially interested in its welfare, but he is not an active partisan and has never consented to accept an office. He is an interested member of both the Masonic fraternity and of the Patrons of Husbandry. His wife is also a member of the Congregational church. They are among the most highly esteemed citizens of the township. WILLIAM A. CARPENTER. William A. Carpenter, of Bankers Station, in Cambria township, is one of the leading business men of this portion of the state, as its pioneer merchant, building and conducting the first general store in this section, which he opened in I874 and still manages, and erecting the first residence of consequence in the village. He has had an eventful career, covering many lines of active usefulness, therein sustaining with credit the name and reputation won by an ancestry running back in this country to old Colonial times. distinguished then and ever since in everv commendable walk of life. His grandfather was in the War of 1812. His great-grandfather was Elijah Carpenter, a soldier of great bravery and serviceable to the American army as a musician 'in the war of 1812. His great-grandfather was Jesse Carpenter, a Revolutionary hero in a Massachusetts regiment, who fought gallantly against both the British and their Indian allies in many a hard-fought and sanguinary battle. On the field of Bennington his wife, a woman of great courage and resolution, having safely bestowed her children in a wagon in the woods, carried water to the soldiers, and in many other ways ministered to their comfort and to that of the wounded and dying. In I800 they moved to Madison county, New York, there reared their family, and, in the fullness of time, passed away, Jesse dying at the home of his grandson, William Carpenter, at the age of ninety-six. William Carpenter, father of William A., of this review, was born in Rensselaer county, New York, on February 5, I801, and attained manhood in Madison county and was married to Nancy Burden, a native of Lanesboro, Massachusetts, of good Scotch ancestry. There their two children were born, reared and educated, one being their son, William A. Carpenter, whose life began on January 30, 1832, and the other a daughter, who is now deceased; and there also they died and were laid to rest. The father was a man of fine physique and possessed a giant's strength. He had a rich fund of worldly wisdom and common sense, and his geniality of disposition and musical talents made him very popular. He died much lamented, on August 7, I869, and his wife, who shared the esteem in which he was held, died in 1872. They were valued members of the Baptist church, active in all its works of benevolence. William A. Carpenter passed his early life on his father's farm, assisting in its labors and receiving a good elementary education at the public schools. He learned the trade of a carpenter and joiner, and, later, that of a machinist. After working at these for a number of years, he thoroughly mastered the intricacies and difficul

Page  129 I HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 129 ties of mechanical engineering. In 1855 he moved to Elgin, Ill., and found employment in an establishment where agricultural implements and machinery were manufactured, soon thereafter engaging in the same business on his own account. He remained there four years and then for a time traveled in the oil regions of Pennsylvania, in I862 settled at Port Huron, in this state, and for two years conducted a sawmill at that place. In 1864 he removed to Detroit and was engaged for some years in the Detroit Locomotive~ Works, and, after leaving that employment, was traveling engineer of the Michigan 'Central Railroad until he left the service of the company to 'A J1;- 4^t-; F11- ' Tr 1 T-D --- --- T 0 1 at Bankers for a period of seven years. Early in life he showed a decided aptitude for freehand drawing, and by much practice became an expert draughtsman. His talent in this line was employed for twenty years, or longer, by the railroads around him and by other lines of mechanical utility. He made the drawings for much of the best machinery constructed in Chicago and other large cities, and drew the plans and superintended the construction of the first sawmill at Ludington, in this state, which had a daily capacity of 300,000 feet of lumber. JOHN Q. CHANDLER. amc in 1 UlliunIg LI1e rP1 ir1ver roau. in 1071 ne was sent to Bankers as the master mechanic of The late John Q. Chandler, of H, of the successful and highly esteemed business the D. H. & S. W. Railroad, and was continued..,.,., ' ~,.. men of the state, was a native of Mt. Clemens, in this position until the consolidation of the road with the Fort Wayne, when he became theMichigan, born on April 7 I834 His parents master mechanic and division superintendent of were Col Daniel and Caroline (Peck) Chandler, the consolidated roads, remaining with the or-natives of New York. The father was by trade the consolidated roads, remaining with the organization until he started his mercantile indus-a blacksmith and, in 830, he settled at Mt. Clemtry in I874. He then gave his whole time and ens and founded the foundry and blacksmithing attention to merchandising, and has steadily been firm of D. Chandler & Sons, later organizing occupied in this line since that time, winning thethat of Chandler, Warren & Co., of East Sagiconfidence of the people by his upright methods, naw, now East Bay, for the purpose of carrying enterprise and progressiveness, and building upon the lmber and foundry industry. After his a large and profitable trade. death, on January 7, 1854, at the age of fifty, MNr. Carpenter was united in marriage with his sons, Daniel H. and Gilbert A., carried on Miss Ellen Richardson in I855. She is a native the business at the same place. Mr. Chandler of the same county in New York as himself, and was for some years a colonel in the militia, and there the marriage occurred. They have one was always a highly respected man, leading the child, their daughter, Nellie, wife of Charles thought of and being potent in the commercial Kidman, of Bankers. Mr. Carpenter was a Whig activities of his community. John Q. Chandler until the formation of the Republican party, when received his education at Saginaw, and, after he joined the new organization, casting his vote leaving school, he worked in his father's founin I856 for its first presidential candidate, Gen. dry until the breaking out of the Civil War. On John C. Fremont. He his ever since stood faith- August 17, I86I, he enlisted in the Twelfth New fully by the principles and candidates of this York Infantry and was soon after transferred party, giving his vote in unbroken succession to to Co. G, Second Battalion, Twelfth U. S. Ineach of its standard-bearers down to and includ- fantry, and assigned to the Army of Virginia uning the martyred McKinley. For sixteen years der General Pope. In 1862 he had another transhe served as justice of the peace, in I880 and I88I fer, this time to Co. D, with which he joined the being the towinship supervisor. He has been a Army of the Potomac. His service lasted until devoted attendant before the altars of Freema- August 17, 1864, and his regiment was in the sonry for many years, holding membership in very thick of the fight in the terrible campaigns the lodge at Hillsdale. He was also postmaster in which that army participated. He accomr~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Page  130 130 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. panied it through the battles of Chancellorsville, Cedar Mountain, Gettysburg, Mountain Run, Wilderness, Petersburg and many others, but he escaped unhurt. After the war. he was in the employ of the F. & P. M.. Railroad until I868, and soon after was made the master mechanic of the Detroit & Lake Superior Copper Co. at Houghton, and, when this company's interests at that point were sold to the Lake Superior & Tamarack Smelters, he became the assistant superintendent, a position in which he served until I893, when failing health compelled him to resign. He then settled at Hillsdale, and, on May 25, I896, occurred his death. He was a man of excellent business capacity, being connected with many important commercial enterprises, especially those engaged in the mining and smelting of copper, holding stock in a number of companies formed for this purpose in this state and in Montana. On December 25, 1871, he was married to Miss Harriet M. Belmy, a native of Hillsdale and a daughter of Joel and Hannah (Moore) Belmy. They had an adopted daughter, Marion Inez. In politics Mr. Chandler was a Republican, possessed no political aspirations, but was always loyal to his party and earnest in its service. In fraternal relations he belonged to the Masonic order and was a devoted member of his lodge. -Practically a self-made man, he had a broad and accurate fund of general knowledge, and was widely esteemed for his sound judgment, high character and public spirit. LEANDER H. CHILDS. This leading and successful farmer of Pittsford township, in this county, was born in Ontario county, New York, but, before he was a year old, he removed to Hillsdale county with his parents, who settled in Wheatland township. His life began on May 14, 1848, the son of Edmund and Eunice (Richardson) Childs, the former a New Yorker by nativity and the latter born in Vermont. The father was a farmer and, after his marriage in I84I, he came to this county with his bride and took up his residence on.a farm of eighty acres of uncultivated land, which he purchased in Wheatland township and at once began to develop and improve, by building a log house and barn and the rude fences of the time. After four years of active and energetic effort in subduing his land, he returned to New York, where he remained until I848, when he brought his family back to Michigan and, settling at his former home, again engaged in developing the wealth and resources of the farm. The remainder of his days have been passed in this and Lenawee counties. His wife died on September 17, I890. Their family consisted of five sons and three daughters, all of whom are living, except one son. The father was prominent in local affairs and served several terms as township treasurer. The grandfather, Oliver Childs, was a native of New York state, where he died after a long career as a successful farmer. L. H. Childs has been identified with the work and development of Hillsdale county from his infancy. Coming hither, as has been stated, in 1848, when he was less than a year old, he has lived all of the subsequent time in Wheatlandt and Pittsford townships, except a perior of nine years, during which he had his home at Hudson. To the productive forces of the county, he has added his best energies, to its welfare he has given the conscientious and intelligent activities of good citizenship, aiding in the promotion of every commendable enterprise and seeking to guide public sentiment into the most desired and beneficial channels of activity. In December, 1871, he was married, in this county, to Miss Janet Carr, native in New York and a daughter of Charles E. and Jane (Heachan) Carr, the former born in New York and the latter in Scotland. Mrs. Carr came to this county with her parents when she was but three years old, and lived here all the rest of her life, dying at the home of her son-in-law, Mr. Childs, in I874. Her husband died in New York. Mr. Childs takes no interest in political contentions and has never held or desired office. He votes the Republican ticket regularly, but gives no attention to politics in any other way. He and his wife

Page  [unnumbered]

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Page   130a HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 130a MORRIS P. SEVERANCE. An old soldier, a successful farmer, a useful public official, a citizen faithful to every duty, in all the lines of activity he has followed exhibiting breadth of view, commendable industry and elevation of character, Morris P. Severance, of Pittsford township, Hillsdale county, Michigan, has many titles to the public regard in which he is held in this community, the honors of which he wears with becoming modesty. He was born on March 26, I840, in Steuben county, Indiana, the son of Edwin C. and Rachel (Maynard) Severance, the former a native of New York and the latter of Maryland, both belonging to old and highly respected families in their respective localities. They were of English and Dutch ancestry, respectively, and their American progenitors came to this country in early Colonial days. The father was by trade a shoemaker, but, during the greater part of his life, he was engaged in farming. In 1837 or 1838 he moved to Steuben county, Indiana, and for two or three years he drove stage on the line between Fort Wayne and Toledo. In 1840 he returned to New York where he remained until 1853 when he moved his family to Ingham county, Michigan, where he was engaged in farming until I86o, when he came to Hillsdale county and bought ninety-four acres of land in Pittsford township, which was partially cleared. Later he purchased the farm on which his son, Morris, lives, where he maintained his home until his death in I873. The mother survived him thirteen years, dying in I886.' Their family consisted of two sons and one daughter. The grandfather, Elihu Severance, was a native of Massachusetts, a farmer by occupation and an early settler in Indiana where his later years were passed. Morris P. Severance passed his childhood in New York, his youth and early manhood in this state, coming here when he was thirteen years of age. In the schools of this state he was educated, in the cultivation of its soil on his father's farms he acquired habits of industry and thrift. In May, I86I, at the first call for volunteers to defend the Union, he enlisted. in Co. F, Fourth Michigan Infantry, and was soon thereafter at the front in the region of the historic and often ensanguined Potomac battling with a gallant foe with equally as gallant courage in the battles of Chickahominy, Hanover C. H., Mechanicsville, and many others of minor importance. He was shot through the left lung at Mechanicsville and was reported as dead, but, by great good fortune and by reason of his strong constitution, rather than because of favoring circumstances, he recovered, and, after his discharge from the service, on account of the disability thus incurred, which came in August, 1862, he returned to his Michigan home and here he has since resided and devoted his energies to farming. Mr. Severance was married on January I8, I866, in this county, to Miss Anna A. Cunningham, a daughter of Layton Cunningham, one of the pioneers of the county. They have had six children, one of whom is deceased. The living are their sons, Layton and Burton, farmers, and their daughters, Ethel M., Verna L: and Ada, all residents of this county. Ethel is 4he wife of Charles Crook, a telegrapher in the enploy of the Wabash Railroad; Verna, the wife of Byron Bailey; Ada, the wife of Clio Phillips. From his early manhood Mr. Severance has been a Republican in political faith. He.has served twelve or fourteen years as constable of the township and two years as treasurer of the township, is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, and an active worker in the order of Patrons of Husbandry, holding his membership in the grange at Pittsford. He and his wife are regular attendants of the Methodist Episcopal church. When one contemplates the peculiar conditions of American life, where a man, like Mr. Severance, can in the military service of his country perform such feats of heroic gallantry as would, in the old Roman and Grecian days, make him a king of the arena, and then see him quietly and unostentatiously, as if unconscious of any peculiar merit on his part, like Cincinnatus of old, return to the peaceful and law-abiding pursuits of agriculture, we can fully realize that this republic is based upon the most solid of foundations, a loyal, militant yeomanry.

Page  130b I3ob HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. JOHN M. WATKINS. The late John M. Watkins was a son of Samuel Watkins, a memoir of whom appears in other pages of this volume. A native of Allen township of Hillsdale county, he was born on March I, I843, and passed all of his life on the paternal homestead, being numbered during all of his active life among the influential and representative citizens of the county. He received a substantial education in the district schools of his native township, and, as he grew to manhood, received valuable lessons in agriculture on his father's farm. This farm he owned for years previous to his untimely death and it is one of the best managed and most highly improved estates in the township. Both the residence and barn are brick, excellent specimens of rural architecture, and the condition of his land proclaims him to have been one of the most skillful and progressive farmers in this part of the state. For a number of years he continued the manufacture of brick which his father had inaugurated, and, in I89I, erected on his place a. large fruit-evaporating kiln in which he annually dried over 2,000 bushels of apples. Another busy and prosperous plant of this kind was conducted by himself and his brother-in-law, under the name of Brockway & Watkins. What a contrast has been presented since the days when John M. Watkins, as a young lad was subjected to all the trials and privations of the wild life of the newest of new lands, Indians, wild beasts and the stern conditions of pioneer existence exhibiting all of the impoverished reality of the land, hardly giving even the slightest suggestion of the vast wealth and luxury he was permitted to see so magnificently scattered over the broad country, which witnessed his early struggles and vitalising experiences, after he had himself borne part for many years in the developing process, and had lived to see the opening years of the greatest of all of the many centuries, 'the glorious Twentieth Century, in which the forces of human intellect seemingly were vying to see what they could bring of good and beautiful things to the people of this favored land. Mr. Watkins was twice married. The first marriage occurred on November 19, i868, with Miss Anna E. Whitney, a daughter of Jonathan and Ann J. (Garrett) Whitney, the former being a native of Seneca, New York, and the latter of the Isle of Man. The fruit of this union was two children, J. Whitney and Mary E. Watkins, the latter being now the wife of Burton Bowditch, of Pittsford, this county. Mrs. Watkins died on January 2, 1878, and Mr. Watkins's second marriage was solemnized at Quincy, on October 15, I879, his mate on this occasion being Miss Julia Strong, a daughter of William and Martha B. (Badgley) Strong, natives of Morris county, New Jersey. Her mother died at Butler, in Branch county, on August 21, I88I, and her father at her own home in August, I890. The second Mrs. Watkins was the mother of one child, Martha Alice, who died on February 26, 1883. She is an active worker in the Presbyterian church, of which she has long been a zealous member. Mr. John M. Watkins was a loyal Lincoln Republican in politics, having cast his first vote for Abraham Lincoln for President and holding true to the party during his life. He gave good service to the township as supervisor for two terms and also as a very efficient justice of the peace for two terms. He belonged to the Masonic fraternity, and with his wife took valued interest in Allen Grange, Patrons of Husbandry, in whose councils he will long be missed. A man of practical wisdom and sagacity, having a large fund of general information, with clear views and strong convictions on all public questions, his counsel was ever much sought as valuable in all matters affecting the welfare of the county, and, throughout its extent, he was highly esteemed, and, when the angel of death came for him, on July I6, I903, at his attractive home in Allen village, the whole community was shadowed by the gloom arising from his passing from the midst of the people, and reverently and most tenderly all that was mortal of their late neighbor and friend was conveyed in silence to the little grave wherein now reposes his body in its last, long sleep, never more to waken until the morning of the resurrection. His many friends will experience a subdued pleasure on viewing the lifelike engraving of their departed friend which acompanies this memoir.

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Page  131 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 13 II are members of the Congregational church. Both are well esteemed throughout a large social circle and an extensive acquaintance in this and adjoining townships. CORNELIUS CLEMENT. Cornelius Clement, of Pittsford township, in this county, the interesting subject of this brief review, belongs to a family that has seen many hardships and trials in many generations, and has met them all with a resolute spirit of endurance and conquest, displaying, in every adverse condition and under all forms of disaster and trouble, a commendable manliness of demeanor, elevation of character and determined persistency of effort, which have seemingly defied fate itself and shown the superiority of mind over matter and will over circumstances, qualities that have made American citizenship at its best, the highest form of human development, in both the individual and in the aggregate. He was born on August 26, I823, at Root, Montgomery county, New York, the last of the twelve children of his parents, Aaron and Elizabeth (Ottman) Clement, all now deceased but himself, nearly all of whom reached old age in usefulness and credit, although one of the number died at the age of nineteen and another at forty-five. His father, Aaron Clement, was born at Westina, New York. on April Io, I774, and received a good commonschool education for the time in which he lived. At the age of twenty-three he married with Miss Elizabeth Ottman, then but sixteen or seventeen years old. Her mother died while she was yet an infant, and she was reared in the Lycker family, living there until her marriage. The Clements were French Huguenots, and after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, in I865, the branch of the family to which Cornelius belongs fled to America for safety from religious persecution, his great-great-grandfather, John Clement, settling on Long Island. He had two daughters, one of whom located in New Jersey and the other in Maryland; and also two sons, Joseph and Peter, the latter being the greatgrandfather of our subject, who settled at Westina, four miles west of Schenectady. There he married Anna or Nancy Vedder, and reared five children, three sons and two daughters. The daughters died at Westina, and the sons, Peter, Samuel and Aaron, with their parents moved to Canajoharie, later called Root and now again Canajoharie, in Montgomery county of the same state, where they bought and settled on a tract of land which was almost unimproved. In the various parts of the county in which the descendants of the American progenitor of this numerous and most useful family settled they bore with fortitude and lofty courage the trials and crosses of life, both for themselves and for their country, aiding materially in the wars waged for the founding and the stability of our government, ever giving their toil and their best intelligence to push forward the conquests of peace, which have, on our soil, so signally blessed and elevated mankind. Mr. Clement's grandfather and his uncle Peter were gallant soldiers in the Revolutionary struggle, and his father was a captain in that of 1812, while many members of the family stood resolutely by the cause of the Union in the great War of the Sections of I86I65. And, wherever they have lived, they have been potent factors in the onward march of civilization and progress. Many have been pioneers, in one state or another, and bravely faced the dangers and toils, the privations and the hardships incident to frontier life, contending with the rage of man and with that of the elements, with wild beasts and Nature's obstinacy to obtain a foothold and a place whereon to build their family altars and to found their homes. Among this number none confronted conditions more bravely, or conquered them more completely, than the parents of Mr. Clements, who, in 1837, in the decline of their lives, determined for the good of their children to emigrate from the section in which they were well established, and in which they had by arduous toil developed a pleasant home, and seek wider opportunities 9

Page  132 I32 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. and more far-reaching benefits in this fair state, which was then a part of the far, untrodden and almost unknown West. They settled on a tract of 240 acres of land, which was almost entirely uncultivated and heavily timbered, except that a small log house had been erected and about fifty acres cleared. They resolutely set to work to clear it for a home and for cultivation, and here the mother died in I856, after nineteen years of life in this state, and the father in I868, he having reached the patriarchal age of ninetyfour. Of their children, Samuel came, to Michigan in I835, and settled at Detroit, Christopher came a year later, settling on a farm in Pittsford township, where he died aged ninety-one years. Young Cornelius Clement was but fourteen years old when he came with the rest of the family to Hillsdale county, and with them he at once went to work at clearing and farming the land on which they located. At odd times he attended the primitive schools of the vicinity and thus completed the education begun in his native state. In I844, after reaching his majority, he took up and began to develop the farm of I75 acres on which he now lives, and which is now entirely cleared, thoroughly tile-drained and well improved. In 1852 he married Miss Harriet A. Cline, a native of Niagara county, New York, who died on April 7, I897, leaving four children, three of whom are living: Alonzo, at home; Adelia, wife of D. E. Bennett, of Pittsford township; Emma, wife of John Anderson, of Colon, in this state. In politics, Mr. Clements began life as a Whig, casting his first presidential vote for Henry Clay; when the Republican party was organized he warmly espoused its principles, voting for its first presidential candidate, Gen. John C. Fremont, and standing by it loyally ever since, although he has never been an active partisan or sought office for himself. He is a member of the Congregational church at Church's Corners, in Wheatland township, and takes an active part in all its works of practical benevolence. Resting serenely now in the evening of life, on the verge of four-score years, he has the pleasing retrospect of a creditable career, with duty faith fully performed and every faculty of his nature put to proper use; and he is secure in the lasting esteem of the people, among whom he has labored, and to whom his example has been an incitement and a stimulus for good. HON. JAMES COUSINS. Hon. James Cousins is the present capable and popular supervisor of Jefferson township in this county, and is completing his eleventh year of service in the position. The affairs of the township have been well cared for in his charge and every public interest has prospered under his management. He is a native of Hertfordshire, England, where his family has resided for many generations, and was born on March 3, I849. His parents, William and Mary (Dockerill) Cousins, were also English by nativity and passed their lives in Hertfordshire. The father was a prosperous manufacturer of brick-tile and pottery, and carried on the business on a scale of magnitude and with enterprise and vigor. The parents had five sons and two daughters, and of these two sons and one daughter are living, all now residents of Hillsdale county. James Cousins was educated in the schools of his native land, where he grew to manhood. There he learned the trade of a baker and confectioner, and for a number of years worked at it near his home. He then learned the brick and tile business, with a view to succeeding his father in this line of activity, but, in I868, he came to the United States and made his way direct to this county, where he bought a farm in Adams township, on which he lived some years. He then purchased the one on which he now lives in Jefferson township, which comprises I80 acres and is well-improved and in an advanced state of cultivation. He was married, in I878, to Mrs. Emma (Hale) Cousins, a native of the same part of England as himself, and a daughter of Edward and Phoebe Hale, also native there and belonging to old families resident in Hertfordshire from time immemorial. Mrs. Cousins came to the United States in I865 as the wife Of an

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Page  133 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 133 elder brother of Mr. Cousins, and by her former marriage she has a son and two daughters. In his political views Mr. Cousins is a Republican, and has rendered good service and brought credit to his party as a private in the ranks and also as a valued public official in several capacities. He was highway commissioner for the township for three years, has served eleven years as supervisor, and, from I894 to I898, represented the county in the State Legislature. He holds membership in the Masonic order and the Patrons of Husbandry; in the latter he is master of the local grange. He was president of the county fair association for two years and, in this position, was able to demonstrate his interest in the cause of agriculture, and his executive ability where its welfare is concerned, and for many years he has been a director in this organization. In official stations of responsibility and importance, in the management of his farm and in his other business, and also in the performance of every duty of citizenship, he has demonstrated his devotion to the land of his adoption, and has shown an elevated patriotism and public spirit with an uprightness of life that are highly commendable, and have won him the approval of all classes of his fellow men. CAMBRIA TOWNSHIP. When Cambria township was created it was named by Hiram V. Weaver, the first settler within its borders and the father of Olive Roby Weaver, the first white child born on its soil, the birth occurring on September 2, 1836. Twelve families settled in the township between 1835 and I840, who nearly all lived in the western part of the new political creation. The first death was that of Mrs. Abel Bailey, on February 22, I837. The first transfer of land recorded by the register of deeds was a conveyance from the United States to Hiram V. Weaver of the southwest quarter of section No. 17, recorded on October 20, I835. The first estate, with an inventory of personal property, filed in the probate court was that of Mr. Weaver and bears the date of July 12, I84I. There are now but two persons living in the township who moved into it with families prior to I840. These are Moses Willits, eighty-six years of age, and Mrs. Mary Smith, who has accomplished eighty-two years of useful existence. The early pioneers who thus laid the foundation of the present prosperous and progressive township were men of heroic mold and lofty courage. With unfaltering foot they strode into the very heart of the wilderness to hew out for themselves new homes wherein their hopes might expand and flourish. They were fashioned for sturdy work, fit progenitors of the thrifty, progressive and self-reliant people they begot. No toil deterred, no danger daunted, no hardship dismayed them. With unyielding will they pressed their way over every obstacle, to meet fate on almost equal terms. And it is a characteristic proof of their public spirit and breadth of view that one of the first public Interests to which they gave attention was a system of instruction for their children. On March I6, 1839, a school meeting was called by a notice posted at the house of Gailord Doud. A district was organized at this meeting and these school officers elected: Abel Bailey, moderator; Ira Mead, director; Barron B. Willits, assessor. In the ensuing fall, after due deliberation at several meetings as to size and style of architecture, a log schoolhouse I8X20 feet in size was erected at a cost of $I9o, and named "Dawn of Education." Miss Dorothy Globe, the first teacher, received for her dual services as instructor and janitor one dollar a week and was "boarded around" the district. This primitive schoolhouse supplied.the population thirteen years, and in this simple structure the first Sabbath-school of the township was organized by William Mabbs in 1840 with Ira Mead as superintendent. The first Scripture lesson studied in this school was the first five verses of the second chapter of St. Matthews's gospel. On April 5, 1841, the first township meeting was held, officers being chosen as follows: Jacob S. Hancock, supervisor; Nathan H. Frink, clerk; Ira Mead, treasurer; Warren Smith, collector; Job A. Smith, Samuel Orr and Barron B. Wil

Page  134 I34 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. lits, school directors; Potter G. Card and James Wilson, directors of the poor; Lorenzo Rice, Pardon Aldrich and -Silas Doty, commissioners of highways;. Pardon Aldrich, Lorenzo Rice, Ira Mead and Samuel Orr, justices of the peace for one, two, three and four years, respectively; Alanson Van Vlack, Job A. Smith and Abel Bailey, assessors; Alanson Van Vlack, John Ferguson, Albert Dresser and Warren Smith, constables. Thus Cambria township started off in its political existence with a full complement of officers, although, owing to the want of men, some of its leading citizens were obliged to fill two or more positions at the same time. Since then the supervisors have been: Lorenzo Rice, Pardon Aldrich, Ira Foster, Ira Mead, Daniel Weaver, Barron B. Willitts, Andrew J. McDermot, William French, Charles G. Robertson, Bani Bishop, Perry Sebring, Orange Porter, Edward Jones, William Carpenter, Luther Wolcott, Malcolm E. Dow, Avery A. Smith, Alexander Hueston, John Hueston, Erwin S. Marsh, George Burgess, Newton Gregg and John French, the present incumbent. The soil of this township has been found fertile and responsive, the natural advantages of the region were numerous and valuable; the people have ever been diligent and energetic; the spirit of enterprise and progress has been awake and active; the development and advancement of the township have been steady, rapid and continued; its citizens have enjoyed at a minimum cost, the best blessings of freedom, civilization and good government. PARMENUS CUNNINGHAM. For thirty-seven years Parmenus Cunningham has lived and worked on the Pittsford township farm, in this county, where he now lives and carries on a thriving and progressive farming industry, which exemplifies, in the excellence of its management and the success of its operations, all that is most advanced and liberal in agriculture and most cogent and enterprising in business. He was born on March 8, I833, in Erie county, New York, whither his parents, Joel and Celinda (Dopkins) Cunningham, had moved from their native county of Herkimer, in that state, soon after their marriage. The father was also a farmer, a man of public spirit and earnest devotion to the welfare of his country. He was a member of the New York state militia at the time of the War of 1812, and with his company engaged in that contest with ardor and commendable gallantry, participating in a number of its important battles, being at Fort Erie when it was destroyed and at Buffalo when that city was burned by the British and Indians. He came to Hillsdale county in 1849 and settled in Jefferson township, on 200 acres of timber land which he purchased, and on which he lived for a number of years, clearing it for cultivation and improving it for a home. From there he moved to Pittsford township where he died in 1883. His wife survived him eight years, dying in 1891. They were the parents of two sons and of eight daughters, and of these one son and three daughtres are living, Parmenus being the only one resident in this township. Their grandfather, Layton Cunningham, was a New York farmer and died in Erie county of that state. Parmenus Cunningham grew to manhood in his native state, and accompanied his parents to Michigan in 1849. He assisted in clearing the several tracts of land on which his parents lived in this county, and remained at home for a number of years after their settlement. In i865 he took up his residence on the farm which he now occupies and has made it his home ever since. He was married on August 14, 1853, to Miss Francina Estes, a native of Genesee county, New York, born at the city of Batavia. In I839, while she was yet a child, she accompanied her parents to Hillsdale county, and, on the wild land in Pittsford township on which they settled, she saw much of the hardship, and performed much of the arduous labor, incident to frontier life, aiding and cheering her parents by her fidelity to duty, and, in course of time, closing their eyes in death' on the paternal homestead. Mr. and Mrs. Cunningham have had eight children, seven of their offspring are living. They are Allen B., of Wheatland; Eva, wife of E. L. Bailey, of

Page  135 it I HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I35 California; Frederick S., of Pittsford township; Edward E., of Nebraska; Alta, wife of S. 0. Kenyon, of Paw Paw, Michigan; Affa, wife of R. Sage, of Pittsford township; George R., living at home. Mr. Cunningham is a Republican in political faith, but not an active partisan. In all that pertains to the welfare of the community, he takes an active and helpful part, but has no desire for public office, being well contented to leave its honors with its cares to those who wish them. He and his wife are earnest and serviceable members of the Free Baptist church. They have eight grandchildren and two great-grandchildren, the latter being children of their eldest son, Allen B. Cunningham. JAMES W. DANIELS. James W. Daniels, of Woodbridge township, one of the progressive and enterprising farmers of that part of the county, was born in the adjoining township of Camden, on January I9, I863. His parents were John and Sarah (Hamlin) Daniels, the former a native of Devonshire, England, and the latter of the state of New York. The father was born on July 17, I826, and grew to manhood in his native land and received his education in the common schools of that country. He worked on a farm at a shilling a day in order to get money to pay his passage to this country, where he 'saw hopes of larger opportunity for a man in his condition, and, by the time he reached the age of twentyfive years, he had saved enough for the purpose at this small wage. In 1851 he made the trip and located first in the state of New York, where he secured employment on a farm at $40 a year. Being thrifty and industrious, content to live frugally, he saved the major part of his wages, and, in a short time, was married in his new home, to Miss Sarah Hamlin, a lady living in the neighborhood. In 1853 they moved to Michigan and settled in Hillsdale county on forty acres of wild woodland, which he purchased for a home. He built a rude log shanty on the land and began its preparation for cultivation. In ten years it was cleared and in a promising state of cultivation and he sold it and bought eighty acres in Woodbridge township, which was also an unbroken forest and which he lived to clear and hand over to his son in good condition. It is the tract where the son, James, now lives, one of the desirable farms of its size in the township. The father here resided until his death on September 7, I899, and it is still the home of the mother. Their family consisted of five children, of whom three are living, Orrie J., wife of Ernest Hillard; Sarah J., wife of Henry Van Aken; James W. The father never took active interest in politics or sought or accepted public office, finding enough to occupy his time and energies in his agricultural operations. His son, James, was reared on the paternal homesteads in this county, and the one he now occupies has been his home ever since it came into possession of the family. He married in 1883 Miss Celia Salmon., also a native of this county, and they have two children, Benjamin and Ethel. Mr. Daniels is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, belonging to the lodge at Cambria, and he and his wife are members of the Methodist Protestant church. They are well-esteemed in the township, having a host of warm and intimate friends, who make their pleasant home a frequent resort. While not an active partisan, and in no sense an office-seeker in politics, Mr. Daniels has nevertheless an abiding interest in the welfare of his township, and never hesitates to give active support to any good enterprise which promises to promote that welfare. He is public spirited and progressive in his views, and firm and forcible in expressing and in maintaining them. He has a high place in the public estimation and well deserves it. JOHN G. DARLING. Death is rapidly gathering into his everlasting embrace the pioneers who settled this county and started it forward on a broad and enduring basis toward its present state of splendid development and substantial progress. One of the

Page  136 136 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. few remaining members of that hardy race, who dared fate into the lists against them, and met her with all her assistant forces of wild men, wild beasts and wild nature armed against them, on almost equal terms, is John G. Darling of Allen township, who endured all the struggles, hardships and privations, faced all the toils and dangers of frontier life with a resolute and unconquerable spirit, and who is fully entitled to enjoy the fruits of his labor, which 'he sees blooming and coming forth abundantly around him. He is a native of Penfield, Monroe county, New York, born on April 26, 1815, the son of John and Eunice (Booth) Darling, also natives of New York. His mother died when he was but eleven years old, and soon thereafter his father was married to his second wife, formerly Miss Betsey Leinbarker, also of New York state, and in 1833 they came to Michigan. The parents lived at various places, the father finally dying at Eaton Rapids, in Eaton county. He was a farmer by occupation, leaving his farm to engage in active service in the field at. the first call to arms in the War of I812. After the battle of Queenstown in Upper Canada, where the gallant Canadian General Brock was killed and the American forces were repulsed, in company with his brother, William, Mr. Darling swam the St. Lawrence at Flat Rock, and was carried three miles down the river by the current. He was the father of ten children, all now deceased, except his son, John G. The grandfather was Zebeniah Darling, a native of Long Island, a great lover of horses, who was known far and wide in his. section of the country as a promoter of racing as a legitimate and exhilarating sport. After his death his wife moved to Hillsdale county, where, in the course of time, she died. John G. Darling did not have the advantages of educational facilities at the schools, never having been able to attend them. But he was of a studious and investigating disposition, became well-informed and fairly well-educated through his own exertions, and, being handy with tools, as well as long-headed in study and reflection, he acquired considerable mechanical skill as a millwright and carpenter. In I833, he accompanied his parents to this state but did not then make his home here. The journey to this then new and untamed region was made by teams though a portion of Canada, the remainder of the way being by canal. When they arrived at. Detroit they found the river frozen over, and they crossed on the ice, dragging their goods after them. The father entered eighty acres of government land situated twenty-six miles south of Ypsilanti, on which he built a small log house for his home and commenced the clearing of his land and the preparing of it for cultivation. On this pioneer home his son, John G., lived and labored with the rest of the family during the summer, returning to New York as winter approached, to help his brother in caring for the horses belonging to the Erie canal, while navigation on this great waterway was closed. In this way he passed his time until I84I, when he purchased I60 acres of land of J. P. Cook, in Allen township, on which he settled soon afterward and began his clearing and farming operations. In 1844 he went to Constantine and entered the employ of Governor Berry, who was operating a gristmill at Mooreville, building arks for him wherewith to transport flour down the river. He also completed the first warehouse located at that point and assisted in repairing a number of the neighboring mills. He then came to [Iillsdale, worked for Cook & Ferris and did some work on the mill at Jonesville. The first five bridges put up on the railroad between Ypsilanti and Ann Arbor were erected by him, and he sawed most of the timbers on which the strapiron was laid for the first division of the road between Ypsilanti and Dexter. At Dexter he operated a sawmill, another in St. Joseph county, and, prior to locating permanently in this state, he had done similar work in the state of New York. The farm which he bought of J. P. Cook in Allen township is his present residence. At one time it conmprised 200 acres, and here he lived and worked at farming and also at carpenter work for many years, building many of the early houses in the section around him and

Page  137 I 4TL.E CT MTV MI CICAN. T17 -T ILLT.SD A A J- -Ij -/ I L J-J 'I %-V %-, L V A L jq I V.L A VL A A A % X A1 *u/ many of those at Hillsdale, walking from his home to his work in the morning and back in the evening. Mr. Darling has been married three times: first, in New York, on June I, I840, to Miss Cynthia M. Mason, who died at Ann Arbor on May I, I84I; second, in I846, to Miss Lucy A. McConnell, who became the mother of four children: Andrew J., of Eaton Rapids; Nelson A., deceased; John H., living on a part of the old homestead; Oscar M., also living 'on a part of the old homestead. Mrs. Lucy A. (McConnell) Darling died on December 5, I882, and, in I883, Mr. Darling married with his third wife, Mrs. Ellen R. Chamberlain. They have one child, a daughter, Elsie J. Darling. A Republican in politics, Mr. Darling has never been an active partisan. He has been a member of the Baptist church since he was sixteen years old. Coming as he did to the county in the very early days of its settlement, he found the region full of Indians, and, although they were in the main friendly, and he often hunted with them and frequently repaired their guns, they were sometimes aroused to hostility and became very troublesome. The trying scenes and experiences of the early days yet linger in his memory, forming the theme of many interesting conversations with those who have followed him and with his early associates in the county, who seemingly never tire of listening to the narratives of the heroic times in this part of the state. John H. Darling, son of John G. Darling by his second marriage, who lives on and cultivates the principal part of the family homestead, was born on this estate on March 28, I856. During all of his mature life he has been a farmer by occupation, and in this pursuit he has sustained the reputation for integrity of character and skill in his craft which has ever distinguished his long line of worthy ancestors. He married in I890, on March 15, with Miss Nellie J. Kilburn, a daughter of Albert and Mary J. (Eaton) Kilburn, the former a native of Jackson and the latter of Eaton county in this state. Her mother died on September 7, I885, and her father now resides in Allen township, this county. Mr. and Mrs. Darling have four children, Leva, Lucy, Lynn and Lida. Mr. Darling is one of the esteemed citizens of the township, conducting his business on a high plane of uprightness and with broad and progressive views. He takes an intelligent and abiding interest in the affairs of the township, also giving freely of his counsel and his substance to the promotion of any good enterprise for their advancement or improvement. His citizenship is elevated and elevating; his industry is productive and stimulating; his social qualities are attractive and inspiring. In his capacities and inspirations he is one of the representative men of the county. ANDREW L. DAVIS. For forty-two years a resident of Jefferson township in this county, all the while living on the same tract of land, and for fifteen years supervisor of the township, Andrew L. Davis is one of the best-known men in this part of the county and one of the most serviceable to its every interest of value. He is a native of Orleans county, New York, born on December 5, I833, his parents being Rufus and Julia (Blanchard) Davis, also natives of New York where the mother died and the father carried on successful farming operations and also worked at his trade as a carpenter. Their family consisted of six children, three of whom are living, two sons and one daughter. After the death of their mother the father married again but had no children by the second marriage. He came to Michigan in 1864 and settled near Flint, in Genesee county, where he died in I865. The grandfather was Elisha Davis, a soldier in the War of I812 from his native state of New York, and, after the war, became both a farmer and preacher, after a highly useful life, dying in New York at an old age. Andrew L. Davis was educated in the schools of his native state, finishing at an excellent academy at Albion, Orleans county, New York, which he attended for six years. After leaving the academy he taught school in New York until: *:::~: ~::-::-:::-:. _:::

Page  138 138 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I86I, when he came to Hillsdale county and settled on the farm he has since occupied as his home. Fifty acres of it were then partially cleared and he has since cleared fifty more and also made extensive improvements on the tract. After coming to this state he taught school for twelve years. In 1878 he was elected supervisor of his township, serving continuously for fifteen years, except during one period of four years. In I859 he was married to Miss Mary A. Teachout, a New Yorker by nativity and the daughter of Jacob and Rachel (Curtis) Teachout. Her mother died at their New York home, and, soon thereafter, her-father made his home with Mr. Davis, dying at his house. Mr. and Mrs. Davis have had six children, all but one of whom are living. They are Letta and Louie, twins, the former Mrs. J. H. Cary, and the latter Mirs. E. J. Watkins, both residents of Hillsdale; Sabra A., wife of George Miles, but residing with her parents; Julia, living at Toledo; Miles T., a resident of Detroit, who has recently been graduated from the law school. Mr. Davis has been an active, working Republican during all of his mature life, and in fraternal relations is connected with the Masonic order and the Patrons of Husbandry, taking great interest in the work of both organizations and giving both good and valued service. No citizen 6f the township stands higher or is more generally esteemed. HON. CHARLES T. MITCHELL. Pioneer, merchant, banker, promoter, publicist and philanthropist, conspicuous in each of these lines of usefulness for the magnitude of his undertakings, the intensity of his energy, the constancy of his purpose, the correctness of his methods and the success which followed his efforts, the late Hon. Charles T. Mitchell, of Hillsdale, Michigan, was for more than half a century one of the leading citizens of Michigan, being a potential factor in her growth and development, an unyielding bulwark in defense of her institutions, an inspiration to her educational and moral forces and an ornament to her social life. He became a resident of the state in 1838, when he was twentyone years old, and he was laid to his last earthly rest in her soil at the close of I898, when sixty years of his active and multiform usefulness had brought innumerable and inestimable benefactions to her people. Charles T. Mitchell was born on June 29, I8I7, at Root, now Canajoharie, Montgomery county, New York. His parents were Charles and Lydia Kate (Brown) Mitchell, both natives of that state, the former born at Ballston in I770, and the latter at Schenectady. The father, a prominent and prosperous farmer and miller, was the son of Col. Andrew Mitchell, the second in command of a regiment of New York volunteers in the Revolution, who in that struggle fought valiantly for American independence. In this regiment his two sons, Robert and William, were also soldiers, and they shared with him the hardships, privations and successes of its campaigns. It was stationed on the northern frontier, in what is now Saratoga county, and, on one occasion, a band of Canadian Tories and Indians crossed the line and captured the commander and many other officers. The command then devolved on Colonel Mitchell, who pursued the invaders several days, but was unable to overtake them. After the war Colonel Mitchell was a member of the Legislature of New York, when Montgomery county, which he in part represented in that body, embraced in its enormous area all of the state west of Albany. To attend the sessions, which were held in New York city, he was obliged to go to Albany on horseback and then by sloop down the Hudson to the metropolis, the voyage down the river occupying from four to six days. During the Revolution he purchased a patent of title, based on the English grant of King James, giving him possession in fee simple to several hundred acres of land in Spraker's Basin, on the Mohawk just west of Anthony's Nose. The remaining years of his life were passed almost wholly in Saratoga. His son, Charles Mitchell, the father of Charles T., was born in that county on July 22, 1763, and in mature life married with Miss Lydia Kate Brown, also a native of that county, born on Feb

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Page  139 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I39 ruary 19, 1782. Soon after his marriage he moved with his wife to Montgomery county, in the same state, where his children, eight sons and four daughters, were born and reared, and where he died in 1857, his wife in 1865. This has been a long-lived family, for the father was ninetyfour years old at his death, and the mother but one year less at hers. The first of the children to die was fifty-three years of age when the event occurred, and Charles T. Mitchell, the immediate subject of these paragraphs and the last surviving member of the family, was eighty-one years and six months old when his death occurred on December 29, I898. Mr. Mitchell passed his boyhood and early youth in his native county, and received a limited education in its public schools, going to work for himself as a clerk in the store at Schoharie at the age of fourteen and remaining there in that capacity for three years. In the spring of 1838 he came to Michigan, and for the next three years was connected with the construction of the railroad from Adrian to Hillsdale. In 1843 he located at Hillsdale, engaged in the forwarding and commission.business, continuing this industry until Hillsdale ceased to be the western terminus of the road. In 1851 he started a hardware business at Hillsdale, which he conducted with vigor and success until 1865, when other engrossing and more congenial business interests obliged him to retire from it. In 1855, in partnership with Henry Waldron and John P. Cook, he established the first bank of Hillsdale, the firm name being Mitchell, Waldron & Co. Mr. Cook withdrew from this enterprise in 1863, and, at that time, Messrs. Mitchell & Waldron established the Second National Bank of Hillsdale, whose business they carried on until the death of Mr. Waldron's brother in I877 caused him to close his connection with the bank. From that time Mr. Mitchell, as president of the bank, had full charge of its affairs until 1884, when his advancing age and declining health induced him to retire altogether from active business, and to seek, for the remainder of an active and bountifully productive career, the quiet repose that comes only to the couch of private life. The bank which he had founded was then firmly established on a sound financial basis, securely fixed in public confidence. It had received the impress of his broad, resolute and resourceful financial spirit; for twenty years its course had been guided by his master hand. The impulse to its activity and the trend of its progress which he had so long given were its inspiration and its guiding power; in unswervingly following these it steadily advanced in prosperity, influence and usefulness. In public affairs the services of Charles T. Mitchell to the state were exalted in character and of great value. He was appointed on the commission to locate and build the State Reform School for boys in I855. This was erected at Lansing and is one of the most complete, convenient and satisfactory public buildings in the state. In 1870 Governor Baldwin made him chairman of the State Board of Charities, while in 1873 Governor Bagley appointed him a trustee of the State Insane Asylum. In both positions he gave conscientious and devoted attention to the interests he had in charge, carrying to the performance of his official duties wide knowledge, extensive experience, fine business capacity and a broad and elevated humanity. His zeal for the welfare of his city, his county and his state was ever restless and unyielding, and he paid tribute in a most helpful way to every line of productive and improving local enterprise. He was largely instrumental in making Hillsdale the headquarters of several branches of the Lake Shore Railway, and almost every commercial, industrial and educational interest in the city and county was quickened by the touch of his tireless hand, broadened by the influence of his active mind. In politics he was a Whig until the organization of the Republican party, and from I856 until his death he steadfastly adhered to and loyally supported the principles of that organization. In 1864 he was a delegate to the Republican National Convention, which, at Baltimore, nominated Abraham Lincoln for a second presidential term; in I888 he was a member of the convention held at Chicago that placed the second Harrison in nominac tion for the same office. In i88ohe was one of the presidential electors for Michigan.

