A history of the northern peninsula of Michigan and its people;.
Sawyer, Alvah L. (Alvah Littlefield), 1854-1925.

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Page  I A HISTORY OF THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN AND ITS PEOPLE ITS MINING, LUMBER AND AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES By ALVAH L. SAWYER ILLUSTRATED VOLUME I 1911 THE LEWIS PUBLISHING COMPANY CHICAGO

Page  II

Page  III PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGMENT Upon a map of the world, or even of the United States, the space occupied by the Northern Peninsula of Michigan seems almost as an infinitesimal portion, but in considering the variety and abundance of its natural resources and the part played thereby in the world of commerce, this little fraction of the universe leaps at once into prominence, and we find this locality has made generous contribution to those industries that have given to the world the lumber barons, copper kings and iron magnates; has furnished opportunities for thought and material for action in the scientific world, and aided materially in the development of science in various directions; while, not to be overlooked, are its tributes through furs and peltries to the fortunes of royalty in olden times and to those of the Astors and others of the "commercial men" of the early American days. Although far from the seaboard, and near the center of the North American continent, its position upon the Great Lakes waterways, and its great extent of coast line, brought some of its natural advantages to the early attention of the explorers of the new world, so that while the English and the Dutch were settling along the Atlantic seaboard and the Spaniards along the Gulf of Mexico, the French were sending their missionaries and their fur-traders side by side up the St. Lawrence, on into the regions of the great lakes and towards the headwaters of the Mississippi; and we find among the most prominent sections brought to the early attention of the world by both missionaries and traders, points in that which is now the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, Michilimackinac, St. Ignace and Sault Ste. Marie. Various causes combined to occasion this prominence of these northern locations in the early history of the new world. The great natural advantages in the way of hunting and fishing made it the home of many and the resort of more Indians, thus offering to the fur-traders exceptional facilities for prosecuting their avocations, and at the same time affording the missionaries ample fields for their efforts to bring salvation to the heathen savages; while, from a military standpoint, great strategic advantages were at once apparent. Added to these visible and obvious advantages there came to the ears of the early explorers the report carried by the Indians of great quantities of copper said to exist

Page  IV iv PIREFACE in the region of a great lake; and these reports brought to their awakening sensibilities dreams of riches that are but faintly comparable with what has since been actually realized. To attempt to write a history that shall do justice to the territory under consideration, and to her resources and her people, is no small task, and the author approaches it with a realization of the difficulties to be encountered, but with a hope that he may be successful in so bringing and putting together recorded data and existing facts as to make their compilation a matter of interest that will be of service to those of our people who are interested in knowing the part our Peninsula has played and is playing in the drama of history. In looking backward for a starting point, we discover that the natural, civic and commercial development, now apparent, has practically all taken place within the last century; and to seek out and record the details of that development is a matter that requires much research and persistent inquiry; but to start with that material development would be to do injustice to the centuries preceding, in which the work of the missionaries, the traders and the military was having its gradual effect, and wherein hardships, too great and dreadful to be fully realized, were undergone with a courage and bravery that demand a recognition in history, and command our special expression of appreciation. Those periods are of historical interest in various ways, and they witnessed the development of a commercialism and civilization that grew to large proportions, but finally yielded to the terrors of savagery and faded away before the advent of the civilization we now enjoy. Those matters will 1)e considei ed under the various subdivisions treating of the Indians, the missionaries and traders, and the progress made in the exploitation and development of the country under the successive domination of France, England and the United States, including the bitter conflicts between those several nations, and between them and the Indians, for the possession of this coveted territory. Recorded history, as usually interpreted, begins with the coming of the white men and the bringing of ambitions and plans for the development of the country; but there has been so much of history which antedates the history recorded,by' man, whereof mnuch is authenticated by the works of nature, that the student of history naturally peers back into prehistoric times for a glimpse of the conditions that can be recognized as the basis from which our present system of life has gradually evolved. While it is not within the province of this work to delve into the science of geology, to which mulch of prehistoric conditions is indebted for historical solution, and while we shall not presume to follow the scientists in the evolution of the earth through the course of its formation, wherein there were east within our borders so much of mineral worth and picturesque grandeur, we shall venture a chapter to call attention to certain prehistoric conditions prominent and essential in the development of those at present existing. The main

Page  V PREFACE v part of our effort, however, is to be exerted in an attempt at an approximation of accuracy in recording the materal, civic and commercial growth of the Peninsula, and of the important industries that have combined to give her prominence in the world of commnerce; and to give recognition to those natural surroundings of rugged and rustic scenery, wherein picturesque rocks overhanging beautiful crystalline lakes vie with the magnificent waterfalls, the beauty of which to the eye is incomparable to the concealed wealth of undeveloped power contained therein; and besides these the vigorous and bracing atmosphere laden with the health-giving odors of the pine, spruce, balsam and cedar, and purified and tempered by the surrounding lakes, are attractive subjects not to be overlooked. In short, the Northern Peninsula is possessed of all those wholesome, rugged and substantial elements of existence that find their symbols in her water-washed shores, and her fir-capped, ironbound and copper-bottomled physical formation. The people of the Peninsula are largely the natural product of such an environment, and among her professional and business men will be found representatives who are among the leaders of the country in their respective callings. It has required people of a robust constitution and of upright character, imbued with the courage of their convictions, to effect the realization Gf the last fifty years in the development of this Peninsula; but it may be truly said that in that development we find an illustration of the saying that the country has produced the man and the man has brought forth the country. In writing history the author stands in different relation to his work than does the author of most books, in that the contents are not supposed to be the product of his own brain, but rather the results of his research,-the recording of the works of nature and of men. In the preparation of this general history of the Northern Peninsula of Michigan tie editor desires to acknowledge the valued assistance of his associate editors, of whom lions. John Power and L. C. Holden each contributed an interesting chapter over his own signature; of Mrs. A. L. Sawyer, who wrote the chapter on the Indians and assisted in much of the other work, and of the many citizens who have responded liberally to requests for information; also the assistance of many authors from whose writings information of value has been gathered for this work. Among the many books consulted are "The Jesuit Relations," Rezek's "History of the Diocese of Sault Ste Marie and Marquette," Marquis de Nadaillac's "Prehistoric America," Dana's Geology, Schoolcraft's "IIistory of the North-American Indians." Enmile Reclus' "The Earth and Its Inhabitants," Smithsonian Etlhnological Reports, Volumes VII and XIV. and Bulletin number XLV. C. J. Leland's "Algonquin Legends of New England," E. S. Brooks' "The Story of the American Indian," J B. Grinnell's "Story of the Indian," C. A. Eastman's "Indian Boyhood," Francis Parkman's "Conspiracy of Pontiac," D. S. Bunton's "Myths of the New World," James II. Lanman's "History

Page  VI vi PREFACE of Michigan (1839)," Schoolcraft's "Narrative Journal of Travels from Detroit Northwest through the Great Chain of American Lakes to the Mississippi River in 1820," Col. Thomas L. McKenna's "Tour of the Lakes in 1826," Butterfield's "Discovery of the Northwest by Jean Nicolet," Avery's "History of the United States," Utley and Cutcheon's "Miichigan as a Province, Territory and State," Campbell's "Political History of Michigan," Lamed's "History for Ready Reference," E. S. Ingalls' "Centennial History of Menominee County," Swineford's "Review of the Iron Mining and Other Industries of the Upper Peninsula," Stevens' "Copper Handbook," and Andraes' "History of the Upper Peninsula." Notwithstanding the fact that extended research has been made and assistance readily secured, the editor realizes that it is next to impossible to avoid the oversight and omission of some important events that should be included in such a work, but hopes that the gathering of what is recorded will meet with general approval, and that omissions may be charged to human frailties and not to intentional neglect. Respectfully, A. L. SAWYER.

Page  VII CONTENTS CHAPTER I PRE-HISTORIC SPECULATIONS GEOLOGICAL LESSONS-THE LONG GLACIAL PERIOD-FORESTS SUCCEEDING FORESTS.................................................. 1 CHAPTER II AS FIRST SEEN BY MAN TRADERS FIRST IN NORTHERN COUNTRY-IDEAL HUNTING GROUND —THE PIONEER MISSIONARIES-PICTURED ROCKS DESCRIBED IN 1834-ST. MARY'S RIVER AND ISLAND OF MACKINAC-THE RESTFUL GREEN BAY REGION.............................................. 7 CHAPTER III INDIAN HISTORY THE ANCIENT CAVE SMAN-SUPERNATURAL BELIEFS OF THE INDIANDEATH AND THE HEREAFTER-THE DELUGE AND RACIAL ORIGIN-MEDICINE BAG AND MEDICINE DANCE —TRIBAL GOVERNMENT AND SOCIAL CUSTOMS-UTENSILS, WEAPONS AND SPORTS —\IAGIC ARTS AND SECRET INSTITUTIONS-PICTURE WRITING-HORSES INTRODUCE)........ 18 CHAPTER IV THE MENOMINEE INDIANS GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND HISTORY-ORIGIN AND TOTEMS-MENOMINEE CHIEFS —SIANABUSH AND THE GRAND MEDICINE SOCIETY-CUSTOMS OF PRIMITIVE MENOMINEES-THE STURGEON WAR.......... 39 CHAPTER V THE CHIPPEWAS AND OTTAWAS ANCESTORS OF THE CHIPPEWAS-HISTORY OF THE OJIBWAY NATIONNOTED CHIEFS-DOMESTIC AND FAMILY LIFE-RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGY-DANCES-MOURNING FOR THE DEAD-DISPLACE THE MASCOUTENS-OTTAWAS AND HURONS.............................68 vii

Page  VIII viii CONTENTS CHAPTER VI NATIVE ANIMAL LIFE LARGE FUR-BEARING ANIMALS-DOG AND CAT FAMILIES-SMALL FURBEARERS —BIRDS, FISHES AND REPTILES........................ 91 CHAPTER VII PRELIMINARY HISTORICAL EVENTS THE CABOT DISCOVERIES-JACQUES CARTIER-ROBERVTAL'S ATTEMPTED COLONIZATION-QUEBEC FOUNDED BY CHAMPLAIN-RECOLLET AND JESUIT MISSIONARIES-JEAN NICOLET, UPPER PENINSULA VISITORSEARCHING FOR A NORTHWEST-DEATHIS OF CHAMPLAIN AND NICO LET.................................................. 98 CIIAPTER VIII MISSIONARY. TRADER AND SOLDIER JESUIT FATIIERS IN TIHE UPPER 'PENINSULA-LUSSON AT SAULT STE. MARIE —TIE [MARQUETTE-JOLIET VOYAGE-LA SALLE AND TONTYTHE SAULT AND ST. IGNACE ]MISSIONS-COMING OF FRENCI SOLDIERY. -INDIANS LOSE FAITH IN FRENCI-WIIY IISSIONS WERE DESTROYED-TILE FALL OF ST. IGNACE-POSTS PASS TO TIIE BRITISHMIICILIIIMACKINAC ABANDONED BY TIIE FRENCHI —RAD\DOCK AND W ASIINGTON.............................................. 113 CHAPTER IX OCCUPANCY OF WESTERN POSTS SURRENDER OF FORT TO ENGLISII-POSSIBILITIES OF REGION NOT FORESEEN-ENGLISH LOTH TO SURRENDER TI-IS TERRITORY-ORDINANCE OF 1787-A CENTURY OF POPIULATIVE GROWT —FIRST GOVERNOR OF MICIIGAN -WAR OF 1812 —TREATY OF GHENT-FALSE IMPRESSIONS OF CLIMATE AND SOII —FUR TRAD)E ATTRACTS TRA.)ERS..... 147 CHAPTER X THE DAWNING OF STABILITY THE BURT-HOUGHTON SURVEYS-GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT-THE MICHIGAN-OHIO BOUNDARY DISPUTE-STATEIOOD-DELAY IN BUILDING ST. MARY'S SHIP CANAL —SURVEYS AND LEAISES OF MIINERAL LANDS-THE COPPER COUNTRY IN 1846-EARLY MIINING IN THE UPPER PENINSULA-DISCOVERY OF IRON ORE —VWANING AND WAXING INDUSTRIES................................................ 199

Page  IX CONTENTS CHAPTER XI PIONEERS PRIOR TO 1850 FIRST COMERS TO DELTA COUNTY-M\IISSIONARIES TO BARAGA COUNTYFOUNDING OF [MARQUETTE-ONTONAGON AND RISE OF COPPER MIINING -THE SAULT AND IMACKINAC AGAcIN.......................... 215 CHAPTER XII JUDICIAL AND LEGAL THE PIONEER LAWYER GETTING TO COURT-UPPER PENINSULA CIRCUIT COURTS-JUDGE DANIEL GOODWIN-JUDGE JOSEPI STEERE-TWELFTH CIRCUIT JUDGES-TIIE PRESENT FOUR CIRCUITS-VETERANS OF TIIE BAR-JUDGES WILLIAMS AND STREETER-JUDGES GRANT AND STONEJUDGE RICHARD C. FLANNIGAN-TIIRTY-SECOND CIRCUIT JUDGESJ. LOGAN CHIPMAN, OF THE SOO-DAN H. BIALL, OF MARQUETTEOTHER \MARQ UETTE COUNTY LAWYERS-HOUGIITON COUNTY BARONTONAGON, SCIIOOICRAFT AND DELTA-MENOMINEE COUNTY 1)RACTITIONERS —BAR OF DICKINSON AND IRON CO)UNTIES............. 224 CHAPTER XIII THE FiAMOUS SOO REGION OUTLINE IITSTORY OF LAKE SUPERIOR-ITS VESSELS-ITS COMMERCEENORMITY OF TRAFFIC-TIIE RAPIDS-"DREAMS OF DE LONG AGO" -TIIE LOCKS-TIHE CITY-AGRICULTURAL POSSIBILITIES........245 CHAPTER XIV A KINGDOM WITIIIN A REPUBLIC TIE RISE AND FALL OF KING STRANG AND HIS KINGDOM)............261 CHAPTER XV COPPER AND IRON MINING ANCIENT COPPER I1iNING- AODERN DISCOVERY OF ANCIENT MINEFRENCIH ACCOUNT1S OF COlPER COUCNTRY —ENGIISII COPPER REPORTS -DR. IIoU1ILGHTON'S F.AMOUS REPORT-ARRIVAL OF PRACTICAL CORNISIHMEN —FIRS;T E1FFORTS AT SMIELTING-TIIE KEWEENAWV FORMATION-COPPIER FOUND ELSEWHIERE-INDUSTRY SINCE 1845-FIRST IRON EXPIOR.ATIONS-TIMP'ROIVEMENTS IN IANDLING ORE-THE MIENOMINEE RANGE-TIIE CIICAGO & NORTIIWESTERN RAILWAY —FIRST COMMERCIAL D1)ISCOVERIE:S-1)R. N. N. IIUJLST AND TIHE LOVER MIENOMINEE-TIIE QULINNESEC I IINE-TIIE IIONEER PROMOTERSGOGEBIC RANGE-GRATND) TO(TAL OF i)R()I)UCTI()ON................. 270

Page  X X CONTENTS CHAPTER XVI THE LUMBER INDUSTRY RUTHLESS DESTRUCTION OF TIMBER-INDUSTRY FOUNDED IN 1850-IMPORTANCE OF MENOMINEE DISTRICT-IMPROVED TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES-NOW AND THEN-EARLY BUYING OF PINE LANDS-PIONEER LOGGING CAMPS-LOG DRIVING-FIRST AND MODERN MILLS-PIONEER AND GREAT LUMBER COMPANIES —IENOMINEE RIVER BOOM COMPANY THE PINE LUMBER BUSINESS-ESTIMATE OF PENINSULA PRODUCT............................... 290 CHAPTER XVII MILITARY HISTORY TRANSFER OF FRENCH TO ENGLISH RULE-AMERICANS OCCUPY THE UPPER PENINSULA-MEXICAN WAR-CIVIL WAR-SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR AND PRESENT COMMANDS............................... 305 CIIAPTER XVIII THE HISTORIC GATEWAY COUNTY OF MIICHILIMACKINAC-I\IICHILIMACKINAC AND MACIONAC-EPITOME OF A CENTURY AND A THIRD-OLD FORT AND ASTOR RELICS-NATURAL PARK-ROBERTSON'S FOLLY-FORT HOLMES-ST. IGNACETOURISTS' ATTRACTIONS-HAUNTS OF THE SPORTSMEN-FATHER MARQUETTE MEMORIALS-OLD AND MODERN ST. IGNACE-THE SOO OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY-FIRST AMERICAN (CANADIAN) LOCK-FORT BRADY-GOVERNMENT OR CANAL PARK-STATE FISH HATCHERYTHE COUNTY AND COUNTY SEAT-AMERICAN CANAL AND LOCKSTHE SOO OF TODAY-DETOUR AND DRUMMOND ISLAND-AGRICULTURAL AND LIVESTOCK FEATURES.............................311 CHAPTER XIX SCHOOLCRAFT AND DELTA COUNTIES SCHOOLCRAFT COUNTY-MANISTIQUE AND MIONISTIQUE-INDIAN LAKE AND KITCH-ITI-KI-PI —PRODUCTS OF THE SOIL AND LIVE STOCK-INCREASE OF POPULATION-DELTA COUNTY-FOUNDING OF ESCANABA-GREAT ORE DOCKS-GREAT SHORT LINE-POWER, LIGHT AND WATERSCHOOLS AND CHURCHES-ESCANABA INDUSTRIES-GLADSTONE-WELLS -OTHER TOWNS IN THE COUNTY-AGRICULTURE AND GOOD ROADS — INCREASE IN POPULATION............................... 349

Page  XI CONTENTS xi CHAPTER XX ALGER AND LUCE COUNTIES ALGER COUNTY-EAST OR OLD MUNISING-ONOTA-NEW MUNISINGTHE CLEVELAND CLIFFS IRON COMPANY-THE PICTURED ROCKS-AGRICULTURE AND THE EXPERIMENT STATION-GROWTH IN POPULATION -LUCE COUNTY AND NEWBERRY-UPPER PENINSULA HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE-LAKE SUPERIOR IRON AND CHEMICAL COMPANY-MINOR POINTS AND POPULATION..................................... 384 CHAPTER XXI MARQUETTE AND BARAGA COUNTIES MARQUETTE COUNTY ORGANIZED-IRON ORE DISCOVERED-MARQUETTE CITY FOUNDED-PETER WHITE COMES-IRON MOUNTAIN RAILROADORE PIERS BUILT-GREAT FIRE OF 1868-ORE TRAFFIC AND OTHER BUSINESS-VILLAGE AND CITY-HARBOR AND WATER POWER-PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND MARQUETTE STATUE-PRESQUE ISLE-UPPER PENINSULA STATE PRISON-NORTHERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL-NEGAUNEEISHPEMING —OIIVER IRON MINING COMPANY-CLEVELAND-CLIFFS IRON MINING COMPANY —EARLY OUTSIDE MINING CENTERS —MIINING SUMMARY —MODEL DAIRY FARM —INCREASE IN POPULATION-BARAGA COUNTY —BARAGA MISSION AND VILLAGE-THE METHODIST MISSIONVILLAGE OF L'ANSE-PETER CREBASSA-OTHER VILLAGES-INCREASE IN POPULATION............................................ 406 CHAPTER XXII THE COPPER COUNTIES QUINCY AND CALUMET & HECLA MINES-DEEPEST COPPER MINE IN THE WORLD-ISLE ROYALE CONSOLIDATED-ATLANTIC AND SUPERIOR MINES -COPPER RANGE, BALTIC, ETC.-COPPER RANGE RAILROAD —MICHIGAN SMELTING WORKS-WOLVERINE, CENTENNIAL AND OSCEOLA —HANCOCK AND LAURIUM-MINE PRODUCERS AND DIVIDEND PAYERSHOUGHTON COUNTY POLITICALLY-INCREASE IN POPULATION-PHYSICAL FEATURES-HOUGHTON, THE COUNTY SEAT —MICHIGAN COLLEGE OF MINES-OUTLINE HISTORY OF THE VILLAGE-CITY OF HANCOCKCALUMET AND RED JACKET-VILLAGE OF LAURIUM —LAKE LINDEN AND HUBBELL-KEWEENAW COUNTY-DESCRIPTIVE —MINES-POPULATION OLD ISLE ROYALE COUNTY-ONTONAGON COUNTY-MINES..... 448 CHAPTER XXIII THE NEWER IRON COUNTIES GOGEBIC IRON RANGE-ASHLAND, NORRIE AND AURORA MINES-NEWPORT IMINE —BESSEMER-GOGEBIC COUNTY CREATED-SHIPMENTS FROM THE

Page  XII xii CONTENTS GOGEBIC RANGE-THOMAS F. COLE-IRON WOOD CITY-INCREASE IN POPULATION-IRON COUNTY-IRON RIVER DISTRICT-CITY OF IRON RIVER-MINES AT STAMBAUGH AND IRON RIVER-STAMBAUGIH VILLAGE-CRYSTAL FALLS-OTHER TOWNS-AGRICULTURE AND GOOD ROADS-COUNTY STATISTICS-DICKINSON COUNTY-OLD QUINNESEC -FIRST SHIPMENTS OF ORE-FOUNDING OF IRON M1OUNTAIN-PIONEER ITEMS —CHAPIN AND PEWABIC MINES-NORWAY AND TIE ARAGON MINE-OTHER TOWNS-AGRICULTURE-GOOD ROADS-POPULATION.................................................... 504 CHAPTER XXIV MENOMINEE COUNTY BEAUTIES AND UTILITIES OF MENOMINEE RIVER-PIONEER TRADERS AND LUMBERMEN-CHAPPEAU AND FARNSWORTH-MRS. WILLIAM FARNSWORTH (MARINETTE) —JOHN G. KITTSON-ONLY MILL ON THE RIVER-OTHER NOTABLE EARLY AMILLS-SETTLERS OF THE EARLY MILLING DAYS —MARINETTE LUMBER COMPANY-THE N. LUDINGTON COMPANY-THE KIRBY-CARPENTER COMPANY-LUDINGTON, WELLS & VAN SCHAICK COMPANY-OTHER OLD PINE LUMBER MILLS-ZENITH LUMBER YEARS OTHER INDUSTRIES-TRADE-PROFESSIONS-THE TRANSITION PERIOD-PRESENT POPULATION AND MATERIAL CONDITIONS-CARPENTER-COOK COMPANY —MENOMINEE RIVER SUGAR COMPANY-OTHER MIENOMINEE INDUSTRIES-TWIN CITIES LIGHT & TRACTION COMPANY —MENOMINEE POSTOFFICE-ST. JOSEPH 'S HOSPITALCHURCHES-NEWSPAPERS-MIENOMINEE AS A MUNICIPALITY-THE SPIES PUBLIC LIBRARY-THE JOtHN IIENES PARK-RIVERSIDE CEMETERY-VILLAGES OF THE COUNTY-COUNTY GOVERNMENT-CIVIL WAR -COUNTY IIGHWAYS-SCHOOLS-COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SCHOOL — AGRICULTURE.............................................. 552

Page  XIII INDEX Abbott, Fred H., 244, 1549. Abbott, S. W., 610, 611. Abrams, Edward T., 1408. Adams, John Q., 239. Adams, Robert N., 1085. Adams, William R., 1187. Adventure mine, 502. Agassiz, Alexander, 1088. Agriculture (see under several counties). A'Hern, Charles P., 1424. Ahmeek Mining Company, 494. Ainsworth, Corydon E., 1248. Alger county-Munising, its county seat, 384; East, or old Munising, 385; Onota, 387; new Munising, 388; Cleveland Cliffs Iron Mining Company, 390; the Pictured Rocks, 392; Agriculture and Experiment Station, 394; growth in population, 397. Allen, Ephraim TW., 1139. Allo, John A., 743. Allouez, Claud, 116, 123, 326. Allouez mine, 490, 494. Allyn, Harry H., 710. Alvar, Gust, 967. Amasa, 532. American canal and locks, 252, 255, 281. American Fur Company, 173, 196, 214, 253, 316, 442, 443. American mine, 438. American Smelting and Refining Company, 449. Amerman, Charles A., 467. Amidon, Lee E., 727. Amsden, Arthur H., 310, 600. Andag-weos, 75. Anderson, Carl A., 613. Anderson, John E., 937. Andre, Louis, 119. Andrews, Roger M., 594, 595, 729. Andrews, William, 643. Ann Arbor Railroad, 353. Anthony, Edward C., 1396. "Appleton," 363. Aragon mine, 547. Arch Rock (Giant Arch), 15. Armstrong, John N., 286, 540. Arnheim, 446. Arnold, 492. Arnold, Louis, 763. Arnold, George T., 1211. Arvon. 446. Ashford. Edmund, 664. Ashland Iron & Steel Company, 509. Ashland mine, 289, 506, 507, 511. Assinins, 446. Astor, John Jacob, 173, 253, 316. Atkins. Frank H., 1520. Atlantic mine, 458, 465, 466, 511. Atwood, John, 441, 467. Audet, Peter C., 1262. Aurora mine, 507, 508, 511. Ayers, Frank, 543. Bacon, John, 467. Badger mine, 540. Baer, Henry L., 1234. Bailey, John R., 1309. Bailey, Matthew G., 1312. Bailey. Thomas, 1160. Bainbridge, Jacob, 824. Baird. William S., 946. Bagley, 604. Bagley, William E., 566, 574, 575. Baker mine, 525. Baldwin, F. L., 388. Ball, Dan H.. 238, 244, 717. Baltic mine, 465, 466, 521. Baltic Mining Company, 459. Bangs, Anson, 608. Bangs, James A., 1369. Banks, D. S., 516. Barabe, Joseph, 821. Baraga county-Organized, 441; Baraga mission and village, 442; the Methodist mission, 443; village of L'Anse, 444; other villages, 446; increase in population. 447. Baraga, Frederick, 216, 442. Baraga mission, 442. Baraga village, 442, 443, 447. Barbeau, Peter B., 333. Barclay, Robert H1., 167. Barker, Edgar A., 846. Barnhisel, John C., 1171. Barnum, Robert H., 1370. xiii

Page  XIV xiv INDEX Barnum, Thomas, 1370. Barr, Hiram A., 756. Barron, Thomas H., 789. Barstow, George, 965. Bates, Frederick, 163. Bates, Robert J., 310. Bawden, Frank, 736. Bawden, Frederick J., 1365. Bay de Noquet Lumber Company, 378. Bayliss, Edwin, 1252. Bayliss, Edwin R., 1252. Bayliss, Joseph E., 1337. Bedell, James W., 1421. Bedford, Thomas, 268. Beechner, Herman, 601. Beedon, John, 467. Belongy, Louis, 1332. Belt, 503. Bendry, James, 441, 444, 865. Bennett, James T., 972. Bennett, James W., 962. Bennett, Owen J., 1150. Bentley, Henry, 563. Bernier, Samuel, F., 1538. Berry, Joseph T., 1215. Bessemer, 509, 510, 511. "Bessemer Herald," 511. Beta mine, 524. Beurmann, Milton E., 1183. Bill, A. W., 590. Bingham, Abel, 333. Bingham & Perrin, 516. Birch Creek, 569, 601. Birch Creek Academy, 619. Birk, William C., 1475. Bissell, Murray K., 998. Bittner, Herman, 814. Bjork, Arvid, 1018. Bjorkman, Andrew, 776. Bjorkman, George, 1099. Bjornson, Benjamin, 1210. Black Hawk war, 201. Blanchard, Charles D., 1142. Blank, Andrew, 985. Blank, George, 1083. Bleeker county, 609. Blesch, Gustavus A., 584, 586, 589, 1515. Blixt, John 0., 827. Blodgett & Davis Lumber Company, 578, 579. Blom, Alfred W., 929. Bloy, W. J., 1139. Blumrosen, Bernard, 744. Bohn, Frank P., 1229. Bond, William, 1469. Bosch, Joseph, 1051. Bosson, Frederick N., 1082. Boswell, William G., 566, 574, 575. Bothwell, David G., 577. Bottkol, Mathias, 894. Boucher, John B., 310. Bower, J. E., 528, 529. Bowers, Norwood, 978. Boyington, Andrew J., 521, 874. Boyington, Philip L., 876. Boynton, Lewis R., 908. Braddock, Edward, 143. Brady, Thomas M., 239. Brainerd, Harlow D., 788. Brant, Joseph, 159. Brasseur, John B., 1005. Breen, John, 568. Breen, Thomas, 284. Breen mine, 287, 524, 539, 540, 549. Breitenbach, Oscar C., 1266. Breitung, Edward N., 990. Breitung mine, 539. Brewer, George, 1528. Brewer, Luther G., 1527. Bridges, Sam, 1258. Briggs, Charles, 1512. Bristol mine, 532. Broadway farm, 624. Brockway, Daniel D., 1326. Brockway, Sarah L., 444. Brockway, W. H., 216. Brooks, Mrs. J. R., 564. Brotherton, Charles E., 1404. Brotherton, Delevan A., 1404. Brotherton, Frank H., 1402. Brotherton mine, 511. Brown, Augustus C., 539, 570. Brown, Benjamin J., 243, 581. Brown, Charles T., 942. Brown, David, 681. Brown, Frank L., 586, 825. Brown, Frederick H., 1462. Brown, George F., 1218. Brown, Harry J., 589. Brown, James J., 1411. Brown, John, 542. Brown, Joseph W., 203. Brown, Thomas, 445. Bruce, Frederick A., 769. Brule Mining Company, 521, 524, 525. Brush, Charles, 556, 558. Buck, Curtis, 983. Buckeye Stave Company, 523. Buckland, Romulus S., 1399. Buell, Harry S., 715. Buell, John L., 285, 537, 575, 1383. Burchard, Emily, 617. Bureau of Fisheries, 331. Burr, Edward, 467. Burrell Chemical Company, 352. Burritt, William A., 1239. Burt, John, 406. Burt, W. R., 199, 200, 209, 281, 291, 408. Burton, John E., 506. Bush, Ira D., 498. Bush, James H., 989. Bush, John M., 971. Butler, Benjamin F., 203. Byers, Isaac W., 523, 791. Byrns, J. E., 995. Cable, Claud C., 1362. Cabot discoveries, 98.

Page  XV INDEX xv Cadillac, Antoine de la Mothe, 133, 136, 143. Caldwell, Thomas, 569. Callieres, Louis Hector de, 136. Calumet (See Red Jacket). "Calumet News," 487. Calumet & IIecla library, 453, 487. Calumet & Hecla mine, 279, 449, 452, 455, 465, 466, 485, 487, 489. Calvi, John B., 841. Cambria mine, 429. Cameron, Arthur L., 1316. Campbell, Charles (., 1354. Campbell, Cordon R., 1056. Campbell, James M., 915. Campbell, John, 1533. Campbell, Peter E., 1339. Campbell, Wilber E.. 886. Canadian canal and locks, 252. Canfield, Augustus, 409. Carheil, Etienne de, 131, 133, 136, 138, 139. Carleton. Guy I., 1169. Carley, Ira, 603, 621. Carleton, Guy, 150. Carlton, Samuel G., 1320. Carney, 604. Carney, Fred, Jr., 555. Carpenter, Augustus A., 301, 572, 691. Carpenter, Warren S., 688. Carpenter, William 0., 301, 572. 585. Carpenter-Cook Company, 585. Carr, S. T., 281. Carroll, Edward, 1135. Cartier, Jacques, 99. Case, Walter W., 1111. Cash, Daniel S., 498. Caspian mine, 521. Cass, Lewis, 42, 168, 170, 174, 178. 180, 185. Cassells, J. L., 429. Cave Man, 18. Cavina, Daniel. 499. Cedar River, 603. Centennial Copper Mining Company, 462, 465, 466. Central, 492. Chadbourne, Thomas L., 239, 244. Chambers, Michael, 1432. Chlamlers, William D., 1200. Champion, 410. Champion, Iden G., 1123. Champion Copper Company, 460, 465. Champion mine, 433, 466. Champlain. Samuel de, 102, 107, 112 (death), 113. Chandler, 1). M., 216. Chandler, Joseph H., 234. Chandler, William, 1390. Chapel Rock, 393. Chapin mine, 287, 541, 543, 544, 545. Chapman, William, 1325. Charlevoix, Pierre Francois Xavier de, 39, 140. Chatham, 394. Chatham mine, 525. Cha)ppau (Cllappee), Louis, 555-7. Chicago & North-Western Railway, 284, 285, 288, 363, 371, 509, 518, 521, 539, 540, 615. Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad, 499. Chicago Lumbering Company, 352. Chimney Rock, 16. Chilmani, J. Logan, 236. Chippewa county-Agricultural possibilities, 259; in Civil war, 308; the Soo of the seventeenth century, 324; first American lock, 327; Fort Brady of today, 327; (overnment or Canal park, 329; State Fish Hatchery, 330; county and county seat, 331; American canal and locks, 334; the Soo of today, 339; Detour and Drummond island, 343; agriculture and livestock, 343. Chippewas -Ancestors of, 68; history, 70; noted chiefs, 72; domestic ind family life, 74; religion and mythology, 76; dances. 80; mnourning for the dead, 87; displace the Mascoutens, 88; relinquish rights to mineral lands, 191; cede land for Fort Brady. 329. Christensen, Theodore C., 797. Christofferson. Karl, 1032. Christophersein Nels. 777. Church. J. Wells. 115;6. Circuit courts, 227. Clark, F. O.. 239. Clark, John, 443. Clark, Richard.J.. 1166. Clark. William Jr., 1405. Clarke, Charles G., 1043. Cltary. HTenry J.. 726. Cleaves, Will S.. 1347. Cleaves, Lillian M., 1348. Cleveland Iron Alining Co., 411, 432. Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Mining Company, 390, 431, 432. 437, 507. Clergue, Francis 11., 342. Cliff, 466. Cliff mine, 276, 432. Clifford, J. M., 846. Clinton Slate Company, 445. Close, IT. II., 498. Cobb, Zenas, 563. Coburn, Augustus, 498. Coburn, H-enry W., 654. Colby mine, 509, 511. Cole & M1cDonald. 438. Cole, Thomas F., 512. Collins, G. ShermanI, 1251. Collins, Luther C., 595, 812. Colwell, H. J., 547. Coman, John S., 694. Commercial Bank, Menominee, 585. Company of the Hundred Associates, 104. 113, 116, Connelly. R. A., 363.

Page  XVI xvi INDEX Connors, Thomas, 646. Cook. August C., 1487. Cook, Charles I., 632. Cook, C. I., 585, 586, 622. Cooper, James B.. 816. Copeland, Franklin, 928. Copp. Egbert M., 566. Copper Falls, 492. Copper Harbor, 210, 276, 490, 493. Copper Manitou, 192. Copper mining-In 1846, 210; rise of, in Ontonagon County, 221; ancient, 270; French accounts of, 273; English reports. 274: Dr. Houghton's famous report, 275; arrival of practical Cornishmen, 276; first efforts at smelting, 277; the Keweenaw formation, 277; deepest of copper mines, 278; copper found elsewhere, 279; copper industry since 1845, 280. (See Houghton, Keweenaw and Ontonagon counties.) Copper Range, Upper Peninsula, 470. Copper Range Consolidated Company, 459, 466. Copper Range Railroad, 460. Cordes, William, 624. Corin, Joseph W., 762. Corrigan, McKinney & Company, 509, 532. Cottrill, E. B., 587. Coughlin, Thomas, 1364. County Road System (see Good Roads). Covington, 446. Cowling, John F., 1498. Cox, James N., 1040. Cox, Merton D., 595, 917. Craig, Charles B. M., 1374. Crane, William F., 662. Crawford, Joseph D., 590, 1447. Crawford, Samuel, 935. Crawford (Samuel) & Sons, 565, 601. Crawford Box Company, 590. Crebassa, Peter, 444. Crestview, 492. Croghan, Major, 180, 182, 183. Crooks, Ramsey, 195. Croll, Emiel A., 888. Crozer, James A., 589. Cruse, Alfred, 669. Crystal Falls, 526, 528, 529, 531, 532. Crystal Falls Iron Mining Company, 525, 528. Crystal Falls Union High and Manual Training School, 526, 529. Cuddihy, John D., 663. Cuddy, Joseph F., 595. Cuddy, M. C.. 244. Cudlip, William J., 703. Cullis, Albert E., 1256. Culver, Rush, 1508. Cummiskey, John, 863. Curry, Solomon S.. 508. 1550. Curtis, Charles W., 1378. Curtis, E. T., 487. Cushman, C. C., 221. Cutler, Manasseh, 158. Cyclops mine, 540. Cyr, Louis D., 525. Dablon, Claud, 117, 326, 327. Daggett, 605. Daniell, Edward, 589, 1510. Daniell, John, 455, 1058. Daniell, Susan E.. 1058. Danielson, John A., 898. Darby, James F., 938. Darby, William, 170. Darling, Abner M., 1064. Darrow, John, 1417. Davidson, Otto C., 540, 544, 1068. Davis, John W., 949. Davis, Jefferson, 202. Dawson, George, 737. Dead river, 417. Dead River saw-mill, 418. Deadman, John F., 1314. Dean, Peter, 498. Dear. Ernest, 1000. Decoto, Joseph, 196, 560. De La Roche, Paul, (Hippolyte), 101. Delaware, 492. Delta county-In Civil war, 308; general description, 361; founding of Escanaba, 363; great ore docks, 364; great short-line, 365; Gladstone, 374; Wells, 375; Ford River, 377; other towns in the county, 378; agriculture and good roads, 380; increase in population. 383. Demar, Edward, 1267. D)ennis, Walter W., 1471. Detour, 182, 343. Detroit & Mackinac Railroad, 318. Detroit, Mackinac & Marquette Railroad, 318, 351, 410, 413. Detroit Lumber Company, 577, 579. Devereaux, J. R., 481. Dickison, George J., 1016. Ditzmeyer, Joseplh, 521. Dobeas, Louis, 569, 603, 1412. Dober, Alois, 1359. Dober mine, 525. Dodge, Henry MI., 202, 237. Doig, William M., 931. Dolan, Paul, 1364. Dolan, P. H., 509. Dollarville, 405. Donkersley, Cornelius, 411. Dotsch, Henry R., 722. Doty, James Duane, 179. Doucet, WV., 528. Dougherty, Fred, 1120. Douglass Courtney C., 488, 1532. Douglass, Frank A., 969. Douglass, Mrs. Sue (nee Lyon), 617. Douglass, W. Corbin, 969. Downey, Patrick R., 787. Doyle, Michael J., 244, 1431.

Page  XVII INDEX xvii Droillette, Gabriel, 119, 127. Drummond island, 177, 180, 343. Du Lhut (Duluth), Daniel Greysolon, 126. Dufort, Joseph, 936. Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic Railroad, 318, 411, 413. Duncan, John, 1186. Duncan, Joseph, 196, 560. Dundon, Thomas J., 784. Dunham, John, 866. Dunn, Martin L., 364. Dunn, William A., 1371. Dunn mine, 532. Dunston, Thomas B., 831. Dunton, Carey W., 1387.. Durfee, L. L., 329. Dymock, John S., 1114. Dysinger, Charles M., 1466. Eagle Harbor, 490, 492. Eagle River, 490, 492. Earle, George W., 608, 621, 1450. East Norrie, 512. Easterday, Thomas R., 800. Eastman, Lewis D., 581, 613, 625, 1198. Eaton, Frank J., 1386. Eaton, Fred S., 1248. Eddit, Clarence E., 231, 239. Eddy, Abraham H., 1179. Eddy, Julius H., 1231. Eddy, Samuel 1422. Edgerton. Earl, 441. Edison Sault Electric Company, 340. Edoin, Julian, 834. Edward, William S., 1010. Edwards, Adelbert D., 890. Edwards, James P., 1477. Edwards, John, 1259. Edwards, J. H., 498. Edwards, Richard, 481, 1475. Edwards, Richard E., 1161. Edwards, Richard M., 789. Edwards, Theodore W., 1131. Eggen, Torsten, 723. Eisele, George J., 712. Eklund, John, 899. Ely, George IH., 410. Ely, Ieman B., 410, 411. Ely, John F., 410. Ely, Samuel P.. 410. Emerson, Harry T., 595, 613, 1102. Empson, George C., 1197. Empson, G. R., 1197. Endress, Emil G., 1403. English, A. P., 595. Ennis, Charles J., 964. Erdlitz, Frank, 590, 996. Erickson, Ed, 750. Ericson, Eric, 880. Escanaba-Founding of, 363; great ore docks, 364; great shore-line, 365; power, light and water, 367; schools and churches, 369; industries, 371. Escanaba "Daily Mirror," 365, 369. Escanaba High School, 369. Escanaba Manufacturing Company, 373. Escanaba Traction Company, 367. Escanaba & Lake Superior Railroad, 365, 377. Eslick. John C., 857. Etherington, George, 141. Eureka mine, 512. Evans, Oliver, 849. Eveland, Andrus. 214, 562, 568. Everett, P. M., 281, 408. Evergreen belt. Ontonagon county, 279. Everling. Frederick L., 1477. Exley, Paul II., 1461. Fairchild, John, 593. Faithorn, 606. Falk. John A.. 1132. Farlnsworth. Samuel I.. 558. Farnsworth, William, 556-9. Farnsworth, Mrs. William (Marinette), 559. Farnsworth & Brush, 300. Faucett, William H., 1441. Faust. Father, 542. Favette, 378. 380. Fead. Louis If.. 1350. Fellows. William S., 740. Fenelon. Michael P., 826. Fenwick, Edward C., 774. Ferguson, Albert L., 1298. Ferguson, William F.. 1213. FergPson. Robert G.. 1335. Fernstrum. Frank G.. 713. Ferry. Rev. W. MI., 194. Fifield. Henry 0., 594. Finnegran. Jeremiah T., 441, 1108. First National Bank, Menominee, 584. First Presbyterian church, Menominee, 593. Fisher, D. J., 590. Fisher, Nelson E., 1192. Fisher Box Company, 590. Fisk. Henry, 539. Fitzsimmons, Gertie, 516. Flanagan, Patrick, 709. Flanniigan, Richard C., 235, 244, 547, 631. Flannigan, Thomas, 521. Flesheill. Joseph, 543, 589. Fliege, Julius E.. 309. FlInn, lThomas J.. 1119. Foley. F. WF., 1099. Foley. George R.. 1448. Follansbee. Alfred S., 1304. Folio, 0. 0., 1349. Fond du Lac (Lake Superior) treaty, 89. Foote, Frank W., 1014. Foote. Oscar J., 441. Ford River, 375, 377. Ford River Lumber Company, 375, 377.

Page  XVIII xviii INDEX Forshar, John N., 1122. Forsyth, 410, 437. Fort Brady, 183, 327, 340. Fort Holmes, 317. Fort Mackinac, 153, 154, 165, 307, 315, 316, 317. Foster, James C., 1204. Fowle, Otto, 920. Franklin, 466. Franklin Mining Company, 451, 465. Freeman, Edwin, 1255. French, David, 467. French Fort, St. Ignace, 320, 323. Fretz, William G., 1336. Frontenac, Comte Louis de Baude de, 129, 131. Funkey, John. 1270. Fur-bearers, 92. Galby, Albert, 1197. (Gallen, George E., 1403. Gallup, George, 1290. Cannon, J. C., 377. Gardiner & Baker, 563. Garrigan, Peter, 901. Gay, 493. Gee, James H., 547. (eismar, Leo M., 394. Geology, 1. (Getchell, Frank H., 752. Gibbs, S. P., 572. Gib-Wa-Wean Lookout, 319. Gilbert, Garrett, 1216. Gill, Andrew S., 1486. Girard Lumber Company, 576, 579. Gitchie Gausine, 84. Glacial period, 3. Gladstone, 361, 374. Glaser, Emil, 657. Globe mine, 460. Godfrey, James 1)., 1016. Goetz, John F., 1401. Gogebic county-Created, 510; Bessemer, the county seat, 10; shipments from the (Gogebic Iron Range, 511. Gogebic Iron Range, 288, 504, 506, 511. Goldsworthyv, Martin. 927. Goldsworthy, Martin R., 1340. Good roads, 380, 532, 549. (oodwin, Daniel, 228, 1547. Goodnow, Leon L., 829. Gourley, 608. Government (Canal) Park, the Soo, 329. Graham, John, 323. Gram, Andrew, 576, 723. (lrand Island, 13, 384, 391. Grand Island Iron Ore Company, 385. Grand Marais, 394. Grand Medicine Society, 51. Grand Portal. 393. Grant, Claudius B., 234, 671. Gratiot lake, 492. uratiot river, 490. Graveraet, R. J., 217, 408, 429. Gray, Walter W., 1277. (Iray, Willard E., 1059. Great Northern mine, 532. Green Bay & Bay (lu Noc State Road, 614. Greenland, 502, 503. Greenstone Cliffs, 490. Gregory, William B., 770. Gribble, Samuel J., 994. "Griflin," 124, 318. Griffin, John, 163. Grignon, Eugene, 581, 1030. Griswold, Stanley, 163. Groos, John 0., 883. Grossbusch, Christopher, 1509. Guay, J. Charles, 1147. Guensburg, Adolph E., 679. Guensburg, Emil, 791. Hadley, George, 443. Haggerson, Fred 11., 613. Haggerson, (eorge I., 595, 614, 1500. Haire, Norman WV., 1418. Hall, (George, 1530. Hall, J. C., 196, 558, 563. Ialler, John M., 1368. Ialler, John P., 1366. Halter, Andrew. 1305. Iamacher, Frank J., 724. Hambitzer, Joseph MI., 1511. IIambly, Joseph, 541. Hamilton, Charles E., 1416. Hamilton mine. 545. aIlrnmel, Walter F., 1026. Hammond, Paul 1., 1053. Hlammond, Ransom L., 776. Hancock, 482. Hancock Consolidated Mining Company, 463. "Hancock Evening Journal," 484, 490. "Hancock Times," 484. Handy, Sherman T., 1243. Hlanks, Porter, 165. flanley, John, 568. -lanna, T. B., 498. Hansen, Charles C., 640. Haring, James M., 1361. Harison, Beverly 1)., 1175. lHarlow, A. R., 408. Harmon, Leo C.; 588, 699. Iarmon, M. S., 585. Harmon, William Webb, 594. Harper, Martin, 1017. Harris, 606. Harris, Michael, 606, 1415. Harris, Roland, 572. Harris, W illianm 1306. Harrison, William Henry, 161, 166. Hartford mine, 429. Hartigan, Thomas. 1368. Harvey, Charles T., 411. Harvey, Edward Sr., 913. Harvey, Thomas R., 934. Hlass, Albert, 614, 1019.

Page  XIX INDEX xix hlastilngs, (eorge L., 747. llatfield, William B., 1188. llatun, Frank. 1143. 1lay1den. Clyde, 78S. fa'ves, Tlhomas, 1543. Haves, William P., 543. -lazelton, George 11., 406. Ilealy, Frank A., 1341. Hlebard (Charles) &. Sons, 446. H-ebard & Thurber Lumber Company, 446. -lecla & Torch Lake Railroad, 453. Ileidkamp, Adolph F., 826. Ifeinrichs, Herman, 1097. Hellberg, Gustav A., 998. HIenderson, Robert C., 244, 1488. Henes, John, 584, 586, 597, 621, 1492. Henes (John) Park, 597. Henes & Keller Company, 590. Hennepin, Louis, 124. Henry, Alexander, 274. Ilenze, Julius, 775. HIenze, Louis A., 900. Hepting, Frank, 1393. Herman, 446. Hermann, Joseph, 1153. Hermansville, 606. Hetcher, Herman, 624. I-etcher, Victor, 624. Hewitt, A. J.. 521. 1Hewitt, M. L., 411. -liawatha mine, 521, 524, 525. Ifickler, John H., 1067. -licks, J. F., 581. Hicks, Walter R., 581, 595, 1260. Hill, Samuel (G., 467. Hill, Samuel W.. 498. Hill, Willia D., 902. -litchins. John 11.. 957. Hixson, Virgil I., 959. Hoar. Richard M., 481. Iloatson, Tlhomas, 815. Iloban, Michael, 1382. Hodgkins, Joshua, 408. HTohl, Charles ]).. 1067. Hlolbein, (eorge E., 1430. Holden. Arthur J., 1297. lolden, Lawson C., 245, 1073. Holfeltz, Jacobl R.. 753. H1ollister, S. D.. 528. Hiolman, Mary E., 354. Hlolinberg, Karl J.. 931. Holmes, HTernman, 666. 1lolmes, William, 569, 571, 664. Holmes, Mrs. William, 564. Ilolmes, William A., 1128. Iloltenhoff, A. B., 937. HIoose, Jay W., 881. Horner, John S., 204. H-ornstein, A., 418. Hosking, Richard, 817. HToughton, Douglass, 200, 206, 209, 275, 466, 1531. I loughton county-In Civil war.:30S; settlmnents founded on copper mines, 44S; ()incy a.nd C'alumet & Ilecla nine's, 449); deepest copper mine in the world. 455; (opper Range Railroad, 460; AMichigan Smelting Works, 461; nine producers;and dividend payers, 465; political history, 466; increase in population, 468;; physical features, 46); loughliton the county seat, 472; Hancock, 482; Laurium, 488; Lake Lindeni an-d ubbelll, 488. Hougllton County Street Railway Colinpany,. 485. "Houghton Mlining Gazette," 481, 512. IIoughton village-General description, 473; Michigan College of Mines, 473; outline hlistory, 478. Htouse. Abraham, 1379. Howard,. K., 329. Howe, James H., 528. Hubbard, Jesse. 620. 649. Hubbell, ay A., 233, 473. Hubbell (South Lake Linden), 489. Hubert, Derrick, 923. Hudson, John S., 194. Hudson, Roberts P., 1273. Hudson Bay Company. 149. Huebel, Charles J., 1246. ughes, H. D., 398. Ifull, William. 164. Hulst, Harry T., 702. Hulst. Nelson P., 285, 537, 539, 545. Humboldt mine, 437. Hunt, Marshall N.. 1047. Hunter. John HI.. 1377. Hurley, William It. H., 745. tIurons, 89. tHurlblt, E. J., 485. Hutchinson. Thomas, 571. Imperial mine, 437. Indians-Supernatural beliefs of, 19; death and the hereafter, 22; deluge and racial origin, 24; medicine bag and medicine dance. 26; tribal government and social customs, 27; totems, 28; women and children, 31: utensils, weapons and sports, 32; music and dancing, 34; magic arts, 35; picture Awritilg. 36; horses introduced, 37. Indian lake, 3. 31 53. Indian treaties, 197. Ingalls, Charles B., 566, 576. Ingalls, Eleazer S., 244, 284, 555, 557, 560, 566. 569. 576, 594. 603, 609, 1078. Tngalls. MArs. E. S., 563, 564. Ingallsdorf, 547. Ingallston, 606. Ingallston mill, 566, 576. Innis. James, 521. International bridge, 249, 339. "Iron Agitator," 431. Iron Cliffs Company, 432.

Page  XX XX INDEX Iron county —Rapid developments, 288; organized, 518; Iron River district, 518; city of Iron River, 521; mines at Stambaugh and Iron River, 524; Stambaugh village, 525; Crystal Falls, 526; other towns, 532; agriculture and good roads, 532; statistics, 536. Iron mining-Discovery of ore, 212, 281; first Lake Superior pig iron, 281; ore production, 1855-64, 281; improvements in handling ore, 282; first commercial discoveries, 284; Chicago & NorthWestern Railway, 284; Dr. N. P. IIulst and the lower Menominee, 285; the Quinnesec mine, 286; pioneer mines of the range, 287; pioneer promoters, 287; Gogebic Iron Range, 288; total of production, 289 (see Marquette, (logebic, Dickinson and Iron Counties). 'Iron I-ome," 431. Iron Mountain, 288, 540-6. ''Iron Mountain Press," 546. Iron Mountain Railroad, 410, 411. "Iron Ore," 431. Iron River, 521, 523, 524. Iron River Business Men's Association, 523. Iron River Central school, 524. Iron River district, 518. Iron River Furnace Company, 520. Iron River mine, 521. '"Iron River-Stambaugh Reporter," 523, 524. Ironwood. 516. 'Ironwood News-Record," 517. Ironwood Presbyterian church, 516. 'Ironwood Times," 517. Ironton mine, 509, 512. Irving, George, 863. Ishpeming, 410, 428. Isle Royale, 279, 497. Isle Royale county, 497. Isle Royale Consolidated Mining Company, 458, 465. 'Italian Miner," 488. Jacker, Edward, 124, 216, 323. Jackola, Charles 0., 1070. Jackson, William S., 1000. Jackson Iron Mining Company, 217, 281, 408, 409, 432. Jacobs, Elizabeth, 559. Jacobs, John B., Jr., 559. James, Francis A., 1298. James, John, 806. James, Stephen J., 772. James, W. Frank, 670. James mine, 521. Japanese torii, 329. Jasberg, John IH., 1321. Jeesukawin (Indian art of prophesy), 35. Jefferson, Thomas, 150. Jeffs, William B., 725. Jenks, Frank G., 1380. Jennings, Ira C., 1524. Jennings, iRobert E.. 1548. Jensen, I-anis, 625. Jessieville Methodist church, 516. Jesuits, 103, 130. Jobe, Willialm 11., 1080. Johnson, Andrew, 970. Jolnson, Charles, 406. Johnson, Edward D., 1069. Johnson, Frederick I.., 897. Johnson, G. D., 431. Johnison, Leon A., 979. Jollnsoll, 1Jolln McDougal, 193. Johnson, Lathrop, 222. Johnson, R. Al., 168. Johnston, Albert D., 1027. Johnston, William H., 1035. Joliet, Louis, 129. Jones, Charles II., 575, 589. Jones, John E., 1044. Jones, John E., 848. Jones, John T.. 1505. Jones & laughlin Ore Company, 429. Jopling, Alfred 0., 1015. Josette, 50. Juttner, Arthur A., 614, 1117. Joy, Hiram, 467. Kalhle, Charles, 1164. Kaiser, Frank X., 1392. Kaiser, Nicholas F., 1145. Kakatosh family, 48. Kartleiser, Frank, 1007. Kates, Charles WV., 1415. Kaufman, N. IM., 418. Kaye, James I. B., 423. Keckonen, Oscar, 847. Kee, David N., 1135. Keese, Frank E., 1084. Kell, Joseph, 613. Kelly, Edward H., 1002. Kelly, James, 220. Kelly, William, 947. Kelso, C. E., 1104. Kern, Jacob, 568. Kerr, Angus W., 233, 1355. Kerlr, Alurdock M., 862. Kerredge Theater, 484. Kewawewon, 443. Keweenaw Bay, 446. Keweenaw Central Railroad, 484, 493, 494. Keweenaw Copper Company, 494. Keweenaw county —In Civil war, 308 -historical, 489; descriptive, 490; mines, 493; population, 497. "Kew-eenaw Miner," 490. Keweenaw Point, 14. Kiiskila, John, 987. Kimball, llov. 1428. Klimblall, tHenry C., 1427. Kirbl, Aiier. 301. 555, 565, 572. Kirby-Carlpenter Company, 301, 566, 568, 571, 579.

Page  XXI INDEX xxi Kirkpatrick, J. C., 1470. Kirkwood, Philip B. T., 1136. Kirkwood, P. B., 1136. Kitch-iti-ki-pi, 353. Kitche-Monedo, 23. Kittson, John G., 196, 559, 609, 622. KIopcic, Lucas, 1125. Knapp, Samuel 0., 272. Knight, William H., 1190. Knight, James B., 547. Knowlton, C. B., 547. Konot, 47. Komwinski mine, 524. Kuhnle, William E., 1022. La Branch, 608. Lachance, Benoni, 1301. Lac La Belle Junction, 493. La Duke, Anton, 555. Laing, Hugh B., 1154. Lake Iroquois, 4. Lake Linden, 488. Lake mine, 503. Lake Shaft mine, 432, 433. Lake Side Iron Works, 418. Lake Shore Iron Works, 418. Lake Superior-Description, 246; vessels, 246; commerce, 248; enormity of traffic, 249. Lake Superior Iron and Chemical Company, 402. Lake Superior Iron Mining Co., 429, 432. Lake Superior & Ishpeming Railway, 390. Lake Superior mine, 428. Lake Superior Mining Institute, 506. Lake Superior Ship Canal, Railway and Iron Company, 472. Take Superior & Portage Ship Canal (see Portage Lake Canal), 473. LaLonde, William S., 1112. Langan, Joseph M., 652. Langdon, Samuel, 795. Langsford, Richard, 509. L'Anse, 441, 444, 445, 447. "L'Anse Sentinel," 445. La Pointe, 187. Larson, C. Frithiof, 1517. Larson, Hans, 624. La Salle Copper Company, 463. La Salle, Robert Cavalier, Sieur de, 125. Laurentian river, 2. Laurium, 488. Laurium Copper Company, 465. Lawrence, Charles E., 1398. Lawson, Jeremiah, 1496. Lawyers, Pioneer, 225, 233. Le Blanc, Alexander, 906. LeBlanc, Joseph H., 913. Legg, Peter R., 1024. Legris, Louis N., 1265. Lehman, John, 658. Lehmann, William, 569. Lehmann, Mrs. William, 564. Le Ifontan (Armand Louis de Delondlarce), 113, 126. Leisen, Jacob, 589, 1284. Leisen, Joseph W., 590. Leisen, Louis J., 590, 1283. Leisen & Ilenes BrewNing Company, 590. Leitch, John G., 1293. Lemiirc, William, A., 805. Llelolln. Alfred E., 1323. Lhote, P'eter, 830. Libby, Edward N., 1542. Lillie mine. 429. Lindberg, Charles, 573. Linden, Oscar V., 1146. Lindsay, Marcellus J., 1191. Line, Charles, 581. Lipsett, William F., 1419. Lisa, James R., 871. Little Bay de Noque, 385. Livermore, Joln S., 406. Lloyd, M. B., 588. Lloyd AManufacturing Company, 588. Lockart, Edward P., 1513. Lockwood. Edmond, 498. Lofberg. Adolph P., 1257. Long, Harry W.. 872. Longyear, John MI.. 418, 425, 438, 655. Loomis, Henry, 593. Lord, Arthur II., 1028. Lord, Edward J., 785. Lott. Edward P., 854. Louks, A. G., 397. Lovejoy, George W., 568. Luce county-Newberry, the county seat, 397; Upper Peninsula Insane Hospital, 401; Lake Superior Iron and Chemical Company, 402; agricultural outlook, 404; minor points and population, 405. Ludington, Harrison, 301, 571, 575. Ludington mine, 544. Ludington, Nelson, 571. Ludington (N.) Company, 300, 364, 555, 565, 571. Ludington, Wells & Van Schaick Company, 301, 566, 568, 575, 579, 580. Lumber industry-RRuthless destruction of timber, 290; industry founded in 1850, 292; importance of Menominee district, 293; early buying of pine lands, 294; pioneer logging camps, 296; log driving, 297; first and modern mills. 299; pioneer and great lumber companies, 300; Menominee River Boom Company, 302; the pine lumber business, 303; estimate of Peninsula product, 304. Lumbermen's mine, 541. Lumberman's National Bank, Menominee, 585. Lundgren, Victor A., 843. Lusson, De Saint, 119. mIxmore, Thomas L., 1463. Lyon, Sue, 617.

Page  XXII xxii INDEX McCabe. Michael F., 1194..McCaughlue. Charles P., 310. McClelland, Peter J., 1034. McClintock, William E., 835..McClure, James, 993. McColl, John P., 708. McCormick, George W., 586, 621. 1425. McCutlloch H-. D.. 268. McDermid. John B.. 1529. McDonald, James H., 944. McDonald, John, 521. McDIonald, Norman, 805. McDonough, Martin S.. 668. MIcDougall. Donald W., 1219. McEacliern. Archibald, 1223. McGee, Michael B., 1113. McGillis, Angus F., 1303. McHardy, James, 961. McKee. Robert, 1483. McKee, John, 799. McKenna. Thomas L., 42, 180, 181, 183, 186, 190. McLaughlin, Hugh, 540, 1351. McLeod. Charles, 196, 300, 560, 609, 617. McMAahon, James, 1525. AMcMillan. 405. McNair, Fred Wr., 477. McNamara, John T., 684. McNaughton, Harry C., 1331. McRevnolds. Andrew T.. 267. Macaulay, John A., 982. MacDonald, Angus P., 1456. Machia, Charles H., 882. Maclntvre. Charles. 1280. MacKenzie. Clyde S., 850. Mackinac county-In Civil war, 308; created as county of Michilimackinac, 312; population 313; Michilimackinac and MAackinac, 313; epitome of a century and a third. 315: old fort and Astor relics. 315; Father Marquette memorials. 321; old and modern St. lgnace. 323; the Soo of the seventecnth century, 324; first American (Canadian) lock, 327; Fort Brady of today, 327; (Government or Canal Park. 329; State Fish -THatchery, 330; the county and county seat, 331; property and population of county, 332; American canal and locks, 334; expenditures for maintenance of canal, 338; traffic of American and Canadian canals, 338; the Soo of today, 339; Detour and Drummond island, 343; agriculture and livestock, 343. Mackinac Island, 14, 313. Mackinac Island City, 222, 312. MacKinnon, Alexander, 521, 828. MacKinnon, Donald, 521. MacKinnon, Donald C., 658. MacLachlan, Joseph, 1009. MIacqueen, Donald K., 1479. MacRae. John. 900. Madajesky, Ernest H., 698. Mad(len. Jerry, 1413. Maitland. Ale;xander, 779. Mallmann. Joseph J., 698. Malloch, Charles W.. 762. MaIlone, Timothy, 1491..Maloney, Lawrence, 1449. Maltby, Henry, 528. iMAanabush, 51. Manatoulin islands. 68. Mandan, 493. Mangum. John D.. 657. Manjigeezek, (""Moving Day"), 409. Manistique, 351. Manistique '"Harold," 354. Mfanistique Iron Company, 352. Manistique. Marquette & Northern Railroad, 351, 353. Manito. 20. Mansfield, 532. "Manufacturing and Mining News," 427. Maple sugar making (Indians), 62. Marble, TeWebster L., 375, 1167. Marinette Lumber Company, 570. Marinette & Menominee Paper Company, 588. Marion, John, 441. Markle, John, 1011. Marks. Harry H-., 330, 1235. MaIrkstrum, Knute S., 685. Marquette, Jacques, 121, 122, 128, 315, 318. 321, 326, 421. Marquette "Chronicle," 418. Marquette city-Founded, 408; Peter White comes, 409; Iron Mountain Railroad. 410; ore piers built, 411; great fire of 1868, 412; ore traffic and other business, 413; village and city, 414; harbor and water power, 415; public buildings and Marquette statue, 419. Marquette City & Presque Isle Railway Company, 418. Marquette county, in the Civil war, 308; organized, 406; iron ore discovered, 408; Marquette city founded, 408; Peter lWhite comes, 409; Iron Mountain Railroad, 410; ore piers built, 411; ore traffic and other business, 413; village and city of Marquette, 414; Presque isle, 422; Upper Peninsula State Prison. 422; Northern State Normal School, 423; Negaunee, 426; Ishpeming 428; early outside mining centers, 433; mining summary, 438; model dairy farm, 438; increase in population, 440. Marquette Iron Company, 429. Marquette Iron Range, 438. Marquette "Mining Journal," 418. Marquette. Houghton & Ontonagon Railroad, 282, 411, 444. Marquette & Ontonagon Railroad, 411. Marquette & Southeastern Railroad, 390, 413.

Page  XXIII INDEX xxiii Marquette Valley Mining Company, 417. Marriner, Robert G., 1473. Marsch, Charles A., 1059. Martel furnace, 324. Martin, Henry E., 577. Martin, M. H., 509. Martin, Toussaint J. 730. Martinek, Jacob J., 705. Mascoutens, 88. Mashek Chemical & Iron Company, 373, 377. Mason, Charles D., 1087. Mason, Charles E., 912. Mason, E. Z., 441. Mason, Richard, 1348. Mason, Stevens T., 202. Mason, William H., 1372. Mason, William L., 793. Masonville, 378. Mass, George J., 438. Mass City, 501. Mass Consolidated Mining Company, 501. Mass mine, 429, 433, 501. Massie, Napoleon D., 939. Mastodon Iron Company, 521. Mastodon Mining Company, 524. Mather, Samuel L., 411. Mather, W. G., 390, 395. Mead, Frank D., 1497. Medawin, 35, 79. Medicine dance, 26. Miedora mine, 490. Meeske, Charles, 768. Mellen, Harvey, 518. Menard, Eugene, 1294. Menard, Peter C., 799. Menard, Pierre Rene, 114, 326. Menge, August, 1201. Menge, William T., 868. Menominee (see Menominee county) Menominee Abstract and Land Association, 625. Menominee Bay Shore Lumber Company, 577, 579. Menominee Boiler Works, 590. Menominee Boom Company, 302. Menominee County Agricultural School, 621. Menominee county-In Civil war, 308; beauties and utilities of Menominee river, 553; pioneer traders and lumbermen, 554; Chappeau (Chappee) and Farnsworth, rival traders, 556; Farnsworth and the first saw-mill, 558; Mrs. William Farnsworth (Marinette), 559; Kittson, John G., 559; Eveland and Quimby, 562; only mill on the river. 563; other notable early mills, 565; settlers of the early milling days, 568; Marinette Lumber Company, 570; the N. Ludington and the KirbyCarpenter companies, 571; Ludington, Wells & Van Schaick Company, 575; other old pine lumber mills, 576; zenitli lumber years (1889-90), 578; ot ler industries-trades-professions, 5So; ipresent population and material coiiditions, 582; Carpenter-Cook Company, 585; Menominee River Sugar Comlpiany, 586; other Menominee inldustries. 587; Twin Cities Light and Traction Company, 589; Menominee postoffice. 59)1 St. Joseph's HIospital, 591; cllurcles1, 593; newspapers, 594; Spies Public Library, 595; the John Ilenes Park, 597; Riverside Cemetery, 601. "Menominee County Journal, " 594. Menominee Electrical Manufacturing Company, 587. Menominee Furnace Company, 537. "'Menominee Herald," 594. "Menominee Herald-Leader," 594. Menominee Indians-General characteristics and history, 39; origin and totems, 43; noted chiefs, 45; Manabush and Grand Medicine Society, 51; custom of primitive Menominees, 60; the Sturgeon war, 63. Menomlinee Iron Range, 282, 537. Menominee Mining Company, 539, 540, 543, 544. Menominee river, 552. Menominee River Boom Company, 579. Menominee River Brewing Company, 590. Menominee River Lumber Company, 301, 555, 570. Mlenominee River Railway, 539. Menominee River Shingle Company, 578, 591. TMenominee River Sugar Company. 586. Menominee & Marinette Light and Traction Company, 589. Mler cer. James, 1130. MIerton. John, 1081. Metropolitan Land & Iron Company, 507. Meuche. Alfred H., 903. AMeer. C. J. L.. 606, 607. MAichels. John J., 1056. Michigamme, 410, 437. MIichigamme river, 435. Michligan (see Mitchegamen). Michigan College of AMines, 473. Michigan Copper Mining Company, 500. Alichigan-Lake Superior Power Company, 340. Micligan Land & Iron Company, 441. MAichigan mine, 501. Alichigan Naval Brigade, 377. Michigan-Ohio boundary dispute. 202. Michigan Refining and Preserving Company, 586. 622. MIichigan Smelting Works, 461. Michigan territory, 162. Michilimackinac, 127, 151, 153, 175, 181, 195, 311. 312. Middlebrook, William L., 1158.

Page  XXIV xxiv INDEX Military history-Transfer from French to English rule, 305; Americans occupy the Peninsula, 306; Mexican and Civil wars, 307; Spanish-American war and present commands, 308. Millar, George, 309. Miller, A. H., 1023. lMiller, Rudolph T., 661. Miller, William F., 1166. Miller, William J., 924. Millie mine, 546. Mills, F. P., 431. Milwaukee Iron Company, 539. Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Western Railway, 508. Miner, Anson B., 636. Mineral Mining Company, 524. Mineral rights, 191. Mingay, Charles G., 812. Miniclear, Nick, 276. "Mining Reporter," 521. Minnear, J. Arthur, 1159. Minnesota mine, 221, 276, 498, 500. Missionaries, 10, 103. Mitawit, 51. Mitchegamen (Michigan), 60. Mitchell, James, 1125. Mitchell, William H., 1504. Mohawk, 490. Mohawk mine, 493. Mohawk Mining Company, 494. Molloy, James fI., 794. Moloney, Francis J., 1344. Moloney, John F. Sr., 1227. Monistique river, 351. Monroe, Edwin M., 1268. Montreal mine, 512. Moore, Alvin R., 844. Moore, Cortland E., 1025. Moore, Francis M., 955. Moore, James T., 1115. Moore, John R., 1185. Moore, N. D., 288, 509. Moran, John P., 911. Moran, Sarah K., 912. Morris, Bernard M., 695. Morrish, Nicholas D., 999. Morrison, Finlay A., 963. Morrison, Robert G., 581. Mosher, Eugene D., 641. Moss, Charles i., 859. Mueller (William) Company, 607. Mul Conry, James, 1345. Mullen, John W., 1465. Mullen, Patrick, 1466. Munger, Mrs. Gertrude B., 595. Munising, 384, 385, 388. Munising Iron Company, 385. Munising Paper Company, 391. Munising Railway, 387, 390. "Munising Republican," 388, 395. Munro Iron Company, 524. Murdock, William L., 940. Murray, Gordon, 693. Murray, David W., 1381. Muth. Jacob. 1042. Nadeau, 604. Nadeau, Louis, 614, 885. Nahnma, 378. Nalima Junction. 352. Nanaimo minel, 520, 521, 524. Nason, Henry, 569, 574..Nathan. 606. National Park, 314, 317. National Pole Company, 373. National Tube Company, 548. Native animal life, 91. Naubinway, 324. Nee, Coleman, 899. Negaunee, 363, 409, 410, 426. Negaunee High School, 427. Nagaunee "Iron Herald," 427. Negaunee mine, 433. Negaunee Printing Company, 1118. Nehmer, Daniel, 1287. Neidhold, Edward F. W., 1272. Nelson, Andrew, 1144. Nelson. Robert, 429. Nester, Timothy, 388, 390. Nestoria, 446. Neubauer, Edward A., 733. Neugebauer, Charles R., 1212. Neuens, Henry G., 721. Newberry, 397. Newberry, Henry, 568. ''Newberry News," 397. Newcombe, Henry M., 240. Newett, George A., 331, 438, 639. Newport mine, 289, 508. Newton, Henry L., 904. Newton, Stanley D., 833. New York Lumber Company, 301, 555, 565, 570. Nichols, Frederick W., 477. Nicholson, George, 352. Nicolet, Jean, 39, 68, 70, 105, 107, 109, 112 (death), 113. Nikander, John K., 783. Niopet, 46, 51. Norcross, Fred S., 595. Norrie, J. Lansear, 506. Norrie mine, 289, 506, 508, 512. Norris, Herbert M., 1193. North, George S., 1330. North Lake mine, 503. Northern State Normal School, 423. Northrup, Alonzo R., 775. Northrup & Butler, 485. Northwest Fur Company, 133, 149, 173, 253, 327. Northwestern Cooperage and Lumber Company, 374. Northwestern Leather Company, 340, 353. Norway, 546, 548. "Norway Current," 547. Norway mine, 540, 546. Nyberg, Emil, 1178.

