Biographical history of Genesee County, Michigan.

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Page  7 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY OF --- GENESEE COUNTY MICHIGAN B. F. BOWEN & CO., Publishers INDIANAPOLIS

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Page  9 PREFACE. In placing this volume of the "Biographical History" before the people of Genesee County, Michigan, the pullishers can conscientiously claim that they have carried out in all respects every promise made in the prospectus. They point with pride to the elegance of the binding of the volume, and to the beauty of the typography, to the superiority of the paper on wihich the work is printed, and the high class of art in which the portraits are finished. Every biographical sketch in the work has been slubmitted to the party interested for approval and correction. and therefore any error of fact, if there be any, is solely due to the person for whom the sketch was prepared. The publishers would here avail themselves of the opportunity to thank the citizens for the uniform kindness with which they have regarded this undertaking and for their many services rendered in the gaining of necessary information. Confident that our efforts to please will fully meet the approl)ation of the public, we are, Respectfully B. F. BOWEN & COMPANY, Publishers.

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Page  11 INDEX. A\ Friend to Man...... Adams, Albert L...... Adams, Jay.......... Adams, Jayno C....... Albro, Jarvis E....... Atherton, Samuel R.... Atherton, Charles C.... Austin, James S....... Aitken, Robert P...... Banker, Almeron D.... Bates, \illiam Rufus.. Bates, Irving B........ Bates Charles......... Becker, John......... Beebe, Zala.......... Begole, Gov. J. A\......................................... 3I; *. 347..... 210....................................... I12 1...................................................................................................... 28 2.......................... 3 5 7..........................357 357.......................... 2 7I.......................... 38 4.......................... 150...................... '. 8 5.......................... 8 6.......................... 3 2 6.......................... 5I I.......................... 3 6 6.......................... 2 3.......................... i6 o.......................... 3 17.......................... 3 53.......................... 3 6 4.......................... 3 2I.......................... 30 0.......................... 30 5......................... 2 1.......................... 2 12.......................... 303..........................35 Beecher, Elbert L................... Benson, Hon. John Roger............ Burt, Fredrick J..................... Button. George \V................... Bridgman, Charles T................ Billings, Hon. Simeon Rexford....... Buck, Albert H..................... Burroughs, James Polk............... Burnham, La Forest................ Birdsall, Andrewr P.................. Bovee, Frank...................... B arney, M. C................................................ Bow m an, M elvin C........................................... B row n, G eorge F.............................................. Burr, Arthur 0.............................................. Barker, A braham............................................ Baker, Charles............................................... C arm an, R. A................................................. C larke, F. D................................................. 57 200 190 94 28 388 355 65

Page  12 INDEX. C onover, C. H.............................................. 52 Cody, Alvin Nelson.......................................... 30 C orrigall, Jam es K............................................. 98 Curts, Edwin J.......................................... 206 Cook, G eorge........................................ 93 Collins, John W............................................... 27 Crawford, David........................................ 289 Craw ford, Joseph H........................................... 89 Crapser, Jonathan............................................ 33 Curtis, H on. George M......................................... 96 Crocker, Stephen.............................................. 96 Colw ell, D. G........................................... 387 De Land, Charles F......................................... 335, D unbar, Joseph I............................................. 37 Dew ey, G eorge M.............................................. 35 Doyle, Thomas...................................... 93 E ddy, H on. Jerom e............................................ 267 Flanders, George D................. 89 Failing, James H............ 246 Fenton, Joseph Brush.......................................... 54 Fenton, Col. William Matthew................................ 18 Farm er, T hom as.............................................. 23 French, James B...................1....................... 182 Fisher, W illiam L.............................................. 226 Frisbie, N athaniel H........................................... 129 Frawley, James P...................i......................... 86 Freem an, Leonard............................................ 387 Garner, W illiam A............................................ T45 Garner, WilliamA.145 Gilbert, Erastus Derwin...................................... 202 Greenfield, Jam es M............................................ 169 Gilbert, Hiram B........................................... 131 G iven, D r. S............................................... 345 Gilmore, William............................................. 298 Graff, Otto P................................................ I 7 Howe, George R......................................... 388 H all, Frank E................................................ 387 Hamilton, W illiam............................................ 176 Hamilton, John............................................ 75 H art, O rrin.................................................. 125 Holliday, Franklin E...................................... 39 H all, F rank T................................................ 208 Hyatt, Alonzo B........ 63

Page  13 INDEX. Henderson, James............................................ 42 Hilton, George \........................................ I56 H iller, D avid W.............................................. I43 H ughes, John C.............................................. 274 Hurley, James J....................................... 337 Hughes, John............................................... 329 H ughes, Charles G............................................ 388 H etchler, Clarence 0.......................................... 308 K ing, VW illiam J.............................................. I9 K napp, Leonard E............................................ I3 Jennings, John L................. 46 Judd, Frederick W elton......................................... 77 Kendrick, Augustus K........................................ I88 K urtz, Jacob................................................. 228 L ew is, C. J................................................... 3 3 Law, WVilliam........................................ 54 L ippincott, C. A.............................................. 44 L ee, C aptain E. S............................................. 342 L ove, G eorge E.............................................. 251 La D ue, G eorge.............................................. 224 Lyons, A braham........................................... 214 Lochhead, Colonel O.......................................... 83 M urray, Ransom N...................................... 232 M undy, G eorge E.............................................. 35 McCall, Alexander........................................... 37I M cC all, A rthur C............................................. 74 M illard, O rson................................................ 50 M clFarlan, Alexander.......................................... 38 M arshall, George Gordon...................................... 294 McGillivray, Archibald......................................... 216 M urphy, Rev. T. J....................................... 349 M yers, G eorge C............................................... 382 M artin, Charles S., Capt........................................ 87 M cGregor, W illiam............................................ 8 M cK inley, George E.......................................... 1 McWethy, Frank............................................. 325 M ichigan School for the Deaf.................................. 389 N ew m an, Ezra............................................... I4 Newall, Captain George E...................................... 7 Newbold, William,.......................................... 269 Ottaway, Willianm J....................... 276 O w en, T alm on C............................................... 248

Page  14 INDEX. O ttaway, Fred R............................................. 29 Ottaway, James E............................................ 62 Pierson, Charles S............................................ 287 Packard, George........................................... 64 Pierson, Enos D............................. 48 Pratt, D aniel D............................................... I03 Paine, W illiam.......................................... 158 Pratt, William R.............................................. I52 Pierson, George B.......................................... I49 Partridge, Thomas D....................................... 324 Prosser, H on. H. H............................................ 359 Rutherford, Frank J........................................... 204 Russell, William H-I................................. 222 Ransom, Albert E............................................ I8o Rust, Edward G............................................. 284 Randall, Rev. Edgar...........................................369 Rankin, H on Francis H.................................... 361 Seeley, Marvin L................................... 95 Saigeon, Edward M......................................... 184 Slaght, Dr. Andrew........................................... 147 Stockton, Colonel................................... 218 Stevenson, W illia............................................ 69 Stone, Oren............................................. 339 Stevens, Harvey..............................................273 Shank, John R., M. D................................... 280 Stephens, John Charles C........................................ 249 Sayre. Ira T................................................. 380 St. M ary's Catholic Church..................................... 333 Torrev, James M. 242 Tlorrevy, Jameo s............................................. 239 Torrey, Asa................................................. 237 T orrey, Jesse................................................. 235 Talbot, Nelson Nicholas....................................... 241 Taylor, W arren H aven......................................... 278 T he Torre Fam ily............................................. 234 Tupper, Theodore M........................................... 91 Tock, Orson W., M. D.......................................... Ti66 Tupper, Frederick L., M. D..................................... 217 Turner, George H enry......................................... I05 Turner, Edward C............................................. 26 Thompson, Lafayette.......................................... i

Page  15 INDEX. Thomson, M rs. Sarah T eresa................................... 378 Thomson, Col. Edward H..................................... 376 Vert, Frank............................................ 286 Van Tifflin, Reuben........................................... 33 W\illet, homas A............................................... 292 \ illet, M rs. E. A........................................... 292 W'haley, R obert J.............................................. I72 WVells, Frank L................................................ 40 W alker, Levi, Hon............................................ 262 \ alker, G eorge M............................................. 262 Walsh, Joseph................................................ 310 \W overton, \ illiam C......................................... 6I AWr icks, Sam uel B.......................................... 230 \Wilson, Samuel J.............................................. 244 ood, Edw in O............................................... 253 W\ alker, H enry Clark.......................................... 328 W\ood, Thomas P............................................. 265 \ alker, H on. James Barton..................................... 374 W\ alker, Isaac N.............................................. 33 Zim merman, John C.................................9........ o 9

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Page  17 "Biography is the only true history." Ahmersoln. 2

Page  18 COLONEL ATILLIAM MATTHEW FENTON. Colonel AVWilliam M. Fenton, father of Joseph Blrush Fenton, was born ill Norwich, Chenango county, New\\ York, Decelmber I9, I8o8. He was graduated from Hamilton College, Clinton, New York state, ill 1826, and then spent four years upon the sea. He rose from the rank of common sailor to the office of first mate of a merchantman, and was then proffered the captaincy, but declined. He was marrie(l in April, 1835, to the daughter of Judge James Birdsall, of Norwich, New York, alld ill July of that year settled in Pontiac, Michigan, engaging in the mercantile business with Robert Le Roy. In April, 1837, he settled in Dibblleville, Genesee county, the village that later changed its name in his honor. He engaged in business as a merchant andl real estate broker. HTe was admitted to the bar in 1842. In 1844 he was defeate(l as a Democratic candidate for the state legislature, but in I846 he was elected to the senate of that body from the Genesee district. He took an active part in the state school for the deaf, dumbl and blind. In T848 he was elected lieutenant-governor an(l re-elected in I85o. Upon removing to Flint lie was appointed by Presi(lent Pierce as registrar of the land office there, and continued his official duties in that capacity until the

Page  19 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I9 removal of the office to Saginaw. In i856 he visited Europe with his family. In 1858 he was elected mayor of Flint and gave efficient service. When the war cloud broke over tle country there was no more loyal supporter of the Union cause than \\illiam M. Fenton. He wired Governor Blair to draw on him for $5,000 to equip the first company of troops called into service. Early in 1861 he was made major of the Seventh Michigan Infantry, but before mustering he was commissioned by Governor Blair as colonel of the Eighth Michigan Infantry. He saw to it that the regiment was drilled and ready for service in a remarkably short time. After some weeks spent in Camp Anderson at Grand Rapids, the regiment was mustered into the United States service at Ft. \\aynie and departed for \ashington. This company, with the Seventy-ninth New York, was carried by the ocean steamer "Vanderbilt" on the expedition to Hilton Head, North Carolina, under General Sherman, the brigade commander being Brigadier-General Isaac I. Stevens. The introduction to actual warfare was the attack and capture of the Confederate forts, W\alker and Beauregard, in South Carolina, the former being taken possession of by the Eighth Michigan Regiment. The first battle in which the regimient participated was at Coosaw river on New Year's Day, 1862. At the battle of James Island the Eighth lost heavily, being in tle advance attack on a formidable fort, and not receiving adequate support. The loss to the regiment in killed, wounded, and missing was one-third of their entire numnber. One of those killed in the conflict was Captain S.. CGuild, of Flint, commanding Company A. During these operations Colonel Fenton hadl been in command of the brigade, and upon his own request was released and assumed the direct command of his regiment. Being returned to Fortress Monroe the regiment was attached to the Army of the Potomac and fought at Second Bull Run, Chantilly, South Mountain and Antietam, at the latter place twenty-seven men out of two hundred in actual engagement were lost outright. Colonel Fenton resigned his command while at Newport News, his health being greatly impaired. Upon his return to Michigan he was Democratic candidate for governor and later devoted his attention to his business, including the buidling of the brick block on Saginaw street, erected in:1865, and which, after forty years of tle city's growth and improvement, is a credit to the architecture of Flint. He was made clief of the fire department upon the organization of a city

Page  20 20 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY government, his death, on May 12, I87i, being the result of his zeal in the performance of his duty. His loss was a blow to the community and was keenly felt throughout the city. At the time of his funeral, business houses closed and many were draped in mourning. He was a ripe scholar and had attained to the fullest confidence of his townsmen. His wife had preceded him three years before, and he was survived by his four children.

Page  21 JAMES POLK BURROUGHS. James Polk Burroughs was born at Seneca Falls, Seneca county, New York, September 19, I844, the only son of Jonathan Edington Burroughs and Eliza (Hood) Burroughs. He had three sisters, Asenath, Mercy, and Ella. He spelt his early life upon the home farm-, entering the schools at Ovid, New York. completing his education at the State Normal school at Ypsilanti, Michigan. At the age of twenty-three he began his long and successful business career by buyingl a farm near Waterloo, New York. On the Ith of November, 1868, he was united in marriage with Caroline G. Romig, daughter of Elias and Lucinda Baldwin Romig, at Waterloo, New York, and lived on his farm until 1872, when lie moved to Flint, Michigan, where he lived until his death. On coming to Flint Mr. Burroughs bought the Thread Mills property, which consisted of a flourinog mill and sanwmill. The business was conducted as a partnership between himself and Herman L. Pierson for many years, with marked success. Their property was completely destroyed by fire, but with undaunted courage the mill was soon rebuilt on a more extensive scale than before. This quality of courage stood him in good stead many times later in his long business career. Later on Mr. C. M. Harris was admitted to the firm, which was then styled Burroughs. Pierson & Harris, and so con

Page  22 22 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY ducted for several years,. when Mr. Burroughs retired from the firm and purchased the City Mills. He improved this property and operated it until his death. Mr. Burroughs had three daughters-Ella Louise, Frances Lucinda, and Bessie Baldwin, and one son, J. Edington Burroughs, who, having been a partner in the firm for some time, continued the management of the business after the death of his father. While Mr. Burroughs directed his attention mainly along the line of flour milling, he engaged at different times in other enterprises, the most important of which were the Burroughs & Carter Company, doing a cold storage business, and the Soper Manufacturing Co., whose line was cooperage, and in which he was the directing spirit. Mr. Burroughs was notably a man of great public spirit and was foremost in all movements tending to better the welfare of the city and community. Among his business associates he was known as a man having a keen insight into affairs, and his advice in matters pertaining to business was considered of much value. In politics he was an active Democrat, but never sought or aspired to public preferment, and contributed much to the party harmony in the city. Socially he was a courteous gentleman and possessed an unusual number of friends. He was a member of the congregation of the First Presbyterian church. He was also a member of the following Masonic bodies: Flint Lodge, No. 23, Free and Accepted Masons; Washington Chapter, No. i5, Royal Arch Mlasons., and Genesee Valley Commandery, No. 15, Knights Templar, and the Mystic Shrine. He also affiliated with the Royal Arcanum, Tribe of Ben Hur and the Maccabees. Mr. Burroughs was cut off in the midst of a busy and useful career, on July 20, 1902. His death was sudden and wholly unexpected by his family, and was a great shock to them and his wide circle of friends. He was survived by his wife and children, his mother, and sister, Mrs. Asenath B. Edwards. His funeral was conducted by the Genesee Valley Commandery, Knights Templar, and he was laid to rest in Glenwood Cemetery at Flint, Michigan.

Page  23 (OVERNOR.. \. BEGOLE. Josiah \V. Begole, governor of MNichigan 1i883-884, w\as born in Livingstoll county, Ne-w York January 20, 81i5. His ancestors were French uguenits, -whlo were (ri-vel from Fralce through religious persecutions and soughlt liberty of conscience by emigrating to the Ulnited States in the last quarter of the eighteenth century. This particular family settled at Hagerstown, Marland. W \illiam, the father of Josiah W\., was born there in 1786. In 1802 the family remolved to the wil(lerness of Livingston county, New York, being opposed to the institution of slavery, although they themselves were slave ownlers. Ho(wever, they puirclase:l slaves solely for the purpose of givilng them their freedom. \William Begole was a soldier, servinlg during the war of 1812. In 18I4 he married the daughter of Captain TIhomas Boles, a revolutionary soldier who had servedl undler Waslinglton. This family was also from Hagerstown, Maryland, havillg come north for the same reason as the Begoles. William Pegole and wife became the parents of ten children. Of this family three solns came west and settled in Genesee county. William Begole died in 1862, at the age of seventy-six. Josiah was educated in lTemple Hill Academy in Genesee county, New York. Being the eldest of the family and of an ambitious turn of mind, young Begole, in A\ugust, 1836, with but $ioo in his pocket, resolved to seek better

Page  24 24 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY op)lortunities. He came west to the territory of Michigan when this section was still an unbroken wilderness. He taught one or two terms of school later, "boarding around," as it was called, among the patrons. He was clerk of the first election in the place xwhere he was located, there being but four or five shanties in the town. Later he helped to build the land office. In 1839 he was married to Miss Harriet A. Miles, daughter of Manly and Mary Miles, and a native of Connecticut. The groom was attired in a handsome blue suit, ornaments, and large brass buttons, while the bride was arrayed in -white. The ceremony was held in the log cabin of his wife's father, located on tle Saginaw road, two miles north of Flint. His wife proved to be a most judicious selection, and it was to her constancy, advice, and co-operation in every emergency in life that much of her husband's subsequelnt social, business, and political success can be attributed. They began housekeeping in a prilmitive home in the woods in (Genesee township. Mr. Begoles' energies were levoted to the developmient of a farm out of the surrounding wNilderness. Eighteen years of arduous labor and sacrifice followed, resulting, however, in the making of a fine 5oo-acre farm and the placing of them in comfortable circumstances. He was called upon repeatedly to serve his fellow townsmen in local offices, and in 1856 was elected county treasurer, continuing for eight years, covering much of the period of the rebellion, at which time his services were continually in demand in recruiting and equipping soldiers for the front, alnd in attending to the needy widows and families at home. The greatest sorrow of his life was brought by the death of his SOl], William, who (lied( il the Atlanta campaig n in 864. NWhen in congress a few years later, Mr. Begole voted and championed the soldiers' equalization bill, an act purporting to do justice to the soldiers who bore the heat and burden of the dlay, and who should share equally with him who came in at the eleventh hour. In 1870 he was elected to the state senate, where lie served on the committee of finance and railroads, and was chairman of the committee on the institute for the (leaf, dumb, and blind. Realizing the need of a new capitol building lie assiste(l in drafting a bill for the sane. Being a dleegate to the national Republican convention, held at Philadelphia in 1872, he was chosen a member of the delegation to go to Washington to apprise General Grant and Senator Wilson of their nomination. He was induced to become a candidate for membership in the forty-fifth congress, his election resulting in a handsome majority. He was a valued

Page  25 GENESEE COUNTY, IMICHIGAN. 25 mlember of tile conmmittee on agriculture and public expenditures. Being one of but seventeen farmers in co0ngress, lie was chosen to dcraft tile most importanlt report of the agricultural conmmittee covering the only subject mentione(l in the 'President's message. He votedl for the currency bill, the relonetization of silver, and the financial measures that hlave since become the settled policy of the government. FHis position on these questions made him a Greenbacker, and in 1882 he Awas the gubernatorial candidate for the Greenback andl Democratic parties, being elected by a vote of over I 54,oo000, defeating the Republican candidate by over 7,ooo votes. In i88I a great calalmity overtook the people of northwestern AMichigan, whole counties being devastated by fires, thousands being left destitute and forlorn. W\lile relief commnillittees w-ere quarreling over the distribution of funds, (overnl-or Begole Avrote an agent in the unfortunate district a.letter, from which we m1ake the followinlg extract: "Until tile differences between the tNwo con-mmittees are adjusted and you receive r-egular supplies from theni, d(raw on me. Let no one suffer while I have money." This i/ncidlent (lisplavys his true cllharacter. I-e made all enviable record as chief executive of the state, leaving the office Awith hosts of Awarm friends throughlout the state. (;overlnor Begole took an active part in the various lines of business tlhat lhave mnade Flint so w-ell known, notably the F lint \Vagon AWorks as one. Others Nwere the w-ater and gas works. and the Citizens' Commercial and Savinlgs Banlk, lie beinig vice-president of the latter. tIe was an extensive lumlberman for many Ayears, his enterprises affording em1ploiymlent to a hlost of men. Tl'heir familA consisted of five children, four reaching maturity. Onie of these is 'Mrs. C. W\. Culmlingsi \W\illian (lied at Lookout mlountainl and his boldy wAas interred at Flint w-ith military honors' another son, Frank, died( in Flori(la in I877' Charles is a resident of Flint. Full of years and honors. Governor Begole passed peacefully from amolng the scenes of a busy life on the 5th of June, I896. The widowr survives at the old lhome on Beach street, whicll for half a cenltury wTas the center of the social and intellectual life of Flint.

Page  26 26 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY EDWARD C. TURNER. Prominent among the citizens of Flint, who for years were closely identified with its growth and developm-ent, was Edward C. Turner, who was born at Owego, New York, February i, 1830, and died at Flint January 9, I896. His boyhood days were spent at Owego, where his education included training at Owego Academy. Later he entered Wabash College, at Crawfordsville, Indiana, being among the earliest students to enroll in this sturly pioneer college of the middle west. Its first president was an Owego man, and several Owego boys, including Edward Turner, acconipanlied the new president to his chosen field of labor. Later Mr. Turner became clerk in a general store at Aurora, New York. He was married at Ithaca, New York, September 4, I855, to Miss Cornelia Seymour, of Ithaca, which is the seat of the famous Cornell University. After marriage they removed to Flint, Michigan, and Mr. Turner bought what has since become known as the Crapo Lumber Mills. He became associated in its ownership with Mr. Edward McQuigg, also of New York, and this association was maintained until the mill was sold to Governor Crapo. It was a large plant and its business was transacted on a large scale. After the sale of the mills Mr. Turner became associated with Henry Haynes in the mercantile business aid continued at this for several years under the name of Haynes & Turner. After leaving this branch of labor Mr. Turner became a postoffice inspector and engaged in that work for several years. His later life was devoted to the insurance business. In company with Orrin Stone, Mr. Turner laid out Stone & Turner's addition on the inorth side of the city. He built the present Turner homestead over fifty years ago. It adjoins the Frederick Judd homestead on the east side of Kearsey street, andl was one of the finest residences of Flint, in its day, andt stands yet a creditable molnument to its builder. It has long been a social center in Flint, its mistress being one of the many popular ladies of the city. Mr. Turner was a Republican, but never aspired for pul)lic office. He was a first cousin to the widely known and highly admired Senator Platt of New York. As a family the Turners took an active part in church work, also, Mrs. Turner being of special usefulness in the societies of the Episcopalian church. The family consisted of several children. These are: Margarette, who was married to W\ilbur F. Davidson, of Port Huron; Anna, who

Page  27 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 27 became the wife of F. E. Finkenstaedt, of Bay City; Josephine, who is Mrs. John Derby, of New York city; Francis Turner Hiatt, at home. All the children have been active in the life of the town, and Mrs. Turner has proved to be not only a social leader, but also an ideal mother and guardian of the home.

Page  28 ABRA\HAM BARKER. Mr. Abraham Barker was born in the canton of Argean in Switzerland August 24, 1823. In 1834, at the age of eleven years, he came to America with his parents, Jacob and Barbara Barker, who settled upon a farm near Batavia, New York. Abraham remained there six years and then became an apprentice at the shoemaking trade at Batavia, devoting three years to the work. Having learned the trade le worked at the business in various places, such as Buffalo, Alexandria, Massillon, Ohio, etc. In 1840 he came to Flint with his parents, who took possession of a farm in Genesee township, where the parents spent the remainder of their days. The father died at the age of sixty-six years. Abraham became employed in Flint and worked for about one year, and opened up a shop of his own in 184I. He remained in this shop until the building burned, and in I845 bought the property. Here later he erected the three-story structure, corner of Saginaw and Union streets, taking as a partner Mr. William Pattison. He also built other business structures, but devoted the major part of his time to the shoe manufacturing business, carrying on this work in partnership with Mr. Pattison and also later with Mr. Ripley, and for fifty years was engaged in the shoe manufacturing and leather business.

Page  29 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 29 For a few years he operated a tannery and then, in conjunction with Messrs. Ripley and Pattison, he owned and operated a tannery at Vassar, Michigan, and eventually the leather line became the more extensive'phase of the business. His executive ability and acute insight into the problems of the business soon placed them on a footing equal to any similar concern in the middle west, and full confidence was commanded from all with whom the firm came in contact. In 1866 he erected his present residence at 705 North Garland street, this being at that time one of the first homes in the city. He also became the owner of a fine farm three miles from Flint. During his latter years he has withdrawn in a measure from active participation in the leather business, and has given the greater part of his time looking after his property interests. In I847 Mr. Barker was married to Miss Hester Eaton, who died five years later, having become the mother of two children. These were Eugene and Wallace, the latter dying at the age of twenty-four. Eugene has his home at Jackson, Michigan. In June, I856, Mr. Barker was again married, this time to Harriet Townsend. They celebrated their fiftieth wedding anniversary a year ago. The latter union has resulted in the birth of six children. Carrie is in North Carolina. Hattie, who was a teacher for a time, is now at home, as is also the other daughter, Alice. William is employed in foundry work in Flint. Frank is on a farm near Mt. Morris, and the other son, Ralph, is at home. Mr. Barker has been a loyal and interested citizen, and has left his impress on both the social and industrial life of the community.

Page  30 ALVIN NELSON, CODY. "\Ve live in deeds, not years; in thoughts, not breaths; In feelings, not in figures on the lial. WTe should count time blv heart throbls. He most lives WTho thinks most, feels noblest, acts best." -Philip James Bailey. T'le name of Codly is familiar all over the American continent, and since "Buffalo Bill's" tour of Europe, the name is familiar there also. But this sketch is not intended to dleal with the noted man of "Wild \West" fame, lut of his fourth cousin, Alvin N. Cody, superintendent of schools of Flint. He was born at Mayville, Tuscola county, Michligan, Septemlber io, I868. His father, Nelson Cody, originally of Ontario, was a skilled millwright and wheelwright, and came from Lapeer county to 'luscola county in i864. In I866 lhe, with Mr. Horace Fox, built anl(l set in operation a large mill at Miiayville, continuing at this work until 1870, at which time he retired to his farm two miles from Mayville. Here he spent his remaining days, passing away September 23, 1903, at the age of seventy-two. His wife's maiden name was Emily Swift, (laughter of Joseph and Harriet Swift, pioneers from

Page  31 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 31 the "Nutmeg state," Connecticut. They came to Michigan when Lapeer county was still a wilderness. One of their sons, Rev. William J. Swift, of Lansing, Michigan, was the first student to enter the Universitv of Michigan from Lapeer county. \When Alvin's parents established themselves in Tuscola county the town of Mayville was not in existence. They helped to organize the first Metholist Episcopal class estallished there, and contributed much tow:ard the growth and( p1rosperity of tile church. His father took an active part in school affairs, serving for several years as school inspector. He had dlecilded convictiolns on nmatters political, also, and voted for Fremont. Later he follo\-wed thle dictates of his conscience and threw all of his influence on the side of temperance and identified himself with the Prohibition party. i The mother died at her home in Fremont May 9, 1907. The family consisted of seven children, one of whom, Arthur, died when quite young. One (laughter, Emma, became the wife of Charles A. Mills, of Mayville. Another, Hattie, was married to a Mr. Cody, of Ontario. A third (laughter, Alice, was married to Mr. John Paul, now residing at Caro. Walter E. resides at the old home. Ernest E. is the present superintendent of schools at Plainw-ell, Michigan. Mr. Cody's boyhood dlays were spent on the farm. His industrious habits, coupled with a firm foundation of moral and religious culture, prepared him for the problems of life that were to confront him. Of course the (leman(ls of the farm came first, but such was his ambition to get a broad education that he willingly walked the two miles to the village high school. completing the course in due time. He then began teaching. After having taught one year in the districts he was elected principal of the Fostoria schools in the southeastern part of Tuscola county. His next change was to Iaingsburg, and in 1i898 he entered Albion College, having also rendered service as a member of the county board of examiners in Shiawassee county. At the col)ege he took the scientific course, specializing in biology. He became laboratory assistant to Professor Barr of this department. He gradluate(l with the class of ICOi, taking the degree of bachelor of science. At the time of his graltuation he was elected to deliver the address to the undergralduates, performing his task wiith credit to himself and honor to his class. He was not contented, however, to stop here. His innate love for his work and his consciousness of the value of a broad and liberal equipment,

Page  32 32 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY led him to contilnue work at the State University, and he received there the degree of M. S. in 1902. The following autumn he became high school principal at Flint. Here his work was thorough, scholarly, and highly successful, and he soon won the confidence of all. When the superintendency became vacant he was chosen to fill the place, and during his term of service in that capacity, he has demonstrated his eminent fitness for the work. He has taken a stand for good preparation and equipment on the part of the teacher, and insists upon a thorough and rational method in the school work. As fast as possible he is endeavoring to equip the schools with the best modern apparatus, supplementary material, and sanitary improvements. The high school is fast taking its place as one of the best in the state. Mr. Cody is quite an energetic institute worker, and has a high professional spirit, being a member of the National Educational Association and of the state and local associations as well. He was married in June, 1893, to Miss Bertha Watters, of Mayville, daughter of WNhitfield and Mary E. Watters. She is a native of New Jersey, is a high school graduate, and has shared with her husband in the college work. Their home is blessed with one daughter, Elizabeth. They are participants in church work, and in many ways are contributing favorably to the general tone and high standing of the civic and social life of the community.

Page  33 REUBEN VAN TIFFLIN. Mr. Reuben Van Tifflin, late of Flint, was lorn at Rush, iMonroe counlty, New York, June 25, 1826, and died at Flint, Michigan, January 4, I906. His parents were Peter and I-annall (Alllen) Van Tifflin, the former having been. born in Middleburg, Hollanl, in 1796. coming from thence to Albany, New York, with his parents, who later removed to the western part of the state. He was a farmer by occupation, and in 1834 came to Grandl lanc, Michigan, w-ith his family, and begaan life here oni tlle farm where one of the sons, David, now lives, and where the father died, February 27, I891, at the magnificent age of ninetv-five years. Thle il:other. Hannal, died on the salle farm March i8, 1871. She was a native of East Hampton, Connecticut, where she was born Junle 22, 18o1, being tle daughlter of ~\illiam and Esther ((off) Allen. 'en children were bornl of this union, nine of wlhoml reached maturity, and of these, two are still surviving'. The otlher sons were Henry, a farmer, who died at Fenton at tle age of seventy-eiglht; William, a farmer also, died at F'enton at the age of seventy-six' Schuyler. borin in 1828, served througll the war of the Rebellion andl was made lieutelnant of the Tenth MIissouri Volunteer Infantry. He died in the Army Hospital at Memphis, Tennessee, (during the war, andi is buried in Glenwood Cemetery at Flint; the next son in 3

Page  34 34 BIOGRA:IPHICAL H ISTORY the order of birth was Reuben, the subject of our sketchl Robert, 1)()i ill 832. lied at Flint in 1899, at tie age of sixty-seven; he was a soldlier il a Michigan Cavalry Regiment. 'The (laughters were EI!sther, born ill 1822, who belcame the wife of Henry H. Holland, of M\Itndyl township, and( attaine(l the age of sixty-seven years; Alice, b)orn iln 1830, became the wife of A. I. 1rainard alnd died on their farm near Grand Blanc, age(l seventy-threee DIelphia died at the age of eleven yAears. RTeubell was eight yvers old on coming to Genesee county, all(l grew to maturity on the parental farm. After leaving the farm he came to Flint and learne(l the carpenter's trade, and later spent al)out two years at Detroit. On returning to Flint he lbecamle a contractor aind billt the present higil scliool lild(ing ill 1873. He also )built the City Hall and tile Ladlies' Iibrlary building. IFor mllore than twenty-five yearse lie ha(l the supIervisioll of tie 1building of tlhe sch)ool for tle (leaf. lie became tile owner of a fine, large farm in lBurtoll township, u)pon which, however, he inever livedl. He was a loyal and active as well as energetic citizen, but never aspi-red to ho)l(l I)ulblic office, preferring rather to give all his attention to his ibusiness interests. He was al alert citizen and took quite an interest il the affairs of the city. He to(ok steps to secure the charter to mnake I;liit a city, anid circulated the petitioln for tile same. In the latter part of his life lie affiliatedl vitil the Democratic party. He was a imemller of the EIpiscopal church, having served as Aestry-ilaln for several years. He was married Marcil 19, 85, ill te (-o(l St. Paul's chulrch to Sarah Simlpson, rtoungest of five sisters, of Scotch ancestry, she beilg tile (lauglhter of A-lexander and AMargaret Simlpson. Sarahl Simlpson (was born at Caledlonia, New -Yo(rk. She proved an efficient andl -wortlly hellpmeet to her huslan(l throughl all the years of his tiusy andl successful career. Thle five Simnpson sisters married an(l residledl iln IFlit. A\1l were pioneer settlers. Rubeni selected the timbler that was use( in the co(nstruction of tile school)( for the (leaf over fifty years ago. At that time the entire fourth ward was a pine forest.

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Page  35 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY 3 35) GEORGE M. DEWEY. T]his gentlemian was lborn Iin Canandaigua. New York, January I, T817. Hi1-s farther, Eheniezer B-. Dewvev, was fromi Rovaltoin, Vermont, whither thev returnedl in i822. TFhe father then hecame proprietor of a stage line of somie three hundred miles hetwNIeen AlhUanvo, New York, andl Montreal, Canada. In 1848 hie settledl on a farm- Iin Mt. Morris townvship, Genesee connitv, i1\ichigan, and there spent the remiaindler of his (lays. He lived to he ninety-four years old. TIhe mother of Georo-e M1. wAas Harriet Meeker, a native of Huhhardtoni, Verm-onit. She was taken away at the age of thirty-six, George then h)eling lnt eighteen years of age. TFhe father m-rarriedl for his secondl wife Sarah Gilhert, who died just six moths hefore her hushaid, tteaeo eioghtv-u1ine. Georg~e M7\. was the oldest of the family, and was educated at the -Academyv of Rovalton, Verniliot. V~k the age of sixteen hie hecamne clerk Ini his father's stage office, and remained there until 1836, wvhen hie (lecidled to o-o to Missouri, hut on reacching- Detroit, in 187 hews esaddb friends to remain Iin Michigfan. Anld, gfoingo hv- stage, to Coruinna, hie walked froni thenice to Hlint, where hie found a sawmill, twNo groceries and a few, logs houses. in the fall of i838 lie established a miercanitile house, soon having an extensive tradle wi'th the Indians, wvho accordlel hima tile honor of heing nmdA-wvan-a-ga-gut-zeek. Within three y-ears hie beouan tobuTant wxhich hie contillued until hie ownied hetw een 6o,ooo and 75000o acres', for ilucil of w\hich hie paid hut fifty ceilts per acre. lIi 1848 hie was made receiver for the local land office for tile government, which office was retaileci four years, his hoiil being, $i so~ono. In 18415 hie became a hreeder of sheep, alld soon introduced the 1-ir-st meriino from Vermont. January i, l8,ile hecamne orcalizerfortheFliit,_1)reiar(Juette railroad, aild after tile exercise of great energy and persistence obtained a frallchise. He paid for tile survey, boughflt the rillht-)f-wNa v to Saginaw, alld let coiltracts for building tile road, of wil-ichllile was lpresidlelt until 1i861. It was only through llis shlrewvdlness anl (letermination that Flint sectlrel tile roadl, tile origillal idea of many of his associates beingc to have tile lille followI ailotiler route. Ini T8,6 MAr. Dewvey erected the A-wail-a-ga blchiicil still stands as a lloiluilelt to ilis foresigilt aild business sagacity. It redquiredl a clear niiilc andl great force of cilaracter to erect so expeinsive aild substailtial a business block at a time'when tile future of Flint was Iil the balanice, but it was sucll enterprise and (display

Page  36 36 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY of faith that soon induced others to follow his example, making assurance doubly sure, and laying a solid foundation for the future progressive city, where men now are hailed as benefactors who deign to erect pretentious blocks when conditions are past the experimental stage and rentals are guaranteed. He was one of the citizens whose efforts resulted in a charter for the city of Flint, and served on the first board of aldermen. His marriage, June 1, 1848, to Miss Ellen Cummings, youngest daughter of Judge Simeon Cummings, served to establish what for sixty years has proved one of the most popular homes in Flint. All the forty-three years of their companionship was passed in the Dewey homestead on Garland street, which he had erected in 1846, it being the third residence built on that now most popular residence thoroughfare. There he delighted to extend unquestioned hospitality to his many friends, its parlors often resounding with the mirth and repartee for which his character was so well suited; and there on the 2ISt of December, i89gi, the spirit of this most genial and accomplished man passed to its reward. For forty-six years he was vestryman in St. Paul's Episcopal church, and was the last survivor of the original nineteen enthusiastic young men and women who organized the church. Mr. Dewey was a Whig, becoming a Republican upon the organization of that party at Jackson, "Under the Oaks," in 1854, and for several years was a member of the state central committee. Mrs. Dewey was born at Batavia, New York, and after her father's death came with her mother to Flint. The other members of the family consisted of three sons and four daughters. A brief reference to the career of some of these children may not be without interest. Thomas R. Cummings, born at Batavia in 1814, was private secretary to Governor Barry, first governor of Michigan. He was deputy secretary of state under Governor Ransom, and helped to lay the carpets for the new capitol building. In 1847 and 1848 he was county clerk of Genesee county. He died in the sanitarium at Otter Lake, having been an invalid for three years. He was considered a high authority on the early history of Detroit and the surrounding towns. George Cummings was an able attorney of Flint and died there at the age of fifty years. Simeon Bradford Cummings died in Flint on May 3, 1906. He served in the Civil war under the standard of the Second Michigan Regiment. One of his sisters, Elizabeth, remained unmarried and attained the age of ninetythree years, having made her home with her sister, Mrs. Dewey. Another sister, Olive, married Elias Williams. She died at Maple Rapids at the age

Page  37 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 37 of eighty years. Harriet was married to S. A. Pengra, who was connected with the New York & Erie railroad at Rochester. After her husband's death in Flint she went to Portland, Oregon, in 1903, and died at the age of eightytwo. The mother's maiden name was Fanny Bradford. She lived in Flint until her death at the age of eighty-six, a woman universally loved, and one that was acknowledged to be a queen in the realm of home life.

Page  38 ALEXANDER McFARLAN. The city of Flint is characterized not only by its commercial enterprise and push, and by its adnirable civic spirit, but also by the good taste evinced in the style and arrangement of its residences. One of the best examples of the homes of this character is the McFarlan homestead on North Garland avenue, occupied by the McFarlans. Alexander McFarlan was born in Flint October 30, 1852, and with his sisters, Mrs. R. WVhaley and Mrs. Anna Barks, of New York, are the only survivors of his father's family. His life has been spent in the city of Flint, with whose growth and development he has been most intimately associated. He was connected with his father in his business enterprises, which consisted of extensive farming interests as well as business ventures in the city itself. Since his father's death Alexander has carried on the supervision of the farm work, and has been abundantly able to take care of the Inany details that have levolved upon him. \hile busily engaged with his personal affairs Mr. McFarlan has been fully alive to his duties as a citizen, and his fellow townsmen have not been slow to recognize his value as a public man and to make use of him in a public capacity. He is a director of the Citizens' Bank of Flint, and has contributed much toward its conservative policy. He was alderman also from his ward,

Page  39 (IENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 39 andl in that capacity conserved the city's interests by his judicious views on questions vital to the munlicipal policy of the town. NAt the ag-e of twenty-seven Mi r. Mcl'arlan was married t(o \Miss Margaret Phillipson, who was born in Genesee c)ounlt, 1)eing the (laughter of one of the highly respected residents of the countV. ITheir union has resulted in the birth of two datlughters. one of wh(om is still at the parental homestead. Thle other, L(uise, is the -wie of Jo(hn \N. Ackley, of New Y)ork city.

Page  40 FRANK L. WELLS. Mr. Frank \Wells, the present able chief of police of Flint, has been connected with that department of the city's affairs for many years. He was born in Grand Blanc township, Genesee county, March 13, 1857. His parents were Theodore J. and Demaris (Ingersoll) Wells, the former being a native of Pennsylvania, and the latter of New York, their marriage taking' place in Lapeer county, Michigan. Theodlore \\ells followed the harness marker's trade, first in Grand Blanc township, later going to Lapeer county. His wife died when Frank L. was about five years old, and he was placed under the care of his grandparents. 'Iheo(lore later came to Flint and went into the harness manufacturing business, continluing therein for many years. He provost marshal, helping to conduct drafting, etc. He was made deputy provost marshal, helping to conduct a drafting, etc. He was made deputy sheriff under McCall. His father, Lewis Wells, was for many years a dairyman, occupying a farm two miles south of Flint, and was one of the pioneers in that business, continuing at that until within ten years of his death at the age of seventy-four. His wife was Sarah Long, the aunt of the late Judge Long, of the supreme bench. One dlaughter of Lewis and Sarah \Wells, Edna, is still living, the wife of Theodore L. Tupper, of Flint. Our subject, Frank, remained with his grandparents from the age of five

Page  41 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 4I until sixteen and became an expert dairyhand, being unexcelled as a milker. He grew up a rugged and husky boy, attending school in the districts, and later coming to the city schools of Flint. He was a steady student, well liked )b his companiotns and teachers, acquiring a good reputation as a lad of courage and a lover of fair play. At sixteen he went to working out bv the month, contnuiing so until his marriage at the age of twenty-one to Miss Josephine t1ow+ler, daughter of Hannah Fowler, widowed, living in Flint township. His grandparents came to Flint at this time, and Frank rented the farm, remaining there tw\o years, after which he removed to a farm in Oakland county. Here he continued for two years longer, at the expiration of which time he came to Flint, and for the next three years was attached to the police force of the city. He then became engagel in the hack business and followed that vocation for six years, becoming thcr(o:ughlv familiar with the city's life in its varied and manifold phases. He then returned to the police force, and for the last twelve vears has retained his connection with that department. His services began as patrolman, but later he was made assistant chief, holling this position for two years. In 1906 he was made chief of the department and has continued in that capacity since. \\'hen he first came on the force twentyone years ago there were but two patrolmaln employed and one marshal. Now the force consists of nine men besides the chief and constabulary. He is recognized as a fearless and conscientious officer and one in wvhom the people have implicit confidence. Although a Republican he was'first appointed by a Democratic mayor, and has been retained by the present incumbent of that office, which fact is a strong testimonial to the efficiency and fitness of the chief. His family of two children is made up of Lewis T., R. F. D. carrier, of Flint, and Lettie May, wife of George Joiyce, dye worker of Owasso. Mr. W\ells is a member of the MNasonic fraternity and of the Lodge of Elks.

Page  42 JAMES HENDERSON. Jam-es Hendersol, late of Flmnt, wvas born in Livingston county, >New York, Jmnuary 29, 1812. He wvas the son of (George and Jane' ( McGreg-or) Heniderson. who were both of foreimf lbirthl the former beingy a native of northern Ireland, and the latter of Scotland. Thev came to America in early life and wvere married in this conntry, (levoting their (lays to farmning. chiefly in the state where James wNas borni. James' boyhood days wvere spent on the farm, and here hie (levelopedl the stroing constitntion and independent spirit wvhich characterized his after life. HIls edlncatioll was such as was afforded by the district schools of the neighborhood, but before reaching matniritv hie left the parental roof andl startedl to (10 battle for himself. He entered into employment at a paper mill in one of the nearby towns and wvas engaged here for several years, picking nip m,-any valniable ideas along the linie of bnsinless miethods. He then came to Flint, M'ichigan, this being in 1840, andl entered into partnership wvithi his brother, Henryv in the (Iry goods business ati ollcotrinued at this for four or five years, at which time the partnershilp was (ussolvedl, each taking a share of stock and starting in business for him-n self. alames contmnuedl as a m-erchant until his death in T86. He was a man of sound idleas and. of albsolute integyrity, inspirin confdecan respect on the part of his patrons and associates. Such a course is bound

Page  43 GENESIEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 43 to bring success, and tile prosperity and substantial progress of his affairs bore witness to the splendid spirit pervNading the establishmiient. As an illustration ill poillt, mentio(n may be made of the fact that many of his former friends preferred to (lepl))Sit their surplus funds with Mr. Hendlerson rather than place tlhem ill the local banks. In politics lhe was a pronounced Republican, but never soug'ht public office. He stood for clean political methods and official integrity. In faith he was a Presbyterian anld was a faithful and efficient worker in the church, holding nm-any importaint places of trust in the local society. His religious life made itself felt in the formative influences of the towln, andl his o-ifts to charities andl kindred interests were means of stinmulating the splendid spirit of altruism, wllich is one of the (listinguishing l marks of the city's life today. HTe wvas onle of the pl-romoters of the Glenw-ood Cemetery and assisted in laying (out the plat. His patriotic spirit slhowed itself in many w-ays. A-t the breaking out of the Civil war lhe promised all his clerks that wished to enllist that they should have tlheir app)ointments reserv-e( for therm on his list of employees if tlley wishedl to work for himl again upon their return from the war. He was married in 1842 to Aliss Mercy Hill, wh-o was born in New York state in I8S9. She was the dlatghter of Daniel and Lucy (Car),) Hill, whose lives were spent within that state. nMrs. Henderson departed this life in I897. She was a nomlan of profoulllnd Clhristian character, a llmember of the Presl)vteria n faith, and one that won and retained many warm and appreciative friends. This union resulted ill the birth of ten children, whose names are here appended in the order of their birthll: Horace and Clarence, now deceased; Harriet, wife of 'Morris A. Knight, a merchant of Flint; Chester, dleceased; Alice and Albert, twins, both dlying in infancy' James, having his honie in Cllicago Henry, living in Flint; Lester E., in the insurance and loan business in Flint; and Helen Louise, wife of ILewis B. Lee, of Oak Park, Illinois. Thus the splendlid heritage of children but added luster to an already wellrounded and praise-worthy record.

Page  44 44 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY C. A. LIPPINCOTT. Rev. Charles Augustus Lippincott, the able and well-known pastor of the First Presbyterian church of Flint, was born July 30, I865, at Piedmont, West Virginia. His father was Ebenezer Wood Lippincott. His mother's maiden name was Annabelle W\eir. They were people of high ideals, and were strong supporters of popular education. Charles was given as broad an education as circumstances would permit, and made the most of the privileges that came to him. While in attendance at the Washington and Jefferson College in 1887 he applied himself industriously to his studies and laid a foundation for a broader scholarship, and also for a self-reliant and aggressive career. He graduated from this institution with honors in I887. Having decided upon his lifework he began his preparations by taking the theological course in Princeton, following this with similar work in Union and Ar cCormick seminaries, graduating from the latter institution in I89o. He was now fully prepared to enter upon his life's work and answered to the call to come to the First Presbyterian church, of Joliet, Illinois, this occurringl in 1890. Here his labors were eminently successful and satisfactory, his genial disposition and untiring industry resulting in great profit to himself as well as those to whom he ministered. After five years of service in that field he accepted the invitation to become associate pastor of the Second Presbyterian church of Chicago, and his ability and worth soon received recognition. Four years after entering this field he became acting pastor of the same church, this honor coming to him without solicitation on his part. It was simply a testimonial to the strong endorsement of the man by the people of the church. In I9OI he became the pastor of his present congregation and has royally fulfilled the expectations of his church. In the year I906-I907 he was moderator of the Synod of Michigan, fulfilling his duties with his usual integrity and dispatch. Socially, also, he has made his impressions, being made prelate of the Grand Commandery, Knights Templar, of Michigan. At the present time he is president of the board of hospital managers of the city of Flint. He is also a member of the Chicago Literary Club, and in these various ways he has participated in the life and spirit of the community. On October 8, 1890, he was united in marriage to Anna M. Irwin, of Clarksburg, West Virginia, and their married life has been a continued period

Page  45 G(ENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 45 of domestic felicity and beautiful home life. Their family consists of seven children, as follows: John Irwin, Annabelle, Sarah, MAargaret, Elsie, Harlow, Higinbotham and Mary Paterson. "And he shall be like a tree, planted by the rivers of water, that bringeth forth his fruit in his season; his leaf, also, shall not wither and whatsoever he (loeth shall prosper."-Psalm 1:3.

Page  46 JOHN L. JENN\INGS. The ancestors of John L. Jennings were natives of the east, his father, Ahram MN. Jennings, having come from New Jersey, anl his mother, Emily (Layton) Jennings, having b)een horn in New York state. They were early settlers of Shiawassee conntv-, M1ichigan. coming hithler in about 1833 and settling npon a tract of government land. MAr. _AIramr Jennings was a hrickmaker Iw trade, hnt also followed farming-. Lie manufactured the lrick out of wlhiclh was hnilt the honse that beloings to Jam-es Van Akin, near Vernon, Shiawvassee conntv. Hie died in MNichigan in 1847, when forty-three years old, wAhile M~rs. Jennings, mother of onr snhject, (lied at the latter's homne in Munndv township when seventy-six years of age. Althoungh her clays were prolonged to a ripe old age, yet for the last fifty years of her life she was not permitted to see the light of (lay, havingio become afflicted with total hlindness. Yet, thoungh the temiporal skies were (larkened, her spiritual vision remained clear and peacefnl to the eidl. Their fam-ily of seven children consisted of the followino: Henry Ml., Sarah A., Snsanah, Amandal, Hiram', Daniel and John L., the subject of this sketch, who was horn in Venice, Shiawvassee connty, Michilgan, April I, 1842. He spent his hovho-od life on his father's farm in Shiawassee county tip to the age of sixteen years. He was a lively, energetic hoy, qnick to learn, and of stndions hahits. At this tim-e he camie to Genesee

Page  47 GET-NESEE COUNTY, ]MICHIGAN. 47 co(unty and worked out at farm labor, applyingc hiimself diligently to his work, and( forming a reliable helper at his chosen occupation. I-le attended school (luring, the winter montlhs, seizing every availal)le a(lvantage for studl and sel f-i l) 11)rov-ement. He possessed consi(lerable business fo{resight and( had a reasonable share (of laudable ambition. He purchased forty acres of land in sectioln 9 of Mundv to\(wnship. This land was for the mo)st part unimprovedc, but he set to Nwork ald(l applied hillself without stint, and as a result lhe soon had the tract of land under a higlh state of cultivation, possessing excellent buildinogs. With the advance of time lie Awas enabled to make additions to his first )purcllase until hle had onle hullndret and tw\-ent acres o:)f fine land un(ler his control. He continued to live (:n his farm illn Mnd townlship unitil 1902, when he removed to Flint, where he hlas since residle(l and enjoye(l a well earned retirement. HIe wAas marrie(l in Mlun(lv tow)wnship on April I6, I862, to MIiss Harriet E. Dibble, \who w\as a native of the township. She w-as the (laugh-lter of Samuel and Julia (Hill) Ib)il)lble, who were amomng the pioneer settlers of the town-iship, -where they- b{oth en(le(l tleir lays. /fMr. andl lMrs. Jenning's are the parents of three living children Julia.. Henry- M., and Elmma J. Another son born t(:) them, but now (lecease(l, was Jolin D.. who lie(l in his nineteenthl vear. He met an untimely fate. He died frlm injuries receivedl while A-ol-king' at a threshing machine, his arm havingl lbeen caught in the cylinder was mangled from the b)oldy at the shoulder-, resultilno il his leatlh. MIr. Jenning's w\as superviso)r of AlunI(lv to\wnship for nille consecutive years, and has also served as township treasurer, school officer, highway colimmlissioner, etc. In all of these (ltities lie has conducted the business in a straighltforward and economic manner. Hle affiliates writh the Republican party, bulit is first of all an h)onest and lroad-minde(l citizen.

Page  48 48 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY ENOS D. PIERSON. Mr. Enos D. Pierson, a son of C. C. Pierson, whose sketch also appears in this volume, was born in Grand Blanc township, Genesee county, Michigan, December 28, I854. The details concerning the immediate ancestry are given in the article referred to. Enos D. spent the early years of his life with his parents on the farm in Grand Blanc township. He came with his parents to Flint, in 1864, and received his education in the public schools of this city. As a boy he was studious and conscientious in his work. His standing in his class was uniformly good, and he also took a hearty interest in the sports and outdoor activities of the schools. As his period of school time drew near its close, he became conscious of a strong desire to go on and broaden and amplify his educational qualifications. Finally the plan of taking up higher education matured itself in his mind, and in I871 we find him presenting himself at the door of the State University of Michigan. He matriculated for the literary course, and here he made the most of the advantages afforded by the institution. As a student he was upright, industrious and a scholar of no mean ability. He won the confidence of his instructors and the high esteem of his fellow students, and graduated with honors, taking the degree of Ph. D. Following this he returned from Flint, and in the autumn of the same year he became engaged in the produce business with his father, under the name of C. C. Pierson & Son. He put into practice in business the same principles that had been his guide as a student and pupil, and met with deserved success. W\ith this prosperity the unvarnished respect of business associates sC)oi became his. This association continued until his father's death in 1904, after which he gave the major part of his time to farming, still maintaining a partial interest in the business as well. He was married in Flint August 25, 1890, to Miss Jennie Kendall, who was the daughter of Jerome B. and Charlotte (Abbott) Kendall, both natives of New York state. They came to Genesee county, Michigan, in 1854, and lived in various places at different times, but spent the greater part of their time in Flint after leaving Thetford township. Here Mrs. Kendall died at the age of forty-four years. Mr. Kendall reached the maximum of years accorded by the Scriptures, having attained the age of four score. Eight children were born to them, of whom Mrs. Pierson was the fifth. The parents were ex

Page  49 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 49 emplary in their lives and instilled into the minds of their children correct and upright ideas of their duties and relations to their fellowmen. Mr. and Mrs. Pierson have one living daughter, Rhoda A. They buried one son, Charles H., who died in infancy. They are active workers in the Baptist church of Flint, many offices of which Mr. Pierson has willingly and acceptably filled. 4

Page  50 ORSONx AIlLLARD, AL. 1). Orson Millard, one of the ollest practitioners of Flint, was born on the 27th day of October, 1845, in the town of Utica, Macolmb county, Michigan. His parents moved to Oakland connty when lie was quite young and from there he came to Flint in I866. Dr. Millard graduated from the University of Michigan in 1870 and returned directly to Flint, where he commenced the practice of medicine. He was surgeon of the Port Huron & Lake Michigan railway in 1872-3-4. This road later was merged into the (rand Trrunk system, of which he was surgueon for several years. Dr. Millar(l was appointe(l physician in charge for the Michigan state school for the deaf, which position he held for some years. He was also president of the board of United States pension examining surgeons for Genesee county for four years. The Michigan University AM1edlical Journal, Volume 2, January, I872, edited by George E. Frothingham, M. D., gives an account of a case treated by Dr. O. Millard, which attracted much attenti(o among me(lical men at that time, and in the Cyclopedia of the Practice of Medicine, editedl by Dr. H. Von Feinssen, of Munich. Bavaria, i6th volume, page o1006 will be found1 the author's mention of the same. The (loctor also received favo rable notice in the Chenniker Zeitung, published at Cothen, Prussia. Other articles from Dr. lo

Page  51 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 5i Millard's pen, published in the medical journals, have attracted much attention froll the medical fraternity of both continents. Dr. Millard was one of the original founders and incorporators in I895 of the Knights of tile Loyal Guard (now Loyal Guard) and was the first suprene medical examiner of the order. He has held the position continuously since. He was presi(lent this year of the medical section of the National Fraternal Conlgress. which organization represents over six million members. For fourteen years he was chairman of the board of auditors of the Michigan Maccabees. In the spring of I905 Dr. Millard was unanimously nominated by the Demlocratic state convention of Michigan for regent of the Michigan State lUniversity. His father was a cousin of Millard Fillmore, the thirteenth Presi(lent of the UInitedl States, and the doctor has in his possession as a treastlre(l heirloom the Bible belonging to the President's grandlfather. Dr. MIillard was married in 1872 to M[iss Sarah A. Gardner, daughter of Rev. T'homas C. Gardner, I). D. They have two children. Doctor and Mrs. NMillard have live(l continuously in their home for more than thirty-five years. 'Their daughter is the wife of Mr. Andrew T. Buckham. of Flint, and the son, T1. C. Millard, is the sole owner of the Fuss Remedy Company, manufacturer of the F-uss rhetumatic cure.

Page  52 C. H. W. CONOVER. Charles H. WV. Conover, of Flint, Michigan, was born in Monmouth county, New Jersey, on the site of the battle of Monmouth, July 31, 1840. His great-grandfather, Louis Kovenhoven, was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, and was in active service at the battle of Monmouth, and records show that he rendered distinguished service to General Washington throughout the war. There are many Conovers in that part of the state of New Jersey, and the family name is one of the oldest and most distinguished in that section of the state. The name, Kovenhoven, is the forerunner of the name of Conover and is traceable to Dutch origin. Charles enlisted in the regular United States service in I86i. He was with McClellan in his famous campaign, and took part in many of the exciting experiences incident to the war. He assisted in the destruction of Yorktown and helped blow up the bridge at Savige station. He was confined to the hospital for a period and later contracted malaria fever while in the vicinity of the Chickahominy. His health was so impaired that complete recovery never fully returned to him. After the close of the war he spent two years in New York city and later became engaged in the oil business in Ontario, following this for a while. In I867 he came to Flint, having heard of it as a place of growth and enterprise. It was then on the "boom" and Gov

Page  53 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 53 ernor Crapo had just built his large sawmill. Mr. Conover bought an interest in the planing mill, the firm being Beardslee, Gillies & Company, and continued till I896, at which date the business was discontinued. Thus for twenty-nine years Mr. Conover had given his attention to the details of the work, turning out lumber, sash, doors, etc. The mills turned out a tremendous quantity of their product, and Mr. Conover's mechanical and practical skill were invaluable to the business. He assumed charge of most of the important departments of the work, which employed from thirty to forty men. Since I896 Mr. Conover has operated with other manufacturers, including other interests. He has been an active participant in the city's growth and development. He served as alderman from the fifth ward, and was a member of the water works commission when the water plant was purchased, and, with others, measured the twenty-eight and a quarter miles of water mains. He has served as supervisor for his ward during I906-07. Politically a Republican, his first stand is for clean and upright official service. He is not a political aspirant, but takes a hand in the party's activities, serving as delegate frequently to important conventions. His present neat and attractive residence was erected in I876, and stands today a favorable illustration of its builder's taste and discretion. He was married at Monmouth, New Jersey, to Miss Cordelia Vaughn, also a descendant of a worthy line of ancestors. As a result of this union there were born three daughters and one son, as follows: Charlotte, wife of Dr. C. H. Bailey, a dentist of Detroit, and a graduate of the State University; Estella V., at home, and bookkeeper in the employ of Frank Algoe; Charles V., a graduate, also, of the State University, and now a civil engineer located at Washington; and one daughter, Frances, who died in childhood. Mr. Conover is an enthusiastic member of the Grand Army of the Republic, of course, and also of the National League, and has often visited many of his old comrades. He is a member of the Congregational church, in which he has been a deacon for many years. He rendered much practical help in the building of the new Congregational church, being a member of the building committee. Thus in a varied and manifold manner he has contributed generously to the sum total of the city's progress and development. He was at one time a member of the school board for three years, and was treasurer two years of the three.

Page  54 JOSEPH-:' BRUSH FENTON. Joseph I-1rush Fenton, son of Colonel W\\illiam M:I. Fenton, was born in Fenton, Michigan, June 28, I843. His boyhoodl dlays from the age of five years were spent in Flint. He was edutlcated at the Casianonia Seminary of Casianonia, New York, and at the Madison University of Hamilton, New York. He read law with his father, bnut. although he acquired considerable knowledge of the subject, he never asked for admission to the bar. \Vhen the Civil war was ulnder way he enlisted in his father's regiment, the Eighth Michigan, going in at its organization, being connected w\rith Company G, and in due time Nwas mlade quarterm-naster sergeant. Later he became second lieutenant, generally acting as aid to his father, who was in commandl of the dlivision. He was attached for a time to General Poe's staff, becoming first lieutenant, and continued to serve on staff duty throughout the war. I-le was severely wounlded at Chantilly, Virginia, and lay for nine weeks in the hospital at \Vrashington, being placed in what later became the home of Mrs. Surratt, 541 Eighth street, west, at which place the conspiracy was formed for the assassination of Lincoln. During the war this building was kept as a private boar(ling house by a Mr. ITrealway, from Pontiac, Michigan. On recovering from his wounds he rejoine(l the Eighth Michigan in the service and accompanied it in its wvanderings. He saw much of the warfare

Page  55 GENESEE COUNT Y, MICHIGAN.( 55 in South Carolina, was at Port Royal, Hilton Head and James Island, coming later to Virginia. He was holding the rank of first lieutenant when (lischarge(l from the service, l)eing lisal)led l)y many serious wounds.,An extract froml a paper called the Camnip Kettle, pullished at Beaufort, South Carolina, ]M\ay 1, 1862, gives the following concerning Ilr. Fenton at the battle of Chantilly, Virginia: ''uartermaster-sergeant J. B. Fentoin, son of Colonel FIenton, and only alout eighteen years of age, was with the troops in citizen's clothes andl seized upon the musket an(l ammunition of one of the slain. He (lelilerately spotted his man and fired away very cooly, lblowing the smoke out of his gun each time she was discharged to keep her cool. This is an old hunter's fashion and voiung 1lenton has reckoned quite a nimro(l among the game in the wilds of Michigan. W\e are told that he would stop hlis deer at one or two hundred paces every time he drew a bead, and w-e have (n dloubt liut that 'secesh' to(lay mourns the aim of the young' hunter I)y more than one stricken hearth." Returning to Flint after the close of the war lie entered into business with \Mr. Caldwell, dealing in groceries and queensware. He then went west, and from I8(67 to 1i869 was in New Mlexico. After his marriage lie located at \\ichita, Kansas, where he invested in citv and countrv prol)erty, luing up goverlnment land in the Osage In(lian area at $1.25 per acre. He made (quite a success in his ventures, and for a time ol)erate(l a mod(lel stock rancl. In:876 lie returned to Ftlint. The death of his fathler took place in 1871, andl iln 1876 Joseph took charge of his share of the estate, including the present Fenton )lock. built in tle '6os. IThis is a four-story structure al(nd in it \Mr. Iento:n has kept his office all these years. He still has control of extensive property interests in the city, and also a fine farm in Mlt. \JMorris township. 1Mr. 1Fenton, though first of all a patriot, is a Democrat, and has served efficiently as a melmber of the state )board of land commissioners. ir. Fenton had a br)ther, Henry Fenton, an attorney at lBa City, who -lied three years since. His life was allmost wholly spent there, leing engage(l chiefly in the mercantile trade. Of the two() sisters one, Sarah R., lield when still young,. She was one of the most popular voutng ladies of l'lint, having received a broad education in the east. She had traveled extensively in Europe. lThe other sister, Adelaide, was marriedl to Colonel W\illiam B. McCreerv. whose son, Fenton McCreery. is the present minister and consul-general of the Dominican repulblic at the city

Page  56 56 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY of Santo Domingo. He was secretary of the legation at Santiago, Chili, under Minister Eagan, at the time his father was United States consul at Valparaiso. Chili. He has seen much diplomatic service, being the first secretary of the embassy at the City of Mexico, his last appointment here being given out )y President Roosevelt in I906. Mr. Fenton's wife was the only daughter of Artimus and Louise Thayer. Mr. Thayer was one of the most prominent builders in Flint, having constructed such buildings as the Crystal House and the Dayton House; also the Briant block and Armory block. The latter structure was burned to the ground, but before the coals had all died out Mr. Thayer had teams at work clearing away the debris, and his energy and push soon resulted in a new structure where the former one had stood. The Thayers came from Newa York state and were prominent in the social, industrial and educational life, having made a wide impression in both public and private life. The son, Edward Thayer, was one of the ablest lawyers of Flint, standing high in his profession. He was married to Miss Inogine Stanley, who is now proprietor of the home of Americans in Paris, France. Edward is deceased. Mrs. Fenton is the only survivor of the Thayer family, as Joseph B. Fenton is of the Fentons. Mrs. Fenton is an active worker in the Presbyterian church. The family is made up of three children and one adopted child. Mamie is the wife of James Martin, assistant cashier of the Genesee County Savings Bank. Mazie is the wife of Dr. Donald McCall, of Muskegon, Michigan. Virginia is still at home. Louise is a graduate in the class of 1907 of the Bradford Academy, of Bradford, Massachusetts, the oldest female academv in the United States. Mr. Fenton has been a lover of the chase and has secured many trophies in his time. Among these are deer, moose, buffaloes, etc. He enjoys out-of-door life and spends many happy hours living close to the heart of nature.

Page  57 M. C. BARNEY. Much of the growth, progress and general tone of the city of Flint is directly traceable to the energy and push of some of its most progressive citizens. One of the men that falls within this list is Marvin C. Barney, of the Barney Granite and Marble W\orks. He was born in Atlas township, Genesee county, August 14, 1844. His father, Daniel D. Barney, and his mother, whose maiden name was Marietta Cummings, came from the "Empire state," New York, to Michigan in 1836 and 1838, respectively. His father followed contracting and building in Genesee county from 1836 to 1856, at which time he started a sash and blind factory at Goodrich, and operated this successfully until the coming on of what was called the "wildcat times," when bank notes or paper money could not be considered good over night, and in this period he was compelled to suspend business. He spent his last days in Flint in a repair shop on Saginaw street. Marvin remained at home until seventeen years of age, and in October of i86i he enlisted in Company C of the Tenth Michigan Infantry, which was organized at Flint. They went to the front April 22, 1862, and soon became actively engaged in the field. They were sent to St. Louis, Missouri, then to Hamburg Ianding, Kentucky, and soon brought up at Corinth, where they were stationed at the time of its evacuation. Following this they were sent

Page  58 58 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY into Alabama, and Mr. Barney was detailed as one of the nine charged with the care of the regimental colors, having previously been made corporal at Nashville, and was promoted to the rank of sergeant ere the war closed. Skirmishes and battles now followed in quick succession, frightful contests closing at niglhtfall on scenes of silent wretchedness. But this was war. He was in every battle in which the regiment was engaged, viz., thirty-six. (See Michig'an in the ar. ) He was at Bentonville, North Carolina, when surrounded, had to alout face and charge the enemy when they found themselves surrounded and helped save the day. One of their closest calls was at Buzzard's Roost when 1,700 Federals faced 10,ooo Confederates and were forced to retreat up the face of a mountain a full half mile, with shot and shell following every step, camping for the night on the face of the mountain in full sight of the woundled and (lying on the field that was being consumed by fire which had starte(l in the leaves. First here and then there the contest raged, sometimes in ttumlt, and other times in victory. He was one of the many that went with Sherman iroml "Atlanta to the sea," 1marched to Washington, and took part in the "grand review," that impressive pageant consisting of 75,000 Union soldiers, including Sherman's veterans, of whom the subject of our sketch was one, and many times without food, and always without shelter only as they erected their small pup tents. He was veteranized at Rossville, Georgia, in the spring of -864, after serving nearly three years, for three years lonlger, and was given a veteran's furlough of thirty (lays. After the close of tle war Mr. Barneyv returned to his work in mill land factory at Saginaw, continuing. at this for three years, whereupon he came back to the farm in Brandon township. Her e e remained until 1879. At one time lie sustaine(l a severe loss in the destructionl of house, barn and orchard at the hands of a frightful cyclone, whicll came on May 25, 1896, at 6 o'clock p. m. and dlestroyed all buildings on two hundred acres of land, an aimount equaling $1o,ooo. Nothing daunte(l, how\ever, lie immedliately set in to) nlake good his loss, and eventually regained his footing, and llas made markled progress ever since. In politics Mr. Barney has tried to obey the dictates of his coniscience, regardless of party lines. He has at different times been identified with either the Democratic or the Prohibition party, being the latter's candidate frequently for important offices, twice for mayor of Flint and once for sheriff

Page  59 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 59 of Genesee coiunty, each time running ahead of his ticket, failing of election on account of the lack of party strength, but running exceptionally well, comparatively speaking. HIe is a charter meml)er of the G(overnor Crapl) Post, Grand A\rimy of the Republic, and has served twice inl succession as its commander. He has atten(led several of the national encampments, and has gi-ven limself the pleasure of visiting many of the l)attlefields in the south at the points -where lhe took personal part in the great struggle. These visits have afforded him unlimited pleasure and satisfaction, but there also comes with it a melancholy strain when reflecting on the spectacle of thousands of comrades \who were laid to rest in untimely graves. He is now colonel of McKinley Camp, National League of Veterans and Sons, and served as lieutenant-general at the head of the order in 1904. This order made the largest growth in its history ullder his suplerision. Mr. Barney is also a loyal member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, rea(ly at all times to disseminate the principles of brotherhool and fratern ity. He was married in 1868 to Miss Nettie Eaton, of Brandon township, Oakland county, lwhere later the disastrous visit of the previously mentioned cyclone occurred. One of their (laughters, Jessie, is the wife of \\rilliam Burt, superintendent of the school f(r the (leaf and dumb at Pittsburg, Pennslyvania. Another daughter, Marion, is the wife of Frank \Vildman, of Flint, who is employedl in the Citizens' Commercial Bank. Vernie is the chosen companion of William Hart, a contractor. also of Flint. Daniel is the partner in the granite conlpany, while Clark is an employee at the same business in Los Angeles, California. Their granite works are among tlhe best equipped plants in the state. Tllhe carry a large stock of finished monumlents and use pneumatic tools and all the latest improvements in machinery. Probably MAr. Barney \will have a more lasting monument than marble or granite in his noble, self-sacrificing and tireless efforts to obtain a fitting melmorial for Genesee couultv's 2,518 Civil war soldiers, as well as the boys of the Spanish-American war. 'Their names are to be carved in tablets, at great expense, and installed in the court house halls and roster, there to be a perpetual reminder of the noble sacrifices of the "boys in blue." For his work in this connection, and also his efforts as a member of the relief commission

Page  60 6o BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY for eight years, for he went before the board of supervisors of Genesee county and persuaded them to appropriate $I,500 instead of $500 to relieve the worthy, there are already erected monuments in the hearts of his numerous friends. "Bring the good old bugle, boys, we'll sing another song, Sing it with a spirit that will roll the world along, Sing it as we used to sing it, sixty thousand strong, While we were marching through Georgia."