Page  140 140 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Mr. Mitchell married with Miss Harriet S. Wing, on September 2, I847. She was the able daughter of Hon. Austin E. Wing, of Monroe, Michigan, who came on horseback from Marietta, Ohio, in company with General Cass and Governor Woodbridge as a pioneer to the state in I8I6. They were obliged to feel their way along Indian trails through a dense wilderness, ford turbulent rivers of unknown depth, cross high hills and trackless plains by the guidance of the stars, knowing that savage beasts and still more savage men were menacing their safety. Mr. Wing located at Detroit, then but a hamlet on the river bank. He graduated from Williams College, and had a comprehensive and well-digested knowledge of public affairs. In politics he was an ardent Democrat, a tower of strength to his party in the new territory, which, at that time, embraced a vast area containing what is now the state of Wisconsin. He was appointed the first collector of customs at Detroit soon after his arrival there and later was twice elected a delegate from Michigan to Congress. His last public office was that of U. S. marshal for the state, to which he was appointed by President Polk. His memorable public career only terminated at his death in 1848. Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell became the parents of four sons and two daughters. Their living children are William W. Mitchell and Austin W. Mitchell, of Cadillac, in this state, and Mrs. Dr. W. H. Sawyer of Hillsdale. In accordance with the spirit of beneficence which animated his life, and with the active cooperation of his wife, Mr. Mitchell devised to the city of his home, the place of his business successes and his public services, his elegant residence at Hillsdale to be used as a library building, bequeathing also the sum of $Io,ooo for the purchase of suitable furnishings and books to form a permanent library, retaining therein only a life interest for his widow. This forms a visible, noble and enduring memorial of them, which will ever be typical of their lives, flowing on in a constant, steady, full current of active goodness, in whose benefits all classes in the community had a share. BUCHANAN DOBSON. Buchanan Dobson, whose untimely death on February 26, I9go, at the early age of forty-five, when all his faculties appeared to be in full vigor, and life was full of promise, was a decided loss to the county and he was universally lamented, being one of the best-known and most prosperous and progressive farmers of Fayette township. He was born and reared on the farm on which he died, and on this estate he passed the whole of his life, which began on August 27, 1856. His parents were Richard and Charlotte (Havenor) Dobson, the former one a native of County Westmoreland, England, and the latter of Germany. The father came to the United States in 1839, when a young man, and made his way directly to Michigan, where he settled on the. farm which is still the family estate, and here he passed his life engaged in its elevating and profitable labors, aiding, in his way, to push forward the growth and development of the township, and dying in 1863. His patriotic devotion to the land of his adoption was shown by his continual interest in her welfare, and particularly by his valiant service in the Black Hawk Indian War. He was a Democrat in politics, loyal to his party and zealous in its service. He was married in 1843 and his family consisted of nine children, six of whom are now living, as is his widow, who has accomplished the age of eighty-one years. Their son, Buchanan Dobson, attained manhood in his native township and was educated in its public schools. When he was twenty-two years old, he took charge of the home farm and conducted its operations during the remainder of his life. While warmly interested in the welfare of his community, giving to every undertaking for its development and improvement faithful and serviceable assistance, he was not an active partisan in a political way, seeking no personal preferment. On April 7, I891, he married with Miss Lydia Waite, a 'native of Van Buren county of this state, where her parents, Lyman 0. and Valeria B. Waite, now reside.

Page  141 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I4I Mr. and Mrs. Dobson had five children, Gler Kittie, Robert G., Blanche W. and Bertie. T latter died on January 15, 1903, at the age two years and five months. DR. ARTHUR G. DOTY. One of the leading physicians and surgec of Woodbridge township, in this county, who also its active and vigilant health officer, is I Arthur G. Doty, of Frontier, a native of M souri, born in that state, on August 30, I873, dt ing a temporary residence of his parents. Ifather, Albert Doty, and also his mother, whc maiden name was Laura Wilcox, were both r tives of Hillsdale county, and the father h here been engaged in farming all of his matt life, except during the short residence in M souri already alluded to. The mother died Missouri and the father soon after returned Hillsdale county, Mich. The grandfather, Orm Doty, came from Vermont to Michigan amo: the early arrivals in this part of the state a] located in Ransom township, where he clear up a farm of I6o acres of government land, d ing while he was diligently engaged in impro ing and cultivating it. During the dark da of the peril of the Union he was a brave soldi in the Civil War. Doctor Doty secured his preliminary aca emic education at the public schools of Ransc township and concluded them at Hillsdale hi1 school. After completing his course at the hi| school he became a teacher for a number of yea and then until I896 engaged in farming. At th time he entered the Michigan Medical Colle at Detroit, and, after passing three years in di gent study at that institution, he took a spec: course of instruction at the Detroit Home pathic College, where he was graduated in Apr 900o. He then spent a year in Grace Hospit; Detroit, and, at its conclusion, located at Fro tier, in Woodbridge township, where he h since been actively engaged in the practice his profession, giving special attention to su gery, in which he has been very successful, wi in, ning golden opinions from the observant public 'he and his professional brethren by his skill, coolof ness and excellent judgment in the performance of difficult and delicate operations. He is a member of the county medical society and a valued contributor to the interest and benefit of its meetings..As health officer of the township, ns his administration is vigorous and discriminatis ing, while vigilant and conscientious in looking )r. after the public weal he is neither arbitrary nor is- unreasonable towards individual citizens, being ir- highly appreciated as a professional man and Iic also standing well as a citizen. )se la- SILAS DOTY. ias ire With the tide of emigration that flowed steadis- ily into Michigan in the early forties, and for in a few years previous to that time, came Silas to Doty, afterwards known as one of the most prous gressive and successful pioneer farmers of the ng southern part of the state. He settled in Camnd bria township, this county, and in that section ed passed the remainder of his useful life, arriving ly- in the state in 1840. He was a native of Cort)v- land county, New York, born on July 13, I817, ys and the son of Isaac and Charlotte (Loomis) ier Doty, the former a native of Vermont and the latter of good New English stock. They were Ld- pioneer settlers in Cortland county, there accum mulated a valuable and well-improved property, gh and, in 1828, being again desirous of living on gh the frontier, they set out with their family of irs eight children, of whom Silas was the seventh, at for the.remote and unsettled territory of Michige gan, journeying hither by teams to Syracuse, a li- distance of forty miles, thence by a canal boat ial to Buffalo, where they took passage on a steamer o- for Detroit. From that inchoate city they came il, across the country by ox teams to Ypsilanti, al, which was at that time a mere hamlet. Here n- they remained two years and, in 1830, removed as to near Adrian, in Lenawee county, where their of son, Silas, entered the employ of Darius Comir- stock, one of the first settlers of that county. n- Soon thereafter tlhe parents, with a part of the

Page  142 I42 HILLSDALE COUNTY,. MICHIGAN. family, removed to Oakland county, and located in Highland township, where they passed the rest of their lives, the father dying at the age of seventy-two, and the mother at that of sixtytwo. Their-son, Silas, remained in the employ of Mr. Comstock until. I840, when, in January of that year, he came to Hillsdale county and went to work at Cambria for B. B. Willitts, a kinsman of Mr. Comstock. He was industrious and frugal, and, although his pay was only fifty cents a day he managed to save enough to purchase eighty acres of land in the township, which became the home of his mature'manhood and the foundation of his fortune. This he bought in 1841 and subsequently he added another tract of eighty acres to the first, and, by great thrift and enterprise, he reduced both to subjection and brought to a high state of cultivation. In his arduous work he was ably assisted by his excellent wife, who was formerly Miss Catherine VanVlack, a native of Dutchess county, New York, whom he married on October 26, 1842. They were the parents of four children, Henry F., Edwin, Addie and Mary. Addie married Sylvester Lawrence, who is now a resident of Kansas, and died at Reading, this state, in 1873; Henry F., married Sarah J. DePuy and is now a prominent business man of Reading; Edwin married H. Ellen Norris and resides on the homestead; Mary, now the wife of James Curran, lives at Reading. Edwin Doty was born in this county on May 26, I846, and was reared on his father's farm and educated in the district schools near by. Since leaving school he has worked on the home farm and since he became of age he has managed its operations. He has given to his work in this line the most careful and thoughtful attention, has made free use of every means of wider knowledge on the subject of agriculture that has been available to him, and his farming has been productive of correspondingly agreeable results. He married on December 31, I868, with Miss H. Ellen Norris, a daughter of Joel B. Norris, one of the pioneers of the township and a scion of an old and famed Revolutionary family of New England. He was born at Canandaigua, Ontario county, New York, on April 2, 182I, and was reared and educated in his native cot.. On December I6, I846, he married Miss Margaret M. Brown, also a native of New York, and, in 1853, they came to Michigan and took up their residence in Cambria township where they are now living. Mr. and Mrs. Doty have two children, their sons, Willard L. and Walter R. Mr. D.oty has never taken an active part in politics, although giving his party, the Republican, loyal support at all times, consenting at times to fill township offices for the general good of the community. He and his wife are members of the Baptist church and to its affairs both give their close attention, while in its active charities they take a leading part. They are well esteemed as among the best citizens of the township and have earned by their genuine worth and usefulness the general regard and good will in which they so securely rest. THE STATE BANK OF READING. This highly appreciated and successful financial institution was organized as a state bank, in I889, after a creditable and useful career, covering a number of years of active service to the community as a private banking establishment. It was founded as a private bank by H. B. and A. R. Chapman, and as such was conducted by them for a number of years. They then sold to C. W. Waldron, who carried it on for several years, on the same basis, when it was purchased of Mr. Waldron by W. B. Northrop and Henry F. Doty, and by them continued as a private bank until December, I899, when it was reorganized as a state bank, having a capital stock of $25,000, Henry F. Doty being the president, George G. Clark vice-president, and W. B. Northrop cashier. In 900o Mr. Northrop resigned the cashiership and was succeeded by George B. Terpening; on January I, I90I, J. W. Chapman succeeded Mr. Clark as the vicepresident. A general banking business is conducted by the institution and its liberal spirit of accommodation and excellent financial man

Page  143 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 143 agement have made it one of the most popular and appreciated fiscal enterprises in this part of 'the county. Its business has steadily increased, its hold on the favor and good opinion of the public has been enlarged and strengthened as time has passed. Henry F. Doty, the president of the bank and its ruling spirit and chief inspiration, is a native of Hillsdale county, born in Cambria township, on April 28, 1844. His parents were Silas and Catherine (Van Vlack) Doty, natives of New York state, a sketch of whom will be found on another page of this work. They came to Michigan in early days and purchased a tract of unbroken land in Cambria township. This the father cleared and here he made his home until his death on May I, I890, when he was the owner of I6o acres. The mother is still living and makes her home at Reading. Their family consisted of two sons and two daughters, and two sons and one daughter are living. Henry F. was reared on the paternal homestead and was educated at the public schools in the neighborhood of his home. In I869 he started a business enterprise in the drug trade in partnership association with S. C. Dodge, under the firmname of Dodge & Doty, at Reading. After nine years of successful and prosperous business they sold, Mr. Doty thereafter serving for seven years as postmaster, giving up the office in I889, when he organized the bank with which he is now connected. He was one of the organizers and original stockholders of the Reading Robe & Tanning Company, but disposed of his interest therein in the fall of I902. In addition to his other industries, he manages the operations of a 2Io-acre stock farm. In politics he is a Republican and has always taken great interest in the success of his party, and, although not attracted to public office, he has served in several local positions of importance. He married in 1867 with Miss Sarah J. DePuy, a native of Ohio, and a daughter of Philip DePuy of Hillsdale county. They have two children, E. May, wife of E. A. Dunten, and Leroy H., one of the prominent young business men of Reading. Mrs. Doty died on December IO, 1900, and her death was lamented throughout the entire community, which locality had been blessed by her long presence and useful life, her genial companionship being most highly appreciated, and she will long be.favorably and kindly remembered. HORACE ELDRED. The prosperous and enterprising farmer of Allen township to whom this brief review is dedicated and an account of whose interesting life it records, was one of the first of the white children born in southern Michigan, where his life began, on September 26, 1840, in Lenawee county. His parents were William B. and Susan L. (Decker) Eldred, natives of the state of New York, well-to-do farmers tlere until 1835, when the father was about twenty-five years of age, and they came to Michigan voyaging by way of tkle Erie canal to Buffalo, thence across Lake Irie to Toledo, from there by teams through fih Black Swamp to where they first settled in Lenawee county. Four years later, they moved to Hillsdale county, and located in Adams township, where they cleared up a farm and lived until 1864. In that year they moved to Allen township, where the father died in I890 and the mother in I894. They were the parents of three sons and four daughters. The father was a stanch Republican, but not an office-seeker or an active partisan. The grandfather, Henry Elred, also a "York state" man, was killed by a falling tree before his grandson, Horace, was born. Horace Eldred grew from childhood to manhood by the parental fireside with his brothers and sisters, and with them attended the schools located near their home. In I86I, when armed resistance threatened the continuance of the Union, at an early call for volunteers for its defense, himself and his brother William promptly enlisted in the Union army, the brother in the Eleventh Michigan Cavalry and Horace in the Sixteenth Michigan Infantry. Both saw active service, William in Kentucky, Ohio and eastern Tennessee, his company being present when the Confederate raider, General Morgan, was killed at Greenville, in the last mentioned state, while Horace was one of the Army of the Potomac, be

Page  144 I44 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. ing in the front of the unrolling columns at Gaines Mills, the Seven Days' fight under McClellan, Second Bull-Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg and on many another ensanguined field where, on both of the embattling sides, American valor contended for the mastery. He was wounded at Rappahannock Station, and thereafter remained in the hospital until his discharge in 1864. His regiment had a greater percentage of loss in active service in this great war than any other organization from this state. After his discharge Mr. Eldred returned to his Hillsdale county home, and, since that time, he has been continuously and industriously engaged in farming in Allen township' and in building up and promoting the interests of her people, assisting all of her elements of material, intellectual and moral progress. Mr. Eldred was married on December 13, I867, to Miss Julia Nichols, a native of Portage county, Ohio, a daughter of Jared and Matilda Nichols, of that county. Her mother died in Ohio, before her father came to Michigan in I847 and settled at Quincy in Branch county. He was deeply 'interested in public affairs, always ready to do his part in defense of his convictions, whether in arms or in peaceful pursuits. In the War of 1812 he made a good record as a gallant soldier, and, whatever line of activity enlisted his energies, it gained force and effectiveness from his participation in its work. Mr. and Mrs. Eldred now have one child, their daughter, Minnie S., wife of A. D. Pierce, of Allen township. Fred Eldred was born on December 13, I872, and died on June 6, I874. Mr. Eldred has given unwavering allegiance to the Republican party all of his mature life. He has served the township six years as A highway commissioner and twelve as a justice of the peace. Fraternally, he is connected with the Masonic order and with the Grand rmy of the Republic, and Mrs. Eldred belongs to the Baptist church. DR. ROBERT A, EVERETT. For more than a third of a century the late Dr. Robert A. Everett lived a life of usefulness and benefaction among the people of Hillsdale county, giving them the full benefit of his wide professional and general knowledge, his skill and industry in practice and his genial and inspiriting companionship. His medical practice began here in the early pioneer days, and, for a long time, he was one of the leading physicians of this portion of the state: He was born in the state of New York, on November 22, 1839, the son of Dr. Augustus and Pamelia (Holdridge) Everett, also native in that state. His father, Dr. Augustus Everett, born on October 2, I8II, was graduated from the Geneva (N. Y.) Medical College, and practiced his dual profession of medicine and surgery in his native state until I849, when he came to this state and settled at Tecumseh, in Lenawee county. From there he went to Toledo, Ohio, in I856, returning to Michigan and locating at Hillsdale, remaining here until his death on January 5, I874. His parents were Robert and Laura (Hooker) Everett, the former a native of Scotland and the latter of Vermont. Dr. Robert A. Everett was one of three children, one son and two daughters, born to his parents, one daughter, Mrs. C. H. Smith, being now a resident of Hillsdale. Dr. Everett was educated in this state and studied medicine under the effective tutelage of his father until 1857, when he entered the State University, from which he was duly graduated in 1859, with the degree of M. D. He began practicing at once, in association with his father, and was actively engaged in the duties attached to an extensive medical ride until the opening of the Civil War in I86I, when he enlisted as a hospital steward with the Fourth Michigan Infantry. He was soon after transferred to the Fifth Michigan as an assistant surgeon, having the rank of major, and, some little time thereafter, he was commissioned surgeon of the Sixteenth Michigan,. and, with that regiment, he served to the end of the war. His command was a part of the Army of the Potomac, wherehe saw active field service in most of the battles of that army, but was fortunate enough to escape serious harm or injury. On being discharged he resumed his practice at Hillsdale and continued

Page  145 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I45 it actively until his death on October 20, I897, being, also, for a great portion of the time, engaged in the drug business. He was a Democrat in politics, but was not an active partisan, serving capably as mayor of Hillsdale and as an alderman, only accepting these positions at the solicitation of the people for the welfare of the city. In the line of his profession he took a cordial and intelligent interest in everything that might make it better and more serviceable, to this end holding membership in the State Medical Society and various other organizations of a similar character, aiding at all times in making their proceedings of value to the profession and to the people. He was married on October II, I863, to Miss Janette G. Lancaster, a native of New York and a daughter of James and Cornelia (Spock) Lancaster, also New Yorkers by birth. They came to Hillsdale county in I84I, made their first location at Jonesville, and there the father erected for his use the first framed house erected in the town. He removed his family to Hillsdale soon after, and here carried on business as a merchant tailor until he died, his wife also dying here. Dr. Everett was a prominent Freemason, holding membership in the lodge, the chapter and in the commandery. For eight years he served his lodge faithfully as its worshipful master, being also active in the work of the other branches of the fraternity of the mystic tie. He was also a prominent and serviceable member of the Grand Army of the Republic, and served eleven years on the pension board for this county. BERT E. FORD. Mr. Ford, the obliging postmaster at Allen, is a native of this county, born on January 6, I86I, at Moscow, in the township of the same name. His parents are Stellman W. and Cornelia (Strong) Ford, the former being natives of Onondaga county, New York, and the latter of Clinton, Michigan. The father is by trade a carpenter and joiner, having been for twentyseven years a manufacturer of carriages, buggies and other commodities in that line in Allen. He is now also engaged in the furniture and under taking business, in partnership with his son, the postmaster.' The family consists of the parents and two sons, Bert E. and Stillman D., the latter a resident of Detroit. The grandfather was John M. Ford, a native of New York, also a carpenter and joiner. He came to Michigan in 1838, after a residence of several years in this state he removed to Kansas, where he died. Bert E. Ford grew to manhood in this county and received a good education in the district schools, then began life for himself as a clerk and salesman -for F. P. Condra in the meat business, and, after two years passed profitably in his employ, he entered that of C. H. Winchester & Co., in the hardware trade, remaining with that firm seven years. The next seven he spent with John S. Lewis, of Jonesville, a dealer in the same line, while the following three years were devoted to farming. He returned to Allen in I895 and started in business as a furniture dealer and funeral director, and is still in charge of a flourishing enterprise in these lines in partnership with his father. In April, I902, he took charge of the village postoffice, by virtue of a commission from the President, and has since performed the duties of postmaster with conscientious regard for the interests of the government and for the convenience and advantage of the patrons of the office. Previous to this he served two terms as treasurer, one term as clerk of the township, and, in 900o, he took the census in this part of the state. Mr. Ford married in 1887 Miss Mary A. Gilchrest, a native of this county and a daughter of Harvey and Emeline J. (Twitchins) Gilchrest. They have two daughters, Ruth and Naomi, both living at home. In political allegiance Mr. Ford has been a life-long Republican, active and vigilant in the service of his party. Fraternally, he belongs to the Knights of Pythias and to the Knights of the Maccabees. In his business he is prosperous and progressive; in official life considerate and attentive; while in the estimation of the general public he stands deservedly high, well established as one of the leading citizens of this part of the county and a representative of its best aspirations and sentiments.

Page  146 I46 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. CAPT. JOHN L. FRISBIE. No man's career, and scarcely any one's vocation, can be predicated or predicted with any degree of certainty amid the mobile conditions of American life. The man who enters upon the stage of action at twenty years as a lawyer, doctor, mechanic or what not, may, perhaps, be found at forty pursuing a very different calling. The country schoolboy of 1850 becomes the promising teacher of I86I, the gallant major of 1863, the successful lawyer of I870, the renowned publicist of I890 and the martyred President of I90I. So the career of Capt. John L. Frisbie, of Hillsdale, illustrates in a forcible manner the possibilities of American life, and also the versatility of the American mind, with its adaptive power to mold a shapely destiny out of any conditions that fate may fling before it. He was born on March 26, I837, in Ontario county, New York, the son of John and Samantha (Spencer) Frisbie. His fatfher:was a native of Hartford, Conn., and was.rearefd and educated in that state. By profession he was a civil engineer, becoming well known as a mathematician in New York, where he died, being at the time the principal of the Parma Academy. His wife's father was Rev. Ira Spencer, a Universalist clergyman well-known in Western New York, and also in Michigan, having come hither to live in Macomb county, in 1838, and dying there in 1865, at the age of ninety-five. When Captain Frisbie was but two years old the family moved to Hillsdale county, settling at Litchfield, where he received his elementary education. In I850 he entered the office of the Jonesville Telegraph as an apprentice, and, after learning his trade as a printer, he worked at the case until I86I. Then, when armed resistance threatened the integrity of the Union, he enlisted in Co. A, Eleventh Michigan Cavalry, and soon rose by rapid promotion, for gallantry on the field and by meritorious service, to the rank of captain. During the last year of the Civil War he was an assistant inspector general on the staff of Gen. S. B. Brown. At the close of the long contest he returned to his home and to his trade, and, in I868, having been active in politics in behalf of the Republican party, he was elected county clerk. He had successive reelections and held she office eight years. He was later an enrolling and engrossing clerk in the State Senate, and then the superintendent to remove the Ponca Indians from Dakota to their reservation in the Indian Territory. In 1878 he received the appointment of U. S. consul at Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and passed three years in that country. He was next appointed U. S. consul at Rheims, France, a position which he held for seven years, until a change of the national administration at Washington opened the place to a man of another political party, but he received the special thanks of the U. S. Department of State for the fidelity with which he had discharged his duties and for the value and interest of his official reports. Upon his return to his Michigan home he engaged in mercantile life for some years at Hillsdale, but has lived retired from active business since I898. He is still interested in agricultural operations in Camden township, in this county, and he is still an earnest worker in the ranks of his political party. He belongs to the Masonic order in lodge, chapter and commandery, and is an enthusiastic worker in the cause of temperance. In 1867 and I868 he was the grand worthy patriarch of the Sons of Temperance for the state, and, in this capacity, gave great vitality and activity to the order, organizing many subordinate lodges. He is a gentleman of great uprightness and a high character and has an exalted position in the esteem of his fellow men. PHILIP S. GAIGE. Many of the pioneers of Michigan, who trod her virgin soil as scouts, prospecting far in advance of the army of industrial conquest for which they blazed the trails and opened the way, lived long enough to see the attractive wilderness in which they here first camped transformed into a rich and productive commonwealth, blooming like the garden of the gods, rejoicing on every side, laughing, clapping its hands, bringing forth in spontaneous abundance everything brilliant, and fragrant and also nourishing. This was the

Page  147 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I47 fortunate fate of Philip S. Gaige and his parents, Wilson and Annie Gaige, natives of New York, who came to this state in 1833, and took up government land in the primeval forest by the side of the long, lone highway of that day, known as the Chicago Road, and, from its hard and unpromising conditions, built comfortable and well-appointed homes, presided over the birth of civilization in these western wilds, hewed out a competence for life, and aided in founding here a new member of our glorious galaxy of mighty states of the great American republic. Mr. Gaige was born in Cortland county, New York on July 5, I809, where he was reared and received a rather advanced scholastic training for a c ountry boy of his day, by attending the best schools of his neighborhood and applying himself with diligence to their teachings. After leaving school he was for a number of years engaged in teaching, and while so occupied was united in marriage with Miss Emily Mahan, a native of the same county as himself and also a popular teacher. In I833, with his parents and his wife, Mr. Gaige determined to seek opportunity for a more substantial advancement in the new country of the West, which was then attracting the attention of emigrants from all parts of the world, and came to Michigan, locating in this county. The elder Gaiges settled on government land in Fayette township, on the old Chicago Road, and lived there many years, clearing up the land and. developing it into one of the best and most attractive farms in this section of the county. In their declining years they retired from active pursuits, thereafter maintaining their residence at Jonesville, where they died at ripe old ages, securely established in the esteem and good will of the people among whom they had lived so acceptably and labored so faithfully. Their son, Philip S. Gaige, and his wife located their Michigan home near the present village of Litchfield, remaining on the farm they first occupied for a period of six years. Mr. Gaige was elected the first justice of the peace of the township and gave its people a highly appreciated service for a number of years. From there he moved to Fayette township, locating on 10 section I of its new survey, purchasing I20 acres of woodland, which he at once began to clear and improve, and which became his home until his death in June, 1892. He survived his wife twentynine years, she having passed away in I863. This worthy couple were the parents of five children, four of whom are now living: Melissa, at home; Elizabeth, wife of Daniel Howell; Mariamna, wife of Liberty Day; Isabella, wife of F. Lacore. During all of his mature life, Mr. Gaige was an ardent and serviceable Democrat in politics, showing his zeal and activity in behalf of his party by wisdom in its councils as an adviser, by valued service for its candidates as a worker, and his disinterestedness and sincerity by steadily refusing all overtures to accept public office. At his death, at the age of eighty-three years, after a career of unusual length and usefulness, he left his farm mn a state of advanced improvement and cultivation, and the township rejoicing in the fruits of his judicious thought and labors, as exhibited in every form of industrial, commercial and intellectual development, to all of which he had made valuable contributions. Liberty Day, the son-in-law of Mr. Gaige, and husband of his daughter, Mariamna, who now occupies and conducts the home farm, is a native of Ontario county, New York, born on September 24, 1840, the son of Samuel H. and Sophia (Lincoln) Day, who came with their family to Michigan in 1857 and are now prosperous farmers living near Jonesville. Mr. Day remained at home with his parents until I864, then enlisted' in Co. K. Fourth Michigan Infantry, for service in the Union army during the remainder of the Civil War. He participated in many of the bloody battles which marked the closing years of the gigantic struggle, among the most noted being those at Cold Harbor, Spottsylvania and Preble Farm in Virginia, and he was present at Lee's surrender at Appomattox. While he saw arduous and exacting service, being many times in the very deluge of death in the terrible battles in which he fought, he escaped unharmed, at the close of the war returning to his Michigan home, and he has been a resident of Hillsdale county continuously since.

Page  148 148 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. On July 7, I866, he was married to Miss Mariamna Gaige, and, almost from the date of their marriage, they have lived on the old Gaige homestead. Mr. Day has been and is one of the most successful and progressive farmers in the county, also one of its most respected citizens. He is a valued member of the Grand Army of the Republic. ZELA HADLEY. -The useful life of nearly fifty years duration in this state, which it is the province of these paragraphs to briefly outline, ended on Christmas day, 1899, and spanned a period of seventyseven years, lacking but little over one month. It was passed almost wholly on the frontier, covering pioneer experiences in^ two states. In each it was fruitful of good, full of energy devoted to the development and improvement of the region in which it was passing. And in each Mr. Hadley won the commendation and high respect of those who witnessed its upright and serviceable course, and its fidelity to every duty. Zela Hadley was born at Sandy Creek, Oswego county, New York, on February Io, I823. His parents were Samuel and Betsey (Wilder) Hadley, natives of Vermont, and members of old families resident in New England from early Colonial times. Samuel Hadley was the son of Jesse Hadley, a son of Ebenezer Hadley and a grandson of Benjamin Hadley. Benjamin was a native of Brattleboro, Vermont, and died in I776 aged ninety-two years. Ebenezer died in I815, aged eighty-eight, and Jesse, born in 1781, died on December Io, I840. In their several generations they were farmers, men of local prominence in the places of their residence, filling many neighborhood offices of importance and exerting a healthy and helpful influence on the public life and activities of their time and locality. Samuel Hadley, father of Zela, was born on September 17, I779, and died in New York on August I, I858. His wife was born on March 28, 1783, and died on November 28, I825. They were the parents of nine children that reached years of maturity, Zela being the youngest. One son, Truman Hadley, is still living and resides on the old homestead at Sandy Creek, New York. Zela Hadley grew to manhood in his native state, had the advantage of regular attendance at excellent schools, and, as he made good use of his time, he secured an excellent education for his day. He remained at home until he reached his majority, in 1844 came to Michigan and joined his brother, Horatio Hadley, who was running a sawmill in this county. He purchased eighty acres of land in that part of Florida township that is now Jefferson, it being a part of section 2, and began clearing it up to create a home for himself. Later he purchased fifty acres on section ii, adjoining his original purchase, and in the process of time cleared that also, and on this land he lived until his death on December 25, I899. He was married in Hillsdale county on June 17, 1849, to Miss Amy L. Ambler, a native of the county and a daughter of Erasmus D. and Sarah S. (Schofield) Ambler, natives of New York, who came to Michigan and settled in Hillsdale county in 1835, making their home near Jonesville until 1842, when they moved into what was then Florida township. The father was a contractor in railroad construction and helped to build the line through the county, for a number of years also operating a gristmill south of Osseo. He was the first supervisor of Jefferson township and gave it the name it now bears. He diedlin the county, on March 31, 1852, aged fifty-one years; his wife died on May 6, 1891, aged eighty-seven. Mr. and Mrs. Hadley had three children, Edwin A., a resident of Jefferson township; Alice M., wife of George L. Loomis of Fremont, Nebraska; Sadie E., wife of M. L. Rawson, who resides on the family homestead in this township. (See sketch on another page.) Mr. Hadley was a Republican in politics and was elected as township treasurer for two years and to other local offices. In early life he and his wife were Methodists, but later they became connected with the Free Baptist church at Osseo. He was one of the solid and substantial men of the township, passing his life in a laudable endeavor to build

Page  149 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I49 up his section of the county and state in e proper way, and to foster and conserve 1 best interests in all directions. He went dow his grave full of years and of honors amid friends, scenes and associations that were to him through long connection with tl blessed with the general respect, confidence esteem, of the people of the whole county. WILLIAM H. GRAY. A prominent pioneer, one who has done n to aid in the building up of this section of M gan, is William H. Gray, the subject of sketch. He was born on June 13, 1841, in auga county, Ohio, the son of George and Zi (Stafford) Gray, both natives of New N state. The father left his native state of I York, when a young child, going in comi with his parents to Ohio, where he grev years of maturity, receiving such limited cation as the frontier conditions afforded. I846, he removed from Ohio to Hillsdale cot Michigan, coming the entire distance by wa and settled in the township of Wheatland, w he remained until I848, when he removed tc township of Adams and there purchased farm which continued to be his home during remainder of his life, and which is now the p erty of his son, William H. The ground then covered with timber, and, after erecting temporary accommodation a cabin and stable at once set about the work of clearing the f; The hardships which the pioneers of that were compelled to endure, in order to pre the way for succeeding generations, canno described within the limits of the space allc to this article. In I894 the father passed a) who had survived the mother, her death oc ring in 1890. To this worthy couple were 1 two sons and one daughter, all now dead, ex William H. Gray. The father of George ( was Daniel Gray, the paternal grandfathe William, who was a native of Massachus and who, at the time of his death, in Lake c, ty, Ohio, had attained to the advanced ag I04 years. He was one of' the earliest of very pioneers of Geauga county, Ohio, having settled their there as early as I818. His family consisted of In to four sons and two daughters, all now deceased. the William H. Gray attained manhood in Hillsdale dear county and, after cornpleting his early educahem, tion, the opportunities fdr which in those days and were very limited, he began active life by assisting his father in the clearing, and afterwards in the care and management, of the home farm. This has been his place of'residence ever since, and he has gradually added to and improved the nuch farm, until now it consists of about I20 acres ichi- of land, being one of the best and finest farms this in that portion of the county. Ge- During the month of December, I866, Mr. Ipha Gray was married to Miss Mary Wayman, a fork daughter of Samuel and Elizabeth (Crisp) WayNew man, both natives of England. The father was pany seventeen years of age when he left his native v to England and came to America. He followed edu- the trade and occupation of milling, being for In many years a successful operator in that line nty, of business. While on a visit to his daughter, igon Mrs. Gray, he was attacked by sudden illness here and died at her home in the year I893. Her the mother's people were among the pioneers of this the section of Michigan, establishing themselves and the their home here about 1839. To Mr. and Mrs. rop- Gray have been born four children, Mary E., now was Mrs. J. H. Traverse; Joseph H.; Edmund A.; r for Alice M.; now Mrs. E. C. Williams, of Hillsdale. I, he Fraternally Mr Gray is affiliated with the Grange arm. being one of the most active and prominent memday bers of that organization. Politically, he is idenpare tified with the Republican party. For many years t be he has taken a leading part in the local affairs of )tted that party, but he has never held or desired any way, office, having no taste for public life, giving his:cur- entire attention to the management of his private born business interests. He is well and favorably:cept known throughont the county, and is held in high 3ray esteem by all classes of his fellow citizens. _r NEWTON M. GREGG. This efficient and accommodating supervisor of Cambria township, who is now (I903) serv

Page  150 I50 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. ing his third successive term in the office, has had excellent training for almost any kind of public service by a long and creditable career in military, mercantile and pastoral life, and in official stations of importance and responsibility. His life began in Trumbull county, Ohio, on April 2, 1836, the son of Seth and Hannah (Niblack) Gregg, natives of Pennsylvania and early settlers in Ohio, where the father died in I855. His widow survived him forty-five years and passed to her final rest in this county in Igoo, aged eighty-seven. They were the parents of seven children, four sons and three daughters, all of whom are living and two reside in this county, Newton M. and his sister, Mrs. Henry W. Sampson. Newton M. Gregg reached man's estate and received his education in his native state, remaining at home until August, I86I, when he enlisted in the Union army as a member of Co. C, Nineteenth Ohio Infantry. He was soon after actively engaged in the field and for four years and three months was in almost continual service and much of the time in the very thick of the fight.. He participated in the battles of Shiloh, Perryville, Stone River, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge and others; then went with Sherman to Atlanta and took part in the engagement at Peach Tree Crfeek, and Buzzard's Roost, Kenesaw Mountain, Marietta and Lovejoy below Atlanta. After this his regiment returned with General Thomas and had hot work in the devastating deluge of death at Franklin and also at Nashville. In I865, early in the year, it was sent to Texas and remained in that state until November, being finally mustered out at Columbus, Ohio. During this long and trying service Mr. Gregg did not receive a wound and was never absent from duty, and, when he was discharged, he held the rank of orderly sergeant, to which he had risen by meritorious conduct. He had two brothers in the Union army, one in the Seventh Ohio Infantry, the other in a gallant Michigan regiment, and the love of country then displayed by this family, in a critical period of our history, has ever distinguished it throughout its record on the continent wherever it has gained a foothold, showing forth in the pursuits of peaceful industry as steadily, even if less conspicuously, as on the ensanguined field of military prowess. After the war Mr. Gregg returned to Ohio and in I866 came to Michigan, locating in Clin-' ton county, where he purchased a farm and lived nine years. In 1875 he took up his residence in Cambria township, Hillsdale county, where he has since made his home. In I866, before leaving Ohio, he married with Miss Emily A. Austin, of the same nativity as himself, and a daughter of Venajah and Belinda (Dean) Austin, who died in Ohio at advanced ages. Mr. and Mrs. Gregg have two children, William C., now living at Adrian, Michigan, and Roland A., of Chicago. In politics Mr. Gregg has been a lifelong Republican and has always taken great interest in the welfare of his party. He served the township ten years as a justice of the peace and three as a highway commissioner. In I900 he was elected supervisor and has been twice reelected. Fraternally, he is connected with the Grand Army of the Republic and the Patrons of Husbandry, and is valued as a member in both organizations. He is well known and generally esteemed by all classes of citizens throughout the county. JACOB A. HANCOCK. Jacob A. Hancock, one of the most respected citizens of Cambria township, living near the farm which he helped to redeem from the wilderness, which, since the purchase of his present home he has made beautiful and much more valuable with his well-appointed and wisely constructed improvements, was one of the early settlers of Hillsdale county, and witnessed the birth of the township in which he lives. Within his experience here, which covers a period of sixtyfour years, he has beheld the growth of a mighty, and splendid commonwealth from its very cradle to its present maturity and power. He was among its struggling first citizens, who had to contend with all of the wilds of nature, the rapacity and deadly cruelty of ferocious beasts and

Page  151 I HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I51 to endure all of the privations and hardships of frontier life. They had also to lay the foundations of a state broad and deep; the work they accomplished in this respect has its merits loudly proclaimed in the substantial and enduring results which bloom and fructify around those of them who are yet living and before the eyes of their descendants. Mr. Hancock was born in Genesee county, New York, on January I8, I832. His parents were Jacob S. and Jane (Van Vlack) Hancock, natives of the same state, the father born in New York city and the mother in Dutchess county. His father was a shoemaker, but was thrown on his own resources early in life and earned his living by hard labor in the cotton mills of Paterson, New Jersey, for some years before beginning his apprenticeship at his trade. At the conclusion of this apprenticeship he moved to Poughkeepsie, N. Y., following his craft in that city for a number of years. There he met and mraried his wife and soon after removed with his young family to Genesee county, settling in Staf-. ford township, where he went into business as a manufacturer of boots and shoes on a rather extensive scale for that period. In 1839 he brought his family a stage farther toward the setting sun, locating in what is now Cambria township in this county, where he found a ready market for the products of his skillful work and frequently took work in exchange, thereby acquiring eighty acres of good land, getting it well cultivated also and provided with comfortable improvements, residence, barns, etc., to replace the humble cabin and outbuildings of logs which he at first erected for a home. He was the first postmaster of the township and frequently had to advance the money for postage. at that time twenty-five cents each letter, in order that the patrons of the office could get their mail, such was the scarcity of money in the new settlements. During the last years of his life he gave up his trade and devoted his energies wholly to the cultivation of his farm. His wife died on July 27, I879, and he followed her to his final rest on September 8, I885. They were the parents of eight children, Jacob A. being the first born. The father was one of the organizers of the township and gave the new creation excellent service as its first supervisor anrd in other local offices of importance. He was a Republican in politics, after the formation of that party, and he and his wife were faithful members of the Baptist church. Their oldest son, Jacob A. Hancock, grew to manhood on his father's farm, was educated in the district schools and remained at home until his marriage, which occurred in Cambria township, on March 29, 1854, and united him with Miss Almira Smith, a daughter of Warren Smith and a sister of Charles E. Smith, a sketch of whom appears on another page. Mrs. Hancock was born in Lenawee county, Michigan, on March 26, 1837, and was well educated. She lived with his parents and followed the ennobling profession of teaching in the public schools until her marriage. After nearly thirty-nine years of happy wedded life, she died on March 17, 1893, leaving one child, their daughter, Ida, wife of D. J. Gibbon of Cambria township. Two of Mr. Hancock's brothers served in the Union' army during the Civil war,, Oscar and Albert, one in the Eighteenth and the other in the Twenty-Seventh Michigan Infantry. Albert is at present residing at San Francisco, California. Mr. Hancock is a staunch Republican and in fraternal affiliations is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. At the hale old age which he has reached in peace and comfort, he has the assurance of the respect and high regard of the community in which he has lived so long, to whose progress and prosperity he has so essentially contributed, and also the knowledge that his labors for its advancement are duly appreciated, and that he will be well and worthily remembered long after he shall have surrendered his earthly trust at the behest of the Great Disposer of human destinies. MACK HARRING. Mack Harring, the popular and obliging postmaster at Osseo and one of the leading merchants of the place, where he carries on a flour-;::-::::

Page  152 I52 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. ishing and progressive hardware business, is a native of Jefferson township, born on November 8, 1862, half a mile south of the town. His parents were Henry H. and Mary J. (Shurtluff) Harring, natives of New York, the former born and reared in Niagara county and the latter in Ontario county. The father was born on October I, 1825, and grew to manhood and received his education in his native county, although his parents moved to Michigan when he was but ten years old. After his arrival in this state he was variously occupied for some years. He helped build the railroad through to Hillsdale and was trackmaster between that city and Adrian for six years. He left the road in 1859 and followed farming in Jefferson township until I875, when he sold out and removed to Osseo. There his wife died in 1897 and he passed away on July II, I900. They were the parents of four sons and four daughters, of whom seven are living, three sons and daughter being residents of Hillsdale county. The father was a man of great public spirit and took an active interest in the local affairs of the township. He served as a justice of the peace for sixteen years. His father was Peter R. Harring, a native of New York who came in 1835 to Lenawee county and there cleared up a farm. Later he moved to Hillsdale county, and, after some years of active service to the railroad company as a bridge builder, died near Osseo. Mack Harring was reared and educated at Osseo. He left home at the age of sixteen years to learn the trade of a tinner and at this craft he has worked ever since, carrying it on in connection with his business since that was started in 1893. In 1897 he was appointed postmaster of the town and has conducted the affairs of the office with signal success and enlarging usefulness to its patrons. Since March I, I902, he has had a rural delivery service, which has been of great advantage and convenience to many persons in the country and is highly appreciated. The establishment of this service was the result of Mr. Harring's persistent personal efforts with the department at Washington, and its operation is. much to his credit. He has also served the people as township treasurer and as a member of the school board. In his twelve years' service as school trustee, he has been very active in the cause of education in general and has given the school at Osseo intelligent, diligent and helpful attention in particular, raising it to a graded school and aiding in making it one of the best in the county. In I886 Mr. Harring was married to Miss Lilly O'Neil, a daughter of James and Charlotte (Paine) O'Neil, and they have three children, Neil H., Kate H. and Hartis Y,, all at home. In politics he has been a Republican all of his mature life and in the service of his party has been effective and vigilant. In fraternal relations he is a valued member of the Masonic order. His business is prosperous and expanding, being one of the leading enterprises of its kind in this part of the state. Whether considered as a public official or a mercantile force in the community, as a social element or an educational agency, in any line or all lines of elevated and elevating citizenship, Mr. Harring is well worthy of the high regard in which he stands among the people and of the universal confidence which he enjoys. CHARLES JOINER. Charles Joiner, whose well-appointed and well-cultivated farm is one of the desirable country homes of Allen township, who for a number of years has been living retired from active pursuits in the village of Allen, is a native of Huron county, Ohio, born on August I, 1847. His parents were Ralph and Eliza (Inscho) Joiner, the former a native of Massachusetts and the latter of Huron county, Ohio. The father, a turner and carver by trade,,followed his chosen vocation in connection with a thriving farming industry and also worked at times at shoemaking. Although a man of sixty years of age at the commencement of the Civil War, he offered his services -to his country and finally enlisted, on June 22, 1863, in the First Ohio Heavy Artillery. He was sent to Kentucky, where, after passing three months, he was rejected by the U. S. mustering officer on account of his age

Page  153 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I53 and other disabilities, and was never in the United States service. He died in Huron county, Ohio, in I888, as did the mother in I9oI at the age of eighty-five. They had nine children, five of whom are living, their son Charles being the only one who is a resident of this county. Two of the sons were Union soldiers during the Civil War, and one of them, a member of the Thirtieth Indiana Infantry, gave his life to the cause, dying in the service from wounds received in one of the sanguinary battles of the contest. The other enlisted in the One Hundred and Twenty-third Ohio Infantry and saw much active service, but escaped unharmed, being, however, a prisoner of war and held at Libby prison for some months. He died at Allen in I902. Charles Joiner was reared in Huron county, Ohio, to the age of nineteen and was educated in the schools of that county. He there remained until I866, then came to Michigan and lived at Quincy in Branch county for three years, then bought a farm in Allen township, in this county, which was all timber land, covered with a dense growth of forest. This he cleared and farmed in true pioneer style for eleven years, then moved to the village of Allen where he has since resided. He was married in Allen township, on April 30, I870, to Miss Hannah Lazenby, a sister of Christopher Lazenby, more extended mention of whom will be found on another page of this work. They have one child, their daughter, Lydia H., wife of C. D. Eaton, of Allen. While fervently patriotic and devoted to the welfare of his country, especially that portion of it in which his lot has been cast, and being ever a faithful and loyal Republican, Mr. Joiner has never taken any special interest in party politics and has never sought or desired public office. He belongs to the Masonic fraternity and has been zealous in advocating and supporting public improvements of every proper kind, also in aiding to develop and multiply the resources of the county and advance its best interests. For all the attributes of safe, conservative and yet wisely progressive citizenship he is well known as an example and esteemed. HENRY HINKLE. Henry Hinkle, who so ably guided the fortunes of Woodbridge township for five years as its supervisor, is a native of Hillsdale county, born in Wright township on November 7, I851. His parents were Samuel D. and Solora (Benedict) Hinkle, the former a native of Pennsylvania and the latter of New York. The father was both a blacksmith and a farmer and carried on thriving industries in both occupations, first in his native state and, after I856, in Michigan, moving here in that year and settling on eighty acres of unbroken forest land in Wright township. He resided on this tract until I867 and devoted his best efforts to clearing it for cultivation and making it productive as a farm and comfortable as a home. In the year last named he traded it for a farm in Cambria township, to which he moved his family and on which he passed the rest of his life, dying in I88I, leaving a widow who still survives him and makes her home with her children. They were the parents of eleven children, all of whom are living. Both were earnest and serviceable members of the Methodist Episcopal church. The paternal grandfather was a native of Pennsylvania, a blacksmith by trade and an early settler near Columbus, Ohio, where the remaining years of his life were passed. Henry Hinkle grew to man's estate in Hillsdale county, and got his education in the public schools. He began life for himself as a farmer on the old home on which he lived, engaged in its cultivation for five years. He then purchased a threshing outfit and used it to the great advantage of the farmers in all parts of the county for two years, after that dealing in farm produce for a year. Some time later he bought the farm of I28 acres on which he now lives in Woodbridge township and which has ever since been his home. Into its improvement and cultivation he has' put the energy and skill of his more mature years and has made it an impressive illustration of what systematic and intelligent industry can accomplish, it being now one of the model farms of the township, yielding

Page  154 I 54 -HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. abundant returns for the faith and toil involved in its tillage. He was married in this county, in I876, to Miss Sarah Fuller, a daughter of David and Olive Fuller, early settlers in Woodbridge township, both of whom are now deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Hinkle have six children: Olive, engaged in teaching at Albion; Elva, an instructor in a school at Hillsdale; Grace, a popular teacher of Detroit; Elizabeth, Florence and David at home. The first three are graduates of the State Normal School. For many years after reaching his majority Mr. Hinkle was a Republican in political faith; but he is now a Free-Silver Democrat. He has been active in behalf of the advancement and development of the township, and has served its people well as supervisor, first in I89I, I892 and I893, and again in I895 and I896. He has also taken a great and serviceable interest in educational matters and has filled with credit and advantage to the community several school offices. He is a member of the Patrons of Husbandry, being active in the affairs of the grange at Cambria. BANI BISHOP. This honored pioneer of Hillsdale county, who has been for more than half-a-century a leading and serviceable citizen of Cambria township, Michigan, was born at Canandaigua, New York, on October I2, I818. His parents were Stephen and Charlotte (Smith) Bishop, both natives of Connecticut. The father was a farmer in his native state who moved to New York in i81z, settling in Ontario county, where he passed the rest of his life, dying in I853. The mother lived a widow for twenty-six years and died in I879, aged ninety years. Eight children blessed their union, of whom all are now dead but their two sons, Bani and William, the latter being a resident of Hillsdale township. One daughter was for many years a resident of this county and here died in I889. The grandfather, Jared Bishop, was a farmer of Cheshire, Connecticut. He made several trips to the West Indies as a trader and died at a good old age in his native state. Bani Bishop was reared in Ontario county, New York, and was educated at the public schools and a good academy located at Canandaigua. On his father's farm he acquired strength of body, independence of spirit, and also habits of industry and frugality. In I847 he came to this state and settled on the farm, which is now his home in Cambria township of this county, purchasing I40 acres, fifty acres being cleared and under cultivation. Since then he has bought eighty acres, and on this land he has lived continuously!from his first occupancy of it, except for six years, when he held his residence in South Dakota. His occupation through life has been farming, in that branch of industry he has grown skillful and prospered, his farm being the best evidence of his care and success as a tiller of the soil andof his enterprise and business capacity. Mr. Bishop married, on March 31, i85I, with Miss Caroline L. Stark, a native of Connecticut, and they had ten children, of whom six are living. They are George S. and John H., employed, in the lumber operations of Louisiana; James S., a newspaper man in the South; William A., conducting the home farm; Francis W., in business in California; Charles, in the insurance, loan and investment business at West Superior, Wisconsin. Their mother died in 1889. In politics, Mr. Bishop was a Whig until that party was superseded by the Republican when he ardently espoused the principles of the new organization, and to this he has remained faithful ever since. He served the county twelve years as superintendent of the poor, and the township three years as supervisor, as well as in other local offices from time to time. In religious affiliation he is connected with the Universalist church. Throughout the county he is well and favorably known as a leading citizen, one who has walked uprightly in all the relations of life, and he has the universal and high respect of the people among whom his useful labors have been performed. JOHN C. ILES. Descended from an old Yorkshire family, that lived for many generations'in that pleasant,