Page  XXV INDEX XXV Oates, William R., 119. Oberdorffer, William J., 395, 734. O'Brien, Michael, 1123. O'Brien, Patrick 11.. 234, 1503. O'Brien, Patrick, 1333. O'Callaghan, George, 547. O'Connor, Joseph J., 1225. O')ill, Anton, 1519. O'Crady, James, 231. Ohio Company of Associates, 158. Ojibway nation, 70. Ojibway mine, 495. Old Colony mine, 463. Ole Nequegon (The Wind), 182. Olivier, Charles 0., 966. Oliver, John F., 1293. Oliver, Thomas, 962. Oliver Iron Mining Company, 431, 432, 507, 509, 521, 524. 544, 547, 548. Olmsted. Fred M., 740. Olson, Magnus, 692. O'Meara, John, 768. O'Neill, James A.. 1261. O'Neill, William H.. 1021. Onota, 349, 387. Ontonagon county-Rise of copper mining in, 221; in Civil war, 308; organized, 498; village founded, 498; population of county, 500; mines, 500. "Ontonagon Herald," 499. Ontonagon village, 498, 499. Ontonagon village, 222. Opal, Helnry. 1524. Opsall. John M., 581. 1065. Ordinance of 1787, 157, 162. Oren. Horace M.. 891. Ormes, Eugene A., 1423. Orr. George W., 1134. Osborn, Chase S., 330, 1443. Osborn, Henry A., 1454. Osceola, 466. Osceola Consolidated Mining Company, 463. 465. Oshau-guscoday-w-ag-gua (Mrs. John Johnson). 74, 83. Oshkosh, 45. Osseo (Son of the Evening Star), 84. Osterlerg. Charles J., 841. Ottawa mine, 512. Ottawas, 89. Otto, Charles A., 731. Otto. Mrs. Charles A.. 521. Outhwaite, John, 411. Owen, Jesse, 822. Oxnam, James W., 1428. Pabst, Fred, 508. Pabst mine, 508, 512. Palatka, 532. Palmer, 437. Ialmer, Arthur H., 782. Palmer, Charles H., 444. Pangborn, Redmond H., 823. Parent, Charles, 543. Paradis, R. Auguste, 869. Park, Ienry C., 488. Parks, John H., 1120. Parker. Jolln., 222. Parmelee. Nattlanuiel B., 1275. Pasco, Peter W., 1149. Parsille, Ilerbert L.. 1162. Paton. J. Bruce. 968. Paul, James K., 221, 276, 498. Pawnees, 43. Payne, Samuel P., 915. Pease, Charles -I.. 755. Pederlson.,Jens, 624. Pelkie. 446. Pelnar, James F., 907. Peltier, Samuel. 589. PenGilly, William A., 613, 819. Peninsula Box and Lumber Company, 590. Peninsula Railroad, 411. Penn Iron Company, 548. Pequaming, 446. Perkinss, John. 540. Perry, Oliver H1., 166. Perry' & Wells, 363. Perrizo, Paul. 976. Perron, M1., 1024. Petermann, Albert E.. 1537. Petermann, Fernando D., 1195. Petermann. John P., 1220. Peterson, Carl, 884. Peterson, Peter Ai., 1127. Peterson, Peter M., 720. Peters & Morrison. 578, 579. Pewabic MAinin Company, 451, 544, 545. Pfister, Guido, 528. Phillips, Benijamin T., 581, 1480. Phillips, AWilliamn H., 581. Phoenix, 490, 492. Phoenix Consolidated Copper Company, 494. Picture writing, 36. Pictured Rocks, 387, 392. Pierce, William L., 1484. Pioneer furnace, 426, 427. Pioneer Iron Company, 432. Piper, James V., 711. Pitezel, John 1H., 443. Pletsclke. Ernest F., 481. Pontiac. 40. 90, 148. Pope, (Graha m 1377. Portage lake, 472. Portage Lake Ship Canal, 285. Porter, I. IT., 565, 570. Porter. James N.. 1291. Potter, Daniel. 595. Poulin, Achille. 645. Povey, Dlavid G., 1271. Powell, Daniel WV., 751. Power, (G. S.. 244. Power. John, 224, 244, 686. IPowers, 60(). Powers. Henry M.. 1317. "Powers-Spalding Tribune," 594.

Page  XXVI xxvi INDEX Poyer (1). F.) & Company, 575, 591. Pratt, William A., 467. Premeau, Baptiste, 196. Presbyterian church, Escanaba, 371. Prescott, I). Clint, 300, 587. Prescott, Loren L., 587. Prescott Company, 587. Presque isle, 422. Presque Isle Sash and Door Company, 418. Preston, William P., 1400. Primeau, Baptiste, 560. Prophet (The), 164. Protestant missions in Michilimackinac, 194. Pryor, James, 1388. Pryor, Reginald C., 1141. Quade, Charles J., 594. Quarries, 12. Quarnstrom, John, 1502. Quello, Bartholomew, 1288. Quick, I. H., 1145. Quimby, Charles, 567. Quimby, Edwin, 608. Quimby Hotel, 563, 608. Quimby, John, 214, 562, 567, 568, 609, 610, 611. Quimby, Mrs. John, 564. Quincy, 466. Quincy mine, 449, 451, 465, 482. Quincy & Torch Lake Railroad, 451. Quinnesec mine, 286, 287, 288. Quinnesec, 537, 540. Quirt, Arthur W., 895. Radford, Edwin P., 608, 1456. Ralev, William P., 1105. Raleigh, Walter, 101. Ramsay, 517. Ramsay, Burtin, 575. Ramsay & Jones mill, 575, 579. Ramsdell, Wilmer MA., 878. Randville, 549. Rapin, George A., 1552. Rathbone, Justus IT., 492. Rashleigh, Edgar, 917. Raymond, Joseph, 467. Rayome, Jerome, 1360. Rayome. Lillian. 543. Reade, Herbert W., 1470. Recollet missionaries, 103. Red Jacket mine, 483, 485. Red Jacket village, 485, 487, 488. Reding, Nicholas, 926. Redruth, 446. Reid, Hector F., 1489. Reid, James D., 441. Reid, Samuel A., 714. Reindl, Wolfgang, 590, 981. Republic Iron & Steel Company, 429, 517. Republic mine, 435. Reynolds, William J., 1543. Rice, Thomas B., 243. Rice, Levi S., 1205. Riclards, Alfred A., 952. Richards, Fred W., 696. Richards, William J., 950. Richmond mine, 437. Richter Brewing Company, 373. Ridge mine, 501. Riddler, Robert, 864. Riley, Claude D., 1358. Riley, John 1., 678. Riley, Matthew M., 1493. Ripley, Calvin, 220. Ripley, Charles, 1439. Riverside Cemetery, 601. Robbins, Albert E., 1506. Robbins, Nelson J., 1179. Roberts, William H., 1174. Robertson, John, 738. Robertson's Folly, 317. Roberts, Louis A., 196. Roberval, Lord, 100. Robinson, Orrin W., 1231. Rockland, 501, 502. Rockwell, E. S., 281. Rogan, Martin, 838. Roemer, John, 936. Rogers, Chester C., 1319. Rogers, Charles F., 667. Rogers, Charles M., 1046. Rogers E. C., 408. Rogers, Robert, 147. Rolling Alill mine, 429. Roper, Frederick A., 925. Rosenberry, A. J., 581. Ross, James, 488. Rouleau, Charles E., 1237. Royce, Corell C., 1063. Royce, Edwin S., 1061. Royce, Eli P., 240. 1394. Royce, George A., 1199. Royce, James S., 1106. Runkel, George, 529. Runstrom A.. I., 1279. Ruppe, Peter, 485. Russell, James, 418, 423. Ryall, Arthur, 1034. Ryan, Edward. 1356. Ryan, James R., 1545. Saam, Henry, 780. St. Ann's Catholic church, 484. St. Anne's church, Escanaba, 371. St. Clair, Arthur, 157, 158. St. Ignace, 127, 128, 133, 139, 312, 317, 323. St. Ignace "Enterprise," 324. St. Ignace "Republican-News," 324. St. Ignatius church, 323, 324. St. Jacques, Emanuel M., 1406. St. James, 265. St. Joseph's Catholic church, Escanaba, 371. St. Joseph's Hospital, 591.

Page  XXVII INDEX xxvii St. Ledger, Barry, 156. St. Martin, Alexis, 316. St. Mary's Falls Canal (see American canal). St. Mary's mine, 451. St. Mary's M\ineral Land Company, 461, 466. St. Mary's river and rapids, 14, 206, 252, 26. St. Mary's Ship Canal, (see American canal). St. NMichael's island, 187. St. Peter and St. Paul's German Catholic church, 484. Sagola, 549. Sandercock, Josepl H., 742. "Saran Van Epps," 363. Sault Ste. Marie (see The Soo). Sawbridge, Edward, 605, 954. Sawyer, Alvah L., 244, 581, 595, 1554. Sawyer, Mrs. A. L., 244, 617. Sawyer, Kenneth I., 614. 615. Sawyer, Philetus. 301. 570. Saxton, S. P., 610. 611. Scadden, Frank, 1133. Schaffer. Charles H.. 375. Schevers, B1. P.. 1518. Schepeck, Jiml, 624. Schmidt, 1lans P., 884. Scllneller, Paul, 1217. Schooleraft, IHenry 1., 42, 173, 176, 185, 198, 340. bchoolcraft county-In Civil war, 308; organized. 350; IMai istique and 5Monistique, 351; Indian lake and Kitch-itiki-pi, 353; products of the soil and live stock, 357; increase of population, 360. Sclulz, Charles W., 1407. Sclumaker. Frank I-.. 1029. Schutte Brotlers, 601. Schwartz..Jerone B., 528, 539, 1003. Scott, A. J., 1264. Scott, 1rs. Frances IT., 477. Scott, C. Horatio. 651. Scoville. James, 499. Section 30 (Tron MIountain), 540. Selden, R. Z., 525. Selden, W. H., 525. Senrlsiba Cvris II.. 1375. Senter, JohnI, 1137. Servatius, Peter C., 1110. Shelden, Carlos I)., 1281. Shellen, George C., 1012. Shelden, Ransom. 478. Shepard, William N., 544. Sherman, James C.. 858. Sherman, John J.. 295, 563. Sherman, Luther E., 1254. Shields, Alexander, 441. Shields. Robert H., 852. Short, Andrew J., 845. Sibenaler, Peter, 764. Siebenthal, Wade A., 856. Sillman, Frank A., 588. Silver Cascade, 393. Siianlskyx, Josepli IT.. 877. Simpson, William. 754. Sinclair, Patrick, 153, 315. SKaiiee, 446. Slilme, 1)avid.J.. 1109. Smith & Daley, 578. Smiitli, Adoniram J.. 980. Smitli, Ienry D., 239. Smith, John, 300. SmIlith, Joseplh, 262. 300. Smith, Matt N.. 685. Smith, Mellen, 576, 601. Smith, S. L., 444. Smith, William E., 1395. Smitlh, Willard J., 749. Smlith, William R., 700. Snvd(er. Alfred Fl.. 6S13. Soddvl. Thomas IT., 1018. Solsheimn Peter, 1544. Sonur11ville. ill illam, 572. Soo (The). 127. 170, 182. 184, 193, 222, 253), 257. 307. 324. 331, 339. Soo Junction. 405,Soo WXoolen:Mills. 340. So (rensnl l. P., 126:13. S;orsen' Oscar T., 1290. South Ramne Miningl Company, 460. Spaldting, 605. Spaldiln & Porter. 565. Spaldingii, Jesse. 301. 565, 570. Spalding. V. WX. 222. Sparks, TI homias, 385. Spaultlin.g, William WV., 498. Spencer, Lois A.. 595. Spencer, lamies R.. 851. Spencer, Newton C., 1499. Spies, AugnXitus. 577. 584, 588, 589, 595. Spies, Clarles A., 595. Splies, Frank A.. 577. Spies (A.) Lumber & Cedar Company, 577. 579. 591. Spies Public Lilbary, 595. Sprilng Valley Iron Company, 525. S)1riliger, Stanley T., 1410. Sprr L1 ountain Mining Company, 445. Staini),laugh,, 524, 525. Stambaugrh Higl School, 526. State Agricultural College, 394. State Board of Fish Commissioners, 331. State Fisli Hatchery, 330. Stead, Robert M., 441. Steere. Joseph 1-., 230, 244, 647. Stegath. Otto C., 861. Stetgeman. Albert A.. 1479. Stegmnillr, Louis, 525. Stephens. Johin C., 1172. Stephlenson. 604. Stephenosoln, Aiidrew C., 576, 676. Stpl)hellso, (. T., 377. Stephenson,l Isaac, 300, 301, 302, 303, 555. 571. 575, 588. Stephenson, Isaac, Jr., 576.

Page  XXVIII Pi xxviii INDEX Stephenson, Robert, 301, 302, 575, 576. Stephenson, Samuel M., 301, 302, 569, 571, 572, 611, 673. Stephenson, Mrs. S. M., 563, 564. Stephenson (I.) Company, 377. "Stephenson Journal," 605. Sterling, Lewis T., 1222. Stevens, Ed., 1219. Stevens. Horace J., 512, 1553. Stevens, Thomas J., 1181. Stewart, John. 441. Stiles, Almer D., 1357. Stiles, John, 613. Stiles, John W., 653. Stoeklv. Louis. 840. Stone, John W., 235, 637. Strang, James Jesse, 262. Strang, John J., 195. Streeter, Albert T., 233. Strong, W. 0., 397. Stryker, Alfred B., 585, 807. Sturgeon, Robert H., 1541. Sturgeon war, 63. Sullivan, Francis J., 1472. Sullivan, Frank P., 974. Summit, 446. Sunday Lake mine, 512. Sundstrom, Charles F., 842. Supe, Otto, 1202. Superior Cheese Company, 347. Superior Copper Company, 459. Sutherland, Donald E., 1535. Sutherland. William C., 706. Sutton, Elias F., 1307. Sutton, Elmer S. B., 872. Sutton, Mary A. T., 1308. "Swan," 363. Swart, Edgar J., 719. Swineford, A. P., 284, 418. Symonds. Charles D., 1434. Tamarack mine, 279, 463, 465. Tapert, William G., 1343. Taylor, 446. Taylor, Robert IH., 1181. Taylor, Zachary, 202. Tecumseh, 41, 163, 164. Terhaust, G., 442. Thatcher, Charles M., 1414. Therriault, John N., 568. Thielman, Christopher J., 1286. Thielman, William H., 1521. Thomas, William B., 1185. Thompkins, O. C., 423. Thompson, Arthur W., 836. Thompson, James W., 814. Thompson, J. R., 508. Thompson Lumber Company, 353. Thoren, Theodore A., 809. Tideman, Henry, 587, 1499. Tiffin, Edward, 171. Tilden House, 364. Tilden mine, 509, 512. Tobin mine, 532. Todd's harbor, 498. Toledo Ship Building Company, 318. Tollen, Gustav, 808. Tomah (Carron), 47, 49, 177. Tonty, Henri de, 124, 125. Topography, 8. Torch lake, 472. Torreano, James A., 946. Totems, 28. Townsend, C. SMcD., 334. Townsend, Frederick, 1322. Tracy, J. E., 244. Traders, 7, 173. Treaties-Of Ghent, 169; Greenville, 160; Fond du Lac (Lake Superior), 180, 190, 200; Indians, 197. Trentanove, Gaetano, 421. Trestrail, William C., 818. Trevorrow, James, 980. Trevorrow, John, 767. Trevethan, Thomas A., 1295. Trimountain 'Mining Company, 460, 465, 466. Trudell, Fabian J., 1209. Trudell, Joseph M., 953. Truettner, Walter F., 1241. Tsheka-tsheke-mau (Old Chief), 45. Tucker, Albert R., 1060. Tully, William J., 1207. Tupper, Benjamin, 158. Turnbull, John T., 1300. Twelfth circuit judges, 231. Twenty-second circuit judges, 236. Upper Peninsula Hospital for the Insane, 401. Upper Peninsula House of Correction and Branch State Prison, 422. Uren, Richard, 804. Uren, William J., 804. U. S. S. "Yantic," 377. Ursuline Convent of Our Lady of the Straits, 324. Vairo. Viciinso, 1173. Van Alstine, James, 498. Van Anden House, 333. Van Bergen. Peter A., 572, 589. Van Cleve, Frank H., 375, 660. Vandenolom, Frank H., 973. Vandreuil, Marquis de, 140. Van Dyke, John II., 545. Van Iderstine, Charles C., 1038. Vannema. Henry A., 581. Van Schaick, Anthony G., 301, 575. Van's Harbor Land & Lumber Company, 378. Van Slyck, Walter G., 1313. Vasseur, Louis C., 1150. Vaughan, Daniel, 635. Verona Mining Company, 521. Victoria Copper Mining Company, 501. Vivian, Johnson, Jr., 1328. Vivian, William J., 1516.

Page  XXIX INDEX xxix Vivian, Johnson, 1328. Voetsch, Martin, 809. Vogtlin, Joseph H., 1420. von Zellen, John 0., 1523. von Zetlen, WAalfred A., 1526. Vulcan, 539, 548. Vulcan furnace, 397. Vulcan mine, 285. Wabeno dance, 58. 89. Wa-benomita-nou, 47. Waddell, Robert B., 1129. Wa(dsworth. M. E., 470. Waite. Byron S.. 581. Waite, William F., 244, 517, 595, 1504. Wakefield, 517. XValander. Frank, 625. "Walk-in-tlhe-W-ater." 172. Walker, Plnummer S.. 1126. Walker. Robert A., 1249. Wall, James S., 811. Wall, John. 1033. Wallace. 576, 601. Wallace. Joseph. 481. Wallen, August, 1226. AWalters. lThomnas. 1100. Walton. Charles E., 1214. Waar of 1812, 164. War Tap (MI. Zowland), 442. Washington, George, 144, 156. Washington Copper Mining Company, 494. Washington Iron Company, 437. Watson, Charles H., 244, 1534. Watson, George, 1238. Waub-ojeeg (the White Fisher), 72. WXaucedah, 549. Wayne, Anthony. 159. Weber, John E.. 701. W\ebster, Bertha B., 1523. Webster, William. 1522. WXeidemann, Robert M., 676. Welch, Robert S.. 309. Weir, William, 1289. Wells, 377. Wells, Artemus C., 1438. Wells, Daniel. Jr., 215, 300, 301, 571, 575. Wells, John W.. 568, 576, 1436. Wells, Mrs. John W., 595. Wells, Thomas M1.. 1154. Wells (J. W.) Lumber Company, 304, 568, 577, 587. Wentworth, William, 268. Welsh, Joseph N., 1352. Welsh, William II., 1038. Werline, Gideon T., 604. 988. West Republic mine, 435. Western Securities Land Company, 404. Weston Lumber Company, 352. Wetmore, P., 445. Wetmore, W. L., 387. Wheeler. Sanuel WT., 310. White, Peter, 217, 385, 406, 409, 410, 413, 422. White, Stanford, 340. White Marble Lime Company, 352. White (Peter) Public Library, 419. -Whitellead. Lewis, 539, 540. Whitewell. Hugh I., 876. Whliitney, 608. WVicks. John, 543, 1049. WXickstrom. Charles J., 660. Viickwire Steel Company, 517. Wilcox. D. Merritt, 889. Wild rice gathering (MAenominees), 63. WViley, Merlin, 1299. Wilkinson. James M., 239. Williams, Egerton B., 1104. \Villiams, G(. Mott, 1151. Williams, Roger C., 820. Williams, Samuel R., 516. Williams. William D., 231, 233. Wills, Thomas, 867. WVilson. 605. Wilson. Charles, 625. Winter, William B., 941. Wisconsin Land and Lumber Company, 607. Wisconsin & Lake Superior State Road, 614. Wolverine, 466. Wolverine Copper Company, 462, 465. Wood. James C.. 1050. Wood, John R., 542. Woodford. George A., 1459. Woodford & Bill Piano Company, 590. Woodward. Augustus B., 163. XWoolson, Constance Fenimore, 392. WVozniak, Joseph. 625. W5right. Anson F., 540, 943. AVright, Benjamin W., 960. Wright, Charles A., 757. Wright, L. L., 516. Yale (West Colby), 512. Yelland, Judd. 1486. Young. Brigham, 264. 265. Young. Louis, 589. Youngquist, Orrin G., 1005. Youngs, George W., 523, 746. Youngs mine, 523. Zimmer. Peter, 625. Zimmnermnan mine, 525.

Page  XXX I I

Page  1 History of The Northern Peninsula of Michigan HISTORICAL CHAPTER I PRE-HISTORIC SPECULATIONS GEOLOGICAL LESSONS-THE LONG GLACIAL PERIOD-FORESTS SUCCEEDING FORESTS It would be interesting to know the origin of the people who first inhabited the country we now enjoy, but scientists have groped in the mists and mazes of the past in search of the origin of man, and to locate the time and place, without material satisfaction. They have further made extensive research in the hope of discovering whether or not the original Americans were of native origin, or sprung from their kind in some portion of the old world, and yet, after much research, we are still left in the field of conjecture, still groping, not only for the origin of man, but for evidences of his first existence in America. In this research time cannot be counted by years, but by ages, and ages are not measured except by their geological accomplishments. GEOLOGICAL LESSONS From the geology of the country we learn that, in the processes of the pre-historic development and shaping of the earth, that portion comprising the Upper Peninsula, with other surrounding country, was alternately submerged and raised a number of times, and we are told that the waters came in from the locality of the Gulf of Mexico at least three or four times, holding this section in submergence for sufficient time to record the formation of certain strata; in turn, to be upheaved, or raised above the water for sufficient periods to again make stratified record of conditions. The length of these various periods is not even attempted to be mneasured, but the lecords thereof have been preserved by nature to the extent that we know that this section of the country and of the country further north, even into the arctic zone, was possessed of a warm climate which moust have approached the climate of

Page  2 2 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN our present torrid zone. At one time, in that formative period of the earth, and prior to the formation of the present Great Lake system, which now has a water surface of about ninety-five thousand square miles, some of the territory was dry land. The great Laurentian river and its tributaries formed a system vastly different from the present system of waterways. The Laurentian had its source where Lake Michigan is now located, and flowed eastward through the straits of Mackinaw and along the south shores of Georgian bay, and then through the present site of Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence river. The IIuron river was one of its main tributaries and had its source probably in the interior of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, flowing northward through Saginaw bay and Lake Huron to its junction with the Laurentian. The existence of a tropical climate in those periods is established by the preservation, in the earth deposits, of many species of tropical plants, and the skeletons of animals common to the tropics. We can therefore conclude that. in those mystifying periods, our now rugged Upper Peninsula was covered with a tropical growth, such as palms and other kindred trees and plants; and there then existed here no such thing as our winter climate. The mastodon, elephant and other animals and reptiles of monstrous size and hideous forms peopled the tropical forests; but where is there any evidence of the existence of man? When did miankind first appear on the scene? These are questions yet unanswered, but as the archaeological studies of America are yet in their infancy. we iay yet expect developments that will prove the existence of man in this locality at a very early age. There is much reason for such a. hope because of the satisfying results of researches thus far made. It is no longer justifiable to deny the existence of man in a somewhat progressive stage during those periods, and that man existed within and in many widely separated parts of the United States during at least a portion of the time of the mastodon, the first quartenary period, is established by proofs that seem incontrovertible. In looking for evidence of such remote conditions we cannot be confined to our present boundaries, but may consider the evidence existing in the whole country as probably indicating the conditions here. In the western interior. imbedded in the same stratifications of the earth's formation are found the skeletons of the mastodon, and not only the bones but the tools of the human, and the presence of tools alone in connection with the undisputed formation of a period is most convincing evidence of the existence of man, for man is the only tool-making and tool-using being known to all history. The "Calavarus skull" to which the most scrutinizing criticism has been directed by the foremost of our scientists, has convinced the world of the existence of its living origin at a time many thousands of years ago; for it was found by a miner, buried in the auriferous gravel deposits of an earlier age, since which there has been great changes in the surface formation of that Californian section of the country, and this skull was found one hundred and thirty feet below the present surface and underneath a heavy lava bed. These

Page  3 TIIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 3 auriferous gravels of the western mountain regions are the deposits of ancient rivers with courses vastly different from those of the present day, and in many instances buried hundreds of feet by the deposits of subsequent ages. They are much sought and explored because of their richness in gold, and in these workings, in other parts of California, flint impemleents have been discovered so imbedded as to leave no question of their existence and the existence of their makers at the tille tlhose ancient rivers were d(epositing those gravels in their channels. Great numnlers of skeletons of the mastodon and other prehistoric animals. have been found further north in the mountain sections of Washington and Oregon emlodlied in the gravel deposits of the same geological perio(l as that in which the Calavarus skull. and the flint impliements referred to were (deplosited, thus proving the practically concurrent existence of man and mastodon in the western part of the United States. In 1902 the Lassing seleton \was found in Kansas in undisturbedl strata of the Missouri, and is pronounced by emlinent archaeologists, such as Ir. \inchell, to be of an age ante-(dating ten thousand years ago. lThe discovery of tools, or imnllements, in the pre-glacial (eposits at Trenton, New Jersey, and( at other pllaces east and south. is taken by conservaItive scientists as authentic p)ro(of of the existence of man at least durlling if n11t before the era of tlhe glaciers, whlile. to these )pr'oofs are ad(ded the distinilt evidences of carml)-fires that had burned near vwlat are now t tle ballks of Niaara lriver. and then were the slhocrs of Lake Iroquois, before tlhe forimation of the lakes in their present geographical positions. With what may thus be considered as authentic proof of the existence of man in the extremel ealst and west, and thus his probable existence throughout this entire country during if not before the glacial period, it becomles of interest to inquire as to that period and as to its effect upon pre-existing man and animals. TIE LONG GLACIAL PERIOD The formler tropical conditions were overcomlne by an upraising of tlhe earth's surface at the north, and the ice period appeared; and the existence of a long continued glacial period over a large portion of the country, including the( whole of the Upper Peninsula, is thoroughly,stablished; but tlhe length of that period is entirely a matter of conjecture, and as to whether there was one or more than one such period is a matter o(f (lisplute. There is no dispute })llt that the entire Upper Peninsula, was bu1)lried enath a massive sheet of ice, and( it is probable it so continued for centuries, and with ice from three thousand to five thousand feet in thickness. A generally accepted theory of the cause of the glacial period is that the surface of the earth in this region and to the far north, following the tropical period spoken of, was gradually raised to an altitude far above that of the present, so that vwith the perpetual cold climate caused by the extreme altitude the continuously falling snows formed into a cake of ice, that, with successive melting and freezing of its surface, crept southward until it enveloped practi

Page  4 4 TIlE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICIIGAN cally the whole country north of the present location of the Ohio and Missouri rivers and from the Atlantic ocean to the Rocky mountains. MAany evidences have been produced in the southerly portion of the ice-covered territory to prove that there were two such glacial periods separated from each other by sufficient space of time to effect geological distinction in the record of their deposit; though there seems a strong tendency to believe that the one glacial period may have been so affected by formative or astronomical conditions that the southern boundary of the ice field receded to the north and again advanced to the south, thus leaving indications of two glacial periods in the southernmost part of the glacial territory when it was one continuous period in the morenorthern portions; indeed, there are many who believe, and with apparent sound reasoning, that the recession of the ice age is still in progress, and that the fields of ice at present in the vicinity of Mount St. Elias, and in Greenland, are a remainder of the same continuous sheets of ice that enveloped this country something like ten thousand years ago. There is no question but that the departure of the ice, and its accompanying conditions, worked great changes in the surface of the earth in this vicinity. When the ice had so far departed as to have its southern boundary about midway of the state of Michigan, the lakes of this region were formed materially different from what they are at present. Their present outlet through the St. Lawrence river then continued to be a solid mass of ice, affording no outlet whatever. The lower portion of the present Lake Michigan had its outlet through the state of Illinois, along about the course of the present drainage channel into the Mississippi river. Lake Iroquois existed as an immense lake, covering the territory now covered by both Lakes Erie and Ontario, and much other surroundinlg territory, and that, too, found its outlet to the south, and its waters found their way with the then natural drainage of the country to the southward into the Gulf of MAexico. With the passing of time, the surface of the northern country gradually lowered and the ice field continued to recede until the natural drainage of this lake region changed its course, and the waters of our lakes found their way out through the St. Lawrence. Lake Iroquois was drained off until her surface had fallen many hundred feet fromn its highest altitude, and the waters were divided into the two present lakes, Erie and Ontario. It was at this period that the waters of the Niagara river flowing from Lake Erie into Lake Ontario began to cut the famous gorge which now furnishes such a Mecca for tourists, and at the same time is the most authentic evidence of the period of time that has exist'ed since tile departure of the glacial era. It is generally conceded, from computations as to the amount of cutting accomplished, that this las taken ten thousand years, and corroborative evidence as to the extent of this period since the ice age is found in the wearing of some of the rocks along the shores of Lake Michigan. We may therefore safely conclude that man existed in these parts more than ten thousand years ago.

Page  5 TIHE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN What man's condition and habits of life were then, and what they have been for a great portion of the time since, remains a mystery. One thing it is reasonable to suppose, and that is, that if the Eskimos and the red men are from the samne original source, the ice age formed the barrier which so completely divided them that their appearance, habits and methods of life are now quite distinct. The Eskimos may likely have adapted themselves to the glacial conditions, and lived as they now live on such means of subsistence as the ice regions afford, while the ancestors of the red men may have pushed to the south in advance of the advancing ice, and continued their existence, and probably a slow development, under the light of a sun that perpetuated their copper colored complexions. The departure of the glacial period, which had found the country supplied with mammoth forests, left it denuded of all forms of vegetation, and, in many places, of the soil on which to raise any kind of vegetation; the action of the ice, and of the succeeding floods having served to leave great areas where the bare rocks, polished and figured as they were, constituted the remaining surface. We may therefore conelude that after the departure of the ice fields it was many centuries even before there were any great inducements to man to inhabit this part of the country. The elements, by their processes of decomposition and erosion, had vast amounts of work to perform before there existed the soil sufficient to nourish, support and develop the forest life that has succeeded in many sections, while in other parts of the territory, if there was left a semblance of soil, it is questionable as to the time required to give it fertility, and as to the time when the climate became sufficiently modified to encourage vegetable growth. FORESTS SUCCEEDING FORESTS But the time came when the desolation wrought by the ice age was supplanted by the growth of beautiful forests which have in turn gone to decay and been replaced by succeeding forests. How many forest epochs there may have been we know not, but that forests of one kind have given way to those of different growths is established beyond question of doubt. The writer has seen the removal of a pine stump of a tree about four feet in diameter, and underneath and at the point of the division of that stump into its massive roots was an old and fairly well preserved stump of a preceding generation, and apparently of hardwood. What part was played by man while these formative changes were taking place in our country throughout this period of approximately ten thousand years we shall probably never know, but that he existed in or about this country, and continued in or long ago returned to this section is established to a reasonable certainty. That the men of the period antedating the advent of the white men attained a considerable degree of intelligence and ingenuity is strongly evidenced by the remains of habitations in the forms of cities that ex

Page  6 6 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN isted, we know not how long ago. Whether those more advanced races became extinct and were succeeded by races of entirely different origin, or whether they degenerated, and successive generations lost the arts of their forefathers, furnishes a wide field for speculation. Whatever may have been the vicissitudes in the life of man, and much as we might like to know thereof, antecedent to the coming of Europeans to this country, there is comparatively little evidence thereof to be found, except in the life as it was lived by the people found here on the advent of the white men, their existing traditions and such ruins as remained.

Page  7 CHAPTER II AS FIRST SEEN BY MAN TRADERS FIPRST IN NORTHERN COUNTRY-IDEAL UINTING GROUND-TIlE l'IONEER MISSIONARIES — PICTURED ROCKS D)ESCRIBED IN 1834-ST. MARY'S RIVER AND ISLAND OF IMACKINAC-THIE RESTFUL GREEN BAY REGION To one familiar with the interesting topographical features of the section of the country under consideration there is no occasion to wo1 -der at the large amount of attention it commanded from the earliest pioneers, the missionaries and traders; and later frolm those attracted hither for permanent settlement. The wonder. if any there be. is, as to wihy permanent settlement and the develolpmenit of our natural resources followed so tardily the footsteps of discovery. Suchl a query, however, finds satisfaction, and the delay is in part explained by1 the history that was then naking in the old world,. mlonoplolizing there the attentions of the government andI the pleol)le of France which might otherwise have been showered upon, and have assisted in the earlier development of the French possessions hereabout; and later 1b the controversies existing here that made early settlement too hazardous to be inviting. But there were attractions here that the lapse of centuries did not efface. The glittering promises of great wealth which the country afforded, and which promises were communicated to the people of the mother country through the missionaries and traders, have made good in the varied avenues of exploitation, trade and development. Peltries, lumber, mining (both copper and iron) have yielded their fortunes to many and have distributed their products to the farthermost points of the wide world. Many lesser industries have influenced in a large measure the attractiveness of the country, but those naned are the major industries to date, and undoubtedly furnished the main attractions to the first permanent settlers. TRADERS FIRST IN THE NORTIIERN COUNTRY Before the permanent settlers, however, came the traders, facing grave dangers and great hardships, attracted by the most readily de7

Page  8 8 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN veloped of those resources, the trade in furs, wherein was large profit on small investments. The topographical features of the country were such as to make it of the best in that direction. Glancing at the map, and remembering that in those days the only avenues of travel and transportation that would accommodate traffic to any extent were the waterways,-the rivers and lakes of the country,-the long shore boundaries of the Peninsula, on the north by Lake Superior and on the east and south by Lakes Huron and Michigan, become attractively apparent. We observe further that this long, narrow stretch of territory between these two great avenues of commerce has numerous rivers that pierce the interior from either direction so that almost the entire country could be traversed by small boats. The country was then only a part of the great new world and knew no territorial boundaries; but natural boundaries and advantages seem to have signalized this as the favorite abode of large numbers of wild animals and birds and many varieties of the best of fish, from the lithe and gamely trout of the sparkling brook, and the sporting bass of the interior lakes, to the ponderous sturgeon, the mammoth trout and the palatable white fish of the lakes and bays. The lake boundaries afforded by Lakes Superior, Huron and Michigan, as above mentioned, were matched by boundaries of almost equal attractiveness on the west and southwest, where the beautiful Menominee river carries its immense volume of water in continuous flow over a series of falls and rapids a distance of about three hundred miles from the northern source of her tributaries to their outlet into Green Bay at the southern extremity of the peninsula; while almost within a stone's throw of the starting point of these waters to the southward other streams formed and carried their waters to the north and into Lake Superior. The River St. Louis, which now forms the most northwesterly natural boundary of the peninsula, has its source much farther from that of the Menominee than do some of the other streams that flow to the north. The topography of the country is such that the bench, or divide between the northerly and the southerly slopes, is within a few miles of the northern boundary of the peninsula, and this divide is so pronounced as to in places assume the proportion of a mountain range, as illustrated in the Porcupine and Huron mountains; while for the entire course from the easterly to the westerly boundary the altitude of the divide is such as to make almost precipitous the descent to the boundary line of Lake Superior. The summit of the mountains north of Lake Michigamme is twelve hundred and fifty feet above Lake Michigan, and the waters of Lake Michigamme are nine hundred and sixtysix feet above the waters of Lake Michigan. The southern watershed, therefore, includes a very large portion of the Peninsula. It is traversed by numerous large rivers, the Menominee, Escanaba and Manistique, with their tributaries, and numerous other rivers of lesser proportion, which serve to furnish extensive and convenient highways for travel and traffic, all with their trend to the southward and their outlets into Green bay.

Page  9 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICIIGAN 9 Practically all this country was heavily timbered with a mixture of evergreen and hardwoods that at once were most beautiful to behold, changing with the changing seasons from the varied hues of green and grey that characterize the freshness of spring, through the heavier shades of massive green that sheltered the ground from the summer's heat, to the varied and most beautiful of autumn foliage that the hand of nature has ever set as an example to the lovers of art, and to the snow-bedecked evergreens that lend their picturesqueness and a charm to our northern winters. IDEAL ITNTING GROIIND Penetrated as the forests were by the numerous and beautiful streams, they furnished, also, appropriate settings for many crystalline lakes, set like jewels to further adorn the already attractive landscape. The combination of forest, lake and stream this country afforded when the pioneer first set foot upon the soil seems to have been the culmination of nature's ideal of a hunting ground. As a fitting complement to the situation many of the lakes and streams had shallow parts where an abundance of wild rice grew, furnishing an attraction to many varieties of water fowls and fur bearing animals; and there were openings upon high lands that supplied an abundance of natural grasses, and an opportunity to the red men to cultivate Indian corn. Naturally such a country was peopled with an abundance of game, including animals, birds and fish, and thus, naturally also, it was the home of many Indians and the visiting and hunting place of many more that roamed about the country, or came periodically from their homes in other parts of the interior. Thus, with the means of access from the seaboards and the settlements of the east, afforded by the Great Lakes, to the extensive lake boundaries and the river highways of this Peninsula, and with the great abundance of game and the presence of the Indians it is not strange that their first appreciation of the country was in the advantages offered by way of trade in peltries that could be had in abundance almost without price, and that could be readily sold at handsome profits sometimes amounting to hundreds of per cent. So, from a commercial standpoint the richness of the country was first seen through the eyes of the traders and their couriers du bois. and they were so intent on commercialism, on the dollar that seems to have been worshipped then almost as much as now, that they thought not of history or of posterity, and as a consequence made few records. Their presence here in those remote times would probably have hardly been recorded were it not for the fact that the missionaries came about the same time, or followed early in their footsteps. There are numerous things in history that lead one to believe that these early traders preceded the missionaries, and that the reports carried by them as to the natives that were here, and as to their savagery and barbarous conditions of life, were the inducements that

Page  10 10 THE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN brought the missionaries who came with the bible and the cross to Christianize the people that were native, rather than to exploit the country for the purposes of settlement. THE PIONEFR MISSIONARIES These missionaries were intelligent, educated men, and while intent upon their religious missions and perhaps thereby held more closely within the channels thereof, they were nevertheless observing, and some of them were enterprising. They heard from the Indians of the deposits of copper and were supplied by them with specimens of this mineral which they sent east with their reports, thus arousing there the comnmercial interest which more recently has developed our mineral resources to such an extent as to already put into deep shade the early reports that, though glittering, were received with but scant credulity. The Ilissionaries also observed and reported upon the picturesqueness of the country, and although these features were mentioned with alp)lreciation, it is for prophesy rather than history to treat of them fromi a comnmercial standpoint, anl I mention them now as a practically undeveloped asset, among the abundance and varied assets with which nature endowed this favored lpeiinsula. Some of the most beautiful scenes, and we may mention the Quinnesec Falls of the AMenoniinee River, that were first appreciated only as an object of picturesque grandeur, rivaling in beaulty the Falls of Niagara, have sacrificed something of their primitive attractiveness at the hands of man in order that the inmmense power capable of being generated might be utilized to run the massive machinery in and lift the burdensome tons of ore froml the near-by Iron Mountain minies. Little did the first white man to set eyes upon that cataract dreanm of the changes that would be wrought fromi that scene of beauty to one of extensive utility in a time so soon to come. If we may be pardoned a momnent for dropping into the perspective, we may say, little do we of the present dreaml of the commercial utility to which some of our natural resources,-our p)ictures(lue scenery, bracing atmosphere and convenient outing places,-will be put a few years hence. The money-earlning capacity thereof will be realized when these advantages shall be properly equipped to accomimnodate, and shall be truthfully and attractively portrayed to the great masses of people in our inland cities who annually go far and spend much upon less attractive, less comfortable, but lmore widely advertised summer resorts; and faintly can we comprehend the extent of the manufacturilng industries to be developed here because of the cheap power to be furnished by our rivers, and the competition in transportation afforded by our waterways. Returning to our subject, we can not presume to describe all the objects that have been attractive and have yielded up an abundance, or are offering a promise of abundance in the lines of both beauty and utility, for our command of language cannot fittingly perform such a

Page  11 TIIE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 11 pleasurable undertaking; however, as properly belonging to the picture of the Upper Peninsula as first seen by white men, we mention as some of the most prominent features, the rapids of the St. Mary's River, the Island of Mackinac, or Michilimackinac as at first called, the Pictured Rocks, and Grand Sable Island, as objects so grand as to inspire the awe of all who behold them, besides which there are many lake shores that are beauty spots for summer outing, and many lakes that offer attractive facilities for boating, bathing and fishing. PICTTURED ROCKS 1)ESCRIBED IN 1834 Of the "Pictured Rocks," as well of their grandeur, as of the dangers of the sea as it beats upon thelm and of an experience therewith,Mr. Thomas L. IlcKenna. of the Indian d(lc)artmlent, in his " Sketches of a Tour of the Lakes," in 1834, relates his approach to the Portaille, of tlhe French. now called the l'ictured Rocks, and says: "Their beginning is in the I)oric rock which is albout two miles from the line of towers and )battlements whic(h compiposet the grand display of the Picture(1 Rocks; and seemls to have been sent in advance to announce to the voyageur the surprising and aplpallinlg grandeur that awaits him ahead(1. We passed this I)orie rock about on(e hundred yards, and landed. Our barges, as usual, bellind. I lost not a Imoment in going to examine it. * - * "The 1)oric rock iests on a base(enlt of sandstone, with irregular. stel-like ledges of the same material, three ill nln11 b)er. going froml it into the lake, an(d stanils about twelve feet black froll a I)crlenldicular line drawn froil the last step. From the water to the base of the rock it is ab)out thirty feet; and fromn the base to its tolp it is aboiit forty feet. The center of the covering or arch is about three feet thick. —and where it rests on the pillars, ab-out twelve. From the floor to the center of the arch is ablout thirty-seven feet. lBtwcen tihe seeon(l pillar of the southwest. or right of the view, and a third column in the rear, is an altar; and to the right of that again an urn. * * The place seems to have been provided by nature for a I)lacc of offering, whether to Diana, or which of the Gods or Goddesses, there are no means of ascertaining. A beautiful tree rises out of the very center of the arch. * * * I found, on examining this rock, which I did in all its parts, that the Indians had used it as a place of resort, for the ashes of their fires were yet several places within it. "When, or for what purpose this rock was so fancifully formed no man living can tell. There are no records that contain the secret. It is among the wonders of nature, and seemns, with other like evidences, to attest the truth of what has been often asserted before, that this globe has been the theater of violently cont(ending elements, of whose fury we can now imagine but little, and which under the direction of Him who holds them all in the hollow of Ilis hand, have long since been confined there, and ceased( their mighty strife. That water has been the agent of all this variety there can be no doubt. Its marks are perfect,

Page  12 12 TIHEl NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN but the floods, tired of lifting their heads so high, are content, in this age of the world, to lash the bases of these towering elevations. "* * * Our company preceded us to pass along the coast of the Pictured Rocks, and make the traverse to Grand Island before the air should stir in the morning, or the lake get in motion. For to be off the line of these Pictured Rocks in heavy barges, and the wind blowing hard from the north, or northwest, there is hardly a possibility of escaping. "We took Mr. Lewis in our canoe to make some sketches of the Pictured Rocks. We embarked a little after sunrise, and soon reached the angle of a rock which commences this long line of awful grandeur. It is wall-like, and perpendicular. and higher than the capitol of Washington. It makes a sharp angle, the edge of which is as well defined as the north or any other corner of that splendid building. It staggers one's faith to believe that anything short of architectural skill, and human hands, could finish off such an angle. On turning it, a semicircular formation, like the half of an immense dome, commences, the radius of which is not short of three hundred yards. The surface is smooth and stained in places with an iron-brown color, which is occasioned by the drip of water from above, and an oozing of it from numerous little cracks in its sides. These rocks are about three hundred feet high. Many of them rest on arches, and all of them, whether on arches or columlns, or unbroken at their base, rise immediately out of the lake. They do not run their whole extent of twelve miles on a straight line, but have more the appearance of an irregular echelon,-for a mile they will be thrown regularly back, and continue a solid wall, on nearly a straight line for a mile or two, then fall back again, or advance. At one point one of these huge rocks juts far out into the lake, but without losing its 'connections with those upon its right and left, and resembles a castle with its towers, embattlements and embrazures. It would seem to have been put out thus in advance to protect the interior line of walls upon its right and left, and to have been built by giants. "We had only got fairly out, and in view of these wonderful formations and in the deep and green looking water of the lake, with Grand Island stretching out obliquely to our right, when the wind freshened, and the swells began to roll in upon these rock-bound shores, and dash and foam at their bases. The reaction from this conmmotion drove us farther out into the lake; there we were met with increasing billows which stilled the chanting of our voyageurs, and put them to the exercise of their skill in preserving themselves and us. I noticed when a wave larger than the rest was about to be met, their paddles were instantly suspended, and the canoe allowed to pitch over it with as little onward motion as possible. I soon discovered the object was to avoid driving her under the succeeding wave, which, on account of her being so sharp, would have been done had the suspension in paddling not been observed. Thus stationary, she rose over the waves that would meet her, when instantly the paddles would ply again. But with all this precaution the swells would dash over us, and make it necessary

Page  13 THE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 13 for the sponge to be kept constantly employed. These canoes are bailed by means of sponges large enough to take up a quart or half gallon of water at a time. The barges were just in view inclining over to the western end of Grand Island, and about five miles ahead. They had got out of the reach of the billows, their force now being broken by Grand Island. I confess I felt some apprehension. No one spoke. To make the shore was not possible; to have attempted it would have been certain destruction; and the east end of Grand Island was at least ten miles distant. We had no alternative but to keep on our course. In an hour we were in still water, when our voyageurs, all wet, and ourselves also, except where our great coats guarded us, began to chatter again, and pass their jokes upon the bowman in whose face many a swell had broken in making this traverse. "The appearance of the southeastern shore of Grand Island, in going up between it and the Pictured Rocks, is strikingly magnificent, not only in regard to its extent, but to the mimic cities that line its shores, high up above the lake. The appearance would deceive anyone who did not know that the island was not inhabited. Buildings of various forms and dimensions, appearing to be of stone and brick, and wood, with spires and steeples, are as regularly shown in this distance of ten miles, as if they were real; and serve not a little to soothe one, even with a knowledge that all this is owing to the broken up rocks, similar in their character to the portaille. or i'ictured Rocks, opposite to them; because the fancy will not let go its hold of iomages of domestic life, and the pleasures of the social state. * * "It appears to ime tllat Grand Island was once connected with the main; and that the swells of the lake, propelled by the northeast wind, and driven by their fury diagonally across the lake, broke down the connecting materials of earth and rock which once joined the(ll. "The Pictured Rocks terminate opposite the western end of Grand Island. For the whole way they are discolored, or stained, with the dripping of water from the crevices in their sides, and are to the eye like grey sandstone, stained with yellow and brown and even green. Their tops fringed for the whole distance with a thick growth of verdant trees gives a beautiful finish to their summits. "I omitted to notice a sheet of water that flowed out from the grove near the l)oric rock, of fan-like appearanc(e, small at the top, and widening at the bottom to ten feet. It came over from an elevation of about twenty feet above the lake. We saw several of these; sonle gushing out of the si(des of the Pictured Rocks, and others flying over from the level of their tops, the issue of little streamnlets from level country beyond. We more than once rested on our paddles to observe these lovely adornings of a region otherwise picturesque, but made more so by these cascades." Of other interesting scenery along the Lake Superior coast there is a vast abundance, and the early writers were greatly attracted by it.

Page  14 14 TIIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF M\ICIIIGAN SMr. AlMcKenna, on his first setting paddle into Lake Superior, and witnessing the unlimited expanse of water ahead, wrote of it as "a glorious mirror, where the Almighty's form glasses itself in temlpests; in all time. (Calnl or convullsed. in breeze or gale, or storm." And again on landing at Granite Point he says of it: "And here huge rocks, split into chasms, into -hich the surge of the lake enters, but to recoil from the onset, and to demonstrate how immovable is the barrier against which these ceaseless attacks are made, stand boldly out. I)Descending from rock to rock for about thirty feet, I seated myself on a ledge that projected far out into the lake, to survey the scenery, and contemplate the motion of the waters that, in towering waves, would roll against these rocks as if asleep and unconscious of their approaching destiny, till awakened by the shock of the contact, xwhen they woul(l mount high in the air, and fall back broken into a thousand parts, and be swallowed up by their successors, which, on reaching thie same point met with the same.n overthrow." Of Keweenaw point the same author writes: "Ot)posite a spur in the nountain, tle lan(ls rise in ro(cky and broken i)recip)ices, dis)playinlg a granldeur anld a barlrenness equal to anytthing of the kind I have seen. It is nearly all rock; the shores are cut out into little bays, into many of which we enitered, wlilst the rocky )proj(cetionis of the mlloutains hung over us as if to threaten us with (destr'uction. IHuge masses of rocks, that lhad 1)arted from the mountain, were lying out in the ]tke, some fifty and a htundred yards fio 1 the shore, between1 which, and others, that fornied a kind of passageway, and with perpenldicular walls, our little bark was passed( on the smoo(th surfaceo. of the waters." A person familiar with Lake Superior could write chatlters concernilig its barren andl broken shores, G(ran(l Sables Pictured Rocks; its beautiful islands, won(lerful mioonllight scenery, crystalline waters, and of the m)ost gorgeous of aurora borealis with which thle hand of nature decorates the uost favored parts f the universe. ST. IMARY'S RIVER AND ISLAND OF MACKINAC Beyond the power of my pen to describe are the varied scenes of the St. Mary's river, where the waters of the largest of earth's inland seas find outlet through a channel, the descent of which at the rapids, is about eighteen feet in the distance of three-fourths of a mile, and through which the waters plunge and dash and foam as if angered at the broken and jagged rocks that dare impede their passage. These rapids were considered hard to "shoot" by the skilled oarsmenm of those early days, but the present-day visitor to this beauty spot of M1ichigan can still find representatives of the red race, each ready, for a modest consideration, to carry his passenger in his light and bounding canoe, down through this seething, boiling and dashing channel; and they do it with such skill as to compel the admiration of all and to invite the venturesome to make the trip. Passing the rapids, the river widens gradually, and is filled with beautiful islands of various sizes, and fur

Page  15 TIIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 15 nishes a scene of quiet beauty and natural splendor, vying in attractiveness with, and yet in wonderful contrast to, the magnificent turbulency of the rapids. To those natural attractions, the government has added those of its monster locks, and its power canal, giving to it recognition as the forenost of the world's water-highways. The group of islands, known as the " Beavers"' always have been aind still are objects of beauty and attractiveness; and these, as well as their advantages in the way of fishing and of seclusion, have given to then a part in history, the story of which, if fully told, would rival the most daring stories of frontier life. Of the Island of Mackinac. and the islands tlhat cluster around it, what shall 1 say? Again a. laster handl is nee(led to portray the beautty and grandeur whlich the hand of nature crowded together in a small area. Fortinately, however, the world knows of the beauty of this island and of tlih important part it ihas played in ntational and international history. T'1) world of today, however, sees it with its national lark. its military fort, and its magnificent hotels and residences; tile resort of mlanli in the hot summer months. The first white meln saw it as a favor'itc hom111e of' solI' and the resort of iiany Indiains; and. as their cianles (app'roached froml the Lake Iluron view, the island rose above the surface o(f the water in tlhe form of a Great Turtle, and in its grandceur, looliing to a mllagnifi{cent height, beautifully bedecked with forest growths and ornamented withl some of nature's most lavish adornmIents of arches, pinnacles, domes an1 pIreci)ices. As the(se nlagnificent heights were scaled, the grandeurl of the surrounding viewN was almost beyond concelption. Lake IIuron, s)pec((ked over with its islands, stretched far to the west, varying and beautiful. To the northwest was the mainland of the peninsula, the Rabbit's Bask and to the west was the opening into Lake Mlichigan. the second largest fresh water sea in the world; and around. and wtithin view were Bois Blanc, Le Schneau, and other islands, in beautiful settings of changing huIes, the better to adorn the scene. Of nature's adornments, naturally, Arch\ Rock, or the Giant Arch, conlnands first attention. Approaching this along the shore trail, so as to view it from below, we find the shore at this point some forty or fifty rod(s il width coveredl with large fragments of rocks that have aplparently succnimbed to the battles of the elements and let go their hold from the cliffs above which rise to a, height of approximately two hundred feet above the shore. From this precipice a, rocky projection stands out to the northeast at this point. and therein is an arch-like opening throulgh which ascent can be made by clambering with difficulty, over a steep embankment of loose rocks and pebbles; and at an elevation of about fifty feet up this embankment, the climber stands directly under the Giant Arch which has a rugged outline, with one base resting on the rocky projection and the other upon the main ledge or hill. The span of the arch is about fifty feet and its height in the center, from the shore, is about one hundred and fifty feet. The view through the opening of this arch is magnificent, changing with the changing hues of the sky and the forms and movements of the clouds.

Page  16 16( rrIi E NojrtfERN PENINS'I-LA OF i\1( IMIIAN' A. good ehinbder (Oil Pr(.)eeed upJ the emfnihaninen-t, and, by sealing several lpreelpieeS 811(1d almost. vert jeal an(. em avg roeks, reae te ur fa('e through the alcieh. aflid, onee there, the grandeur of the view repays the effort, the wvorn finigers and the torn elothes whieh the elimbni) as e()st. r Ili xv ritemr was onle of a. small. eomopany to perform this fea t and does not regret It though onee is enlough. The most eoouton method of retaehing the top of this areh is over the hlul road wheive one, eo-n ride diriIt(Nt.l to It. (Chimonle'v Rock is amiothle of the 1imatura"l attraetimns of the is'Ifl(1d. It stancs' onl thle s-ide of -I liit 11hxii (1 slop~es to tile westerly or SouthAac~ii RocK.~ AlACK{INAC, I ~LA\ND xxvestem 1\ eoast. The Cliioie' oisists of ro( ks whill(h tower ahmit l fiv feet above the presenti surfaee of I he hli -Iat tli iIt poiint It is xv dl(iii fromi thle vway then toks are pliled together I ha t they xxvere ait on e tilloe emtbledldedl in the (artli, Inl that form. xvlien the surfaee o)f the islanid xxas ait.o 0' a1ove the to p of the p~resell t ('(li 11li (V ' d(, aIS by the l)1-)'oeesse's of eointhe ea i-t- Iivxxa toiia xx x'1a td t'le Suirfaee I )veredl these roeks So} restcei tt get her that t hexy have Iet I Ie ~ tei oIt oum,a1(1nx san there re seihmblll i og greaIt(liimey Alan iv othert initerest iii g featmires of the ishaiid that xxere, )hips aiiiong, its l11iiitor at~traetions xwleii first, seen byx xvhite moeti, ha"- yecoiime ilt() p)r~iliiclenee, a mi1d are noxx'v oIAeets f 1)1tiii rest Io1-01tonist s Iheea u1seo them l, met Ption xxithli subsequenut unmportiant h storiea I1 even Is. rl~ I: i~srui~GREU, B)Ax REGION To adequately describe the beaities of U reeti Bia, xxitlh its, indented hays, anrd settfirngs of Islands, is beyond Ilie, writers I oxe' it still m e

Page  17 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF \IICHIGAN 17 tains much of its original attractiveness and is annually receiving more and more of the recognition that is its due from the tourist world, and many of its bordering hamlets, with their sandy bathing beaches and attractive fishing facilities, are already thronged during the sunnner months with those who have learned that here the advantages for rest, recreation and recuperation are actually superior to those of the noted and more costly outing places of the Atlantic coast. As the explorer pushed inland, he was. of course. at first compelled to follow the course of the many streams, and here again the varied decorations of the scene bore evidence of the lavish hand of nature. Amidst primeval forests, the most beautiful that the eager eye of an explorer ever rested upon, were miles upon miles of the most picturesque of rivers, bedecking the face of the entire peninsula like strings of glittering gems, while the innumerable lakes, of various sizes, added to the beauty and grandeur of the Upper Peninsula landscape, as wSell as to its attractiveness from the standpoint of the hunter and the tradesman. To mnention all the many, many attractive features that met the eye of the first white men, is now impossible, but enough of grandeur. of beauty and of virgin splendor and purity, as well as wealth of natural resources, still remains to make of this small area a very desirable locality for pleasure seekers, health resorters and sportsmnen, and last, but not least, for business men of every calling. It is pleasing to note that the public is recognizing the importance of preserving some of the beauties of nature with which this locality has been endowed. Besides the National Park at MIackinae. several of the cities have already adopted measures of preserving as natural public parks, some of these beauties of nature, more attractive than the hand of man could plan or execute. Of these, Pres(ue Isle park at Marquette, and the John Henes park at Menominee are amlong the mnost notable. As closely connected with like interests in the Upper Peninsula it is of interest and value to her people that the state of Wisconsin has dedicated as a state park a large tract on the eastern shore of Green bay, in Door county, where the natural and prilmitive beauty is to be preserved. Vol. 1-2

Page  18 CHJAPITFER III INDIAN HISTORY TIHE ANCIENT CAVE MA,\N —SUPERNATUTRAI, BELIEFS OF T1IE INDIAND)E.ATH AND THE IEREAFTER —T1lE D)ELUGE AND RACIAL ORIGIN —MEDICINE -BAG AND MEDICINE )DA\NCE-TRIBAL, GOVERNMENT AND SO(CIAI, ( USTOI S —I TENSIS, EAAPONS AND SI(RTS AGICRTS AGC RTS AND SECRET INSTTITUTIONS- IICTURE WRITING ---ORSES INTIR)DUCED It is difficult for Americans of today to realize that the\ ar(e a colnquering lpeoIple; and that to l.make room for the prosperity and advancemeIt of the plreseiit day, a p)owerful race has been vanquished and (isplaced. and the surviving remnants perverted and d(egraded(. But the truth of this is patent to anyone who pauses to thlillk of the matter. The I[pler 'Peninsula of Michigan is one of tlhe spots where the disintegration of this race began. TIE ANCIENT CAVE MAN Their historyv goes back to the cave men who fought for their existence with the (le)phanlt, imastodon, miegatherium an(l other gigantic beasts of the pre-glacial period. These progellitors of tihe Indians in America had only their hands, supplemented by the clubs andl rocks which nature provided, to defend themselves, or with which to procure their food; for Iman was, in that pre-historic time, only a cainivorous animal, not mnch higher than the beasts with which he fought. The great physical changes of the land forced new conditions upon this aniimal that alone stood upright; the fight for life developed shrewdness and a sort of skill, and, in the end, these are always superior to brute force. In time the cave man grew bolder as he became a more successful hunter; he dwelt in forests, as well as caves, and so the evolution of the Indian, as the white men, with their limited geographical knowledge, called him, had its beginning. The story of this evolution is written in the mounds which hold their dead, and the weapons, tools and ornamients which they have left scattered over the entire country. The builders of these earth mounds had reached a degree of semi-civilization and they were more sedentary than the tribes about them, and possibly more 18

Page  19 TILE NORTIIERN PENINSULA OF MICIIIGAN 19 peaceful. They built these mounds not only as burial places for their dead, but to gtard their villages. an(d for use in their religious rites. As their aniual instincts develope(l into mental attributes, fear, which is the father of religion, compelled theni to propitiation and semi-worship of things feared. They were mnentally many ages b)eyondl the primitive cave men; they hlad aldded veogetable foods to their flesh (liet; the cultivaltedl nmaize, S(lquash, beans an(nd graples in fields olutside their mnournd-proteete(l villagles. They( were manuifacturers to the extent that they made nets anid tral)s to catch fish and gallme; and froim the )oies land skins of the latter made household utensils and1 clothing. They apparently knew nO nMetal bult coplper, frollm which they mlade chisels alid axes, as well as o1rain(qlts. They ca( -ve(d ea(ls a1n(1 othler articles from sea-shells, as wuell as )ones. p)roving that theyl- had comylterce with I)eop)le livinir near the sea. Inl spite of the progress they lhad nmade,. they. were swep(t olit of existence bv! the fie(rce i uinting, trilbes who are the ore illllll(ediate ancelstors of tllhe TI(lians. and altho(ugh they were fo{rgotteln -for - 1who (an say witho()ult (Jlesti(on just w lho the 111()ld-1)uild(ers w(ere?-tile Ikno)wle(ig(l of thllir rulde arts was (continued1. and1(1 in1clea(sed(. their suII'(es-sors. These Tlindians were slow to chatngre and have )rcse(rvc(d their )lhysic(al 111and(1 lllental Iattrilutes until mo(dlerl tilles. Aks a whole. the ra(e seems to 1be fragll(ents of var ilns trill(es of 1ieie- their langurages an(1 dialec(ts, whSich aic n11any, be.,ing 0n(ostlv, derivfative. W hen (liscovr0(ld )! tile whllite 11I(n, thlc \\were Iprolbablfy at. their tiighlest epoc(h as a natiOl. Il'hysically- thell 11av(e 1l()t,llllang-r(ed thle straight 1lac( hlair. glazed eves. high cheek lones, re(1 (c)lor an1 1 fillne soft skin are still tyical, anlld tllcir ieiental traits. tl( llgil ()(ldific(l 1) envir(on u('llt, scil as nearliv in(lestrle (tile as tillhir ' Ih!VSi(cal. SI''ElRNATURAI, lIIE.lEFlS )OF' TIlE INDI.\AN Tile ilatira] l I li. i laibefoi're thle gree(', deceit aiid illijstice (,f tlhe whites lhad (l)lliterlatel thlce goo(l. -nl(d fill!- devellopld tle evil. cruiel side of hlis llitilre, was l)o(sslss of llila ad(liirl'al)le (fliliaties. sl(h11 as temp(eral(lc, tI'ttlIftllIless, slhOst' anl Courtesy. hIe Iese')ct('ct ()1(1 age and was tol(erllt witlh aId litifil to tlhe wealk 1an1 unfortluatel; hospitality was with tIili not o(nlv- a v'i'tl(e. b)llt a strict (Illty..l'lysieal bravery was, withoult d((1ubt, th1e q(uality 1no)st.dlliired(. 1)rie, indelpenden(I(, and all intense love of l)ersollal free(doil were qualities (en1co(lraged( in the Inlians from bo)yhloo(d. So strong w-as this last sentillent that at times it. prove(l a s(llr(,e (of weakilness, a(s it freq(luently l)reveretted eoll)ine(l action at critical I,(rio(ls. The Indlian ill hlis prinlitive cOn(lition was jovial, happy, loyal to ties of kinship, and his family; fond of games and sports, and story-telling, —whiling away the long winter hours with endless tales of ghost Iand spirits, of war an(d the chase; fond also of 1music, an(l dancing and d(reaming; though all their arts were of the coarsest an(l crudest dlevelolneIent. In a(ldition to these good qualities, they possessed intense cruelty, a lax morality, sulperstition, cannibalism an(l remorseless revenge. The notions of the Indians concerning the

Page  20 20 TIIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN spirit world are beyond ordinary credence; they believe in a soul of the universe (Gezhia or Gitche Manito) who dwelt in the sky; a great and good spirit that made the world and ruled the sky and earth. They also believed in an evil spirit (Matche Manito), typified by the serpent, equally powerful with the good, who sought constantly to undo his benevolent work. The "evil one" lived in the solid earth and might be propitiated by gifts, especially libations. This belief in the duality of spirits of every degree was universal. The Indians had no word for "God;" MIanito and Oki merely meant anything endowed with supernatural powers. They believed every man might become possessed of a personal Manito, inferior however, to the Great Mlerciful Spirit. The control of this was obtained by fasting and prayer. The training of Indian children includes fasting at the transition period; when a boy was about sixteen he smeared his face with white clay, seated himself upon some exposed rock or point, and constantly called upon his M;anito to make him a great warrior. After four or five days of fasting some beast or bird would appear to his hungercrazed mind, and this would be adopted at once as his "medicine." Some portion of the object that thus appeared must always be carried upon his person to keep him in touch with his Manito and insure success. This suggests the fasting and vigils of the candidates for knighthood of medieval Europe. Girls, when fasting, retired to the depths of the forest and prayed for power to become medicine womlen. There are records of many women, famous for their gifts of second sight and other necromantic powers. The Indians did not understand the elements, so they deified them, as well as most natural objects, such as trees, rocks, cataracts, animals and birds. In the north, thunder, and in the south, the sun, were personified as among the highest gods, while the winds, the four brothers, were venerated by all. The birds typified the winds, the serpent was the visible expression of lightning. All tribes agreed upon water as holding all else in solution before tine began; its force and immensity awed them. It produced nothing of itself, hence the necessity of some creative power to act upon it. This power was typified by the winds which blew over it; the wind, personified by birds, such as the raven or dove, brought the earth forth. The moon represented water; she was the universal mother, and brought the harvests and protected the new-born babe and its mother. The mloon was also identical with night, and all the dread powers it encompassed; she carried the deadly miasma in her mantle, andl the hunter dared not sleep in her rayrs, or leave his freshly killed meat exposed to them; confusedly interwoven with this was the symbol of the serpent, suggested by the winding rivers and the connection between lightning and rain. Dogs bore sonie relation to the moon; hence to water, and the custom of whipping dogs, soundly, during an eclipse was common. The "big dog" was swallowing the sun or mioon, and whipping the small dogs would distract his attention and cause him to desist. Among our northern Lake Indians it was the custom, during a severe storm, to tie the legs of a dog together and throw him into the water to appease the anger of the water spirits.