Page  61 MR. AND. MRS. WILLIAM C. \VOLVERTON. Ilnl I90 the Linden mills passed into the hands of \Villiam C. ~Wolverton and James Green, lunler the name of the Lin(len MIilling Company. One and one-half years later Mr. \\Volverton became the sole proprietor. The mill was entirely remodeled and equipped with lnodern machinery, having a prodlucing capacity equal to the demandls both in quantity and character. A feed 1mill is also run in connection w-ith the concern, and their output has obtained more than a local reputation for excellent quality. Mr. \Volverton was born in Tyrone township, Livingston county, lichigan, seven miles south of Linden, February 7, 1859. His father, Anderson J. WVolverton, is now about seventy years of age and lives on his farm near Tyrone, whither he had come with his parents, Jonathan C. and Hannah, from New York state, being pioneer settlers in that vicinity. Their old home was at Tyrone, New York, and MAr. W\olverton, Wrilliam's grandfather, on coming to this virgin territory, was instrulental in having the township inamed in honor of his former home. On arriving they plunged into the unexplored forest andtl transformed it into the present homestead. Mr. Jonathan C. WVolverton not only dlid pioneer work in subduing the forest, but took steps to set on foot religious influences in the community, having organized

Page  62 62 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY the Methodist Episcopal class that held its first sessions in the nearby schoolhouse. He lived to enjoy a ripe old age. William C. was married on March 4, I88o, to Miss Hattie Rogers, also of Tyrone, Michigan. Her mother's maiden name was Harriet Salsbury, who was the daughter of another pioneer of the county, viz., John C. Salsbury. He was born in Greensburg, Green county, New York, on June I, 1813, and came to M\ichigan in 1830, and eight years later settled in Tyrone township. He had a marked influence in shaping the life and development of the community, soon acquiring a good reputation as a man that believed in giving a square deal to every one. He was chosen as justice of the peace, filling this place for many years, alternating at times with other local offices. He was an industrious student of the Bible and became known as an authority on Biblical questions. He was made a local preacher in the Methodist Episcopal church and ministered to the people in that capacity until his death. He was quite a favorite with the young people of the community an(d frequently had the pleasure of contributing to their happiness by performing marriage ceremonies. His dautghter, Harriet, mentioned above as the mother of Mrs. William C. Wolverton, was born in Tyrone, Michigan, August 29, I842, and died February I9, I904, at Linden, where she was living with her daughter, Mrs. W\olverton. She was married to Nelson Rogers in I86o. their marriage being broken 1b tle latter's death six years later. In 1877 she married Chester Black, -who died in 1883, leaving, besides his wife, a son, John C. Black. The latter has lived in the W olverton family since his childhood, and has developed into a miller of the highest order. He has been of estimable service at the mill, having charge of many of the details of the business. He was united in marriage to Miss Bessie Du Shane, of Howell. Mr. Wolverton does not give his entire time to the Linden mill, inasmuch as he also operates a mill at Argentine. He is thoroughly experienced in the business, having worked in this line since leaving the farm at the age of twenty-one. At that time he entered the mill at Parshallville, serving there for a number of years as an employe. later obtaining a half interest in the concern. He takes great pleastire in conducting the affairs of his business on a strictly high grade basis.

Page  63 (;ENESEE COUNTY. MICHIGAN. 63 A LONZO B. HY- T lT. Another one of Linden's esteemed andl capable citizens is Alonzo B. Hyatt, postmaster andl proprietor of a general merclhandise store ill the Masonic Association building. He has been in business at this location for the last ten years. His first commnission as postmaster was issued under President Harrison'ls administration ill 1889 and expired in 1895. He was re-commnissiolnedl in 1897 )by President McKinley, and has fulfilled the duties of his office in a masterly fashion, giving eminent satisfactionl to all p)atrons and frienllds. He was born at Deerfield, Livingstton coniltv, 'Michigan, onl April Io, 1846. His parents Nwere Daniel T. anld AMaria (\\Wise) Hyatt, who were both emiigrants from New York, andl were marrie(l there. They came to MAichigan in 1837, and l)egall their preparations for a homne at Deerfield, which at that time was practicallAy nothing liut a forest. They followed the usual pioneer cust)om of building themselves a neat log cabin and in this cabin the subject of our sketch, A-1lonzo, was born. His l)arents remove(l into Indliana for a short time, returnillng to Michigan in I856. AlonzoI's father was quite a skilled mechanic and patternmaker. andl constructed the mod(el for the first separator bl)ilt in M'lichligan, the machine b)eing l)uilt l)v R. 1I. Merrill, of Birminghalml. He died at Linden at the age of seventy-eight years. -lonzo remained onl the farm unltil lhe was seventeegn vears of age. In 1863 he joined tlle Sixth Nl ichigan Cavalryv and began active field service ill Virginia. Mutch of his time in this state was spent ill the historic Shenandoah valley, which had become a veritablle hotbed of contention. Fearful destruction of life and(l rol)erty raged in this beautiful valley until it at last b)ecamle a desolate and w(oe-beg'one scene. Ilnstea(l of beautiful farm houses, dottinlg the thiriftv landscape. there remaine(l only heaps of ashes and scorched andl blackened timbers. ThI'le rollingl fields, with ripening grain waving before tlhe breezes, gave p)lace to all entangled mass mattedl together with heroic bl)oo)(.,Mr. Hyatt remained with the regiment until the close o(f the struggle, an(l w\as then (liscllarge(l at Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas, ill 1865 In i866 he came to Linlell, where he Nwas later married to \Miss Cornielia Benton, -laughter of Y. E. Benton, merchant andl farmer of Linden, who settle(l here in thle 'Sos. Since his father's death MAr. Hyatt's nmother has had her honme with him, and under his kindly care and forethought for her comfort

Page  64 64 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY and welfare, she has been permitted to acquire the unusually ripe old age of ninety-three years. Mr. Hyatt spent several years on the farm, but his adaptability and training led him to broaden out into activities other than tilling the soil, although he has never given up active interest in agricultural pursuits. In I876 he went into mercantile life and has risen each successive year until he has a secure business standing in the community. For two years he discharged the duties of township treasurer in a commendable way, and has taken an active part in the political activities essential to party machinery. He has not sought for public office, but has rather been chosen by his friends as a fit and able representative of the people's interests. He is thoroughly familiar with all the methods of procedure in matters political, and is recognized as a valuable man on the floor of the party conventions. In lodge matters, also, has Mlr. Hyatt shown himself to be not only active and ambitious, but worthy as well. He has been a Mason since i872, and has been Master'Mason for seven consecutive years, and has also been representative in the grand lodge sessions. He has held the highest office within the gift of the Fenton Commandery, and is a Mystic Shriner of the Moslem Temple in Detroit. His family consists of three children. Claude E. has received a good education and is rendering efficient service to the community as deputy postmaster. Josephine, one of the daughters, is assisting also in the postoffice duties. The other daughter, Mautde, is the wife of James Hoover, who is empIoyed by the D. U. R. R. at Detroit, Michigan. It is the hope of Mr. Hyatt's many friends that his opportunities for activity may long be continued.

Page  65 F. D. CLARKE. The high standing of the city of Flint has been largely due to the push and energy of its leading citizens. In almost all the phases of the city's life are to be found marks of excellence, progress and effectiveness. Probably ill no other department, however, is this more observable than in its public institutions, and among these there is none that deserves more particular mention than the institution for the education of the (leaf. This school stands as the pride, not of the commnunity alone, but of the entire state. Its equipment management, curriculum and methods are excelled nowhere in the county, and in many respects have served as models that have had marked influence in shaping the work and management of similar institutions throughout the state and country. This excellent state of affairs has been largely brought about by the broadminded and efficient superintendent of the school, Professor F. D. Clarke, A. AM., who has been at the head of the institution since 1892. Mr. Clarke belongs to a military line traceable back to Revolutionary times. His great-grandfather, WIilliam Clarke, was colonel of the Second North Carolina Continentals of the regular army in the Revolutionary war. Colonel Clarke's father, John Clarke, came from England to Petersburg, Virginia, and emigrated from there to North Carolina. The colonel's son was a

Page  66 66 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY privateer in tile war of I812. \William J. Clarke, father of our subject, iwas a nman of prominence and ability, being controller of the state of North Carolina before the Civil war, and attaining, also, the rank of captain ill the war with Mexico. At the breaking out of the Civil war his military experience and wide acquaintance put him again into the field, and the cause lhe espoused received from llim unselfish support and unqualified devotion. He Nwas colonel of the Twenty-fourth North Carolina 7roops and he did active and heroic service in Lee's army all through the war. After the close of the struggle he became circuit judge inl his oxvIn district andl finally answered to the last roll call in the year I887. Francis D. Clarke, subject of our sketch, was born Jatuarl-y 3 1 I848. His training and education have been indeed broad and comprehensive, carrying out to the fullest the ideals of the cavalier days. In I86i he entered Davison College, North Carolina, remnaining there until he enlisted in the Confederate service in I863. He enteredl the navy, served on board a Virginia ironclad, and aided in the torpedo service, besides doing patrol service on the James river. Later he was present at and achieved valiant service in one of the fiercest conflicts known at sea, -viz., the encounter at Mobile bav. WVith a powerful squadron Admiral Farragut made a swift descent on this illlportant an(l strongli defen(led harbor. lMr. Clarke was on board of one of its strong vessels of defense, the ironclad ram called "Thle Tennessee." In time the Confederate fleet was (lispersedl, but not -without a determine(l and heroic struggle. F1rom shore to shore the harbor resounded to the dleafening roar of the terrific guns, intermingled with the shouts of the officers, the cries of the woundle(l and the wails of the (lying. Black clouds of smoke, pierced here and there by lightning flashes fromn the cannons' mouths, rolled il great masses over the face of the waters, seemingly bent on covering up the fearful carnage. The Federal admiral, Farragut, lashed to the rigging of his flagship, the "Hartforld," saw suddenly a terrific cloud of spray near by, and a moment later a Union vessel went to the bottom, having struck a fatal torpedo. But more than that. Coming (lown UpOll the "Hartfor(l" at full speed was the black monster, the "Tennessee,'" on )board of which as above state(l, Mr. Clarke had done service. Tlhen ensued a most terrific conflict. The "Tennessee" was surrounded by bombarding and battering ironclads, and finally was forced to surrender. Mr. Clarke escaped and entered the naval brigade. Tlo be brief, he served loyally till the close of the war, was made first, midshipman,

Page  67 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 67 then lieutenant (the youngest in the service), fought on both land and sea, having hopes of some time being an admiral under the new republic. Disappointed, of course, in this, he lost no time, however, but at the close of the war went into business at Raleigh, North Carolina. In 1869 he entered the New York school for (leaf and dumb, remaining until I885. In the meantime he took a scientific course leading to civil engineering at Columbia College, New York, receiving his degree of A. M. in 1873. This college is easily one of the foremost in the country. Its curriculum is wide, is equipment ample, anld its instructors are men of the very highest order obtainable either at home or abroad. A degree from this institution is a guarantee of scholarship and attainment recognized throughout the land. In addition to this Mr. Clarke completed a course in literature in the LUniversity of New York, thus adding another department to his already well-stocked store of educational capital. In going to NewN York city Mr. Clarke had expected to receive an appointment in Clhina, but in this his hopes were not realized. He took up work as a teacher for the (leaf in the meantime, continuing at this until I885. At this time he was afflicted with a severe attack of pneumonia, which left him in a greatly impaired state of health. A change of climate was advised, and he gave up his $2,500 position, taking in its stead a $1,200 offer at the Little Rock state school for the deaf in Arkansas. His experience here was of a very trying claracter, the combination of poor health and poor pay making a road that would have been discouraginlg even to an "Arkansas traveler." But he set himself vigorously to work, and by dint of hard and continuous effort he brought the school up to a creditable and commendable basis. In 1892 he was elected to the superintendency of the Flint school, as stated in the fore part of this article. Here his work has been not only successful but largely original. He trains his own teachers, drawing them usually from the list of high school graduates. His activities have reached out to the public of the country through all available channels. He was elected vice-president of the American Federation of Teachers, organized at Flint, which holds its sessions every three years. His contributions to some of the leading magazines of the country have been rife with scholarship and thought-provoking to an eminent degree. His text-book, "Michigan Metlhods," dealing with how to teach the deaf, was the summingl up of his lectures to teachers, and has gained an international reputation, being usedl in such countries as Ireland, England, China, France, etc. The effectiveness of his work may be noted from the fact that

Page  68 68 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY about five-eighths of the deaf children learn to talk. Attention is given also to the manual training feature of the institution, the courses here also being both modern and comprehensive. Mr. Clarke has made practical use, too, of his knowledge of the sciences, having given special study to electricity, heating, lighting, ventilating, etc., and has applied these in his plans for the equipment of the school buildings. Professor Clarke was married in Connecticut to Miss Cecilia L. Ransom, a successful teacher in the city schools of New York. She is a woman of culture and excellent standing in the community, and is a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution, and is a niece of Governor Lansing. Professor Clarke is a thirty-second degree Mason, having held important offices all along the line, and is at the present time worshipful master of Flint Lodge, and has been recently elected grand marshal of the Michigan Grand Lodge of Masons. Mr. and Mrs. Clarke have living with them their niece, whose home has been with them since she was two years of age. They are active workers in the Episcopal church, of which he is vestryman. Professor Clarke's long tenure in the position he now holds is clear evidence of the endorsement of his work in that capacity, and the recipients of the fruit of his labors are to be congratulated upon having in their midst a man of such vital and moving force within the domain of his profession.

Page  69 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 69 WILLIAM STEVENSON. The subject of this sketch, Mr. \illiam Stevenson, is another of Flint's early and substantial citizens. He was born in Dromore, county of Down, Irelandl, August 17, I830. He came to Flint in the month of July, 1848. For eighteen years he was engaged in the jewelry and book trade, making substantial and steady progress by his upright dealings and thorough workmanship. As time passed and the town grew in population as well as in business activity, he foresaw greater opportunities for business achievements in the real estate field, and consequently transferred his activities to that line, doing some building also as he went along. Having obtained a reputation in the community for his integrity of character and his firm stand for fair dealing, he was asked by his fellow townsmen to officiate for them in the capacity of justice of the peace. These duties he performed so well that he has been holding that post continuously for over thirty years. and has received the title of "judge," and is commonly known about town as "Judge Stevenson," which is simply a compliment to him for the quality of his work in that capacity. His public service has not been confined to this channel only, however, for he has served for many years as a member of the council, doing good service by his sane views on public matters. In addition to this he has been called upon to serve on the city school board, and was also made a member of the building committee at the erection of the high school building. He has taken a deep interest in the educational growth and advancement of the city, being- fully alive to the splendid opportunities open to the people of the country, providing proper attention were given to this vital phase of community growth. In recognition of his attitude in school matters and his commendable public spirit, he was prevailed upon to serve on the committee on teachers and schools, and had a marked influence in raising the standard of teachers in the public schools, standing -at all times as the champion of the idea that the best are none too good for Flint. But not only in the departments of justice and of education has Mr. Stevenson been concerned, but also in the religious life of the community has he taken a conspicuous part. He was closely identified with the movement to establish the Garland street Methodist Episcopal church. To this work he was a liberal contributor, giving freely not only of his means, but also of

Page  70 70 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY his time as well. The building was of his own designing, and was superintended by him while in process of construction. This church was built in I86I and has since been torn down and another built. As long as it stands it will remain a monument to his interest, sacrifice and devotion. In 1870 he was instrumental in organizing the McFarlan Land Company and in bringing into the market and improving that section of the city known as the McFarlan addition. It would seem that in these multudinous activities Judge Stevenson.could find time for nothing more, but there was also implanted within him a love for music, which has found expression in the forms to which he found himself adapted. In his sturvey and study of the musical field he was led to conclude that the musical tastes of the people should be improved and the standard of the community raised. Especially did he feel this need in the case of the church and Sunday school music of the day. He is widely known as the author of hymns and tunes of a sacred character, his devotional nature breaking forth in a spontaneous symphony of praise. In the many faces of the diamond of character Mr. Stevenson has reflected the light of true manhood, his versatility of talent rendering valuable service in shaping the business, social, educational, religious, artistic and aesthetic thought of the community. His marriage, May 3, 1869, was to Nellie J., daughter of Alfred Tivy, of Tuscola county, Michigan. Only three of their children are surviving at this time. His home is on Garland street, in a section of the city which he did much to promote, and is one of the centers of that culture and refinement that leave lasting impressions upon those who have found here genuine hospitality. Mr. Stevenson was private secretary in I883-84 to Governor Begole and was major on his staff.

Page  71 CAPTAIN GEORGE E. NE\V, ALL. "Breathes there a man wvith soul So (lead Who never to himself hath said, 'Iliis is my ownen, my- native landl?' "-Scott. George E. NewNall, captain of the Eighth Michigran Infantry, \vas hori at Flusling, Genesee conntv, Septemher i8, 1842. He comes froni mdilitarv stock, his father, Thomas Newvall, horn at -Manchester, England', Nov-emher 8, 1819, heing the so(n of John Newvall, a sailor in the English navy, who servedl in that capacity on Lake Ehrie (lnring the war of 1812. He attained the magnificent age of eighty-four yeears. Captain New-all's father was a cotton spinner and was marriecl at Stockport, England, to Miss Sarah Bow(len. Soon after they emnigrated to Anierica, lanCling at Newv York and later co-lming on1 to Finshing, having friends there. They engaged in farming for a wh-lille, rem-oving to Flint in 1848. In i892, in company with Isaac Merriman, he huilt and operated a planing- mill. After his partner's (eath he associated with himself W. W. Armstrong, operating as Newall & Company until i88, at whIich time hie retired. Mrs. Newall (liedl Octoher T, i888. Gjeorge entered the planing mill at the age of fourteen, remaining until i86i, when he enlisted in Company E- of the Seventh Michigan Infantry. leMng later transferred to the Eighth Regiment, Company A. He went out

Page  72 72 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY as first lieutenant under Colonel Fenton, and having S. C. Guile as captain. He showed marked ability from the start, and was destined to see much active service. At James Island Captain Guile was killed and Newall succeeded to the captaincy. From this time on he experienced the realities of the carnage of war. He took part in as many as twenty-five battles and skirmishes, acquitting himself with honor at every contest, and enduring woundls and hardships without a feeling of regret. He led his company in the battles of South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, all of which were notable points of contest and involved hard and strenuous fighting, entailing at times the loss of many loyal and heroic lives. At length his physical strength began to show signs of depletion. Weakened by wounds and by incessant duties in camp and field, he was at last compelled to retire from the service, and in 1863 resigned and came home to recuperate his health. After the close of the war he went into the planing mill again, and continued at that work until I881, at which time he was elected as county recorder, serving continuously till I885. On account of his clear and quick insight into legal matters and having the unqualified confidence of the people, he has become widely known as a pension attorney, practicing before the department of the interior since I888. His business ability and integrity won for him the appointment to the.postmastership of Flint in I891, which appointment he filled with great ability, discharging his duties in an impartial and commendable way. In May, 1863, he was married to Miss Sarah H. Freeman, the daughter of Daniel S. Freeman, who came from New Jersey and settled at Pontiac, Michigan. Later, in I834, he removed to Flint. Their union was blessed with two children, John W. and WVinnie J., who died at the age of twentythree years. The captain has received many tokens of honor, respect and confidence from his fellow citizens. In 1883 they bestowed upon him, by a generous majority, the chief office within the gift of the city, viz., that of mayor. This place he filled acceptably. He has also served as school director and has been supervisor of the first ward. He has been intimately associated with the organizations in the community, being a member of the Masons and the Maccabees. He is identified with the Episcopal faith, is past commander of the General Crapo Post, Grand Army of the Republic, and for three years commanded Company A, Third

Page  73 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 73 Regiment, of the state militia. Captain Newall is a sturly Republican and has frequently been called upon to represent the members of his party in the county and state conventions. Thus, not only on the field of battle but in the complex social and civic life as well he has demonstrated his fitness and his willingness to be of service to his fellowm1en.

Page  74 ARTHUR C. McCALL. Arthur C. McCall, one of Flint's most highly esteemed citizens, was born in Camillus, Onondaga county, New York, July 5, I852. At the age of thirteen his home was changed to Monroe county, of the same state, and two years later the family came to Michigan. His father, Hugh XMcCall, also a native of the same state, was of the old and stanch Scotch Presbyterian stock. He was a typical gentleman of the old school, and carried himself in harm-ony with his convictions. He had great respect for the ballott and when casting his vote would invariably uncover his head. He believed in revering the Sabbath and kept the day rigidly sacred, allowing no levity of any kind. He was a great studlent of the Bible and was a dangerous antagonist in an argument. He followed the harness making trade in Grand Blanc township, and lived to the venerable age of ninety-one years, going to rest in 1901. Arthur's mother died when he was but twelve years of age. He was among the youngest of eleven children, of whom but one besides himself survives. This is Alexander McCall, of Grand Blanc. Some of the members of this family won places of trust and distinction. One of the boys, John G., who (lied at Detroit in 1901, was state agent of the Bankers' Life Insurance Company, of Des Moines, Iowa. Fred M., who (lied in 1892, was at one time deputy sheriff of Genesee county. N

Page  75 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 75 Arthur remained at hoile. Coming to M:ichigan, and, learning the harness maker's trade, he succeeded his father in his shop at Grand Blanc. In i88I he was appointed deputy sheriff and turnkey. Later he became engaged as b)aggageman at the F. & P. M. railway station at Flint. In 1884 he \was elected county sheriff after a camnpaign of a very peculiar and interesting character. Just three (lays before the election the regular nominee for sheriff withdrew and it became necessary to put in a strong man to fill the vacancy and help save the day. Mr. McCall was prevailed upon to make the race. All the prominent men of the party lent their aid, and one of the liveliest short campaigns in the county's history followed. The entire Republican ticket was elected. Mr. McCall filled his place so well and so acceptably that he was returned to the office until making up four years of service. During this time lie made a record as sheriff such as had never been equaled before, and will be hard to eclipse in the future. Four men were convicted of nmurder in the first degree, and five men were taken to prison, sentenced for life. After his services as sheriff he entered the clothing business as a 1nember of the firm of Pettibone & McCall. After serving two years as alderman it became evident to the people that he possessed traits of character and marks of ability such as were needed in men for places of greater responsibility, and as a result he was placed in the mayor's chair in 1894. The people were not disappointed in the man, and at the expiration of his term as 1nayor he was again asked to take charge of the sheriff's office. This place he filled with characteristic success for four years, or, making in all, eight years of service as county sheriff, being the longest term of service in that office for one man in the history of the county. He retired from office, but was made deputy internal revenue collector in February, I901. This occupied his entire attention and he gave himself over fully to this work for two years. On leaving this he took the lnanagement of the "Dunlap" hotel at Jacksonville, Illinois, filling this place for fifteen months, at the expiration of which, he returned to Flint. He has since directeld his attention to the Bankers' Life Insurance Comlpany, of Des Moines, but is still active in politics and the general life of the conininity. He is also a stockholder in the Flint carriage factory, and owns considerable real estate about town, doing considerable building as well. In 1878 Mr. MIcCall was married to an estimable young woman, Miss

Page  76 76 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY Harriet L. Tupper, dlaughter of Newall Tupper, a pioneer of Grand Blanc township. Their son, Donald, is practicing dentistry at Muskegon, Michigan. Mr. McCall has found time to make great advancement in the Masonic order, having become a Mystic Shriner and has held positions of trust in the MIasonic Temple Association. Mr. McCall is a thirty-second degree Mason, and is past commander.

Page  77 FREDERICK WELTON JUDD. Among the men of culture and of world-wide experience with which the citizenship of Flint has been favored is Mr. Frederick Welton Judd, who was born of prominent English ancestry at Watertown, Litchfield county, Connecticut, July 14, I826. The family record traces back through colonial times to London, England. Three brothers came from London about fourteen years after the Pilgrims "Moored their bark on the wild New England shore." One of these settled in New Haven and is Fredrick W.'s ancestor; another settled in Springfield, Massachusetts, and another in Boston. Knowing that in 1520 a Judd had been lord mayor of London, Mr. Judd, our subject, visited London in I905, and found the tomb of Sir Christopher Judd, once lord mayor, in St. Helen's church, said to be the oldest church in the metropolis, and of which Sir Christopher had at one time been vestryman. W\hen Frederick was a child his father, Samuel Hawkins Judd, removed to W\aterbury, Connecticut, and there engaged in business, and later participated in the war of 1812, having been drafted at the opening of the conflict. He came to Ohio in I844, making his home in Lake county, where he lived until his death, which occurred at Flint in 1876. He was visiting his son, Frederick, at the time, and had acquired the grand old age of eighty-four years. Frederick's mother departed this life three years previous. She, too, was a de

Page  78 78 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY scendant of revolutionary stock. Her maiden name was Marcia Welton, daughter of Johnson Frederick Welton. Besides Frederick there were three other children born into the family. One of these, Mrs. Merriman, lives at Waterbury, Connecticut, and has now reached the age of eighty-seven. Another, Mrs. Cook, removed to the south after marriage, and passed to rest in Georgia, also at the age of eighty-seven years. A third daughter became Mrs. Nancy C. Warner and departed this life at Paynesville, 0., having gone beyond her sevtieth year. When a boy Frederick had obtained considerable experience in business as a clerk in a general store. His duties here were, of course, miscellaneous in character, but he made the acquaintance of many people and acquired that aptitude for handling business affairs which proved such a strong factor in his later career. In 1847 he came west to Ohio and entered a mercantile establishment at Cleveland. In 1856 he went to Indianapolis as secretary and treasurer of the Big Four railroad, the "Bee Line." This was one of the pioneer railroads of Indiana and had much influence in developing that country and stimulating the growth of the "Railroad City." This railroad connected Indianapolis with Galion, Ohio, passing through the city of Bellefontaine, from which the road derived its name. This thoroughfare later became the Cleveland division of the Big Four system, and is now one of the divisions of the New York Central lines. The president of the road at that time was John Brough, of Madison, Ohio, who later became the "war governor' of the state. Returning to Cleveland two years later Mr. Judd became connected with one of the leading banks of the city, but ere long his health compelled a change of occupation and climate. Through his brother-in-law, Mr. Merriman, at Waterbury, Connecticut, he came into correspondence with W. L. Smith, of that place, who wished to come west, and who was induced to locate at Flint by one of its bankers, Mr. Brockway. As a result there was opened a general merchandise store at Flint in 1862 under the name of William L. Smith & Company. This association continued until i866, being then dissolved, Mr. Smith becoming the head of the firm of Smith, Bridgeman & Company, while Mr. Judd allied himself with another firm in the Fenton block, taking the name of Judd, McCrearey & Avery. This firm soon acquired a magnificent trade as dealers in general mlerchandise, and became exceedingly well knoiwn throughout the county. They also operated a lumber mill in

Page  79 GENESEE COUN'TllY, MICHIGAN.7 /9 conjtinctionl with the establishmient. Later this partnership was discontinued andi Mr. Judd became sole proprietor of the mercantile line. Shortly after this Mr. Jutll visitedl the Lake Superior region to inspect lanl owned by his father-in-lawl, Mr. Wick, a banker of Cleveland. As usual with him, Mr. Judd had his eves opeii antl Soon (liscoveredl traces of iron ore. He left his mercantile business in Fflint in the hands of his trusted associates, M. H. Pettibone and E. D. Swan, and opened up an iron mine in the new territory near the lake. Ore, was obtained in g00(l quantities and shipped to Cleveland ani(l Erie, but the priice of the commodlity steadily (leclined until it became expedIlient to suslpend o-,perations for the time being. This experiment, howev-er, was the begiIIIIino of the iron mining indlustry of the Great Lake reojionwN- hich has since dlevelopedl to such large prolportions, antl has figured so proinineltlv in the indlustrial dlevelopment of the lake territory. Mr. Judd rettlrnel to Flint andl in 1876 built the Jtlld block nowx owned 1wv the Loyal Guard. Soon after he sold out his store, having 1 een engiaged in the m-ercantile trade for sixteen years, and engaged himself in handling iisunrance antl real estate. Ini j885 he w\-eiit to Cleveland and openedl up a col(l storage and ice manufacturing concern. This industry prospered until it wN-as (lislosedl of, and since that time Mr. Judld has not felt inclinedI to confine himnself to an definite occnpation, his wide and successful operationis having earned for him a mnch needled alldl well dleservedl rest. As a lighter avenue in wehich to direct his native surplus energies, Mr. Judd has kept up his interest in real estate, stocks andl bonds. M~Ir. Tuldll was married at Cleveland, Ohio, August 17, 1853. to Miss l-ienrletta M. Wick, (laughter of a banker. Heniry W 0ick. She has traveled extensivelv on account of poor health, miaking several trips albroad, and visiting points in France, Germany, En-gland, Italy, etc. Their family consists of the fol 1o~vin g: Henry Wick Judd, in the Stock Exchange, Cleveland, Ohio. He was a graduate of the State University of Michigan, class 1878, having taken the miningo and civil engineering course Fredrick Welton Judd, diedl in infanicy, Helen Wick Jutdll, wife of Alfredl H. Brainerd, who is general auditor of the Standard Oil Company at the New York headquarters, havingo his home at South Orange, NewN Jersey; Florence Wick Judld has become the. wife of Dr. George I). Lpson, of Cleveland, Ohio. Since T864 1'Ir. Judldl has lived in his present residence on East Kersley street, which was erectedl by MTr. Williams, son of GoCvernor Williams, of Ver

Page  80 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY mont. At that time it was the mansion of the town. Mr. Judd enjoys his carefully selected library immensely, and is particularly interested in matters pertaining to antiquities, such as pre-historic man and races, early Jewish nations, etc. His reading and study are vivified by his extensive travels in foreign countries, having kept on the alert and taken copious notes while visiting places of interest and renown. He met the Rev. Father Murphy, the worldrenowned ecclesiastic, while in Rome, and was one of the party present at the incident related in the biography of Father MNurphy in the present volume. He is full of interesting reminiscences of his travels, and never fails to deeply interest and highly instruct any one who may have the privilege of spending a few hours with him. He still takes an active part and interest in local matters and participates in the management of the gas company. He has been closely identified with the erection and maintenance of the Episcopal church of Flint, thus rounding out his days, forming an apt illustration of, "First the blade, then the ear, Then the full corn on the ear."

Page  81 GENESEE COL7t:XIY, ]MICHIGAN. WVILLIAMX M',\cGREGOR. Mr. WVilliam- MAlcGregor, a splendidl example of a self-made manl, was b~orn in Leroy, Genesee county, New\~York, June i, 836. He comes from sturdy(I Scotch ancestry, but wvas bereft of his parents when but twvelve years old. At his father's re quest before death Williamn was taken in charge by a relative, Mr. Alexander McFaralan, iof Attica, New York. He then began to learn the tannerIs tradle and followed the business for a few years, coming wNith the 1\'cFarlans to Michigan (to Flint) in 1850. Mr. M\ccFarlan here engagel in lumbering, anid William receivedl abundant experience at all of these occupations. I\r. M\cFarlan wvas a man of endlless pow\Ners of endurance and applied himself energetically to wN-hatever work he had on hand. He was relentless ini the work he had un-ldertaken, antl WVilliani received some first-class schooling in the line of physical endurance, often being called upon to work all or a part of the night scaling or llauling logs, as occasion (lemandledl. As an illustration, William was sent after five o'clock in the evening to Saginawv, a listaice of thirty-three miles, on an errand, with instructions to be back at eight o'clock the next morning. T-'his rigil training and vigorous activity. though hard on the constitution, laid in Williani's character the foundation principles that have enabled him to successfully grapple the problems of life that have continuouslv met him-1 onl the wvay. During the (lays of William's younger manhood the lumber indlustry in this section was all important, and he soon became a proficient and valuable helper in this extensive business. He would be placed in charge of responsible oversight in various capacities, carrying out the (letails of his work with o-reat care and uniform success. Later. when Mr. McFarlan began to engage in farllling On quite a large scale, W:Tilliam- readily adapted himself to tile re(fuirenments of the new- conditions, and attended to the farminog affairs il coiijulction with otlher duties in miill and lllarl, niaking lis home in Flint at the sale tunle. His executive ability and inn ate po\ver and 1isigllt illto busiless led hiul, in 1869, to join wi th William Hamilton ini purchasinlg tie mill located at the (lail il tie Flint river. This mill wvas one of tie oldlest mills ill tie couiltrv, laving been built il 1848 by Mr. Hamilton's fatler, John Hamilton. This 'lill blecaile known as tile Hanilton & McGregor mill, anll continued so until it was closed ill 1878 on account of the exlaustion of timber. Lj lder the 6

Page  82 82 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY new firm it was running at its full capacity and had a tremendous output of excellent lumber. In conjunction with this mill, the firm also operated a 22,000,000 capacity mill at Bay City, Mr. McGregor having charge of it, while Mr. Hamilton conducted the mill at Flint. At Bay City they also operated a salt block of two hundred barrels' daily output. At this time they met with their severest reverses in the loss of the plant at Bay City. This was valued at $78,000, upon which they had just allowed the insurance, on account of high rates, to be reduced to $I6,ooo. While this loss staggered them for a while, it did not stop their activity, but stimulated them to more vigorous effort, and they eventually came out ahead. It is but a just compliment to Mr. McGregor to state that he had the implicit confidence of his partner, Mr. Hamilton, in all business transactions. Mr. McGregor's judgment in all business matters would be the deciding voice in all ventures, and during the long and successful period of their association together their relations were cordial and harmonious, and continued. till Mr. Hamilton's death in T899. Their business interests were not confined to their locality, but extended into land transactions in other states, such as \Visconsin, Missouri, etc. These, with the lumber and timber interests, have occupied considerable of Mr. McGregor's time, but since his partner's death he has closed out most of his outside interests and has in a measure retired to less active life at his home in Flint. Mr. McGregor has had no desire to mingle with politics, preferring rather to give his undivided attention to his business. He has been for some time a valuable member of the board of directors of the National Bank. He was married in I858 to Miss Marie Brousseau, daughter of Julius Brousseau, a millwright and builder of mills. She was born at Rochester, New York, and came to Flint in her fifteenth year. Two of their children died in childhood, and the one surviving, Maud, is the wife of W. C. Wells, cigar manufacturer of Flint. Mr. McGregor was brought up in the Scotch Presbvterian faith. He has traveled in nearly all of the states in the Union. Starting out in life without a dollar he has now reached a splendid height of achievement, and can look back upon a long and successful business career with the greatest of satisfaction. "The secret of success is constancy of purpose."-Disraeli.

Page  83 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 83 COLONEL 0. F. LOCHHEAD. Hats off! A long the street there comes A blare of bugle, a ruffle of drums, A flash of color beneath the sky. Hats off! 'The flag is passing by. -H. H. Bennett. One of the most highly esteemed and well beloved citizens of Flint is Colonel Oscar F. Lochhead, born in \Aayne county, Michigan, November 28, 1838. No doubt much of the patriotic blood flowing in Colonel Lochhead's veins is traceable to his Scottish ancestry, his father having been a native of Glasgow, Scotland. His mother, Marinda Lyon, was a native of New York state, coming later to Wavne county. Mr. Lochhead is a graduate of the Plymouth high school, and also has a diploma from the Detroit commercial school. Immediately after he had completed the work at the latter school, the nation entered into the fearful contest for the preservation of our flag. In due time he, with thirty-one companions, went to Detroit, having been sworn into service, and were assigned to Company H, Second Regiment of Michigan. His was the first regilnent to open fire at the battle of Blackburn's-three days before the battle of Bull Run. They were in the thick of the fray at Bull Run, also, and were so reluctant to give up their ground that they were the last regiment to leave the field. His valiant service, unquestioned bravery, and heroic daring soon won for him recognition, and he was promoted from one grade to another in rapid succession, and when dischargced at the close of the war he was holding the rank of brevet captain. He filled such places as lieutenant, quartermaster, tduty sergeant, first sergeant, etc. He and General William Shakespeare, late of Kalamazoo, were the color bearers on the bitterly contested field of Fredericksburg. The colors of this regilnent had an eventful history, going through many a hard-fought and gory struggle and falling eventually into the hands of the Confederates at the "Crater" at Petersburg, Virginia. Later the standard was returned and is now resting peacefully in the archives of Lan

Page  84 84 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY sing, an eloquent reminder of the hardships endured and triumphs attained by the boys who so gallantly defended it. Probably Mr. Lochhead has in his possession today nothing of which he is more proud or which he treasures more highly than the fragment of the regiimental colors shot off while he was fearlessly bearing the standard into the face of the foe at Fredericksburg. In I864 he was made regimental quartermaster. He demonstrated his fitness for the arduous duties of the work in many and efficient ways. He had various experiences, having been sent to Vicksburg and to Knoxville, and having followed Lee in the last campaign in Virginia. He was the first quartermaster to get into Petersburg with the wagons. He was an able commander of Governor Crapo Post, Grand Army of the Republic, as is manifested by the fact that the post drum corps has not only been signally and uniformly successful in winning prizes, but their work has-evoked words of praise and commendation from the highest and most competent judges of such matters to be found in the state. His achievements brought favorable notice from the state press while commander of the Flint Union Blues, and was especially noticed by Governor Bagley himself. Then, too, as an organizer Mr. Lochhead has earned commendable honors. He set on foot a local company of cadets, seventy-seven in number, bringing them up to a high degree of proficiency, the company receiving the first allotment of cadet rifles sent out by the government. He also drilled Gardner's band, which won so much distinction at the Centennial Exposition in. 1876. Mr. Lochhead was married in 867 to Miss Mary Reynolds, daughter of Almon and Betsey (McCumber) Reynolds, early settlers of the state. Mrs. Lochhead has one sister, Mrs. Rittenhouse, now residing in Los Angeles, California. Mr. and Mrs. Lochhead have been blessed with two children. One of these, Harry B., is a practicing physician of Pittston, Pennsylvania, having had a broad college and medical training. He is constantly engaged in taking care of a lucrative practice. The daughter, Grace R.. departed this life in I905. She had been quite a successful teacher in the school for the deaf, and was also employed in a similar capacity at Jacksonville, Illinois. Colonel Lochhead's standing in his community is high, his hosts of friends and well-wishers realizing that they have in him not only a noble patriot and loyal citizen, but also a man of pure and lofty ideals.

Page  85 WILLIA\\L RUFLS BATES. \illiam Rufus Bates, of the city of Flint, first came to Michigan as a student at the university iin 863, and in I866 lie came to the state for the purlose of making a perlnanent home, and settled in Flint. He was connected with the WVolverine Citizen as associate editor with the late Francis H. Rankin. Later lie went to Saginaw as the editor of the Daily Enterprise, remaining there one year. He went to Chicago as a reporter on the Daily Republican and filled the positions of reporter, news editor and managing editor of that paper until it was sold to a syndicate headed by J. Young Scamninon. and its name changed to the Inter-Ocean. Mr. Bates then returned to Flint and became associated with the late Willian S. Patrick, former mayor, and for three years they spent most of the time in Bay county in lumberingo on the Augres river. Mr. Bates was the first supervisor of the new town of Augres, and in the election of 1870 he was returned as the representative of Bay county in the state legislature. He resigned prior to the special session of 1871 and was appointed registrar of the United States land office at Saginaw. This position le resigned in 1876 and returned to Flint. Conipleting his law studies he was admitted to the bar of Genesee county. He was appointed special agent of the United States pension bureau by Secretary Z. Chandler, but resigned in 1879 to become secretary of United States

Page  86 86 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY Senator Henry P. Baldwin, with whom he remained during his term in the senate, and in i880-8i served as secretary of the state central committee under Mr. Baldwin as chairman. In 1882 he was appointed special agent of the United States treasury department, vice General 0. L. Spaulding, who was elected to congress. He was removed by President Cleveland for activity in politics, after serving four and a half years. He then formed a law partnership with James H. McFarlan. Two years later he removed to Detroit as a member of the law firm of Glidden & Bates. In i886-88 he served again as secretary of the Republican state central committee, with Senator James McMillan as chairman. He served again as secretary of this committee in i880 -84. During the eight years from i888 to 1896 hle was political secretary to Senator McMillan. In 1886 he was elected representative from the second district of Genesee county and served during the session of 1887. In May of that year he was appointed United States marshal for the eastern district of Michigan and served eight years. He then returned to Flint. In i866 he married Gertrude A. Belcher, of Flint, and they have two children-Irving Belcher and Mrs. Eusebia F. Hardy. Mr. Bates was born at Cazenovia, Madison county, New York, June 28, 1845. He wvas educated in the common schools and at the seminary located at Cazenovia, where his father and mother, his only brother and also his wife were all educated. Mr. Bates is a thirty-second degree Mason and is past grand chancellor of the Knights of Pythias. The subject of this sketch has led a very active life, as will be seen by reading the above, but has found time to prepare and deliver many addresses on various subjects. His private library is unusually large and well selected, andl he spends much of his time among his books.

Page  87 CAPTAIN CHARLES S. MIARTIN. Captain Charles S. M\Iartin is a descendant froml a distinguished 1military ancestry, having' had representatives ill all the important wars of the republic from its birth to thle present time. His great-gralndlfather was a soldier in the conltinental armly (lrinlg the war of the Revolultion, and contributed his services to set the country on its feet. The next generation gives us the grandfather, rWilliam M\artin, who serve(l in the war of 1812, doing valiant duty for the flag. I lhe next in line is the veteran of two wars, Charles P. Martin, tle father of the subject of otlr sketch. He was horn in Newblurg, New Hamlpshire, September 8, 1824. WThen the Mlexican war was declared l he went into the service, and saw (lltv tullder the command of General Wr infield Scott. In I863 he enlisted in Company C, First Michigan Cavalry, was afterward consignedl to the Black Horse Cavalry, and later transferred to Company A, Ninth Regiment Reserve Corps. andtl was dischllarge(l November 1i6, I865, at W\ashillngton, D. C. e was married in i858 to M[iss Betsey E. TKeyser, a native of New York state. Their marriage took place at Howell, Michigan, after which they removed to IPontiac, AMichigani, where Mr.?Martin engaged in the carpenter business. After the close of the war he returned to Pontiac, where he spelnt the remainder of his dlays. He passed away January 2, I897, and was survived till January 7, I903, by his wife, who died at Birch Run, in Sagi

Page  88 BIOGRAPH ICAL HISTORY naw county. 'They had but one child, Charles S., who was born in Byron, Shiawassee county, M\icliigan, January 12, 1859. He was eltucated in the public schools and early learne(l the carriage painter's trade, spending three years in service as an apprentice, which was followed by two years of service under contractors. He followed this occupation until April. 1878. In T879 ble came to Flint and has been a resident of the "V\ehicle City' ever since. In April of i888 he was appointed substitute letter carrier and became a regular carrier on September Ist of the salme year. He discharged the duties of llis appointnment faithfully and with credit to himself and to the service, and continte(l at the work until the "late unpleasantness with Spain"' arrested the attention of the nation. WVhen the cry "Remember the MIaine" was echoed thro(ughout the land MIr. Martin couldl not restrain his patriotic impulses, and was enlisted un(ler the o1(l flag. so nob(ly dlefendled 1) his ancestors. He was madle second lieutenant of Complxany A, Thirty-third Regiument of -Michligan Volunteers, and served in that capacity throughout the war. He receive(l the rank of first lieutenant after his returnl home, and had seen service no)t onl]y as regimental quartermaster, but of many other official duties as well. -Upon is return to Flint lie resumed his dluties as letter carrier, and has since continued in that capacity. For eight and a half years lie was in the fire (lepartment of Flint. ald resigned upon his appoi ntment in the carrier service. He is the commander of the local orgranization of Spanish War Veterans, and has held (listinguishe(l honor in the Odd Fellows' fraternity, being past commander of the Patriarchs Militant of the state of MIichigan. He is a loyal supporter of the Rebekah Lodge and has held chairs of prominence in other orders as well, notably amnong the Knights of Pythias. He was married in Flint on May 2, I88o, to Miss May Culver, who was born in Flint on March 4, I863. She is the daughter of Alfred and Helen (Lewis) Culver, who were amlong the early settlers in the county. Mr. Culver was engaged in the foundry work in Flint, and (liel in 1870, aged forty-two years. Mrs. Culver is still living. There were four children in the family, of which Mrs. Martin was the youngest. Mr. and Mrs. Martin are the parents of one son, Frank R., and one daughter, Alice H.. who has become the wife of Harry E. Annett. Mr. Martin was elected captain April 23, i9oo, and serve(l four years, resigning and being honorably discharge(l from the captaincy of Company A, Third Infantry.

Page  89 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 89 GEORGE D. FLANI)ERI-S. In the life history of George D. Flanders we have a somewhat variable anld all interesting career. His parents, as well as he llimself, were natives of NeNw Hampshire. His father, Charles B. Flanders, Aw-as l)orn at \\arner, New- Hlamlpshire. in I820, and his mother, whose mai(len name was Sopllia A. W\ailliams, in New Hampshire in 1823. After their marriage they lived for a time at Clermont, same state, where their only child, George D., w-as blorn ALnugust 30, 1844. IFrom Clerlonmt they removeed to Adlrian, MIichigan, in 1853. \W\hile the Civil w-ar was going on in I862 they went to St. Joseph, Missouri, but came back tiwo years later and settled in the city of Flint. A\rlhile here he engaged ill the nel-cantile business, also in farmi-ng. and sulcceeded in carryling on his vocation to an honorable and successful close. He died in elbruary, 1895, folloywed later b)y his w-ife, on December 9, I896. (;eorge came west with his parents in 1853 andl as given a good edlcatil)n, as well as a goo(l foundation 1w7 his home training for the structure of life. He went to St. Joseplih with his parents in T863, renaininlg there for a short time onlyv. He went to Denver next, andl there offered his serv-ices to a MIr. Edmund Rollins, who- had a contract of furnishing hay7 to all the govNernnment posts in that vicinity. George was thus engaged for one \\inter, receivNillng $15 per month and board. He soon0011 showed strong points in. getting thlings accomplished, andl in being able not only to get along with men, lbut was also able to g'et out of them their maximum work. In. conse(luence lie was put in charg-e of the field work, in which there were operated often as many as twenty machines at onle time. He Nwas in Denver dluring the famous Salnd creek massacre. Tlhe followinNg' year lie returned to St. Joseph and took up work as assistant b)ookkeeper for Hartwig, Sloop & Co., a large mercantile establishment in that thriving city, for about one year. In the meantime his parents had c-onme back to Flint and( his father had bought two lots with a frame store )buil(ling on the corner lot of Third avenue and North Saginaw street. He then sent to St. Joseplh for his son to come and assist him in the mercantile line. George wAas associated Nwith his father in business and farming until the latter's death. \l'hen Detroit street w-as opened up a lot w-as donated to Charles B. Ilanders providing- he would build a store building' thereon.

Page  90 90 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY Mr. Flanders agreed to this quite readily and carried out the proposition with surprising success. He was in favor of making improvements generally and took great pride in fixing up his own property in a neat and substantial way. He improved the property at the corner of Third avenue and North Saginaw street, making it not only more presentable, but also more attractive and useful. He probably built the first brick building that was built in that block where his present business is located. At that time he was adjudged rash and inconsiderate by people generally for building so far out of town, but time has vindicated his faith in the ultimate growth and thrift of the "Vehicle City." Mr. Flanders was married to Miss Anna C. Rankin, the daughter of Francis H. and Arabella (Hearn) Rankin. She is the mother of three sons. One of these is Charles B.; another is Francis H., who is engaged in the coal business at the present time, having partaken seemingly of his father's mercantile instinct. The third son is John L., who is a popular member of the community, participating actively in its life and spirit. He is closely identified with the Masonic fraternity and the Elks, as well as other kindred organizations. Mrs. Flanders and children are members of the Episcopal church. He is a member of the board of trustees of the Hurley hospital, of Flint.

Page  91 THEODORE M. TUPPER. Among the many worthy and loyal citizens of Flint mention must be made of Theodore MI. Tupper, of I4I3 Harrison street. Mr. Tupper's father, Reuben H. Tupper, was born in Stonington, Connecticut, August 22, I8OI. His mother was Caroline (Olmstead) Tupper. They came from Genesee county, New York, to Genesee county, Michigan, in August, I83I, and settled in Grand Bllanc township. They lived here, however, but a short time, and then removed to what is 1now Burton township, two miles south of Flint, where they made their home for several years. \vhile living at the latter place the wife and mother died. Mr. Tupper later removed to Flint, making his home for some time on Detroit street. Later he removed to the country again and ended his clays on the farm on Fenton road in Flint township in 1869. The family of children were three in numher, viz., Betsey, Theodore M., and Garwood. Theodore was born in Monroe county, New York, December 27, I83i, and was an infant when his parents came to Genesee county, Michigan, and consequently is one of the very oldest settlers of the county. He has always lived in the county and has found opportunity to apply himself to many and various occupations. In 1862 he enlisted in Company C, Tw\enty-third Michigan Volunteer Infantry, andl for three years he faced the dangers and exposures of heroic service in defense of the flag. He was in the army of the Cumberland and

Page  92 92 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY took part in many of the mnost bitter and hotly conltested conflicts of the war. Although the trials and discouragements of this dreadful carnage were severe ill tile extremle, Mr. Tupper never faltered for a moment, and now has only a feeling of pride for having contributed his part in keeping initact the "stars and stripes." He is a limember of the General Crapo Post, G(rand Army of the Republic, and a National Leaguer. He was married in Burton township March 22, I86o, to Miss Edna Wells, who was born in Crawford county, Pennsylvania, December 20, 1839. She was the daughter of Lewis and Sarah (Long) \Vells, who came from Crawford county, Pennsylvania, to Genesee county, Michigan, in early (lays, and settled in Flint township, + where they ended their clays, Mr. \Vells having' attained the age of seventy-nine years, while Mrs. WVells died at the age of seventy-seven years. Their family consisted of five children, of whom Mrs. Tupper was the fourth. She was sixteen years old whllen her parents camne to Genesee county. After their marriage Mr. an(ld Mrs. Tupper settled on a farm in Flint township, remaining there about two years. Following this, they remnoved to Clayton township. where they renaine(l for a nullmber of years, coniing finally to Flint. They are the parents of five children, as follows: Sarah has become the wife of Corw;in Storer; Nellie (lied when about twenty-one years old; Minnie is the wife of George Spaulding; the other tw-o are Arthur and Early. The Tupper homestead is noted for its congenial and social atnmosphere, an(l the many friends find there at all times a genuine and hearty welcomle. Mrs. Ester Green, who was the sister of Mr. Trupper's father, and aunt of our subject, was the first white person who (lied in Genesee county and was buried by the Indians.

Page  93 GENESEE COL'NTY, M\IICHIGAN. 93 THOMAS DOYLE. During the nineteenth century when emigration to America from Europe was flowing in a stealy stream, there came to our shores a goodly proportion of liberty-loving sons and daughters of the "Emerald isle." Among these were the parents of one of Genesee county's steady citizens, Mr. Christopher Doyle, who came from Ireland to America -when quite a young boy, making his home with George M. Dewey until he reached his maturity. He engaged in early life in the lumber business on a small scale, later going into the freight transportation traffic, which preceded the days of railroads and was still employed at this occupation at the time of his death, which occurred at the age of thirty-two. His wife, Alice Gillespie, born also in Ireland, was tle daughter of Patrick Gillespie, whlo came to Genesee county as early as 1836. She survived her husband several years, and was the mother of four sons, Thomas, James, John and Christopher. Thomas, the subject of our sketch, was born in Flint October 12, 1852. He was brought up here and was educated in the local schools. When manhood was reached he engaged in the lumber business, continuing therein until about 1887, winning for hiillself the respect and confidence of all with whom he came in contact. He associated himself with the Flint Boom Comlpany as general superintendent, retaining this connection during the life of the company. In the meantime he extended his interests by investing' in farm land in Flint and Mt. Morris townships, but also retained his active commercial relations by engaging in tle coal business. The schoolhouse erected on North Saginaw street has been given the name of the Doyle schoolhouse. He has taken a lively interest in educational affairs and has been an ardent supporter of the cause of education in the community. Recognizing his value and (levotion to this phase of civic life, his fellow citizens have placed him for ten successive years on the board of education. He has also served for three years on the board of aldermlen of Flint, taking- al\ay-s a fair and imlpartial view of matters submitted to that body. Mlr. Doyle was married at Ann Arbor, Michigan, in January, 1879. His chosen companion was Miss Ellen Ganson, who was born and raised in Genesee county. Their union has been blessed with six children, but it was not decreed that all of them should live. Three of these died in infancy,.

Page  94 94 - BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY but the other three are spared to brighten the home and fireside. They are Ambrosia, Helen, and Thomas. Mr. Doyle takes a lively interest in the questions of the day, keeping himself well informed in all matters pertaining the welfare of the community, the state, and the country. He has advocated and lived according to the policy that nothing is settled until it is settled right. ARTHUR O. BURR. Mr. Arthur 0. Burr is not a native "Wolverine," but was born in New York state April 18, I847. His parents were also natives of the "Empire state." His father, who was the son of the noted Lyman Burr, of Connecticut, was born on August 2, I822. He followed the occupation of farming and died in April, I906. His mother, whose maiden name was Cassandra Gerry, was born on August 26, I822, in \vyoming county, New York, and died there in April, I9oI. Their family consisted of six children, viz., Helen, Arthur 0., Martha, Roclyn, Alida and Stanley. Arthur was the eldest of the family and his youthful days, up to the age of twenty, were spent on the farm, where he learned the rugged lessons of the problems of the soil, and developed the spirit of perseverance and selfreliance that have characterized his after life. In October, I867, he joined the tide of emigration westward and drifted to Genesee county, Michigan. After teaching school in this locality for a short time, he returned to the parental home in York state, remaining there for about one year, after which he returned to Genesee county. At this time he entered the Flint high school and attended it for one term. He then took up work in the meat business, and followed this for a short time, working with his uncle, Alanson Burr, at Mt. LMorris. Following this he engaged in farming in Genesee township, abandoning that occupation in I876, coming from there to Flint. He made his home in what is now the third ward, engaging at the same time in gardening. Two years later he moved to his present residence. He has a tract of abou: twenty-five acres, upon which he has erected good buildings. He has engaged in gardening and has developed the science to a higlh degree of perfection. He has learned the art of securing a fine product, as well as obtain

Page  95 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 95 ing an almple yield from the soil. He can show as fine specimens of garden truck as are to be seen in the markets of the city. He was married in Genesee county, Genesee township, September 20, 1870, to Miss Mary E. Simnons, who was born there March 28, I852. She was the daughter of Joseph Simons, one of the pioneer settlers of the county, having settled here in 1837. Upon his arrival he purchased a forty-acre tract of wild land, upon which he built a log cabin for his home. He cleared and improved the land and farmed it until his death in 1887, having acquired the age of sixty-nine years. He was a deeply religious man and an active worker in the Mt. Morris Methodist Episcopal church. Mrs. Burr's mother's maiden name -was Etnice Damon. She was a native of Livingston county, New York, and died at the Burr homestead in the latter part of January, 1901, having attained the age of seventy-three years. Besides Mrs. Burr there were two other children, viz., Charles L. and Ella E. Mrs. Burr was reared at the Simons homestead in Genesee county. Since her marriage to Mr. Burr she has borne four children-Nellie M. is the wife of Walter S. Cudaback; Archie (lied in, infancy; Floyd L. is a mining engineer; Charles I. is associated with his father in the gardening occupation, and they have succeeded in making an attractive area out of their tract of land. Those children that reached 1aturity were given the advantages of the Flint high school. The mother is active in Sunday school work and an efficient helper in all the activities of the Metlhodist Episcopal church. Their homle shows not only energy and thrift, but has also an atmosphere of wholesome piety.

Page  96 HON. GEORGE MA. CURTIS. In 1837 Burton township was almost a virgin wilderness, there being but one or two settlers within its domain at that time. These were Peres Atherton and James Ingall. But a lewly married couple from the east then arrived to try the realities of pioneer life. They were the parents of George M. Curtis, the subject of our sketch. His father, Asahel Curtis, was a native of the "Keystone state," while his mother, whose maiden name was Mariah J. Conover, was born in Connecticut. They came to Genesee county directly from Orleans county, New York. Their experience upon their arrival in these parts forms one of the true pictures of the pioneer life of the times that make such an interesting chapter, nay, volume in our country's history. Mr. Curtis brought a team with him, coming from Buffalo to Detroit by way of the lakes. He had to cut his road through the timber to his destination, arriving here in 1837, and purchased wild land at $7 per acre. He built his own log cabin, the one in which George M. was born on January 4, I843. Later they built a frame structure, in which they lived their busy and active life, both attaining the age of seventy-three years. George's father was an active Democrat, thoroughly interested in public matters, being for a number of years a justice of the peace. In the latter

Page  97 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 97 capacity he performed many marriage ceremonies, always taking great pleasure in "tying the knot." Many trials als:) were brought before him as trilunal, o-reat confidence leing felt in his impartial attitude and high sense of fair plav and justice. He was instrumental in organizing the Congregational cllurchl il what was known as the Burton schoolhouse, which congregation has since come to Flint. Of the three sons born to the parents, two have since died. DIewitt cleared and operated a farm near Chicago, and reached the age of seventy-two years. Leverett E. was unmarried and followed the jeweler's trade, departiilg this life at I)allas, Texas, after attaining the age of sixtv-four years. George XM. spent his boyhood dlays at home, gaining valuable experience in subduing tile forest and tilling the soil. He attendled school in the little log schoolhouse with its primitive benches and meager equiplment-strong factors, however, in promoting self-reliance and sterling independence. Later he attended the Union school in Flint, capping this with a course in the Normal school at Ypsilanti, Michigan, in this way preparing himself thoroughly for his work as a teacher, and also laying a broad foundation for the sterner problems of life before him. He began teaching at the age of nineteen, and for ten years taught successfully in the district schools of the count.y living on the farm ill the meantime and assuming the full responsibility of its direction. After his father's death he bought the full interest in the farm, later disposing of it and re-investing in another farm of ninety-two and a half acres, known as the Parker homestead. This farm has been managed with great skill and foresight, resulting in thoroigh drainage, modern buildings. consisting of a substantial and commodious bank barn, as well as other buildings and conveniences. In fact, so thorough and energetic has been his work that this farm ranks as one of the very best in the township. It is usually the case with men of a progressive and alert temperament that they specialize in certain lines. Mr. Curtis has devoted his special attention to the breeding of high grade stock, realizing that in this way he could not only gratify his innate love for experiment and improvement, but also contri bute toward the advancement and progress of the agricultural interests of the county. On his farm were to be found some of the best specimens of Percheron horses, a breed of draft horses originating in Perche, a district of France. He has exhibited as many as nine horses at one time at the fairs, and when doing so would take away nine winning cards, the premiums usually 7

Page  98 98 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY being the highest offered. Sheep breeding also received a considerable share of his attention. Specializing chiefly in Shropshire breed, he achieved great success in this line also. He sold many fine breeding animals and has been a most potent factor in promoting a spirit in the county for a better and higher grade of domestic animals. As a result of this there has come to be in the county a higher grade of stock generally, and Genesee county now has a reputation on this score which is almost second to none in the state. Mr. Curtis' intimate knowledge of agricultural affairs and his deep interest in the progress of this industry have resulted in his identification with the county Agricultural Society, of which for many years he was a director. In I898, on account of failing health, he gave up active farm work and removed to Flint, where he has since resided. Although an educator in his time, and an expert in stock raising, Mr. Curtis has had broader interests still. As before stated, his father was an active Democrat, but George was too original and independent to follow in the paternal path, and broke away early in life, identifying himself with the Republicans of his vicinity. As is to be expected from a man of his type, he was repeatedly called upon to serve his fellow citizens in an official capacity, holding at (lifferent times such places as school inspector, treasurer, township clerk, and supervisor. More distinguishedl, however, than all of these were his services in the state legislature, whither he was sent for two successive terms, namely, the sessions of 1893 and 1895. While here he reflected great credit on his constituents by means of his aggressive spirit. being placed as he was on several important committees. He was made chairman of the committee on the School of Mines. He was originally opposed to this school, but after a visit of inspection he reversed his views and endorsed it, inasmuch as its graduates found no (ifficulty whatever in securing immediate employmnent. He served also on the agricultural committee, rendering here very efficient service, owing to knowledge and experience. On the farmers' committee he acted as chairman, acquitting himself here also with his customary credit. Since coming to Flint, though practically retired, he has served for four years as the supervisor of the second war(l, finally resigning. TIor eight years he has been first treasurer and then president of the Genesee County Mutual Insurance Company, of which his father was one of the organizers, discharging his duties with eminent ability and satisfaction, the assessments

Page  99 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 99 being comparatively light, proving both foresight and economy in its management. In I875 Mr. Curtis was joined in wedlock to an able teacher of Lapeer county, M.iss Alvira M. Harris, whose parents were also pioneers of the state. Her father, Alanson Harris, was a native of New York, and after settling in Michigan, assisted in locating the capital of the state at Lansing. Her mother was a native of Vermont. One of her brothers, Harrison, of Matamora, is eighty-one years old, and, according to the Detroit Free Press, has voted ninety-one times, and is one of the best preserved men in Lapeer county. Another brother, Byron, has his home at Mayville, in Tuscola county. Mabella, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Curtis, is well on her way to graduation in the Flint schools. The family are regular attendants of St. Paul's Episcopal church, and are alive to all matters that concern the welfare of the city.

Page  100 GEORGE E. McKINLEY. George E. McKinley, present mayor of Flint, like many another staunch American, traces his ancestry back to the "Emerald isle." The subject of our biography was born in Flint on August 12, 187I. He grew up in the town of his birth, and was educated in the local schools. He was a boy of steady habits and applied himself closely to whatever he undertook to (lo. As he approached manhood he realized the necessity of taking up a definite occupation, and learned the cigar maker's trade as an apprentice with George T. Warren. After becoming proficient at his work and having obtained a thorough knowledge of the trade and its attendant problems. he decided to go into business, and in company with Patrick Ryan entered actively into the field. His business insight and energetic methods soon set on foot a large volume of trade. Patronage came on every side, and ere long a goodly force of employes was needed to supply the demand, although it had seemed at first that the opportunities were more or less restricted. In the business training thus afforded it became apparent that he possessed not only foresight, but ability to get along with and to mingle with men. He was quick in estimating obstacles as they would arise, and his genius enabled him to handle them carefully and intelligently. His circle of acquaintances widened and his many friends in the first

Page  101 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. IOI ward prevailed upon him to serve them as alderman from their ward. He consented and for six years rendered commendable and acceptable service in that capacity. This experience proved that he has a thorough understanding of the people. He revealed a broad grasp of municipal problems and awakened confidence in his executive as well as administrative ability. During these years his popularity was steadily increasing, and culminated finally in his nomination by the Democratic party for the office of mayor in I906. After his election and entrance into the highest office of trust afforded by the city, he set himself about to advance the interests of the community in every possible way. The problems of the city government are among the most perplexing' of any to be met. The needs are great on every hand. On the one side there is always a progressive element who want advancement and up-to-date improvements in various lines. On the other hand there is the conservative element who advocate letting well enough alone. How to bring the two together, satisfy both, and yet get something accomplished foims the problem to face. To this task Mayor McKinley resolutely addressed himself. How well he succeeded is told by the verdict of his re-election in 1907. The mayor has manifested an aggressive spirit for improveelent and advancement along all lines. His policy is that the best is none too good for the people. He has fearlessly grappled the street improvement problem, taking the stand that clean, well-kept, and well-improved streets not only make a city more sanitary, but also make it more attractive as a place of residence; hence the to wn as a whole will reap great benefit from this phase of civic policy. The new city hall, which is being built under his administration, will stand as a monument to his progressiveness. "A wealthy and progressive community," says Mayor McKinley, "should have city offices and business departments in quarters that are fully commensurate with the dignity and the importance of the city's growing needs." This hall will probally cost in the aggregate a sum approaching $Ioo,ooo. The mayor has also taken an active interest in the city sewage question, viewing- it mainly from the sanitary standpoint. This is a problem that has been vexatious to city authorities on every hand, the questions of cost and lisposal calling forth an endless variety of propositions. The subject of good sidewalks has also received its share of attention, and improvements in that line have been pushed with vigor.

Page  102 102 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY The fire department is also an important factor in preserving the safety and welfare of life and property. The city of Flint now has four stations, employs seventeen men, and has up-to-date and well-equipped apparatus. Good insurance rates are much more easily obtained when the facilities for combating fire are adequate. The tone of the police department is most excellent, reducing the number of law violations considerably, thus rendering the city both safe and attractive. The public parks are being made places of beauty and of artistic excellence. The best skill available is being employed to make the city "beautiful, complete, and clean." Mr. McKinley was married on November 26, i89I, to Miss Henrietta E. Lane, of Detroit, who has proved to be a most charming helpmeet to her husband, and has won for herself an enviable host of friends. The mayor has also found time, though comparatively young in years, to identify himself with many of the best lodges of the day, being a member of the Masons, Eagles, Elks, Knights of Pythias, and the Modern \Voodmen. Though all McKinleys cannot be Presidents of the United States, as Major William McKinley was, yet George E. McKinley has demonstrated that they may, in their own part of the commonwealth, live up to their ideals as nobly as did the noble and beloved martyred President of our nation.

Page  103 DANIEL D. PRATT. Mir. Daniel D. Pratt, another of Flint's able an(l respected citizens, is a lescen(lant from Nex York ancestry. I-is parents, L-ri and Marv (Estes) Pratt, both came from Broome county, New York, to Gienesee county, Michigan, iln 185o and settledl in what is now Burton township. They took up the usual task of clearing and putting into better shape a tract of land, and for many years occupied themselves very completely at this work. They formed conglenial relationshlips with their neighbors and soon became a much valued and highlly esteemed addition to the community. MA[r. Pratt spent almost all of his days in Biurton township, barring about four years. These four years were taken ulp with a sojourn in the state of \Vashington. Not finding his affairs there such that he could remain longer, he returned to Genesee county and finishedl his life's course in the state of his adoption. Mrs. Pratt passed away on -\pril 23, I885, at tile age of sixty years, while Mir. Pratt attained the ag'e of seventy y-ears, departing this life in July, I895. hrley were active workers and higllly esteemed nlembers of the Methodist Episcopal church. rThe family was made up of two other children besides Daniel, namely, Hannah and Eougene, but Daniel is now the only surviving member. He was born in the county of Broome, New York, on July i8, 1845. According to the p-evious statement, he was but five years old when coming

Page  104 104 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY to this county with his parents. He was a wide-awake and industrious boy. and one that mingled well with his playmates and friends. He was brought up on the farm, getting rugged experience in the struggle with nature, lbut in all this he profited both in knowledge and its application. He received a good common school education, such as was afforded by the district schools of the time. He remained with his parents on the farm until he reached his years of maturity, and was of invaluable aid to his parents during these years, rendering them valuable assistance both by hard work andl good counsel. On May 27, 1868, he was married to Miss Anna E. Meyers, who was the daughter of George L. and Nancy (Sommers) Myers. (Their family history is given in this work in the sketch headed George Myers, of Burton township.) Miss Myers was the eldest of a family of eight children and was born in Otsego county, New York, on July 5, 1849. She came with her parents to Genesee county about 1867. After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Pratt engaged for about ten years in operating his father's farm in Burton township. His knowledge of general affairs and his business experience led him, however, to abandon active farm work, and he became engaged in the mercantile trade at Atlas, Genesee county. Here he put in a busy twelve years, at the conclusion of which he made a venture out to the state of \\ashington. \While there under the alternately balmy and cloudy skies he grappleld with fortune by (levoting his attention to ranching, continuing at this for a period of four years. At the expiration of this time he came back to Genesee county. He located in Flint and opened up a first-class grocery. He has had a very commelldable trade, commands a wide patronage, and is still actively engaged in the work. He has been the supervisor of the sixth ward since 1902, and had previously held township offices of various kinds. He is an active worker in the Masonic order. The family's activities in church lines have been liberal and varied, and this, coupled w7ith a genial social spirit, has made them the most desirable of citizens.:o

Page  105 GEORGE HENRY TURNER. There is probably no city of its size in the state, other than Flint. that has more people of state-wi(le reputation and so many whose promlinence reaclhes even beyond the state borders. Amnong others of mnore than local fame is (;e)rge Henry Turner, county agent of the state board of corrections and charities. The record of Mr. Turner's career makes tip an interesting chronicle. He was born in Stockbridge,. erkshire county, Massachusetts, on Septemiber 28, 184o, remlllving- to \Vaterbury, Connecticut, the tolwn of time-piece fame, when twelve years o0(l. His father, Cornelius \V. Turner, together with his mother, Eliza A. (Young) Turner, emigrate(l later Awith their family to Michigan, and bloth spent their remaining dlays in Genesee county, his father attaining- the age of eighty-two years. At the age of seventeen George began to learn the carriage making tra(le. His l)rother, Clark, tw\o years his senior, nworked on the "XWolverine Citizen," ill Pontiac, Michigan, after coming west. Later he bought the "Ponltiac Gazette" and( continuedl as its editor for thirty years, and still makes his home in that city. George completed his apprenticeship in about three years, coming out at the endl of that time nwith only his trade as capital. Shortly after this, the Inuterings of the thunder of Nwar began to be heard, and ere long the storm

Page  106 1o6 i o6 IOGRAZ'PHICAL HISTORY broke over the country in full fury. George's patriotic blood begall to boil at once, and he enlisted ill the Second Michigan Volunteer Infantry, Cornpany A, which was rendezvousing at Camp Blair, D)etroit. The three months' quota being filled, this regiment was put on the three-year list. George didl not get into the first call, so he acceptecl his (lischarge and returned to Flint, where he began to work at his trade. This lasted for a short time only, as lhe could not content hiimself at tlhis Nwork while the conflict for the preservation of the 7Union was still waging. Consequently he enlisted again, this tiime in the Fenton Guards, with,Colonel Fenton as captain. Later lie was sent to Ft. \aynee, where the Seventh Regiment was under (drill, and was lnustered ill. After some shifting they went oult to service, and were sent to \Vashlington. They made the ocean voyage to Hilton tHead, South Carolina, and landed later at Beauford. samle state. To trace the experiences o)f this company would make a volume in itself. BEattle after battle, lonlg and exhaustillng marches, hasty camlpaigns with their attendant vicissitudles, make up the chapters of this epoch-making era. South MIountain, Antietam, Hampton Roads, Peninsular Campaign, McClellan's marches, and Burnside's expe(litions, these are all nanmes that carry with them a meaning familiar to almost every Ameeric-rl. \After the action at James Island the loss of officers was such that /Mr. Turner was put in charge of Company BP and led that company at South MIountain and also at Antietaml. Later lie was ma(le first lieutenlant of Company K. andl afterward was mustered out of the service, having )broken dlown in health to such all extent as to unfit himl for further duties in the cause. It may be of interest to mention that while stationed at Beauford, South Carolilia, he was sent homne to aid in mustering up recruits, and was instrumental ini sending to the front twenty-five or thiry menl who entered various companies throughout the territory. tUpon returning home after being mustere(l out, lie assumed direction of a photograph gallery at Pontiac, where his brother, as above mlentioned, published the "Gazette." Later he b)ought the old shop in tlint in which lie had( learned his tradle. For the next year he continiiued lbusiness at this location, which was on Saginaw street, opposite the present city hall. Close attention to business and conscientious workmanship soon drlew a substantial trade, making it necessary for him to emnploy a goodly number of men. It is said that he put up in his shop more wagons than any other tmianufacturer of the kind in this region. He continued at this location until I887. He became

Page  107 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Io7 the patentee of what was known as the truss rod. This rod is one that is placed under the axle in such a way as to greatly re-enforce the strength of the axle itself. Later John Algo becamle a partner in the patent, and it finally was turned over to the Jackson Wagon WNorks, remaining in their possession until its expiration. Mr. Turner's business always received his undivided personal attention. But, while engrossed with the numerous duties of his vocation, Mr. Turner was not indifferent to his obligations as a citizen, and consented to serve on the board of aldermen. Further, while in the council he was instrumental in securing the paving of Saginaw street with cedar blocks from Fifth street to the bridge, and was at all times a champion of improvements. Under Governor Alger he was appointed oil inspector and served in this capacity a total time of about five and one-half years. In this work he covered the entire thirteenth oil district, embracing the counties of Genesee, Lapeer, Shiawassee and Livingston. For twenty-two years he has been county agent for the state board of corrections and charities. His long term of service at this post is but a compliment to his devotion and interest ill tle prosecution of the incumbent duties. Perhaps it is in this work that some of his strongest characteristics have become evident. Such an agent is appointed in each state, and his duties consist largely in placing children from the state institutions into suitable homes throughout the state. The institutions just mentioned are such as the state school at Coldwater, the industrial school at Adrian, and also the one at Lansing. Mr. Turner has made an enviable record, having to his credit more children placed in homes than any other agent. In doing this it has not been his aim at all to excel any one else, but the results have come from his deep love for the work and his active interest in the lives and destinies of those who lack the hallowed influence of a good, clean, wholesome, upliftingl home atmosphere. In shaping and m1olding the tender characters of these children the fruits of his labors are becoming more and more apparent as the wings of time swing steadily on. He keeps constantly in touch with the children, and in this way has seen manv a boy develop into a sturdy aind manly citizen. The cash remuneration for this work is extremely small, but his pleasure is not measured by dollars and cents, but rather by a feeling of joy that comes from following the example of Him, who, while on earth, "went about doing good." Mr. Turner is an active Mason also, and is a loyal member of the Grand

Page  108 Io8 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY Arny of the Republic. He is active in church work, having been a member in some official capacity for thirty-five years. On June 12, I867, at Pontiac, Michigan, he was united in marriage to Miss Sarah E. Scott, of that city. She, too, is an active worker in the Methodist Episcopal church. Their family consisted of William L., who died in Flint, at the age of twenty-seven; Margaret, wife of James Buchanan, of Chicago; Augusta, a graduate of the Chicago Art Institute, class of 1907; and Frank S., assistant cashier and teller in the Flint National Bank. This brings us to the close of the summary of a well rounded character. Mr. Turner's varied interests and activities have revealed a many-sided nature. As a patriot he left home and friends and faced death on the field of battle. In following his trade he placed himself in line and in harmony with the industrial masses of the country. As an inventor he has shown his leadership; as a citizen, both progressive and conservative' as a philanthropist, farsighted, self-sacrificing and altruistic; as a member of the church militant, alvwas abounding in good works; as a father, with "children, like olive plants, roundabout his table." "He that goeth forth and weepeth, bearing precious seed, shall doubtless come again with rejoicing, bringing his sheaves with him."