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Page  155 .HILLSDALE CO.iUNTY, MICHIGAN. i 55 historic county of England, whose exploits in war and peace have been often recorded in the local chronicles, John C. Iles, of Allen township, has the incentive to productive exertion of a creditable family history, and the additional stimulus of his own natural capabilities and high sense of duty, and he has, in this western world, far from the associations and suggestions of his childhood in his native land and those of his youth in the state of New York, demonstrated his ability to worthily continue the fine family record. He was born on November 25, I824, near the city of Leeds, in Yorkshire, England, the son of William B. and Elizabeth (Chapelow) Iles. His father was a miller, who owned and operated large flouring mills in the vicinity of that busy mart of commerce and industrial activity, where he also carried on an extensive wholesale and retail trade in the product of his mills. In 1831, hearkening to the voice of America calling for volunteers for the great army of occupation, to which she offered unbounded worlds of industrial and commercial conquest, he disposed of his interests in the mother country and brought his family to the United States. He located in New York city and soon after became interested in' a woollen manufactory in New Jersey, which eventuated as a disastrous investment. He then moved to Rochester, then the flour city of New York, and there became the head miller of the leading flouring mill of the city, a capacity in which he rendered valuable and appreciated service for several years. From that city he moved to Detroit, where during the next seven years he was busily occupied in the manufacture of mill-stones, himself doing the "creasing." About the year 1845 he came to jonesville, in Fayette township, Hillsdale county, as miller for the Mr. Dowling who built and operated the first gristmill in that part of the county. For twelve years he was connected with that mill in a leading capacity, by his skill, experience and enterprise greatly aiding in building up and expanding its trade, 'making its output renowned in the markets of a large extent of country. He then determined to devote himself to farming, and, to this end, purchased eighty acres of land in Allen township, which has since been cleared and reduced to fruitfulness and fertility, mainly through the assiduous labors and skillful enterprise of his son, John, the immediate subject of this review. They lived on this farm together until the death of the father and that of his second wife, whose' maiden name was Elizabeth Richmond. The mother of John C. Iles died before the family left England, leaving two children, her son, John, and a daughter. The fruit of the second marriage was two daughters. All the children are. now dead, except John C. and a daughter, who is now living in Nebraska. The parents were members of the Methodist Episcopal church, active in its management and the good works in which it is ever engaged. From the age of twelve John C. Iles grew to manhood in this county, and what schooling he obtained was secured for the most part in its public schools. His school life ended before he reached his majority, and at that time he began clearing the land which his father had purchased. After this clearing was accomplished in a great measure, he cleared other land, redeeming from the forest 250 acres in all, himself splitting the rails for the fences and building the houses and barns which adorned and improved it. In 1855, at the age of thirty-one, he was married in this county to Miss Jane West, a native of Chautauqua county, New York, born in 183I. She died on May 30, 1883. They were the parents of seven children: William A. F. and Frank, leading farmers of this township; Nina E., deceased; La Vergne, a farmer living in Litchfield township; Kate E., living at the parental home; Nellie M., wife of 0. Bowen, of Chicago, Ill.; Fred W. On June 27, I894, Mr. Iles married his second wife who still abides with him. Her maiden name was Elizabeth C. Harris, being a daughter of Orlando and Ann (Morey) Harris, early settlers in Allen township. At the time of her marriage to Mr. Iles she was the widow of Joseph Walsh, and the mother of five children, four sons and one daughter. Mr. Iles has been a Republican in politics all of his mature life. When the call

Page  156 I56 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. to arms in defense of the Union rang loudly through the land in I86I, he enlisted in Co. C, First Michigan Infantry, and, after an active service of eighteen months, he was discharged for disabilities incurred in the line of duty, for which he now draws a pension. He participated in the battles of Mechanicsville, Va., Savage Station, Fair Oaks, Gaines Mills, Malvern Hill, and a number of others, being slightly wounded in one. He is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, and takes a leading part in the work of Quincy Post to which he belongs. No one of the progressive farmers of the township is more widely known or more highly esteemed throughout its borders. None is more deserving of the place he occupies in the general regard and good will of his fellow'men. THE KIRBY FAMILY. The late William Kirby, of Adams township. was well and favorably known in all parts of Hillsdale county and throughout a much larger scope of country for his upright and serviceable life of more than half a century in the county, his valuable contributions to its development and progress, his wisdom and breadth of view in establishing its forms of government and vitalizing its productive and conserving forces, his patriotic devotion to its interests all the while, and his genial and obliging disposition from start to finish, gave him a strong and enduring hold on the respect and admiring esteem of the people, and fixed his place forever in their recollection as one of the worthiest and most useful of the early pioneers and one of the best representative citizens the county ever has had. Of his sons, who are living among this people, it is high praise, but only just, to say that they are exemplars of the amenities, the thrift, the progressiveness and the public spirit which the father exhibited in marked degree and that they are worthy followers of his commendable example. William Kirby was born in Yorkshire, England, on February 8, I8o5. In his native land he was reared, educated and learned his trade as a cloth-dresser. There, too, he was married to Miss Hannah Sykes, a native of Lancashire, born on September 7, I8oI. The young couple settled down for life, as they probably supposed, amid the scenes and associations of their early years, and began the struggle for a competency, with no thought of ever becoming pioneers in a new country and partial founders of an empire of commercial and industrial wealth in the Great Lake region of America. Their domestic shrine was sanctified by the birth of two daughters in their native land, and all looked promising for a continued residence on the soil which was hallowed by the labors and covered the bones of the countless generations of their long lines of thrifty ancestors. But quite a different fate was in store for them. There came to their ears the call of the great American wilderness for volunteers to clear it from its wild, native growth and make it habitable and productive for civilized man. They obeyed the call, and, in 1827, they came to the United States and joined this great army of industrial conquest, settling in St. Lawrence county, New York, where for four years they were actively engaged in farming. In I83I they removed to Lake county, Ohio, and, in I834, leaving his family at their -new home in that state,' Mr. Kirby, with Richard Fowler and Caleb Bates, proceeded to Toledo, from there followed the old Indian trail to Jonesville, then little more than a halting place for adventurous trappers and pioneers. These men cut a road through the forests to the farms on which they determined to locate, and, after making temporary provision for their own safety and comfort by building At rude shelter, they devoted the summer to cutting and curing hay for the cattle they had driven in on the long trail. The stock was left in care of the Fowlers during the winter, while Mr. Kirby and Mr. Bates returned to Ohio for their families. All came back to Michigan in the following spring, and Mr. Kirby, with the help of his neighbors, erected a small log house and barn and began to clear and improve his land. During the first few years of his residence here old Baw Beese was of great assistance in furnishing food for the families, and in many other

Page  157 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I57 ways, being a familiar figure at all their firesides. Mr. Kirby and his devoted wifepassed the remainder of their days in this western home, and, when he died in I888, having survived his wife from 1876, he had a well cleared and highly improved farm of 240 acres, of great productiveness and value. In political faith he was a Whig as long as that party had life, and, when the Republican party was founded on its ruins, he joined the new organization and aided in giving it vitality and vigor in this state. He was not, however, much of a politician, but did consent to fill local offices from time to time for the good of the county. Besides the two English daughters already alluded to, seven children, six sons and one daughter, were born to him in America. Three of the sons and two of the daughters are still living, Mary, Jason J., Reuben, William and Louisa. The parents were devout members of the Methodist Episcopal' church, active in all good church work. JASON J. iKIRBY, the oldest living son of the honored pioneer above alluded to, was born in St. Lawrence county, New York, on May I8, I830. He came with his parents to Michigan in 1834, and since that time this state has been his home and the seat of his industry and prosperity. He grew to manhood in Hillsdale county, and was educated in the little log schoolhouses of the early days, also attending school for a short time in Hillsdale. His life has been passed peacefully on the paternal homestead, occupied with its tranquilizing labors, except at times when he has worked at his trade as a stonemason. He was married in I859, to Miss Rachel Van Aken, a native of the state, born in Lenawee county. They have had no children. He has never desired public office, and has taken but little part in political affairs, but for many years he has been an interested member of the Masonic fraternity, holding affiliation with the lodge at Hillsdale. WILLIAM KIRBY, the third son living, was born in Lake county, Ohio, on December 7, 1834, and in the following spring came with his parents to Hillsdale county, Michigan. From infancy to manhood he lived at home, sharing the labors of the family, helping to clear and cultivate the homestead and attending school in the neighborhood and also at Tecumseh and Jonesville. Later he attended the high school and college at Hillsdale. Ever since reaching years of maturity he has been actively and successfully engaged in farming, all the time in this county, almost in sight of the smoke of his father's chimney, so little disposition has he had to roam, and so satisfactory has he here found the conditions of life. He was married in I86o to Miss Mary A. Wamsley, a native of this state. They have one daughter, Mary Etta, now the wife of Willis Swift, of Hillsdale county. REUBEN S. KIRBY, the second of the living sons of William and Hannah (Sykes) Kirby, is a native of St. Lawrence county, New York, and was born on February 4, I832. In the spring of 1834 he came with his parents to Michigan and has here since made his home, being reared in Hillsdale county. He received a liberal education in the public schools and at the college at Hillsdale, and took a theological course at Evanston, Illinois. In I86o he was married to Miss Lorena Wamsley, of this state, a sister of the wife of his brother William. They have one child, their daughter, Emily, wife of Rev. Edwin Gray, a minister of the Free Baptist church. This brief review records the trials and triumphs of two generations of one of this county's most esteemed and most serviceable families, who have faithfully exemplified the best traits of our citizenship. THE SCOWDEN & BLANCHARD CO. A great engine of productive industry located among any people, employing the brain of hundreds, filling scores of homes with comfort and contentment, is a benefaction almost immeasur4 able in its bounty. It may not be fully appreciated in the rush and hurry of this work-a-day world. It becomes familiar by daily contact and' is taken into consideration almost as a matter of course. It pursues its regular way, pouring its tides of prosperity and happiness among the children of men, building up the community, supplying the necessaries, conveniences, or the lux

Page  158 I58 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. uries of life for thousands, near and far, and men walk in its shadow almost unconscious of its presence. But let some calamity sweep it away, or some change of base require its removal or cessation from work, and they will realize, as they never did before, how it has dispensed countless blessings among them and how they are bereft. The Scowden & Blanchard Co., of Hillsdale, a stock company engaged in the manufacture of ladies,'misses,'children's and little "gents' " shoes, also men's, boys', and youths' seamless shoes, is such a benefaction. In the wide sweep of its business it is in touch with thousands of people, all-of whom get from it some measure of good, whether it be in the nature of employment for their skill and energy, or the procuring of its products for their comfort and convenience. This enterprise was organized by Jacob Scowden, its efficient and energetic treasurer, in June, 1901, with a capital stock of $50,000, and an official staff composed of F. M. Stewart, president; Dr. W. H. Sawyer, vice-president; J. Will Morvin, secretary and Jacob Scowden, treasurer. Its factory, which in 50x154 feet in size and three stories high, was erected the same year, and has the capacity of producing I,5oo pairs of shoes per day. It has always in employment from I50 to 200 persons, and, when running at full capacity, employs 400 to 500. The product of the factory is in demand all over the country, taking a high rank in the markets. This manufacturing plant was the second shoe factory put in operation in southern Michigan. Jacob Scowden, the founder, is a native of Adams county, Ohio, born in I850. His parents were John and Susan (Holton) Scowden, the former a native of Ohio and the latter of Virginia. After their son left home they removed to Missouri, where they died at advanced ages. Jacob was reared to the age of eighteen on his father's farm in Ohio, and secured a limited education at the public schools of the neighborhood. At the age mentioned he began to learn the trade of a blacksmith, and, after completing his apprenticeship, he worked at the trade for several years. He then went into merchandising in the boot and shoe trade, and, in I896, organized the Scowden, Jones & Sprinks Co., for the manufacture of shoes at Springfield, Ohio, where he was conducting his mercantile business. The establishment was kept up and the business running at that point until Mr. Scowden came to Hillsdale in I90I, when the company was reorganized here under the name and directorate already given, the stock being held for the most part in Hillsdale. Mr. Scowden is also a director of the Alamo Gas Engine Co., and is connected in a leading way with other mercantile and financial concerhs. He is a member of the Masonic order, belonging tot lodge, chaptier and commandery. He takes no active part in politics, but was a member of the hospital board in Springfield for several years. He is a gentleman of great public spirit and enterprise, warmly interested in the general welfare of the community. CHRISTOPHER LAZENBY. From that veritable hotbed of productive industry, old Yorkshire in old England, melodious with the hum of all its busy activities in Hull and Sheffield and Bradford and Leeds, and other swarming centers of industrial and mercantile life, came many of the most serviceable and energetic of the men and women who have aided in settling the Great Northwest and West in the United States, developing it into its present might and magnitude in every department of human enterprise.. Among these, and holding a high rank among them for industry, energy and productive usefulness, Christopher Lazenby, of Allen township, in this county, and his parents, Thomas and Hannah (Smith) Lazenby, are entitled to special mention. He was born on the historic soil of Yorkshire, England, on November I2, 1842. His ancestors had there lived and flourished in their way for time out of mind; but his parents heard of the better and larger opportunities for diligence, thrift and capacity existing in the boundless domain of the new republic across the sea, and, in 1848, when the son was but six years old, they left the scenes and associations of the old home and sought the opportunities of which they had heard

Page  159 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I593 in what was then the unbroken forest and prairie of this state. They settled in Branch county, remained there for two years, then moved to Hillsdale county, where they passed the rest of their lives, purchasing I20 acres of uncultivated land on which they lived and which they cleared and brought into fertility and fruitfulness, and on which they finally passed away, when their life work was accomplished, the mother dying in I88I, and the father in I895. They were the proud parents of four sons and ten daughters, all of whom are now deceased, except one son, Christopher, and five of his sisters, who are still residents of this county, maintaining their homes in Allen township. The father was a quiet and industrious farmer, seeking no public notice of any kind, official or otherwise, content to follow faithfully his daily round of duties under the calm, discerning gaze of Heaven and without reference to the applause of men. He was a devout and consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal church, gave his time and his energies freely to the cause of the church organization, aiding in the erection of the church edifice at Allen, where he held his membership, and in many others in various parts of his portion of the county. The grandfather, also named Christopher Lazenby, came from his native heath in Yorkshire to this county, and, after years of industrious cultivation of the soil, here passed away in I864. 'The immediate subject of this sketch grew to man's estate from his childhood on the farm which is now his home, and attended, as he had opportunity, the ministrations at the public schools in the vicinity. At the death of his father he inherited the homestead and to its cultivation and improvement he has since devoted all of his energies. He was married on February I, I865, to Miss Orenda C. Cronk, a native of Allen township, and they were the parents of three sons, William T., Charles D., and John. The mother died on April 4, 1875, and, on December I9, of the same year, Mr. Lazenby was united in marriage with his second wife, Miss Josephine Lawson, a Canadian by nativity. In politics Mr. Lazenby is an independent Prohibitionist and takes no part in the contests between the old parties. He is, like his father, an active and devoted member of the Methodist Episcopal church, and, like him, too, he is universally esteemed. J. H. KROH. Jacob Henry Kroh, one of the leading farmers of Jefferson township and a widely known breeder of pure Chester White hogs, is a native of Seneca county, Ohio, born on January 2I, I858, the son of Daniel and Hannah (Shepard) Kroh, the former a native of Ohio and the latter of New York. The family moved to Michigan in I86I and settled in Jefferson township, where the father purchased eighty acres of land, partially cleared and improved, and added to this tract by a subsequent purchase forty more acres. He and his faithful wife still reside on this land, where they are passing the calm and peaceful evening of their lives, secure in the respect of all who know them and in enjoyment'of the retrospect of well-spent industry in the development and progress of their adopted state. They are devout and zealous members of the Methodist Episcopal church. Their family consisted of three children, their son, J. H. iKroh, their daughter, Mina L., wife of W. E. Freed, of this county, and another son, William, who is now deceased. The grandfather, also named Daniel Kroh, was a native of Pennsylvania, who moved to Ohio when that state was new and undeveloped, and died there in Seneca county after a long life of usefulness as a progressive farmer. He had a family of twelve children, seven daughters and five sons, his son Daniel being the only one who became a resident of Hillsdale county. J. H. Kroh has passed the whole of his life since he was three years of age in this county and here received his education in its public schools. As soon as he was able, he took charge of the home farm and successfully conducted its operations until January I, I902, when he moved to the farm on which he now resides, which is a portion of section 28, in Jefferson township. Here he carries on a flourishing farming and

Page  160 * i6o HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. stock industry, giving special attention, as has been stated, to breeding Chester White hogs in large quantities and of excellent quality and purity. His product has a high rank in the markets, local and general, and he is known throughout an extensive sweep of country as one of the most judicious and intelligent stockbreeders in his line. He also operates a large cider-mill in connection with his farming operations. By this enterprise he furnishes a great convenience, renders a valued service to the surrounding territory for many miles and provides another product of high grade for the use of mankind. He was married in this county, in 1883, to Miss Susan Parmlee, a native of the county and a daughter of Alonzo and Ophelia (Russell) Parmlee, early settlers in Ransom township, where the father died some years ago. Mr. and Mrs. Kroh have two children, Wilford C. and Alfred A. Although a Republican of firm and loyal faith in his party, Mr. Kroh has never been an active partisan and has never consented to accept a public office. He is a member of the order of Patrons of Husbandry, for five years has served as master of the local grange to which he belongs, and for a number of years prior to taking this position he was the overseer and steward of the grange. He also belongs to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and is an active member of the Congregational church. HENRY LANE. This honored citizen, progressive farmer, wide-awake and capable business man and helpful factor in public affairs, has been for thirtyseven years a resident of this county, and, during all of that time, he has been actively engaged in farming and raising high-grade stock, conducting every phase of his business along the most progressive lines, elevating the standards in products and methods wherever he has applied his breadth of view, his extensive knowledge and his excellent judgment. The place of his nativity is Aurelius Cayuga county, New York, where his life began 'on September 20, I820. His parents were Archibald B. and Alice (Schofield) Lane, the fore mer a native of Westchester 'couftity; New York, and the latter born near Stamford, Conn. The parents lived in various places in New York state, the father working at his trade as a shoemaker, and also engaging in farming, until 1837, when he disposed of his New York farm and moved his family to Ashtabula county, Ohio, making the journey with teams and settling on a farm he there bought not far from the town of Geneva. There was a sawmill on the place, and, while operating his farm, he also ran the mill industriously, while in leisure times he made shoes for his family,and neighbors. He was a man of great industry and strict integrity, and he and his wife were universally esteemed. He died on his Ohio farm on September 13, 1852, and his widow, who long survived him, passed the closing years of her life at the home of a daughter, in Michigan. They were the parents of seven sons and one daughter. Their son, Henry, was their fourth child, and he was feeble in health, and, for a number of years, a cripple from the effects of a fever sore, which he had at the age of six. Later he was fully restored to health and ultimately became vigorous and strong. He then was of valuable assistance on the farm between the terms of school, and, at the age of sixteen, he took charge of his father's sawmill, which he operated until he was twenty-two, when he started out in life for himself. He accepted employment with a carpenter at $13 a month, but, at the end of the first month demanded higher wages, securing the promise of $15 a month. He worked until the fall without getting his wages and was then able to collect only enough homemade cloth to make an overcoat. He went home for the winter and in the following spring resumed work at his trade, helping to build a church at Geneva. The next winter he worked in a cabinet-shop and for four years thereafter at carpentry and cabinetmaking. He then built a steam sawmill at Geneva and for several years was there busily engaged in the manufacture and sale of lumber, and, having bought a farm near the town, he was also extensively occupied in farming. In 1865 he disposed of all his interests in Ohio and the next year came to Hillsdale county and bought the place on

Page  161 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I6i which he now resides in Pittsford township. He increased his land by subsequent purchases until he owned 430 acres; in fact, he has bought and paid for more than 700 acres of land since coming to Hillsdale county, but has since disposed of all but about seventy acres, and is now living upon the old homestead in retirement. His success and prosperity in farming and stockraising was for many years steady, extensive and most gratifying; and they were the legitimate results of his shrewdness, business capacity, clearness of vision and intelligent application of wide knowledge gained from reading and judicious observation. Every detail of the work connected with his enterprises had his personal care and supervision, and no effort was omitted that seemed necessary to secure the highest and best result. Mr. Lane was married on November I9, I849, to Miss Clotilda C. Sawyer, a native of Manchester, Ontario county, New York, born on March 26, I816. Her father, Luke Sawyer, and her grandfather, Thomas Sawyer, were born and reared in Vermont. When her father was but a boy the family moved to New York. There he grew to manhood, was educated and there he married with Miss Rhoda P. Cook, a daughter of Asher and Rhoda (Phelps) Cook. Their wedded life was wholly passed in Ontario county in that state, and, after the death of her husband, Mrs. Sawyer came to Michigan where her closing days of life were passed. Mr. Lane has two brothers living, Charles D., of Cleveland, Ohio, and Peter, of Bay City, Michigan. His own family consists of three sons, Orville B.,a representative of Hillsdale county in the State Legislature; Hon. Victor H., late judge of the Second Judicial Circuit Court, and now a professor in the law department of Ann Arbor University; William H., who is living at the parental home. The only daughter of the family, Esther Eliza, died at the age of four years. In politics Mr. Lane has held firmly and consistently to the Republican party. While he is not a specially active partisan, and has had no desire for public office, he has been called to that of township supervisor, which he filled with credit for six years, also to several other local positions. He also was chosen to a number of local offices while living in Ohio. Both husband and wife are generous contributors to the churches, but they are not members of any church organization. The evening of life finds them well situated in the possession of this world's goods and secure in the respect and cordial esteem of the entire community. JAMES LONG. James Long, one of the best-known and most highly respected farmers of Jefferson township in this county, is an old soldier of the Civil War, who enlisted in defense of the Union early in the contest and kept his place at the front until his cause was won and peace was restored between the sections. His service was long, arduous and trying, and he still bears the marks of its burdens in a hip, which was disabled by a wound received in one of its hotly contested battles. He is a native of Erie county, New York, born on April 28, I840. His parents were William and Isabella (Colvin) Long, the former a native of Ireland and the latter of Pennsylvania, but of Scotch descent. His father came to the, United States with his parents when he was but three years old, grew to manhood in Pennsylvania, where they settled on their arrival, there he received a common-school education and followed farming after leaving school until he removed to Erie county, New York, where, in the course of time, he and his wife died, he passing away in November, I859, aged sixty-nine, and she in 1872, at he age of fifty-five. They had three daughters and one son, all of whom are living and residents of Michigan, except one daughter. The grandfather was William Long, a native of Ireland, where his ancestors had lived from time immemorial, and who prospered in Pennsylvania as a farmer, dying there at a good old age. In his native state James Long was reared; in its public schools he received his education. There, also, after leaving school, he was engaged in farming until I86I, when armed resistance threatened the integrity of the Union, and then, among the first, he enlisted in Co. C,

Page  162 162 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN... Tenth New York Cavalry, and was at the front as a part of what later became the Army of the Potomac. In this army he served to the close of the war, being mustered out in June, 1865. He participated in nearly one hundred battles, skirmishes and engagements, and was wounded in the hip at the battle of Brandy Station, where he was captured, but after three days of captivity was exchanged. Among the battles in which he took part, were the most important and sanguinary of those fought by the Army of the Potomac, and, as it well known, they followed one another in rapid succession, for, no army in the field ever saw harder service and none ever bore hardships more cheerfully or bravely. Its record has gone into history and is altogether glorious, both in general and in detail, every part of the narrative being greatly to its credit. After the war, in which he rose to the rank of orderly sergeant, Mr. Long returned to New York and remained there until 1871, when he came to Michigan and purchased the farm of fifty-one acres, on which he still lives, and which he has made a model of thrift and high cultivation, as well as an attractive home in the matter of improvements. He was married in Pennsylvania on April 20, I869, to Miss Margaretta Gemmill, a native of Indiana and a daughter of William and Frances (Blaine) Gemmill, her father being born and reared in Pennsylvania and her mother a native of Ireland. Mr. and Mrs. Long have one child, their daughter, Laura, wife of 0. D. Andrews, of Hillsdale county. In political faith Mr. Long is a Republican, having cast his first vote for Lincoln for President and been loyal to the party ever since. Mrs. Long is a zealous member of the Baptist church. Both are held in high esteem and have the general commendation and good will of the people of the township in which the greater part of their mature lives have been spent. CHARLES E. LAWRENCE. In the virgin soil and primeval forests of Michigan, nature stored mighty wealth for the use of the sons of men, filling the region full of commercial and industrial opportunities. Then, when her time had come, she brought into the possession of her bounty men who were capable of developing and utilizing her gifts and of multiplying their fruitfulness with widening benefactions. Among these developers and captains of industry, Charles E. Lawrence, of Hillsdale, must be accorded an honored place in the first rank. He has been in business in this section for nearly forty years, ever being one of the most useful and prolific of the mercantile forces of the community in bringing its resources to notice and placing them into the channels of trade.. Mr. Lawrence is a native of Geneseo, Livingston county, New York, born in March, 1834, the son of Joseph W. and Susan (North) Lawrence. The father was a blacksmith, who followed his craft in New York until 1838, then moved to this state and settled in Branch county, where he entered a farm, which he made his permanent home, and on which he lived and labored until his death. Here also his wife died and in the soil of their adopted state their remains were laid to rest. The grandfather, J. W. Lawrence, a native of New York, also came to Michigan, and, after a residence of some years, he died in Branch county at a good old age. Charles E. Lawrence was one of ten children, of whom six are living, his four sisters, and one brother, the latter being a resident of Lansing. One brother of the family was killed in one of the terrible battles of the Civil War. When he was fourteen years old Mr. Lawrence went to Plymouth, Ohio, where he learned the trade of a tinner. He worked at his trade in Ohio until 1852, then came to Hillsdale and was employed at it here by Mitchell & Hall. He later went to Jonesville, where he remained until 1855, then started in business for himself at Goshen, Indiana, and there remained with varying-success until I866, when he again came to Hillsdale, in I867, opening the business enterprise which he is still conducting, being for a while associated with James G. Bunt. In his business Mr. Lawrence has been very successful, its proceeds have given opportunity for the display of his business

Page  163 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I63 sagacity and breadth of view, his public spirit and quick mercantile perception in the inauguration and management of many industrial and fiscal enterprises, of whose activities the community is the direct and positive beneficiary. Among the institutions of this character, with which he is connected in a leading way, may be mentioned the First National Bank, of which he is a director, the Worthing & Alger Co., the Hillsdale Screen Co., the H. P. Meade Co., the Scowden & Blanchard Shoe Co., one of the founders of the Omega Portland Cement Co., the Michigan Mutual Insurance Co. of Detroit, and the First National Bank of Saulte Ste. Marie. There is scarcely any form of productive enterprise or public interest that has not been quickened by the touch of his tireless hand and widened by the force of his active mind. In politics Mr. Lawrence is a Republican, but not an active partisan, in the ordinary meaning of the term. He has, however, taken interest in party affairs to aid in securing good results, locally, and to this end once consented to serve as supervisor. He was married in 1855 to Miss Mary Welch, a native of this state. They have one daughter, Mrs. H. P. Meade. Mr. Lawrence is an active working member of the Masonic fraternity, belonging to lodge, chapter and commandery, and is the oldest member of the commandery in continuous connection with the body. ELLSWORTH LOVELL. That we have the poor always with us is a fact of Divine declaration, which is also well attested by human experience; to make provision for the needs of the needy and suffering, is one of the most binding, as well as one of the most beneficent, duties of the more fortunate classes of society. That the provision thus made should be in competent and careful hands is also needful and of prime importance, and this condition is secured in Hillsdale county by having the poor farm under the superintendence of Ellsworth Lovell, one of the best-known and most esteemed citizens of the county, who has demonstrated his capacity for continued service in the office by 11 showing firmness in his administration of its duties as well as benevolence, good judgment and a great kindness of heart. During the five years of his tenure of the office these traits have been conspicuous in his demeanor towards the unfortunates in his charge, while the interests of the people at large have also been well cared for and conserved. Mr. Lovell is almost wholly a product of the county, having been brought here by his parents when he was but two years old and having passed all of his subsequent life among its interests and its people. He was born on September 5, i86i, in Fulton county, Ohio, the son of Charles W. and Mary Lovicie (Johnson) Lovell, natives of New York, who were early settlers in Ohio and fromthere came to this county in I863, locating in Litchfield township. There they engaged in farming, continuing their operations in that part of the county until I869, when they removed to Fayette township, where they now reside and are now conducting agricultural operations. The father has served as a member of the board of county superintendents during the past nine years, and has filled other local offices from time to time. His family consists of three children, two sons and one daughter, all of whom are residents of this county. The grandfather, Joseph Lovell, a native of New York, came to Hillsdale county in I862, where he lived until a short time before his death, when he went to Iowa and there passed away from life's activities in I889. Ellsworth Lovell was reared and educated in this county and, after leaving school, began life as a farmer on the homestead, where he remained until he was of age. He then rented a farm and worked it until he was made superintendent of the poor farm in I898. Before that he had been the treasurer, and for three terms the supervisor of Fayette township. Since becoming superintendent, he has purchased a farm located one mile east of Jonesville. In politics he has been a life-long Republican, and in fraternal relations is connected with the Knights of Pythias and the Knights of the Maccabees. He was married in this county on December 19, 1883, to Miss Addie A. Guy, a daughter of Oscar Guy, one of

Page  164 I64 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. the leading citizens of the county. They have one child, their son, Eugene Clare Lovell, who is living at home. CHARLES Y. LOWE. Charles Y. Lowe, one of the best-known and most successful farmers of Pittsford township, in this county, is a native of the state, born at Monroe on November 7, I837. His parents were Ezekiel and Sarah (Adams) Lowe, natives of New York, the father having his birth in Ulster county, on October 23, 1812, and the mother in Seneca county, on July 28, I8I5. At the age of eleven the father became a resident of Seneca county, where he grew to manhood and rceived a common-school education.. In 1835 he married with Miss Sarah Adams, and the next year the young couple moved to Monroe county, Michigan, where Mr. Lowe learned the trade of milling, which he followed thereafter in connection with farming during the greater part of his life. In 1848 they moved to Hudson, soon afterward to Rollin, where he operated a mill for two or three years, then, about I850, he bought a farm in Pittsford township, sometime later purchasing the York Mills, also in that township, which he operated until his death on June 30, I88Q. He was prominent in the order of Odd Fellows, taking a leading part in the affairs of the order in general arid those of his lodge in particular, being also an enthusiastic attendant at the semi-centennial of the founding of the fraternity at Philadelphia in I876. He was a familiar figure at all national gatherings of the order for many years, and he was well known to its members in all parts of the United States. His widow died in I893. They were the parents of two children, their sons, Charles and George B. The elder son, Charles Y. Lowe, passed his childhood and youth in this state and after leaving school learned his trade as a miller with his father. He worked at this craft at the York Mills for a period of thirty years. At the end of that time he turned his attention to farming. Since he entered upon this industry he has steadily devoted his energies to it with a gratifying success and prosperity. His farm is one of the best cultivated and most valuable in the township, being well improved with comfortable buildings and other necessary appurtenances. On February I8, I865, he was married to Miss Orcelia Rice, a daughter of Moses and Mary H. (Hill) Rice, who emigrated from New York state to Michigan in 1840, settling in Lenawee county, where they resided until the death of the father in 1847. Twenty years later the mother made her home with her daughters until her death in I888. Mr. and Mrs. Lowe have four children, Maud S., wife of Charles Brown, of Hudson; Algernon C., also a resident of Hudson, now engaged in the furniture and undertaking business in partnership with Mr. Brown; Minnie B., living at home, and Nellie R., wife of R. E. Bronson. In political affiliation Mr. Lowe is a Republican, but he is not active in the campaigns of his party and has never sought or desired public office. He was for many years a member of the order of Odd Fellows and also a Freemason. He and his wife are esteemed members of the Hudson Congregational church, as active in all its works of charity and benevolence, as they are in all undertakings for the general good and improvement of the community. CALEB A. MAPLES. Very nearly three-quarters of a century have passed since Caleb A. Maples, one of the venerable and venerated pioneers of Hillsdale county, came to Michigan and became one of the promising forces for the conquest of her people over nature, one of the developers of her great natural resources and promoters of her welfare in every line and department of active effort. He was then but two years old, and, therefore, may be properly designated as almost wholly a product of her soil and her institutions. From her fields, which he helped to make fertile and productive, he drew his stature and his strength. In her strenuous battles with the savage in man and beast and the hard conditions of life which she

Page  165 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 'i65 laid on her early settlers, he learned self-reliance, endurance, resourcefulness and readiness for emergencies. In the formation of her civil polity, he acquired his first knowledge of the duties and responsibilities of citizenship, in the establishment of her educational and moral agencies, he first realized the need of broad and general systems of public instruction, as the guide and balance for our universal mental activity. And, in the due development and conservation of all political, social and scholastic energies, he gave scope and effectiveness to the public spirit, and a liberality and breadth of view, which have ever distinguished him throughout his long and useful life in the county. The subject of this review was born at Ontario, Wayne county, New York, on June 28, 1827, the son of Samuel L. A. and Achsa (Hoisington) Maples, the former a native of Connecticut and the latter of New York. Both of his grandfathers were soldiers in the War of the Reyolution, and were both prosperous producers in the domain of agriculture, after the freedom for which they fought was established. After the marriage of his parents they settled in Ontario county, and there remained until the autumn of I829. They then determined to brave the wilds of the farther West, as Michigan was truly at that time, and, with their two children in a wagon drawn by two horses, they came to this state, making the entire trip with this team. On their arrival in Lenawee county, the father took up a tract of land, which is now included in the city of Adrian, part of it being now the site of the railroad station. His first duty was to build a shanty with a roof of shakes, as a shelter for his family, who had up to this time been staying with a brother-in-law. After living on this land five years, he traded it for a farm in Pittsford township, in Hillsdale county, but remained two y-ears longer in Lenawee on a rented farm. After moving to his new possession in Hillsdale county he built a log house and devoted his energies to clearing his land and making it habitable and productive. Four or five years were passed in this exacting work, then he sold this farm, and bought another in the same neighborhood, on which he lived for many years. His last days were, however, spent in Cambria township, and the life of his widow ebbed away at the home of her son, Caleb. Caleb A. Maples reached Adrian when he was but two years old, and the town was but a hamlet of rude cabins. Tecumseh was the nearest milling point, while general supplies were brought from Detroit, then a long and difficult journey from Adrian. Families were dependent mainly for subsistence and comfort on their own resources and exertions. His mother spun and wove flax and wool for all the clothing of her family, and other women did likewise. He remained at home until he was nineteen and then started in life for himself. He went to Calhoun county, where he worked eight months on a farm before returning home. Two years later, on December 24, 1848, he married with Miss S. E. Smith, who was born at Wheatland, New York, on March 3, I830, and came to this state with her parents in I837. He purchased forty acres of land in Pittsford township, on which there was a small log house, and, in this humble abode, the young husband and his bride began their wedded life. With her hearty and intelligent cooperation they became prosperous, adding to their farm until it now comprises ninety acres, by skillful and judicious improvements raising it in value until it is unsurpassed in productiveness and real worth by any estate of its size in the township. They were the parents of three children, Fidello D., a resident of Pittsford township; Salinda, wife of Franklin Day, also of Pittsford township; Etna A., wife of Fernando Day, of Wright township. Their mother died in September, I890, and, on February 7, I894, Mr. Maples was united with his second wife, Mrs. Harriet (Hicks) Convis, widow of Philo D. Convis, a pioneer at Locust Corners, for many years a popular hotelkeeper and farmer of that place. She was a daughter of Barnett and Abigail (WVheelock) Hicks, of English ancestry, descended from a progenitor who came to this country in Colonial times and took an active part in the struggle for American Independence. Mr. and Mrs. Maples have lived long and use

Page  166 i66 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. ful lives, and, now that the autumnal evening of their days is settling upon them, they have the pleasing satisfaction of knowing that they have performed their duties well and faithfully, toward every interest which they have had in charge, and may feel well assured that they have worthily earned the high respect of the community, which they so richly enjoy and so modestly bear. HON. FRANK A. LYON. The scion of old Scotch families who for long generations bore their part valiantly in the border wars between Lowlanders and Highlanders in old Caledonia, and who, when "war smoothed his wrinkled front," gave themselves as earnestly and as effectively to making their naturally unproductive country fertile and fruitful; being also descended from an ancestry in this country that runs back to Colonial times, with a family record here of loyalty to the land of their adoption, which has been creditable under all circumstances, Frank A. Lyon, one of 'the leading attorneys of Hillsdale, has ever upheld the good name and the manly crest of his forefathers with as much industry, devotion to duty and unquailing courage on the exhilarating field of active professional life, as any of them ever did on the ensanguined ones of military combat, or on the less noisy but more productive ones of agricultural pursuits. His great-grandfather came to America in 1771 and settled at Walworth, Wayne county, New York, where the grandfather, Daniel, a prominent and highly esteemed Baptist preacher, and the father, Newton T. Lyon, were born and lived lives of usefulness, and where Frank A. Lyon himself first saw the light on January 4, I855. When he was a year old the family moved to this state and located in Quincy township, Branch county, there seeing true pioneer life. Here Frank A. Lyon grew to manhood, attending the district schools and assisting on the farm until he was eighteen years of age. He then finished his scholastic education at the Quincy high school, attending during the winter and spring terms, walking four miles every day to and from the school. After leaving this institution, he passed the required examination, secured a certificate of qualification and for a few years taught in the district schools. In I877 he taught the graded school at Girard in Branch county, and later attended the Northern Indiana Normal School at Valparaiso, in that state, and, between times during his course as a teacher and student, learned his trade as a carpenter, and was thereby enabled to make all his time tell in the struggle for supremacy, by working on the farm and also at carpentry when not otherwise engaged, while at school and while engaged in teaching. He was frugal, as well as industrious, and, when he had laid up enough money to tide him over a sufficient period for the preliminary study that was necessary, he began to read law in the office of Hon. Charles Upson, at Coldwater. He was admitted to the bar in February, I880, but was not just then prepared to wait for practice, so accepted temporary employment as a clerk at the consolidated Omaha and Winnebago Indian agency in Nebraska. His first years of professional practice began in November, I880, and were passed at Howard City and Edmore, in Montcalm county. Two years later he moved to Stanton in the same county, forming a partnership with M. C. Palmer, which continued until I886, when the state of his health induced him to return to Quincy, where he remained until July, I891. He then came to Hillsdale, there succeeding A. B. St. John in a lucrative practice, and he has since resided in that city, being engaged in practice of the law and rising by demonstrated merit to a high rank. Mr. Lyon is an excellent lawyer,, with great industry and application in the progressive study of his profession, a capable and conscientious business man, a very energetic and resourceful practitioner and an eloquent and forceful advocate. When appointed by Judge Lane, in I893, to prosecute Dr. Myron P. Foglesong, a prominent physician who was charged with having poisoned his wife, Mr. Lyon studied medicine with special reference to the action of mineral poisons on the human system and his knowledge

Page  167 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I67 on this subject was so extensive and so accurate that in the trial of the cause, which lasted seventeen days, he baffled some of the best medical experts called as witnesses for the defense. His success in this celebrated case was such that it added much to his reputation as a criminal lawyer, which had previously been so well established that for six years he had not lost a case in which he was engaged. His services have not been unappreciated by the corporate interests in his city, which, there -as elsewhere, are on the lookout for what is best in all lines of professional life and eager to secure it for their proper use. He is attorney for the First National Bank of Hillsdale and for Hillsdale College. As counsel for the college he has had several important cases, involving in a vital way the question of the corporate powers of such organizations, and he has managed them in a way that brought additional credit to himself and gave the college authorities great satisfaction. Mr. Lyon took no active part in politics until I896 when he "stumped it" in the state in behalf of McKinley and the Republican ticket in general. His vigor, force and success on the hustings made him the successful candidate of that party, in I898, for State Senator for the district comprising Hillsdale, Branch and St. Joseph counties; and, in the ensuing sessions, he well maintained the reputation he had acquired and also the confidence his friends had shown in him, by his manly and fearless stand for whatever was best in proposed legislation, and his shrewdness in promoting its enactment. * He was chairman of the judiciary committee in the session of 1899, a position of importance always, and of unusual importance at that time, and was fully equal to its exacting requirements. He passed upon the constitutionality of many acts which became laws, and in every instance where the Supreme Court has had occasion to interpret their legality, Mr. Lyon's judgment has been sustained by that tribunal. Mr. Lyon has one of the best law libraries in this part of the state, and in his practice at all times he gives abundant evidence that he makes good and diligent use of it. His ability as a lawyer is generally recog nized throughout the state, and, in I902, he was tendered the appointment of the U. S. district judgeship of Alaska, but found it necessary to decline the honor. Mr. Lyon is a highly esteemed member of the State Bar Association and of the Masonic order, in the symbolic, capitular, cryptic and templar branches, belonging to Hillsdale Lodge, Hillsdale Chapter and Eureka Commandery. In addition to his legal business he is interested in various enterprises. He is a stockholder in the Omega Portland Cement Co. at Jonesville, the Bowden & Blanchard Shoe Co., the Worthington & Alger Fur Coat and Robe Co., the Hillsdale Screen Co., the Hillsdale Creamery Co., the Alamo Gas Engine Co., all of Hillsdale; the Abelina Mineral Water Co., of Abilene, Kansas, and the Buena Vista Sugar and Rubber Co., of Buena Vista, Mexico, serving also as attorney for the above companies. He has been married twice, first to Miss Mary L. Deriorest, of Girard, who died on December 6, I88I, after three years of happy wedded life; second to Miss Emma Fink, of Ionia, Michigan, with whom he was united on August 5, I885. They have one child, their daughter, Vivian E. Lyon, who adds life and sunshine to their pleasant home and aids in dispensing the gracious and refined hospitality of which it is a noted center. ERWIN S. MARSH. Erwin S. Marsh came to this county in I858 with his parents, and has since that time been actively identified with its progress and development, giving his energies in support of every good enterprise for the advancement of this section of the state and for the benefit of its people. He is a native of Berkshire county, Mass., born on May 14, I851, the son of Charles S. and Emeline (Wilbur) Marsh, the former born and reared in Massachusetts and the latter in New York. The father was a carpenter and worked at his trade throughout his life, which ended in Hillsdale county in I895, in the village of Cambria, the only interruption to his industry as a mechanic, being his loyal service for nearly three: t: IA;.