Page  21 TIIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MIICIIIGAN 21 Il.,i.llitive 111a11 Illl(lerStOOd animals 110o better thani he (li(d the elemllents; hie had alwayvs been Inatched -against thleiii nnd ofteni overeolle. lIe knew anllilalals ('oltlnuniecate(l witll eah otlier in so(e mnysterious wa'; that they d(i(d not fear the dark wllichll was so fllll of terrors for hill; thely ca11e a11((1 went SO silently. lld got tlir foodl so easily, that lihe looked uI)(n theml va'fguely as hIis slillerioirs. and(1 ulilt ull') a. }lalf \\vorship of themii, as well as of tile eleiments. The anililals ate ea'h othler and were strong, so tihe Itldiails ate tlleir (Cle'llies thal-lt tlley!' lligllt beco()( e possess.ed of thllir strenlgthl aiid go()ol (llalIities. All Aineri(arin ldliaiis paid( great attelltion to the fliglt (of bli'ds whose motions were c-olnsi(deted ( n1i os1imo1. Those (of the calrniivorous spe( ies signifying war. al(1d thle glatilrillg (of these, to fattn ()Ion thle b(odies of thle slain after Ilattle is the I iinage i(ll-st used in theil- cli'allts. 'I'liTese are believed to have knllow-ledge (of thle tinies and placees of c(ofltlic(ts. as they are slli)p)ose(l to associat.e itll tthe gro(ls of tlle air. wll(o 1rul ill lbattle. The grizzly lbealr also ty)ified war. wiile tIheI anteloile llalllt leace(; and these tyl)ifieationls are almnost endless. rlThere lwas 11% aDttellilt to ill)llte to theC Great MIereiful Spirit tile attribute (of justice. or to nIake man aecolnitab)le to hiii here, or hlereafter. Belienevolenc( an1(1 pity lwerte Ilis chief attribites. However, he did nlot take upon hi1se~lf the rigilteols a(ldllill istration ()f world affairs. but left themi to )be g(lverned )by spirits. goo(l 11(1 id bad, in humIan forim. The Indian I)roplIlhets Iai(d Iin1nute attention to the clouds, their size, shape, eolor, IIoti(on all(I relation to tie suIn and horizon. IIportant events were ofteni (ecid(e(d, and( l)re(lictions founded on snhll obseivattions. The iiliagery of tile celestial atllosplhere with its warfare of thunder, lightning, aulrora borealis, and stOrnils. is niuch eill)loyed i their ipersonal nabsies, a1(nd is highly locetie. They built no temples to observe their religion, but llna(le their saclred fires in the rec.esses of the forest. They sung hynriis to tile s5ml (is the synibol of the Great Spirit; the constellations we-le studied, a.1(1 varllious attribllteS assigned to themn. rhe great bear is called "Thle Seven llersons," or the "I3Broken Baeck," while the pleia(des are tile ''Grouplled Together Stars,'' or the ''Seven Stars.'' Venls is knoiwn as' " Belonlginlg to thle Aloon, ' and th(e -' ilky Way! is the "Ghlost Road"' or "Splirit Ro(ad," or sollletillles the "W\olf Ro(ad," a1(1l is believed to ble a sllort trail fromii the world to the Suii Lodge. They did n1ot offer illillatn sacrifices to tlieir deity, though occasionally such sacrifices were iiade to the Mlorning Star. Fire was one of tlheir ordinary synilbols of worshlip, tllolllgh in tllis they never used coiillnon hllolseholld fire, but obtainled their sacre(d fire byv percuclission, llnostly with flint. Mlost In(lialls believed that tile solul relllalinel with or visite(l tlbe body for some time after death; henle e thle hIabiit nifany tribes had of building coverings over tile graves. andl (lepositing food, weapons and household articles ill thenm, that the soul nmight lnot stiffer during its wanderings. They believed that the soul of man was immnortal, and to some extent in the transmigration of souls; that the vital spark passed from one object to another, usually animlate, but not necessarily, as it might for a

Page  22 22 TIIE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIIGAN time dwell in a tree, or river, or a cataract; what determined the change does not appear, but apparently the superior will of the individual dictated the form of future life. Some tribes believed in reincarnation; it is related that one Indian chief, who died about two hundred years ago, was reincarnated five tinmes, being known during each period of life on earth by a stab in the right groin. There are many similar stories, and in some tribes there was a confused belief regarding two souls, one a spiritual, which was immnortal, and went to the abode of spirits after death, and the other, material, which eventually died. The Indians held the head to be the seat of the soul, and that is one of their reasons for the preservation of skulls and scalps. "Neither the delights of heaven, nor the terrors of hell were held out by the Indian priests as an incentive for well-doing, though they believed they would be rewarded for great deeds done on earth. Different fates awaited the departed soul; depending on the manner of death, the observation of certain sepulchral rites by living relatives, and also on certain arbitrary circumstances beyond the control of the individual, though this condition might be ameliorated by intercession of the 'jossakeeds'possibly this hinted at somie vague idea of Divine judmnlent." DEATH AND THE IIEREAFTER The Indians had a horror of death; they feared the mystery and the loneliness of the departing spirit, and for this reason, though they fought by stealth to preserve themselves, they held it the highest form of courage to meet death unflinchingly when it was inevitable. The reason a dog was killed on the grave of a warrior was to afford comipanionship to the soul. After horses became known to theei the favorite animal of this sort shared the fate the dog had p)rcviously shared; that the warrior might ride care-free into the IHappy Iunting Grounds. A great many tribes placed the home of the soul in the sun, "either east whence he comes, west where he makes his bed, or south where he goes for winter. Wherever he lived was the spirit's abiding place, the heaven of the Indians, where the warriors hunted the spirit game, or chanted their own glory and praises endlessly, and the women escaped from the drudgery, privation and subjection which was all their lot while on earth. Iowever, not all might arrive there, as many obstacles were to be overcome before the weary souls could reacbh a haven of rest; these varied with the different tribes; sometimes it was a deep and swift river to be crossed on a bridge formed from a sapling, lightly supported, and the soul while crossing must defend itself from the attacks of a dog. The Chippewa name for this bridge was the owl bridge (Ko-ko-ka-jogan). The owl was an emissary of the dead. The Chippewas also told of a great water that must be crossed in a stone canoe. Another Algonquin story is of a rushing stream, bridged by an enormous serpent; the souls that passed these bridges in safety entered the 'IIappy Land' where they dwelt for a time, or perhaps for eternity, for beliefs differed,

Page  23 TIHE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 23 somle holding that the spirit returned to the bones which had been preserved( on eartl for this reason, and that these were reclothed with flesh, and the being resumed its earthly habits. The bonies were the seed which, planted in earth, grew again. This belief extended to animals also." The Indians d( not look upon this leturn to earth as either a reward or punishli(ent. The souls which failed to pass the bridges were swept away to shift for themselves. The idea that souls were sent to torment for sins commnitted in the flesh was not originally part of the Indians' belief, though they gradually acquired this notion as the result of their contact with Europeans, alnd their Christian instruction. The nearest they canme to the idea of a conventional hell was that souls might be palted and live in separate regions. 5Most Indians believe that the world would eventually be destroyed by fire. and somle believed that just before this catastrophe occurs, blood and oil will rain down from the sky. The bodies of the (lead were never lurned exeelt among a few extilelle western tribes, but were treated with great respect. After death the body was wrapped in the finest clothes, and all the ornaments possessed in life, as well as useful articles, were placed upon it, and it was then ienclosed in a. bark or wooden shell, and sometimes placed aloft on l)o'ls or platforms, and sometimes hidden in caves. When the flesh had disap)leared the b)ones, with their trappings. were buried and the "'adjedatig," or grave 1post, was set up. This had the toteii of the family carve(l upon it. inverted, however. It was the work of a Ierson especially designated for the purpose, to gather up these bones and deI)osit themn in trenches with their accompanying tools andl ornaments. In (common with other races of the world, the Indians hlave traditions concerning a deluge which destroyed all lmaIlkind excep)t a chosen few. The following is one of their legends concerning thlis flood: "'Wlen Kitche-M\onedo, the Great Spirit, first mIade the world he filled it wNith a class of beings \whlo looked like men, but they were perverse, ungrateful, wicked dogs, who never raised their eyes from the ground to thank their C(:eator for anything. Seeing this. the Great Spirit plunged themn with the world itself into a great lake and drowned them all. IIe then withdrew the earth and p)laced upon it a very handsome young man, but he xas lonesome, and looked so sad that Kitche-Monedo took pity on himl and sent a sister to cheer his loneliness. After many years the young nman had a dream, which lie told to his sister. Said he: 'Five young men will come to your lodge door tonight, to visit you; the Great Spirit forbids you to answer or even look up and smile at the first four. but the fifth you may welcome. The first of the five strangers who <a.mle to her door was Isama, or Tobacco, and having been repulsed he fell down a.nd died. The second, Wapako, or pumpkin, shared the same fate. The third, Eshkossimin, or melon, and the fourth Kokees or bean, were likewise repulsed and died. But when Tamin, or 5Montamin, which is maize, presented himself, she opened the skin tapestry door of her lodge

Page  24 24 TIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN and gave him a. friendly reception. They were iimmediately married, and from this union the race of Indians sprung. Tamin buried the rejected suitors, and froml their g'aves grew tobacco, pumpkins, melons of all sorts, and beans; and in this imanner the Great Spirit Irovided that the race he had made should have something to offer him as a gift at their feasts and ceremonies, as well as something to put into their kettles with their imeat." THIE DELUGE AND RACIAL ORIGIN. There are llanIy of these legends in regard to the deluge. Some tribes say that "when the earth was destroyed by water the people made rafts on which to save thlemlselves, but something like large white beavers cut the strings that bound the rafts, and drowned all but one family, and two of every sort of anirmal." Some Indians have traditions of a "race of giants, swift of foot and powerful enough to kill buffalo with their hands. They were so large and strong that they defied their [Maker and derided him. The Ruler tried to kill them by shooting the arrows of lightning at them, but these glanced off without harm; so he sent a great rain and the ground became so full of water, and so soft, that these heavy people sunk in it and were drowned." Among the Indians the fossil remains of elephants, mastodons, and other huge animals are said to be the bones of these people. Other tribes that have a similar legend say the rock pinnacles, common in many states and often of fantastic forms, are the remains of these giants. Following the destruction of this race, "the Great Ruler made another race which he again destroyed because it was too powerful; then he made a man and woman and placed them on earth; other people and animals he made in the sky, and sent the lightning, his messenger, to place thein on earth, and having enclosed them in a cloud of lightning sent them down with a crash that sunk them all in the ground which was still wet and soft. The lightning felt so grieved at the result that he cried. Now, whenever he strikes the earth he is reminded of that mishap and cries; hence the rain and thunder. All these mIen and animals being thus struck underground were in confusion, until one day the mole burrowed to the top and the sudden rush of light put his eyes out; so he decided to remain beneath the surface, which he has constantly done ever since; but the rest crawled up through the hole made by the mole, and their distribution over the face of the globe began." In the perplexities they encountered during their first days they were, according to tradition, constantly assisted by the magic articles contained in a medicine bag given by the Great Spirit to a young boy; so it is youth, personified, that conquers the world, and this was merely a race, in its youth, working out its destiny. It was the young spirit which made way through the pathless forest and over foaming rivers and deep ravines, but the ignorance and superstitution of the race demanded some visible object as a proof of su

Page  25 THE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF AIICIIIGGAN 25 pernatural help when any difficult tlhing had been accomplished, and the medicine bag furnished this object. To it they attributed the production of animallls, fish and snakes unknowl(n to thellm before. They were not niany degrees reniloved from tlhe cave Iail wllho selldomn ventured far from his lair, and the thillgs of the forest alld fieldl we(re a ll new to them so they w\ere glad to betlieve the magic hag contained tile first arrow point as a, Imodel for future w\eapolns, and( tlhe seed1 of corn and tobacco for food and comnfort. The primlitive Ifndian gave hiis imnagilation full Ipla in finding reasons for the existence( of thlinlgs. and their ollndition; thus the first cedar was b.ent )ecallse it, l}ald sul)p)orte( tlhe weight of the Indian race and save(l theii frolm destruction, ad111 the crooked( ten(dency of these trees was thereby estal)lislhed( for all time. 'The c'(ow wa.s turned black in a futile effort to bring fire fromi tlie sun, aind the swallowm received his black feathers in a like vain atteinl)t. Almiost every natural object had solme such notion o('(nec(te(( with it. ad(1 volumles might be filled without exhausting the lmaterial in this linlc. The Indian legend(s in regard to their origin are almiost endless. They declare themselves to be aborigines, a ldeclaration only supported by fable or allegory. One authority will declare they elimbed up the roots of a tree to the surface of the earth, while another that they casually saw daylight through the top of a great cavern, and climbed to find it. They claimed nmysterious kinship with anilals that burrowed, always' the tradition, or memory, of cave or underground life, clung to them, which at least suggests that they are descendants of the primitive cave men, and that their line of life goes back unbroken to the beginning of life on this continent. In their traditions they skip thousands of years from the flood to the present time, and fill the interval with the wildest mythology, or dem(onology. Each leading family has somne great hero or MIanito who overcame these demons and delivered the Indians from their spells; whether you call this hero Manabozho, Neo, Glooskap, Hiawatha, Ti'awa or IHinun, depends merely on the locality; the office is the samne-to benefit mankind —just as it was the office of the evil qualities, personified as Artotarho, I alsum, Enigon-lha-het-gea, and others, to destroy them. One tradition of the Indian origin runs thus: "Neo, the spirit of life, lived in upper space; Atahocan, was the master of Heaven; Tarenyanagon. who is variously known as Mlichiabou, Chiabo, Ma.nabozho, and the Great Iare, was the keeper of Ileaven; Agreskoe was the spirit of war, and Atahentsic was the woman of I-eaven. One of the six Imen originally created fell in love with Atahentsic, and she returned the affection. When Atahocan discovered this, he cast her out of Heaven, and she fell headlong through space until she rested upon the back of a great tortoise lying on the water; while resting there twins were born to her, one Inigorio. or the good mind, and the other Enigon-ha-het-gea, or the evil mind; thus good and evil caine into tlhe world at the same time and were equally active. The tortoise expanded and finally became the earth. Atahentsic had a daughter who bore two sons, Yoseka

Page  26 26 TIHE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICIIIGAN and Thoitsaron. Yoseka killed his brother and b)ecame ruler of the earth; he was the sun, and his grandnother, the heaven-boi n Atahentsic, was the moon." MEDICINE RIG AND MAIEDICINE DANCE Still another tradition is that a great I anito came on earth and married a mnortal womlan. She bore four sols at one birth; Manabozho, the friend of the human race; Chibiabo(s, who has the care of the dead and presides over the countly of souls; \Vabasso, who fled to the north as soon as he was born, in the form of a white rabbit, and was considered a very powerful spirit; and Chokanipok, the man of flint, or fire-stone. The mother died when they were born and MAanabozho accused Chokanipok of causing her death. The contests between them were long and frightful; the face of the earth was torn up and transformed during their struggles, and fragments of flesh were torn frolim Chokanipok and turned into stone. All the fint stones scattered over the earth were produced in this way and furnished men with the element of fire. Mlanabozho finally destroyed him by tearing out. his entrails, which were changed into vines. MI.anabozho taught men to mlake axes, lances, arrowheads, and all necessary implements (f b}one, stone, and wood. IHe also taught thenll to 1lmake nets, snares and tral)s. lie an(l Chibiabos lived together and sp)ent all their time planning things for the good of men. The MIanitos who lived in the air, earth and water (becamle very jealous of them. MIanalbozllo warned his brother of their evil intentions, but one day Chibiabos wandered out on one of the lakes, and the Miianitos broke the ice beneath himl and hid him in the bottom of the lake. In revenge Manabozho waged war against the Manitos and sent a numlber of them to the deepest abyss. IIe then smeared his face with black and sat down for six years to lament; uttering his brother's name all the while. Thel earth was neglected, the whole country in dread. To appease his anger, thle older Manitos, who had not been concerlned in the death of Chibiabos, built a saere(l lodge close to that of MIanabozzho and p)re)pared a sumptuous feast. They then assenllled in orlder, each carrying a sack made from the skin of some favorite animal, such as a beaver, otter or lynx. These were filled with preciols and curious Mledicines culled fron all p1lants. The MIanitos exhibited these and invited MI'analbozho to the feast; on consenting he uncovered his he-ad, washed off his mourning paint, and followed them; when they reached the lodge they gave himl a cup of liquor made from the medicinal plants. Innllediately after (trinking he felt the most inspiring effects. They then commenced their dances and songs. Some shook their sacks at himl, somlle exhibited bags llla(le of the skins of birds out of which smaller birds would hop, and others did curious tricks with their drums; all d(anced, sang, or acted with exactness of time, motion and voice. Mranaboz}lo was cured. and he ate, danced and smoked the sacred pipe with them. In this nmanner the mysteries of the great medicine dance camie into tile world. The Manitos then united to bring Chibiabos to life. Tihey (lid so, but he was not

Page  27 TIIE NORTHEIIRN PENINSULA OF ICIIIGAN 27 permitte(l to ente(r the sacre(l lodge. They gave him a burning coal through a. chillk, and told him to go( ald reig'n ove(r thet land of thie deal. the eolintry of souls; they l)ade him lmake an everlasting fire for his ulliles a(ld allts (all people who should (lie thlereafter) and Illlk(e thlelll hap)p:)y. Aft('r this MIlanabozho visited the Great Spirit, returnled and confirmred the mnlsteries of thle meldicine d(a(e. andll suppllied( all wh olmi he illiticated with niedlicine for the culre of all disea~ses. It is to hil we owe the growth of all medical l)lalts, and the anti(lotes for all tpoisons. IIe entrusted thle growth of them to I\[isukuligakua, mlother of the earth, to wThom he nia(itl offerings. AIlanl)abozhlo eontinue(l his friemlly offices; he killed( the monsters, whlos(e bo)nes are folnd buried in tlle earlthl; he cleared the strealls ald( forests of the olbstructions which the b1ad spIirit hadl put there, and mlade thenl fit for lhabitation; and he l)lacet(l four good(l spirits at the four cardiiinal l)oints, to whill the In(lia-ls M1always I)oint iIi their cerenionies. The slirit of the nIorth gavei' sno\w and ice, to elnable iii(en to i)lirs1le game al(l fishl the sl)irit of thle sithi gave Imelons. mnaize al(1 to(l)bac(co; the( spir'it of thie west gave rain, awlld the spirit of the east. light. Maiabozho also comlmandled tle sln to lltake his (taily walks arolnd the earth. Thunder is the v{oice of these slirits, to whom)l tlle Indianls offer thle simiokel of Sanman (to)c(,eco(). rThe Indlialls elieve(l that ItIanlabozho still lives on an i1iimmense flake of ice in the Arrtic (ocelan l they fear that so(ic day thie white race will fintl lin} a1(l d(rive himi off, and( then tle (end of the worl(l will l coime, for as soion as he pluts his foot on the, earth agaiil it will tlake fire andi( every living,, thilg xwill )(erisli. The.Inndians aco((mlted'(l for their ferocious cruelty al(1 (ldestrult tive nature, which so long retar(le(l their impl)rovemen(t, by) saving thle\ were governedi ly Airtotarlo. the eiitaiigle( h one, oswhose headl, like I\Iedusa,'s, was covere(l wth ith vnthiig snakes; (e rep)resented (llll ing, fiercenesI(,s and cruel skill in war. It wa-s Artotarho, tile slirit of savagery. wh()o overthr(ew the flourishing co()nmmunities of the MIound ]Builders (of l)re-histo(rie Ameriea, and (estroye(l their villages, gardens and 1I()I1(ns. IFor ag(S hle was dominant 1ramong the TIndians, but opposed to hi~m was Iiawatha, literall.x the "river mnaker." Ilis name implied l)pea(e, inter-tribal frieIIdship an(t treaty. IIe induee(l the restless Indians to settle in villages, to add cereals to their fleshl diet; an1(l lhe taught them all tihe arts (If life; to fish, trapl game, make all necessary iutensils Iandi weapons, and l)build coverinigs for themniselves. IIe was the spirit of progress andlll inI)r()Vellent. Personifications are mierely arguiients for the typ)es they represent, anl( tlhe two jlust Ilientioned ind'icate(l the change froml aIl)soliute sav'agerv to semli-barlbarism. Aanabozho was a blendiiig (of the two; of the (unlnillg rIand shrew(iless of Artotarhlo, w ithi the xvisd(loi, skill and 1 )(1enevolence of IIiawathia. TRIBAL G(O)VERNAIENT AND S(CIAIJ CUIST()MS Tihe Inidian fomll of governnient twas Ipatriarchal and (lemIocratic. It consisted priiicilally of a. collecetion of families groupled together as a

Page  28 28 THE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF AlICIIGAN tribe under one governing, t)but not arbitrary chief. The families forming a tribe each liad its own diistincItive (doliain, or totem, a symbolic associationl wlich, once adopted, was rec'ognized and respected by every possessor of a like symbol. So strong is this recognition that even such enemies as the Sioux and Algon(luins said they must be kin, for they had the same totems. The origin of the totei(lss is given in many legends. of which the following is one: "In the days whenl all was new, the Holder of the Paths of Men, the Sun Father, created from his own person two children who fell to earth for tlie good of all that lived. These children cut the face of thie earth with their mlagic knife and were borne dlown upon their magic shield into the caverns where mnen dwelt. These caverns were very dark and men crowded each other as their numbers increased, and they were very unhappy. At last the children of the Sun Father heeded their supplications aind led them out of the cavern, eastward, toward the home of the Sun Father; but, lo! the beasts of prey, powerful and like gods themselves, would have devoured the children of men, so the Two Brothers thought it unwise to permit all of the animals to live, for, said they, 'Alike will the children of men and of beasts multiply, and the children of Iten are the weaker,' so whenever they came across any animals, whether mountain lion or mole, the brothers struck them with the lightning carried in their magic shield, and instantly the beasts were shriveled into stone. They then said to the stone animals: 'That ye may not be an evil unto men, but that ye may be a great good unto them, have we changed you into rock everlasting. By the magic breath of prey, by the heart that shall endure forever within you, shall ye be made to serve instead of to devour mankind.' These beasts represented by stone fetiches were adopted by men as their guardian spirits, each family in the old days having one." Intermarriage carrie( the totem of one family into another tribe, as the warrior followed the clan of his wife and became a member of the family into which he married. The warrior's totem was never changed, merely added to the other; his name might be changed, however, for any act of unusual prowess or skill. Another legend concerning totems is, that many ages ago the "Grand Mother of Life" brought from her home in the setting sun nine separate forms of animal and plant life; these were the deer race, the bear race, the sand race, the water race, the hare race, the prairie-dog race, the rattle-snake race, the tobacco plant race and the reed-grass race. Having located them, the Grand 5Motler transformed them into men and each kept as his distinctive totem the race from which he sprung. The totem was as much of a distinguishing mark of the Indian family as the heraldic devices were in Europe of the families who bore them. Painted upon skins or bark, it marked the warrior's lodge in the village; carved upon weapons, tools and ornaments, it denoted their ownership; in picture writing, the figure of a warrior's totem in connection with other figures, showed his place and share in the transaction represented; and at last

Page  29 TIHE NORTIIERN PIENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 29 it was carved in inverted order upon his grave post (Ajedatig) to mark his resting place. When one thinks how often the device of the bear or sun appeared among the Imedieval Europeans of highest rank he is struck by the affinity of spirit, even if the affinity of race is doubtful. The system of tribal government remained longest with the western Indians. The office of chief was not hereditary, but depended on the personal attributes of the warrior; although preference was given to the son of a chief if he exhibited fitness. No man, lazy in the chase or cowardly on the warpath, could raise himself to the post of honor. The Indians had no belief in caste; to them all men were born free and equal, in a social sense, the only inequality being physical disability. Any man of exceptional courage, eloquence, and personal magnetism might become ruling chief. There were subordinate chiefs and a council of the older men, to assist the head chief. The members of this council were called the Ogemas, equivalent to magistrates. Although the chiefs were the exponents of public opinion, and were eloquent in defending the rights or focalizing the views of their people, it was the council which decided weighty natters, espeeially in settling land questions. Women were never permitted a seat in the council, but soime tribes were so far enlightened that women were represented at their sessions by a chief whose duty it was to look after their property interests; for all property descended in the female line, and "the soil belonged as much to the women who tilled it, as to the men who hunted over it.'" Property might be willed away, but otherwise descended to the children. If a woman married again, it went to the children of her first husband. The Indians believed private rights accrued to thenl from the Great Spirit. An old legend says that "IHinun. the Beneficent, rmade the earth and all it contained for the good of n-ankind, whatsoever is on the land; whatsoever groweth out of the earth, and all that is in the rivers and waters flowing through the earth, and gave it jointly for all, and every one is entitled to his share." It was not until contact with the whites had developed their greed that they came to think they could( sell the land; it belonged to all. Though the Indians we(re much attached to their hunting grounds they held lno individual rights in them. After a raid they did not usually retain possession of an enemimy's hunting ground, but returned to their own. The spoils of war, however, belolnged to the individual cap)tor. Might constitut(ed rio'ht. No restitution of 1persolal property was ever mladel to a weaker tribe. Though the head chief (dellanded( and received due respect, it was necessaiy for hiill to be shrewd and (liplomatic in dealing with his fellows, for the love of )ersonal liberty was too stroing amnong tllem to plermit 1lm111('u arrogance; even in the field the war-chief ha(l to use his Iposwers with caution. This desire for absolute personal libetlty was a cause of weakness, for, although they learned the strength of Iluiorn at an early day, they coull not hold tother lon, this prevented concerted action. There are a few instances where women had b)ecome chiefs on ac

Page  30 30 TIIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICT-IGAN count of exceptional bravery, but as a general thing the position of women was menial and despised. Though they were absolute rulers of the lodges, and the mother-right in the descent of property was comimmon to iiiost tribes. It does not follow that the warrior considered them his equals; it was only that they mnight cater to his comfort and( relieve him of all tedious care-taking that he p)ermitted such absolute sway over household affairs. War -arnd the chase were the warrior's sole business in life, andl he (lid not wish to be hamlpered by (domestic details. War was lln(ldrtaken ltore often to avenge a mIurd(er than for any other reasol; r iot that mur(lder was considered a crime agalillt moral law, for thley had no (oncel)tion of moral law as the whlites un(l(erstand it, i)lt Ca (rilll(, agailnst thle r)prson killed(, only. The (leath of a lleml:)er of ay ClanI lltiust 1)e caulsed I)vy 111align i1nf1ilen( e ( 0f so()e other (lan, and1 b)loo(l (callet( for )loo0(l lefore( the' "1llol:lrniing c(oU(ld be washe(l froml the fa(es.' of thel nearest'kin. It was tihe (ltlt,- of the I(iarest relatives to ac('((lll)lish sih11(1 vellgean('e. This (idt not Ilecessarily involve the xwhole tril)be. thllo(L'h it fre(llueltly- result(ed in a general affilir. WVolilen share(l this bellief and toolk U1l)(o the('selv(' s most of the (lru(lgery of life in or(lderl tlhat tile warrio(r io ght always l)be rea(dy. Trhe wealre r of ttil (eagle feather miuist 1)e a h(ero, or wo~ianlll Awoul(l (lesl)ise Ililll. IMow (cou(l a hero hol( c(oIn aId p1lant S(llash(es, an(l still ilaiIlt1il his (l gilgit y i To a, ertaill (legree thle w\oiiiei were c(li0'elsate(d,( for tile w arrior wVoul(l figtht till (leath to l)rotect hlis wife an(l 1( cillren, an(l l~llVn Stori(s are tol(l of warr(iors xwho took ted(ims jouriieys, or 1) larted withi their valtic(l lIosse(sic(nls to ol)tain llluxuries for a sick wife, or ncc(essaries for tileir families. The Iwllrriage tie was resl(,(cte(l (elleraIlly. wllile it.lasted, )llt it was vervy lax. ')lygailly'.was (,()1111; 1 ( lalll lsuall y malll Inrrie(d tlle sisters or nearest of kin. of his wife in suc-h l)llral ilarriages. They all live(l togctthcr. IIn llna11i tribes thle iiaiiinecr (of liv ilIg was (,oi()nllllllal, 11(l s('veriil f'anlilies. Iuslallly c(onncctcdl o(wccupie(l olic lod(ge. In sich li lod(lge thil chllief ntatron rllled an(dl 1pl)ortioll(,(l thie foo(d ( (1l Iiecssities. (.rol)s i(nd stores were h('l(l ill (0o1i(n1, andl fish and(l game were (livided( c(qllly. Tlhe (ilties of w(olen inelll(ld the Irel)lrillg an1d( storrilg (of i(icat after a chlase; the drying of fish, tile tanning of skinls for (,lotliiing, l)e(lling n11(1 tepee covering. This art they un(lerstoo(( to IcerfectionI, and they also kneNw hoow to color the skills and other -articles, siuch as willows for Ibaskets, with extracts ma(le from the bark of (certain trees, r(oots or b)erries. No d(oubt they knew where to findl illineral (ol(orinlgs also. They sewed the skins with thread madle from the siniews of (leer ad11( other animrnals, using needles made from fish or other bones; or they lace'd themi with raw-hi(le thongs, making the perforations with bone a.wls which they manufactured for that pu rpose. They cultivatdc ( all vegetables knowln to them, and gathered the wild rice, seeds of plants, wild fruits, and certain kinds of roots for (Irying. They made a crd(lte sort oIf clay pottery, and they wove bark fiber into ropes and threadl for nets. They made shuttles, scrapers, knives and other household tools froi)~ bone,

Page  31 TIE NORTIIERN PENINSJtLA OF IAICHIGAN 31 though the liien sometimes mad(e these articles and woodeln bowus and trenchers. UTpon tile womallln fell the work (-f making the poles for the wigwam. of setting themll up land ('(-)vering them. and of taking them lown and pIacking thmn upon the (log train travois; for (logs were the I)easts of bu)rde(n with the In(lidians l)efore horses came to them. The women gathered( the me(liciinal herb)s, an ten(led the. sick, tho~iuh in (cse (of cure the priest got the credlit. They freluently mlade the canoes. either of birch bark, o() a lo(g lurned aid (lug ()ut and fashioned into shape. w)ith the stollne laxes Il(l ('hise(ls tlhat the mien were( expert in maklingl. -lo)th 11'11en iln(d w-(o n we(re skillful in the rise of the p)a(ldle. A il(ong the tril)es w1here skin l)ots w(ere 1use(d ill (I7ssing strealllms tll( \\wi()11(II I1i i(le these to transplort tiheir (1iild rr i and (()ods, nwhile thle ln(le swailll ac'(,'s, or, if i)5(ss55ssilMg ho(rse's, ('1'ss(d \\withl thlll. TIleir metllo(l (f c(()okinlg was ('rule 11(1 (l iffi(ulilt: )()ililgp was fre(lelntlltly a('(ml)l ished( 1,b (l'(llping ho()t sto(les into thel (lisl c(nltailnilg thl(e foo(. Tbis i(itho(d le(ft sonlietliinl to be (lesire(l inl (leai'.1n111l(sS, huit nviiitoe hollusewive(,s hlave no(t sc(orned( to learn froiil thel sq(lnnaws thle (lat )of ~i)iak~iiig sIl(_(,()tash anld h(oem-(calke. With all thllese (lilti(es the b)husyv sq(lUIws founlld( time to o1ratifv their artistic tast(es, as the blaskets, b)llllets, ill(1 tl(he 1)(a(l a1( p()rcu lpi)ie (luill ell)l or(iderlies frolii wvest to east o(ffer sliffit(ient lIr(of. rhll(v tr 'ill(e( ti(ei r c(ilul'len well a e(or (linlr to ti(heir tenelts. Entlura.nle(e was tlhe first. less()n 11 Ill(liai r(c(ive(l, ad111 it \\is tlhe last ae(t,of h~is life. It is ti'(e thalt tihe tilly)y pal)p)o se was strapll)l( to a1 )oai'td, I)lit it was te(de(l(rlv ('ared(1 for, ne(,verthelel(ss. an( the.()ard was made(le (eo(foltable)( witlh s(ft (l(('r skin (cushions stuffe(d with iiioss o0' sw(eet-grass. ai1(ol wa<s (ralllllIt(e(1 witlh thi(ih tl(,est l)e(,(l iad p)liited grass work thalit thle( tl1((tie!' (0111(1 make(. 1l)1 11(0(l1(11 tin es,~ after thi t rail ()f the Rwl it(, mna) ro(sse(t tle ll( (1 the loard( (cra(lle wv-s still furth(r elnhan(ed b1) tinkling ie ('(' () of till. Thl( 111ll, bys sri N w(ere( als loving, if not as musical as iany \vlit(e iilotlier knorws. \Vhenl tl(e liother was busyx the b)oar(l wvas hunl, (on aI tlre, (I)' sto(o(l in (c, corn(er of thile tepee. Once a. day tile ba)ly was' itrlcppc(l 81(1 ter1itt((l tt ( r()ell ul)() tlthe grass, 01' a blanket. lThis (r()ii till(l f(l' al)()ut two yea'rs. A\fter' release fromh thle l)()rd the traininti' of tit(, bo) an(t girol (liffered niterially thle b)oy equipped( with bow 11(1 arri (s nd11(1 s 1'es. ran wil(l. Hle learned to shoot aInd fish, and s5111rea ganie. to sw'illl 11n(1 jllll). Boys fle(w kites, )layed tag. hide an( seek, i)i1I1(1-lIlan's-iluff, s111n(yI. hall and811(1 ln y other games. Inei(dentally, tle(, gill lear1ed1 some of ties(, also 81nd1( she found time to pnlay with (dolls an(1 make cl(otihes for thi(ei as Ot(iher girls (do, but when she was fi(e she bee)((nlle a carrier ()f w()(o(d andl water and had to practice paekig 111(1 'and crryt illg a b)undle upon hert' back. and her toil never ended till she (Ii(i(. ELven whlen thle time came to be married she coll(d not choose for llelself alxvavs, blut was really so(l by) her )arents. There were ameliorating conditions. however, for the girl receive(dl a trosseau slteh as whlite girls (ldo; new clothing of skills tanled soft and white and

Page  32 32 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN fringed, beaded and embroidered; skins for sheets, tanned smooth and whitened with clay; rolls of skins or bark for lodge covering; poles and household utensils of all sorts, were in her marriage outfit. Children were seldom whipped, ducking being a common mode of punishment; but they were given lessons in good breeding that would not come amiss among people claiming more civilization. The dwellings of the primitive Indians ranged from mud huts to frame houses, the more savage and nomadic the tribe, the less use for a permanent dwelling. The wigwam of poles covered with bark or skins was a common form easily prepared, and after horses came to the Indians, easily carried. The wikiop was a variation of the wigwam, often of bushes tied together to form the most temporary shelter. The pipe (opuagun) was the most valued possession of the Indian. Like tobacco (na nimau), it was a sacred gift from the Great Spirit. The ceremony of offering its fumes to Him, as well as to the earth and to the four winds, precedes every serious undertaking. The ancient tribes made the pipes of stone or clay, and these were, some of them, smoked without a stem. No material was considered too fine for the manufacture of pipes, and they were highly ornamented with carvings, mostly in imitation of birds, serpents or lizards, and they were often painted or colored. They were a favorite offering to the Manitos. and countless fragments of them have been found in the earth mounds and around their sacred stone altars. UTENSILS, WEAPONS AND SPORTS Among the many stone utensils mlade by the Indians the axe, (agakwut) is one of the most common. This is properly a pick, as it is not sharp enough to cut down trees. When trees were needed for canoes, or other purposes, they were burned at the base to fell them, and then they were carefully burned to coal on one side, if required for a canoe, and the coal was picked out with these stone axes. A handle was made by twisting a supple withe around the grove of the stone axe, and it could then b)e used for splitting wood. Occasionally axes are found with an eye for attaching the same to a. helve. They are nmade of many sizes and adapted to various uses. The bow and arrow, which were the or(linary weapons, are of such anc ient and world-wide use that no authentic (late is given for their origin. When or how they came into the hands of the Indians no one knows. The stone arrow heads were of many sizes, and suited to the purI)oses for which they vweie relquired; small ones being rmade for boys lwho were enco(uragyed in every way to l),ecolie skillful archers. The shafts were ornamented with feathers. and the owner's distinctive sil, was carved upon them. O(,casionally the arrow heads were made of copper. and iln Ilo(ern tiimes of il on often having several barbs on one shaft. A niore plrosaic, but nearly as useful an article, was the corn pestle, used by the Indian women for grinding dried cherries and acorns, as well as corn, and by means of which the latter was niade into coarse meal so

Page  33 THE NORTI1ERN PENINSULA OF MICIIGAN 33 that it could be used for soup. These pestles were usually miade from a semi-hard rock, and usually weighed five or six pounds each. A very ancient and formidable w eaplon is called by. Schooleraft a balista. This was made b)y sewing a large, round bo)ulder into a fresh skin and attaching a long handle to it. After the skin dried it was painted, and was carried by watrriors who p)luniged it suddenly upon the object to be destroyed; with it a canoe could be sunk. The stone mace, or tomahawk, was somlething like the axe(, only the points were left sharp for cleaving, and there was always a plerforation for a handle. Stone spears were in coimmon use, an(l elisles or scrapers for (dressing skins were likewise made of stone, and were of many sizes. In some of the g'ames played by the Indians stones of variolus sizes and shapes wer(o used; mand in some parts of thle country certain large stones were sacred and were used as altars on which to deposit gifts of tobacco, corn or pipes, to propitiate the MIanitos. The war-club, which was known to most tribes, was usually made of hard wood so carved as to have a heavy ball at one side of the head. The akeeks. or kettles, were usually made by the women, out of common clay tempered with feldspar, quartz or shells. Vases were also made of such materials, but were usually more finely wrought, and were used for holding the foods deposited upon the graves. Their medals. amulets, beads, nose and ear drops were often made of shells, as well as of bones. They p)rizedl other-of-pearl very highly. for they invested the sea with mystical powers, and believed the shells to have some of that power. Their wampum belts, or strings, which took the l)lace of coin. were made of shells. After the white people came among the Indians this wampum acquired a fixed value which varied with the color; purple bein( the highest, and w(hite, the lowest in value. The wamnpum belt was passed as a, guaranty of good faith in making treaties and in other dealings. Among northern tribes who lived mostly on fish, a tool for breaking ice was necessary. Thlis was m'ade of a. prong from the antlers of a deer or elk, and bound firmly to a long handle. Beads, bracelets and mledials, as well as knives, spears and arrow points, were made from copper, a metal more prized than gold or silver. Iron seems never to have b)een l nnown among the ancient Indians. The ad(liration for copper, which was wi(lespread, and the desire of inland tribes for salt and sea shells, led to a comnerce between far distant tribes, of no mean proportions. The old trails through Michigan, to tile copper country, traces of which still exist, are silent witnesses of this ancient custom of exchanging coml}modities. The early Indians were fond of athletic sports. The ring game was a very common amulsement. iiost tribes played some form of it; details differed. but it was essentially the same everywhere. It was played with a, ring of rawllide, usually wound with ralwhide thongs to make it stiff. Vol. 1-3

Page  34 34 THIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN and it was ornamented with beads and little tags, each of the latter of which had some significance. The players, usually in pairs, each had a straight, slender, pointed stick about five feet long, which they threw at the ring as it rolled along the ground, the object being to thrust the stick through the ring; the players keeping pace with it if possible. Among some tribes cross bars and hooks were lashed to the thrusting pole to complicate the game. The relation of the ring to certain parts of the pole determined the points scored by the owner of the pole. If a player succeeded in getting his pole through the ring he won a feat seldom accomplished. In case of a dispute an umpire was chosen from the spectators, and his decision was accepted without argument; a point which might be commended to white players of modern games. Another well known game is baggettaway, or la-crosse, named from the long-handled net, or racquet, with which the ball is thrown. This racquet consists of a small bag made of thongs of rawhide woven into a net and bound to a handle. The players are in two parties and the object is to send the ball to the opposite side, a goal having been located. Two forms of this game are played with these instruments. Sometimes the racquet is merely a ring in the end of a stick, just large enough to hold the ball and throw it. Gambling, which is a passion with Indians, is associated with all these games. A warrior will stake his blankets, ornaments, wife, and even his horses, on the outcome of a game at times. The women gambled too; mostly with a sort of dice game, played with five plum stones. These were blackened and marked with various figures, and were tossed in a small basket; the figures uppermost when they fell indicating the score. In some tribes small pebbles took the place of the plum stones. With the Indians music formed a part of all ceremonies, but it was not of a sort that would mean harmony to white ears, though it meant much to them. In their chants they pictured all the human emotions, of love, anger, fear, hate and hope of life eternal, as well as the pride of victory and the despair of defeat. These chants are preserved on bark scrolls, not in the form of musical notes. but with symbolic figures of birds or beasts which typify human emotions or qualities. The musical instruments of rattle and drum are discordant, but the reed flageolet is capable of sweet, though melancholy notes. D)ancing was not merely an amusemlent with the Indians. though when the hunt was over and food was plenty they were fond of social gatherings in which both sexes took part. They dressed themselves in their finest robes, smeared their faces with fresh paint, p)referably red, and spent their long evenings in feasting and (lancing. For special (ances, which were mostly performed by men, no clothing was worn but the breach-clout and moccasins, though their bodies were carefully painted, white clay being a favorite coloring for arms and legs, while the face and body were painted red, or occasionally green or yellow, and sometimes with a division of color lengthwise of the body. One dance was of a commercial nature in which members of tribes

Page  35 THE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 35 which excelled in the manufacture of certain articles, such as war-shirts, or arrow heads, exhibited these and invited inspection. These primitive commercial travelers went from one tribe to another and were treated as honored guests; the dance being given to advertise their goods was usually peculiar to the tribes they came from. The war dance was merely the ceremony of enlistment; the warriors being always volunteers. The chief merely invited them to a dance but he could not command them to fight. During the ceremony each warrior struck the war-post to signify his willingness to follow the chief on the warpath. The scalp dance, which followed a foray, was ceremonial and superstitious. Every scalp taken gave the owner control over the spirit-life of the enemy. This accounts in a measure for the method of fighting by surprises and ambuscade. It was a disgrace to allow a scalp to fall into the enemy's hands. The chiefs exercised great care over their warriors, and every method was used to kill and to avoid being killed. The medicine dance was strictly religious, though, as with most primitive races, the Indians included with it the art of healing. AIMAGIC ARTS AND SECRET INSTITUTIONS Two of the ancient institutions were known as Medawin and Jeesukawin. The Medawin is the art of magic. 5Men who professed this formed themlselves into bands or societies. There were two classes of magicians; the M(edas, who relied upon magic alone, which was furnished by their sacred medicine bags, and the Mluske-ke-win-i-nee, who ad(linistered both dry and liquid medicines ar(lnd practicedl a very crude and limited surgery. The latter was a physician, and was considered inferior to the Meda. The Jeesukawin was the art of prophesy, and differed from the Medawin il that the priests or Jossakeeds were not banded together but practiced their arts as solitary individuals. The Jossakeed predicts events; the Meda seeks to propitiate them. The Jossakeed addresses himlself directly to the Great Spirit (the Great Hadl Spirit is to be understood, unless the word Gitche is prefixed). Like the Meda, lie uses 1a med(licine sack, as their methods are similar. The drum is used for both. but the rattle is confiiied to the MIeda and Wabeno. The choruses and chaints (f the Jossakeed( are peculiar to his office. A c(andli(date for admission to the MIeda undergoes a long period of fastillg a11d prayer; the service being entirely voluntary. After a sutfficitnlt tille he is fullther pre)pared by at sweat-bath, and during tllis part of tlie ceremlony he is met by the older men( who give him o)bjects of llmagical virtue and hlealing. ITe is then initiated into the infallible secrets of the craft. Tlie admission into the 3leda is mla(le in )llblic, and with a greatt 1deal of cerenioniy. There are three degrees in tlle society; tile Meda. thle Saugtemau and the Ogemalu. 'rle lod(ge in which a MIeda is to practice his art is carefully prepared; the mnagic nunmber four, sacrel to the four winds, being' shown

Page  36 36 TIlE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN by the four posts, four stones, fires and other ways. All shrubbery, or wood detrinental to the patient was excluded, and the shape, position and arrangement carefully planned. The drum and rattle were part of the equipment. After preliminary smoking, dancing and chanting, the patient was brought in and placed in a designated position. No one not invited was permitted to enter. The course of the win(ds and the condition of the clouds were closely observed during the ceremony. As the lodge had no roof, this was easily done. The Meda was usually applied to, after the physician had failed. I-e was also consulted in regard to war and the making of treaties. The Wabeno. which is better known, is considered by the Indians to be a minore modern modification of the 5Medawin. The Manitos showed it to MIanabozho to divert him from his mourning for Chibiabos. It admits a class of subjects prohibited by the Meda; love songs being among its mysteries, which are always conducted at night, the magic fire tricks being more effective at that timie. The orgies of the Wabenos often last all night and are of the wildest character. The word itself is derived from Wabun. or morning light. The Wabenos were "Men of the Dawn." The whole object of Indian secret societies was to acquire power by supernatural means; to propitiate the spirits by chants, incantations and sacrificial gifts, that they might have success in war. hunting and healing, and above all that they might obtain free scope for their social relations and passions. The Wabeno, in particular, exelmplified this. To understand the secret institutions of the Indians a knowledge of picture writing. which constitutes their literature, is necessary. If this was well understood their real life, and ideals, as well as much of their history, would be more plainly revealed. Though the Indian is averse to expressing his opinion of the Deity, and all religious thoughts, yet he Iay, under the symbol of the sun and its relation to other objects. express the supreme goodness and loving care of the Great Father, or he may express strength, malignity, or wisdom, with the figures of a wolf, a serpent, or a turtle. He believes his happiness and future security depend upon his secrecy. This even extends to the speaking of their own names, a thing they avoided doing if possible. The Indian could1 not, however, avoid disclosing something of his inner life when he placed upon skin or bark the figures of animals which represented qualities to him; their position in regard to each other forming the thread of the story. PICTURE 'WRITING Picture writing is no doubt the o(ldest form of literature, and in soi801 degree llas been in use ever since men came upon the earth. Tle po-wer of imitation seems to have been born with the most degraded cave nmei, and thle desire to niake their condition known to their fellow creatures led them to make pictures illustrating their environment. This opens a field of conjecture that takes the mind down through all the ages, and(

Page  37 THE NORTHIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 37 explains in a manner the ancient idolatry which gave vway in time to Christian civilization. The physical traits of the Indians seem to identify them with the ancient stock of Asia, but they apparently separated and came to Amnerica before authentic history began. It is in their picture writing that we must look for traces of affiliation with the ancient Asiatics, whose hieroglyphics form a connecting link. This picture writing was of two forms, one known to the people generally and used for conveying information when traveling, and for marking the grave posts, a duty they were very careful to perform. This common form was called Keke-wi-win. The other was Ke-kee-no-win, which latter was used by the Medas, Jossakeeds, and Wabenos; though many figures were common to both forms the secret magic signs were known only to the medicine men, and 'those they initiated into the secret. It was not unusual for a hunter to pay a heavy price for a hunting song, whose mllagic lie learned secretly from the priest. The Indians have the utmost faith in the power of the articles in the priest's medicine sa.ck. They believe that an arrow, which liad been touched by it, would, if fired into the track of an animal, detain him until the hunter arrived. A similar pow\er could be exerted if the figure of an animal was driawn on wood or bark and subjected to the influence of the medicine, and the incantatiois. IIunters frequently carried bark scrolls with such pictures thereon when oI an n expedition, and such drawings Nwere fre(queit (on canoes, weapons and llhunting gear. HORSES INTRODUCED Horses played a promlilentt part in the evolution of the Indians. They chaliiged him from a w anderiing seeker after food, who fought only for food alnd for self-protection, into an aggressive warrior and raider. lorses came illt(o general use among the Indians by barter with their own race, aplparenltly. but the details as to when and how are entirely lost. Tle Spaniards had visited the Pacific coast long before the white mlan knew anlything of the mainland of the eastern coast, so no doubt thle western Ind(ians 1had horses at a very early date, and these useful aniiials sprlead gra-idually north anld east. Soice authorities give the (late of their reaching the plains as about the year 1804. Tlie Indians thellselves a(ccoluted for the horses as tlhey did for any strange anliml, by calling themr "under-water animals." They have legen(ls of tlie l (orscs having been guided to them by their secret imedicine. which they call '"dreail," or "sleep." Wheni thle Inlians learned the valuel of horses, horse stealing becamle a regulalr bulsiness amlong theml and led to nlore warfare than any other one thing. The I(ndians knew the iwhite men long before they saw\ themn, for the stories of their landing spread tlroughout the various nations. Contact with tile new strange people shook the Indians' faith in thle old gods. for tlIe white peol)le. who did not believe in M:anitos. fared far better than tliex did. Thle white men brought them guns. and soonl tlle 1(o

Page  38 38 TIIE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MIICIIGAN weal)onls w-ere practically abandoned, and the old skill in using them was lost. A'While m1any real benefits werle brought to the Indians by the whlite men, they also brought the curse of liquor, and this proved the undoiIno of the race. It was here in the neighborhood of our northern lakes that the disintegration of the Indian race, the owners and possessors of this country for countless years, began. In closing this sketch of the Indians as a people, the writer feels how( utterly inadequate are the ordinary hand an(d lIind for the task. The subject is so large and the life of these people was so full of poetry and of the most varied and ( beautiful ilagery, of strlength, action and freedom, that it needs a malaster hand to portray it. Of the ferocity and fiendish cruelty little has been said, though the history of the last hundred years reeks with it. They were savages, driven to bay b1y deceit, greed and cruelty. and they retaliated like savages, on the descendants of their oppressors. Thus this fair country, with freedom as its watchword, is stained from sea to sea with the blood of a race who had never known anything but freedomn until the white men camle; and with the blood of their victims, who paid with their lives for the mistakes of their forbears. Some day a writer will appear who will give to this passing race, in word, the justice they never received in deeds, and future generations will realize the sparkle and vim of the long-past ages, instead of the dregs alone. Already the new generations of these primitive forest dwellers are adapting themselves to new conditions, and adding to the training of modern life the keen wit and shrewdness, as well as the patience, which has come to them as their heritage from primeval days. This heritage may lift the race, as it already has individuals, to the same standing in the world as that occupied by their conquerors, the white Americans of the United States. This will be after many years, when the old times and traditions are but faint memories.

Page  39 CIIAI'TER IN TIIE AiIENOMIINEE INI)IANS GENERAL\ CHIIARACTERISTICS AND I-IIST()RY-ORIGIN AND TOTEMS- MENOMINEE CIIIEFS —MANABUSII AND TIE GRAND [MEDICINE SOCIETY —CUSTOMS OF IPRIMITIVE 1IENOMINEES -TrE STUIRGEON \WAR When Nicolet. on his famous expedIition of 1634, arrived on the shores of Green bay he found a pl)opulous trile of Indians inhal)iting the region and dwelling along the 5Menominlee. Oeonto and Fox rivers. In the "Relationis" concerning this journey tlese Indians were described as speaking a dialect difficult to unlderstand, but which Nicolet identified as Algonqllin. IIe says. "They were lighter complexioned than other Indians, and expert at hunting and fishing.ll These were the MAenomllinees. The name is derived from Oina-Nominiee, (Mano-me [rice] and inMa. [man]). It is the Algonquin term for wild rice, which was a staple article of food with themi, as it grew plentifully along the rivers and streams. The French called the tribe and grain b)oth, "folle avoine," or "wild oats." There arl' as manyl variations of the spelling of this, and the world Alenominee. as there were writers to make them. GENERAL CIARACTERISTICS AND HISTORY Many early writers agree with Nicolet in giving the AMenominees finer general characteristics than were possessed by other Indians. Charlevoix described themI as being the finest and handsomest he inet, saying: "They were straight, of me(diulm size, well built, complexions fair for savages, eyes large and laughing." IIe and other writers considered that they were not numerous. Their manner of living-mostly upon fish, grain, maple sugar and wild fruits-made them more sedentary in habit, and less warlike than their neighbors, though, later, when allied with the white settlers in the early stmlggles between the French and English for supremacy in this country, the AMenominees were reported brave and faithful; a record they have maintained ever since. There are traditions to the effect that the Menominees were originally part of the great Algonquin nation which inhabited the Nippissing district in Canada, and that they were either driven out, or separated from 39

Page  40 40 TIE NORTIIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN the inain body, and, after wandering about some time, and aided by their allies, the Ottawas and Chippewas, drove out the Sauks and Foxes from the land along Green bay shore, and took possession thereof. Such was the report of Jedediah Morse, in his report in 1822. When discovered here by the early white explorers, the iMenomiinees were living on friendly terms with these tribes and with their neighbors, the Winnebagoes. They did not engage much in distant raids, but were willing to profit by the acts of warlike tribes, and occasionally bought slaves from the Sauks and Ottawas who went beyond the Mlississippi at times, and captured individual Indians from the western tribes and brought them back as slaves. All these slaves were called Pawnees, though they frequently came from other tribes as well as the Pawnee. The slaves were usually very harshly treated by their Indian masters, though sometimes young girls became wives of their owners and received as much consideration as any Indian woman was accustomed to. The Menomlinees do not seem to have played a prominent part in history until about the time of Pontiac's conspiracy. Their relations with the French were (most friendly, and in many instances Frenchmen married( Mtenoiniee women, and the family tie was always a strong point with the Indians. The Menominees were disposed to be friendly with the English, but the cold contemplt of the latter for anything different from their own eusto(i.s aroused Indian animosity, and it was so tactless and imlike the suave politeness of the French. who carefully considered the Indian's di(nity and general vanity. that the contrast Nwas not favorable to the English. Like all the Algonquin tribes, the MIenominees shared in the uneasiness stirred up by Pontiac, the famous Ottawa, whlo was farsighted enough to see the beginning of the end for his race, and who strove in his own savage fashion to arrest the fate and stay the flood of coming years. There were Mlenomlinee Indians among the tribes led by Pontiacu, under command of Sieur Charles de Langlade, in 1755. when Braddock's forces were nearly extcermlinated at Fort (du Quesne. They were also with the French at the siege of Quebec in 1759, and several prominent Menominees, amonr them Glode (Son of old Carron) were in the fight on the Plains of Abraham, and present at the fall of M1ontcalm. Osauwishkeno (the Yellow Bird), Kachakawasheka (the Notch Maker) and the elder Carron, were also in that battle. There were also Menominee Indians present at Michilimackinac when the massacre occurred there in 1763, though, like the Ottawas, they refrained from taking active part at that time. It had been part of Pontiac's plan to capture Green bay also, and a band comnposed of Ottawas, Chippewas and Pottawattomies had been detailed for that service, but the MIenolminees and other friendly Indianls prevented its accomplishment, and when Lieutenant Gorrel, the officer in charge, was ordered to abandon this post and go to MIackinac, a party of Menominees, under Carron. accompanied him. The English

Page  41 TIlE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 41 showed their appreciation of this service by comnlending the Melonlinees highly, and pi-esenting Carron with a large silver medal, and a certificate recognlizing his chieftainship. The relations between the English and the Alenomlinee Indians had become of such a friendly nature that when Sir William Johnson called a council of various tribes, at Niagara, in 1764, to urge friendly relations with the English, a party of four hundred and ninety-nine lenoninees wenit as delegates, though we (do not find that they again rendered any signal setvice to the English until the outbreak of the Revolution. -It llas been (estimated that about one hundred and fifty warriors served in tlhe Revolutioilary war. In 1.81.0 messeigers calkme fromi Tecu(iiseh and his pIrophl)et brothler, Els-lquatana, inviting the Mlenominees to join the gr(eat Illdian federation against the Americans wlhich the Shawnees were trying to effect. The Ienomninees r efulse(. but they.joile(l thle lBritish in the vwar of 1812 aii(l serve(l nn(le r (Colonel Ro)bert i)icksonl in compillany \\withl a band of Sioux, who, though they were the trad(itional e'ncllles of thle Ienominees and C(lhil))ewas. allale conmmon catue with theml at this timen, and were in 1)icksoli's attack on the Americ(ansl at \Iackinaw. They- did( not. however, take a very acfti\ve palrt. Beceause of thalt alliance with t.he Blritish, a. treaty! of peace became In('('essary at tl t close of tihat warr anl(l (ole was adolpted and signed (l arch 30, 1817 — \illialm Clark, Linilan Edwards anld Augliste Choteau acting for the Ilnlite(l States. a.tld thce followvingt named chiefs for tlhe i (llelommeslic Tonaapee ( Rorl'illng Tihuider), Weekey ((Calltnet Eagle). Iuequi(ntoIota. (Foot of the Ieair). A\Va(aquo.i. or Sh()omi. \w'arl)ian (rThe I)awn) Ilnemikec (The Thulndecer). I eIl,iarnla(( (Thlie ear), Karku(ldego, Shashanmanee (Thie Elk) aI(Id eItonaie (The Riunning,, \V0olf) T'Ie territory claimed by the I[enonmiiees amoIuIte(l. in a Trough estililate. to eight thousandl slual'e iles. 'rilhe claiiied all of G reen bay and(l its islandls, a(li oil its niorthwe\st shore they claimed(l frl()o Sho()skonabi (ELscananla) river to the uplc)er forks of the MIelnollinee. thein we'st anl soith to thel Chlil-pewa. andl \ise(onsin rivers. an to 1ake '\illn(ebago, including apilproximately all the nloitheast corner of Wisconsin, 1an1d about one-fourth of thie I t)I)er P'eninsiull of MIclhigai. It Ihas been asserted that their western o))oldaryv was the lisississil)pi river. but the tine extelit of their territory is not exactly knowns,l and it is proba.ble thlat tile wilelll)ages, who were always friendly with thlm and Nwh(o were l)a'tics to tie a( ects of relil(llishlllent, were co-cllaimants to paI)lrt of the territy! released. In 1821 tie Ilenol(inees ald Wi\ nnebagoes sold part of their lands to a (lelegation of New York Indians rel)resentce(l by Elcazer \Villiamss. t(he llllan who claimlied to be louis SVII. the lost (lIaul)hin, s()i of louis XVI and 1 ary Antoinette. In 1822 they i1cirealsed( the tract by selling colmsiderable mumore of their land, and this was tie b)eginiim)g of wha\ t is known as the Oneida settleimeint ill thlI theln Ale(iioil'ee' territ(ory. Tlhe iAlenolilmines, imlldeed w-ent. so far ill tile treaty of 1822., as to

Page  42 42 THIE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN cede to the New York Indians a riglht in common to all their lands; and this for a trifling consideration. The Winnebagoes were not parties to that treaty. Thle M\Ienominees soon realized they had )een overreachedl and repented their bargain. and they found an excuse for repudiating the treaty by claiming that several of their chiefs were not present when it was made. In fact, the part of the treaty granting common use of all the lands to the New York Indians was not approved by President Monroe, and so the Oneida settlement was limited to practically the same territory occupied at the present time. A treaty was mlade at Butte des AIorts, on the Fox River. in 1827, in which an attempt was mIade to define the boundary lines of the Menominee, Chippewa and Winnebago tribes. This treaty was signed by Lewis Cass and Thomas L. Mc[Kenna, as commissioners for the United States, and by many prominent [Menominee Indians, among them Oshkosh (Bear's Claw) and Josette Carron (Wabaoqhin);); and it was witnessed by Henry R. Schooleraft and others prominent in early history. This treaty failed to give satisfaction to the Indians, and it was not until 1831 that matters were amicably adjusted, at which time the Stambaugh treaty was signed. There was delay in ratifying this and it was not promulgated until 1832. By this treaty the Menominees protested that they were under no obligation to the New York Indians, but yielded to the wishes of the President of the ITnited States because they were allies and friends, and so would set aside a portion of land for the use of the New York Indians; Nottoways, the Menominees called them. From the land so ceded timber and firewood was reserved for the use of the United States garrison, as also was sufficient land for public highways. By a treaty made in 1848 between the United States and the Menominees, the latter agreed to sell, cede, and relinquish all their lands in Wisconsin and northern Michigan, wherever situated. As consideration for this, they were to receive certain lands which had been ceded in 1844 to the United States by the Chippewas of Lake Superior and of the Mississippi valley, and were also to receive some lands ceded to but not yet assigned to the Winnebagoes, as well as some money consideration. This treaty was ratified in 1849. The Menominees, however, were unwilling to go to the Chippewa land west of the Mississippi, and especially desired to remain in Wisconsin, and so a supplementary treaty was made in 1854 in which the Menominees relinquished the land theretofore ceded to them, and received in exchange a tract of ten townships, equal to about three hundred and sixty square miles, bordering on the Wolf river in the northeastern interior of Wisconsin. It was well wooded and filled with lakes and rivers, thus affording good fishing and hunting. This is known as the Keshena reservation. Participation by the Menominees in the conspiracy of Pontiac brought them more or less into history, and it is from this source, as well as tradition, that we obtained knowledge of their civic government. They claim always to have had a first, or head-chief, and a sec

Page  43 TIIE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF 5MICHIGAN 43 rnd( or war-chief, besides m11any sub-ce hiefs nwho were heads of balnds. If thie hlead clhief (lie(l his soin succeede(l himn, unless someone mlore lpopular influenced the tribe in his own1 behalf. There( seeims to be two lines, from both of which claimants have arisen to the office of headchief. but the O(wasse, or Blear totem, is recognized lby the hl( ians as tradlitionally the older <an(d the true liine of ldescent. ORIGIN AND TOTEMS The following niyth relating to tile origin of the Mnclloiniee totems will explain the conflict of claims. There were foriierly a great number of toteins. but manxy are now7 extinct. "Wh(en the Great Aylstery malde the earth he created also nmlielous beings called \Ianidos, or spirits, giving them the forms of animals and birds. I\Most of the animals were malev\olent Ana-iaq(lki-u (underground beings). The birds consisted of eagles and h1aw ks, known as the thunderlers, chief of which was the Invisible Thundler, r1epr-esented 1b Kine-u, the Golden Eagle. When Masha-\lanido, the Cood Mystery, saw that the bear was still an animal lie (letermined to allow him to change his form. The bear, known as Nanoqke, was l)lekased at what the Good Mystery was going to grant him. Ie was made an Indian, though with a light skin. This took place at Mti-nikani-sepe ('Menominee river), near the spot where its waters empty into Green bay. Ile found himself alone, and decided to call to himself, Kine-u (tlle eagle). Ile said 'Eagle come to me and be nmy brother.' Thereupon the eagle descendes d and became a mnan. \While they were considering whoml to call to join them they saw a beaver approaching. The beaver asked to be taken into the society of the thunderers, but, being a woman, was called Nana-u-u-kin (leaver Woman), and was adopted as a younger brother of the thunderers. The totem of the beaver at present is called 'I'owatinot.' Soon after the bear and eagle were standing on the banks of a river and they saw a stranger, the sturgeon (Namia-eu). IHe was adopted by the bear as a younger brother and servant. Likewise Omaskos, the elk, was accelpted by the eagle as a yoluger brother and iwater carrier. "At another time the bear was going up the Wisconsin river and, becoming tired, sat down to rest. From beneath a nearby waterfall Moquai-o, the wolf, emerged, and approaching the bear asked why lie had wandered to that place. The bear said he was on his way to the source of the river, but was tired and unable to travel further. At that moment, Ota-tshia, the crane, flew by, and the bear called to him and said 'Crane carry me to lmy people at the head of the river and I will take you for my younger brother.' As the crane was taking the bear on its back the wolf called out 'Bear, take me for a younger brother also, for I am alone.' The bear accepted him and this is how the wolf and the crane became younger brothers of the bear. As MIo-quai-o, the wolf, permitted Anam, the dog, and Aba-shush, the deer, to join him afterwards, these three are now recognized as a sub-brotherhood. The

Page  44 44 TIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICIIGAN wolf is still entitled to a seat in the council on the north (the strong) side, while the Bear claw, Ina-makiu (the Big Thunder) lived at Winnebago lake, near Fond du Lac, Wisconsin. The Good lMystery made the thunderers the laborers, that they might be of benefit to the whole world. When they return from the southwest in the spring they bring the rains which make the earth green and the plants and trees to grow. If it were not for the thunderers, all green things woulld wither and (lie. "The Good TMystery also gave corn to the thunderers-the kind known as squaw corn, xwhich grows on small stalks and has various colored ears. "The thunderers were also the makers of fire, which they first received from Mana-bush, who had stolen it from an old man who lived on an island in the middle of a great lake. "The thunderers decided to visit the bear village at Minikani, and when they arrived they asked the hear to join them, promising to give corn and fire in return for rice, which was the property of the bear and sturgeon, and which grew plentifully along the waters of MTinikani. The bear family agreed to this, and since that time the two famnilies have lived together. The bear family occupies the eastern side of the council, while the thunderers sit on the western side. These latter are the war chiefs, and have charge of the lighting of the fire. "The wolf came from Moquaio, O-sepe-ome (Wol.f. his Creek); the dog (Anam) was born at Nomawiqkito (Sturgeon bay); the deer (Abashush) came from Shawano Nipe-se (Southern lake), and they joined the wolf at the lMenominee river. After this union the bear built a long wigwam extending north and south, and the thunderers built a fire in the middle of it. From this all the fanlliies received fire which wAas carried to theml by one of the thunderers. When the people traveled the thunderers went on ahead to a camping place and started the fire to be used by all." The following are the t e nominee toteils at present. arranged according to the respective families and the order of their illmportlance: First-Owasse, Widlishi-anum, or bear family; Owasse. bear; Kitami, porcupine; Miql-ka-no. turtle; Ota-tshia, crane; Mloqw-aio, wolf; Mikek, otter; No-ma-eu, sturgeon; and Naku-to, sunfish. Second-Ina —laqkiu, Widishi-anum or Big Thunder family; Kineu, golden eagle; Shawa-nani, forktail hawk; Pinash-in. bald eagle; Opash-koshe, turkey buzzardl; -'akash-tshe-ke-u, swift-flying hawk; Pekike-kune, winter hawk (now migrating) Keshewatoshe, sparrow hawk; Mcia-k-okani, red-tailed hawk; Kaka-ke, crow; Inaqtek, beaver; Piwat-inot, beaver; Omas-kos, elk; and lina-wanenk, pine sqllirrel. Third-Moquai-o, Widishi anuni, or wolf family. The wolf was recognized as belonging to the bear clan, but is properly at the hecad of the third family; AMoquaio, wolf; Anam, (log; and Ab)a shuish, (leer. The Owasse, or bear totem, included as a sub-famnily the two brothers Namanu, beaver (the Beaver was of the Thunder totemn also); and Osass, muskrat.

Page  45 TIlE NORTIERN PENINSUIA OF MICIIIGAN 45 The Kine-u wi dishi amun, or eagle falllily, was a sub-family of the thunderers and includeld Pinashui, bald eagle; Kaka-ke, crow; Inaqtek, raven; Ma-qkuana-ni, red-tail hawk; Ilinana-shiln, golden eagle; Penike Konani, fish hawk. The Ota tshia, or crane sub-family of the bear, had the following totels: Ota-tshia, crane; Shaka-shakeu, great heron; Osse, old squaw duck, and Oka-wasiku, coot. The AIos \Vi(dishiianun, or MAoose family, sub-order of the thunderers, consisted of AIo's, moose; Oniaskos, elk; \\Vaba-sliu. marten; and the AWu-tshek, fisher. After the totems united into a bo(dy for mutual benefit they were still, according to the myth, without food( or medicine or the knowledge of means to protect themsselves and provide necessities. The Good 1yvstery saw how they suffered from disease andl want, and the annoyance of the wicked underground beings, and, having pity on them. sent AManabush, one of his companion lysteries, down to help them. 'Tis story is told in connection with the Mitaw-ok, or me(dicine rites. These totems, ulwich are the heraldic ensignia of the IMenominees. were highly regarded by them. They shared the general belief that there was kinshipl between the individuals of different tribes, who possessed the same totem, even though the tribes were hereditary enemies. They also disliked to kill an animal of the totem to wllich they belonged, particularly if this was the same as their personal guardian, or me(licine. When tlis became necessary the hunter first apologized to the animal for depriving it of life, and refrained fromi eating certain portions of it. For instance no bear man was permitted to eat the flesh of the lear he had killed, thouoh lmembers of the other totems might do so. The hunter might eat the lhead and paws, carefully placing the bones upon a shelf afterwards. To treat these bones irreverently was an1 insult. \ IENOM I NEE C I IE1S Our historical knowledge of the AIenonlinclle chiefs begins with Tsheka-tsheke-miau, or Tshilake-tsihokla —mau. Old Chief, or the Old King, as he was called by early writers. lie was the hlead of the Owasse, or bear do-da-mi. II(e was htea chief in 176;3. anl at the time of his death in 1821 lie was believed to be a hundred years old. lIe was no public speake.r but a man-I of good( sense, an(ld was gr(eatly beloved by his l)eople. Sometimes lhe was known 1as Ca-k11a-chloka-ma, nd also as Chawavn1au (Shaiw1ano) or Southlerner. The certificate given hiit by Governor Ilaldemandl o of Clanada il 177S, recognizing hlim as grand elief of the.Ienominees, beamrs t}his last lnaell owinlg probaIbly to his havillg c(ome fromi a mlore soutlhemn tril)e. Tills c(ertificate is lpreserved in the albinet of the \\isconsiI llistolical Society. The name Old Chief was undoubtedly given him late in life. IIe left one son, _Akwilneni, wtvlo does not appear to (have been prominent. Thlls son had two children, chlief of whom was Oshkosh, or Bear's Claw.

Page  46 46 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN It will be observed that the Menominees had departed from the ancient mother-right in line of descent, and the children were all of the Owasse, or bear totem, though allied frequently through the mother's line, with other totems. Oshkosh was born in 1795 and began his career while a youth of seventeen, as he was in the war of 1812, under the special care of Tomah. He also served under Colonel Stambaugh in 1832. Iis name, Oshkosh, signifies bravery. The Bear signifies courage, as well as wisdom, a quality he was noted for. As an orator he had no equal among the Menominees, and few superiors among the white people. IIe was not a large man physically, but possessed good sense and much shrewdness. IHe marred his good qualities, however, by excessive drinking. IIe was first recognized as head chief at the council at Butte des Morts in 1827. Governor Cass, who had found the Menominees practically without a head, conferred a medal of recognition upon him. He was already very prominent among the Indians, to such an extent in fact that, after committing a murder during a drunken spree, about the time of the council, he escaped with only a severe tongue-lashing from the woman who was next of kin to the victim; though she might, by taking a pipe and a war club and laying them at the feet of any Menominee chief, in accordance with their custom, have demanded and secured immediate vengeance. Oshkosh was married several times; his first wife being Bambani (Flying about the Sky) of the Ina-maqkiu dodami (the Thunderers). There were three children from this union, Akwinemi, Niopet and Kosh-ka-noqui. On the death of Bambani, Oshkosh married Shaka non in (Decorated with Plumes). She had no children. Later he married Tomokoum, who had one daughter, Kino-ke. This daughter married first Charles cICall, and second, her cousin, A-pain-sia. Oshkosh died in 1858, and was buried near Keshena on the present reservation. Ilis name is eperetuated by a prosperous city in Wisconsin. I-is oldest son, Akwinemi (In the AIouth of Everybody) succeeded him in 1859. IHe was born in 1822. In 1871, while under the influence of liquor, he stabbed a mrian, and as a result he was deposed and imprisoned. IIe tried to recover his office after his release from prison, but did not succeed, and never regained his influence. lis brother Niopet (Four in a I)en), succeeded him and still holds the office of head chief. IIe and his brother claimed to be the only full blooded iMenominees at the present time. Through his mother, Niopet writes the totem of the thunderers with that of the bear. IHe is described as "being about five feet, nine inches tall, of light brown color, high cheek bones and decidedly like a Japanese in appearance (a likeness that is frequently noticed in various tribes). Ie is a judge of the Indian court, a man of honor and veracity, and is universally respected. Ile is also one of the chiefs of the MitIa-wit. and is enthusiastic in his devotion to the traditions and rites of this ancient order. In spite of his own convictions, he has permitted and even urged his

Page  47 TIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 47 children to adopt the Christian religion. Iis wife, Wa-benomita-nou (Wabeno woman) of the Pa-kaa-qkiu dodaim, is a sister of Shunien (Silver Money) head of one of the Menominee bands, and both are descendants of Tomah: his grandchildren. She is described as quite good-looking but rather stout. She has had fourteen children; two sons, Reginald and Earnest, being now living. Reginald, who is well educated, was a student at the Normal School in Lawrence, Kansas, and is direct heir to the office of head chief. IIe married a Miss Roey Wilbur, who has some Menominee blood. Their son, born in 1893, continues the Owasse dodami as the ruling totem. Earnest, brother of Reginald, lives at Keshena, the headquarters of the tribe. IIe is steady and gives promise of making a good citizen. The second line of Menominee Chiefs claim descent from Thomas Carron, a French half-breed trader, who, with some of his descendants, figured extensively and creditably in Menominee history. Old Carron, as he was familiarly known, was born near Montreal a.bout the year 1700, and his mother was an Abanaki Indian. The Indians called him Karon, or Koro. He came to Green Bay shortly after its founding. His wife was a Menominee woman named Waupesesin (Wild Potato). She was a sister of a prominent Menominee chief. Carron was well liked by the tribe. At the time of Pontiac's conspiracy, an attempt was made to get him to carry the wampum belt to the Menominees and to use his influence in persuading them to join Pontiac's forces. Iis brother-in-law, Wau-pe-sepin, acted as emissary to himn, but Carron declined and helped to keep the 5Menominees on a friendly footing with the English. who appreciated his assistance and rewarded his devotion. Hie was also on good terms with the French. and in 1763 was spokesman for the old chief, Sheka-tshekiue-mau. Carron was regarded as the handsomiest man among the Menominiees. IIe had two other wives besides Waupesesin, and had children by all of themi; so his descendants are numerous. One of his wives was a Sauk woman whom he met on a war expedition against the Pawnees. Hlis children by his AMenominee wife were Konot, Tomah, Karon or Shekwauene, Aia-mita, and three daughters, one of whom was named Katish. These children were all of the lPa-kaa.-qkiu, or prairie chicken dodalni. Carron died in 1780). at the age of eighty years, and was succeeded by K onot, his oldest son. This is the Menominee version of Claude, or Glode as it was generally called. Konot was born in 1716 and was tall, well )rop)ortiotied and of great personal strength. Sometimes at ball play when two or three would spring on him to hold him back, he would dash ahead, not minding them in the least. As an orator of his trile he was noted, and his speeches were sensible and to the point. lie was also a v-ery successful hunter and trapp)er, accomplishments which endeared him to the Indians quite as much as did his gift of speech. Konot was married twice, but the names of his wives are not known. Their children were Konot, Carron, Dzho-seqkwaio, Shanot, lMargaret and Ashawa-Kanou. The last named daughter of Konot, or

Page  48 48 TIIE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Glode, married a. mixed blood Ottawa named Kakwai-tosh, and hlad six children, whose names were Nika-naw-ohano, known as Louis Bernard Kakatosh; I)avid Kakatosh; Sabatis, known as Jean B.attiste. or John Kakatosh; Shanik, or James Ka-ka-tosh; Margaret and Susan. Louis and John are now well known citizens living in Menominee. David and John served honorably in the Civil war. D;avid lives at Keshena reservation. Margaret, now Mrs. LaFramlbo, lives in Menominee and is a respected citizen, as are in fact the entire family. This account of the Kakatosh famiiily is in accordance with the record in the Smithsonian report of 1892 and 1.893, but John and Louis Kakatosh both insist that their mother Ashawakanau, was the daughter of Tomal, and not of Glode, and that therefore their descent should be traced through Tomah's line. In proof of this John Kakatosh says he remembers his mnother's account of her brother Josette. who died in 1831. and also remembers the death of her youngest brother, Glode or Konot. son of Tomah by a second marriage. This uncle of John and Louis Kakatosh was frozen to death at Lake Winnebago, New Year's day, 1847. John says he had seen him the day before, and that he himself was then fifteen years old. His mother and his brother Louis attenlded the funeral. Ashawakanau died July 15, 1849, at Bay Settlement. Wisconsin, at the age of sixty-five years. The Ottawa mother of Kakatosh, who was the father of John and Louis, was named Okewa. She became Christianized. and was baptized Margaret at Green Bay. She lived to be one hundred and twenty-five years old, her death occurring at Bay Settlement about 1859. The following story was related by her to her grandchildren, and John Kakatosh, who personally knew White Hawk, once a prominent chief, heard the same story from him also. I give it in the idiom of the narrator. "'When all were Indians here, the Big Medicine man-warrior was in New York. and gathered all his neighbors to go to Quebec. lIe was head chief of Menominees then, Medicine Man and Warrior. At Quebec lie made lots wigwam; had about three hundred men besides women and children. Ile told his neighbor 'tomorrow will see a big thing come over fromn the East;-a vessel.' Those Indians were afraid of the vessel coming. Medicine man said 'Don't you run away; he is goilg to be our friend.' The Frenchmen took a yawl boat and came ashore. 5Medicine lman called to the Frenchlllan 'Que bee(' meaning to get off the boat, to conie ashore, and so the Frenchmen called the place Quebec. "The Frenchmen gave the Indians lots of b)lankets and guns. Then the Frenchmen started to go back across the ocean, and when the Frenchmen wentt out past a big point they saw the English boat on the otiher sid(l of the pIoilt. Both boats went across the ocean and each( claimted to halve found the p)la(e —(liscovered it-but the Indians kllew tle Frenchlmen were here first. "The lEnglislh ail(1 French governmlents said ' \e'11 fight for that.' Frenchle(-n buried a silver ( cup at Quebec to mmark their (1iscovery.