Page  109 JOHN C. ZIMMERMAN. Another descend(lant of stutr(ly German ancestry is the fearless sheriff of (Genesee county, tMr. John C. Zinlllermlan. His parents were John and Elizabeth (Dietz) Zimnlernaln, 1both natives of Germlany. Tlhey came to Genesee counlty in I853, and Mr. Zimmerman was engaged for a great many years in the manufacture of brick. Their family consisted of seven children, of whom John C. was the second. He was born in Flint on October I5, I863. He \was reared in that city and received his education in the city schools. As a boy lie was industrious and obelient, and his school life was active and vigorous. He was always a good mixer and as he grew to manhood these traits manifested themselves in his manifold public activities. He worked for his father in the brick business, and was for sev-enteen years engaged iln brick manufacturing for himself. -He was married in Flint oil April 30, i89I, to Miss Mary Grant, who was also born in Genesee county. She was the daughter of George and Elizabeth (Haight) G;rant. M:r. Grant emigrated to the United States from his native state in Canada. Mr. and Mrs. Zimmerman are the parents of a healthy and rolbust family. Thlley are: May, John WV., Bernice, and Dorothy. They take great pride

Page  110 IIO BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY in their children, and have spared no pains in bringing them up to make them reliable and intelligent members of the community. John C. Zimmerman's courageous and impartial attitude has won for him the confidence of the people, and this resulted in his election to the office of county sheriff in 1904. That his services met with the endorsement of the people is verified by the fact that he was re-elected to the place in I906. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity and has the hearty good will of a host of friends. Mr. Zimmnerman has impressed himself upon the people as a man of firm convictions and courageous temperament. He has shown a knack for executive and administrative affairs, and a glance at the record of Flint's public men reveals to us the fact that Mr. Zimmerman has served the people well and faithfully. Mr. John Zimmerman, father of our subject, was mayor of Flint for two terms and transacted the business affairs of the city with a marked degree of efficiency. He discharged the duties of his office without fear or favor. In addition to the above he was asked repeatedly by his constituents to act as alderman, and for seven years he carried on the duties of this place of trust. He was an energetic and efficient party worker in the Republican ranks, and rendered unlimited service, which was at all times fair and honest.:: G:

Page  111 LAFAYETTE THOMPSON. Lafayette Thompson was born in Schuyler county, N-ew York, September 3, 1824. After tile death of his father, Bradley Thompson, which occurrel lwhen Lafayette was about six years of age, the boy went to live with an older- l)rother in Pennsylvania. Later, ill 1839, he, with his mother and a brother-in-law, 'tMr. Henry \W. Cooper, came to Michigan, arriving at Detroit by steamer from Buffalo. From Detroit they drove to Fenton, reaching this point early in June of that year. Other 1members of the Thompson family were intimlately connected Awith the pioneer industries of this vicinity. Henry Thompson came to Fenton and erected his own home there in 1836. Earlier he and his brother built the first frame house in Grand Blanc (in I835). They, with another associate, also established a goodl saw and grist mill at Linden. Henry diedl at Fenton later. The other brother, Claudius, was electe(l sheriff of Genesee county in I86o, and was in many ways a useful citizen in the comlmunniyt. He diedl in April, I889, at the age of seventyfive years. Lydia Thompson, a sister, was married to James Ball, a millwright, who had also built the first saw mill in Linden. \Vhllile building a mill in Shiawassee county in 1836 he met there his untimely death. Owing to an iinsecure foothold he slipped and fell to the ground, sustaining a broken neck. His remlains Awere the first to be buried in Liinden cemetery. Lafayette, after his arrival, began farm work, plowving with yoke cattle, antd makinlg himself useful, receivillg albout tell lollars per month as wages. In i852 he bought an unimprl(e d piece of land on the Livingston county line, five miles west of Fenton. Here he applied himself diligently to his w-ork, remaining on the place till 189o. M:r. Thonlpson k1now-s 1b his own

Page  112 II2 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY experience on this farm what it melans to dig his o)\vn way. He went into delbt for a part of the farm at the start, Nworked for the neighbors to get see(l for the fields, built the needed improvelnents, anld lby dint of hard effort turned it into a first-class farmn in every particular, finally selling it at a g-ood price. After selling the farm lhe retired to his present holmne in the eastern part of Fenton. Though not a politician Mr. Thompson has (lecided convictions on the questions of the dlay, and has affiliated with the Republican party in the past. He has also been alive to his obligations to the religious needs of himself and commnnitity, having been an active class leader in the XMethodist church at Iindlen for over thirtvy years. IMr. Thompson was married one mile north of Fenton to Miss Mary Lathllrop Chipman, who, with her parents, came w\est from Vernmont and settled here in I84I. Later, in 1849, her father was attackel itll typhoid fever, alnd, as the doctors of that day were not so skilled in comnbating this disease, lie succumbed to his fate. Her mother lived till 897, having eachlied the age of eighty-eight years. iltrs. Thompson departed this life on April 30, I907, having been married sixty-two years. She was born on Marcl 30, 1828, and througlhout her clays was a great lover of flowers. Her home was brigh-tened all the year round with sweet-scented, beautifully colored flowers of allmost every variety. She was also a highly esteeme(l member of the 'Methllodist church. The son, Rev. Fayette L.., is the only child now living, three o)thers having lied. He was educated at the Northwestern tUniversity, having made up his mind early in life to become a minister of the "glad tidings." He belonged at one time to the MTlichigan Methodist Episcopal conference, has been noted as a popular lecturer, was for three years in:Minneapolis, and is now pastor of one of the prosperous IMethodist churches of St. Louis. His career affords consi(lerable pleasure to his father, wvho is nowv living in quiet retirement at his home in Fenton.

Page  113 LEONARD E. KNAPP, M. D. In nearly every conmmunity there are some citizens that take the lead and make their "footprints on the sands of time." This has been the case with Dr. L. E. Knapp, of Fenton. Mr. Knapp was born in Salem. Washtenaw county, Michigan. November 24, 1842. His father, Mr. Miron E. Knapp, cooper and farmer, came west with an elder brother when thirteen years old. Later he was united in marriage to Miss Amanda M. Hall, who died at the age of fifty-four, whlile Mr. Knapp reached the age of seventyseven years. Leonard attended the seminary at Ypsilanti, began to read medicine at twenty-four with a cousin, Dr. A. S. Knapp, having previously graduated from Eastman's National Business College at Poughkeepsie, New York. Desiring to lay as broad a foundation as possible, he extended his preparations at the Homeopathic Hospital College at Cleveland,. and graduated there. He also took a course in the medical department of the State University in Michigan. He then began to practice at Linden, coming to Fenton eight years later. Although his grounding in the profession was already broader than is usual, Mr. Knapp took a post-graduate course in a distinguished medical c6llege in New York, devoting special study to the eye, ear, nose and throat, and to the diseases of women, and has had abundant practice since as a 8

Page  114 TI4 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY specialist in these lines.. He has been a member of the State Homeopathic Society and has kept fully abreast of the times. But Dr. Knapp, though very busy with his large practice, has been useful in the community in other ways as well. He has demonstrated his faith in the permanent and substantial growth of the town by making his investments in city property, and has stood for cleanliness, good sanitary conditions, and a wide-awake public spirit. It is likely, however, that in his services as president of the school board he has been a most potent factor in promoting the city's welfare, having given his time to it in this capacity for over twenty years. During this interim lie, ith the other members of the board, succeeded in bringing the schools up to such a high plane of excellence that they have become the pride of not only the town and the county, but of the state as well. The graduates are conceded by the examiner at the State University to be second to none in the state. Although Dr. Knapp has always found time to assist in advancing the highest interests of the community, he has had no time to mingle in politics, but rather followed the maxim of attending strictly to business. He chose as his companion in life Miss Ielissa Stevens, a normal student, and for some years a teacher. Her death occurred in July, I906, after almost thirty-seven years of happy married life. She, too, was a person of rare attainments, and one who was ever realy to be of service to those aroundt her. She was identified with many of the local societies of her sex, and entered fully into the progressive spirit of the communiny. Doctor and Mrs. Knapp were blessed with one daughter, Eloise, wife of Dr. \V. L. Slack, a successful specialist of Saginaw, anil also with two sons. One of these. Mark S., is a practicing physician at Flint. He is a graduate from both the literary and medical departments of the State University, as is also the other brother, I)on Dewitt. The latter is in business with his father and both of the sons show that they have partaken of the paternal spirit. No doubt the good book speaks truly when it says that the iniquities of the parents shall be visited upon the children, but it seems also to be often just as true that the spirit of the parent, like Elijah's mantle, is handed down and rests upon others as a sacred legacy. 11 I

Page  115 JOHN BECKER AND WIFE. This esteemed citizen of the "vehicle city" was born in Bavaria, Germany, January 20, 1833. He was eighteen years old wNhen, in company with his brother, Jacob, he left (ermany to become a party of the sturdy citizenship of the "land of the free." His journey across the Atlantic was not in one of the speedy ocean greyhounds that now make the trip in a few cays, but rather in one of the customary sailing vessels of the time. He landed in New York city and then moved on westward until lie came to the "Buckeye state," settling in Seneca county, where he remained until I856, working out at various occupations that came to hand. IIn the fall of the year last mentioned he came to Genesee county, Michigan, and obtained employment in a lumber yard. For two years he worked not only in the yards, but also at such other occupations as opportunity offered. On January 24th he was united in marriage to Miss Sophia Winters, also a native of Germany, having been born in W:urtemburg, January 26, 1834. After his marriage he and his wife went to Huron county, Michigan, and purchased an eighty-acre tract of government land, this being practically new andl uncultivated soil. He applied himself industriously to the task of sublduing the land, and by dint of hard work and steady application he succeeded in bringing forty acres of it to a satisfactory state of cultivation and

Page  116 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY productiveness. He continued to live there for ten years, and made a great change in the land on which he lived. At the expiration of that time he disposed of the farm and with his wife and family of four children he returned to Genesee county, Michigan, and settled in Flint at 1429 West Court street, where they have since resided. He owns and operates a farm of forty-five acres in Flint township. Being a man of good business judgment he was able to see opportunities outside of farming, and soon formed a partnership with his biother, Christopher, in the manufacture of brick. They continued together for two years, and then he sold out his interest to his brother. Shortly after this he went into the same business for himself, and continued at this for several years, finally disposing of his plant. He then devoted himself exclusively to farming, and this has been his occupation up to the present time. He has lived for forty-five years in Flint township and is a m1an of excellent standing among his acquaintances, being not only industrious and frugal, but also an obliging and honest neighbor, willing at all times to accommodate a friend or lend a helping hand to any one who may desire a favor. Mr. and Mrs. Becker have become the parents of five children, all of whom are daughters. They take great pride in their children and use every endeavor to bring them up in the pathway of virtue, thrift and economy. Minnie, the eldest, has become the wife of William Woodworth; Elizabeth married Charles Burbridge, of Flushing; Sophia cast her lot with William Collins, of Flint; the next daughter in order of birth was Mary; following her is Sarah, who became the wife of Robert Orme, of Clayton township. During the war the family circumstances were such that Mr. Becker could not well leave for the front, and when he was drafted he furnished a substitute, borrowing the money needed for the purpose. Mr. and Mrs. Becker are members of the Evangelical church and are willing helpers in its support, he having been one of the trustees of the church for many years. Mr. Becker has also held for several years the office of commissioner of highways.

Page  117 OTTO P. GRAFF. Mr. Otto P. Graff, supervisor of Grand Blanc township, Genesee county, Michigan, was born at Exeter, Monroe county, Michigan, March II,.I880. His father, Henry M. Graff, was a native of Niagara county, New York, and his mother of Erie county, the same state. They came to Michigan in 1872 and settled in Monroe county, where they continued to live until 1883, at which time they removed to Grand Blanc township, where they have since resided. They are steady, congenial people, and are held in high esteem by neighbors and friends. Three children have been born to them, consisting of Elizabeth, Jacob A., and Otto. Otto was three years old when he came with his parents to Grand Blanc township. He was reared to manhood on the parental homstead, being trained and disciplined by the arduous tasks of life on this farm, and has lived continuously in the township. He was an active and energetic boy, and one whlo did not shirk from the tasks that fell to his lot. He was educated in the common schools of the community and applied himself assiduously to his studies. At the age of sixteen he entered the Flint Normal school, taking a two years' course, and followed this with one year at the Fenton Normal. Being amply qualified, he entered the profession of teaching, and for seven

Page  118 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY years was engaged at that work in Grand Blanc and Mundy townships. He was held in high esteem by the patrons of the districts in which he taught. For four years he has school inspector for Grand Blanc township, and during this time proved an efficient and helpful factor in the educational advancement of the communities under his jurisdiction. He took a firm stand for improved and modern apparatus and recommended raising the standard of teaching methods. For twVo years he was a member of the school board, and in the spring of I906 was elected supervisor of Grand Blanc township, being re-elected in the spring of 1907. Ever since reaching his majority he has taken an active interest in all public affairs, and has made a favorable impression on all his friends by his hustle and energy. He is a Republican in politics. He is wide-awake to his religious obligations and takes a lively interest in the growth and maintenance of the Methodist Episcopal church, having been superintendent of the Sunday school for a number of years. He is a member of the Independent Order of Oddl Fellows and the Grand Blanc Grange. and also the Independent Order of Gleaners. His kindly disposition and genial humor have won for him many friends and the prospects for his future are both bright and promising.

Page  119 \\ILLIAM J. KINC1 AND \VIFE. WNlilllam J. Huing, secretarv and treasurer of the brick and (irain tile company of Grand Bflanc, was lborl in MnXI-ndy tf,)wnship April 26, H870. His father, John W., was a son of the la'e \William J. IKing, one of the p)ioneers of the county. Mr. Iohn \VT. King liedl ini Grand Blanc township, having attained the age of about fiftv-six years. The mother's maileil name was MA.1-ary C. Johnson, a native of New York state. After the (leatli of her biuslai](l, Tohn W.. she was again miarriedl, this time to David Richardson, andl she now has her home In Fenton. Three children were born of the first union, the other two, lbesides our subject, being Ameriatte. w\ife of E. H. (.coo(k, and fViuniie, the wife of Fredrick Parker. \Vh'ien William was quite v (;ung his larents removedl to Flint, and this continued to be his 1home until I 892. He attended the public schools of the city, takino- also the course offered in the high school. In 1 892 he settled in Grand Blanc towniship, where he has since been a resident. He becamie conniected with the lbricki alil tile works there, and has continued at that lmsiness ever since. I-He has given the work his entire time and keeps himself well informed on the progress and dlevelopment of the business. He is thorotughlv familiar with all problems connectedl wvith the manufacture of brick andl tile, and is well informed on the dlrainage problems of the (lay. Trhe plant is rni- on a strict and economical basis, and close adherence is given to upright business methods. Whlile the company is a stock company, Mr. King is the sole owviner of the plant. The major part of the concern is taken up with the manufacture of drainage tile, and in this line the output of the plant is- quite

Page  120 120 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY large, l)eing excelled in quantity by but Nvery few plants in the state, and(l ill quality )by none in tile country. Mr. King was married in Flint. April i8, 1903, to Miss Myrtie L. Smith, a dlaughter of Jacob L. Smith, resident of Flint. Three children have been born to them. They are Maxwell D., Byron \N., and Francis K. 4Mr. King has cheerfully respondle(l to the requests of his rmany friends to assist in the promotion of the educational interests of the community, and( they have found in him an ardent supporter of the cause of education. He has been widle-aawake to the advantages of a goo:d training, and is anxious that this privilege shall be placed w-ithin the reach of every child able to avail hiimself of it. He is a Republican in politics, anid is also a member of the d0(1( Fellow-s.

Page  121 I i::::iO: I:: J. C. ADAMS AND AVIFE. Jayno C. Adams is descended from New York ancestors. His father, Colonel James XAdams, w-as a colonel in the army during the war of I812, and was born in Johllnstown, New York, June 8. I796. His mother, Sarah (Pa-ks) Adams, was born November I1, I798, also in the same state. They came to Genesee county. Michigan, in 1835, an(l settled in Grand Blanc township, then in quite a primitive state. They purchased a tract of unclearedl land from the government in section i7, upon which they spent the remainder of their days, blusy and happy in their new environment. The colonel died March 6, i868, and Awas survived by his wife until April 22, I871. They were the parents of eleven children, of whom our subject was the eighth. Jayno Charles was born in Livingston, New- York, June 13, 1832, and was only three years old wNhen his parents came to Michigan. He was reared on the farm, remaining with his parents until he was of age, assisting in the cultivation of the soil and in procuring the necessities requisite for the support of the large family. He was a helpful son, and filled a worthy place in the family circle. UpOn leaving the homestead, he purchased a farm in Grand Blanc township andl engaged in farming and stock buyingl. and has spent the major part of his life in that locality. He has confined himself largely to dealing in

Page  122 122 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY stock, but for ten years he followed various occupations. He was married in San Francisco, California, on April 28, T86o, to Miss Helen Mi. Ellis, who was a native of Onondago county, New York, wThere she was born March io, 1840. She was the daughter of Horace H. and Mary E (Kennedy) Ellis, who came to Genesee county, Michigan, in I857, and settled ill Grand Blanc township, continuing their life there until their clays were numbered. Mr. Ellis was born in Connecticut in a795 and died in 1877. Mrs. Ellis was born in New York state in I 8io and lived up to April I o, 870. Thlleir famnilv consisted of seven children, of whom Helen was the fourth. Mr. and Mrs. Adlams have become the parents of four living children' Belle E. is the widow of F. M. Thompson andl lives in Fenton,?Michiganl M'littie is the wife of Dr. John D. Riker, of Pontiac, Michigan. Jayno Wv. is a farmer in Oakland county, Michigan. Flora is the wife of Royal L. Goodale. They have buried five children, all of \vhom (liedl quite young. Mr. Adams is a man who has taken an active part in lublic affairs and has always shouldered all responsibilities of citizenship. He believes in the "sqtuare deal' for every one, and does not hesitate to stand upon his own conlvictionls. He and his wife are loyal supporters of the Methodist Episcopal clhurch, and have assisted substantially in its progress and maintenance. i[\tr. ldams is a highly esteeled member of the Masonic fraternity.

Page  123 THOMAi S FARMIxER. Prominent among- the expert veterinary surgeons of the state is Dr. Thomas Farmer, of Grandl Blanc. Dr. Farmer has breathed the air of three different countries at different leriods of his life. He was born in Wrales, November I, 1845. His parents, Thomas and M\ary (Jones) Farmer, both natives of \ales, set sail for America -when Thomas was four years of age. They came to Canada andl settled at Perth, Lanark county. Thomas's father was a blacksmith and followed his trade after arriving in Canada. He was an honest and conscientious workman, and nothing left his hand that was not carefully and skilfully executed. He taught the trade to Thomas, and instilled into his mind the same principles that had guided him in his labors at the anvil and the forge. The ringing of the hammer and sledge made music from early morn till the going down of the sun, and a cheery atmosphere of blusy activity was ever present in his shop. He was called from his labors and gathered to rest at the age of fifty-two, having been preceded by his wife, who passed away at the age of thirty-three. They were the parents of six sons, of whom0 Thomas, our subject, was the eldest. He was reared at Perth and remained there until twenty years of age. Having learne(l his trade, he came to Carrollton, Illinois, where he followed his father's trade for about one year, returning at the expiration of that period to

Page  124 124 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY Ontario. He then joined for a short time in the warfare against the Fenians, at the close of which he came to Michigan and followed his trade in Lapeer and Hadley, coming to Grand Blanc in September, 1875. Here he has been engaged in business ever since. In i886 he took up the study of veterinary surgery, having always been interested in the subject. His experiences in the shop were such that his attention was frequently directed to the subject. He is a man of keen observation and good judgment, and after deciding to take up the work of veterinary, he felt the need of expert training for the duties of the calling. In pursuance of the idea he entered and completed a course in the Veterinary College of Chicago, finishing the work in I888. Since 1900 he has given his entire time to this work and has achieved great success. In I90.4 he was appointed by the late Governor Bliss as one of the state board of veterinary examiners, which distinction he still holds. He was united in marriage in June, I868, to Miss Jane McLaren, a native of Ontario, and a daughter of Robert and Maria (Marks) McLaren, who came to Michigan also in an early day and settled in Muskegon, where they spent the remainder of their days. Dr. and Mrs. Farmer are the parents of five children. Edith is the wife of W. H. Tyndall, of Maryville, Missouri; Cora is the wife of F. H. Sanford, instructor in the department of forestry in the Michigan Agricultural College; Jessie is the wife of Dr. W. G. Bird, of Flint; Mabel is single: Robert Jones is a dentist in New York city. Dr. Farmer has the confidence and esteem of his fellow townsmen. and is at the present time president of the Grand Blanc school board, and assumes cheerfully his share of the responsibilities of citizenship. He was recently appointed president of the state veterinary board by Governor Warner.

Page  125 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 125 ORRIN HART. Mr. Orrin Hart is the son of Marcus E. and Polly (Clarke) Hart, early settlers of Genesee county. Mr. Marcus E. Hart was born in Connecticut and after his marriage settled in Triangle, Broome county, New York. Here he engaged in farming and lumbering, and in 1836 joined the tide of emigration westward and settled in Genesee county, Michigan. Here they remained for a short time, and in the spring of I837 they removed to Calhoun county, Michigan, where Mr. Hart died in the fall of the same year, aged forty years. Mrs. Polly Hart was afterward married to Mlr. Boutell and died in I ivingston county, Michigan, after approaching' within four years of the century mark. There were three children of her first marriage, of whlom our subject, Orrin, was the eldest. He was born in Triangle, New York, July 23, 1825, and was in his eleventh year when he came with his parents to the west. After his father's death he went to live with an uncle, Samuel Clarke. in what is now known as Genesee township. He lived with his uncle until the latter's death, which occurred when Orrin was eighteen years old. After this, Orrin made his home with another uncle, Ogden Clarke. in the same township. Mr. Clarke was at one time probate judge of Genesee county, and Orrin grew up under good influences and associations. He was fully alive to his advantages, and as manhood came he increased not only in stature and physical strength, but also in mental equipment as well. Judge Clarke nmoved to Flushing when Orrin was twenty-two years old, and the latter continued to make his home with the judge until he was married in Flushing, January I, 1853, to Miss Hannanett Constant, who was a native of York state also. After his marriage he settled upon a farm in Flushing township, which he had previously purchased. Here the newly married couple went energetically to work and soon made flattering progress in operating and improving the farm. The period of domestic felicity was cut short, however, by the wife's death in 1862. Following this misfortune Mr. Hart gave up work on the farm and located in the village of Flushing. Here he purchased the flouring nills and operated them for forty-three years. He was again married to Miss Margaret E. Ashbaugh. Robert 0. and Rennie Hart were the two children born to him in this last union. Robert O. Hart was born in Flushing February 21, 187I. His mother was a native of Ohio. Robert was reared in the town of his birth and was

Page  126 126 BIOGRA-PHICAL HISTORY educated in the local schools. He was a diligent student and an active, wideawake boy, possessing the usual share of mischief and surplus energy that characterize the typical American youth. He profited, however, by all the opportunities that came his way to fit and equip himself for the exigencies of business life that were liable to confront him. In I889 he entered the flouring mills as an employe, and soon made himself familiar with the details of the business. In 1893 he went into partnership with a cousin, John K. Clarke, under the firm name of Hart & Clarke. This partnership continued for one year, during which time the business grew in volume very noticeably. At the expiration of the year the partnership was dissolved and Mr. Hart went into association with his brother, Rennie E., and they together operated the mills under the name of Hart Brothers. They pushed the business with marked discrimination and success, giving eminent satisfaction to all with whom their business brought them in contact. This association continued until I905, at which time Robert purchased his brother's interest in the mills, and formed a stock company, known as the Hart Milling and Power Company, and they are operating under that title at the present time. The business has steadily progressed and has been marked by energy and characterized by uprightness and square dealing. Mr. Hart was married at Flushing August 29, 1893, to Miss Iula E. Tubbs, who is a native of Pennsylvania. She was the daughter of Philander and Rachel Tubbs, who were able and highly respected people. This union has resulted in the birth of two children, viz., Orrin C. and Sybil M. Mr. Hart has given a great deal of time to the prosecution of his business affairs, and has made it a rule to do with all his might whatever he undertakes. However, in spite of his manifold activities, he has found time to respond to the requests of his friends to take part in the local government, and has held many offices of trust and responsibility. In all these he has done his part faithfully and cheerfully, and has lived the role of a loyal and reliable citizen. In lodge matters, also, he has contributed, being an able and efficient worker in the ranks of the Masonic fraternity. He and his wife are also esteemed members of the Eastern Star. Mr. Hart further affiliates with the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks.

Page  127 AMR. AND MRS. JOHN \. COLLINS. Among the many al)le-bod(ied men of Flint is.John \V. Collins, a man of wi(le experience an(d lroadl ideas. He is not an American by birth, but has become one by adoption. He was born in Ireland, in the county of Tipperary, better knownv as the valley of Sweet Slievenamlon`. His father, Patrick Collins, was a farmer in comfortable circumstances, having had a lease on sixtysix acres of fertile land, and also a lease on some land which was transferable to his children for nilletv-nine years. He (lie(l August 7, 187i, at the age of fifty-five years. His wife's maiden name was Mary Hanrahan. She died on the home farm in 1884, having attained the age of seventy years. Six children wNere born to them, viz., Michael, Daniel, Catherine, James, Mary and John W. Johnl was thirteen years old when his father (lied and hle continued to live witl his mother till 1873. In Atugust of that year he embarked for America, and on his trip had one of the exciting experiences of his life. The vessel on which lie sailed was wrecked at sea, but the passengers and the crew were rescued, a-nd they w-ere landled at Quebec instead of at the United States port for -which they were bound. He made his way to New York city, and for ]line years received valuable experience here as bookkeeper for J. & N. Collins, cottoln b)rokers. Having a desire to see the country alnd to better his coil(lition if possile, lie resigned his position here and came west to Chicago. Here lhe entered tile employ of the Illinois Central Railroad, being connected with the bridge departmenlt. He spent fourteen years almost continuously in this work, and received hell)ful trainilng in transacting business of this character. This experience has stood him well in hand s.1nce; and has been a valualble aid to hinm in his ventures. M1r. Collins' next lmove was to

Page  128 I28 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY Racine, \isconsin, where he became employed as timekeeper for the Racine Wagon and Carriage Company, in the wood department. This position was filled by him for three years, after which he went west into the employ of the Michael Higgens axle works, remaining with the latter firm for one year. He then came to Flint and for the next two years was engaged in the Flint axle works. He then decided to go into business for himself, and in 1903 began operations as a contractor for the building of cement walks, and has continued in the general contract business. Since 1906 he has devoted his whole attention to sewer contract work. His wide experience, thorough business methods, and upright dealings have brought him not only many contracts, but the support and good will of his business associates. Mr. Collins was married in New York city June 30, I878, to Miss Anastasia Hurley, a native of County Kilkenny, Ireland. Iour children have been born to them: Mary is the wife of John Heller, of Racine, Wisconsin; Patrick M. lives in Racine and is in the employ of the Racine Wagon and Carriage Company; Thomas J. lives at Brooklyn, New York. The other daughter is Ellen. Mrs. Collins died in Chicago September o1, I888. On November 3, 1904, Mr. Collins was again married, taking as his wife Julia M. Brennon, who was born in Flint October 14, 1869. She was the only child of the family. Her father, Patrick Brennan, was a farmer in Burton township and was born in Queens county, Ireland. Her mother, Mary (Connelly) Brennan, was born in Tipperary county, Ireland, and (lied in Burton township July i, 1878, aged thirty-seven years. Mir. Collins is a member of the Royal League and the Knights of Columbus. He and his wife are devoted members of the St. Michael's Catholic church.

Page  129 NATHANIEL H. FRISBIE. Nathaniel Ht. Frisbie was the eighth of a family of nine children of Hon. Philip S.and Calista (Farnham) Frisbie, natives of New York state. They were among the very early pioneers of Michigan, having come west in an early day and settled in Springfield township, Oakland county. The father reached the age of fifty-nine years. He was a prominent man in Oakland county and was at one time a member of the Michigan legislature, and was also justice of the peace for a long term of years. Deeply interested in religious affairs he actively sustained the Methodist Episcopal church in the locality and contributed freely and substantially to its maintenance. The mother, also was an active church worker, (lied at the age of seventy-six. These parents were people of marked individuality and stamped lasting impressions of character and ideals upon their children. Nathaniel was lorn at the pioneer hollestead on May Io. I850, and spent the first seventeen years of his life under the paternal roof, receiving sucl education as was offered by the common schools of the vicinity. At the age of eighteen he went to New Hampshire and was occupied in general work there for several months. While there he was married, December 6, I869, to Miss Mary J. Bragg, who was born June 15, I850, at Charlestown, New Hampshire. She was the daughter of Alby M. and Susan D. (Allen) 9

Page  130 130 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY Bragg. Mr. Bragg was a native of Vermont and reached the advanced age of eighty-four years. He was one of the leading men of his home town, Alstead, Vermont, both socially and politically, being known generally as Captain Alby. He and his wife both were ardent supporters of the Baptist faith. Mr. Bragg's father, Boswell Bragg, was a cousin of General Bragg, of Confederate fame. Mrs. Bragg was a native of New Hampshire and reached the age of seventy-two years, and was the mother of seven children, two sons and five daughters, Mary being the third child of the family. After his marriage, Nathaniel and wife came to Michigan and began farming at Davisburg, Oakland county. They remained there for about one year and then returned to New Hampshire, coming back to Oakland county a year later, and shortly after located in Genesee county. They purchased a farm in Vienna township in 1872, and for the next five years they devoted themselves to the cultivation and improvement of this tract of land. This farm Mr. Frisbie traded for another farm in Flint township, exchanging the latter for one in Fenton township and resided on this farm until 1897. He then took up his residence at Flint, and has been engaged in the real estate business there ever since. Three children have blessed this union: Marshall M. is an attorney in Flint, and is a graduate of the department of law of the University of Michigan. His practice has been a matter of steady and substantial growth, resulting, as it has, in many manifestations of confidence and esteem on the part of his clientele. One son, Ernest, died in infancy, and their daughter, Luna, was married to Abram F. Gay, who died in 1901, she passing away December 7, 1903, at the age of thirty-two years. Their famiily consisted of three children: Arthur L., Harrold A., and Mary C. Mr. Frisbie is an active public man, seeking to promote the general. welfare of the city in every possible way. He is a respected member of the Knights of the Maccabees, and co-operates freely in promoting the best interests of the fraternity. He maintains still a relish for the farm, being the owner of a valuable tract of land in Genesee county.;, '

Page  131 HIRAM B. GILBERT. Mr. Hiram B. Gilbert was born in Cummington, Hampshire county, Massachusetts, August 10, 1834. His mother's name was Polly (Goldthwaite) Gilbert, and was born in Massachusetts. His father's name was Domer Gilbert. They ended their lays in Hampshire county and were the parents of eight children, four sons and four daughters. Hiram was the seventh child. He was brought up at WVorthington, Hampshire county, whither his parents had removed when he was still quite young. His parents engaged in farming and Hiram assisted in tilling the soil and was of inestimable service to the family. At the age of twenty he left Massachusetts and came to New York state, where he spent about one year, and then came on to Genesee county, Michigan. He arrived here in the spring of I855 and learned the carpenter's trade in Grand Blanc. After following this trade for several years he purchased a farm in Mundy township, upon which he settled and continued its operation for the next five years. He made his work on this farm count for improvements and better facilities. and at the expiration of the period mentioned was enabled to dispose of it readily and at a profit. He then removed to Grand Blanc, and for the next few years again turned his attention to his trade. After a period of about five years lie changed his location to Clarkston, Oaklaind county, Michigan. and continued to ply his trade as a carpenter in

Page  132 I32 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY conjunction with farming. Selling out again he removed to Fenton, and a year later bought another farm in Mundy township, continuing to operate it until the fall of I903, at which time he disposed of the farm and removed to Grand Blanc, where he is enjoying the retirement so well earned. He was married in Grand Blanc April 14, 1858, to Miss Pamelia Remington, who was born in Grand Blanc, Genesee county, Michigan, June 6, I837. Her father, John Remington, was born in Connecticut in I8io. Her mother, Julia Ann (Goff) Remington, was born in Genesee county, New York, May 24, I814. These parents came from Rush, Genesee county, New York, to Genesee county, Michigan, in 1834, and settled in Grand Blanc township, being among the very early and hardy pioneers of the county. They spent the greater part of their married life in Genesee county, and for fifteen years made their home with their daughter, Mrs. Gilbert. During the last seventeen years of his life Mr. Remington was widowed, but continued to make his home with his daughter. Mrs. Remington died in 1890, having reached her seventy-sixth year. Mr. Remington died in Grand Blanc May 29, 1907, having reached the magnificent age of almost ninety-seven years. Their children were three in number: Ira is a farmer in Mundy township; Pamelia, mentioned above, and Charles, who died in I890. Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert are the parents of six children, viz.: Alma, wife of William Shaw, of Fenton; Edward A., Hetty A., wife of A. W. Alger, of Grand Blanc township; Frank I., a merchant of Grand Blanc; Parna, wife of Louis Bigelow, of Mundy township; and Charles A., a farmer in Banister. Gratiot county, Michigan. Two of the children died in infancy. Mr. Gilbert occupied the office of justice of the peace for two terms. He has affiliated with the Republican party, and has always taken a lively interest in township and county affairs. Both he and his wife did much to promote the growth of the Baptist church, and Mr. Gilbert has for many years been an excellent guide in the Sunday school work.

Page  133 JONATHAN CRAPSER. Mr. Jonathan Crapser is one of the pioneer elevator men in this section of the state. He was born in Burton township, Genesee county, Michigan, September 22, I844. His parents, Albertus and Mary (Story) Crapser, were natives of Green county, New York. They decided to leave their home in that state, and in 1838 they came to try the fortunes of life farther west, and consequently emigrated to Michigan, settling in Groveland, Oakland county, where they purchased a farm. They were industrious, upright and congenial, and found the life in their new environments much to their liking. They developed their farm to a commendable degree, and succeeded in producing excellent crops. They lived on this farm for two years, when they purchased another and moved to Burton township, Genesee county, where they died, the father acquiring the age of sixty-five years, while the mother attained the age of sixty-eight years. Five children were born to them, of whom Jonathan, our subject, was the youngest of the boys.' He was brought up on the farm, where, under rigid discipline, he acquired strength and character, which have been the ruling elements of his honored and successful life. His education was such as was to be obtained in the common schools of the neighborhood. and Jonathan took advantage of all that was available,

Page  134 I34 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY making good use of his time both in and out of school. He remained on the farm throughout his younger manhood, and on September 2I, I870, entered into matrimonial relations with Miss Anne M. Tiffany, a native of Norwich, Connecticut, and a daughter of Charles and Lucy Tiffany. After marriage they took up their residence in the village of Grand Blanc, having already purchased the elevator there. This elevator Mr. Crapser has owned and operated ever since, and has been intimately connected with the growth of the grain business throughout these years. His brother, Amos L., was a partner in the concern for the first five years, from I868 to I873, but at the expiration of that time Jonathan assumed full possession. He is the pioneer elevator man on the P. & M. R. R. between Detroit and Ludington. He did service for this road when it was in process of construction, and was engaged, while yet on the farm, in laying the roadbed and in securing some of the materials used in constructing the roadway. Upon the completion of the road and consequent establishment of business, Mr. Crapser foresaw the opportunity for grain and produce traffic opening up, and obedience to his impulses led him to leave the farm and enter the mercantile field. During these years he has not only been an expert elevator man, but has engaged at times in the sale and shipment of produce, and has also dealt extensively in lumber, especially the hardwood variety. In these activities he has often done business on a large scale, having at times as many as fifty men in his employ. He managed these affairs with judgment and discretion, and manifested great proficiency as an employer. In a public way, also, did Mr. Crapser participate in the life of the community, having served as supervisor of Grand Blanc township for two terms. Two children make up the family, Samuel C. and George M. Mr. Crapser is still wide-awake on all matters pertaining to both public and private affairs, and his views, as the fruit of his own firm convictions, are held in high esteem by all who know him.

Page  135 GEORGE E. MUNDY. Mr. George E. iMlundy was born il Clayton townslip, Genesee county, Michigan, December 23, I860. His fatler, Thomas Mundy, came to America in I850, when he was twelve years old. IThe family settled in Clayton township and here MIr. Mundy is still living. (eorge's mother, M\arv J. (Darling) NMunldy, was a native of Lockl)ort, New York. She was the 1nother of twelve children and died on the old holnesteadl at tle age of forty-seven years. George was the eldest of this splendid family and was reared on the old homestead. He grew to manhood in the midst of such circumstances as would most likely develop him into a thoroughly reliable and industrious wNorker. He left the farm at the age of twenty-three, having received a common school education while there, and soon after was married to Miss Mary Vernon, who was born in the English settlement of Flushing. She was the daughter of Enoch and Hannah (Bailey) Vernon, who were both natives of England. She was the fourth of a family of seven children. Soon after their marriage they set out on their career as farmers, taking up their quarters on a farm in Clayton township. Here they applied themselves diligently to their chosen work, and in due time the appearance of the farm bore testimony of progressiveness and thrift. T'hey remained on this farm for fifteen years, after which they removed to Flint. Here Mr. Mundy entered into business

Page  136 136 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY as a produce dealer, and pursued this line for some time. After living in Flint for about one year and a half, he purchased a farm of one hundred and twenty-one acres in Clayton township and removed thither. He operated this farm for about two years and his work here was evidence of his thrift and economy. At the expiration of this time he rented out the farm and removed to Flushing in December, I902, disposing of the farm later. Since living in Flushing he purchased a large farm in Flushing township, and still owns this tract, which is in a good state of improvement and productiveness. Since living in Flushing, Mr. Mundy has been engaged in the sale of buggies, wagons, wire fence, etc. Mr. and Mrs. Mundy have been the parents of two children. Their family experience has been darkened, however, by a dense cloud of sorrow that arouse-d for them the sympathy of their hosts of friends. Their daughter, Floy B., met her untimely death, January 31, I898, when but fourteen years of age. She was struck b)y a fast train onl the Grand Trunk Railroad at Swartz creek. Their other child, Hazel M., survives. Mr. iMundy held the office of township treasurer of Clayton township for two years, discharging the duties of his office to the entire satisfaction of all his constituents. He is holding the office of drainage commissioner in Flushing township, and is known throughout the vicinity as a man of a progressive and energetic temperanent. He takes an active interest in public affairs and stands for the square deal in all matters, whether public or private. In lodge matters, also, Mr. Mundly has impressed his personality upon many. He is an active Mason and has been an unbiased and creditable devotee to the principles and teachings of the order.

Page  137 JOSEPH L. DUNBAR. Joseph L. Dunbar, contractor and )builder, is one of Flint's steady and respected business men. His father was Joseph Dunbar, who was also a carpenter and contractor, and one of the men that had a hand in the building of many of the substantial homes in the county. He died at Flushing in I85I, aged fifty-nine years. Joseph's mother, whose maiden name was Christina Bigler, died also in Flushing in I87I, having reached the age of seventy-five. She was the mother of six children-one son, our subject, and five daughters. Joseph was born in Rochester, Oakland county, Michigan, June 3, T838. He was about three years old when his parents moved to Genesee county. His education was obtained in the common schools of the neighborhood, which, though not elaborate, were sufficiently good to give him a start in the rudiments of learning. He applied himself to his studies and made the most of the time while the opportunity was open. At the age of twelve years his father died, and, being the only son, it fell to him thus early in life to shoulder the responsibility of looking after the interests of the family. While this was in many respects a very heavy load for such young shoulders to carry, yet he set himself resolutely to the work, facing problems that arose with a stout heart and a dauntless spirit. When a tree is growing to maturity the buffetings of wind and storm serve only to strengthen and develop the fibers of its

Page  138 I38 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTlORY sturdy trunk and branches. Such was the case, in analogy, with young Joseph. The difficulties and perplexities of the work before him served rather to develop him into the full stature of a thoughtful and resolute manhood, bringing out the latent faculties that were slumbering within him. He early saw the need of having a trade at his command, so that as soon as practicable, he became an apprentice at carpentry. In that day the work of an apprentice was not liberally paid, and the period of his training was also of more extended duration than is the case now in the busy insh of modern achievements. His salary the.first year was $50 and board. But he knew the value of what he had earned, and later he began to make use of his earnings in a practical way. He bought a lot in the town of Flushing for $4o and worked for two and one-half months for money with which to make his first payment of ten dollars. In this way he began not only to save and make use of his savings, but he also began thinking along such business lines as investment, values, etc. He adhered closely to his trade, and for over thirty years made his home in Flushing. During this time he became a much valued and. highly esteemed member of the colmmunity, known by all his friends and neighbors as an industrious and thoroughly reliagle gentleman. In 1878 he removed to Flint, and has since that time made that city his home. Mr. Dunbar was married at Orion, Oakland county, on Christmas day, I862, to Miss Mary Ann Bigler, who was born in Oakland county, September 15, I843. She is the daughter of Jesse and Ann (Tower) Bigler, wi(lely respected citizens of Oakland county. This union has been blessed with a family of three children, not all of whom are surviving. Lena became the wife of F. G. Sutherland, of Flint. Jennie departed this life in I890, aged fifteen years. Daisy is the wife of Ray Brownell, of Flint. Mr. Dunbar is an active member of the Masonic fraternity. He has never sought public office, preferring rather to give his undivided attention to the demands of his business.

Page  139 FRANKLIN E. HOLLIDAY. Mr. Franklin E. Holliday is a native of the "Buckeye state," having been born in Huron county, Ohio, September 2, I851. His parents were Eno and Sarah ('Curtis) Holliday, both natives of New York state, but descendants from New England ancestry. Eno Holliday was a farmer by occupation and ended his days in Huron county, Ohio, attaining the age of eighty-two years. His wife survives him and is now living at quite an advanced age. Franklin was reared on the farm and received his schooling in the local commnon schools. He was a boy of industrious habits and early showed an active interest in the general affairs of men. At the age of eighteen he started out for himself, and for about one year worked out at farm labor. On January 25, 1872, he was married to Miss Mary C. Kirkpatrick, a native of Ohio, and daughter of William and Charlotte (Coder) Kirkpatrick. She was bo1r in Ashland county, Ohio, March 23, I849. After marriage they rented a farm and began to mold and carve their way through the ragged pathway of life. After about six years of busy and aggressive work on the farm Mr. Holliday decided to put his faculties to other tests, and forthwith transferred his activities to New York city. Here he engaged in the ice business for a time, later entering the employ of the street railroad company, serving in the latter capacity for about nine months.

Page  140 140 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY Following this venture he returned to Ohio and in the autumn of I880 he emigrated to Genesee county, Michigan. Upon his arrival here he purchased a farm in Richfield township, and for the next four years he applied himself assiduously to its operation. He made great improvements on the tract and brought the place up to a much better standard of appearance and production. At the expiration of four years he rented out the farm and returned to Norwalk, Ohio. He was a man that had a broad grasp of affairs and could adapt himself readily to new environments and conditions. He began work at this time as carpenter and became inspector of the Lake Shore & Miichigan Southern Railroad, staying in the latter employ about four years, after which he returned to his farm in Richfield township. In I893 he returned to Flint feeling that here he could have better advantages for his children, to whom he was strongly (levoted, and for whom he was anxious to obtain the best possible facilities for training and education. He has since that time made Flint his place of residence. He has devoted some of his time to the stock business, and has also done considerable contracting and building. All with whomn he came in contact soon came to have confidence in his business integrity and sterling good sense. During his active duties in life he has often consented to serve his fellow citizens in such capacities as justice of the peace and member of the school board. He has also been alderman from the sixth ward and is an active supporter of the Republican cause. He was defeated in the race for the mayoralty at the time of the election to that office by Mayor McKinley. In I900 Mr. Holliday made a tour of Alaska, having charge of the carpenter work for the Golden Sands Mining Company on the Penny river, fourteen miles above Cape Nome. Hle was on duty there from May until November, and takes great pleasure in thinking over his experiences in that wonderful territory. He is far advanced in the Masonic fraternity and has been a loyal devotee to the tenets of the order. Mr. and Mrs. Holliday are the parents of two daughters: Leuella M. has become the wife of Charles I. Burr, while Philena J. was united in matrimony to Ernest A. Smith. The entire family have exerted a wholesome and beneficial influence on the general, tone of affairs in the community.

Page  141 EZRA NE\VWMAN. The parents of Ezra Newman were pioneers of Oakland county, having come hither from Tompkins county, New York, in 183I. The father of our subject was John XV. and the mother's name was Fanny (Conrad) Newman. They made their home at Orion, Michigan, and there ended their days. Mr. John Newman died January 6, 1892, aged eighty-two years. Mrs. Newman died December 24, 1902, aged eighty-five years. They were the parents of seven children, of wlhom Ezra was the fifth. He was born on a farm in Orion township, Oakland county, Michigan, September 23, I847. He remained upon the farm lwhen growing to manhood and received the discipline and schooling afforded by life on the soil. In 1878 he purchased a farm of his own in Mundy township, Genesee county, Michigan, and devoted his energies to its improvement and development. He conducted his work here with complete success, and soon became a member of good standing in the community. He continued to live upon this farm until the spring of I906, at which time he gave up active supervision of farm work and removed to Flint. He still owns the farm of one hundred and sixty acres in Mundy township. He was married in October, I876, to Miss Eliza Snyder at Oxford, Oakland county. Mrs. Newman was born at Addison, Oakland county, July 23, I853. She,was the daughter of Cornelius and Mary M. (Boyse) Snyder, both natives of New

Page  142 I42 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY Jersey. Mr. Snyder was born in Warren county, New Jersey, December 9, I8I5. Mrs. Snyder was born in I821. They came to Michigan in the spring of I839 and settled in Addison township, Oakland county. They were hardworking and industrious people, and they were well fitted to rear and educate their large family, which consisted of fifteen children, of whom Eliza was the twelfth. A strong spirit of fellowship and love pervaded the family life, and mutual helpfulness and kindly regard and devotion to one another were some of the characteristics that manifested themselves in the domestic circle. One can picture to himself in imagination a family fireside scene on a winter evening, the chores being performed, the wood brought in and the family then gathered about the room in various attitudes and occupations. The reading of Scripture or story, the outburst of song or laughter, accompanied by the undertones of the muttering winds, presented all in all a combination that is hard to fully appreciate, and one that can never be forgotten. Mr. Snyder was gathered to his fathers on May 27, I899, aged eightythree years. Mrs. Snyder lived until May 3-1, I898, having reached her seventy-seventh year. Mr. and Mrs. Newman occupy a pleasant home at 1300 Grand Traverse street, and are highly esteemed by all their friends and neighbors. Mrs. Newman is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. Newman is a Democrat. 8;

Page  143 DAVID \Vi. HILLER. Mr. David XV. Hiller is a, (lescendlant of pioner.having been born at Ogden, Monroe county, NewN York, Jantiary 26. 1834. His father was John Hiller, a native of New York state. His mi-other, Mary Sherman, was a, native of Vermont and was a cousin of the distingnished general, AV. T. Sherman, and the Hon. John Shermian. WNhen David was in his third year his parents emigrated from Monroe conntv, Newv York, to Genesee county. Michigan. Thiey settled there in what is now1 Burton tow-nship, and remained there practically all their dlays. Mrs. Hillr did Auust 3,i889, having acquired the age of seventy-six years. Mr. Hiller passed awxay ju-ne 29. 1895, havinig reached the age of eighty-seven years. T1heir union was blessed wiNth a robust family o-,f twelve children, nine sonls and three (latighiters, David being the eldest of the family. He was brought utp on the farm in Burton towniship and recivd the hardy training that i afforded by such an experience. On October 7, 187, he was married to Milss Adelia MI. Cook, who was the dlaughter of Andrew and Irene (Hibbard),Cook, piners of Richifield towniship; Adclela was born in the latter township on October 3i1, 1842. TIheir union has resultedi in the birth of four cllildlren: Annetta II. is the wife of B). E. Dodge, of Richfield township; An

Page  144 144 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY drew J. is living at Fargo, North Dakota; George B. is a practicing physician at Owasso, Michigan; Fred G. is a resident of Flint. The mother cleparted this life on November 5, I906. Mr. Hiller has been a resident of the county for over seventy years, and has devoted himself almost exclusively to farming. In doing so, however, he has not narrowed himself down to his own interests, but has taken an active part in general affairs also. His business ability and integrity were soon recognized by his neighbors and friends, and he has been called upon repeatedly to serve in local offices. He has officiated as clerk of Richfield township, and has taken a conspicuous part in county affairs as well. He has been president and treasurer of the Genesee County Mutual Fire Insurance Company over four years, and has conducted the affairs of the company in an efficient and conservative manner. Full confidence has been placed in his sagacity and integrity, and the results of his supervision have demonstrated his fitness for the duties that have been entrusted to him. He has been an ardent and conscientious follower of the Word of God, having given himself to the service of the Lord when twenty-five years of age. At that time he identified himself with the Methodist Protestant church, and has been a constant and faithful supporter of the faith ever since. He gives not only of his means, but of his time also, assuming his share of the church's activities and responsibilities. He has held many offices in the local church, and is looked to by the other members of the church board, both for counsel and inspiration. It is the wish of his many friends that peace and happiness may attend him throughout his days.

Page  145 MR. AND MRS. \ILLIAM A. GARNER. Mr. William rA. Garnier, ex-sheriff of (enesee county, has been one of tile county's most wi(le-awake and useful citizens. He is of Scotch-English extraction. His father, George Garner, was a native of Canadla, born of English parentage. His mother, Anna (Dean) Garner, was born in Cork, Ireland, of Scotch ancestry, and by her union with George Garner she became the nother of thirteen children, t\elve of wh(om grew to maturity, William A. being the second. They left Canada and came to Michigan in the sixties, and settle(l in Shiawassee county. Thley engaged in farming and carried forward the work with success. Mr. Garner rounded out his dlas on the homestead and died March 13, i886, at the age of seventy-four years. Mrs. Garner died at the home of her dauighter at Durand, Michigan, having acquired the magnificent age of eighty-six years. She passed away August 8, 190o. They were very pious parents and were deepl. interested in church work, having affiliated w\ith the Baptist faith. \Villiamln A. Garner was born in the county of Middlesex, Ontariot August 9, 1839. He grew to maturity in the county of his birth, spending his boyrhood days on the farm, and receiving such education as the schools of tlhe day could afford. During these years he was forming the strong physique and sturdy character that have marked his career in later life. When about twenty-two years of age he concluded to broaden out beyond the limits of one occupation, and took up carpentry, and in a short time had acquired the skill of a master hand at the trade. In the spring of 1865 he emigrated to Venango county. Pennsylvania, and followed his trade in that locality for about one and a half years. In December, i866, he came to Genesee county, MIichigan, making his headquarters at Flushing. Here he 10

Page  146 146 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY prosecuted his trade with renewed vigor, and soon obtained high standing ill the community as a workman of the first order, and a man of genuine business ability and integrity. He began contracting and( building on a large scale, and devoted considerable time to tle construction of public buildings. After ten or twelve years he purchased a farm near Flushing, and began operating it, devoting the major part of his time to its cultivation. He continued this work until 1892, at which time he was elected sheriff of Genesee county on the Republican ticket. Mr. (Garner was an active party man and one that inspired confidence by his sincerity, frankness and courage. Upon his election to the office of sheriff he removed to Flint, and has been a resident there since that time. Before his election to this c:ffice lie had held other important offices, such as highway and drainage commissioner and member of the school board, being its president for a number of years. Another valuable experience while at Flushing was ten years as deputy sheriff, which paved the way for his advance to full control of the office. MIr. Garner was marrie(l October 20, 1868, to Miss Elizabeth A. Miller, \vho was born in Cattaraugus county, New York, September 20, 1845. She was the daughter of Alexander and Marjery (McDonald) Miller, both natives of Scotlandl They came to America in the latter part of the '40s and settled in Genesee county, Michigan, where they both ended their clays, the father lying from the effects of an accident, and the mother surviving this shock but forty-sevenl days. Mr. aud Mrs. Garner have shown in their daily life the fruits of a wholesome home training. They are ever willing to share the duties and responsibilities of the community life. Their family was made up of four children: George A. (lied suddenly in Detroit, Michigan, when twenty-six years old: Bert M. is assistant superintendent in the Flint wagon works, and has proven a source of pride and satisfaction to his parents; Elner WV. is prospering in the grocery business in Flint; Mark B. is still a student. Mr. Garner is not only an interested supporter of the church, but contributes largely to the success of such fraternal bo(lies as the Masons, Odd Fellows, Grangers, etc. Beyond this he has been (leeply interested in world affairs generally, having in 90oo made an extended trip to Europe. He is interested in real estate and has quite a large farm in Burton township. The family is affiliated with the Presbyterian church.

Page  147 DR. ANDREW SLAGHT. Dr. Andrew Slaght was born in Lodi township, Seneca county, New York, December I, I832. His parents, John and Phoebe (Howell) Slaght, were natives of New Jersey, and came from Seneca county, New York, to Genesee county, Michigan, in 1847, and settled on a farm in Mundy township. They were thrifty and energetic pioneers, and contributed much to the sterling tone that characterized the people of the state at that time, and that has contributed effectively to the subsequent sanding of the citizenship of the "Lake state." They completed their days on the farm, the father dying there May 25, 188I, having reached the age of ninety-one years. The mother passed away July 8, I87I, aged seventy-nine years. They were the parents of eight children, of whom, Andrew, our subject, was the youngest. The first fourteen years of his life were spent on his father's farm in Seneca county, Ne-w ork. On coming west with his parents, he remained on the farm until twenty-one years of age, growing up to be a husky, muscular youth, well calculated to take up and push to completion any undertaking to which he might address himself. He was educated in the.Flint schools, including the high school course. After this he entered the medical department of the State University, in I865, and graduated from that institution with the class of 1868. Preceding this time he had for four

Page  148 148 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY years taught school during the winter season, and worked tout during the summer, in this way succeeding in laying up some funds for use when taking up his study of medicine. He was married in Grand Blanc township April 30, 1857, to Miss Adelia Huff, who was born in Hastings, Oswego county, New York, January 28, 1834. Hter father, Jonathan Huff, was a native New Yorker, and died at Hastings in April, 1842, aged sixty years. Her mother's maiden name was Nancy Parks Stowits. She spent the closing years of her life in Genesee county, Michigan, and died at Grand Blanc at the age of eighty years. Their family numbered four children, of whom Mrs. Slaght was the youngest. Dr. Slaght began the practice of medicine in Mundy township, continuing there for one year. In 1869 he came to Grand Blanc, and here he has since resided and carried on his profession. He has seen an abundance of work in his day, and has earned a well deserved reputation for efficiency and skill. He places great emphasis on the need of attention to the rules of hygiene, and advocates that nature should be assisted by medicine to overcome the ravages of disease. He places a great deal of emphasis also on the importance of the diagnosis, realizing that a mistake there will be fatal to success in any circumstance. Dr. Slaght has also given some attention to his one hundred-acre farm in Mundy township, and takes pride and pleasure in its well kept fields and improvements. As a branch of this work he has given time to the establishment of a dairy. Dr. and Mrs. Slaght are the parents of three children-Lewis E., William M\., and Frances A., who is the wife of Dr. J. McLaren, of Oakland, California. He and his wife have shown a most commendable public spirit, and have taken an active part in the social, religious and educational life of the community. They are pillars in the Congregational church, and for about fifteen years Dr. Slaght was superintendent of the Sunday school. It is the hope of their many friends that peace and happy contentment may attend them to the end of their days.

Page  149 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I49 GEORGE B. PIERSON. Mr. George B. Pierson, proprietor of the Grand Blanc Mills, was born in Livingston, New York, August 5, 1835. His parents, George and Deborah Maria (Barrows) Pierson, were natives of Avon, Livingston county, New York. His mother died there in the '40s. His father came to Oakland county, Michigan, in I143, but remained there only a short time. He soon moved to Berry county, where he died at the age of fifty-four years. He was married the second time at Grand Blanc to Susan McCoy, whose death occurred in the same township. Three children were born of the first union, viz.: Harriet, George B., and Jeannette, of whom George is the only one that survives. He came to Michigan with his father, and most of his time since has been spent in this state. He learned the milling business while in New York state, and he has continued to make that his life work, his success in this line being a strong testimonial to his thoroughness and the mastery of the details of his work. He became engaged in this work at Grand Blanc in I886, and under his supervision was built the structure known as the Grand Blanc mills and is operated chiefly under the plan of the custom business. Mr. Pierson has built up a substantial business through the confidence of his friends and patrons. IHe was married in Livingston county, New York, January 4, I86o, to Miss Mlary Jane Wadle, who was a native of Pittsford. New York, and a daughter of Abraham and Marietta (Horton) Wade. Mr. and Mrs. Pierson have been the parents of six children, only one of -whom survives, this being a daughlter, Cecilia A. 'The other children all diedl in infancy with the exception of one son, Charles E., who died at Grand Blanc March i8, I906. He attained the age of thirty-four years, and was married to Miss Angeline Sawyer, a native of Grand Blanc township. Their union has resulted in the birth of one child, Dorothy I.. Mr. George B. Pierson is fully alive, also, to his religious obligations, both to himself and community, affiliating with the Congregational faith. He is a most worthy adherent to the order of Masons.

Page  150 ALMERON D. BANKER. Mr. Almneron D. Banker is not a native "Wolverine," but has become one by adoption, having been born in Livingston county, New York, October 22, I847. His father, Marcus Banker, was a native of Massachusetts and a descendant of sturdy New England stock. His mother's maiden name was Martha Hanna. She was a native of New York. These parents emigrated from Livingston county, New York, early in the '70s and came directly to Genesee county, Michigan. They settled in the western part of Grand Blanc township, and here Mrs. Banker still survives and is advancing to a grand old age. Besides the son, Almleron, there is a daughter, Mary H., who has become the wife of W. A. Van Lenuven, and their present residence is at Grand Rapids, Michigan. Almeron's boyhood days were spent on the farm in Livingston county, New York, where he acquired the habits of thrift, perseverance and selfreliance that have stood him so well in hand in his maturer years. His education was such as was afforded by the common schools of the neighborhood. He remained at home until he reached his majority, working in the meantime at such various occupations as came to hand. He came west with the

Page  151 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I 5 I family and continued on the farm with his father until the latter's death in the eighties. He was married on February 28 to Miss Eliza M. Bishop, who was a daughter of Ebenezer and Mary (Morgan) Bishop, both natives of Livingston county. New York. The Bishops were pioneers in Mundy township, where Eliza was born and reared. Mr. Banker left the farm in Grand Blanc township after his father's death, and removed to Petosky, Michigan. Here he entered business life by operating a restaurant and bakery. He pushed this work with considerable energy and enthusiasm for about two years, at the end of which time he returned to Mundy township, and for the next six years was engaged there in farming. At the close of this period he came to Grand Blanc, in 1889, and engaged in business. He continued at this occupation for thirteen years and then sold out. He has been a resident of Grand Blanc since I889, and has been closely identified with its gr-owth and advancement. He has shown a commendable pul)lic spirit and has always taken a firm stand for progress and( ilmplrovement. His business and executive ability have been recognized 1)y his townsmen, an(d evidence of their confidence and faith took formn in his election in 190o as president and general manager of the Grand Blanc Telephone Company. I-le still maintains an interest in his well kept farm, and takes pride in maintainingg it in a first-class condition. He has it equipped with buildings that are first-class and convenient. Mr. and Mrs. Banker are the parents of one daughter, Effie E., who holdls a high place in the estimation of her many friends. Mr. Banker has not been an asl)irant for public office, but consented to serve two terms as treasurer of Grand Blanc township. discharging the duties with credit to himself and his constituents. He is a member of the NMasonic fraternity and also of the Maccabees and Loval Guard.

Page  152 \WNILIAM I- R. PRATT. The veteran and patriot, Mr. \W'illiam R. Pratt, has justly won a high place in the esteem of his many friends and acquaintances. He was born in Broome county, New York, on December 26, 1839. His parents were Ezra and Sarah M. (Corset) Pratt, both natives of New York state, where they were married and later renmoved to Pennsylvania. After a sojour- of a few years il the latter state, they came to Michigan, in 1855, and settled in Richfield township. Genesee county, where they spent the next few years in active work at farming. Here Mrs. Pratt passed to her rest September 17, 1863, aged fifty-five years. The next move was to Flushing, from \whence Mr. Pratt came to Purton township, at which place he lived out his allotted time and passed to his reward November 20, 1888, having reached his eightieth year. Four children were born to this union, viz.: Charles E., Reuben N., William R., our subject, and Frances A.. who dlied at the age of twenty years. William R. was fourteen years old when he came with his parents to Michigan. He remainedl under the plarental roof until lie attained his majority, at which time he hbeame emlployed by his brother in the painting business. When the thunders of the great civil strife began to rumble and the (lark ad(l threatening war clouds began to lower he decided to put his energies toward helping to keep afloat the "ship of state," and consequently enlisted in

Page  153 GENESEE CO'NTIY, MICHIGAN. I53 August, T86i, in Company A of the Eighth Michigan Volunteer Infantry. He went into the service to do battle to the finish, and for four years and twelve days he marched beneath the stars and stripes, putting forth his best efforts for the cause. He was made corporal, and when the war closed he was mustered out, taking part in the grand closing pageant at \Vashington, District of Columbia. On November 22, 1864, he was married to Miss Harriette D. Estes, who was born in Burton township October 23, 1843. She was the daughter of David and Eliza (Somers) Estes, both natives of New York state. Mr. Estes was born in Broome county, while Mrs. Estes was a native of Otsego county. They came to Genesee county, Michigan, in an early day and settled in lwhat is now Burton township, where they lived out the remainder of their days. AMr. Estes attained the age of seventy-seven years, while Mrs. Estes died at the age of fifty-five. Their family numbered six children. They were Diana, Peter D., Henry, Mary, Harriet and William H. Upon his return from the army Mr. Pratt lived for about two years upon a farm in Richfield tozwnship, devoting himself actively to the work of readjusting' himself to the routine of labor so interrupted by the war. From here he removed to Grand Blanc township, and in a few years transferred his operations to Matamora, in Lapeer county, removing from thence to Burton township, where he purchased a farm. On this farm he lived continuously for thirty-three years, and in April. 1904, came to Flint, leaving his farm in Burtonl township in good condition. being well improved and having practically new and substantial buildings. He has taken an active part at all times in township affairs, feeling that it was just as much his duty to keep in touch with the affairs of the people in time of peace, as it was in the time of the country's peril. He takes a decided stand for clean and fair conduct in public office, and has at all times stood firmly upon his own convictions. Not only as patriots but as sharers in the public welfare have Mr. and Mrs. Pratt assumed their portion of responsibility. They are both active workers in the \Metholdist Episcopal church, Mr. Pratt having been a steward of the church for over twenty years. He is also a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, and the McKinley Company of Veterans and Sons.

Page  154 154 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY WILLIAM LAWV. Mr. \Villiam Law was born in Scotlandl, _MNarch 22, 1844, of Scotch:parentage; His father, \Villiam Law, was a shoemlaker by trade and lived out his 'days in the land of his birth. His mother, Catherine (rWoodburn) Law, came to America in I865, settled in Oakland county, Michigan, and lived there until the time of her death. Their famliily consisted of four children, of rlwhich William, the subject of. this sketch, was the second. \When William was eight years of age the opportunity was offered him to come to America with his uncle, James WVoodburn. This was no small undertaking for all concerned, but after due deliberation the plan was agreed to and the party embarked for the new world. The voyage was mnade without mishap and life in the land of the free was begun in Mercer county. Ohio. Here he soon learned to adapt himself to the new conditions and grew, up to stur(ly manhood, applying himself diligently and acquiring valuable lessons in self-reliance and practical self-activity. After eleven years in the "Buckeye state" he came to M'Iichigan, and in the fall of 1864 lie returned to his native land, Scotland. Seven months later he returned to America, this tirme bringing with hiin his 1nother, as aforemlentioned, and also his brother aniid sister, settling this tinme in Oakland county, Michigan. W\ishing to acquaint himself with the extent, resources andcl possibilities of the great republic he removed, in -866, to the state of Kansas. There he foundl many things to engage his attention, and during the period of his residence there he devoted hinmself to various occulpations, apl)lying himself to whatever opportunity offere(l. His experiences there were varied, andl in many ways interesting. After a sojourii there of six years and eight monuths he returned to M'fichigan, and for the next year nmade his home in Oaklandl cotiunty. His next move was in March, 1875, andl this time he came to Flint. He niow took his place as flagnman for the P. & M. Railxvay. Though his duties in this position were not strenuous, yet lie performl-le his work so well and established for himself such a reputation for stea(liness andl trustworthiness that he was soon promoted to a position in the freighthouse department of the railway. Here lie applied himself closely adl(l intelligently to his work. Always on handl, le was never knownl to shirk, exemplifying in his conduct the maxims which have continually been his rule through life. In I 897 we are not surprised to learnl that lie was made freight

Page  155 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I55 house foreman, a place which he has filled honorably and most successfully up to the present time. On December 21, I870, he was joined in matrimony to Miss Ruth A. Huested, who is a native of Michigan. This union has resulted in the birth of five children, as follows: Catherine H., E. Jean, William G., Hugh, and Tames. Mr. Law's activities have not been confined altogether to his family and his business. He has found time to respond to the requests of his many friends to participate in the management of the Flint school board, and for two years of this time he was its secretary. In performing these duties he has at all times been modest and unassuming, but has attended carefully to the details of the work that devolved upon him. Mr. and Mrs. Law have been active and helpful workers in the Presbyterian church, willingly assisting in the community at large. Mr. Law has been an elder in the church for many years.