Page  168 i68 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. years in the Union army during the Civil War. When, in 1858, he reached Hillsdale county witl his family, he located in Woodbridge township and there he lived for a number of years, removing at length to Cambria, where he passed the rest of his days. He was one of the leading citizens of the locality of his residence and served the township as its treasurer and the county as a deputy sheriff. In I863 he enlisted in the Union army as a member of Co. K, Twentyseventh Michigan Infantry, and from that date to the end of the war was in active service in the field, participating in the battles of the Wilderness, Cold Harbor, and many other important as well as numerous minor engagements. His widow survived him four years, dying in December, I899. Her father, Joseph Wilbur, was a soldier in the Revolutionary War and his daughter, Mrs. Ann E. Prentice, of Pittsfield, Massachusetts, is the youngest living daughter of a Revolutionary soldier in that state and perhaps in the United States. The grandfather was Amasa Marsh, a native son of Connecticut, who moved to Massachusetts in early life, and there resided until his death in I880. Erwin S. Marsh is one of the two children of his parents, the other being Mrs. Elizabeth Thatcher, wife of W. Thatcher, who died in February, I9OI, leaving four children, having been married twice. Erwin S. Marsh was reared in this county from his boyhood and was educated in the public schools and by private study. When he reached a suitable age he taught school, continuing at this occupation for a number of years, at the same time learning the carpenter trade between the sessions of school. In 188I he moved to Cambria and purchased the furniture and undertaking business, which he is still conducting at that place, and now having a branch establish-ment at Frontier. In Io90 he went to Lansing, in this state, and took a course of special training in embalming and undertaking work, and, thus from the beginning of his connection with the business, he has omitted no effort necessary to the complete mastery of its details in every particular. In addition to this business he personally conducts the operation of his fertile and well improved farm, carrying it on with the same careful attention that he gives to his mercantile interests. In politics he is an active Republican and has rendered good service to his party in its various campaigns, also to the people in three successive terms as township supervisor, beginning in I895, giving, besides, six years of faithful work in the office of township clerk. He was married in December, 1876, at Galva, Illinois, to Miss Kate Sanderson, a native of Massachusetts and a daughter of Edwin and Hannah Sanderson, who are now living in Vermont. They have eight children: Lillian, wife of R. Bradshaw, of this township; Charles E., at Stevenson, Mich., in the employ of the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad; Fay, married Lottie Foote, on January 22, I903, and resides on a farm near Cambria; Lottie S., the wife of W. K. Smith, living on a farm west of the village of Cambria; M. Burr, Beulah, Lulu and Wilbur, all at home. Mr. Marsh belongs to the Masonic order, holding membership in the lodge at Cambria. He is one of the leading business men and citizens of the township and is highly respected. DUNCAN McKELLAR, M. D. Duncan McKellar,' M. D., who has been actively engaged in the practice of his profession for nearly thirty years in this county, is one of the most widely known of its professional men and a Canadian by nativity, having received his birth at London, in the province of Ontario, on July 2, 1852. His parents, Dougal and Mary (McCormick) McKellar, were natives of Scotland. The father came with his parents to Canada when he was a child and was educated in that country. He engaged in merchandising at London and died there, when his son, Duncan, was very young. The mother, who was reared at Ypsilanti and Detroit, in this state, also died in Canada. They were the parents of four children, one son and three daughters. Doctor McKellar was educated in the schools of his native land, where he remained until I868, when he came to the United States and was employed for some years in building bridges in

Page  169 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I6g Iowa and Minnesota. He began the study of medicine, in 1872, in Canada, and, in 1873, entered the medical department of the State University at Ann Arbor, this state, where he was graduated on March 26, 1876. He came at once to Osseo, in this county, and at that place started a medical and surgical practice, which he has continued and which has grown great and risen to high character in the body of its patrons and the measure of success which has attended it. He is one of the oldest physicians in the county, by continuous service to the public, and is easily in the front rank of his profession in this part of the state. In I9OI he was married to Miss Emma Miner McBrant, a daughter of Nathaniel Brant, one of the early settlers of Pittsford township. In politics the Doctor has been a lifelong Republican and has been devoted to the interests of his party, giving its principles and its candidates loyal and active support, but not seeking its honors or emoluments for himself. His life has been unobtrusive and serviceable to a high degree, and has blessed the people of this township with innumerable benefactions, many of them unnoted, because so freely and so cheerfully bestowed. At the same time he has steadily grown in the regard and esteem of the people, being now so essentially a part of the public life and activity of the township that it would be difficult to think of any phase of its progress and development without "the Doctor" as a part of the impelling force. By faithful performance of every daily duty he has made himself useful, both in the matter of his own work and in the stimulus he has given to others by the force of his example; and he has aided by encouragement, by wise counsel and by substantial assistance, every good enterprise for the benefit of the community or the advancement or comfort of its people. HON. JASON B. NORRIS. Hon. Jason B. Norris, one of the few remaining pioneers of Woodbridge township, was born in Ontario county, New York, on November 3, 1823. His parents were John B. and Bet sey (Gage) Norris, and the record of their useful lives is written in the sketch of Joel B. Norris on another page of this volume. Their son, Jason, grew to manhood in his native state and was well educated for the times in its public schools. In I845 he came to Hillsdale county, settled on the northwest quarter of section eleven, in Woodbridge township, and began to clear the land for a home for himself and his family. The land was heavily wooded and the preparation of it for cultivation was a work of great difficulty and required hard and persistent labor. He erected a log shanty and this was his home for many years. It is still standing, showing by its contrast with the fine farmhouse, in which he now resides, the difference in the conditions of life which surrounded the pioneers, and those of the present day, of high development and great productive enterprise of every kind. He has made his farm one of the best in the township and his residence is surpassed by few in the county in convenience of arrangement, completeness of equipment and tasteful adornment. He married on December 3, I856, Miss Elizabeth M. Kinney, a native of the same county as himself, a daughter of Elias and Margaret (Anderson) Kinney, who settled in Lenawee county, this state, in July, 1835, and there cleared a farm and made it productive. They died in the town of Seneca in that county, where they had retired to spend in tranquillity the evening of their days. Mr. and Mrs. Norris have one child, their daughter, Mary E., wife of Andrew J. McDermid, of Chicago. In political allegiance Mr. Norris is a Republican and gives the principles and candidates of his party loyal support at all times. He has served three terms as township supervisor, six terms as tax collector, and, in I871, was elected as a member of the lower house of the State Legislature. He has also acceptably filled other township offices. In every part of his official life he rendered good service and left his office without reproach, crowned with the approval and commendations of his fellow citizens. He and his wife are members of the Presbyterian church at Hillsdale and take a leading part in all of its good works. Mr. Norris is one

Page  170 170 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. o. the substantial and well-esteemed citizens of the county, whose life among this people has been full of benefit to the community, and he has given an example of thrift, industry, uprightness and zeal in behalf of the common welfare that is worthy of emulation, having been a stimulus to generous endeavor wherever its influence has been felt and appreciated. WALTER HULME SAWYER, M. D. "A man so various that he seems to be, not one but all mankind's epitome," Dr. Walter Hulme Sawyer is one of the forceful and progressive men to whom Hillsdale is indebted for usefulness in as many capacities as any other man residing in the city or county. In professional life, in business enterprise, in political activities, in social circles, in every line of serviceable and productive citizenship, his influence has been potential for good, fruitful for healthful and substantial progress in this community and his example has been a great stimulus in quickening the energies of others to usefulness in many channels. He is a native of Lyme, Huron county, Ohio, born on August Io, I86I, the son of George and Julia A. (Wood) Sawyer, of the same nativity as himself. His grandparents came from England and were early settlers in Ohio, locating in that state as pioneers when it was yet a portion of the untamed wilderness of the Northwest Territory and helping in the great work of reducing it to subjection and.bringing its virgin soil to fertility and systematic productiveness for the service of civilized man. The parents of the Doctor were prosperous farmers in their native state until about I874, when they removed to Grass Lake, in Jackson county of this state, where they resided as farmers until the death of the father in I897 at that place, where the mother is still living. At the time of the removal of the family to Michigan the Doctor was twelve years old. He was reared to manhood on the home farm in the new location and educated at the public schools, being graduated from the Grass Lake high school * in I88I, He then took a course of general in struction at the Ann Arbor University, and, at its close, entered the medical department of that institution from which he was duly graduated in 1884. For a year thereafter he was the housesurgeon at the university hospital, and on July ii, 1885, he located at Hillsdale, where he has since been actively engaged in a general practice of growing magnitude and importance, for years being acknowledged as one of the most successful, popular and esteemed physicians ard surgeons of the county. He is a close student of the literature of the profession, a discriminating observer of the manifestations of disease and disablement in his practice; and, to the councils of the profession he has brought ability, learning and zeal for the general weal of his professional brethren and himself, and, also, through these channels, for the common good of mankind, the results and suggestions of his reading and his observation, being an active and valued member of the State Medical Society, the Tri-State Medical Society and the American Medical Association, being also a corresponding member of the Detroit Academy of Medicine and a member of the state board of medical registration. His professional duties have his careful, assiduous and conscientious attention, but his mind is broad in its sweep and his energy tireless in diligence, so that he is able to give the business interests in the community the benefit of his quickness of perception, clearness of vision, enterprise in action and other excellent business capabilities. He was one of the organizers of the Alamo Manufacturing Co. for the construction of engines to be run by gas and gasoline, is a director and the vice-president of the. Hillsdale Screen Manufacturing Co., a director of the American Screen Door Co., at Adrian, of the McGregorBanwell Wire Fence Co., at Walkerville, Canada, of the Omega Portland Cement Co., at Mosherville, in this county, and of the American Lumber Co., at East Orange, New Jersey, of which he is also a member of the executive committee. He is a trustee of Hillsdale College and of the Oak Grove Hospital at Flint, in this state, and, for a number of years, he has been one of the most active members of the school board in Hills

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Page  171 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I7I dale county. In politics he is a zealous and loyal Republican and occupies a leading place in the councils of the party. During the last six years he has been one of the most diligent and serviceable members of the state central committee in the party organization, and to the principles and candidates of the party he has given ardent, intelligent and most helpful support. Every line of activity that has enlisted his interest has had his energetic and earnest attention, every enterprise for the advancement of the community or the promotion of its interests in any proper way has felt the impulse of his quickening and energizing spirit. Fraternal societies as follows claim him as a highly valued member. In Freemasonry he holds membership in lodge, chapter and commandery at Hillsdale, and, in the Scottish Rite he has attained to the Thirty-second degree. He belongs to the Knights of Pythias at Hillsdale and in the select circle of the Detroit Club he is hailed as a "friend and companion." He married, on June 14, I888, with Miss Harriet B. Mitchell, a native of Hillsdale, a daughter of Hon. Charles T. and Harriet S. (Wing) Mitchell, extended mention of whom will be found elsewhere in this work. The domestic shrine he thus reared has been blessed by the birth of one child, Thomas Mitchell Sawyer, now fourteen years old (I903) and a student at the Hillsdale high school. ROBERT L. NICHOLS. Robert L. Nichols is one of the prominent, progressive and successful farmers and stockgrowers of Jefferson township, who, for more than a generation of human life, on his fine and well-improved farm in the township, has exemplified all graces of the social country gentleman, with all of the thrift, industry and enterprise of the wide-awake and down-to-date farmer. He was born on the homestead in Jefferson township on December I6, I846, the son of Robert J. and Mary J. (Zimmerman) Nichols, the former a native of New York and the latter of Kentucky. His father was born at the close of the War of I812, on July II, 1815, and lived at the age of fourteen on his father's farm in Orange county, New York. He was then "bound out" to learn the trade of carriage-trimming, making such progress in the art, that about three months before he attained his majority, his employer released him and he made his way to Georgetown, Kentucky, where he lived for eight,years and worked at his trade, during this time meeting with and marrying Miss Mary J. Zimmerman, the wedding taking place on November 8, I836. In 1842 he left Kentucky and traveled on horseback to southern Michigan and there purchased a portion of the land, in what is now Jefferson township, on which his son, Robert L. Nichols, now lives. He returned to Kentucky, the next year bringing his wife and two children, one of them only a month old, to 'his new home, being accompanied in the removal by his wife's parents and their youngest child. After forty years of happy wedded life, his wife died on the farm on March 29, 1876, and, nine years later, on December I8, I885, he, too, departed this life, passing away at his home in Ransom township, whither he had moved some years previous, after having been engaged in mercantile business for a few years at his former home and at Adrian, in Lenawee county. He was prominent in the local affairs of the county, serving as a justice of the peace for twelve years, as a township treasurer for two years and as a road commissioner for a number of terms. After the death of his first wife he was twice married, and all of the wives preceded him to the grave. His son, Robert L. Nichols, received a practical education, pursuing his first studies in a shop on his father's farm at which nine pupils attended, they being all the children of school age in the district. He was obliged to take his place in the working force on the farm at an early age, having an opportunity to go to school only in the winter months.after he was twelve years old. At nineteen he purchased the rest of his time of his father for the sum of $200 and rented land of him, which enabled the enterprising young farmer to pay off his debt and clear $250. At the age of twenty-four he bought seventy acres of land of his father, and, on De

Page  172 I72 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. cember 29 of the same year, I870, he married with Miss Lois A. Cheney, who was born in Monroe county, New York, on September 9, I850, the daughter of Paschal and Clarena (Hibner) Cheney, of that state. They became the parents of six children, Maie C., wife of Leon Crandall; Allen R.; Gertie, wife of Fred Densmore; Ruie Lea, died June 10, I896; Leo La. verne; Floy A. To his original tract of seventy acres of land, which he purchased of his father, and to which he added forty acres by a subsequent purchase, he has added within the last few years eighty acres more. The whole tract has been brought to a high state of development and cultivation, and forms one of the most desirable homes in the township. In politics Mr. Nichols is a straight Republican and has shown his interest in the enduring welfare and progress of his township by serving it for eight years as a justice of the peace. He is a thorough business man, taking proper pride in his home and his family, and, in all respects, he is recognized as one of the leading and most representative citizens of the county. Paschal Cheney, father of Mrs. Nichols, came from his native state of New York to this county in I859, with his young wife and three small children, and, in common with his neighbors, patiently endured the hardships, privations and dangers of frontier life. He was, however, inured to endurance and toil, having begun the battle of life for himself at the age of eighteen, and depended on his own exertions throughout the long struggle. His industry and perseverance were amply rewarded by the early possession of a good home and the unquestioning confidence and unstinted regard of his fellow men in all parts of the county. ALFRED L. NORTON. Born on July 13, I86I, in the opening year of our great Civil War, and only about a week 'before the first and disastrous battle of Bull Run, which opened the eyes of the Federal government to the magnitude of the struggle which was at hand, Alfred L. Norton, of Allen town ship, in this county, had his childhood darkened by the awful shadow of the contest which exacted of his father's family two promising sons, W. C. and George W. Norton, as its tribute to the cause of the Union, both dying from disabilities incurred in the service as members of the Fourth Michigan Infantry. He is a native of the township in which he lives and has passed almost the whole of his life within its borders. His parents were Erastus P. and Hannah (Crow) Norton, natives of Columbia county, New York. The father was a farmer who varied his rural activities by successful teaching, and came to Michigan in 1854, settling in Allen township, where he bought I90 acres of partially improved land, which he developed and cultivated until his death in I89I. His wife died in 1862, when Alfred was but one year old, but the lad was carefully reared by his father and stepmother and received a liberal education, beginning in the district schools near his home and ending at Hillsdale College with a graduation from the commercial department of this institution, and he thereafter spent several years as a clerk and salesman in a store at Allen, after which he was engaged for a time in teaching in the county. He began farming in I888 and since that time he has devoted his whole time to the vocation of the patriarchs, bringing to bear on its operations all the information he could gather from careful and reflective reading and close and discriminating observation. In the management of his farming industry he has been eminently successful, having shown in the results of his industry and energy in this line of activity the benefits of his large acquaintance with men and affairs, which he secured in his previous work as a teacher and in mercantile life and his two years' service as agent for the most improved agricultural machinery. His farm is one of the choice rural homes of the township, a model of foresight, thrift and skillful cultivation, and an enduring testimonial to his taste and good judgment in the character and arrangements of its buildings and other improvements. Mr. Norton married in April, 1887, Miss Mary Hildebrandt, a native of Germany, who

Page  173 IIILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. t73 came from that country with her parents to this county when she was six years old. Her parents were Carl and Wilhelmina Hildebrandt, long prosperous and enterprising farmers of Hillsdale county, where they put in practice the habits of industry, persistency, frugality and fidelity to duty they had learned in their native land and to which they were impelled by the examples of long lines of worthy German ancestors. Mr. and Mrs. Norton have two daughters, Mabel M. and Beatrice J. The head of the family has been a Republican all of his mature life and has given to the principles and candidates of his party a zealous and loyal support. He has served the township as school inspector for several terms, has been township treasurer two terms and supervisor for six years, being first elected to this office in I892. He is a charter member of the local tent of the Knights of the Maccabees, and is everywhere esteemed among the people who have knowledge of him. ERASTUS P. NORTON, the father of Alfred L. Norton, now of Allen township, was born in Washington county, New York, on May 2, 1821, and was there reared and educated. He was twice married, his first wife, as indicated in the review of his son, Alfred, being Miss Hannah Crow before her marriage, and a New Yorker by nativity. She died in I862 and several years afterward he married Mrs. Jane R. Remington, of Cayuga county, in the same state, as his second wife. In 1854 he became a resident of Michigan and remained within its borders during the rest of his life, dying in I89I. He was a farmer by occupation and settled on a tract of I90 acres of land, which he purchased in Allen township, and, which by his industry, was developed into an excellent and highly productive farm. His family consisted of six sons and three daughters, two of the sons, W. C. and George W., were soldiers in the Union army, members of the Fourth Michigan Infantry, dying in the service; and, while feeling keenly his deep bereavement in this double loss, he had ever throughout his subsequent life a solemn pride in the recollection of having laid so costly a sacrifice on the altar of his country. The other children were Charles E., a farmer of Litchfield township; Samuel W., a lawyer of Chicago, Illinois; Erastus P., Jr., who died when three years old; Alfred L.; Lucy J., now a resident of Litchfield; Maggie, now the wife of Dr. G. W. Hill, of Reading. Mr. Norton was a man of active public spirit and progressive ideas, who gave the township good service as a member of the board of supervisors, as a township clerk and in various other local offices. He was a devout and serviceable working member of the Baptist church, taking great interest in every good enterprise for the advancement of the community or the elevation of its people. He lived a useful and productive life and died holding a high and secure place in the regard and good will of all classes of the citizens of his portion of the state. HARRY C. MILLER, M. D. Although one of the younger physicians and surgeons of the county, and having but recently entered upon the practice of his profession, Harry C. Miller, M. D., is already well established in the confidence and esteem of the people, both in professional circles and generally, and he is making steady progress in building up a busi-.ness that is growing in volume and becoming more and more representative of the best elements of the community in character. He is a native of Nova Scotia, born at Halifax on December 26, I874. His parents, Willard and Rhena (Hays) Miller, were also Nova Scotians by nativity. They are now living at Waverly, in Nova Scotia, where the father is engaged in the manufacture of powder. Doctor Miller lived in his native land and there attended school until he was thirteen years old, then went to Boston, Massachusetts, where he remained until he was eighteen, thence coming to Hillsdale College for a two years' course. At its conclusion he entered Detroit Medical College for his professional training and was graduated from that institution in I9oo. He at once began practicing at Findlay, Ohio, but remained there only a few months, before the end of the year coming to Cambria, where he has since re

Page  174 I74 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. sided, actively engaged in a medical practice of a general character. He is the township health officer, being vigilant and firm in the discharge of his duties in this capacity, while to every professional call he gives a very careful and a conscientious attention. As a member of the TriState Protective Association, he is serviceable to the organization, and has aided materially in spreading its influence and enlarging its usefulness. He also belongs to the Masonic order and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, holding membership in lodges of these orders at Cambria and Reading. On June 7, I900, the Doctor was united in marriage with Miss Ellen C. Gardner, a daughter of Prof. George B. Gardner and a native of Hillsdale. In professional circles the Doctor is well esteemed by his brethren and in social circles by the community in general. In -all the relations of life he has so far maintained a high standard of manhood, and, with a commendable industry and public spirit, he is working his way steadily to the front rank in all lines of active usefulness. NELSON P. NYE. Nelson P. Nye is one of the pioneers of Hillsdale county who has long been an active factor in making Pittsford township one of the finest agricultural regions of southern Michigan. He neither found nor inherited, but literally hewed out his opportunities here, and, with innate pluck and energy, he has used them to the best advantage, raising himself from obscurity to consequence among his people, and creating his estate, from a worldly wealth consisting of the clothes on his back and six dollars in money, to one of competence and established comfort. He was born at Plainfield, Otsego county, New York, on February 28, 1817, the son of Joseph and Sally (Clark) Nye, the former a native of Connecticut and the latter of New York, where she died in April, 1858. They were the parents of ten children, nine of whom attained maturity, Nelson P. being the seventh in the order of birth. He remained at home with his parents until he was twenty years of age, receiving a good com mon-school education and acquiring habits of industry and frugality and skill in agriculture in the labors of the farm. He began life for himself as a hand on neighboring farms, and, after eleven years of such experience, in 1838 he came to Michigan, making the trip by way of the Erie canal to Buffalo, thence across the lake to Toledo, from there to Adrian by rail. From Adrian he proceeded on foot to Bean Creek Valley, where his elder brother, Austin, lived, arriving at his destination with the six dollars in his pocket, which was the sum of his earthly capital, except the courageous heart, vigorous body, determined energy and resourceful nature with which he was endowed. But five years had then elapsed since the first settlers had located on the virgin soil of this now prolific region, and all the conditions of the wildest frontier life were still upon it, rendered more striking by contrast with the little openings that civilization had made in the primeval forest. He worked for his brother for a year, then, for five laborious years, he was busily engaged in chopping timber to get it ready for logging and in clearing his land for cultivation. After three years of this productive industry he bought a tract of sixty acres of land at $6 an acre, paying $I50 in cash and giving his obligations for the balance at 7 per cent interest. On August I9, 1843, he married with Miss Mary As Hale, a native of Essex county, England, whose parents, John and Rachel (Buck) Hale, came to America from that country in 1830 and settled at Palmyra, New York, where the mother died soon after their arrival. In 1841 the father came to Michigan, bought timber land in Pittsford township, this county, there built a log house and cleared a farm from the wilderness. Here he lived until a short time before his death. He spent his last years at the home of Mr. Nye, of this review, passing away in 1884, aged eightyfour years. After his marriage N. P. Nye located on his own land and began housekeeping in the log house he had previously built. He cleared his tract, bought another, and kept continuing and repeating this process until he owned 200 acres, which, by continued and skillful effort, he has

Page  175 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 175 made one of the best and most productive farms in this part of the country. Here, during the three-score years which have passed since he took up his residence on this land, he'has been actively and profitably engaged in farming and raising stock, improving his own condition by steady progress, contributing substantially to the growth and development of the township at the same time. His influence for good to the community has been felt in local public affairs no less than in the domain of agricultural and industrial progress. For twelve years he served the township capably and faithfully as clerk, for an equal period as justice of the peace, has also been supervisor and school inspector, to these positions and their important duties giving the same conscientious and careful attention that he did to other more pretentious official requirements and his own business. In I884 he was the census enumerator for the township, while in many other ways he has been of highly valued service to the people. He was the father of ten children, all of whom reached years of maturity and became well settled in life. Two have recently died, Isabelle M., wife of Frank Gilbert, of Cleveland, Ohio, and John H., of Cincinnati. The living ones are: Permilla, wife of Samuel Dickerson, of Chicago, Illinois; Louisa R., widow of Finley Beazell, of Cincinnati, Ohio; Alfred F., of Pittsford; Theresa A., also of Chicago; David C., of Pittsford; Nelson P., Jr., of Cleveland; Nettie W., wife of Augustus C. Childs, of Redlands, Calif.; Eugene F., living at the parental home. Mr. Nye has been a Republican in politics since the organization of that party, being previously a Whig, while Mrs. Nye is a devoted member of the Congregational church at Hudson. RODERICK D. LANE. This gentleman who is one of the substantial and progressive farmers of Cambria township, is a native of Geauga county, Ohio, born at Kirkland Flats on November 29, 1834. His parents were Lyman L. and Nancy (Cost) Lane, the former a native of Connecticut and the latter of Virginia. The father was a farmer and moved to Ohio, about I832, where he remained until 1837, then came to Lenawee county in this state, locating in the town of Fairfield where he resided until his death in I882, his wife having passed away in I878. Their family consisted of two sons and five daughters. Of these Roderick and two of his sisters are all that remain. The father was a man of local prominence, called on from time to time to fill local offices of importance. The grandfather, Jason Lane, was also a native of Connecticut and a farmer. He moved to New York, from there to Ohio, and, in I836, came to Lenawee county, Michigan, where he. was engaged in farming until his death. Roderick Lane was reared on his father's farm in Lenawee county which he assisted in clearing up and making fertile, and was educated at the district schools in the neighborhood. He remained at home until August 6, 1862, when he enlisted in Co. I, Eighteenth Michigan Infantry, in defense of the Union in the Civil War, and for three years was in active service with the Army of the Cumberland. He participated in all the important engagements of that division of the Union forces, was wounded twice in battle, and was mustered out at Nashville, Tenn., in 1865 with the rank of sergeant which he had earned by meritorious service. He then returned to this state and again engaged in farming in Lenawee county, remaining there until 1879 when he came to Hillsdale county and purchased the farm on which he now resides, which consists of eighty acres of well improved and highly cultivated land and is one of the pleasant and valuable homes of the township in which it is located. He was married in this county on December 30, 1867, to Miss Helen Hancock, a sister of J. A. Hancock of Cambria township, and they have two children, their son Arthur L. of this township and their daughter Lunette, widow of L. E. Saunders, who died in October, I902. Mr. Lane is a Republican in politics, constant and steady in his loyalty to the party, and has filled a number of offices in the township. He belongs to the Grand Army of the Republic in fraternal circles, and is one of the most respected and appreciated men of the township, being upright in conduct,

Page  176 176 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. elevated in character, enterprising in business and entertaining in social life. His circle of friends is large and their regard for him is cordial. OWEN O'HANLON. On the farm on which he now lives in Allen township, the life of Owen O'Hanlon began on December 17, 1852, and, on that farm, the whole of it so far has been passed. His parents were Thomas and Jane (Shannon) O'Hanlon, natives of New York state, of Irish ancestry. The father was born in Elmira and the mother at Baldwinsville. He came to this county to live in 1841, and purchased eighty acres of land in section 36, in Allen township, and afterward purchased forty acres more. In course of time, he bought another farm in the county. On February 4, I847, his first marriage occurred and secured for him a faithful and energetic helpmeet. Their land was all wild land which had.never felt the hand of cultivation, presenting all the exacting conditions of the unbroken frontier and requiring all the strenuous efforts involved in those conditions for its subjugation and proper tillage. They gradually cleared it up, and, before death ended their useful work, they had made it over into productive and attractive farms, fruitful with all the products of advanced husbandry and fragrant with the flowers of cultivated life. The mother died in I863 and the father in 1897, at the age of seventy-nine. On April 4, 1867, he married a second time, being united in this wedding with Miss Eliza A. Crocker, who died in I879. There were four children in the family, three of whom reached years of maturity, the sbn, Owen, and two daughters, all of whom are living, residents of this county. The father was a man of local prominence, much esteemed for his uprightness of life and his wisdom in reference to public affairs. He acceptably served seven years as township supervisor and was a valued member of the Reading Lodge of Masons. The grandfather was Owen O'Hanlon, a native of Ireland, belonging to a family long resident in the Emerald Isle and connected in a leading way with its turbulence in times of war and its progress and so cial elevation in times of peace. He was a cooper by trade, and also a farmer, and held a high place in the regard of his American countrymen for his mechanical skill, his excellent character and his abundance of knowledge in variots lines of thought and industry. He died in I860 at Horseheads, New York, where much of his mature life was passed. Five sons survived him, two of whom are still living, one in this county and one in New York. His grandson, Owen O'Hanlon, the subject of this review, grew to man's estate on the paternal homestead and was educated in the district schools of the neighborhood. As soon as he left school he took a vigorous hold on the farming enterprise and has been connected with it ever since. The improvements begun by his parents have been continued and enlarged.in scope by himself, the farm being the product of their joint efforts and creditable alike to the genius and the skill of both. Mr. O'Hanlon married in I880 Miss Eugene Orr, a daughter of Joseph and Elizabeth (Frick) Orr, early emigrants from, first Vermont, and, second, Indiana, to this county. Her father died in Reading township in 1887, where her mother is still living. Mr. and Mrs. O'Hanlon have one child, their son, Hugh, who is attending school at Hillsdale. In politics, Mr. O'Hanlon, like his father and his grandfather, has been a lifelong Democrat, and, like them, he has taken an active interest in public affairs. He served as supervisor of the township in 1893, and, in 1902, was the candidate of his party for clerk of the county, but was unable, notwithstanding his personal popularity, to overcome the large adverse majority of the county. He is well-esteemed as a wise and safe counselor and a citizen of public spirit and progressive ideas. He was elected supervisor in the spring of 1903, and is now serving in that responsible office. HON. J. M. OSBORN. Nearly ten years have passed since, on December 9, 1893, death ended the useful labors of Hon. John M. Osborn, of Pittsford township of this county, and, in that time, his reputation for

Page  177 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I77 integrity and force of character, fine business capacity, uprightness of life and for all the graces of an elevated manhood has grown and strengthened. He was born at Perrinton, Monroe county, New York, on March 9, I819, the son of John and Mercy Ann (Swift-Eaton) Osborn, the scion of an excellent old English family, members of which settled in this country in Colonial days. His paternal great-grandfather remained loyal to the crown during our Revolutionary struggle and at its close returned to England. At his death, tradition reports, his estate was confiscated, because the heirs were all citizens of the new republic on this side of the Atlantic. His son was a native of New England, where he married, and where his son, John, father of John M. Osborn, was born and reared. After leaving school he learned the trade of cabinetmaking and subsequently that of carpenter and joiner. When the War of 1812 began, he promptly joined the army in his country's defense, and was in the force that crossed the Niagara River at the storming of Queenstown Heights, and, after a severe engagement, at great odds against them, for want of support and by reason of the British receiving reinforcements, they were ordered to lay down their arms, which they did by throwing them as far as they could into the river. Mr. Osborn was soon after paroled, but, to the end of the war, he quietly did service to his country in aiding the transportation of supplies to the troops on duty. After the war was over he settled at Perrinton, New York, as one of the earliest pioneers of the section, resumed work at his trade of carpenter and joiner, and, at one time, took a contract for excavation work on the Erie canal, which was then in building. In I838 he visited this state and bought a tract of land in Pittsford township, Hillsdale county, and, in I840, became a resident of the county, locating at Lanesville, as Hudson was then called, and there worked at his trade, in the fall of that year bringing his family to his new home. He continued work at his trade until 1847, when his son, John M. Osborn, traded a residence which he owned in the village, for eighty acres of farming land in the township, which thereafter was a part of the family homestead, and here the parents died. They had three children, Eliza Ann, who died at the age of six years; John M., and Delora O., the recently deceased wife of William Baker. John M. Osborn attended the public schools near his home until he was about fourteen years old, then began to earn his own living by working on a farm at six dollars a month, except during the winter months, when he was able to still attend school, although irregularly. As time passed, and his usefulness increased, his wages were increased until they reached the munificent sum of thirteen dollars a month when he was sixteen. He was a great and reflective reader and utilized his spare time on the farm in improving his education, gaining a cumulative knowledge of business principles and keeping posted on current events. When he was nineteen he began teaching school at Fairport, New York., two years later becoming a resident of this state and continuing this occupation at Hudson. His first school here was opened in the back room of a grocery, but, before the term had closed, a schoolhouse was built and occupied. Mr. Osborn remained in that section of the county for several years, teaching in the winter and working on the construction of the Michigan Southern Railroad in the summer, actively assisting the civil engineer in establishing the grade, estimating the quantity and the value of the excavating work the amount and the cost of the material, and the worth of special labor. He subsequently worked as a laborer in constructing and, later, in keeping in repair, the section of the road near which he lived. At other times he was engaged in the cultivation of the soil, farming until I846. In that year he formed a partnership association with William Baker and started a merchandising business under the name of J. M. Osborn & Co., they trading goods for every kind of farm produce, and he continued in this enterprise with some change of partners until I85I. For seven years following that date he bought and shipped black walnut lumber to eastern markets. In 1858 he opened a drygoods store in partnership with S. A. Eaton, as Osborn & Eaton, and they conducted a flourishing business until I863, when

Page  178 I78 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. they closed the partnership by selling out. Mr. Oshorn afterward conducted a similar business alone for three years and during this period death robbed him of both parents and his wife. A little later, yielding to strong importunity, he formed a partnership with Moses Perkins, and, as Osborn, Perkins & Co., they organized a bank at Hudson, which was carried on under the personal supervision of Mr. Osborn until he retired from the firm. The institution is now conducted by Thompson Bros. and is in a flourishing condition. In 1883 Mr. Osborn was chosen to manage the affairs of the Hudson woodenware manufactory, and, by his judicious management, he made the enterprise a paying one, which it had never been before. In early life he was a Democrat in politics; but his opposition to slavery made him a Free-Soiler when that party was organized, and later he became a Republican. Mr. Osborn was honored with almost every office in its gift, and, in I869, and again in I871, he was elected to the Legislature. In 1875 he was chosen to represent his county in the State Senate, in that body enlarging the usefulness he had shown and the reputation that he had won as an active and far-seeing lawmaker in the lower house. He always took a sagacious interest in all national affairs, and, although never seeking a Federal office, he was appointed a U. S. inspector of wagons by President Garfield, in this position, as in all others, rendering efficient and valuable service. In business, in political affairs and in public life, Mr. Osborn always kept prominently in view the advancement and development of the community in which he lived. He was potential in inaugurating and pushing to a successful completion the construction of the Cincinnati, Jackson & Michigan Railroad, which runs through Hudson and was completed in 1887. He subscribed liberally to the stock of this enterprise and, in every way, gave it his most zealous and helpful support. In fraternal circles he was an enthusiastic Freemason, belonging to lodge, chapter and commandery, ascending thirty-two rounds of the mystic ladder of the Scottish Rite,. and ninety-six of that of the rite of Memphis. In religious affiliation he belonged to the Meth odist Episcopal church. Mr. Osborn was married three times. His first marriage was in 185I, with Miss Elizabeth Daniels, a native of Wayne county, Michigan, who was his companion for fifteen years, dying in I866. On April 5, 1870, he married with his second wife, Mrs. Harriet A. (White) Robinson, of Jacksonville, Tompkins county, New York, who was born on May 28, 1832, the daughter of Rev. William and Prudent (Wickes) White, of that state. Her father was of Quaker parentage, but became a Baptist minister, and, for many years, he was actively engaged in preaching in New York and Ohio. In 1852 he settled in Hillsdale county on a farm he purchased in Wright township, which he sold after a few years' residence on it, and bought another in Linden township, Genesee county, where he passed the remainder of his days, dying in old age. His widow survived him several years, passing away in I889, at the home of her son at Linden in that county. His third marriage occurred on October 3, I89I, with Sarah Tucker, a native of Meridian, Cayuga Co., New York, a daughter of William and Anna (O'Connor) Tucker, natives of Limerick, Ireland, where they were reared and married, soon after that event coming to America, settling at Meridian as farmers. They lived there until their deaths in the later sixties. Mrs. Sarah Osborn was reared and educated in New York and came to Michigan in 1878. JOHN H. PARISH. John H. Parish, one of the substantial and enterprising farmers of Allen township in this county, to the development and progress of which he has devoted forty-seven years of his useful life, is a native of the city of Exeter, Devonshire, England, where his parents, Henry and Mary (Undeshay) Parish were also born and where his ancestors have lived for many generations. He first saw the light of this world on August 23, I840, and had the usual experience of boys and youths of his day and locality, growing to the age of sixteen in his native county, working at anything he could find to do, attending school, and also learning the business which has largely

Page  179 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGA1.N. 179 engaged his attention and energies through life. He came to the United States in 1856, making his way at once to Hillsdale county and to the township in which he has ever since resided. His parents both died in England, four of the family of their three sons and three daughters are now living, a daughter and John H. being citizens of Hillsdale county. After his arrival in Michigan John H. Parish attended Hillsdale College, there finishing the education he had begun in his native land. But, for a time, he first worked on a farm, then, after leaving college, he taught school. In the meantime he determined to secure a permanent means of livelihood, learned his trade as a carpenter, and, for a number of years thereafter, he worked at this occupation with industry and became a successful builder, operating in this county and at Saginaw. He also conducted a sawmill and a cooper shop from 1867 to 1895. In the year last named he sold out all his other interests and has since devoted himself with diligence and ardor to the work of his farm, which he has raised to a high state of fertility and enriched with excellent improvements. Mr. Parish married in April, I864, Miss Abbie M. Southworth, a sister of Thaddeus M. Southworth, a sketch of whom appears on another page of this volume. They have had three children, of whom but one is living, Harry R. Parish, now a resident of Camden, New Jersey, a draughtsman for the New York Shipbuilding Co. Mr. Parish is a Silver Republican in political faith, but is so well-established in the confidence and regard of the people of the township, that, without reference to party politics, he has at different times been chosen to fill various local offices in the township, having served as supervisor, two terms as township clerk, two as justice of the peace and several as school director, having rendered efficient and appreciated service in each position. CHARLES P. OSIUS. The late Charles P. Osius, who died at his comfortable and well-appointed home in Fayette township, on October 12, I893, was one of the 12 substantial farmers of the county, being numbered for over thirty years among its thrifty and productive yeomanry. He was born in Erie county, Pennsylvania, on January 20, 1832, the active son of William Frederick and Mary (Buss) Osius, natives of Germany, who came to the United States in their early years of maturity, and were married on March 20, 1826, at Erie. They located in Erie county, there followed farming successfully until 1832, when they moved to Michigan and settled in Washtenaw county. Their son, Charles, was but an infant when they came to this state,.and he remained at home until he was twenty-seven years of age, being reared on the parental farm and educated in the neighborhood schools. At the age of twenty-seven he was united in marriage with Miss Elizabeth C., a daughter of Jacob and Christina (Noe) Kesselring, who were also of German birth and parentage. After their marriage, in I859, Mr. and Mrs. Osius took up their residence in Fayette township, this county, upon land which became their permanent home, which they improved and converted from a wilderness into one of the most desirable farms in the county, it comprising 320 acres. They were the parents of four children, three of whom are living: William, Mary E., the wife of G. F. Collins, of Edmore, this state; Gertrude C., the wife of Montie Morey, of Chicago, Illinois. William C. Osius was born on the home farm in Fayette township, on December I, 1864, being reared and educated in this county, attending the public schools and completing his training for the business of life by a course in the commercia1 department of Hillsdale College. On leaving school he went at once to farming and has ma le that his sole occupation since, giving it his best attention, bringing to bear on its work all the light he could get from close observation and intelligent experiment, coupled with thoughtful reading of the literature of the business, and the results have been commensurate with his efforts. His farm is one of the best in the county and his farming is of the highest standard of excellence. He was married on February 22, 1893, to Miss Lilly Schmitt, a native of Hillsdale coun

Page  180 I80 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. ty, and a daughter of Frank Schmitt, of whom specific mention is made elsewhere in this volume. In politics, Mr. Osius is a consistent Democrat, but not an active partisan, having no deside for public office of any kind. He is looked upon as one of the county's substantial and progressive farmers, who has the respect of everybody who knows him and who illustrates in his daily walk the best elements of American life. JOHN W. PEIRCE. For more than three-score years a resident of Allen township, in this county, during almost all of that time being one of its forceful and influential factors in every form of its development and progress, John W. Peirce is justly entitled to the high esteem in which he was generally held in life by the people of the county, and to the high respect and regard in which his memory rests among them. He was a native of Penfield, Monroe county, New York, born on November I4, 1815, where he passed his childhood and youth, acquiring a limited education at the district schools, also becoming familiar with the farm work of the period. When he was yet in the youthful days of life his parents removed to Chautauqua county in the same state, and he there made his home with them until 1836. He then engaged with a farmer of the neighborhood to drive a team for him to Yorkville, Illinois, in what is now Kendall county of that great state. The team consisted of two yokes of oxen, the load they drew being I,8oo pounds of butter sent for sale in that then wild western country. He was six weeks in making the trip, and on the way passed through the village of Allen in this county. In 1839 he came back this way, determined to locate in Allen township, and that part of the county was his home during the rest of his life. His father was Solon Peirce, a native of Deerfield, Oneida county, New York, and his mother, whose maiden name was Susanna Walker, was a native of New England. She died on August 28, I820, at the early age of twenty-two years, leaving two sons, of whom John W. was the first born. The father later married with Betsey Davis, and by her had one son and seven daughters. He was a professional teacher, following this business in New York and Pennsylvania, and again in New York until the spring of I836, when he came to Michigan and settled in Allen township. Here he took up a quarter of section 31, and labored at improving it, bringing it into cultivation, enjoying thereafter its rich returns until his death, on January 21, i85I. At that time he also owned eighty acres of land in Branch county. John W. Peirce, after locating in this county, worked for a number of years as a farmhand, and in 1843 purchased a part of section I6. In I859 he married with Miss Hansie L. Lake, at her home in Allen township, the marriage occurring on January I9. They began life together in a modest dwelling on his farm, where they lived until I872, when they moved to Allen and resided here until death ended his labors on March I2, 190I. They were the parents of five children: Erastus L., who is at Topeka, Kansas, where he has been in the employ of the Santa Fe Railroad for fifteen years; Solon, who died in Allen township when four years old; Arthur, who is living near the old homestead; Laura, wife of E. A. Clickner, also a resident of Allen township; Erna, who is still at the paternal home. Mrs. Peirce was born at Chester, Warren county, New York, on July 12, 1827, the daughter of Erastus and Erna Lake. She is a lady of many estimable qualities, an active and zealous member of the Methodist Episcopal church, as was her husband during his life. He was also a member of the Masonic fraternity, affiliated with Lodge No. 152 at Allen, which he joined in 1869, At his death he was possessed of considerable town property and I40 acres of farming land in the township. He was a loyal Republican, politically, but, with the exception of filling a vacancy as supervisor, he steadfastly refused to accept public office. ERASTUS LAKE, who died at his home in Allen township on January 29, 1887, was the father of Mrs. Peirce, and one of the honored pioneers of the county. He was born at Milford, Otsego county, New York, on October 28, 1I794.

Page  181 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I8i In I8oo his parents moved wi Rutland county, Vermont, and to Chester, New York,, where twenty-eight years of his life married Miss Erna Mead, o 1823, she having been born in t 30, I80o. In I830 he moved A Erie county, New York, and, ii came to Michigan, where he sp days. He was the fourth of t] born to his parents. Ten of th years of maturity and the last brother, Alonzo, who resided Ohio, and there recently died at of ninety-four years. When the gan, Mr. Lake was a youth of years of age, but, with the ma father, who was six years a C of the Revolution, he went to fence of his country, participate battle of Plattsburg, and remai until the triumph of the Amerin restoration of peace after the b leans. For his services in this abilities he incurred therein, hl sion from the U. S. governmei decade of his life. Mr. Lake nized in this county as a man c acter, and was elected supervise four times in succession. He assessor, as a justice of the pe; commissioner and in several c His first vote was cast for J< president, and, throughout his remained true to the principles His faithful and devoted wife len township home on March 5, ly half a century of happy we were the parents of four chil( who became the wife of L. D. I water, in this state, and there d 24, 1857; Hansie L., widow of already alluded to; William F., farmer of Oceana county; Ch< progressive farmer of this town useful career among this peopl and an incitement to generous th their family to 1, two years later, he resided during. There also he )n December 30, hat town on April with his family to n the fall of 1837, ent the rest of his part of others; his memory is revered as that of a progressive citizen, who gave his best years and his best efforts to building up and elevating the county and state in which he lived and to the improvement of its people in every moral and material interest. DORR PHILLIPS. he eleven children This pioneer business man of Osseo, who is e number reached now actively engaged in the drug trade, as he survivor was his has been for more than thirty-seven years, exat Garrettsville, cepting three years when he was in the grocery t the venerable age business, is a native of Webster, Monroe county, e War of 1812 be- New York, where he was born on October 9, less than nineteen I839. His parents were John and Permilla irtial spirit of his (Wood) Phillips, also natives of New York. continental soldier The father was engaged in merchandising at the front in de- Webster until I860 when he retired from busied in the glorious ness. In 1835 he came to this state after the ned in the service death of his first wife, and after becoming a can cause and the resident of Michigan, he contracted a second )attle of New Or- marriage, being united this time with Mrs. E. war, and the dis- M. Clark, of Adams township. He died at Hude received a pen- son, Michigan, in August, I89o, aged eightynt during the last eight, and she passed away on January 20, 190I. was early recog- He was the father of nine children, four sons and )f force and char- five daughters. Two of the sons saw active and >r of his township exacting service in the Army of the Potomac also served as an in the Civil War, but escaped without serious ace, as a highway harm.or capture. )ther local offices. Dorr Phillips grew to manhood in his native ames Monroe for state and was educated in its public schools. long life, he ever Thereafter he followed teaching for several years he then espoused. until the Civil War broke out, when, on August died at their Al- 15, I86I, he enlisted in Co. C,. Fourth New York, 870, after near- Heavy Artillery, and his battery was attached added life. They to the Second Army corps and became a part dren: Laura A., of the Army of the Potomac. From that time Flalstead, of Cold- to the end of the war this battery was in the lied on September most active service and participated in all the John W. Pierce, battles fought by that great organization. After now a prosperous General Grant took command of this army Mr. arles W., now a Philips's regiment was made a part of the infantship. Mr. Lake's ry forces, but its duties in the field were by no e was a stimulus means lessened. It was duly mustered out of the endeavor on the service near Alexandria, Virginia, and he then It

Page  182 182 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. held the position of hospital steward. He returned to his New York home, but, in the fall of the same year, 1865, came to Michigan and settled at Osseo. Here he started the mercantile enterprise in which he is still engaged, having been continuously occupied in its operations from that time except three years, during which time he was engaged in buying and selling stock at Hillsdale. On June ii, 1871, in this county, Mr. Phillips was united in marriage with Miss Mary McDonough, a native of Ireland. They have had seven children, all sons but one, and four of them are living, Stanley D., Eber B., John W. and A. Ray. Mr. Phillips is a Republican in politics, but not an active partisan or an officeseeker. But, although averse to holding official position of any kind, he has served the township as treasurer, and in this position he rendered good service. He belongs to the Masonic order, holding membership in the lodge at Osseo. He is highly respected as a business man and a representative citizen and has the good will of all classes of the people. GEORGE W. RUMSEY. During his lifetime one of the representative citizens and leading farmers of Jefferson township, Hillsdale county, George W. Rumsey was a native of Yates county, New York, where he was born on March I6, I830. His parents, Thomas and Sophia (Dancingberg) Rumsey, were married in the state of New York, where they resided for many years. The father was a native of that state, the mother, born in Germany, coming with her parents to America when she was four years of age. In 1834 the parents of Mr. Rumsey removed their residence to Lorain county, Ohio, where they remained until 1846, when the family came to Hillsdale county, Michigan, and settled on a tract of wild land in what was then Florida township. The subject of this sketch assisted in clearing the paternal homestead and in building a home for the family, assisting in their support up to the age of thirty years. During this time he availed himself of such limited opportunities for acquiring an edu cation as were at hand by attending the district schools in the vicinity of his home. In I86o, desiring to branch out for himself, he purchased about seventy-five acres of the old homestead, then owned by his brothers, and subsequently added to it about forty acres more lying in section I2, Jefferson township. This property he improved and continued to make his residence up to the time of his death, which occurred on October 30, I892. The first home on this place was a log cabin, this in time was succeeded by a framed building, in which he lived until I89o, when it was destroyed by fire. He then erected the fine dwelling of modern style and architecture in which he maintained his home until his death, and in which the family now reside. It is one of the finest places in that section. On November 2, 1855, Mr. Rumsey was joined in wedlock with Miss Laura L. Knight, a daughter of Arnold and Harrie (Harkness) Knight, who were pioneer citizens of Jefferson township. Coming hither in 1853, they 'settled half a mile north of Pittsford. They continued to reside in Jefferson township up to their deaths. One adopted son, William G. Rumsey, comprised the family of Mr. and Mrs. Rumsey. Politically, he was identified with the Republican party, an earnest advocate of the principles of that political organization, although never a seeker after office. He was a great reader, and was well known as a man of wide information, especially in that relating to public affairs. Fraternally, he was affiliated with the Masonic order, being chapter Mason, and took an active interest in social and fraternal work. He was a member of the Free Baptist church of Osseo, ever taking a leading part in building up the moral well-being of the people. In his death the county lost one of its most valued citizens. During all of the years of his useful life he was a generous supporter of schools and churches, contributing largely of both his time and means in the promotion of every movement calculated to be of benefit to the public or to uplift the cause of humanity. By all classes of his fellow citizens he was held in high esteem, honored for his many admirable traits of character.