Page  49 THlE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF" M\ICh-IG.AN 4 49 Eitgl islinteni when they\ caitne wvest, sp~otte(d a, tree and inarke(1 the time vind htow mnany) there wvere. Tha t was aroundtebgpin rmQe lbee. W\hen Englishm-ien (,aloe lbaek aend Frenechiaen pointed out the buie eipl the Eniglisli said 'You ttmist buried it todIay. you got no SIgn, Iin the tree.' They th~en eomineitced to fight:-the Enlglish anTd the F r t('10'l. Freitehl officer go(t wvounded wvithi lbllet in hefll vand (1ied befor~e taomngii~. Thel( Freniefiiien tolli the Engri sli to vise the, 111(1 iaills weoll. *jnst like the ir ehildlreu, an-d that is h1(w thec F renelinteni and the( tJilgi ishl ott 1 thle 111(11 ns. coitiW togyether InI Cnoli.'' Johnl K Ikotosh -says thatt his Ittother go)t this story fto 0111cl he oet.1and tlat it wavs exactl v thle so-c me I inmenng s tha(,t told 1v \Vh ite ho wk to hinti. Tronlto ( Corronl) was b)orn1 ot O1(1 Co-rron 's villoge ottI the wvest hanlk o)f tit ( Fox ri ver. 01p)1 site 0Gteenl By. Ile was genlerlly11 rego tilded oIs 0 chlief, inl eolrlv life. 011(1 \XvO5 s 8Siintilentiol1, thoughfl Itot so1 higrh inl toti1k os woas It s brothler Konlot, or 01 ale. A fter i\(11 o)t (lied rio~ill'.1 hbeeontle 1 roctico flv~ thle heo.d of tile M\enlolltineies. though (I hle 01d(1 Chef. slheko'tsiloko.e-ittott, Wfls loitlinlliv heo-d ehiief (tndoutivedi Trotoolt. Ai~r. (4rignon1 savs (I Toiwih thot 'lie( wa8bout six feet in hieighit. spare., wvith (lark eolored eves, hac'ndsomle, fea-tures ovmd wa(,s very prepo)ssessinig; ''also that "his Speeches wvere ito)t loiitir, but. poinlted anld exlpressive. le wAN'Is firm, lprldelnt, p)('eeo hble 011( coiteil iatory."'Cpti Zebnlon MI. Pike, who tttet Toittai Ill the spring (If 1806. above Cleair WV-ater river onl thle up1)(wt IXississim)pi, wAhete Totnail. and hIs, hnud (If Mfeitotititees ltaid beeni on 0l wvilter~ huutt, sIays (If hini1 ' Tis r1oittaih Is a finie fellowv, of avr 11tt1ascililte figuIre. noble and aniniated delivery\, 01m( seelnis to he ntlueh attoiehed to the Amierienm p~eopIle.''lealosy S1'8 ' This ehief wa~s an extraordina~ry hun-ter; for instainee, hie killed fortyv elk and a hear inT otte clala (hoingu the forniter fronti dawni until eve." ' ne followingr story. told 1w Mr. Jam~les WV. Biddle, ]isllutates Toilttlah's prulence amd fore]ihlt 'In 1810 or I1811 whv~en Teeminsebi was forndtng ti's get Indian (Ot iifederation to drive back the eni'roaehtichno Atttrieans, hIe visitedl Green Boy and1 obtained a c'ounteil an(1 hearinig front Toittah onlhis peoplle, wltott lie a(1(ltes~s(' ill a Manneit(r he Ilhest kttexw howv to do. Inl true lindian11 slirit hte p)ic.tured tlte glory endl ('erta initv (If sueeess, and1 ais oes e (apIitltlatedl Itis owit prosperous ca-reer, thte numiber of battles hie hod fough'1t, the victories wNonl, thte enettttes slain, 011(1 the nuttnber of sea-lps Ite" 110(1 tolkeii. rntthi wos sensible of the effect of such oni address upon Itis pcople ovid feared its cowtseqjueit(e. As ite was o1pposed to lea-dinig lthet into wo lr, Itis r-eily wa~s colcula1"ted to allaly tite feelingr etl~genlere(1 0(1lie closed( Itis re-Ittit vs, by sayling to his people ''You have lteo rd thte Nvoths (If Tec~lltttselht Ile id of thle boIttles Ite has folugltt, thte ('netilies Ite Itos shland01( tile s('alps he Itas talken.'' lie theit lpausedi, ovlid while Seict('c rigited supreitte, Ite, sl;owly ro sed Itis li0nmds, wvith his eves fixed ()tt thtctt, 0.11(1 said 'l na lowver, but lproudler voice ''hut it is myv boast that thlt(se Italnlis are un11sta-ined withlhunitan 1)0(od.'' The effect was tretnien(louis. and admiuration was foreed from those who did itot aipprove of the ntora.l. ittplied. The gravity of tile couneil wa,_s disturbed for a moment Vol1. I- 4

Page  50 50 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN by a murmur of approbation, and then he concluded with remarking that he had ever supported the policy of peace, as his nation was small and weak; that he was fully aware of the injustice of the Americans in their encroachments upon the lands of the Indians, but that he saw no relief by going to war, and would not lead the tribes to do so, but that if any of his young men desired to leave their hunting and follow Tecumseh, they had his permission to go. His prudent council prevailed. Tomah and about a hundred of his warriors accompanied Colonel Robert Dickson, in 1812, in the capture from the Americans of Fort Ilackinac, but they did not do any fighting. Oshkosh was, on this expedition, under Tomah's special care. In 1814, with about eighty MIenominees, he again accompanied Colonel Dickson and took part in the battle in which the American commander, Major Iolmes, was killed. Tomah was of the Pa-kaa-qkiu dodanli. His first wife was a Menominee woman named Kina-komi-qkin (Wandering Around). By her he had two sons, Josette and Ma-qkatabi. Tomah is said to have separated from this wife and afterwards to have married two sisters, by one of whom he had four children, of whom one was named Glode. It is stated that Tomah died from excessive drinking, owing to mortification at his treatment by the English, who surprised him by a change in their policy. According to SMr. Grignon and Mr. Biddle, this occurred in 1817, though Tomah's grave-post upon Mackinaw island, where his death occurred, bears the date of 1818. Ile had been on a trip to Drummond island to receive the usual annual gifts from the English, and these being refused he felt too chagrined to return to his tribe. IIe was deeply mourned by his people, and his funeral was conducted with their most elaborate ceremonies. Tomah's son, Josette, who succeeded him, was born in 1800. IHe Inarried Wabaoqkin (White Wing). They had seven children: Tomah, Aqkiwasi, Shunien. Keshiene. Wabeno Mlitarnu, Oke-mawabon and Kosev. Keshiene owed his name (Swift Flying) to a vision his father Josette had while fasting, of myriads of eagles and hawks, representatives of the thunderers, flying swiftly by. The reservation in Wisconsin bears this name Keshena, as it is usually called. Keshiene succeeded his father, but Oshkosh acted as regent during his minority. Keshiene was married twice and had four children. His brother, Shunien, is head of one division of the Menoninecs, and their sister, Wabeno-mitamu (Wabeno Woman), is wife of Niopet, present chief of the Menominces; thus uniting the Carron and Oshkosh families. There are eleven bands of Menominees named after their respective heads: Oshkosh, Aiamiqta; Shakitok, now under Niaqtawaponi, second chief of the tribe; MIanabusho, LeMotte, Piwaqtinet, Peshtiko, Opopesha; Keshok or Keso; Aqamot, now under charge of Matshikineu; and Shunien. These bands are mostly on the reservation at Keshena, though a number of Menominee families live at Bark river, Indian Town and other points in upper Michigan. Many of the Menominees are devoted Roman Catholics, and do not practice their ancient religion,

Page  51 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 51 the Mitawit, or Grand Medicine. The present chief. Niopet, is an ardent believer in the ancient rites, and endeavors to have his people preserve the customs and traditions handed down from the beginning of the race. There are four divisions of the Grand Medicine-the highest, Mitawit, conducted by the Mide. or medicine man, whose profession includes incantation, exorcism of demons, and the administration of magic remedies; the second. the Jessaked. or juggler, who prophecies and counteracts the evil charms of rivals; third, the Wabeno, or daylight man, whose orgies last till daylight, and who claims ability to prepare luck charms for the hunter, and love powders for anxious lovers; the fourth is the mash-kiki-winine, or herb doctor, who possesses knowledge of medicinal plants and administers "medicine broth." All practice their arts alone except the Mide, who are organized into a society called the Mide-wiwin, composed of both sexes and an indefinite number. This order is divided into four degrees, and admission into it is important and necessarily difficult. The male candidates have usually been designated for this purpose at an early age, and from such time the parents gather presents of all sorts to defray the expense of the preliminary instruction by the Mide priests, and of feasts and ceremonies of initiation. Often the family is involved in hopeless debt to meet these demands, but the honor is so great that relatives will usually assist to fulfill the obligations. MANA.BUSHI AND THE GRAND MEDICINE SOCIETY This Grand Medicine Society perpetuates the history and traditions of the Menomninees from their beginning, and also the coming upon earth of an intermediary between themn and Kitshe-manido, the Supreme Spirit. The work of this intermediary is to teach the art of living, and the means of warding off disease and death, as well as to guide them in their relations with the Spirit World. IHe is called Manabush (Manabozho) by the Menominees. There are two distinct ceremonies-one for initiation into the society, and the other a feast for the dead, to "release his shadow" and permit it to go to the Land of IMysteries, or the setting sun. Sometimes these are united, as when a child selected for the society, dies. The feast for the dead is followed at once by the initiation of a substitute, usually the chief mourner. All of these ceremonies include the rehearsing of the story of Manabush, which has many variations, but is commonly as follows: 'The daughter of Nokomlis, the Earth, was the mother of Manabush, who was also the fire which comIes from flint. The flint grew out of the earth and was alone; then the flint made a bowl and dipped it into the earth and slowly the bowl full of earth became blood and this gradually changed into Wabus, the rabbit. The rabbit grew up, took on human form and became MIanabush. Ile was angry at finding himself alone on earth, and also because the Ana-maqkiu (Wicked Underground Spirits) annoyed him constantly. It was the flint that told Manabush he

Page  52 f52 TIlfE NORTHIERN PENINSULA OF MIICHIGAN was alone, while he was rubbing a piece of it upon a stone to form an ax. 'While Manabush was thinking of what the flint had said he saw \Ioqlllaio, thle wolf, who was also alone. MaTnabush weleolecd the wolf for a, brother and changed him into a man, and they )built a xwigwamll on thle edge of a lake where they lived together. Mlanablush warned his b)rothler never to go upon the water, or cross the ice,. but one day whlil{e huntinlg IMo)llqi() found himself on the edlge of the lake opposite hi s *wi gwamr l a lid (lisliking to llake the( long journe( arloullld, venlltllre(1 ollt upon the( i(e,(. an(l when upon the mi(l(lle of the lake the ice broke all(1 the Anaulll kinl p)llled him undern(l nd he was d(rownedl. MaMnablllsh klew- his l)rother was kille(l 11( illlourne(d for hiiil four (days (evry sighil ca-lsing' the (a'lrtlh to shake and tremnile, thus foriming thle ri(les and ravines. ()On the fifth iday while hunting'..lllullabush s\ hliS b)rother apl))roachirg. ailnd the w\olf said to Alanalbush: 'MI fate wvill )e the fate of all o{ur friellds anld desc(en(lants. They will die, but after fou(lr days they will retlurn again!' Therln 'anabulsh knew that what he1 tlhougl(lt Nwas h1is 1)brother w\\as onlTy a shade(l(. *and so he said: 'Mlv brother. return to thf lc the setting sun. You Care nowN called Na(lpote, and( w-ill have the care of the (lead.' The shade said: 'If I go thllre and our frien(ls follo)w m{e we shall not be able to return aIgain to this pIlace.' ManaTlllbush again smi(l to his ])brother 'Go Naqlpote an1( prepare a NwigoTwaill for our friends; build a laige fire that th{ey mnalry be guided to it an(l that onl their arrival they n1ay find an abode.' Then Naqpote dleparted to labilde in tile l9and of thle Shades, the setting sun; where the w{orld is cu(t off. When1 lanabush found hilllmself deprivc(l of his brother he looked about and foiund there Tere many lpeoplle-his uncles and aunts -also chil(lren of Nokomis, the Earth. Thev too were haralssed )-\ the evil spirits who hlad destroyed Naqpclot. MSanabush determinled to destroy these evil ones, and so cried out four times for the w aters to dlisappIear froll the earth. which they did, leaving mnany of the. nan-amaqkiu strand(ed in the iiu(l. while on the short lay the chief of theml all. MIisikinebik (or AIIashenoniak), the Great Fish. Jlust as Alanabullsh Nwas about to kill him the small spirits caused the.water to retulrn,.and they all escaped. Thenll anabush made a. birch bark canoe and lpursued Alisikinebilk. and as he went along he taunted the evil slpirit ndl(l challenged himn to battle. The great fish pai(l no attention at first, 1but nimerely sent the smaller Manid(los to attack himh. Ianilla)bush repelled them and(l at last 31 isikiinel)bik ot angly an(l, rushing out sudl(lenly. swaillowed IIanaI)ush. \\ien the latter found hinmself insi(e( the( grealt fish lie lookl(ed al1out an(l found 1any1 of his people there, o111ng11 thel the buffalo who had \\an(leredl fronl the l)rairies to finl the rich grrass ne1ar the lakes. Soiiie of tlhose who hadl )een inside the fish a long till(i were weak allnd sick, and soni( had alrea(ly I)erishCe(, while otheirs wetre freshly (,laught; (mnoralists can observe the effect of sin upon the human race, in this primitive variation of the story of Jonah). "Mianabush asked many of them how they calne to be there, and told them they must go to his grandmother's shore. and that they would

Page  53 TIlE NORTHERN 'PENINSULA OF MICHIlGAN 53 have to hellp him in orderl to be released. So they all began to dance( inside of the Iisikinebik, which liade him so sick that he swanl raplidly towarlds the shore, and meanitille, Alanablushl took his short knife an(l began cutting into the body of the fishi, jlst ove.r 1is O ln1 headl. Smon the peol)le began to chant 'I see the sky' 1l MaIllal)lls}l kept culttillg at the body which was soon stranded oI thle becach', w\her the I)people escaped( through the opening minalde bhy 1llanabuslh. Tlley we\.e. all p)leas(dl with.1manabushl, who soo() left themi all l travele(l. to-(lards tlle r isinlg slln. One dl1ay whIen app)roa(hing a high inO)liuntain lie sawx a large w\\lite It)ear, Owa0 sse, ba)sking in the suni. This rwas oneI of tlice mlost l)owei'fll ()f tlhe evil mlysteries, and(l iAlnallbush a plroIched (a utiolusly, fittig an.11a1 1rI OV to his bow string, and( shot it thro{ugh thle ody! of Owasse, killilg him. riThe b)lo)ol ail ldown the Illoulntainll sidle and tlhe stains thlerel(f alcl still visible. Sonie of the Il(liine use(l hby thlle litawok is obltainledl frl'o there. I.analabush afte-rwa ds gave the skinl (f thle h)ear to 51alaiakuia, the badlger.'' In the following myllth the AIenlollinIees a1(.(o(nt f(ol thle( I)ossessio(l of tobaclco..which is usled ill thle cerem(lnolial siolmke that l)recet(l(s (v,(clry serious un(tertakill(, an(l is also pla(e(d oil thle altar stoll(es as aI gift to) tlhe slirits, and o(n the graves of their deadl. One day.l1aiiabushi was passing a high Inonlltailln when hl ( l ti(iced a l(eliglitfull lodor arising fronm a crevice in the roek. lie knew this nio0intarin to be iilhabited(l by the giaiit Nwho was the keeper of toba(}cc). Alaabush 1 welnt to thle lmouth of a cave-rn which l1(e (nter(lt. anl( follo\we(l a l)assage till lhe c('aie to a large Chamber inyhalite(l 1)y t( gianllt, -wh1 aski(l him ver'\. sternly what he wanted(. Mailabiish told( him he waited( s01ll(e tolbacCo. The giant refuse(l thiis an( told lilll to (Co()n( agalin il a,1 year, as all thle lManindos had just been there for their aIInual smo(ke. AIallal)lsh saw many bagrs ()f tobl)a(cco lyingll aru()l( and. snatching (oe, he lar'ted oit of the noulntailn follo(wed by the giallt. i1canabushI went to thie tops of the Imount.ains and leal)(ed from I)eak to peal, )but was followed so closely by the giant tlhat when hle ('allt' to a. (ertain large pealk which formed one side of a d(eepT c(aloli. he suddenly laid d(i wn\ flt an(d the giant. leaped (ove(r hlilm into the (Casmi belowl. rTi(he giant was u111(cl brulised bllut llltge(l to clilmb n learlyl to the top of the cliff whe\re he hung; his finger nails being worn off. Then Ilanablush} grabbe(d him by the baclk a(, (llawing himl up), threw him violently o(n tihe ground al(d1 s5ai(d t( him "For youlr iceamiilss vonl sliall )eclle Ka-Ikuene (grasshop)per, tlhe jullicr) and you sliall be knoIwn by your stained 1n0oltll; you shall becoie tile ptest of those who( raise tobacco." Then i[lanabushl divi(ledl the tobacc() am.1111o' tlhe l)eople) giving each1 s(ome of tile see(l. Another exploit of AIlanabush wa\-s the olbtaining of fire. a sac(red element, witht the iAenomiinees as with all otlher IlndiaIls. When the \\was a voutlh, I1rnabulsh said to Nokomis: "''I 1 (,(Old, we( h (v no fire, let llc (o land get some." I'lis grandfather tried to d(issuade hin, but hie insisted andl made a barlk canoe. Then he asstumed the form of a rabbit, which lhe could (lo whenever he chose. and started in the can.oe

Page  54 4 TIIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN eastward across a great water to an island where an old man lived who had the fire. When the rabbit reached the shore it was still night; so he traveled along till he came to the old man's wigwam. This old man had two daughters who saw a little rabbit, wet and cold, as they caime out of the sacred wigwalm, and they carefully picked it up and carried it inside and put it near the fire to get warm. They permitted it to remain near the fire while they attended to their duties. The rabbit hopped near and tried to get a coal, but when he hopped the earth shook and woke the old man, who asked what made the disturbance. The daughter said it was nothing but a poor little rabbit they had found. When the girls were again busy the rabbit grasped a stick of burning wood and ran to his canoe, pursued by the old man and the girls, but the rabbit reached the canoe safely and put off with such sp)eed that the rush of air caused the brand to blaze, and the sparks burned him in many places. When he reached shore Nokoiimis took the fire from him and healed his wounds. Nokomis gave the fire to the thunderers and they have had it ever since. A myth of this sort might be related for every acquirement of Manabush. The story of his origin has many variations; one being that he was one of a i)air of twins born of a virgin mlother, who, with one of the children, died. Nokomiis took the other, wrapped it in soft dry grass and put it under a large wooden bowl at the end of her lodge. After that she buried the mother and child, then she sat down to llourn four ldays. At the end of her mourning she heard a slight noise and looking under the bowl she beheld a little white rabbit with quivering ears. She took it ull) aind said "Oh nm dear little rabbit, nmy IManabush." \\hen it )egan to hop about the wigwam the ealrth trembled, and so the Al.-la- lqkiu klnew a great nlani(1o had )been hlo;n. a(nd at once set abollt (lestroying him. A(ccording to both IMenominei e and Chi)ppewa legends there was a time when ll anaIbsh lo(st his l)()Ower through foolish actions. The myths containedt in the travels of Allanabushll illustrate this. This includles the story of the birds; of his Ineeting the linkl, \whose entrails he turnedl into vines; of his eXlIerience with la-skose. the buzzard; of his visit to thet eight sisters il the north, two of whom were evil spirits, and of his living with I'askineu iand his sister, who goverlned all the )i lds. The latter nmyth ((ontainlls the story of tile magic red birds. llere are many mythls besides, relating to Manab)ush. It is said that when Nokolmis mall(e (dishes of barlk and c(aught sapl from the llal)le trees it was thick like syrup, but Manabulsh feared that his peoplle would )becolme idle and vicious, if they( oltaieed food so easily, so he sprinkled the trees with water, and( after that the sap was thin like water and required muchl labor to prepare it. After relatinig all or parts of these stolries, the l)riests who c(ndulct tlhe M Iitawit go on to tell why the Mitawikammok canme to be constructed. of the gifts an(d privileges received by 5Manlabushi. and what he and those who came after himi as members of the Mitawit should do. Mana

Page  55 TIHE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MIICHIGAN bush has charge of the western portal of the sacred lodge. A path leads froni this to the rising sun, and a short distance up the path sit two old men facing each other. When lIanabush reached this place the oldest milan said: "\Iy SOon. follow this path until you comne to a ridge; ascend this and you will find a tree growing on one side of the path. The roots of this tree reach to the four worlds below, while its branches ascend to the opening of the sky where four mianidos guard it and watch all who approach. Some enter this opening, but others are obliged to keep on the path. The four MIanidos are Kineu, the bald eagle, Pinaskiu, the golden eagle, Malutsheau, the Indian, and Wapishketa-pau, the white-hair. The last is chief of those who guard the entrance to the sky. The Alitiwok get their sacred staffs from, the branches of this tree. From the place of the tree, so the instruction goes, you niust go on until you come to a Ipoplar log lyin-g across the path. You must not pass over tils, but go around the top end. The small branches typify theft. If you have sinned you will be drawn to them and bite them with your teeth. Further on you will pass a thorn apple 'w'hich vyo must not touch, but must pass to the left of it. As you go on, you will come to a stream of water and when vyoul stoo) to drink you will observe your hair is turning gray andl you will nleditate on the days you have lived. As vyou (contilnue oin your journey, you will co(me to a country c(overedl with green plants. Some of these yolu must dig, others plllck, for they are 'mledlicine' which you will give to those who need theml. As you look at the sky you will klow youl can go no further, as this is the eend of the path. When iIaInal)sh was seated in the sacred lodge the Mlanido brought hilll gifts for the g(ood of 11ankilld. Owasse, the )ear. gave hlill poer; Wabun, the daylight, gave hini liglht; P'ak.a -wh(os(e bones rattle anld w1ho causes those wh)o dreaml of him to failt with felar, camel( from the rising sun and gave himl llis pI)owr (f terror. lTelln,1isiq(kwani the red dawn, and Massina, the turkey. gaive him tl(e red color that the l mita mighrt paint themselves. The turkey also gatve the 1)bars from' llis tail tllat there might )e a (livisionl of timne for the MIita to (dance(. Kut-lku-kull. the g('eat owl. promised to watch by the (lead so tlhat their graves would not b)c (listillred. \\aku, tlhe fox, leint his rvoice to b1e used( in lalmentatimo. W\ikek, the otter, gave AIianatu)sh the Kona-~pamik, tlhe sared sacred shell. From tle south cae so. th su, and lhe said 'I will applear a)bove ytou when all are gatheredi in the i\litawikoilik. As I go w\estward y( ou will see my 1 ath wich wi you in tille, must follo(w.' From10 the west (came tlhe thlluldrers. 'lThey brought the d(ark clou(ls with tlhe(l which the v to a iablesh too cover one side of the lodge. F'rom1 the sky c(ame ti}e voice(s of t\wo ol(ld m(en \wl said they would put sontic stoiles neeart tlhe lodge(l to 1e lheotedl ii tle fire, iand water to pour upon thems. Tilis ste(mll b)iath is still one of tlie rites of the Mitawit. 'rhe north wiinl grave hils healling brecath, to p)revent sickness. Thenr Nokoim is mad(e a. bag for ilanal)ush in which lie pu)t mne(licines for all (liseases. After that MIanabush called upon tlie four 11ysteries of the

Page  56 56 TIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN sky to grant him favor and they consented and instructed him to fast, and dream, and pray to secure his personal Manito; also to take the black ashes froml the fire and blacken his face when he fasted. They gave him the drums to be used in "making medicine" and the rattle to invoke the mlanitos; also the wigwam, with four posts wrapped in bark, in which to fast and dream in order to gain the power of second sight. They taught him to make hunting medicines, as well as those for the sick. There were many kinds, as for instance, the sturgeon scale and red lmedicine which were good for hunting deer; another for a different animal, and so on. They taught himl to imake traps.and nets and all sorts of tools and weapons. l. anabush also taught the people the game of baggataway, or la-crosse, as the F'rench called it. This is described in connection with the Chippewas, the game being identical wvith that played by the MiIenominees. In performiing the ceremonies of the Alitawit, either for initiation of a. candidate into the society, or for the benefit of the sick, three sets of four each of the chief medicine men are chosen; each set having special duties to perform. Two assistants are also chosen, whose duties ar'e to arrange tlhe interior of the miedlicine lodge, locate the presents on the pole placed horizontally in the center. and so on. A lo)cation for the Alitawikamnik is (ecided( upon land the "medlicine women" selected who are to build it. These are usually the wives of the chief mledicine men. The lodge is usually a frame of poles brought together at the top to form an arch, then covered with rush miats and bark. It is often sixty or seventy feet long and twenty feet wide, always running east and west, with openings at these ends. Cedar boughs covered with mats are placed around the interior near the walls for seats. The presents are hung from )poles across the center near the top). The mat on which the candidate finally kneels is placed near the west end; the. space between the seats foriring the path followed by the ne(liciinle men. When the wikonilik is ready the giver of the feast presents the chief mnedicine man with tobacco, which is d(ividled into smitall parcels and at o(nce sent by courier to members of the society. Tlie messenger nerely places it before the p)erson for whom it was intended, who says, "When and where." Tle courier informs him, an(d departs to coimlp)lete his work. If the ceremloily is on(e of initiation by proxy for a deceased candidate, which is often the case, the grave is first visited by eight of the most p)rominent chiefs, accom(nl)anie((l by the nlourners and fami.iily, and all move west\wardl until the grave is reached. They then form a circle around it; the chief or Shaman, then strikes the grave box with his ceremonial baton (a sharp stick having cuts made near the top to form circles of shavings, suggestive of plumies, at the base of each cluster, of which there are three or four, there is a b]and of vermillion an inchl wide) and, referring to the death of Naqpote, he tells his listeners that the dance to be held is for Naqp)ote; that he may return and translport the shade of the dead, over whom he is officiating, to the Alitawika:i;k. lHe says also that if the Indians desire a meeting of the mnit.awit, tliey

Page  57 TilE NORTIIERN P'ENLINSULA OF fI[CIILGAN 57 must first h(old a1 feast at tlle head of the grave, as I\[anabush has directe(l. (Colitillling the ilarrative il tle Ilst tenls(: Th1(e \Iita womlen and relatives (of the (lec(ase(1 thl(eii sp)read( the feast. wlli('l 1uslally in('lulded (log's flesh s mone artiele o(f foo(l. After the fea;st the chief priest Itanle(l( his haton to,1a1 Iassistallt, whl 1illad(le a. sl)eech relating the qualities an(l exlloits )of the (deceased(1. if a wsarrior. I'lis assistant p)assed it to arlotler(r; ofteln five or six sl)(cIlhes woul(ld 1)e made. I)uring this time the chief lpriest tool< the grave I)()st alild pailte( a banld of vermnilion Ilear the top) of it and as many cross(es as there were speeclles iadle. IIe also outlinlled ill ve(rllilioll the totelic figures which had already been ('arved( ll)upo it, in illnveft('(el o(der(. As the slln set. a Il)TOe('s(iOl was forme(l b)acl to tilhe mlledi(il(e lod(ge aloig tile south si(le to thile eastern entIItranlI(ee. Te1l four lighest officeials etered and seated themlselves Iupon thle northl (tlhe strong sidle) anlld thle others followed aIn( seatted( themselves in a(cor(dlane(e with ttlci r Aoficial stand(ing. The (cerellonial smoke was tlhell i1(Iilge(l in; the sloke( 1)eingl 1)blown first to the four points of the c(mopass, an(l to the sky, )by thle chief p)riest. -\\llhen tile pI)ipes went out tlhe ('hantilg )ega(r. In this was relate(d the st(ry of A1 anal)ush and( his ilistru(,tiolls to thce lpeopl'le. The (:lief plriest relllinded tl.hem that. thel Al itlawikalik had b)e(n built in accordancel with these illstruetions and that ll their ceremonies h<iad comen to themn froim Mashu Alanido throughil lIanabush. Other nlediciIe mnen spoke for the south side of the lo(lge. saying it was the duty of the strong to lelp) the iweak. These clants, which were aeonilpani(id by drums and rattles. were a repetitio(in of set plirtlses, in which the medicine wll(nen and men j()ined after the priest hadl given the sentence. If a anli(ldate is beilng initiated these addresses are;masde to hli as he stands before one of the medicinc e nien, his l)osition being (hange(d, as the cerelllony varies. IIe finally kne(els upon the sacred mat at the westetrn I)ortal an(l as the medicile nmen dalnce past him each thrusts his sacred bag towarl!s him, ltteril,' a curiouS ('r as he does so. Finally 1 le thrusts hiis bag into the face of the candidate who at once falls forw-ard,(l sot bl) t}he mlagiCe s1hell which conveys to hliln mysterious l)ower. \While Iun(onseious the mle(icine bags are laid upon his bacck. Then tile chief priest raises his hea(1, alllt relovres the sacred( shell from his m1outli. Th'1e anlidi(lat, havingll rec(vered fr()lli his stupor, takes the ed(li(cine shell in his righlt hand and1 tperforms a pe(ulilar dance in stoo)ping posture all IarIoumi tlIe lodge. exhibiting the sacred shell. The mIiedic(in( 111(1e (ho likew\ise and,1 as they garathler in tlme western portal, each( I)r'tellds to sw\\allow his shell. IIe wiould now only have to breathe pon hlls iimediciiie sack to ma(ke its power felt. The calnldid(ate then receilves hlis Ill((it ille, a.usually illade from the skin of sonme anilmal and often hlighly ornalielltet. lie g(os i)about the lodge testing its powers, tlhirustiiig it ait soie(n(le. who \oill(ld at once fall unconsciios, but AN1ho q(li(.kly rcviveCl 1a1(1 joilc(l ill this slhooting o)f lagic, whiehl lasted soIme tile. b)eilii tlhe onl)y (cerellon(y thell women took active )part in. There a-rC a great nllilly (cerem(1loi(s atten(tait upon a Grandl(1 A'edicine danlice.

Page  58 58 TIIE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICIIGAN Constant feasting and smoking, and games of all sorts, and feats of jugglery, are interspersed with the rites in the lodge. The Indians are particularly fond of juggling tricks, many of which seem very transparent in method. The jugglers use a wigwam of four posts covered with bark, like the one given to Manabush, in which to consult the spirits. When one enters he addresses the four points of the compass to invoke the manidos from each. The lodge sways and a great deal of noise ensues, ending in a dialogue between a loud and a fine voice, these jugglers apparently being masters of ventriloquism. They claim to handle fire with impunity, to cause storms or allay them, to bring rain or drouth, to cure disease, or cause it by magic means, to be able to transport themselves from one lodge to another unseen, and so on. Sometimes they were bound when they entered the Tshisaqkau. Like the Wabeno men, they practiced their arts alone. Owing to the fact that the Menominees do not use the bark picture rolls any more, the ceremonies of the Mitawit are quite different from the original, many of the ancient rites being omitted. The gathering for a medicine dance is a gala occasion and it is customary for the participants to wear their most elaborate costumes. They deck themselves with bead bags, baldrics and garters, amulets, medals, strings of beads and shells, bracelets of fur and metal, headdresses of feathers, or, in modern times, of wool or silk, scarfs, moccasins, beaded or embroidered with colored porcupine quills. but most important of all the medicine bag, containing the sacred shell and other magic articles. In addition to all this fine apparel, the face and body were painted. Fonnerly when the society conferred four degrees, there were certain arrangements of color to designate each of these; for instance, the mita who had received but one degree, adorned his face with a band of white clay, across the forehead, extending to the angle of the eyes; also a spot of green was placed upon the breast. No regularity is now maintained; the coloring, if used at all, being more fantastic and a matter of personal taste. The women merely redden their cheeks and placed a spot of blue. or sonie other color, on the forehead. The ceremonies go on all day and into the night and last a week or more at times. One which took place in 1.909 lasted for eight days. After these are over the gifts are distributed among the medicine men. The Wabeno, like the juggler, practices alone. IIe claims to heal by medical magic. If a hunter had been successful owing to his "hunting medicine," he gives part of his game to the Wabeno who furnished it. The Wabeno then invites his friends to a feast, though all are free to go. This always takes place at night and is kept up with boisterous singing and dancing until morning; hence the name "men of the (awn." l)uring the feat the Walbeno entertains his guests with exhibitions of his magic skill, imparted to him by the evil spirits. He appears in the form of different animals, or as a ball of fire; handles fire or hot materials without injury, and so on. The Wabeno claims knowledge of plants and animals. (The evil spirits live in the ground and have

Page  59 TIIE NORTHERN PE.NINSULA OF AMICHIGAN 59 charge' of these things.) Besides "''hunting medicine'" he makes love powders, which will ilove the mniost indifferent person to affection for the one wNearing such mledicine. The Menonlliniee love powder (tako-sawos) is conloullnd(ed of vermilioi and p)owdered( mica, together with soIme article belonging to the person xwhose affection is desired; a hair. or finger-nail paring, or shred of cloth is enclose(l in a thiinblle or small bag. anid conistantly worn about the person. The Wab1eno seellis to )be a iiore lmodern ilnstitution than the TIitawit and( I)ertains to the physical rather than the spiritual condlition. The Wabeinoak claiil to have )been more l)owerful than the Mitawok and tell many stories to pIrove this. The foiurth class of shaniians are called Mle-moak, literally, the (lance, but tusually (:allled the (dreaniers. This formii of religion came to the Ienomninees in 188() froI thle w\est. rThey assert tlhat the Great Spirit had I)eeome offended, (owing to the neglec.t of 01(1o rites aiid ceremonies of the MAitawit, and Uwished to give the Iiidians pa Iurer and better form of religion. For this the inlclosure is built ill a circle. When a imeetillg is to be held the chief, or Olk-we-anilla inforims the four (Na-iiainpweqta.wvok) or braves, Nwho sumimnon the other membl)ers. Whenl theyl enter the circle, which typifies the sky! they go in at the western entrance and(1 passing to the left. seat themselves (around the sides. The pipe is theii lighted anid passed around four tilmes. The chief brave then seats hiillself oil oIne sidle o(f the entraniice and an ail)liilted ol ( mlan (o the other. No oiile is perlllitte(l to pass out after this except thei messeniger, who b1rinlgs food( ain(l water, al(d the I)ipe IIlmaCn. The ceremlllolies consist ()f silginig antii (1lancing ac(onit)anlie( 1by the dtlrill. almd slteeches lIade lby al o()rator. or o()I of the 1)raves(. If anyr on1le objectionlla)le liiters, the drumlller (arl'ies the dirumi ()out (f the eastern elitralnce w\lhich is the signal for (lisl)ersilg. the iieiil)bers ll deptartillg 1)y! the w\-este:ii d(oorway. 'iThe worsIlil) of tlhe d(reamilers set'lls to be a llixtiure of tleir il lthol()gical ritiual Nwi th a degenerate f()rm of t ode(lrn (Cilristialitv. In ad(liti()l to( th}e st()ories ()f ilablna)usi. ivi (ich for()iled tlhe fo()ui(dati()o ()of their relilioil, tlhe M1e-n)lonliliees l(had mlanaiyi follk tales with whiich thley while(1.aNXy long 1hollrs. On1e or two \-ill illustrate the foIm)l of these. "(O)nce onI a tit(' s), tiee stl s. an(l hlis sister p'i)a h(,s(), tlh( 1l()(o (literally 'last-nighti Stu' ). liive(l to()gethe'r ill a. wigwaml ill t}he east. The suill (Itresse(l Ii iiself to o() huntimlg t()ok liS h)() a(id arows anlld left. IIe was a)bse(lt so lo]() tlhat whU(:n his sister (,atine out into the sky to lo)ok fIr her l)ro(therl, slhe hcanie alarme(1. She traveled( twemtvty (idas oo)kig1(r fior the sull; finally he I(turnel 1 lbringil g, with himi a bear ihe ha(1 sho(t. The sunI's sist(er still c()oes 111)up iito the( sky a(ii( travels for twet ity (lays. thenI she dies and for fo(ur (lays Il(tlling is seeni of her. At thie e((1 of thiat time shet c()nIes t() life ald( travels tTwenty days mo(re. 'The1( sunll is a being like ourselves. Whelmever at lln(tia(l drecamled of hinm he pluct(kIed out his hair anid (ore a ( otter skim about his head over his forehead. ITe did this because the stIn w(ore a11 otter skin o0n his

Page  60 60 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF 5MICHIGAN head. (This custom of plucking out the hair and substituting an otter skin is obsolete.)" Of the aurora borealis they say: "In the direction of the north wind live the IIana-baipwok (giants) of whom the old people tell. They are friends of the Indians. but we d(1 not see thenl any more. They are great hunters an1d fishermen, and whenever they go out with their torches to spear fish, we know it because then the sky is bright over the place where they are." There are numlberless such stories, in which the qualities or attributes of animals, as well as inanimate objects are accounted for. The weapons of the MIenominees were formerly of stone, in the form of axes. arrowx points, clubs and knives; though these latter were often mlade of clamn shells. I)articulllly when used for scraping. or other household purpose. The making of these stone articles was discontinued about a, hlndred and thirty years ago. The Menominee bow was made of ash, ironwoo( or hickory; the latter wood being preferred. Occasionally they were made of two kinds of wood glued together. They were often ornamnented by having the ends, which extenlded beyond the lowstring, carved and plainted. Thev were carefully made and smoothed, and somlletimeles uI)bhed with brains of the (leer or moose. The arrow headls when inserted wevre wrapped with sinew, smoothed tight with glue made from (leer hoofs. The wooden shafts were always well seasoned, madle very straight and ornamented with paint ant feathers. These were l)ound to the end of the arrow shaft with fine sinew, the feathers having been first. stripped from the midrib, and the adhering skin placed smoothly upon the shaft. The AMenominees, like other Indians, occasionally used poisone(l arrows in warfare. These were treated by dipping themi in rattlesnake viruls, or in decomposed flesh. The Alenominees camne to a knowledge of fire arms when Nicolet arrived amrong them in 1634. It is recorded that "this marvellous man" iappeared at the gathelring of Indians whom hle had suninmmoned by his Winnebago runners, "in a robe of China daimask decke(l with flowers and birds of various colors and carrying thunder in his hands."' The firing of his pistols caused the women and children to flee in alarm. CUSTOMS OF P.'RIMITIVE AIENOMINEES The quivers used by the MI(enomninees in early days were mlade of skin with the fur on, or buckskin tanned and embroiao.red with beads or porcupine quills. Two forms of traps were used by them for animals; the dead fall, and the snare of rope, or sinew. Another trap, or weir, for taking fish, was made by setting across a stream stakes interwoven with branches close enough to stop the fish, but not the flow of water; the top forrming a crude bridge. The fish were taken in fiber dip nets. This d(evice was called MIitchegamen, MIitchi kan or Mackihiganing (from which the word Michigan is derived). This form of fishing was used in spring and summer. In the winter fish were speared through the ice, often by

Page  61 THlE NORTHERN I1"EN1NSULIA OF MI\ICHIGAN 6 611 torehlight ait night. The pipe, wh ichi was of equal impiortance and more highly valued1 than weapons, b~ecause of its myINst(Tiouls attributes, was orig-min alh mad(.. of stone. Red pipe-stone. ol~tained bvy bilarer froin thle A1\ unesota. Tndlians, wvas a favorite material owing to the ease wvith which it (0111( be earve(1 xvlieri first (uarried,. as wiell as its, beauty xvhlen hardenedl by exposur-e. These pl)i1e were lare.soetls four ne1hes dleep. rTlliw were often oriiamentedl with ea-rv\.ing, and]( were usedl with or wi ithout aI long ree'i stein. fi'le i\[enloni inees Iua(1I lobaeeo whijel they p refei~red,' bult wiele the 51uppIly was s'hort, or for. lleldieillml purplloses, they-\ smiokedl Kinxini-k ilem ad froill the innler 10]rk of the re(I will ow, a is o fr-oml leav~es of tile re(1 'sumiae. bea r-berrv a 11(1 other Jplailts. When sinloking soeially tile I ndulgence wals ind(ividhual and the pipe( wals 1hot passedl. VWhlen ill counecil, the eliief filledl the 1) pe(1 l)ls1se(1 it to his rigltA-h1Ilnd neglllor who11 lIp ilted tgax a few xv ii ifs, and1 lpassedl it haek to tile clijef, who ga've tile ecre'llollial wh 1iffs wvitlh it, a11(1 pa'ssedl it to the 1iianl 011 ihis left.. It eontinue(i arould thle ei recle to tile left I flie ]last ioan1 re'mnov7in-g the ashles 011(1 retuimilmpg it to the o)wner. The i\I (10111ille(5C 1151(1 1)0th lpipe and( tobacco as offering's to thiir -Ahmii ios. The prinmitivre Mfenoiiinee wigwan1-1 (l ws Made of saplings set in. tile ground- and b~roulght togethler at tile to1) ill a eolnieal forii. These wvere covered xvithl bark, or rushi Illats,, lea'vingc a silloke ilole at the toll. Thley madle various tempora lry shelter's, while11 l11miting orI fishing, by tying tl~e tops of buslhes togetiler andl eovlerilog xvith bark or hrnsh or an-\ vconvelnient artiele. 'Soinel imes short stakes wvcre (.riHNven parallel an11(l roofed xvith brusl orI ibark;being llerely higlJi enough for a man. to lie (lown ill. The beds in e-arly, days Nxvere pin~e or fir boughs cov-ered wvith fur skinls, thlough, If tile xx'igxvam xv 1)as tob somlewhlat permanenlt, a. framewNork xvas made of notehed stakes (driven ilnto tile g)round all( poles laid 11 1)011 thell, tilen lbags of grass or muoss, or lbonghs xvere plaeed upon these for miattresses. For babies, tile eraffle-lboar(1 was used, tile aotiher earryin g it slung 111)01 her baek wll-Ien travNeliilg- tile tulmp line being across 11cr for ehead a, favorite wxva of carrying Iheavy parcels. W\hen t~oo largc for tile cradlle-boaroi. tile ellild sleipt Ill a. erulde hammoock. Indian bal.)ies seldoml cry. Tile M~ellollumlee xvoiien. Wxcre exiperts at xv-eavillg l11lats of (at-tcails., buIruII-s"Iles (111d( 5splinfts or bark fiber. Tile leaves of rush~es were lpieked greenl anld steepod inl boiiillg water' to lbleaelh, and wvcre often colored xvith poke lbci-y, sqiuav-root, or other vegetable dyes. The xvarp was liad(le (if l'assxv~od( fiber. Vali'ons figures wer-e xv1oveil. in by 111ans1 of the (lifferent colore(1 fihlimig. (1ord, txvine, thiremlad 1d( rope xvere also inlail fronl tile basswvood fiber, tile bark beilig removed ill shlcets a11( boiled ill lye-water liade from xvood-a-slies. When tIle, mhaterial xvas soft. it wvas drawn in bunlehe through holes iiadce for the purpose5 ill tile shlouhlder bone of a deer, or any la rge bone. Sometinmes fla t stolles with iholes drilled in them xvere usedi for tile saecimie Ilurpose. After tile hllar( xwoodv substarnce was re

Page  62 62 TIIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICIIIGAN moved the fiber was made into hanks, and afterward twisted to formn twine for nets, rice bags, or whatever was needed. The Menominee snow shoes were similar to those in use at present, made with an ash frame, somewhat boat-like in shape, divided into three sections; the space between being filled with network of sinew, or buckskin. The heel was thicker than the rest of the frame. They differed from the Chippewa shoes by having a transverse toe; though children's snow shoes were often made with a somewhat pointed toe. They varied, however, to suit the owner. For packing the granulated maple sugar the squaws made mokaks of birch bark, oblong and larger at the bottom than at the top. A cover was stitched on. They were of many sizes, some holding fifty pounds of sugar. The buckets for gathering sap were also made of birch-bark folded at the bottom, and the seams which were stitched with fibre thread, were covered with pine pitch. These were carried, two at once, suspended from a wooden yoke which fitted around the neck and shoulders. AIortars and pestles, troughs for sap and trenches for food, as. well as spoons and bowls, were formerly made of wood-usually basswood. Spoons were also made from shells. Sap was boiled originally in bark dishes by means of heated stones. Many shapes and sizes of baskets were made from black elm splints and osiers. which grow abundantly along the swamps; these were often colored and woven in figures. The women tanned the deer-skins used for moccasins, clothing and so on, and they are still more successful than the whites in this process. The skin was scraped on the inside with knives of shell or stone; soaked in water; rubbed, kneaded and twisted around a post to remove the water; stretched upon the ground or a large piece of wood, and the hair scraped off, rubbed with the brains of a deer to keep it supple, stretched and pulled until dry, and finally cured by hanging over a low fire. The Menominee women were formerly skillful at embroidering with beads and porcupine quills; the latter being brilliantly colored for the purpose. The art is nearly forgotten now. The Menominees made fine birch-bark canoes; the men sharing this labor with the women. White cedar was usually used for the frame work and after the bark was stitched in place the seams were covered with pine pitch, and the inside lined with thin slats of wood to protect the bark. The paddle was usually about four feet long, about one-half being handle. When alone the occupant sits or kneels at the stern, or narrower end of the canoe; if there are two one sits in the bow and paddles on the opposite side from the steering paddle. Frequently a canoe would be loaded almost to the water's edge with women and children, but so expert were the boatmen that an accident seldom occurred. Dugouts were more common than birch bark canoes, requiring less labor to construct. Butternut was a favorite wood for these. When not in use the canoe was pulled out and overturned to allow the bottom to dry. Cooking over an open fire would be almost as novel now to a Menominee woman as to a white one, but that was formerly their only method.

Page  63 TIIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 63 The food was mostly game, fish, maple sugar and rice, supplemented with berries, fresh and dried. The Indians made festivals of the berry picking, beech and butternut gathering, as well as of the sugar making. The gathering of wild rice was an important affair as this grain was their staple article of food. When the proper season came, women and sometimes mien, paddled through the (lense growth along the lakes and rivers, usually two woiking together. One managed the canoe, while the other l)ent the rice stalks, often three or four feet high, over the edge of the boat fand beat the heads off upon a mat in the bottom. After a load had been collected, a hole was made in the ground, about six inches deep, and two feet long, lined with buck-skin, or a mat, and the rice was put in and beaten with a stick covered at the end. To separate tlie hulls from the grain, a windy day was usually chosen, and sometimes the rice was laid on a mat and fanned with a bark tray, or, sometimes it was put into a fiber bag and beaten, and the hulls fanned off, after having been placed on mats or bark trays. When clean and dry it was preserved in bags. In serving, it was boiled and eaten with maple sugar, salt appearing to have b)een unknown to the Menominees, though an article of barter between many tribes. Sometimes rice was cooked with meat, or with vegetables, or fruits, or as soup. The Menominee housewife varied her cuisine just as her white sister does. After the whites caiie. berries as well as maple sugar had a. commercial value. Thle Indians also gathered snake-root, ginseng, and sarsaparilla, which they sold to the whites, or used themselves. Snake-root and ginseng are somewhat rare in the Upper Peninsula at the present time. Long after this northern country began to be settled by whites the Indians kept up their ancient customs. There are people still living who remember their method of building a long fence by felling trees in wind-rows along the edge of a favorite feeding ground. The hunters lay upon platforms, built upon top of this fence concealed by the branches; as the deer reached this barricade they turned and fed beside it, or ran along to find the openings purposely left in it, making tlhenm an easy prey. As late as 1854 the Indians from 5Mackinac still followed the custom of going to Flat Rock (Escanaba) where they had such a fence twenty miles long, extending from the shore towards the interior. In a short time they could get hundreds of deer. Their ancient marriage customs also were celebrated as lately as 1908. At a feast given at White Rapids. after the civil marriage had taken place, the cerenonial smoke, beating of druns, chanting and orations, were all carefully observed; while the bride remained in customary seclusion for three days. THE STITRGEON WAR No history of the Menomlinee Indians is complete without a reference to the Sturgeon war; the beginning of hostilities which permanently

Page  64 I /, iI - t 1' ' \ I /'L 'N / , -- \ / \x \(; '2 7<' INDIAN-s GATI-TERING WILLRCE:IIATRATIVE o-F EARLY \MENOMNrT\EE DA Ys [From pcainting in the Capitol at \\ashington, D. C.]

Page  65 TtIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN weakened the Menomlinee tribes. The version quoted is by George Johnson. "Long before thle white iien set foot upon Indian soil, or made any discovery of this eontinent, a bloody and cruel war took place, and the after warfare between Sioux and Chippewas originated at this early period. At the Imouth of the Menominee river there existed an extensive Menomiinee towNn governed by a head chief (name unknown) of great power and( influence, who h ad control of the river at its outlet. There also existed four Clilppewa townis upon the river in the interior, governed by a ehief whllose famie and renown w\ere well known. This Chippewa chief liarried the Menoilinee chief's sister. T'le two tribes lived happily together as relatives and allies until the Chippewa chief's son had attained tlhe age of manhlood. At this peliod tile Menominee chief gave directions that the river should be stopped at its mouth in order to prevent the fisih. particularly the sturgeon, from ascending it. This highhanded measure caused a famiine amonng the Chippewas who depended upon the fish as a food supply. "The Chippewa chief was informed that his brother-in-law, the Menominee chief, had directed the barring of the river at its mouth, and so caused tile famine among the Chippe\was. Upon this information the Chippewa chief held a Smoking Council with his tribe, and gave directions to his son to visit his uncle, the Menominee chief, and request him to throw open the river, in order to allow the fish to ascend and thereby stop the existing famine. In the meantime the Menominee chief heard that his ne)phew was preparing to visit him, and gave orders to have a small bone taken from the inner part of a mioose's fore-leg. This was pointed and sharpened. Tle Chippewa youth, in obedience to his father's commands, proceeded Ipon his voyage to visit his uncle, the Menominee chief, and, upon his arrival at the AMenominee town, called upon him and besought him in a respectful manner to throw open his river to relieve their brethren and starving children. 'Very well,' replied the haughty Menlominee chief; 'You have come, my nephew to request me to throw open my river, alleging that your people are in a starving state. All I can do for you. my nephew, is tlis,' and taking the sharpened bone in his right ha1nd, with his left hand lie seized his nephew's hair upon the crown of his ihead and passed the bone through the skin between it and 'tle skull, and letting go his lold tlhe sharpened bone remained crosswise upon) the \youthi's head. 'Now.' said the chief, 'this is what I can do conformablly with your request.' "The young Chilpew-a withdrew frolmi his uncle's presence without iiaking any comments upon the reception lie had met with, and immediately proceeded on his way homeward, encamping several nights and avoiding the different villages. Finally l(' reacled his father's village with lis head covered. On entering his father's lodge he laid himself dow\n without saying a word or uncoverinig his head. The heralds soon proclaimed this throughout the village. On the following morning the young man broke silence and. calling for his father's messengers. orVol. 1-5

Page  66 66 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN dered them to cut and mix a sufficient quantity of tobacco for the whole tribe. When the tobacco was prepared he was informed that it was ready, and he forthwith directed that the elders and all the braves and warriors should be sent. for. When all were assembled the young man got up and uncovered his head and showed the assembled multitude the condition he was in; the bone still sticking upon the crown of his head, and his face and head much inflalned. Ile related to them the reception he had met with from his uncle, and then, addressing himself to his father, said to him that he must not on this occasion say a word of dissuasion for it would be of no avail. Ile then addressed the tribe, and told them that he had been shamefully treated, and that they must prepare their war-clubs and be ready to start on the following morning. The consent was unanimlous, the war-party was formed, and on the following morning took their departure. The young man was on this occasion leader and war-chief. On reaching the Menominee town strict orders were given to take the Menominee head chief alive and destroy all who resisted. "This order was fully obeyed and every living soul in the town met with the fate thus decreed at the hands of an exasperated foe, except the head chief, who had been overpowered and bound with leather thongs so that escape was hopeless. The young Chippewa leader then ordered the young men to catch, on the shoals of the barred up river, small sturgeon of various sizes. One was selected of the size of a car)p, and the bound Menominee chief was then accosted by his nephew and reminded that he had caused the outlet of the river to be barred up and so caused a grievous famine among the Indians of the interior, and for that outrage and the penurious love he bore for the sturgeon, he would be permitted to keep and cherish that fish. But the punishment of the Menominee chief was such as could scarcely be described in print. After his degradation he was unbound and allowed to reflect upon his folly and seek his tribe. The barred ull river was thrown open and relief soon reachedl the famished Chippewas. Tlis was the beginning of a war replete with murders and cruelties unparalleled in Indian history. "The lMenominee tribe then l-passe(l their lwamlpum belts and war-pipe to the following tribes, and formed an alliance with them: Sacs and Foxes, Pottawottomlies, Kickapoos, Winnebagoes, Sioux, Opan-anagoes, Shawnees, Nautowas and Wabaniakees-all were engaged in the warfare against the Chippewas. "Fortunately for them, the Chippewas had three mighty and valorous warriors of great power at Sault Ste. lMarie. The principal lea(ler Nwas Nabanois, of the crane totem. the other two were the great chief at La. P'ointe, of the tribe of Ah-ah-wai (whose name is unknown-) )and the great chief and war-leader of Nipigon, of the tribe of the king-fisher, or Kish-kemnanisee. The latter chief pushed his xwarfare east, among many tribes, and finally reached the Atlantic coast in pursuit of his enelnies. I-is hieroglyphics have been discovered on one of the islands in Boston bay. The same signs also exist on Lake Superior, near the Yellow -l)o(

Page  67 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 67 river, and upon the north shore near Gargantwois. This chief pursued his enemies with unrelenting fury, winter and sunmmier, and maintained and kept possession of the Chippewa country. One of their great warpaths was along the Talhqulahmlinong and Malnistic rivers and from Chocolate river into the Shoshquomabi (Eseanaba); and another from the L'ance-Kewynon (La Anse) and down the Menorninee river. The Menominees never recovered their lost prestige."'

Page  68 CHAPTER V THE CHIPPEWAS AND OTTAWAS ANCESTORS OF THE CHIPPEWAS-HISTORY OF THE OJIBWAY NATIONNOTED CHIEFS-DOMESTIC AND FAMILY LIFE-RELIGION AND MYTIHOLOGY-DANCES-MOURNING FOR THE DEAD-DISPLACE THE MASCOUTENS-OTTAWAS AND HURONS. When Jean Nicolet, with his Huron companions, ascended the St. Mary's river on his famous journey which brought him finally to Green bay, he passed the nation of Beavers, formerly called Amicways. They lived at one time upon the Beaver islands near the Michigan shore, but afterward moved to the Manatoulin islands, a locality to which all Indians in the vicinity attached much importance, believing it was the abode of spirits, a belief easily suggested by their natural beauty and the frequent mirage in their neighborhood. The Beaver tribe was no doubt a branch of the great Algonquin nation, which had separated from the main body in its westward migration. The tribe was esteemed one of the noblest, and claimed descent from the Great Beaver, a Manido next in importance to the Great Hare, which was the principal Algonquin divinity. ANCESTORS OF THE CHIPPEWAS At Sault Ste. Marie Nicolet found a powerful nation. They were called Baouichtigonin by the early French writers ("Relations" of 1640). There are several variations of this name given in the different "Relations." The Iroquois called them Estiaghicks, or Stagigroone; the Sioux called them Raratwaus, and the French called them Saulteurs. All of these names refer to their location near the Falls. The Iroquois word contains also an allusion to their Algonquin descent. (The French traders called all northern Indians Ottawas, or Saulteurs, regardless of tribal distinctions.) These "Men of the Falls" were the immediate ancestors of the Chippewa or Ojibway nation, one of the largest and most powerful of the northwest tribes. Like the Menominees, they came from the Nipissing country. Their territory when discovered by the whites extended along 68

Page  69 TIIE NORTIERN PENI NSI:ULA OF MICIIGAN 69 the St. Mary 's river, which they h1eld in coiiipalny with their kinsmen and allies. tile Ottawas. clear a(cross thel pper Peninsula of Michigan on Lake Superior. and as far south as the headwaters of the Menominee river. Thley controlled liiany\ islan(ls includinFrg ackinaw, and across northern W\isconsin west to the headwaters (-f the MIississippi and south to the Chilppewa rivers. There were many roving bands of Chippewas, known by local names. The miost noted and po\lwerflul (f these was tlie AMuk-kulnd-was, or pillagers. They claim to hlave separated f'roI tlhe Iimain tribe at La Pointe, and nimoving westwa d. settled at ( Lee(h lake. Cass lake and Lake Winunibceeg ush. They were fierce fighlters andl had niany noted chiefs. Their exploits often lbrought disaster on tle othler Chippewa ban(ds. -In all traditions the Chippewa- s are called Anishon-abeg (original people), and, like all Algonquin tribes, haave traditions of their eastern origin. They refer to old wars with eastern triles. Tlieir pro(rress from the east was no doubt slow, covering many generations l)erhaps, and they drove before thel all weaker tribes that stood in their way. Among these were the 8auks and Mlaseoutins, whoml tlhe Algonquins displaced and compelled to find new homes. When first visited by the whites, the Chippewas were powerful enough to maintain themselves against the Sioux on the west and the Iroquois on the south. They had at tils time (1634) long been in possession of their tribal seat at Sault Ste. Marie, and referred to ancient tribal stations at Cllheoimagon (La PI'ointe) on Lake Superior anld Poo wateeg, on St. Mary's river. Their language, which is the purest form of Algonquin, helps to identify them as the Nipereineans, or old Algonquins who inhabited the western part of Canada when it was discovered in 1608 (approximately). These Indians Nwere under the government of a Mudjekeewis or chief, ruling by blood descent. They tol( the French that formerly their language was much purer, and their manners less barbarous. Many Indian tribes have traditions of a golden age when they dwelt in peace and happiness. The name Chippewa, or Ojibway, is comparatively recent. Some writers have supposed the word to be derived from Chemaun (canloe) and AIwi (pIaddle), owuing to their un. doubted skill as boatmen. There seems to be no strong authority for this derivation, however. In appearance the Chippewas were tall, well developed and good looking, dignified and self possessed in manner, active and intelligent, fine hunters and skillful trappers; and many of them fine orators. With these people the French made an early and unbroken alliance. The traders easily learned the Algonquin language which brought them in close commercial relations with many tribes who spoke dialects of this language. The Indians seemed to acquire the French language more readily than they did the English when it came to them. Their close affiliation is demonstrated by the fact that the Indians of today speak a French patois, as well as their own language. Friendly relations between the French and Indians were cemented by mutual interests, and soon by family relationship, owing to inter-marriage by the traders with Chippewa women.

Page  70 70 TIIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICIIGAN Nicolet has recorded this friendly attitude of the Indians toward the whites at their first nieeting, and Fathers Raymbault and Isaac Jogues, who visited Sault Ste MIarie in 1741, corroborated this. They were given a cordial reception, rest and refreshment by the Chippewas. They also obltained much information from these Indians, concerning the Great Lake (Superior), and the fierce tril)e called Nadoussioux (Sioux, or Enemies-snake-like-ones) who lived beyond its borders and would not permit the Chippewas to enter their hunting grounds. The history of the Jesuit fathers in Michigan is closely woven into that of the Chippewas an(l Ottawas. IIISTORY OF TIE OJIBWAYVY NATION The Chippewas were allies of the French in their colonial wars with England whicli broke out in 1754, after years of bickering. Miany of them were in the siege of Quebec; and Montcalm was a great hero to tlhem. Led by Pontiac, whose mother was a Chippewa, under Sieur Charles de Langlade, they helped defeat Braddock in his ill-starred ecam11p)aign against Fort du Quesne (1755). It was with great difficulty that the English gained their allegiance after the French had been overcomle. In the periodt which elapsed between the surrender of the French in 1759 (and the treaty of peacce of 1763. much ill feeling had been (e1 -gendlered among all In(lians 1by their untactful treatment by the English. Tile Chitppewas, naturally warlike and full of a dea(fly hatred for the English, fell readily in with the schemes of Pontiac, the Ottawa. In tile mlassacre at Fort MIackinaw in 1763 they took the lead. In spite of repeat(ed warnings CaItain Etherington, who was in comnalndl. neglected all precautions and wats trapped by a sim)ple trick. The Indians of whoml there were many, including I'Menominees and Ottawas as well as Chippewas, organized a game of baggattaway, or La Crosse. In this game there are two post goals at a long distance apart an(1 thle players, who are evenly divided as to numbers, seek to drive the ball (pik wakwad) by means of a long handled racquet (pagaadowan) to opposite points. Captain Etherington was watching the game on which he had laid wagers. As if by chance the ball was thrown into the fort, the Indians rushed in pell-mell after it; and, once within, the Chippewas seized the weapons which the squaws had already carried in under their blankets, and the massacre began. Mlost of the inmates were killed but a few were taken prisoners, and among the latter were Captain Etherington and Father Jonois, missionary at L'Arbe Croche. They were reserved for a mnore cruel fate, but happily escaped, partly through the good offices of the Ottawas and Sauks. A trader, Alexander Henry, who escaped through the friendly offices of an Indian named Wawatam, who had adopted him for a brother, has related that the scene was horrible. "The Indians, with reeking scalps at their belts, tore out the entrails of the dead, or dying, and, scooping up the blood, drank it in handfuls." Afterwards many of the slain were boiled and eaten by the

Page  71 TIlE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF 3MICHIIIGAN 71 Chippewas. Ienry's friend, Wawatamn took part in this cannibal feast. M\enominees and Ottawas took no part in the massacre. The French were not molested and were apparently on good termls with the savages. The chief who led the Chippewas in this mlassacre was Minava-vana. IIe was very tall and unusually fierce and stern in aspect. iHe is often spoken of in history as "1The Grald Saulteur. ' It. ha(I })bee part of P(ontiac's scheme to destroy the fort at Gr-1een bay, and Chi)ppewas, Ottawas and lPottawattomnies, who formed sort of anl alliance known as the " Three Fires,??' were ldesilnated for this w(ork. but they were prevented by thie MIen(ominees ffrom carlyinlg oult the p)lan. In the War for Inllepenldence the C(hiIppewas sided with the B1ritish, and many AImerican scalps Ihung at tlheir belts. In (lefense of the Indians it may Ibe said that the countless cruelties whlich marlked the border warfare, were not ussually of their ow\-n v0olition: they we'\e usually instigated by white men Iwho knew perfectly thel Indian manner of fighting. Tlle Clli ppewas mlade peace with tlle Unite(l States government in 1785 and 1789. This did (not last long, however, and in 179) tliey joilned the iIliamni uprising under Little Turtle, but they were comp letely defeatedl by General Wayne in 1.793, and the next year again mna(de a pIeace treaty with the U'nited States. l3anv of tle northern Chipplewail s joilned Tecumseh in the Indiazn conlfederac y off 1S10. Tlhey also fought with tle British under Colonel Ro(be:t Dickson and were in tlie attack on the Amelric(ans at Forld MIackinaw in tlle war of 1812-14. Tle Cliippewas were first recognized formally by tlle A\mericanll govcrnm)(1 nt as a treaty tribe in tlle treaty of Greenville in 1794, in whicll they, witl tile Ottawas, ceded the island of lichillimalkinac a1nd otller (deel)(l(cneies to the United States governmlent. When the French traders reached Lake SIuperior. 1650() to 16(54. they found tile (Chlilppewas aid Sioux in active hostilities. Tlis cmontinued until modern times and northern Michigan, as well as Aislcosin and Minnesota, was thle scene of many wild battles, one of tlle most noted of which belonrs to Grand Island. In the year 1819-20, thirteen Chippewa young men left the island to take the war-l)ath against their ancient enemy, the Sioux, their sole object being to wash away iln blo)od the stain of cowardice which had been cast on thelm by others of their tribe, who lived higher up the lake and nearer to the enemy. Before setting out they appointed a runner who was to watch tlhe enterprise, and in the event of their destruction, return with tidings of it. Soon after reaching the Sioux country they fell in with a party of four times their strength. They immlediately chose their fighting grounld pllaced the runner where lie could observe them safely, and made the onset. In this attack they killed twice their own number, then fell back and entrenched themselves as best they could. The Sioux greatly enraged, followed them up and killed every one. The runner at once set off and returned to Grand Island to report their deeds of bravery and their death. It was to stop this warfare, which arose mostly from the Chip

Page  72 72 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICIIIGAN pewa boundary controversies, that the treaty of Prairie du Chien was miade in 1825. This proved unsatisfactory and in 1826 Governor Lewis Cass and Colonel T. L. McKenna, who had been appointed commissioners. met the Indians at Fond du Lac (Lake Superior) and arranged a treaty with them in regard to the boundary line with the Sioux. Henry R. Schoolcraft, Indian agent, accompanied this expedition. The Chippewa treaty of Prairie du Chien related to the difference between the Chippewas and Foxes; the latter, being allies of the Sioux, had been driven southward by the Chippewas. Since that time a great many treaties have been made with the Chippewas in regard to their location on reservations, timber rights, and so on. At the present time the Chippewas are gathered, except a few scattering families, on fifteen reservations; eleven of which are in Minnesota, and the other four in northern Wisconsin. The largest of these reservations are Red Lake and White Earth; though the Lac de Flambeau (Torch lake), La Pointe and Fond du Lac agencies in Wisconsin are best known to northern Michigan people. NOTED CHIEFS Of the many noted Chippewa chiefs who led their warriors to battle in early days, one of the foremost was Waub-ojeeg, the White Fisher. IIe was born at Chegoimaggon (La Pointe), sometime between 175() and 1759. His father was Mamongizidic, ruling chief at La Pointe, by right of descent. His totem was the Adike, or reindeer. Mamongizidic and his tribe had always been firmly attached to the French, and his family traditions state that he had visited Montcalm and carried a speech from the French general to his tribe. He led the Chippewas in the siege of Quebec. For two years after the massacre at Michillimackinac, the English would not permit any traders to enter Lake Superior. The chief therefore visited Sir William Johnson to ask that traders might enter the lake, and he received from the English commander a gorget and belt of wampum. "The French cause fell while Waub-ojeeg was still bound to his Indian cradle," and he grew up with vivid ideas of English supremacy. As soon as he came into authority he welcomed the English traders. Waub-ojeeg was early noted as a brave warrior, and as a hunter was unexcelled, and the following incident relates to his skill in this respect. He had gone out from his hunting lodge, early one morning, to set marten traps. Having set about forty he was returning when he met a large moose in his path which seemed inclined to give battle. Waubojeeg was armed only with a small hatchet and knife and tried to avoid him, but the animal came at him in a furious manner. He took shelter behind a tree, dodging from tree to tree as the enraged animal pressed upon him. At length, as he fled, he picked up a pole, and, quickly unloosing his moccasin strings, he bound his knife to the end of it. Then, placing himself in a favorable position, as the moose came up, he stabbed him several times in the throat and breast. At length the animal fell

Page  73 TIHE NORTHIERN PENINSULA OF MlICHIIGAN 73 dead, and Waub-ojeeg ( cut out its tongfue as a trophy. Those who went after the c;ar(ass folnd thll spot looking like a lbattle field, and the moose an unusually large one. While a mere youth, Waub-ojeeg joined his father's war-parties against the Outagamies (Foxes) and Sioux. for although the Chippewas had formnerly\ been \well received by the Foxes the latter had secretly allied theiliselves with tlhe Sioux. Tlle \White Fisher was looketd upon as a successful war-leader and defender of his people. For twenty years, beginning about 1770, he was the ruling spirit of his tribe. In appearance he was s)pare and lightly built, "standing six feet six inches in his moccasins.' His eyes were black a nd piercing. In spite of his light build he was strong and active. HIe was seven times a leader against tlle Olitagamlies and Sioux. and three tiimes severely wounded. His war Iiartics w\ere all volunteers. (This was the case w ithl aIll Indianns. Persuasion might be used but not coercion). The first party consisted of forty men, the last of three hundred, gathered from along the lake shore as far as St. Mary's river. In the last of the battles in Wisconsin Waub-ojeeg and his men crossed over to the St. Croix river which they descended after a five days' journey. Mleantiime the Sioux and Foxes (Outagamies) had decided on a foray against the Chippewas, and accordingly ascended the St. Croix river, and the two war-parties met unwittingly, early on a foggy morning near the falls of St. Croix. A skirmish of the scouts ensued. Waub-ojeeg soon arrived with his full force and a bloody battle took place. Neither party knew the full strength of the other. At length the Sioux and Foxes, being outnumbered, fled, and the Chippewas ever after claimed the country down to the lake at the foot of the St. Croix. This limit was conceded to them in the treaty at Prairie du Chien in 1825. The war song Waub-ojeeg made and chanted for his followers on this occasion so impressed them that the words were preserved. The following metrical translation was made by an Irish gentleman, John Johnson, who miarried O-shau-guscoday-way-gua, daughter of Waub Ojeeg, and mother of Mrs. Schooleraft. WAUB-OJEEG;'S WAR SONG On that day, when our heroes lay low, lay low, )n that day when our heroes lay low[ fought by their side, and thought, ere I died, Just vengeance to take on the foe, the foe,.Just vengeance to take on the foe. On that dlay, when our chieftains lay dead, lay dead, On that day when our chieftains lay deadI fought hand to hand, at the head of my band And here, on my breast, lhave I bled, have I bled, And here, on my breast, have I bled. Our chiefs shall return no more, no more, Our chiefs shall return no more; Nor their brethren of Nwar who can show scar for scar Like women their fates shall deplore, deplore, Like women their fates shall deplore.