Page  156 GEORGE W. HILTON. Among others of the worthy civil war veterans that have their homes in Genesee county is George W. Hilton, of Flint. Mr. Hilton was born in Pontiac, Michigan, June 5, I835. His father, Roswell Hilton, was a native of Monroe county, New York, as was also his mother, Susan (Vorhees) Hilton. They came from Monroe county, New York, to Oakland county, Michigan, and in 1845 they proceeded to Genesee county, ultimately settling in Flint township, where the father ended his days. Mrs. Hilton died in Kent countv, Michigan. She was the mother of eight children, of whom George was one of the younger members. He grew up in wholesome environments of the farm and after reaching mlanhood became deeply interested in the antebellum questions that were stirring the nation. When the civil conflict finally began he enlisted in Stockton's Independents, which afterward became Company C, Sixteenth Regimnent of the Michigan Volunteer Infantry. He remained in the service for four years and two months, battling loyally to maintain the integrity of the flag. His experiences were such as were common to the heroes of the struggle. Hardships, exposures, wounds, sickness, all were his, yet at no time did he falter, nor did the fire of patriotism burning within his breast ever diminish in its warmth. He was wounded at Gaines Mills, and at the famous historic contest at Gettysburg. On the latter field --

Page  157 GENESEE COUN'TY, MIICHIGAN. 15 7 lhe was so severely wounded that he was incapacitated for active service for several months. His undaunted courage, ability anld (levotioll received due recognition, and lhe was soon made sergeant of his company. To trace his experiences throtuglout the Nwar wouldl make a vollllume of itself. Suffice it to say that lie participated in many of the critical engagenelets of the awful conflict all(l returned at the close of the war to Genesee county, where he has live(l the major part of the tilme since. For a few years lie was located in Huron county, and while there was elected sheriff, dlisp:)sing of the duties of this office in a straightforward and effective maniier. His experience in this office lasted for four years, anid lie was deputy sheriff of Genesee county under Edw-ard Rtust for about one vealr. His first marriage was to Miss Harriet A. Russell, whlo passed to her rest while they were living in Huron county. His secon(l marriage was to Mrs. Alrvira (Durlfy) Lankin, the widow of Philip Lanikini, who died in Jackson, Mlichigan. Her parents were Jacob and Sarah (Smith) Durfy, both natives of Canada. Her union with lMr. Lankin resulted in the birth of two children, Frederick A. and Edwin P. Froni the present union of Mr. and Mrs. Hilton there has resulted the birth of one dlaughter, Gertrude E., who is the wife of E. Edwards, of Flint. In their home life Mr. anid Mrs. Hilton have not permitted the religious atmosphere to be lacking, but have identified themnselves actively with the interests of the Baptist church, of Flint. Mr. Hilton is a mnember of the General Crapo Post, Grand Army of the Republic, and has (lone much toward the success and support of t hat organization. He is past commander of the post, and is at present junior vice-commander. Mrs. Hilton is a staunch worker in the Woman's Relief Corps, having held such offices as senior vice and chaplain for a term of years. Both are interested in perpetuating the principles of righteousness and citizenship in the hearts of the growing generation, and thus contributing- their portion toward keeping intact that heritage won for our land rby the heroes of the republic.

Page  158 WILLIAM PAINE. New York, the "Elmpire state," has given to Michigan and other states of the middle west many of her early settlers and brave pioneer citizens. The Mohawk valley of that state formed a convenient opening toward the west, while the Great Lakes offered a route of travel and turned the tide of emigration into this section of our great commonwealth. As the eastern states became more thickly populated people began to turn their eyes toward the inviting areas beyond the mountains, and falnily after family soon bade farewell to the home of their youth to try the realities of life in the forest and on the prairies. Among others were the parents of the subject of this sketch, Mr. William Paine. His father, Samuel H. Paine, was born in what was then Tompkins county, New York. He was united in marriage to Miss Susan Crippen, also a native of that state. They removed to Michigan in 1844, making their home in the village of Flushing. Here he followed for some years his trade as blacksmith, soon gaining a good reputation for honest workmanship. Later he engaged in farming, following this chiefly till his death. although his last days were spent in retirement at Flushing. He reached the unusual and grandl old age of almost ninety-one years. His wife having died at the age of sixty. Their children were Arminda, wife of Hiram P. Ransolm WYilliam and Decatur, who now reside in Detroit. WAilliam was

Page  159 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I59 born in Tompkins county, New York, on November 22, 1836, coming west with his parents in I844. He assisted his father in the shop till twenty-one years of age, thereby gaining invaluable experience, which has been good capital for him in the later contests of life. Following this he spent three years in salt mining, after which he purchased a farm in Clayton township. Here he found opportunity to carry out his olwn ideas, and soon made marked changes and improvements in the homestead. In 1896 he disposed of the farm, and since then has made his home in Flushing. He was married in Clayton township on March 20, I867, to Ruey Richardson. Her father, Alfred Richardson, and her mother, Ruev Persons, were natives of New York state, and came to Genesee county about 1836. Mr. Richardson was born October I8, 1812, and lived till May 20o 1895, having gone beyond his allotted fourscore years. Mrs. Richardson was born April 6, 1813, and attained to the magnificent age of ninety years, departing this life on August 6, I903. Mr..and MrIs. Richardson were indeed people of good standing in the community, known to every one as kind-hearted, upright and reliable people. Their union was blessed with three children, two of whom, Henry and Lucy, having answered to the summions of death, Lucy dlying while still a child. Mr. and Mrs. Paine have been blessed with a generous and robust family, a fact that is becoming more and more rare in these days. One of the daughters, Mary A.. is the wife of Samuel Jones, of Clayton township; another, Emeline, was married to Frank Holser and has her home in Flushing to(wnship. The other daughters are Harriet, Alice, and Nellie. Their son. Willard, has made his home in Detroit; another son, Frank, died in infancy. M\r. Paine has been for many years a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, andl during this time has faithfully lived up to the principles of brotherhood that are so nobly promulgated by this worthy order. It is the hope of his many friends that he yet be spared for many years in which to realize the ideals that have been his constant aim in life.

Page  160 ELBERT L. BEECHER. The subject of this chronicle, Mr. Elbert L. Beecher, is the descendant of a worthy ancestry in the state of New York. His father, Norman A. Beecher, was a native of Owego, Tioga county, and his mother of Albion, Orleans county, New York. She was a sister of the Hon. Simeon R. Billings, who was a noted melimber of his community. After due deliberation Mr. and Mrs. Beecher decided to try the experience of life farther west, and consequently we find them coming to Genesee county, Michigan, in 1857. They took possession of a farm in Clayton township, and on this farm they spent the remainder of their days. Mrs. Beecher departed this life in 1872, having attained the age of forty-four years. Mr. Beecher lived until 1892, reaching more than the allotted three-score years, and going two years beyond. One of their sons, Calvin I., is living on a farm in Clayton township. The other, whose name is at the head of this biography, was born in Clayton township on February I8, 186o. Hte spent his growing years on his father's farm, thereby getting first-hand experience at manual labor in the needful industry of farm life. He attended the district schools of the neighborhood, and as a boy industriously applied himself to his studies, making himself familiar with the rudiments of knowledge, realizing their necessity as tools in working

Page  161 GENESEE COUNTY-, MHICHIGAN. I61 out problems of life. He also was privileged to attend the Flushing schools, continuing his studies as, far as circumstances would permit. He remained on the home place until twenty-two years of age, at which time he decide-d to launch out on his own responsibility. As a result of sturdy effort and untiring energy he now has control of one hundred and seventy acres of good land in Clayton township, most of which is well improved. On March 3, I88i, he was married to Miss Ada Penoyer, of Flushing township, the daughter of one of the sturdy pioneers of the county, Mr. William D. Penoyer. Thel latter came to this vicinity in an early day and le drove the first team of horses driven into Flushing by a white person, being eleven years old at the time. He has had many exciting experiences in growing up with the country, all of which, if put together, would make interesting chapters in local history. Mr. Beecher's grasp on local affairs has resulted in tokens of confidence by the fellow members of the community. He has served as township supervisor for several years and has also held official connection with other affairs. He is an esteemed member of the Masonic fraternity, being always ready to discharge his full duty and carry out to full completion any obligations that may devolve upon him. As a further appreciation of his worth as a citizen mention may be made of the fact that he has been chosen also one of the directors of the People's State Bank of Flushing. It is the hope of his many friends that it may be his privilege to reacl the full fruition of a life so well begun. II

Page  162 JAMES E. OTTAW;AY. Mr. James E. Ottway was born October - 7, I835, at Maidstone, Kent countv, England. His parents, Stephen an(l Mary (Ralph) Ottaway, came to lAmerica in 1839 and emigrated directly to Flint, arriving there some time in May. The father and older sons went immedliately to work in the forest in Clayton township, built a log house andl lbegan clearing a farm. Several other families joine(l them. an(l a younger brother, who had been here a year or two, assiste(l in the work. This origoinal tract became the Ottaway homestead and is still in the family. The father (liedl February Io, I850, aged fiftytwo vears. The mother live(l till January 29, 1884, having reached the noble age of eighty-three years. In all there were thirteen children in the family, nine of whonm reached mattrity, and of these three are still surviving. They are Stephen H., of Flint; Charles, now at Alamosa, Colorad(o. and Maria, wife of W\illiam C. Gillette, at Grand Rapids. After the father's (leath James remained for a number (of years with his mother, assisting in taking care of the four yotnnger children. He was marrie(l January I, i866. to NMiss Eliza A. Ryno, daughter ()f Stiles and Mary (Van Lieu) Ryno. who came hither from Ne\w York state in i835.

Page  163 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. i63 Eliza was born in Flint Mlay 5, 1845, her parents moving to Clayton township four years later. James was a hard worker and a successful farmer and in due time obtalled possession of the old homestead, together with considerable additional land. He was an active Democrat and served as township clerk for twentyfive successive years. In 1889 he removed to Flushing, built a grain elevator and operated it in company with Hiram Ainsworth. In conjunction with this he retained the management of his farm, and he continued to (lo so until his death, which occurred May 12, 1895. At this time he was also the owner of several nice residences in Flushing. He and his wife were both Methodists, and he was a loyal class leader in his church. Mr. Ottaway was also a member of the Maccabee fraternity. Mrs. Ottaway still occupies the home in Flushing. The children are Fred R., Winifred Irene, wife of H. H. Prosser; and Claude V., who is assistant cashier at the People's State Bank in Flushing.

Page  164 GEORGE PACKARD. George Packard, born in Lebanon, Grafton county, New Hampshire, January II, I836, was the son of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Packard, pioneers in that county. His ancestors were of the sterling English stock, coming to the colonies in I638, just eighteen years after the Pilgrims "moored their bark on the wild New England shore." His grandfather, Ichabod Packard, was a soldier of the Revolutionary war. Two years before leaving their New England home George's parents had arranged to purchase some land just south of Flushing, and there made their home when arriving in 1841. George and his brother, Carlos, operated in partnership as long as his father lived. Carlos was a younger brother, and after his marriage to Florinda Stowell lived on the farm adjoining the old homestead on the south. Carlos, who was born April I8, 1838, died in March, I895, leaving no children, but is survived by his widow, now living in Detroit. The other brother, Warren, was born in September, 1804, and died on Independence day, I875, at the age of seventy-one years. His wife was Parmela Hartshorn, who survived him till I888, aged seventy-eight years. Of the three sisters one, Emeline, is deceased. She was married to Henry P. Richardson and died in her sixty-first year in I901, her husband having preceded her by nine years.

Page  165 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Eliza, the widow of George Cronk, is now living at Flushing, as is also the other sister, Caroline, and her husband, James M. Greenfield. Mr. Packard continued in partnership with his father until the latter's death, managing the financial part of the business. By means of vigor, tact and energy Mr. Packard succeeded in accumulating wealth, and in time bought the interests of the other heirs in the home place. His financial powers soon led him to look into the banking business, and in 1882 he entered into partnership with others and established the First National Bank of Flushing. He was chosen its first cashier, and, although it has now been changed into a state bank, Mr. Packard was largely responsible for its financial standing and enviable reputation, having the full confidence of all with whom he did business. Although a Republican on national issues Mr. Packard stood first of all for clean and honest service. He was calm and self-contained, not given to much argument, preferring rather to attend strictly to business. In I883 Mr. Packard was united in marriage to Miss Ida O'Dell, (laughter of Charles and Jane (Whitmore) O'Dell, of Mundy township. She taught school at one time. She, with her two sons, Marion and George, survive her husband, who departed this life on Thursday, June 14, I906. He was buried in the village cemetery, attended by the Masonic fraternity and a host of devoted relatives and friends, all realizing that the commlunity had lost one of its most valued citizens.

Page  166 ORSON WI. TOCK, M. D. Dr. Orson \V. Tock, retired, of Flushing, Mlichigan, was born at Enfield, Tompkins county, New York. He accompanied his parents to Michigan in 1856. His parents were Alfred WV., a farmer, and Lydia A. (Naumer) Tock, of New York. They located at Plymouth, Wayne county, but removed to Livingston county in 1863 and lived there till the mother's death. The father died at the age of seventy-nine. The doctor was the only one of a large family to survive, and he removed to Genesee county. He remained at home until 1862, and then enlisted in Oakland county on August 9, 1862, in Company H, Twenty-second Michigan Volunteer Infantry. He served until discharged, June 30, 1865, four weeks before regimental discharge. He had left the hospital after an exchange of prisoners for eight months, having been at Pemberton and Danville, Virginia. He was captured at Chickamaugua on Snodgrass Hill, the Twenty-second having been placed there to hold this hill. His company went in with fifty-four men, and but seventeen survived. All were captured and twelve of the seventeen died, leaving five to be exchanged. These were alive at the reunion of the exprisoners of the war of the Twenty-second Regiment at Pontiac in I906, four being in attendance at that time. One has since died and the doctor is the only one left in Genesee county.

Page  167 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I67 The reunion for 1907 will be held the g9th andi 2oth of September at Flushing with the doctor an(l George \V. Buttonl, f 1Flushing, lieutenant of Company A. The Twenty-seconl Regiment went into action with about five hundred strong and were terribly slaughtered. All that were not killed were captured. Of these nearly all die(l, so that in I906 at Pontiac but nineteel were present at the reunion. It was one of the greatest sacrifices of the war and there is now a mlonument at Sno(lgrass Hill, where they suffered so heavily. Orson Tock, with health shattered while in prison, returned to his parents in Livingston countty. He attended school at Ypsilanti Seminary. Later lie graduated in mledicine froml the State UTniversity in I870. He taught during his vacations and begaii h-is practice at Hartland, Livingston county. He also practiced at Gainies and New Lothrop. \\N;hen the latter place was started he built the first d(welling. The doctor took a p:)st-gra(luate course at Bellevue, New York, and Rush Medical College, Chicago. FIrom a w-ide practice at Se\w Lothrop lihe went to Flushinlg, where lie e as active for t\enty years. He refused the position of assistant dlemonstrator at Ann Arbor, preferring to engage in active practice, wlhich has covered al)out thirty years. Dr. Tock has (lealt iln city andl farm real estate, and has now about five hundred acres of land ill Mlichigan. Altogether he has several thousand acres of land, most of vwhich is improved. He has citv real estate and addlitions t(o Great Falls, Milontana, and interests in P'ierre, South Dakota. He spends his winters ill Molile, -lalama, \where lie has erected several houses. Although he has b)een a mliembler of manv medical societies-local, state and national-he has confined his attention to hiis lractice. He (loes not write on mle(lical subjects and has held aloof fronm publlic matters. He has been a Republicanl for years. The dloctor was mlarriedl at Hartland, Michigan, lFelbruary 27, 1872. to Miss Ella M. Crouse, laughlter of Hon. Robert Crouse, of Hartland, exmemlbler of the legislatlre, and a leading man of Livingston county. She was born at Hartland, and a twin sister lives at Cleveland. She moves in local societies, )but is a holne-loving bodly. lThe family includes two children, Clarence and Mary I. Clarence R. Tock lives in Marlboro, MiMassachusetts, having a responsible position with the electric lamp factory, the largest ill the country. He is a graduate of Stevens Institute of Tlechliologv at Hobokel, New Jersey, haviing taken a course in

Page  168 i68 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY mecha lical engineering. He married Miss Verna Parrish, of Flushing, daughter of George W. Parrish. Mary L. Tock married T. K. Darrough, a merchant at Mobile, Alabama. She is a high school graduate. Her two children are Orson T. and Ella Barbara.

Page  169 JAM\ES M\. (GREENFIELD. The interesting and worthy subject of this sketch was born in Detroit, Michigan, on July 30, 1841. On the si(le of his paternal ancestry we find him descended from the hardiy Scotch race, his father, John Greenfield, having been a native of Scotland. Hiis mother, Miss Marv Davenport, a native of New York state, with her lhusblandl came to Michigan in an early day to cast their lot in the vigorous and robust "lake state." His father was an enlgineer by profession andl (liel at Ontonagon, Michigan, on March 6, I8G6. His imother met anl untimely death in a tragic way in August, T865. She was on board the steamer "Pewabic," which was then crossing Thunday bay. Even iin our ow-n dlay, although the greatest precaution is being exercised on every hand, fatal as well as sometimles horrible accidents are of daily occurreiice. and hun(lreds of precious lives are snuffed out like a candle, and this without a momeont's notice. Such was the sad fate of Mrs. Greenfield. The steamler on which she was journeyingl sutldenly collidled with another, the M"`teteor," and the chapter of many lives was )brought to an unexpected close. Their family consisted of five children, of -which James was the third. They left Detroit when Jamnes was about eiglht years of age. He remained at hlome until eighteen, at which tinme he took up the trade of a machinist at the Detroit Seminary, an(l then later served two years as an apprentice. After

Page  170 I70 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY this lie returned to the Upper Peninsula, Houghton, Michigan, and was tlhere engaged in a 1mercantile estal)lishment until the breaking out of the Civil war. The fires of patriotism were burning strongly within his breast, andl when the great crisis came on the sons of Michigan respondled to the call in a way that has brought endless honor to tlhat noble state. The call for volunteers was heralded throughout the land and no one responded more eagerly than Jamnes M. Greenfield. He enlisted in the Seventh Michigan Volunteer Infantry in the sunmmer of T86, and started out, leaving friends and kindred ties, to do battle for the grand old flag. He was discharged on account of wounds in December, 1864, an(l the record of his valiant service, his unselfish devotion to the cause, and the long and weary years of exposure to the elements and privations of war would make a voltume worthy of the noblest patriot of any land. Time and space forbids the giving 'of the details of this interesting perio(l of Mr. Greenfield's career, but mention mutist be 1lade of one or two incidlents. One of the fiercest and most hotly contested battles of the 7whole rebellion was that of Antietam. The fearful carnage of war found here full sNway, and ill the midst of this bitter conflict a bullet of the enemy found its way into the breast of our friend. It somietimes happens that men get wounded in the back,.but not so in this case. His face was always to the front. He sutrvived this shock, ho\wever, and( as soon as able, again joined the ranks. Another battle of note was on the hard-fought field of Flredericksburog. This w-as a time when brave men met brave men. Here Mr. (;reenfield again was called uponl to shed b)loo(l for the cause, having receive(l aniother ugly w-oNtn(l in the right limb Decenllber 13. 1862. Recovering fro{m this he again )lungetl into the fray, doing valiant service until 1864, when lie was again shot at Cold Harbor. This timie in the left arm, anld so severe was the iTwound that he was totally (lisal)le(l for further service, and( was compelled, tllotuli uni\willingly, to return to his honme. After following (lifferent occupations until I870 he engaged as captain and in other capacities on lake steamers plying Lake Superior. Iln 187/5 he came to Genesee county, Michigan, and purchased( a farm in i lushinlg t)winship and occupied this for ten years. In the spring of i885 lie was o-iven the clerkship in the office of the state land commissioner, holding this aplpointment for five years, at the close of which lie returne(l to Flushing, \whlere lihe has since resided.

Page  171 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I7I He was marriedl in 1874 to Miss Caroline Packard, who was born in Flushing April 5, 1850, and was the daughter of Thomas and Parmelia Packard. Mr. and Mrs. Greenfield are the parents of two living childrenSadie and James B. Mary E. (lied in her twenty-second year, and another daughter, Millie, was called away at the promising age of eighteen, as was also the case of Carrie A., another daughter. Mr. Greenfield has taken an able part in the activities of the Republican party, having served as delegate in many of their important conventions. He is one of the directors of the State Bank of Flushing, and has in many ways participated in the general activities of the community. One would naturally expect to find him vitally connected with the Grand Army of the Republic, and in this we are not mistaken. He is a charter member of the Ransom Post. No. 89, and has served at different times as commander of the post. Furthermore, he has not only attendled all the state and national encampments since 1882. but has been called upon to serve in these departments at dlifferent times. Mention must also be made of his notable work as a member of the Masonic fraternity. He has not stopped with membership in the Blue Lodge, No. 223, but has gone forward and up until he has reached the Mystic Shrine. More words are not needed to make further comment on the record Mr. Greenfield has made. His life speaks for itself. It is in this instance certainly true that his record is his life's best commentary.

Page  172 ROBERT J. WHALEY. Keen business insight and acute powers as a financier are some of the traits of one of Flint's representative citizens, Mr. Robert J. Whaley. He was born in Castile, WVyoming county, New York, December 8, 1840, and the first ten years of his life were spent at Pike in the same county. His mother died when he was eight years old and two years later his father, Jeremiah M. /Whaley, removed to Hudson, VWisconsin. He had followed the mercantile trade in New York, and upon his arrival in Wisconsin opened up a general store, later becoming postmaster during President Pierce's administration. He continued more ore or less actively in business until his death at the advanced age of eighty years. He was intimately connected with the growth of the commonwealth, and was at one time a candidate for the legislature from a district which comprised the west side of Wisconsin up to Lake Superior. Robert remained at home until he was twenty-one years of age, at which time it fell to his lot, at the death of an uncle, to return to New York state to care for his grandmother. Here lie remained until his grandmother's death, which occurred in I865. After settling up the estate and coming back to Wisconsin, he was married in I867 to Miss Mary McFarlan, of Flint, whom he had previously met in New York, where she had been visiting. Coming to Flint in the autumn of I867 he went into the employ of his father-in-law,

Page  173 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 173 Mr. Alexander McFarlan, remaining there until the latter's death in I881. Mr. McFarlan had extensive business interests, being engaged on a large scale in lunmbering and manufacturing, employing from fifty to sixty men. Mr. \Vhaley soon evinced able business traits, and was shortly given the supervision of important departments in the planing and saw mills. They got out their own logs and worked up from six to eight million feet annually. This business eventually declined with the approaching scarcity of timber. Upon the organization of the Citizens' Bank, Mr. Whaley became one of the directors, being the youngest one on the board. Sterling merit, conscientious effort, and a comprehensive grasp of business situations generally, soon won for him the confidence and esteem of all with whom he came in contact. Mr..McFarlan was a heavy stockholder in the bank, and he encouraged Mr. Whaley to make himself thoroughly familiar with all the phases of the bank's business. He became bookkeeper and attended to all the collections. Ere long he was made president and has continued in that capacity until the present, although the bank was reorganized in the meantime and became the Citizens' Commercial and Savings Bank. Mr. WVhaley has been a bank president for over twenty-seven years, which exceeds the time of any other similar officer in this section of the state. During his period of association in business with Mr. McFarlan their business relationship was exceedingly cordial and mutually satisfactory. Mr. McFarlan had lumber interests at Saginaw, including extensive land possessions, as well as several residence properties in and about the city. Mr. \Whaley was thoroughly familiar with all the details of Mr. McFarlan's intricate affairs, and at the latter's death was of invaluable assistance in settling up the affairs of the estate, in which he has been given special interest by the terms of the will. Of late Mr. lWhaley has given his entire time and interest to his duties as president of the bank, but he has outside interests as well. His services are continually in demand by the various civic and corporate factors in the community life. He has been made director in various institutions, such as the Gas Company, the Peerless Valve Company, the Egyptian Cement Company of Fenton, etc. Mr. NWhaley's connection with the public interests of the community are also worthy of mention, having been at one time trustee of the state charitable schools. In this connection there occurred an event that not only attracted

Page  174 174 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY considerable comment and notice, but it was an act in itself that was unqiue and unexpected. In 1892 he returned to the state $25,000 of the appropriation for the charitable schools. These were the schools for the (leaf, the one for the blind at Lansing, and the industrial school at Coldwlater. As a result of this action on his part Mr. Whaley was singled out for a target and it affords him considerable merriment to reflect that as a reward for his economy he was legislated out of office. On general principles Mr. Whaley is a Democrat, although when the free silver whirlwind swept over the country his sound financial ways of thinking led him to ally himself with the gold standard views. This, however, did not turn him into a Republican at all, but led him rather to a conservative attitude in political situations generally. Mr. and Mrs. Whaley lost their only child, a boy, when he was ten years of age. They are intimately connected with the lodges and kindred societies of the community. Mr. Whaley has been for years the finance keeper for the Knights of the Modern Maccabees, discharging his duties so efficiently that his election to this office consists not of a ballot, but simply by re-appointment without an opposing candidate. All disbursements connected with the affairs of this society are made through his office, and the sum total, so far, have exceeded $[2,000,000, an llunusual record, and one that has furnished data for comment far and wide. In the societies of the Maccabees far and wi(le he has become known as "the man who never talks." He is thoroughly interested in high-grade stock, especially horses. He has had imported stock in his possession at various times and enjoys a drive behind a spirited teanm although his interest does not lead him in the direction of the sporting arena. Mr. and Mrs. Whaley's co-operation in the affairs of the Episcopal church has also been both varied and freely given, their many-sided activities adding measureably to the sum total of the community's growth and advancement.

Page  175 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I75 JOHN HAMILTON. John Hamilton, father of W\illiam HIamilton, late of Flint, was a pioneer, lwhose early life history forms an interesting narrative. The former was born at Berwick, in the state of Maine, on the 28th clay of October, 1790. At the age of fourteen lie was taken to Conw-ay, New York, and at the breaking out of the "second revolution" in 1812 he enlisted in a New York regiment. Throtiughout the war he distinguished himself by active and constant service, being- a participant in the engagements at Lundy's Lane, Odelltown, and otlier points. He was later in detached service at )etroit and remained there till (lischarged from the service in 1817. In 1819 he came t!) Birmingham, Oakland county, Michigan, and wvas the first man to mlake a land entry in that vicinity. In 1822-23 he visited Saginaw and engagedl in the business of carrying provisions to the government troops at that point, which was then a trading post. Traffic with the Indlians ha(l become quite extensive and attracted to.this locality niany ambitious anld venturesomle people. On the route overland from Detroit to Sagiina\\, Colonel Hamilton found at the point whlere Flint now stands a wllite mall nlaed Jacobl Smith, a half-lreed named Edward Cailpion, and an Indian iamled Na-a-ke-cllick, livingl ill lodges. 'lhese lodges overlo(oked the stream, oil whlose waters at the time spedl many a birch bark canloe. Colonel Hamilton o)lened u1p stage routes from Detroit to Pontiac. and also froml Detroit to Chicago. In 1843 he came to Flint and lbuilt the saw mill later ol)erate(l 1y his son(, \\illiami. He was a true type of the American pioneer, of a fearless, upright and dlecisive character. He died January 8. I86O, havilngl previously arranlged to have his funeral service taken in charge of 1W his old lpastor. Rev.. H. H. rthrop, who had performed a like duty at six different times upon tie death of that many of his children. His children that survived himi were Rufus, wlho died later in California; Mrs. Elvira Roosevelt, whlo diedl in February, 1907. at Detroit: Mrs. L. H. Childs, of IFlilt, a well lpreservedl woiman of eilhty-five years. and Mrs. M. Redman, of Dullutlit, Minnliesota.

Page  176 WILLIAM HAMILTON. William Hamilton, late of Flint, was born at Birmingham, Oakland coutty, Michigan, on January I, 1824. When a boy he carried the mails from Michigan City to Chicago, the contract for this work having been taken by his father. In 1843 he came with his parents to Flint, where he was destined to act a prominent and effective part in shaping the city's future g-rowth and development. He joined his father in operating a flour mill, and in 1848 he, with his brother, Oliver, assumed full control of the mjill, continuing to do so until the latter's death in i856, after which William became the sole owner. Following this he engaged extensively in the lumbering business in company with John Cameron, of the Hudson River Company of New York. Mr. Cameron never lived in Flint, but entrusted his affairs here to the care of Mr. Hamilton. The latter next associated himself with Mr. William McGregor, and this partnership lasted for over thirty-one years. Mr. Hamilton became closely identified with the growing interests of the rapidly developing country, especially in matters pertaining to transportation and the development of the natural resources of the state. In the '7os he was one of the directors and secured the land grant for the railroad running from Lansing to Port Htron, which later became the present Grand Trunk Railway. Its track was laid across Saginaw street in Flint on Sunday before

Page  177 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 177 the new council, which was to come into office on Monday, could take steps to prevent.the work. Mr. Hamilton was one of the stockholders in the original water company of the city, and also of the gas company, when first organized. He was a prime mover in promoting and setting upon a good business basis these and other public utilities. He built the City Mills in 1856. In company with J. B. Atwood he built the Bryant Hotel block, which at that time figured as the only first-class hotel in Flint. They also built the postoffice building, which is still occupied as such. The armory for the Union Blues was another product of his hands, as was also the erection of the Oak Grove sanitarium, of which he was treasurer until the time of his demlise. Furthermore, he was one of the founders of the Citizens' National Bank, which later became the Citizens' Commercial Bank. When establishing the Citizens' National Bank he and Colonel Fenton went to Washington to secure the charter. Colonel Fenton was made the first president of this bank, Mr. Hamilton acting as first vicepresident. Later he was made president and held that office for several years. As stated above, he was one of the organizers of the gas' comlpany and was its president at the time of his death, and also president of the water works. His services were in constant demand by the public, to which he gave seventeen years of his time, holding such places of trust as mayor, alderman, etc. With all these manifold activities it would seem that his time would have been completely monopolized, but his field of operation extended even farther, reaching out also into the agricultural resources of the region. He controlled a two hundred-acre farm in Burton township, and owned the three hundred and forty-acre tract, a part of which became the new sub-division of Flint. When the water works located in this section of the city he foresaw that the town would grow in this direction, and his prediction has since been verified, Hamilton avenue having taken its name from this source. He visited his farms daily, giving his personal attention and supervision. He gave much attention to fine stock and imported the first Hereford cattle brought to Genesee county. He also bred shorthorn stock and exhibited regularly at the local fairs. of which association he was president, which embraced all the northeastern counties of Michigan. His death was a matter of more than local concern. The funeral was one of the most largely attended of any in the history of the city. Upon Major Gold's proclamation all business in the city was suspended. The post12

Page  178 178 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY office was closed under orders from \Vashington. Resolutions poured il ulpon the relatives from various sources, and the members, of the city council attended in a body, headed by the mayor. The palllearers were all directors of his own bank, and consisted of S. C. Randall, B. Frank Cotharine, Frank Dullam, Hon. J. J. CartOn, General C. S. Brown acnd Joseph H. Rankin. Of these six distinguished citizens three have since crossed the border to join their comrade. Mr. Hamilton was a Republican, but a man of most liberal and sane views, never antagonistic to progress, and one whose influence and counsel were much sought fo rin matters public and private. His business policy was that of a conservative, advocating the maxim of never going intot deblt. When the matter of public imlprovemlents came up) he took the stand that only such expenditures should be made as could be paid for. This was the rule laid (lown for himself and he advocated the same policy for the transaction of public affairs. Mr. Hamilton was married (on September 23, 1850, to lMiss Frances Marun, of Flint, w-ho was born in Ireland. She received her education in the Sacred Heart Convent in Killarney county, anld came to the United States when twenty-one years of age, and was married the following year. She was a woman of rare musical talent and taught the art with great success. Of the seven children born to this union three died in infancy. Those reaching maturity were Mrs. Mary Peltier; Elizabeth, who (lied at the age of twenty years of tuberculosis; Oliver J., who dietl of heart failure six months before the death of his father, aged thirty-nine years, his death being a great blow to his father, with whom he was associated in business; another daughter, Minnie, is the wife of Arthur Loranger, a lumberman doing a prosperous business in Halmmond, Louisiana. Mrs. Hamilton died July 5, 1904, at the age of seventy-seven years. having been an active member of the Roman Catholic church, of which her hIrsband. was also an attendant and communicant. Mary Frances (Hamilton) Peltier was married to Philip B. Peltier January 28, 1874. Mr. Peltier was born at Monroe, Michigan, in August, 1845, of French ancestry. His father was Ezekiel A. Peltier, and his mother's maiden name was Mary V. La Duc, both of French ancestry, and both born in Detroit, he in 1799, and she in 1804. Mr. Philip Peltier still owns the original farm, which has been in the family since 1842. It is just

Page  179 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I79 south of Monroe and close to the old battle scene of the war of 1812. Since Mr. Peltier has been associated with the Hamilton and McGregor interests, and since Mr. Hamilton's death, has handled the Burton township farm, spoken of before, and also controlled the Bryant Hotel and other properties belonging to his wife. He settled up the Hamilton estate. In I890 he entered the flouring mnills, and in connection with Oliver J. Hamilton operated them until the latter's death. The Peltier family consisted of five children, three of whom are still living. They are: William H., who is auditor for a manufacturing company in Chicago; Frank Mi. is with the Concrete Construction Company of Chicago; Adelaide is at home with her parents. She was educated in the Sacred Heart school, where the three generations of this family have received such able training. The Peltier home, recently erectd, is on Detroit street, and here maany warm friends find a genuinely social and inviting atmosphere.

Page  180 ALBERT E. RANSOM. Albert E. Ransom was born two miles southwest of Flushing April 23, I858. His parents, Robert C. and Angeline (Smith) Ransom, both hail,from New York state, the mother's home having been in Hamilton, New York. The Ransom family has branched out in many states, one of the members serving at one time as governor of Michigan. Another one of the boys, Randolph, as captain of a Michigan company of volunteers, was killed at the second battle of Bull Run in the Civil war. Other members of this family settled in the different parts of Michigan, some coming to this vicinity. Albert's parents when arriving settled on the farm where he was born. Here his father died in I890, aged sixty-nine years. The mother spent her last years in Flushing, having survived until I9OI, aged seventy-seven years. Other members of the family beside Albert were Ransler B., now in Flushing; William; Simeon M., removed to Rico, Colorado; Marvin P.; John P.; and Charles, who died in childhood. All but Simeon live in this vicinity, and are well-to-do and respected citizens. Albert spent his boyhood days on the farm, attended high school, from which he was graduated in I879, and began teaching at the age of seventeen. He continued teaching in district and village schools until 1882, when he purchased the local newspaper, called the "Flushing Patrol." In the meantime he

Page  181 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. was married, on August 19, I880, to Miss Elizabeth L. Grinnell, who was also a teacher, and was born in Memphis, Michigan. Mr. Ransom now gave his attention to his newspaper, changing the name to the "Flushing Observer." This paper was established by D. C. Ashmun in 1876. In I892 Mr. Ransom was made county school commnissioner, and immediately turned his paper over to others to take care of while he gave his entire time to the school work. His previous experience as a teacher gave him a broad grasp of the school situation, which enabled him to inaugurate and set on foot many needed reforms in the schools of the county. He raised the standard of teaching to a profession, and insisted on better and more systematic grading of the pupils, and demanded a higher professional equipmelnt on the part of the teacher. Fearless of opposition, he succeeded in establishing and maintaining an excellent corps of teachers. He succeeded in securing high grade instructors for his institutes and may justly feel proud of his school record. Needless to say that his twenty years' service on the local school board has been not only constant, but characteristicallv effective. After his six years of service as school commissioner Mr. Ransom again assumed control of the "Observer." This plant is now equipped with modern machinery and is producing first class work, and now has a wide circulation, which completely covers the field. Although a Republican, Mr. Ransom makes the "Observer" a newspaper rather than a political organ. He is a member of the Michigan Press Club, and is one of the directors of the People's State Bank. He shows his spirit by his interest in the ball games of the day. Their daughter, Agnes, was born September 19, 1884, and adds sunshine to the home by her presence.

Page  182 JAMES B. FRENCH. Mr. James B. French, a successful business 1an of Flushing, was born in Flushing township June 14, I858. His father, George A. French, was the first male white child born in Flushing township. He was born in September, 1837, and died there in 1898. The grandparents came to Michigan from the state of Vermoht and were pioneers in this section. James' mother, Harriet W\oodruff French, died in November, I906. At the age of twenty years James began work in Hart & Clark's flour mill and was connected therewith for thirteen years. He soon became familiar with all the ins and outs of the business, holding the place of head miller for eleven years. After the death of Mr. Clark he took full charge of the mill, which he conducted on shares. In I891 he associated with himself Fredrick W. Glass and set up in business in an old storage house, with the sign "French & Glass, produce dealers." Their capital was about $5,000, and they began by buying up and shipping butter and eggs frotm the country merchants. In a short time they began to handle agricultural implements also. In a few years Mrs. French became sole proprietor of the business, taking up his quarters in a building which stood on the site of the old stone house..This structure, built of brick at considerable cost, contains two stories and a basement, measures twenty-four by

Page  183 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I83 one hundred feet, but in spite of its size, is filled from cellar to garret with a fine stock of goods, made up of hardware, tinware and other general merchandise. Other buildings and warehouses have becomne necessary to furnish rolo for the agricultural implements, wagons, buggies, etc.. which are constantly kept in stock. It is needless to say that the property and stock combined represent a sum of considerable value. About 7,000 cases of eggs are handled annually. The butter and eggs are shipped only in carload lots, anl generally sent to eastern markets. A large force of clerks is constantly enmployed in handling their goods. Mr. French also has a branch store at Xew Lothrop and quite a volume of )business is transacted there also. 'But Mr. French's business ability and ventures are not alone confined to the mercantile line. He is a stockholder and director in the People's Bank and also owns stock in the Postoffice block, which was erected in 1903 at a cost (of not less than $17.ooo. Furthermore, Mr. French controls a farmn of consi(leral)le value in Mt. Morris township, and is getting a goo(l start in the thoroughbred stock line. Although a life-long Rep)ublican and often seen in the convention, Mr. French makes no boast of being a politician. He was married in September, I88I, to Julia Solmmer, (laughter of James Sommer, machinist and foundrynan of Flushing. She was 1)orn at Hazelton, Shiawassee county. Their son, Redford. is employed in his father's business. He received his education at Assumption College, Sandwich, Ontario. Mr. French is a member of the Masonic order, thus seeming to make his roundlup of associations complete. He is a striking example of what pluck and(l perseverance can accomplish.

Page  184 EDW\ARD M. SAIGEON, V. S. One of the successful and widely experienced veterinary surgeons of Flint is Mr. Edward M. Saigeon, of 6IO Pierson street. He was born in Coldwin township, Erie county, New York, June o1, 1874. His father, the Rev. Michael R. Saigeon, was a Canadian and became a clergyman in the Methodist Protestant church. He has been the shepherd of many different folds in eastern Michigan, and has dispensed the word with courage and sincerity at all times. His wife, Hattie Murphy Saigeon, is a native of New York state, and has been a most useful and efficient helpmeet to her husband in his chosen calling. Their labors are attended with deserved success, and their life and services in the Master's vineyard bid fair to bear the marks of divine favor and the stamp of divine approval. They are the parents of two children-Nina and our subject, Edward M. Edward remained under the paternal roof until about nineteen years of age, and was impressed in his growing years with the necessity of a righteous viewpoint as regards the duties and responsibilities of life. Realizing the wisdom and the need of becoming skilled in some occupation he took up and learned the house painter's trade, which occupation he followed for about four years. He then began to realize that he had talent for a broader field, and consequently turned his attention to veterinary surgery. He appreciated the value of a thorough preparation for his work, and was desirous of mak

Page  185 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. ing himself well acquainted with all the modern and up-to-date knowledge of his work. In pursuance of this view, therefore, he entered the Ontario Veterinary College at Toronto. Here he devoted himself vigorously to his duties and left no stone unturned in his efforts for a thorough equipment for his profession. IHe graduated from the institution in I899, and began active practice at Williamston, Michigan, continuing there for the term of three years. Opportunity then opened up for a wider experience, and he accepted the position as veterinary to the quartermaster's department stationed in the Philippines. Here he found an ever interesting and helpful field of activity. He carried out his work with pronounced success, devoting himself strictly to his duties, and at the same time gathered up a wide fund of information on themles of general interest to the citizenship of our republic. Thus, not only as a practitioner, but also as a citizen and patriot, he has become a much more valued and useful member of the community. He takes a broad and advanced view on all the questions of the day and has firm convictions on the problems that are confronting the national government at the present time. As a veterinary he spent two years and four months in the Philippine service, and at the expiration of that time he returned and began practice at Plainfield, Michigan. He remained in this vicinity for about one year, and, although possessing a growing patronage, he removed to Flint in 1905, and has since that time devoted himself to the prosecution of his profession. He was married in Plainfield, Michigan, November 2, I904, to Miss Flora E. Smith, a native of Livingston county. She is the daughter of Williamn M. and Sarah (Barber) Smith, of that county. Mr. Smith is a successful and efficient farmer in his colmmunity. Dr. and Mrs. Saigeon are the parents or one child, Hazel. Their home is characterized by a generous hospitality and forms one of the bright centers in their quarter of the city's domain.

Page  186 MR. AND MRS. JAMES P. FRAWLEY. Among the enterprising business men of Flushing is to be found Mr. James P. Frawley, dealer in coal, hay, straw and fertilizers. He was born in Flushing township February 20, 1872. His parents were among the early settlers of Flushing township. His father was Patrick Frawley and his mother's maiden name was Margaret McMahan. They were active and energetic people, and were engaged principally in farming. Industry and thrift characterized their efforts and they obtained a high standing in their community as people of upright methods and as genial, accommodating neighbors. Their eldest son was trained in that degree of application and endurance which has been such a boon to so many American boys in the formative period of their lives. As a boy he was industrious and fully alive to the opportunities that offered themselves in laying the foundation for the structure of life. He remained on the farm, assuming the important resplnsibilities of its management until his marriage on October 30, 1895, to Miss Nora Purcell, a resident of Toledo, Ohio. After his marriage he settled upon his own farm in Flushing township, having obtained the same from his father. Here he continued to practice the methods learned in early life and acquired by diligent and conscientious efforts. Success crowned his efforts and un(ler his direction and supervision he brought the farm up to a high degree of excellency. His wife is a native of Ireland and knew just how to mingle judicious economy with effective work. After two years on this farm Mr. Frawley decided to exchange life upon the farm for contract and participation in life in the town, and as a result we find him coming to Flushing and going into the employ of H. M. Ainsworth, in which he remained for about one year.

Page  187 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I87 Succeeding in this he became engaged in the service of J. E. Ottaway & Company. He remained in the latter's employ for about five years, which were years of close and intelligent application to business. At the close of this period he embraced the opportunity of going into business for himself, and soon became the proprietor of his present business. Mr. and Mrs. Frawley are the parents of five children, as follows: Patrick, Leo, Donald, Kathleen and Margaret, who go to make up one of the attractive and wide-awake families of the town of Flushing. The parents are adherents to the Catholic church, and both do as much as lies within their power to maintain a high standard of righteous living.

Page  188 AUGUSTUS K. KENDRICK. Prominent among the produce shippers of Flint is Mr. Kendrick, who was born in Dryden, Lapeer county, Michigan, July I, 1842. His father, the Hon. Lucius Kendrick, was an able man and one who rendered considerable public service in his day. He was born at Dorien, New York, and was married to Eliza Look, also a native of New York, having been born at Ellery, in Chautauqua county. After coming to Lapeer county in 1836 Mr. Kendrick taught school in the county for fourteen years, and was the teacher of the first school taught in Almont, then known as Bristol. After this period of service as teacher he engaged in farming and prosecuted this occupation with vigor and success. In the meantime he had acquired quite a wide acquaintance in the county and was closely identified with the political life of the people, casting his influence with the Republican party. He was soon elected to the Michigan legislature from the first district, and served during the term of 1869-I870. Yet his activities were not confined to the political field alone, but he was also of a literary turn of mind. He had a knack for gathering up news and getting it up into good readable shape for the press. For a number of years he was a valued correspondent for the New York "Tribune," and later also for the Detroit "Tribune." He also became associated in the same capacity with the Lapeer "Clarion," retaining his con

Page  189 GENESEE COUNTY, MTICHIGAN. I89 nection for several years. Furthermore, his genuine integrity and indiscriminate love for justice and fair play led to his selection as justice of the peace, which place he filled with eminent success and satisfaction to the people. As a member of the school board he contributed abundant and excellent service. He died at Dryden, in Lapeer county, having reached the age of sixty-five years. His wife ended her days at Dryden also, having acquired the age of fifty-eight years. Six children were born to this union, of which our subject was the eldest. He was reared at the place of his birth, and s4owed a good, teachable spirit when still a child, and extended his school career into the Lapeer high school. After deciding to start out in life for himself he became engaged in the nursery stock business, and found it a delightful as well as a remunerative line. He followed this occupation for about twenty-three years. In 1876 he removed from Lapeer county and came to Flint, where he has since resided. In I890 he took up with the produce business and has bought and shipped goods extensively for some time. He was married in Lapeer county, Michigan, to Miss Ada Conley, who died later in New York state. Following this he was joined in wedlock to Miss Cornelia Hill and three children blessed this union, two of whom survive. They are Carl A. and Lillian G. In I890 Mrs. Cornelia Hill was taken to rest, leaving a host of friends to mourn her departure. Mr. Kendrick was again married and chose for his companion Miss Effie Gorves, who was born in Oakland county, Michigan. Mr. Kendrick, like his paternal ancestor, is wide-awake in the political affairs of the county and state. He commands the respect and interest of his colleagues in politics and in business as well. In fact he takes a great interest in all public affairs. He has been closely identified for years with the Masonic fraternity and has been a loyal exponent of the principles of the organization to which he gives so much of his interest. He is a regular attendant of the Court street Methodist Episcopal church, and in this and in all other ways seeks to make himself useful to all with whom he may come in contact.

Page  190 GEORGE F. BROWN. "Not he who boasts of his country, but he who does something to make his country better, is the real patriot." It has been said that when circumstances demand the man of a certain stamp and equipment, there will always be found some one who will rise to the occasion. This seems to have been the case in the experience of the subject of our biography, Mr. George F. Brown, attorney and at one time county prosecutor. He was born at Lyon, Oakland county, Michigan, October 4, I855, and came to Gaines township in i865. His parents were emigrants from the "Empire state," coming to Michigan in 1839. His father, Hiram Brown, was of Scotch ancestry and had his home in Ontario county, New York, while his mother, Mary E. Plowman, was a native of Orange county. She departed this life eight years ago, but Mr. Brown still occupies the old homestead at the advanced age of eighty-seven years. At the age of twenty-three George left the farm and engaged in teaching, having made a broad preparation for his work. He filled the duties of the profession with commendable skill, and later was made a member of the county school board, which consisted of three persons. One of his associates on this board was E. D. Black, a classmate of his at Ann Arbor. At the

Page  191 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I9I latter institution:Mr. Brown w-as a student ill the law dlepartment, being a nemll:er of the class of I887. Since that timne he has practiced law in the county, anld has been singularly successful illn his chosen profession. He is a born fighter and puts into his work not only legal skill and general knonwledge. but also an unusual quantity of energy and aggressiveness. He served the county for frcur years as prosecuting attorney, and it was (luring this period that he rose to the demandls of the times. It seemed to be a tinme lwhlen the ti(le of law-breaking and criminality was on the increase. This calledl for vigorous and fearless activity on the part of the authorities, an(l M\lr. Brown had at one time to deal with nineteen inmates of the county jail, all charged vith felonies, and all of them were convicted. 'IThis won for him n- the unstinted praise from the better element of the community, while the law breakers began to clelilberate on the best methods of "taking to the w-oods." After a period of untiing actiit and fearless investigation on the part of the authorities the famnous "robber's roost gang," so long the terror of the commnnunity. was broken and totally annihilatedc. Durinng this term, also, three murder cases were on the (locket. In one of these conviction was bro()ught about.,IMr. Brown has been associated f)or six years with Mr. John H. Farley under the name of Brown & Farley, and ltluring this timne they have had a large and lucrative business. 'Mr. Broxvn has been an active politician, taking a firm and v-igorous stand in iiiatters political, as much so as in mnatters legal. He has been asked time and again to go on duty to the state conventions and has entered heart andl soul into the activities of these organizations. He has taken part also in a number of suits at law that have been of mnore than usual interest, notably one (lamage suit of $6,500 against the cityanother railroad case of $6,6oo and another instance in which a jutllgment for damages w-as allowed, involving the amount of $1,I66, the highest award of thlat character ever allowed in the county. This was against the Grand Trunk Railwav. Another notable case in which lMr. Brown has figured quite prominentlAy as that of the Stockdale will case, involving an estate of $320,000. He appeared in the case for the heirs. It has been fought in all the local courts and is now before the supreme tribunal of the state. He stands high among the members of the bar and commands the utmost regardl from the bench. He has extensive farming interests and takes great pridle in well impnlrovel land.

Page  192 I92 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY His wife, Etta E. Wood, at one time a teacher in Flint, departed this life in May, 1902, leaving one daughter, Etta E. Mr. Brown takes quite an. interest as a pastime in fishing, and always carries with him a warm social atmosphere.

Page  193 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I93 GEORGE WV. COOK.:As a community gr)Iws and munlicipal and civic problems become more and more comnplex nee(l is felt for guiding hands and energetic organizers. One of these citizens of Flint that has filled the needs as felt by his fellow townsmen is Mr. George \\W. Cook, attorney at law. Mr. Cook's ancestry.races l)ack to the "Empire state," from which so many of Genesee county's pioneer settlers hailed. His father, Joseph P., and his mother, whose maiden name was Julia H. Slaght, came to Grand Blanc as early as 1836. later taking up their alode on the farm which is still considered the family homestead. Mr. Joseph Cook was a imoving spirit in the growth of Grand Blanc, operating a flour mill for many years, and serving also for some time as postmaster. The parental hearth was blessed wNith four children. One of these, John G., occupies a farm near Grand Blanc; another, Edwin H., is a skilled mechanic, having his home in Flint' the third son is George \V., the subject of our sketch; while the fourth is \Willis G., a graduate of the State University, formerly a high school teacher of Flint, and Nwho is now a practitioner and medical professor of Ft. W\orth, Texas. George \. was born in Grand Blanc October 24, 1862. He was educated in the schools of Flint and taught for eight years in the Michigan school for the deaf. Being interested, however, in public affairs, he soon found himself in close touch with the general activities of the county, and as a result was made county clerk in I893. \hile serving in this capacity he not only felt the need of a thorough knowledge of law, but he took advantage of the opportunity to gratify his desire for a thorough study of the subject, having abundant opportunity for first-hand observation in this connection. We are not surprised, consequently, to find him reading law diligently at this time, and his being admitted to the bar in June, I897. After his admission to the bar he began to practice law and associated himself with Mr. Fred W. Brennan under the title of Brennan & Cook. Mr. Cook managed to make himself thoroughly familiar with all the phases of his profession and served for four years as assistant prosecuting attorney. In this capacity he soon demonstrated his able grasp.of the work and his keen insight into the problems of jurisprudence and conducting his office so effectively that he was appointed by the court to complete the unexpired term of Prosecutor George Williams. T3

Page  194 194 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY His general practice soon became quite large and lie was soon recognized as one of the community's ablest counselors. It has been demonstrated time and again that proficiency in any one line does not necessarily prove that one's abilities are narrowed or confined to that field of activity. Mr. Cook has been an efficient director of the Union Trust Bank, and has for eight years proven an interested and progressive memler of the school board. His service has also been of great value in municipal affairs. Municipal ownership of public utilities is a problem of no small import confronting American cities of today. WNhen the proposition that the city of Flint purchase and operate the water works, a board of arbitration, to determine its value was provided for, Mr. Cook was counsel for the city, perfecting these plans, and the purchase was made for a consideration of $262,500. He has since served as one of the three mnembers of the board of water commissioners, which has complete control of the water system. As is to be expected, Mr. Cook has been frequently called upon to serve on political conmmittees and to participate in the party organization, notably as a member of the Republican state central committee. On August i, 1888, Mr. Cook was united in marriage to Miss Emnma Zimmerman, a young lady of splendid education and high social standing, having been a teacher in the local school for the deaf. Three children make up his family, consisting of Lawrence L., George L., and Wendell J. The brief summary thus given is, of course, inadequate to (lo full justice to a successful and busy career, but sufficient evidence has already been alvanced to justify the verdict that our subject must be a believer in the rule of life, so well expressed by our immortal Lincoln, viz.: "Let us have faith that right makes might, and in that faith let us dare to do our duty as we understand it."

Page  195 MARVIN L. SEELEY. Mlr. Marvin L. Seeley was born in Flint, April 15, 1840. He is the son of Daniel H. and Julia A. (Taylor) Seeley, who were natives of Connecticut. After their marriage they came, in I836, to Pontiac, Michigan, and the next year to Flint. When Marvin was one year old his parents took possession of a new farm in Genesee township, and here they lived out their remaining days. Mr. Seeley died in 1892, aged eighty-seven, having lived for fifty years upon this farm. His widow survived him one and one-half years, having attained the age of eighty-four. They were active, energetic people and live church workers. Mr. Seeley was a political leader and an expert farmer, having been awarded many premiums by the Agricultural Society of the county. Six children of the family reached maturity, four of whom are still surviving. Bertha, wife of Alexander R. Bray, died in middle life, being the mother of four children. Louis D. died at the age of twenty-nine. Frances M. was married to Stephen S. Burroughs and lives in the state of Washington. The next child in the order of birth was our subject, Marvin L. Frank T. is a practicing physician at Alongo, Iowa, having practiced a few years in Genesee county before going west. Theron V. is a farmer in Thetford township, Genesee county. Marvin read law in the office of Colonel William?M. Fenton and in due time was admitted to the bar. He then took a course in the law depart

Page  196 I96 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY ment of the State University, and in 1867 began to practice in Flint, continuing this for ten years. He was justice of the peace for eight years and for four years was supervisor of Genesee township. His efforts resulted in the building of the new town hall in Genesee township, and also in the erection of a fine brick school building. For a while Mr. Seeley went back to the farm, remaining there until his father's death, awhereupon, in company with his brother, Frank, he became administrator for the estate. In 1893 he returned to Flint and at this time was made chairman of the auxiliary committee of the state board of managers of the world's fair. In 189i he was elected to the state legislature on the Democratic ticket. His district included the city of Flint and seven other townships, making up a district that had yielded normally a strong Republican majority. This incident proclaimed loudly the merits of the man. In the legislature he devoted his attention largely to school matters, being made chairman of the committee on education. He drew up the bill to change the school supervision from the old secretary system to the county commissioner plan. It provided for a county school commissioner, to give a head to the school system in the counties and to get the school matters before the people, and hard work was necessary before the measure was piloted through, heavy opposition arising from the secretaries over the state. Mr. Seeley is still engaged in general practice of law, and, in conjunction with this, handles considerable real estate. He has kept actively in touch with the political affairs of the community and has been of inestimable service to his party. He has often been delegated to local and state conventions, and is a hard campaign worker. He is a staunch adherent to the Jeffersonian principles of the Democratic party. Mlr. Seeley was married at the age of thirty-two to Miss Jean I. Brown, daughter of William Brown, of Thetford. She was born in England, lived for a time at Niagara, and came to Flint when still a young lady. The family consists of three children. Burton E. graduated from the Michigan College of Mines at the age of twenty-one. He became a mining engineer for an English syndicate operating in Mexico, and while stationed at Zacataces, Mexico, was seized with pneumonia and died there at the age of twenty-six. Burns L., another son, is now at Colorado Springs and is engaged in mercantile life. Thyra B. remains at home. He is a graduate from the Flint

Page  197 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I97 high school and is bookkeeper for the Durant Dort Carriage Company. The members of the family are active in social, religious and educational affairs. They have hosts of friends and are among the most agreeable and affable of the city's splendid people.

Page  198 JAMES K. CORRIGALL. James K. Corrigall was born of Scotch ancestry in Hastings county, Ontario, on March 25, 1837. His father came to Canada from Kirkwald, Scotland, when twenty-five years of age, and pre-empted one hundred acres of wild, uncultivated land. James remained at home until after twenty-six years of age, and came over to eastern Michigan in the spring of 1865. Here he took up work in a saw mill, but soon came on to Bay City. While working in a lumber mill here, he, in an unguarded moment, sustained the loss of two fingers of his right hand. After making a return visit to Ontario he came back to Michigan, taking up his quarters this time in Genesee county. He bought a forty-acre tract, one and one-half miles north of Gaines, for $550. He began clearing this, and by selling four-foot wood and staves, he succeeded in making the land pay for itself. His hard industry enabled him to convert uncleared and stump lands into good farm land. He thus not only acquired more acreage, but made improvements as he went along, building barns and remodeling the old buildings. Having bought a residence in Flint he removed thither about I890, but in 1895 came to Gaines, making his home in one of the best houses in the town. Mr. Corrigall was interested, however, in more things than one, and devoted some attention to the breeding of good general purpose horses., generally

Page  199 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I99 keeping on hand tell to fifteen head. He succeeded also in producing somne good roadsters, some of A-which not only made good speed, but good money as well. Although he has never sought office M\Ir. Corrigall has served as land and clrainage commissione r and has also been connected with the school board. He has aliways affiliated with the Republican party, but stands first of all for square and honest service. His son, John W., for some time followed the teaching profession in Genesee county. He receivdl an injury in a fall from a barn framne, which, although not fatal at the time, resulted ultimately in his death at the age of forty-two at Placerville, California, Awhither he had removed. After reaching California, he continued to work as a teacher, having done similar work in Genesee county. At the time of his death he held the office of (leputy sheriff. He was noted as a public speaker and( was quite in (lemandl for his ]Fourth of July addresses. Mlrs. Corrigall, formerly Bertha Smnith, comes from Wyandotte, \ ayne county, Michigan. A son, born December 13, 1904, was named James Willard Corrigall, thus givingj fair prospects that the fanily tree will be kept gro \wing.

Page  200 ::::1::_:::::,::::~:i-:::::::,::::~j::~::::::::::::li:i —:: ---::::::::~-::::::::::::::::::1:.: iii-:: iix::::::'~:;-:ii- ~..::::.:_::;::-:s::i: MELVIN C. BOWMAN. Mr. Melvin C. Bowman, present city treasurer of Flint, was born at Warsaw, \Vyoming county, New York, December 28, I846. He came to Michigan with his parents in 1853. They settled on a farm in Oakland county on tle road running from Flint to Pontiac, which was then a stage line. He was brought up on the farm and received such education as the community afforded, and later attended the Fenton high school. When the Civil war had been in progress for some time, young Melvin could not suppress the patriotic fires burning within his breast, and he ran away from home in order to enlist in the service. He joined Company. C of the Eighth Michigan Cavalry in I864, and was engaged in the struggle in Tennessee and Alabama. After the close of the war he returned to the farm, which was later sold. After living in Holly till 1870, he removed to the city of Flint. Mr. Bowman's musical abilities were now given active play, and his ability as a baritone soloist attracted the attention of Mr. Gardner, organizer and director of the famous Gardner's band of Flint. Mr. Bowman continued to be identified with this band for many years, and made trips with his comrades to Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis, Cleveland and many other points. At all of these places the band won hearty commendation and was recognized as one of the ablest and 1ost deserving organizations of its kind in the

Page  201 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 201 country. Mr. Bowman continued with the band until Mr. Gardner left Flint, thus severing his connection with the company that he had so ably helped to make famous. Mlr. Bowman was engaged for some time in the insurance business and carried quite a large patronage. Following this he became associated with D. S. Fox in the cigar manufacturing business, achieving success in this field also. For one year he was transferred to Port Huron, and was placed in charge of the firm's interests at that place. Then for five years he was associated with the Clasen & Streat Company as a partner in the cigar manufactory. He then engaged in the same business for himself, and pushed his trade with considerable energy and vigor for six years. He then became employed with AW. C. W\ells of the Iroquois Cigar Company of Flint. In 1906 he was singled out as a capable and popular candidate to place lefore the people in the race for the treasurership of the county, and the results justified the choice. He was elected by the largest majority of any candidate on the ticket, and at the close of the first term was re-elected without any opposition. This furnishes convincing evidence as to his efficiency and popularity, which are owing largely to the fact that he has given the office Work his personal attention and has spared no time or work in giving the people honest and effective service. He has made the duties of the office his first concern, and all have learned to recognize his merit and integrity. AWere it not for the fact that the city charter limits the time of service to two terms. there is no doubt as to what the verdict of the people would be regarding his future service in his present capacity. t nder the circumstances his heavy bond, which totalizes about $300ooo0, is an indication of the responsibility that is resting upon him. His record has borne the close inspection of investigators and not a single item has been found misplaced. He was married in Flint twenty-six years ago to Miss Mary Parsall. Their family consists of Ernest D., a high school graduate, now of Houston, Texas; Jennie, also a high school graduate, and at present a stenographer; the third child is a laughter, Elsa. Mr. Bowman is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic. His residence is a pleasant location at 317 West First street.

Page  202 202 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY ERASTUS DERWIN GILBERT. Erastus Derwin Gilbert, one of the prosperous and successful farmers of Flint township, was born in the house in which he still resides, October 6, 1842. He was the son of Anson and Judith Ann (Garland) Gilbert, the former of Saratoga county, New York, and the latter a native of New Hampshire. They came to Michigan in I835, coming to Flint township in 1838, Twhere he purchased a farm of one hundred and sixty acres, and by diligence and superior management succeeded in bringing one hundred acres up to a high state of cultivation. The house which he and his wife occupied at that time still stands, and is occupied by his son, it having been improved and added to from time to time. Mr. Gilbert was a staunch Republican and showed his loyalty to his party by taking an active interest in all the affairs of the community. Mrs. Gilbert survived her husband twelve years, dying in I888, at the age of ninety-two years. She was the mother of three children-George H., Ellen J., and Erastus D. George H. was a farmer of this township for a number of years, but later removed to Flint, where he died at the age of sixty-nine. Ellen J. is the wife of William D. Johnstone and lives on a part of the old homestead. Erastus Derwin, our subject, has spent all of his life on the old homestead. For awhile he and his brother worked in partnership on the farm, but at their father's death Erastus purchased the interests of the other heirs and now owns one hundred and thirty-eight of the original one hundred and sixty purchased by his father. He has made a number of improvements on the old farm, and capability and practical methods have resulted in marked success. Mr. Gilbert was united in marriage in 1878 to Charlotte Hoskins, of Maple Grove, Saginaw, Michigan, who died in I895. She left two sons, Louis A. and Irving E., who are both still at home with their father. In 1898 Mr. Gilbert married Mrs. Alice Smith, widow of Levi Smith, and the daughter of Elisha and Selina Brewer. of New York and Connecticut, respectively. They came to Michigan in I862, settling in Flint, where Mr. Brewer conducted a grocery for some time. They spent the latter years of their life with their daughter, Mrs. Gilbert. Mrs. Gilbert before her marriage was a teacher in Genesee county for five years, and also acted in the capacity of a nurse for some time. She was

Page  203 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 203 first married to Levi Smith, a carpenter and painter, who lost his life in Long Lake. Besides his wife Mr. Smith was survived by two children, Charles E. Smith, now of Detroit, and Bessie, the wife of Roy D. Brotherton, residents of New Liskeard, Ontario. Besides his two children, Mr. Gilbert reared a young girl, Grace Tozier, from the tender age of eighteen months until the time of her marriage to Fayette Davis, at the age of nineteen years. Mr. Gilbert, like his father, adheres to the Republican party, but has never aspired to a political career.

Page  204 FRANK J. RUTHERFORD. Mr. Frank J. Rutherford, real estate broker and general business man of Flint, has his homne at 6I9 Clifford street. He was born in Flint, February 27, I862. His parents, John J. and Sarah L. (Miller) Rutherford, were among the early settlers of Genesee county, Michigan, having emigrated hither from New York state. His father was an accountant by profession and was bookkeeper for the Genesee Iron Works. He was a man of action and one who did not hesitate when duty seemed to call. This trait, which so strongly characterized his life, proved also to be fatal to his welfare. In an effort to stop a runaway team he received severe injuries, and as a result he became an invalid for the last few years of his life. He died in Flint at the age of fifty years. There were two children in the family, one of whom died in infancy, leaving Frank as the only survivor of the family. He was reared in the town of his birth, and has resided here all his life, with the exception of one and one-half years that were spent in California. He was educated in the Flint schools and applied himself diligently to his studies. He was well liked by his companions and teachers, but there was nothing unusual in his boyhood experience. After reaching maturity he engaged in the grocery business, and for

Page  205 GENESEE COUNTYT, MICHIGAN. 205 seven years applied hiinself to this work. Then for eight years he was with the Smith Bri(lgmaan Company. His business experience has been varied and extensive, inasmuch as he was constantly on the alert for opportunities to buy or (lispose of interests according to prospects of favorable transactions. He has handled furniture on an extensive scale and has also conducted business as dealer in second-hand articles. In recent years he has given considerable attention to real estate, and is one of the members of the Riverside Land Company, which has taken such an active part in prolmoting the growth anld extension of the city's desirable residence areas. This company has platted "Fairview," a tract of two hundred and thirty lots, consisting of about forty acres, and is a new addition directly north of the Flint Wheel Works. Mr. Rutherford was married December 31, I890, to Miss Mary Cole, a native of MNcComb county, Michigan, and a most estimable and helpful comIanion. She became the mother of three children-John W., Bessie A.. and Frank G. MAr. Rutherford is a man that takes an active part and interest in public affairs, and is a thorough champion of all measures that have for their purpose the promotion of the public welfare. His good judgment and business ability have resulted in the accumulation of considerable property, including also farming interests. He is a member of the Order of Foresters, Odd Fellows and the Royal Guard. He and his rife are active and loyal workers in the Court street Methodist Episcopal church, Mr. Rutherford having for years been a valuable counselor on the board of trustees.

Page  206 206 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY EDWIN J. CURTS. Mr. Edwin J. Curts, the subject of this biography, is a member of the firm of Curts & Page, dealers in clothing and men's furnishings, the organization of which firm took place in I906. Mr. Curts was born in East Saginaw, Michigan, October 23, 1870. His parents, Jacob and Elizabeth (Bell) Curts, were both emigrants to Michigan from Ontario. Jacob Curts was a cooper by trade and operated a shop in Saginaw, and also one in Flushing, Genesee county, continuing at this until about ten years ago, at which time he removed to Manistee, and is living in retirenient there at the present time. Edwin J. has been living in Genesee county, therefore, since he was three years old. He received the regular common school education, after which hle completed the high school course in Flushing. At the age of seventeen lie began active work by engaging as clerk, and was with the Brannan Brothers for four years. He then came to Flint in 1892, and for the next eight years was with W\. C. Lewis & Company in business, and proved to be a success at his work. Later he became connected with A. M. Davison, dealer in clothing, and here he acquired a thorough insight into the intricacies of the clothing business. Mr. Curts takes an active interest in political affairs, and his counsel andl judgment have been of invaluable service to his party. In 1902 he was elected county treasurer and was re-elected to the saime office in I904, serving the people with great efficiency and integrity. He gave the office his personal attention and succeeded in discharging his duties in such a way as to win the confidence of everybody. He started his present business in I906 in company with his old associate, Mr. Page. The business has grown to a remarkable degree, and they now occupy a building thirty-three by seventy feet, having a tailoring clepartment on the second floor. They now employ four assistants and their business is surpassing their most sanguine expectations. Mr. Curts was joined in matrimony on May 6, I896, to Miss Minnie E. Quirk, of Flint, daughter of Maurice Quirk, now deceased. Minnie was born at Chatham, Ontario, and before her marriage was eimployed by Homer A. Day & Company, makers of abstract books for Genesee county. She had

Page  207 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN., 207 become quite an experienced bookkeeper, and was of great value in the work in which she was then engaged. The family life has been both congenial and happy, and has been brightened by the advent of two children, Maurice E. and Dorothy E. Socially the family has also been an estimable addition to the community, and their circle of friends is constantly wAidening.