Page  183 Z IIILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I83 CHARLES ROSE. Having made his advent into this state more than half a century ago, then becoming a permanent resident of Hillsdale county, Charles Rose is one of the oldest settlers in this section, one of the few remaining men of that fast fading band of heroes, who redeemed the county from the wilderness and made it glorious with the products of peace and civilization. He is a native of Monroe county, New York, born on February 8, I826, the son of Thomas and Sophia (Smith) Rose, the former a native of Vermont and the latter of Massachusetts. The father was both a blacksmith and a farmer and died in Monroe county, New York, on January 20, I839, having been born on January 6, I792. His wife was born on January 4, 1788, and died in August, I877. They were the parents of nine children, who attained maturity and of seven who are still living. Three of their sons and two of their daughters reside in Hillsdale county. The grandfather was Thomas Rose, a farmer and native of Vermont, where he died at an old age. Charles Rose grew to manhood in New York state, was educated in the district schools near his home, and learned the trade of making graincradles, at that time a very important industry, and worked at his craft in his native state for a period of thirteen years. In I852 he came to Michigan and purchased I6o acres of wild land in this county, which he at once set to work to clear as a farm. He erected a small framed house, and, for a number of years, this was the family home. Subsequent improvements, in the way of building, and continuous and careful cultivation, in the way of tilling, have made his farm a model, one of the attractive rural homes of the township. He was married in New York state on November 15,, 1848, to Miss Sarah J. Williams, a daughter of Solomon and Jane (Weston) Williams, the former a native of Nassau, Rensselaer county, New York, of Welch descent, and the latter, a native of Hebron, Washington county, New York, her father having been born in Edinburg, Scotland. They came to this county in 1855 and settled at Jonesville, where the father purchased a farm. Some years later they removed to Joliet, Illinois, and there they died, the father in 1881, at the age of seventy-seven, and the mother in I899, at the age of ninety-three years. Mr. and Mrs. Rose have had five children, of whom four are living: Frank, of Manton, Wexford county, this state; Herman C., living near the paternal home; Ella M., widow of Job Hagerman; Nettie, wife of Ziba Walton, of Jefferson township. Mr. Rose is a Republican in political faith, but never takes any active interert in the political campaigns. He is one of the oldest and most highly respected settlers in the township, and one of its most representative citizens, having a long lease of useful life to his credit among its people. M. D. LAFAYETTE POST. Among the well-known, old-time citizens of Hillsdale county is M. D. Lafayette Post, the subject of this sketch. A native of the village of Castile, in Wyoming county, New York, he was born on September Io, 1837, the son of Aaron and Elizabeth (Sevea) Post, the former a native of the state of Vermont, and the latter of New Hampshire. The father was a farmer by occupation and grew to man's estate in the state of his nativity. Subsequently, he removed his residence to the state of New York, where he remained up to the year I844. He then disposed of his property and with his family, started overland for the then frontier country of Iowa, where he remained but a short time, passing the winter of I844 and 1845 in Illinois. In the spring of 1845 he re*moved to the town of North Adams, in Hillsdale county, Michigan, where he purchased a tract of wild land consisting of near 240 acres, and began to clear it of its timber in order that it might be cultivated for farm purposes. Attacked by sudden illness he died in I849. The mother and her four sons continued the work of clearing, in time completed it and paid for the land, a portion of which is still owned by the immediate subject of this sketch. The mother survived until October 25, 1878, when she, too, passed away. Of the family of nine sons and two daugh-: 0:::f f: 0 0: f A 0:;fff-0F::000000:00 2:0~ 'i0s:X0

Page  184 I84 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. ters, all are now deceased but three, Eliza Ann, now Mrs. Lathrop; Aaron W., and M. D. Lafayette. The paternal grandfather, Aaron Post, was also a native of Vermont. He was a member of the famous Silver Greys, and served gallantly during the War of the American Revolution, as well as during the War of I812. The maternal grandfather, whose name was Nathaniel Sevea, was a native of New Hampshire, and he also served as a member of the American army during the wars of both the Revolution and of 1812. During a part of the War of the Revolution he was a member of the body guard of General Washington. The parents of the subject of this sketch were active members of the Christian church, and the family were instrumental in founding the first Christian church of Hillsdale county, which was erected on land belonging to their farm. This was the second building of that denomination erected in the state of Michigan. Mr. M. D. L. Post was brought up in Hillsdale county, and received his early educational training in the public schools of the vicinity of his boyhood home. He later attended the college at Hillsdale, where he pursued a thorough course of study. He was a member of the first class of the first term at that institution and was the first student to speak from the rostrum. Upon he completion of his education he returned to the family homestead and entered upon the business of farming, in which he has since been occupied. He has met with success in his business. In 1873 he was united in marriage with Miss Grace E. Short, a native of Oakland county, whose parents were well known and highly respected residents of that locality. Of this union have been born two children, Bessie, now Mrs. William Shepherd, and Julia May, deceased. Politically, Mr. Post is identified with the Democratic party and has taken an active interest in the work of that political organization, although he has never been a seeker of office, and has never permitted the use of his name for any public position. He is an active worker of the church, being for thirty-seven years the popular and efficient superintendenf of the Sunday-school. He is now both a trtsteea nd a deacon in the church and is always foremost in all matters calculated to promote the religious and social life of the community. The family of Mr. Post are widely known throughout the county for their work of benevolence and charity, being highly respected by a large circle of friends and acquaintances. MARTIN L. RAWSON. Although the state of Michigan was, within the memory of men yet living, a wild and trackless expanse of forest and plain, the advancing army of industrial conquest in this country has moved so rapidly, and commanded such prompt and ready obedience to its dominion, that many men- and women, now well up in years, have been born and wholly nurtured on the soil of this great state, and have seen its transformation from a wilderness and waste to a mighty commonwealth, fragrant and fruitful with the products of peaceful and systematic industry, blessed with every element of commercial, industrial, educational and social greatness. Among this number is Martin L. Rawson, a prominent and successful farmer of Jefferson township, this county, who is a native of Lenawee county, born on November 8, I859, the son of Henry H. and Mary J. (Cornelius) Rawson, of whom more specific mention will be found in a sketch of Mr. Rawson's brother, Alonzo, appearing on another page. Martin L. Rawson was reared and educated in Lenawee county and remained there until 1887, when he took up his residence in Hillsdale county, where he has since made his home. He has been industrious and thrifty, contributing his labor and the inspiration of a good example to the active and productive forces of the county, winning by his useful and unostentatious life the respect and confidence of the people. He married on November 8, I88I, the twenty-second anniversary of his birth, Miss Sadie Hadley, a native of Hillsdale county, and a daughter of Zela and Amy L. (Ambler) Hadley, a sketch of whom will be found elsewhere in this volume. Mr. and Mrs. Rawson have two children, Neta and Hadley H. Rawson. Mr. Rawson filled a number of local offices while living in Lenawee county and has

Page  185 HILLSDALE COVA TY, MICHIGAN. I85 had a forceful voice in local public affairs in this county, although he has never been in any sense an active partisan or an office seeker. He has, however, been deeply and intelligently interested in the progress and improvement of the community, and has given to the advancement of its best activities a close and a careful attention. He and his wife are valued members of the Free Baptist church at Osseo, always to be found in the front rank of its zealous workers in every good cause. They are well known throughout the township and enjoy in a marked degree the esteem and good will of the people. JOHN T. REED. John T. Reed, of Allen township, Hillsdale county, Michigan, is the second man in this locality to bear the honored name of John Reed and the son of John S. Reed, one of the early residents of the township, who came here with his parents during the harvest time of I829. Thomas Reed, the father, moved from Pennsylvania to Richland county, Ohio, and some years later to this coun — ty, settling at the White Marble Springs in Allen township, one and one-half miles west of the village of Allen, on the Chicago road. These springs, a dozen or more in number, remarkably clear, pure and beautiful, are features of the locality and of great value to the people, and were of considerable advantage to the early settlers also, furnishing them with an abundance of excellent water for themselves and their stock, adding thereby much to the value of the untamed land which they took up and began to prepare for cultivation and fruitfulness, at the same time giving picturesqueness and interest to the landscape. Mr. Reed purchased I60 acres of land from the government and began to improve it and make it habitable for.himself and his family. Some years later he gave eighty acres of his purchase to his son, John S. Reed, who added to this tract by a farther purchase of forty acres from the government. Thomas Reed was one of the important and influential citizens of the section. He aided very materially in organizing the county, and Allen township, and died on his farm in I850. His family consisted of two sons and three daughters, all of whom are now deceased. His elder son, John S. Reed, was a mere lad when he became a resident of the county, but, the exigencies of the time, which laid everybody under tribute for a strenuous exercise of every faculty, exacted of him a man's work on the farm, leaving him little opportunity for anything else. He aided in clearing the homestead and in carrying on its operations, ministered by his labors to the comfort of the family all the time, and often he was obliged to make the long trip to Detroit for provisions, driving an ox team for the purpose and camping out on the way, risking the danger of attack by wolves and other wild animals, and by Indians as well. One dangerous and thrilling experience was well impressed on his mind unto his dying day. He was once chased by hungry wolves to within forty yards of his house while returning home from Jonesville one night, the brutes being then driven off by his dogs. During his residence there his farm was long one of the favorite resorts of the neighborhood, being always a storehouse of bounteous hospitality. In 1873 Mr. Reed left its management to his son, John T., and moved to the village of Allen, where he died on August 31, I892. He was married in 1841 to Miss Hannah Broughton, then of Quincy, in Branch county, a native of New York state, who died in Allen in I896. They had three children, John T., now the owner and manager of the homestead; Ellen I., wife of A. B. Whitmore of Allen; Lydia A., who died at the age of eighteen years. The father was a soldier in the Black Hawk War, who, from his early youth, was earnestly interested in the development and progress of the county and his township. He gave active support to every enterprise tending to this end, being ever one of the leading citizens of this part of the county, taking up the work of public advancement in every good line of improvement where his father dropped it and pushing it forward with energy and intelligence. When he came to the county with his parents, they brought their household goods in a lumber wagon drawn by two yokes of oxen, he having two cows to drive or lead. The now much-traveled and well-kncwn

Page  186 I86 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. highway, the Chicago road, which was their course to this part of the state, was then not much more than an Indian trail, winding around old stumps, fallen trees and other obstructions, and the journey was full of difficulties and arduous toil. But therewas manly spirit and determination at the head of the enterprise, and, in time, the long desired haven was reached, but only to open before the weary emigrants and pioneers new fields of struggle, toil and danger. The story of their trials is the oft-told tale of frontier life, and that of its triumphs is graven in impressive and enduring sculpture in the present civilization and magnificent development of the country to which they came as the very advance guard of the oncoming army of mankind which has since occupied it. HON. JAMES S. GALLOWAY. One of the senior members of the Hillsdale bar, with a record of forty years active and successful practice to his credit and now standing easily at the head of his profession in this part of the state, Hon. James S. Galloway has risen to his prominence in professional circles and to his high place in the confidence and esteem of the people through continual and arduous effort, close and effective study, conscientious attention to every duty of citizenship and a natural ability and force of character uncommon among men. He is a native of Wayne county, New York, born on March 5, 1841, and was reared in his native county, where successive generations of his family have lived many years and were among the most influential and prominent of its people. His parents were Rev. Edgar and Deborah (Sutton) Galloway, the father being a well-known and highly esteemed clergyman in the Christian church, who was born, grew to manhood, was educated and died in Wayne county, New York, the mother also passing her life in that county. Mr. Galloway began his education in the public schools of Wayne county, continued it at the Marion Collegiate Institute and concluded it at Antioch College, Ohio, where he matriculated in I857 and was graduated in I860. When he came out into the world armed with his diploma as a Bachelor of Arts, he began to dispense the learning he had acquired in his scholastic training by teaching, and he followed this Vocation for two years. But he had no idea of being a schoolmaster all of his life. In 1862 he came to this state, and, locating at Hillsdale, entered the office of Stacy & Edwards as a student of the law. He pursued the study diligently and thoughtfully, and, in 1863, was admitted to the bar and at once began the practice of the profession, having formed a partnership association with William S. Edwards under the firm name of Edwards & Galloway. This partnership lasted until I866, when it was dissolved by nmltual consent, and, in 1867, Mr. Galloway associated himself in practice with Col. R. W. Ricaby in the firm of Ricaby & Galloway, which continued until July, 1871, when Mr. Ricaby moved to Chicago, and Mr. Galloway kept on practicing at Hillsdale alone, as he is now doing. For a short time, in later years, his son, Edgar O. Galloway, was associated with him, but is now engaged in business in Canada, being secretary and treasurer of the Morgan Lumber Co., at Chelmsford, Ontario. Mr. Galloway has given attention mainly to civil practice and has made a great success of it. His counsel is much sought in the most important cases and his skill in conducting them is marked and widely known. He has an exact and exhaustive legal training, both in the principles of the law and in their application by the courts; he is ready and resourceful in expedients, masterful in argument and eloquent and forceful in advocacy, preparing his cases with great care, presenting their features with clearness and cogency, sustaining his position with all the wealth of his extensive attainments and his full, strong and well-trained mind. In addition to his professional duties, which are arduous and exacting, he gives attention to other business of an engaging and profitable character, being connected with some of the leading financial institutions in this part of the state. He was for a number of years the president of the First State

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Page  187 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 187 Bank of Hillsdale, being also a director of the Second National Bank. In politics, he has always been a Democrat, affiliating with the gold wing of the party in recent campaigns. Public life and official station have ever been unwelcome to him, and the only office he has filled is that of city attorney of Hillsdale, which he accepted for the general good rather than for any personal advantage. He has, however, on occasions, taken the stump in behalf of the principles and candidates of his party, but cannot be called an active partisan in any leading way, for his business has absorbed his attention and furnished ample work for his time and faculties. In 1865 he was married to Miss Lizzie, a daughter of Henry Edwards, of Montgomery county, New York, and they are the parents of two children, their son, Edgar O., a rising business man of Canada, and their daughter, Ava, who is living at home. Mr. Galloway is an enthusiastic Freemason, holding membership in the lodge, the chapter and the commandery, and he has served most acceptably as the eminent commander of the last named body. It is much to say in favor of any man that in all the relations of life among his fellows he has risen to high rank and walked wisely and worthily in all, but in an eminent degree it is true of Mr. Galloway, who is one of the best known, most highly esteemed and most serviceable citizens that southern Michigan has had in the years of its existence. JOHN W. RAYMOND. The early tides of emigration into southern Michigan came mainly from New York state. From this hotbed of enterprise and adventurous daring, came the parents of John W. Raymond, of Jefferson township, in 1852, bringing him with them as a boy of eight years, his birth occurring in their native state on August 6, 1845, as a native of Onondaga county. His parents, John W. and Amelia (Knapp) Raymond, prosperous farmers and hardy adventurers, came to Michigan in 1852, locating in what is now Jefferson township in this county, where they began to clear up a tract of forty acres of land, which they bought in the wild woods, there to make a home for themselves and their young family. A small shanty had been built on the land prior to their taking possession, and this was their first home in the new region where they had cast their lot. Time and assiduous labor wrought a great change in their surroundings; the land was fertile and, when cleared, responsive, and it soon began to yield abundant returns for their faith and toil; a new house replaced the humble shanty; barns and other outbuildings rose around them; all the concomitants of cultivated life gradually appeared and ministered to their comfort; but it is doubtful if any subsequent condition gave them the agreeable sensations that they experienced at the dawn of their budding hopes and productive enterprise. In the due course of time they added eighty acres to their farm, and, that, too, soon began to respond generously to their persuasive industry. On this child of bope and promise they expended the energies of their lives, the father dying on the farm, at the age of ninety years, on November 2, 1893; the mother also dying on the farm on January 8, 1899, at the age of ninetythree years. The family consisted of their two sons, John W. anl George. By a former marriage the father had three children, all now deceased. An early and a leading settler in the township, it was inevitable that the father should take a deep and abiding interest in the growth and development of the section of the state in which he lived, and he was called on for his valuable advice and counsel from time to time in reference to public affairs of a local character, but he steadfastly declined to accept public office of every kind. His father, John Raymond, was also a native of New York, and lived and died a prosperous and industrious farmer in that state. John W. Raymond grew to manhood on this western farm, assisting in its arduous labors and eagerly snatching from its exactions the few and brief opportunities to attend the district schools which were afforded him. When he reached years of maturity he purchased the interest of his brother, George, in the place and since then he has been its sole owner. He erected the excellent buildings which now adorn it, which are down-to-date * * 0~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~::::S- 0;-~: 0 0C00

Page  188 I88 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. in every respect. He was married in this county on August 29, I870, to Miss Anna C. Johnson, a native of the county and a daughter of Silas and Catharine (Demont) Johnson, who were among the early settlers of the state. Two children have blessed their union, Amy, now the wife of J. L. Ash, a son of Peleg Ash, of whom a sketch will be found on another page of this volume; and Jesse, who is living at home. Mr. Raymond is a skillful and progressive farmer, a citizen of public spirit and breadth of view, always keenly alive to the best interests of the community, omitting no effort on his part to secure their promotion. He ranks among the leading men and most representative citizens of the township, being well esteemed by all classes of its people. FIRST STATE SAVINGS BANK. The frugality and thrift of the wage-earners, small property holders and better class of laborers in America, which have given our people distinction throughout the world as a nation of money makers and home dwellers, and which have been a source of great stability to our institutions at all times, and a mighty bulwark of defense in times of trouble, have been largely cultivated and increased by our system of well-managed, liberalminded, widely distributed and generally reliable savings banks. The men in every part of the country who organize and control such banks and thus give opportunity to persons of small earnings to save a portion of the fruits of their labor, and so provide for calamity when it comes, or for a better estate as time passes, are public benefactors in a broad and comprehensive sense. An institution of this character, which was long needed in Hillsdale, was provided for the use of the people in June, Ig02, 1by the establishment of the First State Savings Bank of Hillsdale, which opened its doors for business on the sixteenth day of that month, and the men who were at the head of it gave ample assurance of security for its patrons, guaranteeing prudence and good judgment in its management. It was organized with a working capital of $50,ooo, with F. A. Roethlisberger as president, Corvis M. Barre as vice president, Paul W. Chase as cashier, with a list of directors and stockholders comprising a number of the best business men in the community. In the short time of its existence the bank has won to its counters a very large body of well pleased patrons, done an enormous business, paid creditable returns on deposits and established itself firmly as one of the best financial institutions in this part of the state. Fred A. Roethlisberger, the originator and the ruling spirit of this new fiscal entity, is its president, of vhom it has been well said that "for twenty years he was successively merchant, banker and postmaster at Allen (in this county) and latterly all three at once." Mr. Roethlisberger was born in Allen township, this county, on March 24, I86o, the son of Andrew and Catherina (Boch) Roethlisberger, the former a native of Switzerland and the latter of Germany. They came to the United States in I838 and settled at Adrian in this state. Two years later they removed to Hillsdale county and took up their residence in Allen township. The father was the station agent of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad at Sylvanus for a number of years, later continuing that service at Allen for some time. After quitting the railroad service he went to farming, following that vocation until his death in I875. His widow is still living in this county. They had three sons and one daughter, the only one of the four who is a resident of Hillsdale county being their son, Fred. Here he was reared and educated, here he began life as a farmer, but he had a genius for mercantile life and for finance, and, soon after reaching man's estate, he began moving toward these lines of activity. He started as a clerk in a store and soon after opened a drugstore of his own at Allen. Two years later he expanded this into a general store which he conducted with steadily increasing patronage and profit until 1903. In connection with, merchandising he carried on an exchange, and, in I893, started a private bank, which he conducted for a number of years. He was also postmaster at Allen for fifteen years and a member of the county committee for ten. He is an active Republican, in politics, and was chosen by his

Page  189 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 1i89 party as an alternate to its last national convention and he is now a member of its congressional campaign committee. He has not, however, given himself up wholly to the affairs of the savingsbank in business, as he has valuable property and large commercial' interests at Allen and Jonesville, being also the president of the State Bank at Quincy, in this state, which he assisted in organizing and of which he is the largest stockholder. He is also a director of the Omega Portland Cement Company, of Mosherville, this county, and of the American Lumber Company of Albequerque, New Mexico, and for four years he rendered efficient service as treasurer of the Hillsdale County Agricultural Society. He was married, in I88I, in Cass county, Michigan, to Miss Nellie Hoyt, a native of the state. They have two sons, Leon E. and Fred A., Jr. In fraternal relations the head of the house is a Freemason and a Knight of Pythias. Hon. Corvis M. Barre, vice-president of the bank, was born in Ohio, and, before he was fifteen years old, he enlisted in the Union army, serving in the thick of the Civil War until after Lee's surrender. In I87I he came to Michigan and found a home and congenial employment at Reading. For six years from January, 1879, he was the county clerk of Hillsdale county, and then became the cashier of the Second National Bank of Hillsdale. Afterward he actively practiced law and became one of the most successful members of the bar. In 1892 he was appointed the U. S. consul at Valparaiso, South America, there giving the country excellent service for four years. His clearness of vision, quickness of apprehension, excellent judgment and close attention to details in business make him one of the strongest and safest factors in the commercial life of the county. Paul W. Chase, the bank's accomplished and accommodating cashier, is yet a young man compared with many who have won prominence and commanding positions in fiscal and political life: But his progress in this, his native county, has been rapid and steady, and his hold on the confidence and esteem of the community is strong and firmly fixed. For nearly four years he was the deputy county clerk, for two he was the city treasurer, and, when he became cashier of this bank, he was also the city attorney. In every position he has shown capacity, integrity, high character and a commendable breadth of view. The directors of this institution not already mentioned are Guy M. Chester, F. H. Stone, Edward Frensdorf, M. S. Segur and William N. Benge, all well known in the community and well established in the confidence and esteem of its people as successful and influential business men. ERWIN H. RUMSEY. Erwin H. Rumsey is a prominent and successful farmer of Jefferson township, who has been busily occupied for several years in tilling the land on which he was born. He was born on this farm on December 30, 1864, the son of Moses and Nancy (Elliott) Rumsey, the former a native of New York and the latter of Lenawee county, in this state. His father was born in Fayette, Seneca county, New York, and removed with his parents in early life to Ohio, where he grew to manhood, attending school in the winter for a few years. and helping on the farm at other times. The limited education he was thus able to get he subsequently enlarged and improved by studious andindustrious reading. In I847 he came with his father to this county, and, in the fall of that year,i tiey purchased 12o acres of unbroken forest, in what is now Jefferson township, it being a part of section I of the government survey, and soonr thereafter the family came out and occupied the' land. Here his parents passed the rest of their lives and here they died, when he came into possession of the property and increased its extent to over 200 acres. He continued the improvements commenced and carried on by his father and kept the land in an advanced state of cultivation, and the farm, which now consists of I54 -acres, is now one of the most desirable in the township. He was a man of progressive ideas, an advanced thinker, quick and vigorous in action. His influence on the growth and development of the township and on the trend of thought in the matter of its public life and improvement was. pronounced and beneficial. He occupied almost%

Page  190 90o HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. every place in the gift of the people, at one time or another, and rendered excellent service in every official capacity, serving the township as highway commissioner, as treasurer, as supervisor for four terms and as justice of the peace for twentyeight successive years. He was a man of large, but judicious, charity, liberal in his gifts to public instiutions of every worthy character. Three times he bowed beneath the flowery yoke of Eros, his first marriage occurring on January 28, 1854, with Miss Nancy Elliott, and their family consisted of three sons and one daughter, Carlton G., Albert T., Helen S. and Erwin H., all of whom are living except the first-born. Their mother died on September 15, 1872, and their father's second marriage was iu I873, with Miss Lucy Anderson, who became the mother of two children, her daughter, Ruth, and her son, Fred. She died in I882 and the third marriage took place within the same year, being with Mrs. Phoebe Vail, who is still living. Mr. Rumsey was a Republican in politics from the foundation of the party. He belonged to the Congregational church at the time of his death on December 25, I897. Two sisters are residents of this county, one of Lenawee county, two of Salt Lake City and one is living in Ohio. ERWIN H. RUMSEY, a son of Moses Rumsey by his first marriage, was reared on the home farm in Jefferson township, on which he now lives, as has been stated, and was educated in the district schools of the neighborhood, completing his scholastic training by a two-years' course at Hillsdale College. For three years thereafter he taught school in the winter months and conducted successful farming operations in the summer. At the end of that time he gave up all other occupations and has since devoted his time and energies wholly to his farming industry and has found this an excellent investment in every way. He is selfmade, beginning life for himself at twentv-one years with one dollar. He worked on the farm, rented for a time, bought forty acres in section 29, Jefferson township, his wife owning eighty acres in the same section given by her father. Upon the death of the father he sold this farm and bought the old homestead of I54 acres, except a fourth interest in fifty acres, which he acquired by will. He has since bought sixty acres adjoining. He is one of the successful farmers of the county. Mr. Rumsey was married on December 30, 1885, to Miss Hartis Miller, like himself a native of the township, being the daughter of Martin and Margaret (Doreder) Miller, who settled in the county in I864. Three children have blessed their union, Clyde E., Lloyd M. and Carlton C., and all are living at the family home. Mr. Rumsey has been a Republican all of his life and he has served the township as justice of the peace and the U. S. government as census enumerator. He is an active working Freemason, and has filled all the chairs except the master's in his lodge. He is at present senior deacon, a position he has creditably filled for five years. He and his wife are also members of the Order of the Eastern Star. He has filled the office of worthy patron in this lodge for three years. He also belongs to the Knights of the Maccabees and the Patrons of Husbandry. He is well respected by all classes of his fellow citizens, justifying by his upright life and high character the public and private esteem in which he is held. FRANKLIN SCHMITT. For three-score years, and for longer, FrankSchmitt, one of the leading farmers and stockgrowers of Fayette township, has been a resident and an active productive force in this county. He was born in the township of his present residence on July 25, 1842, and was reared and educated among its people. His parents were Nicholas and Gertrude (Grat) Schmitt, both natives of Beber, Kur-Hesse, Prussia, who were born, reared, educated and married in the Fatherland, coming to the United States in 1834 with their two small children. Their first winter in this country was passed at Ann Arbor, Michigan, and in the spring of, 835 Mr. Schmitt came to this county and located eighty acres of government land, returned to Ann Arbor for his family and was settled on his new home in July, I835. The family remained on this land until I85I when he

Page  191 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I9I sold it, and, in 1852, went to California, where i.e remained four years. On his return he bought I20 acres of the L. R. Gay farm, which was his home until his death on January I4, I870. His widow survived him thirty-one years, dying in I9OI, aged ninety-one years. Their family consisted of seven children, of whom Franklin was the fourth in the order of birth. Franklin Schmitt has been a Hillsdale county farmer ever since he was able to do the work of that exacting vocation. He started in life for himself in Fayette township in 1870, and now has a fine farm, comprising 216 acres of well improved and highly cultivated land, being one of the choice tracts of this part of the county. To its operations and to his stockgrowing industry he gives his undivided attention, and is rewarded for his diligence and application by the best returns available under the circumstances. On January 3, 1870, he was married to Miss Julia Casteel, a native of Morrow county, Ohio, whose parents, Amos and Azubah (Cutler) Casteel, came to Hillsdale county about I854, and, after a residence of some years, moved to Kansas where the father died. The mother survived him several useful years and died in Oklahoma. Mr. and Mlrs. Schmitt have three children, Lilly, now Mrs. William Osius; Kittie, now Mrs. Lewis Green, of Chicago, and Leroy R., living at home. Mr. Schmitt has not sought public office or prominence of any kind. He has found full satisfaction in the daily discharge of his duties on his farm and toward his fellow men, and, in that way, he has been of signal service to the community in which his life has so far been passed, stimulating others by an example of fidelity and modest worth, winning the good will and esteem of all who know him by his uprightness of life anl steadiness of purpose in every line of productive work. ISAAC W. SHERIFF. The state of Maryland, whose firm and farsighted policy in the Continental Congress when the Article of Confederation were under consideration, secured for our common country the great domain afterwards known as the North west Territory, has also contributed freely of her brain and brawn, her enterprise and public spirit, her men of endurance, courage and resourcefulness, and her love of liberty, to plant and people -this Northwest region, aiding in making it. glad with all the beneficent products of civilization and cultivated life. Among those of her own progressive children, whom she gave to southern Michigan, were Samuel T. and Isaac W. Sheriff of Allen township, the parents being Isaac and Mary (Lazenbee) Sheriff, the former a native of Prince George's county, and the latter of Montgomery county in the "good old state." They were prosperous farmers in southern Maryland, and, in 80o6, moved to Ontario county, New York, when that section of the country was a wilderness, still resounding with the warwhoop of the savage and the long howl of wild beasts,'and there made another home for themselves, clearing up a tract of untamed land and there maintaining their home until the death of the father in 1848, at the age of sixty-eight years. He was a man of great public spirit and enterprise, taking an active part in pushingfforward the car of progress in every section where he lived. In politics he was a zealous and loyal Democrat, casting his first vote for Thomas Jefferson, adhering with steadfast fidelity to the principles he then espoused to the end of his life. His widow survived him nearly thirty years, dying in I877, at the age of ninety. They had a family of eight children, of whom four sons and three daughters reached maturity. All are now dead except the subject of this review. The other brother, Samuel T. Sheriff, was also a resident of Allen township until his recent death. Isaac W. Sheriff was born on November 9, 1817, at Phelps, Ontario county, New York and lived at home, working on the farm as occasion required, attending school as he had opportunity, until he was twenty-one. In 1838, inheriting his parents' liking for the frontier, he came to Hillsdale county, Michigan, and settled on eighty acres of wild land, which he had previously purchased, it being the east half of the northwest quarter of section 33, in Allen township, of this county, which he still owns and on which there

Page  192 192 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. has never been a mortgage. He walked from Toledo, Ohio, to the land, when he made the purchase, and, in 1838, when he came to live on it, he traveled by rail to Adrian, from thence by team, in company with A. C. Fisk, to Allen. During the fall and winter of 1838 he built a small log shanty for a home for himself and wife, and began clearing his land, continuing his exacting, but progressive, labors until the farm was cleared and in a fair state of cultivation, then bought another eighty acres, on which he performed the same service. He now has a well improved and highly productive farm of I60 acres, well provided with comfortable and tastefully arranged buildings, which has become one of the attractive c$untry homes of the township. In 1838, ip.the month of February, before leaving New York, he was united in marriage with Miss Charlotte O. Baggerly, of the same nativity as himself. She died in Hillsdale county in 1871, leaving one child, their son Isaac, who has since died. Mr. Sheriff married his second wife in I873. She was Miss Antoinette E. Baggerly, a cousin of the first wife, and a daughter of Robert J. and Julia J. (Pardee) Baggerly, also born and reared in Ontario county, New York. They have one child, their daughter, Lottie J., wife of Roy Watson, a prominent farmer of Litchfield township, who is herself the mother of one child, her son, John S. Watson. In political- faith Mr. Sheriff has been a lifelong Democrat, and has filled several local offices, such as justice of the peace, school trustee and road commissioner. He takes great interest in the cause of agriculture, being an active member of the local grange of the.Patrons of Husbandry. He came to this county when it was an almost unbroken forest and wilderness, without any of the products of civilization, or the conveniences of cultivated life of any kind, and he has helped to bring it forward to its present advanced state of development, building bridges, constructing roads, erecting schoolhouses, churches and other public buildings, contributing also wise counsel and proper trend to public opinion in reference to all. matters affecting the welfare of the section. Haying been one of the makers and build ers of the county, doing his work well and wisely, he has diligently earned, and is justly entitled to, the high esteem he has among all classes of the people in hiss township and throughout this part of the state. Samuel T. Sheriff, the brother of Isaac W. W., who recently departed this life at his home in Allen township, was the last surviving member of the family except his brother. He was a man of great force of character, undoubted courage and resourcefulness, being energetic and diligent in every proper way, and lived a life of great usefulness to the community. He was born in Ontario, New York, on February 13, 1815, and was reared and educated in his native county. In 1836 he entered eighty acres of government land in section 28 in Allen township and forty acres in section I7. On the latter he settled and lived for two years, then moved to the southern part of Allen township and there maintained his home until his death in the village of Allen. He was at different times a resident of Illinois, Missouri and New York. In 1854 he was elected sheriff of Hillsdale county and at the end of his term was reelected. There was then considerable horse-stealing and other lawlessness in the county, necessitating him to be vigilant and active to an unusual degree in the discharge of his official duties. He met the requirements of the case in a masterly manner, and when the end of his tenure of office arrived, he had suppressed the lawless elements of the population and established good order and safety for life and property. Since retiring from this office he has been a farmer, and has led a quiet, useful, and unostentatious life, performing faithfully his daily duties to his fellow men and the county and state, illustrating in an admirable manner the best citizenship of the country. He was married in New York state, in 1836, to Miss Maria Baggerly, a sister of Mrs. Isaac W. Sheriff, and a daughter of Everett and Sarah (Larnard) Baggerly, the former a native of Montgomery county, Maryland, and the latter of Killingly, Connecticut. For many years Mr. Sheriff was a Democrat in political faith, but was elected sheriff of the county on the Free Soil ticket. Besides this

Page  193 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 1I93 office he filled, at one time or another, almost every other in the gift of the township, rendering appreciated service in each. In I855 he was made a Mason, and, through all the rest of his life, he was a faithful and earnest craftsman, showing great interest in the welfare of the order and making his own large contributions of time and energy to secure it. His death occurred on October I3, I902, at his Allen township home, where his widow is now living. JAMES P. TURNER. James P. Turner, one of the prominent farmers of Jefferson township, is a native of the county, born in Adams township on August 2, I845. His parents were Alonzo and Orissa (Rush) Turner, both natives of Palmyra, New York, where the father was born on May I6, I799, and the mother on July 17, 80o6. The father was t carpenter and joiner, who worked at his trade in connection with farming, which he also followed industriously. They moved to Michigan in I836, making the trip by boat to Toledo, Ohio, from there going by stage to Adrian in Lenawee county. From Adrian they utilized ox teams to Adams township, where the father had previously entered Ioo acres of government land, which was all heavily timbered. He felled the first tree caused to fall on this land by the woodman's ax, and in time cleared all of the tract but about twenty acres, making the place his home until his death in I849 and spending his energies in its improvement and development. Indians were plentiful all around him when he settled there, and they were not always friendly, although the more prominent ones, Baw Beese and others, were frequent visitors at his house. He assisted very materially in organizing the township and in fixing its forms of government, but steadily and always declined to hold office, His widow was married, some years after his death, to Elisha Knight; she died on July ii, 1887. Her family by her first husband consisted of three sons and five daughters, four of whom are living, James, Mrs. Horace Bow, Mrs. Mary McNutt, of near Hudson, and Mrs. Martha Wolcott, of Hudson. The paternal grandfather, Noah Turner,, was also a native of Palmyra, New York, and died in that state on January 28, 1847, aged eighty-pne years. He was a soldier in the War of 1812, and made -i good record in the service. James P. Turner lived at home and attended school until he was eight years of age, his father having died when he was four years old. Later he worked by the month on farms of the county and attended school during the winter. On June 5, I862, he enlisted in the Union army as a member of Co. D, Twelfth Illinois Cavalry, with which he served nine months and twelve days, being wounded at the battle of Falling Waters, soon after receiving his discharge on this account. He also took part in the battle of Antietam and was present at the surrender of Harper's Ferry. In January, 1864, he enlisted a second time, becoming a member of Co. B, Sixth Michigan Cavalry, being assigned to duty under Generals Sheridan and Kilpatrick. He took part in forty-four engagements and was captured at Cedar Creek, but within an hour was recaptured by his own forces. After the war his regiment was transferred to the Salt Lake district for service and was mustered out in March, I866, as the First Michigan Veteran Cavalry. He then passed two years in Nevada as foreman in a quartz mill, in I868 returning to Michigan. Soon after his return he purchased a sawmill, which he operated for two years in Wright township, this county, then went to Butler county, Kansas, where he operated a similar enterprise for four years and also cleared up a farm. In 1875 he came back to Michigan and located at Pittsford, where for ten years he was employed as salesman for a pump company, while during the next eight years he was a traveling salesman of McCormick's farm machinery. During this time he was conducting a farm of his own and this he continued to do until he quit traveling in 1900. In 1868 he was married to Miss Mary L. Williams, a daughter of Alexander F. and Augusta Williams, early settlers in this county, where she was born. Mr. Turner is a Republican in politics, loyal and zealous in the service of his party, but he has steadfastly declined to accept office for himself. He is a devoted meni

Page  194 194 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. ber of the Grand Army of the Republic. In the quiet pursuits of agriculture, in the turmoil and dangers of war, in the close competition and exacting conditions of commercial life, in every line of activity in which he has been engaged, Mr. Turner has been manly and upright, resourceful and capable, productive and useful, illustrating the most desirable attributes of American citizenship, winning the good will of his fellow men wherever he has met and mingled with them. TRUMAN N. WADSWORTH. For more than forty years Truman N. Wadsworth has been a resident and one of the leading farmers of Pittsford township, and, during seven years of the time, he has given the people of the township intelligent, conscientious and valuable service as supervisor. He is well known in all parts of the county, and is highly respected by all classes of the people. It was in Allegany county, New York, on April 26, 1826, that his life began and there he was reared and educated. There also he learned farming on his paternal homestead, and after arriving at man's estate, he worked in this domain of elevating and fruitful industry in his native state until 1862, being in the employment of one man for a continuous period of eleven years. In the year last named he came to Michigan, and, locating in Hillsdale county, purchased the farm on which he now lives in Pittsford township, which since that time he has made his residence. The county was far behind its present state of development when his citizenship among its people began, and he has not only witnessed the many changes in the direction of progress and improvement which have taken place, but has been a very forceful factor in bringing them about and giving proper direction to their course. In 1852, in Ontario county, New York, he married with Miss Mary Warner, a native of that county and a daughter of Charles ant Phila Warner, whose lives were wholly passed there. One child was born to them, William G. Wadsworth. who died in Hillsdale county in I898. Two days previously, on October i8, I898, Mrs. Wadsworth was called to her rest. Mr. Wads worth has been a Republican in his political faith all his mature life. He was supervisor of Pittsford township seven years, and many good works were accomplished during his incumbency of that office through his energy and public spirit. Deeply interested in the welfare of his chosen pursuit, he has given a cordial welcome to all movements among the people that promised to advance its welfare or promote its progress and the improvement of its conditions. To this end he has been for many years an active and helpful member of the order of Patrons of Husbandry, holding affiliation with the grange at Pittsford. Mr. Wadsworth's parents were Samuel and Rebecca (Foster) Wadsworth, the former a native of Vermont and the latter of New York. The father was a farmer and moved to Yates county, New York, in I808, and, after a residence of some years there, he moved to Allegany county, in the same state. Some years later he took up his residence in Ohio, and from there he moved to Wisconsin. The last years of his life were passed at the home of his son, Truman, in this county. He was a soldier in the War of I812. The mother died in New York in I835. They were the parents of four children, three sons and one daughter. Three of the number are living, Truman N., Sylvester F., who lives with Truman, and the sister, who resides in Wisconsin. The grandfather, Hezekiah Wadsworth, a native of Vermont, lived a number of years in New York and died in Ohio, whither he moved late in life. He was a soldier in the War of the Revolution, serving seven years, nine months and one day in that contest in a Vermont regiment, participating in all the important battles of the war and enduring some of its extreme horrors as a prisoner on one of the odious prison-ships at New York city during one winter. PHILO A. SILVERNAIL. In the eager and hopeful tide of emigration, which flowed steadily into southern Michigan between 1835 and I850 from New York and Ohio, came Conrad and Mary (Miller) Silvernail from the latter state, whither they had removed from

Page  195 -r/L T LT rTT "L ' Ar /r ' T /" TT /1 -A T I. T TT T rCt n A T T' H iLL3 DAn t, L U-uIv I Y, IVI 1 L i 1 ZlJIV. 195 Rensselaer county, New York, the place of their nativity, in 1832. They came to Michigan in 1838 and purchased forty acres of virgin land in Pittsford township, this county, on which they settled, and from which they hewed out a home for themselves and their family, living there until death, that of the father occurring in 1862, and that of the mother in I869. On this homestead they reared a family of eleven children, five sons and six daughters, all of whom are now deceased, but their son, Philo, and two of his sisters. He was born on the farm they previously occupied near Burton in Geauga county, Ohio, on October Io, I838, and was therefore but an infant when the family moved into this state. Conrad Silvernail had been a public man of local prominence in Ohio, filling a number of important offices, but, after his arrival in Michigan, he took no active part in political affairs. His wife was a devout member of the Methodist Episcopal church and brought her children up in accordance with its teachings and spirit of religious devotion. In the atmosphere of such a home, where duty was the law and labor the inevitable, continuous and unchanging condition, their son, Philo, learned the lessons and formed the habits of integrity, uprightness and industry which have distinguished him through his long life among the people of his township and county whose confidence and respect he now so richly enjoys and whom he has so faithfully served in every public and private capacity to which he has been called. He received a limited education in the public schools of his day, which were necessarily primitive in character and narrow in scope, which he had but few chances to attend regularly, but he was able to supplement their teachings by a period of attendance at a good private school. When he reached the age of sixteen years he went to work for the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad, on the division running through Indiana and Ohio, and, in course of time, he became a baggagemaster running between Toledo and Elkhart. Five years were passed in the employ of this corporation, but, in I859, failing health obliged him to give up the work. He then returned to this county 'and taught school for a year here and one in Ohio, receiving in the latter a compensation of $26 a month, boarding himself. In 1864 he bought his present home, which was partially improved, and here he has since lived, cultivating the land and improving the property, increasing its productiveness and value by careful and judicious tillage and enterprising attention to its buildings and general condition. He was married in I863 to Miss Facelia Cunningham, a native of Ohio, the daughter of Layton and 'Mary (Youngs) Cunningham, who moved to Hillsdale county while she was a child and where both have since died. Mr. and Mrs. Silvernail have five children, all daughters. They are Bertha, wife of W. A. Ballard, of this county; Myrta, widow of J. B. Philbrick; Ella, wife of Fred Carpenter, of this county; Etta, wife of Frank L. Hackett, of Pittsford; Alta, living at home. In politics, Mr. Silvernail is a Republican. He has served as school superintendent of the township, as township treasurer and as justice oif the peace. He belongs to the Masonic order and is an active member of Pittsford Grange, Patrons of Husbandry. One of the oldest, he is also one of the most respected citizens of the township. DAVID J. WATKINS. David J. Watkins, of Cambria township, in this county, one of the sturdy and substantial farmers of that portion of the state, is the scion of an old Welsh family, who long lived and labored in their native land, and gave to its interests their best services in war and peace. They fought valiantly under its early chieftains and princes to maintain its independence and dignity, and, in its fields, mines and other industrial lines of productive effort, they worked faithfully to promote its mercantile, financial and educational welfare.' Its American progenitors brought to the land of their adoption the same spirit of martial and industrial fidelity, espousing with enthusiasm and a lofty patriotism the cause of the common weal in every way on the soil of the new world, which their forefathers had so faithfully supported on that of the old. The one who planted the family tree in this country was David's grand 13

Page  196 I96 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. father, Hezekiah Watkins, who emigrated from Wales to the United States while he was yet a young man, and who became soon after a soldier in the Colonial army, for seven years thereafter following the varying fortunes of the young confederacy in the Revolutionary struggle, against the fearful odds with which it had to contend, aiding materially in securing and rejoicing greatly in celebrating its final triumph. When peace came he settled in New York state and there worked at his trade as a weaver until his death. His son, Johnson Watkins, was born and reared in that state, there married with Miss Eunice Randall, a native of Vermont, and they became the parents of eight children, of whom their sons, David J. and another, and two daughters are living, all being residents of Michigan. The father was a farmer in his native place until I849, when he brought his young family to this state and settled in Cambria township, this county, on twenty acres of the farm on which David now lives. This was then all heavily timbered, and he cleared it and reduced it to fertility, living on it until his death, in 1873, at the age of seventyseven. His wife survived him four years, dying in I877, also aged seventy-seven. David J. Watkins was fourteen years old at the time of his parents' removal to Michigan, having been born in Glenville township, Schenectady county, New York, on March 6, I835. He began his education in the schools of New York and finished it in those of Michigan. But his opportunities were limited at the best, for he was obliged early in life to make a field hand in the work of the farm, and in making a living for the family. He began life for himself as a farmer, purchasing twenty acres of land adjoining that of his father, and working it until the opening of the Civil War and for some time during its progress. In August, 1862, he enlisted in the Union army in Co. B, Eighteenth Michigan Infantry, under Capt. C. B. Van Valer, and he remained in service until the close of the contest, being attached to the Army of the Cumberland, participating with it in many of its important battles, among them those at Spring Hill and at Athens and Decatur in Alabama. He was mus tered out at Nashville in I865, with the rank of corporal, to which he had been promoted through merit, being finally discharged at Jackson, in this state. He returned at once to his Hillsdale county farm,on which he has lived ever since, increasing its size to eighty acres and bringing it to a high state of cultivation and improvement. On March 8, 1857, he married Miss Minerva Vincent, a daughter of John and Mary A. (Reynolds) Vincent, early settlers in Branch county. Her father was a railroad contractor and assisted in the construction of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad. He died in this state on January 27, 1842. Mr. and Mrs. Watkins have four children: Edmund J., a leading manufacturer at Hillsdale; Chauncey E.; George E., a farmer and blacksmith; Edith E., wife of F. W. Dailey, of Hillsdale county. Mr. Watkins is an earnest Republican in politics and has served as township treasurer and also as highway commissioner, rendering acceptable and appreciated service in both positions. He is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, with devotion to the organization and efficiency and zeal in its service. His life in this county has been both useful and productive, ever showing him upright in character, diligent in industry and full of consideration and help for his fellows. He is regarded as one of the sterling and representative men of the township and has the respect of the community. WILLIAM A. UNDERWOOD. William A. Underwood, for four years the popular clerk of Pittsford township, being now (1903) the efficient and capable supervisor of the township, is a native of Palmyra, in Lenawee county of this state, born on August Io, I854. His parents, Thomas and Mary (Comstock) Underwood, were natives of New York, who were among the earliest pioneers in that part of Michigan, whither they came in childhood with their respective families. The paternal ancestry was English and bore an honored name in the mother country. In the spring of I836, the paternal grandfather, Edward Underwood, came to this state and purchased land in Palmyra township,