Page  74 74 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Five winters in hunting, we'll spend, we'll 'spend, Five winters in hunting we'll spend; Till our youth, grown to men, we'll to war lead again, And our days, like our fathers we'll end, w-e'll end, And our days like our fathers we'll endl. Waub-ojeeg died in his family lodge at Chequamegon in 1793, surrounded by his children and relatives. DOMESTIC AND FAMILY LIFE Though the existence of the Indian race, like that of the white race, depended upon the women, they were always slaves, practically, and for thie most part, spent their lives in hopeless drudgery and obseurity; their condition unrecognized and their self-denial and devotion unrewarded. Occasionally, as in the following sketch made in 1826, of Mrs. Johnson (Oshau-guscoday-wag-gua), daughter of WAaub-ojeeg, we catch a glimpse of the real nature of the Indian woman under improved conditions. The writer says, "She is a Chippewa, with no white blood, large, but uncoinmmonly active and cheerful. She dresses nearly in the costume of her nation; a blue cloth petticoat, a short gown (tunic) of calico, leggins worked with beads. and moccasins. IIer black hair is plaited and fastened up behind with a comb (it was characteristic of the Chippewa women to wear the hair bound up). IIer eyes are large and intelligent. and teeth fine. IIer high cheek bones, compressed forehea(ld, and jutting eyebrows denote firmness of character and vigorous intellect. As a wife she is devoted to her husband; as a mother, tender and affectionate; as a friend, faithful. She manages her domestic affairs in a way that might afford lessons to the better instructed. She understands English but will not speak it (this was characteristic of all Indian women). As for influence, no chief in all the Chippewa tribe exercises it with equal success, when she finds it necessary to use it." This was put to the test in the treaty of cession in 1820 when, at a critical time, she sent for some of the principal chiefs and demonstrated to them their own weakness and the power of the United States, and, by convincing theml of their own mistaken views and the friendly intentions of the governmment, produced a change which resulted in the conclusion of the treaty. IHer suggestions were always for the good of her people and never in opposition to the government. One of her daughters became Mrs. Henry Schoolcraft. She resembled her mother in her soft silvery speech, but not in compilexion. This (aughter (Jane) was educated in Europe, having accompanied her father there, and was very highly accomplished. She dressed for the most part like the white women of her day. Some of her descendants are living in Chicago at present. The other children of MIrs. Johnson were not so highly educated as Mrs. Schoolcraft, but were naturally intelligent and refined. Their descendants are still residents of upper Michigan. Among well known chiefs of modern times who were instrumental in effecting permanent peace with the whites, as well as with the Sioux,

Page  75 TIlE NORTIIERN P'ENINS ULA OF I(SICIIGAN 7t5 were Shingauba-xs-ossin, of Sault Ste. Allaiie; AVaubeshkeepeenaas, of Onto'la(gnll, and imanv others, heads of lcands not hl)cated in northern 1 iehlligan. Thlough the Indian Ilmen left the. ca.tre and training of children entirelv to wollen, still the-y\ were not d(evoid( of Ilatural affetioni, as this storyv of Bianswah Awill prove. "The son o)f this qaged Chil)pewa chief waIs eI)tured 1)y the F()xes duriing the father's al)selnee from the wigwa l. As 001 (Is IBians\wah hear(lei thlis. ie foll) ed (lilrect to the Fox village knlowillg well -lwhat the falte of hlis soin would )e. \\lien he arrived theyv were just in the act of kindllilg a fire to roast the capl)tive. Biiallswahll stel)p)ed })oldly into thl( circ(le. "'I s51l." sal i s lie, "has lsieeI l)ut few w\\inteIrs lis feet hlave never trod tile iwar-l)ath; l)ut the hairs of 1lvy hleadl are white. I1: 111111e 111a111' S(many ll) ()Ip the graves of Illn relativcws, taken fronm the hleads of,our \warriolrs; kindle tlhe fire al)out 1e,( and1 Selnd lm son holme to mll o d.(1'." lis ofier ' was aecel)ted ard tile (ltl nlaln Il('t his (leathl at tile stake, without a gro)an. T!rle soi(, who too()l his father 's nanie. lived to aveng(e the father's death very thor()oughl,' in.aft(e.-r years. ikAnothel cllief of (early dayss. whose naIlie has colme (1()wo\ in iistory. was Anildag-we\()s. lie was pa)ltieularly noted for his peacefill disl)()siti()I anl(1 far-seeing inltelligence. To the whites lie wNas a guardlian sl)i'it ofte(' saXvinl' tlheni fr()ln 111l(l( r (1 1)1 pillage. lie was cot'(tlcl) poal'y with W\atbl-()je('eg (1750 to 1795) Tile Awar sl)i'it Ihas l ing sin(ce died out with the ChlipNewas. and(1 tiey live (luielt, u11e('ventful li ves upon theirI rItslrvati(ns. E\venI their ancient heral(lrd. their toteums, seln foirgotten, and( onlyl those li vinll' at ouftlyilgr I}oilts still l)practicee tlhe \lie(li(ille dan(e. thle religiol of tlheir fathers. Thle 11ead c(li(f of thle Redl Lake band at pIre(scnt (1910) is Ray-a1a — nod(liI, a dignifiedl, 1o0stentatious Anmericall citizen. The Weatl)Ols and tools use(d i)- thle prililitive Cthippewas were like those used 1)y- otlIer Algonquin trilbes; arrow-heads, afxes, lhamnmers,,aind ou()lseh(oll(l illilleilllents of all sorts mllnade of stolle. hon(e and so on. The tilps of de(er elk and moose horns made the ice chisels used in the winter fisliing. 'They have bowls, spoons, platters and( mowkocs made of birch bark an( woo(d. They Iad(le ornaments ftroil mica, shells, fossils, agates and re(d I)il)estlle; tlis latter 1)eing a favorite material for p)ipets, obtai}iedl in 51liIinesota. Tlley have highly prized knives anid arrow points mlade o(f obsideon whichl thley Imlust have obtained by barter with western tri)es. They lnade manyl tools, orlanlents and weapons of coppler; these being usually hammered into shape. The Chippewas probably received these first, from the MIaseoutins whom they claimn to have driven out, though it was an Algonquin who told Champlain of the copper to be found on the shores of a river near a great lake, and who gave Champlain a piece of it. IIe also told him that the Indians melted the copper, spread it in sheets and smoothed it with stones. The Indian method of obtaining the copper was simple. After removing the covering, the metallic veins were heated by having fires

Page  76 76 TIlE NORTHrERN I'ENINSULA OF MICHIGAN built upon them and then water was thrown upon the heated surface. When friable, stone mauls were used to break off the ore. Many of thlese mllauls were found in old mines. Stone and copper wedges were found also. If in the course of their mining a deep trench or pit had been Ilmade. a. rlde ladder. madle of a tree trunk with the branches sawed off, leaving stubs for steps, was use(l to reach the lower level. Tile CllipIpewas dressed in anilmal skins, particularly deerskin, tanned, soft and smooth, and often ornlamented with embroidery of beads, or colored p)orlcpline quills, or bands of fur; the garments being the tunic, tro.users, leggins and moccasins for men, while the women added a. skirt to these. After dealings with the whites began, the deerskin skirts and trousers were soon replaced with woolen garments. Their wigwams were commonly covered with bark, though skins were often added. Tlheir beds and robes were made of skins, with and without fur. The Chippewa vwomen excelled in the preparation of wood fiber for nets, snares and other necessities. Fish and maple sugar were staple articles of diet, and were important articles in their trading with the whites. They were great flesh eaters, and hunting was a p)assion with them. Among their delicacies was the beaver tail which none knew how to prepare better than the Chippewa vwoimen. Wild grapes, plums, cherries, berries, nuts and roots of certain plants, Imade welcomte additions to their fare, wlien in season. They cultivated corn, potatoes, squash and beans, but not so extensively as the Iro(luois and other nations. As in all Indian tribes, the drudgery of gathering, preparing and preserving all food fell upon the women. The men mlerely killed the larger game; though both men and women fished. The women were tihe manufacturers. They finished the canoes, which they were as expert in handling as the men; built the lodges, dressed thle game. tanned the skins, and, in addition, they had entire care of the children. until the boys were old enough to go on the great hunts, or tlie war path. RELIGION AND MYTIOLOGY Like all Indians, the Chippewas speak most of their remote past. Fire worship was part of their religion, and they have a tradition that an eternal fire was kept burning at Chegoimnegon (La Pointe). One Chippewa legend concerning the origin of the world and of the Indian tribes is as follows: They called the continent a little island, Minnisa. "When the Good Spirit created this island it was a perfect plain, without trees or shrubs. He first created an Indian man, then an Indian woman. They multiplied and when there were about ten, death was known to have comre in the midst of them. The first man lamented his fate; he went to and fro, up and down the earth, saying, 'Why did the Good Spirit create me, that I should so soon know weakness, death and frailty?' The Good Spirit heard him and was touched by his appeal. He therefore commanded those beings he had created in Heaven to assemble a great council. The Good Spirit addressing the council said:

Page  77 TIlE NORTIIERN PE''NINSULA OF MICIIJGAN 77 'What shall we do to better the condition of man, for I have made him weak and frail?' The host assembled said: 'Oh Good Spirit, thou hast formed and created us and Thou art self-existent, knowing all things, and thou alone knowest what is best for thy creatures.' This consultation lasted six days and during that time not a breath of wind blew to ruffle the waters. This calm is called Umwatig by the Indians. On the seventh day not a cloud was seen; this is called Nagheezig. On the seventh day the Good Spirit summoned his messenger. and having placed in his right bosom a piece of white hare skin, and in his left a piece of the head of a white headed eagle, both of which were painted blue, representing peace and eomlmelorating the six days consultation in Heaven, sent him to earth. The messenger was instructed to tell the first man that his lament hlad been heard, and that he brought good tidings. IIe told the Indian that he must conform himself strictly to the Good Spirit's colnmands. He also told the Indian that lie had brought to him a piece of white hare skin, and a piece of white eagle's head, and these must be used in their 5Medawi, or Grand Medicine feast, and whatsover they should ask on these occasions would be given them, and the life of the sick should be prolonged. The messenger also gave him a white otter skin, painted on the back of the head with a blue stripe; the paint used being part of the blue sky they so loved and admired (The blue paint, used on pipes, pouches and facial decoration, was typical of this, and signified peace and kindness). The imessenger also held in his hands a bunch of white flowers and plants, which he said he had been directed to scatter over all the earth, that the Indian might find them when he wanted them for healing the sick. At this time a very large tree was sent down and planted in the middle of the island. Its roots, which were very large, extended to the edges of the island, east and west, so the winds could not uproot it. On the east side was a blue mark, indicating the sky. The messenger instructed the Indian how to use the bark in connection with other medicinal herbs, cautioning him always to take it from the east side. The mythology of the Chippewa embraces not only a Great Spirit, good and evil, but also countless minor deities. One of these is Chebiabose, keeper of the Land of Souls, same as Nagpote of the Menominees. Another is Pauguk, who appears as a. human skeleton, armed with bow and arrows. He corresponds to the [Menominee Paka (Fear of Death). Many of their winter tales are of giants, portrayed as cannibals, and fairies having supernatural powers. A greater number of these stories are of wizards, sorcerers and the evil spirits of land and water. Manabozho (Manabush, in Menominee dialect) is prominent as one of the demi-gods. He appeared in countless forms with all the attributes of a god, and the weaknesses of a man. Though he could change his form at will, he was often in straits for a. meal, but he always had his magic drum and rattles to sunmmon supernatural help. He had power to send birds and beasts on all sorts of errands, but, when they danced before him, did not hesitate to snatch a fat duck for a meal. Manabozho is

Page  78 78 TIE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIIGAN connected with the Chippewa version of the deluge, and recovery of the earth. The account quoted was given by a Chippewa chief named Oshewegwum (Log on a Stream) to Colonel McKenney in 1826: "The earth was made by Nanibozou (a local form of Manalbozho). He and two wolves were out hunting; after two lays one wolf parted from thenl and went to the left; the other continued with Nanibozou and wnas adopted as his son. Nanibozou knew there were devils in the lake, so he a(nd his son (the wolf) went to war with them an(d destroyed all the devils in one lake; but every (leer the wolf started would run into another of the lakes. One day the wolf chased a deer and it ran out upon the ice, the wolf followed and just as he caught the deer the ice broke and both fell in, and the (levils caught and (devoured them. Then Nanibozou went up and down the shore lamenting his lost son. A loon in the lake heard him and asked what he was crying about. The loon then told Nanibozou what had befallen the wolf, and also told himl that he might see the devils if he wrould go to a certain place where they came out to sun themselves. Nanibozou went, and saw (evils in all manner of forms; snakes, bears, and so on. When the two-headed devils got on the bank they saw Nanibozou and sent a very large devil, in tlhe forml of a snake, to investigate. When Nanibozou saw the devil coming he turned hinself into a stum)p. The (ievil coning up, wraIppel hilself around the stuiilp and sqlleezted so hard that Nanibozou was about to cry out when the devil uncoiled a little; then he wound himself ablout the stumpn andl sueezed still harder. The lpressure was so great that Nanibozou was just about to cry out with Iain when the devil relaxed hillself and w-ent back to his comp)anions an( told theml it -was nothing but a stulmp. The (levils were not convinced and sent a beai'. the bear hullgged antd bit and clawed the stump. lie did this repealtedtly until just as Nanih)ozou wa\-s aboul)t to cry out., the bear returned anld told the other (levils it was (nothing but a stumnp; whereuplon tile (levils all went to sleepl in the sun just as snakes (lo. When Nanlilzou was sure they were asleep he took his bow and( arrow\s a,11i sho)t tie two great devils. When the rest awoke, they p)ursilued Nanibz)zoi, with a great flood. IIe he card it coming and ran fromn hill to hlill until he go(t to the topt of the highest mountain. Then hle climrbe(l the highest pine tree he could find, but the waters follow(ed hilm to the top. Then he prayed that tihe tree might grow; and it di(l grow but the water rose still higher. IIe prayed that the tree mlight grow more, as the water was ulp- to his chin. lie lrayed the third timel but the tree only grew a little. Then looking alboult, he saw a numll)ber of animals swimmiing, ammong themn the b)eaver, otter and nmusk-rat. Nanibozou called them brothers and bade them comne to him. When they came he said: 'We must have some earth or we xwill die.' First the bleaver (dived down, but he drowne(d before reaching )bottoml. Then the otter went down, but he lost his senses before he (coldl get a bite of soil. Then the mllusk-rat went down. and just as he got a l)ite of earth he lost his senses and floated to the top. Nanibozou had them all

Page  79 TIHE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MIICIIIGAN 79 ir brought to him and he examined all their claws, but found no earth except a little in those of the musk-rat. Nanilbozou took this in his hands, rubbed it and held it up to the sun until it was dry. Then he blew it all around over the water and the land aIppearedl." W\hen the Chippew\a was asked where the musk-rat tgot the earth, he saidl hl didn't know. IHe believed Nanibozou lived somllewhere towards the rising sun; that he looked like a. man and that lie had once had a wife but she disappeared. IIe also said Nanilozou was a twin, born of a virgin mnother, an(l that she and the other son vanished when the twins were born, and were never seen again. This chief said that the souls of the dead w'lent to a large village that had no end to it, towards the setting sun; that it took several days to reach this and that tile Great Good Spirit did not live in the village but in the sky. The Medawin, or Grand Medicine dance of the Chippewas, like that of the Menominees, is founded upon these myths, of which there are many, with Nanibozou, or IManlabush, as tle central figure. The Chippewas' ritual is much longer and more complete than the Mlenominees, who borrowed imany of their forms ftrom the Clhippewas. Mana(bo.Iuzou gave the birch bark chart containing the story of his descent, and the rules for healing the sick, to the otter, which he saw first. This otter appearled at the fo()r car(linal points successively, and then at an island in the center of the water. The otter became the controlling spirit of the first degree (of the IMedaawin, w\hich Nwas gular(le(l )by eight spirits. The second degree was owned by the Tlllnder birds and was gluardedl by twelve spirits (some tribes lmake the i)anther Imando the chief deity of the second degree). The entrance to this degree was always guar(lde( by two evil spirits who must be driven laway )by Manabozho. The third rdegree was guar(led on the outsidhle by two slpirits and on the inside by MIakwau 5IIanido, the bear spirit, (luring the day. At night it w\as guarded by eighteen spirits put there by Kitsehe Mailmdo. There were alnways four steaml baths, for foulm su;cl(essi(v (days. obligatory as a preparation for the fourtlh degree. Tlls, which is tl e highest (legree, was sacre(l to Kitsche Maimldo, w-hose lname is always sp)(kenl witll reverence. The bear spirit and Slide i\anidos gllard the doors. Followxing this foutllh degree the sacred plants, such as ginseng, bear berry, etc., are given to the candi(date and their use explained. TlIe sacred colors were green and red; tlhe green always being at the top of the posts before the entrance. The same arrangemenl t of color is often observed in bea((ded garters, baldrics, bags and other articles, used in full-dress cerenmonials. After the otter had been initiated into tlhe Aledawin he made four prayers, then plunged beneath the waters and swam tow\ard the west, followed by the Arushinabeg (Chippewas). IIe reappeared at Ottawa island and here the people located and dwelt many years, and conducted their sacred rites. The otter then plunged again beneath the water and wvhe erever he reappeared the Arushinabeg (Chippewas) rested and put up their medicine lodges. This interrupted migration (ontinued until Sandy lake, Minnesota, was reached. and here the otter

Page  80 80 THIE NORTIHERN IPENINSV[LA OF MICIIIGAN disappeared. Before this they had stopped in about thirty localities; among them Mackinaw island, Sault Ste. Marie and La Pointe. This migration of the otter embodies the western emigration of the Algonquin nation. The Chippewas claim to have dispersed into various bands from La Pointe and Sandy lake. DANCES OF THE CHIPPENAS The Wabeno dance of the Chippewas was wilder and far more bestial than that practiced by the Menominees or other Algonquin tribes; some of their forms of worship being too vile for general reading. The good missionaries sought by every means to overcome their low habits, and the Wabeno of later years lost much of its grossness, owing to their efforts. Colonel McKenna describes a ceremonial dance, in honor of the commissioners who negotiated the treaty of Fond du Lac (Lake Superior) in 1826. IHe says: "An Indian band of about forty came over from one of the islands; as they landed they came up two abreast, leaping and chanting in time with the drums. They formed a circle in front of the headquarters. The drummer then went around this three times, with a short double step, first on one foot then the other. They were naked, except for the breech-clout, and were painted, some all black some half black and half red, the colors separated by a nicely divided line running lengthwise down the spine and in front so that one arm and leg were red and other side black. Their heads were ornamented with feathers, their hair plaited, with little bells and trinkets in the braids. From their belts hung some small looking-glasses, their knives and the skins of birds. Their ankles were bound with bands of fur. Some wore moccasins and some a fox's tail streaming from each heel; others wore leggins. Their faces were painted with red, green, yellow or black-in circles, lines, stars, points, or all together. A little boy about five years old, painted black and wearing an enormous head-dress of feathers, was in the midst, and wAent through the whole ceremliony. keel)ing time with the drums, and singing, which was a monotonous repetition of a-ha-a-o-eh. During the pauses of the chanting a warrior would tell of his exploits in war and chase. These speeches were met by vociferous shouts. "This was a ceremonial pipe dance, but it might have been called a begging dance, as the sole object was to obtaiin gifts, particularly whiskey. They were given a mockoc filled with tobacco and a small amount of diluted whiskey. Each drank a small glassful except those accompanied by children. Each child was entitled to a glassful, which was at once handed to his father. These gifts were distributed by an attendant called Machinewa. Almost every chief had one or more of these, who received and distributed the gifts for the family. There was no appeal from his manner of division. These were followed by about sixty more, even more grotesquely painted than the others; some were white and some red bodies, with white hands and faces. Their hair,

Page  81 THE NORTHERN IENINSULA OF 5MICI1GTAN 81 which xwas generally l)raid(ed and fasteiied lup). was let down andl(l hlun on their sho)ulders. S(lome had lorns )ll their heads. Thler had two little b)oys with t lhellm. 'h(- stli(l tlhley (li(l tiit ('till( i to:1ll( (' iLn lll(.kery, hut )eluse tleir hlerts we-e gl(l. Also thlat they broluglt the p)ipe)(' whicl was the emblem (of life an(l pe)(a(.e. Tihy w ere re(.eived cereI1lOlliomuslV, the p)il)e was smokel d ll efre''hl'l('lints \we1'(' iv'('ll thlelml." A \Vahlenol was _'i\(vell for theit sillsal' ('_l lllissi(Oll('lS alt;iSanlt St(e. Mila ie in 1826(. ''Two wonen and two girls too()k )pat ill tilis. 'lThe' men, painted and deeked witll feathers. sat (,o b)oughls arolim(l thle tealt as close to the sides as possible. A little girl )began tlhe (lane. The step - B TUE Se 0 )O TIIF CI)lPEwxAS (from ()oId goverm'ent surv(y) of tlhe wNomen was peculiar. They did not lift the feet from the( groud. Iut placed tl(em (l()se t)ogetler an(d kept timue to the druns witlh tlheir h(eels, and )moved right and left by tirning their feet in those directions, alwNays keeping the bo(dy plerl)pen(icular. The little gil dai(wied ab)olt five minutes, then an old( woman arose an(ld danced in like manner. iAs soon as she was seated an unusually tall In(dian, (resse(l in skins with the fur on, aind a fur (al) on hlis lhead., entered and l(ookedl fier(ely around, blowing and ulttering a sound like ehl-eh-leh at every breathl. Presently a young Indian ent(er(ed a(1( seized(l lilm by the arlms and, being shaken off, cauglht at hiis )bo(dy as thongh eomp)elling him to surrender some( object. lPr(sently eachl took a (drlm andl( went around the tent, stel)I)inog in timle. and withl bodies half bent. and beat the drum in the faces of these seated. After this the ol(lder man nade a sl)eeeh to the Great Evil Spirit. to appease 1himi and( berg his compassion on tlhem. Vol. I-G

Page  82 82 THE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICIIGAN The delivery of his speech was attended by violent gesticulations and contortions of the body. Then he went around the tent, again followed by several Indians. all singing and stepping in time. with their bodies half bent over. Then the old man made another speech, and others joined the dance. The rest smoked while this was going on." About eleven o'clock an attendant took Colonel MTcKenna )b the arm an(d said "Needje Need.je, whiskey, whisksey, Wabeno. ' Sixpenee was given him and lie soon returned with the liquor. The dancing and speech-making were kept up all night by the priest, or josslakeed. At sunrise the feast was brought in. It was in two kettles. each holding about six gallons. One was smoking hot and looked thin, the other was thicker and colder. Probably both contained dog flesh, as the preparation for the Wabeno had included the killing and dressing of a dog for the feast. In the morning some who had not been at the Wabeno brought their birch bark bowls for some of the soup. The drums mentioned are used in ceremonies of all sorts and are made of pieces of wood hollowed out, and the ends covered with rawhide, stretched while wet so that it is very tight and resonant when dry. The Mide drum is always round. often large and elaborately decorated, made from a section of a hollow tree perhaps. Rattles used in the ceremonies were made in various ways; often a dry gourd was filled with beans or acorns or small pebbles. The only instrument among the Chippewas which is really musical, according to white taste. is the flute with three holes; played by an expert., this makes pleasant but mournful sounds. It is used mostly in courtship. The Chippewa faith in drearms lasted until a late (lay, as the following story told by Plover. a chief who lived on the banks of the Ontonagon river, will show. Plover had a dream in which a tall, handsome man came to him from the westward. This man who did not touch the earth, but remained poised in the air opposite him, told Plover that the world was coming to an end. Then the Plover knew that the apparition was a messenger from the Great Spirit. The messenger told him there were no more Manidos in the ground nor above, nor in the water. All were taken away except four at the cardinal points; when these were taken, it meant the end of time. The messenger told him to go to the northeast and stay there, and as Plover looked about he saw this meant the extreme end of a large lake. The messenger told him also that if he wished to remain and fight his enemies, he had brought him a war club for the purpose. This was very large, made of red willow, and was red all over; but the Plover thought he could not fight, so the messenger left him, saying that was all he wished to know. The Plover began to sing and awoke singing. The Chippewas were just as superstitious as other Indians. They would not go around Keweenaw Point in early days, but always made a portage. The story goes that "many years ago some of their people, while going around the Point, attempted to land on Beaver island (Lake Su

Page  83 THE NORTIHERN P'ENINSULA OF MICIIIGAN 83 perior). When they app)roanched tle island tile forin of a. woman arose and, as tley (drew nlarer. she continued to grow until her size became overpoweringl and felarful an(l they tie(l in ter(or." They believed the women held donmiilon over all the b)ea(vers onl thel point and adjacent islanils. and interdicte(l their lanldilng; so fro(n that tile onl tlhey never listlurbled the beavers there. Thle (Chillpewas held( to this until co(lltparatively recent times, and tile bl)evers were very nnmlerious iu tlhat vicinity when the whites canie. Then the value of the l)caver fur in exchange for whlite nlcn' s goods. esp(ec' ially w\isky, which wfas tile lmost Ipowerfill weaplon eve(r used in the (Idownflall of a race. overcanme their superstitions fe(arls. In spite of thfeir warlike halbits and gross ceremonies, the Chilppewas had manyl fine traits of c(liara(.te.r anl(l sonll) of tlheir legends an (1 Illythl aire full of poet ll lad naturall b)eauty. 'rle following legen(l was relatedl 1y Mrs. Jolhnson. d(auglhter {of \\aul)o-j((-g. and translate(d )y! hler dlaugliter Charl(tte: "A man froml the nortil, gray haired and carrying a. staff. w(nlt rovingl ov(er all cuntries and( clilces. After having traveled for four lmoo-ns without stoppling, he songllht a slpt on \whlich to recline and rest. IIe had not long' been seated when lie saw before him a young im.an very beautiful, witih rosy checlks splarkli,, ng eys, an(d hlis heald covered with flowers; while from bletween his teeti hle blew a breath as sweet as wild mountain fIowers. Said tlhe old man as he leaned upon his staff, his longr grey )becard falling al1most to his feet: 'Let us rest here awhlile and talk a little. but first we will lmake a fire.' They brought much wood and made a fire. and each told tlle o(ther wlhat had befallen himl on his journey to this place. PIresently the youlng man felt cold and he loocked about, to see what had plroduced tlle change, rubbing his hands against his cheeks to warm them. Then tlhe old( muan said: 'When I wish to cross a river I blow upion it and make it hard so that I mnay walk upon its surface; I have only to speak and bid the waters be still or touch thell with my finger, and they beconme like stone; the tread of may foot makes soft things hard. My power is boundless.' The young man feeling still colder, and tired of the old man's boasting, also noticing by the rosy tints in the east that the morning was near said: 'Now my friend. I wish to speak.' 'Speak;' said the old 1man, 'my ear, though it be old, it is open; it can hear.' 'I go,' said the young man, 'over all the earth, too. I have seen it covered with snow and the waters I have seen hard, bur [ have only passed over them when the snow melted, the mountain rivulets began to run, the rivers to Inove, the ice to melt; the earth became green under my tread; the flowers blossomed and the birds were joyful, and all that was produced by your power vanished.' The old man sighed deeply and said 'I know thee, thou art Spring.' 'And thou' said the y-oung man 'art Winter. I know thy powers are great, but thou darest not come to my country. Thy beard would fall off, thy strength depart and thou wouldst die. The old man felt the truth of this, and before morning was seen vanishing, but before they parted each expressed the hope that they would meet again."

Page  84 84 TI'IE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MIICIIIGAN Another story illustrates heroism and superstition. Gitche Gausine was a great warrior. After a great battle with the Sioux soiel of tlhe skulkers carried the bodies of the slain and mnade soup of them. Gitehe Galsine passed by at the time and they said: "Are you brave enough to partake of our,Iess and eat the bodies of the slain?" "No," said lie, "I killed them, but only base men like you can eat them." After a tim(e Gitehe Gausine fell sick and apparently died. His wife, contrlarv to the usual custom, kept his body four days. insisting that he was not dead; nevertheless she tied to his back the bag in which it was uslual to put supplies for the (lead. On the fourth day she put her hand on his breast and felt it rise. Soon Gitehe Gausine opened his eyes and said: "I have slept long. I have had a strange dream." It immediately occurred to his wife that she had neglected to put his kettle, bow and arrows, and other articles by his side, in the usual way. The thought had just passe( when Gitehe Gausine said: "Why did you not put the kettle and arrows beside me? Now I know why I came back. I was going along this path and it was very smooth. I saw many people going this path, all carrying burdens of various kinds. I saw many lodges and in them drums were beating and there was dancing in them all. but nobody invited me to dance. I also saw much game, many deer and elk and so on, and felt for my bow and arrows, but had none, so I determined to return. Then I met a wAoman wlho said 'You need not return. here is a gun.' and another woman gave me a kettle; but these were not mine and I was still determined to return. On nearing my lodge I found it surrounded by a circle of fire. Making a strong plunge I leaped through the flames, and now I am awake." Gitehe Gausine actually received the gifts mentioned in his dream soon after. I-e said the bag tied to his back was intolerably heavy, and ever afterward he sought to prevent his people from encumbering the dead with so many presents, as it made their journey through the Land of Souls so hard. These Clhippewa myths and legends might be continued without end, as every cave or unusual spot of natural scenery along the islands and shores of the great lakes has its story of giant, fairy or demi-god connectel with it. The island of Mackinaw, which is the scene of the final disappearance of Manabozho, according to the Menominees and Chippewas. abounds with such tales. One of the prettiest of these is the story of Osseo, son of the evening star, preserved in Lieutenant Kelton's history of Mackinac: "In the days long gone an Indian lived in the north who had ten daughters, all of whom grew to womanhood. All were noted for their beauty, especially Owenee, the youngest, who was also very independent in her way of thinking. She loved to linger and drealn in romantic solitudes, and paid little heed to the numerous young men who came to her father's lodge to see her. Her older sisters had all listened to the advice of their parents, and one after another had gone off to dwell in the lodges of their husbands or mothers-in-law. but Owenee would listen to no proposal of that sort. At last she married

Page  85 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN an old man named Ossco. He was so feeble that he could scarcely walk, and too poor to furnish his lodge like others. IIer friends and relatives jeered and laughed at her, but she seemed quite happy and said to them: 'It is my choice and you will see in the end who has been wisest.' Soon after, the sisters and their husbands and their parents were all invited to a feast and, as they went along the trail, they could not help p)itying their beautiful young sister who was accompanied by such an unsuitable mate. Osseo often hesitated and looked upward, but they saw nothing to interest him unless it might be the faint glimmering of the evening star through the boughs that shaded their path. One of the sisters heard the old man muttering to himself as he went along and he seemed to be saying 'Showain neme-shin-nosa,' which means 'Pity me, my fathers.' 'Poor old man,' said she, 'he is talking to his father. What a pity it is that he does'nt fall and break his neck, so that our sister might have a handsome young husband.' Presently they passed a large hollow log, lying with one end toward the path. The moment Osseo, who was of the turtle totem, saw it, he gave a loud peculiar cry and dashed into one end of the log. Presently he emerged from the other end, not the decrepit old man, but a young and handsome warrior who, springing back to the road with steps as light as the reindeer, led the party off. But, in turning round to look for his wife, behold, she had changed into a feeble old woman, who was bent almost double and walked with a cane. The husband, however, remembered her loving care while he was under enchantment, and treated her very kindly, constantly addressing her as 'Ne-ne-moosha,' or sweetheart. "When they came to the hunter's lodge, where the feast was to be given, they found it already prepared, and as soon as their entertainer had finished his harangue, in which he told them that the feast was in honor of the evening or woman's star, they began to partake of the portion dealt out to each of them in accordance with age and character. The food was very delicious and all were happy except Osseo, who looked at his wife, then looked upward, as though he would pierce the atmosphere with the intensity of his gaze. Soon sounds were heard, as from far off voices in the sky; they became more and more distinct, until at last he could understand some of the words; 'My son! my son!' slid the voice, 'I have seen your afflictions andl pity your wants. I have colme to call y ou away from scenes that are stained with blood and tears. The (earth is full of sorrows, giants and sorcerers; the enemies of mankind walk abroad on it and are scattered throughout its length. Every day they lift their voices to the power of evil, and every day they busy themselves casting evil in the hunter's path. You have long been under their power, but shall be their victim no more. The spell you were un(der is broken; your evil genius is overcome; I have cast him dlown by my superior strength, and it is this strength that I now exert for your happiness. Ascend, my son; ascend into the skies and partake of the feast I have prepared for you in the stars, and bring with you those you love. The food set before you is enchanted and blessed; fear not to

Page  86 86 TIIE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN partake of it. It is endowed with magic power to give immnortality to mortals and change men to spirits. Your bowls and kettles shall no longer be wood and earth; the one shall become silver, -the other wampumi. They shall shine like fire and glisten like the most beautiful scarlet. Every woman and girl shall change her looks and shall no longer be doomed to laborious tasks, but shall put on the beauty of the starlight, and become a shining bird of the air, clothed Awith shining feathers. She shall dance, not work; she shall sing, not cry.' 'MSy beams,' continued the voice, 'shine but faintly on your lodge, but they have power to transform it into the lightness of the skies, and decorate it with the colors of the elouds. Come Osseo, my son, dwell no longer with earth. Think strongly on my words, and look steadfastly at my beams. My power is now at its height; doubt not, delay not. It is the voice of the spirit of stars that calls you away to happiness and eternal rest.' "Osseo alone understood these words. His companions thought them far-off sounds of music, or the singing of birds. Very soon the lodge began to shake and tremble and they felt it rising in the air; but it was too late to run out, as they were already as high as the tops of the trees. Osseo looked around him as the lodge passed through the topmost branches, and behold! the dishes were changed into shells of scarlet color, the poles of the lodge into glittering wires of silver, and the bark that covered them into the gorgeous wings of insects. A moment more and his brothers and sisters and their parents and friends were transformed into birds of various plumage. Some were jays, some partridges, some pigeons, others were singing birds who hopped around displaying their gay feathers and singing their songs; but Ow-enee still kept her earthly garb and renaille(l a decrepl)it olld \vollan. Then Osseo gazed upward at the clouds again and uttered the same peculiar cry which he had given when lie entered the hollow log. Instantly the youth and beauty of his wife returned; her dingy garments assumed tle appearance of shimmering green silk, and her cane was changed into a silver feather. The lodge again shook and trembled. for they were passing through the uppermost clouds, and inmmediately after they found themselves in the Evening Star, the alode of Osseo's father. 'My son,' said the old Ian, 'hang that cage of lirds which you have brought along in your hand at the door, and I will inform you wh y. vou and your wife have been sent for.' "Osseo obeyed the directions and then took his seat in the lodge. 'Pity was shown to you,' resumed the ruler of the star, 'oIIn accounit of the contempt of your wife's sister, who laughed at her ill fortune and ridiculed you while you were under the powers of tle evil spirit, which you overcame at the log. That spirit lives in tile Iext lodge, a snmall star you see, at the left of mine. and lie has always felt envious of ilmy fanily because we had greater power than he. anld Iparticullarly becaulse we had the care of the female world committed to us. IIe failed in several attempts to destroy y\our brothers-in-law and your sisters-in-law,

Page  87 THE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF 3IICHIGAN 87 but succeeded at last in transforming you and your wife into decrepit old people. You mnust be careful and not let the light of his beams fall on you while you are here, for therein is the power of his enchantment: a ray of light is the bow and arrow he uses.' "Osseo lived happy and contented in the parental lodge and in due time his wife presented himN with a son, who grew up rapidly and was the image of his father. HIe was very quick in learning everything that was done in his grandfather's dominions. but he wished to learn hunting, as he had heard this was a favorite pursuit on earth. To gratify him, his father made him a bow and anrrows and then let the birds out of their cage that the boy might practice shooting. I-te soon became expert and the very first day brought down a bird, but when he went to pick it up he found to his amazement that it was a beautiful young woman with his arrow sticking in her breast. It was one of his aunts. The moment her blood fell upon the surface of that pure and spotless planet the charm was dissolved. The boy immediately found himself sinking, but was partly upheld by something like wings till he passed through the lower clouds; then he suddenly dropped upon a high romantic island, in a large lake. HIe was pleased, on looking up to see all his aunts and uncles following him in the form of birds, and he soon discovered the silver lodge with his father and mother, descending, the waving b)ark looking like the gilded wings of insects. It rested on the highest cliff of the island and here they fixed their residence. They all resumed their natural shapes. but were diminished to the size of fairies. As a mark of homage to the Evening Star they joined hands and danced on the top of the rocks every pleasant summer evening. The Indians quickly noticed that these rocks were covered in moonlight evenings with a larger sort of P'ulk-wudj-ininees, or little men; and they namied theim Mish-we-muokl-in-ok-olg, or turtle splirits." To this day the island is named after them. Their shining lodge may yet be seen in the summer evenings when the moon shines clearly on the high rocks, and men who come near these cliffs at night hiave even heard the voices of the happy little dancers. \IOURNING FOR THIE DEAD The Chippewas in former times buried their dead by enclosing the remains in a box. or blar)k shell. This was placed upon a scaffold about ten feet high, illade of four saplings having crosspieces bound to them with wattap. Upon tllese tle box rested. They often planted vines at the base of the saplings which soon ran Iup and covered the box. One reason they gave for this method was that they did not like to have their dead pIut out of sihllt so soonI b)\- )uttinl them in tlhe grave. After a time, when the r reis ere interred. a covering was built over the grave, nmade by setting saplings, which were bent togetther at the top and covered with bark. resemllbllilng their wigwanms, but lower and longer. An opening was left at one end to insert the lish of food. In ease of a warrior, the pole or gravepost was set up in front of the opening. This

Page  88 88 TIHE NORTHERN I'ENNSULA OF MIICI-IGAN was painted red, and ornamented with the metal or other tiinkets of the deceased, strips of fur, feathers, bits of tobacco and sometimies scalps (these last were stretched upon a circular framework). Tlhe totemic devices were carved in reverse upon this post. and it was customary to light a fire. The Chippewas of early days had a curious custom which -wi(lows were compelled to observe. When a man died his widow must take her best apparel, roll it into a bundle and tie it with her husband's sash, and sometimes his medals and other trinkets were included. This bundle was then wrapped in a piece of cloth and the Indian was obliged to carry it about with her when she went out, and keep it beside her in the lodge. This badge of widowhood and mourning, which is called "her husband," was compulsory until some of her husband's fanily called and took it away, whlich was done when they thought she had mourned long enough; usually at the end of a year. She was then free and at liberty to marry again if she chose. The widow had the privilege of taking this bundle to her husband's family and leaving it, but this was seldom done, as it was considered indecorous. The size of the mourning bundle depended on her wardrobe, as it must be her best and she must wear her worst clothing. When the relatives relieved the widow of the bundle, they gave her clothing in place of it. When presents were given to the Indians by the commissioners this "husband" came in for a share, just as though it were a living man. Sometimes a brother of the husband took the widow for his wife, at the grave, when the deceased was buried. This was done by the ceremony of walking her over the grave. IHe had a right to do this, and, if done, the widow did not assume mourning. If the widow chose to do so, she had the right to go to her husband's brother, and he was obliged to receive and support her. When a Chippewa mother lost a young child, she frequently made an image of wood or clay representing it. This she dressed in the child's clothing, lashed it to the cradle board (Tik-Kinagou) and went through the pretense of feeding and caring for it, as though it were a child. This ceremony usually lasted about a year. The Chippewa men mourned by painting their faces black. It is only the old men among the Chippewas who remember these customs of former days. Like all the Algonquin race they are acquiring the habits and thoughts of white men. Only on the distant reservations some of the old ceremonies are kept up, even as we keep up customs of the pagan days of the whites, in some of our festivals. DISPLACE TIE MA.\SCOUTENS The first white men who came to northern Michigan found Chippewas and Ottawas along the St. Mary's river and in the vicinity of Michilimackinac. but there was a tradition among them that they had by their united efforts displaced another tribe whom they called the Muskodains, probably the tribe called MIascoutens by the French. The first

Page  89 TIHE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICIIIGAN 89 fights &een to have occurred on the shores of Drummonds island (Portagunassee) and on Point Detour. The Ottawas claimed it was the bones of these Indians which were found in the caves at Mackinaw. It was claimed that they had magicians for leaders, and that their war captain escaped underground at the Point Detour fight. They fled along the shore towards Miehilimackinac and finally across the lake and down the eastern shore of Mic]higan. The Ottawas represented them as powerful and skillful, more than themselves. The small mounds and ancient garden beds in Micliigan are attributed to them. Traces of them are found in Wisconsin. Illinois and southern Michigan. It was they who made the trenches for bones found on Menissing island in Lake Iuron. According to Schooleraft, they were the Indians who worked the ancient copper mines of Lake Superior. The name Muskodain is confusing, Mushkoosa meaning "grass," or "herbage" in general, while Ishkoda means "fire;" hence they were called Little Prairie Indians, or Fire Indians. The difference in the root words is that between Ushko and Ishko. The Ottawas claim to have carried on most of the warfare of extermination, but the noted Chippewa chief, Ishquagauabi, said it was done by the Chippewas and Ottawas jointly. Ile accounts for the alternating settlements along the east shore of Lake Mlichigan, in this way. It is believed that they were contemporary or identical with the Assigunaigs or Bone Indians, spoken of by the western and lake tribes. These nearly forgotten races seem to have been the last link connecting modern history with the mound builders and, like all sedentary people, were exterminated by the fiercer hunting tribes who had not reached such an approximately high plane of living. Another forgotten tribe which lived in the Upper Peninsula was the Noquets mentioned in the account of Nicolet's journey. They were also called the Roquai. Their home was on Bay due Noquet. They were afterwards classed with the Chippewas. Another tribe was called the Mantoue, or sometimces the Makeoucoue, or the Nantoue. They were sedentary in habit, and lived upon the fruits of the land. They lived near the Foxes and were probably a branch of the Menominees. Nicolet found them upon a lake north of Bay du Noquet. OTTAWAS AND HURONS The Hurons were not properly an Upper Peninsula tribe, though the whites found many of them among the Chippewas and Ottawas. When di(iven from their hunting grounds by the fierce Iroquois, the HIurons. or Wyand(ots. temany of them to the Chippewa country, for refuge. The Iroquois followed and carried their work of destruction into the northern lake country. Iroquois Point, on Lake Superior, commemorates a battle where the Iroquois were so thoroughly defeated by the Chippewas and Foxes, who were allied at that time, that they never attemplted further encroachment on Chippewa territory. The struggling bands of IIurons became identical with the Chippe

Page  90 90 TIHE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN was and Ottawas. The Ottawas were neighbors and allies of the Chippewas and were bound by ties of kinship also, as intermarriage between the tribes was common. They were so like the Chippewas in most ways that they need no especial description. Of the same Algonquin stock, they have the same language, nearly, the same dress, religion, myths and general customs. The Ottawas were less savage and fickle, however, than the Chippewas. They were somewhat in advance of their neighbors in agriculture, partly because they lived, most of them, on the southern mainland, and partly because they were naturally more peaceful and possessed greater intelligence. From the first they were more kindly disposed toward the whites, and often saved them from the attacks of the more savage Chippewas. The one great Indian of this tribe, who helped to make Michigan history, was Pontiac. Though he never lived in the Upper Peninsula, this great scheme for reinstating the Indians in their primeval condition, and restoring their rights as he understood them, involved the Chippewas and other Northern Peninsula tribes. As he was half Chippewa, his mother having belonged to that tribe, and of the otter totem, which gave him high rank among them, the Chippewas were especially drawn to his side. Pontiac's plan of organizing the Indians and driving out the whites was well conceived, and showed a mind far in advance of his time. With almost supernatural foresight, he saw the downfall of his race in the coming of the whites. This had not been so apparent when there was only the French to deal with; for they amalgamated with the Indians, and were content to live on equal terns of possession, but when the English came the keen mind of Pontiac recognized them as men who would be masters; never brothers of his race. Ilad the savage tribes who followed him possessed cohesion and self-control, the story would have been different, and Michigan would have waited long for civilization and peaceful settlement. Pontiac was murdered in 1769 by an Indian who had been bribed with whiskey to follow him into the forest and stab him. HIad he belonged to a different age and race, history would have called him a great man and a hero.

Page  91 CIIAPTER VI NATIVE ANIMAL LIFE LARGE FUR-BEARING ANIMALS —DOG AND CAT FAMILIES-SMALL FURBEARERS-BIRDS, FISHES AND REPTILES. As already noted, the value of fur-bearing animals was one of the first incentives to the exploration of northern Michigan, and the explorers found the country rich in the varieties they sought, and there were many others as well. LARGE F UR-BEARING ANlMALS Largest of all the native animals valuable to the fur traders, was the clumsy black b)ear ( Ursls Alericanuls). It is still hunted in the Upper Peninsula though gradually becoming more scarce, and it will undoubtedly soon be extinct. Thle natural food of the bear consists of berries, nuts and roots. but it seenms fond also of strong vegetation such as skunk-cabbage and Indian turnip, the root of which is intensely hot; it also eats spruce buds and bark. It will not attack a human being, unless driven by hunger, cornered or wounded. The buffalo (lBison Ame1(ricanus) seeims to have been formierly in the Upper l'eninsula as there are many references to it in Indian traditions, andl it ranged the whole country from Montana to Florida. Tle woodland caribou (Rangifer) was known and hunted by the Indians and first white settlers and its meat was a favorite ingredient of pemmican. The caribou is the only reindeer known as far south as Lake Superior, but it has long since been driven out of 5Michigan. Its color was a dun grey, turning more white in the winter. The moose (Alces Americanus) was formerly hunted for food. as well as for skins, these being very strong and tough and therefore valuable for clothing, snow-shoes, moccasins and many other uses. The moose is very large. and in color very like the caribou but darker. The head is clumsy, supporting broad spreadiing antlers. It is very swift, in spite of its clumsy app)earance. The Indians are most successful hullters of this animal, for it is very alert and keen of hearing an(d tlhe Indians know its ways. The food of the moose Nwas usually twigs of trees. 91

Page  92 92 T'IE NORTIERN I'ENINSULA OF 5MICHIGAN mosses and lichens, though they are fond also of the roots of pond lilies with which our northern lakes abound. The American elk (Cervus Canadensis) was formerly well known, but is now nearly extinct in the Upper Peninsula. It was larger than the red deer which it resembles, and its flesh is coarser, being more like that of the moose. It fed on willow tips, moss, lichens and such products during the winter season when grass could not be had. The antlers of the elk resemble those of the deer, but are much larger and do not have the flat web-like appearance of those of the moose. The ordinary American deer (Cervus Virginiana) has always made the Upper Peninsula its hore. The white tailed variety is most common. Its food in winter consists of buds, ferns, bark, mnosses and twigs, while in summer it lives on grass and such water vegetation as lilies and cress of wlicll it is very fond. The color, which is reddish brown, turns to a grey-biown in the winter; the young are spotted. Deer hunting has been recognized as one of the principal sports of the Peninsula and it still extensively practiced. They were formerly hunted by running themt with packs of hounds which many of the old settlers kept for that purpose, or by means of lights placed upon the hunter's head, or in the bow of a boat at night to attract the attention of the animal and make its eyes visible through the darkness; the natural curiosity of deer leading it to its destruction. DOG AND CAT FAMILIES The only member of the dog family natural to the Northern Peninsula is tie large timber or grey wolf (Canis Llupus). It is very fierce and destructive, and these animals when hunting usually join and form large packs. The color of the American wolf diffe;s with locality, though the type is the same. They are usually grey in color, with white below, but sometimes the tips of the long hair are so dark as to give the animal the appearance of being nearly black. A smaller species, the coyote, which is the jackall of tie old world, is found to some extent in recent years in the Upper Peninsula where it seems to have wan(deled fromi its natural home on the prairies. It is yellowish grey in color and is more closely allied to the dog than is any other species, and may have been the progenitor of the cogs used by the Indians, as it is not known when or how the northern Indians acquired dogs for their sledges. Wolverines ((Gulo Lusclus) which were formllerly plerltifill enolluh, seem to have entirely lisappeared, a distinct gain, for the little beast was ferocious, a notorious glutton and a born thief. lie was mu(ch hated by the early trappers as ihe continually robbed thci' traps andl mutilated what he coul(d not eat. The prevailing color of thiis animal was black and the fur good. The body was short and clumsy. Many curious and preposterous stories are told of its habits; even the Indians recognized its bad qualities, for their word for wolverine meant a "tough fellow." The red fox (Vulpes Fulvus), famlous in story, is still common. The

Page  93 THE NORTIIERN PENINS'LA OF MIICIIGAN 93 color is re(l(ish yellow on the back and nearly white undlerneath. The furl of tle kittens is very fine and soft. while that of tlhe gl(rown nliiiial is ill 'ood demand. The range of tile fox is very wide all(l varies excee(lillgly. It lives upon small animals and prefers bird(s an(l tleir eggs. Its habits are predatory and sly. and it is bold enoughll to encroach upon human habitations. Aside froml the red fox, there have been occasional specimens of black, and silver grey, and of cros.es. captured in this locality. The panther (Felis Concolor) which varies in color and namet with the locality in which it is found, is the largest representative of the eat family in the Upper Peninsula. It was well known formerly, )but is rare now. Its long lithe body is a tawny reddish brown, though the kittens often have dark brown stripes or spots nearly approachilg black. The head is small in proportion to the body. This animal lives upon deer and other small animals and at times is bold enough to attack men. Many stories are told of the stealthiness with which they stalk their prey, and of the paralyzing influence of their screams when they are about to make an attack. The panther is equally at home in the trees and on the ground. The wild cat (Felis Catus) known locally as the "bob-cat" is a species somewhat larger than the domestic cat, and it has a shorter, thicker tail. It is of a grey color, with light yellowish fur underneath, and usually with dark stripes running down the sides and along the spine. The Canada lynx (Lynx Canadensis) has always been highly prized and much sought, on account of its fur, which is very thick and is susceptible of treatment. The color is grizzled grey, lighter underneath. The peculiar ears and large eyes give this animal a savage appearance, which it quite merits, for it has been known to attack men. In habits it is like other cats, and lives upon birds, rabbits and other small animals. SMALL FUR-BEARERS The Raccoon (Procyon Lotor) so famous in story and song, is still found to some extent. The fur is very good, a long grey hair covering the fine thick under fur. A distinguishing mark is the long tail ringed about with alternate light and dark stripes. Its bill of fare is so extensive that it makes itself a nuisance to farmers. It has a method of sousing its food in water, which is probably a relic of its fishing instinct, for it is very fond of fish. This little animal is easily tamed and very c1lunnin( in its t icks. but very unreliable and thievish. The( otter (Ltrl Canadens is) is vey nmuch prized for its fine fur, and for that. reason has becomie practically exterminated in this region. Its predominant color is brown, but lighter on the breast and throat. likel tle racc('oon it has interesting habits, among them being a fondness for sliding down hill. Otter slides were frequently found in early days. This aninal can be tamed if taken very young.

Page  94 94 TIIE NORTIIERN PENINSULA OF MIICHIGAN The common skunk (Nephis Alephitica) has a bad reputation, but its black and white fur is very valuable, and often passes in the market under' various more genteel names. It is a pest to poultrymien, but it tias some redeeming qualities, for it consumiies great q('uantities of destrilctiv( insects an(l grubs. The badger (Taxidea Americana) has gone the way of the wolverine and the otter. It had burrowing habits and a stout body, with long hair of a mixed color presentinlg a grizzled appearance. It had a. hal)it, when surprised, of remaininiig notionless for a long time, and. owing to its color, it often escapes recognition because of its resemblance to a stone or lump or earth. It will eat most anything when confined, but is particularly fond of gophers and mice. The mink (I'utorius Lutreola) bears a fur nearly as valuable as seal at tle present day. It was formierly very common throughout the UpIper Peninsula. Its color rang'es from a light yellowish brown to a very dark brown nearly approaching black, tile dark fur being most highly prized. The tenacity of life in a nlilnk is wonderful. It frequently gnaws off its own limbs in order to extricate itself froimt a trap. It is a fierce little fighter and not to be handled carelessly by tlhe trapper. Its habits are semi-aquatic. It can be tamed and likes to be caressed like a cat, but is more treacherous. When trained they make excellent ratters. The wieasel (Putorius Vulgaris) is closely allied to the mink but is smaller -and more slender. It has a long neck and very slhort legs. In color it is light brown on the back and nearly white underneath during the summer season, though, like its royal cousin, the ermine, it turns a clear white with the exception of the tip of its tail, in winter. Owing to its swiftness of motion it is difficult to catch, and is a courageous fighter when at bay. It is particularly fond of birds of all sorts, but if poultry houses are well guarded this animal is useful to the farmler in clearing out rats, mice and other vermin. Of the sables there are two species in the Upper Peninsula, one known locally as the fisher, (Mustela Pennanti), and the other the pine marten (MAustela Americana). The fisher is the largest, somewhat resembling a wolverine. It lives upon mice as well as fish, and frequently eats the porcupine. It differs from the marten in preferring to inhabit low ground near the water. It is very cunning and vexatious to the trappers, being hard to catch and accustomed to rob the traps. The fur of the marten is very beautiful, and there are really three kinds on one pelt; that next to the skin being soft, short and wool-like, the second growing through this, longer, soft and kinky, and the third or outer coat being of long glossy hairs, bristly to the roots. The color like that of the fisher is dark brown, almost black. The animal is very shy and shuns civilization, preferring the dry ranges of the woods and living by preference in the hollow of a tree, though found sometimes among rocks, or even underground. The beaver (Castor Fiber) was probably the best known and most

Page  95 THIE NORTHIERN.'ENINSULA OF MIICIIIGAN 9 95 profitable of all the fur bearing aniimals. Its soft velvety brown fur has alwa-ys been in demand. The Indians p)rized its flesh, especially tlht of its fiat tail which they esteemed a great delica(cy. The beaver is fitted for aqluatic life, an(l besides its mud houses along thle banks of stre-amis being well reillemcbered, it is noted for its skill in buil(ding (ams by felling trees, which it does by gnawilg them with its teeth, and then floating twigs and rubbish an(d plastering all together with mud. Its felling of trees also served a double purpose. for it used the buds and twigs for food. It is easily taned(. and preserves its building, instincts while in captivity. Like the otter and hare it was. among the Indians, considered as endowed with unusuall sup(llrnatural (1ualiti('s. Because of the value of its fur, it has been so sought after that it has now become nearly extinct in this region. The squirrel family is repl)rescnted in the Upper Peninsula l by seven species. The largest and hairiest is the woodchuck (Arctoiylls M(onax) much celebrated for its ability as a weather t)ro)phet. When ll nuier0us this "chu('k" is a pest. as it eats everything green almost without (discrillination. The greyish hair is coarse. The anilmal is of burrowing habfits. though the climbing of fences and on low trees is not impossible to it. Another ground squirrel is the little four-striped chipmunk (Tamias Quadrovittatus), the smallest and prettiest of the famiiily and very common. Among the tree squirrels the red squirrel (Sciurus Hudsonnius) is the best known. It is a lively little fellow, dark reddish brown on the back and alimost white beneath. w\ith a tail of a rusty color with a black fring(e. The grey squirrel (Sciurus Carolinensis) is nearly as common as the red, but it is larger and of a grey color on the back; sometimes with a reddish tint, an( very light underneath, the color varying considerably. Occasionally members of this same variety are entirely black. which fact sometimes leads to confusion of species. The western fox squirrel (Sciurus Ludovicianus) is occasionally found here. It is much larger than the grey squirrel, with much more of the reddish tinge and tawny beneath. It is seldom dark colored and never black. Another variety is the flying squirrel (Sciuropterus Volucella). It possesses a fold of skin on each side of its body stretching lengthwise from the fore to the hind leg, and this membrane enables it to make wonderful flying leaps. It is an interesting little creature, covered with soft grey fur, has large bright eyes and is easily tamed. The porcupine (Erethizon Dorsatus) spends much time in trees in pursuit of birds an(t in hunting their eggs. It is a sluggish, clumsy animal, not so formidable as it looks. Its covering is a coarse grey hair ningled with sharp, stiff spines or quills, which are the animal's chief defense. Contrary to former notions it can not throw these quills, but merely jerks them loose when attacked. Dogs frequently suffer from grabbing them. Among the Indians the flesh of the porcupine was highly esteemed, and the quills, when dyed, furnished a common material for purposes of ornament. The Northern Peninsula hare (Lepus Americanus) varies very

Page  96 96 TIHE NORTEIRN PENINSULA OF MlICHIIGAN much in appearance in different localities and seasons, changing both in size and color, the general color being brown or greyish in summer though with more or less white, and changing to a very light grey and sometimes white in the winter. The flesh is prized for food, and the fine, soft fur, which is easily dyed, furnishes much of the coney of commerce. Other lesser animals are to be found, among which the bat of Upper Mlichigan (Vespertilio Subulatus) is an insect-eating variety and a harmless little nocturnal creature, though it suffers from a bad reputation fixed upon it by superstition and ignorance. It is very useful indestroying noxious insects. It is small, brown in color, and hides by clinging under leaves of trees or in dark corners during the day. Another insect-eating animal is the common brown mole (Scalops Aquaticus), an interesting underground creature. Besides the rodents above mentioned, there are field or wood mice (IIesperomys Leucopus), common and destructive everywhere. The musk-rat (Fiber Zibethicus) is a more valuable member of this family. It builds its mud houses along the edge of swamps or streams, or burrows into the muddy banks. Like the beaver it is semi-aquatic. The dark brown soft fur, lighter underneath, has a commercial value and is often used as a substitute for mink. BIRDS, FISHES AND REPTILES The native birds of the Upper Peninsula number more than two hundred species, and it is impossible in this work to give them all mention. Included in the number are eagles, hawks, crows, owls, herons, ravens, blackbirds, ducks, geese, pigeons, partridge (ruffled grouse), jays. woodpeckers, king-fishers, snipe, plover, loons, swallows, sparrows, shrikes, grosbeaks, waxwings, creepers, wrens, orioles and humming birds. Among the true song birds are larks, robins, thrushes, bluebirds, warblers and gold-finches. The birds range in size from the bald-headed eagle (Haliapus Leucocephalus) to the tiny ruby-throat humming bird (Throchilus Colubris), and in beauty from the awxkward grey brant (Branta Bernicla) to the vivid scarlet tanager (I'yranga Rubra) and golden woodpecker (Colaptis Aurates). The waters that wash the shores of the Northern Peninsula and very nearly convert it into an island, as well as those of the numerous interior lakes and streams, are filled with fine fish, the most celebrated among them being the whitefish (Coregonus quadrilateralis). Among others, valued alike by the commercial fishermen and the sportsmen, are the gamy bass in three varieties, locally known as rock, black, and Oswego bass. Of the trout there are four varieties-brook, lake, rainbow and Siscowe (cisco). Other species common to these waters are the dory, pike, pickerel, muscalunge, herring, blue-fish, sun-fish and sturgeon, this last being the largest of all our native fresh water fishes, the flesh of which was considered of great value by the Indians and is considerably used by the white people. Its roe has been manufactured

Page  97 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 97 into caviar to a limited extent in the Upper Peninsula. Among varieties of less worth are bull-heads, catfish, lawyers and bill-fish or garpike. The serpent life in the UIpper Peninsula is limited to a few harmless varieties, the largest being a constrictor known locally as the pine snake; others are the small black snake, the grey puff adder, the striped garter snake, and, very rarely the rattle snake. Turtles are represented by three species: the snapping turtle, mud turtle and the painted tortoise. The toad family is represented by the common garden toad, two or more varieties of frogs and the hylos, or tree toad, a variety that changes color in conformity with the object it rests upon. Closely allied to the frogs are the spotted and striped salamanders. and the hideous water dog called by fishermen "hell-bender." These latter resemble lizards but are not poisonous. Eels also are found to some extent. Vol. I-7

Page  98 CHAPTER VII.PRELI:INARY IIISTORICAL EVENTS TInE C;ABOT DISCOVERIES —JACQUIES CARTIER-ROBERVA-L 'S ATTEMPTED COI.ONIZATION-QUEBEC FOUNDED BY C IIAMPLAIN-R-ECOLLET AND,JESUIT MIISSIONARIES-JE.AN' NICO)LET, UPPER PENINSULA, VISITORSEARCIIING FOR A.NORTIiHWEST —DEATHIS OF CIIAMPIAIN' AND NICOLET. The history of Mlichigan as an organized law-making commlunity has scarcely a hundred years of existence, but the territory now enmbodied in the lUplper l'enlinsula of Michigan, and that immediately adjacent thereto, figured so )rominenlltly in the early history of the United States that it becomes 'a. necessity, ill order to aIp)lreciate the peculiarity of the settlerlment and l) elo'ration of ()ur te(rritory, thle growth and nattlre of its Ipopttlati(n an(l the develop)lllnt of its resources, to consi(ler the c(oli(dlitionls al1(l alll)itions of the variolls ilatiions whlich took )part in tile evelits lea( lillg 11l) to( its settlel(neit. Inl its early history, following that (duilu g which it waS solely I)ossessed bIy the rc(l 11me1l tlis section wavs part of Canada, or New F'rance als it w\\ls at first called. It is ilil)possible to tell just w\hle the first Europtanllis visited thie UJlpper Peninsula propelcr, but wve know it was,at ca V\cry (11arly (1ate in Aiiierican history. and blefore the settleris along the i(l(1(dd Atlantic seaboard hlad(l thollght of crossing the Alleghani.s. Tlo spleak by c(omparisonll is often thle best Iletllhod of spcakillg 1111(l(1'stalllinlrlgy, a((1, therefore recutlrring briefly to tile disc,ove(ryT of 1\nierica. })y (1 )Col)llbus, ws e infornced b-yr Ilistory of the alllbiti(olis that illlmlediat(ly artose in tile breasts of tihe various Europeall rulers. alnd that it. was nlot long, in the thell nmetllo(ds of measuring events, before cxi)lorel's fromI Englalld and France Awere vicinlg Awith the Spanisls in tile extensio, of th}e new world disc(overies. TIIE C.ABOT DISCOVER.IES Fourteen on11 1this before Columb)us discovere the mall illlllnd of tle colltinient, Jolhn Cabot and his son0 Selastial, ill 1497 (liscoveredl thle coast of Lab)rador, and( the follo(wiill year tlhe son, Sebastian, exllored the coast of Newfoundland ai(nd replorted the great luantities of codfinhll 98

Page  99 TilE NORTIIERN P'ENINSULA, OF MAIC1IIIGAN '3) that w\ere thiere. This was fourteen years before Ponice de Leon landed near St. Augustine and nalllled that country "Florida.'" The reports of Cabot seeml to have attracted the fishermlen of the globe, for, by the year 1504, the coast of Newfoundland wlll as visited by fisherileni froin mlany different l)arts of Europe. It is )robable sonic lnay llave ('been there earlier, but thelre are jno recognized.authenltic. recvords of ally earlier visit than that of Cabot. It. is aplparent that a profitable and ilalllel('(ltel' avileal)lc c(nmod(litv was the rieatest allurellent to thle earlly navigators of the then ulnkniown seas and the a}bunlancce of co(dfish that could be lad for tilhe talking lalle the vicinity of tile Gulf of St. Latwrence a center of the greatest attl'action. Naturally the explloratiolls were puslel fronll tlle gulf upI tile rier of the samle nae allnd, w\ith the Ipenletratioln of the c(ountry thlloghll that source, clame the introduction of the fur trade, whiell almlost at oince )becamlle attractive and celiy l)rofitablle. rhese. ready so(urces of i)rofit continued to be attractive to the Eurol)ean adventurers and thley )layedl 1a )rolinient la)rt in the strifes and warfares that followed, nlOt only b)etwcen the colmlllnities of the nlew\ but also the llatives of tlie old w(.)rld. It was twenty-seven years after Cabot discovered the coast of la1bratl()l. before Johln Verrazzallo, a Florenltine naIl gatltor, exs)lor()ld the lower coast antl,entered (1524) thle harbors of New\ York andl Newport. 1 ton the rlt)ort of Verrazza.no, and his descrip)tio)n of the coiast, tlhe 1Fre'ch based a clainl t() No()rth \America. \\While tle Fren'll(h w.em-e 1)tshling tlheir exp)loratiionls ill thle north the( ',-l)lllishl were pl)res,.sing foirward i the re(gimons of the (itlf of 5Mexisi o, aIlllured by the'i gla c1( of thle g(ol(l (ad1 tihe atnlat ll(ice of silIver thlt existc(l thller(e: arld b1 1 526; l)omi Jose (de \a'1s(oIell (los al dl exl)lo(red(1 fr(olll tlhe (Glullf of Alexi(o (as far inlad(1 as Al'izOnI. J.JACQie'1,s (C.\ri'TER 1n 15:84. Mlay 1 2tl. Jlacles Car tiecr, withl t\\() \vess'els;11 1 122 men, lic'a(cd('(l N(wf()nldlan(l ai(1 thlere( erected (a cr()ss el)arigt tlec Fre( ch Ma'rIns to( i(li('late t}me F rcich (()10111ii()l 11 1(1 i ater s i lill, 111)P thle St'. 1 1Aiwrlice a.s far1 aIs A llfiiisti lie returlned to F lramice. onlr to letlmll the f)ollo wing0 V(er11 ll (he e salle(d lI) the St. la v (11c r'ive(r ald a iii ved Iat tl( l)lesellt site otf A lotleall () )to)r 2 1 5:85. le tounll(l thlere an 11((ihla v ill(e lIa(, }o(lat ) e-l,, ll ) of tle ile vila' le \was the l(llm ntainl \lli ieh llie ila ((d Al oluit o()vZl." ' wlltch was evenl-ttlally shortened to tl(he l)reslt M oI()tlt cal. " Carl ic. withl his 111('11, sp)(lt. a lha (l vinter ()mi tlhe St. Law e(llci. l(sinl twelt-ti'-five (of their 1nln)iber 1)v s(erll'v, aI(1 ill the fo()ll()lviig sl )pi'i.' (15816) he returnled (l o France taki4ng witlt lint theI l(lial cli(hi'f l)onla()nla, amnd lie lesser (cliefs, wt() were isndue(le l)3 (d(eceit t()o Iter the sllin)s. if i()l- tile first, this is.an early illutstration of' the impl)ositions tltat were l)raetice(l 1by the Europ)ea)s 11p)on the native 1t1l(li8ans all(1 it is very plr()l)l)le tlhat like and Aworse acts o11 tile iirt of the wvhite- visitors found real effect in tile bloody maissacres, iand the

Page  100 100 TIHE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN brutal treatment of white settlers at the hands of the Indians that followed in later years. These visits by Cartier were the first directly under the auspices of the government of France, and they were at the instance of the king, who caught the inspiration of the people and believed, not only that the territory in the vicinity of the St. Lawrence with its reported riches in furs and Iiinerals would be a valuable acquisition and of great importance to France, but also that through the St. Lawrence there would be found a through passage to China;,;and it was in a search for such a northwest passage that many expeditions were sent out by the various old world monarchs. It was in 1539 that I)eSoto landed in Florida, and, with his six hundred men, marched across the country, reaching the Mississippi river in 1541 with a remnant of his original force; and it was the same year that Cartier sailed on his third voyage to the St. Lawrence. This time Cartier sailed, expecting to be followed immediately by Lord Roberval (Jean Francis de la Roque, Sieur de Roberval) who had received a commission granting to him the government of New France, and who, as such governor, had made Cartier captain general of the expedition; and they proposed to form a colony in their new possessions and there search for the wealth of minerals said to exist therein, of which reports had come to the early explorers through the Indians, and their reports undoubtedly had reference to the minerals of Lake Superior. Cartier arrived at his destination in August, 1541, and while waiting and continually expecting the arrival of Lord Roberval, he built two forts and prepared for the winter. Roberval came in the following spring, but not until Cartier, disheartened by the hardships of a dreary winter, had broken up his colony and started for France. Cartier suffered many hardships and privations in his several voyages, which brought to the attention of the world the country tributary to the Gulf and River St. Lawrence, and thus he was a prominent factor in the events that early led to recognition by the world of the advantages existing in the region of the great lakes, which region found its early center of attraction in the first central settlement west of AIontreal at Michilimackinac, or M.acinac. Cartier therefore is entitled to and is accorded prominent mention in the history of the Upper Peninsula. and reward for all those hardships endured can now be accorded him in no better or more enduring manner than by our recognition of him as among the foremost of the world's explorers. ROBERVAL'S ATTEMPTED COLONIZATION Lord Roberval, in 1542, brought with him two hundred colonists who attempted to form a colony still farther up the stream than that of Cartier's, but after the hardships of one winter the colony was broken up and the members returned to France. These repeated attempts to colonize this northern country are here referred to, to illustrate the persistency with which the inhabitants of sunny France, time after time. bared themselves to the rigors of Canadian winters, with but scant

Page  101 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 101 shelter, in the interest of extending the dominion of France, over a country that was full of promises of abundant reward. The inquiring disposition of an explorer naturally elicited from the natives some information regarding the country tributary to the great river, and each recurring voyage increased the information, and awakened an increased interest in the old, in the opportunities which seemed to be open to them in the new world. In 1547 Roberval, undaunted by the hardships of his earlier experience, set out on a second colonizing expedition, but, with his entire company, was lost in the passage. The repeated failures in attempted colonization combined with the death of the king and wars at home, lost to this region the attention of France for a considerable period; and little is recorded of events in the region of St. Lawrence for some fifty years that followed the failure of Roberval's attempt to colonize and form a government. For a long period following, the interest in legitimate exploration seems to have given way to a period of buccaneering, participated in by English, French and Spanish alike, in which vessels and settlements of one were preyed upon by the others, and the Indians were preyed upon by all; and there were spread upon the early pages of American history blots that can never be effaced. In 1565, Menendez, a Spanish commander, founded St. Augustine, Florida, the oldest city in the United States, and in the spirit of tile timles he immediately proceeded to mlassacre the l)eople il Rilault's French settlement at Fort Caroline, putting most of them most cruelly to the sword. In 1576 the coast of Labrador was again visited by an explorer, but this time by an Englishnman, Sir John Frobisher, who discovered what he thought was '(old in the rocks of the country, and from which supposed discovery grew a faololls bubble of large proportions, which, when it burst, carried consternation and ruin to many who were included in the noble families of England. It was in 1582 that Sir Walter Raleigh, with a patent from Queen Elizalbeth, sent out explorers with the result that "Virginia"? was named in honor of the Virgin Queen of England; and the city of Raleigh, Virginia, was founded in 1587. in which year "MAanteo," an Indian chief, was baptized there and mnade "Lord of Roanoke." the first and only peerage ever created by England in America; and lie was the first Indian baptized by an English minister. In 1598 Marqluis de La. Roche obtained the right to colonize and conmmand New France, and lie attemlIl)ted to colonize Sable Island with a, lot of criminals which he assembled for the purpose, and whom he left on the island, where, for years, they lived like wild mnen, subsisting upon fish and such food as they could gather. At the end of five years, in 1603, there remained but twelve of the entire colony and these twelve remaining criminals, after the hardened experience of their wild life, by the assistance of the king of France entered the Canadian fur trade. The effect upon history of the treatment which such men would likely

Page  102 102 IIE NORTIERN PENINSU'LA OF \IICItIGAN accord the Indians, in prosecuting their trade for furs, can well le left to the imagination, and probably cannot be fully measured by that. Prior to this, and in 1599, Pontgrave, a French trader, procured a patent authorizing him to colonize New France, and he placed sixteen men at the nouth of Saguenay river, on the St. Lawrence, to obtain furs, and thus we have a record of an early beginning of the fur trade that a little later tempted the pioneers into the region of the great lakes and to the Upper Peninsula. These men were not prepared to stand the cold and some of them died, while the others were scattered and took up life with the Indians. QUEBEC FOUNDED BY CIAMPLAIN In 1603 Champlain made his first visit to Canada and with his company later established the first permanent European settlement in New France, at what is now Quebec. Ile explored the surrounding country, and did much in the way of establishing friendly relations with the Indians, greatly to the advantage of his then future work of exploration, settlement and development of the country. At the site of Montreal, Champlain found absolutely no trace of the flourishing Indian village of Hochelaga which existed there at the time of Cartier's visit, eighty years earlier. Champlain continued his work of exploration and colonization and in 1605 explored the coast of Cape Cod. In 1606 James I of England granted to the London Company and also to the Plymouth Company, each a right to colonize territory in certain latitudes, each grant extending from the Atlantic westward to the Pacific. The spirit of colonization seems to have thoroughly revived at this period and in 1607 the London Company founded Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in the new world, and only one year in advance of the first permanent French settlement in North Amierica at Quebec, in 1608. At this period there was trouble between the Indian tribes, and the warlike Iroquois were a continual menace to the more peaceable IHurons and other neighboring tribes, and in 1609 Champlain joined a war party against the Iroquois. The French arms greatly terrified the Indians and Champlain's part in that campaign was the first step in the trouble that followed between the French and the Indians. It was in that campaign that Champlain discovered the lake which bears his name. In 1610 Champlain returned to France for the purpose of making arrangements with the French government concerning the American fur trade, and on his return to Canada, in 1611, he went at once to the island of Montreal to establish a trading post, and there held a trading assembly with the IIurons, who came there from the shores of Lake Iuron and the intervening country for the purpose of trade. At that time there came with the Indians a young Frenchman whose name is not recorded, who had the year previous made the first known visit by a white man to the shores of Lake Iuron and who had there wintered with the IHurons, studying their customs and habits of life.

Page  103 TIHE NORRTIHERN 'ENINSI'LA OF MIIC IIG.AN 103 lBy this time a three-fold interest il New Fralle was illad(e llanifest-First the discovery of the northwest passa;ge to China; se(ondly, the develol)pment of the fur trade, anl(l thirdly, the eo(lversion of the savage inhabitants. All these( were factors in the mlovemlllents then to follow that led to the early discoverv of the remlaining great lakes and induced the pioneer visits to what is now tile Upper Peninsula. The religious tenets of the King of Franee led him to direct his efforts largely to the work of imparting to the natives a knowledge of the Ch-istian religion and it was the aiml of the missionaries to Christianize and civilize the native inhabitants. and develop the country through their advancement, rather than to colonize it with Europeans. The commercial interests which then were confined principally to the trade in furs did not harmonize with the good work of the imissionaries and their practices went far to counteract it. In 1613 Champlain, having heard reports of the great waterways to the northwest, and that there was a connection between the Ottawa river and the great lakes, started out in search thereof, hoping to find the coveted water route to China. He passed up the Ottawa river and spent the following winter with the Indians, but returned in the spring disgusted with the false reports that had taken him on that adventure. It was in the year 1613, when the French had pushed their explorations far into the Iluron country, that the Dutch first began their settlements at New York and Albany, and English hostility to the French was evidenced by the destruction of a French Jesuit colony at Mount Desert on the coast of Maine, at the hands of the English from Jamestown, under orders of Governor Dale, and by the further acts of the English who, under Captain Samuel Argall, proceeded to Nova Scotia. and destroyed the settlement at St. Croix, leaving the settlers to wander and subsist as best they could among the Indians the following winter. These were the first overt acts of hostility in the long contest between France and England in the new world, a contest which involved the question of who should govern the territory of the lakes including the Upper Peninsula, and in which the resources of the Upper Peninsula and its immediate surroundings formed a prominent subject of contention. It was in 1614 that Captain John Smith explored the coast and made a map of New England which gave to that country that name. RECOLLET AND JESUIT.MISSIONARIES In May, 1615, five years before the landing of the Pilgrims in New England, Father Joseph le Carron, a Franciscan friar of the Recollet branch, camue to New France with three other priests as the first missionaries to convert the natives and settlers of New France to the Catholic faith. They came at the solicitation of Champlain, and the first mass upon Canadian soil was said upon their arrival, and they immediately began their work among the Indians, penetrating the wilderness to the streams that flow to Lake Iluron.