Page  208 FRANK T. I-IALL. Another of Flint's most active business mlen is Mr. Frank T. Hall, dealer in agricultural implements. His place of business is located on the corner of Fifth avenue and Oak street. His father, Homer L. Hall, was a native of Genesee county, New York, and his mother, Henrietta (Cooley) Hall, was born in Pennsylvania. They were married in Genesee county, Michigan, and began their matrimonial career on a farm in Flint township. They lived at this location for a time and tlen removed to Louisa county, Iowa, settling on a farm. Mr. Hall cast about in various parts of Iowa and Missouri, engaging in such occupations as opened up for him. For a time he was engaged in the hotel business, and then also took up the work of printing. He returned to Genesee county, Michigan, about 1876, and has since resided here, with the exception of a few years when he lived in Petoskey and in Emmett county, Michigan. The family consisted of seven children, four sons and three daughters, Frank being the eldest child. Frank was born in Louisa county, Iowa, August 22, 1859. He spent the greater part of his life up to the age of sixteen in Iowa, and then came to Flint, where he has since resided. He engaged in farming in Clayton township, and for two and one-half years was busy at this occupation. He then disposed of this farm and bought another one in Mundy township, where he

Page  209 EGiN ESE E COU NTY,' ' l MC HI GAN20 209 continued to live uip to thee-timie he removed to Flint, this heing in the fall of 190t. He has heen an industrious and economic manager, and now ownlls one hundred audl fifteen acres of excellent antl well improved farm land ill AMundv and Ii ht Pt)wnships. Onl con-ming to Flimt lie hecame engagedl in the sale of agricultural imlplemeents and has thus continued since. He has made a gool recordl as a (lealer, having1 the full conifideence of a large nummler of patrons. He handles an extensiv-e line of stock antl (levotes himself closely to business. He keeps well inifornmed and up-to-dlate iii his field, and cannot only tell his customers what is the best andtl most economical of the tools in the market, hut wastes no time in furnishing the things wantedl. He was married in Flint towniship oil Septemher 29, 1878, to Ml-iss Adlora LI. JIorrev, whto was horn ill Flint township and is the (aughter of Jesse and Melissa Iorrev, these beingo pioneer settlers in the commiun-iity. Tlhey occupied the first farm operated in the countyit this leing in Flint township. antl here they ended their days. M.1r. and Mirs. Hall have been the parents of three sons. Fenton A. is a farmer in nlundy townsh-ip, as is also the next son, Anson F. The other son, Francis, is operating a farm ill Burton township. Mr. Hall held the office of justice of the peace in Mundy township for inany years, and his (hecisions on the matters -brought hefore him'i were alwavs based on fairness and equity. He was elected alderm-an in Flint in i907. He is a dlistinguisolhel worker in the lodge of 0(d(d Fellows and is also a member of the K nights of the Mlaccabees and the Red Mlen. I4

Page  210 JAY ADAMS. Mr. Jay Adamls. of 302 \est Third avenue, Flint, was born in Fenner, Madison county, New York, August 27, 1825. His parents were Colonel James Adams, of Jefferson cc(untv, New York, and Sarah (Parks) Adams, of the MNohawk river district. James Adams was a colonel in the New York Cavalry and at the close of the war of 1812. was in the service at Sacket's Harb)r. In 183T the family removed to Livilgston county, New York, lut in T836 calme on to Michigan, taking u1p their quarters in Grand Blanc tow-nship, Genesee county. It was thought at that time the village of Grand Blanc would become the county seat, and Mr. A(lams procured land within two miles of the town. He cleared up (ltqite a large farm and there he passed the remainder of his (lays, dying at the age of seventy-four years. He was a Democrat and an active worker, but did not aspire to pul)lic office. In 1 837 he brought to the Flint mills the first grist raised west of Grand Blanc, as his was one of the first farms in that section to be improved. lThere was no settlement in the vicinity at that time, but one anl one-half miles north of Grand( Blanc stood a large building, luilt in 1832, callel Whigville, it being expected to become the county seat. Flint at that time was only an Indian trading post. Ten children were born to these parents, all but one of whom reached

Page  211 GENESEE COUNTY, 1MICHIGAN. 21 I maturity. Three of these were still living in 1907. These are Jay, our subject; Charles, of Grand Blanc, and Laura, wife of Smith Hardy, now living in Ohio. Others of the children were John, who was a farmer, living on the old honmesteadl; he (lied in the iwinter of I9o6, aged sixty years. Dorr died ill I857 when still a young man. A(lelia was married to Adson Beach. After Mri-. Beach's (leath she went to California, was m1arried there and later passed to rest in that locality. Charlotte marrie(l Rev. Orrin WThitmore, a Methodist minister, and (liel ill (Grand Blanc. Melissa was nmarried to Albert Torrey, of tlhe Tor'ey settlelnent in Flint township. She (lied near Flint, also. Jay renlaine(l at home on the farm, assuming charge of the place until his father's dleath, having in the meantime built upol) it a new home. In the (livision of the farm he received two hundred an(l forty acres, including the ol(l honiestead. He remained on the farm until about 1872, at which time he relove(l to HollA alid engage(d in the handling of stock. In I88I he removed to Flint, continuting in the stock lbusiness, and( for three years conducted a meat market. On Novemlber 12, i85o, he wnas united in mlarriage to Miss Laura Ann Hardy. daulghter of Francis and Dorcus (Smlith) Hardy, of Howell, New York. She was born in Ne\v- York state andl came to Michigan at the age of six years. She grew to maturity near Howell. She is a sister of Smith Hardy, who became the husl)and of Mr. -(lams' sister. MAr..and Mrs. Adams have becomne the parents of eight children, five of whom (lied in childhood, and one, Frank H., was called hence at the age of seveiiteen. James B. Allen, the third( child, livres at home. Sarah D. is living at home also. She has b)een for twel]ve years bookkeeper for the Randall Lumber Compan.y. Mr. Adams is a I)emocrat, but has lnever aspired to public office. He has devoted his time largely to the business of handling stock, and has mnade many interesting ventures. During the war time he bought four hundred head of horses at one purchase for the cavalry service. He enjoys fishing an(l endeavors to throw a ray of sunshine across the pathway of his friends, making life all the happier for those lwhose fortune it is to know him.

Page  212 212 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY LA FOREST BURNHAM. Mr. La Forest Burnham, like many another of our worthy citizens, is descended from hardy New England stock. He is a native of New Hampshire, the "Granite state," and was born at NWalpole, Cheshire county, on the banks of the Connecticut, or the "Long river." His father, Jacob B., was a physician, and his mother, Betsy Dickey, was the daughter of the estimable Matthew Dickey. Mr. Burnham came to Saginaw, Michigan, about the spring of 1868. He was familiar with the hardships of the lumber camp life and knew perfectly well what it mean to brave the winter blasts in cutting cown the timber, and then assuming the responsibility for the still more perilous work of running the "log drive" down stream. He has had many exciting experiences in preventing log jams, often being drenched from head to foot, hopping from log to log like a squirrel, but eventually coming out without mishap. His skill in judging good timber and his knowledge of the lumber business soon put him at the head of a gang of men for getting out square timber and ship masts for a ship building firm at Saginaw. While engaged in this line of work he was united in marriage to Miss Viola Crane. Miss Crane was born in Washtenaw county. Happy in their new relationship they sailed smoothly on their journey of life, but shoals and rocks are often hidden where least expected. The panic of 1873 proved to be a waterloo for them, and all the savings of years were swept away. Mr. Burnham had deposited his accumulations in a Saginaw bank which went under in the crash. Nothing daunted, however, and he and his brave wife started out anew, renting a home and beginning again practically at the bottom of the hill. Mrs. Burnham raised poultry and kept cows, so that by dint of hard work, coupled with grit, pluck and perseverance, they slowly climbed the hill again. Later Mr. Burnham decided to go into farming, and hence removed to a farm in Genesee county. Here he spent seven years of successful effort, having no difficulty in adapting himself to his new occupation, taking hold of the business like an expert, making things swing as readily as he swung the ax when getting out ship timber up among the pines. He kept his eyes open, however, for opportunities for betterment, and later removed to a farm in Shiawassee county, which farm he occupied for several years.

Page  213 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 2I3 He afterward removed to Gaines, still keeping in touch with his farm. He bought a small tract, a part of which lnow lies within the corporation limits. This he takes care of himself, for, although he has practically retired, he can not content himself by becoming inactive, but is satisfied only when keeping alert and seeing things accomplished. He has taken quite an interest in breeding' shorthorn cattle, realizing that in this (lay and age special attention must be given the subject of good stock breeding' if the results in this line are to keep pace with those in other lines. He also enjoys good, well-bred horses, both on the road and on the farm. Mr. and Mrs. Burnham are both members of the Episcopal church and find great enjoyment in this relationship. One child graced this union, Blanche. who was called by the death angel in her twentieth year. A niece, Ethel Palmer. and Miss Rose Cod, both have enjoyed the hospitality of the,Burnham home, having spent their early years under its care and training. Mr. Burnham is a member of the AMasonic order; in politics, a Democrat, but is, first of all, a loval, well esteemed and progressive citizen.

Page  214 ABRAHAM\J M. LYONS. Mr. Abraham M. Lyons is a retired business man of Flint. He was born in Antrim township, Shiawassee county, Michigan. His parents were among the worthy pioneers of Michigan, coming west in an early day and making for themselves a home in the primitive areas open to settlement. His father, Guy Lyons. was a native of Livingston county, New York, and his mother, Maria (Dunn) Lyons, was born in Groveland, Tompkins county, same state. On leaving the Empire state after their m-arriage they came to Detroit, remaining there for a short time. In 1836 they came on to Flint, and remained there for about one year. Mr. Lyons was a farmer by occupation and soon cast about for a good location. He finally decided ulpon a tract of government land in Shiawassee county, Antrim township, and this became the family homestead. Here the parents lived out their allotted days, working indlustriously and happily at the duties that came to hand. Mr. Lyons was gathered to his fathers when well advanced in years, and Mrs. Lyons attained well into the seventies. She became the mother of a large family, consisting of almost an even division of sons and daughters. Abraham was one of the youngest of the family and was reared on the old homestead, getting his training and experience by wrestling with the

Page  215 GENESEE WLU'N'Y, ]MICHIGJAN. 1 2 f prohlems incident to life on the farmi. While still under the parental roof he was married to Mliss Eva S. Henrv, who wvas horn at Perry, Shiawassee co~unty. She dvas a datughter of \Villiam Henry, a pioneer of the county. T'he new, couple remained on the ol( farm for about one year after their marriage, after which they renl-ived to Flint. Here M~r. Lyons hecame engaged in the mn1sic hnsiness, later coupling with this the handling of real estate. He soon olbtainedl the confilence of friends alll husiness associates, and his relatioiis to the city's life and interests hecame not only profitahle lbut pleasant as wvell. He has lbeei a notary puhlic for eight years, and while still living in Shiawassee county lie was chosen deputy sheriff, serving as sucih for a term of two years. He is a man who has lone his part in the improvemeent of the city, taking a firmnstand at all times for a clean city aiid a fair ail upright policy in the administration of the city's affairs. Since 1904 lie has retired fromi active participation in husiness life, h)ut his interest in the general welfare has not ahated. His wife, Mrs. Eva S.. (hie(l at an early age. She was the nothier of one (laughcyter, Leiia B., who. is the wife of E. C. MWathuson. of Fliiit. T'he homestea<l aiid farm is owliedl 1w A. MN. Lyons, our suhject, anii his hrotlier. Many niore itens of iiterest coniiected wvith the life of Mr. Lyons could ibe uiveni, hut the events here recorded are sufficient to (irawN hefore our readters a general picture revealing the traits aid events pertineit to the purpose of the preseiit chronicle.

Page  216 216 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY ARCHIBALD McGIILIVRAY. Mr. Archibald McGillivray, general contractor of Flint, Nwas born in Montrose township, Genesee county, Michigan, August 9, I865. His father, Dllncan McGilliwvay, wTas a native of Scotlandl. Itis mother, Marion (Street) er) McGillivray, was a dlescendant of pioneers from New York state. Her parelts camne to Genesee coulty, Michigan, when the wilderness still reignedl. There was only one trail into this district, and over this trail trade was carried overland to Pontiac andl other points. Flint consiste(l of but a fe\w shanties at this time. Mr. Streeter attainedl the age of ninety years. M-rs. Streeter, whose maiden namle was Catherine Marion, was a sister of Francis Mar-ion, of revolutionllary fame. Mr. Duncan McGillivray becamne a lunmberl-nan in (;enesee and SaginawA counties, and( engagel in exporting pine, scluare oak timber, etc., for vessel buildling. He is still living on his farm in Miolntrose towAnship. Archibald remained at homle until twenty-seven years of age. Hie became intereste(l in lunmbering w-hen still a boy, and 'as soon as p)ractical)le he (dev-oted himself to the business. He handled export trade almost exclusivelv. He woulld plrchase a tract of timber land and then cget out the material for vessel building. etc. For two years he Awas connected with tlhe Flatt Brafdley Comp)alln. of Hamilton. Ontario, looking after that flil's lunmber illnterests at Saginaw. He wN-as also employed for a time 1wb the state to guard the timbler interests on the state lands. He next starte(l a sawmill andl the cratingl- work-s in Flint. TIe has no)t had all smooth sailing, how-ever, for at one ti'me his plant was completely burned out. He set resolutely to worlk and in a short time was again doing' a good blsiness. His energy and pluck found expression in many enterprises iwith;which lhe later 1)ecamie connected, one of these beeing the Flint Sleighl Comlpany. At the preselnt tilie he is doing general contracting business. He Awias married at Vienna to Miss Anna Colton. Nwho died seven years after their nnion. Thrliee children were born to them. They are: Archie Lee. Glen Gary, and M/arguerite. Mr. McGillivray's second marriage took place in F'lint in I902 to Miss VWinifred W";illiams, of Genesee township. dlaughter of Samuel AWilliams. -Mr. McGillivrav is a member of the Masonic fraternity. His standing

Page  217 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 217 among his friends and business associates is excellent, all of whom sustain the hig-est confidence in his integrity and sound business judgment. FREDRICK L. TUPPER, M. D. Freldrick L. Tupper, M. D., of Flint, was born in Michigan in the '5s. His father, the Rev. Alexander Ilupper, was born iln Monroe county, New York, and his mother, Mary (Gamble) Tupper, was a native of Vermont. Rev. Tupper came to Michigan in an early (lay and assumed pastorates in various parts of the state. He preached his first sermon in a log school at Grand Blanc. He had charge of Baptist congregations in Pontiac, Milford, Clarkstoin, and also at Toledo, Ohio. For two years he had charge of the f.irst Baptist church of Flint. He was a man of rare talent and of wide educatio1i. He spoke seven different languages and was a fluent pulpit orator. He )possessed considerable business.abilitv and mechanical genius, and was enabled to carry out other projects w-hile still (lischarginlg his duties as past(:r. He built the first gas works in} Pontiac, Michigaln, his talent and fitness being at Olnce recognized by the citizens. His inventive turn of mind found expression1 in several patents that have provedl valuablee ad(litions in their respective fieldrs. He was of a benevolent turn, but tool heed not to parade his gifts before men. He departed tllis life while living in Ohio. \Mrs. Tupper died in AMichigan. IThis union resulted in the birth of a large family, all of whom are llio\ (lecease(l except Fredrick, the subject of our sketch, and one sister, M\ar, 1L., wife of J. F. Becker. IFredlrick's bo]vhod days were spent chiefly on Michigan soil. On reaching matul-itv lie engaged in business in Clark county, remaining there for about ten vears. He tlen discontinued his interests there and removed to West Bay City. Later he came to Flushing and then took up the study of medicine. He entered the MTichigan College of Medicine at Detroit and graduated in due time. H-Ie began the practice of his profession in \West Bay City, where he continuedl to practice for several years, wAhen. on account of ill health, he gave up active practice for a time in order to recuperate. Following this lie removed to Flint, and as his health became restored he entered again actively into the practice of his profession. He soon estabagain~ acieynot

Page  218 2 1 (S BIOGRAPHICAL HISTL ORY lished a good business andl was imlmediately recognized as an able ad(lition to the medical fraternity of the city. He is not only progressive, but aggressive as well, and has been i(lentifiedl with leadingo local andc national medical organizations. He is a nmemober of the North American National Association, the State Medical Society andl also the Genesee County Medical -Association. He was married in 1902 to Miss Jennie Reed, whllo was born in H-luron county, Michigan, an(l their union has resulted in the birth of two children. Dr. Tupper has been active in public life wherever he has been stationed, having- been health officer for several years while at Bay City, and while at _Meredith performed efficient service for the general welfare. COLONEL STOCKITON. Colonel Thonmas Baylis \\Vhitmarsh Stockton, of Flint, the youngest ()f thirteen children born to Charles and Elizabeth (North) Stockton, was born in Walton, Delaware county, New York, June I8, I805, and (lied at his h(-)me in FIlint Decemlber 8, 1890, having attainled the age of eigihty-five years and six months. A second cousin of his father's was Richard Stockton, who was a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Another relative w-as COllmo(lore Stockton, of the -United States navy, whllose activity on the Pacific resultedl in events of such vast importance, an(l whlose name has been given to the city of Stockton, California. Charles Stockton, Tholnas' father, settled in I8i6 on a large tract of land(l that he had purchased ill Delaware county, New York. The mother (lie(l when ThQnmas was still in infancy, and he was adopted by a mnarriedl sister, Mrs. Dr. 1T. B. WVhitmarsh. hence the name \Vhitmlarsh. He was gra(luate(l from the Military Academy at W\\est Point in the class of T827, and as )brevet second lieutenant was assigne(l to duty at Jefferson barracks, St. Loulis. AMis souri, and the next year as secondl lieutenant of the First Inlfantry United States army. He was sent to Ft. Snelling', near St. Paul, Minnesota, the most no(rthern post of the upper Mississippi, undler Iieutenant Zachary Taylor. Ilnl 1832 he was assigned as assistant quartermaster at Prairie du Chien, where he Nwas promoted to be first lieutenant of the First Infantry. Here he Nwas marrie(l. March 3, I830, to Maria G. Smnith, of Detroit. Being an expert topogralphical

Page  219 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 219 engineer he was soon detailed to Detroit, being placed in charge of the building of military roads and brilges. While so employed he visited Flint in 1834, having surveyed the turnpike through this place from Detroit to Saginaw. The next year he resigned from the army and was employed for ten years l)y the government as a civil engineer, surveying and improving most of the lrincipal lake harbors of Ohio, Michigan and Indiana, making Michigan City, Inlliana, his home. He was elected mayor of that city in 1838. In I847 he was appointed colonel of the First Michigan Volunteers, that being the only regiment raised in the state for the Mexican war. He was appointed civil and military governor of the city of Cordova, where part of his regiment was stationed. Coming to Flint in 1839 he made this city his home until 1852, when he removed to California. Mr. Stockton's wife was the youngest daughter of Jacol) Smith, who was doubtless the first white settler of this place, his death occurring- here in I825. He had been a captain at Detroit at the time of Hull's surrender. After the close of the war of 1812 he was employed 1y the government to visit the Chippewa Indians, and, locating on the Flint river, he soon entered -pon intimate terms with this tribe, and his efforts resulted in the treaty made by) General Cass at Saginaw in 1819. His log cabin stood on the bank of the river at what is ]now the corner of Garland and South streets. The Inlians, especially Chief Naomi, hall become so attached to him and his family that they insisted on reser-ing a section of land for each of his four daughters. Harriet, the eldest of these, became the wife of Captain John Garland, wlhose name was perpetuated in the naming (of Garland street, Flint. Louisa, another daughter, married Chauncey Payne, and for many years they made their home in Flint also, Payne street being named in their honor. Maria, the youngest, became the wife of Colonel Stockton, as already noted. Her section of land lav some distance (lown the Flint river, and Colonel Stockton theni purchased another section a(ljoining the original town plat. In 1845 he laid off Stockton's addition, comprising eighty acres, extending to Church street on the east and bounded by Court street on the south. When the state school for the (leaf was located here Colonel Stockton donated twenty acres on condition that the school should be erected upon this tract. The trustees bought an adjoining tract, however, upon which the main building was placed, thoiughl the new Brown hall does occupy the site as originally intended. Retlluning from California in 8 58, where he had been engaged in mrin

Page  220 220 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY ing alnd in the United States custom service, and in the building of telegraph lines, he tendered his services to the oovernment at the outbreak of the Civil war. HIis services not being accepted at once by Governor Blair, he appealed directly to the President and was authorized to raise a regiment known as Stockton's Independent Regiment, and which was enrolled finally, at the request of the governor, in the Sixteenth Michigan Volunteers. When reporting for duty at W\\ashington in Septemlber, i86r, Colonel Stockton was assigned to the Third Brigade, First Division, Fifth Army Corps, Army of the Potomac. Hle was in the peninsular campaign under McClellan, was at the siege of Yorktown and the battles at Hanover Court House, Mechanicsville and Gaines'.Mill. At the latter point he was made prisoner and confined in Iibby prison until exchanged the following August. He then again assumed command of his regiment just after the second battle of Bull Run, and during the absence of the brigade commander, General Butterworth, he held conmand during the battles of Antietam, Shepherdstown, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. He then resigned to accept an offer to raise five regiments which congress had authorized \lldrew Jolhnson to use in eastern Tennessee, but as the authority was revoked before lie had made much progress he returned to private life in Flint. He engaged in the commission business in the old warehouse that occupied the site of the present city mills. Always a Democrat he was gelierally found in his party's councils, and was a dlelegate to the national convention in 1872 that nominated Horace Greeley for the presidency. Of twenty-two children in his father's family, including nine by a second marriage, Colonel Stockton was the last survivor. He was survived, however, by his companion in life until April, 1898, when she, too, passed to rest, aged sixty-one years. Their married life was singularly beautiful in its harmony and marked by a great similarity of taste and the absence of any discordant tones. Mrs. Stockton was a lady of rare training, and this was so coupled with natural ability that her impress upon the life and society was in many respects most marked. In 1856 she and several other ladies organized at her home the first ladies' free library in Michigan. She was chosen its first president, and from that time her interest never flagged, although the general interest alated somewhat during the Civil war period. In 1870 she reported the resolutions passing the control over to the city.

Page  221 GENESEE COUNTY, MIUCHIGAN. 22[ Tihe only child to reach matuiritv was Bavlis Garland Stocktoni, wh-o wxas l)orni in WVashingyton, District of Columhia, July 2. 13.in the house of GeealMcCoomhs, who was conimiander of the ar-my wh-ille Colonel Stockton was stationed there. Hie went to California with his parents andI returned to Mlichigan in i86', and has since liyedl in Flint. In 1873 hie disposed of the warehouse and huilt what is 1now the Putniam elevator. He lost the sighit of one eye at that time. He was married at San Jose, California, to, Miss MAary McGreerev. Their on~ly son,~ Thomnas Francis Stockton, is a capahle attorney, p)racticing~ in Flint.

Page  222 \V1LLIJAIA H.. RUSSELI, M-N. D. William H. Russell, of Flmnt, wvas born at Slig~o, Irelandi, FebruarV 26, 1842. He wvas the sofl of johni Russell, a miller of Sligo, voooae at Romeo, 'Michigan, alboutt j8-o, later becominig a farmer near Almont, Lapeer coun-tyv, where hie (liel at the age of seventy-three years. \\'iflham workedl for two years lin Romeo as a mechanic anol then becamle assistant engineer onl the tug, "R. R. Elliott." He later mastered the carriage maker's trade aiid was enigageol at that for five years at Romeo anol Almnont. On August 17, 1~ 86 i hle enlisted in the union armny and becam-e~ bugler for ComIpany L of the F"irst Michigani Cavalry. His experiences in the service woulol form a long andl interesting story. Mention can be maole here of but a few of his adventures. He was lin action at Winichester, Mi'iddleton, Stras — burgo, Harrisburg, Orange Court House, Cedar Mountain, second Bull Run. Aqua, TIhorofare Gap andl Greenwich. After this the regiment becam-e a pairt of GeneralI Custer's comI-man-d. They wNIere eng aged after that in such coniflicts as those at Hanover, Gjettyshuroc, \I ionterev, Carleton, Boonjsboro~, Hagerstownl Willi amsport, Falling W~aters, Culpepper Court House, Raccoon Fordl Stevensburg, Richmond, the Wilderniess anol Cold H arbo r. WiT th ninety~-thiree men, of whom hie had commanl, hie wNIas (letacheol for fighting from Har-per's Ferry to Wianchester-, and here hie was surrounded, wvo-unded andl captured. He

Page  223 (GENESEE COUNTIY. MICHIGAN. 223 was iml)risone(l at Lynchburg, Pemberton, Libby, Danville and Salisbury, being a prisoner for two hundred and eighty-two days. He, with two others, escape(l twice fronl Danville, \\est Virginia, but was recapture(l. \\ith twelve coml)ani()ons he again ma(le his escape fronm Danville, and Nwas twice wounledl, (once inl the face anld once ill the knee. After the close of the war lie returned to Michigan, and later began rea(lilng medicine with Dr. MlcTl aggart at Grand Rapids. He attended Detroit \Medlical College, at the conclusion of which lie began practice in Clio ill I873. In 9goIt lie remiove(l fro(m Clio to Flint, andl has since been there engaged in general practice. He has kept in the forefront of his profession. HIe is a membler of b1oth the state andl co(unltv le(dlical asso(-ciatioiis. He is all active lodlge worker, being an Odd FIello)- and also a Miaso(n. In the Masonic fraternitv lie has helol ilil)ortanlt offices, having been secretary of the Grand {(lode. He is also a mlemller of tlle chapter and o(f the conlandele ry. He is an active Republlican. and has rendleredl efficient andl earnest service to his )al-rty. He was on the Avillage council at Clio for some years. He is a meml)er also of the Grand Arlmy of the Republlic, and is past cominander of the p)st. He is senllior vice-conmllian(ler of the dlepartmelnt of AMichigan, anld vicepresidlent of the Sol(liers' al(nd Sailors' Associaticon of Northeast Michigan, an(l in 1887 was its l)resident. He was TUnite(l States pension examniner on the ellsio(n b)oardl for several -years while at Clio. Dr. Russell was marrie(l in I1868 to IMiss Agiies MIcKay, of Almlonet, sister of the H(on. W\illiaml 1lcKav, ex-sleriff (of Tuscola countvy. She was b1)orn at IKilmornic, -Aershire, Scotland, andl canme to America when a girl. rl'leilr family consists of Ielandl H., a teacher and merchlant at Mtontrose. Mticlhigan, and Florence, wife of Charles Donahue, of Flint. Dr. Rtussell's iiiterest in his profession and its progress has nev'er abate(l, andl lie exerts a po()tent influence ill the collmmunity for its general improvermelnt and(l welfare.

Page  224 224 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY GEORGE LA DUE. Mr. George La Due, dealer in real estate and insurance, was born at Redwood, Jefferson county, Newv York, April, 1845. His grandfather was a native of France, and his father hailed from Vermont. George was reared at Redwood and learned the blacksmith's trade. He had considerable native skill as a mechanic and ere long this led him to engage in work other than that of his trade. Coming west in I866 he opened up a shop at Farranville, Genesee county, Michigan, continuing there for five years. Then, in company with his brother, he started a lumber mill at Farranville and engaged in the manufacture of lumber, shingles, staves, etc. Later he started a similar plant at the county line and developed an extensive business. His business m1ethods were both direct and upright, and he easily gained the confidence and esteem of all with whomn lie held dealings. In conjunction with the mills lie also dealt in merchandise, but in 1889 he closed out his business and removed to Standish, Michigan, and became a stockholder in the Gray Milling Company, makers of flour and cooperage supplies. He became manager of the concern, but after eighteen months lie returned to Flint. His business sagacity and integrity were now generally recognized and he was made manager of the Pallet table works, with which lie had had business relations, and which was in need of a head that could place it on a more desirable basis. This undertaking has resulted in the anticipated success. Mr. La Due then began the manufacture of light high grade vehicles, including bicycles, surreys, etc. This line of work did not develop as successfully as was desired and was later abandoned, after which Mr. La Due gave his attention to real estate and is still thus engaged. Mr. La Due was one of the promoters of the Union Trust Company and is one of its leading stockholders. The George ILa Due addition to Flint was platted in 190o. This is in the fifth ward, south of WVood street, between Detroit and Saginaw streets, and comprises thirty-seven lots. It has been improved and lots have been sold without difficulty. In addition to this enterprise Mr. La Due has built extensively, erecting residences of a high grade, and these have been much in demand in recent years. He conducts also a general agency business, including farm property and insurance. He is one

Page  225 ('ENESEE COUJNTY7, MICHIGA~N. 22 " of the live re-al estate hustlers of the citv, and has (lone invalu-ahie service in. stjmlulatingx and p)romohting -the city's growth andl a(hlvancemeint. He has not aspirc(I to 1)tihliC prominence of any kind, plfeferring, rather to at-tcnld to husiness andl has, therefore, refused all offers of public office of any klind. He has he~en a Mlason for thirty-four years. He likes to take hlis vacations', when the seascn approaches, andl is especially fond of hutntinog and fishing., entering- into the sport as heartily as hie does his transactions III buisiness. InI 18>4 hle was married to Elilzabeth Pippin, of Mt. Clem-ens, andl sevene children heave been lhorn of this uinion. Evaline MA. is a bookkeeper; Willard Robert M/elvine lives at Detroit; the others are Blanche, Georgia A., Ira and Iva (tw~ins), and Josephine. Thus, wvith a g-enerouis familyv and a wNholesomne public spirit, MNr. La Due has contrilbutedl in a commendable m-easuire to, the welfare and prosperity of hils chosen citv. Is5

Page  226 \V1LLlYI\tl L. FISHER. M~r. \Villiam- L. Fisher, superiiitendent of the city water wvorks of Flint, wxas born in GJenesee coninty, Michigan, JUly 2, 14.His parents were An(lrewv andl Celina ( Spence) 'Fishier, both i]atives of New York state. Thley were lpioneers ini Genesee connty. having settledI practically in the forest in M.Mris township, and reclaimedl som-e of the landl fromt its origina sittide..\ndrew 1Fisher (lied at the 01(1 ho,)mestea_(l. WVIlia reained on the farmi till fonrteen years of age, receivingsc ednttcation as was afrford(le by the schools of the neighborhood, this being, of conrse, qnite mea-ger. He then went to the Saginawx high school at Saginaw. and1" later camie to FIlint. Por the last nineteen years hie has confined his whiole attention to the management of the water wvorks. Thie plant is in a mneasure the product of his hands, as hie has been so intimately associatedl wit its1 gr th anl (levelopment. He was a stockholder in the original company. Trhere are about thirty miles of wvater mains. snpplxhing over two hundred hydr(rants, besidles niany private hy(lrants owniedl byv manufacturing concerns. Since the plant was purchased by the city several miles of mains have been added, and in 1907 many lines are being extendledl to the newer parts of the city. Dnring hs nineteen years Mriihrhshdfll chiarge of the plant. andl tb-is tenure of service alone is a most (lecidled testimonial to his efficienicy

Page  227 GENESEE COUNTY, IICHIGAN. 227 and integrity. He dlrew tie plans for and built thie present power house, and br) such work has made himself au invaluable aid to the city, into whose hands it passed in I903, the consideration being $262,500. It is governed by a board of water works commlissiolers, and at the present timte represents an investmient of $275,413. It is a self-sustaining project, and pays interest on its. owx l)ond(ls. The boardl keeps in active service al)out fifteen ermployes, and the plant is prloviing itself a payilng investment on the part of the city. The problem of mItunicip4al ow-nership is one that is prominently before the people of the coiuntry, and the experiment is being tried in various ways in many American cities. In European cities the practice has been in vogyue for some time, and its success is (le largely to the -efficient anl( upright lanageement of the utilities. rAIr. Fishler has made for hiimself already a miost enviable record for competency. sagacitr and execultive ability.

Page  228 JACOB KURTZ. Mr. Jacob Kurtz was born in Clarence township, Erie county, New York, July 7, 1843. His parents, Jacob and Anna (Leib) Kurtz, were both natives of Pennsylvania, but emigrated to Clarence township, New York, later on. Here Mr. Kurtz ended his days, departing this life at the age of forty-eight years. Mrs. Kurtz afterward came to Michigan, taking up her location in Genesee county, where she lived out her allotted time, passing away at the age of seventy-three. She was the mother of nine children, of whom Jacob, our subject, was the third. Jacob was educated and reared in Clarence township, New York, and devoted his early manhood to farming, continuing at this with both success and profit. He was a steady worker, and one that could get things accomplished without loss of time. In September, 1862, he enlisted in Company B, One Hundred and Sixteenth New York Infantry, and served until the close of the war, June 15, 1865. He, of course, had here a varied and interesting experience. In the light of modern conditions we wonder at the self-sacrificing spirit that burned in the hearts of the men of the day that took expression in such noble service for the flag of the free. He saw hard service and took part in many of the fiercely fought battles

Page  229 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 229 of the war. At the battle of Cedar. Creek he was wounded by a spent ball, but soon returned to active service. At the close of the war he returned to Clarence township, New York, and resunledl his work on the farm. He continued at this until I874, having been married in the meantime to Miss Susannah Diller, November 27, I866. Miss Diller wAas a native of the same town as he himself, having been born there September i1, 1845. She was the daughter of Abram and Catherine (Drudge) Diller, both natives of Erie county, New York. The Dillers came to Genesee county, Michigan, in 1874, and settled in Genesee county, where they closed their earthly career. Mr. Diller died at the age of sixty-three, while Mrs. Diller attained the age of seventy-six years. They were blessed w-ith five children, of whom, Mrs. Kurtz w-as the third. Mr. and Mrs. Kurtz came to Genesee county, Michigan, in April of 1874, and settled in Thetford township, where Mr. Kurtz purchased a farm and lived upon it for thirty-three years. In the summer of I907 he removed to Flint. He now owns three hundred and twenty acres of the best-kept land in the vicinity. Thle improvements are substanial and modern, and the general management of the farm is such as is likely to result in the highest possible pro(luctiveness of the land. TMr. and Mlrs. Klurtz are the parents of three children, and the life history of the family give alundant evidence of home influence and training in mollding and shaping the growing vouth. Frank, the eldest son, is a missionary in India, Awhere he has been stationed since I893. Edith is the wife of Cololel 0. Swayzee, and she has taken a very thorough course of training in voice culture and is one of the ablest singers of the city of Flint. She is the present choir director of the First Baptist clurch. Charles J. is a successful practicing physician of Chicago. Mr. Kurtz has held the office of supervisor of Thetford township, and for two years was township treasurer. He has served as highway commissioner and has taken an active and effective part in the political affairs of the townlship. Mr. and Mrs. Kurtz are active members of the Baptist church, having been for twenty-eight years staunch supporters of that denomination at Mt. Morris. Mr. Kurtz has been a most faithful deacon and was chairman of its board of trustees for many years. The Kurtz honle is at 925 Grand Travers street and is a place where

Page  230 230 II BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY friend meets friend and where the atmosphere of peace and comfort is never lacking. SAMUEL B. WICKS. The late Samuel B. Wicks, of Flint, was born at Carlton, Saratoga county, New York, June 3, I814. His parents, Luzon and Lucy (Baldwin) \XVicks, were both natives of Connecticut. W\hen Samuel was five years oldl his father (lied and the mother then removed to Wisconsin, where she ended her lays. After the death of his father, Samuel was bound out until he was twenty-one years of age, to Mr. James Templeton. He received his education in the common schools, and during the years preceding his majority he learned the blacksmith's trade. In 1835, having reached his twenty-first year he came to Michigan and spent about two years at Bentville. In 1837 he came to Flint and opened up a blacksmith's shop, continuing in that work imore or less regularly until I86o, at which time he was elected probate judge, serving in that capacity for two terms. Following this he became engaged in the retail milk business, continuing at that until about 1878, when he secured the appointment as first assistant to the sergeant-at-arms at the capitol at Lansing, Michigan. He served each session of the legislature until I889, when, after years of declining health, he succumbed to the inevitable and was gathered to his fathers on September 28th of that year. As the greater part of his years were spent here he was permitted in his day to see great changes in the life about him. When he arrived the county still harbored many Indians. XWVild animals were abundant, and Flint itself consisted of only four or five cabins. He becamne a mlember of the lodge of Odd Fellows, and lwas a Republican and a devout Presbyterian. His disposition was 1ost kindly, and this won for him a host of friends. On August 8, 1839, Mr. Wicks was married to Miss Emily Harrison, who was born at Palmyra, Wayne county, New York. She was the daughter of Rufus and Sara (Sawyer) Harrison, the former a native of Connecticut, and the latter of Vermont. Rufus Harrison was a soldier, doing battle for the flag during the war of I812. He followed farming near Palmyra, New York, and came in 1835 with his family to Michigan, settling on government land near the town of Flushing, Genesee county. He brought the farm up to

Page  231 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 231 a splendlid state of improvement, and here he ended his days in 1856. His estimable wife survived until October 23, 1894, and passed to rest at tile age of ninety-three. Four children were born to them, of whom Emily (wife of Mr. Wicks), was the eldest, having been bornl in 81 9. lThe other children were Andrew, W\arren, and Harriet, the latter having become the wife of William Schramen, w-ho nowo occupies the old homestead farm near Flushing. Mr. and Mrs. Wicks became the parellts of two children, Lucy and Edmnund H. Iucy, who became the wife of William Greenley, now lives in Burton township. Edmund was married to Sarah Barker, and lie and his wife have bloth passe(l to their rest, leaving a (laughter, Lucy, who was placed ill charge of her grandmlother, Mrs. Wicks, and vwas brought up by her. Lucy is 1lno tie wife of M\illard Butterfield, a prosperous and extensive farmer of (;enesee county. Mrs. \icks is now living at 616 Clifford street, Flint, this having been her Ihome for over fifty years. She has lived in the city of Flint for over seventy years, having now reached the grand old age of eighty-eight yea1-s. She was one of the origillal organizers of the Presbyterian church in Flint in 1837, being the youngest of seventeen charter members. Her life has been a living testilonial for tile Master, being characterized by deeds of kindness and charity. She has scattered su:shine and cheer over pathways mnade (lark by misfortune and bereavement, and has b)rotught comfort and encouragement to the ldepressed and discons)late. She, too, carries iln mind the varied experiences of early (lays, and recalls the time when the family first saw the soil of M-ichigan. They canle to Detroit by boat and there purchased all ox team. IThen they d(rove through woodls, still full of Indians and wild beasts, and arrived without mishap at their destinationl in Genesee county, whlich since that time has mllde sucl marvelous growth and improvement.

Page  232 RANSOM N. MURRAY, M. D. Ransom Newell IMurray, M. D., of Flint, was born at East Henrietta, Monroe county, New York, September I8, I830. He was the son of Philander and Harriet (Maltby) Murray, the former being a native of Connecticut and the latter of Saratoga county, New York. The parents of our subject came to Monroe county, New Yiork, after their marriage and Mr. Murray devoted himsself for a part of th e tie to farming, and at other times to mechanical work. In 1831, when Ransonm was about a year old, his parents removed to Westfield, Washtenaw county, Michigan, where thev spent the remainder of their years. Ransom remained on the farm until alout eighteen, receiving such training and education as opportunity afforded. He then went to private school at Ann Arbor and became groundedl in the necessary fundamentals of English, Latin and Greek. In 1852 he entered the nmedical (lepartment of the State University of Michigan. He read medicine also with Dr. Pray at Salem. and with Dr. Lammond, of Flint, Michigan, joining the latter in taking care of his large and lucrative practice. His next move by way of preparation was at the Jefferson Medical School of Philadelphia, from which he graduated with high honors with the class of i856. He kept himself well informed in his profession and followed his practice in Grand Blanc, Michigan, and vicinity

Page  233 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 233 until 1874. At this tiome lie removed to Lake City, Minnesota, w here he operated a grist mill in company with his brother, E. H. Murray. Three years later, in I877, he took up his practice of medicine in Flint. He has not only had an enviable practice, but has also been a busy memnber of the medical societies of the state, such as the State NMedical Society, the American Me(lical Association and various others. He helped to organize the County 'Mledical Societ+y, and has been a constant attendant upon its meetings. His work in the various hospitals has been both extensive and of great import, both to himself and to those with w-hoi l he was associated. He w-as enabled in this hospital work to see some of the achievements of many of the nmost prolminent surgeons of the (lay, and he took no small part in mlanl operations of considerable note. He visited some of the noted hospitals of Chicaoo. and was with the Mayo's Hospital at Rochester, Minnesota, where the clinics were attended lwy some of the best surgeonis frl-oml the Unite(l States and Canada. Previous to this he spent three months abroad visiting the lea(linlg hospitals and attendling clinics at ETdinburgh, Lon(lon and( Dubliln. Dr. Mul'rrav has given special attention to abdlomlinal surgery, pertaining to tulmor]s, appendicitis, etc. For some vears he conducted the affairs of the FliNt Hospital, and( was for on(e vear connected with the hospital at Bo3yne City. Mlicchiganl. in association witll Dr. Cllarters, and still retains his interest in tllhat institution. His ability as an operator has been recognlized )by the lead(llg professional menl of the communllll it. Dr. Murray has confilned himself clhietfl- to lis lpractice, and has stutliously a\oide(l l)olitics or political prefermenit. FIor tNwelve years lie has been physician for the MI\ichigan school for the (leaf, and local examiner for the leading old-line life insurance companies. IHe w-as married at Atlas, (;enesee county, to Miss Emla E. Cadv. Their son), J1-re(lrick, (lie(l at the age of fourteen. Eleanor, their daughter, became the w-ife (of John IHamaker. She is at present at the holme of Dr. Mlurrav with her f(llr children —Francis, John, A\m111brose and Lawrence. The doctor and fanmily are substantial supporters of the Baptist church and occupy a high place in the social life of the coinmmunity.

Page  234 ")' "), BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY THE TORREY FAMIYII. 'IThe history of the Torreys forms an interesting and valuable contribution to the present work. They are of English origin and an examination of their genealogy brings -to light the fact that 1embers of this family have been eminently associated Nwith the growth and(l levelopment of our commonwealth fronm its earliest histor-y down to the present time. The earliest ancestor. concerning whoml reliable data is available, was Philip Torrey, the father of seven children, all born in England, and having their home in the hanmlet of Combe, St. Nicholas, Somersetshire. The four boys of the family came to America andl settled at Weymouth, near Boston, Massachusetts, and from two of these, William and James, are descended nearly all the Torreys in America. The (lescendants of James, however, are now the only ones that bear the family name. Mention here can ble ma(le of only a few of the instances on record pertaining to the association the members of this family have had with the history of the country. The most remarkalle character of the four original famous brothers \as Villianm. He was an author, among his works being a book called "A Discourse ul)on Futurity or Tlhings to Come." He was skilled in the Latin tongnue, a good penman, a member of the "Ancient Honorable Artillery Ordler" andl the early recordls of all kindls in Boston bear the signature of \\rilliam rorrel, "clerk of the deputies." He (lied in 169o. Rev. Joseph lorrey was president of the Univeersity of Vermont, and other Torreys were presidents of this sort. Again, "Rajah Torrey," so-called, a descendant of W\illiiam, as for fourteen years al)solute nmonarch of a portion of the Island of Borneo) tulder the title, "Rajah of Ambloy anllNavo,A(lu." He was lborn in 1828 at Bath, Maine, and at one timle editor of the "Hong Kong Times" at Hong- lonCg. China' also consul to Siamn; foun(ler of the American 'Trading Company of Borneo in 1864' in 1879 secretary to the United States legation in Siaml returne(l to this country in 1883; was appointed by the king of Siam his chief ativisor, but die(l in Boston iln 1884. His full name was Joseph \\William Torrey, andl his record seldom equaled. Charles T'urner Torrey, a (lescendant of James, was commionlyi lkno)wn as "Martyr Torrey." A clergyman and anti-slavery advocate, lhe resigne(l

Page  235 GEN ESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 235 his pastorate and (levoted himself to the cause of the negro. Il I844 lhe was co-nvicted of an attempt to aid the escape of slaves. sentencedl to long inmprisonmlent in the state penitentiary at Baltimore, and (lied from exposure andl ill usage incidlent to prison life. His funeral was attended from Tremont temiple, Boston, l)y an iimmnense concourse of people. As a result 'Torrey's blood crieth out" became the watchword of the Abolition party. But we can not close this introduction without reference to a historian of our o\wn, of no mean repute among the Flint (Michigan) Torrevs, to-wit: Rupert G. Torrey. He frankly admits it to ble a coltlndrul fro l whlence camne all of the Torreys — is rather inclined to the opinion that they were of Spanish origin-pays the namle a fine tribute when lie kneels upon the hloodstaine(l grass on the slopes of Bunker Hill, and, lending over the prostrate formn of a wounded soldier, and in response, is faintly whispere(l the name of "John Torrey." Yes, John Torrey, who afterward becamne the granldfather of nearly all the Torreys in New York state and M\ichigan, and whose owln family consisted of Polly, Abigail, John, Tryphena, Jesse, \\Villiam, Asa, Daniel, Orange, Betsey (all deceased), amolng, the descendants of whom are today the mnembers of the To'(rev reunion of Flint, 'Michigan. JESSE TORREY. Jesse Torrev was born on the T3th day of February, 1785,. in MIassachusetts, and was one of the ten children of John Torrey and Abigail Richar(lson. Jesse's father was born September 5., 754, in Massachusetts, and (lied NMarch 9, 1822, ill York state, and Abigail Richardson was born Jul y 24, 7,55. anl(l ied August 8, 1845, in the samle state. W\hile very little is known of the said John Torrey the family Bible containinig the al)ove recordl is still in existence. We learn that he was in the Revolutionary war and fought on Bunker Hill, and, with others, used the l)utt of his gun after the ammunition was gone. His widow, Abigail, after his (leath drew a pension. He and his wife and son W\illiam are buried in an orchardl on the farm of Segar Torrey, two miles south of Stafford village, Genesee county, New York, but no stone marks their resting place.

Page  236 236 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY Now, returning to Jesse Torrey, his first wife was Sally Annis, to whom he was married in York state in i8o6 or 1807. Three children blessed this union-Asenath, Asa and Alonzo-and after his wife's death he was again united in marriage to Amanda Judd, and three children-Aurilla, Albert and Almon-were born to them. After the loss of his second wife he again married, being united to Melissa Cooley, and they had six children, viz.: Amanda, Andre, Alfred, Allen, Alvin and Adora, Allen dying at the age of five years. Jesse Torrey and his older children were in every sense typical pioneers of this county, lie having, together with his sons, Asa, Hiram, Judd and Roswell Standard, cut a path or road through the woods marked by blazing trees from the old site of the "Thread flouring mills," in the.south part of the city of Flint, to the original Torrey settlement, arriving there October 19, 1835, at which time there were but two log houses in the present city of Flint. Jesse gave his sons, Asa and Alonzo, eighty acres of land each, located the whole of fractional section twenty-four and a part of twenty-three in township seven north, range six east, for himself. He paid $1.25 per acre to the tUnitel States government for said lands, and he head about four tlhousan(l dollars left, which lie invested judiciously. He aided liberally in public improvements of all kinds in the neighborhood. Being past fifty years of age at this time it was indeed a p)ioneer life to him, but a brave heart and willing hands soon made a home in this dense forest. and in after years.he enjoyed the pleasures that earlier days had earned. The crude tools and implements with which these sturdy pioneers hewed and wrought for themselves and families homes out of the virgin forests illustrates the primitive method in vogue (luring the (lays of our fatlhers, and their earnestness to do and be. People often got lost in sight of their own homes. The howl of the wolf was more common than that of dogs now; venison took the place of beefsteak; a man with an ax upon his shoulder was' an inevitable suggestion of dinner for the cattle, as they browsed upon the limbs cut from the trees. Jesse was a man of determined resolutions and strong convictions, a hard worker, temperate, true to his friends, had a true sense of justice, was a Methodist through and through, an abolitionist and anti-slavery advocate in his day, and served twelve days in the United States army in the war of 1812. Being a musician, when a young man le performed on the bagpipe,

Page  237 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 237 and often on Boston Commons lle attracted a large crowd and would then sell to them his merchandise. He, together with his sons, \sa, Alonzo, Albert and -lmon, Hiram Judd, Jeremiah IKelsey and a few others practically built the old Torrey church, but it required extraordinary courage to begin and genuine pluck to complete. He was gathered to his fathers on the Iith of November, 1865, aged eighty ylears and nine months. His wife, Melissa, was horn October 26, i8i16, and (lied October 14, 1892. ASA TORREY. Asa Torrey, the eldest son of Jesse Torrey and Sally Annis, was born in the to\wn of Bethany, two miles south of Stafford, Genesee county. New York, on the g9th d(ay of Felbruary, 8r11. \When a boy he had practically-no educational advantages; never had a pair of shoes or boots until past eight years old, except those male from the tops of old boots made by the traveling shoemaker' and, being thus hardened by exposure, could and did slide on the ice barefoot as well as a lboy with boots, and these privations in no sense crushed his spirits or tenled in any way to weaken his character, but on the contrary he grew into sturdl manhood and developed qualities of character, courage, strength and fortitude and sterling integrity that few men possessed. He became a man with positive convictions, and stood by what he believed to be true and right. Being an abolitionist he was always intensely patriotic and gave two sons, John and George, to his country, together w-ith several hundred dollars in aiding John in recruiting his company (luring the Civil war. He was earnest in religion and moral matters, giving liberally to the church and for charitable purposes; stood for public and private improvements, and by his great strength and perseverance overcame difficulties and made a success of life. And of him it can be truly said: "He has done his share of the world's work." He was united in marriage to Miss Orissa White on the 2ist day of April, 1833, the ceremony being performed in the old church yet standing in South Bethany, Genesee county, New York. In the fall of 1835 he removed with his wife and one child, John, to Flint, Michigan, in company with

Page  238 238 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY his father, Jesse, and Hiram Jud(l an(l Roswell Stanard. He settled on the west half of the northwvest quarter of section t\wenty-five, township of Flint, two Imiles south of tile cityv arriving on the 9gtlh day of October, I835, with a balance of fifty cents in his pocket. He luilt a log cal)in, twelve by eigolteen feet, with one roof, one (loor and one window, and lived in it twelve years. 'From the (loor of this cabin lie shot many a (leer, wolf and other wild animals. He participated in the first election held in the then village of Grand Traverse, now- the city of Flint, after Michigan had hbeen admitted as a state. It was held in Daniel Freeman's blacksmith shop, the anvil answering for a table and -Mr. Judllge Stowe's p)lug hat serving for a box. He was a mechanic and a woo(l worker and l)lilt threshing machines before coming to AMichigan. Asa Torrev was a staunch MIethodlist; had taken the New- York "Christian Advocate" since 1840, foun(l great comfort in singing the oldest hymnns of Metho(lism, was a teetotaler, of cheerful (lisposition, lived and (lietl in the firm belief of the inspiration of the Scriptures and a hope bright with imnmortality. lie died of the infirmities of age Noeemnler 9, i899. nearly eighty-nine years of age. His funeral services were held from the Bristol church, Rev. Orlando Sanl)orn officiating, assisted 1y) Rev. 1H. E. WVolfe. The remains were buried ini the family lot in Bristol cemetervy. The family consistedl of John, Clark A7\., Sally., George D., Ordlelia, Mahlala, James M. and A. Perry. Mahala die(l at the age of fourteen years; George D. (lied at Pittsurg Land(ling, Tlennessee, while a nmember of Company A, Tl'hirteenth AMichigan Volunteer Infantry, in the Civil war, serving his country in the Federal army as a private, at the age of nineteen years and nine months, and sleeps under the sod of a southern battlefield in probably an unknown andl unmarked grave. Sally married John IMortimer, but (lie(l at the age of twenty-three, leaving one son, George A., father of Brent NMortimner, a bright young boy of eleven summers, who died in 1898. Orissa \White T'orrey was a woman of few words, but of stronog, clear mentality. quiet piety, correct principles, possessing spiritual life and experience, and(l eing a person who, "with charity for all and nmalice towardl lon'e" in her heart, b1 kind and courteous treatment through a long life, never ha(l an enemy, and (lie(l beloved 1)y all. Born of New Englandl bloo(l, in Franklin townsllip, Franklin county,

Page  239 GENESEE COUN'TYN, M\IICHIGAN. 239 \er1imont, on tile 26th day of July, I8Io, she Nwas married to Asa Torrey and remove(l to _Michigan and( was a faithful helpmeet in true pioneer style. She was a kind and loving m1other andl a wise counsellor to her children; andl, not findling time sufficient for the study of the Bible through the dlay, she set apart the hour fromn four to five in the morning for studying the Scriptures and for prayer, which practice she followN-ed from the log cabin dlays to the time of her dleath. She entered into rest on the 7th day of April, I897, aged nearly eiglhtyseven years, and was buried bl the side of her husband. 'Thou shalt come to thy grave in a full age like a shock of corn co)imieth in i l-lhis season." ALONZx O TORREY. \lonzo l'orrev first saw the light of (lav on MIarch 26, I813, his native town h)eingl Bethany, in Genesee county, Ne\vw \ork. He was the second soil of Tesse To)rrey and( Sally Annis. Lyd(lia, his wife, was also a native of New York, from) Shellv, Orleans conilitv. Her father's name Awas Christopher Le Valley. Uncle Alonzo andcl Aunt L(ia w\ere so well known-, both far and near, (lurinlg their life time, and so closelv connected with the history of the Torrev settlement and adljacent settlements for so rmany years, andl being almost inseparal)le, solme of (our references to one will apply equally to both. 'lhev hal nllO family andl consequently were free to come andl go. andl ha\-in'- the means, d(islposition and leisure time, they dlevotedl themselves for lnanv years to entertaininog and visiting their relatives an(l friends, and the hom(es \-ere scarce whlere their greeting of "C;ood morning' and "Good( night" were no<t familiar. Tlhe early vears of Alonzo w-ere sinimlar to those of Asa, they being associated to,-ether at one time in the manufacture of threshing machines at Middlleport. New 'Yorlk, and, like him, lhe was a man of great strength andi en(lurance. He was a lerson of marked individuality, of positive convictions and relied almost wholly upon his own-1 judgiment. He had opinions an(d when necessary expressed them fearlessly.

Page  240 -24t0 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY He was a great worker, economical, prudent and an anti-slavery and strict temperance advocate. He was a local preacher in the Methodist church, a man of much earnestness, and wAas prominent in religious matters in his (ay. He was also a man of large acquaintance and influence, and highly respected by all who knew hilil. Alonzo, on his advent into the Torrev settlement, also built a log house, hut, unlike his brother Asa's, which had a single roof of shake, floor of basswood logs split lengthwise andl planel smooth with an adz in the hands of the workman, his "was quite pretentious in appearance, having two roofs, one on either side, covered with shingles split from white ash, and on its completion he repaired at once to Shelby, New York, and took unto himself a wife, with whom to dwell therein. In ye good days of raking and l)inling after the grain cradler, Alonzo could and did, for the truth of which we have ample proof, bind a bundle of wheat, throw it upward into the air and bind another before the first bundle reached the ground. Lydia Le Valley was a handsome mai(l in York state, acquired a good education in her youth and in 1836 married Alonzo Torrey and came directly to her cabin in Flint township, Genesee county, Michigan. She was a person having a very cheerful disposition, amiable character, gentle but convincing manner, sociable, well informed, a good conversationalist, and the kindest and truest type of a friend and neighbor. Her religious beliefs were somewhat Puritanic and thoroughly orthodox. She was intensely earnest and active, gave good counsel and was beloved by all who knew her. Many a lad and lass have gone from her door with a light step and lighter lheart, carrying a little basket of red apples and the kind admonition to be good. The first old log schoolhouse in Torrey settlement was accidentally burned and Aunt Lydia opened her house for three months and taught the scholars, and when the frame schoolhouse on the southwest corner of section twenty-four was built, she taught for four months longer. Many good things can be said of Alonzo and Lydia Torrey and they might all be summed up in this: The world was blessed and made better ly their lives. Alonzo passed to his reward on the i8th day of October, 1892, and(

Page  241 GJENESEE COL'NTY, M/ICHICA-N. 24 241 Lydia swept through-1 the grates in triutlphant faith on the i8th of Janury. [891, tedate of her hirth heing M\a,-rCh 23 ~ NICHOLAS NELSON TALBOT. Nicholas Nelson Talhot was horn oin the Islandl of Fayal, one of the Azore gronp. northwvest of Africa, Junie T o, 182 1, w hil e hiis parents were en route to Amierica fromi Ireland~. His parents settledl inl New York state, ainl there Nicholas was rearedl to maniloodl. He came west to Genesee conntyr in an early, day, awl was marrledli Flushfing. January 14, 185i, to MXaryC Deland, who was horn in NewNar-k, Tiogya conntv\TNew -York, January ii 1 8~ Uats elatve olte hisor of her parenits and ancestry will he found in the sketch of Charles K. Deland, Hin the present work. After comingy to MAichig-an M_'r. T'alhot andl wife settled in Flushingl township, where M\~r. Talhot engaged in farming-u. He later engaged in the mercantile business in Flushing-, hut on account of ill health was ohliged to relinquishi active husiness life several years hefore his death, wihich occurred at Flushing on Christmas clay, 1893. One son, Charles, was horn of thiis union. Mr. Talbot held the office ~of trea'surer of Fluslling township for one terul, and was much interested ill school affairs also, (loillg collsidlerable active work for- the promotion of the educational interests of the commnunitv. He was a most excellent Clhristiall gentleman. and an active worker in the Baptist church. He will lollg be renlellleredl for Ilils piety aild con-secrated service. i6

Page  242 JA-MES M. TORREY. James McAllister Torrey is a native of Flint township, Genesee county, Michigan, and owns and operates the old farm on section twenty-five, where he was born July 5, 1849. He was a son of Asa and Orrissa (White) Torrey, his father being born in Bethany, Genesee county, New York, February 19, i8 I, and his mother in Franklin, Vermont, July 26, I81o. They were married at Bethany, New York, April 21, 1833, and came to Michigan October 19, I835, when there were but two log shanties in the present city of Flint. They endured the hardships and privations incident to pioneer life. lived twelve years in a log shanty, had a family of seven children. Two of them gave their lives to their country in the war of the Rebellion. Captain John Torrey, of the Sixth Michigan Cavalry, died in Cincinnati, Ohio, and his remains were buried in the family lot at Flint. George died at Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee, and was buried in the National cemetery near there. A. Perry, the youngest son, is a railway postoffice clerk, running from Los Angeles to El Paso, Texas, and resides in Los Angeles, California. James had his early education and training on the farm, attended the district school in the old red schoolhouse, later the Flint high school, taught five years, held the office of town clerk and township superintendent of

Page  243 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 243 schools, then took up the study of law, entering the office of Long & Gold in Flint, Michigan, and was admitted to the Genesee county bar before Judge Josiah Turner May 29, I879. He hung out his shingle at Millington, Tuscola county, Michigan, and there practiced nearly three years; then engaged in the mercantile and timber business at AWilmot, in the same county, for one year and then removed to Kingston village and resumed the practice of law for six years, holding the office of justice of the peace, township clerk and postmaster. Mr. Torrey then returned to the old farm in the spring of I891, in Flint township, and with his family cared for his aged parents. He remained at this place for eight years, and then removed to the city of Flint in 1899, where he now resides. For eight years, beginning in 1893, lie was on the road as a solicitor for fraternal insurance for the Modern Maccabees, Knights and Ladies of Security and Lo oal Guard, working in several states for the latter order. In I90o he was elected justice of the peace, being the first police justice of the city of Flint, and re-elected in I905. He is a member of the Court street Methodist Episcopal church and of the official board, and has been superintendent of the Sunday school. Mr. Torrey is secretary of the Genesee county road committee. He chose the members of the committee and drew the map of the county as. also, of each of the townships, after the roads were named. These maps were approved by the board of supervisors and were filed in the county with each township clerk. Mr. Torrey married Miss Sarah A. Baxter, a school teacher of Davison, in I874, whose parents, James Baxter and Thomison Elsom Turner, were born in England in I819 and 1823, respectively, while Mrs. Torrey was born at Seneca Lake, New York, and to them was born one child, Ina Blanche, who married Mr. Jared C. King.

Page  244 SAMUEL J. WILSON. The parents of Samuel J. Wilson were pioneers from New England, being descendants of the hardy forefathers in that rigid clime. His father, Nahum Newton Wilson, was born in New Hampshire January 10, 1805. He was brought utip to manhood in the state of Vermont, and was married to Miss Phalle R. Slafter on St. Patrick's day, 1828. Miss Slafter was born in New Year's day, i806. In 1834 Mr. Wilson with his wife and two eldest children came from Vermont to Genesee county and for about one year lived in Flint and operated a saw mill. He was also engaged in carpentry and assisted in building the first frame house in Flint. He then took a contract to clear forty acres of land at Pine Run, in Thetford township, for Judge Hotchkiss, of New York. WVith the money thus earned he purchased eighty acres of woodland in Thetford township, which he cleared and operated successfully. Mr. Wilson was one of the first supervisors of Thetford township andl took an active interest in public affairs. The last years of his life were spent in retirement in Flint, where he died May 7, 1887. Mrs. Wilson had passed away on August 13, 1863. This union was blessed with eight children. They were Mercy E., Carlos P., William H., Farwell A., John N., Persis A., Samuel J. and Nahum T. Four of these are now deceased. Our subject, Samuel J., was born in Thetford township September 3, 1849. He was reared there and received such education as the schools of the

Page  245 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 245 times afforded. He remained at home until he was of age, receiving that discipline and training that makes so often for the sturdy characters of maturer days. After reaching his majority he was engaged for two years in saw milling and lumbering. He then returned his attention to farming, and purchased a farm in Forest township, which was at that time but poorly improved. He continued upon this farm for some eight or nine years, and succeeded in bringing it to a satisfactory state of productiveness and improvement. He then sold the farm and transferred his operations to Flint, becoming engaged vith is brother, Nahum T., and others, in the manufacture of cabinets, creameries and other dairy articles patented by himself and brother. Mr. W\ilson was married in Thetford township September 19, I869, to Miss Elizabeth Perry, (laughter of James and Mary (Greenway) Perry, Awho w-as born il Simcoe, Ontario, January 24, i851. There were four children born to this union, one of whom died in infancy. The three living are Virogil A., Guy M. and Mabel C., who is now the wife of Charles H. Vickery. Mrs. Elizabeth Wilson died on November 29, I881, and Mr. Wilson was again married, this time to Miss Harriet P. Clark, the (laughter of John D. and Emma (Daniels) Clark, having been born in Tuscola county, Michigan, January 12, I863. Mr. John D. Clark was a soldier in the Civil war and died in the army. Mrs. Clark died in Arbela township, Tuscola county. By this second union there were two children, Corwin D. and E. Marguerite. Mr. W\ilson has for eight years held the office of alderman and has faithfully and efficiently represented the interests of his constituents. XWhile in Forest township he held the office of highway commissioner. He takes an active interest in all thle affairs that pertain to the advancement of the city. He has been especially responsible for much of the change for the better in matters pertaining to paving the city's streets. He was instrumental in bringing about the change from the use of the old wooden block system to that of the modern paving brick, and subsequent' developments in this and other cities have demonstrated the wisdom of the change. He is also the secretary and treasurer of the Michigan Dairymen's Association, which office he has held for the last sixteen years. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, Blue Lodge, No. 23; Washington Chapter, No. I5, and Genesee Valley Commandery, Knights Templars, No. 15. He is also a member of the order of the Eastern Star.

Page  246 246 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY JAMES H. FAILING. Mr. James H. Failing, retired blacksmith, living at I3I9 Detroit street, Flint, was born in Marshall, Calhoun county, Michigan, November 20, I84I. He was the son of Henry and Elizabeth (Howe) Failing, both from the Mohawk valley, New York. Henry Failing followed the occupation of farming, and after his marriage in New York he came to Michigan in 1831. Upon his arrival at Marshall there was but one house in the neighborhood. He took up a tract of government land and set to work to improve it and bring it under cultivation. Later he disposed of this farm and removed to Albion, Michigan, where he and his wife continued to live until their life's close. They were devout and industrious people, members of the Methodist church and active participants in affairs generally. Mr. Failing was a Republican, having been a member of the Whig party, which proved to be the forerunner of the Republican party. The family consisted of four children, three of whom, Margaret, Wesley M., and Charles M., are deceased, while the fourth, our subject, still survives. James was brought up on the farm and continued there until sixteen years of age, at which time the family removed to Albion. He was educated in the Albion schools and remained at home until nineteen years of age. At this time he enlisted in the Federal army, and no patriot rendered better or more willing service in the cause of the flag than did he. He was out in the field for four years and six months. After the war he returned to Michigan and made his way to Flint, where he started up in the blacksmith business. This he followed for about one year, and then sold out his interest on account of ill health. Since that time he has acted as clerk and has given some other work his attention, also, but is now practically retired. On August 30, I872, he was married to Angelnte Dullam, daughter of Robert and Mary Ann Dullam, both very early settlers of Genesee county, Michigan. They were prominent farmers and are now both deceased. Two children blessed the union of Mr. James H. Failing and wife, viz., Bessie S. and Nina E., the latter becoming the wife of Earl B. Adams. Mr. and Mrs. Failing were active workers in the church and were universally loved and respected. Mr. Failing is a Republican and a Maccabee, also a member of the Gov

Page  247 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 247 ernor Crapo Post, No. 145, Grand Army of the Republic. No part of his life is of more interest than his experiences while ill the southern clime. He enlisted in I86i, joining Company D, Twelfth Michigan Infantry. This enlistment was made at Albion, MAichigan, for a term of three years. His experiences in the field were both hazardous and trying. On April 6, 1862, he was taken prisoner at Shiloh and was not exchanged until February 26, 1863. On March 8th, the same year, he was made sergeant and on December 21, I863, he re-enlisted and was mustered in at Little Rock, Arkansas. In April, 1864, he was made first sergeant. He was discharged on January 7, 1865, to accept the comlmission of second lieutenant. Some of the battles of note in which he participated were Shiloh, Pittsburg Landing and Little Rock. He was often engaged in exciting an(d d(angerous skirmishes, and can entertain (oe for hours rehearsing his experiences in the guerrilla warfare in IArkans-s. He was mustered out at Camdlen, Arkansas, February,5, i866.

Page  248 TALMON C. OWEN. Talmon C. Owen, retired farmer and soldier, living in the village of Genesee, was born at Almont, Lapeer county, Michigan, June 30, 1841. His parents were Amos H. and Louise (Shaw) Hewitt, both natives of the "Green Mountain state." HIe was adopted by his uncle, William B. Owen, and( has since borne the name of Owen. His boyhood days were spent in the wholesome surroundings of life on the farm, having been brought up in Almont township, Lapeer county, Michiganl. His education was obtained at the district schools in the vicinity, and at a neighboring academy. Talmon was one of a family of eight children, his brothers and sister, in order of birth, being as follows: Dwight, of Michigan; Cornelia, Clarissa, Horace, Calvin, Henrietta and Mary. In January, 1862, Talmon enlisted in Company F of the Tenth Michigan Volunteer Infantry. He was mustered out in the same month, but re-enlisted in the same regiment and company. He then went out into active service and cheerfully faced the dangers, privations and exposures incident to the life of those that went into the firing line. His experiences were such as were common to the soldier's lot, and an enumeration of a few of the engagements in which he took part will enable our readers to form an estimate of what it meant to defend our flag. He

Page  249 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 249 participated in the conflicts at Farmington, Corinth, Laverge, Antioch, Missionarv Ridge, Chickamauga, Ringgold, Buzzard's Ridge, Resaca, Rome, Dallas, Kenesaw, Chickamauga, and Chattahoochee. At the latter place Mr. Owen received a serious wounld. Although he went back to the field after recovering, the contest soon closed. He was mustered out at Louisville, IKentucky, on July I9, I865, and returned home to a well earned rest. On January 3, i867, he was united in marriage to Miss Harriet V. Boles, who was born in Lapeer county, Michigan, in 1846. She was the (laughter of William and Sarah (Deneen) Boles, both natives of the state of Ohio, but early settlers in Lapeer county. They were farmers, also, and devoted their lives to the tillage of the soil. Their family consisted of the following ten children: Nixon, Arminta, Melissa, Phcebe, Cyrus, Wallace, Osmer, Harriet, Alfred and Lemuel. In this large and robust family the genial spirit of fellowship and helpfulness was ever present, and Mr. and Mrs. Owen have in a measure reproduced the atmosphere of the old home in their own family fireside, around which they gathered'the following family of eight: Jennie, deceased( Nettie, now the wife of Henry Hookwith; Perry, now living in Idaho: De Loss; Harry, deceased; Roy, now a soldier in Alaska; Alton and Viola. For a few years they lived in the town of Flint, later removing to their farm in Genesee township. For the last ten years they have occupied their homne in the village of Genesee. lThe Ow\en home has been a place of welcome to many friends, and the kindly greetilng is never wanting to the many friends -who are privileged to call at the homestead. Mrs. Owen has been especially helpful in doing active work in the Methodist church. JOHN CHARLES C. STEPHENS. In the person of John Charles C, Stephens we have another pioneer resident of Genesee county. He was born in Groveland township, Livingston county, New York, March 9, I826, and was the son of Albert T. and Siana (Raper) Stephens. His father was a native of Connecticut and his mother was born in Pennsylvania. She was of German and Scotch-Irisl extraction,

Page  250 2.50 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY and she and her husband were held in high esteem by neighbors and friends as good Christian people. They were members of the Congregational church. Mr. Stephens was a Whig and later became a Republican. They were the parents of five children, of wlhom, John was the first, and is the only surviving child. The deceased are Edwin, Harrison, Wellington and Cornelia. The circumstances attending the birth of John were indeed precarious. The parents were living in a log cabin in the bottoms of the Genesee river, in New York state. A severe freshet came on and it seemed as though the cabin would be swept away, the water having risen so suddenly that no escape was possible. A part of the cabiin was used in making a raft and on this raft John was born while floating down the stream. A circumstance more distressing than this can hardly be inagined; yet, through it all, matters seemed to shape themselves favorably, and the whole incident has become a matter for family reminiscence. In i834 the family came to Michigan, it being still a territory. They settled in Genesee township, Genesee county, and took up a tract of oovernment land, making their home from timber on the land. In making the trip they drove to Buffalo, New York, and then took boat to Detroit, and from there drove by wagon to Genesee county. At that time Flint was a town made up of three cabins. John has spent almost his entire life in the county, the exceptions being time spent in the army and about one year while living at Saginaw and Bay City. In early life he learned the cabinet-maker's trade, and followed that extensively, but gave some attention to farming also. He now owns and lives upon a neat little farm of twenty acres in section sixteen of Genesee township. In February, I865, he enlisted in Company H of the Twenty-third Michigan Infantry and continued in the service until the close of the war. Mr. Stephens is an ardent Republican, but would never consent to hold public office. He is a loyal member of the Masonic fraternity, and is also a member of the Fred Walker Post, No. 134, Grand Army of the Republic. He has served four terms as commander and has been officer of the dav for fourteen terms. He has one of the most interesting and instructive collections of Indian relics to be seen in this section of the state. This includes shells, samples of Indian workmanship, and some good specimens of petrified objects.