Page  197 I I HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I197 Lenawee county, for which he paid eleven dollars per acre. Here he erected a comfortable residence and permanently occupied it, contentedly engaged in farming his land until his death on May 20, 1878. His son, Thomas, was reared to habits of careful industry and frugality, assisting in clearing and improving the farm and bringing it to abundant productiveness, getting what he could of a limited education at the neighboring schools. When he reached years of maturity and desired to marry, with the assistance of his father he purchased 131 acres of land in the same township, and, settling on this with his bride, he gave his energies and intelligence to the systematic improvement and development of the place. It responded readily to the persuasive hand of his skillful husbandry, and, in time, became one of the most desirable and attractive farms in the township. His wife, who was Miss Mary Cornstock, was a daughter of Jared and Catherine (Hall) Comstock, of New York, who removed to this state and settled in Lenawee county in I835. She is now deceased. Her offspring consisted of four children, Edward, Ella, William A. and Harley. William A. Underwood was reared in his native township, and, after completing his elementary education at the public schools, he took a course of instruction at Adrian College. At the age of eighteen he began teaching and during the next four winters he continued to be so employed in the public schools, assisting in the farm work on the homestead in summer. In 1877 he settled on the farm he now owns and occupies, a fine body of land, comprising eighty acres pleasantly located on section io in Pittsford township, which is improved with substantial, commodious and convenient buildings and diligently and skillfully cultivated. On September 13, 1876, Mr. Underwood was married with a Miss Lozetta A. Holden, of Pittsford township, who was born on the farm which is now her residence. Her father, Lyman Holden, was a native of Vermont, who came to Michigan with his mother and step-father in I836; married a Hilsldale county lady and settled on the land now occupied by his daughter and son-in-law, and here both he and his good wife passed the remainder of their days. His wife was Miss Roena Stark, a native of Clermont county, Ohio, and a daughter of Daniel Stark, a New Yorker by nativity. In political faith Mr. Underwood is a staunch Republican, but he is broad enough to consider the general welfare of the community in all public movements of a local nature before the success of any party. He served four terms as township clerk and in I902 was elected supervisor and was reelected in the spring of I903. In both positions he has rendered efficient and appreciated service.. He belongs to the lodge and the chapter in the Masonic order, to the Knights of the Maccabees and to thePatrons of Husbandry; he and his wife are members of the Free Baptist church. They have two children, E. Lynn and Martha L. JOSEPH SLAGHT. Joseph Slaght, of Jefferson township, Hillsdale county, is one of the few remaining pioneers of the county who saw the beginning of its history in civilized life, and he has been a potent and active contributor to its growth and development ever since. He is a native of Seneca county, New York, born on December 6, 1817, the son of John and Phoebe (Howell) Slaght, natives of New Jersey, who moved to the state of New York about I800. His father was a tanner and worked at this trade for many years, later engaged for a time in sawmilling. The last years of his life were passed in the peaceful and productive pursuits of agriculture in Michigan, whither he came in 1847. He settled near Flint, in Genesee county, and there both he and his wife died. He was drafted for service in the War of I812, reported at Buffalo, but was not obliged to do active service. His family consisted of four sons and three daughters, all of whom are living, but one son and one daughter, all of the living members of the family being residents of this state, and all, except Joseph, are living near Flint. The grandfather was Matthew Slaght, a native of New Jersey, who moved to New York when he was a young man, and, after a career of uprightness and usefulness, died in that state, having

Page  198 I98 HILLSDALE COU been prominent as a captain of militia in troublous times, rendering good service by keeping up the martial spirit of the community. Joseph Slaght grew to manhood in New York and received a limited education at the primitive schools of his neighborhood in the winter months, assisting his father in the tannery and in the sawmill during the rest of the year, yet he also worked at times at the carpenter trade. In I844 he came to Michigan, making the trip over the lake to Monroe, going from thence to Hillsdale county. He purchased eighty acres of land thtat summer, which was all timber and without a road, or semblance of a road, to it or through it, and then returned to New York. In the autumn of 1845, having made such due preparation for their comfort as the circumstances would permit, he moved his family to the farm,as he had begun to make it, and since then their residence has been here maintained. In course of time he cleared up his original tract and then added more land by purchase until he now owns 155 acres. The whole tract in its improvements, its cultivation and its high market value, is the product of his persistent and skillful industry, a creation of comeliness, fruitfulness, high development and great worth, standing wholly to his credit. He was married in his native state on February 14, 1843, to Miss Sarah A. Brokaw, a native of New Jersey, who died in this county on February 4, 1892, leaving one son, J. Albert Slaght, who is living on and managing the farm. She was born in the town of Millstone, Somerset county, New Jersey, on November 6, I815, and moved with her parents, Isaac and Mary (French) Brokaw, to central New York in I82I. Mr. Slaght has been of service to his locality in many ways. He has been road commissioner and township supervisor, always a leader of thought and action in matters affecting the welfare of the region in which he lived. He was originally a Whig in politics, becoming a Republican when that party was organized. He is an active and devoted member of the Methodist Episcopal church. J. Albert Slaght, the son and the only child of Joseph and Sarah A. (Brokaw) Slaght, was born on the home farm, which has been the family 'NTY, MICHIGAN. homestead for nearly three-score years, on which he is now living, his life having begun on July 22, I849. He was reared on the farm and began to perform his share of its labors in early life. His opportunities for education were furnished by the district schools near his home, and, although they were limited in scope and character, he has supplemented them by a goodly store of that worldly wisdom, which is gained only under the hard tuition of experience, and is now, by observation and reflection, a wise and forceful man in spite of his original limited school facilities. As soon as he was of suitable age and development, he relieved his father of the active management of the farm and has ever since been in control of its operations. He was married in 1895 to Miss Mary A. Maxon, a native of New York. Like his father, he has had a cordial and abiding interest in the welfare of the commlunity, and he has contributed wise counsel and substantial aid to all its developing and improving forces. He has served on the local school board for years and been connected in a leading way with other elevating potencies among the people. He is highly esteemed as one of the leading and representative citizens of the township, whose life has been full of usefulness, passed in the service of his kind without selfish aspirations for his own prominence or advancement. CHARLES E. SMITH. Charles E. Smith has been a lifelong resident of Cambria township in this county, having been born on the old homestead farm on November 29, 1852, and his whole life has been lived within its confines. His parents were Warren and Mary (Wilson) Smith, the former a native of New York, the latter of New Hampshire. The father, a farmer, who grew to manhood in his native county of Franklin, New York, learned well the art of farming and applied himself diligently to the cultivation of the soil until the spring of 1836, except for a short time when he was engaged in clerking in a store, in the neighborhood of the farm owned and operated by his father. He received a good common-school education, which

Page  199 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I99 was ended by a year of diligent study at an excellent academy in Vermont. In the spring of I836 he was married to Miss Mary Wilson, a daughter of James and Dorothy (Sawyer) Wilson, and soon after brought his wife to this state, they coming over the lakes to Detroit, from there traveling by team to Sheridan, in Calhoun county, where they spent the first summer. The next spring they removed to Lenawee county, where they remained two years, and, in 1839, came to Hillsdale county and settled on a tract of eighty acres of unimproved land in Cambria township, the same land now owned and occupied by Jacob A. Hancock. They followed the custom of the country of those early days, in erecting a little log shanty and going resolutely to work to clear up their land and make a home of it. There were then no roads in this section and the merest conveniences of life were distant and difficult of access. Mr. Smith was obliged to get his supplies of Charles E. Smith, as has been noted, was reared on the old homestead and educated in the schools of the vicinity. On leaving school he became actively connected with the management of the farm and has been engaged in this work ever since. He was married in 1876 to Miss Adelia Van Vlack, a daughter of Edmund and Sarah (Brian) Van Vlack, old-time residents of this county. They have one child, their son, W. K. Smith. Mr. Smith is a Republican in politics but is not an active partisan. He belongs to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and has been a member for many years. He is a representative of one of the oldest and most respected families in the county, and maintains in his upright and serviceable life all the best traditions of the family history and the best traits of the family character. ROSCIUS N. SOUTHWORTH. I I I I I I I cI I II I flour and other provisions from Jonesville, Adri- The American history of the Southworth faman and Litchfield, where the nearest stores and ily dates from the arrival of the Mayflower at mills were located. Later he purchased additional Plymouth, Mass., in December, 1620, one of the land from time to time and became the owner passengers on the historic vessel in that memorof 240 acres. He succeeded in clearing the most able voyage being a female member of this family, of his land and getting it into a good state of who later became the wife of Governor Bradford, productiveness, and also in improving it with the chief executive of the.Plymouth colony. Roscomfortable buildings, before death ended his cius Southworth was born in Windham county, labors in I893, when he passed away at the age Connecticut, on August 27, 1815, his parents, of seventy-nine years. His widow has since lived Royal and Phoebe Southworth, having been resiwith her son and is now (1903) eighty-five years dents of that county for a long term of years. old. Their family consisted of their son, Charles, His father was a machinist by trade and is said and their daughter, Almira, who became the wife to have assisted in constructing the first spinningof Jacob A. Hancock. The father took a decided machine made in the United States. In 1820 he interest in the progress and development of the removed with his family to Worcester county, county, and, although averse to public office, Massachusetts, and, eight years later, to Oswego served at times as township treasurer. He was an county, New York, where the son attained the active member of the Baptist church. The grand- age of nineteen years, and received a limited edufather was Jesse Smith, a resident of Franklin cation in the district schools. At the age mencounty, New York, also a loyal soldier in the tioned he emigrated to the then new territory War of 1812. Mrs. Smith's father, James Wilson, of Michigan and settled at the village of Litchwas also a soldier in that war. He and his family field in Hillsdale county. moved to Hillsdale county in I839 and settled on He reached this state without a dollar in an unimproved farm in Cambria township, one money and very little else except the clothes on mile north of the Smiths, where Mrs. Wilson his back, but he purchased of Deacon Harvey died. Mr. Wilson died at the home of his daugh- Smith forty acres of land and made shingles to ter, Mrs. Smith. pay for it, settled on this land and resolutely gave * * -. ''. /: - I

Page  200 200 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. himself up to the struggles and privations of frontier life. In 1838 he was united in marriage with Miss Lucinda Murdock, who died in I839, leaving one child, John Southworth, until recently a prominent lawyer of Henrietta, Texas, btit now deceased. Two years later he married his second wife, Miss Lucinda L. Wight, a daughter of Thaddeus Wight, a pioneer of I830 at Jonesville, this county. Three sons and one daughter have blessed this union, Thaddeus M., now living on the old home farm; Royal A., publisher of a newspaper at Denver, Colorado, and secretary of the State Farmers' Allianceof that state; William R., a prosperous farmer of Kalamazoo county; Abbie N., wife of John H. Parish, of the town of Allen. Mr. Southworth developed great shrewdness and industry in his business, and by these qualities and his force and uprightness of character, and his clearness and breadth of view, rose to a position of prominence in his township and one of elevation in the confidence and esteem of its people. For many years he was a railroad contractor and built portions of all the various roads in this part of the state. He cleared and improved his farm until it became one of the most desirable in the township. As an evidence of his thrift and enterprise, it should be stated that the first horse he bought in this county cost him ninety-five dollars, and he hauled flour from Litchfield to Hillsdale at a shilling a barrel to pay for it. The father of Mrs. R. N. Southworth, Thaddeus Wight, was one of the earliest settlers in the county, arriving on its soil with his wife, eight children and twelve shillings in money, with no shelter for his family and no means of supporting them. By industry and economy, however, he was soon in such comfort as the region afforded, and became in time one of the wealthiest farmers in the county. Mr. Southworth died in June, I888, and his widow in I898. THADDEUS M. SOUTHWORTH, eldest son of Roscius and Lucinda L. (Wight) Southworth, now owner and manager of the old homestead in Allen township, also one of the prominent and progressive farmers of that section, was born in Oswego county, New York, on January 8, I844. He grew to manhood on his father's farm, as sisting in the labors there and enjoying such educational advantages as were afforded by the country schools of his day and the primitive civilization of this section at the time. The exertion of every energy available was necessary to provide the common requirements of life, and, at an early age, he was obliged to forego school and, for the most part, social pleasures and make a full hand on the farm. He drew the logs of which his present home was built to the place of its construction, one tree having furnished all the timber needed for the siding of the house. -While yet a boy he became an ardent Abolitionist and during his life he aided many a poor slave from the South to gain his freedom by means of the Underground Railway, one of the number being Henry Clay's body-servant. His experiences in this work were thrilling, furnishing him the material for many graphic narratives concerning those troublous times. In September, I86I, he enlisted in Co. M, Second Michigan Cavalry, but was disabled by sickness before he served a year and on this account was honorably discharged. He then returned home and resumed his farm work which he has continued without interruption ever since. In the autumn of I870 he began to breed Shorthorn cattle of pure blood, after five years of success in breeding Merino sheep. He is still engaged in this enterprise in both lines of stock, and has gained wide celebrity and high rank among stockgrowers. He has of late years also given attention to breeding Percheron horses, producing the finest geldings attainable, for sale and use in the old country. Mr. Southworth was married on September 2, I863, to Miss Myra A. Nichols, of Quincy, this state, a daughter of Ansel and Susan Nichols, pioneers of Branch county. They were the parents of three children, Nora V., wife of V. Iles, of Homer, in Calhoun county; Miron J., a farmer in Branch county; Mary A., wife of Claud Groves, of Albion, in Calhoun county. Their mother died on June 23, I884, and Mr. Southworth was married to his second wife in September, 1885. She was Mrs. Amy C. (Wooden) Frasier, a native of Cass county. They have two children, John M. and Myra R. Mr. Southworth is independent

Page  201 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 201 in politics, has never sought or filled public office and belongs to the Grand Army of the Republic and is an active member of the Free Baptist church. His father was a zealous Freemason and an energetic member of the Patrons of Husbandry, belonging to the grange at South Allen. FIRST NATIONAL BANK. In the intensely practical age in which we live, it has come to be more and more definitely recognized that, whatever may be said of increasing armies and expanding navies to maintain national supremacy, the real armor of the Twentieth Century is to be a plethoric pocketbook; its strong fortresses will be fireproof vaults well filled with notes, bonds, mortgages and title-deeds; good agencies which help to produce these or spread their benefits are benefactors of mankind. It is an age wherein Carnage and Destruction will no longer secure the world's proudest honors, while Invention and Production sink into unmarked graves; an age wherein Man, the Creator, beautifier and multiplier, will be honored and feted, and Man, the Destroyer, be discrowned. Among the beneficial agencies of this kind the First National Bank of Hillsdale must be mentioned with high credit. It was established in 1863, consequently it is one of the oldest banks in the county; the faith and zeal of its founders, and those who have managed its affairs, have been abundantly rewarded by a business, which has steadily increased in volume and value through a normal, healthy growth and a liberality of spirit, until it is one of the most extensive and profitable in the part of the state in which it is conducted. It carries on a general banking business, in all the details of that industry, and, wherever it is known, it has an exalted reputation for financial soundness, prudent and skillful management, judicious liberality in accommodating its patrons and for plentiful resources for every requirement. In the dark hours of fiscal depression, when the factors of trade were paralyzed and the ordinary currents of business have fallen away, it was to the community a great reservoir of monetary strength, relieving the paralysis, restoring the currents, averting disaster from individuals, keeping in vigorous motion all the wheels of productive energy. With a capital stock of $55,000, surplus and undivided profits of $50,000, deposits aggregating nearly $700,000ooo,and general resources amounting to $825,000, as shown by a recent statement, the bank is doing an enormous business,. paying good profits to its stockholders and maintaining in active circulation widening streams of benefaction for the whole people. Its present directorate (I903) includes Frank M. Stewart, president; C. H. Winchester, vice-president; C. F. Stewart, cashier; William Prideaux, assistant cashier; E. T. Prideaux, teller; and the following directors: F. M. Stewart, William A. Waldron, C. H. Winchester, H. K. Bradley, C. E. Lawrence and William MacRitchie. Frank M. Stewart, the president and real inspiration, as well as the controlling force of the institution, was born with a natural aptitude for the banking business, which has been developed and trained under the exacting eyes of masters of finance, disciplined in its duties by actual experience in almost every position in the service of the bank, from that of errand boy, or runner, to the commanding one which he now holds, and has so acceptably filled since I88I. Mr. Stewart's life began on August 20, 1852, at New Haven, Hurorj county, Ohio, his parents being Albert G. and Elizabeth Johnson Stewart, the former a native of New York and the latter of Ohio. In I868 they removed to, Hillsdale with their family, and here the father was engaged for several years in the produce business, then returned to Ohio, making his home at Lima for a few years, removing from there to Rockford, in Mercer county, of that state, where he is now living, the mother having passed from earth in I891. Their son, Frank, was about fifteen years of age, when he came with them to Hillsdale, equipped for the duties of life by a good education secured in the public schools of Buffalo, New York, where his parents lived for ten years before coming west. His first year in Michigan was passed as a clerk in his father's office, and here he laid the foundation of the successful business career which he has since had. On July 5, I868, he entered the

Page  202 202 ' HILLSDALE - COUNTY, MICHIGAN. bank as a runner and the capacity for the business which he soon displayed won him rapid promotion. In two years he became the teller and three years later the cashier. This latter position he filled with great credit to himself and benefit to the bank until I88I, when he was made president, a position which he has occupied continuously from that time. On September 20, 1877, Mr. Stewart was united in marriage with Miss Elizabeth M. Henry, daughter of Simon J. and Almira (Whipple) Henry, of Hillsdale. They have three children, their daughter, Mabel, and their sons, Clifford A. and Waldron. Mabel and Clifford are students at the University of Michigan, while Waldron, the youngest son, is attending the Hillsdale high school. In politics Mr. Stewart is a staunch Republican, modest in advancing his opinions, however resolute and forcible in maintaining them, and cannot justly be called an active partisan. He has served the community well, however, first as city treasurer and again as mayor. He was obliged by pressing business affairs to decline a second term in the mayor's office, which was urged upon him, and, for the same reason, he has steadfastly overborne all solicitations to accept other official stations. He is a trustee of Hillsdale College, in which he takes great interest, and of the First Baptist Church of Hillsdale, of which he and his wife are esteemed and useful members. He has been actively interested in all the manufacturing industries. of the city and vicinity, and is now president of the Omega Portland Cement Co., of Mosherville, this county, and of the Scowden & Blanchard Co., manufacturers of shoes in Hillsdale; and also a director in the Worthing & Alger Co., the Alamo Manufacturing Co. and the Hillsdale Screen Co., of Hillsdale. His interest in the educational and moral agencies of the county and state has for years been energetic, intelligent and potential for good. He renders valued service as president of the board of directors of the State Public School lot cated at Coldwater, and also as president of the municipal board of public works of Hillsdale. By his sterling integrity, his progressive business methods, his breadth of view and enterprise in public affairs and his unvarying pleasantness of manner, Mr. Stewart has endeared himself to ail classes in this and adjoining communities, thus securing a high rank among the leading business men of the state. JOEL B. NORRIS. The late Joel B. Norris, of Woodbridge township, who departed this life on March II, I895, aged nearly seventy-five years, was for a long time one of the leading citizens of Hillsdale county, serviceable to its people and influential in its development and progress in many ways. He was born at Canandaigua, Ontario county, New York, on April 2, 1821, the son of John B. and Betsey (Gage) Norris, the former a native of New Hampshire, born at Chester, in that state, in I789, and the latter born and reared in Massachusetts. The father, a farmer and carpenter, worked at both occupations in New York until -836, when he came to Michigan and entered two half sections of government land, being the north half of section 1 and the south half of section 2, in what is now Woodbridge township. Soon after taking up the land he divided it among his four sons and returned to New York. They settled on it and cleared it for cultivation and homes. In the fall of I840, accompanied by his son, Joel B., he again came to Michigan and built a log house on the southeast quarter of section 2, returning to New York. There was but one house between this house and Hillsdale at that time and the nearest house was three miles away. In I855 he came back to this state and bought a farm in Cambria township, where he died in 1872, having been married three times. The first marriage was to Polly Bishop, who died leaving one son, Jared B. Norris, now deceased. The second wife was Betsey Gage, the mother of Joel and Jason Norris and two other sons and one daughter. She died in I829 in New York state, and all of her offspring are dead except Jason B. Norris, a sketch of whom appears on another page of this work. The third wife was Lydia Densmore, who also preceded him to the grave, leaving one child,

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Page  203 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN.I2 203 0 their daughter, Cordelia, now the wife of W. C. Barrett, of Stanton, Michigan. The martial spirit has been prominent in the family for generations. The father of Joel B. Norris was a colonel of militia in New York and held the rank of captain in the United States army in the War of 1812. His father, Samuel Norris, was a native of New Hampshire, and he, too, was a soldier, seeing much active and arduous service in the War of the Revolution. He died in New York. Joel B. Norris was reared and educated in his native state, finishing his schooling at an excellent academy in his native town. He then entered upon the vocation which had been followed by the family for generations, and became a prosperous farmer in New York, carrying on this industry until I853, when he came to Michigan and aided in the clearing of the land his father had taken up. He lived in Woodbridge and Cambria townships until I889, then moved to Hillsdale, where he passed the rest of his days, dying on March 11, I895. He served as supervisor of Woodbridge township during some years in the fifties and when he lived there was the highway commissioner of Cambria township. Later he became interested in the Farmers' Mutual Insurance Co., of Hillsdale county, and served as its agent in Cambria township for several years, and in I889 succeeded Doctor Falley as secretary of the company. He was also superintendent of the poor for the several years immediately preceding his death, and was in the incumbency of the office when that event occurred. He was married in I846 to Miss Margaret M. Brown, a native of New York, where the marriage was consummated. She was born on March 5, 1825, the daughter of Luther and Lora A. Brown. Her father died in New York and her mother in Hillsdale county. Mr. and Mrs.. Morris had two children, their son, Charles S. Norris; and their daughter, H. Ellen, now the wife of Edwin Doty. Mr. Norris was a leading Democratic politician and one of the best known and most prominent citizens of the county. He was an influential man in all matters of local importance and never withheld his support from any good enterprise in which the advancement or improvement of the county or township was involved. Charles S. Norris, only son of Joel B. and Margaret M. (Brown) Norris, was born in Ontario county, New York, on March 2, 1852, and came to this county when an infant in his mother's arms. He here grew to manhood and in the public schools of the county began his education, which was finished at Hillsdale, College. Throughout his mature life he has been an energetic and. progressive farmer and has made his intelligence and labor effective in improving and adding to the value of his farm. He owns the old homestead in Woodbridge township, which he has made a model country home in every respect. He was married, in 1879, to Miss Mary C. Wendt, a native of Huron county, Ohio, and a daughter of Gustave and Caroline (Seekmann) Wendt, who were born and reared in Germany and emigrated to the United States in I840. Her father died some years ago in Huron county, Ohio, and her mother entered her eternal rest on October I5, I892. Mr. and Mrs. Charles S. Norris have one child, Leon H. Mr. Norris is a Democrat in politics, but has never been an active partisan or desirous of public office. However, in the fall of 1902, he consented to become a candidate of his party for sheriff, but, while receiving a gratifying vote throughout the county, could not overcome the adverse majority and failed of an election. He belongs to the Patrons of Husbandry, holding membership in the grange,at Cambria. In all the relations of life he has borne himself creditably, winning by his upright and serviceable career the general esteem and approval of his neighbors and fellow citizens. SAMUEL WATKINS. Samuel Watkins, one of the honored pioneers of Hillsdale county, whose life ended on his Allen township home on April I, i882, at the age of seventy-seven, was a native of County Kent, England, where he was reared and educated and whence he emigrated, in his early manhood, to the island of St. Christopher in the West Indies, accompanied by his brother Thomas Watkins.

Page  204 204 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. His occupation at St. Christopher was that of a large sugar plantation, and, after a residence of a year or two there, he was united in marriage with Miss Jane Ann Parry, the daughter of his employer. The first few years of their married life were spent on the plantation, then they removed to Nova Scotia, where they lived five years, then determined to come to the United States and came at once to this county, locating in Allen township. This portion of the state became their final home, on its soil they passed the rest of their days, the father dying here on April I, 1882, as has been stated, and his widow on September 22 of the same year. They were valued and valuable members of the community in which they settled, contributed the fruits of their best energies to the development and improvement of the township, and left at their deaths memories of well-spent lives, which incited others to renewed exertions for progress and the elevation of the community and the advancement of its best interests. They were the parents of thirteen children, four of whom died in childhood. Of the nine who reached years of maturity only four are now living. They are Margaret S., wife of Thomas Frarey; Susanna, wife of Henry D. Pessell, of Quincy, this state; Joseph P., a resident of Reading, of this county; and Victoria, wife of Nelson T. Brockway, of Allen township. The father purchased eighty acres of land in section I9, when he came to the township, and built on it a log shanty covered with bark. He had very limited means, almost no experience in the kind of developing farm work then required in this part of the country, but he was endowed with a spirit of dogged determination and enterprise, and, withal, was a close observer, ready in adaptation of the knowledge of others as it came to his apprehension. He cleared his land and then added eighty acres more, which he also cleared and made productive. Stimulated by his success in these two ventures, and having acquired skill by experience, he bought 'an additional tract of I20 acres, already partially improved, and this, too, he brought to an advanced state of cultivation. In the tilling of this land he discovered rich beds of clay and soon after inaugurated an industry in the manufacture of brick, which he continued with profit for a number of years. While a Republican in political faith, he never took any special interest in party matters, devoting himself to his farm work, his domestic affairs and to the interests of the Methodist Episcopal church, of which he and his wife were faithful and serviceable members. He became an excellent farmer and was widely known and highly esteemed. JASON R. WATKINS. Jason R. Watkins is one of the early settlers of Jefferson township, this county, and was born.in the state of New York on December 8, I830, his parents being Johnson and Eunice (Randall) Watkins, natives of Vermont, a more extended account of their history appearing in the sketch ot his brother, David Watkiris, on another page of this volume. Mr. Watkins passed his childhood and youth in his native state, and had there the usual experiences of country boys of the time and section, attending school in the winter months and working on the farm during the remainder of the year. For several seasons he also worked on the Erie canal in various capacities. He became very efficient in steering and was recognized as an expert. In 1852, soon after reaching his majority, he came to Michigan, and, locating at Blissfield, Lenawee county, entered the employ of the Michigan Southern and Northern Indiana Railroad, running a hand-car ahead of the passenger train to see that the track was clear of obstructions. Later he served as a brakeman, remaining with the road until 1856, when he came to Hillsdale county and purchased forty acres of land, the nucleus of the farm on which he now lives. It was a virgin forest then, and he at once began to make a clearing and build a house. In I858 he moved his family thither and it has since been their home. The farm now comprises 170 acres and has been brought to an advanced state of improvement and cultivation. Mr. Watkins, on January 15, 1852, in Mont

Page  205 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 205 gomery county, New York, before leaving for this state, was united in marriage with a Miss Margaret A. Feltis, a native of that county. They have had eight children, seven of whom are living: Josiah, of Hillsdale; Nancy J., wife of J. B. Price; John H., of Ransom township; Ira and Judson, of Jefferson township; Carrie, wife of Theron Duryea; and Miland, of Reading. Mr. Watkins is a Lincoln Republican, but he has never taken an active part in political work and has never sought or accepted office for himself. His long residence of nearly half a century in the county has given him an opportunity to see all of the phases of its transformation from an unbroken wilderness to a highly cultivated garden region, rejoicing in its progress and bringing forth in abundance everything nourishing, and fragrant and valuable, and furnished ample room for the exercise of his enterprise and public spirit in aiding to effect the wonderful change. He has been a potential factor in the development and improvement of the section, being well esteemed throughout the township as one of its leading citizens and most forceful builders and leaders of progressive thought. WILLIAM WATKINS. On of the substantial and progressive farmers of Allen township, who has well earned his comfortable condition in this life and the high place he holds in the public regard, is William Watkins, who resides on a fine farm of 240 acres of well-improved and carefully cultivated land not far from the village of Allen. His farm is largely the product of his own industry and thrift, giving the expression of his taste and enterprise in the matter of improvements. He has expended the whole of his mature life up to this time on it and devoted all his energies and his skill in its development and tillage. He is a native of County Kent in England, born on November 30, I847, in the portion of that county in which his ancestors had lived and labored for many generations. His parents were William and Ann (Field) Watkins, his father being a butcher by trade, who worked at this craft in his native land until 1850, when his son William was three years old. Then, deeming the opportunities for advancement better in the United States than in his own country, he gathered his household goods about him and set sail for the New World, where he had an elder brother well established and working out a gratifying prosperity. His family then consisted of himself, his wife and their two small sons. One of the sons died on the ocean voyage and was buried at sea. Deeply grieved by this bereavement, but not disheartened by its ill-boding suggestions, the survivors made their way to Michigan and settled in Hillsdale county, where the father's brother lived. The father bought eighty acres of land, set to work industriously to make a home out of its unpromising conditions, clearing away for this purpose the forest, which for ages had kept apart the soil and the sunshine, and gladdening the land full soon with a more comely and a more immediately serviceable harvest. The forest yielded a ready and cheerful submission to his dominion, and, in course of time, he bought an additional tract of forty acres, which he also cleared and made productive. On these two tracts, which he combined in one fine farm, he lived and labored until his death on April 27, i874. His wife died on April 27, 1854, and later he married his second wife, Miss Mary Wass, who was also a native of England, and died on April 4, I903. In political faith he was a faithful Democrat, but was in no sense, nor at any time, an active partisan and never held an office. William Watkins, the only surviving child of his father, inherited the farm where he has since the death of his father continued the skillful and systematic cultivation and management which his father had inaugurated and conducted, having learned the science of agriculture under that master of all its operations. In 1885 Mr. Watkins bought an addition of I20 acres to his patrimony, and now owns and tills the whole body of 240 acres with excellent judgment and gratifying results. He was married; is this county, in 1885, to Miss Lizzie Thompson, who was born and reared in Chautauqua county, New York, being a daughter of James and Mary A. (McKittrick)

Page  206 206 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Thompson, natives of Ireland and early settlers in this county. Her father died at Quincy in this state, where his widow is now living. Mr. and Mrs. Watkins have three children, Albert Edward, William J., and Anna E. Mr. Watkins is a member of the. local grange of Patrons of Husbandry, and belongs also to the Episcopal church, as did his parents. He is a Democrat in politics but has never taken an active part in the campaigns or held office. MOSES WILLITS. This pioneer of pioneers in Cambria township, who is one of its two surviving citizens that became dwellers within its limits with their families prior to 1840, was born at Farmington, Ontario county, N. Y., on April 13, 1814, the son of Jonathan and Rachel (Bunn) Willits, natives of New Jersey. Six of their children reached years of maturity; three are yet living, Moses, Jonathan, of Three Rivers, this state, and George, of Green Bay, Wisconsin. The paternal grandfather, John Willits, was a Quaker; the maternal grandfather, Barron Bunn, was a soldier in the Revolution and received serious wounds in battle for which he drew a pension from the government. Moses Willits was reared and received a limited common-school education in his native state, residing at what is now Lockport when it was in the wilderness. In 1837 he came to Michigan, making the trip in a sleigh, and coming by the way of Canada. He here entered I60 acres of land, built a little log house and then went back and brought his family to their new home. Baw Beese, the local Indian chief, was a frequent visitor at his house and he was well acquainted with other early characters of prominence, both Indian and white. He assisted in the organization of Cambria township and has been an active worker in its interest ever since. In 1835, two years before he moved to this state, he married Miss Angeline Alvord, a native of the state of New York, and they had six children, of whom three are living, Mrs. Levina Messinger, of Niles, Michigan; Henry F., of this township, and Alice, yet at home. Their mother died in I854, and two years later, Mr. Willits married Miss Sarah Bishop, a sister of Bani Bishop, a sketch of whom appears on other pages of this work. Of this marriage two children were born, Sarah B. Willits, of Shelby, this state, and Mrs. Byron L. Reed, of Detroit. Their mother died in I889. Mr. Willits was a Whig and an Abolitionist until the organization of the Republican party, since then he has been a devoted and loyal member of that body, having cast his vote in I856 for its first presidential candidate, Gen. John C. Fremont. He has never taken any interest in secret societies, and has never sought or desired political office. His autumnal evening of life is passing happily and quietly on the spot where the meridian height of his years and his industry were reached, and he is esteemed by all the people of the community, as an honored patriarch in their midst, whose career is a credit to the county and exemplifies in an impressive way the best attributes of American manhood. PHILO WAY. Philo Way was born on June 17, 1846, on the farm in Jefferson township, which is now his home, and has been all his life, and on which his father lived nearly fifty years. It was virgin and unbroken forest when the father purchased it, and the beautiful and productive estate it is now, is the product of the systematic and persevering labor of two generations of intelligent and skillful farmers. Mr. Way's parents were William and Orcelia (Ferguson) Way, natives of New York state. In his native home the father followed farming until 1840, when he came to Michigan, making the journey across the lake to Toledo, from that city coming by team to the farm which was thereafter his home until his death in I885. This domain was then a tiact of eighty acres of heavily timbered land, on which he erected a log house, and at once'began to make a clearing for the development and cultivation and for the production of food for his family and his stock. He was twice married, first to Miss Sarah A. Wickwire, in 1836, by whom he had three daughters. One of these is

Page  207 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAAN. 207 dead and the others, Mrs. Selleck and Mrs. A. C. Clark, reside at Portland in this state. Their mother died in I844, and, in I845, Mr. Way contracted a second marriage, being then united with Miss Orcelia Ferguson. Their family consisted of two sons and three daughters, all living but one daughter, and residents of this county. While deeply and intelligently interested in the welfare of the township, which he helped to organize, and the county, to which the record of his life was given, Mr. Way never sought or accepted public office nor took active part in politics, except with reference to the general welfare, although he was an earnest Republican from the organization of the party. In church affiliation he was a Universalist. Philo Way was reared and educated in Hillsdale county, and, as soon as he was able, assisted in the farm work, hard though it was, and gave his aid very cheerfully and energetically. He was closely identified with all the farm interests from the beginning, when his father died took charge of the property and has successfully managed it continuously since that event. He married, in Hillsdale county, on March 31, 1871, Miss Alice Davis, a daughter of Perry M. and Hannah (Lewis) Davis, all natives of New York. Her father was for a number of years a resident of Lenawee county, this state, and died at Kalamazoo, on May 20, I890. His wife died in Wilson, Niagara county, N. Y. in July 1865. Mr. and Mrs. Way have two children, their daughter, Edith Adell, and their son Alfred D., both living at the parental home. Mr. Way is a Republican in politics and a member of the local grange of the Patrons of Husbandry. The family attend the Congregationalist church and all are well esteemed throughout the township wherein their useful lives have been a blessing. HENRY S. WALWORTH. Henry S. Walworth, of Jerome in Somerset township,'this county, has for many years been one of the quickening spirits in the commercial and industrial life of that portion of the county. As a merchant, a banker, a manufacturer and as a leading citizen he has given life and direction to the business factors of the township. He;s a native of Shelby, Orleans county, New York, where he was born on January 23, I848. His parents, Calvin and Amira M. (Arnold) Walworth, were also natives of that county and there lived until I853, when they came to Michigan and settled near Moscow on a tract of unimproved land which they purchased. On this farm both parents died, the mother in I866, the father ten years later. Their five sons and one daughter grew to maturity, all the sons becoming residents of Hillsdale county. Their son, Henry S. Walworth, was reared on the farm and his preliminary education in the public schools was supplemented with an attend-. ance of two terms at Hillsdale College. Going to Kansas in i860 he secured employment first from the Missouri, Kansas & 'Texas Railroad, then from the Kansas Pacific, first being an agent and later a stockkeeper. The road was then in its course of construction to Denver, and the daily life of its employes was full of adventure. Life on the plains was wild, rough and trying, savage beasts and savage men were here uncontrolled, buffaloes were plentiful and other game was also abundant. Distinguished men came from all parts of the world to enjoy the enjoyment of the chase. Mr. Walworth accompanied the Russian Grand Duke Alexis on his renowned hunting trip under the guidance of "Buffalo Bill" of Wyoming, sharing in all the pleasures and incidents of the expedition. In 1874 he came back to Michigan and became agent for the Hillsdale & Ypsilanti Railroad. A few years later he turned his attention to commercial activities and began the handling of grain and farm produce in large quantities. From this he drifted into general merchandise and he also became extensively interested in dealings in farm property. The success of Mr. Walworth in mercantile pursuits was pronounced from the beginning, and he soon had capital for other financial ventures. He was one of the founders of the Hillsdale Savings Bank, being its vice-president from its start. In addition to his other business en

Page  208 2o8 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. gagements he has a private bank of his own at Jerome, which is one of the valued and serviceable institutions of the town. He is also the treasurer of the Jerome Brick & Tile Co., of which he was one of the creators. In political connection he is a Republican, was chosen as the candidate of his party twice to the office of supervisor and twice to that of township treasurer. In fraternal relations he is actively affiliated with the Maccabees and the Odd Fellows. To the town of Jerome he has contributed in worth and appearance by the erection of large business blocks, warehouses and grain elevators, and to its business and social life in many ways of appreciated and stimulating usefulness. IHe is one of the most widely known and most highly respected citizens of this part of the state, worthy in all respects of the public esteem he enjoys. MICHAEL WOLF. Mlichael Wolf, of Woodbridge township, who has served the people of this county in various public capacities, and has won by his strict attention to business, that of the public, when he had it in charge, and his own, at other times, the respect and confidence of all who know him, is a native of the county, born in Amboy township on December 29, 1853, the son of Frederick and Magdalena (Wantzig) Wolf, natives of Alsace-Lorraine, at the time of their birth a province of France, but in I871 wrested from that country by Germany through fortunes of war. They emigrated to the United States in I852 and settled in Hillsdale county, where the father purchased forty acres of forest land in Amboy township, being a part of section 32. They arrived in the county without means, only armed for the struggle before them with their resolute spirits and indomitable determination. By their persistent efforts and their stern endurance of the many hardships here encountered, they made, their little portion of the western wilderness;n time to blossom as the rose and fruitful with all the products of advanced and skillful cultivation. The comforts of life for them at first were few and difficult of attainment. More than once the father was obliged to walk sixteen miles to Hillsdale for flour and carry a sack weighing seventy pounds on his back all the way home, making the round trip in a single day. He died on the farm in 1893, and the mother in 1897. They were the parents of six children who reached years of maturity, all but one of whom are now living, all being residents of this county. One son, Frederick, was a member of the Twenty-seventh Michigan Infantry and also a sharpshooter during the Civil War. The martial spirit he exhibited he was rightfully entitled to by inheritance, for his maternal grandfather was a blacksmith in the army of Bonaparte, and, although attached for the most part to the mechanical department of the army, he saw field service at times in the exigencies of that great commander's active campaigns. He beheld the eagles of the Empire mingle with the eagles of the Alps in the march on Italy, soar in triumph at Austerlitz and Wagram and Borodino, crouch in fear during the terrible retreat from Moscow, go down at last in gloom and shame at Leipsic and in the crowning disaster at Waterloo. He was once captured by the Russians, but made his escape and was three days in reaching the French army. Mr. Wolf's father also saw service on the French frontier as a guard against smugglers. Michael Wolf passed his childhood and youth on the paternal homestead, assisting in its trying labors and sharing its expanding blessings. He attended the district schools near his home and from their ministrations secured a limited education. When he was eighteen years of age he started out in life for himself, and by I876 he had saved enough of his earnings to purchase a farm of forty acres in Ransom township. In I88I he sold his farm and bought eighty acres in Woodbridge township, which he still owns and which was his home continuously until the fall of I902, when he removed to the village of Frontier. June o1, 1877, he married, in this county, Miss Emma G. Cowles, a native of Lenawee county, and a daughter of Celden and Mary A. (Schnall) Cowles, a sister of the wife of Jacob Wolf, a brother of Michael, a sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this work. Her parents were

Page  209 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 209 among the first settlers in Lenawee county, her grandfather, Mr. John J. Schnall, coming thither from Northampton county, Pa., in 1826. He afterward moved to Fulton county, Ohio, and there served as county surveyor for twenty years, during which time he also followed his profession in Lucas county, Ohio. His death occurred in Fulton county. He was a soldier in the Black Hawk Indian War and did duty for his country in other capacities from time to time. Mrs. Wolfe's mother makes her home with her daughter, Mrs. Wolf, at the age of seventy-six years, having been born in Lenawee county, and she is no doubt one of the oldest citizens now living who is a native of Michigan. Mr. and Mrs. Wolf have two children, their sons, Clyde M., a prominent business man of Hudson, Ind., and Ray C., until recently a soldier in the Eighth U. S. Cavalry, Troop K, stationed at Fort Riley, Kansas, having been tranisferred lately to the U. S. Signal Corps at Fort Myer, Va. Mr. Wolf has been and is a man of influence and a stimulating force in the public life of the township. He served on the board of review, in I899 was elected supervisor, being reelected in 900o and again in I9OI. He was once a candidate for county treasurer on the Republican ticket, only failing of the nomination by two votes. The family are members of the United Brethren church. Mr. Wolf is. well known all over the county, held in high respect. DR. JONATHAN C. WHITNEY. While peoples of all ages, climes and conditions have had their practitioners of medicine for the alleviation of human suffering, it was not until a short time ago that any systematic effort was made to found schools of veterinary surgery and pathology. Perhaps among the earliest, and certainly among the best, of such schools is the one located at Toronto, Ontario, which, from its foundation has steadily increased in value as an educator in its line and widened its streams of benefaction, especially for the dumb brutes, whose sufferings must be inferred, and can be alleviated only by human aid. Of this excellent veterinary college, Dr. Jonathan C. Whitney of Hillsdale is an alumnus, having been graduated there on March 29, 1883. He is the son of Jonathan and Ann J. (Garrett) Whitney, the former a native of New York and the latter of the Isle of Man, and was born in Allen township, this county, on August 19, I852. His father, a farmer, came to Hillsdale county in 1838, and settled on a farm of government land, which he cleared and lived upon until his death. Ami Whitney, the paternal grandfather of the Doctor, a New Yorker by nativity, owned land in Hillsdale county, but never resided here. Doctor Whitney was one of four children, the other children being William G., Anna E. and Jennie. His father, an active Republican, for years capably served as supervisor and as justice of the peace, and his brother William G. was with the Eleventh Michigan Infantry in the Civil War. The father was also a zealous worker and a valued official in the Methodist Episcopal church, who assisted in building all churches of this denomination in Allen township. The Doctor, educated in the public'schools of the county, after leaving school engaged in farming until I88I, then, through his own experience and that of others finding a pressing need for a veterinary surgeon in his neighborhood, he determined to supply the need and to this end entered the veterinary college located at Toronto. After a two years' course of instruction there he was graduated in 1883, and at once began practicing his profession with headquarters at Allen in this county. Doctor Whitney has been engaged in the practice ever since, from I885 to the present time, being located at Hillsdale. Here he has a fully equipped hospital for the treatment of all diseases of animals and their proper care, its high reputation and his practice extending over this and the adjoining counties. He also still owns and operates his farm in Allen township. On November 21, I883, he was united in marriage with Miss Fannie E. Ellis, a native of New York state, but whose residence since her infancy was in the township of Allen. She was educated in the public schools, also in Hillsdale College and taught

Page  210 210 HILLSDALE CO UNTY, MICHIGAN. several terms with great ability in the township of Allen. They have two attractive daughters, Marjorie and Jennie. In politics the Doctor is a Republican, but he is not an active partisan and has never sought office, having, however, very capably served four years as alderman. He belongs to the State Veterinary Association, of which he was president for one term, and is also a blue lodge and a chapter Mason, holding memberships at Hillsdale. He is also an official of the Methodist Episcopal church, of which he is a valued member.. In his profession he has been signally useful to the people of Hillsdale county. In his citizenship he has been found worthy in every way of the public and private esteem which he enjoys in good measure. /- ',HARRISON BEERS,;..- From the great Empire state'of New York,;digious in productive enterprise of every form, whosse teeming millions of population are promighty in commercial activity and force in every line, elevated and progressive in intellectual culture and'power through every channel, broad and far-s'eeing in the sweep of their vision to every horizon of human effort; from this highly vitalized and intensely energized mass of men came much of the spirit, the endurance and the persistent industry that redeemed Southern Michigan from the savage and the waste, and created on its soil a new empire, where before the buffalo roamed and the wild deer disported. Among the number of those daring and hardy adventurers whom she contributed 'to this work, must be mentioned with credit in any chronicle of their deeds, the name of Harrison Beers, of Allen township, who is now enjoying, in peace and prosperity, the guerdon of the trials he endured, and of the labors he performed in the early days of this part of Michigan. He was born in Ontario county, New York, on July 3, I819, a scion of old New England families who aided in performing for the state of Connecticut in Colonial times, what he has helped to perform for Michigan in later years. His parents were Fitch and Purthenia (Thorp) Beers, whose ancestors settled in Connecticut among its early pioneers, themselves being born and reared in that state. The father was a farmer, who, while he was yet a young man, moved to western New York, and there he met and married his wife, who was the mother of his seven sons, the only survivors of whom are Miles Beers, Harrison, and a brother who resides in St. Joseph county in this state. The parents lived in New York until their life labors were ended, the death of the father occurring in I843, and that of the mother in 1850. The grandfather on both -sides of this family were heroes in the Revolution and followed the fortunes of its wavering cause from its dawn at Bunker Hill to its final triumph at Yorktown. The maternal grandfather was a farmer in New 'York, from whence he moved to the vicinity of Cleveland,. Ohio, where he died in the fullness of years and of honors. Harrison Beers grew to manhood in his native state and received a limited elementary education in the primitive schools of his day and locality. In I846 he came to Michigan, making the journey by the Erie canal to Buffalo, from there by boat to Detroit, whence he traveled over the crude railway of the period to Jackson county. Michigan, where one of his brothers-in-law had previously settled. -He did not linger long in Jackson county, but came soon after his arrival in the state to.Hillsdale and purchased eighty acres of land in Allen township, a portion of the excellent farm on which he now maintains his home, and, building a little log shanty for a residence, he, at once, began to clear his land and make'it habitable and productive. We may pass the trials and privations, the struggles and the dangers of his earlier years in this county, but they came in abundant measure and he bore them with conmendable fortitude. In time he added eighty acres more to his domain, and also reduced this tract to fruitfulness and beauty. But he did not labor and suffer alone,. for two years before leaving his native heath he was united in marriage with Miss Fannie Boyce, of the same nativity as himself, the marriage occtirring in March, 1844. She was the daughter of Henry and Nancy (Clement) Boyce, who, in