Page  104 104 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN In 1617 Champlain personally traversed the shores of Lake Huron. The Recollet friars were the only missionaries to New France until 1624, and in that year the Jesuits made their first appearance and began active work among the Indian tribes; and it is to the Jesuits that we are indebted for the principal records of the early history of the section of which we now write. In 1625, other Jesuit missionaries, including Jean de Brebeuf, came to join the colony at Quebec, and Duke de Ventadour, a Jesuit, being viceroyal governor, the Jesuits set out with a view to the establishment of an exclusively Jesuit government of the new territory, and thus a new strife between the Jesuits and the Recollets was added to the already many contentions which had to be met by the pioneers of New France. Brebeuf spent the following winter with the Algonquin Indians, and the following year went on a mission to the IIurons where he remained for three years teaching the Gospel to and studying the customs of the Indians. While the missionaries were thus vigorously prosecuting their work the fur traders had illustrated to the people of France something of the wealth which existed in the fur trade, and in 1627 Cardinal Richelieu, who then controlled the destiny of France, constituted himself "Grand [Master and Superintendent of Navigation and Commerce." IIe annulled the private trading rights to the Caens, and founded a company called the Hundred Associates, with himself at the head, and Louis the Thirteenth gave this company full power over all the territory "from Florida to the Arctic Circle," and from the Atlantic to the headwaters of the St. Lawrence. This company received a monopoly of the fur trade, forever, and of all other trades for fifteen years; it was also granted and assumed feudal proprietorship of the country and forbade the Huguenots to enter New France. The Company of the Hundred Associates was "the government," with absolute sway in all branches of government and trade, and to it the king donated two ships of war. Champlain was an active member in this powerful company, which, in return for its grants of monopoly, agreed to make certain provisions for colonists, and stipulated that the emigrants should be French Roman Catholics, and none other, and that there should be three priests in each settlement. The conflict between England and France was heightened by the zeal of the Catholics and by the opposing claims under their direct grants of territory in the new world; and the Huguenots, angered at their exclusion from New France by the government of the TIundred Associates, lent aid to the English who had determined to conquer the French possessions in America. In 1628 an English fleet, under the command of three French Ituguenot brothers named Kirk, descended from the Scotch, met in the St. Lawrence and completely destroyed a French fleet with supplies for Quebec. In 1629 the Recollet priests were driven from Canada by the hostility of the Jesuits and as a part of their movement to exclusively control New France.

Page  105 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 105 The new world had by this time become known to the countries of Europe as a country of great promises, embracing a wide range of climate, rich topographical features, abundance of minerals, and wonderful waterways which opened the country to the commerce of the world; in short, as an unlimited field for the exercise of human ingenuity and the expansion of wealth. It was an open field, and a contest was fairly on. The claims of the English, French and Spanish to territory in the new world were in direct conflict, and remained to be settled, amicably or by conquest, and the welfare of the settlers was destined to be seriously affected by the methods adopted. It became the lot of the settlers of the lake regions and in the vicinity of the St. Lawrence to be hampered by the hardships and vicissitudes of an extensive warfare, participated in not only between two nations, professedly Christian, but made most horrible by the additional tortures of the barbarous savages, who were induced to participate in the contest. The easy waterway access to the northwest, including the Upper Peninsula, made possible the exploration of this country at the time when the pilgrimls were settling the New England coast country and the I)utch were along the ludson, but had not plenetrated to the interior of New York. At the same timle the conflicting clailms of England andl rallce, alnd the fact that the abundant Indian population was stirred by the war existing between the two nations. rendered extremely hazardous the unlertakings of our early pioneers: and no d(oul)t retarded for nearly a half a century the 1)ermanent settlement which olur natural resources invited. Having noted. compnaratively. the develol)ment of the claims of the Eurol)ean countries to territory in this lnew world, and the strifes engenderedl between those countries as having effect upon the early history of the UIpper Peninsula. we comle now to the time when our own locality was visited by the French. There is no doubt that much had been learned by the French of the resources and the waterways of tilis locality through intercourse with the Indians of this locality who went to the St. Lawrence to trade; and it lmay be that unknown and unrecorded French traders had penetrated this section in their dealings with the Indians. but, unfortunately. those early traders seemed content with the experiencies and profits of their trade, and paid little attention to the coming wants of the historian, and we are left largely in the dark as to their early Imovements. JEAN NICOLET. UPPER PENINSULA,VISITOR The first European known to have visited the Upper Peninsula is Jean Nicolet and tle (late of his visit is 1634; at which time the entire French population of the St. Lawrence river valley from Gaspe to Three Rivers was scarcely three lhundred and fifty people, most of whom were traders in the employ of the Company, and Champlain was the spirit of the entire colony. The great interior of the country was yet unex

Page  106 106 TIlE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN plored, and he resolved to prosecute the work. His ambitions were at least two-fold; to penetrate the interior in the hope of discovering a northwest passage, and at the same time to extend and develop the fur trade in the interest of his company. To this end he needed to make friends with the Indians, and an emissary suitable to the hour was at hand. As early as 1618 Champlain sent Jean Nicolet, with a number of other young men, to some of his Indian friends to have them trained for life in the woods, and in the language and customs of the savages. This he did in preparation for his contemplated work of establishing friendly relations with the Indians, and he desired to use these young men as interpreters and advisers when the proper time should come. At that time the Indians had not formed a close alliance with the French. Nicolet had just arrived from France, a young man of good character and religious training. IHe was sent to the Algonquins of Isle Des Allumettes, whom Champlain had visited in 1613. IHe remained there two years, living the life of the Indian in his wanderings, his dangers, fatigue and privations; which fact alone evidenced courage and fortitude such as was necessary in the contemplated frontier work. He is said to have passed several days with nothing but the bark of trees to satisfy his hunger. At one time during his residence with the Indians Nicolet accompanied four hundred of the Algonquins upon a mission of peace to the Iroquois, which mission was accomplished and he returned in safety. He afterwards took up his residence among the Nippissings, where he remained eight or nine years, was recognized by them as one of their nation, and frequently entered into their councils. During this life with the Indians he took notes of their habits, manners and customs, which he presented to the missionaries, and which were of great assistance to them. IIe returned to civilization, being recalled by the government and employed as commissary and Indian interpreter. Quebec having been reoccupied by the French, Nicolet took up his residence there, where he was in high favor with Champlain, who admired his remarkable adaptation to savage life. It was in 1629 that he returned from the Indians. In the month of July, 1632, the French trade with the Indians was largely conducted on the St. Lawrence river where the city of Three Rivers now stands, and the Indians used to come there with a flotilla of bark canoes and would stay from eight to ten days. In that month De Caen arrived in Canada; and by the Indians who had there assembled he was able to send word to the French who were living among the savages upon the Ottawa river and Georgian bay, and he requested their return to the St. Lawrence. In June, 1633, Champlain caused a small fort to be erected about forty miles above Quebec, as a rendezvous for the trading flotilla, to draw the market nearer to Quebec, and to establish the trading at a point less liable to interruption by the Iroquois, than when carried on at Three Rivers. One hundred and fifty canoes came at this time to the newly established port and it is thought that with this large fleet Nicolet returned to civilization.

Page  107 THE NORTIIERN.PE\NNSt',LA OF MICIIGAN 107 lChamllplain then desired an emissary to carry on his work of frontier explloration and he knew of no one on whom( lie could more safely rely. or whio was better fitted for the arduous task than was Nicolet, and le Irepared to send limn forward in the hope that a nearer route to China an(d JapIan might be discovered; and that the fur trade of the IIundred Associates mlight l)e made more profitable. Chamiplain had theretofore stood upon the shores of Georgian bay of Lake Huron, and had heard from western Indians numerous reports of the distant lake regions, but the information thus gathered fron the Indians was indefinite and uncertain, andl his knowledge of the western country was consequently exceedingly limited. He had heard of Niagara, but supposed it was a rapid such as the St. Louis in the river St. Lawrence. He was wholly uninformed concerning Lake Erie, Lake St. Claire and Lake Michigan; of Lake Iuron he knew very little and of Lake Superior still less, but lie was assured there was a connection between Lake Superior and the St. Lawrence river, and he supposed a river flowed directly from Lake Huron to Lake Ontario. This is surely the opinion he had in 1632. as shown by a map made by him in that year. IHe had been told by the Indians that there were copper mines near the borders of one of these "fresh-w ater seas"; an Algonquin had shown him copper as early as 1610. and had told him there were large quantities of the metal on a river where he had found that, near a great lake. IHe was also informed that the Indians gathered it in lumps, melted it and spread it in sheets, and smoothed it with stones. SEARCHING FOR A NORTHWEST PASSAGE Champlain had theretofore also been told by the Indians of a nation dwelling in the far-off lake country which had once lived on the borders of a distant sea; and they were called by the Algonquins "MIen of the Sea." They were said to live less than four hundred leagues away. He was also informed that there was still another nation, without hair or beards, whose customs and manners reseimble the Tartars, who cane froon farther west to trade with this "Sea Tribe." They were said also to make their journeys by canoes upon a great water, and Chainplain thought this "great water" must be a western sea leading to Asia. Some of the Indians who came to the St. Lawrence to trade with the French were also accustomed to going occasionally on a five or six weeks journey to trade with ''The People of the Sea.'' The French imagined that the hairless traders of the west were Chinese or Japanese, though they were in fact the Sioux, while the "Sea Tribe" was the nation since known as the "\Winnebagoes," then having their home along the shores of Green bay. It can thus readily be understood that Clhamplain, and the missionaries then engaged in frontier work, fondly anticipated the discovery of a direct water route to China. Nieolet imust have heard these stories of the Western tribes and from them hie must have acquired that faith in the theory of a northwestern passage xwhich encouraged him to undertake and to endure the

Page  108 108 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN hardships which were then in store for him in the work of the discovery of the northwest, including the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. With his experience, as well as his natural ability, it is no wonder that Champlain selected Nicolet as his representative, and the representative of the Hundred Associates, to visit the People of the Sea "La Nation des Puants," as they were called by Champlain; and while it is probably true that they expected him to develop more extensive trade relations with the nations to whom he was sent, it is undoubtedly true that the main purpose of that journey was to try and solve the problem of a near route to China. During the latter part of June, 1634, Nicolet was ready to set out from Quebec upon his eventful journey. At that time there were in all Canada but six Jesuits-Le Jeune, AMasse, DeNoue, Daniel, Devost and Brebeuf; to the last three the Huron mission was assigned, and they were accompanied, at least as far as the Isle Des Allumettes, by Nicolet on his way to the Winnebagoes. At that time there were many savages from the west at that point and it was difficult to get them to permit so many white men to accompany them on the return journey, and many hardships and privations had to be endured, even in the early part of the journey; for there was a scant diet, many portages had to be made, and the savages required a large share of the labor to be performed by the whites. Nicolet could not tarry long with the Algonquins of the isle with whom he had lived so long, as he was to go to the Huron villages on the borders of Georgian bay before entering upon his journey into the unexplored country on his mission to the Winnebagoes. He made his way up the Ottawa to the Mattawan; thence to Lake Nipissing; and thence down French river to Georgian bay, upon which he coasted southward in a canoe along the shore to the villages of the HIurons. This trip to the IIurons was far out of his course from the Ottawa to the Winnebagoes; and it is evident that lie went there on a mission from Champlain to inform the Hurons of the desire of the governor of Canada to have amicable relations established. between them and the Winnebagoes, and to secure a few of the Hurons to accompany him on his mission of peace. After his ceremonies with the IHurons had been completed, Nicolet struck boldly out into undiscovered regions where he was to encounter savage nations never before visited by white men. so far as the records show. It was a voyage full of danger, and one that would require great tact, courage, and the constant facing of difficulty. No Frenchman, however, was better adapted to the occasion. Nicolet had brought with him presents with which to conciliate the tribes he should meet. Seven IHurons accompanied him, and a birch bark canoe bore a white man for the first time along the northern shore of Lake Huron and upon St. Mary's river to the Falls-Sault Ste. Marie; thence again down the river, many miles on Lake Michigan and up Green bay to the home of the Winnebagoes; and that first canoe was the leader of a van of a mighty commercial fleet that has since developed upon the great inland seas.

Page  109 TIHE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICIIGAN 109 As Nicolet came westward, entering St. Mary's river, his canoes were pushed onward to the foot of the falls. Sault Ste. Marie was reached; and then Nicolet, the first white man, set foot upon what is now the state of Michigan,* but what for more than a century and a half thereafter was a part of what was called "The territory northwest of the Ohio.'' That territory included Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin and that part of Minnesota east of the Mississippi river, and it passed under the successive dominions of France, England and the United States. Nicolet and his seven Huron companions rested from their strenuous voyage with the "People of the Falls" at their principal village on the south side of the strait, at the foot of the rapids, in what is now.Michigan. They were still with tribes of the Algonquins. Fromi Lake Huron they had threaded their way-first through narrow rapids, then into and across placid lakes and around beautiful islands, until they had finally come to within fifteen miles of the largest fresh water sea in the world, stretching away in its grandeur a distance to the westward of over four hundred miles. It is not recorded that Nicolet ever ascended the river above the falls, or set eyes upon Lake Superior. Where he rested amid a cluster of wigwams, indicating the center of the commerce of savagery, now stands the beautiful and business-like city of Sault Ste. Marie, overlooking the finest of all commercial waterways. After a brief rest at the Falls, Nicolet returned down the strait, and it is thought he passed through the western "detour" and through "the second fresh water sea" (Lake Michigan), being the first white man to set eyes upon its beautiful and broad expanse and to the straits of Mackinac, and the island of that name. He continued along the north shore of the lake, stopping on the southern coast of the Upper Peninsula, from time to time, until he reached the Bay of Noquet-the northern arm of Green bay. That the "snall lake" visited by Nicolet was, in fact, Bay du Noquet, or Nogue, is rendered probable by the phraseology employed by Viinont in the "Relations of 1640," page 35. IIe says: "Passing the small lake (from the Sault Ste. Marie) we enter into the second fresh water sea (Lake Michigan and Green bay)." IIe speaks of it as being "beyond the falls," which, in his course, must have meant "nearer the Winnebagoes." Iere upon its northern border he visited another Algonquin tribe, also one living to the northward of the "small lake." The first called the Roquai by Vinmont ("Relations of 1640," page 34), were probably the Noquets, afterwards classed with the Chippewas. The second, in the "Relations" just cited, called the Mantone, were probably the MIantoue in "Relations of 1671," where they are mentioned as living near the Foxes. Maaking his way up Green bay Nicolet finally reached the Menominee river, its principal northern affluent. The earliest location on a *Some authorities claim that Brule preceded Nicolet by five years and passed on to Lake Superior.

Page  110 4;n $4J -.. - - m I f -S #, L, 'Am W, I C N ucoi yr LA.\N vicD.\VL' i itlL, S,(oc ( 1634)

Page  111 THlE NORTHERN P~ENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 11 III 1118ap of a, A1eioiiiiiiee villagre is' that givenl by Charlevoix OfI hIds " Carte des Lacs (III Cana11da.'' ('eomnpanving hi s, ''IIistoire et lDescription Genera le (le Ia NouiveH e France" ( Vol. I, 1Paris,, 1744). The village (''des i\IAhlon 11( ) is plaeed at. the 1mouth of thle river on whliat is Inow the 21 c~jehignI side. InI the val1ley of the Mrellnomiiee Nileolet meict a popubmus trilbe of Iillidams, thle Aleuiomiinees. (deseribedi elsewhere hereinl. \Vhile restinig at 2lAenonminee a id heeouuiiig, ae(jtuailted with the Indianils there, hie Sent forward onle of his liur11ons to earrv thle news of hIls com-I ing" 811(1 of his mnissionl of peaee. TIhe inessa ge wvas, well reeei ved by the \\ inleluagoes. wh~o dispatchled seve a~l of tflici) I y( ilo ing en to uiiee(t the ' wolidertul1 mall" and they m)et hiili (5(0oltedi him, anli earirie(d Ilsi 1 bagg a ge. Twvo (lays journey fr~oml this trihe ~the W\ilillelbagces) he senit onle of Ills svgs This w-as 'lust the (lista"lie from tile Mteiloaiiee's. As, Nicolet met the A2\innechagoes hle was, elotlied ill a larg)e ga rmeent of Ci iese(lalas. 5).rlike~lwit Boers a11d birds of different, eolors; pos-sihlv thus attired. lbecaulse lie thoinglt he( had reachied the far ea~st, hut hie was really at GIreel hay, Iin thle state of Wiseonsin. This, rolle (dress of ceciemonyv) -was undoubtedly brough-lt with himii all tile wav from Quebec, ill alit eiil~at lou of Ihis bllcing abl.l troloogil the great. r1Iver's ~lild lakes of. which bie hadI been told toP1( a])sag t hia 0111 le V05Prellred tilen to mieet. the miand~arins who Illiglt. wvelcm hinm to Cathiay. AS hie landed. he ear'ried llii each band a silall pistol. 011(1d wvlcln Ile ds(liselalg(c(1 these tile wvomlen aiid hidilfled to escape the 1I1l111 who. theyv saidl. ' (0rried tile thunlider I'll both Illis hiands., Nicle-)(t 110WN haiiig10 1 (ached the Winiicnebaoes -withl his. iluronls", restedi froni tile fatiguec of the" buglo ourliey. Th'e niews of the colining ()f the Fieilllcllliai 1 reanl thIll (gh the (olliltiry. 011(1 threce tloiusaild~ to five, thoiis-aid lildlialls, fromiu (iftye-icit tribles Iasscilulhlcd to mleet huini a1nd (ienhi cli ict go ve i)11) bmiet. \i I ioit sayvs ' A. 14 ric1hn1111 tol m11 le Somie Tiillie ag)O ) tult. llc h111( scii th11 ic tliouisaiild 1)1(1 tog-ethler ~il ()(lie ~155(111 -iitIaog, for the plujmlos of ma kum a tl1(eitv of pec Ill tile counit cv of the Pe~op1)1e of I lie Sea., Oiie ()f the sa.cliciiis regal1ed hins gruest withI at leawst one 1)m111(1 '111 ad t we t v Isa vcrs. M any speechles, were n1iade. amnd 'Ni (oet, iii1 the i miterst of p ealCe. UiOe(d thle 11(1v0litag'es (Of Wli all iallce rat11her tlail war, wvith tie nations to the ea-stwcard of Ljake nuroni. Thiey agreeTd lo keep pleuce with fltlie 1 lurolls, Nez Pcrcoics alid p)ossiblxy others, huit soOI a ftcr N icolc(4's recturn. they, seilt ((it wi r pa rties ag nt the Bcaveir luitiOll. Nico()'ec 's No: mann comura-e wa,-s m1(idanited 1v his hardships. He wa(,Is, Ii it vect sRI t isfie(i, (11( Iie de(let (1 iiied to }illIsll oii an11d visit thle nie ih horiiig tiii es; 5o hie ascenlded the IV)(x river to ILake AN\ imuebago, where lie Ilicard o)f thie WVisconsin ri.Ver1, ((1v lily lie days' orie furthert up the tortuo1011 Fox. i~t was ('ailed thle (-eat \aNItei h)v tile saaes nd1( liebeleve it1115 (011 v the sell to Nvli icli lhe WaRS Seeking a wvaterwvay. I t.w 5~II1 IsSt i taIIge thIIat _Ni('olet dlid no(t fo(llo mv1u1) this _ours.e. hut for sonic 1Iilexpiailiedi reasoii lie took a. course to the soluthwarld. The Jes

Page  112 112 TIHE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN uits consoled themselves, when they heard of his abandoning the supposed short course to the sea, with the hope that some day the great western sea would be reached by one of their order. Upon the beautiful prairies to the south lived the Illini, and thither Nicolet went on his mission of peace, and there he is supposed to have spent the winter of 1634-5. In the spring of 1635, Nicolet, after having made his bold and successful trip upon the lakes and along the borders of great forests; having visited many nations hitherto not seen by white men, and with them made friends for his country; having discovered Lake Michigan and "The territory Northwest of the Ohio," and having traveled four hundred leagues beyond the Iluron village, theretofore the western boundary of exploration by the white people, set out with his seven dusky companions upon the homeward return journey, via Mackinac and the Great Manitoulin islands and back to the St. Lawrence, through the route of the Nipissing trail, reaching Three Rivers as nearly as can be learned about July 20, 1635. DEATHS OF CHAMPLAIN AND NICOLET Imagination only can picture the enthusiasm that must have been rekindled in the breast of Champlain on receiving the report of Nicolet as to his many accomplishments. Iis resolutions as to the acquisitions open to his country may well be pictured, but fate prevented their realization, and Champlain died Christmas day, 1635. Great ambitions died with him, and the explorations so vigorously inaugurated by him, through Nicolet, received a check. After this Nicolet was continued in the office of commissary and interpreter, for on the 9th of December, 1635, he "came to give advice to the missionaries, who were dwelling at the mission, that a young Algonquin was sick and that it would be proper to visit him. Ile performed his labors to the great satisfaction of both French and Indian, by whom he was sincerely beloved. IHe constantly assisted the missionaries in their work of conversion and his kindness won their esteem." He was drowned on the St. Lawrence by the capsizing of his boat in a squall October 27, 1642.

Page  113 CHAPTER VIII MIISSIONARY, TRAD)ER AND) SOL1)IER JESUlIT FATHERS IN THE UPPER 1)ENINSILA —LI'SSON AT SAILT STK. A IARIE —TIE I [A RQUETTE-JOIIET VOYCAGE- LA\ SALLE A ND TONTYTHE SAULT AND ST. IGNACE [MISSIONS-COMING OF FRENCH SOLDIERY -INDIANS LOSE FAITH IN FRENCIH- IlY I \ISSIONS WERE DESTROYED-THE FALL OF ST. IGNACE-IPOSTS PASS TO THE RITISII — IICIIIIAMACKINAC( ABANDONED BY TIE FRENCHI —RADDOCK AND WACNSHINGTON. The Jesuits being in (control in New France. it was the missionaries of that order that, a few years after the pioneer visit of Nicolet, again penetrated the wilderness in and around what is now the Northern l'eninsula of MIichigan. These Jesuit AIissionaries were gentlemen of influence who had been reared and educated within the cloisters of the church, and in New France their powers were paramount, as to the shaping of colonial policy. Le Itontan says of them: "They sought to (live down into the bottom of mein's minds-artful, accomplished, leartned, polished-they were what the Jesuits have been in every age; striving to mould the affairs of the colony to their own purposes, and thus to wield a political influence for ecclesiastical ends, they watched with lynx-eyed vigilance all the affairs and relations of individuals in the state as well as the church." They were the most active pioneer explorers in the regions of the great lakes. It should be remembered that the government, as well as the trade of the country, was in the absolute control of the Jesuit Company of the HIundred Associates, and, as a consequence. these missionaries who exercised the controlling ifluence were interested not only in the conversionl of the savages to the Jesuit faith (thus to maintain Jesuit domination), but likewise to develop trade. prlomlote the financial interests of the collmpany, and thlere)y strengthen its monol)oly of affairs in general. JESUIT FATHIERS IN TIHE UPPER PENINSUILA After the death of Champlain, which occurred within a few months after the return of Nicolet with his glowing report of these regions, 113 Vol. I-8

Page  114 114 TIHE NORT-IERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN it was some years before other emissaries followed the course that Nicolet had taken in 1634; but in 1641 Fathers Rambault and Jogues came from the IIuron country escorted by the Chippewas who had gone there to trade. Their mission was one of explora tion with a view to acquaint themselves with the fields for future work and trade. It is written that on reaching the rapids of St. MIary's river they found ab)out two thousand Indians assemibled there, of whom nearly all were visitors from various parts of the interior; the local village having a population of only about two hundred. These priests spent several months at that village and in its vicinity, where they prosecuted their religious work amnong the In(lians anl( where they erected a cross; after which they returned to their assignments-their mission among the Hlurons. The introduction of miissionary work thus lpushed to such a great distance into the willderness, seems to have met a fateful handicap, for in the following year Father Rambault was taken ill and died. and Father Jogues was soon thereafter captured by the Mohawks who, after holding, him for a time in captivity. put him to death-a death which lihe met as a martyr to his country and his church. The next of the nissionaries to come to this section was Father 'ierre Rene MIenard. who reached St. Mary's river in October, 1660. lie calme in co()1pally w\ith sol)me Otta\wa Inldians. Starting from Three Rivers, Canada, ihe came via the Nipissing trail, and then, traveling by canloe down French river to the healdwaters of Lake Iluron, passe(l on an(d u11 the St. M\ary's river into Lake Superior andl along the southern shore of that lake on a nmission to the Indians, in whalt is now the Upper Peninsula of MIichigan and northern Wisconsin. IIe camped for the winter on the east side of Keweenaw bay among a band of Ottawas, the first white man so far as the records show to penetrate that portion of the peninsula. His own account of this trip is a most interesting exhibition of the hardships endured by, and the impelling faith of the missionary pioneers. IHe writes as follows: "Our journey has been very fortunate. Thanks be to God! —in-as-mnuch as our Frenchmen all arrived in good health about the middle of October. But to accomplish that, we had to suffer much and avoid great risks-from the lakes which were very stormy; from the torrents and waterfalls, fearful to behold, which we were forced to cross in a frail shell; from hunger. which was our almost constant companion; and from the Iroquois, wh' made war upon us. "lBetween Three Rivers and Montreal we luckily met 5Monseigneur, the Bishop of Petraea. I-e uttered to me the following words, which entered deep into my heart, and will be to me a great source of consolation amid all the vexations and accidents which shall befall mle: 'MIy Father, every reason seems to retain you here; but God, more powerful than aught else, requires you yon(ler.' Oh, how I have blessed God since that fortunate interview, and how sweetly those words from the lips of so holy a prelate have re-entered my soul at the height of our hardships, sufferings and desolation-God requires me yonder! Iow

Page  115 TIlE NORTIERN PENINSULA:A OF MICIIGAN 115 often have I repeated those words to imyself amid the noise of our torrents and the solitude of our great forests! "The savages who had taken me on board with the assurance that they would assist. me. in view of lmy age and infirmities. (lid not, however, spare me, but obliged me to carry very heavy burdens on my shouldlrs at all, or nearly all the water-falls which we passed; and, although my paddle did not greatly hasten tleir progress, being plied by arms so feeble as mline, yet they could not endure that I should be idle... I found my advantage at the meeting of other canoes, for then our savages stopl)(( for some timne to talk about their routes, and the courses wlhich tlhey were to take. They conmlelled me, (on occasion, to diseimb)ark in a very bad p)lla(ce, where I had to pass over rocks andt frightful precilices in order to rejoin thel. The places through which I had to' go were so clltt up with a)bysses and steelp i(ountalins that I (lid( not tllink I could,xtricate myself from them. and as it was necessary to hasten, if I di llnot wish to be left behind on the way. I woulnl(lde( myself il the arml and il one foot. The latter )be(a(lne swollen and(l gav'e Ille mliuch troubIle all the rest of my journey, eslpecially when the *water began to 1)e cold, and it was necessary to remain b1arefoot all the time, ready to juip) into tile water when the savages jludged it fitting iln or(ler to lig'htll the canoe. Add to this that they are people who have no regular meals; they eat up) everything at once and( keel) nothing forl the morrow. "Our Frenchimen and imyself have scarcely caught sigllt of one another (Iuringr tile whole c ourse of our journeys. and so w e have not }been able to give one another any assstane. They have had their crosses andl I mine. Perhaps God gave l)more patience to them than to me; but I can say, nevertheless, that I have never thought. day or night, of this Outaonak expedition except with a sweetness and peace of spirit a1(l a feeling of God's grace towards nle, such as I would have difficulty in explaining to you. We all fasted and very vigorously, contenting ourselves witli some small fruits which were found rather seldolm, and which are eaten nowhere else. Fortunate were those who could( chance upon a. certain moss which grows upon the rocks, and of which a bllack soul) is niade. As to moose-skins; those who still had any, ate them in secret; everything seetmed good in time of hunger. "llut matters became much worse when, arriving at last at Lake Superior, after all this fatigue, instead of rest and refreshment, which we had been led to hope for, our canoe was shattered by the fall of a tree; nor could we hope to repair it, so much was it damaged. Everyone left us, and we remained alone, three savages and myself, without provisions and without canoe. We relnained in this condition six days, living on some offal which we were obliged, in order not to (lie of hunger, to serape up with our finger nails around a hut which had been aband(oned in this place some time ago. We pounded up the bones which we found there to make soup of them; we collected the blood of slain animals, with which the ground was soaked; in a word, we

Page  116 116 TIlE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICIIIGAN made food of everything. One of us was always on the watch at the waterside to implore pity of the passersby, from whom we obtained somte bits of dried flesh which kept us from dying, until at last some men had mercy on us and came and took us on board to transport us to the rendezvous where we were to pass the winter. This was a large bay on the south side of Lake Superior, where I arrived on St. Theresa's day; and I had the consolation of saying mass there, to pay mnyself with interest for all my past woes. It was here that I began a Christian community, which is composed of the Flying Church of the Savage Christians, more nearly adjacent to our French settlements and one of those whoni God's compassion has drawn hither." In remembrance of the day, on reaching L 'Anse Bay Father Menard named it St. Theresa's bay. I-e landed on the east side of the bay but, as the Indians were far from hospitable, he with his eight French companions who had now come together after their long voyage prepared to winter at a short distance from the Indian settlement. During the winter he made frequent attempts to interest the Indians of the village in the Christian religion, but with slight success, and lie decided that on the coming of spring he would move on to other tribes farther to the west. Before leaving L 'Anse bay and on the second day of July, 1561, Father Menard wrote his last letter. He left on his western voyage in company with a oguide, since which time no authentic news of him has ever been obtained. Whether he was lost in the woods and died, or whether he was betrayed and murdered, is a matter only of conjecture. Evidence has been claimed to indicate his having reached Black river, WXisconsin, and traveled down that stream, while again, remains have been found on the Sturgeon river, Michigan, that are claimed to be his, and from which it is argued that after leaving L'Anse his mission was southward to the Alenominees. The world will probably never know anything of the details of his travels from L'Anse bay, or of his death, but he is recorded as the third missionary to the Lake Superior country, all of whom laid down their lives before their missions were taken up by other hands. About this time, in 1664, the Company of the Hundred Associates, having been reduced in numbers. surrendered its charter and the king of France granted to the 'Company of the West Indies" all the rights the former company had, and, in its interest, Iarquis de Tracy camne to New France and he not only prosecuted the commerce in furs, but encouraged settlements and the development of natural iesources. Soon thereafter there ca(le to this Pleninsula. Rev. Cland Alloucz, who p)assed up the St. MIary's river September 1, 1665, oil his wayN from Three Rivers to La Point du St. Esprit. From his writings it appears that the hardships of his trip were akin to those narrated by Father Menard. and that his savage companions iml))sed crueltiets upon him throughout the course of the perilous voyage, but lie bore themi in fortitude, firmly impressed thereby with the necessity of his work of conversion. Ie re-christianed Lake Superior as "Lac Tracy au Su

Page  117 TIHE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 117 perior," in lionor of the new head of thi local government, as the name appears on tlhe map pullblished later by Allouez and Marquette. HIe also notes the existence of copper andl that there arc evidences of forllmer ining. Allouez men(itionedl tlit l)iecces of copper we e found weighing fromi tenl to twenlty pIoun(is. Ir says. "I lhave seen several( sillh picees in the hanils of the savalges \wllo regtar tithe mietal as very p)reciolis and gllard it wNithl jea.loIs care..For some tiime tlhere N.was sec(in n lear the sliore a large roc(k of colpper Nwitlh its tol) risin?.' above the l lwater, which gave o()pportlunity to tliose lpassing h)y to cut t)i(ic. s from it. )but \hen I l)assed tlhat vi(illity it lla(l (lisapTl)eared.'' IeI gathlered ( an( sent b)n(,k to rTalon sI)eililefls of 11irtive COl)lP(r1. an(l reported the inforiat, ion gained from the Ind(lians in regaril tlhereto. I1e spent twxo yeais an(ilog, the II(iials, an(d thlen. eo.(voved b)v twenltv (alloes of Indians. hle retlrned( to Quebec,)e arriving thlere August 3. 16(i7. \w\here he set forth to his suplerior th(e il) ortalln(t of tie \work at Ilai l'oint an(d of the estalblishing of a miission at S'ault Ste. M( re. ri. ecaiuse of that being a gathering l)laee( of Indians from manyil trilb('. IIe leip' e(d to return imnmediately, but his In1dian (ll oll)nlllio)ns re(flsed lilim return paissage. an(d he found a fittillg (e01ln)ailion in Father LoIuis Nic(lolas, wNithl whom he Ian threel ( others who tendered( their sc'rvi(ces to thle missions. without. pecuniarv! rewar(l. s('t out upon)( his se('(l(l1 voyage to Lake Sulperior and to his mission at.la l'oint. wherec lie ((oitinuedl his work most succee ssfull ] for two yearis, whell. in 1f69. ihe agaill retuirnedto to Quebec ask permission to estal)lisl a nmission at Gree n 1) av. B1(ef(Ice this. li\-(ever. Father Jl(a(lques M1arlquette ha(1( bee sent fromn Al1ontr(al. April 21, 1668. to Sault Ste. AIarie, wlhere lie erected a c(hapel. and(l built a stocka(le. There were several Fici'(1 ic((11ul ho a1(Ncolmllaniedl Fathier MIar(luette on this journley. (oimg I not o(nly as an esc(ort for Iiiiii, but for pl)urlo)ses of trade. 1Fa thler Ailouez again carll(e VCst a'c(lll)eai c 1and y F1'athIler Cl l aud I)ablon, wh(o was familiar with the languages of the Algfo(lilmis, and -it Saiult Ste. MIarie lhe so arrange(l that Father I)ablon was left in charge of the mission there, while Fatlher MI-ar(luette wlent to thl( Ia ]' oilt miission plreviously establlishe(d by Father Alloutez. and1 Father A\lloilez xentit. to Greet(ll I)a, called tlhen "Bay d(es Illillats, '" to establish a miission at tihat poillt. Of Sault Ste. Marie, Father lDablon, in his replort las found( in the "Re latiolls,' writes an(l sets forth its natural attra(ctions an(1 advantages as follows: "What is c()lllollnly called the Sault is not prolerly a sault, or a very high waterfaIll. but a very violeiut (current of waters from LJake Sluperior, whlich, fi(ting themnselves cheeked by a grealt nu111 -her of rocks, that dispute their p)assage. forimn a dangerous casca(le of half a league in width, all these wvaters d(eseending andl plungingr heladlong together, as if (lown a flight of stairs. ovetr the rocks which bar thIe whole river. It is three leagues blelow lake Superior and twelve la(lgues -above the Lake of the HT-urons, this entire extent making a

Page  118 118 THIE NORTIIERN PENINSULA OF \IICIIIGAN beautiful river, cut up by wmnany islands, which divide it andl illncrease its width in some places so that the eve cannot reach across. It flows very gently through almost its entire course. 1)eing difficult of passa'ge onl] at the Sault. "It is at the foot of these rapids, aind even lamid these l)oiling xvaters. thliat extensive fishing is calried onil from sp)ring until winter, of a kind of fish foIund usuially only in LJake SuIperior anid (lake( IluIIr(o. It is called in the native lallnguage Atticaitneg, all(d ill ours \white-fish, Ibecaiuse, in truth. it is veryi wlhite, and( it is niost excelleiit. so that it furnishes food. allmost by) itself to the greater po.art o{f all thlese people. This convelliellce of hlaving fish in such (iuantities that one has {only to go and draw thelll out of the water, attracts the sutrro(linllo. ll.ntitves to this spot (luriiig the sulnler. These )eople. lbeinog wanllerers. w\itllolut fiel(ls aid witlhouit corn, and(l living for the most l)art only 1)y fis hinI. findllt ere the mneanis to satisfy their wants aidl at the saiiie till(me w( embrllace the o)l))ortunity to instruct them. and train thtlll in Chllristianity (hiring their sojOllrn at this place. l'hlerefore we had been blI)li(ged( to establish here a pcria)taecnt olissio) 'w'hich. is l1 (' cnlc)i' of tlhe Ot lers, as we are here surroundedl l)w different natiolls, of whicli thlie fol)lowig are thlose who sustaiii relations to( th)e place rel)irit g hitlic, to live oIn its fish. "'Thle l)rincilpal and natijve inhllabitanll ts of tlis (listri(t are tlose( wi11o( c(all tlihemselves 'ahlouitillngwach Irini, and whom the Frellchi call Sauflteulrs, because it is tihey wh(o live at. the Sault. as in tlheir ownl (.oiuntry, thel others )eillg tl(here onlly as borrowers. They comipriS ( e l 111111t'ed(l aCil fifty so}uls, b)1t ha1Ive united( thellselves withl tllree ()thelr lations whlicl 1mb1)Cer lore than five hundr(ed nd111 fifty plersols to whoi)11 tl(ey hlave, as it were, ltlade a cession of tlhe righlts of tlleir native coullntry, an( sol thlese live here permanlently ex(el)t tlhe ti ll(, lwhlen they! are ou1t hliuitillmj. Next come(, th(ise whoI( a<re called thle Noue(1uet, w}ho (sxte(ll toward tfhe soIthl of Iake Sl)erior, whetnc they take te tleir origin; a1(1l tlic( Outiclhil)oIus. togethler' with the i\araieg(' toward the nortlh of tthe sonie lake, wiich region they reglardl as the'ir own I)ro(lper c.ountry." Aifter nlentlliinlg othler nations tril)lutary to the mission Fathier I)iloniI (cortinues: '"The n1OIIa(die life leld by the greater part Of tle(' savages of these ('ounItries lengo,'thens thie progress of their c(n'(ver lsionll, a1(1l leaves themni only a very little time for r'eceivilng tlhe illstructio(ls tlhat we give them. To render tliei miore stationary, \we hIiave fixed (ulr alo(le hlere, where we cause the soil to be tilled, inl or(ler to ilduce thelll by our example to do the samei; and ill this several hiave falrea(ly begrul to imitate us. ''iioreover we have had a. chlaIel erected, anld have takenl c(aore to adlorn it, going farther in this than one would (lare 1promise llhiself in a country so destitute of all things. We there admlinister b)altisii to children, as well as adults, with all the celretonies of the chuIrcIh. and admlonish the new Christians during the HIoly Sacrifice of tlhe AMass. The old men attend on certain days- to hear the word of Go(M,

Page  119 TIlE NORTHERN I'ENIINSItLA OF M1ICHlIGAN 1.19 and the children gather there every dayv to learn the prayers and the Catechllisnm." The impllortance of the work at this point vwas ilnnlediately recognized, and in 1670 Father 1)ablon was joinled by Fathers Gabriel Droillette a(l Louis Andre. l)ut Andre was sent forwmard to the Algonquins almong wholm ie l remlained abou)t two years. I)tring the saie 'year there also came to the Sault. F'lrancois I)ollier de CassoIn andl Rene de Brebant de Galinee, Sulpitian priests. whio. having stalrted oil anl exIledition with La Salle, learlne(l of tlhe coumt!v aroulnd tihe Salllt anlld so btetook thellmselves alolle to tllis se((ti(iil. The.Jesumits at the Saiult did Iiot appare1'ntly relish the idea of aiI' intrtusion l 1.11)( their territory by the lri'ists,(f any o)tlher (or(d1,, a idl tlhe niew.(oiers were lla(led to know that tlheir al)sen(I( wVOUld lie al ppreciated, and tlhey r'eturtlied thle same seassn to A1(lilt'ea 1l. This same year (167_0) Father Allouez. from his station at Green 'lis s.lilt'e lI' (1(S)()) V.ltell'l'.frmOll('Z, f''011 lli.S StaltiOl cltG G-1~e bay, went to the Sault to(. cnfer w\ithl Father l )ablll ll i(l tll( two) retlurIed to(etllher to (G'reen Ilay all collsi(lcre(l tle Iecessities thlIereabl)uit, and then Fathler I)ablm returle(l, stoppl)ing at Alielili ae.kill( p)1rel).irato)ry t( ()peningli a 111issi(n thl e. ur ilg the al)selle ()f Father l)ablon from() the Slault. the (lchapel ad the hl()se of the Iniissio)ia ries vwere burned. wh-ive was a ser iouls ealal.it-tv to t}he Christianll w(Orkers of thle w\ilderlness. hl)t thely wre ( damtell, alllllt 11(1l a ear to lve '( ee1( \ell lirovide'l with means to l'pro're ever'-y necessity w-ithil their' reach., aldl tlhus the l )Iried b)uildings were s(11 rellaced \-witll (lthers sai(l to have h1)eel better a1i(l il1i1re slel idiv- fuiii 1isIled tihan1 \'1 the fil'st. LUSSON.\AT SAUIT STE. MARIE louis XI\. then King' of Fraieec. waS in sy)iathy w\itlh the w\ork of thle lissiolarlies alndl to A1losieli rla 1all, thl(ei g(ve' 1101 general Of New Flraice. 11he issiuted or(l.ers to, aid the lissiOlS adiid to c(a111se Iis svereigityll to lie,e( r(cgrizedl lby the niost remo)te natio(s. Aeordingly. Sienr (1(de Sainlt LII.sson w\-as alpp))iltedl as an elissary! of tlhe kinlg, of France to take l)ossessiom of "the territolies lyiiig l)etxvee tle ealst ll(d wvest floll Ml1ontreal as far as the Souith Sea, coverinlg thle tutmost extellt a11( raoire l)issille." O()11 th}is illt)()alt llission l)e Saillt Ilsson arrived at Sailt Ste. lar'it' on M1ay 16 I, 1( 71. tto be I)resent }it a111 ass(elbt)ly- of lianv nationlls to l)e held in J.unle of the yearl, I)illslallt to, arranlgelmelts tlhat were made by Ni lcholas l'errot. \nwho had been dispatcehed tllither,y- 1. Talon the previouls yeal', and who had oil thlat Imiission, in 1670, xl)lored I]ake MIichigan (then called Lake Illinois) as far south as the Ipresellt city! of Chicago, and had inviited the In(liall iations o(f that and intervenlling sections to meet himil in grand eollnil to be hleld at the Sallt the following spring. there to be taken ilnder thIe protection 0(f the kinl. The p)roceedings of the granl( council *were vwell intended to ilpress the natives *with a feeling of awe for the new comers. Naturally..as governmental authority an11d religious sIuprenacy were lodged in

Page  120 120 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN the same persons, the council partook of the sanctity, the power and the splendor that the combination afforded. On the 4th day of June, 1671, De Saint Lusson opened the council on the heights overlooking the Indian village. There were present the black robed Jesuit fathers, Claud Dablon, Gabriel, Druilete, Claud Allouez and Louis Andcre, the dignified solemnity of whose presence was relieved by the imposing splendor of the uniformed soldiers with gleaming and flashing weapons. Representatives of fourteen nations of Indians were also in attendance. First in the order of the proceedings a large wooden cross, prepared for the occasion, was blessed by Father Dablon and then it was raised to the tune of the hymn of St. Bernard, in the singing of which both priests and soldiery joined. Following the hymn, prayer was offered for the king, and then De Saint Lusson formally declared possession of the regions in the name of the king of France, and there followed shouts of "Long live the King," and musketry was discharged to the astonishment of many of the Indian visitors who then, for the first time, were given to see the splendor and the power of the arms of France. The purpose of the occasion, and the earnestness with which those men worked to that purpose cannot be better told than by quoting the words of Father Allouez. who. being most familiar with the Ottawa dialect, was appointed to deliver the address. lIe spoke as follows: "Here is an excellent matter brought to your attention, my brothers; a great and important matter, which is the cause of this council. Cast your eyes upon the cross raised so high above your heads; there it was that Jesus Christ, the Son of God, making himself man for the love of men, was pleased to be fastened and to die, in atonement to his Eternal Father for our sins. I-e is the Master of our lives, of Heaven, of Earth, and of Hell. Of lim I have always spoken to you. and Iis name and word I have borne into all these countries. "But look likewise at that other post, to which are affixed the armorial bearings of the great Captain of France, whom we call King. IIe lives beyond the sea, he is the Captain of the greatest Captains, and has not his equal in the world. All the Captains you have ever seen, or of whoml you have ever heard, are mere children compared with hin. Ile is like a great tree, and they only like little plants that are trodden under foot in walking. You know about Onnontio, that famous Captain of Quebec. You know and feel that he is the terror of the Iroquois, and that his very name makes them tremble, now that he has laid waste their country and set fire to their villages..Beyond the sea there are ten thousand Onnontios like him. who are only the soldiers of the great Captain, our great King, of whom I am speaking. When he snys 'I am going to war,' all obey him; and those ten thousand Captains raise com(1 -panies of one hundred soldiers each both on sea and on land. Some embark in ships, one or two hundred in number like those you have seen at Quebec. Your canoes hold only four or five men-or, at the

Page  121 rTIIEi NORTHERN PENINSULA OF M\ICHIGAN 121 very most ten or twelve. Our ships in France lol(l four or five hundred, and even as many as a thousandi. Other men make war by land, but in such vast numbers that, if drawn up in a double file, they wouldl extend fartiher than from here to liissssaquenk, altlhough tlie distance exceeds twenty leagules. W hen he attacks he is more0e terlille than the thllder; the earth trembles, the air and tlie sea are set on fire 1)y the discharges of his cannon; while he has been seen mid his squladrons, all covered with the blood of his foes. of whomii he has slain so llany witl llis sword that he does not count their scalps, but the rivers of bloo(d which lhe sets flowing. So 11any I:risoners oIf war (loes he lead a\way, that lie makles no aclonnt of them, letting them go about whither tihey will, to show that he does not f(ar theml. No one now dares make war upon him, all nations beyoind the sea havinlg 1(ost suiiiissively sued for peace. 'From' all parts of the world, people go to listell to his words and( to ad(liire him, andl( e alone (lecides all affairs of the world. "What shall I say of his wealthl? You count yourselves rich when you have ten or twelve sacks of corn, some hatchets, sonei glass l)eads, kettles or other things of that sort. He has towns of his own, more in numlber than you have people in all these countries, two hundred leagues around; while in each town there are warehouses containing enough hatchets to cut down all your forests, kettles to cook all your moose, and glass beads to fill all your cabins. Iis house is longer than from here to the head of the Sault-that is, miore than half a leaguel and higher than the tallest of your trees; and( it contains more families than the largest of your villages can hold.' To further impress the natives of the Sault land the visiting natives with the imiportance anid power of the king of France and therefore with the advantages to be derived by themi by submitting to his sovereignty, the ctelebration was continued throughout the evening and while bonfires lit up the rapids of the river, and set off the grandeur of the neighboring hills, the Indians were presented with gifts to carry to their homles as niementos of the friendship of the king. It miayl be mentioned here that it is claimedl the first historical use of the namtle "Chlicago" was in tlle p)r(ceedings of tllis council. It was in tllis same year (1671) that Father ATarqluette ieturnled fromi the mission at La Point all(1 estal)lished tlle missio( of St. Ignatius at the site (,f the (ol( town o(f Miichilillackiiac, folloxwing there a band of Ilurons whlo mloved fromll La Pointe on account of trouble with othler b ands. Tlie plans anId pIroceedings of the great council, accolmpanied by the establislihment of further missions. were well calculated to result in the maintenance of peace among the nations, and their friendshilp for the king, as well as the final Christianizing of the salvages and the )uilding of a civilized nation of red men. but tlhe fates seemt to have forbidden such a conclusioll; and1 ait this (listant day we can realize that the savage nation of that (lay d(i(l not furnish a sufficiently stable foundation, or sufficiently pliable imaterial on and of which to formulate an endur

Page  122 122 TIIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MIICHIGAN ing civilization. The Indians of this regiot had conle to live in fear of the mighty and warlike Sioux, and these fears Nwere hard to allay; anldl thus the inlhabitants about the Sault continued to live ill dread of all attack, even in spite of the pIronlises of Saiilt Lu.sson for their pIrotection by such a mighty king. THIE MALARQU ETTE-J)OLIET VOYAGE At St. Ignatius. lIalrquette learned froim the Indians of tile existence of a. great river to the west, whichl was said to flow throughi fertile lands that were peopIlecd with tribes who had never hear(d of the Gosl)el of Christ, anld lie iwas filled with a desii-e to exl)lore that counltry, l)reachl to its pIeolple and discover whether the great river flowed to the Gulf of Iesxico or to the Pacific ocean. The locality of St. Ignace hlad be-en thleletofore a fav olrite resort for the Indians ol ac(,oUllt of the al)lbund(ance of fishl alnd galle(. Marquette recoglized its ad(ditional strategic a(l valtages as hol(lillg conlltrol of the water highway to the farther \west and it \Nvwas because of his early recognition of these nullmerous ad(1 -vantagoes that, ill 1671. lie establlished the mlission at the 1, t( townl of ~-ic.hilillaekinac. While hI e was a tre'at ald ((ev(te(tl Iiissionary, I(he was also a worthy\- explorer, whose scientific lllind and a llmbitiouls telllI'r'lliclt \wer'e stirred(l by thle wondlerflll oppI)or'tllitie-s which the surrom1llli(llg coumitiy oi)elled to the flltllre illllabitants of the lt lllll. I ll(Ier the sanction of thi( kilg. anld still 1)ursuitiog thle lhope of disc(O'(very (f a passa.ge to the I'aci(fic( ocea. Count.Frmontena, suc(cessor to Talolln, who hldl retired1 in failing health. sent.ioliet t tO, tiAlliliilllackinac where- he ( joie(l Father IMarlquette, and they p)rep)ared for their joullrley of exI)loratiol aind discovery! the followingi' spring. In1 1( 67 1ay 1 7th, these two en11 set out fr'()nt St. Ignace in two b)ark (cane()s, withl five Frenchmen Cand (l a goo()ly slllup)ly of 1)ro1visiis. 1They t(olok their c(()urse do(wn the shore of _Lake Alichig111an ad.11 (reeIl lbay, thllnc(e ul) tile Flox river to Lake \Wiinnebago, aInd across the (0u1itry a(d d ol\\1v the Wiscionsin river to the AIississil)pIi Awl1ic(h they' (disc(\ver(1,J11( 17. 1 67:3. rTllm-e followed d(own tlat I iver to tle (Im)tthl (f thle Arlkails. where Ala'1lette concludedt the course (f the streat11I wn-as to tlhe (G111f of Mexic(o. After a. few (lax-s (f rest andl coniference with tlhe naItivcs, the exphlor(,rs set out upon their return. reah.lmill, G('reen 1my il Septe ll)eiir. In1 the mlealtimlne Father AIar(luette had tbeen t'amlsferre d to tilis Iitission and. being tire(l from( the. effects of his lonig) joumli'lley. lie stolp)l)ed at this Iliission while Joliet l)roceede(l'd to Que)bec( to Illakc reI)orts of their discoveries. Al)out a year later Marquette agfain set out ulpoii antther southward trip. this timie with a view to establishinlg a mission among the Indians of Illinois. Ile was in feeble health amid sto)l)e(e for the w'inter <a short distance up the Chicago river fromil its nIiouth. Omi his rt-turni the following Sl)ring, he was too feeb)le to staiid the jotlrineN, and, Nwith lis c(mu)anions, disenIt)am'ked on the shores of L]ake AIichigan at the itiouthm of the Pere l1arquette river, where lie died

Page  123 I"I:1 I, I.114 tol 7 -"I.17 I 174 I I M. r Y, 17 MI I,I: IV e< - rli 1-3 11 MI

Page  124 124 TH-IE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN M.ay 19, 1675. There his companions buried his body and erected a cross to miark th' site of his grave, but from this place the bones of his body were removed the following year, by friendly Indians from various tribes, to St. Ignace, where they were buried with proper ceretllonies in a vault beneath the chapel, the ceremonies having been in charge of Father Nouvel, then superior. assisted by Father Pierson. This chapel was destroyed by fire in 1700, and the site seems to have b)'en lost track of for nearly two hundred years, until, in 1877, Father Jacker identified the spot and there was erected thereon a marble mIonuinent. Later, and in 1909, a monument more befitting the memory of this great and( good,man was erected, and was unveiled by the daughter of the late Peter White, with appropriate accompanying cerenlonies. LA SAILE AND TONTY Rene Robert Cavalier, Sieur de La Salle- is another promiinent figure in American history who comes in for a place in the early affairs of this section when we were of the province of New France. IIe had been educated as a Jesuit for the priesthood, but his inclinations were toward a business life, and he became active as an emissary of the government in the extension of its interests in New France; there he became actively interested in exploratory work as early as 1669, when, with funds from the sale of his own property, he fitted out his Ohio expedition. It was upon that first expedition that La Salle and his companions tulrned the first European ears to the roar of the now famous cataract of NiagSara. In a neighboring Indian village they also met Joliet. then returning to Quebec after his visit to Lake Superior, and his report so interested the two Sulpitian priests, )ollier and Galinee', of La Salle's cxp)edition, that they decided to take their course to the Sault. which they did, with the results heretofore recorded, La Salle continuing his course at that time to the southward with a view to locating the Ohio river. In the winter of 1678-9, on the shores above the falls of Niagara, he built the first vessel ever constructed on the great lakes, the '.'Griffin," of forty-five tons burden; thus named in honor of the armour of Count Frontenac. August 7th of that year he set out with HIenri de Tonty, an Italian officer of high standing, and Louis Ilennepin, a Recollet missionary, in further quest of a waterway to the Pacific, and in the work of extending the fur trade and mission field. They followed up Lake Erie, and August 11, 1679, passed through the strait of Detroit, which Ilennepin described, and regarding which he said: "Those who will one (lay have the happiness to possess this fertile and pleasant strait will be very mnuch obliged to those wlio have shown them the way." The explorers kept on the course to the nortllward and caile to anchor at St. Ignace, where the voyageurs visited the chapel and house of the Jesuits. After a few days sojourn, during which the In

Page  125 TIIE NORTtERN PENINStULA OF iMICHIGAN 125 dian villages in that vicinity were visited and the country carefully inspected, La Salle founded a fort, the first military establishment in that region. The explorers then travelled forward along the north shore of Lake Michigan and down Green bay (B1ay des Puants), where the French had already collected a large quantity of valuable furs, an(l with these he loaded the "Griffin" and started her upon her return voyage, in care of his pilot and fourteen French sailors. Neither the boat nor the miiembers of that daring crew were ever heard of afterward, and the belief is that the vessel was wrecked an( sunk with all on board, in a fierce storm that prevailed about the time they should have been navigating Lake Huron. Fifteen more men thus laid down their lives and passed into history, nameless, yet heroes, playing their pai t as (aringly and heroically as did those who were leaders, and whose names, like that of La Salle. are forever emblazoned in glowing letters on the pages of Amnerican history. After the departure of the "Griffin." La Salle remained a few nmonths at and about the vicinity of Green bay, hoping for tidings of his fated ship-tidings whlich never came-when, with llenllnepIin and several other Frenchlmen, lie set out on an expedition down v Lake Michigan, where, b}y pre-arrangement. lie was to meet Tonty who was to go from 5Mackinac to meet him at the mouth of the St. Joseph river, there to establish a Fort; and where they established Fort Mliamnis. Fromn this point they moved on up the lake to its head and into Illinois, reaching the Illinois river by portage and camping for the winter at a p)oint on that river called Fort Crevecoeur, from which place the following spring La Salle returned to Fontenac (now Kingston), leaving his friend Tonty in charge at that point, and crossing the then unexplored lower peninsula on foot from Fort MIiamis. being the first white man, so far as known, to penetrate the interior of the Lower Peninsula. It is thus clearly established, that, from the beginning of the work of exploration west of Lake Iuron. Michililackinaec was the center of operations and the base of supplies for the entire western field, including the exploration of the Mississippi from the point of its discovery by Marquette and Joliet. to the southward, and of the entire region around Lake MIichigan to the southward, including the Southern Peninsula of Michigan, Indiana and Illinois, as well as the region around Lake Superior, including Northern Michigan, Wisconsin and( Minnesota. Here, the career of this great explorer comes practically to an end, so far as his )personal operations in this section of the country are concerned, but his interesting career elsewhere had direct connection with the French interests here, and it is recorded that in 1681 he was again at Michilimnackinac, on his way homlne to Canada after a visit to his friend Tontv at Fort Mliamis. It is further to be noted, as bearing upon the plans of the French government, involving this section, that, in 1684, on the petition of La Salle, that government sent an expedition to the Gulf of Mexico for the purpose of forming

Page  126 126 TIIE NORTHERN 1'ENINSULA OF MICICHIGAN a colony at the mouth of the Mississippi as a means of securing coimmand of the whole region, an(d to form a guard against the enlargement of the field of English colonization; and it was in pursuit of tllis salie policy that La Salle, in 1686, set out from Louisiana with a view to establishing communication across the country with the French settlements of the lake country; failing, in 1687 he mllade his second attempt to march through to Canlada, and was shot, en route, )by one of his companions-another mlartyr. amlong the many 1named aInd nameless who endured p)rivations and hardships while bringilng to the attention of civilization the country about which we write, and of which we boast its many advantages. The p1roject in which La Salle was imllmediately enlgagced at the time of his death, was finally accomplished twelve years later, in 16!)!), by 1)'Iberville, who established the avenlue of trd(le between the Frenchl possessions of Canada and of Louisiana and gave to that petol)le its claiml to the great northwest, afterward included in the oIJuisiana Purclhase. The names of LaSalle and of his friend an(l comllpanionl Tonty, are closely interwoven in the early history of this counltry; they sharel together mlany privations an(l hardships, andl they now share and receive together the honors their due. and the humbl)le acknowledlglment of thcir noble and collnnlldable sacrifice. 1)v n l appIreciative pecolple. )alliel Gr(esolon (11 Lhut ( )uluth) is also d(1serving of mention ill this connection, for, while history does not accord to him ainy specific )art (lirectly connected with the lUpper Peninsula, his work and traffic covered such a wide field of pioneering, including tlhe [lUpper t'eninsula, that he is entitled to be connected with its recordedl history. HIe caine from Lyons, France, to New France in 1.;76, attracted b)y the business opportunities, and imiime(iately began his travels in the lake country in the interest of the fur trade, going all through the country both north and south of Lake Superior, purchasing furs and peltries; and he must necessarily have been strongly identified with the early fur trade of the Peninsula. While not a missionary, he was of their timhe and shared like hardships. His work was in that line of trade first recognized as one of the great natural advantages afforded by the lake country, and which was the cause of much strife between France and England, as well as between the people of each of those countries and the Indians. Mention should also be made of Armand Louis de I)Delondare (lBaron de Lahontan), who came to New France when but a boy and took part in a war against the Iroquois when only eighteen years of age. When only twenty-one, in 1687, he was made commandant at Fort St. Joseph, at the lower end of Lake Hturon; and in 1688, he made a trip to MIackinac to replenish his supply of provisions, and from whence he also travelled northward and visited the Sault. Shortly after his return to Fort St. Joseph, on account of the threatening danger fron the Indiains, he destroyed that fort and removed to Michiliimackinac, where he spent

Page  127 TIIE NORTIIERN PENINSULA OF \IICIIIGAN 127 the winter; that Ilace having become the (enter of activity of the Northwest Fur Comlpany, which had been forme(l ill Tonltreal in 1783, and which hadil sent traders throughout the northwest, with MIackinaw as its base of suplplies and center of operations generally. I)uring his sojourn there, he met men of La Salle's party w+ho had returlle(l frolwl the MIississi)ppi; he wais arouse(t b)- the stories of their adventulre and of the counntry they had traversed, an(l deteriillned to follow ill tlhe (ourse that had first been taken b1-) Father larlquette. Alar(luette had rec(ognized the advantages of St. Igla(ii(l 11(l ailichilimlackilnac )y ad(lop)ting there a. lission at the o]ld tOlwn of i1lichilimackinac as early as 16 71., which had b)een started the year l)revious lby Father I)ahl'lon. La Salle re(ogllized them byx. tlle estal)lishllllellt,f a fort in 1 679, and as early as 1688 La IIonton saidl of the l)ace: "ii('lelilima(kinac is c e;:taily a pla Iaeof great illl)ortan'ce. IIcr(e thle Illrrolls an-d Ottawas have each a village, being separated ftro( 8 (ac11 othter by a single i)alisRl(lde. In this 1)lacc the Jesuits have a little Ihouse, (,)I cottRage, adjoining a1 sort. (f church Ian1d cnc(losed( with pales that sel)arate it fro11m the village of the lurons. Tlh C(1oreurs de bois have but a very slmall settlelllellt. though at the saime tilhe it is not illconsidleral)le. as b)eing the. stapIle of all tile goo1s that they truck with the south and11( \\-west savag\es. TIIE SAL-AT,T AND ST. IGONACE MISSIONS At tlhe Saiult, in 167::. Rev. HIenry Noul-vel h})ec(aic sullerior succeedillg Father I).lablon. whlo had been l)roluoted to tile office of sulp)erior geieral of (all the missions in New France. Rev. Nouvel left the work of that mlliSiO inl charge of Father I)ruillette, who had already shown his al)ilitv an(1. fitness for the task, while he. as superi(or. went to the St. Ign11ace mission. Father P'ere lDruillette coltinued his service at the Sault until, in 1679, his failing health compelled( him to retire aii( return to Quebec, at vwhic(h )place le died in 1681. Father ]Bailloquet hadl been coilnected( with the mnissions, h)ut gave his tilie p)rincipally to travel alnong the different tribes, and(1 on the retiring of Father Druillette, became his suecessor. In 1683 Rev. Charles Albanel succeee(ld Father Baillo{quet at the Sault. and thle latter went to St. Ignace. Rev. Albanel continued hlis ministrations at the Sault until the time of his deatil which occurred at that place in 1696, an(l is, so far as the records (lisclose. the last of the Jesuit missionaries to preside over that mission. The iiaissiont had for years been in feeble condition because of the Indlian trolblles that ha(l occurred there, as before related, and to this weakness the adde(l emllbarrassllenlt ilill)osed ul)on the lnissionlaries by the traffic in li(luors that. \\'as carried o0n by the traders. seems to have discouraged the Jesuits and led them to conclude that the mission at the Sault was no longer worthiy of their efforts. They continue(l, from time to timle to )pa.ss andl repass the Sault (luring their work in other fields, )but Nwe can learn of 10 NvorkeIls b)eiiig assigne(l to that rmission, or having b)een thlere engage(1 for mlore than a century thereafter; an(l for a long time that section of thle countrv seenis to have been practicall-y deserted

Page  128 128 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN by both Indians and French, though there were at all times, as far as can be learned, a few wigwams. The glory that was the Sault's faded, and seems only to have revived with the last hundred years. As late as 1820 there were only twenty houses there, with only five or six French and English families, and the earliest record of a revival of ecclesiastical work there is in 1815, when a baptism was recorded as having been made by Father Dumoulin of one Elizabeth Lallonde. The mission at St. Ignace was established in 1670 by Father Dablon, and Alarquette came there from La Point St. Esprit the following seasoI1, and was there active in the work of the mission until his departure in his expedition for the discovery of the Mississippi river. Up to the year 1674 the buildings at this mission were only of logs which served to satisfy the absolute necessities. In 1672, Father Marquette wrote of this mission to Father Dablon (or )'Ablon) as to conditions at that place, and the nature of the work of the missionaries; and the character of the Indians they had to contend with cannot be better described than by a quotation therefrom: "'My Reverendl Father: The Iturons, called Tionlontateronnous, or the tobacco nation, who comnposed the nission of St. Ignace at Alichilimakinang, began last summller a fort near the chapel, in which all their cabins were inclosed. They have been more assiduous at prayer, have listened more willingly to the instructions that 1 gave them, and have acceled( to my requests for preventing grave misconduct and their abominable customs. One must have patience with savage minds who have no other knowledge than the devil, whose slaves they are, and their forefathers have been; and frequently relapse into those sins in which they have been reared. God alone can give firmness to their fickle minds, and place and maintain them in grace, and touch their hearts while we staimmer into their ears. This year the Tionnontateronnous were here to the number of three hundred and eighty souls, and they were joined by over sixty souls of the Outaouasinagaux. Some of the latter came from the mission of Saint Francois Xavier (Green Bay), where Reverend Father Andre spent last winter with them; and they appeared to me to be very different from whlat they were when I saw them at the point of St. Esprit. The zeal and patience of the father have won over to the faith hearts which seemed to us to be very adverse to it. They desire to be Christians, they bring their children to the chapel to be baptized, and they are very assiduous in attending prayers. ''Last summer, when I was obliged to go to the Sault with Rev. Father Allouez, the HIurons came to the chapel during my absence, as assiduously as if I had been there, and the girls sang the hymns that they knew. They counted the days that passed after my departure, and continuously asked when I was to return. I was absent only fourteen days, and, on arrival, all proceeded to the chapel, to which many came expressly from the fields, although these were very far away. I cheerfully attended their feasts of squashes, at which I instructed them and called upon them to thank God, who gave them food in abundance while other tribes, who had not yet embraced Christianity, had great difficulty in preserving themselves from hunger. I cast ri(licule on their dreams and encouraged those who had been baptized to acknowledge HiJm whose children they were. Those who gave feasts, although still idolators, spoke most honorably of Christianity; and they were not ashamed to make the sign of the cross before everyone. * * * "A savage of note among the lHurons invited me to his feast, at which the chiefs were present. After calling each of them by name, he told them that he wished to state his intentions to them, so that all might know it;-namely, that he was a Christian; that he renounced the God of Dreams and all their dances replete with lasciviousness; that the black gown was the master of the cabin and that lie would not abandon that resolution, whatever might happen. I felt pleasure in hearing him, and at the same time I spoke more strongly than I had hitherto done, telling them

Page  129 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 129 that I had no other design than to place them on the road to Paradise; that that was the sole object that detained me with them and compelled me to assist them, at the risk of my life. As soon as anything has been said at a meeting, it is at once spread among all the cabins. This I soon recognized, through the assiduity of some at prayers and through the malice of others who endeavor to render our instructions useless. * * "Over two hundred souls, left last fall for the chase. Those who remained here asked me rwhat dances I prohibited. I replied in the first place that I would not permit those which God forbids, such as in(lecent ones; that, as regards the others, I would decide about them when I had seen them. Every dance has its own name; but I did not find any harm in any of them, except that called 'the bear dance.' A woman, who became impatient in her illness, in order to satisfy both her God and her imagination, caused twenty women to be invited. They were covere(l with bear skins and wore fine porcelain collars; growled like bears. Meanwhile tile sick woman danced and from time to time told them to throw oil on the fire, with certain superstitious observances. The men who acted as singers had great difficulty in carrying out the sick woman 's design, not having as yet heard similar airs, for that dance was not in vogue among the Tionnontateronnous. I availed myself of this fact to dissuade them from the dance. I did not forbid others that are of no importance for I considered that my winter's sojourn among them had been profitable, inasmuch as, with God 's grace, I had put a stop to the usual indecencies. * * * Although the winter wais severe, it did not prevent the savages from coming to the chapel. Many came thither twice a (lay, however windy and cold it might be. In the autumn 1 began to give instructions for general confession of their lwhole lives, and to prepare others who had not confessed since their baptism, to do the same. I would not have believed that savages could render so exact an account of all their lives. * * * As the savages have vivid imaginations, they are often cured of their sickness when they are granted what they desire. Their medlicine men, who know nothing about tleir diseases, propose a number of things to them for which they might have a desire. Sometimes the sick person mentions it, and they fail not to give it to him. But many, during the winter, fearing that it might be a sin, always replied with constancy that they desired nothing, and that they would do whatever thle black gown told them. "I did not fail, during the autumn, to go and visit them in their fields, where I instructed them and made them pray to God, and told them what they had to (lo. * * * A blind woman who had formerly been instructed by Rev. Father Brebeauf, had not (luring all these years forgotten her prayers; she daily prayed to God that she might not (lie without grace, and I admired her sentiments. Other aged women, to whom I spoke of hell, shuddered at it, an(t told me they had no sense in their former country, but that they had not committed so many sins since they had been instructed. * * * "Godl had aided, in a special manner, the ITurons who went to hunt; for he led them to Ilaces where they killed a great number of bears, stags, beavers and wildcats. Several bands failed not to observe the directions I had given them respecting prayers. I)reams, to which they formerly had recourse, were looked upon as illusions; and, if they happened to dream of bears, they did not kill any on account of that; on the contrary, after they had recourse to prayer, God gave them what they desiredl. "'This, my Reverend Father, is all that I can write to your Reverence respecting this mission, where men's minds are more gentle, tractable and better disposed to receive the instructions that are given theml than in any other place. Meanwhile I am preparing to leave it in the hands of another missionary, to go by your Reverence's Order and seek toward the Southl Sea new nations that are unknown to us, to teach them to know our great God, of whom they have hitherto been ignorant." Father IMarquette, while still at La Point de Esprit, had heard of the Indian tribes in Illinois and his amblitious spirit cast for him a longing to go to themn andI preach to them. (n I)eceniber 8, 1672, Sieur Joliet arrived at St. Ignaee bearing letters from the governor general, Count de Frontenac, addressed to Father Marquette and requesting him to go on an exploring expedition Vol. 1-9

Page  130 130 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN to the Mississippi; and the following May,i as soon as the lakes could be safely traversed, he was ready to carry out his cherished ambition, and left St. Ignace fated never to return. Rev. Father Phillip I'ierson succeeded to the charge of this mission, which grew by the acquisition of mnany more Ottawas and other Algonquins. Rev. Father Nouvel came to this mission in the fall of 1673, and, being impressed with the importance of the mission and seeing the inadequacy of the old chapel, promptly began arrangements for a new chapel which he erected in 1674. In April. 1676, Father Pierson, who still continued at this mission, wrote: "God has hitherto granted and still grants every day, so many blessings to my Iuron mission of Lionontate that I have the satisfaction of seeing this little church gradually increase in number and grow strong in faith." Of it, and its future dangers, he also wrote: "The Iroquois froiim Sonnontwan calme here this winter on an embassy, and gave valuable presents to the uIlrons, under the pretext of wishing to join theml that they mighlt go together to fight the Nadouessions, with whomll they were at war. But w-e greatly fear that under that precious semblalne they conceael anotlher design. which is to lure all our savages to their coulltry; andl tliat would. without doubt, be the ruin of this church. I pray (n or Iord to favert that c(alaimity frolm us." In 1683. Father l'i(rson, left St. Ignace and went as a missionary to the Siolux, then collmllnonly called the Nadouessions, in Minnesota, and he was siccc(etleded by Rev. Nicholas Potier; Father Enjalran became superior and IFather lBailloquet came from the S-ault and took the place of Father Nouvel. whlo, at the same time went to Green bay; thus makingL a com)plete change of that ministration at St. Ignace, which mlission ha( then become so plrosperous as to require the attention of the three priests who ministered to the French village and three separate an(l distinct Indlian villages then locat(ed in that imnmediate vicinity. COMING OF THE FR ENCH SOLDIERY The app)arent prosperity \was not of long (uration. The establishmenrt of the fort, which was a fortified trading post, in 1679, brought with it tlhe soldiers and tihe voyageurs. and the trade in brandy; and the corrulption thus introduced seemed niore than to offset the good teahings of the missionlaries. An Tn(dian cheated in trade was thoroughly aroLused to a. sense of the wrong (lone him, and it was not possible to meet and counteract the atrocious practices and examples of the traders by simply moral teaching and exhortation. ro these (lire conditions were added the wide-spread spirit of war, against the approach of which the mission was afforded little protection. The Jesuits had at first welcomed the soldiery, believing them to be the representatives of a governlment that was in sympathy with their ecclesiastical labors, and that their presence would be an addition to their working force, an example of their teachings and a safeguard against the ever-imminent danger of the Indian wars. Finding them

Page  131 TIIE NORTIIERN I'ENINSULA OF \ICHI-IIGAN 131 selves dclteived(, 1an(l coinling to the (c(nlusion that, ill reality, the presence of the soldiery, had almost the opposite effect, annd that the main objee('t of those in charge was to l)romote'a profitable traide in furs regard(less of mlloral conllsequences, the missionaries, after years of hardlshil), I)rivation, endurance a(lld toil, and the (daill facing of (dang('er at the hanlds of the' savages, were uina)le to cope with the dissoliutelless an1( corruptionl introd((uced by tlle -.overnment through the traders and tile soldiers, anIr1d )ec('(Iame discourage(. Their )leadings met. with criticisni and opI)osition at tlic( hanIds of the comlandanlts, and they learne(l, to their sorrow, tlhat the c(olonial governmelnt they hlad s strongly silpported was out of hlarlrl)lon with their wants. The FtrencIh sold(lierv remlainelt ill ('()01111and(1 and in 1G86 there ap)pl)eare(l an expedition of twelve l)Dutch and English tra(ders fromlll N'ew York. xlio land(led at 1 ichilij}l(ikillae anl offeilc(1 their \\wares at lo(wer p-rices an(l yet ait a g(oo(l profit. Anlother ian( larger exlpeditiomn of sonic, thirty pe')e ('arryig tile English flag soon( followed(, l)ut jlust l)efore r'ea(lching their ldestinaItion they were met 1!y fifty Fren(e nllle. wh1o, Ir(ltr or((ers of tile e(omillolalnlder of the fort. ILaIl)nral-a.1ge, c( lfiscate(1 tlhe Nwa rs o(f the I)lDt(h and Emlo ish anJd dlivi(led their spl)oils allonl(g Ilhease(lyes. A thirt ('Xl)ed(ition unm(ler sinilar (circunistaaces inet a slilcilar fate. evell tholl(ugh carrying l)asl)ports froni the govern(r o(f New Y ork. Va liols Tresults att(lended( these high-11(hanIded (op)erati()os (of the French. TieI lo((1al Ind1(a1s naturally regretted(1 the loss of the opI)ortunlity to o)tai ('l(ealper go-o)(ls. a(ld e(,o(e ( io(re uneasy a;.111( issatisfied; whil(e. at the same time, tIhe Eglish were instigate(l to more determin'ed actioil all( I promllltly set al)lut instigatillgr the lroq(luois to war uI)pm the French.. ail n i( onl the tril)es lunder their l)ro(tection, to wlich action, inI lahr ge nicasure at least, iamv be ascribed the long seri(es of aogravating instanellces thlat. On tle 5th (l!ay of August, 1689, culmninated in the IJa(, inie niassacre, wlherein four hundred I)eople nmet death at the lhai1(lds,f tlihe I roqllois. 'I'lis hlorrible massacre acnd the ol)erations aroliild I(ontre'all, arolse(1 tilhe fulry of all the savages inclu(ling those un(ler the( chlarge otf tlhle missiolI of St. Igfnace. rNDTIANS 1()OSE kFITII IN FRENCIT Th'le (oi(litioii at tlhe till(c is lbest pictured( )y (bluotations from a letter writtel il Novemnl)er. 16S9, by Fatlher Carlheill to Frontenac. then gover(lior geierald, in whichi he says: "I am vei(y sorry to see myself compell(ed to write you this letter, to inform y(0u thlat w\e are at last renluiceil to the collldition to \-which T have always believedl thalt the 1ho(pe of leace woul(l re(luce uls. I have never doubted that peac e was iimiossil)le nor that:ill tlose whlo, from the experience of a long resiletence among tlhem, ktnow the (lislosition of tile Iroquois, an1 d esp)ecia.lly of the Onnontagues, the linost treacllerous of -all. Notwithlstanlling the (lifficulty we hadl ui) to the time designatedl for the assembly, in sustaining the minds of the poor savages amid the continual lisl)leasure causeod them by the negotiations for a t)eae-whichl they knew to be only begged —by (lint of attentions, by lionors, and of presents; an(d which, consequently, were hiit so many public proofs of our weakness; we were, neverthe]ess, fortunate enough to maintain them in their duty that time.