Page  251 GEORGE E. LOVE. The subject of this sketch, George E. Love, was born in Clinton county, Michigan, May 31, I859. His father, John Love, was of Scotch descent and was a native of New York state. His mother, Mary (Gay) Love, was of English ancestry. They came from New York and settled in Clinton county, and there became engaged in farming. Mr. Love ended his cays on the farm, reaching the age of sixty-five years. His death occurred in December of 1884. Mrs. Love afterward removed to Flushing, where she died December 31, 1904, at the age of seventy-four years. Mr. and Mrs. Love were highly respected people, well known in their community as pious and industrious neighbors. Their family of children was quite large, George being the sixth child. He was reared on the farm, thus getting his first experiences in life from contact with the hardy problems set by mother nature. As a boy he was active and energetic, receiving such education as was afforded by the rural schools of the times. Possessed of an ambition to assist in maintaining the affairs of the paternal home, and at the same time desirous of working on his own responsibility, he became engaged in various occupations away from home, beginning at the age of seventeen, and continuing until about twenty-six. His attention was turned toward buying and shipping stock, and in prosecuting this occupation he obtained a reputation for honorable methods

Page  252 252 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY of dealing with. his patrons, as well as making a record for himself as a man of keen business insight. Following this he became interested in lumbering, transacting this business in Mecosta county, Michigan. This occupied him for many years, and in this work, as in previous occupations, he distinguished himself with the same fortitude and success. In I900 he transferred his activities to Flushing and re-engaged here in the lumber business also. Since his arrival in Flushing he has achieved not only success in business, but has obtained the confidence and respect of his fellow townsmen as well. He has been chosen as a member of the city council and is looked upon as a conservative and reliable exponent of the people's interests. He was married in Gratiot county, Michigan, on December 29, I885, to Miss Ida B. Currence, who was born and reared in that county. She was a young lady of estimable standing in the community and has proved to be an able and worthy helpmeet to her husband. Their union has resulted in the birth of three children, one of whom, Edith M., was called home to the Shepherd's fold when nine years of age. The two surviving children are Earl D. and Florence E. Earl D. was born October 8, I886; Edith M., born July 12, 1889, and died December 9, I897; Florence E. was born February 13, 1897. Mr. Love is an esteemed member of the Masonic fraternity and is looked upon as a valuable factor in maintaining and disseminating the principles of that venerable order. He is also a member of the MIodern Woodmen of America.

Page  253 EDWIN 0. WOOD. The following sketch is a plain account of the active and energetic life of one of the best-known native sons of Genesee county: Edwin 0. Wood was born at Goodrich, Genesee county, Michigan, October 29, I86I, where his parents, Thomas P. and Paulina M. -Wood, lived for nearly sixty years. At twelve years of age the subject of this sketch began clerking in a general store at Goodrich, and, save for some time spent at the Saginaw city high school, he continued in mercantile pursuits for quite a number of years, finally going on the road as a commercial traveler for the wholesale grocery house of W. J. Gould & Co., Detroit, Mich., where he remained five years, leaving to accept a position as Michigan representative for Hackett, Carhart & Co., wholesale clothiers of New York. Previous to his engagement with W. J. Gould & Co. he was appointed railway mail clerk at the request of Congressman Edwin PB. Winans, who afterward became governor of Michigan. Mr. Wood resigned from the mail service immediately, preferring a commercial to a political or government position. The friendship between Governor Winans and Mr. Wood was continued up to the time of the death of the former. When Governor Winans was elected he tendered to Mr. Wood the appointment of commissioner of insur

Page  254 254 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY ance for Michigan, but as the position held by Mr. Wood with Hackett, Carhart & Co. netted over $4,000 per year, which was considerably more than the other, the proffered appointment was declined. In I892 Mr. Wood was chairman of the Genesee Democratic county committee, and upon the inauguration of President Cleveland, in March, 1893, he was appointed a special agent of the United States treasury department. He was assigned to the states of Michigan, Ohio and Indiana, with headquarters at Detroit, but was for over four years engaged much of the time in special work, taking him over various portions of the United States and Canada. He was chosen by President Cleveland and secretary of the treasury, John G. Carlisle, to investigate the conditions of the customs service on the Pacific coast and in the northwest. In May, 1893, before he had been in the service three months, he seized the merchant steamship, "Haytien Republic," on Puget sound for the illegal importation (smuggling) of opium and Chinese laborers. The vessel was confiscated and sold by the government after the case had been appealed to the United States circuit court of appeals and finally to the United States supreme court, the judgment being affirmed by both courts. Mr. Wood requested the calling of a special United States grand jury at Portland, Oregon, in June, 1893, and when it had completed its work in July over thirty indictments had been handed down upon evidence presented to it as the result of Mr. VWood's investigation. At the subsequent trials it was proved that over fifteen hundred Chinese laborers had been admitted into Portland illegally, and that the government had been defrauded out of over $340,000 in customs duties upon opium smuggled during a period of seven months preceding Mr. Wood's assignment to the case. Also that the collector of customs had received fifty dollars per head for admitting Chinamen, or a total of over $75,000 in less than one year, and also that the local special agent of the treasury had received a regular salary of $I,200 per month from the smugglers' combine in addition to his salary as a United States government official, and that other customs officials and merchants were connected with the conspiracy which existed to defraud the United States government revenues. At the trials in the United States district court the collector of customs, James Lotan; the special treasury agent for Oregon, C. J. Mulkey; the owners of the steamship line, Messrs. Dunbar & Blum; the super-cargo of the "Hay

Page  255 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 255 tien Republic," and many others were convicted and sentenced. Mr. Dunbar, one of the steamship owners, after conviction, escaped to China. President Cleveland and the treasury officials extended to Mr. Wood tlhe thanks of the government for his work il these cases. Following the work on the Pacific coast many important investigati(o)ns were assigned to Mr. \Vood, notably an examination of the port of Boston, a task which took three months, and one of the results was the bringingl to light of the fact that the government had been dlefrau(led out of about thirty thousand dollars in a private bonde(l warehouse \where b):nled glass was stored. This money was recovered and paid into the treasury departmenit. Anlother case brought to light by Mr. \Voccd was a defalcation of four thousand (lollars in the cashier's office of the Detroit custom hl;use. In Jul?, I897, Mr. W\ood resigned his position, although assured by the treasury officials, of the then Republican administration, that because of his record, as well as the fact that the office was embraced in the civil service, he would be retained permanently. In 1895 Mr. WVood originated andl founded the Knights of the Loyal Guard, a fraternal beneficiary society, the name of which has since been changed to Loyal Guard. He was its first secretary, and two years later was chosen as president, -which position he has held continuously since, or a period of eleven years at the writing of this sketch. In I902-3 he was president of the National Fraternal Press Association, and in I903-4 was president of the National Fraternal Congress, which is nadle up of the leading fraternal societies of the United States and Canada, and represents an individual membership of about five million persons. In 1904 Mr. Wood was chosen chairman of the Democratic state central committee for Michigan, and conducted a memorable campaign, whereby the opposing candidate for Governor received one hundred and fifty thousand fewer votes than were cast for President Roosevelt in Michigan at the same election. In 1905 the city of Flint celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of its incorporation as a municipality. The Hon. C. H. Wisner, circuit judge, was chosen chairman of the general committee and Mr. Wood was elected chairman of the executive committee, his associates on this committee being J. D. Dort, J. H. Crawford, Rev. C. A. Lippincott, W. H. Edwards, wvith I. J. Allen, secretary, and C. T. Bridgeman, treasurer. The "Golden Jubilee" was a

Page  256 256 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY notable event, not only in the history of Flint, but of Michigan. The VicePresident of the' United States, a Justice of the Suprelne Court of the United States, all of the judges of the supreme court of Michigan, the governor, state officers, congressmen, President Angell of the University of Michigan, Bishlop Foley, of Detroit, and many other noted personages were present. Mr. Wood has been connected with various matters pertaining to the public life of the city, county and state where he resides. He has been president of the Genessee County Pioneer and Historical Association, a trustee of the (;lenwood Cemetery Association, and up)on the organization of the Flint Improvement League in i905 Mr. Wood was chosen a member of the executive conmittee, which position he holds at the time of this w riting. He is a member of the board of trustees of the M:asonic Temple A\ssociation of Flint, and was one of the soliciting committee of five who raised $47,000 within a period of two w/eeks toward the erection of a new Masonic temple. He is at present the editor of the "Loyal Guard Magazine" and has been for the past twelve years, and is a member of the Michigan Press Association. He is also a member of the Sons of the American Revolution; member of Genesee Lodge, No. 1 74, Free and Accepted Masons; \Vashington Chapter, No. 15, Royal Arch Masons; Genesee Valley Commandery. No. 15, Knights Templar; Michigan Sovereign Consistory, Scottish Rite Masons; 'Moslem Temple, Nobles of the Mystic Shrine; also a member of the Elks, Odd Fellows, Ben-Hur, Royal Arcanum, Modern Woodmen, Woodmen of the World, Supreme Tent of the Maccabees, Modern Maccabees, Independent Order of Foresters, Protected Home Circle, Knights and Ladies of Security, Knights of the Grip and United Commercial Travelers. In I907 he was appointed by the branch of the United Commercial Travelers located at Flint to represent that body at a hearing given by the Michigan legislature upon the bill to reduce passenger fares to two cents per mile, and was present at the hearing and took an active part in bringing to a successful termination the contest of the Commercial Travelers of Michigan for lower fares. He also was present at the hearing and took part at the time the bill to create a railroad commission for Michigan was before the legislature, which bill was subsequently enacted into law. He served three years in the Michigan state troops, Company A, Third Regiment (Flint Union Blues), and was honorably discharged July 8, I885.

Page  257 GENESEE COUN1TY, MICHIGAN. 257 Mr. \Wood has from time to time been one of the heaviest purchasers of real estate, not only in the city of Flint, l)ut in the county, having owned several farms, and being at various times a member of the American Oxford Down Sheep Record Association and American Red Polled Cattle Club; also was onle of the incorporators of the Amlerican Tamworth Swine Record Association, and was one of the first importers of the Tamworth breed into the United States. Mr. \Vood has several times been honored with positions by the city government. He was appointed by the mayor to attend the national conference upon the coal question, held in the city of Detroit, and was a member of the committee appointed by the comnmon council to visit Washington and present to congress the claims of the city of Flint for a newN postoffice building, which mission was successful; the other members of the committee being Hon. John J. Carton, Hon. George E. Taylor and \V. C. Durant. In 90o5 he was appointed by the mayor of the city a menmber of the police co1mmission, which position he held during part of the terms as mayor of Hon. Bruce J. Macdonald and Hon. D. D. Aitken, resigning after serving one year, during which time the gambling houses of the city of Flint were closed and the practice of permitting women and girls to visit saloons was stopped. Mr. \\ood was active in procuring a new public library building for the city, and in connection with Mr. J. D. Dort called a meeting on the 4th of July to bring about the abandonment of the original plans and the taking up of the m1atter of p)rocuring aldditional funds, so that a larger and better building mighlt be provided, which was accomplished. Mr. Wood, by invitation, has delivered a number of addresses in different parts of the country, among them being an address at the dedication of the temple of fraternity on the world's fair grounds, Louisiana Purchase Exposition, in 1904; subsequently an address at Toronto before the Canadian Fraternal Association, and at various other places. He was president of the National Fraternal Congress at the time that the Ohio law governing fraternal societies was enacted by the legisalture of the state, and attended the conference and hearing before the joint committees of the house and senate. He was one of the incorporators of the Man-ta-wau-ka Resort Association, which platted several hundred lots on the east shore of Long lake, Genesee I7

Page  258 258 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY county. iHe also replatted an addition in the sixth ward of the city of Flint, known as the E. O. Wood plat, and erected forty-two houses thereon. In I907, together with ex-Congressman Aitken, he purchased the farm of two hundtred and ten acres, known as the Judge Suminer Howard farm, adjoining the city of Flint on the south. They had the same nmade a part of the city of Flint by the legislature of 1907, and in connection with ex-Mayor W. A. Paterson and Flint P. Smith, platted four hundred lots thereon, lying on both sides of the Detroit United Interurban Railway and on the banks of Thread lake. Mr. W\ood took an active part with other citizens, and especially with tle officers and committees of the Flint Improvement League, in urging that the new fire station should be located separate and apart from the new city hall, which concerted action on the part of the press and the Flint Improvemelt League brought about the result desired. Mr. W\ood was earnest in the campaign for the new city hall, and has at all times been an active participant in every movement which has come up for the building of new schoolhouses aind public buildings in the city or county. He was one of four men, of whom ex-Mayors Davison and W. A. Paterson, and Flint P. Smith were his associates, to purchase ethe site where the lnew Hotel Dresden stands, and was active in raising the preliminary funds necessary to give the project a start and lring it to a successful outcome. He has attended state and national Democratic conventions for years, being present at both conventions which nominated William Jennings Bryan, and, although holding a federal position under President Cleveland and Secretary Carlisle, who were not in sympathy with the platform in I896, he openly, actively and loyally supported Mr. Bryan, accolpanying him a part of the way on his special train through Michigan. On the floor of the state convention at Detroit he made the speech which brought about the nomination of Judge George H. Durand for governor, and was one of the principal floor laeders in the state convention at Grand Rapids in 1904, opposing the candidacy of J. S. Sterns, a Republican, who aspired to the Democratic nomination for governor, and materially aiding in thle defeat of Stearns and the nomination of Woodbridge N. Ferris. In I906 he was appointed a member of the James McMillan Memorial Association. At the time of the preparing of this sketch Mr. Wood, at forty-six years of age, is one of the best-known men in public life of the state of Michigan.

Page  259 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 259 He married Miss Emlily Crocker, (laughter of Stephen and Prudence Crocker, of Flint, and four children blessed this union. The oldest son, Dwight Hulbert \ood, a manly and lovable boy, was killed on August 12, I905, having been run over by a fire department team. The surviving children are Albert Crocker Wood, Leland Stanford Wood and Mary B. Wood. Mrs. Wood's family and herself have always been workers in St. Paul's Episcopal church, and Mr. Crocker, her father, was one of those who made it possible to erect the church and maintain it in the earlier years. Mr. Wood and his family spend their summers on Mackinac Island, where they are influential and active in the life of the island during the summer season, and especially earnest in supporting the efforts of the State Park Commission in retaining the original beauty of the park and surroundings. Their home in Flint on Stevens street contains a carefully selected library of over three thousand volumes. As a whole Mr. Wood is a loyal, dependable, public-spirited citizen, positive in his convictions and true to his friends.

Page  260 :: ~j~~ta

Page  261 .10J4 /O'

Page  262 262 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY HON. LEVI WTALKER. Hon. Levi Walker was born in Granville, Washington county, New York, December 28, I803. His parents were Josiah Walker and Jemnima Tanner, his wife. So near was his birthplace to the border line of Vermont that he often playfully said he was partly a Green Mountain boy. While he was but a child his parents removed to Summer Hill, Cayuga county, New York. He was partly educated at Homer Academy and finished his couse at Fairfield Institute in Herkimer county. Having completed his literary studies he began reading law with Judge Reid at Homer. He also read with William J. Bacon, of Utica, New York. In early boyhood he exhibited the thirst for knowledge which characterized him through life. For many years it was his custom always to have a book with him when riding or walking, from wbhich he was memorizing. He began the practice of law in Genoa, New York, in 1835. He subsequently removed to Auburn, New York, and entered into a law partnership with Hon. George H. Rathbone, then a member of the United States congress. He was associated with Hlon. William H. Seward as counsel in the memorable defense of the insane negro murderer, Freeman, to which Charles Francis Adams made eloquent reference in the Seward memorial services. Mr. Walker was, while yet a young man, the editor of a paper at Brockport, New York, where he wielded a trenchant pen in the interest of what was then called the "National Republican party." It was the first anti-slavery paper published in New York. In I837 Mr. Walker married Miss Louise Bigelow Meech, daughter of Cyperian Meech and Polly Hanchett, his wife. Mrs. Walker was a niece of General Jonathan W\oodbridge. Her grandfather was a lieutenant in the French and Indian war. He also kept the tavern in Worthington, Massachusetts, where General Burgoyne was brought while being taken as a prisoner to Boston. In I847 Mr. Walker removed to Flint, where, ten years before, his brothers, Stiles, James B. and Henry C., had preceded him, and where he resided until the time of his death. He early became actively identified with all business, educational and social interests of the growing town. For twenty consecutive years next preceding his death he had been a member of the school board of Flint. In this capacity his sound judgment, his practical sense and his far-seeing wisdom were conspicuous. He looked

Page  263 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 263 upon education for the masses as the bulwark of our political and social institutions, and the splendid school system of Flint, with its resulting excellent schools, is, in an important sense, the work of his peculiar genius. He was a member of the Presbyterian church and for years served as elder and trustee. Thoroughness, exactness and clearness of perception were hlis distinguishing traits. As a lawyer he stoodl in many respects at the head of his profession. A sensitive conscience an(l a high sense of personal honlor kept him free from that peculiar weakness that sometimles appertains to practitioners. An opinion by M\r. Walker was considered almost conclusive on any law point. HIe held the office of justice of the peace for many years, atnd in that capacity was conspicuous for his clearness and justice. He drafted the first charter of the city of Flint, as well as the charter in force at the time of his (lecease, andl was the author of the articles of association of the Genesee County Agricultural Society, of the Flint Driving Park Association, the Glenworood (Cemetery Association ad(l the constitution of the Flint City Gas T.ight Comnpany. Indeed, there is scarcely anything in the recordled history of the city which (loes not bear the impress of his well disciplined mind. Mr. Walker and Artemus Thaver were the leading spirits in establishing Glenw-ood cemetery as a beautiful burial place. In 1872 he was elected to the state legislature, where his force of character and superiority were soon manifest. As chairman of the important committee of state affairs he seems to have given his )ersonal attention to every subject that came before it. He included in committee reports a statement of the bill reported on and the reason for the disposition made of it by the committee. In many cases this entailed considerable labor, yet in almost, if not quite every instance, it was performed by Mr. Walker himself, in whose handlwriting the report appeared. Two of the most frequent applications made to a legislature are for the changing of names and for the appropriation of non-resident highway taxes for the construction of state roads. Trifling as these seem to be, they consuumed considerable time, and upon these subjects, among others, \Mr. Walker submitted elaborate reports, which are likely to settle, or, at least, guide legislative action upon them for the future. He came to be regarded as, with few if any exceptions, the soundest thinker in the house, and was considered the foremost leader of that body. His views upon any subject were carefully and eagerly listened to. There is no doubt that his death was the result -of the excessive labor

Page  264 254 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY which he imposed upon himself in his earnest interest for the welfare of the state. He died at Lansing April 26, 1873, retaining absolute reliability of mind to his last 1moment. His last act was to affix his signature to his will, dictated but a few minutes before his dissolution. Death came unexpectedly. but found his soul realy to test the future life in which le had implicit faith. Governor Charles H. Crolnwell, the speaker of the house that year, said "It is no exaggeration to say that in the death of Mr. Walker this house has lost one of its best and ablest members. He was remarkable for those peculiar powers necessary for a thorough and just analysis of all questions slubmitted to him for consideration. Shrinking from no labor, with watchful attention to every detail, he was never satisfied until he had thoroughly mastered his subject. Then, with clearness of argument and aptness of illustration he presented his views, almost invariably to receive the sanction and approval of his associates." Mr. W\alker was survived twenty-two years )w his \vife, whlo (liel in T895, aged eighty-four years. She was a woman of remarkable intellectual power and achievement, and retained her brilliancy of mind until life's close. She w-as very patriotic and performed most efficient service in the Soldiers' Aid Societies. Her heart and soul were in the owork of sending suplplies to the soldiers. The (lay following the first disaster at Bull Run she called the first meeting of ladies at her house to scrape lint and make bandages to send to the lbattle lines. Her interest and labor lneer failed while there was a soldier to care for. Her family was an interesting group. One dlaughter-, IFlora Lo~tuise, died when a small girl. Her son, (eorge Meech, died in 1905. He had succee(led his father as justice of the peace, which office he held consecutively for more than twenty-five years. Few of his (lecisions were reversed in higher courts. The daughter, Helen Victoria, remains at the old homestead. In the literary and intellectual life of Flint she has had much influence. She is the only surviving president of the Ladies' Library Association, bleing the only youngl lady who was honored with that position. She has been closely identified with the Columnbian Club; was its first president, holding the place for several years. Her church and Sunday school work has been of wide range and deep effectiveness. So passeth one generation and another cometh that the fullness may remain.

Page  265 TI-IOMAS P1. WVOOD. Michigan had not attaine(l the (lionitv of statehood w\Then Thomnas Parmerlee ~V'ood blade farewell to his friends in New York and hravelv nndertook the journeAT into the territorv that N-as then considlered the wilds of the far wN-est. There are fe\w- nien living in the county of Genesee todav wvho have witnesse l so many of the changes that have markedl its dlevelopment fromi a r-egion of primitive forest into tle prosperons and lbeantiful cotuntryN that it is at the present, and it may he adldedl that few men have hbeen mo:)re active in hringoing ahout this wonderful change. Tihomas Parmerlee Wood was horn in West Avon- i, L'ivingston Cnonty, New York, June 5, 1822. His grandfather, William Wood, Jr., horn at WVesthoro-, Massachusetts, and his great-grandfather, William WVood, Sr., of Pomfort, Connecticut, were soldiers in the Revolutionary war, and participatedl in the hattles of Lexington and Bunker Hill. William, Wood, Jr., was w\-ith W~ ashington at Valley IForge and Brandywine, and until the close of the war. ANt the age of ten years, in T832, Mlr. VWood first camie to Michigan. The lpartv left East Avon on the first day of Octoher, Iin an emigrant waogon, expecting to take the steamer, "Paul Jones," at Cleveland. In this, however, they wN-ere (lisappointedl, and the party remainedl with the "prairie schooners,"

Page  266 266 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY arriving il Detroit twelve hours ahead of the boat, which had been delayed by head winds. They reached lWhigville on the first (lay of November, I832, and found but four families in that section of the country, they being Clark Dibble, Jonathan Davison, Nathaniel Ladd and Robert \Vinchell. The road to Flint was nothing more than a wagon road through the dense forests. Mr. Wood's first glimpse of that city was not obtained until the year following his arrival at WVhigville, when he came through the forest on horseback to obtain medicine for a sick member of the Whigville settlement. He forded the Flint river and went to the trading post kept by a man named Smith, located on the site of the old Crapo store, which has now given place to a large factory building. \t that time there were only four families on the south side of the river in the populous district that now comprises the second and third wards. Rufus Stevens and Jonathan Cronk were located across from the present site of the court house, and Mr. Todd had his home a short distance west and south of the river. Dr. Haves resided where The National Bank now stan(ls. Mr. W\ood remained in Whigville for seven years, returning to New York in the winter of I84I on account of the superior educational advantages afforded in the older state. He entered the Genesee Seminary at Lima, New York, and after completing the course there taught school at Smithtown, Bloomfield and Arkwright, in Chautauqua county. Mr. W\ood (lied at Goodrich on December 28, I907, at the ripe age of eighty-five years. In 1846, on the I9th day of August, lie was married to Miss Paulina M. Hulbert, of West Bloomfield, Ontario county, New York, whose birth occurred October 15, 1822, andl when (leath sel)arated them they had lived togther sixty-one and one-half years. Mrs. Wood survived her husband but a few days, her death occurrng January 12, 1(o8. They resided at Fredonia, New York, for three years, from 1847 to I850, when they came to Michigan and bought their home at Goodrich, and at the time of Mr. Wood's death had completed fifty-seven years' ownership of the old homestead, with a continuous residence there for the same period, save a few months in I852-53, when Mr. Wood came to Flint. Mr. and Mrs. Wood were survived byl five childrenR. H., A. G., Wr. H. S., Edwin 0., and a daughter, Mrs. Emma Allen.

Page  267 HON. JEROME EDDY. Hon. Jerome Eddy, late of Flint, was borni at Stafford, New York, in the '20s and died at his home in Flint. When a boy he accompanied his parents to this city and the following year, at the age of nine years, he entered the employ of George Hazelton, who was then conducting a general merchandise store here. He finally acquired an interest in the business and continued therein with Stephen Moore as a partner, under the firm name of Moore & Eddy. Subsequently he was associated with Leonard \Vesson and later with William A. Morrison in the management of the business. At the close of the war he retired from mercantile life and engaged in the lumber business, operating a planing mill in company with Artemus Thayer. A few years later he came into exclusive control of the plant, continuing in that capacity until about I877. During the next few years, and before retiring from active business life, he devoted his attention to the handling of real estate and built the brick block on East Kearsley street which bears his name. During this time he was also interested in newspaper work as the proprietor of the "Genesee County Democrat," which he conducted until he transferred the newspaper to his son, Arthur J. Eddy, a senior of Harvard at the time. Before the war Mr. Eddy was united in marriage to Miss Ellen M. Curtis, who was the daughter of Samuel and Fanny (Walker) Curtis, who

Page  268 268 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY emigrated from \Wyomling, New York, to Michigan and settled at Groveland, Oakland county, coming later to a farm in Grand Blanc township, Genesee countv. From this farm they moved to Flint, where they both ended their days. Mr. Curtis died when past sixty years of age, while Mrs. Curtis attained the remarkable age of almost a century. Mrs. Eddy has held high honors as a leader in the social and literary life of Flint. Her influence has always been exerted in behalf of progress and educational advancement, and she has taken the lead in art classes, Shakesperian clulbs, etc. She had one sister, Mrs. W\aters, lwho died in middle life at Monroe, Michigan. Mrs. \Vaters' dlaughter is the wife of Dr. Southworth, of Mlonroe. Her only son, Arthllur J., is a member of one of the leading law firms of Chicago. 'The original Eddy homestead was at the corner of East Kearsley and Clifford streets, the site of vwhich is 11owV occupied by the new public library bllilding. From here the fanilvy mnoved thirty-one years ago to their home onl Chlurch street, -which is even yet one of the mnost imnposing in the city. and( wAas )uilt by George Hazelton in the '3os. Mr. Eddy belonged to the old school of gentlenmen whlo in years gone by were prominent in Flint business an(l social circles, and who are now fast (lisappearing from the city that they dlidl so ultch to build tp. His geniality was proverbial an1i his kindly andi conrtlv- wayNas are inseparable frorm his imemory. In all the relations of life lhe played the honorable part, and in hls passing lie leaves behind him the record of an active, useftil and unpright career.

Page  269 WILLIAM NEWBOLD. Mr. William Newbold, lwhose holme is at 524 Westr Third avenue, Flint, was born at Fair Grove, Tuscola county, Michigan. February 24, 1857. His father, Joseph Newbold, came to Ohio from England about 1840. There he married Betsy Tucker, also from England, and moved to Holly, Oakland county, where they lived for about ten years, losing three children, all in one week, during this time. From here they went to Fair Grove, Tuscola county, in the year 1856. At this place four children were born: William, the eldest; John, now a railroad emplove at Saginaw; Mrs. Jane Hamilton, of Crowley, Louisiana, and Ella, wife of Moses Walker, of Flint. At the outbreak of the Civil war the father enlisted, and after an absence of only nine months died in a hospital at Nashville, Tennessee. After a short time the mother, with her family of small children, returned to Holly. William remained with his mother until fourteen years of age, receiving such an education as opportunity afforded. Owing to circumstances he early learned the wholesome lesson of self-reliance, and as he grew to manhood he developed that spirit of independence that has been such a strong mark of his character. At the age of eleven he began work in Buzzell Brothers' planing mill, which developed into his vocation, that of a stationary engineer. From the age of fourteen to seventeen he attended school in Holly and then until the age of twenty-two did carpentry and other work. At this time he

Page  270 270 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY went to Leadville, Colorado, where the great silver discovery was made in I880. The same year he returned to Holly, remaining but one year, when he came to Flint, and for twenty-one years was engaged with Stone. Atwood & Company as stationary engineer of the Flint Woolen Mills. On July 30, I885, Mr. Newbold married Miss Anna Lucas, who was born near Strathroy, Ontario, but came to Flint a few years before her marriage. Of this union four children were born-George W., on February 22, I888; Grace V., on May 24, I89I; Alfred T., on October 30, I894; and Cynthia June, on June 20, I907. The eldest son, George, died July 29, 1906, after spending the two previous winters in California with his father for the purpose of benefiting his health. Grace V. graduated from the Flint high school. class of 1907. Alfred is still in school. In the past twenty years he has invested in vacant pieces of property and built inexpensive homes. This has proven a profitable line of investment and in the course of time he has succeeded in coming into the possession of a goodly number of homes of this class, most of which are west of Stone street. These homes are in constant demand by those people who cannot afford to pay high rents for any length of time. This demonstrates the foresight manifested on the part of Mr. Newbold in making his investments. His own home on Third avenue is a beautiful and comnmodious residence. Mr. Newbold has taken a deep interest in the general affairs of the country and in the advancement of his home town.

Page  271 i\I1R. AND XIRS. JAMES S. A:USTIN. James S. Austin, one of the best painters (loiing business ill the city of Flint. was born ill Devonshire, England, September 15, I862. His father, \\William Austin, was a practical farmer, and (lied in Devonshire. His mother, Frances (Sanford) Austin, gave birth to fourteen children anll proved a c-lpal)le and( efficient manager for this large and interesting family. Tames was the ninth childl ill the order of hlirth and received such edlucation as circumstances woul(l permit. Naturallv, as lie grew to manhood it l)ecamle necessary for him to turn his attention to some means for making a li\velihood, and the usual customli prevaile(l of becoming an apprentice at some trade. He clhose the painter's trade and for seven years applied himself to the learnilng of his work, and( this was (lone in the most thorough manner. It is generally concedled by contractors and( employers in America today that Eng-lish workmen are among the most thorough employes available. They may not at all timies be as quick as the Americans, but they do their work well, and in the lonog run are the more (lesiral)le workmen. This is ltlue largely to thleir thorough l prearation in learning their business. They (lo not spend a fe\w weeks at their w-ork and then pose as experts, but they are required to learn all phases of their business 1wl actual experience before thiey are rated as first-class workmen. At the age of tw-enty James came to America bent on making his way

Page  272 272 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY in the world bvy coming to the land that means opportunity. He arrived at Detroit, and foi the next eight years plied his trade in that city. In 1892 he came to Flint and established himself in business, and has so continued up to the present time. Vhile living in Detroit he was married to Miss Harriet Zuger, who was born at Crystal Falls, Michigan. Their union has been blessed with three sons, \Villiam H., Lee J. and Sylvester. AMr. Austin has not only been a successful business man, but has also been an active and helpful worker among the local lodges. He has held important offices in the order of Odd Fellows, in the Masonic fraternity and in the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks. He is a leading member in the Loyal Guards, having held the principal chair in Lodge No. i for four years. His interest has never abated and lie (laily practices the principles maintained by the orders for the spread of the fraternity, benevolence and charity.

Page  273 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 273 HARVEY STEVENS. The people of Genesee county, Michigan, have always held in high esteem the men, who, in the trying hours of the republic, donned the blue uniform and marched to the front, risking life and limb and endangering their health in behalf of the cause of the Union. This county offered many of the best of her citizens to the national cause. Some of the brave boys who went to the front never returned. Others, who were then called "boys," are now grizzled veterans, who came back from the war and took up their usual avocations where they had left them off when they obeyed the call to arms. One of the mostly highly respected of these is Harvey Stevens. Mr. Stevens was born in the village of Genesee, Michigan, October 20, 1843. He was the son of Horatio and Orrila (Cogswell) Stevens. His father was a native of Connecticut and his mother of New York state. They were married in the state of New York and came to Genesee, Michigan, about I840. The elder Stevens was a substantial farmer. Both parents of our subject are now dead. Harvey Stevens was the third of eight children, viz., Russell, Mary Jane, Harvey, Clarissa, Horace, John, Austin and Frank. Mary Jane, the second of this family, became the wife of Christian Kist, who was a soldier in the Fifteenth Michigan Volunteer Infantry. The other sister, Clarissa, is now dead. All the other brothers, except Russell, are still living. The subject of this sketch was reared upon his father's farm and was educated in the common schools. Later he learned the carpenter's trade and has worked at that ever since the war. On December 25, 1865, he was united in marriage to Mary Jane Reedout, a native of New York state, and to this union there was born a son, George H., who is now a farmer in Lapeer county, Michigan. Mr. Stevens enlisted in Company K of the Twenty-third Michigan Infantry at Flint, Michigan, August 30, 1864. He was mustered in September 5, I864, and joined the regiment at Johnsonville, Tennessee. He participated in the battles at Nashville, Columbus and Franklin. He did not make the march with Sherman to the sea, as his regiment was left with General Thomas to fight General Hood's army. Private Stevens was mustered out of the service at Salisbury, North Carolina, June 28, I865. He has served as deputy

Page  274 274 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY sheriff of Genesee county under Sheriff Arthur McCall. Politically he is a Republican. JOHN C. HUGHES. Mr. John C. Hughes, of Flint. superintendent of the Michigan State Telephone Company, has long been closely identified with the telephone interests of the city, having held his present position for eighteen years. He entered the telephone work in 1887, coming to Flint as night operator. He was identified with the district work before coming to Flint, both at Muskegon and Detroit, and since coming here has had the satisfaction of seeing the business make marvelous strides. As superintendent of the district he has been enabled greatly to extend the company's interests, and has at the same time managed to give the people most satisfactory service. The home exchange was established in 1881 by the Michigan Bell Telephone Company. From that date up to 1904 there have been installed about two hundred and eighty miles of toll line, extending to the various towns in the district, including such places as Densie, Goodrich, Grand Blanc, Mundy, Swartz Creek, \Vaterton, Flushing, Mt. Morris, C'io, etc. The Michigan State Telephone Company succeeds the Michigan Telephone Company, and since this company has come into possession of the plant there have been many changes and extensions made. Facilities have been installed that will accommodate an extensive patronage, and the modern switchboard equipment is of the very best and most highly impro(ved type. In Genesee county there are about three thousand three hundred patrons, and about fifty-five employes are kept constantly busy taking care of the system. The lines are being extended steadily and the prospects for the future of the company are exceedingly favorable. One feature of the work that is making unexpected advance is the long distance patronage. This is making such forward strides that it has exceeled the most sanguine expectations, and is an evidenlce of the fact that the long (listance phone is rapidly becoming a popular medium for business communication. The company is extending its circuit constantly, and communi

Page  275 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 275 cation with Detroit, Toledo and other points is not only available, but is being made use of more and more. Mr. Hughes was for eleven years connected with the Hughes-Mann Ice and Coal Company, which was later disposed of to the \Vildanger Company of Flanders. He was its treasurer, and the affairs were quite successful and satisfactory. Mr. Hughes has been an able promoter of the public utility spirit of the city, and his energy and business enterprise have stimulated the growth of the city's interests in many ways. This has been recognized by the business men of the town and a general feeling of appreciation prevails throughout the district.

Page  276 WILLIAM J. OTTAWAY. One of the most successful as well as reliable stock shippers of Flushing is William J. Ottaway, born in what is now Clayton township, Genesee county, Michigan, on September I7, 1842. His ancestry goes back beyond the sea, both of his parents having been born in Kent, England. His father was George Ottaway, and his mother's maiden name was Harriet Boutcher. They came to America in 1838 and settled in Genesee county, in which is now Clayton township, known at that time as Flushing township. They ended their days there, he having reached an advanced age. Their union was blessed with the characteristic old-fashioned family, consisting of twelve children, five daughters and seven sons. Six of the members of this large family are still living. They are Horace, who now operates an excellent farm in Tuscola county, Michigan; Thomas, who is likewise engaged in Clayton township; Samuel E., who now resides in Flushing; Sarah A., who is the widow of Judson A. Stone, late of Clayton township, and Stephen C., also a farmer of Clayton township. The subject of our sketch, William J., was reared in the old homestead in Clayton township, where he lived until he was almost of age. He was a boy of steady habits, and one who applied himself zealously to whatever work came to his hand. After reaching his majority, the fearful conflict between the north and the south came on amain and William cast his lot with the Union

Page  277 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 277 forces. He enlisted in the Thirteenth Battery of the Michigan Light Artillery on July 31, 1864. He continued in the service until the close of the war. After his return home he came back to Clayton township, remaining there for about one year, at the close of which he removed to Flint, and while there he occupied himself in the meat business. He continued at this for another year, coming' on to Clayton township a year later, and then began farming and handling live stock, and has continued at this ever since. He has carried his work on in a very creditable, able and business-like fashion, and his habit of square dealing has crowned his efforts with well merited success. He was married in Clayton township, Genesee county, on February 20, I867, to Miss Helen M. Brown, who was born in that vicinity, and who was the daughter of James E. and Mary D. (Sheldon) Brown. These people were among the earliest settlers of the county. Mr. Brown was a native of Connecticut and Mrs. Brown was born in Ohio. Thev came to the west from Erie county, New York, and settled in Genesee county, Michigan, in June, 1837. They lived for one year in Flint, and in two years after coming to Genesee county removed to the country and settled in Clayton township, where they lived out their allotted time. Mr. Brown died at the age of sixtytwo years, while Mrs. Brown attained the age of seventy-nine years. Mr. Brown was supervisor of Clayton township for more than twenty-one years. There were nine children born to them, of whom Mrs. William J. Ottaway was among the youngest. This union was blessed with two children-Edith M. and Elmer J. The latter is a publisher and printer at St. Clair and Port Huron, Michigan. Mr. Ottaway was one of the first residents of Flushing when the village was organized, coming to Flushing in i868, and was one of the first trustees of the village. He is a man who has taken an active part in all the public affairs of the community. Mrs. Helen Ottaway (lied on July 25, I90I. She was born on August 30, I844. She was an active worker in the Methodist Episcopal church, of which Mr. Ottaway was a trustee and also a steward. He is an ardent supporter of the Odd Fellows' fraternity and is actively identified with the Ransom Post, No. 89, Grand Army of the Republic. Edith M., the daughter of Mr. Ottaway, was married October 30, 1907, to Edward M. Langdon, of St. Petersburg, Florida, and they will make that city their future home. Mr. Ottaway spends his winters in Florida.

Page  278 WARREN HAVEN TAYLOR. Dr. Warren Haven Taylor, practicing physician of Flint, was born at Pine Run, Genesee county, Mlichigan, in the '70s. His father, Philander Taylor, was a native of New York state, having come to Genesee county over a half a century ago with his parents, he being then only a lad of twelve years. Philander Taylor's father, whose name was John, settled upon the farm at Pine Run, and there ended his days at an advanced age. Philander Taylor, also a physician, is still living, having his residence at Clio. He remained on the farm till middle life, and then took the medical course at the University of Michigan, graduating with the class of i885. He has since been in active practice at Clio, and is the only son of the family that remained in Genesee county. He had two brothers and two sisters. John Taylor is a resident of Chicago, and Charles I. is a practicing physician at Clarksville, Michigan. Warren H. was reared on the farm at Pine Run and assisted also in clearing and improving another farm in Thetford township, but during these years he gave industrious attention to the study of medicine, acquiring quite a thorough knowledge of the subject under the tutelage of his father, whose medical library was quite etxensive and modern. He completed the medical course in the Detroit Medical College in I896, and for four years practiced his

Page  279 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 279 prk-fession with his father at Clio. Here he gained valuable experience andcl (lemnstrate(l his fitness for his chosen vocation in a very (lecided and conmnlenlal)le manner. He built a capacious store building an(l equipped an elaborate office. He erecte(l the telephone company lbuilding and developed the telephone lbusiness throughout the vicinity. This enterprise seemed to grow almost spontaneously, and in a short time became an unqualified success. After eight years of successful business at Clio he closed out his interests at that point and remoxve(l to Flint. I-e erected a residence at I216 North Saginaw street, and has continued in practice since. He had no (lifticultv in obtaining creditable standing among the melmbers of the me(lical fraternity, and( a flattering practice was soon estallishe(l. He has been actively identified with the state andl county medical societies, and has taken a stand in the front ranks of practical and progressive practitioners. He carries his own stock of metlicines, buying theml in large quantities, thus giving his patients the benefit of the m1oderate prices thus obtainable. One entire wall of his reception room is completely filled with this part of his equipment. Dr. Taylor was married on September 2, 1900oo, to Miss Minnllie B. W\ing, of Clio, (laughter of David \W'ing, a prosperous and progressive farmer of that comunityity. She was a successful teacher in the public schools prior to her mnarriage. One son, Donald, has been born of this union. The doctor has been connectedl not only with the various associations, but is also an estimable member of the Mlasonic fraternity. He plays the double IB flat bass in the Flint city bandl. I'or fifteen years before coming to Flint he was one of the leading singers in the local Methodist choir at Clio, having been its choral director, an(l for over two vears his effective bass voice has been heard in the chorus choir of the First Methodist church of Flint. Thus in a manifold and unselfish dtegree has he given forth the best of his resources-professionally, socially and morally.

Page  280 280 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY JOHN R. SHANK, M. D. Mr. John R. Shank, a prominent physician of Flint, was born at Mlt. Morris, Iivingston county, New York. His parents, Franklin and Adelaide (Johnston) Shank, were both natives of New York state, the mother having been born also in Mt. Morris, New York. Adelaide's parents were Abraham and Maria (Beecroft) Johnson, who started for Michigan in the '40s, but made their first stay of three years at Brantford, Ontario. At the expiration of that time they came to Oakland county, Michigan, and continued on a farm there for several years. Their next move was to Genesee county, where they settled upon a farm in Alt. Morris township. Mr. Johnson set himself to the heroic task of reclaiming the land from the wilderness, and in time the work was accomplished. He died there upon the farm, having reached an advanced age. He was survived a few years by his wife. Franklin Shank came to Michigan and bought a farm half way between Flint and Flushing in Mt. Morris township, fiear the farm of the Johnston family. Here the mother died a few years later, and the father returned to New York state, Twhere he remained for a time and then returned to Michigan. He entered the United States army for regular service in the Civil war, and after its close returned and made his residence at Bay City. Later he came to Flint, and there engaged in carpentry, becoming also a contractor. He helped build the school for the (eaf, doing the finishing work on the interior. He died in Flint. His widow occupies the old home at the corner of Third and Oak streets and is remarkably well preserved, considering her age. The union was blessed with three children-John R., our subject; Laban, a physician located at Empire, Michigan; and Guy S., a plumber of Flint. John R. graduated from the Flint high school and for three years successfully taught school. He then entered the medical department of the University of Michigan, graduated in due time, and since then has been practicing his profession, having been in Flint for several years. His first locations were at other points. He has devoted himself to general practice, and has been actively connected with the work of leading associations, such as the state and county medical societies. His practice is large and substantial. His broad sympathy and generous spirit have won for him many friends, all of;whom hold him in high esteem. He is a Republican in politics and for two years was a member of the city council. He takes a lively in

Page  281 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 281 terest in party work and has been of great value to the party through his wise and conservative policy. He is an active worker in the societies of Odd Fellows and Masons. He is constantly on the alert and has never ceased being a student, taking especial delight in the subject of biology. In this way he manages not only to grow, but to grow symmetrically, and to become of value to the community as a leader and thinker in the various channels of intellectual thought and progress. Dr. Shank was married to Miss Sadie Campbell. She is a woman of broad culture and has formed a most helpful and effective helpmeet to her husband in his work. She has a great talent for music and is enabled to entertain her many friends in a delightful and enviable manner.

Page  282 JARVIS E. ALBRO. Captain Jarvis E. Albro, of o029 Garland street, Flint, was born on the Albro homestead in Mt. Morris township April 14, 1842. His parents were pioneer settlers in the county. His father, Rodman \V. Albro, was born in the state of Rhode Island, but came in early life to New York city, from which place lie emigrated with his wife and three children to the west in July, 1839. He settled in what is now Mt. Morris township, in section thirteen. His mother, Susan (Harper) Albro, was born in Nantucket, Massaclusetts, and both father and mother endled their (lays on the old homestead, the former attaining the age of eighty-four, passing away in November, I897. The mother died in August, I864, in her sixty-fourth year. Their family consisted of seven children, of whom Jarvis was the fourth. He was reared on the farm, attending the district school, and continuing there until he was eighteen years of age. He then attended the Union school in Flint for one year, completing his studies sufficiently to enable him to take up teaching, in which he was engaged for one year. On August 1, I862, he enlisted in the Twenty-third Michigan Infantry and went to the front for active service for his country, and continued in the field until the close of the struggle in 1865, being mustered out in July of that year. He was in the army of the Ohio and took part in many of the trying

Page  283 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 283 conflicts of the war. He was present at the siege of Knoxville, Tennessee, Resaca, in Georgia, Atlanta, Franklin and Nashville, Ft. Anderson, North Carolina, and Kingston, same state. \ private when he enlistel, his manliness, courage and cool-headedlness soon won for him recognition, and he was steadily promoted through the first and second lieutenantcy by Governor Austin Blair, and later to the rank of captain by Governor Crapo. He served in the latter capacity until mustered out at Salisbury, North Carolina, at the date previously stated. As is naturally to be expected he is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, and is at present chaplain of the Governor Crapo Post, No. I45. After returning from the war he was engaged as foreman of a farm near Greenfield, \ayne county, Michigan, which farm was owned by James F. Joy. He continued at that work for three years, and then for four years filled a place of similar capacity on the farm of E. N. 5Wilcox. He then returned to the Mt. Morris farm. tHe took an active part in the general affairs of the community. He served as supervisor for eleven years and was again elected, but resigned the office. He was also elected to the place of county drainage commissioner, which place he held for eight years. Since coming to Flint Mr. Albro has consented to assist in the public affairs of the city, and has for two years been alderman from the fifth ward. He is at present acting as president of the Genesee County Pioneer Picnic Association. In the educational line, also, has lMr. Albro cast much of his influence for progress and advancement. For three years he was superintendent of schools in Mt. Morris township, and was chairman of the board of supervisors in 1884, although a Democrat, he being the first Democratic chairnan ever chosen to that position in that township. On Christmas day, I876, he was m-arried to Miss Margaret L. Carpenter, of Mt. Morris townlship, daughter of Rowland and Cordelia Carpenter, also pioneers of the county. Five children have been born to them, consisting of Morton, Gertrude, wife of Melvin McNeil; Alice, Raymond, and Sherman. M'r. and Mrs. Albro are also helpful and consistent members of the Garland street Methodist church.

Page  284 ED\WARD G. RUST. Mr. Edward G. Rust, ex-sheriff of Genesee county, Michigan, was born May 5, I865. His parents were W\illiam F. and Mary Jane (Banacroft) Rust, who emigrated to the west from New York state. They first settled in Indiana at Ligonier, and came later, in 1865, to Genesee county, Michigan, settling in Grand Blanc township. Here they spent the remainder of their days with the exception of the closing years of Mrs. Rust's life, which were spent in Flint, where she died December 26, 1904, aged sixty-five years. Mr. William Rust was a Democrat and active in the political affairs of the county. He was aggressive and at the same time one who carefully weighed the probable consequences of policies and undertakings, and impressed his friends and neighbors as an able man of affairs. He died on his farm November 26, 1894, aged sixty-five years. Both of the parents were active workers in the Methodist church of Burton. Their family consisted of four children. One of these, E. Summers, is operating a farm in Grand Blanc township; Delia is the wife of Edward B. Palmer, of Flint; James B. died in infancy. Edward was brought up to manhood on the farm in Grand Blanc township. He was a boy that applied himself steadily to his work and showed signs of a courageous disposition. He remained on and helped conduct the farm until his marriage and for some time afterward, and later rented a farm

Page  285 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 285 of Dr. Wilson, known as the "Old Beols" farm. He remained on this place for five years, at the expiration of which time he bought the Michael Ferguson farm in Grand Blanc township. Here he lived and conducted this farm until he was elected sheriff of Genesee county, in the fall of 900o, assuming the office January I, I90I. At the expiration of the first term he was re-elected for a second term. He was also township clerk of Grand Blanc township for two years, and was its supervisor for six years. He is a Democrat in politics and has taken a conspicuous part in the political affairs of the county. His merits as a citizen have been recognized by his fellow townsmen. He was for about one year chief of police for the city of Flint. He was married in Grand Blanc township November 30, I887, to Miss Eva M. Jones, who was also born in the same township. She was the daughter of Henry L. and Hannah M. (Davis) Jones. Mr. Jones died in Grand Blanc township April 29, I902, having been born on May 12, I829. Five children were born to them. Four of the family were boys, the daughter being the third child of the family. Mr. and Mrs. Rust are also the parents of five children-Ethelyn D., Sumner, Willialn H., James B. and Harold J. Mr. Rust is a loyal adherent to many of the secret orders of the city, such as the Elks and Knights of Pythias. Both Mr. and Mrs. Rust are active workers in the Baptist church of Flint.

Page  286 FRANK VERT. Mr. Frank Vert, a pioneer farmer of Genesee township, was born in Scotland February 8, I836. He was the son of William and Margaret (Mowat) Vert, both of whom ended their days in their foreign home. The father was a carpenter and was a skilled and industrious workman. Frank was educated in the land of his birth and after completing the fundamental studies secured a conmmercial course, which he also carried to completion. He became a bookkeeper, continuing thus until his twentysecond year. About 1857 he left his native soil andl emigrated to Canada. After arriving, he became engaged in the flour milling business, continuing at that time until I869, at which time he came to St. Clair county, Michigan. He remained here for a few years and changed to several other points, coming at last in I889 to Flint. He had previously been in the county for a short time, but did not remain. Since I889, however, he has been a permanent resident of the county. In I894 he purchased his present farm of one hundred and sixty acres in section thirty-three, having been engaged in the milling business up to that time. In i86I Mr. Vert was married to Miss Jane Harper, a native of England, and daughter of Robert and Mary (Evans) Harper. After over forty

Page  287 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 287 years of domestic peace and happiness Mrs. Vert was taken hence, departing this life in 1902. Eight children were born *to this union, consisting of Catherine, Mary, Eliza, Henry (deceased), Martha, William, Frank and Robert. In rearing and training for useful citizenship such a splendid family, Mr. and Mrs. Vert lhave conferred one of the most valuable and durable 1)oons upon the community an(l state. The home life has been a center for inspiration and achievement, and the spirit of thrift, industry and good fellowship engelllered there will live for( generations, ever increasing and \widlening in its sphere of usefulness. Mr. Vert has never sought pul)lic office, but has always taken a stand for clean and upright administration of public affairs. He has not confined jhimself to any one party, but has preferred to vote for the man that he thought best fitted for the place. He may be classed, therefore, in that ever increasing i:(lvd of patriotic \American citizens known as the independent voter. CHA-RLES S. PIERSON. One w-ho has for manly years been closely identified with the growth andl (levelopment of the county is Charles S. Pierson, of 1228 Beech street, Flint. His father, Charles C. Pierson, w-as born January i8, I818, at Avon, New York. He came to Genesee county, Michigan, as early as I840 and purchased about one hundred and forty acres of land, mostly new. While working on his farm shortly after taking possession of it he lmet with a most unforttunate mishap. He was engaged in his first threshing, and in an unguar(letl moment his right arm was caught in the machinery and was severed at the elbow. Trlhis, of course, unfitted him for further (luty on the farm and he cast about for other means of winning a livelihood. He thereupon went to Albion and took a course of study and training at Albion College, fitting himself for the profession of teaching. His studies here continued for a periodl of two years, and then he began his labors as teacher. He taught with success and put in the winter seasons at this work, while in the summer time he occupied himself on his farm in Grand Blanc township. This plan lie follo\edl for several years. lWhile in college at Albion he became acquainted with the young lady who later became his wife. This was Martha A. Dutton, who was born January 12, I830, in Oneida county, New York. They were married in

Page  288 288 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY Albion December 19, I849. After their marriage they went to Jackson, Michigan, purchased a Jackson wagon and loaded it with their household goods that had been brought from Albion to Jackson. With this equipment they drove through from Jackson to Grand Blanc to their farm, where they continued to live until April, I863. They then rented out their farm and removed to Flint. He then engaged in the produce business and continued at that for about thirty-eight years. He showed a fine talent for business and made a cardinal principle to deal fairly and honestly in all matters, however trivial. Death ended his labors August 31, 1904. He was called upon to fill places of trust and responsibility. He was identified as a director with the Genesee County Savings Bank from the time of its organization until his death and was one of the moving spirits in the growth and prosperity of that institution. Religiously inclined he took an effective part in the work of the First Baptist church of Flint, as did also his esteemed and highly respected wife. Their children were six in number, enumerated here'in order: Martha J. is the wife of William H. Pier; Enos D., Charles S., Anna H., wife of William H. Edwards; Fredrick J. and Alice A., wife of A. M. Grieve. Charles S. was born in Grand Blanc township July 9, I86o. He was three years old when his parents moved to Flint. Here he was brought to manhood and was educated in the public schools of Flint. After completing his school course he took charge of his father's farm in Grand Blanc township. lie remained on the farm for twenty-two years, and by clint of close application and vigorous effort succeeded in bringing the farm up to a high state of cultivation and productiveness. Mr. Pierson was married September 21, I882, to Miss Carrie Knapp, of Seneca Castle, Ontario county, New York. She was born there August 24, I86O, and was the daughter of Albert N. and Margaret (Stevens) Knapp. Mrs. Knapp was a native of New York state. She died at Seneca Castle May 9, 1I896, having attained the age of sixty-six years. Six children were born to them, of whom Carrie was the second. Mr. and Mrs. Pierson are the parents of two daughters, Margaret S. and Harriet K. In the spring of I903 the family came to Flint and Mr. Pierson has since engaged in handling real estate and in buying and shipping wool. He has become firmly established as one of the reliable business men of Flint. The family are devoted members of the First Methodist church.

Page  289 DAVID CRA\\TFORD. One of the 1)est appo)inte(l clothing stores in the city of Flint is the one under tile name of Crawfordl & Zimmerman. 'Their facilities for handling suits are the very latest kind, while their stock is alwNays up-to-date, ample and thoroughly v relial)le. XMr. Joseph H. Crawford, of the al)ove firmn, was born in Otisville, (enesee county, Michigan, on November 7, i86o. His parents were David and Cornelia (TMurray) Crawford, his father having enigrated \witll his parents to the United States from his birthplace in northern Ireland in an early (la, lie being at that timne about twelve years of age. They settled first at Ypsilanti, coming later to Otisville. His paternal grandparents were James and Mlary Crawiford. while those on his mother's side were Barney and Ruth AMurrav. Joseph's fathler operated a sawmill near Otisville, clid some farnming and in later years came to Flint, where he died February 7, I892, aged sixty-six yrears, after hlaving farmed so successfully as to acquire three hundred acres of good, well-improved land. Joseph's mother still survives and is a woman lwho loves "home" best of all. Out of a family of nine children, three died wlhen young. One son, Janmes M.. d(ied ii I907. He was proprietor of a leading bazaar store at Oxford. Two daughters, Melissa and Isabel, are unmarriedl; Anna, formerly a teacher in Flint, became the wife of Mr. F. G. T9

Page  290 29o BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY Matthewson. Alexander is a successful carriage manufacturer of Kalamazoo, Michigan. Joseph remained on the farm until eighteen years of age, acquiring a high school diploma from the Flint schools in the meantime. He then went into office work, becoming bookkeeper for a reputalle local business house. and followed this work for a number of years. All this time he was acquiring valuable training, and was shaping in his own mind a broad and fundamental estimate of the principles of business success. In 1890o e opened up business at the present stand in company with Frank D. \right, now of Chicago. Under the name of Crawford & Wright they conducted a lucrative trade until I903, when the changes were made in the firm as indicated in the present name. Close attention to business, upright dealing and a progressive spirit have made it necessary for the firm to carry a heavy stock approaching $30,000, in order to supply the extensive patronage. Their annual sales frequently exceed $60,ooo, making it necessary to employ from five to six competent men constantly to wait on the trade. Mr. Crawford's associations have leen long continued and pleasant. He was elected grand commander of the Knights Templar of Michigan in June, I906, having previously served for nine years in various positions in the Grand Commandery, and has also been eminent commander of Genesee Valley Commanderv, No. I5, Knights Templar, besides having at one time or another served in various capacities in the local lodge. He is an A. A.. N. M. S.; also a Scottish Rite Mason of the Detroit consistory, having reached the climax of being a thirty-second degree Mason several years ago. He was married October TO, g900, to Miss Blanch Palmer, daughter of Charles Palmer, of Imlay City. She has borne him one child. Charles David. now four an(l one-half years old. Mr. Crawford has taken an aggressive stand for civic improvement. and has been closely identified with such movements as those that had for their aim the welding together of the forces of progress, so that by united effort, effective work for the advancement of the city's best interests might be accomplished. He is president of the Flint Improvement I.eague. This organization is making itself felt in business and civic circles. In tlis respect the city of Flint is in line with similar organizations in the more pretentious metropolitan centers. They are becoming more and more necessary to the growth and progress of municipal affairs. Mr. Crawford is also president

Page  291 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 29I of the Masonic Temple Association, which has in view the erection of a magnificent temple in the city. His work in this capacity will without a doubt prove as effective and as satisfactory as have his achievements in the past. FRED R. OTTA\WAY. Fred R. was born December I8, I867, and in I887 came to Flushing to help his father build and operate the elevator there. He continued this till the partnership ceased, and then managed it in company with his brother, Claude, till I905. He has shown great interest in stock raising and has an eye for good blood in animals. He runs the Pioneer stock farm, raises shorthorn cattle, Berkshire hogs, fine sheep, etc., and never fails for premiums at the local fairs. He was married January I7, I893, to Miss Nettie M. Phelps, daughter of Cyrus Phelps, the hardware merchant in Flushing. She was born at Buffalo, New York, educated in the Chicago public schools, and also attended Valparaiso University of Indiana. At one time she taught in the public schools of Flushing. Their children are M\arion E., Ralph J., Stewart, and Marjorie. Mr. Ottaway is a Republican and has served as township treasurer and also supervisor. He was made a member of a building committee of five men for the construction of the new courthouse, this demonstrating the confidence that is placed in his ability and integrity.

Page  292 MRS. THOMAS A. WVILLET. The life history of Thlomas A. W\illett is one of interesting and varied experiences. His parents, William Thomas and Julia Ann1 (Pritchard) Willet, were natives of Canada. His father was a sailor and had attained the position of captain when he died of cholera in Montreal in 1854. His mother lived to quite an advanced age. Six children were born to this union, of whom Thomas was the oldest and the only son. He was born in the province of Quebec, New Richmond, Bonaventure, April 7, 1842, and here spent his boyhood days up to his twelfth year. He then went out to sea with his father, and for the next two years served as cabin boy on his father's vessel. He continued the sailor's life until I86I, and had many exciting experiences with storm and wave. His next move was to enlist in the United States navy, in which service he continued until 1864. This period of his life was also filled with many ups and downs. Conspicuous among these was a close call while in the con

Page  293 GENESEE COU'NTY, MICHIGAN. 293 test for tie capture of Ft. Henry on the Tennessee river. He had been assigned to the gunboat, the "Essex," when the boilers of the vessel were exploded by the bursting of a shell. Mr. \illet was close at hand and suffered scalding, anl( his bodly was so ri(ddled that twenty-one wounds were counted. For three hours lie lay in a semi-conscious state, being al)le to realize what was goilng on aroun(l him, lbut unable to speak or make any move (-r (lemlonstration. His life htung alpparently by a thread, )but strelgth finally returned and he ultimately rec(overe(l his health. After the close of the war lie repaired to NeXw 'Y()rk state and became enigage( at carpentering, followinlg this until 1867. He then came west to Michligo-an, and for three years followed carpentry at Battle Creek. In 1883 he came to F:lilt, continuinog his trade, but also formling a partnership witlh E. i. l. ennett, manufacturers of carb(nate(l so(la water. He was one of the firm for nine years and is now\ living chiefly a retired life. H-lis first marriage was in Battle Creek, Michigan, to Miss Emily W. Jones, who was born at Scipio., New \-York. They were the parents of three children —Fred S., Francis S. and A\nna 0. IThe lmother (liel at Maple lRapi(ls, Michig-an, May 2, 188i. He was again l arrie(l o(n tune o3, 1'886, to Miss Elise A. JTudd, Awho was )(born in Flint, andl was the daughter of Richard and Mlar- ((;avton) udld, who( were natives (f i)evonshire, IEngand. T'hey came to (Genesee county ill T85 and settledl il llint. 1Mrs. Jull (lie(l il Ilint in (889, having reached thle ae of sixt-fi\-e years. AMr. Ju(dtl passe(l away inl:896 at tie age of sevenit years. Tlihree children were 1born to them in Flint viz., (;eoro-e H., Thirza, and Elise. AI-. and(l Mrs. \\illet are active lemlll)ers in the E)piscopal)l church and are closely idletifiedl witlh manv of the leading ordlers andl societies of the city. A\r. \\illet lias held somne of tie chief places of trust and ()n(or) in the lodges of Odd(l Fellows ald Ml accabees. He was a charter lmenller of tile first canton of Odd ]Fellows o1rganize(l here anld was its first presi(ling officer. Mrs. Willet tautilgt in tile city scil(ools of Flint for Inine years, and lhas been a member of the C(olumlbian Clulb for somee time, giving many of her spare hours to the vo(rk. She is one of the leaders in the literary life of the city and is responsil)le in a neasure for the lively spirit and aggressive activities of those interested in this phase of the city's social achievements. Mr. and Mrs. W\illet are hel(l il higll esteem an(l are tile subljects of good wishes on the part of a host of frien(ls.

Page  294 (;EGIO(; E GORDON MA -RSI1HA-jIL. T'his gentlenman was born in Huron county, Ohio, November 23, I842. His father, Abel, died when George was tw-elve years old. George then Nworked at farm- work by the month with a IMr. WVolverton for three rears. In I857 his mother, with three children, removed to Michigan and settled in Thetford township. She had tradedl her Ohio farm, the man with wh-lon she made the deal agreeing to l1ring her and her family through to their destination. George returned to Ohio, doing a man's work, remaining with the said (Tolverton until 186I. I-He then rejoined his mnother, who later married Orrin Seeley and continued to live in Thetford township until her death at the age of eighty-three. The children were 1Francis, Saralh,. George, Philip, and Eliza, Sarah becoming mnarriedl to one of the sons of Mr. Seelev. In February, I862, Mr. Marshall enlisted in Companly I of the Tenth Mlichigan Volunteer Infantry under Colonel Thompson. He served until the close of the war, being veteranized at the en(l of the second year, August 4, I864. His service was chiefly in the army of the Cumberland, beginning at Corinth and extend(ing through Tennessee, Alabama and the Atlanta campaign to the sea. He participated in twenty-four skirmishes and engagements and was promoted first to corporal and then to the rank of sergeant. His

Page  295 GENESEE COUNTY, MWICHIGAN. 295 experiences ill these activities were such as were characteristic of the war. Excessive marches, narrow escapes, fearful andt gory conflicts follow\ed il lquick successi(on. )On one march, upon reaclling camp, but tx-(w men of the company reeported, Iieutenant Algeo anld himself. They stated that they could not stack arms, lut they could report the presence of the co:mpany. At the close of the war he was dischargedl with his comhrades at Jackson, Mlichigan. Durillg all tils exposure anil carnag he le as neither wounledl nor captured, hut his coat was shot through so manyl times that lie \would not lIrilng it home. 'I here are many trophies to be foundl in his home, kept as memorials of the struggle. Am\long these are his o1(1 knapsack, canteen, and a lelt lelolging' to a lieutenant killed at Atlanta. After his return and lischarge he \went to 'it -Hole, tenlnsvlvania nlear Oil City, where oil fiells were albudllant. Later lie returned to! Thetford town\ship a(nd engagedl il farming, moving later to (enesee township. Here he cleared anl imlproved lan(l andl bro1uohlt his farm up to a higlh legree of convenience and excellence, having a large lhouse and larms. Comingo later to Flint he has built excellent residences, the (cne (o East Court street lbeiig a desiralle one \itli spacious gro1-un(ls. H-e ias taken a lively interest ill the general affairs of tile city, but has not aspired to local offices o)r apploinitlmenlts. In 1866 he was Imarrie(l to Mliss Alla I'letcher, of Thetford town-ship. whlo dlied inl 183-. She was the motherl of five childre —(Geo)rge lTho)mas d(ied in infancy7 Ethel is the wife of Charles Pettiingill a farmer of lThetford townshipil I:'hila 1\ [arv dlie(l in infancy; Orrin is still at the Flint homestead. In 1894 [Mr. Mlarshall was mlarriedl to Iliss Eva Billings, of IFlint, the daughter of Albert Billings. another patriot and soldlier of the Civil \ar. Mr. Marshall is a meml)er of G(eneral Crapo Post, Grand Army of the Republlic, and has atteidedl many of the (Granl Army national encampments. He las taken dlelighlt in traveling over the country he fought so noblv to (lefend, alnd has been permitted to see nearly all the sections of the commonwealth. He is 11no reapingl a well deserved rest and a rich enjoyment of the heritage of life in the greatest republic of the earth.

Page  296 STEPL-'HEN CROCKE IFR. IFor nlore thaln half a century \Mr. Stephen Crocker, of 1Flint, was a protlilnellt character in (lenesee county, assistinlg as mluch as any othler manl ill ts marvelous (levelolpment. England never c>lltril)btedl a sturdier lmember to the lanlld of )i(oneers that mladle the wilderness "lol(ssom as the rose. r. Stephllen Crocker was born i the parish of Ii'relmilngton, near Barnstaplle. Countv of I)evon, IEnglanl, ()o tlhe m4th dlay of June, 1817. He was (lne (of tlirteen children, five of \lwhom emigrate(l to \America to temllt fortune i a strag-e land. lMr. C-rocker camne to Michigan anll to (;enesee county in 1843, arriving on tle Igtlh dlay of [une, in clnomplany witl his sister, Carolilne w\\ho( afterward blecame:Mrs. Silas Pierce, and tle Imother o(f MilIrs. F. Il. Rankin, Jr. 1Mr. Crocker's brother, (eorge. had settled( in Ne\w (1ork in 1832 a(nd in 1836 loocated( in (Ienesee co(ntv. Mlichigan. After s)penlling a yeari or two( o() a rente(! farml in (Grandl Blanc (;eorge Crocker move(l to FIlint to\wnisil) il 1(838 andl settledl on a p)iece (of goovernment land which he had taken il). Ste)phen (Crocker also purchased two\ pieces of land from the government, b)ut these were afterward sold to IRoblert I)ullam, who(, \ith his -wife (formerly Mary Ann Crocker), came to Michigan albout two years later. lhe settlemelnt in the wilderness soon became knownl as the Crrocker settlement, the liane

Page  297 CGENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 297 llich it lears to this clay. Mr. Crocker visited England a numl)er of times, making nine trips across the Atlantic. Stephen Crocker resided iln Genesee county continuously for a period of sixty-tw\o years and( f o r ov(er forty years il Flint, and dlied oll the 27th day of November, i0o5. He was narriedl in 1848 to Prudence T)ullamn, who came origilnally from the same parish in England that was honoredl by the birth of \[Mr. Crocker. The estimalle coul)le enjo)yedl fifty-seven years of wedded happiness, sharing together the privations and hardshlips of pioneer life in a new counltry, an(l the years of plrosperity and comfort that came in after years as a ricllv merite(l reward. hlleir union was blesse(d with five children, one of whom (lie(l in infancy; anlother daughter; Sophie ( Mrs. James Pierson), mother of iMr. Harry Piersoun, of F lushing, MIich., passed to the land of etern-al rest and peace in i1878, her (leath occurring at a time when Mr. and Mfrs. Crocker were Aisting their 0ol( home in Englanl. The son, lThomas Crocker, grew to lianhiloo((l and (lie(l in I;lint a few years prece(lilng the death of lhis!arenits. I'he two surviving clil(lren at the timie of the deatil of Mr. an(d \l1rs. Crocker were two (laughlters, Mlrs. Lester H. Henderson and Mrs. Edwlil (). \\Woo(l, oth of whllol resi(le in the city of FIlilt. AIrs. Crocker only survive(l her husland five weeks an(l went up higher on the 2d (llay of Jalnuary. 1906. \iMr. andl Mrs. Crocker were i(lenltified with everything that tel(le( to utp)uildl Flint an(l (jenesee cotuity, and( in religionus, edlucatio, al al(l social matters, were leldl ill iglh esteem and respect by all. Hospitalle, generous, and p)ossesse(l of iillerent integrity andl sincerity, they have left their imlprint on the entire comlmunity wllere tlley lived, and their influence for good will remain for y\ears to comle. Illhe w\er-e actively identified with St. Paul's Episcopal church, Flint, andi aidlel materially in making it possille to erect the leautiful edifice occulpie(l 1) the parislh.

Page  298 WILLIAM GILM\IORE. America is much indebted to Europe for many of her staunch and loyal citizens. Among the many contributors to the tide of immigration is Ireland, which has certainly senlt us her quota. Ole of these was William (Gilmiore, \\-Il( was born in County Cavin, Ireland, on i\Aril 30, 1831. He emigrated to America in 1850, taking up his quarters in Cayuga county, New York. Three years later he came over to M1ichigan and settled in Argentille township, Livingston county. He built himself a log cabin, but worked out most of the time, making from fifteen to twenty dollars per month. Three or four years later he botuglht a tract of heavy timber land in Vernon township, Shiawassee county. On this he built a log house, but later, in 1872, he put up a good substantial frame dwelling. He has also erected go(ld barns and has been able to add more land to his farm from time to time, thus showing not only thrift, but economy as well. At one time he sold a part of the original farm to his brother, Htugh, who died several years ago. Mr. Gilmore was married on October i8, 186o, to A\nna Jane String'er. o.f \Wavne county. Their experience lwhen going to housekeeping was not unlike that of many another of our pioneer citizens. Having neither horse nor cow Mr. Gilmore soon paid for a cow by ditching at daily wages. Mrs.

Page  299 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 299 (ilnmore's father presented her with a horse. This they soon traded for an ox team, but in a year or two the ox team was replaced by a good span of horses. Just at this time the fearful contest for the flag was in full swing. True to the love of freedom burning within his breast Mr. Gilmnore stood ready to leave his wife and babes and enlist for the defense of the stars and stripes. Tlhe recruitillg officer, lhowever, advised him to refrain for a while, saying that good men were also needed at home. Mr. (;illmore believed in the maxim that "nothing venture, nothing lhave." H-e wouldl ften sell off the last co:w he had on the farm. He wo:)uld frelquently buy a piece of land just because some one wanted to sell it. At one time the olly payment he male for a forty-acre farm was his note, given without security. A little later lie sold the same tract back to the (riginal owner at considerable advance. His wife shared with hi in their efforts at ecoomv. s son as tlhev o-)t eout cof (elt sthey assumed another in or(ler to get h)usv. Out of a family of nine children six are now livingll. D DIavid H. is a mechanic at Owasso: W\illiam H. is a tile manufacturer at Durand': Elmer MI., \\inford IL. and \ \ard B. are living on different sections of the old homestead, and AMy rtle V. is married to Charles Markley, a clothinog merchant of (Gaines. Altlhouogh a Repullican MAr. (ilmore believes in the principles of prmohibition. He has been a school director for thirteen years, is a menller of the AIethodist Episcopal church, has been superintendent of tle Sunday school, class leader and an organizer of classes in his day. Even though busy with home interests Mr. Gilmore has found time to do considerable hunting and travelinug. He has seen all of Michigan and has satisfied himself as to what Florida is like. But in all his reflections nothing oives him more satisfaction than the fact that he has never had a law suit with anv one.