Page  211 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 2I I853, followed her to Michigan and settled on a farm in Allen township, near her home, where they died after years of usefulness. Mr. and Mrs. Beers have six children, Edna, wife of E. Nickerson, of Eaton county, Michigan; Calvin, a prosperous farmer of Branch county; Adella, wife of J. Howell, of California; Angus, a leading business man of Hillsdale; Fred, who is actively engaged in farming in Branch county; and Henry, who is pursuing the same vocation in Hillsdale county. Their father is a Republican in politics and has, from time to time, served his township faithfully in several local offices. He is a charter member of the Allen grange of Patrons of Husbandry, and he takes a great and serviceable interest in its affairs, as he does in everything pertaining to agriculture and kindred pursuits. He has long been a leading and representative man of the county, exemplifying in his daily life the best attributes of its citizenship, and keeping ever close in his watchful care the best interests of its people in every line of action and progress. CITIZENS BANK OF LITCHFIELD. This sound, well-managed and enterprising financial institution, which is one of the decidedly beneficial commercial factors in the business life of Litchfield township, having a high reputation throughout the county and state for excellence in its management, anplitude in its resources, vigor' and progressiveness in its business activity and considerate helpfulness in its spirit of accommodation, was founded in I886, as a private bank, with a capital stock of $5,ooo. The founders were Albert J. Lovejoy, Asher B. La Fleur, who is now cashier of the Savings Bank at Hillsdale, and was connected with the Litchfield bank but a year, and David Eagleston, who also was connected with it but a year. Then F. E. Church became interested in the institution and the firm became A. Lovejoy & Co. Mr. Albert J. Lovejoy is a native of Hillsdale county, born on February 3, 1847, a son of Samuel and Elizabeth B. (Morse) Lovejoy. He grew to manhood in this county, learned the les14 sons taught in the books at its public schools and those of practical life at the paternal fireside and in the rugged school of experience. He began assisting his father in the labors of the farm when he was eleven years old, and, in I866, when he was nineteen, in partnership with Frank E. Lovejoy, he started a general store at Litchfield, the second of the kind to be there operated. It was immediately popular and successful, and, within a period of three years, was doing a business of $Ioo,ooo in volume. In 1870 Frank E. Lovejoy died and the business continued under the name and style of F. E. Lovejoy & Co. for several years, then was enlarged and quickened into. greater activity under its present title. Mr. Lovejoy also founded the Hub clothing store at Litchfield, which he later sold, and, in addition to his other numerous interests and business enterprises, he now gives careful and productive attention to a vigorous farming industry. All of his ventures thrive, for he has the shrewdness, business capacity, breadth of view and knowledge of men and of methods to make them work harmoniously together and to the best advantage. He is quick and keen to see, alert to grasp opportunities for profitable mercantile enterprises, and has both readiness and resourcefulness in carrying them on to successful and gratifying results. Mr. Lovejoy was married in this county in 1875 to Miss Mary E. Stoddard, a daughter of William Stoddard, an ex-state senator, who is well known and highly respected throughout the county. They have six living children, Nannie E., the wife of W. H. Simmons, of Havana, Cuba, chemist in the cement works; Theo. D., living at the paternal home; Brownie, the wife of R. J. Shattuck, of Litchfield; Louise S., Jean and Margueritte at the family home. A daughter named Georgia is deceased. Mr. Lovejoy is a citizen of great public spirit, and, while he has never taken any very active part in politics, he has filled several local offices for the good of the community, notably that of a membership of the school board, in which he served for a number of years. He is a member of the Masonic order, devoted to its welfare and progress. He has been for several years the treas

Page  212 2I2 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. urer of the creamery company at Litchfield and has given to its affairs a careful and intelligent attention. In all of the relations of life he has met his duty with manliness, uprightness and firmness, exhibiting always a due respect for the rights and regard for the feelings of others. He is one of the leading and most useful citizens of the county, being universally respected as such. BENJAMIN F. ALDRICH. Benjamin F. Aldrich is the son of Seth and Minerva (Doolittle) Aldrich and a native of Ontario county, New York, born on February 24. I835. His father was also a native of New York and his mother of Ohio. When he was five or six years old the family moved from their New York home to Michigan and settled in Hillsdale county. The trip was made by way of the Erie canal to Buffalo and from thence across Lake Erie to Toledo. Young as he was, Mr. Aldrich was so impressed by the voyage over the lake, which lasted a week, and by other portions' of the journey, and many interesting incidents connected with it, that he well remembers them now, and almost as vividly as if they were of recent occurrence, or perhaps even more so. In the new land, to which they had journeyed with so much toil and weariness, they were confronted with additional labor and difficulty. The land they took up was an unbroken forest, given up to the wild growth of centuries, still abounding with its savage denizens of beasts and men and both resented vigorously the intrusion of civilization and the heralds who proclaimed its approach. The conveniences of life were few, and even the actual necessities, but for the wild game that was plentiful, would have been often difficult of attainment. But the hardy pioneers had not come on a holiday excursion. They knew in advance much of what was before them and were nerved to meet it. With undaunted resolution they accepted the situation as they found it, and set to work with diligence and perseverance to improve it. Seth Aldrich became one of the prosperous farmers of the county, one of the leading and influential men of his township. He was called upon to administer important local offices, and, in this way and by his general participation in local affairs, he aided materially in establishing the forms of government and the blessings of civilization in the territory he was helping to reclaim from the wilderness. He was a justice of the peace for twelve years and was at the front in every movement for the progress and development of the community. His wife and he were prominent and active members of the Presbyterian church. She died at the homestead at the age of sixty-seven years and her husband on December 26, I880, at the age of eighty. The father was twice married and the father of seven children, two daughters and one son, Benjamin F., surviving. Benjamin F. Aldrich was reared amid the scenes and exactions of pioneer life, and, by them, he was prepared to take his place in the great work of building up the state when his time for action came. He received a limited education at the primitive schools and early began a course of useful labor on the farm. He remained a member of the family homestead until he was well advanced in life, being then united in marriage with Miss Isabella Van Alstein, a native of the county, born in Somerset township on March 15, I843, the wedding taking place on October 8, I862. Mrs. Aldrich was one of the seven children born to her parents, Abraham and Diantha (Bilby) Van Alstein, of whom but four are, now living. Her parents were natives of New York, who died in Michigan, the mother at the age of sixty-six and the father in April, I881, at the age of sixty-nine. After his marriage, Mr. Aldrich, in partnership with his brother, Hosea C. Aldrich, engaged in the manufacture of brick and drain tile for a number of years, having purchased the business of their father, who was the first man to make such tile in southern Michigan. Mr. Aldrich became prominent and influential in local affairs, holding a number of offices, among them that of membership on the school board to which he belonged for twenty-five years, to the business of which important office he gave diligent and effective attention. He is, as was his father, a Republican in politics, and he steadfastly

Page  213 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 213 supports the principles and nominees of his party. He is an earnest supporter also of the Methodist Episcopal church, to which his wife belongs, and both are ever active in all commendable church work. They are the parents of one child, Ida V., now the wife of Ludd Chandler, a prosperous farmer of Somerset township, a more extended notice of whom will be found on another page of this volume. Mr. and Mrs. Aldrich have a large circle of devoted friends and are highly respected throughout the township and elsewhere by all who know them. Mr. Aldrich had one brother, Kempshel, who died in New York state at nineteen years of age. HOSEA C. ALDRICH, the only brother of Benjamin, was born in Canandaigua, Ontario county, N. Y., on October 23, I836, and came with the family to Michigan in his childhood. His personal history was much like that of his brother and the other boys of the neighborhood, until the Civil War called him to the defense of the Union. On August 5, I862, he enlisted in a Michigan regiment, and, in the three years of honorable service which followed, he saw many of war's unutterable horrors, both on the battlefield and in prison life. He took part in many engagements and rose by merit to the rank of sergeant. On September 24, I864, he was captured at Athens, Alabama, and, after being robbed of all his possessions, was thrown into prison at Cahaba. His experiences here have been embalmed by him in a thrilling narrative entitled "Cahaba Prison, a Glimpse of Life in a Rebel Prison." He also witnessed the explosion and burning of the steamer Sultana on the Mississippi river, by Which 1,700 lives were lost, being on board of the boat and blown into the river. On June 25, I865, he was discharged from the army, and on April I4, 1887, he died universally respected by all who knew him. JACOB WOLF. The late Jacob Wolf, of Woodbridge township, whose untimely and tragical death on September 4, I902, at the early age of fifty-three years, when all his faculties were in full vigor and all his industries were thriving, was universally lamented, was a native of Germany, born near the city of Strasburg, on March 13, I849. His parents were Frederick and Magdalena (Wantzig) Wolf, also natives of that part of Germany, where the father was long a gardener and small farmer. In I852 with his family, consisting of his wife, three sons and one daughter, Frederick Wolf emigrated to the United States, coming direct to Hillsdale county, where his wife had a brother living in Amboy township. Here they soon secured a tract of forty acres of wild land and located on it for the purpose of making it a permanent home in the new country, to which they had come with high hopes, and a stern resolve to win their way by judicious and persistent effort. This land he cleared and added to by purchases from time to time until his farm comprised I20 acres, which was all. brought to a good state of development and cultivation, and on this property they resided until the death of Mr. Wolf in I893, and thereafter his widow there made her home until her death four years later. They had five sons and one daughter, all now living except their son, Jacob. Devout and active workers in the German Methodist Episcopal church, the parents died in full faith in its benefits and in the everlasting rest it promised. Jacob Wolf was but a child three years of age when he was brought to this country and knew naught of the stormy passage across the Atlantic, nor of the subsequent hardships and weariness of the overland journey to the wilds of Michigan. His whole life of conscious activity was practically passed in his new home. Here he grew to manhood, here he began and concluded his school days, here he started in life for himself when he reached a proper age and development. He was a regular attendant for a number of years at the "old Dutch schoolhouse," which was abandoned in I902. He remained at home until he was twenty-four years old, assisting in clearing up and tilling the home farm. On July Io, 1873, he was united in marriage with Miss Henrietta M. Cowles, a native of Lenawee county, in this state, and a daughter of Celden and Mary H. (Schnall) Cowles, who were I I:

Page  214 214 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. among the pioneers of that county and afterward removed to Ransom township, where her father died. Her mother is still living and resides in Woodbridge township. After his marriage Mr. Wolf bought eighty acres of untamed land in Ransom township, and, moving his bride into a very small framed house which he had built on this land, he began here to carve a home out of the wilderness and to make the land fruitful with the products and fragrant with the flowers of systematic industry. He resided for eighteen years on that farm and, by the end of that time, he had brought it to an advanced state of development and cultivation. He then moved to Woodbridge township, where he lived the rest of his days. His accidental death occurred on September 4, 1902, by his being thrown on a saw in the mill at Frontier. His right arm and foot were cut off and he received internal injuries from which he died. His family consisted of two sons, Freddie C., who died in 1897 at the age of twelve, and Robert E., now (I903) eleven years old. Mr. Wolf never took special interest in politics or held public office, being fully occupied with his home and its duties. Yet he was not wanting in an earnest and steadfast interest in the welfare of the community, for this was manifested by an active support of every commendable enterprise for the promotion of its best interests. He was an enthusiastic sportsman through life, especially fond of hunting and he spent a few weeks every year either in northern Michigan or elsewhere engaged in this exhilarating sport. He became to be well known as one of the thrifty and successful farmers of the township, who enjoyed in a marked degree the respect and good will of his fellow citizens everywhere. EVERETT WOODWARD. Coming to Michigan and Hillsdale county in I854, when he was but nine years old, and passing the whole of his subsequent life within the borders of the county, Everett Woodward, one of the leading farmers of Jefferson township, has been closely identified with the progress and de velopment of this region and a material factor in bringing about the beneficent results which time and systematic labor have wrought in this portion of the state. He is a native of Hancock county, Ohio, born on August 29, 1845, the son of Daniel and Abigail (Barker) Woodward, natives of New Hampshire and members of families resident in New England from early Colonial times. His father, a farmer, removed to Ohio in I834, and to Michigan in 1854, settling in Hillsdale county, where he rented a farm for two years and then bought eighty acres of land, which is now' the farm on which his son, Everett, resides. Here he located his family and here they harmoniously engaged in clearing the land and in reducing it to cultivation and productiveness, the father faithfully and industriously continuing his efforts in this direction until his death in I888, having survived his wife but one year. Their family consisted of four children, all of whom are now dead but Everett. The father was a man of local prominence, one of the leaders of public opinion in his day. For sixteen years he was highway commissioner for the township and the postmaster at Jefferson for the same length of time. A zealous member of the Congregational church Mr. Woodward was active in all good works for the benefit of the community or for the advantage and comfort of its people. The grandfather, Samuel Woodward, also a native of New Hampshire, came to Michigan in 1856, dying here in 1858. From the age of nine years Everett Woodward has been a resident of Hillsdale county, living all the while in Jeffer'son township and on the farm which is now his home. He was educated in the schools of the neighborhood and he has passed his entire life busily occupied with the elevating and peaceful pursuits of agriculture, finding ready response to his persuasive labor in the fertile soil of this favored region and seeing its fruits in profuse abundance around him. His life has been in perfect accord with the genius of the place and section, also with the general trend of thought and action among its people. And, as he has been helpful and energetic in the development and establishment of their best aspirations.

Page  215 HIILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 2I5 he is well esteemed by all classes of the citizens as one of their representative men and leaders. For nearly thirty years, ever since 1876, he has served them as a justice of' the peace, and, in the discharge of his official duties, he has been of great value as a conservator of law and order and an arbiter of local disputes and'misunderstandings. Although a Republican in politics, he seldom mingles actively in the inevitable contests between and within the parties, giving his public attention and activity to the general good of the community rather than to the advantage of any person, faction or party. DR. WILLIAM H. ATTERBURY. Although comparatively young in his practice as a physician and surgeon, Dr, William H. Atterbury, of Litchfield, has given abundant evidence. of his knowledge and skill in his profession, and of his high professional spirit, having already become well established in public confidence and regard as a consequence. He is a native of St. Joseph county in this state, born at Three Rivers, on March 21, I870. His parents are Frederick A. and Julia E. (Davis) Atterbury, natives of New York, the former born in Brooklyn and the latter at Rochester. The father is a carriage-trimmer by occupation, and worked at his trade in his native state for awhile after learning it, but came to Michigan when he was yet a young man, settled first at Three Rivers and some time later at Kalamazoo, where he and his wife are now living. Doctor Atterbury was reared and educated with unusual care. He began his education in the public schools and finished the scholastic part of it at the high school in Kalamazoo. In I890, he started to read medicine at Three Rivers under the direction of Dr. W. E. Clark, of that city, in the autumn of the same year entering the medical department of the State University at Ann Arbor. He was graduated therefrom in the class of 1895, at once came to Litchfield, began the practice of his profession, and here he has since been busily occupied in professional duties. He has a general practice, which is steadily ex panding in volume, now including many of the best people in the township and surrounding country. He belongs to the county and state medical societies and manifests great interest in their proceedings, to which he adds interest by his contributions of value drawn from his professional observations and experience. In his practice he is studious and observant, reading thoughtfully and following carefully and.with excellent judgment the best thought in the literature of the profession, applying to his cases with superior intelligence his own judicious and discriminating conclusions. The Doctor married in February, I902, with Miss Jennie Calahan, a native of Albion, Michigan, who presides over their pleasant home with a grace that adds enjoyment to its generous hospitality and refinement to its social atmosphere. He is a member of several of the benevolent fraternities so valued among men, being an Elk, a Mason, a Knight of Pythias, a Knight of the Maccabees and a Forester. In politics he is not an active partisan, but is true and constant to the principles of the Democratic party. In reference to matters involving the welfare of the community, he is progressive, broad in view, diligent and helpful in action. For every attribute and quality of a first-rate citizen, for professional fidelity and capacity of a high order, for agreeable and entertaining social gifts, the Doctor is well-known and highly esteemed. He is also a member of the board of pension examiners, having held the appointment for two years. GEORGE W. BAKER. George W. Baker, the son of esteemed pioneers of this state and county, was born near the village of Jonesville on April o0, I844. His parents were Samuel S. and Rachel (Putman) Baker, both born in 1803, the former in Trumbull county, Ohio, and the latter in St. Lawrence county, New York. The father was a farmer, who worked at his acquired trade of carpentry at intervals throughout his life. The family came to Michigan in I840, located for a time in Lenawee county, then moved to Scipio township, and

Page  216 216 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. settled near Jonesville. While the county seat was at Jonesville, Mr. Baker, the elder, served four years as turnkey at the jail. He was always deeply interested in local public affairs, and, while modestly avoiding office for himself for the most part, he gave close attention to the selection of others for official positions, exacting for his approval a high standard of character and capacity. His death occurred on June 5, I886, that of his widow in October, I888. They were the parents of eleven children, eight sons and three daughters, of whom but two are living, their son, George, and their daughter, Mrs. Clementine 'Harding, of Qiincy, in this state. George W. Baker grew to manhood in his native township and received his education in its public schools. He began life for himself as a soldier in the Union army, enlisting on June 26, 1862, at the age of eighteen, as a member of Co. G, Eighteenth Michigan Infantry. This regiment formed a part of the western army and was engaged in all of the battles of that portion of the Federal forces, doing some of the hardest and most disastrous fighting of the war. He served until victory crowned the Union arms, then returned to his Michigan home and at once began to learn the trade of carriagemaking, which he soon mastered, and thereafter worked at it in Jonesville for a period of twenty years. In politics Mr. Baker has never wavered in his support of the principles of the Democratic party, although not desiring or willing to accept public office for himself, he has always given the candidates of his party earnest and loyal aid, helping to select them by active participation in the primary elections, the fountain head of political power in this country. He is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and of the Grand Army 6f the Republic, a regular and interested attendant at the meetings of both organizations. In his business he has prospered by diligence, capacity and thrift; in public esteem he stands well and is firmly established; in social life he is companionable and entertaining; in public spirit, enterprise and progressiveness he ranks among the best men in the community. There is scarcely an undertaking, in which the advancement of the community or the comfort and welfare of its people have been involved, to which he has not given active, forceful and timely assistance. HORACE R. BAKER. This enterprising and progressive farmer of Moscow township came to Hillsdale county with his parents in 1837 when he was but six years old, the farm on which he now lives having been his home continuously from that time. Largely the product of his industry and intelligent cultivation, it represents in a considerable measure the labors of his past life. He was born in Cayuga county, New York, on September I6, 1831, the son of William Y. and Elizabeth (Redway) Baker, each, like himself, native in New York. The father was a hardware merchant, engaged in business at different times at Cleveland and Detroit. In 1837 he brought his family to this county and purchased I60 acres of unbroken timber land, the tract on which his son, Horace, now lives. He did not reside on this land long, however, being engaged in business elsewhere, but both he and his wife died here. He was a man of prominence in his native state, there serving for years as a colonel of militia and in other positions of trust and importance. The family consisted of two sons and one daughter, the daughter and one son are now living. The living son, Horace R. Baker, attained maturity on the Hillsdale county homestead and was educated in the schools of the vicinity and at Jonesville. At an early age he took charge of the farm and conducted the work of clearing it and bringing it into fruitfulness. This has furnished the occupation of his life, and has returned with interest the whole of his investment of labor and care in its cultivation and improvement. For some years he has been actively engaged in the breeding of high-grade coach and trotting horses, and has a wide reputation for the excellence of his products in these lines. Mr. Baker was married in this county in 858 to Miss Ann Eliza Fowle, a cousin of Harmon Fowle, a sketch of whom will be found else

Page  217 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 217 where in this work, who was a daughter of Charles Fowle. They have one child, their daughter, Jennie, now the widow of J. C. Mallory, of Hillsdale county. Since the formation of the Republican party Mr. Baker has given it his unwavering allegiance in politics. He is not, however, an active partisan, and has not been an office-seeker, although he has served as township treasurer, performing the duties of the office with efficiency and zeal. His grandfather was a Joshua Baker, a Scotchman by nativity, who came to this country in his young manhood and became a soldier in the Colonial army in the closing years of the Revolution, also doing military service in the War of 1812. He married Miss Elizabeth Dickinson, a daughter of William Dickinson, his companion in arms in both wars. Since the family was first planted on American sQil its members have been patriotic, devoted to the best interests of the country, adding to its wealth and importance in peace, gallantly defending its dignity and its rights in war. In almost every line of productive energy they have been diligent and progressive, in all the attributes of good citizenship they have ever been richly endowed, conspicuous in their several stations for manliness of character and uprightness of life. He who stands as their representative in this county at the present time is in every way worthy of their companionship, being so considered by the people among whom his unassuming and serviceable life has been passed. PROF. KINGSBURY BACHELDER. Prof. Kingsbury Bachelder, of the chair of the Greek language and literature at Hillsdale College, is a native of Prospect, in the state of Maine, born on October 27, 1841. His parents were Elijah and Hannah (Piper) Bachelder, also natives of Maine. The father, a shipbuilder and farmer, after a long life of usefulness died in his native state, as did his wife. They were the parents of four children, all now living but one. The paternal grandfather of the Professor was Elijah Bachelder, a prosperous miller, who passed the whole of his life in Maine, there took a prominent and active part in public local affairs and was a leading man. Professor Bachelder began his education in the public schools near his home, continued it at the Hampden (Maine) academy and the Denmer Institute at Newbury, Mass., a school founded by Governor Denmer, finishing at Bowdoin College, at Brunswick, Maine, where he was graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts in I87I. He was then employed for a year in teaching at the Auburn, Maine, high school, after which he spent a year in study. During the next eight years he was principal of Maine Central Institute at Pittsfield, during the two succeeding years he was a student at the divinity school of Bates College at Lewiston, Maine. In I883 he came to Hillsdale, here first occupying the chair of Latin and literature at the college, filling the position with great credit to himself and benefit to the college for a period of five years, at the end of this time being transferred to the Greek professorship in which he is still serving. As a teacher he ranks high in capacity of every kind, especially in that rare one of quickening and stimulating the faculties of his pupils and helping them to a larger and broader intellectual power. Professor Bachelder is full and ripe in scholarship, elevated and broad in character, symmetrical in development and culture, skillful in imparting knowledge, having long since passed the rank of schoolmaster and reached that of teacher. He was married in Dover, Maine, on June 27, I877, to Miss Mary A. Wade, like himself a native of that state. They have no children. The Professor, while deeply and intelligently interested in the welfare of his country, his state and his county, and holding decided convictions as to how to secure it, has never taken part in party ty politics. In his early life he was made a Freemason and joined the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. In the peaceful pursuits of his elevating and tranquilizing profession, in the pleasures of domestic life and the enjoyments of an agreeable and cultivated social circle, and in the comfortable consciousness of possessing the esteem and good will of his fellow men, of which he has

Page  218 218 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. many evidences, his days pass smoothly and pleasantly, and he is approaching the calm and fruitful autumnal evening of his life, with a record of usefulness and upright living behind him that is both stimulating in its example and worthy of a general imitation. WILLIAM B. NORTHROP. One of the leading banking and business men of Hillsdale county, whose untimely death at the early age of fifty-four, which occurred at Hillsdale, Michigan, on January 30, I902, when his intellectual powers were at their full maturity and vigor, was universally lamented, was William B. Northrop, the popular and efficient cashier of the Waldron Bank of Reading, a native of Orleans county, New York, where he was born in I848. His parents were Hiram 0. and Laura A. (Balcom) Northrop, also natives of New York, who came to Michigan about I868 and settled at Reading. The tather, a prosperous farmer in his native state, continued in that vocation in his new home, dying at Reading in 1872, universally respected. His widow survived until I890, when she too passed away from earth, secure in the esteem of all who had the benefit of her acquaintance. Of their four sons and two daughters only the daughters and one son are living. William B. Northrop remained.at his New York home until the family moved to Michigan, when, he, too, became a resident of this state, finishing at Hillsdale College the education begun in his native state. After leaving college he found employment as clerk for George G. Cone, of Reading; after some time profitably spent in his employ, he entered the service of the Fort Wayne Railroad as its station agent at Reading, a berth he filled acceptably during the ensuing ten years. At the end of that time he associated himself with C. W. Waldron in the banking business, being cashier of the bank at Reading which bears the name of that progressive and enterprising gentleman. He occupied this position for eighteen years. In the meantime the bank was reorganized as a state bank, and, under the new management, Mr. Northrop was again chosen cashier and continued to act in that capacity until failing health obliged him to resign in January, I900. He then took up his residence at Hillsdale and remained there until he died. After the death of his parents he owned and operated the old family homestead near iReading, and was connected in an influential and substantial.way with other industrial and commercial enterprises. On September 21, 1882, at East Kendall, N. Y., he married with Miss Augusta J. Randall, a native of Monroe county, New York, and a daughter of Jackson and Julia (King) Randall. Mrs. Northrop's parents were also natives of New York and passed their lives in that state. Three children have come from Mr. Northrop's felicitous marriage, two of whom died in early life, and one daughter, Frances L., in still living. Mr. Northrop was a Republican in politics, but not an active partisan and by no means was he in office-seeker. He was one of the best-known and most highly respected citizens of the county, possessing the full confidence of the business world and the cordial regard of all his friends. WILLIS BAKER. Like many of the older residents of southern Michigan, Willis Baker, of Somerset township, is a native of New York state. He was born in Wayne county on September 22, I836, the sor of John F. and P6lly (Lamb) Baker, also New Yorkers by nativity and well-to-do farmers in that state. When their son, Willis, who was the fifth of their ten children, was two weeks old, they left their New York home, and, by a toilsome and difficult journey of four weeks with ox teams, came to Michigan, suffering weariness and privations on the way. They settled in Hillsdale county on eighty acres of government land, on which they built the first residence for civilized man erected in what is now Somerset township. At that time Adrian, the nearest market, was a hamlet of a few rude cabins, Indians were abundant in the forest, wild beasts were numerous and daring. Provisions for the common necessaries of life were often scant and hard to get. Wild game was, however, plentiful, and

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Page  219 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 219 the manly spirit which had brought the family into the wilderness sustained them in their trials. Their progress in clearing the land and reducing it to productiveness was slow, but their gains were steady, their industry unflagging. Other settlers soon took up land around them, and, in time, the whole region was transformed into one of fruitfulness and beauty. Five children were added to their household after their arrival in this state, and, as each grew old enough to work, a new hand was added to the force of the farm and helped in making its work effective. J. F. Baker was born at Angelica, Allegany county, New York, on September II, 1807, the son of William and Katie (Featherby) Baker, the father a native of the same state and the mother of New England. His father was twice married and the parent of eighteen children, of whom only John reached years of, maturity. John passed his youth and early manhood at the New York homestead. On January 7, I826, he was united in marriage with Miss Polly Lamb, born in I808, a daughter of Isaac and Sally (Stanley) Lamb, all natives of New York, where her parents died and were laid to rest with many demonstrations of popular regret. After his marriage Mr. Baker settled on a tract of land in Wayne county, New York, where the family lived until I836, when they came to Michigan. During the first year after their arrival in this state they cleared four acres of their land, and near the close of the next year their log cabin, their only shelter from the inclement weather, was burned. Within two weeks after the disaster, however, another house was built on another part of the farm, the household goods being drawn to it on a sled by a yoke of oxen. Prosperity thereafter followed their labor, and in time their estate had grown to 200 acres, much of it being under good cultivation. The father took an active interest in the educational and moral advancement of his community. He established the first school in the township and took up the subscription to pay for the tuition. In politics he was an uncompromising Democrat and also an earnest advocate of temperance. After a life of great industry and signal service to his fellows, his death occurred on May I8, I888, an(l that of his wife in May, 1893. Of their ten children four are living. Two are residents of Hillsdale county, one of Eaton county and one of California. Willis Baker is one of the leading farmers of the county, owning and operating one of its finest farms. It is located on sections 2I, 28 and 29 of Somerset township and comprises 280 acres of well-improved and highly cultivated land, with forty acres of excellent timber land in one tract in addition. An elegant residence and several commodious and substantial barns add to its attractiveness and value, its well-bred stock being one of its impressive features. He remained with his parents on the home farm until he passed his thirtieth year, receiving his education at the district schools in the vicinity. On February 21, I867, he married with Miss Emeline Rickerd, a native of this county, born in Wheatland township, on January 7, 1851, the daughter of A. B. and Dersy A. (Sales) Rickerd, natives of New York, and prominent citizens of that township. They have four children, Alice A., wife of W. B. Clancey, who owns and occupies a farm on section 29 of Somerset township; Frances E., wife of Dr. H. H. Frazer, of Moscow; Forest W., in the employ of the L. S. & M. S. Railroad at Hillsdale; Tena E., living with her parents. In politics Mr. Baker is a pronounced Republican. He has served three terms as township treasurer, four years as highway commissioner, two years as drain commissioner, eight years on the board of review and nine years on the school board. In every phase of the productive life of the community he has been a potent factor for good. EPHRAIM BARKMAN. Ephraim Barkman, a retired merchant of Jonesville, in this county, whose name has long been conspicuous in commercial circles in connection with all that is upright and honorable in business, is one of the best known and most representative citizens of the county. He is a scion of a family long distinguished in Wales, being

Page  220 220 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. a lineal descendant of the somewhat noted Sir James Barkman, of that country. His American progenitor emigrated to the United States in Colonial times and settled in the state of New York, where Mr. Barkman was born on January 4, 1822. From the time the family took root in American soil it has figured creditably in the history of its adopted land. It bore its part in the privation and suffering of the Revolutionary struggle, in which its members stood around the great hero of that epoch with fidelity, loyalty and serviceable zeal. They have been found, also, at every subsequent period of our history, bearing themselves gallantly in war, showing also industry and high character in the productive pursuits of peace. They have rendered good service in official life, and, as good citizens, they have exemplified in every walk the best traits of American citizenship. The representative of the family who is the subject of this review, has held up the family name with dignity and credit, and, by his admirable qualities of head and heart, his progressiveness and public spirit, his agreeable exhibition of the amenities and social graces of life, he has firmly established himself in the respect and esteem Qf the community and the county in which the most of his useful life has been passed. His parents were Peter and Esther (Jones) Barkman, both natives of New York. The father was a farmer and lived by that occupation until his death in his native state. The paternal grandfather, Mr. Jacob Barkman, was both born cnd reared in Wales, coming to the United States while yet a young man. He was a captain in the Continental army of the Revolution, sharing with Benedict Arnold the great privations and sufferings of his memorable Canadian campaign. He endured the hardships of that service, shared all the hopes and fears of the devoted army, sustained the cause of the struggling patriots in the dark hours of defeat, also taking part in the general rejoicing after the triumphant fall of Yorktown. Ephraim Barkman, of this review, was one of five children and third in the order of birth. He had three brothers and one sister, all now de ceased. He was reared and educated in his native state, having no opportunity for scholastic training beyond that furnished by the primitive schools in the rude, illy-furnished log schoolhouses, which were then the only institutions of learning in the rural districts. He began business life for himself as a sailor, shipping from New Bedford, Massachusetts, on a whaler for a nine-years' term of service. He became familiar with the exigencies of wind and wave on every ocean-and also with the men and manner of life of almost every foreign country. When the discovery of gold in California in 1848 thrilled the world, he left the sea at Honolulu, hastened to that land of promise and began mining at Hangtown, now Placerville, seventy miles north of Sacramento. He continued mining operations there for two years, with only a moderate success, for the necessaries of life were as costly as the land was promising, and the residue left from even rich results, after providing these were correspondingly small. The commercial value of flour was $400 per barrel, pork bringing readily $600. In the summer of I849, Mr. Barkman made a trip to his eastern home, before the autumn returning to California, voyaging with the first party coming by the isthmus route. He passed the winter on his claims and in the spring of I85o was compelled to return to the states by reason of a serious illness, from which he did not fully recover for two years. As soon as he was able to transact business he engaged in the grocery business at Rochester, New York, where he remained until the spring of I857, then came to Michigan and located at Jonesville. He purchased a farm near the village, which had been partially cleared by its former owner, on which he lived and worked for five years, then removed to Jonesville and engaged in a successful business, which he continued until 1884, winning a comfortable competency in' his mercantile career of nearly a quarter of a century, and fixing himself firmly in the esteem and good will of his fellow men. He was married in New York, in 1852, to Miss Eliza Anthony, a native of that state, who died at Jonesville, in i868, leaving one child, Fred C.

Page  221 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 221 Barkman, now a prosperous and highly esteemed citizen of Detroit. In I873 he contracted a second marriage, being united to Miss Ann E. Bentley, also born and reared in New York. They have one child, their daughter, Edie A. In politics Mr. Barkman is an ardent Democrat, firmly attached to the principles and policies of his party, giving on all occasions loyal and active support to its candidates. In fraternal relations he belongs to the Masonic order and for many years has taken a serviceable and earnest interest in the progress and prosperity of the craft. After his long and creditable career he is enjoying the evening of his life, unvexed by cares of business, surrounded by hosts of admiring friends, and happy in the recollection of a well-spent life. LUTHER BARKER. A well-known citizen and representative farmer of Hillsdale county, Luther Barker, the subject of this sketch, is a resident of the township of Adams. He is a native of the county of Herkimer, in the state of New York, and was born on May 3, 1830, his parents being Vining and Sally (Davis) Barker, natives of New York. The father followed the occupation of farming and removed his residence from his native state to Michigan, where he settled in Hillsdale county, in I839. Here he engaged in the same pursuit of husbandry and continued as a resident of this county up to the time of his death, which occurred ill 1895, the mother passing away in I873. To this worthy pair were born five sons and two daughters, four sons are still living, all residents of Hillsdale county. During his lifetime the father filled several local offices of honor and trust, being one of the leading citizens of the community where he resided. The. paternal grandfather was' Paul Barker, a native of Connecticut, who removed from that state to New York when a young man. He was by trade a ropemaker and met with considerable success in that pursuit. Luther Barker grew to manhood on the farm where he still resides, the farm house in which he was reared being the first framed dwelling erected in the township. He attended the district schools in the vicinity of his home, there acquired what little education was possible, but the educational opportunities then offered to young people on the frontier was decidedly limited. In I850 Mr. Barker was united in marriage with Miss Sarah J. Noyes, a daughter of Gresham and Lydia (Franklin) Noyes, the former being a native of Connecticut, and the latter of Pennsylvania. The parents removed to the then territory of Michigan in 1831, where they first established their first home in the new county of Lenawee, where they continued to maintain their residence until 1840, when they removed to the county of Hillsdale. To the union of Mr. and Mrs. Barker came three children, Anna M., now Mrs. L. E. Corbett, of North Adams; J. Ella, now Mrs. L. Thompson, of Hillsdale county; Vining A., now a resident of the city of Hillsdale. His wife was formerly Miss Ida Morey. Politically, Mr. Barker is identified with the Republican party, having been for many years a loyal supporter of that party organization. He has, however, never sought or desired any office, preferring to devote his time and his energies to the exclusive management of his private business interests. For a period of more than fifty years he has been an active and leading member of the Baptist church, and he has taken an active part in all movements calculated to promote the religious and moral growth and upbuilding of the community where he has been a resident. He has seen the county of Hillsdale grow from a wilderness to its present condition of prosperity and wealth, and has contributed largely by his own efforts to that result. By all classes of his 'fellow citizens he is honored for his long and useful life, and for his many sterling traits of character. DR. CHARLES W. BARNABY. For ten years Dr. Charles W. Barnaby of Somerset Center has been in the active practice of his profession, for more than seventeen years

Page  222 222 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. a diligent student of the science of medicine. When he began practicing, he was well prepared for the exercise of the important and delicate functions of a physician and surgeon by his long studies and preparation, for these had thoroughly trained his naturally quick and resourceful mind. Since he has been busily occupied in the work, to which he has devoted his life, he has kept up with its progressive currents by judicious and reflective reading, and he has been so keenly observant of its manifestations in his own experience that no means of mastering the profession available to him have been overlooked or neglected. By this course of well-applied and systematic industry he has won skill and accuracy in the practice, extensive knowledge and breadth of view in the literature of his domain of beneficent activity, and through these qualifications he has secured a strong and well-founded hold on the confidence of the community, which has repaid his energy and devotion with a generous patronage and with a cordial personal regard. He is a native son of this state, born in Monroe county, Mich., on September 7, I865. His parents are John and Mary (Randall) Barnaby, prosperous farmers and'esteemed citizens of Monroe county, the former being a native of New York and the latter of Michigan. Doctor Barnaby received his scholastic training in the public schools of Monroe and Ann Arbor, beginning the study of medicine, in I886, under the direction of Doctor Sawyer, of Monroe. In I887 he entered the medical department of the State University at Ann Arbor, where he remained two years. He then quit school for a time to act as an assistant to Doctor Sawyer, getting in this way a most valuable experience in practice, later, in I890, entering the Detroit Medical College where he was graduated in I893. He at once began the practice of medicine in Monroe county of this state, remaining there nearly four years, then, in I897, he settled at Somerset Center, in Hillsdale county, since that time being one of the busy, progressive and highly esteemed' professional men of this part of the state. He is a member of the county and state.medical societies, and has given their meetings and proceedings a close and careful attention and their researches valuable aid. On August 7, i89o, he was united in marriage with Miss Cornelia Chapman, a native of this state, and a member of one of its prominent families. In fraternal relations he is a Freemason, an Odd Fellow and a Knight of the Maccabees. He has a high rank in professional circles, a secure and elevated place in the confidence and esteem of the public. DR. NATHANIEL H. BARNES. Devoting his long and useful life to the cause of humanity in two lines of serviceable professioual activity, in spite of his own unstable health and failing strength for many years laboring earnestly for the benefit of his kind, the late Dr. Nathaniel H. Barnes of this county won a high place in public esteem and in the regard of his fellow men by merit, dying in the fullness of years universally respected. He was born at Grafton, Mass., on November io, I816, his parents, Nathaniel and Levina (Forbush) Barnes, having moved to that town from their native state of Connecticut soon after their marriage. The father was prosperously engaged in the manufacture of boots and shoes, after years of successful business at Grafton changing his base of operations to Ashville, N. Y., where he died at a good old age. The mother passed away at Portland in the same state. Doctor Barnes was educated in the public schools of Chautauqua county, New York, and from the academy atJamestown he was graduated at the end of a full academic course of instruction. He then began the study of medicine under the direction of Dr. Stephen Eaton, of Silver Creek, near his home, later attending lectures at the Cleveland (Ohio) Medical College, thereafter becoming a student of the Auburn Theological Seminary, from which he was graduated ir.I834. Entering the ministry, he assumed charge of the Presbyterian church at Portland, New York, remained there and in the state until 1851, when he came to Brooklyn, Michigan, and,

Page  223 HILLSDAL after a short residence at that place, s Dowagiac, where he entered actively on t tice of medicine. In I86I he again ent ministry, during the next fourteen years his time between this state and New Y I875 he settled permanently in Michiga ing his home at Brooklyn until 1882, wh( moved to Hillsdale, where he maintained dence until his death in 1884. He we esteemed as a pulpit orator, his pastors were performed in a manner that brou general commendation; while in the prz medicine and surgery, he was eminen cessful, standing high in the display of ment of human sympathy and intuitive edge of the disposition of a patient whir a physician so much advantage in the tt of disease. He kept himself well posted lines of his professional work, reading literature of both the theological and fields, assimilating by careful and stud servation its teachings, and taking great in the proceedings of the medical societic states of New York and Michigan, and of tion, of which he was a valued member Doctor Barnes was twice married, October, I847, with Miss M. Ann Be Olean, New York, who died in 1853, I856 he married Miss Sarah E. Laad, of Oneida county, New York. They I children, their daughter Eleanor G. ai son Ernest H. For many years prece( death the Doctor was in an invalid c( but he was nevertheless a tireless worke medical profession and in church affairs all of his time and energy to the se others in these departments of usefulnes ing himself to their demands with uncc ing self-denial and devotion to duty. his short life in Hillsdale he made many among the people. CHAUNCEY O. BEECHER. The pioneers of the West in the States, like their prototypes of an earlier the Atlantic coast, were men of heroi,E COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 223 ettled at fitted by nature for daring, endurance, self-rethe prac- liance, unyielding perseverance and final conered the quest. No danger ever daunted them, no toil dedividing terred, no hardship overcame them. They planted ork. In their feet in the wilderness, and, assuming the in, mak- lordship of the heritage, they went boldly foren he re- ward, making good their assumption. Of this his resi- class were Walter and Mary E. (Hopkins) as much Beecher, parents of Chauncey O. Beecher, the il duties subject of this review. They were natives and ght him prosperous farmers of Orleans county, New actice of York, and, when their son, Chauncey, was a.tly suc- year old, in I837, they came to Michigan from that ele- their Eastern home, bringing their family, and, knowl- coming through Canada, they made the whole ch gives journey in a sleigh. They settled in Jackson reatment county, entering and thereafter clearing forty in both acres of government land, which, in 1848, after the best greatly improving and bringing to a good state scientific of cultivation, they traded for a farm in. Hillsious ob- dale county, which was fully cleared and parinterest tially improved. Here they then took up their es in the residence, and in this county they remained unf the na- til death ended their labors, that of the mother r. occurring in 1877 and that of the father in I897, first in the last ten years of the life of Mr. Beecher bennie, of ing passed at North Adams. Three of their while in children reached years of maturity and are yet a native living in this township, Joseph L.,'Mrs. Daniel had two Hoxie and Chauncey O. Beecher. The father nd their was a great worker, lived to the age of eightyding his four years, while both he and his wife were ondition, zealous members of the Methodist Episcopal r in the church. Mr. Beecher's grandfather, also named,, giving Chauncey, was a farmer and a native of New rvice of York, where he died.,s, yield- Chauncey O. Beecher was born in Orleans )mplain- county, New York, on March 13, 1836. Before During he concluded his first year of earthly existence r friends he made the long journey to Michigan, already alluded to, in a sleigh with his parents, and, since then he has lived in this state, part of the time in Jackson county, and the remainder in Hillsdale. He received his limited education in and United from books at the little log school houses in the r day on vicinity of his homes, between the terms assistic mold, ing in the ardous but exhilarating work of the

Page  224 224 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. farm. The country was wild and unsettled, the population was sparse, neighbors were few and it was far between them, wolves and bears were plentiful and Indians were not unknown. The privations of frontier life -and its many trials and dangers were present in the experience of his early years. Yet the life of the pioneer had a rich spice of adventure in it for him, being full 6f wholesome nutriment for the spirit as well as of vigor for the body. It bred strength and suppleness of limb and force and breadth of character. It made men self-reliant in emergencies and gave them courage and endurance wherewithal to confront them. Scarcely a week passed without its measure of excitement or its hurried call to quick and extra exertion. But the forces of civilization were resolute and resourceful and the conquest of savagery was steady and continuous. Mr. Beecher remained at home until his parents grew old and when the father retired from active business became the owner of the homestead. It still belongs to him, is the home of his age, as it was of his youth, and like all the country around him, it has advanced in development, grown in value with the flight of time and the continued application of systematic labor, until it is now in itself a competency for life. In I856, in Eaton county, this state, Mr. Beecher married with Miss Jane Weeks, a native of Orleans county, New York, being a daughter of Solomon and Electa (Olds) Weeks of the same nativity, who came to Michigan with their young family, in 1852, and passed the rest of their days in Eaton county, retiring from life after long and useful lives in the enjoyment of the full confidence and the high respect of their fellows. Mr. and Mrs. Beecher have had three children, their daughters Harriet A., Myra E. and Lula M., all of whom are living. The head of the house has been an ardent Republican from the very foundation of the party, reaching his majority soon after its birth in I856, and casting his first vote for some of its earliest candidates. He has taken an active interest in the affairs of the party, being also honored with places of trust and importance in its gift, such as town ship treasurer and other local offices. For many years he has been a devotee before the sacred altars of Freemasonry, and has given the affairs of the fraternity, especially those of his lodge, close and helpful attention. He is well known throughout the county and holds a high and secure place in the esteem of its people. LEVI BELDEN. Coming to Michigan in I835, when he was but twelve years old, and living in Hillsdale county all the rest of his life, the late Levi Belden, of Somerset township, may fairly be classed among the products and the representative men of the state. He saw practically the beginning of her civilization, and lived on her soil long enough to see it transformed from a wilderness to a garden, fruitful with the products and fragrant with the flowers of an advanced civilization, its industries glowing with life, its commerce whitening the seas,, the populations that feed upon its bounty striding forward with a wholesome and steady development that challenged all moods of the financial world, and now commands them all. Mr. Belden was born at Whitley, Massachusetts, on February I6, 1823. His parents were Jeremiah and Anna (Belden) Belden, natives of the same state, where they were engaged in farming until 1835, when they migrated to Michigan and settled in this county. They entered a tract of 138 acres of government land, and, after building a little log cabin, settled down to the work of clearing their homestead and making a farm of it. Their situation was full of difficulty and danger. It was a destiny of toil and privation to which they had come, for awhile at least, and the natural beauty and wealth of their surroundings, great as they were, did not compensate for all the conveniences and comforts of cultivated life from which they had voluntarily separated themselves. But they accepted the lot they had sought with resignation and engaged in its activities with courage and determination. In a very little while nature grew tame under their caresses and they began to feel joy in the conquest they were winning over her

Page  225 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 225 wild conditions. The land assumed a homelike appea time their labors were endc comfortable and comely e, very soil from which the sa wigwam of the Indian had energy and persistency. I their days in this new hoi scended to their son Levi, v from the age of twelve on where he had been educatec its labors and in the country hardy pioneers had helped tain. There were four chi: all of whom have now paid ture, except one daughter, Levi- Belden assisted in cl in making the improvement it. He remained at home u parents, taking filial care o age. He inherited the horn tinued on it the systematic dustry which his father ha( mindful of the long jaunt through which they had cc when a single ox team and all their earthly possessions, larger opportunity to which attendant hardships had He married on February I Abigail R. Walsh, like hi Massachusetts, a daughter o riet (Thayer) Walsh, of th pioneers in Jackson county and Mrs. Belden had three c now wife of Delos Smith, < who has two children, Flo) Rosa A., deceased; Elmer I gressive farmers of Hillsdale Mr. Belden was a Whig for a Republican upon the organi and, although a man of fi steadfast loyalty to them, he partisan and neither sought office at any time. One fea operations, which gave him a reputation, was his skill and became productive, trance, and, by the ed, they had built a stablishment on the vage beasts and the been forced by their 3oth parents ended me, which then devho had been reared its developing area, I for life's duties by schools, which these to create and mainldren in the family. sheep of superior grades. In religious faith he was a Universalist, being active in the affairs of this church, serving for years as a trustee and taking a leading part in all its works of benevolence. Throughout his life he was a close student of the Bible, the teachings of which he followed with devotion and humility. His useful life ended on the homestead on June 22, I9Q0, when he was seventy-eight years old, and he was laid to rest with every evidence of popular esteem. SPENCER D. BISHOPP. the last debt of na- "Merrie England" has contributed in many now in California. ways to the growth and development of our learing the farm and country, in none, however, have her contribu-:s which now adorn tions been more valuable and considerable than ntil the death of his in the domain of the learned professions. The f them in their old Pulpit, the Bench, the Bar, the domain of Mediiestead and he con- cal Science, all branches of college instruction and productive in- are deeply indebted to the Mother Country for d begun, never un- brain, character and scholarship. Spencer D. across the country Bishopp, a former prosecuting attorney of Hills)me to this section, dale county, is one of her valued contributions I one wagon hauled to the legal profession in this part of the land. ever grateful for the He was born at Lenhome Farm in Kent, Engthat jaunt with its land, on October I7, 1845., his parents, Edward opened the way. W. and Matilda E. (David) Bishopp, being also 6, 1856, with Miss natives of England, who emigrated to the United imself a native of States in 1853, and, locating in Illinois, there f William and Har- engaged in farming and passed the remainder ie same state, early of their days, the father dying in 1882, and the of this state. Mr. mother in I893. They were the parents of seven:hildren, Harriet E., sons and two daughters, of whom six of the sons of Hillsdale county, and one of the daughters are living. rd E. and R. Bell; Mr. Bishopp passed his early school days in L., one of the pro- Illinois, in the winter of 1867 entering Hillsdale county. In politics College, from which educational institution he years, then became was graduated in 1874, having been engaged in ization of that party, teaching during a portion of that time, for the rm convictions and necessary financial reinforcement to continue was never an active his course. After his graduation he began the nor desired public study of law in the office of Col. E. J. March of ture of his farming Hillsdale, and, in 1877, was admitted to the bar. i high and extended He began the practice of the law at once and has success in breeding followed it steadily from that time. He served