Page  132 132 THE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MIICHIGAN "After that it was for those who conducted those negotiations to demonstrate by performnance the truth of what they had promised; and to let our tribes see the enemy, who, as they supposed, had become docile and submissive to their will. But, alas! at the time this should have been done, what had they obtained? Nothing but houses burned, French killed or captured, scalps taken and bodies ripped open; but a universal destruction of all Lachine, which should, nevertheless, have been the best guarded on all the sides; and, finally, but universal consternation throughout the whole of Montreal. This is not the success promised them by embassies and peace conferences, but it is that which they feared and the dread whereof would constitute all their trouble. What do we wish them to think now * * * when, as they say, they see Onnontio deceived and vanquished up to the present by the enemy; what hope can they still retain of his protection when they see naught but weakness and impotence? Can one suppose that, after their departure from Montreal-where they had just seen the Iroquois triumph throughout the whole campaign, during which he was allowed to do as he pleased-they could take any other action than that which compelled us to carry on war to overawe him? They then undertook to make peace themselves, through their own negotiations with the enemy, who had taken away many of their people whom they were holding as captives. Our savages were prevented from doing so and were induced to resolve upon carrying on war with us. But, instead of continuing it, as soon as the first decision was taken it was changed, I know not how, into negotiations for peace; that gave the enemy both time and means to vanquish not only them, as formerly, but also ourselves. They now see themselves, by this conduct of pure inaction, reduced once more to the necessity of again taking the same step, and of doing without Onnontio's participation, what they would have desired him to do. ''Therefore, in their council held since they returned from Montreal, they have resolved by unarninous consent to regain the friendship and alliance of our enemy, by means of an embassy which they are sending to the Sonnontonans, and afterwards to the other nations to obtain peace. "They will have no difficulty because it will separate them from us; because it will take away our greatest strength from us, to give it to the enemy; and because the ambassadors are their own prisoners, whom LaPetite Racine, accompanied by some other Ontoanais, is to deliver into the hands of the Iroquois. Moreover it is no longer a hidden design that they wish to conceal from our knowledge, and which we have secretly learned from confidential sources; but it is a matter of public notoriety, and one which they have chosen to tell us by a solemn declaration in full council. "Although the Huron be concerned in it perhaps even more than is the Ontoanais, nevertheless, as he is always more politic than the others in keeping on good terms with us, he did not speak with so much bitterness and arrogance as did the Ontoanais. He contented himself with saying that he was too much of a child to interfere in an undertaking of that nature, or seek to raise any opposition to it; that he left his brothers to act, as they thought that they had more sense than he, regarding that matter; that it was for them to be answerable for the result, and not for him, who had much less penetration than they. "Such Monseigneur, is the state of affairs in this quarter,-that is to say, at the last extremity which they can reach. For the result of that embassy can only be to bring at once both the Iroquois and the Fleming-the Iroquois as the master in war; the Fleming as the master in trade and commerce; and both as sovereigns of all these nations, to our exclusion. This is infallible and will happen with such dilligence and promptness that I know not whether you will have time to forestall its execution. They have hastened to conclude the embassy, through fear that, after the defeat of the French at Montreal and in despair of ever obtaining a firm and lasting peace by means of negotiations, it might be decided once more for all to make war; and that afterwards an order might come from you to do so. This must no longer be thought of, because it is too late. It should have been (lone while they were still at Montreal, immediately after the blow struck by the enemy. Then they desired it and all would have been found ready for it; but at present they must not be relied upon for the war, since the departure of their ambassadors, which conmpelled them to remain quiet to await their return and the result of their negotiations. "All the ceremonial honors paid to the prisoners on the eve of their dismissal, by the famous calumet dance, which is a public token of alliance, shows us, but too clearly, in what manner and how firmly they will be united against us. But what makes this still more evident is that, at the very moment when they were giving

Page  133 TIlE NORTIIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 133 these public proofs of esteem to the prisoners whom they were about to send away, they, on the other hand, expressed the contempt they felt for our alliance and for our protection. When we strongly opposed their sending the prisoners away, and represented to them the order given us by Onnontio in his last commands-to make them keep their prisoners quiet on their mats, until he made known to them his last wishes with regard to their captives-they nevertheless persisted in the agreement made between them; and to show us that they were not entering upon that understanding without having considerable cause therefor, they wished to give us their reasons publicly. "These may all he reduced to one prime reason, which is, that Onnontio 's protection-on which they had based all their hopes of being delivered from all their enemies —was not what they had wrongly imagined it to be; but hitherto they had always thought that the Frenchman was warlike through numbers, through courage and through the number and diversity of the implements of war that he could make. Experience had slown them, however, that he was much less so than the Iroquois; and they were no longer surprised that he had remained so long without doing anything for their defense, since it was the knowledge of his own weakness that hindered him. After seeing the cowardly manner in which he had allowered himself to be lefeated on this last occasion at Montreal, it was evident to them that they could no longer expect anything from his protection. * * * From all these evident proofs, it was easy to see that the Frenchman is so little in a position to protect them that he cannot even defend himself; so much so, that he had been compelled to have recourse to the protection of the English, and to beg them, through an ambassador sent expressly for the purpose to Orange (Albany), to check the continual incursions of the Iroquois. "But what most displeases them is that the alliance of the Frenchmen, besides being useless to them through their powerlessness, is all injurious to them both for commerce and for war. It is so in commerce, because it takes away from them, against their will, the trade of the English, which was incomparably more advantageous to them in order to keep them bound to Onnontio. * * * They said that if he had no other protection to give them than a peace of that nature, they preferred to protect themselves and to go to negotiate their peace by their own acts, rather than to let themselves be abandoned by France to the certain vengeance of their enemy. * * * ' From this it will be seen that our savages are much more enlightened than one thinks; and that it is difficult to conceal from their penetration anything in the course of affairs that may injure or serve their interests. The respect that I owe to the rule of all persons to whom God has given the power of government over us would have made me scruple to communicate to you, as freely as I have done, sentiments as unfavorable as these, had I not believed that the public welfare demanded that you should know them just as they exist among the savages. I do so in order that you may thereby judge of the disposition of their minds, of what they are capable of doing against us in favor of our enemy, and of the remedy to be applied. It is certain that if the Iroquois be not checked by the extent of the operations against him on your side down below, or of those against the Flemings who origi nate his movements, he will not fail to come here to make himself master of every thing. It is sufficient for us that you should know it, to rely thereafter upon the enlightenment of your wisdom; and, in spite of the danger in which we are placed, to live in entire confidence, waiting to see in what manner Divine Providence shall please to dispose of us.' This letter, written in 1689, from St. Ignace mission, where Father Carheil had been for two years as the successor to Father Potier, is most potent in its illustration of the situation and the desperate straits to which the missionaries had been brought, largely as the result of the fallacies attendant upon the methods of the French in their affairs of commerce, as well as of government. WHiY MISSIONS WERE DESTROYED With the establishment of the Northwest Fur Company. in 1694, Antoine (le la Alothe Cadillac, was appointed to the command at AIich

Page  134 134 TIlE NORTHIERN PENINSUILA OF 5ICIIIGAN ililllackinac, where the natives were exhib)iting the samlie feelillgs of unrest and hostility that pervaded plrac(tically all Itl(lian nations at thfat period(. This fur conir)any established its base of op)erations at Ali(chiliimackinac, thereby largel!y iilreasing tlhei numiler of traders that ranllged throughout the surroun(ling country witll that p)lace as the center of operations- anti a more extenlsive arlmedl force seemled essential, anfld wais provided for the subijugation of the natives in that section. The (co(lllig of Cadillae as ('()onllfia(le'r, an(l his metllo(ls of gtovernment were so obnoxious to, aiid were so resiste(d iy the rmissionaries of the locality,, that it became notorious that he mieant to destroy their i issions. I1n writing froml Aidichili llackirlac to the( governor genieral. A ugust 3, 1(95.) Cadillac said: "The village is on(c of the largest in all Cana(lda there is a fine fort of l)ickets, and sixty houses that form a street inI a straighit line. There is a garrison of well-disciplined chosell s(l(liers. consisting of al)out twuo hunlired men, bcsides many others who are( residents here durilg tw o 01r three Imonths of the year. ITe also cm(o1 -Inents (o1 the air as )(ing p)enetralting. an( therefore miiakRing th(li (d1ily ise of t)rand- a nec ssity to p)revent sic(kliiess. lie spl)aks of tlie Ill(diall villagces ill the \l icillit I)eing a)iout a.1istol shiot (listalit f'rom) the French villa(ge. and of its h1aving a I,)op)llati(m of six tl()llsail(l ( seven1 thio-usand lersoll s. Ie also spealks of t(ic ir o(e('lul)atioi(l, aM sa! vs that all lam(ls are clealred for abl)out three (( leagues ar(n(1 tle vi illa (, antd that tlhey wer' e veiy well (cuiltivated(, alid of thenm l( s(as.s "rhl(y l)r()(lu(e a sIifficillit ( uanlltity o)f l(liall (,()Irn flo)r tlhe IISe of 1(ttli tite Fl're(li a(1 tihe s1va'ge iihab itants. 'I'l (liesti1,, is tllhem, \ ihat ri{,soi caiil tllhere })e for this prohliblition of iiitoxicatiiig (l iiriiks inl r'gail' to tIl(-e FIel(,ll h who a.( Icere ll()ow? Arei tlcy iot subl)jects (of th(e kiig', (even(l as others? ' In whlat c(nrtry, then,i (rI ii wliat lad(l, mntil ll\no, hlave tlhey talkel from tlhe I'rei(.l tihe righlt to l(se bra(ldy, )r()vi (le(1 they (did no ot b)e(oile (lisolde(lrtl ' This letter is iiot (tnly authorit ative evi(dece O(f t1ie OIpollaCity of this part of the cointry ill the eye of tlhe Inldians., tbut it shi(Ows tl,-t the( Frelnclh had attaine(l to a conIsidierable settleme( t anl( that t he fiel(ls w\ere msiade to a((dd to the Ipro(lucts of the forests an(l tell wuaters. their qluota of a substantial an(l varied sustenance sufficiernt for all. It is also a serious cnilillmentary on existing ('o(litiolns wh(.l 'ill a strife had grown u) betwe( en the traders and the missionaries, am(1l wherein Cadillac took the part of the tra(ers, who in or(ler to plromlote advantageous bargains had brought into the country large quantities of brandyv which they disposed of alike to the Indians and( the French. This was against the protests of the inissionuarics, who found it seriously affected and impeded their ecclesiastical work, and was lemnoralizing, generally, to the inhabitants of both races. Cadillac's letter was w ritten because of complaints inade by the inissionaries to the home government of this evil effect of the traffic, and Cadillac seems to have placed the advantage of a more profitable trade above the

Page  135 TIlE NORTIIERN PENINS[I_,LA OF AIICIIIGAN 1 135 moral question of the effect up(on the 'hlaracters of the I)eople, as judged from the form of his argumllent. IIe (lluotes upon this subject froim an address to him by some of the (hiefs and( inhabitants as follows-: "Oh chief, what evil have thy (children (1ile to thee( that thou shlouldst treat themi so badlyl? Tlhose that cane l)efore tlee were not so severe upI)ll us. It is not to qluarrel t with tlhee that we come hlere; it is only to know for what reason thou w ishest to l)revellt us fromll (rinking blralndy. Tllou shouldst look (,(,l ll)( s as tlhy friellds. anl thl' brothers of the Frellnch or else as tll! enliemies. If Nwe, are tlly friends, leave us the lil)ertv of drinkingi. our }leav-r is worth tlhy brandy, and the Alaster of lJife gave us botlh, to mialoke us halppy. If thou wish to treat us as thy enemlies. do not l)e ani-ry if we carry o l)c. bavers to Orange (Albany) or to Cortll ll. ll'( tald.l \\will thy ive us X l)Iralidy. as niie('h as we wanlt.," rhlis question of thle effe(t of tllh( lilu()r tlraftfic, (al(se(l serliouls:oinfli(t bl)tween thle missilnaries oII tle one had 1( nd tlle llilitavl' alndl(l the traders on thle other. froi n whii(l 11111('1 friction resutlted( aIt a tilaec wheni they were se'riously in n{eed of thile closest ha inonv. It is clatiinred to llave had much to (t, inl adding to the turllllnt teml)(er of tlhe savages, and(1 their unrest \whichl thle eyelets of tIle l(w ole (eoluntrv were then, h)lt to() lainly (xvi.(illo.; n(1 n lwh (alln tell llow() -reat a p)art it may have hoad in firilg the tell)(per of thllse savag(es to tile point of thle stll)selililt imassa'res? Thle fri(tiln t l lls (ell(e lrl ll etweel tlte mlis101 si)al.'i1{s and thle 111niitaiy. as well as thle tli'atei (ing1 ittitlltiide asslliniei( l)v the 111( i l(ns, iav well he b,,isicl,, 'end as tlhe, I.lse of tle (disil }l)tiol thait s0oo followed, when tlhe 4I estits withldrew from this se.tiol o(f tilhe (.ontlilt, atnll til(r w-otrk in I lis vic inlitv wals albanlidoned sw\ithI little [)ercIel)til)le ell1ri ng (lee ffct for. t1o1le as 1was thle wNork. it ws l)l pli(ed al{most ex(,lusivelv to thle Il(lid i 1.1 ia'c. andl its effects w,-ere very l ar(lyv\ (ffated in the alIsolute r'eigi of the traders that was x1)0 ramoiiint for thle een tu rv to fol low. A\otlther evnllt of thie tiness (e xhil)ited still fiurtlier liseod l)between thle Illissiollries and( tlhe militaryv. wlhich latter were illn a.ord withl the officials of the goveiinc('nt. Trlhe savag'e Irolouois lhad wagell furl'ious wars i)pon tlhe IIurons andli punished them relentlessly ill many e(ncounters. and the FrenIch believed that the Iroo ois' assaults xere at the instigation of thile English. The French, for the l)lllrpose of protecting their interests in this lake country against the intrusions of the English, endeavored to harn onize and unite the opposing Indian nations, and therefore form a barrier to English progress. The French and the English had clashed over the territory west of the Alleghanies, and the Jesuits who had been active as missionaries amlong the Iroquois found themselves out of sympathy with the Canadian officials. This is strongly evidenced by the fact that when Cadillac took up the mission of establishing a colony at Detroit but one Jesuit came with him. I-He was Father Nalliaut and he did not remain a day. Ile was later succeeded by representatives of the Reeollet order.

Page  136 136 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Immediately on the return of Cadillac to Quebec, in 1697, he presented to Governor Frontenac his plans for the establishment of a fort at Dietroit, and the advantages of the location for that purpose. Before any definite action was taken thereon Frontenac died, and was succeeded, in 1698, by Louis Hector de Callieres, as governor general. Father Carheil presented to the newly appointed governor general the protest of the mission of St. Ignace against the plans of Cadillac as being calculated to destroy the missions at and about St. Ignace; but, notwithstanding this protest, in 1701 Cadillac obtained authority to establish a military post at Detroit. That the cessation of the work of the missionaries and the abandonment of the missions in northern Michigan are directly attributable to the counteracting forces of the soldiers and traders, and to the attitude of the provincial government in sustaining them in their nefarious practices against the protests of the missionaries, seem to be beyond question, for it is evidenced by the numerous addresses of the missionaries to the governor general, treating earnestly of the then existing conditions and the inevitable dangers arising therefrom. After the experience they had had with Cadillac as commandant, the pioneer missionaries of the Sault and St. Ignace, who had given up the best of their lives to the noble work of evangelizing the savages of this then wilderness, and who had toiled incessantly and endured the most severe hardships and privations, and even suffered cruelty from the heathen they were seeking to benefit-these missionaries, who during all these trials and vicissitudes, the extent and terrors of which it is impossible to fully depict, had been firm in their allegiance to the government of Prance, and had on all possible occasions held up to their savage pupils the greatness, the power and the grandeur of the king and his force of captains, were severely tried in their faith, on realizing that their beloved and boasted government had failed to make good their teachings, and instead thereof was permitting, if not encouraging, the growth of evil practices that could not other than undermine and destroy the fabric of Christianity they had toiled so arduously to construct. Cadillac was to them the impersonation of these evils, and they had hoped, by their representations to the provincial governor, to arouse the government to an appreciation of true conditions and to the necessity of radical reforms. When Cadillac finally secured the allowance of his petition and was permitted to establish a post at Detroit, and the missionaries realized that all their protests had availed them nothing, and also learned, to their dismay and disgust, that their earnest and extensive representations had been "pigeon-holed" with the provincial officials and had never been forwarded to the authorities in France-their indignation was only equalled by their keen and cutting sorrow; indignant that the provincial officials had betrayed them and forsaken the principles which the government of France had sought to implant in the virgin soil of New France as the foundation of a government to ac

Page  137 TIlE NORTIIERN IPENINStIJULA OF 5MICHIGAN 137 cord with their religious beliefs; overcome with sorrow at the realization that the true mission of the government had been thwarted by its own trusted, but untrustworthy representatives, and that the race of savages they had suffered so much to benefit and convert was now to )be plunged into aln elnvironment that was breeding vices more dangerous even than those they had struglgled so hard to overcome. The real situation, and the deep and heart-felt feeling and regret of the missionaries on being brought to the full realization thereof, were emphatically expressed in a lengthy epistle addressed by Father Carheil frolm MAichilimackinac August. 30, 1702, to the governor general of the province. After reciting quite at length the work that had been undergone, the protests that had been unavailing?, and the conditions that had now become unbearable, he says, referring to the traffic in brandy by the military, in words the force. meaning and application of which could not have been misundlerstood: "IIad His \lajesty but once seen what passes. both here and at Montreal, during the whole time this wretched traffic goes on I am sure that he would not for a moment hesitate, at the first sight of it to forbid it forever under the severest penalties. "In our despair there is no other step to take than to leave our missions and abandon them to the brandy traders, so that they may establish therein the domain of their trade of drunkenness and of immorality. That is what we shall propose to our superior in Canada and in France. being compelled thereto by the state of uselessness and inability to which we have been reduced by the permission given to carry on the deplorable trade-a permission that has been obtained from His Majesty only by means of a pretext apparently reasonable, but known to be false; a permission that he would not grant, if they upon whom he relies to ascertain the truth really made it known to him, as they themselves and the whole of Canada with them know it; a permission that is at once the climax and the source of all the evils that are now occurring. * * * If that permission be not revoked by a prohibition to the contrary, we no longer have occasion to remain in any of our missions up here, to waste the remainder of our lives and all our efforts in purely useless labor, under the domination of continual drunkenness and of universal immorality. "If His Majesty desires to save our missions and to support the establishment of religion, as we have no doubt he does, we beg him most humbly to believe what is most true, namely: that there is no other means of doing so than to abolish completely the two infamous sorts of commerce which have brought the missions to the brink of destruction, and which will not long delay in destroying these if they be not abolished as soon as possible by his orders, and be prevented from ever being restored. The first is the commerc in brandy; the second is the commerce of the savage women by the French. Both are carried on in an equally public manner, without our being able to remedy the evil, because we are not supported by the commandants. "

Page  138 138 TIlE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN The writer then asserts that the commandants, instead of assisting to prevent the evils complained of, theimselves carry themll on with greater freedom than do their subordinates, and by their example c(ause them to become common to all the French who come there to tra(ld; and he adds that if the work of the Iissionaries is to continue they lmust be "'delivered fromt the commandants and from their garrisolls;" anid he further says of them: "'Since they have come iup here we have observed but one universal corruption, which by their scandalous (mode of living they have spreadl iI the minds of all these nations, who are now infected by it. All the pretended service which it is sought to make peoplle believe that they render to the king is re(duced to four chief occulpations. of which wle earnestly beg you to inform Ilis Majesty. The first consists in keepIing a public tavern for the sale of brandy, wherein they trade it continually to the savages, who d(o not cease to become intoxicated, notwithstanding all our effolts to l)revent it. * * Their third occulpation consists in making of the fort a place that I am ashalied to call by its proper name, where the w(omen have found out that their liodies iighlt serve inl lieu of merchandise, anld would be still lettter received than beaver-skins; accordilngly, tlhat is now the most usual an(d imost continuall lcommerce, and that which is most extensively c(a ritedl oni. Whatever efforts the Ilissio(laries miay mlle t(o a(bolish it, tlis traffic increases instead( of dimllinishing, and grows dailvy 1lore and Imoie. All the soldiers keel) o)pen houlse ill their dwe. llings for all the womenl of their acq(' aintan''ce. ' I'e s)(eaks of gambling as the fourth o(el)pationi, and of its resulting in l runken bmrawls and furious pu)li) figrlts; hie says that the commlandants have oblitained ascendancy over the ilissionlaries land holdl then iin dlolinatioln, a(l after letailinlg the troul)les occasioned b1) tirlem he adds: "You see,:\ollseigneur, that I have dwelt to a great extenrt on the slubject(t of commlliadants and garrisoIs. to mlake vyo1 undelrstand that all thle mlisfortunes of our milissions are due( to them. It is the commnatdants., it is the garrisons, whilo, unitingc witlh the brandy t ra(lers. have completely dtesolated the missions by almost universal (diituken(ess and lewdlness.: * It is for you to inform Ilis Mlajcstvy of the extremity to which we are reduced, and( to ask him for our leliveranes, so that we may (be able to labor for tle establishinent of religion without the hind(rances that have hitherto impeded it." Father Carheil then suggests that if the twenty-five trading permits be continued, that, instead of commandants and garrisons, the coml)any establish and carry on its own trading posts with people of its own selection; but he expresses also a preference that instead of the colony coniing up to trade amiong the savages, the savages should go to the colony at Montreal for their trade, as they originally have done, andl he declares that the results would be better for Canada both morally and as a commercial proposition. As to the effect of going to the Indians for their trade he speaks of the voyageurs as follows: "It exposes those who undertake such journeys to a thousand dangers for their bodies and

Page  139 TILE NORTHIERN PEN' I NSL Oh i\IICIIGAN 13 139 their 800uis. It 0 Iso eanuses thlem, to ilervr iiati expeti1ses, partly iileessitary, lp~art-Iy usciess,~ and p~artly eriminiial i eisoistei tt work hut, to lose all taste, tot Work. 011( to live, int continuatl Id.leness; it re I IletIs, thetil Incapaible of' learniing ill1 t~ trOle dc 1(1 th11er ebyv makeds theti us'eles's to t hemiselves, to their fatill les. and( t~o thle (lIt ire1 eoutitry. *B utt it is not onilv for these reasons, whieh affeet this fife-it 15 st ill 11101k 011 aecount o)f those wN-liie cIieo'llet thec soiul-tliat this 8(1(1ding of t li Frenich catlotig the so vagres must appear infitt telyv harm11futl to themi. An h11le draPws the vonelu-smio that. aveeo ditigly, the surest and itost efiiea-e bus, of all meianls t~o tnake the e~olonv iiro)serous woum-ld he to seenre for it the settlenleilt wNith inl the" eomtttrNv of all the.. youing Men(11 for tilie sake of tleicir labomr. atil the (leseent, to Alhottreal for tt ade (of thie t-ia olts up hecre. beeause thien thle kiabor of 1)m1e and thle trade (if thec (it her NNomtldl eoitrilblite t~o enrieh'1 thle eolonv Sueli, I\I isiegneur, is Wha. I (is] (le t' limiost i11111)0m14 at stel) for thle teltipotoa 1 011( spiiritutal 1welfare o)f tilie eoov and wilhot sliou 1(. III e( 0musri1etie h e nIost strtingly tel)resetited to.11 is Al a'jestv. I)y niok in g hi to tlioritgily u11(lderSta.ni( its Iieeessitv. To this enld thle Iroquiis thituit lie eotii d tely to tiiei and1( redluced( to subhjeet,01 io ati d wve take pm055es5im1 o)f Itis cmuiitit vI NwIh(ih is 11111(11 liettet thoul those (if all thle iatiotis ill) hiere. H e is thle otilv eitetttv wliotit we havte to dIread, or who dIisp )utes with i us t lie tralde o)f the Sa ItX"Iges. w01t eII lie I ties to) ott o et to) the Eui g sI ish Fafthe r (10 li eli eolititi ies ait mittnli greot er len 'th Ii iseussi ii the sitita ttion ftot vit i ots stanmlpoi tits all(1ot lso) vat tout1s, t 11ed ic's t liii t iiilint he apipliedl. OtidI( teeitiiig thle lilposit iou to 1 lie estohlisliitient of tilie post at Ocl~etmt. Iliseite letter is edifvItiI0. 011(1d of ititerest, hut we ha"'ve Ijumtotd 'seleetiois tlietefrottt w "tirl 5(11 to ]ilitisratle the (Existittg rtoi f iotts at thlat. titie, ot(11 lith te~isotis why thfle tiissiotis were ahmimthiedl. ['he estamh islitiiien t of the, pms at 1i)et irut restl tedl In tile toapid depliletion1 o)f tile imiliilatiott -Ittt Igtiaee otid Maliikitio. TlIe gitrri5(iiiO Wit5wih (Intwtil a'is the pr ists ltit ( reqjuestedh. bitt the t rode ottitartnitis otfeted( In' I )etlnut, soon)I eminvi need thle good fat hers tlhat. thec thrl eat (if La" Al otlte C"adi Ia liie IIi ruitiIlie in issimits 110(1 iweemne etleetive. r1hl t\i lReveretnd( FGat iens, (Ciirliei Iandi~ lartest, wete eoiipelled toi give up 11 their] hardI fighI t to tooi titoii fintem, anud atbout 1706. to prevenit the — ehiaplel front ldesecralt oi.1 hy tile sitvaiges, Stripphedl it (if its (rlicaltients 011(1 elilsigiled it, toi tle fltitl es; a11( when it. was oir fire thley\ ~uisled out in their eanoes: the filial aet iti the., a-bandomnttent of this, one if tle, miost proini-iiet 1isio5011 (if that tiiissimitiaiV epieli. TlUE~ FALL OF' ST. IGNACE Father Alla-rest made his way westward an1( took up his work amiong the S'ioux, while, Cnlibeill returned toi Quebee, and1 the lieality of the St. Igna-ee Mission W.,is left to its fate in the hands of the mixed Indians anid Freneh popiulatioin that. had been redueed to a. state of demoiralization, by tradle 011(fl piraetiees that 11a( been in vogute. U~nexpectedly, those who had (deserted the mission for the attraetioiis., at Detroit soon

Page  140 140 THIE NORTHIERN PENINSULA OF IICHIGAN began to return, and Father M\arest. at the request of the governor general, returned again to the mission, probably about 1712, and stayed for a time at the old mission of St. Ignace. Of the work thereafter little record is made, though Charlevoix recorded, that, on his arrival there in June, 1721, the fort and the house of the missionaries are preserved, though not much employed. This would seem to indicate that missionaries were still there, but with little to do, and that probably the old fort and the missionaries' house, or home, still remained; but there seems nothing to indicate that the chapel itself was ever rebuilt after the abandonment of the mission and the destruction of the old chapel by Fathers Carheil and Marest. From the "register of baptisms administered to the French at the mission of St. Ignace at. Michilimackinac'" it is gathered that the mission lingered in a struggling condition, but that it built a new church at St. Ignace in 1741; and it is to be noted that there appears no registry of any baptism (of the French) from 1695 up to 1712, in which latter year the Jesuits are thought to have returned there. Occasional records of baptisms and of deaths occur, from time to time, indicating but little activity compared to that of former times. One interesting bit of the record furnishes substantial evidence of the existence of slavery in the locality; said entry made in 1750, by Du Jaunay, being as follows: "This 6th day of April, the Feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin, I have solemnly baptized in the church of this mission Jean Francois Regis, a young slave of about seven years, given through gratitude to this mission last summer by Monsieur le Chevalier De la Virendrege, upon his safe return from the extreme west." Numerous other instances of baptism of slaves are recorded, supposed to be mostly from the Pawnee tribe of Indians, though there are some instances showing negro slavery at the mission. POSTS PASS TO THE BRITISH With the defeat of the French in 1760, and the surrender of Canada to the British, all the French trading posts along the lakes passed into British control. Marquis de Vandreuil, then the French governor general, following the surrender, and under date of September 9, 1760, addressed Commander Langlade at Mackinac, notifying him of the surrender, and the causes thereof, and of the conditions, especially as regarded the inhabitants at Michilimackinac, saying, as to them: "They retain the free exercise of their religion; they are maintained in the possession of their goods, real and personal, and of peltries. They have also free trade just the same as the proper subjects of Great Britain. The same conditions are accorded to the military. They can appoint persons to act for them in their absence. They, and all citizens in general, can sell to the English or French their goods, sending the proceeds thereof to France, or taking them with them if they choose to return to that country after the peace. They retain their negroes and Pawnee Indian slaves, but will be obliged to restore those which have

Page  141 TIHE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MMICHIGAN 141 been taken from the English. The English general has declared that the Canadians have becone the subjects of His Britannic Majesty, and consequently the people will not continue to 1he governed by the French code. In regard to the troops, the cond(itioll las 1een imposed up)on themn not to serve du(ring the Iresent war. an(l to lay down their arms before being sent back to France. You will therefore, sir, assemble all the officers and soldiers who are at your i)ost. You will cause them to lay (lown their armrs. and you will Iproceed with thell to such seap)ort as you think best, to ipass from thence to Fialnce. The citizens who are inhabitants of Ali(lilimackinac will. conse(quently, be undler' the,co(nlinand of the officer whom General Almherst shall a)ppoint to that p)ost." Not until the following year was there an actual British possession of (Alichiliimackilna. On September 28. 1761, lieutenant JLesley, of the Royal American Regimlent, rel)resented the 1British on that occasion and replaced the flag of France with that of Britain, and for a time he remained in charge of the British garrison at this point; his garrison being composel of twenty-eight persons besides himself-one sergeant, one corporal, one drunmerr, and the others privates. The Indians did not fraternize, or harmonize with the English as they had with the French. The English held aloof from association with the Indians and did not supply their wants as the French had done, and, as a consequence, their Indian (and perlha)ps human) nature turned then to thoughts of revenge, with serious results. The coming of Etherington to take command of the post in the place of Lesley, afforded no relief from tlhe growing danger, and the hostile attitude of the Indians towards the British grew in intensity until it finally culminated in the mIassacres of June 2. 1763, the awful story of which is told in the history of the Chippewas elsewhere in this work. On June 12. 1763. Connmmander Etherington made report to Major Gladwin at Detroit. of the details of the massacre and further wrote: '"When that massacre was over, Messrs. Langlade and Farli, the interpreter, came down to the place where Lieut. Lesley and I were prisoners; and on their giving themselves as security to return us when demanded, they obtained leave for us to go to the fort, under a guard of savages, which gave time, by the assistance of the gentlemen above mentioned, to send for the Ottawas, who came down on the first notice and were very much displeased at what the (lhippewas had done. "Since the arrival of the Ottawas they have done everything in their power to serve us, and w itli what prisoners tlhe (hiplewass la( given them, anl what they have bought, I have now with me Lieut. Lesley and eleven privates; and the other four of the (larrison, who are yet living remain in the hands of the ClhippeNas. "The (hiipewas wllo are superior in numbers to the Ottawas, have declared in council to them that if they (do not remove us out of the fort, they will cut off all communication to the post, by which means; all the convoys of merchants from Montreal, La TBaye, St. Joseph and the upper posts, would perish. But if the news of your posts being attacked (which they say was the reasoon why they took up the hatchet) be false, and you can send us up a strong re-inforcement, with provisions, etc., accompanied by some of your savages, I believe the post might be re-established again. "Since this affair happened, two canoes arrived from Montreal which put in my power to make a present to the Ottawa nation, who very well deserve anything that can be done them. I have been very much obliged to Messrs. Langlade and Farli, the interpreter,

Page  142 142 TIlE NORTIERN 'FENINSULA OF MICIIIGAN as likewise to tile Jesuits, for the many goo(l offices they have lone us on this ocasion. The priest selems inclinable to go,down to your post for (laay o01 tNwo, whi(ch I ani very gla(l of, as he is a very goodl man, anil had a great (lel to say to the savages lhereab)ot, -who will believe everythling lie tells them onl his returil, which I hope will be soon. The Otta\was say they villii take Lieut. Lesley, ile, and tile eleven men which I mentioned before were in their han(ls, up1 to their village, amnl there keep us, till they lear what is dloing at your post. T'hey have sent this canoe for that )ulrpose. "I refer you to tile 'Priest for the particulars of t}e melancholy affair, anld til, lear sir, Yours very sincerely, (iE0o. ETHE. IN(;TON. To.rAJoR G iAD\VIN. "P. S. The In(lians that are to carry the l)riest to l)etroit, Nwill not undertake to land him at the forit, but at some of the Indian villages n1ear it; so youi must not take it amiss that he (loes not pay you the first visit. And once more I beg that nlothing lmay stop your sentling of him back, tile next day after his arrival, if possible, as we shl. ll b)e at a great loss for wlant of him, andl I_ make no (loubtt you w\ill io all in youlr powerI to make Ieace, as you( see the sitlati(ill we are in, anil senl(l u11) provisions as soon as possible, anil ammiiunitioii, a:s whvlat we had \was d,iillag'ed,by the savages." I/llt when the Jesuit, Father JannIay, b)earing this iitortantn t iessagl'e. arrive(l at 1))etr(oit. the fort was under siegte ald (l e \-was unable tto lakle entry, a11d l(turnlc(l to Mackinac withiout (l(livertillg the mlessa(ue; but iiI the lleanltill(Ie word( had been seit to t} l),post alt GreeI' l l)a, b also, ad( relief fronl thatit (iiarter (ca.ine p)rompltly, with thlie reslt that the r(elief p)arty madel up) of regulars, tra(lers ald Ind(lials, 1onder coinald(l of ILieutenat G(,r-ll, p1 oil)tly, sec(itre(1 tlhe release of the )priso(ners. Fa.tler JIannav. eoitin(tIed at tis inission antiil 176(5. when. lie left it anl( it wXas thlereaftet apl)a.renltly witihout a )i.est exce1pt for an o,,easional visit; awnl1 in 1781, the church(. a1s well as tlc fort, was tlraiisfe(rred to the Islanl(1 of Il clnlce, frot w hie(}h tit(e thle Ilissi(oll was kno(n as [IC1IIIAMACKINAC AiBANI)DONED BY FRENC!h I1i(,ihilillakinae, ac.cor(diig to tra(litiol, has al1\\ways teel' rIecognizedl i)y the Ildianlils as a a l()ctiol (f cetitlal il)ollrtallce, 81(,, s has 1)een sa li(l it w as (1rly I's ('(roglize(l )y thel lissi(llaries, thle tra(l(rs, and tle ilil]ita I'. X When (Ca(lille(, \'was ap)pointed cmlnllln(ldant at this plae(' ill 1(;14, the government of New France was seriolsly colle(elned beclause of the troubles with the English ianl( the influence of the EnglishI upli)o0 the Indilans and traders. IIoowever questionablle his nmetho(ls of governmlelt, an11(, regardless of the motives attrii)ute(d to t1illl by tile mlissionallries ill establishling thie post (at Detroit, hi.story seems to justify that ('o()lrse(' as a swise one. The growing troublles with thle English wN\ere to he fought out in tihe frontier field(s of America, andl thle establishment of a 1)ost a.t D)etroit as the basis of Fremnch activity brougtht themi itulch closser to the probable fields of conflict, at the same time affording apparently better protection to the claimers of the Frencll and tIle business of the French traders in this northern lake country, than wioldl the mlaintena-nce of such center of activity at Mli(ehilimalkillae. After three years as commandant at the latter place, he succeeded in convincing his superiors that Detroit was the proper locality for the

Page  143 TIE NORT-IERN PENINSULA OF M ICHIIGAN 143 center of western activity; and when actually establishing the post at that point, it was learned that he had barely got ahead of the English who had their eyes on the same locality, because of its apparent strategic advantage, controlling the water highway to the northern lakes and the fur-bearing region round about them. It was July 24, 1701, that Cadillac was commissioned commandant at Detroit, andl he imniedliately set about the carrying out of his plans to there establish a formidable barrier to the English, and thus protect the Freiich in their valuable fur trade to the north and west. The wars that ha(d been existing betNween Franice and Englan(1 in the old world during the last half of the seventeenth century were (lestined to continue and to be transplanted to iAmlerica in the half century then to follow. King Willilam arld lIary's Nwar en(de(l with the peace of Ryswi(ch. but Queen Anln's war, early in the eighteenth century, was followe(d by)- twelve years of bor(ler wlarfare b)etween tthe c(olonies in America. ain1d such of the Indian tri)bes as either coiuld induce to join them against the other. With tile ea('ce of I'tlrcht. in 1712, hostilities were supl)osed to b)e at an end, but the ternls of tie treaty were not sufficielntly (lefinlite to afford a settlement of the (liffereneles in Amellric(a, and thle (,clains of thll colonists remained conflictiing. the( Frenllh claiiming )by virtue of La Salle's (liscoveries as far south as the Ohio. In defense( of these claims, they established Fort Duquesne (now P'ittsburg) as a point of vantage. The English resented tils and it became at once al' l parellt tliat the sull)ose(l pelace of litrecht was ill reality but a transfer of the conflict to American soil, where tlie fight for supl'remacy s111t be folght out. The Frenchl naivy began its attacks uon New E nglanlll 's coast settlements. thus hastelling a union of the English colonies of Amlerica, for concerted defense, as arranged in a convention which met at Al)ban in June, 1754, witlh reipresentaltives )resent from(t New York, New IHamlpshire, Ma.ssachusetts, R.hode Island, l'ennsylvania, Connecticut anI( Maryland. 'lhis convention may be said to have beenl impl)ortant amolng the events tlhat a little later led to the in(lel)endence of tlhe colonies, for the plans for colonial union formulated by Benjamiin Franklin and submitted to tle British government, as the result of that convention, were rejected by that government, because they were said to infringe upon the rights of the crown. Towever, to aid in defense of our American colonies tlhe parlialment of Great Britaiin appropriated two hundred thousan(1 pI)munds, and sent General B1raddock to comlmand the colonial arms. BRADDOCK AND WASHINGTON It was in 1755, after council with the governors of the colonies that aggressive measures were fully planned and it was decided to proceed against the French all along the line; and to attack Fort Duquesne, Niagara, Crown Point and Frontenac. Braddock was boin and bred to the military service, his father having been major general in the

Page  144 144 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN British army, and, in selecting him for the command in America, England recognized the importance of the task at hand. Braddock, himself, having arranged for the various campaigns against the several border posts of the French, took personal charge of the branch of the army assigned to the reduction of Foit Duquesne; thereby in turn recognizing the heat of the conflict as being centered there; that there the French would resist to the utmost its claims to the territory north and west, and that there the English must vanquish their enemies, or surrender all claims to this territory commanded by the French fort on the disputed territory. It is not in the province of this work to follow the details of that campaign, which can be read in any general history of the United States, but it is mentioned as having had an important bearing upon the trend of events in the Upper Peninsula, and especially in the transfer, by the French, of their western military center from MAichilimackinac to )etroit, there to mneet and check the advance of the English. Incidentally, it should also be mentioned, that in that campaign, upon the staff of General Braddock, George Washington was aide-de-camp, and therefore took personal part in the campaign that may be said to have practically led to the result of including Michigan within the United States, rather than leaving her to remain a part of Canada; and it was in this campaign that the then future Father of his Country began his glorious military career. IIe was in the thick of an attack that put the French to flight, and, writing to his mother he said: "I luckily escaped without a wound, though I had four bullets through my coat. and two horses shot under me."' Who shall say that providence did not there protect the man of destiny, and the destiny of the English colonies in Arerica? Engaged in that campaign also, was another man who later played directly in the making of Michigan history, and that was Gladwin, who. in the defense of Detroit, met the attacks of Pontiac; and Pontiac himself was then assisting the French, and in charge of a combined company of Indians and French from Detroit under Langlade, while the Detroit militia was assisting also in the defense of Fort Duquesne. The lamented and brave General Braddock, after having had four horses shot from under him, and having mounted the fifth, gave up his own life to the cause of the English colonies. For a. time the French arms seemed to be gradually but firmly gaining ascendancy, until all England was arousedl, and to her assistance there also came the tman of the hour in the person of Williaml I'itt, and notwithstanding the severe home conflicts iil which the English joined with Prussia to defeat the plans of the combined forces of France, Russia, Austria and others, to reduce and possess Prussia, Pitt also recognized the importance of the conflict in America and unreservedly supported and encouraged the English colonies, taking upon the English government the debts already incurred, and the support of the army in America. The immediate result was found in a colonial army that far exceeded anything that it was possible for the colony of New France to put into the field, and thus the

Page  145 THE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 145 tide was turned and the English forces began to march to ascendancy that finally drove the French from all claims to the territory now within the United States and transferred the Upper Peninsula as a part of the northwest territory, to the English. In this revival of the English campaign Washington again joined the forces against Fort Duquesne, and because of the illness of General Forbes, then in command, was assigned, with Bouquet, to the leadership of the attacking army. The French and Indian garrison learning of the strength of the English attacking army, burned the fort and took to flight, so that Washington, on the 25th of November, 1758, raised the British flag on the smoking ruins of the deserted French fort. The place was then garrisoned by the English, and soon thereafter a fort was built, and Pittsburg was given its name in honor of the then great English statesman of the day. Pitt was in the American contest in earnest, and, with the power of Great Britain firmly at his back, which meant woe for the French arms that must meet his assaults, or retreat in acknowledged defeat. In 1759 parliament provided ample funds, and land and naval forces were equipped for the task, the various campaigns being planned under the personal direction of Pitt himself. In contrast to the flourishing condition of the English forces. New France was in a pitiable condition. The friendliness and support of the Indians had been seriously deflected by the success and the reported strength of the English arms, as well as by the fact that the English market afforded far better prices for furs than did that of the French. At the same time the French army had called into requisition all ablebodied men in New France, so that there was none left for the pIroduction of supplies, which as a consequence, became scarce and dear; and as the British ships prevented their being supplied fromn France, the colony was left to do the best it could in the way of both arms and supplies, practically unaided by the court of France that was kept busy in its affairs at home. In the conflicts of that year the French colonial forces were assisted by the coureurs de bois from the lake regions, and by about two thousand friendly Indians. but were unequal to the well equipped, and far greater forces of the English; therefore, realizing their condition, they made numierous evacuations of French forts before the coming apparent attacks of the English, though at the same time attempts were made to stand their ground at most important points. At Niagara, the English secured a victory which carried with it the control of the situation at Ii(chililmaelinae, l)etroit and othler lake posts. This was in July, 1759. and at the same time the siege of Quebec was in progress where Wolfe had under his command a force of eight thlousand men, and was supported by Admiral Saunders with his fleet of twenty-two large ships and some smaller ones. The siege continued for months with attack after attack met by stubborn defense, in a conflict between two of the bravest commanders that ever met in battle, both of whom, in the final act of that long drama of war miet their deaths on the famous plains of Abraham in that imost sanguinary conflict, which Vol. I- I 0

Page  146 146 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN gave to the British arms the possession of that almost impregnable fortress. Montreal now alone remained as a French stronghold, and after considerable siege, by both land and naval forces, it too, on September 8, 1760, surrendered, and the province of New France closed its last chapter in history. It was not until 1763 that the results of the war were fully decided upon by the treaty of Paris, whereby the king of France surrendered all Canada to England, and was permitted to retain Louisiana which was shortly thereafter transferred to Spain.

Page  147 CIHAPTER IX OCCUPANCY OF WESTERN POSTS SU1RRENDER OF FORT TO ENGLISI1-POSSIBILITIES OF REGION NOT FORESEEN-ENGLISHI LOTII TO SURRENDER THIIS TERRITORY-ORDINANCE OF 1787-A CENTU1RY OF POPULATIVE GROWTIT-FIRST GOVERNOR OF M[ICHIIGAN-WAR OF 1812-TREATY OF G -IENT-FAILSE IMPRESSIONS OF CLIMATE AND SOIL —FUR TRADE ATTRACTS TRADERS. Imniiediately after the surrender of AMontreal, Ma.j. Robert Rogers was sent to take possession of Detroit and to command that and other western lake ports. IIe took with him about two hundred Royal Rangers, and en route was reinforced by American infantry from Pittsburg. The English were now penetrating new territory to meet a foe well protected by fortifications, and supported by the savages of the lake region, who, through the teaching of the Jesuits, had( becomee close friends of the French. They much preferred them to the English because the French met them as associates, while the English would not; and, furthermore, these Indians of the lake region had for years been accustomed to think of the English as the allies of their most dreaded savage foes, the Iroquois. It is not surprising that, under such circumstances, the English found the French and the lake Indians combined to resist, to the last, subjugation of the lake posts by their enemly; and, being forewarned. they were armed for their defense and even more; for Pontiac, the great chief, wth a delegaton of followers, met Major Rogers at the present site of Cleveland and demanded of Rogers information as to his mission, and why he had dared to come into the country without permission. Rogers informed him of the surrender of the territory by the French to the English, and that he had come to take command at Detroit; and also gave to Pontiac assurances of friendship for the Indians, and of their kind treatment at the hands of the English. After further conferences Pontiac appeared to be satisfied; the pipe of peace was smoked, and Pontiac tendered his assistance to Major Rogers in continuing his trip to Detroit. SURRENDER OF FORT TO THE ENGLISH-I Reaching the vicinity of Detroit communications were exchanged by messenger between Major Rogers and the French commander, Bellistre, 147

Page  148 148 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN occasioning considerable delay and uneasiness to the small force of English, in the presence of such strange and savage surroundings, until finally, on November 29th, the fort was surrendered and the English flag, for the first time, supplanted that of the French within the territory now comprising the state of Michigan. Rogers soon after proceeded to Aichilimlackinac to personally take charge of the post there, leaving Captain Campbell in charge at Detroit; but he found it impossible to make the trip at the late season either by water, or overland, and so he returned east, leaving Michilimackinac, the Sault and Green bay, though formally ceded to the British, still in the actual control and government of the French; and so it remained until the spring of 1761, when they, too, formally surrendered to the English, and the French withdrew permanently from their possessions and claims in Michigan. With the change in rulers and in government, the populace remained substantially unchanged. The fur trade passed to the English who employed the French traders as their agents, and, content with that, there was no effort to promote English colonization; and apparenly a harmonious adjustment was accomplished. But the Indians did not like the change. The English, with whom they could not associate, were no substitute for the French who had treated them like brothers; the French had been liberal in the bestowal of presents, a practice which the English did not indulge in to any extent. Thus the dissatisfaction with the new English rulers, combined with the continued disgraceful, disreputable and immoral treatment accorded the Indians at the hands of the debauched French traders that remained and were employed by the English, wrought discontent in the hearts and minds of the savages, which grew and grew with the gradual realization that the coming of the white men meant the destruction of the game that furnished them their livelihood; and an unwarranted invasion of their rights to the country by reason of their first possession thereof. The discontent was not alone in any one part of the country, but had its inception in the east where the growth of white settlements was most noticeable, and therefore the rights of the Indians most perceptably invaded, and it spread throughout to the tribes about and beyond the lakes. Unfortunately, the spirit of revenge that dwelt with some of the remalining French found opportunity for exercise, by agitating, in the minds of the savages, their growing grievances against the Enyglish, until in the sumnner of 1761 the danger becalle so apparent that Captain Campbell, in command at Detroit, notified forts Pitt and Niagara thereof; but eyon(nd this there were no serious outlreaks for tile tinie. thoughl the s)ir'it of rebellion throughollt thwe savage tribes was evidencledl here an ther tre b' acts of barbarism perpetrated( ulpon the whites. Pontiac's conspiracy now ripened into war, and by his etiergy, shrewdness and ab)ility he ae(quired and mliaintained the confidence of all the Algonquiins and succeeded in effecting the most pe(rfe((t organiza

Page  149 TIHE NORTHERN PENINSSULA OF Al(.ICIIIGAN 149 tion which all llndian history affords. Iis consl)iracy consisted in a plan to organize all the tribes into a combination to drive out the English, and to mlaintain exclusively for the Indians the country northwest of the Olio. To this end he sent his representatives to all the tribes north of the Ohio and into Canada and as far west as tihe Mlississippi. This work wa s carried on so secretly anld caultiously that not a word of it came to the ears of the English until the spring of 1762. The activities of that war were of slho(t duration within the territory of whiich we write. but the great chief visited the lUpper Peninsula in the building u1p of.his plans, and( gainel considerable individual following from the tribes of this section wh}o follovwecd hill to the contests below the straits, and all the frontier posts becamle enldangered practically at one tile. The English had olily a small garri.son at Fort St. Joseph. andl tlhat fort was quickly calptured and its garrison sent to Detroit for exchange; while at MAici}ilinlackinac thle lmassacrre heretofore written of gave that post into the hands of the Chippewas. This horrible war continued with unrelenting savagery from the beginning of the siege of I)etroit in May, 1763, until the summer of 1764, when it; was fortunately endedl by diplomatic mleasures adopted by the English, which resulted in a treaty acknowledging the king of England aIs sovereign of the territory involved. The future of this region was directly at stake, for had the conspiracy succeeded, or had even a measure of success, it. is probable this part of the disputed territory would have much longer remained in the domains of the red men. As it was, the term of the war, following the protracted French and Indian wars, and accompanied by its awful savagery, effected the holding back of settlements in. and the development of the natural resources of Michigan. When the treaties had been duly signed witl the several tribes, English military officials were sent to again take command of the forts regained, and to Miichiliinackinac and Sault Ste. Mairie came Captain IHoward for that purpose, from which time those points remained at least formally in the possession of the English until their acquisition by the United States at the close of the Revolutionary war. With the coming of peace, English and Dutch traders followed in the footsteps of the French to reap the rich rewards offered by the fur trade; but employed the French coureurs de bois as their agents. A controversy between the Iudson Bay Company and the Northwest Coinpany over the division of the territory was aldjusted by an arrangement in the nature of a modern "trust,' by placing the control of the two companies under one management; and all governmental restrictions such as the French had imposed upon the fur trade were removed, and free trade in furs was established. The policy adopted by England in regard to the Indians was intended to extend to them pretty much the same freedom which they had originally enjoyed, but to hold over them such supervising control as to prevent tribal wars; to allow to them the principal portion of the territory north and west of the Ohio as their hunting grounds, and to acquire from them

Page  150 150 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN for purposes of settlement only small portions of the vast domain that had so long been in controversy. In short, the English did not even dream of the possibility of any settlement being made in the interior of the country west of the Alleghanies, and they looked upon the lake region as being principally valuable for its production of furs. As a consequence, little effort was made to colonize the territory that had been won by the English in the conflict of arms, first from the French and then from the Indians. POSSIBILITIES OF THIS REGION NOT FORESEEN It is not to be wondered at that the realities of the future of this country were so dimly foreseen by the government, when we remember the fact that at a considerably later date, and after the colonies had won their independence, the colonists of the Atlantic states still held the same view, as is best illustrated by a saying of Thomas Jefferson, as late as 1790, that "not in a thousand years will the country be thoroughly settled as far west as the Mississippi." In but slight degree did the people of those days anticipate the progress which the next fifty years had in store for the United States, when with a large measure of relief from the continuous warfare of the past the varied natural resources of this country, then already recognized, should be subjected to manipulation at the hands of Yankee ingenuity. And the same proneness to disbelieve what actually exists beyond one's vision is still found lurking to a consid-. erable extent in many parts of our domain, and is illustrated by a recent incident at a state fair in Detroit, where the wonderful agricultural possibilities of the Upper Peninsula were aptly portrayed by a magnificent display of fruits and vegetables, so exceptionally fine that it caught the eye, and occasioned remarks by all comers. One well dressed and well appearing person asked the attendant where the exhibit was grown, and on being informed that it was all from the Upper Peninsula, remarked: "You can't make me believe these things grew way up there in the frozen north." But, to return: The time had come for rapid progress, and the actions of the settlers in this new world soon took a pace far in advance of the plans that were laid in the old; and, as in the business of to-day the plans studied out in the office are often enlarged upon by the engineers in the field, so the plans of the English to leave to the Indians the great areas of country north and west of the Ohio, were greatly infringed upon and modified by the colonizing engineers when they came in personal contact with the various natural advantageous features; and the result was, that notwithstanding the proclamation of the king, colonization stretched its reaching arms westward, and soon began to move with that resistless force that caused the man of the forest to move before it; and instead of a thousand years, it was scarcely half a hundred before the settlers had fairly covered the territory east of the Mississippi, and the redmen had mostly removed to the west thereof. In 1765, Sir Guy Carlton became governor general of Canada. The

Page  151 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 151 Province of Quebec, then including Michigan, was peopled almost entirely with French. They were accustomed to the government of France and unfamiliar with that of England; were almost exclusively of the Catholic religion, and so, with the coming of the English governor, Carlton, the affairs of Canada were placed in the hands of the military and were not very satisfactory until the passage by parliament, in 1774, of the "Quebec act." This provided for a governor and council and also for the application of the criminal laws of England; the retention of the former laws of the province, as to other affairs; the establishment, by appointment of the crown, of local courts with both civil and criminal jurisdiction; and granting the free exercise of religious belief to and the retention of church property by the inhabitants of the province. The act also extended the boundaries of the province so as to include all the great lakes, and the country south thereof to the Ohio and west to the Miississippi river. Because of this latter clause opposition was engendered in the ranks of the followers of William Penn, who claimed for his colony a considerable territory within that sought to be given to Quebec; and it also met with disapproval at the hands of the settlers in the seaboard colonies of the Atlantic coast, with whose western boundaries the act came in conflict. This act played an important part in the history of the then immnediate future, and furnished one of the grounds of complaints in the conflict that led to the Declaration of Independence, and is referred to in that document in the following language, as, "abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging its boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same arbitrary rule into these colonies." On the other hand the act was received with so much favor in Canada, where the Fiench Catholic population were granted their most sacred privilege of maintaining their own religion and religions rights, that it may be said to be the knot that then engaged and has ever since held in loyalty to the crown the population of its Canadian province. Although Michigan was then within the province of Quebec, and subject to her government, there was little occasion for laws, beyond those enforced by the military, as the colonists had not as yet assumed any great pretence in numbers. Accurate figures itmay not be obtainable, but the best that can be obtained are from a census taken in Detroit in 1773, by a justice of the peace, wherein the population of the colony of Detroit was given as two hundred and ninety-eight men, two hundred and twenty-five women, one hundied and forty-two young men and women, five hundred and twentyfour children, ninety-three servants, and eighty-five slaves; and he gives the area of cultivated land at one thousand sixty-seven acres, or a trifle over a section and half; a fraction of the size of one of our present Upper Peninsula farms. But a small settlement existed at Michilimnackinac, and thereof we

Page  152 152 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN have found no enumeration. It was made up almost wholly, aside from the small garrison, of the traders and coureurs de bois, and they were of the character to be expected considering the environment from which they came and the lack of restraint with which they were here surrounded. While among them were to be found men who had come from refined and educated families, including in some instances those from families high in royal favor, they were for the most part of a far different cast, as, for instance, such as those heretofore spoken of who had in an early day been gathered from the prisons of France, brought to New France for a private colonizing purpose and, meeting with adverse conditions, had been compelled to subsist on an island in a wild state for a term of years, and were then given a measure of relief by being assisted by the French Government to engage in the Canadian fur trade. Such an element could not be expected to maintain a very high standard of morality and decency, and it is probable that in the colony at Alichilimackinac this element furnished a larger percentage of representatives than in that at Detroit, where a feeble attempt at permanent colonization and cultivation of the soil was being made; and yet, of the colony at Detroit, Governor Hamilton wrote rather disparagingly, in 1776, as follows: "The Canadians are mostly so illiterate that few can read and very few can sign their own names.... The backwardness in the improvement of farming has probably been owing to the easy and lazy method of procuring the bare necessities.... The Strait is so plentifully stocked with a variety of fine fish that a few hours' amusement may furnish several families, yet not one French family has got a seine. Hunting and fowling afford food to numbers who are nearly as lazy as the savages, who are rarely prompted to the chase till hunger pinches them. The soil is so good that great crops are raised by careless and very ignorant farmers.... Yet there is no such thing, as yet, as a piece of land laid down for meadow, and the last winter, indeed, a remarkably severe one for this country, several of the cattle perished for want of fodder." Thus it will be seen that, so far as white population and real civilization were concerned, Michigan really was but an insignificant quantity at the time the colonies of the east declared their independence. Although Michilimackinac had been third in the permanent settlements within the present territory of the United States, being ranked in earliness only by St. Augustine and Jamestown, her early settlers gave their attention to the attempted Christianizing of the savages and to the commercialism of the fur trade, making practically no effort at colonization except as an incident to one or the other of those objects. In direct contrast to this, the colonies along the Atlantic encouraged immigration from Europe, and, recognizing the wonderful productiveness of the soil, encouraged the development of agriculture, which carried with it, as natural accompaniments, that increase in trades, arts and commerce which caused the younger settlements of the Atlantic to grow rapidly in both population and wealth; so at the time of which we have

Page  153 THIE NORTIIERN IENINSUTLA OF MIICHIGAN 153 jlut (quot(d c(onditions at Detroit and Mi ichiliia,<i nacil, tile colonies of the east were ready for independence, knowing that to gain it they must face and c(nlluer by force of arms the most powctfiful country then on the face of the globe. This territory wNas in English control and was the scene of English activity during the Revolutionary struggle, and while Cornwallis was engaging the colonial forces in Virginia, General IIa(lidllmand was busily fitting out an expedition which was sent forward from I)etroit. This was made up of regulars under Captain Bird, of the Detroit Militia, under Joncaire, and a large body of Indians, also tuder C(aptain Bird. The savage excesses of the Indians in the scalping of the settlers were too much even for their Inilitary associates, and after terrible experiences of that nature in Kentucky, Captailn Bird concluded to return to Detroit, but not, however, until the acts of the Indians had so exasperated the Kentuckians that they determined to cut off the retreat, which they (lid, and in the doing of this they succeeded in scattering the Indian forces. C(apltain Sinclair succeeded De Peyster at Michilimackinac and he was made lieutenant governor and also superintendent of Indian affairs for the province. It was on his arrival, in 1779, that the post was transferred front the south side of the strait to the island. Without waiting for authority from Governor IIaldimand, he built the new fort on the island, but his report thereof was approved by that office, against the protests of residents of the settlement; and at his request the name of IMichilinmaclkinac was retained, and the fort was called "Fort Mackinac." While Captain [Patriek Sinclair was exercising his command at iMichilimackinac. which command also included Fort St. Joseph, an incident occurred that is properly mentioned in connection with the history of this locality. It should be remembered that after France had surrendered this territory to England, and having been permitted by treaty to retain Louisiana, had transferred it to Spain, attempts had been made by dissatisfied Frenchmen to induce the Spanish to lay claim to the former French possessions on the lakes; with the appearance of the revolution against the English by the American colonies, the effort was renewed, and Spanish activity in this direction was somewhat feared by the English. Sinclair in 1780 made up an expedition of traders and Indians and sent them down the Mississippi to attack the Spanish, and at St. Louis the town was attacked, seven settlers killed and eighteen taken prisoners; these prisoners being sent back to Michilimackinac to work on the new fort. While the affairs with Spain did not assume any great proportions, this attack was followed by a Spanish expedition being sent in January, 1781, against the post at St. Joseph, which was poorly defended and was captured with little effort. The English flag was hauled down and the flag of Spain floated for a brief time over St. Joseph's Island, though the Spanish government never claimed to be in governmental control. The severity of the climate, or other unknown cause, is responsible for their silent disappearance.