Page  300 I-ION. SIMAEON REX1OR BiLN S Hon. Slimeon Rexford 1`illings, late of I,1 lint, wvas born in Orleans county. New \ork, 1\tarch 17., j8- and dliedl near Flint, MI~ichigan, No~vember 12. 1905. Aiir. Billing-s wvas active In public life, having filled many places of trust and reslponsiibil itv. H is education1 Was obtained lin Albion A-cadeniv. ibnt lie Ihadl supl~)emlentedl this by wide readino, close observation1 anld active par~ticipaltioni In the affairs of Richfield township. In 1j875 he wvas senit to the state leg-islature as representative fr(m hi 1is district, filling- the place So acceptably that lie was returned the niext term, and after that wvas agaiil sent, this time as senator-. Hie was also appoinitedl state rail 1way colniiiissi( mer by Governor -Rich. His activity lin the state assemnblv wvas suich as to attract co-isi(ieraible pub~lic notice.H le took broad and optimilstic views of questions brought before the body, and when the matter of legislatioin dlealing with the practice (of medl~cine came up his uitterances (lrew forth newvspaper cartoons, onfie of whlich represented him as being (lissectedl by a b.ody of physicIaiis. He made ane energ~etic fighit ]in behalf of the State Normal at Ypsilanti and succeeded also lin obtaining~ favorable legyislation for the state school located at Flint. His paramount interest, however, was lin his farm, to whilch lie (levoted the major ipart of his energy. He earned the wvell (leservedl rehputationi of ileilig the most suic

Page  301 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHtIGAN. 301 cessful and( progressive farmler in this section of the state. He soon bcamle \videlv known not only for his progressive ideas and experimental knowledge, but lie had also the ability to express himself in a clear and effective manner. Consequently lie was greatly in demand as a speaker and made numerous addresses l)efore the farmners' institutes. He was an easy and fluent talker, andl was \well infor)med on all topics of interest, hence he was called upon for a(l(lresses in various capacities. He made the speech introducing Governor Rich to the commi-ittee that announced his nomination as governor. He was an apt story teller, a good after-dinner entertainer, and an excellent toastmaster. He was an ardent suplporter and friendl of the tariff idea, and was al-ways read(l with telling argumlents ill defense of his views. His farm was knolwn far an(l wide as a pllace of open and( genial hospitality. H-le loved to entertain his friends an(d was very popular with the youngll people of the community, lis rich fund of hlumor an(l keen witticisllms keeping his guests in a continual uliproar (of laughter. He coul(l see the blright si(le of life, and was successful in thromwing sunshine inito the lives anid hearts of his host of acquaintances. Inl the industrial line, also, Mr. Billilngs was far from l)eing a blank. Ile invented aiid patentedl a door catch, which lie maniufactured and put on the imiarket. 'This pro-vel lquite a success and resulted in a good income. He was an expert mneclhanic about the farm, installed his owin water works. put up sublstantial bluildiings aind in every \way made his farm his.pride. I-le was also blroad-min(led in his religious views, anid his doors were always opern to the miiiisters of the leieg-hborhood. He helped generously in the sul)port of the messengers of the glad tidings, atid took a firm stand, also, on the (luestion of temperaince. Mr. Billings' first marriage \-as to:\liss Carrie Gray, and to this union were born two( children-Bertha, the wife of Edward D. Black, now living in Flint, AMichigan, and \Willianm, who is at this date, I9o7, cashier of the Davison State Bank at Davison, MAichigan. The second marriage was to Miss Nancy Ashley, and to this union was born one child, Carrie E., who is the principal of the oral departmient of the Michigan school for the (leaf at Flint. She is a graduate of the Flint high school, and in I893 entered the training class taught by Professor Clarke. Her work in.the school is of the highest order and her success in that capacity is beyond question or criticism. She is a membher of the National Educational Association, and of the National Con

Page  302 302 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY vention of Teachers of the Deaf, sessions of which are held every three years. She has written much along the line of her work, displaying many of her father's characteristics of initiative and originality. Her mother before her was also a teacher for several years in the same department before her marriage. Miss Carrie has the work so well in hand that she is enabled to give part of her time to the training of the teachers themselves, thus making practically a normal department of her work. She is a member of the Episcopal church, is a regular and loyal attendant at all the church services, and is also a member of the Genesee Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, the ancestral line running back to Joel Rexford, a revolutionary soldier. Roxanna Clatilda Rexford is another noted branch of the ancestral tree.

Page  303 ANI)RE\V. P. B3IRDSALL. Another worthyv citizen of Flint and one who has been for mnany years a resident of this sturdy, citv, is MXir. Andrew P. Birdisall. He was horn in Florence, Oneida county, 'N~ew Nork, April 14, 1845, and was the fifth of a falmily of nine childlren. His father was Rev. Wrilliamt Birdsall, wAho was a clergyman of the MNethodist Episcopal church, and wNas a superannuate member of the Detroit conference whien hie diedl. He was born in Newv York stae uly3,i8i6, and after co-niing to Michigan was a heroic dispenser of the gladl tidingos 'nnder the tryingy and (lifficult conditions that acconipanied the itinierary life of the times. Probably no class of public spirited benefactors has done more to make this couintryi? of ours the miecca of the world than these nbeand self-sacrificing heralds of the Word. For many yastesee of his labors were iii (Genesee county, and hie was living in Flint w~hen lie wNas gathered to his fathers January 3,184 Hi 1ie hs iilnnm a MayLbe - as born in Connecticut Spebr3.14,and (diel In Flint townv-ship A'pril 18.' 1892. A~ndrewv wNas two aiid one-half years 01(1 when his parents cam-e to Michig~an. Hie remained at home uintil lie was about twelve years of age. Possessed of a remarkable ambition ai(d aii unusual (hegree of pluck, he then launched out practically to fight his own battles. He has been a resideint

Page  304 304 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY of Genesee county since 1863. He was 1married September 28, I864, to Miss Chloe F. Boomer, who was born1 ii Burton township, Genesee county, December 4, I844. She was the daughter of Clark antid Samantha (Bristol) Boomer, who were both natives of New York state. They were mnarried inl Genesee county, lMichigan, and settled upon a farm in Burton townrshil), but later they remloved to Flint township. They were exemplary people and were highly respected by all their friends and neighbors. Mrs. Boomer attained the age of seventy-one years. Mr. Boomer (lied at Pontiac, Michigan, while there on a visit, having reached the age of seventy-eight years. Mr. and Mrs. Boomer were the parents of three children, of whonlm Mrs. Birdsall was the second, and is now the only surviving member of the family. Mr. and Mrs. Birdsall have been the parents of two children, one of whoml, linnie F., was called hence at the tender age of ten years. The other dlaughlter, Cora C., is the wife of J. Howard Gotshall. They have one dauglhter, Minnie B., who is at the present time a student in o)ne of our best business colleges..MNr. Birdsall has (levoted the major portion of his time to farming and has madle himself imaster of his craft. His industry and perseverance have been manifested in the care andl oversight that he has Oiven to the details of his occupation, earning for himself a well-deserved reputation as a man upon whollm one can safely depend. Since residing in Flint Mr. Birdsall has been a faithful and efficient overseer of one of the Methodist Episcopal church buildings, and( as such has won the love and esteem of all with whom he has become acquaintel. He not on1ly takes care of the church property, but in company with his wife is deeply interested in the spiritual activities of the society, and contributes generously in all the wxvys that he can to the advancement of the Master's kingd01om in the hearts of men.

Page  305 ALBERT H. BUCK. Early in the last century the farming people in the state of Vermont were thrown into considerable distress on account of the failure of their crops, and many of their nulmbers left the state, emigrating westward into New York. Among others were the parents of Sally Drury, who was born at Eden, Vermont, in I802, coming to York state with her parents in I816. Later she met and married Alvin Buck, who was born in New York state in I798. They made their home at Huron, Wayne county. New York, where Albert, the subject of our biograply and the youngest of six children, was born February I4, 1842. In I844 they came to Fenton township, Genesee county, Michigan, to a farm one-half mile north of Linden, having traded their New York property for the forty-acre farm here without having previously seen it. It had a dwelling on it, however, and the family soon settled down to active life in what was practically a new world to them. The father of the family lived to be seventy-three years of age, while the mother passed away in October, I895, attaining the magnificent age of ninety-three years. She was one of the last survivors of the very early settlers, having lived for fifty years on the same farm. The family consisted of five sons and one daughter, Mary Jane, who married William Gamber and died four years since at the age of seventy-five 20

Page  306 306 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY years. The sons were: Walter C., a farmer of Fenton township, who died at the age of seventy-seven years; Lewis, born in 1832 and now living in Linden; Anson, born in 1834, unmarried, and now lives on the old homestead; Isaac C. is now living at Hale, Iosco county, Michigan. Our subject, Albert H., grew to manhood on the farm, assuming charge of it as soon as old enough to stand that responsibility. He bought out the interests of the other heirs and assumed the care of his mother. He had an eye for business, however, and for several years he butchered and sold meat of various kinds. An opportunity to run a threshing imachine presenting itself, he gave this his attention during seven seasons. While on a trip back to New York state in I870 he saw a steam thresher for the first time, it beilng among the first manufactured. In 87 1, in company with Joseph Middleworth, he operated a grain elevator, continuing at this for about six years, and mlaking of it a financial success. In I877 he bought a good farm about two miles north of Linden, disposing of it three years later and reinvesting in the present homestead of eighty acres adjoining Linden. He purchased it in I880 and has continued to operate it for twenty-six years. He still owns the old homestead and handles wool, beans, etc., in conjunction with his other business. He has given considerable attention to the raising of sheep, and is well versed not only in what constitutes good veal and market stock, but is thoroughly conversant with the subject in general, both as to value and utility. In the year I88o Mr. Buck purchased a one-half interest in the Linden elevator, which he and his partner jointly managed until I886, when Mr. Buck purchased his partner's interest in the elevator and at once assumed the entire control of the business, in which he continued until I906. He then disposed of the elevator and all that pertained to it, Mr. Fred Welch, of Fenton, Michigan, becoming the proprietor and manager. Mr. Buck was married on December 31, 1863, to Miss Iydlia Almira Chapin. Mrs. Chapin, the mother of Mrs. Buck, was born in Vermont and came to Michigan when fourteen years of age. She died when Lydia was about eight years old. After Mrs. Chapin's death Mr. Chapin remained on the farm in Fenton township until the railroad survey cut into the farm, whereupon he disposed of it, removing to another tract in Shiawassee county. M\r. and Mrs. Buck have had two sons, Oliver O., born October 5, I869,

Page  307 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 307 and Herman A., born July 13, 1878. The latter is occupying the old homestead, while the former is on the farm with his father. Mr. Buck has not narrowed himself down to his neighborhood activities, but has taken time and opportunity to travel about over the country. He has visited some of the notable expositions that have been world-renowned, having attended the fairs at Philadelphia, Chicago and Buffalo. At all these places Mr. Buck was an interested investigator into those features that not only gave enlightenment of the world generally, but also of all matters that gave him a better outlook on his business life after returning to his home community. He does not believe in speculation, but is not at all afraid of a business venture, as is evidenced by his transaction recently made. In company with another gentleman he purchased one thousand sheep in Idaho and shipped them to Buffalo, New York. At another time he purchased thirty double-decked carloads of lambs, leaving orders for them to be shipped one month later. He has not sought public office, but has rather preferred to devote himself unqualifiedly to his business interests.

Page  308 CLARENCE 0. HETCHLER. The present incumbent of the treasurership of Genesee county is Clarence O. Hetchler, who was born at Linden, Michigan, April I7, 1872. His parents were Robert and Jane E. (Stevens) Hetchler. The former was born in New York state, while the latter was born in the "Buckeye state." They were married at Linden and lived upon the farm that had been purchased and cleared by Robert Hetchler's parents, the former coming later to Linden. Clarence was educated in the Linden schools and completed a course at the Fenton Normal. He became a clerk in the postoffice and was also engaged as drug clerk. Later he entered into partnership with Albert Hetchler in the general merchandise business at Linden, which concern still continues and has made a marvelous growth. At the start the capital amounted to about three hundred dollars. The present value of the stock is about $6,000 to $8,000, not including other business interests owned by the firm. Among these outside interests is the Linden wagon works, founded thirty-five years ago by Myron Harris. It passed into the hands of the Hetchler brothers two years ago. It has fine water power and several subsidiary departments. The major part of the business of the firm, however, has remained centered in the store. They carry a full line of dry goods, gents' furnishings, shoes, etc., their annual sales being approximately $I5,000. For the past ten years Mr.

Page  309 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 309 Hetchler's father has also given much attention to high grade stock raising, taking special interest inl maintaining fine breeds of horses. He owns a halfbrother to Dan Patch, or Star Patchen, a horse of national repute. Mr. Hetchler has had the knack of handling public affairs so acceptably that he has been constantly the recipient of tenders of public office. He has held many village appointments and has served two terms as township treasurer. He is a Republican and was nominated as candidate for the office of treasurer against heavy opposition, the primary law being in effect at the time of his nomination. He was elected 1b a handsome majority, and was intlucted into the office Janualy 1, 1907. He then removed with his family to Flint. He was married in 1898 to Miss Emily MAiddlesworth, daughter of Fredrick J. and Carrie Middlesworth, of Linden. After seven years of peaceful and congenial married life the wife was called hence, no children having been born of this union. In \ugust I90o6, Mr. Hetchler was married again, this time to M1rs. Nellie Sadler, nlcC Scranton, at Vernon, Michigan. Her one daughter, Helen, is aged eleven years. IMr. Hetchler is not only a vigorous business man and an efficient,guardlian of the county's trusts, but he also takes a deep interest in the progress of the leading secret societies of the city. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity and the )Odd Fell)ows, lhaving been district deputy in the latter ordler for two years. He is also a member of the Loyal Guards and the Woodmllen of America. He assisted ill organizing and pushing the work of the ltModern \W)oodmenl in the community. It is to the credit of the people of the county that they have called into service a man of such strong traits as are founll in the maikeup of such all individual as MIr. Hetchler.

Page  310 JOSEPH WALSH. Mr. Joseph Walsh, retired resident of Flint, was born in County WVest Meath, Ireland, March 31, I845. His father, Michael Walsh, was born in County West Meath, and his mother, Elizabeth (Fox) Walsh, was born in County Meath. These parents came to America when Joseph was three years old, arriving at Detroit in I848. Mr. Walsh worked at the boiler maker's trade, making a specialty of rebuilding boilers. The family remained in Detroit until 1861, Nwhen they came to Lapeer county, Burnside township, and settled upon a tract of wild land, which had upon it a log cabin, but none of the land was under cultivation. Besides farming Mr. Walsh worked quite a bit at his trade, performing opportune service for the millers thereabouts, receiving good wages for his work. Louis, the youngest of the family, still occupies this old (two hundred and eighty-acre) homestead. Later the parents removed to Flint, where the father died in I894, aged eighty-two years. He was survived until I900 by his companion, who went to live with a daughter at Detroit. Of the eight children born to them, all but one are still living. Joseph attended the Christian Brothers' school in Detroit and then began work in the timber, assisting thus in maintaining and educating the younger members of the family. He was employed in the winter and springtime chiefly

Page  311 GENESEE COUNTY, 'MICHIGAN. 3 311 in gettingc out loos andl rtinniin theni dlown stream, and lie soon became an expert at the work, being not only fearless anl daring, bitt active and stipple as well. I-le comniandeedl the best wages paid to anyone, and wA-as quite expert wvith tools. He employed him-self frequently in carving out ox yokes, ax handles, etc. During the snnmner seasons lie engagedl in harvesting, bindlinP wheat or cradling, as occasion offeredl. 1P'or maniy winters he was in the employ of S. S. Lee in the Itnmlbering work, and often had exciting experiences in making the rive ruins. He was freqnently kept at Flint to assist in clearing til the shipments. TI'hese experiences of his voninger manhood gave him excellent training in that line of business and laid the foundations for his futuire success in the capacity of a tlnmberm-ian. It wonld form a longy story, in(leedl, to follow hime throngh the v\arious enterprises in which lie became engageyd. He was freqnently offered dloubtle salary as a scaler and ibilver of logs, andl was in the employ of the Crapo Lnmber Company for a nnmber of years. Later he beca-me associated wNithi varions lnmber interests over the state, and especially in the heavy timber tracts near the lakes. In some of these enterprises lie was sent by varionus lnmber companies as an expert investigator, being entrnsted \vitl the (lntvt of making a personal examination of the timber areas, and reporting his estimates to the company. In all of these cases his reports were acceptedl andl actedl npon. the fnllest cclnfi(lence being placed in his sounnl jlulgment and accnrate conclnsio ns. At various times he became part owNner in some of these extensive lnmber tracts anlid many of the milliiig enterprises represented investments of as mitch as $ion.ooo ini a single ventnre. In i88o lie representel the Delto Lnmber Company in loc-ating and laying out the site of the presenit thriv iiig and prosperoti village of T1hompson, in Sclioolcraft connty. M1ichlliaan. In i88i lie laid out the first logging railroad in the tpper peninsula. He was especially snccessful in supervising the lunnber camps and in handling large companies of iieii. On accotimt of failingo health lie was compelled to abaiidon active work in the timber alin repaired to a farm near Flint, purchased froni C. A. Mason. He uitt oi a newN/ stock of tools and rebuilt the farni liouse, making it one of the best iii the county. He developed the (lrainag-e of the farni to a high (leg-ree of perfection, and was oi this farm for eighteen years. In the meantiie, however, lie continied his iiterests in the luitmber business, and made

Page  312 312 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY manyt proslperous ventures. Some rebuffs were encountered during tile pallics of 1873 and I893, and during the latter stress the co:pany with which he was associated consigned its affairs to ex-Governor Rich as trustee, whllo, after a year or two, soldl out its interests at a sacrifice, but met all obligations dlollar for dollar. Space will (not permit us to rehearse the (letails of other various and( extensive operations, but mentioIn may be mnade of some investments in the west. In I:904 he securedl an option on a tract of timber lan(d in Oregon, and after visiting it iimade a purchase of sixteen hundred an(l eiglhty acres, which wvas estitmatecd to contain a hundlredl million feet of lumntber. In this R.. J. \haley became a partner with a half ilnterest. Besides this lihe has mining interests in the northern part of the state and in Ontario, and is a stockholhder in the National aind the Citizens' Conmmercial banks, of Flint. He renmovled to tile city in 1905 aind keeps direct oversig-lt of his various propertv interests here, which consist (of nIunmlerrouts sto(re luildings al(l residences. He is thle owner of:Moon island in the Flint river. While still living' on the farm in Flint townlship lie was connectedl with the official affairs of tile township, and was made sup)ervisor fo(r several terms. On MayV 24, I87o0, he was married' at tFlint to AMiss Ellen Donovanl, who \-as born at I.andsdown:le, Ontario, )but who came later t( FIlint. Thlie fainily consists of Joseplh I., of Flint; Spiridialn F., of Detroit; Ernest V., a bookkeeper at Flint' Agknes, a teacher at lhomne, and Ednmund, also at hone, alnd associated Awith the Miichig'lan Paint Coml)any. -\lMr. \,Valsh is a Demo)crat in p)olitics andl a memlller of the St. 5Michael's Catholic church. He takes an active interest in social affairs, bleing a menll)er ')f the Knig'hts of Coliumblu-s, Loyal Guard, p)resident of local branch o(f Catlholic Aflutlual Penefit:Association, Elks, an(l the I.'nion Clubl, tlhus makingo- the scope of his interest both wide anld complete.

Page  313 CHIARLES J. LEW\IS. Clarles J. Lewis, late of Flint, was tie soln of Benljamin Lew-is, who, in turn1, \\as the sonl of John anld Lucretia (Barnard) Lewis. The latter's ancestrv- is traceal)le lack to 'lhomas Lord, )::rn i Pll outh, England, and an eligiirant to America. He live(l at IDorchester, Massachusetts, and later at \ladlisoll, Connecticut. Charles' fathler was a farmer by occupation. lie was born at lremont, Ohio, A\ugust 3 1, 185o. \t an early age, andl before lie had complletedl his schooling, lie was called upon to face the stern realities of life. His mihtler died whlen he was fifteen years old, and, as the eldest of a larg-e famlily of children, le was confronted bv tihe responsibilitv of assisting his father in taking care of his brothers and sister. He beg-an the activities of life by teachingl school, and later was employed for seven years as a clerk iin a slioe store in Fremiont, meanwhile materially aiding, in the care and support of his father's family. In S177 he accepted a position as travelingl salesman for Charles Groff & Company, a shoe manufacturiing firml of Cleveland, Ohio, and came to Flint to make this his headquarters. \Vith the retirement of this firm from business in 1882 he transferred his services to the Cady-Ivison Shoe Company, of Cleveland, Ohio, in whose employ lie continued up to the time of his death.

Page  314 3I4 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY On November I6, I898, Mr. Lewis was united in marriage to Miss Louise Gage, daughter of Z. A. and E. V. Gage. She was born in Gaines township and was reared in the city of Flint. She proved a most devoted and helpful companion. Besides his wife he was survived by five brothers and a sister-Chester D. Lewis, of Bellaire, Ohio; Frank B. Lewis, of Lima, Ohio; A. W. Iewis, of Toledo, Ohio; W. E. Lewis, of Mt. Pleasant, Michigan; Mrs. N. C. Sherwood and W. S. Lewis, of Fremont, Ohio. He was for two years secretary of the Michigan Knights of the Grip, being first elected to that office at the annual state meeting of the organization in this city three years ago last fall. He was also affiliated with the United Commlercial Travelers, the Cleveland Commercial Travelers, the National Union and the Loyal Guard. He was a member of Genesee Vallev Commandery, No. 15, Knights Templar; W\ashington Chapter, No. 5, Royal Arch Masons; Flint Council, No. 56, Royal and Select Masons; MIichigan Sovereign Consistory and Moslem Temple, Mystic Shrine. Possessed of a genial and companionable disposition and a buoyant nature that radiated sunshine wherever he went, he passed along the highway of life disseminating good cheer and helpfulness among those with whom he came in contact. Kind, sympathetic, considerate and charitable to a degree he did his part to make others happy, and it will always be remembered of him that he spoke ill of nobody, and ever stood ready to defend or palliate where others showe(l a disposition to criticise. Thus, in his passing lie leaves behind him the menmory of a noble character as a heritage to his family and his friends. The closing ceremonies over his mortal remains were thus described in one of the local papers: "Funeral services for Charles J. Lewis were held at the First Presbyterian church yesterday afternoon at 2:30 in the presence of a gathering of people that comnpletely filled the commnodious edifice. The services were in charge of Genesee Valley Commandery, No. I5, Knights Templars, ninety-five sir knights turning out in uniform to pay a last trilbute of respect to the memory of their departed brother. A large number of local commercial travelers and others from outside points were in attendance-Bay City, Detroit, Grand Rapids, Lapeer, Port Huron and Saginaw being among the cities of the state to send delegations. The Michigan Sovereign Consistory was represented by Commander-in-chief Fredric B. Stevens and Joseph Mlayworm of Detroit."

Page  315 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 3 I 5 The following poem is appended as expressing appropriately many of the characteristics of our subject: A FRIEND TO MAN. BY SAM \WALTER Foss. There are hermit souls that live withdrawn In the place of their self-content; There are souls, like stars, that dwell apart, In a fellowless firmament; There are pioneer souls that blaze their paths Where highways never ran; But let me live by the side of the road, And be a friend to man. Let me live in a house by the side of the road, Where the race of men go by; The men who are good and the men who are bad, As good, and as bad, as I. I would not sit in the scorner's seat, Or hurl the cvnic's ban; Let me live in a house by the side of the road, And be a friend to man. I see from my house by the side of the road, By the side of the highway of life, The men who press with the ardor of hope, The men who are faint with the strife. But I turn not away from their smiles nor their tears, Both parts of an infinite plan; Let me live in my house by the side of the road, And be a friend to man.

Page  316 316 BIOGRAPHIC&AL HISTORY I know there are brook-gladdene(l meeatdows ahead, And mountains of wearisome height; And the road passes on through the long afternoon, And stretches away to the night. But still I rejoice when the travelers rejoice, And weep with the strangers that moan, Nor live in my house by the side of the road Like a man who (dwells alone. Let me live in my house by the side of the road. Where the race of men go 1)b; They are good, they are lad, they are weak, they are strong, Wise, foolish, and so am I. Then Awhy should I sit in the scorner's seat, Or hurl the cynic's ban? Let me live ill my house b the side of the road, And be a friend to man.

Page  317 HON. JOHN ROGER BENSON. It is worth while to note that the citizenship of Genesee county numbers among its members not only people of distinct financial success, of patriotic fervor, and of religious consecration, but also men and women of high literary culture and taste. Our summary of the county's roll would not be complete did it not include the Hon. John Roger Benson, of Mt. Morris. Mr. Benson was born at Manchester, England, June 5, 1837. His father, Henry Benson, was a native of England, but his mother, Elizabeth (Dooley) Benson, was of Irish birth. She was the daughter of Patrick and Julia (Kennedy) Dooley, devout adherents to the Catholic faith. In I840, when John was three years of age, his parents emigrated to America, sailing from Liberpool, and after a short stay in New York city and New Jersey, they came on to Genesee county, Michigan. They settled in Mt. Morris township, where Mr. Benson bought a small piece of wild land, which he soon cleared. He made additions to this tract as the years went by and at the time of his death had come into possession of several valuable farms. For the first few years after his arrival he engaged in teaming, as well as farming. During the Civil war he went to Bay City and conducted there a general merchandise business, both making and losing considerable money. He also branched out into a lake carrying business, purchasing a boat of his own and running it himself, between Bay City, Sandusky and other ports. In the spring of 1874, his wife having died August 23, 1873, he returned to Genesee county and continued here until the close of his life. Some years before his death, in February, 1897, he removed to a farm in the outskirts of Flint. He was a Republican in politics, but was not an aspirant for public

Page  318 3i8 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY office, and demonstrated his patriotism by living the life of an exemplary American citizen. Six children were born of this union, of whom our subject, John R., was the eldest. Henry and Julia died in infancy. The fourth, William Henry, died a prisoner of war in the Confederate prison at Belle Isle. He enlisted in the First Michigan Cavalry and was taken prisoner at Gettysburg. The next in order of birth was Elizabeth, who became a sister of the Sacred Heart, and was called to her reward in 1898. The youngest of the family was Mary Ellen, now the wife of Patrick Lourim, of Banks, Bay county, Michigan. Mr. Henry Benson was married the second time, joining himself to Mrs. Margaret Robinson, Iwho bore him two children-Emma, who became the wife of Floyd Marsh, a successful farmer of Genesee county, and Frederick H., who is also engaged in farming. John R. has spent almost all of his life in Genesee county. He was reared on the farm and received his early education in the district schools of the neighborhood. When older he attended the Flint public school, and took also a partial normal course at Ypsilanti. In addition to this he has been a most industrious reader, and by means of individual research has extended the scope of his education in a very marked degree. In the winter of I858-59 he began teaching, and for several years continued his work, occupying his summers at farming. On March 7, I862, having gone to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to attend business college, he enlisted in the One Hundred and Fifteenth Pennsylvania Infantry, Company F, which was later-before Petersburg-merged with the One Hundred and Tenth Volunteer Infantry of the same state. He continued his service in this regiment throughout the war. His experiences in the great struggle were not unlike those of others in the field. He underwent the usual hardships and exposures, and participated in such conflicts as the Seven Days' Battles, Second Battle of Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Battle of the Wilderness, Petersburg campaign, Appomattox, as well as numerous minor skirmishes. The mere mention of the above names is sufficient to convev to the reader an idea of what active service in this regiment meant. Yet throughout all these Mr. Benson came out without a wound and without capture. At the close of this eventful career he returned to Genesee county and purchased the farm in Mt. Morris township, which he still owns. For four winters after the war he resumed teaching, and then discontinued that work.

Page  319 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 3I9 devoting himself exclusively to farming. By so doing he has been able to make additions to his original purchase, and has brought what was a wild and uncultivated tract up to a high grade, productive and model farm, having removed to Mt. Morris village in the spring of I874. In early life Mr. Benson was a Republican, but later was affiliated with the People's party, which became fused with the Democratic party. In I890 Mr. Benson was elected to the state senate by the joint vote of the two above mentioned parties, and served for one term, giving his constituents most loyal and efficient representation. At the next election he was renominated by acclamation by both parties, but the entire ticket was defeated, and this closed Mr. Benson's career in that field. He has also filled the office of supervisor of his own township, and has been president of Mt. Morris village. On January 7, I866, Mr. Benson was united in marriage to Miss Mary S. Bresette, of South Bend, St. Joseph county, Indiana. She was born October 2, 1843, and was the daughter of Louis and Mary Louise (Chandonia) Bresette, both of Irench extraction, Mr. Bresette being a native of Canada. Mr. and Mrs. Benson have been blessed with eight children, all but one of whom are living. Mary E. is the wife of George C. Goodyear, of Pittsburg, Peninslvania; Edward H., once a naval engineer, is now in the west; William Arthur follows the meat business at Linden, Michigan; Florence H. is employed as adjuster of claims at a high salary by the Federal Casualty Company of Detroit. E. Louise is the wife of E. Costello. a farmer of Genesee township; John C. is a graduate of the University of Michigan and a successful practitioner of medicine at Flint; Robert Louis has obtained the degrees of A. B. and Ph. D. at the University of Michigan and is now at the Chicago University preparing to enter the medical profession; George A. lied in infancy. \[Mr. Benson is a literary man, having, as before stated, read extensively. He has made a critical study of literature and is fond of the poets. He has written considerable verse, having compiled four volumes of poems and sketches of his own composition, but as yet has published no volume. MIany magazines have been favored with contributions from his pen, consisting of both poetry and prose, and he has been fortunate in winning many prizes, both in prose and verse. In 1890 Mr. Benson was sent to California in the interests of the Murphy

Page  320 320 BIOGRAPHICALI HISTORY estate. James Mur-phy died in San Francisco, California, and Mr. Benson closed up his affairs in El Iaso, Texas, and elsewhere and had the remains sent home for re-interment, making also a somewhat extended tour of the west and of M[exico. In 19oo he made a trip abroad, visiting points of interest il England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales and the Isle of Man. He also attended the world's exposition at Paris. He keeps abreast of the times in all particulars and maintains a lively interest in all matters political, social and religious. He and his family are members of the Catholic faith. He belongs to the Catholic Mutual Benefit Association, the Knights of Columbus and the Grand Army of the Republic.

Page  321 CHARLES T. BRIDGMAN. It is a matter of pride to the citizenship of Flint that there are within its bounds men who are not only individuals of marked success in business, but are also men of wide culture and lbroad interests. One excellent representative of this type is Charles T. Bridgman, president of the Union Trust and Saviugs Bank, and secretary and treasurer of Smith-Bricgman & Company, the leading mercantile establishment of the city. IMr. Bridgman was born at Huntsburg, Grange county, Ohio, December 6, 1845. His parents came from Northampton, Massachusetts, and settled in Ohio in early days. At the age of thirteen Charles went to Chicago and entered the preparatory department of the old Chicago University, making his home with his brother, whose wife was a relative of William L. Smith, of F1lint, whither Charles came later. Charles also attended the Russell Military school at New Haven, Connecticut. On coming to Flint he entered the mercantile establishment with which lie is now connected, taking his place at the lower end of the ladder. He climbed up through all the grades of work until he reached the office. For forty years he has had charge of the company's office work, and during these years the business has had a steady growth each year, showing not only some profit but an expansion of scope as well. A short resume of the life history of the firm of Smith-Bridgman & 21

Page  322 322 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY Company may be of interest to our readers. The house was established in 1862 by William L. Smith as William L. Smith & Company. For four years Mr. Fredrick AV. Judd was associated with Mr. Smith, at the expiration of which time Eli T. Smith became Mr. Judd's successor. In 187I Charles T. Bridgman, our subject, became a member of the firm, having been in the establishment for six years, and in 1874 the firm name of Smith, Bridgman & Company was adopted, and has so continued since. Eli T. Smith, brother of William L., died in 1\arch, 1903. He resigned a clerkship at Waterbury, Connecticut, to join his brother at Flint. He was an expert salesman-one of the best ever doing business in the city. William L. hailed from Waterbury, Connecticut, and before coming west was buyer for a large mercantile house. His death took place in March, I906, and he is succeeded by his son, Walter 0. Smith, as president andl general manager. The firm's annual business exceeds $35o,ooo, and three floors and a basement do not furnish sufficient room for their stock. Arrangements are being made for enlarging their room space, and over fifty salesmen are constantly employed in taking care of the business. Other business interests also have occupied some of Mr. Bridgmlan's attention. He was a charter member of the water works company and he became president of the Union Trust Bank upon its organization, giving it efficient and effective direction. The following figures taken from the books of the Union Trust and Savings Bank June I, 1907, show the phenomenal growth of this bank during the last ten years, and speak volumes for the conservative and energetic management of the institution. On September 13, i870, Mr. Bridgman was married at Caledonia, New York, to Miss Sarah McKay, of that town. She is a woman of culture and attainments, a member of the Shakespeare Club and a devout worker in the Congregational church. The one son, Lewis H., is assistant cashier of the Union Trust and Savings Bank. Mr. Bridgman's travels have been quite extensive, embracing not only the new but the old world as well. He has made three trips abroad, including journeys in Egypt, up the Nile to Luxor, also in Palestine and Turkey. He spent six days in Jerusalem and also visited Ballec and Damascus. He has visited all European countries except Russia and Scandinavia. He spent a great deal of time in the famous art galleries of Europe, including the

Page  323 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 323 London art galleries, the ones at Berlin, Dresden and Rome, as well as the Louvre of Paris. In the United States he has visited every state and territory in the Union. While in Mexico he met President Diaz and made a close study of the Aztec antiquities of Mexico and California, summarizing many of his experiences and observations in a course of most interesting and instructive lectures, the hearing of which is indeed a most desirable privilege. Mr. Bridgman is also a member of the Congregational church, being treasurer of the society and having served for thirty-five years on the board of trustees. He is a member of the Masonic orders of Flint and is a Scottish Rite Mason. This brief summary of the varied activities of our subject serve but to give a glimpse of his broad personality. His life in the community has been a stimulus to a more definite, energetic and effective citizenship.

Page  324 324 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY THOMAS D. PARTRIDGE. Mr. Thomas D. Partridge was born in Devonshire, England, on March 6, I833. His parents, Thomas and Anna (Dawe) Partridge, were also natives of Devonshire and came to America in 1835, Thomas, Jr., being then but two years old. For about four years they made their home in Genesee county, New York, in the town of Stafford. In September, 1839, they came to Genesee county, Michigan, and settled on a farm in Atlas township. This land was covered with forest and one can readily imagine the formidable work necessary to bring it under cultivation. Then, also another condition confronted him, and that was that there were no schools at all in this vicinity. He bought one hundred and thirty acres there, and in the following June he returned to New York, coming back with his family in September. He settled upon the land he had purchased in Atlas township, remaining there for about two years, at which time he sold that farm and removed to Flint township. The county at that time was being rapidly settled, and more schools were soon established. He began improving his land in Flint township and getting it into shape, and continued there until January, I867. He then removed to Flint, where he enjoyed a retired life until his death, May 20, I880, in his seventy-ninth year. The mother passed away January 12, 1883, also in her seventyninth year. Four children were born to them, consisting of Anna, deceased, who was the wife of W. R. Hubbard, of Flint; Thomas, our subject, was next in order of birth; then we have John F., a retired resident of Port Huron; while the fourth, Charles W., is a prosperous merchant of Flint. Thomas was reared on the home farm, spending all his early years there except four. In I867-68 he was engaged in the mercantile business at Byron, Shiawassee county, Michigan. In I868 he went to southwestern Missouri on a prospecting tour and was gone for several months. He found nothing there that impressed him with any great force, and he consequently returned to Genesee county. In the autumn of I868 he joined with his brother in the mercantile business, but disposed of his interest in the following spring and returned to his farm in Flint township, which he had purchased of his father in I862. He engaged in farming until I880, at which time he rented out his farm and

Page  325 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 325 removed to the city of Flint, continuing there for eight years. In April, I888, he again returned to the farm in Flint township, where he has since resided. During this time he employed all of his time to the very best possible advantage, and gradually came into possession of several fine pieces of land, many of them being highly improved. He has three hundred and eighty acres in Flint and Burton townships and eighty-six acres near Clio, Michigan. The buildings on his farm are substantial and convenient, and are the result of hard and industrious work, as well as wise and effective management. In 1870 Mr. Partridge was united in marriage to Miss Naomi Burren, who was born in W\ayne county, New York, and was the daughter of James and Hannah Burren, who came to Genesee county, Michigan, in 1859. They first settled in Mt. Morris township, but later removed to Mundy township, where the father died at the age of sixty-six years. The 1other then made her home with her two sons, Charles and Frank, of Grand Blanc township. She departed this life December 4, 1906, having reached her seventy-third year. Six of her children grew to maturity. Besides Naomi these were William, Lillie, Julia, Frank and Charles. Mr. Partridge has never sought to get before the public, but he has been actively identified with the Republican party and has taken a vital interest in the general local affairs. FRANK M cWETHY. Among the many attractive features of the city of Flint are its hotel accolmmodations. These are not only ample and commodious, but they are conducted on economic and conservative lines, thus affording the public good entertainment at reasonable figures. In considering these mention must be made of the Sherman Hotel, owned by Frank McWethy, into whose possession the hotel passed about three years ago. Mr. McWethv was born in Wyoming county, New York, November 24, T862. His parents, Frank and Fanny (McDonnell) McWethy, were both natives of New York. They were devout people and loyal members of the Methodist faith. They came west in I865 and made their first location

Page  326 326 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY at Saginaw, Michigan. Here the father entered into the grocery business and continued therein until his death in I902, having had a successful career not only as a business man, but also as congenial neighbor and upright citizen. The mother is still living at Clare, Michigan, having married again in the meantime. She and Mr. Mc\Wethy were the parents of five children, viz.: Eva, Frank, our subject; Fredrick, Walter and Fanny, who is now deceased. Frank was but four years old when his parents came to Saginaw. He received his early education in the public schools of that city. After reaching maturity he became engaged in contracting and bulding, and followed that line of work for several years. In about I887 he entered into me liquor business at Flint and has been engaged in that ever since, purchasing in I904 the Sherman Hotel, which he has been conducting in a most satisfactory manner up to the present time. He maintains first-class accommodations at reasonable rates. On July 5, 1883, Mr. McWethy was united in marriage to Miss May McDonnell, who was a native of England, and a daughter of Patrick and May McDonnell, who came from England to America many years ago. Patrick McDonnell was for several years employed by the Pere Marquette Railroad Company. He and his wife, both now deceased, were most estimable people and were memlbers of the Catholic church. Frank McWXethy and his wife are the parents of four children, consisting of Frank, Jr.; Eva, Claude and Walter. The mother and children affiliate with the Catholic church. Mr. McW\ethy is a member of both the Eagles and the Elks, and takes a lively interest in the current topics of the day. CHARLES BATES-DURAND. Charles Bates was born at Shaftsburg, Bennington county, Vermont, September 9, I809. In I834 he came to Genesee county, Michigan, from Rushville, Yates county, New York, with his wife, Catherine (Woodworth) Bates, whom he had married at Rushville. They settled on a farm in Grand Blanc township, where they continued to make their home during the remainder of their days. They were most splendid neighbors and people that made the warmest of friends. Their industry and thrift resulted in bringing

Page  327 GENESEE COUNTY, IICHIGAN. 327 their farm up to a very satisfactory state of cultivation. Mr. Bates was not only successful as a farmer, but possessed considerable business and executive alility. He retired from active work early in the '8os. On September 7, i89o, Mrs. Bates was calle(l to her reward. She was survived bly her husbandl until M\arcll 30, 1907. Five childlren were born to this union. Augoustus diedl in infancy. Tlhe other four in or(ler of birth were Augusta, Rachel, WVoodworth and Catherine.

Page  328 328 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY HENRY CLARK WALKER. Henry Clark Walker, brother of Levi and James B. Walker, was born in Summerhill, Cayuga county, New York, April 26, 1815, and died February 19, I880. His early life was spent on his father's farm. When yet a young man he came to Flint, Michigan, where he had been preceded by two elder brothers. For a time he engaged in teaching school at Grand Blanc. After the location of the state capital at Lansing he resided there for a brief period and engaged in mercantile business. Later he returned to Flint and joined his two brothers, James B. and Levi, in general mercantile business. While unbending integrity was perhaps Mr. \Valker's chief characteristic, yet by a continual unostentatious kindly helpfulness he seemed to have won the sincere and affectionate regard of all who knew' him. To his immeliate family and relatives he wvas the embodiment of all that was truly gentle and noble. During his long residence in Flint he filled many positions of public trust. At the time of his death he was alderman from the third ward, secretary of the board of trustees of Union school( district, and deacon of the Presbyterian church, which latter position he had occupied for a long- series of years. In 1863 he marrie(l Miss A. J. Hammerslev, an English woman, xwho, with two sons, survived him. Hiis sons, Rev. William H. Walker, preaching at South Haven, Michigan, and Rev. Henry H. Walker, of Boulder, Colorado, are doing valiant service in the cause of righteousness.

Page  329 JOHN HUGHES. M\r. John Hughes, a highlv respecte(l citizen of Mlt. 'orris, was born in Vienna township, Genesee county,. Alichigan, Novelmber i6, I842. His father. Christophller Hughes, came to Genesee county, AMichigan, in I836, and settle(l in Vienna township. He was engaged in construction work for the Perre ilarquette Railroad and( continue(l at that for several years. Following this lhe operated a farm, and continued to (lo so until his death, which occutrre(l when lhe lhad reached his ninetv-secondl year. Nine children were born to him. of whliclh our subject, John, was the eighth. He was ten years oldl whllen his parents remove(l to Genesee township, and this was their ho-me when Jolln enlisted in Comlpany C of the Twenty-third Michigan Volunteer Infantry, in August, I862. He remained in the service until the war closed, and became thoroughly familiar through first hand experience with what it meant to contend with a foe upon the field of battle. ^\fter returning from the army he imimediately sought employment and ere logo- beca1le engaged as clerk in a general store at Mt. Morris, continuing at this for several years. He then worked at farming for his father for ab)out one year, and next entere(l mercantile life 1y engaging in business at Countv Line, in Saginaw countty. He continued to follow this work for a number of years, and then turned his attention to carpentry and con

Page  330 330 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY tracting, carrying on that work at Evart, Michigan, for about twenty years, or until I890. He had started the foundry business in 189I while at Evart. He continued to live there until I899, at which time he returned to Mt. Morris township, and has there devoted himself largely to farming, after spending about two and one-half years in Mt. Morris. He still owns and carries on the foundry business in conjunction with his other work. On February I, I866, Mr. Hughes was married to Miss Emily Mann, who was born in Canada, January 22, 1845. She was the daughter of William H. and Laura (Boutwell) Mann, pioneer settlers of Genesee county, having come hither in I852. He became owner of the land now taken up by the northern part of Mt. Morris. Both parents ended their days in Mt. Morris, the father reaching the age of sixty-five years, while the 1nother attained the age of over eighty years. Their family was quite large and Emily was one of the older children. Mr. and Mrs. Hughes are the parents of eight children, only four of whom are living. They are: Laura, Edmund, Christopher C., and Florrest M. The other children died when still at a tender age. Mr. Hughes has been one of the village trustees for several years. He is a public-spirited citizen, and has done much to promote the general welfare of the community. He has not only led an exemplary life, but has sought both by precept and example to stimulate a spirit of good fellowship and neighborliness in the locality. Mr. and Mrs. Hughes are devout 1embers of the Catholic church.

Page  331 ISAAC N. WVALKER. Mr. Isaac N. Walker, of 1024 Stockton street, Flint, is the county superintendent of the poor. His paternal ancestors were from Canada, having emigrated from there to New York state. His father, Walter Walker, was born in Canada, but the family soon removed to New York, and later to Michigan. Isaac's father, Walter, born in 1807, was reared in New York state, but came finally to Genesee county, Michigan, in I836. He purchased a tract of land in Grand Blanc township, which was then in a wild and unimproved state. He set himself resolutely to the work of reclaiming the land, and his hard and untiring efforts soon brought the soil under subjection. This farm became his permanent home, and he continued thereon until his death in i886, at the age of eighty-nine. Although he aspired to no political office he was not indifferent to the general interests of the community, and therefore took an active part in the county and township affairs. He was an ardent Republican, having become identified with that party upon its organization. But not only in business and public affairs did he do his part, but he took an active interest also in the religious life of the community, being one of what might be called the Puritan type. The mother of our subject, Julia (Remington) Walker, was a native of Connecticut. She was seven years old when her father, Elihew Remington,

Page  332 332 BIOGRAPHICAL HIST1ORY removed to Monroe county, New York, where Julia was reared to womanhood. She was born in 1812 and died at the old homestead in Grand Blanc township in 1887, aged seventy-five years. She was a most devout and estimable woman and an active worker in the Baptist church. Out of a family of nine children, five sons and four daughters, Isaac, our subject, was the sixth. He was born on the farm and thus early in life learned the wholesome lessons of self-reliance and industry that have characterized his life. I-Ie remained at home until twenty years of age, and then started out for himself. On October 12, i865, he was married to Miss Mary Estes, daughter of Daniel and Marian (Short) Estes, who were also among the worthy pioneer settlers of Genesee county. They came from Otsego county, New York, in ahout the year 1838, and settled in Burton township. They, too, battled with priitive conitions, but went through the usual experiences and ended their days upon their farm in that township. After his marriage Isaac operated his father-in-law's farm for several years. This continued until the death of the parents, and then by purchase and inheritance he obtained full possession of the farm. They continued on the farm until January, 1899, at -which time he rented out the farm, now consisting of two hundted and five acres of good land, and moved to Flint. For twelve years he held the office of justice of the peace, and was also chosen highway commissioner. I-e was elected county superintendent of the poor in October, I898, and has filled the office most acceptably since that time. He has always been identified with the Republican party and is a member of the Masonic fraternity. He and his wife are also active members of the Methodist Protestant church'. He has been chosen for another year as superintendlent of the poor, which will make twelve years of continuous service.

Page  333 '? f I ST. M\ARY'S CATHOLIC CHURCH. St. Mary's congregation, Mt. Morris, formerly was attached to St. Michael's parish at Flint. In 1865 the Catholic people of this vicinity, becomingl dissatisfied with the inconvenience attendant upon the traveling to Flint after ploddilng oxen, and feeling confident that they were able to build and maintain a church of their own, sought for this purpose the authorization of their bishop, Right Rev. Peter Paul Lefevre of the Detroit diocese. The bishop consented and the handful of people began the erction of a frame building upon the grounds donated by the late Christopher Hughes, who resided on the Saginaw road. During I866-67 the church contemplated was completed, and services were conducted at intervals within its enclosure by the priests stationed at Flint. St. Mary's continued for a time as a mere mission church attached to Flint. In 1869 the congregation petitioned the administrator of the Detroit diocese, the bishop having died in the meantime, for a parish priest of their own. Nothing was done with their petition until Detroit again had a bishop, in I870. At that date the congregation again petitioned the new bishop, the Rt. Rev. Caspar H. Borgess, and their request was granted. In September, i870, Rev. Father M. Canters, a young and energetic priest, was sent from Bay City to become the first resident pastor of St. Mary's, Mt. Morris, and Sacred Heart churches, County Line. Father Canters was succeeded by Rev. Father De Kiere. Father De Kiere was a man of note, speaking twenty-two languages with the same ease as he spoke his native Flemish. He remained in charge five years and was followed by Father D. Coyle, who remained three years. Father Coyle was succeeded by Father Van Straelen, who up to the present time has filled the longest

Page  334 334 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY pastorate in the history of the M\t. Morris congregation. He was there nearly twelve years. To Father Van Straelen succeeded Father Slattery, who remained two years, and was succeeded by the present pastor, Father Thomas Luby. Under the administration of Father Luby the rectory has been enlarged and rebuilt, the mission church at County Line rebuilt, and in Mt. Morris, in place of the old frame church, which was so near and dear to the older people, there. now stands one of the most beautiful churches in the state -a handsome exemplification of English Gothic of the Renaissance period. The parish, large and energetic, promises in time to become one of the largest in the country districts of the county.

Page  335 CHIARLES F. DE LAND. Charles F. De Land, one of those able and self-sacrificing pioneer settlers of earlier (lays, was born at Candor, Tioga county, New York, June 12, 1825. His father, the Rev. Charles De Land, was born at Hartford, Washington county, New York, December 13, 1797. His mother, Susan (Wilmont) De Land, was born in W\est Stockbridge, Massachusetts, May II, I796. These parents came from Hector, Schuyler county, New York, to Genesee county, Michigan, in May, 1847, and settled in Flushing township, and ultimately ended their (lays on the farm upon which they first settled. Rev. Charles De Land was for many years pastor of the First Baptist church of Flushing, and for eighteen months served the same church in Grand Blanc. He was also pastor of the Mt. Morris Baptist church for some time, and had been in active pastorate work in New York state for thirteen years prior to coming west. Six children were born to him. Of these Virgil WV., Milton B., and Alexander J. are deceased; Joseph M. is on a farm in Flushing township. The next son in order of birth was Charles F. and following him is Mary C., who is the wi(low- of Nelson Talbot. Charles F. was reared to manhood in New York state and came from Monroe county, New York, to Genesee county, Michigan, in 1847. He had been married in the meantime to Betsey Hinckley, and after arriving in

Page  336 336 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY Michigan he purchased a tract of one hundred and sixty acres of wild land in sections fourteen and twenty-three of Flushing township, and settled on section twenty-three. He set to work to improve and cultivate this land, and his industrious efforts soon brought about the desired results. He continued to make this his home until 1904, when he removed to Flushing..Mrs. De Land died upon the farm in Flushing township on December 13, 1900. She was born March i, I829. She was a most admirable and pious woman, and took an active part in church work, being for many years an esteemed member of the Baptist church. Mr. De Land had done some work at the carpenter's trade while still in New York, but after coming west devoted himself chiefly to farming. He still owns ninety-eight acres of the old farm that he purchased in 1847. For twenty-four years he held the office of supervisor of Flushing township, twenty years of which were in succession. He was highway commissioner for four and one-half years, and held the office of justice of the peace for one term. He has always been identified with the Republican party. He is an active worker in the Baptist church, having been a follower of that faith since I842.

Page  337 JAMES J. HURLEY. In the character of James J. Hurley, late of Flint, was to be found such a combination of traits as to make his life story read like fiction. He was born in London, England, of Irish parentage, August 31, I850, and died at Flint, Michigan, April 4, I905. At the age of twenty years he and one companion embarked for America, having but ten cents between them. He went resolutely to work, however, and later landed in Genesee county, Michigan. He engaged in farm labor in Grand Blanc township, coming to Flint soon after. Upon his arrival in the city he engaged in hotel work, and in company with Mr. McFay later operated the Sherman Hotel. He was married at the age of twenty-five to Miss Mary Flynn, who was dining room girl at the Sherman Hotel at the time, and later became landlady. Mr. Hurley then bought out his partner. Following this he became interested in soap manufacturing, and then for years also became a handler in wood and coal. He transacted his business at the location on Smith street in the first ward of Flint. Next followed judicious investments in real estate and in all his business enterprises Mr. Hurley showed not only great sagacity and foresight, but also a most commendable spirit of fairness and justice. He built a great many residences and was a most reasonable landlord, retaining some of his tenants for as long as eighteen years. He built not only 22

Page  338 338 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY good houses, but store blocks as well, always making creditable additions to the town whenever he made these ventures. But not only in personal business did he achieve success, but his services were sought for by outside interests as well. He was a director in the Union Trust Savings Bank, and in 1875 was one of the organizers of the Light and Power Company of Flint, of which company he was the leading spirit and manager. His investments gradually increased in value and he eventually became possessor of considerable wealth. Realizing that much of this came about by unearned increment, Mr. Hurley took a most charitable view regarding the disposition of his belongings. In doing so, however, he was careful not to parade his gifts before men, preferring rather to distribute his beneficences quietly and unassumingly. He willed $500 to each organized church of Flint and donated a block for a hospital site, as well as $25,000 in cash and a residue of $25,000. The site for Hurley Hospital is a handsome location and will form a most valuable, useful and attractive addition to the city's facilities. Mrs. Hurley died in 900o after twenty-five years of married life. She was a most excellent wToman and supplemented the activities of her husband in a rare and beautiful way. Mr. Hurley's private secretary was made his administratrix and she discharged her obligations in a business-like and equitable manner, making a visit to London to the relatives and immediate family connections. He left many special benefactions and his quiet demeanor has made a most lasting impression on the community. He was not a political aspirant. He affiliated with the Catholic church.

Page  339 OREN STONE. Mr. Oren Stone, of Flint, was one of the most representative citizens of the city. He was born in Sennett, New York, July 24, I833, and died at Flint, Michigan, April 20, I897. His ancestry is traceable back to early days, three brothers having come to America in 1627. They were the sons of Gregory and Margaret (Grand) Stone, of Mayland, England. The line of descent to Oren began with Deacon Gregory Stone, one of the three sons. He came to W\aterford, Massachusetts, in I635 and to Cambridge in I637. From him the descendants in order were John, Natlaniel, Hezekiah, Jesse, John and Darius R. The last named was the father of Oren. He was born in I800 and at the age of twenty years was married to Anna Phelps, who was also born in I8oo. They came west and settled on a farm near Stony Run, in Oakland county, Michigan, and later removed to Owosso, Michigan. Finally they located at Flint, where they spent the remainder of their days. They celebrated their golden wedding anniversary in I870, and were permitted to enjoy each other's fellowship for twenty-three years beyond that time, making a total period of married life of seventy-three years. Mr. Darius R. Stone passed to rest in 1893 and his companion followed in I896. Mr. D. R. Stone was a man of independent politics, having espoused, suc

Page  340 340 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY cessively, the cause of the Whigs, then the Republicans, later the Prohibitionists and finally the Cleveland Democrats. Oren was eleven years old when the family arrived at Stony Run, in Oakland county, in I844. At the age of sixteen Oren went to Columbus, Ohio, and for two years worked as a clerk in a general store. At eighteen he returned to his parents and bought a stock of goods at Stony Run, which was on the Pontiac and Flint stage line, and he was soon made postmaster at that point. At this time he was married to Miss Susan C. Thompson, daughter of Caleb and Lucinda (Perry) Thompson, of Grand Blanc, Michigan, who were early pioneers of that state. In I857 they moved to Flint and opened a general store. He was later joined here by his brother, Darius H. Stone, and his brother-in-law, Thomas Hadley. He continued in business here, including the handling of real estate, until 1863, when he moved to a newly purchased farm at Whigville, or, as it was later termed, Gibsonville. After remaining upon this farm for one year, he located in Owosso, and after operating a foundry there for a short time, he returned to Flint and opened a nursery in conjunction with real estate and other business. In I867, with John P. Willard, he established the Flint Woolen Mills. It was a small mill, but did a great amount of custom carding. Mr. Stone was manager of the financial part of the business, and after three years became sole proprietor of the concern, continuing so until 1873, when William H. French and Charles C. Bowker were taken in and the firm of Stone, French & Company was formed. This,two years later, was changed to Stone, Atwood & Company by the addition of W. A. Atwood. The firm how did such a prosperous business that they found it necessary to enlarge the plant, and this was accordingly done. It finally became a six-set mill, and Mr. Stone gave the work his personal supervision, maintaining his interest up to the time of his death. In addition to the woolen business Mr. Stone took an active interest in the real estate activities and public improvements of the town, and was instrumental in bringing about the Smith-Stone-Turner addition of thirty acres to the city, and also the Genesee county fair grounds addition, of which he was the platter and owner; and one of the organizers of the McFarlan & Company's addition to the city. The residence at the corner of Harrison and First streets was erected by him in 187I and was the family home for thirtyfive years.

Page  341 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 34I Although a stanch Republican he was not a politician, and did not covet public office. However, he was mayor of the city for one term and served acceptably in that capacity. He was one of the stock company that built the Stone Theater and afterward became sole proprietor. He took a very active part in the progressive life of the city, being at one time president of the Union Club, and at all times a leader in civic improvement. He is a member of Flint Lodge, No. 23, Free and Accepted Masons; Washington Chapter, No. 15, Royal Arch Masons; a charter member of General Valley Commandery, No. 15, Knights Templar; a member of Michigan Sovereign Consistory of Detroit, and Moslem Temple of the Mystic Shrine; always taking an active part in the workings of the order. His wife, Susan C. Stone, died Marchl 20, I870. She was the mother of three children. Willis died in infancy. The two surviving children are Dwight Thompson and Helen Maria. On November 2I, I889, Dwight married Miss Carrie Brow, of Detroit. Their children are Donald Dwight, Oren Francis, Virginia, Helen Jeannette and Caroline Brow. In 1872 Mr. Oren Stone married for his second wife Mrs. Harriet Stewart Richards. She was the daughter of Addison and Lucy Stewart, who settlel in Flint in 1833. Mrs. Stone survived her husband ten years, dying at the family home October 28, 1907.

Page  342 CAPTAIN EDWARD S. LEE. Captain Edward S. Lee, member of the law firm of Lee ' Parker, of Flint, was born in County West Meath, Ireland. He came to St. Clair county, Michigan, in I865, with his parents, when he was ten years old. He was reared on a farm in that locality and received his common school education in the district schools of the neighborhood. After completing the common school course, the next few years found him doing the high school work as offered at Almont and Lapeer in Lapeer county and also at Flint. At the age of twenty he began teaching, and followed this for two winter terms. He began reading law with Judge Newton, and later with Newton & Howard. He was admitted to the bar in December, 1878, by Judge Turner and began the practice of law in company with Hon. D. D. Aitken, as Lee & Aitken. This firm continued as such for about ten years. For four years he was circuit court commissioner, and for another four years he served as prosecuting attorney. He has also been city attorney of the city of Flint for two terms. Before the ten years of the life of the firm of Lee & Aitken had entirely passed Judge C. H. Wisner came into the firm, which later changed to Wisner, Lee & Aitken. Following this Mr. Aitken was'elected to congress, and Mr. Wisner was made circuit judge, which office he still holds. This disrupted

Page  343 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 343 the firm, and for the next three years Mr. Lee continued alone. About this time Colonel James S. Parker began reading law with Mr. Lee, and after his return from Cuba, where he served as an officer during the Spanish-American war, became partner with him, making the firm name Lee & Parker, which still so continues..Captain Lee is an ardent Republican, and was his party's nominee at one time for the mnayor's chair of the city of Flint. He has been quite active in the state militia work. He started in the ranks and was steadily promoted through all the grades to that of captain. During the Spanish-American war he assisted in organizing a new volunteer company and was elected its captain, but the war closed before they were called to service. While captain of the state company, under Governor Rich, he was by him appointed on the board of visitors to Orchard Lake Military Academy, and served as such one term. He was local correspondent for the "Detroit News" for ten years before the daily papers were started in Flint. He has a two hundred-acre farm two miles east of Flint. This is given over to general farming, and is in a very fair state of improvement. Captain Lee is one of the directors of the Citizens' Bank of Flint, and is at present the president of the Genesee County Bar Association. In 188i Mr. Lee was married to MNiss Carrie I. McDermott, of Flint, the only child of James McDermott, the former proprietor of the City Hotel. He is one of the old. characters of the city. Carrie I. was born in Rochester, New York, and is one of the alumnll of St. Mary's Seminary of Monroe, Michigan. Their family consists of eight children. Ethel G. is a graduate of the Flint high school, and is also a graduate of the New England Conservatory of Music of Boston, and Thomas Music School of Detroit. For three years she was director of music in the public schools of Flint. Norine, another daughter, attended the Flint high school, and after taking a course in the St. Mary's Academy, became a sister of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, with headquarters at St. Mary's, Monroe, Michigan. She is devoted to teaching and is located as assistant director of music in the parochial schools at Port Huron. Another daughter, Leona, is a freshman in the Michigan Agricultural College, and carried off the freshman society prize in oratory for I907. Other members of the family are Esperance, Mildred, Patricia, James and Charles.

Page  344 344 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY Captain Lee and wife are members of St. Michael's Roman Catholic church. He is fond of the deer hunt, having brought home trophies at various times. His family have a cottage at Long Lake and he frequently engages in fishing d(uring the heated season.

Page  345 DR. SAMUEL WA. GIVEN. Samuel W\esley Given, M:. D., late of Flint, was one of the leading practitioners of the city. He was born at Drumbo, Oxford county, Ontario, January 31, 1864, and died at Flint May 27, 1907. His father, Robert Given, was a native of County Tyrone, Ireland, and came from there to Canada, where he married Miss Adeline Stringham, who was born in Canada of Quaker parentage. They engaged in farming, and Samuel's boyhood days were spent among the exhilarating influences of the farm. His father was taken away quite early in life. Samuel being but fourteen years old at the time. The lad's earl- education was obtained in the local district schools, but his quick grasp and eager spirit made him an apt student, and at the age of eighteen he beg-an teaching-, having in the meantime attended the normal school at Woodstock. He later attended the Woodstock Baptist College, at Woodstock, and later took a business course at Hamilton Business College. Afterward he decided to take up the study of medicine. He found it necessary, however, to engage in business in the meantime, and established a wholesale commission house at Hamilton. This he carried on with pronounced success, and the business is still being conducted at the same location by his brother, Robert. The desire to take up medicine as a profession, however, prevailed, and he began reading along that line. He then took a year's course at Detroit, and followed this 1b entering- Rush Medical College at Chicago, graduating from the latter institution with high honors with the class of 1891, which consisted of over two hundred students. He then began practice at Jackson, Michigan. After about one year at Jackson he changed his location to Flint. He was a total stranger at the latter place, but he had received a favorable impression

Page  346 346 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY of the city and foresaw that it would be a fruitful field for venture. Subsequent success has demonstrated the accuracy of his conclusions, for he soon became recognized as an able and progressive physician. He was a member of the various medical societies of the county and state, and was always found alert on the live topics of the profession. His conscientious attention to his duties and his untiring perseverance in treating diseases have won for him not only a large and lucrative practice, but gained for him the admiration of the other members of the profession in the city. As a citizen he took an active interest in the general welfare of the community. For the last nine years of his life he was a member of the school board, serving one year as president. He was deeply interested in the cause of education, and was an ardent advocate of the progressive spirit in educational lines. The Hazelton school, located in his home ward, the fourth, has been largely improved through his own efforts. He was an active worker in the Baptist church, having united himself with that faith when nineteen years of age. On October 5, 1887, he was married to Miss Margaret McPherson, of Ayr, Dumfries county, Ontario. She was a pupil in the school over which Samuel presided as teacher, the acquaintance later ripening into love and union. Their family consists of three children, Donald, Edna and Douglass. Dr. Given had recently completed a handsome residence at 8i5 Wrest Kearsley street, Flint, but the period of occupancy was cut short by his death. His home was a social center, since the doctor found great enjoyment in the entertainment of his friends. He was a close reader, fond of history and biography, and rather of a retiring disposition. When called upon, however, he never failed to express himself with force and clearness. He was a member of the Genesee Valley Commandery, No. 15, Knights Templar; also the Woodmen and Maccabees. His taking away at the early age of forty-three years is a matter of universal regret not only to his family and his friends, but also to the citizens of the city as well.

Page  347 ALBERT L. ADAMS. On account of the limitations of the field the editor of a local paper has really a difficult problem with which to grapple. It requires a clear grasp of the needs of the community as well as a broad and catholic view of the trend of affairs in general, in order that the patrons may be furnished with the necessary news of local affairs, and yet be supplied at the same time with such reading matter as will be bread and meat to those intellectually inclined. To do this it is not necessary to invade the field of the magazine, but it lies rather in the judicious choice and the able presentation of the matter that will be in harmony with lofty ideals. This is the problem that has confronted the subject of our biography, Mr. Albert L. Adams, editor of the "Mt. Morris Enterprise." Mr. Adams is not a native of the "Lake" state, but was born in the state of New York, at Ovid, Seneca county, on March I6, I844. His father, Lewis Adams, was a carpenter and joiner, a skillful and energetic workman, and came west to Michigan with his family in 1857, taking up his quarters on a farm in Lyons township, Oakland county. His mother's maiden name was Rhoda A. Lay. She died while in middle life. At the age of fourteen Albert decided upon a printer's career, feeling that the work of that profession would appeal to his desires and ability more than

Page  348 348 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY anything else. In consequence he returned to New York state, where opportunities were more abundant, and began work at the printer's trade in the offices of the "Sentinel" of Seneca county, and also the "Bee" at Ovid. After serving his apprenticeship and becoming thoroughly qualified he returned to Michigan, and for twenty years from early manhood he followed the trade at Mt. Morris. In connection with this work he also devoted himself to photography; and has acquired considerable skill in this line. He found it convenient also to take part in undertaking work to a limited extent. In I888 he took charge of the "Enterprise" and conducted it for Mrs. E. F. Lamb. In about a year's time, however, he took complete possession of the paper, and since then has been its editor and proprietor. The "Enterprise" is having a splendid circulation and is doing excellent work in that part of the county. Mr. Adams has addressed himself resolutely to the task of producing a clean, masterly and popular sheet, and the "end crowns the work." Its columns exert a potent educational influence on the thinking public, and contain able discussions on questions of importance to all. Its years have been years of growth, in-asmuch as the progress of human life consists in advancing from the old standards and views to ones that are light and new, and to do this some one must lead the way. It is the privilege of the editors of the day to do m-uch toward stimulating advancement in public affairs. On January I, I865, Mr. Adams was married to Miss Anna Ward. Miss Ward was of English parentage, and was left an orphan early in life. She has proved herself an able and companionable helpmeet, and is the mother of three daughters. Of these Flora is the wife of William Holtslander, of Flint. Maude is ably assisting her father in the office; the third daughter is Velanche. Taken all in all it would seem that we have here an apt illustration of the fulfilling of the maxim laid down by Thoreau: "Be not only good; be good for something."

Page  349 REV. TIMOTHY J. MURPHY. Reverend Timothy J. Murphy, rector of St. Michael's Roman Catholic church of Flint, Michigan, to which he began to minister in June, I880, was born in Cork, Ireland, May 4, 1848. He was the son of Jeremiah and Margaret (Dacy) Murphy. He received a collegiate education at All Hallow's College, Dublin, being there prepared for the ministry, though he was not ordained till reaching America, whither he came in 1870. Four months later he was ordained in the Cathedral of Detroit by Bishop Borgess, and was assigned work in Bay City as assistant rector in St. James's church, but was soon transferred to Grand Haven, where he did most excellent and satisfactory work. Upon the division of the state into two dioceses he was asked by his bishop to return to the Detroit diocese. He was then sent to Flint, where the church had already existed for forty years, having been established in 1840. The original small frame building was still used, but a more commodious edifice was demanded, and the bishop seemed to think that Father Murphy was the man to build it. The work was at once begun, resulting in the completion in I883 of a building suitable to the needs of a growing congregation. Subsequent developments have demonstrated the wisdom and foresight of its founder, for the structure has well served its purpose, and is at the present time a credit to the architectural beauty of Flint. It is fifty by

Page  350 35o BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY one hundred and thirty feet in size, and was erected at a cost of $30,000. The present congregation numbers about four thousand souls. A parochial school is being conducted by six sisters of the Immaculate Heart. Near the parochial school is the sisters' house, while in the close vicinity of the church the pastor's residence is located, all the buildings being on Saginaw and Fifth and Chippewa streets. The beautiful grounds and fine buildings have been improved and decorated by the present pastor. Father Murphy Hall was erected in 1903 to accommodate the social and business needs of the congregation, as well as the many allied societies, such as the Knights of Columbus, etc. It stands near the church, is forty by one hundred feet in size, and was erected at a cost of $15,oooo, of which $io,ooo was donated by Protestant friends. Its handsome auditorium will seat seven hundred people and is fitted in modern style, having a stage and the usual accessories. The basement is arranged with a kitchen and a large banquet hall, together with a smoking room. The policy of Father Murphy is to let as large a benefit as possible accrue from the advantages of such an assembly hall, and its use is thrown open to all churches alike-Catholic or Protestant. Father Murphy is a broad-minded ecclesiastic whose theology has not prevented an enlarged view of living conditions, and who sees in every earnest and honest worker for celestial things a brother man, and one whose arguments of the divinity of Christ but strengthen the basic claims of his own mother church. With a warmth of heart for the poor and needy, his earnest effort has been to lighten the heavy burden and dry the tear of misery. No citizen of Flint is held in greater esteem, and none has in his heart greater sympathy than he to heal the pangs of trouble or alleviate the hearts bowed down with sorrow. He is thoroughly American and believes in home rule for Flint, as well as for his fatherland, glorying in the little that has just been granted the land of his birth by the English nation. Like his namesake, late an American priest in Rome, who, upon being told by some Americans that had had an audience with the pope, that they hoped he would sit in the papal chair upon their next visit, responded, "That may be, but if I ever get there I will hang the American flag on the outer walls of the the Vatican." Father Murphy is a Democrat, but at a late banquet upon his organization of a Jeffersonian Club among his friends, he said that Roosevelt was a good enough Democrat for any man. Father Murphy is also a good mixer, and

Page  351 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 35I many of his earnest friends are found among his political opponents, or among those whose fraternal ties are antagonistic to Catholic teachings, but the ties of friendship are cemented by those stronger ties that are as broad as lhumanity itself. FRANK BOVEE. Mr. Frank Bovee, township clerk of Burton township, was born in Howard county, Iowa, March I, 1857. His parents, John C. and Sarah (Bonoy) Bovee, came to Genesee county in the spring of 1892, and made their home in Burton township, where the father died in May, I895. Of the four children making up the family Frank is the only surviving melmber, the others dying when quite young. The parents left the state of Iowa in May, 1857, and removed to the western part of Illinois, where they remained about seven years. They then came on to Oakland county, Michigan, where they were living as Frank.grew up to manhood. He received his education in the common schools of the district and continued to work on the farm until reaching the age of twenty-five. During one winter he employed himself at school teaching, and then for five years he operated a general store near his home in Oakland county.' Later he became engaged in operating a lumber and shingle mill in Lapeer county, continuing at this for about two years. He then came to Burton township, Genesee county, and here directed his attention to gardening and the raising of small fruit. He made this work quite a study and acquired considerable knowledge and skill in developing the industry. In addition to this he became interested in the bridge business and for two years was a salesman on the road in that connection. In I900 he directed his attention to the painting trade, and has been engaged in that work up to the present time. During those years he has adhered steadily to upright and reliable methods of doing business and has won the confidence and esteem of all with whom lie has come in contact. Mr. Bovee was married in Oakland county, Michigan, on July 28, 1886, to Miss Mary E. Strator, who was born in McComb county, Michigan, and the daughter of Charles A. and Martha (West) Strator, people of most excellent standing in that community. Mr. and Mrs. Bovee are the

Page  352 352 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY parents of two children-Bertha Mae and Charles A.-and they take great pleasure in trying to make for their children a home environment that will develop in them the proper spirit of character and citizenship. Mr. Bovee has always taken a deep interest in educational affairs, realizing the great need in the present age for a sound foundation upon which to rear the structure of life. He held the office of school treasurer for six years and for several years filled the place of director. He was elected clerk of Burton township for the first time in the spring of 1897, and has served almost continuously ever since, his direct business methods winning the confidence and respect of the people. He takes an active interest in all affairs pertaining to the welfare of the public, and does not hesitate to let his convictions be known. He affiliates with the Republican party and is a member of the Burton Center (Grange) and of the Independent Order of Gleaners.