Page  226 226 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. as circuit court commissioner four years from 1878, and, in I888, was elected prosecuting attorney, serving in this office until I893. From I898 to I9oo he was county drainage commissioner, and he is now serving as supervisor for the Third ward. In politics Mr. Bishopp is an active and loyal Republican, who has annually taken the stump in behalf of hiss party since 1874, giving also wise and valued counsel and service to its cause in committee duty and its general management. He is allied with the Masons and the Knights of Pythias of the fraternal societies, and to the welfare of each he gives a close and helpful attention. On October 17, 1877, he married with Miss Margaret C. Chase, a native of Saco, Maine, who died on June 12, 1901. 'Two children were children were born to them, Spencer C. and Hatborn to them, Spencer C. and Hattie J. As a true citizen Mr. Bishopp has given every evidence of devoted loyalty to the land of his adoption, in his profession he has not only won distinction and exalted position, but has secured the confidence and respect of his professional brethren; in the matter of local and general improvements and in the elevation of the community he has been foremost with sagacious counsel and substantial aid; in social life he is recognized as an ornament,a graceful support to all the bland amenities, a valuable and solid member of the body politic. WILLIAM BOONE. One of the leading farmers of Woodbridge township in this county, is William Boone, a native of Somersetshire, England, who was born there on January 7, I854. His parents were James and Louisa (Loxstone) Boone, both of the same nativity as was himself. The father, in his native land a farmer, came to the United States with his young family in I856, settled in Yates county, New York, and lived there until I865, when he moved to Michigan, where he had purchased io6 acres of land partially cleared and improved. On this farm he made his permanent home, to its development and further im provement he devoted his energies, and on it, after a long career of useful labor, he died in I89I. His widow survived him five years and died in I896. They had eleven children, seven sons and four daughters, and nine of them are living, five being residents of Hillsdale county. The father took no special interest in politics, for his farm work and his domestic life filled the measure of his desires and gave agreable occupation to all his faculties. At the same time he was deeply interested in the welfare of the locality in which he had cast his lot, and aided in every proper way to advance and improve it. The grandfather was John Boone, who died when James, his son, was an infant. William Boone grew to manhood in Hillsdale county, and received a limited education in its public schools. He remained at home until he was twenty years of age, and then began life for himself by settling on a rented farm of I20 acres of good land half a mile east of the homestead. Three years later he rented 320 acres near Jonesville, which he farmed successfully one year. After living on the old homestead one year he bought sixty-one and a half acres of land upon which he located, and upon which he has since resided. This he has developed and improved, and he also owns and cultivates the homestead, managing all of his agricultural operations with success and energy. He bought his first land from money saved from rented farms, and he located on it in the spring of I879. He has since replaced the old house with a modern brick residence, barn and outbuildings to correspond therewith, and he has one of the model farms of his township. In 1874 he married Miss Alice Hinkle, a native of Hillsdale county, a daughter of Samuel and Flora (Benedict) Hinkle, early settlers in Wright township. Mr. and Mrs. Boone have four children, Cora L., William J., Charles E. and Claude E. Mr. Boone is a Republican in political allegiance, has served as township treasurer two years, and fraternally, he is connected with the Odd Fellows and the Patrons of Husbandry, giving valuable aid to the life and activity of both orders. He is one of the well-to-do farmers of

Page  227 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 227 the township in which he lives, having ever so demeaned himself as to win and keep the regard and good will of all who know him, and the respect and confidence of the people. WILLIAM L. BIBBINS. The present postmaster at Jerome, Somerset township, in this county, is William L. Bibbins, one of the leading business men of this section of the state, whose appointment in 1896 was generally approved by the patrons of the office, and whose reappointment, in 1900, was a universally desired and a well-merited reward for his fidelity and capacity during his first term. Mr. W. L. Bibbins was born in Moscow township, Hillsdale county, Mich., on December 25, i865, being the son of Amaziah and Ann (Squires) Bibbins, a sketch of whom will be found on another page. He was raised and educated in the county and followed farming until he was twenty-one, then began a hardware trade at Moscow which he conducted for four years, during two of which he also served as postmaster at that town. From there he removed to Benton Harbor where he was engaged in the manufacture of cigars until I893,, when he returned to this county, soon after his arrival locating at Jerome. Here he started a second hardware business, which he is still successfully conducting with expanding volume and increasing profits. In 1896 he was appointed postmaster of the village and in 900o was reappointed. In this year he succeeded in establishing a rural free delivery route, it being the first of the kind in this part of the county. This has succeeded in vigor and effectiveness, and in popular approval, beyond the expectations of the friends of the movement, and has won warm commendation of his enterprise and persistency in behalf of its inauguration. In addition to his mercantile industry, Mr. Bibbins is largely interested in business ventures which have an important bearing on the industrial and commercial life of the community, being a stockholder in the Jerome Brick & Tile Co., the Jerome Brick & Cement Co., and the 14 Jerome Creamery Co., all productive factors in the business enterprise of the town, yielding their due proportion of the effective force which makes Jerome a live and bustling manufacturing and trading center. Mlr. Bibbins was married in I889 with Miss Maud Wyllis of Moscow, and their attractive home has been brightened and enlivened by the birth of two children, their sons Laurence and Leal. In politics Mr. Bibbins has been a Republican from his young manhood, in fraternal relations he has belonged to the Masonic order in blue lodge and chapter for a definite number of years, holding membership at Jonesville, and to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows with membership at Jerome. The family are valued members of the best social circles, well-esteemed among all classes. FREDERICK SEWARD BLACKMAR. In the township over whose interests he now (1903) presides as supervisor, that of Moscow, Frederick Seward Blackmar was born on July 6, 1848. His parents, Osborn B. and Lazette (Miller) Blackmar, were natives of New York where they were prosperous farmers for a number of years after their marriage. In 1831, they became a part of the host of emigrants to the wilderness of this state, and,, settling in Moscowv township, entered a tract of government land, which was then virgin to the plow and the systematic industry of man. On this they dwelt in a rude log cabin they constructed, until advancing fortune, and the rich fruits of their labor, enabled them to provide a better residence and greater conveniences of life. While clearing their land and reducing it to cultivation they also kept a tavern on the Chicago road, which was a popular and much needed resort for weary wayfarers and new-comers like themselves, and which furnished to their young and observant son, whose life-story is the theme of these paragraphs, many phases of human nature for valuable contemplation and many useful lessons for the battle of life in which he, himself, was soon to engage. In 1848 the father joined the eager Argo

Page  228 228 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. nauts, who flocked to California in search of gold, making the trip overland, experiencing all its privations, dangers and many thrilling adventures. For two years he was a successful prospector and miner,, and, in 1851, when perhaps about to return home, he was waylaid and killed by highwaymen in Grass Valley near Nevada City, being also robbed of the fruits of his labor. His remains were buried, and have since rested, beneath the soil of that state, and his family continued the enterprises in this county which he had begun. Some years after his arrival in this county he made an exhibit of some thoroughbred stock at a state agricultural fair, which was the first exhibit of the kind ever made from the county. In many other ways he showed himself to be an enterprising and progressive man, deeply interested in the development of the section of country in which he had cast his lot. He was a captain of the territorial militia of Michigan, and contributed essentially in keeping up the much-needed martial spirit of its people, for, in those days, danger from hostile Indians was ever present. At his death he left two sons and two daughters of whom three are living, Frederick and his two sisters. Their mother died in I870, having survived her husband nearly twenty years. She lived to enjoy an undisturbed peace after many trials, a comfortable rest after many exhausting labors. The paternal grandfather, Lyman Blackmar, was a native of Massachusetts who moved from that state to Erie county, New York, where he rose to local distinction, serving for a long time as probate judge. From there he came to Michigan with his son. He died in Iowa, but is buried in Hillsdale county. He was a soldier in the War of 1812, and, in all public affairs involving the welfare of his country in general, or the particular section in which he was living, took an active part. The maternal grandfather, Miller, was also a judge in New York, and later an honored pioneer in this state. Frederick Seward Blackmar grew to rnanhood in this county, and received a good education in the public schools, and at Hillsdale College, finishing with a course at a commercial college in Chicago. After leaving school he cultivated the paternal estate for a short time, then went to California, spent thirty months in mining in that state and Nevada, thence returning to Michigan over the Union Pacific Railroad, which had just been completed. He took a portion of the home farm to work and has since then been actively engaged in farming and in buying and shipping cattle, carrying on a thriving business, giving a due share of his time and energies to the improvement and progress of the township and the county of his residence. In politics he has been devoted to the interests of the Republican party throughout his mature life, and during the past five years he has been supervisor of Moscow township, while during the last six years he has served as a director of the county agricultural society. For many years he held membership in two of the fraternal orders, the Patrons of Husbandry and the Knights of the Maccabees, and, in these organizations, as in every other enterprise with which he has been connected, he made his influence felt for the general good and advancement of the community and that of the interests in charge. He was married in 1871 to Miss Emma A. Ward, born in New York state, the daughter of John H. and Sarah A. Ward,, also natives of that state. They have three children living, Milton W. and Edgar 0., residents of Buffalo, New York, and Frederick S., Jr., now a student at the State University at Ann Arbor. WILLIAM H. BREZEE. The honored William H. Brezee, of Somerset township, whose life of more than three score years in this county was full of usefulness and creditable achievement, and was typical of the best American citizenship, was born in Wayne county, New York, in I829, and, in I836,when he was but seven years old, he came with his parents, James and Frances (Copeland) Brezee, to Michigan. Mr. Brezee was reared as a farmer and was educated at the district schools in the vicinity of his home. He did not, however,.long follow the family vocation, but for a number of years was

Page  229 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. J 229 engaged in teaching, and for many more he was in the employ of the New York Life Insurance Co. He was a gentleman of fine business qualifications, who won a gratifying success in.every line of active usefulness in which he was employed, taking high rank among business men and securing for himself the general respect and good will of the communities in which he lived. In I850 he was married to Miss Margaret Simpson, a daughter of Andrew and Catherine.(McNabb) Simpson, natives of New York. Her father died in Canada in I835, and her mother in Hillsdale county in I837. Mr. and Mrs. Breeze became the parents of five children, who are all dead but Mrs. Minnie I. Bowman, wife of A. C. Bowman, of Petoskey, Mich. Mr. Brezee ever took active interest in matters affecting the welfare of the township and county, and served for years as justice of the peace at Somerset. He belonged to the Masonic order holding membership in the lodge at Moscow. He was well known and highly respected throughout the county, and, during all of the many years he walked quietly along the streets and roads of the county of his residence, malice nor envy never dared to breathe a breath of scandal against his honored name. ALBERT B. BUCK. The late Albert B. Buck of Moscow township, whose life was cut short by an untimely death at the early age of fifty years, on November 25, 1897, when his usefulness was pronounced and general, and all his faculties in full and fruitful vigor, was one of the representative citizens and business men of Hillsdale county, in whose career may be found suggestive lessons of the power,of thrift, industry, and elevation and force of character. He was a prominent live stock dealer and farmer, who conducted all his business on lofty principles and with a progressive spirit. He was born on May o0, 1847, on the paternal homestead of his parents, Israel and Jane E. (Green) Buck, pioneers of this county. They were natives of New York who emigrated to Michigan in its early days, and, while enduring all the difficulties incident to frontier life, zealously aided in overcoming them, and establishing in what was then the wilds of the far West a polity of enduring value and vitality. Their ancestors were English Quakers, admirable examples of the sterling virtues of that sturdy people. When Israel Buck arrived in Hillsdale county with his young family in 1835, he bought 200 acres of land, as yet virgin to the plow and the hand of the husbandman, and settled down to the arduous work of reclaiming it from its wild condition. With his wife he lived in this county for nearly fifty years and won the high respect and the lasting good will of all of its people. She died on January 26, 1882, at the age of seventy-four, and he on July I6, I886, at that of seventy-nine. They were persons of sound judgment, progressive spirit and commendable breadth of view. In politics Mr. Buck was long an Abolitionist, and a loyal and devoted Republican. Their family consistedt of four sons and two daughters: John L.; Emily, now the widow of Hon. George C. Wyllis, a sketch of whom appears on another page; James J., a prominent attorney of Emporia, Kansas; Helen, the wife of George B. Hall, of Aberdeen, South Dakota; Edmund and Albert B. Albert B. Buck, the last born of the family, was well trained on the homestead in all its duties of useful and productive labor.* He received a good education, in the district schools near his home, supplemented by a thorough course of study at Hillsdale College. Having a natural aptitude for the business, after leaving college he engaged in farming as his life work, and was eminently successful. He acquired the ownership of a farm of I70 acres of fine, arable land, and this he cultivated with assiduous industry and the skill gained from active practice, close observation and judicious reading. The residence and other improvements were in keeping with his elevated taste and excellent judgment, the appurtenances being of.the most approved type. In connection with his farming operations he was extensively interested in live stock, keeping regularly from fifteen to forty cattle and feeding annually from 500 to 700 for shipment to the Buffalo markets; Mr. Buck married on November 7, 1869, Miss

Page  230 230 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Sarah E. Smith, a native of Cayuga county, New York, and daughter of Samuel and Sophronia (Huff) Smith, of Moscow township. Like her husband she was of Quaker ancestry and was reared in the faith of the Society of Friends. She received a good education in the public schools, and, being highly endowed by nature with force of character and mental capacity, she became a capable business manager. Since the lamented death of Mr. Buck she has managed the affairs of the farm with success and vigor, keeping its work up to the high standard reached by him. Six children came to bless the family circle, M1\ate, Levi, Etta, Lillian, Ruth E. and Rena Ethyl. In politics Mr. Buck was a staunch Republican. He took great interest in the cause of education, and, by a service of nearly twenty years as a school officer, he was potential in broadening the spirit of the community in reference to this important branch of public utility, elevating and improving the system in many ways. He occupied an enviable position in social circles, being widely and justly esteemed as a liberal, progressive and public-spirited man, always in support of local improvements and whatever tended to the general welfare. JONATHAN J. RAMSDELL. Among the men who are most beneficial to agricultural communities, are those who breed and sell superior grades of stock. They greatly aid in raising the standard of this necessary adjunct of the farming industry throughout large sections of country, at the same time draw attention from other sections to the stock business in their own. By so doing they make the other advantages of their section to be known in a much larger extent of territory. One of the most prominent and successful of the promoters of this line of enterprise in Hillsdale county, is Jonathan J. Ramsdell, proprietor of the Maple Grove stock farm in Moscow township, who is widely and favorably known among breeders of fine stock, having an excellent name in the markets around him for the excellence of his products and the straightforward manner in which his business is conducted. Mr. Ramsdell was born in Wayne county, New York, in 1833, the son of Abraham and Abigail (Mallory) Ramsdell, both natives of that county, where they were reared, educated and married and where they were also, successfully engaged in farming until I844, when they came to Michigan. The next year after their arrival in this state they purchased the farm on which their son, Jonathan, now lives. This was partially cleared and had some improvements upon it. They devoted their energies to bring it to a better state of development during the remainder of their lives, living there until death, that of the mother occurring at the age of sixty-three, on September 14, 1876, and that of the father on January I9, I889, when he was eighty years old. The grandfather, Jonathan Ramsdell, moved from his native state of Massachusetts to Wayne county, New York, in early life, there became an extensive landholder, clearing a tract of 400 acres, and cultivating it with profit until his death. He was a Friend in religious belief, a leader in the councils and services of the church. His son and daughter-in-law were also birthright Quakers. Jonathan J. Ramsdell was the second born of the nine children in the family of his parents, all being now deceased, except himself and two of his brothers. From the age of eleven in years he resided in this county, received his education in its public schools, began the battle of life for himself as a cultivator of its soil, and has been one of its progressive and forceful citizens all of his mature life. He was married in 1858 to Miss Elizabeth Westover, a native of Wayne county, New York, and they have seven children, Ashley, Minnie, wife of Adelbert Turner; Abbie, Alena and Aletha (twins), Garfield, and Olie, now Mrs. Teft. In politics Mr. Ramsdell is a Republican. He has served as township treasurer and justice to the peace. He belongs to the Masonic order and the Methodist Episcopal church. His father served the township a number of years as supervisor and also a long time as justice of the peace. Mr. Ramsdell has given much attention to the breeding of Delaine sheep and has produced some prize winners in that line. He also breeds a high grade of Shorthorn cattle.

Page  231 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 231 GEORGE W. BUELL. Among the thrifty, self-reliant and resourceful people of Vermont, who seem able to dare everything, endure everything, overcome everything that fate sends in the way of hardship and adversity, and to accomplish everything upon which they set their hearts, lived and flourished the paternal ancestors of George W. Buell, of Moscow township; the manly qualities which they exhibited amid the mountains and rugged landscapes of that state have in him been prolific of profitable business for himself, being also productive of much good to the community on the more genial and responsive soil of this great state of Michigan. He is, however,'a native of Michigan, born in St. Joseph county on December 29, I857. His parents were William and Mary A. (McKercher) Buell, the father being a native of New York and the mother of Hillsdale county. His father, a millwright by trade, built the first sawmill operated at Centreville in St. Joseph county, and, in connection with his father, conducted its industry until '865. He then moved to this county and settled on the farm now occupied by his son, George, which he purchased and upon which he lived until his George W. Buell was reared and educated in this county, where he began life for himself as a farmer, an occupation to which he has steadfastly adhered through all the subsequent years of his career, resisting many importunities to quit it for the bright glamour of official position or for the glittering promises of mercantile life. In 1882 he was married with Miss Laura Leonard, born a native of Scipio township and a sister of George Leonard, a respected citizen of that portion of the county. They have three children, Elna F., Lena M. and Warren M., all living at the parental home. In fraternal relations Mr. Buell belongs to the Knights of the Maccabees and the Patrons of Husbandry, holding membership in the bodies of these orders located at Moscow. He and his wife attend service at the Methodist Episcopal church and take active parts in much of its work of benevolence. Since the advent of the family into the state, its name has been held in high esteem as a synonym for elevation in manhood, service in citizenship, uprightness in life and fair dealing in business. WILLIAM E. CARTER. death in I898. Two years later his widow fol- One of the honored. pioneers of Adams townlowed him to the other world, the remains of ship, Hillsdale county, Michigan, and, one of the both now resting beneath the sod of Moscow substantial farmers and property owners of that township. The grandfather, Joseph Buell, was a section of the state, is William E. Carter, the subnative of Vermont and came to St. Joseph county, ject of this sketch. A native of the county of this state, in I833. Here he remained and did Lorain, state of Ohio, he was born on March 12, good work in clearing a wild tract of land and I828, the son of William and Jane (Stewart) making it into an attractive farm, living in that Carter, the former a native of Connecticut, the county all the rest of his life, except five years, latter of the state of New York. The father was dying there in I895. The maternal grandfather, a farmer by occupation, one of the earliest pioJohn McKercher, came to Hillsdale county in an neers of Lorain county, Ohio, where he passed early day, and, in company with his brothers, pur- most of the years of his active life. Subsequently chased and cleared up 360 acres of heavily tim- he removed his residence to Michigan, where he bered land, on which he died of cholera in the settled on a farm in Rawlins township, Lenawee forties. Six children composed the household of county, and continued to make that his residence George W. Buell's parents, of this number-four up to the time of his death, which occurred in are living, George being the only one resident in I872. During the War of 1812 he was a soldier Hillsdale county. The parents were First Day in the American army, there experiencing a good Adventists in religious faith and passed their deal of active and dangerous service. He was one lives in consistent devotion to their creed. of two sons, his brother being a captain of an

Page  232 232 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. ocean vessel. He raised a family of one son and four daughters, all of whom grew to manhood and womanhood. The mother passed away in Lorain county, Ohio. William E. Carter of this sketch grew to years of maturity in his native county of Lorain and received his early education in the log schoolhouses in the vicinity of his boyhood home. Compelled by circumstances to leave school at the early age of fourteen years, he began the occupation of farming in Ohio, and continued to reside there up to 1852, when he came to Lenawee county, Michigan, purchased a small farm and there remained until 1862. He then removed his residence to Hillsdale county, and purchased a farm in the township of Pittsford. Selling this place some time later, he purchased farms in Wheatland and Jefferson townships. In 1872 he purchased his present farm in Adams township, consisting of 200 acres, and has since made his residence here. It is widely known as one of the finest and best improved farms in Hillsdale county. On March I8, 1851, Mr. Carter was married in his native state of Ohio, with Miss Anna Ferguson, a native of that state and the daughter of Stephen and Sarah (Goodrich) Ferguson, the former a native of Scotland and the latter of England. They removed in early life to Ohio and there resided during their long and active lives. To the union of Mr. and Mrs. Carter were born four children, Fernando, Rudolph, Alvando and Mary, the late Mrs. H. M. Lamb, who died on October 14, I902. The surviving three children are still residents of the state of Michigan. Politically, Mr. Carter has all his life been a stanch adherent of the Republican party, but has never sought public office, preferring to devote his entire time and attention to the exclusive management of his private business affairs. And in this he has met with great success. He has been for many years a prominent and active member of the Patrons of Husbandry, having been largely instrumental in building up that organization in Hillsdale county, where it has been and is such a power for good; and where it has done so much to promote the general interest of the entire community. Mr. Carter is a man of high standing in the county which has been his home and the scene of his activities for so many years, and enjoys the respect of all classes of citizens. BARTLETT H. BUMP. Bartlett H. Bump, supervisor of Wheatland township, is wholly a product, and essentially a representative, of the township in which he lives, having passed the whole of his life so far within its borders. He was born in the township on August 9, 1845, was reared amid its active industries, was educated in its public schools and has ever since drawn from its soil his stature and his strength. His parents were Albert H. and Fannie (Hawkins) Bump, the former a native of Palmyra, N. Y., and the latter of England. The father was a farmer in his native state and came to Michigan in 1833, locating in Lenawee county, where he remained five years and in 1838 he came to Hillsdale county, purchased eighty acres of land of George Crane, paying for it by seven years of faithful labor, even as did Jacob in the Scriptures for his wife. He also cleared up Ioo acres, on section 34 in this township, and lived on that until 1871, when he again removed to Lenawee county, where he passed the remainder of his days, dying in I898. His wife died in 1872, leaving three sons and three daughters, all of whom are living, three of them residents of Hillsdale county. The paternal grandfather, Bartlett Bump, was a New Yorker and a soldier of the War of I812. He came to Michigan in 1833 and to Hillsdale county in I835. A man of great enterprise he assisted greatly in building the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad through Hillsdale county and also in many other public improvements of value. He was active in political affairs, gave great attention to the development and government of the county, serving for a period of twenty years as justice of the peace and in several other local offices from time to time- His death occurred about 1877, when he was laid to his last, long rest with every demonstration of popular esteem and affection. Bartlett H. Bump, the interesting subject of this review, after being raised to manhood and

Page  233 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 233 educated in the township, which has been the scene of his useful labors, began the battle of life as a farmer, and he has followed that line of activity from his youth. He was married in I875, to Miss Mary E. Tredwell, a daughter of Chauncy L. and Marcia (Church) Tredwell, natives of New York and early settlers in this state and Hillsdale county. Mr. and Mrs. Bump were the parents of two children, Harry T. Bump, a respected resident of Kansas, and Marcia E., now at school. Their mother died in I890, and, in 1895, Mr. Bump contracted a second marriage, being united on this occasion with Miss Jennie Clark, a native of Hillsdale county and a daughter of John Clark, long an esteemed citizen of this county. Mr. Bump has been a lifelong Republican in politics, taking active interest in the affairs of his party, serving its cause well in private station and in official positions. For four years he has been township supervisor and has rendered efficient service to the people of the township. He is an active member of the Maccabees and the Patrons of Husbandry or Grangers. Fhroughout the county he is highly respected by all classes of the people as a progressive, farseeing and representative citizen. JUDSON D. CHAPPELL. The secretary and treasurer of the Fredonia Washer Co. and also alderman from the second ward of the city, Judson D. Chappell, of Hillsdale, is one of the active and progressive men of the municipality, always forward in business matters and displaying a keen and intelligent interest in public affairs which involve the welfare of the community. He comes of good old New England stock, his grandfather, Ezra Chappell, having been a native of Vermont and a soldier in the Black Hawk Indian War. He came to Michigan when he was well advanced in life and died in this county at a good old age. The maternal grandmother, Roxana Carpenter, was a descendant of the Carpenters who came to America in the Mayflower. Judson D. Chappell was born on March 26, 1846, in Huron county, Ohio, his parents, John and Harriet (Taylor) Chappell, having moved there from their native state of New York about 1830. There the family remained until 1854, when they all moved to this county and settled in Cambria township, where the father purchased a tract of timber land which he cleared up and made his home for nearly a generation of human life, more than thirty years. In I885 he moved to the town of Cambria and there he died in 1892 from the effects of an accident on the fair grounds in Hillsdale. He was a man of local prominence and was chosen'from time to time to fill important township offices. His widow survived him seven years, dying in I889. They had two sons and four daughters that reached years of maturity. Judson was reared and educated mainly.n this county, having come here when he was eight years of age. He began life for himself as a farmer, following this, his chosen vocation, until 1882, when he engaged in merchandising at Cambria, there continuing his mercantile enterprise for a period of twelve years. He then turned his attention to foundry and furnace operations at Cambria, being engaged in that until I896, when he retired from active business of that kind and moved to Hillsdale, where he has since resided. In I9oo he associated himself with John S. Parker, and others, in the organization of the Fredonia Washer Co., of which Mr. Parker is president and Mr. Chappell the secretary and treasurer. The company was organized with a capital stock of $I2,500 for the purpose of manufacturing clothes-washers and wringers, and from its inception it has been prosperous and progresssive, continually expanding its trade and establishing itself more firmly in public confidence and the business world. Mr. Chappell was married in I874 to Miss Julia Henry, a native of Ohio.. They have three children, Will C., John H. and Myra. In political faith he has been a lifelong Republican and has rendered good service to his party from his early manhood. He does not seek or desire official station, but has accepted office at times for the general weal. He was superintendent of schools for some years in Cambria township, and, when a vacancy occurred in the city council in I90I, he

Page  234 234 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. was appointed to fill it, and, before the end of the same year, he was elected to the office for a full term. Since I873 he has been an enthusiastic devotee before the altars of Freemasonry and he always has his interest and his active aid enlisted in the support of any good enterprise for the advancement or improvement of the community in which he lives, and among all classes of the people he is highly respected and esteemed. ELON G. REYNOLDS. Mr. Elon G. Reynolds, the accomplished editor of this compendium, was born in Lyons township, Ionia county, Michigan, on May 7, I841, and was one of eleven children, nine of whom grew to maturity. He is the youngest of five brothers who are all of the family now living. His parents came from the state of New York, and were married in Wayne county, Michigan, on October 30, I828, and lived together sixty-one and one-half years. They moved to Ionia county before Michigan was admitted as a state, there being then but few families in that county, and there they engaged in the struggles and endured the privations common to the pioneer of that day. The boy, Elon G., when less than nine years of age was thrown from a horse he was riding and kicked or struck by one following, the blow fracturing the skull so that several pieces of bone were removed. This injury, in some respects, turned the course of his after life, and prevented his going into the army when his next elder brother enlisted, the recuiting officer saying that Elon could not stand the concussion of a cannonade. When less than sixteen years of age he came to Hillsdale College, arriving in Hillsdale on March i8, 1857, the last term of the second year. The next winter he taught a district school and the following spring was again a student of the college, being baptised daring that term, and becoming a member of the Free Will Baptist church. When eighteen years of age he asked his father to release him from further service on the farm, taught school the following winter, and, in March, I860, became a permanent resident of Hillsdale. He largely supported himself while in college, sawing wood, which was then cut and marketed four feet long, gardening, doing chores, keeping books, etc. It was ninety miles from his former home to Hillsdale, but he walked and drove cows the whole distance at three different times. Tie was a member of the Amphictyon and Beethoven societies, sang in the choir, was a teacher in the Sunday-school, and its chorister for several years, when it met in the old college chapel. He completed the classical course in June, I866. After graduation he taught one year at Constantine, Mich., and,,finding that his warm friends, Prof. and Mrs. F. B. Rice, were going to Europe in September, 1867, he decided to go with them. For.nearly a year he was engaged in the study of German, French and Italian, at Leipsic, Germany. Besides taking trips to Berlin, Wittenberg, Pottsdam, and other points in Germany, he toured on his way home through Saxony, Bohemia, Austria, Bavaria, Italy, Switzerland, France and England, "doing" the capitals of most of those countries and many other large cities. He saw an emperor in the person of William I, of Germany, and had also a near view of King John of Saxony, although he had never seen a president. During his absence the most important item of American news which he saw in the continental newspapers was the attempted impeachment of Andrew Johnson, and the Leipziger Tageblatt gave only two or three lines to this important announcement. On his return he arrived in New York on the night of the day of Grant's first election as President, in i868, and the old flag never had more meaning or beauty to him than when he saw it waving again in his own country. When the public schools opened after the holidays of that year his services were sought as superintendent of the Hudson, Mich. schools, where he remained until June, 1871, when he declined a reelection. In the fall of 1871, as chairman of the alumni endowment committee of the college, he undertook hte raising of the endowment of the alumni professorship, and procured pledges of more than $IO,ooo, most of'which have been paid. In January, I872, he was appointed the local agent of

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Page  235 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 235 some fire insurance companies, and has now one company of which he became agent in I873. He was also an active life insurance agent for nearly thirty years, and in I875, without his knowledge, he was chosen clerk of the Oak Grove Cemetery association, serving in that capacity for twenty-three years, until more than a thousand had been there buried. In 1876, he was commissioned a notary public and has been one almost continuously ever since. He has done much conveyancing and notary work during the twenty-seven years. In the fall of 1876 he was chosen alderman to fill the vacancy of R. E. Whipple, resigned. In April, 1877, he was appointed city clerk and served as such for eight years. During six of these years he was a member of the school board, serving two years as director. In 1878, without any seeking on his part, he was chosen chairman. of the Republican county committee, and that year, which was when Greenbackism was at its height, the party made one of its hottest fights in the county, electing every man on the ticket against the combined fusion opposition of all parties. There were 112 different Republican campaign speeches that fall by forty-six different speakers. Mr. Reynolds was chairman of the county committee six years and its secretary for two years. While serving in these capacities he also acted as deputy for County Treasurer LeFleur and County Clerk Barre, and,the latter having been elected cashier of the Second National Bank, Mr. Reynolds, as his deputy, on March I, 1883, began to act as clerk of the county and of the circuit court, filling that position until January I, 1885. During this last year he drew the orders for the payment of all moneys expended by the county, city, school district and cemetery, and these were only "side issues" to his regular business-insurance. He had been married in I880, and his wife, nee Emily A. Benedict, was one of the "help-meet" kind, not only housekeeper, but office assistant and deputy. Their only son, Leon B. Reynolds, is now a sophomore in college. On August 19, I879, while Mr. Reynolds "lay sick of a fever," the Waldron block, in which his office was situated, was destroyed by fire, and the rec ords of the city, the cemetery, the church (of which he was clerk for seven years), the class of I866 (of which he was then secretary), and the alumni association of the college, all then in his custody, were wholly or partly burned, entailing great inconvenience in all after work. In 1879 he was elected a trustee of the college and is now serving in that capacity for the twentyfifth year, being also a member of its prudential committee. Upon the death of Hon. Henry Waldron, in I880, he became his successor as college auditor, which position he held until his election as secretary and treasurer, in June, I888,.and he has also been auditor for the last three years. On account of his wife's poor health and to take a much needed rest, he resigned as secretary and treasurer of the college in September, I898, and, with his family, made a trip of nine and one-half months to California and the Pacific coast. Mr. Reynolds has occupied many positions of trust without emolument, as eight years treasurer of the college alumni association, ten years as its historian or alternate, twenty years on its endowment committee and nearly as long on its prudential committee. He has been two years secretary or treasurer of his church society, getting it out of debt and keeping it so, and is now the treasurer of the Michigan association of Free Baptists, comprising 104 churches and 5,828 members. He has been guardian of many minors and others, and has acted as administrator and executor in the settlement of estates to the satisfaction of all paries concerned. By the mass of people the prodigious amount of work of which he has been capable, and which he has performed, and the usefulness and unselfishness of a large part of that work, given wholly without regard to recompense or appreciation, will never be known. From the foregoing statement it will be seen that Mr. Reynolds has been, for forty years or more, in responsible offices and positions of trust, by appointment, and quite unsolicited by himself, but that he has never (although he has always been a loyal member of his party and served it with ability), had his name printed on a ticket for an elective office, or received any "plum" for his services.

Page  236 236 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. He has known more of the students of the college from first to last, than any other person living, having attended every commencement since the first, except two, and having seen all of the more than I,ooo graduates, except one. He taught classes in college both before and after graduation, including the subjects of mathematics, Latin and German. He takes satisfaction in remembering among his pupils, Gen. Frank D. Baldwin, Judge Victor H. Lane and Hon. Henry R. Pattengill. Mr. Reynolds is as genial as he is successful and as modest as he is capable. He is perhaps unconscious of his leadership and mastery among men, and would probably be the last to know that the people of Hillsdale hold him in the highest esteem as one of their most representative, serviceable and accomplished citizens, one of their safest and wisest business men, one of their most stimulating and productive educational and moral forces. PROF. MELVILLE W. CHASE. Prof. Melville W. Chase has passed more than a generation of human life and more than half of his own in Michigan as the popular and efficient professor of music at Hillsdale College, contributing to the cultivation and refinement of the people by spreading the refining influence of that divine art, which to countless millions is health in sickness, solace in sorrow, companionship in loneliness, wealth in poverty, liberty in bondage and even consolation in death, which heightens the pleasure of life's gayest moments and with a soothing radiance softens its darkest hours. He first saw the light of this world at the little town of Minot in the far away state of Maine, on February I8, 1842. His parents were J. Warren and Mary (Bumpus) Chase, also native in that state, which had been the home of his ancestors for generations. The maternal ancestors were early located in Massachusetts, coming hither from England in one of the first vessels. The Bumpus family is generations old in Europe, originally of French extraction, the former spelling of the name being Bompasse. The very earliest of the American progenitors of this branch of the Chase family came to New England from Old England in the year 1626, and, after that time, the name runs with credit through all the local chronicles of the section, whether they record the beneficent victories of peaceful conquest over nature or the bloody conflicts of the patriots with savage aborigines or despotic foreign foes. The grandfather of the Professor was Edmund Chase, of Newbury, Mass., a mechanic and farmer in times of peace and a gallant soldier in the War of 1812. His son, the Professor's father, was also a soldier by inclination and practice, when there was need of soldiers, being a valued member of the state militia for many years, until advancing age made it advisable for him to leave the service. He-is now living in Connecticut "in a green old age," after a long career as a well-to-do farmer and skillful carpenter. His wife passed away in I868. They were the parents of four sons, all living, and one daughter who died a number of years ago. Professor Chase received his preliminary scholastic training at- the district schools of his native town, then attended Hebron Academy, for more than a hundred years a noted institution of learning, and, after leaving that, in 1857, went to the Maine State Seminary, since developed into Bates College, that very beneficial and capable educational institution located at Lewiston, Maine. He had begun the study of music some time previous to going to college under the tuition of Prof. W. K. Eminger, of Lewiston, and afterward he continued it under the instruction of Professor Schultz, of Boston, Mass., under whose competent tutelage he remained until September, 1864. He then enlistedin the Union army as a member of Co. E, Ninth Maine Infantry, was at once detailed as regimental clerk, serving in that capacity until he was mustered out. The regiment became a part of the Army of the Potomac, and after joining it the Professor was in all the historic battles and engagements of that army. On being discharged from the army in July, I865, he returned to Maine,. began the teaching of music at Lewiston and also studied in Boston to perfect himself in his profession. In the spring of I869 he moved to Boston, in the fall of that year

Page  237 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 237 coming to Hillsdale to take the position in the college faculty which he still holds, being the only member of the faculty of that day who is now at the college. He found his department of the college course feeble, unappreciated and considered unimportant. He took hold of it with vigor, determined that it should rise to its proper importance and dignity; and by his continued, assiduous effort, ability and genius he has made it one of the best and most popular schools of music in this part of the country. Professor Chase was married in Maine' in 1867, with Miss Olive C. Poland, a native of the state, a gifted singer and a teacher of vocal music of high repute. She died in 1874, leaving one child, Clarence M.. Chase, a graduate of Hillsdale College and now a resident of Boston, Mass., where he maintains a studio and is a successful teacher of the piano. The Professor's second marriage occurred in 1877, being then united with Mrs. Eleanor (McMillan) Hill, a native of Canada, who came to Michigan in her childhood. They have one living child, Lauin D. Chase, a civil engineer in the employ of the Pere Marquette Railroad. Professor Chase is a Republican in political faith, but is not an active partisan and has no desire for political or other public office. He is an interested Freemason, belonging to the lodge, the chapter and the commandery, and is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic. THE HILLSDALE DEMOCRAT. The first newspaper published in Hillsdale county was the Gazette, which appeared in 1838. The Gazette was published for twenty years and then became the Hillsdale Democrat, having since I848 been published under that name. The founder of the Hillsdale Standard, the late Harvey B. Rowlson, was wont to boast to the present publisher of the Democrat of the distinction that he was the first "printer's devil" in Hillsdale county, having served his apprenticeship in the office of the old Gazette. The experience of James I. Dennis, the veteran publisher of the Hillsdale County Gazette, of Jonesville, was similar in this respect to that of Mr. Rowlson. The Hillsdale Democrat is the oldest paper in the county, having been in existence for more than sixty-five years, for more than forty-five years of that time being published under its present title. The early history of the paper would be extremely interesting to relate, did time and space permit a detailed review, for it is rich in incidents and events intimately connected with those remote periods. Its first establishment in the open air with merely a roof to protect the type and press from the elements; its precarious existence for some months as a daily during the Civil War, with the late Judge Michael McIntyre, then at home on a furlough, as editor-in-chief: the vicissitudes and ups-and-downs of its long career; the striking personality of some of its former publishers; its various offices and locations, all would be of interest. But the limits of a sketch for a publication of the character of this volume preclude an extended recital. The present publisher, H. C. Blackman, came to Hillsdale seventeen years ago and entered the office in the employ of his father, the late Edgar A. Blackman, who purchased the plant of Capt. W. H. Tallman, its publisher for the preceding twenty years. Mr. E. A. Blackman died in May, I892, and his son has since published the paper, and been its sole owner since the spring of 1899. Though the Democrat has been of a political faith at variance with that of the dominant party of the county for more than two-score years, yet it'has always enjoyed a gratifying support, and the very fact that it has existed to its present venerable age, would seem to sufficiently indicate that it has attained some measure of practical success. At the present time the establishment, for its kind, is second to none in southern Michigan. It is located in a permanent home on Broad street, opposite the handsome courthouse square, occupying two entire floors of the brick block into which the Democrat was moved when the building was purchased for the purpose in the fall of 190i.. The mechanical equipment of the office now embraces two fine cylinder presses, two job presses, folder, etc., the machinery being driven by a fine gasoline engine. The large assortment of types and printing materials makes

Page  238 238 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. practicable and easy a large output of commercial printing. The circulation of the Democrat reached the two thousand mark some time ago, and it is increasing. WILLIAM B. CHILDS. William B. Childs, one of the pioneer merchants of Hillsdale, and for nearly twenty years the proprietor of its leading drygoods and carpet emporium, has found in the retired life he is now living in the calm and peaceful autumnal evening of his days, that there is, even on this side of the grave, a haven where the storms of life beat not, or are felt only as soft breezes or in the gentle undulations of the unrippled and mirroring waters, a rest profound and blissful as that of the soldier who has returned from the dangers, the hardships, the turmoil of war to the bosom of a dear domestic' circle, whose blessings he never prized at half their value till he lost them. This haven, this rest, is a serene, a hale, a cheerful old age, in which the tired traveler abandons the dusty, crowded and jostling highway of life for one of its shadiest and least noted by-ways, where the din of traffic and of worldly strife has no longer magic for his ear, he having run his race of toil, or trade, or ambition, and accomplished his full day's work. The story of Mr. Childs's life is closely interwoven with the history of Hillsdale county, in which he has lived for sixty years, in the settlement, development and progress of which he has been a most potent factor. He was born on December 8, 1821, at Altay, in Schuyler county. New York, at that time known as Kendall Hollow and being then a part of Steuben county. His parents were Daniel and Sally (Benjamin) Childs, natives of Lexington, Mass., who moved to New York about I819 and cleared up a farm in the tangled wilderness of Steuben county, on which they passed the remainder of their days, the father dying there in 1830 and the mother in I833. They were the parents of eleven children, of whom Mr. Childs is the only survivor, and the only one who ever became a resident of Michigan. His grandfather was Daniel Childs, also a native of Massachusetts and a prosperous farmer in that state until the War of the Revolution, when he joined the ever historic "Minute Men" and during the seven years of the memorable struggle was ever at the post of duty, no matter what of danger or hardship it involved, what the personal sacrifice of comfort or estate it exacted of him. He was early in the contest for liberty, beginning his service on the historic field of Lexington, where the shots were fired in behalf of human freedom which reverberated around the world. In the war he was several times wounded, remaining in the service, however, to the final triumph of the cause at Yorktown. He lived to see the principles for which he fought fully vindicated and in beneficent operation in this country as the basis of our government, dying in I826, in Steuben county, New York, where he settled after the close of the war. He was twice married, his first wife being the grandmother of William B. Childs. William B. Childs was reared in his native county, at the primitive country schools of his day he received a limited education, attending during the winter months, and working on the farm throughout the rest of the year. At the age of twenty-two he followed the example of his daring and adventurous father and grandfather, seeking ahomeand opportunity for a better fortune on the frontier, emigrating to Michigan in 1844, and locating in Hillsdale county. The long journey, through a wild and unbroken country, which consumed nearly a month of wearying travel, was made with teams and in company with two of his wife's brothers, Henry and Charles Koon. He "stuck his stake" seven and one-half miles west of the present town of Hillsdale, in the very depth of the forest, and went to work diligently to carve out of the wilderness a home and a competence. He helped to clear seventy-five acres of the farm he located, and, six years later, bought eighty acres more a mile and a half west of the present site of Hillsdale College. This he cleared'and made his home until I869, when he removed to Hillsdale and opened a drygoods and carpet establishment, which he conducted on a scale of increasing magnitude and with expanding profit and reputation until

Page  239 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 239 I888. He then retired from active business and has since lived quietly at Hillsdale, free from business cares, in the full enjoyment of the public esteem which he has so well earned, and which he possesses in such abundant measure. He was married in New York state in I842, to Miss Elizabeth Koon, a daughter of Alonson and Marilla (Wells) Koon, and sister of E. L. and M. B. Koon, able and leading attorneys of this county for many years, of whom extended mention is made elsewhere in this work. Mr. and Mrs. Childs were the parents of two children, their son, Daniel, now a resident of Washington, D. C., and their daughter, Marilla L., living at the paternal home. Mrs. Childs died on January 28. I89I. Mr. Childs was a member of the Union League during the whole period of its existence, and, at one time, was an active Odd Fellow. N. R. COOK. The lumber interests of Michigan, which are widely renowned for the volume, variety and value of their products, have given to the commercial world some of its best business capacity, greatest breadth of view and most productive enterprise. Among the number of those who have adorned and dignified this line of mercantile industry, N. R. Cook, of Jonesville, has a place in the front rank. He is a native of Genesee county, New York, born on November I6, 1835. His parents were Anson and Anna (Wheeler) Cook, the former a native of New York and the latter of Vermont. The father was a farmer in his native state, prosperous and well-to-do, but, impelled by the hope of larger opportunity in the new part of the country to secure a home in Michigan, he came to Hillsdale county in I844 and located at Litchfield. He later purchased a farm near Jonesville, some time afterwards moving to Allen township, there carrying on a prosperous farming enterprise until his death in I890. His widow survived him two years and passed away in I892. Their family consisted of four sons and two daughters, of whom three sons and one daughter are now alive. The father was for many years a justice of the peace and took a leading part in the public and local affairs of the township in which he lived. His father, John Cook, was a native of New York state and died there after living a life of industry and usefulness. N. R. Cook accompanied his parents to Hillsdale county in 1844, and has passed the rest of his life within its limits. He received a limited education in the public schools and afterwards assisted in the work of the farm. He began life for himself as a farmer and followed that occupation until I893, when he removed to Jonesville, purchased the lumber business which he is now conducting, which under his enterprise and careful judgment has grown to very gratifying proportions and laid under tribute the favor of a large number of well-satisfied patrons. Mr. Cook was married in Allen township on May 26, I874, to Miss Martha Warn, a native of New York. They had four children, Charles A., Neva, Hazel and Seward. Mr. Cook has been a lifelong Republican and has taken a continuous and active interest in the success of his party, rendering good service as a soldier in the ranks, also in official positions of prominence and importance. He was for two years a justice of the peace, two years a deputy sheriff, and has occupied various other local offices from time to time. In fraternal relations Mr. Cook belongs to the Masonic order in three of its branches; the blue lodge, royal arch chapter and council of the royal and select masters. While Michigan has proved agreeable to Mr. Cook. and furnished him with satisfactory opportunities to exercise his business capacity and ability, still that state has not had the benefit of his citizenship during the whole of his mature life, for he spent five years in California, Oregon and Montana, three years of this time being passed at Helena, Mont., where he had many exciting experiences with road agents and other desperadoes and several times barely escaped with his life. The lawless element in Montana was bold and aggressive and the strong hands of the.Vigilantes had not yet reduced it to subjection. He found life in the farther West spicy with adventure, filled with interest and incident, large in promise of rich rewards for judicious labor, but he returned to I

Page  240 240 HILLSDALE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Michigan, where the social and commercial atmosphere was better suited to his taste, and the conditions afforded sufficient inducement to elicit all of the ardor of an energetic man. And, on his return with the expectation of making this state his permanent home, he entered' with spirit into the business which interested him, which he has since made one of the leading commercial enterprises in his part of the state. In all relations of life he has so borne himself in this community as to win the regard and confidence of his fellow men, being looked up to as one of the leading and representative citizens of the township. ALBERT G. CONGER. Albert G. Conger, of the town of Litchfield, who is living retired from active business pursuits, has earned the quiet rest he is now enjoying by a long life of indus