Page  353 MR. \ND MRS. FREDERICK J. BURT. Mr. Iredrick J. Burt, overseer of the Genesee county poor farm, was blorn in Burton township, Genesee county, Michigan, December 26, 1872. His parents, Fredrick and Margaret (Graham) Burt, were natives of Canada, and came to Genesee county in I869. They settled in Burton township, where they lived until I900, at which time they removed to Tuscola county, where they still reside. They are engaged in farming and are the parents of nine children, five sons and four daughters, of which family Fredrick was the second child. He was brought up on the farm, and thus early in life learned the rugged lessons afforded by that experience. He took advantage of all the education he could obtain in the common schools of the neighborhood, and later took a business course in the city of Flint, continuing there for two years. Subsequently he became engineer at the Michigan school for' the deaf, continuing in that work for some two years, and during that time he demonstrated his ability to manage the work both economically and effectively. Aside from this he has made farming his chief occupation, finding work in that field best suited to his tastes and (lesires, preferring the independent atmosphere of the life on the farm to the restrictions of a business career. On March I2, I901, he was married at Omer, Arenac county, Michigan, to Miss Rosa Gorrie, born in Detroit, and the daughter of William and Catherine Gorrie. Mr. and Mrs. Burt are the parents of two children, Clouston A. and Hazen G., and the parents are doing their best to train them up in such a w.ay as to make them useful members of society and state. Mr. Burt was appointed overseer of the Genesee county poor farm in 23

Page  354 354 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY April, I906. This farm consists of one hundred and ten acres, and is equipped with good buildings and mo(lern improvements. It sustains on an average sixty inmates, and these are well taken care of and receive the most thoughtful and kindly attention. No effort is spared to make the institution a home of the most congenial sort, and to make its occupants feel the influence of kindness and sympathy. At the same time the management is conducted on a strictly economic and business-like basis. Mr. Burt takes an active interest in all township and county affairs. He is a Republican in politics, but does not place party above principle, taking at all times a firm stand for just and square dealing in the administration of the people's affairs. Mrs. Burt has been a most excellent helper to her husband in the management of the home, insisting at all times for a clean and sanitary condition of the institution. They are members of the Presbyterian church and are active workers for the cause. Mr. Burt is a member of the Masonic fraternity and has done much to promote the interests of the order in the county. He still retains considerable property interests in the city of Flint.

Page  355 REUBEN A. CARMAN. Mr. Reuben A. Carman, a well-to-do and highly respected farmer of Burton township, Genesee county, was born in Lewiston, Niagara county, New York, July I6, I825. His parents, Elijah and Jane (Mars) Carman, were natives of New York state. They came from Niagara county, New York, to Oakland county, Michigan, in 1834, but lived there only one year, when they came to Genesee county and purchased eighty acres of wooded land in section twenty-five of Flint township, upon which they settled in the year 1835 and built the first house that was erected in Flint township. Elijah Carman died August 30, 1840, when in his fortieth year, and his wife departed this life March 20, 1870, aged sixty-eight years. She was making her home with Reuben at the time of her death. Their family consisted of three children, two sons and one daughter, another daughter having died at the age of four years before the family left New York. The other son, Ira B., died in Flint township in 1845. Reuben was the eldest of the family, and is now the only surviving member. He was ten years old when his parents settled in Flint township. He remained at home during the lifetime of his father, and up until his marriage, at which time his mother made her home with him, continuing to do so until her death.

Page  356 356 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY He was married in Flint township on November 23, 1845, to Miss Mary Ann Brew, who was born in St. Lawrence county, New York, August 3I, 1826. Her parents were James and Nancy (Frazier) Brew, who died in New York state. They were the parents of four children-Nancy, James, Mary Ann and William. Mary came to Genesee county, Michigan, in I844, and was married the following year. She and Mr. Carman made their home in Flint township until I867. In December of that year they made their home across the road from their former place, this move placing them in Burton township, and here they have since resided. They celebrated their golden wedding in I895 and their sixtieth anniversary in 1905. Very few of the older people of Genesee county can lay claim to such a long period of domestic union and happiness. Five children were born into the family. Eugene died of smallpox in 1873, aged twenty-six years. Emily A. died in I877, aged twentynine. Ella is the wife of F. W. Eisentrager, of Flint. The next child in the order'of birth was Emma and then R. Arthur, who died in 900o, at the age of thirty-four. He was a practicing physician of some note in Saginaw county, having been located there for three years. Mr. and Mrs. Carman are faithful members of the First Baptist church of Flint, having become so in I855, and for over forty-five years Mr. Carman has been a deacon in the church, being an honorary deacon at the present time. He has held the office of justice of the peace for a number of years, and has always been identified with any movement in the community whose purpose was to promote the general welfare. He keeps his fine farm of one hundred and twenty-three acres in excellent repair and in a productive and profitable condition.

Page  357 SAMUEL R. ATHERTON. Mr. Charles C. Atherton was born in Burton township May 27, I863. His father, the late Samuel R. Atherton, was a native of Oakland county, this state. and after comiing to Genesee county became a man of considerable prominence in county affairs. Charles's mother was Mary (Lloyd) Atherton, a native of Henderson, Jefferson county, New York. She was married to Samuel R. Atherton at Bradner, Wood county, Ohio, on the i8th day of December, i855. Thev came imlnediately to Genesee county, Michigan, and settled on the farm now owned by the subject of our sketch, who inherited it a short time since. Mr. Samuel Atherton was a man of considerable energy and firm convictions. He took an active interest in political affairs and adhered to the tenets of the Republican party. His ability as a financier and his keen business insight soon attracted the attention of his neighbors, and in due time he became well known all over the county. As a result he was placed on the county ticket for treasurer and was easily elected. He discharged the duties of the office in an efficient and masterly way, giving general satisfaction throughout the term. He also served as president and treasurer for mnany years of the Farmers' Mutual Insurance Company, besides putting in five years as township supervisor and ten years as township clerk prior to his

Page  358 358 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY election as treasurer of the county. He also served a total period of six years as superintendent of the poor of Genesee county, but these duties, as well as his farm work, did not deter him from active church work. He was deacon for many years of the First Baptist church of Flint. His death took place April 12, 1900, at the age of sixty-seven years. Charles's mother co-operated actively with her husband, in all his affairs, but was especially interested in church work. She died at the old homestead, April 30, 1887, at the age of fifty-two years. Two children were born of this union, but Charles C. is the only survivor, the other son, Lewis, having (lied in infancy. Charles was an active and lively boy and showed an interest in books quite early in life. His desire for an education grew stronger as he advanced in boyhood, and he applied himself diligently to his studies. His school career continued until he had completed the high school course at Flint. He has devoted himself to farming, finding in that occupation not only profit and pleasure, but also an opportunity to make scientific study of the problems of the soil. He was married at Portland, Michigan, on March I8, 1885, to Miss Phoebe Tyler Morehouse, of that city. Miss Morehouse was the daughter of Japtha and Phoebe (Tyler) Morehouse, who were well known and highly respected citizens of Portland. Mr. and Mrs. Atherton are the parents of two daughters, Josephine M. and Mary Helen. The members of the family are people that feel their responsibilities as citizens of the community, and are ever willing to contribute their share of time and means to those things that make for the general good. They are efficient workers in the First Baptist church of Flint, and Mr. Atherton has for five years been a member of the board of trustees. He has also been identified with township affairs to a limited extent. having served for a term as township treasurer, and one term as justice of the peace. Only a visit to their home is needed to convince one of its spirit of thrift and good fellowship. Samuel R. was superintendent of the poor of Genesee county at one time for two terms, making in all six years.

Page  359 HON. H. H. PROSSER. Tlle Honorable H. HI. Prosser, of FIlushing, Genesee county, Michigan, was born in Lansing, Michigan, March 13. i870. His father, Edwin A. Prosser, was an active attorney of Lansing. His mother's maiden namle was Esther A. ElswTorth. These parents both (lel)arte(l this life while living at South Lyons, in Oakland county. Their family consisted of three children, of whom our subject was the youngest. He was educated at Lansing and at Lyons, receiving the best training that was available. He was a boy of stutlious habits and possessed a liking for chemistry and science. He early studlied pharmacy in the State University, and followed that business in different places for about nine years. In 1893 he came to t:lushing, and has since made that place his home. He was engaged in the drug business as clerk for some four years. Then for some time he engaged with J. E. Ottaway & Company in the hay and 1)roduce business. He is a man of his word and has the confidence and trust of all who know him. His business methods have always been (lirect, and his grasp of general affairs have been such as to will the esteem of friends and neighbors, and this friendly relation has never been broken. In the fall of 1904 he was selected as candidate for the state legislature from his district, and was elected to the office without difficulty. His service

Page  360 360 BIOGRAPHICAL HIST lORY ill that body was eminently satisfactory to his constituents, and in 1go6 lhe was again chosen for the place. His wide experience in political affairs have attracted attention, anld the ver(lict of the people is but an expression of their salnction of his work in the capacity of a legislator. He affiliates with the Republican party, but does not sacrifice principle for party. In lodge affairs, also, Mr. Prosser has shown a conspicuous interest. He is a member of the Masonic ordler, the Odd Fellows and other fraternal societies, and has donee much to promote the growth and progress of these organizations. He lhas been a mnelnber of the Loyal Guard since its organization, and has been one of its most earnest champions in the comnmunity. On January 6, I897, he was united in mnarriage to Miss W'inifred Ottaway, who is a daughter of James E. Ottaway. Their dolnestic life has been a model of its kind, and their home bears testimony to their industry. care and economy. Mr. Prosser finds in the people an enthusiastic body of friends, all of whom believe in his ability and integrity. In T905 lie was chosen as a deputy of the Loyal Guar(l and has filled these duties both expeditiouslv and effectively. Recently he has become a thirty-second degree MIason, a member of the NMystic Shrine and the Flint Comnmandery.

Page  361 HON. FRANCIS H. RANK1N. One of the most potent agencies in the shaping of public thought and enterprise is the modern newspaper. It is the people's forun and its editorial utterances go far toward cultivating a whlolesome spirit il our local and national citizenship. Prominent among the molders of thought in Genesee county is the place that has been filled by the "\Volverine Citizen," a clean, progressive and bright newspaper, published by Hon. Francis H. Rankin. This paper was founded as a weekly in I850, and was then known as the "Genesee rWhig." It was first a six-column folio, but has since been enlarged to a six-columnl quarto. For eighteen months during the Civil war it was conducted as a daily, and wielded a great influence in behalf of the Federal caulse. Mr. Rankin was born in the city of Flint on December 28, 1854, and has made this city his permanent place of residence. His father, Francis H. Rankin. who departed this life seven years ago, was a native of County Down, Ireland, as was also his grandfather, Joseph Rankin. The father was reared and educated in his native land, but came to America in I848. He located immediately at Pontiac, Michigan, and there learned the printer's trade. He came to Flint in 1850 and for the remainder of his days was an active factor in promoting the advancement of the community's interests. He estab

Page  362 362 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY lished the above mentioned "Genesee Whig" and at the time of his death was not only the oldest editor in the county, but the one editor in the state wvho had longest held control of a single paper. He was city clerk for a number of years, and for some time was a member of the city school board. From 1879 to I887 he served as postmaster. In state affairs, also, he was called upon to represent the people, having served in the legislature, and from I877 to I879 was made a member of the state senate. During that time he was appointed one of three inspectors of the Michigan prisons by Governor Crapo. He was at one time grand master of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and was grand representative to the Sovereign Grand Lodge in I873. He also attained the Knights Templar degree in the Masonic fraternity. He was married to Miss Arabella Hearn, who was born in County Logford, Ireland, and was a daughter of Rev. Richard T. Hearn, an Episcopal clergyman. She was reared in her native land and acquired a liberal ectucation. She has been a leader in the social and civic life of Flint, being one of the founders of the Ladies' Library, which was later merged into the "School Library and Scientific Institute." During the Civil war she was one of the delegates to the soldiers' sanitary fair at Chicago as representative from the state of Michigan. Six children were born to this union, of whom our subject, Francis H., was the fourth. After attending the Flint schools until his fourteenth year Francis entered his father's office as a printer's devil. His father was a practical man, and, intending that his son should learn the business in a thorough manner, he forced him to start as he himself had begun-at the bottom of the ladder. He showed him no favoritism and treated him in the same manner that he did his other employes. It was in 1870 that young Rankin first took his place at one of the cases, and he worked as a compositor in the job room until 188I, when he took a half interest in the business. The "Wolverine Citizen" was run as a daily paper for a period of six years, but as the town was too small to support a daily paper, it was discontinued and published as a weekly. Mr. Rankin was married to Miss Caroline Pierce October 26, i88I. She was born in Grand Blanc, Genesee county, and is a daughter of Silas Pierce, one of the old New England settlers of this locality. Mr. and Mrs. Rankin have one child, whose name is Caroline Arabella. i I I l

Page  363 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 363 Mr. Rankin is known throughout the state of Michigan as the supreme recorder of the Knights of the Loyal Guard. He was one of the nine business men of the city of Flint who originated and founded that order, which is a fraternal beneficiary co-operative insurance society. It was founded upon entirely original and new plans, and started with a membership of five hundlred February 21, I895. Its growth has been steady and it is creating a strong reserve or emergency fund. The order is still growing, as its businesslike methods appeal to business men, and its fraternal features to the younger generation seeking good, substantial insurance. Mr. Rankin is serving his twelfth consecutive year as a member of the board of education of Flint, and is treasurer of the board. He was president of the board two terms. After serving ten years as a member of the board of control of the Michigan school for the blind, by appointment of Governor Pingree and reappointment by Governor Bliss, he resigned during the current year to accept an appointment by Governor Warner as resident member of the board of trustees of the Michigan school for the deaf, located at Flint, of which board he is treasurer. He is also a member of the board of directors of the Union Trust and Savings Bank of Flint, and a member of the Genesee Lodge, Free and Accepted MiAVsons; Washington Chapter. Royal Arch Masons; Genesee Valley Commandery, Knights Templar, Michigan Sovereign Consistory, Moslem Temple, Mystic Shrine, the Elks, Odd Fellows, Royal Arcanum, Loyal Guard and Mlaccabees. We have briefly placed before our readers a few of the facts bearing on the biography of one, who, though of foreign extraction, has grown to the fullest stature of an American patriot, and one whose life, influence and character are well worthy the emulation of the generation that soon will be called upon to continue the superstructure so well begun.

Page  364 364 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY GEORGE W.' BUT TO N. Mr. George W\. Button, who has been for many years one of the most energetic farmers of Genesee county, is a native of Michigan. His father, John H., was a native of Massachusetts, while his mother, Susan (Butler) Button, was born in New York state. John H. Button emigrated from Massachusetts to Pennsylvania, and from there to New York, where he obtained his wife, and then came on to Michigan. Mrs. Button ended her days at Farrington and Mr. Button passed to rest while living at Flushing. He had been a citizen of considerable prominence, having served in the state legislature when the capital was still at Detroit. He was also called upon to fill many local offices. He was a \Whig, and later a Republican, taking a decided stand at all times for a clean and upright discharge of all official and private duties. George spent his boyhood days on the farm, remaining at home until twenty years of age, receiving such education as the county schools afforded. After the Civil war had begun he enlisted in a Michigan company and went out to defend the old flag. He was made sergeant at Pontiac and went forth in that capacity. He, with the regiment, was captured at Snodgrass Hill, Chickamauga, having in the meantime been promoted to the second lieutenancy. A long period of prison life now lay before him, and this brought him much regret, not that he cared so much for the exposure and hardship of his confinement, but that it took him out of active service and deprived him of the privilege of taking a hand in the raging conflict. At last he was paroled and transferred to the Federal lines. Following this he was sent to Annapolis, where he was given a thirty clays' furlough. He then rejoined his regiment and was sent to Chattanooga, Tennessee, where he was placed back with his old company, remaining therewith until mustered out at the close of the war. During all these years of alternate hope and despondency his ardent patriotic enthusiasm never lost its warmth, and his faith in ultimate victory never wavered. The old colonel of the regiment was for many years dean of the State University at Ann Arbor. After the war George returned to the old farm in Oakland county and took charge. Later he came on to Flushing and became engaged as a dealer in general merchandise, in company with his brother, James A. Button, present postmaster. He next disposed of his business interests and went to

Page  365 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 365 Kansas, becoming engaged there in sheep ranching, remaining several years. The range being cut down by the encroachments of settlers he closed out his business there and removed to another part of the state, coming back to Michigan a few years later. Since that time he has operated his farm adjoining the town of Flushing, devoting the major part of his time to the raising of high grade cattle. In this he has had singular success, owing largely to his skill in the managing and the disposing of his herds. He also holds an interest in the local creamery. \While at Pontiac, Michigan, Mr. Button was married to Delia Ann Pier, of Farrington, daughter of William H. and Margarette Pier. At the Pier reunion, recently held at Flint, thirty-four of the descendants were gathered together. Mr. and Mrs. Button have two children-Alice, who is the wife of Royal De Wolf, real estate broker at Ann Arbor; and Fredrick, who is at home on the farm. Mr. Button is a staunch Republican, but has steadily refused to enter politics, preferring rather to devote himself exclusively to his business interests.

Page  366 ZALA BEEBE. Mr. Zala Beebe is a descendant of pioneers from New York state. His parents, Harvey and Mindrell (Goff) Beebe, were both born in New York, but came west to Ohio in 1836. A year later they removed to Genesee county, Michigan, and settled in Grand Blanc township. Here they faced the proposition of turning some of the wilderness into a home, a task which so many of our noble ancestors accomplished. Mr. Beebe bought forty acres of wild land and set to work clearing away the forest, and in a year or two they had about half of it under cultivation. His labors were cut off by his death, which occurred in the early '4os. Mrs. Beebe was afterward married to Peter Hempstead, who was also a pioneer in that vicinity. Soon after their marriage they removed to Mundy township, where the process of subduing the wilderness was again begun, this time resulting in the clearing and putting into good condition eighty acres of the virgin territory. On this farm Mrs. Hempstead lived until April, 1892, attaining the age of seventy-six years. She had two sons and one daughter by her first husband, but the daughter (lied when quite young. The two sons were Zala and Edmund. Zala was born in Grand Blanc township on October 25, I839. He was brought up on the farm in Mundy township and received such an education

Page  367 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 367 as the schools of the time afforded. He remained at home until about sixteen years of age, and then went out from under the parental roof to hew and carve his own path through the wilderness way. He was a hard worker, ever iwilling to put his shoulder to the wheel, and had no difficulty in finding employmlent by the (lay or month, just as he chose. He not only applied himself diligently to his work, but he laid by a part of the proceeds of his labors, and in the course of about four years he managed to purchase some forty acres of land, which he set about to put into shape for cultivation. A short time after this the great Civil war cloud burst over the country. Mr. Beebe had always felt a strong throb of patriotism within his breast, anld when the time came for the response to his patriotic impulses he foresook the ax and the plow and joined the troops for the front. In January, 1864, he enlisted in Battery E of the First Michigan Light Artillery, and spent almost one and one-half years in the service. His experiences in this service were not only exciting, but were often attended with great peril and dangerous encounters. He was fortunate, however, in escaping serious mishap, and looks back now upon this era of his past with considerable pride and satisfaction. Mr. Beebe was married on September 8, 1859, to Miss Phcebe F. Slaght, who was a native of New York state. She was the daughter of Matthias and Mary Jane (Peterson) Slaght, who were also among the goodly company of pioneer settlers in Genesee county. All of their days were spent in Genesee county. While on a visit to Rochester, Michigan, Mr. Slaght died and Mrs. Slaght returned to Mundy township and made her home there until her death, September i6, 1893. After returning from the war Mr. Beebe located on the land in Mundy township that he had purchased before going to the front, and for the next twenty-eight years he applied himself to its cultivation. During this time he succeeded in bringing the farm up to a well improved state. His hard and steady work resulted in good drainage, substantial buildings and other improvements in proportion. In 1893 he removed to Flint, where he has since lived a retired life. Mr. and Mrs. Beebe have been blessed with the following children: Mary Elizabeth, born on February 7, I860; Ella, born on Februarv 17, I862; Walter, born on June 6, i866; Julia, born September I8, 1875. Their family records are herewith appended.

Page  368 368 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY Mary Elizabeth Beebe was married on November I8, 1877, to Adelbert Storer, and to this union were born the following named children: John, born September 25, I879; Carrie, born November 26, I88i; Zala, born December 19, I893, and Edward, born December 5, I899. Ella Beebe was united in marriage on October 4, i888, to Wallace Covert. Not having any offspring they are rearing an adopted child, Charlotte Covert. Walter Beebe was married to Mary Harvey on July 31, I893. Three children have graced this union. The eldest son was born on February i5, I894, and died on the 26th of the same month without having been named; De Etta was born on December 13, 1895; the third child, Walter, on June I2, 1902. Julia Beebe was married on November 30, I893, to Herbert Biglow and has given birth to the following named children: Gertrude, born March 9, 1896; Garriet, born June 30, I898; Glen, born on March i8, I90I, and died June 23, I9OI; Harry was born on June I7, I904. The Beebe home is at I020 Ann Arbor street and their many friends find here at all times an atmosphere that is both hospitable and congenial.

Page  369 REV. EDGAR RANDALL. In the person of Rev. Edgar Randall, pastor of the Grand Blanc Baptist church, we have a good representative of that noble and self-sacrificing body of men who have done so much by precept and example to build up the sturdy citizenship of our fair land. Perhaps no one other class of citizens has done greater service to the state and country than the loyal and fearless preachers of the Gospel. They have been men that have faced privations and endured hardships, yet have adhered unswervingly to the narrow path that leads onward and upward to peace and to victory. Rev. Randall was born in Tekonsha, Calhoun county, Michigan, on February 21, I844. His father, Gilbert Randall, was a farmer by occupation. He was an upright and industrious citizen, and a man of firm convictions. He died in the same month and year in which Edgar was born, aged twenty-nine years. Edgar's mother, Alma (Howe) Randall, died in Calhoun county, Michigan, in I890, having passed beyond her seventieth year. She was the mother of four sons, of whom Edgar was the youngest. He was reared to manhood in Calhoun county and underwent the usual experiences incident to the life of the times. He received his elementary education in the Tekonsha schools, but he soon concluded to carry his training as much further as was possible. We therefore find him continuing his education by taking a 24

Page  370 370 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY special course at.Hillsdale College, Michigan. He was an ardent student and applied himself industriously to his work, and this characteristic has been one of his distinguishing marks throughout his life. For about fifteen years prior to entering the ministry Mr. Randall was engaged in the profession of teaching, and thereby gained valuable experience in the stuly of human nature, as well as acquiring a broad and deep sympathy for childhood. He was ordained as pastor of the Grand Blanc Baptist church in 1879 and has since continued service there in that capacity. He is among the oldest pastors in the state of Michigan, and has made a record for service. faithfulness and loyalty that is hard to excel. \When the great civil strife burst over the land he enlisted in Company E of the First Regiment of the lMichigan Volunteer Infantry. He entered into the conflict with his usual zeal anid vigor, but after sixteen months of service was severely wiounded at the second battle of Bull Run, and on account of this was discharged from the service. He was reluctant to retire and would not have done so had he been able in any way to have retained his place in the ranks. He is a member of the General Crapo Post. Grand Army of the Republic, and takes a leading part in all efforts made by that and kindred organizations to keep alive the spirit of patriotism and love for the flag. Mr. Randall was first married at Tekonsha, Michigan, to Miss Loretta Rogers, \who liel at Burlington, Michigan. He was again married, this time in Burlington tow-nshi), to Mary Engle. who was lo(rn in Calhoun county, Michigan. His life and activities have been such that he will long be reomenlbered after passing to his rewTard.

Page  371 ALEXANDER McCALL. Hugh McCall, 3 years old One of the most progressive as well as obliging undertakers of the county is Mr. Alexander McCall, of (rand Blanc. He was born at Mumford, Monroe county, Ne\\ York, October 13, 1839. His parents, Hugh and Mary (Blue) McCall, were also natives of New York. Hugh McCall was born in Montgomery county, New York, in I8io, and reached the advanced age of ninety-one years. having lived until December 6, 1901. His first wife, mother of Alexander, (lied in Onondaga county, New York, in I864. He afterward married Mrs. Sophia \Wilber, who, also, at an advanced age, survives her husbanld. In coming west in I868 he settled in Mundy township, Genesee county, and later removed to Grand Blanc, where lhe operated a harness and shoe shop. Alexander \-as the eldest of a family of eleven children and lived in Mlumfordl, Ne\\ York, until he was eleven years old, at which age he removed with his parents to Onondaga county, same state. Here he lived until I865, being engaged in farming. Following this he spent about a year in the oil regions of Pennsylvania, after which he came to Detroit, spending about one year there in carpenitry work. He next moved to Genesee county, Michigan, \where lie purchase(l a farm in Grand Blanc tow\nshlip in February, I867. For the next seven years he continued operating the farm and at the expiration of tlat time disposed of it at a good price. He then spent a few months in Detroit and vicinity, workingi at his old trade of carpentry. Following this he returned to (Grand Blanc and purchased a half interest in the wagon business, with \William Elliot as a partner. Hle was thus employed for about two years, during' which time he became engaged in the undertaking business

Page  372 372 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY in Grand Blanc, and since that date, 1877, has continued at that work. In connection with his regular line as undertaker Mr. McCall has also for twelve years handled hardware and implements, starting in I879 the first hardware store in the town of Grand Blanc. His business methods are such as to win the confidence and esteem of all who know him, and he has reached a place of high standing in the community both as a business man and as a citizen. Mr. McCall was first married to Miss Mary A. Stewart in Monroe county, New York, and she later departed this life while they were living in Onondaga county, same state. His next marriage was to Miss Clara E. Thompson, of Grand Blanc, Michigan, who later also passed to her rest. Caroline (Chapin) McCall, his present wife, was the daughter of Barton B. and Lucy (Burbank) Chapin. Caroline was born at Coldwater, Michigan, October 31, I856. Her father was born in New York state in I809 and came to Genesee county, Michigan, early in the summer of I834. Her mother, the above mentioned Lucy (Burbank) Chapin, was born in Washington county, New York, and was married to Mr. Chapin after coming to Genesee county, Michigan. Barton B. Chapin's father, Chauncey Chapin, was one of the very earliest pioneers of Genesee county. His wife's maiden name was Hannah Palmer, and both she and her husband ended their days in Grand Blanc township, Mr. Chapin acquiring the age of eighty-eight years. Barton B. was the father of six children, of whom Mrs. McCall is the youngest. Mr. and Mrs. McCall are the parents of one son, Hugh C. McCall. Mr. McCall has held the office of justice of the peace for four years. He is a Republican and has taken an active part in the political affairs of the county, often serving as delegate to the various conventions, taking a stand always for fair dealings and an honest administration of public business. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity and belongs to the Flint Lodge, No. 23, having been a member of the order since I862.

Page  373 HON. JAMES BARTON WALKER.

Page  374 374 BIOGRAPHICAL HIS'FORY Hon. James Barton Walker was blorn in the tow\n of Locke (now Summerhill) ill Cayuga county, New York, September 12, 1812. He was the seventh son in a family of ten childlren. Until lhe was twenty-one years of age his time was spent onl his father's farm, performing the various duties to which the sons of not wealthy farmers of those (lays were subject, andl afforded but meager apportunity for mental culture. Being a diligent scholar, however, he succeeded in acquiring what was consi(lere(l in those (lays a good common school e(lucation, which was sul)uplemente(l by soime study in Courtland Academy. On arriving at the age of manhood he engaged in school teaching for two years, Nwhen he left his native state, and in June, 1836, became a resident of Flint, Twhich w'as then a mere hamlet. Mr. Walker was engaged as clerk in the first dry goo(ls store opened in the embryo city, the proprietors of which were MIessrs. Beach and \NVesson, whllere lie worked one year; when he became agent for Hon. C. S. Payne, and subsequently clerk for H. Ii. Hentderson. In i838 Ihe built a store on the north sidle yf te river in the first \ard, filled it with general ierchan(lise ald( contiluedt ill the mercantile business there until the fall o)f 1842, when, having )built a store on the corner of Saginawl alnd Kearsley streets, lie removedl his mercantile l)usiness to that place, where he continued in general merchandise until I858, b)eing twice burned out, rebuildillg each time. In 1840 he married Miss Almira Simpso(n, (of Caledonia, New York, who, w\\ith their datughter Anna, Mrs. A. 1). McGool. survived him. In T854 \TMr. W\\alker succeeded General C. C. Hascall as trustee of Michigan asylulms' and in T(857 he was appointedl by the governor acting co(mmissioner to superintendl the construction of the asylum for the (leaf, (luml) andl blinid at Flint. In the spring of 1 858 he discontinue(l his mercantile business and dlevote(l his -whole time and energy to the ar(lu-ous duties of trustee and( acting coimmissioner, which he continue(l to fulfill with great anl reco)gnize(l fidelity to the interests of the state and the institution until the buildings w ere complete(l and( the institution under his management fully establishedl Nwhen, in i873, he resigned his official trust to Governor Bagley. Mlr. Walker as elected mayor of the city for I870-71, andl duriig his term of office manifested his characteristic calm judgmlent and energetic force. It was (luring his administration that the first pavement of Saginaw street was accomplished, the most valuable public improvement effected in the growing city. Always enterprising and public-spirited Mr. W\alker en

Page  375 (lE-NESEE COU SNTY, MICHIGAN. 375 tered zealously into the organization of associations for the public prosperity. He was )one of the original founlders of St. Paul's Episcopal church, and for many years one of its war(lens. He was one of the founders of the Flint City Gas ight Company and the (Genesee County Savi-ngs Bank, of which he was president from its organization until his death. He passe(l from the scenes of earth Novemlber I5, 1877, aged sixty-five years. His only childl i1Mrs. A. 1). McCool, died IFeblruary I, 1902, leaving no1 issue.

Page  376 COL. EDWA\\:RD H. THOMSON. Etd(lard Huguhes Thomson w-as born at Kendlal, in tile lake country, \\Vestmoreland, England, June 1T5, 18Io. His parents were Edward Hughes and Mary lThomson. his wife. His mn()ther died while he was quite young, and( his name was transposedI to Edward Hughes Thomson. His fatherl. who \-as 1English b()rn, m(Ve to B)ston, M/assachiusetts, while thfe subject of this sketch was a small b)oy. \rlheni he had reached the proper ao;e lie was sent to school at the acadlemllv at White Plains, New York, for several years. Later lie sailed before the mast for two years, but then deciding to e(luzate himself for the law lie entered the law office of Millard Fillmore at Buffalo. When lie was twenty-two years old, having been duly admitted to the bar, lie located at Buffalo, but soon removed to Cleveland, Ohio. In 1836-37 Michigan received a large number of immigrants from other states, and among them was Colonel Thomson, who reached this state iii the spring of 1837 and located in Atlas, which was then a part of Lapeer county. Governor Stevens G. Mason, Michigan's first governor, appointed Mr. Thomson prosecuting attorney of Lapeer county. He remained there but one year, however, when he removedl to Flint and entered into a law partnershlip with John Bartow, who was then registrar of the United States land office at Flint. Among the first lawyers who came to the little town of Flint were Mr.

Page  377 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 377 Ruogg and Jo(hn Bartow, experienced, able lawyers, coming from different localities, but with a kindred purpose, to escape the influence of conviviality, which at that time permeated all classes in older settlements. Men of liberal education., with culture and refinelment; gracious and urbane in manner, they gave a tone and trend to legal practice quite unusual in small towns, where generally the pettifogger, with little knowledge of law and less of general culture, thought the man who could use the most abusive language to his o)po — nent in the case wias the best lawyer. A little later came William M. Fenton and Levi W-alker, men with profounll knowledge of law and gentle, dignified manner; so that it happened early Ftlint largely escaped the blatant lawyers. 11 In845)-46 Mr. Thomson was prosecuting attorney for Genesee county. In 1847 he w-as elected to the state senate, his district embracing Genesee, Oakland, Lapeer, Shiawassee, Saginaw and Tuscola counties, and also the entire upper peninsula. He was the father of the bill which provided for the location of the institution for the deaf, dumb and blind in Flint, and the insane asvlum in Kalamazoo. By his activity in the advocacy of a foreign emigration bill lie attracted the favorable notice of Governor Ransom, and was appointed state immigration agent, with headquarters at NewA York city. Subsequently his headquarters were changed to Stutgart, Germany, and by llis inllefatigable efforts he was directly responsible for the removal of over twelltv thousand hard-working Germans to the state. W\hen the war of the Rebellion broke out Governor Blair appointed him a member of the state military board, and later Colonel Thomson was made the president of the board. W\ith all his busy life he alxways found ample time to cultivate the graces of life, and as a social, genial, gentleman was beloved 1b a host of friends. He w\as a ripe Shakespearean scholar, and his magnificent Shakespearean library, which now, through the munificence of the late James McMillan, graces the University of Michigan, is one of the finest private collections ever made in the central states. In 1878-9 Colonel Thomson served the city of Flint as its mayor. He died February 2, I886. He was twice married. His first wife was Miss Mary Bemis, of Buffalo, New York, by whom he had one datuglter, Mary, afterward Mrs. A. B. Witherbee, and son, John R. Thomson. In 1840 he married \Miss Sarah Teresa Bush, of Flint, by whom he had

Page  378 378 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY one son, Edward H. Thomson, Jr., \who (lie(l November I, 1889, Jon ( R. having (lied some years before. MRS. SARAH TERESA THOMSON. Mrs. Sarah Teresa Thomson, wife of Colonel E. H. Thomso(n. was born July 19, I818, at Brighton (near Rochester), New York state. Her parents, David and Laura A. Bush, w\ere of staunch sturdy New England stock. She inherited from her father a character almost rugged in its straightfonrwarad uprightness. She enjoyed a course of study in Leroy (New York) Female Seminary under tile tutelage (o)f Mrs. Ingham Stouton, an emlient instructress of yotunng women. lThis was one (of the early schools affording' advanced e(lucationl to wmenll. IT 1 836 her father removel l \itl his family from Rochester to Shiawassee county, Michigan, and from thence Mrs. ITh)omson made her way to Flint, vwhere she opene(l a school for youlng la(lies. For nearly fifty years she live(l in llint, alnd all this time sloe was mlore or less a teacher ill Biblical anll historical studies, continuall dliffusinl all atmlosphere of intelligence, culture an(l devout religious thlo(ughts. In 1840 she was married to EI(lwar(ld H. lThomsoln, and at once her homle became the center (of the social life of the growing city. Without question n1lo personI las exerted more beneficent and wi(lefelt influence ul)on the community. She was foremost in every effort of education and uplift to otlhers; foremost in every goo(l wor(l an(l work for lbenev(olence anll helpfulness. Her grand native intelligence, enriclhe(l by broad culture and exten(le(l travel, together with a home filled \with rare l)ooks and treasures of art, were ever freely and readlily used for the pleasure and( profit of all who solught. P;erhaps her most (listinguishing characteristic was her sympatlhetic nature-a heart large enough to feel for all suffering, far-reaching in its tenderness-even like the divile pity. Thus, as a necessity, she I)ecame a shelter. a support, a defender to the sick, the helpless, the friendless. In full measure she had that large-heartedness that couldl weep witl those that wept an(l rejoice with those that rejoiced.

Page  379 GENESEE COUNTY, MIICHIGAN. 379 "W\\hen the ear heard hler than it blessed her; \When the eye saw her it gave witness to her, Because she delivered the poor that cried; The fatherless, also, that had none to help him, The blessing of him that was ready to perish came upon her; And she caused the widow's heart to sing for joy.. She put on righteousness and it clothed her: Hlier justice was as a rol)e and( a diadem. She was eves to the blind and feet was she to the lame. She was a mother to the needlv And the course she knew not she searched not." Mrs. Thomsorn dlied on Easter day, April 0o, I887. She was survived by a son, Edward H. lThiomson. Jr., who died the following year.

Page  380 1 IRA T. SAYRE. Ira T. Sayre was born at Hector, Schuyler county, New York, March 6, I858. His father, Augustus Sayre, is a descendant of Thomas Savre, who settled at Southalnpton, Long Island, in I639. At the present day may still be seen the house, built by him iln 648, a venerable landmark of early days, being the oldest English frame house in America. David Halsey Sayre, father of Augustus, was b)orn in this old homestead, and came to Seneca county, New York, in 1804. Augustus Sayre came to Genesee county, Michigan, in company with his brother, Thomas, in 1850, and settled on the farm near Flushing, now owned by Ira T. Sayre. In I854 he returned to New York, was there married in 1856 and then came back to Flushing. Here he spent most of the time from then on, barring a few short periods at Redlands, California. The wife of Augustus was Sarah E. Terry, daughter of Nathaniel Terry, of Chester, New Jersey, a descendant of Richard Terry, who settled at Southold, Long Island, in I639. Nathaniel Terry's grandfather, Richard Terry, emigrated to Chester, New Jersey. Nathaniel came to Hector, New York, in I821, where Sarah, as stated above, was born. Augustus and Sarah Sayre are still living at Flushing, after fifty-one years of domestic felicity. Their family consisted of Ira T., our subject; Franklin P., an at

Page  381 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 38I torney at Flushing; and Julia M., who died at the age of thirty-three at Redlands, California, being the wife of Archibald E. Ball. Ira T. acquired his education at the Michigan Agricultural College, and in addition studied law at the State University. He was admitted to the bar before the supreme court in i88i, and immediately began the practice of his profession, and has continued in it ever since, covering a period of over twenty-five years. In addition to his law practice he is engaged in farming, being associated with his brother, Frank, in tilling five hundred acres of land in Flushing township. He is also interested in pine lands in Michigan, Oregon and Louisiana. In the latter state he is secretary and treasurer of the Evart Lumber Comnpany (Lt'd.), having mills at Evart, Louisiana. He is also interested in banking, being president of the People's Bank at Flushing, Michigan, and at Leroy, Osceola county, Michigan. He is also a stockholder in banks at Montrose, Swartz Creek, Evart and Coleman, Michigan, and Raymondville. Texas. Mr. Savre began his career in politics at the age of sixteen. He was made township clerk in 1882, and served also as village clerk for eight or nine years. In 1893 Governor Rich appointed him on the board of control of the state industrial school, Lansing. He served in that capacity until elected to the state senate in 1898 for the regular term of I899. He served also in the special sessions of I899 and o900. He was appointed a member of the board of tax commissioners by Governor Bliss in I901, serving for four years, and was a member of the board making the first advalorem assessment of the railroad properties of a state as a single property in the United States. This assessment produced a tax of more than three million dollars, increasing the tax by one-half over what the railroads had paid upon a specified tax-paying basis. On August 5, 1884, Mr. Sayre was married to Julia E. Niles, daughter of Franklin- A. and Mary (Turner) Niles. They are the parents of three children-Helen Lorraine, aged sixteen: and Sidney Estelle and Frank Niles, twins, of ten years of age.

Page  382 GEOR(;'E C. MY~ERS. M~r. G~eorg'e2,! C. Myers, suipervi~sor of Burton tovn71Shilp, was born inl Otsego county, Newv York, Juyi,83 is parents, Georg~e L. and Nancy (Sommers) Myers, were both natives of New York state, the- latter dying inl Otsegyo county November 19, j864. The father was married this time to Miss Tai elrwowsasotknfo him- while they were still living in New York. His third marriage was to Lucy Sommers, sister of his first wife, and she still suirvives, In April. i867, George, L. came to Genesee couinty, Michigan. andl settled upon anl eighty-acre farm in Burton township, wNlhich was at that timee but partially improved. He soon made great changes in the farm, and brought it tinder a fine state of cultivation. He ended his (lays onl this homestead and answveredl to the last summons March 20, I89o, having attained the age of sixty 1-eight years. There were eight children born of his first union,, four 5005s aild four daugter.orsb cGeorgoe C., beingy the youngest of the family. George niajor part of his edlucation in the commnon schiools of the township. For one year, however, hie attendled tI ln ihsho, and wNas thus enlabled to eqluip himself sufficiently to make general advancement through his own in

Page  383 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 383 lividual efforts and alnbition. He has devoted himself chiefly to farming, an(l is at present the owner of alout one hundred and twenty acres of well iml)roved and excellently farmed land. On March 14, 1884, he was married in( Grand Blanc township, to Miss Carrie E. Estes, who was born in Burton towlnship, l)eing the (laughter of Peter D. and Lovina (Merrill) Estes, prominent residents of that locality, and people who have always been identifiel with the progressive elements of the community. Mr. and IMrs. IMyers have become the parents of four children, viz.: Raymon E., Glenn H., Fern A. and Ruth E. They have taken great pridle in their home life, and have endeavored to surround their children with wholesome and uplighting influences. Mr. Myers has held the office of supervisor for two years, and has discharged his duties in a most commendable fashion, serving his second term. For one term he was ma(le justice of the peace and also serve( two terms as townshlip treasurer. He is a man that goes actively into the county and township affairs and is always ready with an intelligent view onl questions relating to the general welfare of the public.- His activities have always been ilentified with the Republican lparty, but he believes first of all in giving the people a "scquare deal." lMr. and MI-rs. Myers are invaluable members of the Methodist church, in which Mr. Myers has held such offices as tlat of trustee, steward and Sunlay scllool superintendent. He is always ready to help out both by counsel andl b1 work, never shirking a duty that (devolves upon him. He is also a member of the Burton Center Grange, No. 1072, and the Gleaners Arbor, No. 270.

Page  384 ROBERT P. AITKEN. Robert P. Aitken was born in I819 in Montgomery (now Fulton) county, state of New York, of Scotch descent, his mother's maiden name being Chalmers, and the grandmother's on the mother's side being Stewart, claiming kinship to "Royal Charlie" of Scotland; but, as Mr. Aitken was a staunch Republican, he claimed no preferment on that account. At the age of seventeen he went to the city of New York and served as clerk six years, having by strict economy saved a few hundred dollars. Seeing little chance for a young man having a small capital to commence in business in a large city he decided to try his fortunes in the west. Accordingly, in the autumn of 1842 he started for the then small town of Flint, in the state of Michigan, taking with him a small stock of merchandise. Owing to the extreme scarcity of money he exchanged a portion of his goods for eighty acres of wild land on section 8 in the town of Flint, and forthwith went to work improving it. On the I2th of March following he was married to Miss Sarah J. Johnstone, who, with her father's family, had preceded him from New York city only a few months. Miss Johnstone was born in the ciyt of New York in the year 1823, and up to this time had never spent much time in the country; but a board shanty was speedily erected on this land of their own, and together they commenced under new auspices, the journey of life. Many privations had to be endured, but their farm increased to two hundred and twenty acres, practically all, being improved. Any success or improvement may be set down as the result of constant labor. They raised a family of ten children-five sons and five daughters-of whom two sons and four daughters only now survive.

Page  385 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 385 Besides having improved a large farm, mainly by his own hands, Mr. Aitken served his township as supervisor thirty-one years, twenty-one years consecutively, and his district in the state legislature four years. He was recognized as authority by his neighbors for miles around, drew their wills, their (leeds, their mortgages and( other quasi legal papers, and was their recognized authority and confidential advisor in matters of private concern. He received in his youth a good colmmon school education, which was improved upon while clerking in the city of New York, and by constant reading and active interest in public affairs he became in middle life not only one of the best scholars, but one of the best informed men in Genesee county. He was fond of music, as was Mrs. Aitken. They owned the first musical instrument that was owned in the township of Flint-a melodion. He took much interest in his immediate social relations among the farmers of Ihis township, instituted and taught a singing and spelling school during several winters in the district schoolhouse. Mr. and Mrs. Aitken were members of St. Paul's Episcopal church in the city of Flint, and their marriage was the first marriage solemnized in St. Paul's parish. They not only taught their children, but by precept and example taught the doctrine that to do right because it was right to do it, was the best evidence of true religion, and that cleanliness in character and habit was next to godliness. Mrs. Aitken ldied in 1886, aged sixty-three years, on the farm where forty years before she had taken up life's marital relations, and where her children had been born, and in 1905 Robert P. Aitken died on the same farm where, sixty-three years before, he had cleared away the brush to erect the board shanty for himself and bride. The evolution from the board shanty to the beautiful farm home is evidenced by the picture of the house that was constructed on that farm in I865, and that farm that was, when first visited l)y Robert P. Aitken, a wilderness, is now a beautful and fertile farm with practically every acre under the highest state of cultivation with beautiful buildings kept up and maintained by the children of the man and woman whose courage and industry were emblematical of the early pioneers. Robert P. Aitken lived an active life. He did active service in public and private walks. From the time he left the stony hills of Montgomery county in New York until his death, a period of nearly seventy years, his life was 25

Page  386 386 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY an unceasing industrious effort, whether laboring for himself and his family, his neighbors or for the public, industry and perseverance characterized his conduct, and if any man has ever lived who could claim the credit of having caused two blades of grass to grow where but one grew before, Robert P. Aitken was the man.

Page  387 D. G. COL\WELL. FRANK E. HALL. LEONARD FREEMAN.

Page  388 CHARLES BAKER. GEORGE R. HOWE. CHARLES G. HUGHES.

Page  389 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 389 MICHIGAN SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF. The educational achievements of the state of Michigan have been the pride of its citizens for mnany years and the object of admiration on the part of her sister states throughout the union. Her educational system is among the best, and many of her state institutions are unexcelled anywhere. Among these is the Michigan state school for the (leaf, located at Flint. The citizens of Genesee county may well feel proud over having in their midst a school of such high character. Its success and standing has largely been brought about by its able superintendent, Mr. Francis D. Clark, and the efficient corps of instructors that he has gathered into his organization. For the benefit of our readers and with the hope of encouraging the already generous appreciation of the work of the school, we give here copious extracts and adaptations from the twenty-seventh biennial report of the board of trustees for the years 1905 and 1906: BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS. The M\ichigan school for the (leaf is situated in the fourth ward of the city of Flint, W\est Court street leading directly iup to the principal entrance. The situation, on the highest part of a ridge of land, washed on three sides by ra)idl streams, furnisles most excellent drainage, while the grounds of the school, by a wise forethought in retaining the original growth of hardwood trees, and )y ju(licious expenditures from time to time, are very beautiful.!The state owns here two hundred and sixty-eight acres; about thirty ~acres are covered by the buildings, or used as lawns, playgrounds, etc. The remainder is devoted to the maintenance of a large herd of choice cattle, whose abundlant milk supplies all the needs of the school. The buildings consist of a front building and running back from it three wingsl, which are connected at the rear, and joined to the old school building 1by corri(lors. This school building is the oldest one here. Possibly when first built it was adlmirably planned to accommodate both the deaf and the blind, but the removal of the blind to Lansing and the piling of other buildings around it have combined to change the uses for which it was intended, and to render some of its rooms very dark and entirely unfit for schoolrooms, but it is well ventilated and warmed and makes an admirable dormitory, for which it is now used exclusively, except three or four workrooms in

Page  390 39o BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY the basement, where clothing is sorted and mended as it comes from the laundry. The front building, with the state coat of arms high in the air, and a great carved wooden eagle over all, is a fair sample of the best architecture of fifty years ago. Standing in front of it, all that part of the main buildings to your right is devoted to the boys, and on the left to the girls. The basement of this building is taken tip mostly by the heating apparatus, bathrooms and the parlor for the domestics. This building has three floors and furnishes space for office rooms, dormitory and hospital, while the wings are used for bath and study rooms. What is known as the "new building," because it was built many years after the main building, is connected by a two-story covered corridor with the east wing. In its basement, which is entirely above ground, light, airy and well heated and ventilated, are the pupils' dining room, kitchen, storerooms, etc. This (lining room will seat five hundred and fifty pupils without undue crowding. It opens directly off the large kitchen, which is well supplied with the appliances usually found in large hotel kitchens. The floor above is occupied by the girls' reading room, officers' dining room, matron's parlor, and bedrooms for officers and domestics. The second floor is occupied as a girls' dormitory. Running back from the rear building is a long one-story extension. In it we come first to the laundry. Two large rooms are taken up by the mangle, dry room, and ironing tables. Then comes the tin shop, and beyond that the laundry proper, containing two of the largest sized washers, a centrifugal wringer, stationary tubs, soap vat and clothes craters. Next to this is the pump room, where a huge steam pump pumps the water needed in our upper stories, and stands ready in case of fire to drive a 'torrent through the system of standpipes with which the buildings are supplied. Back of the pump room is the boiler house. This is one of the most expensive places in the whole school, the two three-hundred-horse-power water tube boilers, requiring nearly three thousand tons of coal a year to keep our buildings warm, and four men to look after them. Connected with the pump room is the engine room. This is finished with a beautiful inlaid wainscoting in black walnut and maple, the construction of which furnished many hours of excellent practice for the young cabinetmakers. Two direct connected McEwen engines and dynamos, built by the

Page  391 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 391 Ridgway Engine and Dynamo Company, generate the electricity that lights all our buildings, andl rives the motors at different places about the buildings where power is neededl. On the grounds, a couple of hundred feet from the front door, stands the superintendent's cottage. The name "cottage" has attached itself to this building probably because it is smaller than the main building. It is really a commodious ten-room residence, and the handsomest superintendent's home in America. It stands as a monument of what deaf boys, when properly instructed, can (lo with tools, for the woodwork of the building and most of the furniture was made by the boys of the cabinet shop. It has thus become a standing example of the degree of excellence that we expect from them. and many a young man who has in a fit of discouragement complained that Mr. Barton, the instructor in cabinet-making, was a little too strict in requiring a perfect fit in a joint, or flawless finish on a surface, has been brought to a realizing sense of the necessity of such exactness, and the possibility of his attaining to it by a visit to the "cottage." Some eight hundred feet.east of the superintendent's cottage, but connected with all the other buildings by cement walks, is Brown hall, our school building. Its architecture is entirely different from that of the other buildings. It is built of dark red pressed brick, trimmed with red sandstone, and contains forty-three schoolrools, an assembly ro-om, gymnasium, reception room, office, etc. The building covers two hundred and eighteen feet from east to west, and one hundred and thirty feet from north to south. Entering the end nearest the main building, under a massive portecochere, the stairs on the left lead to the basement, while a step or two on the right takes one into the main hall on the first floor. In the west winog of the basement, on one sidle is a large swimming pool for the boys, and on the other their lavatory. These occupy the whole wing. The east wing is given up to the same conveniences for the girls. All of the central part of the basement is one large hall. Visitors on entering this often wonder at the richness and great variety of its decoration. This room is the home of the class in house decoration. Its walls have received their first attempts at decoration, which have been painted over with more pretentious designs, as their skill increased, and these again by the best efforts of the most skillful-their masterworks before graduating. All of the designs that appear on the walls and ceilings above were first worked out on paper here.

Page  392 392 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY Back of this is the engine room and fan. Here a twenty-five horsepower engine drives a huge fan, which forces thirty-five thousand cubic feet of air each minute into the building, changing the air in every schoolroom once in every ten minutes. Part of this air passes through a system of steam coils, containing four miles of steam pipe, and is heated to about 130 degrees; part passes under tliese coils, and is only heated to about 60o degrees. Self-acting thermostats and dampers regulate the proportion of this hot and cold air supplied to each room according to the temperature in that room. In this way the amount of air sent to each room is always the same, b)ut its temperature constantly changes. Back of the engine room is the boiler house. where the steam for running the engine and heating the coils and the water in the swimming tanks is generated. All the furniture used in this building, except the chairs, was madle in our own cabinet shop. CABINET MAKING. The cabinet shop occupies the entire ground floor and part of the second floor in the old shop building. On the ground floor are fourteen work benches, supplied with all the tools that a cabinet-maker ordinarily uses, and leavi1ng abundant space between them for large articles, with room around tlhen for those who are at work on them. 'Ihere are also those machine tools which are most frequently met with in wood-workillg establishments, such as buzzsaws, jig-saws, planers, sharpers, turning lathes, veneer presses and a carving machine, which was built by tlhe instructor. A small room at one side contains the drafting table and stores of various kinds; upstairs are the finishing room and the upholstering room. In the first of these boys learn how to put on the "finish" which all fine work requires, and which can only come from good varnish, skillfully applied, and long and patiently rubbed down. Upholstering is a trade by itself. We do not pretend to teach it exhaustively, but though it is not cabinet-making, it is very convenient for a cabinet-maker to know something of it-enough to finish an arm chair, or a sofa, and those of our boys who finish the course in the cabinet shop know this, while those who have a taste for this work leave us really good ordinary workmen.

Page  393 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 393 W\\e are in the habit of speaking of all a boy learns in this shop as "cabinetmaking," and call it all one tradle. If a boy stays his full time there, however, lie will be proficient in all of the following, which are gi"ven in the "American Annals of the Deaf" as "industries taught"-cabinet-nmaking, carpentry, chair-making, glazing, painting, wool-carving, woo(l-turning-besi(les having some knowledge of forging and tempering small tools and upholstering. MAany of them, too, on graduating, are fairly good at designing furniture. SHOEMAKING DEPARTMENT. 'lThe remainder of the old slho)p building is occupied by the shoeshop. Some years ago we seriously thought of abandoning this trade. Not that it was not one than paid the school, but because we thought it did not prepare our boys so that they could leave school feeling that they had a trade by whlicl they conldl earn a living. The truth is that shoemaking has chalged. Instead of being one trade, it has split up into several factorv avocations. for nearl-y all shoes are now made in factories, andl though many still think that a "lhan(l-sewed(l shoe is perfectionl. goo(l machine sewinlg is bloth better an(l i)rettier. All that is left for the old shoemaker is a few old-fashiolled custolmers, whlo still insist on having s:hoes ma(le to order, a few people with misshapen feet who can not nwear rea(ly-ma(le shoes, and repairs to readly-nmade shoes. Even the repairer's trade has greatly changed. He must turn out a iieat-l()ookilg jobl and will findl his health and wealth both improvedl 1)y using somlie of the factory appliances. The foreman of a factory no longer looks for shoemiakers. He employs haliis on tippers, buttonhole makers, lasters, hands for various machines, finishers, cutters, etc. Some years ago we recognized fullv that the boys who left our shop able onlv to make go(lod farmers' shoes, or even boots, had no chance whatever to make a living; and even if lie could turn out most excellent fine shoes. in or(ler to get work he would probably have to go to a factory and there learn his trade over again. Possibly he could settle down in some small town, get a little shoemlaking, and a great deal of mending, and make a fair living. Tl1o make our shop of use to our pupils we must train them so that they could go to a factory and ask for work, saying I am a "laster," a "McKay operator," etc., or go to the city and start to build up a trade as an "artistic repairer." So almost all the old benches were moved up to the garret, and the tools and ap

Page  394 394 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY pliances of the factory took their place. A regular system of factory work was introduced. Each boy has to go through the whole system. He is kept long enough in each of the positions to thoroughly know how to do all that is done there, and then moved on to the next, finishing at the cutting board. After that he has a course in handwork, and in designing patterns, and as a finishing touch, systematic instruction in repairing. He then knows all about shoemaking from personal experience. He can select the specialty he wishes to pursue with a full understanding of what he will have to do, and having made an intelligent selection, he can devote the remainder of his time in the shop to acquiring speed and skill, which in future years will mean dollars to him. For years past actual experience has proved that our shoe shop does turn out workmen who get places and keep them, and whose presence in a factory is apt to bring to the school word that if we have any more of the same sort they will be glad of them. Two or three years ago a new department was added to this shop by fitting up a room, where those boys who expect to live in the country or small towns are taught harness-making. We hope that it will be distinctively borne in mind that the object of this shop is not to make shoes but shoemakers. The great difference is that if we were running the shop for profit we would put a boy at one thing, and when he learned to do that well and rapidly, would keep him at it. Under this system we could quickly run up the output of our shop to an amount that woulld supply all this part of Michigan. As it is, we put a boy at different work as soon as he knows how to do what he is at. This policy teaches the boy, but greatly reduces the amount of work done. We supply all of our own pupils, and some few others, principally the officers and teachers of the school, and do not at all interfere with the shoe trade. PRINTING DEPARTMENT. Near the old shop is the Turner industrial hall. The appropriation for this building was made by the legislature in 1897, and it was occupied that fall. It is a plain brick building, containing four work roois, forty by fifty, and cost 5,oo000. In it are the printing office, the tailor shop, the art and dressmaking departments. The printing office, on the left as you enter the building, has been in

Page  395 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 395 operation at this school for many years. Like the shoeshop there was a time when we seriously thought of discontinuing it. We are now debating whether we ought not to introduce type-setting machinery, and so lring the shop up to the requirements of nmodern times. One of the most expert Mcrgenthaler linotype operators in Michigan, Mr. Charles A. Gumaer, of Grand Rapids, is a graduate of this office, and, of course, deaf. He acquired his ability to operate that intricate machine, however, after he graduated. There is still, and in spite of all machines, there always will be a demand for thorough printers, those who know every branch of their business, and for mel skilled in "making up" and "making ready," while a good pressman, one who can do really good work from half-tone engravings, for instance. can alvays command steady work at fair wages. Several of the graduates of this shop are foremen in printing offices of considerable importance around the state, and our own instructor began here. We believe that by paying great attention to the parts of the business we have indicated, and to job work, we can turn out workmen who even in these times can find steady employment. TAILORING DEPARTMENT. The other end of the first floor in Turner hall is occupied by the tailor shop. Here some twenty pupils are at present, learning their trade. Almost all of our boys' clothing is made there, and quite a number of our officers patronize the shop. Our intention, when this industry was first introduced here, was to make thoroughly good tailors of all those boys who finished the course. We have not done this because no pupil has ever stayed there long enough to more than make a beginning in the last and hardest part of the coursecutting and fitting. They stay long enough to become expert "pants hands" or1 "coat hands," and then get offers of wages that keep them out of school. Possibly this may be all right, but the boy who leaves two or three years before finishing his education, either in a shop or in school, will not (lo as well in the long run as the one who waits longer. Some years ago the strike among the tailors in Detroit, occurring a few weeks before school opened, caused three-fourths of the boys in this shop to stay at home. Most of them have kept the places they found at that time ever since.

Page  396 396 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY ART DEPARTMENT. Upstairs, over the tailor shop, is the art department, under the direction of Mrs. H. R. J. Mercer. The pupils are mostly girls, although some boys are there. The pupils who work in the studio have had a course of primary instruction in drawing, and are there to perfect themselves in some branch for which they have shown special ability or affection. Some give fifteen or more hours a week to this work, and others fewer, devoting part of their time to other handicrafts. Drawing, designing, wood carving, plate engraving, art embroidery, pyrography and etching are among the industries taught here. SEWING DEPARTMENT. The sewing department across the hall from the art room is one of the most important branches of our industrial department, but is one to which the writer, for lack of technical knowledge, can hardly do justice. More pupils are here instructed )b Miss Agnes Ballantyne than in any other shop in the whole school. Beginning with plain sewing, a girl goes forward until those who have the ability graduate as perfect dressmakers, many of them able to cut and fit. All of the girls' clothing which we furnish, and a great part of that furnished by the friends of the pupils, is made here, the del!artment making a proper charge for the work done, materials furnished, etc. Those g'irls who so desire and who have the taste and skill necessary, have thorough training in the milliner's trade, learning all that is necessary for them not only to trim their own hats, but, if they desire, to hold a place in a first-class millinery shop, or even to run one themselves. Separated from all the other buildings by quite a distance, away off in the orchard in fact, is the neat frame cottage which constitutes our contagious hospital. From its position it has acquired the name of the "Orchard cottage. It was finished in 1897 and was intendled as a hospital to which every case of a contagious disease could be at once conveyed, so as to prevent its spread. At that time we were greatly crowded, and this snug little building offered a chance to carry out a design which the management of the school hadc long cherished. The orchard cottage was fitted up as a home for a dozen of the older girls, where they could live as a family, doing all the work, except washing, which women usually do, with the utensils and appliances com

Page  397 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 397 monly found in family homes. Miss M'ary Crawford, a lady well fitted for the position, was chosen to preside over the house, and a regular course of cooking and housework, with special attention to the serving of meals, was enteredl upon. Since then several classes have finished the course there andl are good little cooks. They enter heartily into the spirit of their work, are constantly sending samples of their cooking to the superintendent and other officers of the school, and have frequently entertained the board and invited guests at dinners of their own cooking. Almdst every girl in school is looking' forward to the time when she will have her half year in Orchard cottage and learn to cook. The only drawback to the plan is that the building is intended for a contagious hospital. More than once it has happened that the cooking school has had to leave a meal half cooked to make room for a suddenly developed case of scarlet fever. The long' quarantine of such cases, and the thorough disinfection of the u)ilding jwhich must always follow before it can be again occupied, usually make sad work with the cooking class. Fortunately we have had very few such outbreaks. THE BOYS' DORMITORY. This building, erected in 1895, is on a knoll near the barn, surrounded by a fine clump of old forest trees. It is the sleeping place of forty-eight boys, and, when first erected, was a great relief to our then overcrowded sleeping rooms. It was the intention to have this building large enough for a hundred boys, but the appropriation asked for was cut down a third, and "when the bids were opened it was found necessary to cut the building in half to bring it within the sum granted for it. It now accommodates forty-eight boys, and a close inspection of it will show that boys can keep a building neat and clean when they really try. BARNS, SHEDS, ETC. Back of the boys' dormitory are the barns, cow sheds, silo and piggery. From sixty to seventy milch cows are kept here the year round, and every year each one of them is tested by the state live stock sanitary commission to see if any have developed the beginning of tuberculosis. They furnish an

Page  398 398 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY abundant supply of fresh, pure milk for every one. These are almost all Ayreshire or shorthorns or high grades from those breeds. The fullbloods are all registered animals, and the best of their kind, and we hope that their increase will take the place of the other cows as they become too old to be profitable. The pigs, which we have kept for years, are white Cheshires and have uniformly taken prizes wherever we have shown them. For threefourths of the year their food costs us nothing, and they are a source of very considerable profit. This barn merits a more extended description than we have space to give here. Erected from plans drawn by Mr. Clarence Cowles, of Saginaw, with the assistance and advice of Mr. A. C. W\right and Mr. E. F. Swan, both of whom fro mactual experience know what a barn should be, it combines all the modern improvements and appliances that are really useful and helpful in the care of cattle, without any of those fads that are only ornamental and expensive, into what is probably the best arranged and most convenient barn in the state. THE CHILDREN. Everything here, from the main building to the cow shed, is here for the good of the deaf children of the state of Michigan. The object of it all is that they may be educated, trained and fitted for citizenship. That the school does so fit them is shown by its record. No set of people, anywhere, are more worthy of praise than the educated (eaf. While they rarely hold office, and can not possibly rise to the higher offices of the state and nation, they never enter its prisons, nor, with rare exceptions, ask for charity. When they leave school they expect to maintain themselves, and, unless some unexpected misfortune falls upon them* they do so. Our school is free to every child in Michigan too deaf to go to the public schools, who is mentally and physically able to benefit by our training. Still, it is a school, and not an asylum, and is not intended to shelter those whom ignorant, careless, or foolish friends have allowed to grow up without instruction till past the age at which they can receive it. It is a school for the deaf children only, and those whom their friends represent as being "very bright" and hearing perfectly, but not able to "speak," rarely profit by methods of instruction intended solely for those who can not hear. It is very sel

Page  399 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 399 dom, indeed, that such children make any progress here, and we do not intend to keep any child here who does not progress. Outside of these there is a large nulmber of children, roughly speaking, one in every fifteen hundred of the po)pulation, who can not be educated at the public schools, because they can not hear what is said to them. These children, no matter what their degree of leafness, or whether they were born so, or the affliction has only recently befallen them, are those for wlhom this sclool is inten(led. They come to us froml every part of the state, and from every state and con(lition in life. Some come from homes where life itself is an education, some come from the health-giving farm, some from city slums, and some have no place that they can call home. People often ask: "Are not (leaf children very passionate?" "Are they not very hard to manage?" and other questions which seem to point to an idea tlat a (leaf child is very different from his hearing brothers and sisters. The truth is that a deaf child, when he comes to us for the first time, is exactly what his training has made him. Some of our children are well behaved, polite little ladies and gentlemen; soe of them are rough and boisterous; some of them are absolutely lacking in self-control-spoiled children through and through-a few show unmistakably that blows and neglect are all that they expect from grown people. In every case they are what their training has made them. It is harder for parents to train deaf children, because they can not reason with them, and because their affliction speaks so loud to a parent's heart that restraint of any kind is very trying and seems almost cruel. SPEECH TEACHING. In alddition to regular school studies we teach a large proportion of our puplils to speak alnd read the lips. So much has been said on this subject in tle regular reports of this school for the past few years that it hardly seems necessary to add more, but for some reason, and by some means, neither of which we know, the report has been spread over the state that the Michigan sclool for the (leaf is behind the times-that it does not teach, nor even try to do so. Nothing could be more false. Every child who enters this school has regular, long continued instruction in speech, from specially trained teachers, and this instruction is continued for at least a year, whether the child seems to improve or not. In addition to this we have twenty-four classes, all

Page  400 400 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY taught by specially.trained teachers, where speech is used constantly in the schoolroom.. We are perfectly willing to compare the speech of our pupils with that of any deaf children in the world. We positively assert that there is no danger, whatever, of any child losing speech while at this school, and that any child who could be taught to speak anywhere, wvill be so taught here. These are strong words, but al examination of our oral classes will convince any fair-minded person that they are true, and we challenge such a test. It is very easy to boast of what one will do in the future, but we are speaking of what we are doing now, and have the accomplished results to show. TRADE TEACHING. In addition to school work every pupil in Flint learns a trade. In speaking of the buildings we have told all about these. This trade teaching is considered a very valuable part of the school training, and no pupil is excused from it. The habit of working formed in the shops is considered as valuable as anything we give our pupils, and if any one is too good to learn a trade and acquire this habit, that person is entirely too good to come to this school. WVhen a pupil enters the sixth grade regular systematic work at a trade must begin. DISCIPLINE. This work is a very great assistance in the discipline of the school. It seems to make both boys and girls more self-reliant and more easily influenced by advice and reason. While our principles do not go to the extent of saying that corporal punishment should never be inflicted, as a fact its administration is very rare in this school. None, except the superintendent, ever uses such means, and it is now years since he has found a boy whom he thought needed it. Punishment of any kind is very rare. The one most often employed is to sit in a chair, in the presence of some responsible person, and do absolutely nothing. An hour or two of this generally brings a repentant flame of mind to the most obstinate. Deprivation of play, or privileges, working on Saturdays, paying for the property of others destroyed wantonly; or by gross carelessness, are the means which, with talks from teachers, the heads of shops, or the superintendent, we have usually found sufficient with the boys; while the most hardened sinner among the girls has always melted at

Page  401 GENESEE COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 401 the threat of being carried to the superintendent. No one connected with the school knows what would happen if a girl was really carried to the superintendent's office because she would not behave. CHOIRS. The fact that music and song can form no part of the education of the deaf makes a great gap in our home life. No totally deaf person cares at all for these things. MIany find it hard to understand how hearing people can care so much for them. But the (leaf keenly appreciate graceful motions and enjoy seeing them made by several persons in unison. \Ve have our "choirs," who sing hymns, patriotic airs, or even comic songs as occasion requires, keeping perfect time, but doing all in silence, and speaking only by gestures. One needs only to watch the faces of the other children while one of these "choirs" is rendering a selection to be convinced that they fully appreciate the performance. The story-teller, too, is as popular with them as among the Orientals. A boy or girl who can remember a story and reproduce it in clear and graceful signs, is always sure of a large and attentive audience. AMUSEMENTS. Our children play very much as others do. Deafness limits the physical power to a very slight extent. Our boys hold their own at football, baseball, tennis and all other games of strength and dexterity with other boys of their age. Our girls play basket ball and tennis as well, dance as gracefully, are as fond of flag and fan drills as any girls. Thanksgiving clay and Washington's birthday are always occasions on which both boys and girls exert themselves to the utmost, and the entertainments which they get up for those nights are always unique and amusing. Sometimes queer obstacles are encountered. One pantomime of the surrender of Cornwallis came near being a failure because none of the boys were willing to forswear their country and become British soldiers, even for an hour. An entirely new addition to the historic account had to be improvised, and after laying down his gun each British soldier was allowed to protest that, though he had fought against Washington he saw the error of his way and intendled to be a true American forever afterward.

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