Page  154 154 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN While Colonel Clark was moving westward, De Peyster asked Sinclair, of Fort Mackinac, to send to his assistance Indians from the upper lake regions, to join his forces at Detroit and to move eastward to meet Clark, but the Indians had heard of the strength and bravery of the colonists and consistently held aloof, leaving the British practically with their own forces to rely on, and with but little aid froml the Indians; though they succeeded in getting the Indians to lend some assistance of their own kind by harassing the frontier American settlements and murdering and scalping lone settlers whom they succeeded in surprising, or in meeting with superior numbers. The notorious John Brant and other prominent Indians assisted the English in the struggles of those revolutionary times, and the history of their raids in Kentucky and upon other frontier settlements is mentioned, but not detailed in this connection, though closely associated with early Michigan history, for Brant's sister was the Indian wife of Sir William Johnson. News of the cessation of the war that established the independence of the colonies was slow to reach the frontier, compared to the speed with which such communications are made at this day, and as a consequence, though the English pretended to use all diligence then possible to notify their Indian allies, and to recall them from their raiding expeditions, numerous settlements were hideously raided by the bloodthirsty savages after peace had been declared. It was in 1782 that peace came, with the close of the Revolutionary war, to lend to a portion of the Northwest territory an opportunity for that development, which the conditions of the preceding century would not permit. The wars between the savages, and those between the English and the French, and between the settlers and the Indians, had kept the country in such a continuously turbulent condition that there was no inducement to general settlement, and only such Europeans ventured forth as the missionaries, who risked their lives in the cause of Christianity, and the traders, who took their lives into their own hands for the profit the trade afforded, or, as in many cases, from the pure love of the wild, adventurous life which the new world afforded them; so that no real settlements were made except at those few points where military posts were established. With the close of the war, time was still required to adjust the many questions that naturally arose on the attaining by the colonies of the condition of independence. Michigan had been, during the Revolutionary period, a pait of the Province of Quebec, and within Michigan's boundaries was the center of the British operations in the west. The colonies along the Atlantic coast had not theretofore established their western boundaries and some of them claimed, by virtue of their royal charters, that their territory extended westward to the Pacific. The work of adjustment was taken up by congress with the colonies, severally, with the result that by 1786 satisfactory adjustments had been made with all of them, whereby the several boundaries had been

Page  155 THE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICIIGAN 155 determined, and the country to the west thereof was ceded to the general government. This apparently gave the general government control over most of the country west of the Alleghanies and north of the Ohio, and fairly opened the way to settlement and to the establishment of new colonies. Strife between the English and the colonists seemed to be at an end and it was hoped the Indians would no longer be incited to war, and would become generally pacific. Somehow the settlers naturally first took to the fertile prairie lands to the south of the lake regions, in preference to the heavy timber lands of the lake states, and thus those lands to the south of us, which now comprise the states of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, received most of the early western emigrants and became populous, while Alichilillackinac in the wooded sections of the north, which had in the earliest of pioneer days been the center of missionary, military and commercial activity, and had sent its emissaries and the needed supplies to the south, continued to be one of the centers of the fur trade, which still remained the principal and almost sole industry of this northern territory. Another reason why the settlers turned largely to the south may be found in the fact that Michigan continued actually in the possession of the British, as hereinafter related, for fourteen years after the treaty of peace had been concluded, and Aimericans may have been loth to locate in a country where there was likely to arise a conflict of titles. Although the general trend of settlement was to the sections south of the lakes, as already mentioned, yet Michigan was not entirely overlooked, and some of those whlo later were prosperous and even wealthy citizens of Michigan had the foundations of their fortunes laid by purchases that were made from the Indians by men who had been brought from the east as captives and held in the "Yankee Prison" at Detroit, and who, on being released, at the close of the war, either staid as permanent settlers of Michigan, or went east and thereafter returned to take advantage of the natural opportunities which their season of captivity had brought to their attention. Captain Sinclair was then in command at Michilimackinac, and as an illustration of the fact that the agricultural lands to the south earlier attracted attention than did the mineral and timber lands of the north, he purchased a tract of land in the Lower Peninsula at the site of the present city of St. Clair. There had been some attempt by commandants at Michilimackinac to convey titles to lands to private persons, but the king refused to recognize such rights in the commandants, and so private ownership of real estate in the Upper Peninsula (except as to a few French grants in the vicinity of the Sault) awaited the action of the government of the United States. The then future destiny of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan was held in the balance pending negotiations of the treaty of peace between Great Britain and the United States, following the close of the Revolutionary war, and this territory, recognized as valuable, and sought after by both countries largely because of its productiveness in furs, had its lot

Page  156 156 tIIE NORTHERN PENINSUILA OF MAI(lIlGAN cast with the independent colonies by the treaty as affirmed in 1783, whereby the boundary line between the two countries was established as running through the (lenters of iakes Ontario, Erie and Huron, and their connecting rivers an( straits, and through Lake Superior north of Isle Royal to tile Grand Portage and by that portage to the Lake of the Woods. IENATIISII LOTHI TO SUTRRENDER I IIIS TERRFI)ORY Notwithstalnding this concluded treaty, the English were loth to surrender so valuable a. territory as that we write about, and the English governor, IHaldimiand, in charge at Detroit, declined to stipulate with General Washington as to a (late when the I)etroit, MIichilillaekinaec and other western p1osts would be evacuated. The English governor made claim that he was awaiting authority from the king, but there was a strong belief that the delay was a part of a plan on the part of British officials to devise some criticism of the treaty that woul( once more open it up for negotiation. and that the British might thereby regain the right to this coveted( territory wherein. through the Northwest Company, the English ha(d monopolized the valuable fur trade of this and the surroundling country. P'ending this delay, the British maintained their garrisons within this territory on the pretext, as stated. by Governor IIaldimand, that it was necessary in order to insure the safety of the white population, because of the warlike spirit still being harbored by the Indians; and the Northwest Company continued to p1ractically monopolize the trade, while the English retained possession of the posts. There are those who believe the protection of that monopoly for those years of delay was the main cause for the delay in evacuation, and that the alleged causes were mere pretences. On the part of the Indians, a council of the nations in the territory north of the Ohio was held at the Huron village near Detroit, in 1786, wherein it was claimed that the rights of the Indians to the territory in question had not been recognized, and that inasmuch as the Indians were not a party to the treaty of peace, they were not bound by it, and they claimed the Americans should not be permitted to come across the Ohio. The combination of events and conditions strongly indicated a concerted plan, by which the English encouraged the Indians to persist in the claims in the hope that the action of the Indians might inure to the advantage of the English. That the Indians were thus encouraged by the English seems to be quite strongly evidenced by inferences almost necessarily arising from the concurrence of events and conditions; and such fact is thought to be strongly evidenced by the tone of Governor IHaldimand's letter to his successor, General Barry St. Ledger, wherein he referred to the delay because of his conviction that he ought "to oppose the different attempts made by the American states to get possession of the posts in the upper country until His Majesty's orders shall be received, and my conduct on that occasion having been approved, I have only to recommend to you

Page  157 TIlE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 157 a strict attention to the same." MIany and various claims were miade by the British, criticising the construction placed upon the treaty by the United States, and much correspondence between the diplomats of the two countries was exchanged, while the British still retained possession of this territory, which they could not with any reason claim on grounds of treaty construction. In 1787, four years after the making of the treaty of peace, congress passed an ordinance providing for the organization of the "Territory Northwest of the Ohio River," including Michigan, though Miichigan was still actually in the possession and control of Great Britain. General Arthur St. Clair was mnade governor of the new territory and was therefore the first nominal governor of this section of the country, after title thereto was acquired by the United States through the treaty of peace, but an anomalous condition existed as to that portion thereof including the state of Michigan. St. Clair was the governor by virtue of the authority of the government of the United States as rightfully claimed through the treaty, while the English governor, Barry St. Ledger, ruled the same under English laws, in defiance of the treaty. While thus continuing to forcibly exercise possession of this part of the country, Canada actually changed the form of the English government of the territory when, in 1792, the "Quebec act" was repealed, and courts were established at both DIetroit and MIichilimackinac, and these posts were brought under the regular formn of the English government instead of being ruled under the special form authorized by the "Quebec act." These complications between the countries continued, and undoubtedly had the effect to retard the settlement of the country in the vicinity of the British posts for manyI years. ORDIN'ANCE (IF' 1787 The Northwest territory, as organized by ordinance of 1787, included what is now the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and that part of Minnesota east of the Mississippi river. Prior to that this territory, following the signing of the treaty, was nominally controlled by the Jefferson ordinance of 1784, which provided the first American government for this territory and by which Jefferson attempted to abolish slavery in the United States north of the Florida line. pI to 1784, there were no United States surveys of western lands and therefore no lawful western settlers, except on old French or British grants, and grants to the attaches of military posts. In 1785 an ordinance was l)asse(id )y congress providing for surveying lands into townships six miiles square, and( for sub-dlividing these into sections one mile square, al(l for their sale by sections and lots; and this ordinance provided for tile reservation of section sixteen in each township for school purposes. This opened up a way and offered an inducement to settlers, for now titles could be acquired that could be relied upon. The Northwest territory ordinance of 1787, which was passed by congress after a vast amount of consideration, involving heated debates

Page  158 158 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN on important points and principles, was considered by many as one of the greatest achievements ever attained in the way of government. Of it so a great a constitutional writer as Justice Cooley said: "No charter of government in the history of any people has so completely stood the tests of time and experience." While the ordinance provided a model temporary government of the great territory, its greatest value was found in the enduring principles provided by it to be engrafted into the government of the states to be erected therefrom. It provided: 1. For religious liberty. 2. The right of habeas corpus, trial by jury, proportionate representation, inviolability of private contracts, etc. 3. "Religion, morality and knowledge, being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged.'" 4. That navigable waters are to remain free public highways. Shortly thereafter, these principles, that gave to the ordinance referred to references as "'innortal," were embodied in the constitution of the UInited States, and have becomel the vital part of our supreme law. Following the revolution, as the westward journey of the "star of the empire" was again taken up, the moveinent to Ohio lwas forwarded by the Ohio Company of Associates, organized in 1786, on call of General Rufus P'utnam and General Ilenjamin TuIpper, after they had made an exploratory trip into that country. but not until the summeer of 1787, were they able to secure the action of congress, organizing the territory and providing for the sale of government lands. The general agent of the company, also largely instrumental in its organization and in the trafting and passage of the ordinance of 1787, was Manasseh Cutler, of Connecticut. In 1788 the first delegation from the Associates, under.Mr. Cutler, reached Ohio and founded 5Marietta; though numerous " squatters" had preceded them and settled in advance of the government survey. Everything in the way of settlement was haphazard until the coming of the Ohio Company, which took up and forwarded the organization of a regular government. General Arthur St. Clair, governor of the territory, with other appointed officers, arrived at Marietta, Ohio, in July, 1788, and there, on the 17th of that month, with due ceremony proclainled the first civil government of the United States over the territory now within the state of MIichigan. Up to that time this territory had been controlled by the French and English under military rule administered from the centers at Detroit and Michilimackinac. Before any headway could be made with the government land surveys and the sales of government lands, it became necessary to acquire in some way the claims of the Indians to those lands; and for that purpose a commission had been appointed in 1784. This commission treated with numerous individual tribes, but ignored the northwestern confederacy, and the confederacy in turn ignored the various treaties with the

Page  159 TIlE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 159 individual tribes; so that really nothing was accomplished toward the desired end for some two years or more, during which time the Indians became restless, and, through their confederacy, they communicated their grievances to congress, in December, 1786, by means of a document supposed to have been prepared by Joseph Brant, in which it was said: "We think the mischief and( confusion which has followed is owing to your having managed everything respecting us in your own way. You kindled your council fires where you thought proper without consulting us, at which you held separate treaties, and have entirely neglected our plan of having a general conference... Let us have a treaty with you early in the spring. We say let us meet half way, and let us pursue such steps as becomle upright and honest men. We beg that you will prevent your surveyors and other people from coming on our side of the Ohio river.. " This address was unheeded, as Governor St. Clair consider(ed the confederacy of the tribes was not enduring, and he believed it best to continue negotiating with the individual tribes, but his mistake became apparent later, November 4, 1791, at "St. Clair's defeat" on the Wabash. Hostilities continued until finally the treaty of Greenville was signed August 3, 1795, following the defeat of the confederated tribes by the forces of Gen(eral Anthony Wayne a year previous. Among the numerous tribes of this confederacy which joined in this treaty of Greenville were the Ottawl-s and Chippewas, from this section of the territory. When General Wayne, in the summer of 1794, was, with his force of twenty-six hundi;edl w-ell drilled soldiers and one thousan(d mounted Kentucki-ans, pressing hard upon the centers of tlhe confederation. he made another effort to carry out Washington 's desire to secure peace and avoid war, ni(d l e sent a. message to the chiefs offering the terms of the M[uskinguin treaty as a blasis of lasting peace. This was refused, and the refusal is attributed to the fact that the Indians were influenced by the English who were still holding possession of the territory, and by their assuralces of suLlperior strength, with which they had been infused by their victory over Go;vernor St. Clair. The belief that the English we:e aiding and abetting the Indians in their fight against the United States finds further basis in the fact that the Indians, cn rejecting the proffered peace, retired to the English Fort Miami, which had been constructed by Governor Simcoe, in 1794, long after the English had ceded their rights in this territory to the United States. When General Wayne, on the 20th of August, 1794, advanced to within one mile of Fort Miamii the confederated tribes were prepared to meet him, strongly barricaded by fallen trees. The Indians were soon touted, many slain, and the others scattered, and the English fort came into possession of the Americans. lMajor Campbell, who was in charge of the garrison at Detroit, protested against the possession of the British fort by General Wayne, but met with a sharp lefiance and was reminded that the British were occupying American soil, and had built the foit thereon since the signing

Page  160 160 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN of the treaty. The decisive victory of General Wayne, which was at least in part on Michigan soil, and was participated in by Ottawas and Chippewas from Michilimackinac and Sault Ste Marie, was important in many ways, and had unquestionable influence in the results that soon followed, including Jay's treaty, in November of that year, and the treaty of Greenville in August of the following year, followed by the evacuation of Michigan territory by the British pursuant to the terms of Jay 's treaty. It also put an end to the terrible Indian warfare that had continued throughout the territory, and thus opened up to settlement a large region of fertile lands, over which there started that everincieasing horde of western emigrants that pushed forward to the west, and upon tangents to the northward, with the final result we now perceive; the entire Northwest territory divided into and making up five of the most prominent states of the Union, and a considerable contribution to another like prominent state. In the place of the wild savagery illustrated by the horrible massacres, in 1791, when St. Clair met such a terrible defeat on the Wabash; the siege of Detroit, when so many white settlers met the terrible experiences of the Indian warwhoop and the bloody scalping knife, and the massacre at Michilimackinac in 1763, when all savage brutalities imaginable were meted out to the garrison, we now have the well populated and progressive States before mentioned; then, all under the one territorial governor, but now administered by six governors, with full quotas of state, county, township, city and village officials, to say nothing of the numerous government officials and the net-work of school and church governments that flourish within the same boundaries. A CENTURY OF POPULATIVE GROWTH Only a trifle over a century of populative growth, from the Indian villages, presided over by their chiefs and surrounded by the savagery of wild nature, to the civilization of today that has given us our present populous and industrious communities, including such important cities as Chicago, Detroit, Milwaukee, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, St. Paul, Minneapolis and Duluth, and the web-work of commerce that binds them together by land and sea, by boat and rail! Truly, by comparison only can we appreciate the workings of modern thought and ingenuity. At the council of Greenville, there were forty-five Ottawa and forty-six Chippewa representatives, an(d a total of eleven hundred and thirty representatives of fifteen tribes, when lasting peace was agreed to and all these tribes came under the protection of the IJnited States. As affecting this Peninsula of 5Michigan, the thirteenth article of the treaty provided, as a cession of territory to the United States: "The post of Michilimackinac, and( all the land on the island on which the fort stands, and the main land adjacent, of which the Indian title has been extinguished by gifts or grants to the French or English governments, and a piece of land on the main to the north of the Island to measure six miles on Lake IIuron, or the Strait between Lakes IIuron

Page  161 THIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF AIICHIIGAN 161 and Michigan, and to extend three miles back from the water of the lake or strait and also the island of Bois Blance, being an extra and voluntary gift of the Chippewa Nation." With the development of interest in the Northwest territory a series of land-grabbingl comblinations came into existence and they were of mam.mnoth p)roportions, including in their membership prominent and infltenitial officials almonig whlom l we re membil),ers of c(ongress; and in tile lands to be secuired were some of the most fertile of the entire territory. While not all -of these may. have had (lirect effect Iupon western settlemnents, th}e one that comes nearest to the interests of Michigan was the Randall-WVhitnev combination of 1795). wh\ereby it was attempted to secure through congress all the rights of the l'nited States to twenty million acres in the Lo(we-r Peninisulah for the sum o f five 1111(ndred thousand dollars. or two andl oie-half cents per acre. Fortunately onle congressman approached in the deal was of the proper metal and divulged and thereby defeated the scheme. This was before the lUnited States government had comle into actual possession of the territory sought to be purchased, and the Detroit parties interested in the scheme were British adherents. In 1798 the Northwest territory became entitled to elect a territorial council with representatives of the various districts of the territory. The district of Wayne included the Lower Peninsula and parts of Ohio and Indiana, and was entitled to one representative in the council. Consequently, in DeceIber of that year. an election for the district of Wayne was held in D)etroit, at which James M5ay of that city is supposed to have been chosen as such relpresentative, and the people of that section were given their first opportunity of exercising the glorious privilege of the elective franchise. No record of the election can be found and it is supposed to have been considered void. for a new election was held in January following. The Upper Peninsula seems not to have been reckoned wvith at that time, and consequently to have had no representative in that council. remaining in the unorganized portion of the territory. The representatives met at Cincinnati, February 4, 1799, and chose ten freeholders to constitute the territorial council, the first legislative council of which the people of any part of 5Michigan were represented. The ordilance organizing tlie Northwest territory provides, that "As soon as a legislature shall be formed in the district the council and house, assembhlecd ill 0o11- r11oo. shall have authority. by joint ballot, to elect a delegate to coinglress. ' IPursuaint to this provision, William Henry Harrison was. in 1799. elected the first delegate to congress to represent the Northwest territor!y and( in lMartch. 1800, he was appointed chairman of a committee of congress on the division of the Northwest territory. As the result, the territory was divided into two districts by a. line running from tlhe mouth of the Kentucky river north to the Canadian boundary. the western part being called "Indiana territory" and the eastern part "Territory Nortlhwest of the River Ohio," the boundary line dividing what is now Michigan, into two parts. Iarrison Vol. I-I 1

Page  162 162 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MIICIIGAN was appointed governor of Indiana territory and also Indian agent, and held the office until his appointment, in 1813, as major general in the American army. The territory was dismembered by the formation of the state of Ohio, by act of congress passed April 30, 1IS02, andi thereupon what is now Michigan became part of the territory of Indiana. On June 30, 1805, the territory of Michigan came into existence. By the ordinance of 1787 constituting the Northwest territory, a provision was made for at least three states to be erected within its boundaries, and there was a further provision "that if congress shall hereafter find it expedient. they shall have authority to form one or two states in that part of said territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake 5Michigan," and when the state of Ohio wacs organized that line was given as its northern boundary. In 1802 Ohio was admitted as a state and the remaining portion of the "Territory Northwest of the River Ohio" became a part of Indiana territory, thus effacing from the map the lname "Territory Northwest of the River Ohio." In 1804, on petition from the people of Detroit, a bill was introduced to provide for the creation of a territory north of the line above described, and. after considerable opposition. andl somle anendments the "Act to Establish and Organize the Territory of Michiglan?' was passed and made to take effect June 30, 1805, with a (overnmnent substantially the same as that of the Northwest territory. The officials provided for were a governor, secretary and three judges, and the governor and judges, to be appointed b.y the president, with the consent of the senate. constituted the legislature of the territory. The territory of Michigan. as thuS constituted. included nearly all of what is now within the state of Miichigan, but its western boundary was described as a line drawn from the southerly bend of Lake Michi(an "through the mi(ddle of said lake to the northern extremity thereof, and thence due north to the northern boundary' of the United States,'" which line passed through Mackinaw county a few miles w*est of St. Ignace, leaving that locality a little longer within the territory of Indiana. In 1S09 Indiana territory was again dismembered )by the creation therefrom of the territory of Illinois, and on the admission of Illinois as a state, in 1818, all the remaining portion of Indiana territory was attached to the territory of Michigan; then. for the first time, all the territory now within the state was included in Michigan territory, and there was also then included therein all of what is now Wisconsin and that portion of Minnesota east of the lMississippi river. Late in 1834 the territorial boundaries of MIichigan were stretched across the MIississippi river and made to embrace the present state of Minnesota, Iowa, and a part of the Dakotas. Michigan, however, maintained these unwieldy proportions but a very short period, for in 1836 all that part of her territory except what is now Michigan was organized as the territory of Wisconsin, and in 1837 Michigan attained the proud position of a state.

Page  163 THlE NORTIEII-RN PENTN~t'Wl.A OF MI1ChIGAN16 163 11o viogf (.1i1('rssedl fromi the ehm-n( (loical 1(1 (1'(Il of events to follow this seetion of the eomitiyv throogh its vicissitiides of territorial ehongres, and assoeiotions. we nowm l'eturi) to) the ipclio~i vwhen the territory was 0ol'(2a1.lized.1 FIlRST (J3.\:TIN-0 OF MlICiiAGNN Thie fii'st ('mveiillmi of Mlichli20Il1 tecl tov a-Gcle1oi\Vlioo I111ll, 0 "fI-mi iitcd 1 y P I(Si'leilt.1 (ftY(15111 i\ IMarch 11 IS15)( T11(ile oth 0 P ippiflted olfieers, wvere Stool 1v Grsod e'se torv; i\1 o.lst lB. \Voodiwo i. Fredcrick~ Iotes 0(1Johln Grliffiin jils. 11 m ( hi )etioit 4Jooe 12, 18( ). to set u[-) 0. govermmeilit for. the lle\\ t irritoi y\ hult fouoid the little 00olony in 0 (leplmloble c011(iitionl. for., on till (1 Ix rv0ious, tihe vill'agre hd10ieeii (levos1tfted h v fire 0111d bllit twNo h)1111(1111 "S 1(1110 i Iled to offer shelter to the(1- ilti 1W l)(1)n-h~tt ion. On the 30th dlxy ot.1 uoe, thie apj)poiinted (the cjals xok ISPcie ooths of othece. andl a eivil novernment for tile te tol'v (If Ml ehito-1l wo-s estolblislled. Auntil hi('11h tulle all gl)VCrl.-i lilelelt \vitlhi~l the peIselilt State Of Michligan 110(1dlieeni thr-ough the ioili1 -to rv com11100nmlers, iplm'llotedl suecessively hv the Freneh. British onid Am1r1(:ieO-1l "O(Venlnen1C~ts. Ani oet reguflating) gron81ts (If lands in Michigran territory xvos jpassedi byV eoiigress Mo rebI:3. 1. 8( T. At, this, timle no pr'OVisiO11 hod hIIee Mmode for tile eXti~llo —ishilieit. of the ind(ian titles exceept to 0 111 troet in tile vicimlt (If D~etroit. In 1.81.2, 1)etroit 1h0( 0 p(p-t)llltiol of only, abouit eight llnn(lredl an(I tile entire territory about. five thiousond, mlostly Freneb. rTle liildion titles wvere the great. hindranee to settlelient. InI 1 806 Tleeullmsell the Shawtinee cilief, enldeovNored to or~raIlilze tile ind(i-al eonfederaev of tile Melichcaii. Ohio( 011(1 Ind'lian tribes to withstoold the enleoC11ll)(1c1ilts (If tile Whites; 011(. 05' 0, eonsequenee. renewed. fears (If InI(liml \VN retarded the pro(YIgSS (If Miehigon settlement. Govenor l wos instructed tol negotiate a treaty with tile Imllians, andi, to tilat end,7 a. eouneil wvas called 01nd held at. D)et~roit 011(1 wOs participated in by ' the Ottoawa, Chlippewa, M\yoalldotte ail~d Potta wlottolli tribes,. with a, resuilt that oln Nov-ember 7, 1807. a treaty was sig'ned eeding to the United States a. eollsiderai!le territory within the Lower Peninsula, but was imp.ortant tol the wh'Iole territo;ry- as being the opening wed lge that soon there-after opeined iip tile way to settleileilt, or purchase by the governinlent, of nearly o(ilI tile lanid within the present state of -Miehigan. Up to tilis tuile the olily ineans of traveling to the interior was by way of t~he Indiain trails, whieh centered at Detroit, the prilleipal of whieh, caine to -Mieiihiiiickinc 01(1 Soult Ste. Mlarie, elolmfmlnly called tile war-path, by whieh the tribes of tile north wlere eollneeted1 with those of the south. B~esid~es tile fear of Indian wars, there was another serious impIedinment t-o the settlemeult of -Mieh-igran territory because s(o mluch thereof, includingr all the prineipal settlements.. was exposed to direct attack by water, 011(1 was so contiguous to the British possessions in Can0(10, where the war clouds that were growing in England were also be

Page  164 164 TIHE NORTHERN P'ENtINSITLA OF llICIIIGAN corning ominous; and war between the nations, making this a hostile and disputed territory, seemed imminent. WAR OF 1812 In 1810 warning was given to the government at Washington, by the British minister, that the Indians of the northwest were preparing for war. It was in August of that year that Tecumseh, and his brother the (bad) Prophet, met Governor Harrison is conference at Vincennes, and there, after expressing determination to resist the coming of white settlers, said: "Your great Father may sit over the mountain and drink his wine, but if he continues his policy, you and I will have to fight it out." Governor IIarrison exerted every effort to maintain peace, and peaceably negotiate land purchases, but Tecumseh, the Prophet, and his band, were determined to resist further cessions of land and to avoid those already made, even to the extent of war. As a consequence, the war clouds grew and grew, until open hostilities began when a band of Indians fired upon Harrison's camp. Governor IIarrison had brought into use the valuable lessons he had learned while campaigning under General Wayne, and had prepared for the impending trouble by assembling a considerable force of regulars and volunteers, drilling them thoroughly, and making them acquainted with the Indian methods of fighting, so that he was ready for the challenge; and on October 11, 1811, his army began its advance from Fort IIarrison, and on the 6th of November took up a position for defense within a mile of the Prophet's town. The Indians attempted a ruse, and sent messengers with overtures for peace, but Harrison was not deceived. It was a dark and rainy night, but Harrison was on the alert and ready to meet the attack which the Indians made at the beginning of dawn. The battle was fierce, but the Indians were surprised at the strength and bravery with which both on horse and afoot the Americans returned the charge; and the Indians, supposed to number one thousand, were put to flight and completely scattered. By many this battle has been thought to have had considerable and close connection with the ensuing war of 1812, between the United States and England, and there is much to justify such a belief. The long delay on the part of the British in surrendering the territory, together with the fact that the British had been so closely back of earlier Indian hostilities, and the further fact that Tecumseh became an officer of the British army immediately on the breaking out of the war of 1812, combined with many other unjustified and unjustifiable acts on the part of the British, wrought deep into the feelings of the Americans, and these suspected instigations of Indian hostilities were mentioned as among the grievances against England in the special message of President Madison to congress, three days only before the introduction into congress by John C. Calhoun, June 4, 1812, of a bill declaring the existence of a state of war between the United States and England. On March 6th previous, Governor Hull, realizing the prospect and

Page  165 TIIE NORTIIIERN l' EN I NSIT'A OF Al ICI IGAN 165 at t-le samei( tinle tile ill-pIreparedl ((lition for war. al((resse(l tile seeretar x of war setting forthl the defenseless (ondition( of the MI.ichigan settlellents, an(l the fac(t that Canada was jl)ssesse(l of re(sourees sllffi(i(let to succ(essfully invadle our t(rritory! an( lie re(lkoned as allies of the llritish. -as ihe then wrote, "'all the Indians in;1')per Canada and a large lrolportion of the powerful nations residing in tlhe territory of tile lUnite(l States who inow hold a constant and friendlyi intlercorse w-ith the IBritish agents, and are liberallv- fe(d an1 (lot(ttled by thie blounty of the lBritish government.'' (G.overnotr' Iull (advised that, ill the' event of war, there slholl(l e a suffiCient arlov estal)lished(l at Detroit to (lefe(n( this part of thle (ounltry. control the Indians andi comnlene oi)erations on tile ene(l 's we(akest poinits,.1an1(d he arglle(1 that sulh a course( woul(d )reve('n war witil the sava,((es anid drive the Britisli froml 1 I)per C( anada(l. anld tilat tle lritishl "naval force oln tile lak(es would in that evelnt fall illto u11r )possessioii an(1 we shlold obtain eolmlnnd of the waters." 1e (1-(1welled upon the fact that op)erlations 1)y land wmold bhe hadiicat 1):e le'll,ase of the 'r{,seieeo of Indians "under British (ontrol ai(and de(lcvted to IBritishl interests." anid he reiterated that lhe hald always favoredl the )huil(ling of suffic(ient armled vessels uplonfl the lkes to contirol tflieii. (Gove, orl Ihlull iwas. as brigadier general, placied in commlland of the forces of tle lirtll\west, April 8. 1812, which position he acceplted after reuimonst rating heecause of defenseless conditions. IIe was put 11i (oiiiiwland( of three Ohio regimenlts (oinpl)rising about fifteen hundred men Ind (l 'rccedled to m arlch to Detroit. As (Gleleral IIull was nearing l)etroit, on, July 2. 1812. a niessenger overtookl hiIl tearilng a dispatch from the selcretary of wlar inforlling lim of thle (declartion of war an( a(l(ling.: "You will be on your guardl, pt(l)cccd to y!mr plost with all p)ossihle ()elxeition, niake sucll arrangenients for thle lefense of thle country as in youllr judgmlent Itmay be necessa ryv, and \wait for future or(ders. IHull had prcviously forwarded. by tile hoat " Cluya'loga,"' his hlbggage andl tools and( a chest contalining his m11ilitary pIapelrs-also the wives of sonic of his officers-and, perceiving that his dispatch which had come nmost of the Nway Ih)v post. had been greatly (Idelaed aniil that tel (days h1ad elaplsed since the actual d(Iclaration of war1r. lie riealized the iiiimiinent (ldanger to the boa<t vwith all its cargSo and passenlers.; but. leing unable to comlnunic(ate with lher, she as ('captulred(l aild takenl to Fort MIal]den, then in co rnnan(l of Colonel St. George(. I t took from Jlunc 18th to July 2nd to carry the notice of the (declaration of war to General II11l, while the Governor General of Canada got the notice June 27th. The capture of the boat, with Hull's papers, gave the Eniglish information as to the plans of the, government. July 17th, 1.812, Fort AMackinae was taken by the 1British and Indians. Lieut. Porter TIanks, in command, lhad no notice of the declaration of war until his surrender was dlean(1ded. Captain Roberts, in comiland of St. Joseph's island, had got the news; gathered, to aid his regulars, two hundred and sixty Canadian militia and seven hundred

Page  166 166 T1lE -NORTHERN 1PENIN8V'LA OF MICHIGAN Inl onah(. roeee to i' eia.where ha swith wIl\v si~xit x men slirrendeire( without the firing of a shiot. This he( (lil thirmin'li tea'r o)f anl 1indian maissaeire. whieh Wva- aliost certalin to follow the ibegniii of a fight. The snrreiioler of ANlackiiile, etfected(ia relealse olf ail restio aI I up1m1 tihe nTiliaiis of the niorthi. I n 1.8 12 thIIe go v erniorI genei(ral o )f CanadaI ( 8. eameI to AIa( Ii e xx ith suIp-II Plies anid reitiforceciocts andl told the Indians; he( had eoi oe i resto'e Pi t~heim their hiiitiic Hg1gronndS. _A.S 'li)1lISt Iatioii (Of thie (ond (itOilQ) of the( coiiitry at that tillie weC suggest thcat the(. inass(aere at Fort 1Dearhorwii Oeenr~edi the I;Mh o)f thact mou 1th. and i)etr it stirren deredl the f l)N1I win dav. wehvAl ciehhzan1 thenl again eam eoitiielv into the ho i~oi(s of tile.Biit is1h aIldfllteii S1' sVage',dl is. G4elleral 1 rock set ill a Ip(rViS(1sw10150 x T iir OLD 13LOCoK I10ovSE. M-ACKINAC i'SLANI) eI'lnilent a't Deotiroit, pawijilg Cohil)mel P~roetor in e~ll1lllwith two) Ilun-1 (i-edl ~111(1 fiftx 11101. It was, the scame fear o)f the saivages, ancd no(t (If the B ritish th ot hO ( to the surrenider (If 1)0th Detroit anid Mfackinaec. -in S( 1te1111)1r, 1.812. General~1 Ilarrison. was apphointed hriga~dier1 genleral of the reminla~r arnly and given C0'oiioad. of teii thousandi men with whie~h to recove'r Detroit an(1d eonqnuer Canada. Jamles Monroe(A sweecedetd ihustis ws05 swrtr. v, an-d lIne, gave_ matters; inl the iiorthxvest into the haiclids, (f Ilarrimson. who had reeomrnended. as Hlull. had a year preViOUS, the eonstruetion of hoatis to commnund the, lakes. Colmmodore 0. Ii'. Perry. then only7 twenty-eight, was p)ut inl charge of prepariing and hiandling, a flee(.t o)f hoats. Ile was theni a -\onuin- lientenaint. anod he( had to gret his timbers from the forests dhuinig tile winter of 1812 and 1813. By extra effort, hie g'ot boats well- inider construction anl hy- the month (If July. 1813. hie -was (out withl tile 1)rigs 'Ni(agar a' anti ' Lawrenee. ' seh~oon)ers ' 'Caledonia." ' 'Aerial." ' P'iorcupine" '' 11(

Page  167 TtIE NORTI-IERN PENINSlLA OF MIICHIGAN 1 167 "Tigress?' (the former having been captured froiii the 3ritish at Niagara) and five or six smaller boats. It. was August before lhe got them thoroughly manned. and on the 20th of the month lie met General I-arrison and arranlo'ements were matlde for cocllerterd laction of the land and naval forces. Ilarrison Ihadi at this time so auiiented( his forces that he had seven thousand men at. his coniii(mand(. alCnd thius, ill a few montihs after the war departmlent lha(l c-oine into the 11ihands of the future P'resident Mlonroe. through his lpolicy of puttilng illto the hlalds of the Ien in the field tlhe control of opI)erationls..,f lwhich tllhey llust c(ertainly 1- e l)est (ualified( to jiutdge. the yo(ung' g(vernmellet (f the lllited States was in fighting triml; Je11(1 the airuuoy undcer. the inllle(lite conltrol of the future President I-arrison and the first navy wh -ich this (OVem111uen11 t ewver had upon the lakes, then under thle manaeire nti of the ilow re-nowned Commoodore Perr!y. wemel aCetnig in concert and prep)red and (Icter'lillelied to wrest from the British and restor-we to thle tlnited States the territory within the p)resent state of AIicuim'al.l. which enleral Iull had been complelled to surrender. because of the sllhortsilltedness of thle government in d(eclaring war in advaiice of duie prel'arationl therefore. ai(d witl a stronIg British force withlin easy reach of the llallolst defelseless posts at Detroit and (Tackitiha. No timle was lost by- these voun- Coomall d(lers. l(rrv sailled out the first of Sepltemlber as an ivlitatioll to tlhe Bllitislh fleet. then uinder the guins at Fort liallde and ill c(olmliallnd of Capl)tin lRobert II. Bar(layv. a veteran ill naval warfare who had served undelr Nelson at Trafalhnr. Not until the tenith did Biarclay aceplt tlie callenige bult on that day the fleets Illet..At tlhe oltset thle w-it fiavlredl tlhe l3ritishll, and tle longrange giuns of Blarclay's fleet. lhad the hIoest oi' it. tlanld Plerrly's flag ship, the "Lawrence. "? was (lisable(l. I e thel( carried his flag to thte "N'iagara,'" beinig maie(l the tal.-rget of a furiiotus fire while beilig transferred in a sniall boat. and1i, the wi in id eil1ore favlrable. lie then sailed directly into the ene1my's line. followed by the rest of his fleet, and, at short range, played suchl havoc that tile British Iprompltly surrendered the entire fleet. Barclay's fla-g-ship being the first to strike lher colors. This put the United States in control of tile lakes. and General IIarrison saw his way open for a long-coveted opportunlity to ilnvade Canada, ill whose control were both Detroit and aclkinaec. It was following this first and telling victory of the younl naval colllander that. iln disl)atchiinr the news to General Hatrrison. lie coined the never-to-be-forgottenl phrase "''We have met the enemy and they are ours. lIarrison 's arniy was continullllly being einforced, and le had. by the 20th of September, about eleven thousand men and was prepared for his eamlpaign to reoccupy Detroit. The British did not seeim to relish the prospect and abandoned their own fort at Maldlen, after setting the scame and tile surrounding )buildings on1 fi(re. 1'er1'. with his fleet, sailed into Detroit, September 29th. landing the Anmericans; and then Alichigan again came under thle governmuent of thie tUnited States. On the following day General Ilarrison declared tile restoration of tile govern

Page  168 168 IITHE NORTIERN PENINSUSLA OF IICHIIGAN ment of the United States. It was in this year that Dickson, a prominent trader, went fromi Mackinac southward to thie tribes along and at the head of Green Bay and gathered Indians to go to Detroit to aid Tecumseh, and, by means of promises that Michigan would be restored to the Indians, he secured a considerable number of recruits, estimated at five hundred from the various tribes; and these were present to aid the British in the campaigns of that season. After entering Detroit, Colonel R. MI. Johnson, with his brigade of mounted Kentuckians, lost no time in pushing forward the campaign so successfully: beg'un, and on the very next (lay crossed into Canada in pursuit of Proctor who had fled before their approach. Colonel Lewis Cass acted as aide to General Harrison in this campaign. Harrison and his commalnd overtook the British and their Indian allies October 5th they having at thJat time about seven hundred white troops under Proctor and twelve hundred Indians under Tecumseh; and the battle of the Thames ensued at a point on the river about thirty miles east of Lakle St. Clair, wherein, after a shoit but t furious engagement, in which the famous Tecumlseh met his death (it is said from a shot of the pistol of Colonel Johnson), the land forces under Harrison won a. victory, second only in importance to the success of Perry upon the water; and the war was practically ended in the northwestern portion of the battlegrounds. The results of that short but vigorous campaign were momentous. At its end the lakes had come under the control of the United States and the British army that had invaded llichigan had been driven out, followed and captured. while Tecumseh, the organizer and soul of the Indian confederacy, had met a soldier's death, thereby disorganizing the confederacy, and removing the great impediment to settlement and danger to settlers, that that alliance had occasioned. I)uring this campaign, in which Detroit was captured by the British and recaptured by the Americans, there was little of interest occurring in the I'lT)per P'eninsula. Michilimalckinlac having been surrendered to the British as almost the first event of the war, July 17, 1812. There was no especial occasion for the United States to take action in that vicinity until it repossessed itself of Detroit and acquired control of the lakes; and therefore the British occupied the post without contest. One item, however, should be recorded in this connection, and that is the death of Lieutenant Hanks, whose good judgment in surrendering the post at MIihilimackinac before the loss of blood, in the face of overwhelmling odds against him, probably prevented an Indian massacre of the garrison and inhabitants. He was himself taken to Detroit, where, on August 16th of that year, he was killed during the bombardment of the fort. In the fall of 1813, after the victories recorded to the credit of Commodore Perry and General Harrison, it was too late to proceed to Mackinac that season, though it was recognized as important to repossess the post because of its commanding position, and because of the influence to

Page  169 TIlE NORTIERN I'ENINSULA OF MIICIIIGAN 169 be exerted thereabout iuponl the Indians to the north and west thereof; and preIparations were mad(le for cncerted acti.on o(f land and naval forces in that direction the following spring. Early in July, 1814, Captain Gr(ogllan. with a forc(e of five hundred regulars and two hundred militia, with five of the botats of Perry's old fleet then in commland of Captain SiMnclair, sailed fron D)etroit to IMackinac, passed the island of thiat namie and( landed( (JJuly 20th) on St. Joseplh's island near tlle mouth of St. 2lcary's river, where they found the British post abandoned. A company under co(m()miand of Ma51jor Holmes was sent to Sault Ste. MIarie, only to find tlhe post lltad been abandoned and the buildings destroyed. It was now in order to proceed against Mackinac direct,.and on the 26th the little American fleet landed its forces on the north side of the island. Nwhence it was necessary to proceed about two and one half miles through tle lensest of cedar and helrlock thickets, which, to look at, seem almost impenetrable. When about half way up, on a cleared tract, now known as the Early farm, they were melt with the British artillery in a heavy fire, by which Major Holmes met his death anti his collman lost severely of its nutumbers. It was discovered that the post had been strongly re-enforced by Indians from the neighboring tribes, and it was at once ap)parent that it would be impIossible to successfully assault the fort it h1ad also been re-enforced by the white men from the Sault, as well as a detachment from Green Bay annd IMenominee Indians under the great chief Tomah. Acting under the maxim tliat "discretion is tile better part of valor," Groghan again took to his boats, and, leaving the "Tigress" a'nd the "Scorpion" to blockiade the )port, sailed )back to Detroit to arrange for re-enforcements. The blockading schooners were soon thereafter taken by the British, and their officers and crews were made prisoners. Mackinac thus still remained in the possession of the British. TREATY OF GIENT Before further military operations were had(, came the signing of the treaty of Ghent, which occurred December 24, 1814. It was ratified by the United States senate, February 17, 1815, bringing peace to the two great English speaking nations, and again returning to the United States the territory now within the Upper Peninsula. As illustrative of the fact that the English aggression that brought on that war was occasioned by thle desire of the British to wrest from the United States the northwestern lake country, it may be mentioned that, on the meeting of the commissioners at Ghent, Netherlands, to formulate the treaty, the first demand of the British was that there should be conceded to their allies, the Indians, a strip of territory along the entire division line between the two countries, and that each country should undertake to keep peace with the Indians so long as the Indians refrained from war with the respective countries. Other demands were so presumptuous that the American commissioners were surprised, and indignantly rejected the propositions. The warfare between the members of

Page  170 17() THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF AIICHIGAN tlhe cOllmissioll wlas almost as fierce as was that between the armies ill the field and the vessels upon the water; but, almost unexpectedly, )ecellber 14, 1814. after continuous wrangling since August, the treaty was agreed to. though before news thereof reached the TUnited States the great battle of New Orleans was fought lwherein General Jackson won enduring fame. IBy the treaty. Mehiglian was restored to the 'United States. and the boundary line between the two countries, at various points of dispute was left to be fixed by commnlissioners provided for by thle treaty. The boundlary line throlugh Lake Supierior was (as per Article VI) provided to be fixed by two commissioners. one to be appointed by I-is Britannic Majesty, and the other by the lpresident of the United States, by 1and with the consent of the senalte, andl to them was left the lc ating of the line that should. according to the terms of the treaty o)f 1783. (decidle to which country the various islands should l)elong, as well in the lakes as in the rivers and straits connecting the lakes. It was, by said treaty. also agreedl bly both parties that the Indians should be restored to their rights as they existed at the colmmleneement of the wNar and tliat each par.ty should keep peace with tile several Indian triles, l'rovided alwayss tlhat such tribes or naItions shall agree to desist froim all hostilities 0lagailst tlhe resl)c(tive partie s to the treaty."' Thus tlhe Indians were left with their claim of title to a. large portion of the lands in Michigan, )ibut without further alliance with the British, and consequently, in a nmore a pproachable condition. In reinstalling tlhe govemnment of the United States in MIichigan, General Ilarrison. after the victory of the Thames, appointed General Cass as military governor and assigned his brigade to garrison duty under him; and oi October 2.9, 1813, he was appointed by P'resident Madison. civil governor of the territory of Michigan, which position he held until his apl)ointment t ttlhe position of secretary of war in the cabinet of 1'resident Jackson, Aiugust 1, 1831. The condition of desperation and delpndeney in which the war left the Indian tribes mlade settlement of the territory precarious, and General HTarrison, having been, in 1815. ap)poiintetd a commissioner to negotiate treaties with tlhe Indians, joined General Cass, as governor of lichligan territory, in aln attemptl to remedy those conditions; and early results were founmd in thie treaty signed Septelmber 8, 1815, at Spring \Wells, near Detroit, between tlhe United States and numerous Indian tril)es, including the Chipewas and Ottawas, and p)roviding for peace with them, for their coming under the protection of the United States, and being restored to all the rights and privileges they had previous to the beginning of the late war. This treaty also ratified the treaty of Greenville heretofore mentioned, but still left the Indians with all their claims of title to the lands in the Upper Peninsula. By a treaty made at Sault Ste. Marie June 16, 1820, between Governor Cass and commissioner on the part of the United States, with the Chippewa nation, the United States acquired title to a tract of land at

Page  171 THE NORTIHERN PENINSULA OF 2IICIIIGAN. 171 Sault Ste. Marie described as beginning aIt the Big Rock n11 tlhe boiidary line in the River St. _Mary, runnilgt tlhci(.e d(lwn tile llid(l(ll( of the river to Little Rapids, and extending ba(.ck from the river for sufficie(nt distance to comprise in all sixteen sqn-are miles. bl)t. l)y the te'rllls of which the Indians reserved perpetual fishlin and (cnlling m righlts thereon; and thus at tlhat time a b)eginninllg was 111'd(le for tlhe aclquisition of lands by the government within the )per ]'t'llilsulal. 1 etw-een the earliest settlement of the lpper P'eninsula and tile (hitc of tile tfi'st acquisition of title from the Indians in 1]20. this l]ocality 11(1d a1. (rcat dliversity of experience in government, and laclk (f 'ovlrll('llit, lll(1 was hianipered by the incidents of successive iwars il('Clll(.lln two betwee\ the United States and Great 13ritain, one lctwet n (ll ('eat B1'itain anl( France, and two great Indian wars. intelrspesl d always witlh tll 11arrowing incidents of continnous contact with tllc, sa\va.le' 1;)lLlaec. 811(1 it. must necessarily take tiIne an(l diplomacy to rcstorIc tle (listllurbed situahtion to conditions sucI as would( be invitillng to settlers. FA \INE IMPIEI(S)NS (0' (-I,IO M.\CI TtE ANDS()I, Another obstacle tflat mIijustly illtervcnedl aInd 1a1(l to 1)(e,vco'mlcn ill the settlelnlent of Alichligail. wNas the false il' ressiln regard11ilg i ts smil a11(l clilalfte colnveyed to thie wo\Irld lWv l1e'allS of ( (8 recl(slss. to sl!v tlle least, replort of Edward( Tiffin. surveyor generall of Ollio. to tile gen'eral land office. in eonnliction with tile AIilitlary Bloullnty land act. E arlv ii 1812. congress passed an aet provi(ling folr sIlrveVing and settin aside six iiiillion (acres of land fori thie l)elltit ()f v () lhllmtcers in thle va r it was thlen about to (dedlare. of whicll tw-o miillion w(e to) be inll (eacl of t(he rirritories of dIi(chigan. Illlinois. an( IJLouisilmlana. 8}lld it ln()ride(l tllat thle lands so to be set aside shioul 1(be "fit for (cultivatioll." l) 1 81 6 thalt I)art of the actt regard(ing thle t\vo million acWres in Mielliganlll wNas relcale(,.11(1 )by tlhe rel)ealing act a further o11e Iand a lh(alf nillioll ill Illinois a(lll ole-lhalf million acres in Alisso-lri werel sulbstituted. This last mentioned act Nwas 1passe( lecalluse of thle reI)ort of tlhe surveyor general above lentilone(l1 nade ill No'vemtber, 1815. Threin Iilhe dlescribedl the lands (1 l thle Indian boI&1iundary inl I.ichligan. l a s "0low w*et taIi(ds with a very thick gfrolwthl of underbl)lushl. iiiterniixed with very hlad niarslles but geiiercally lheavily timbered Nwithl beech, cottollnood. oak,. et(c.; tllllnce co()lltilluillg liorth and extendil fromn tile Indiani b)oudlllrV eastwal vrd t.hle 11uml1er w(d1c extellt of swanips increases, withl thle alddition of unlmbers of lakes. ftrol twciittyv elihmins to t-wo or thlree miles acI(rosS." And.again lie says.: "It is with the utiiiost difficulty tihat a pl1ce can be foulld over whiclh hlorses can h1e collv-ced, and, 'Tn lill, g the comUlltil together so far as it hals been explr(ed. and to (-ll (appearalllees, togethler with the information received( inl regard to tlhe balaiee. it is so bad there would not be more than one acre olt of a 11hundred, if there would be more than onle. out of a thomsand,( thliat w-ould in (any case admit of cultivation." As a nlatte- of coltrse. this llnllarranllted( and very mistaken report was laid before congress in connection with the proposition to

Page  172 172 TlE NORTHERN IENINS'lA OF AICIIGAN substitute lands in Illinois and Missouri for those originally provided to be set aside in MIichligan; as a further conseqluence the daimaging report regarding MIichigan lands was spread throughout the eastern country, and Michigan was referred to as "the great disinlal swamp," with the effect of ind(ucing seekers of western homes to direct their courses farther south, a(nd thus seriously to impede for a time the settlement of Michligcan. The report had particular reference to the lands of the Lower Peninsula, but the effect was equally bad upon the Upper. Iad the merits of the Lower Ieninsula been properly heralded so as to induce settlement, attention to the Upper Peninsula would have followed as a natural consequence. Quite in contrast to the report above referred to, and illustrative of the evil effects thereof, another report was made in 1818, by William Darby, wiho, after exploring the regions in the vicinity of Detroit, wrote: "Though the soil is good in general-sonne of it is excellent-and all parts well situated for agriculture and commerce, some causes have hitherto operated to prevent any serious immigration to MIichigan territory. For upward of a month I have been traveling between this city and Geneva. in the state of New York, and I have seen hundreds moving to the west, but not one in fifty with the intention of settling in TMichigan territory." In 1816 Indianfa was admitted as a state, and by the act of admission her northern boundary was fixed at a point ten miles further north than the southern boundary of Michigan, thus occasioning a conflicting claim to that strip, which later had a direct effect upon the Upper Peninsula. In 1818 Illinois was admitted as a state, and her northern boundary was crowded still further north; of course to so provide such lake frontage that the future city of Chicago would be in that state. This left of the old Northwest territory, not now incorporated into states, only the territory now comprising Michigan, Wisconsin and that part of 5Minnesota east of the 5Mississippi river, and thereafter known as Michigan territory. The turning point for Michigan seems to have come with the favorable report of )Darby in 1818, and in that year a land office was opened in Detroit. In 1819 Michigan territory was given the right to a delegate in congress, and upon her citizens was conferred the general right of suffrage. William Woodbridge was elected the first delegate to represent the territory in congress, and took his seat December 10, 1819. As a practically concurrent event, and as introducing an element of transportation that had much to do with the rapidity of settlement in the then near future, it is noted that "Walk-in-the-Water," the first steamboat on the lakes above Niagara Falls, was launched on Lake Erie in 1818, and entered the port of Detroit August 27th of that year; from which time she plied between Detroit and Buffalo until 1821, when she was wrecked and the "Superior" took her place. With the coming of steamers, came also rapid increase in the number of American settlers, so that by 1820 Detroit had a white population of fourteen hundred

Page  173 TIlE NORTIHERN IENINSITLI A OF M1ICHIGAN 173 and fifteen. The opening of Erie canal added another advantage to western travel, completing the water route from New York to Michigan and the other states bordering the lakes, and population grew apace. Until 1817 there had been but one county organization; that of Wayne. That year Monroe county was organized, and in 1818 came the counties of Macomlb and Mackinac. thus showing the turn of the tide of immigration to the territory of Michigan. FUR TRADE ATTRACTS 1TRADERS Notwithstanding the fact that home seekers had been kept from settling in Mlichigan, by the various causes above mentioned, it appears that the attractiveness of the fur trade was such that it was continued, in a greater or lesser degree, at all tiles, anid in the ten years tlat elapsed beween 1780 and 1790, during most of which period the English withheld fronl the United States the possession of Michigran after having ceded title thereto by treaty. tihe district of I ichiliuiatckinac produced three thousand two hundred and twenty packs of furs of the estimated value of twenty pounds each, or sixty thousand four hundred pounds, equal to nearly three hundred thousand dollars, as shown by British figures, made for the purpose of illustrating the loss to England that would be occasioned by the surrender of the fur trade of the lake posts to the United States. In 1783, the very year in which the treaty was signed whereby this country was ceded by Britain to the United States, the Northwest Fur Company was organized at Montreal by twenty-three merchants of that town, and that cotml)any sent into the district, of which AIiclilimllacekinac was the trading center, about two thousand fur traders, who were distributed far and near, living and trading with the Indians and thus perpetuating the profitable trade. In 1809. John Jacob Astor organized the American Fur Company, and two years later bought out the Mackinac business and all the interests of the Northwest Fur Company south of the international boundary line. The representatives of these great fur trading companies were. with a very few exceptions, the only white settlers within the boundaries of the Upper Peninsula for the first third of the nineteenth century. Exploitation, rather than settlement, was the order of the times, and the making or recording of history seems to have been the least of their cares. As late as 1820 the Upper Peninsula of 5Michigan seems only to have been reckoned with as Iindian territory. In a book published in 1821, entitled a "'Narrative Journal of Travels froi D)etroit, Northwest through the Great Chain of Lakes to the Sources of the Mississippi River, in the Year 1820," by Henry R. Schoolcraft, there appears a map which shows Michigan to constitute what is now the Lower Peninsula, and including a strip of country now belonging to Ohio, the southern boundary of the state appearing as a line extending from the most southerly point of Lake Michligan directly east to Lake Erie. The territory north of the straits, including what is now the Upper Peninsula, north

Page  174 174 TIlE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICIIGAN em Wisconsin and a part of Minnesota, without being given specific boundaries, is labeled on that Imap "Chippeway Indians." In the description of his jotiuriey, which he also traced upon the map, he shows that he coasted along, tlhe entire lake boundaries of the Upper Peninsula. After the war of 1812 had been formally ended by treaty, there were many instances of infraction of Amnerican rights by both the English and the Indians, and it was apparent that the English were not even then ready to surrender their iucht coveted rights to thie ih ovi iigan fur trade; and they were not loth to stir the Indians to acts of savagery that continued for years to be a menace to settlers, and as a consequ(lenlce caused a con(tinued delvay in iiiiiiigratio n to the country remote from c(ivilized settlement. GoNvernor C(alss, however, wals of the right metal and stood firmly for a. recognition of treaty rights. By the treaty it was stipulated that tlhere should be restoration to each of thle parties of all places ca)tllredl. Among, otller instances of grievances. Governor Cass learned that tlie English. with the aid of I)ickson, his Indians and traders, inte(de(l to try again the old policy- of the English, and to continue in the possession of Mackinatc and thereby in the control of the trade. Cass therefore retained Maideni in the possession of the Americans. offering her surrend(er when tlle delivery of AMackinac was insured. The exchanlle was finally mnade in July,l 1815, though the intrigues of the British with the Indians did lnot cease with the surrender of the post, and the tradters of that vicinity paid little heed to treaty obligations or American rights; and to live in the surrounding country was a recognized hazard for many years to come. The people that came to this part of the country under the circumstances that creatted its history up to the close of the war of 1812. and that survived the turbulency of the titmes, were essentially a conglomerate lot, of varied nationalities and various degrees of ignorance and kn'owledge. 3Many were actually of the criminal classes. In the then condition of the country it was natural that their habitations should be along the shores of the lakes, for the water highways were their only avenues of travel and transportation. While there were respectable and intelligent people aniong the remaining populace, and some remained in the settlements to pursue their trades, many more were scattered along the shores, taking up their residences upon the islands and the shores of the mainland, where they engaged in fishing and hunting, and carried on their trade with the Indians; and many are the tales of piracy and murders that were so frequent as to amount to an almost continuous border warfare for many years that followed, constituting a menace to settlement almost if not quite equal to the fear of the savagery of the Indians. It was well on toward the middle of the nineteenth century that settlers in any considerable numbers were induced to risk the evils mentioned, and, furthermore. it required nearly that period to negotiate the necessary treaties and inaugurate and complete surveys, so that titles might be acquired to the lands of the Upper Peninsula; and until titles could be

Page  175 TIlE NORTI-IERN PENINSULA OF M1ICIIIGANt 175 acllluired there was little to induclee permaniiient settlement, and the countrv continued(1 to be exl)loited rather than (developed. I)ulring this period, however, thle lower p.art of tile Lower Penlinsula un(lerwent rapid developmlent; as tlie (le'elo(l)lnenllt f a territorial an(d state g'overnlment was essential there, tile laws were ready for al)plli(ationl to te Il('ed( of the Uppe)lr.'ellinsulal l as so as lernmanlnt settlemelnts shoul(l (develop therein. By an act of conlress, Ipased M1ay 26, 1812. thle iresi(ldent had been directed to cause a. survey to })e Ill(l(' in acor(ane, \withl tle la ]x prescribing the northeril boundary of Ohio. with "a plat or p)lan of so 11111(11ch of the b(llndary line as ruis frl')l the solthe('rn ext'emle o)f Lake MIichigan to Lrake Erie, particul1arly noting the p)lace w\l('here the said line intersects the margin of said1 lake." Tllis survey was (delayed- b1y the war, and in the memanttile Indiana apl)lie(l for statehood. WlleIn that state was admnitted, its northenii boundary was not described1 to accord with the southern boundary of \li(chigcan territory, but was d(efined as an east and west line ten miles farther lnortl tlhan th(e sllthernl( )illt of Lake AMichigan, thus including ill the state of Indiana al. strip of Michigan territory ten iles in width; whiclh iayl be said to have been tlhe initial act of the eontroversv whlich later rcsilte(1 in the 'TIoledo war an(l inceluding the present Ut)pper 'Peninsula all witlin tihe statte of Mlicllig'an. In 1817 the seco(nd county in the state, 1lon1roe. was e(stablished, lll(l named( in hon(or of the l)resilent e xtho (was thell expecte., an1d Alwho, in Augpust of that year, visited the territory, a ccoml)allbiet(l 1)5 l umber ()f (listinguished civil and military officials. It was in this same year that the University of MAlichigan was create(1. and primlary sclhools were established at Detroit, 5IMonroe and MAackinaw.. In1 January, 181S, lacomnb c)ounty was establishe(1, (as the third county of the state,.1land it was followed in Octl()er of that year l)y the orgallnizing of M3ichilimnackia ltle Brown and( Crawf{ord counties. Michilimlll(ackinac included the whole of t.le 'l ))er 1Peninsula and a part of l-whlat is now AXisconsin, and was therefore the fourth 5Miehigfan county organized. It hlad its seat at \Iiclillimae(kina. 1ro\\wl ('eullllt in('lll(l(l the eastern part of thle present state of Wisconsin, with seat at Green B3ay-; and Crawford county included the iwNestern part of the plresent state of \Wisconsinl. with seat at l'.rairie du(111 Chlielln. In 1817, Greetn Bay- as a part of MIiclhiRan territory, was garrisoned( as the first evi(lenc of Amlcrican governl lental jurisdiction of that part of the country. In lMarch, 1818. shoes were sent from Detroit to the garrison at Green Bay'. lbcing( conveyed by pac1k horses. At this period an uncoimmon situation presented itself in Michigan territory. It was usual throughout the ambitious and( developing west to find the inhlabitants eager for statehood and rea(dy to grasp it at the first oplportunity. 5Michigan had now acquired sufficient population to entitle her to apply for admission. but the proposition to do so was voted down by an

Page  176 176 THE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MIICIIGAN overwhelming mnajority. The reason therefor is attributable to the fact that a large majority of the population was French, and they had had so short a period of representative government that they had not become accustomed to it, and had not surrendered their loyalty to a government whose commandant was law unto the community. On August 27, 1818, the first steamboat, "Walk-in-the-Water," made its appearance at Detroit, from Buffalo. The Indians were warned of its coming and were told it was to be drawn by sturgeons and when they saw it approach they were filled with wonder; and filled the air with their expressive shouts. FIRST PUTTING UP OF PUBLIC LANDS Another incident of this eventful year for Michigan was the first putting up of public lands for sale. Prior to this there had been but slight recognition of private ownership of lands. Congress had theretofore appointed a commission to hear the claims of numerous parties who claimed to have been in actual possession of certain tracts under the former governmlents, and to have,actually exercised possession thereof at the time of the final acquisition of this territory from England by the United States, in 1796; and that commission had reported in favor of the allowance of numerous claims in the Lower Peninsula, and of a considerable number at Mackinaw and the Sault. On April 23, 1812, congress ratified the acts of the commission and directed the issue of patents for all claims confirmed by the commissioners, which patents were the first evidence of grants of title to lands in Michigan to private owners by the government of the United States. In the summer of 1819 the "Walk-in-the-Water" made a trip to 5Mackinaw, being the first steamer to iiake an Upper Peninsula port. She carried a load of passengers and freight, and made the trip from Buffalo to Mackinaw and back in twelve days, the cargo being of the estimated value of $200,000. CAss UPPER LAKE EXPEDITION An expedition organized by Governor Cass in 1820 to explore the Upper Lake region lhad very ilmportant results, for, from it, knowledge was acquired, and reliable and practical reports were given to the world as to the country traversed, and as to its inviting resources. The exp)edition started from )Detroit Alay 24, 1820, andl co()ln)risedl Governor Cass, I)r. Alexander Wolcott; Captain I). B. Douglass, engineer; Lieut. Aeneas Mackay, in command of the soldiery, James Duane Doty, general secretary. MIajor Robert A. Forsythe, secretary to the governor, Ienry R. Schoolcraft, geologist and topographer, Cha rles C. Trowbridge and Alexander R. Chase. They traveled in bark canoes of the pattern of the times. At Mackinawt they distributed thle company and its freight into four such canoes, and, adding to the fleet a twelve-oared barge and taking on an additional escort. they proceeded to the Sault, where the Indians were reported to be turbulent. The British at this time had

Page  177 TIIE NiORTrIIlERN It'ENINSNULA 0O1 1IICIIIGAN 177 fortified I)ruimond Island, and, l, tlollgh the righlt to thle possession there()f was in dispute. they made it their head(lua ters for trade with thile iitians on both sides (,f tllc 1),unlldarv line. The lIBritish had llmainttaine(l a cI('stoni of a1111ally l distr'il )tillSg largre q1alnl1titis of Nvalllable presents to the InldiallS, by nlealls o(f whlich tlley \\were a)le to, lm~aintaill a laI'rge (legrlee of allegrilanl'e, a(1;t tile' Sall( tillle ex('l't ill illllell(l e I-)rejudicial to tile safety of Allleria('r s(ttlers. TIliat (listoii of?'ivil'r preSents wcas so extensivNe that the fleets of IndiaI (',anI,(es t\lit resoited to the tra(ling centers pIresented an interesting SI(ctaclel ';l(1 thle practice was kept IIup to such a re(aent late tllat pe1)ople still ]i\illng 1're11111eiber of halvingl seen o\Tver fifty (anolle)s (f Indlians in a singllC fl('eet ()li their way to get tlleir presents (of guns, knives, blankets alill tlhe like. It was not unconmriion for them t to dispose of the artticles receivedl to tlre tradlers. and sqlan(ler the p)roceeds for whiskey. After the close of the war, the Eng(lish for a timie abandoned the enastollm of giving presents, andl it. was on this o(aCsion that. in 1816, tlle great Chief Thomas, or Toimah of the Alenomine(es, having nade his pilgrimage to the Sault in exp)ectation of receiving the usual supply of I)resents, and having met with a cold shoulder at the h1ands of Ma'jor Pathuff, then in command. was so disappointed that he returned(1 to Mackinaw, betook hiimself to d(rink, and literally draink himself to d(eath. The custom of giving presents did not, however, remalin long suispendled. It was too potent of influence. and the Enllish were not willing to d(ispense with the services of the Indians as allies. The renewal of the custom served to again arouse the prejudice of the Indians in favor of tihe English and against the Amnericans. and this prejudice was made very evident when Governor Cass and1 his party reached thle Sarlt, June 14, 1820. The village on the AmIiericanI side of the ri-ver showedl no sign of American loyalty; in fact there hal( not been up) to thlat tilIle an actlal American occupation of the place. There were (l few French and EnIglish falnilies, possil)ly fifteen or ei(glhteen of wh(om thllat of Johnllll Jons() active in })ehalf of the BIritish during the w;arI, was perha)ps the mlost distinguished. On the Cana.dian side of the riNver the Northwest Fur Com1pan\y ilad( its buildilfngs a(1 Illmaintained a factory ann a ru(de system of lockls in the Canadian channel of tile river. This comp)any imaintained an. extensive tradel in all the sur'rounding coullntr. and thereby, in connection with the (c1ustoil of Il(allkiig I)rc(enlts, exereisedl almost (o.01 -plete eoiltrol of thle saNvage inhablitantis. As has already ibeen reeite(l during( the early I)ossession of this section by the French, Repentiglly, nnder a grant frl(-'1 tte crown, had built a fort onl the Anerican side of the river. As one of the objects of this expe(lition waCls to establishl an American fort. it seemed.advisable to locate tilhe site of the old one and(1 a council with the Indians of the village was called principally for that l)urp)ose, so that the location of the Old French grant might be determined, an(d recognized. The Indians resp)onded to the governor's invitation and met hilll and Vol. I-1 2'

Page  178 178 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN his party at his tent on the 16th of June, but at once made it evident that they were not disposed to be friendly, or make any concessions. While some of them indicated a consent that Americans might settle there, they gave the governor to understand that a military post was not wanted, and that if one was established it llight be subject to attack by the young men who were still determined to hold the country as a heritage of their own. The governor was not to be trifled with, or driven away through fear, and he made response that a fort would be built whether they liked it or not. In this council was a certain chief called the "count" dressed in the costume of an English brigadier and he, during a speech, as if to emphasize his displeasure ancd his determination, with a vigorous flourish of his war-lance thrust it and planted it in the ground as a symbol of Indian possession of the soil. On leaving the governor's tent the Indians went to their own village on a hill near where the old French fort had previously stood, and there in front of the wigwam of the "count" they hoisted the English flag. Immediately on learning of this. Governor Cass, with only his interpreter to accompany himl, walked to the Indian village, took down the flag, and, after telling them that none but an American flag could be used there, boldly carried away the British colors. This boldness of the governor overawed them, but, nevertheless. they dispatched their women and children to more remote parts, and the men of the village made preparations to attack the governor's party; the Americans, at the same time, numbering in all sixty-six persons and all well armed, prepared to defend themselves. Shingobawassin was the head chief and had been absent from the council, but now, under pacifying influences to be noted later, put in appearance, prevented the attack, and renewed the council with the governor, with the result that a treaty was signed by which the Indians released to the Americans a tract of sixteen square miles, though the "count" maintained his opposition and refused to sign the treaty. From the Sault the expedition coasted along the south shore of Lake Superior to Keweenaw point, thence through Portage lake and crossed overland to the great copper boulder, of which they had heard, on Ontonagon river. They then went up the St. Louis river and made their way to the Mississippi, after which they returned to Green Bay, Wisconsin, where they separated, the governor and a portion of his party going to Chicago and thence to Detroit, while the remainder of the party went to Mackinaw, and thence to Detroit; thus ending a perilous journey that proved of great benefit to Michigan, and especially to the Upper Peninsula. Up to the year of 1822 the United States maintained a system of government trading houses, the abolition of which, that year, enabled American fur traders to compete with the British, with the result that British influence over the Indians immediately began to decrease, although it was a considerable period after that before the British traders let go

Page  179 THE -NORTHERN P~ENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 17 179 their foot~hold ml this peninsula; and ais long ais thiey reimaiined they Conitrolled the Indlians as far as thev were able to dTo so. By, the treaity of Ghient the settlement of the boundar lIneie e the United States, and Canaclda' was left to comaliss101oner's, anld in 1822 they decided that Drummond 181011(, inl the Imouthl of St. Maryi's river, which, lip to that. tune had been elaimedl 1)y 1)0th (ounltries, ilciongred to the United States. Notwvithstandimi-:) -Sue deeisi( n the British c(mIninluedl to possess it, againist the protests of the _Americanu~s, anid mnaintalin their trading 1)ost th ereon, anld as late as I82(3, from that poinit, (listribuited prwes'ents an1d annu111ities to four tllousan(id1 Indians1 inl returni forP servieCIs renmlere(1 to Gre~at. Brita~in, 011i1 to conwtiniue the exercise of Brit~ish inld1i enie o)ve-r the TIndians, anld thereby) m in the avatgc(If their. trod. CoURT-4 AN-D TRA[DERS rihe early traiel s andl settlers inl tile tLl)i)er 1Peinisuhia were grea,-tly hlamp~ered1 by- thel loek (If opp)ortllnityN for re(iress, (If grievanes5 lin the courts. Un.Idoubtedly to this fact. aii1d tile conseqluellt lack of restraint., mcay be attributcit imuch of the awesns tilt p)revaile(d inl Certain seetmios. It istrue the laws (of tile territolry p)rovidcd a 'syNsteml of counlty courts, and Mackinawv County nlaintainle1 such a couirt a,1fter its, (Irgalli~zat ion. Tihis court was. IlowNever, presided over by ca laymai.n, and niatmnra1iy slight realization of legual remedies resulted. It. wNas ain expensive I~r(IpOIsitilon to resort fronlm varioIus ilarts (If the e(Iuntv to Ma"ckili'naw with witniess t(I a lecrfal coIntroversy, and tilis,- fact. tolgetiher with tile questionable cilanee (If gettlng 'ustiel at trial. cauisel imanv grie'Vauo-es t(I I~e overloke, r to be fought. out. in tile op~en carciia (If tilcir oruicr \vlwere tile Ijiestilol () ih eame oi oll (If mlight. hrue there wvas Fan app)Ieal fromll tihe emilty' e(ourt to.) tlem s11)p~lliii ((1111 at Detroit, aild (Ill aljlpeal inl tilose tillics', the C0s( Oi(l11( be triedi dIc IlIIvo, 01(1 a juyeIldl be ha.d; bu1t. it. was all cxpenls~ prI)hiintltiepol l iis tilen remote reg~ion 011( this Wc5 Illot (ill, the supirem~e court; had( its sessillil ill lDetroit onice a yeair. 011(1d that in tile very last of September, 8(1 thlt. na"cvigfatioll toI the niorthwa-crd was veylikcly to h~e cl(18edc'i aaills"t tile vesseks of those (lays. ibefore tile fiitg~ants (((mld leturn after tile trial was over. In 1822 thlis grie-IVOuSs ituati(Ii] Was hiaid bef(Ire congress by.Jaiuies D[)ane Doty, wiho Ilad- remolvedi toI Greeni Ba~y, thecn ill BroIwl county, Michiganm territory, amid inl his, e(illlllnieati(In lhe infolrmedl congress of tile resulting liardshiijls to tile tradiers, anid related tilat the I.1(iianl dlebtors, believed tiheir (debts tol tile traders weme lpaidl b-v a tend~er (If a dInc am~ounit (If furs (at tile trmider's' resmidenc, anid if the trader was ailsent lie was p~retty certaiin tol lose Ilis Claim. Ill tilmt eoalnunieatioll a Sihowing was made as to the ill(raleof tile trade (If tilis s'eetioll, 0(1 it was Clainmed it plnodticedi a Larger' rcvellll thial amiy (otiler, witih tile l)(15ible excep~tionl of Orleanls. Mackilawv wa5 Claimnedl to Ilave yielded duties to thle extent. of $40,00() in 1807, while in tue 1)101th of Novelmber, 1821, the samle polint exp~orted 3.0-1(l paeks (If furs, 011( it was Claimledl that tile sale (If foreign good~s i'll tile tribu-tary territoryv anmounted toI a million (dollars aliinually.

Page  180 180 TIIE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MIICHIGAN Upon these representations, Congress passed an act in January, 1823, providing for a district court for this locality, to have jurisdiction over all offenses and transactions concerning commerce, and dealings with the Indians, and also the usual jurisdiction of the county courts. Mr. I)oty was made judge of the new court. In March of the same year an act was passed whereby congress made important changes in the form of territorial government, so that legislative power of the territory was vested in the governor and a council of nine persons, these nine to be selected by the president and confirmed by the senate from a list of eighteen to be elected by the people of the territory; and by the same act the judges were given equity as well as common-law powers. In February, 1825, congress again took action favorable to the settlers of the territory and provided for its division into townships, for their incorporation, and for the election of all county officers except judges, justices, sheriffs and clerks; in other words, for the election of all county officers except those connected with the administration of justice. CASS'S SECOND EXPEDITION In 1826, to further the interests of the government in the Lake Superior regions, General Cass and Colonel Thomas L. McKenna made up another expedition the story of which, as written by McKenna, was published in Baltimore in 1827 and is entitled "Sketches of a Tour to the Lakes." It treats of the characters and customs of the Chippeway Indians, and of the incidents connected with the negotiation of the "Treaty of Fond du Lac" negotiated by them. Mr. McKenna started from Georgetown, District of Columbia, on the first day of June, 1826, by stage to Baltimore; thence by steamboat to New York, up the Iudson to Albany in the "Lady Clinton," a new river barge of that period, which was described as a "floating palace," and was towed by the "Commerce," "an unusually fine steamboat and of great power." From Albany he proceeded through to the Erie canal, which was first opened to travel the year previous, and was reckoned as one of the greatest of boons to the western-bound emigrants of those days, doing much to shorten the period and lighten the burden of the tedious journey. From Buffalo he traveled by. stealner '"Clay" and landed in l)etroit, Alichigan territory, Friday, June 1 1826, after a fifteen days' continuous journey from Georgetown. The party organized for this tour left Detroit, June 23d, on the "Schneau Ghent," and was composed of Governor Cass, Colonel Thos. L. MIcKenna; Colonel Croghan, the newly appointed inspector general of the army; Captain Hinkley, and a Mr. Porter who was a passenger to Fond du Lac. After a voyage, in which they encountered some rough weather and consequent delays, they came in view of Drulmmiond island, and the highlands of St. Joseph, about one o'clock in the afternoon of July 2nd, and of which they recorded: "In the west, on our

Page  181 1THE NORTHERN PENINSrIUA OF II.IR'IIIGAN 181 left, ilichilillakinacna and( Bois Ilanc, looming ab)ove the other dark lines that the fogs and vapours make upon the sky." The narrator also recorded that "at five o'clock dropped anchor in the Detour, having an island nearly in the middle of the Detour, about thirty yards from our stern, filled with Indians, drunk, noisy and naked. This sight interested miie Iore than any I had seen. The boat was let down and Colonel Croghan, M.r. Porter and myself went on the island on our way to )rumnion(l island, which is ab)out a nile across fiomn our anchorage. We there learned from an interpreter that these were Indians who had been to I)runllond island (principally Chippeways and O)ttawas) to receive their annual presents; and that having got them, they had, as usual, given them for whiskey, and were now enjoying the luxury of being drunk and naked." On landing at St. Joseph they were introduced to the officers of the post by Captain McIntosh, of the schooner "Wellington," and were invited to the officers' quarters and treated with great cordiality; being informed that of three thousand Indians who had been there to receive presents, there still remained about six hundred. On returning to the schooner in the evening the party concluded to again land upon the island and see the drunken Indians by torchlight. To their happy surprise, their own party, who had preceeded them from Detroit and had been to Michilimackinac, had returned to meet them here and had drawn their barges up in line, pitched several tents and liglted their canp files. Of the condition of those Indians, and the situation as pertaining to themn, Mr. MeKenna wrote: "It is not possible to give a description of the looks of those staggering and besotted Indians, when seen by torchlilght. The torch is made of birch bark and emits a large flame, and much smoke. The glare from one is vivid, but a hundred, all lighted at once, and flaring about in all directions, and reflecting upon naked and painted savages, with bells rattling from their long and painted locks, and who evecvr now and then fall into a thicket, and letting go their g'rasp of a torch, send it flamuing and smoking (along the ground, pr()od(lue an effect which it. is not easy to describe; whilst its fittest resemblance is tha}t hell of which we read, where the wicked are said to lgnash their teetli, (and from whenlce the snloke of their torlment ascendlls while tle Id(lians vell and make cries of the mlost app(alling so(t. All tile evil (come()s froln whiskey. 'We saw a log house on the island, where a settler lhad fixed hlillself. and I (ount'ed on the shore seventteen empty barrels. For their contents these poor wretches had exchanged their fine MIichiliimackinac blankets, and kettles, and knive n calicoes thatt had been (listrtil)utedl to theml at I)rum111id (1 Island,( where tlhe British governmelnt s(lquanders, annually,11 a sum a little short, if any, of one hundred thouIsand d(Iollars." And( thlis p1en-l)icture of Mr. MeKenna's represents conditions within our peninsuIla only eighty-five years ago. Of the party as here reorganized( the author continues: "Our company is now composed of Mr.

Page  182 .182 TIIE NORTHERN PENINSLLA OF MIICIHIGAN Cass aind myself, as conmmissioners; Colonel Edwards. secretary, and G. F. Porter, assistant secretary; Colonel Crocghan; MIajor W\hipple, conimlissary; Christian Clemens, who has charge of the plublic goods; Henry Conner, interplreter; Joseph.` SpenceIr in charge of the bota(ts; J. O. Lewis, Jamies W. Abbot, assistant in deliverin, 1, p)rovisions to the Indians, and E. A. Brush, together Awith thirty-one engagees, or voyag'eurs; onfe baker, and one co(ok.; mal;king a t()tal of forty-three, besildes the three voyageurs we have left to mend anll bring in our canoe. "The D)etour soon widens into 1an expense of vwaters of four mIiles and is studded Nwith islands, all of them reen andll beautiful, anid of a circula.r form, and wshich are from fifty- var(ls to a mile in circumlference, and in the distance are seen the lligllands of St. Josellh. land the islalnd of that name, just b)efore us; whilst the Indian candoes are in motion, ski1mniing this beautiful expanse of waters. inl all. direc(tions. conveying to their villag(es those wh) have be)en at l)rumnmmond Islan( whilst lbehind us the scho(oner 'Ghent' is se(en getting unider vway fO1r MichilimackinaI(. Our bargeys, dressed off with the flags of ul,l c(untrIv. look like a little fleet. Th(e whole together w\ould makel( a. beatiful I panorama." A\s the paIrty proceeded up the river. they pelrceived a canoe filled with Indians, followin(. an(111d all apparently )lying their l)ad(Idlcs, with the result that the colonel was!soon overltakell. In it waC1S Ole Ne(luegon. )or tle Wilnd, ll(l lhis falillil. w\\h had n.('1 to ID'ui1111111(on1d island( to ("et their p)resents f'romi the British lkinm". a111d halini heard that ''"his fiat(hel'. G()vernor Cass, had liassetid," had ()111( on to see lil an11(d shaSke hal(s. and. of (courllse tO. ()t 1Imore rese e was given salt. lrk and tOb)acco. an(1l an olrder oI the agent at AIichlilimoaekinai c for other (1articles for his famlilly. tHe was an Ottawa a1nd lived well anid his 10anoe wa-s well filledl. lie was one of the few 1t1dianis w\\n renmained frienqdl1v to the IUnited States, during_, the wa-r o)f 1S12. "'1By his side -was lhis ((1aged and wrinkled sq(uaw, cand rangled in the order ill whicllh ieople are forced to sit in bark c(anoeS, were his two sons an(l four (laughllters. TlIe old Imall was asked if hle knew tlhe pers)on who had ljust,given his dan(ghlter the beads, Colonel Crog lhan. I-e seemed( in doubt. 'I'he gooverneIor tolt hilll le was the same who whipped the red coats alt Sandusky, \when 11e instantly recognized him. and to sh10ow us that 11e did. put a 1111(ld uIpo)n each of his (own- sthoulders to indlicate the plaices where his eplaulets weit' worn. ' THE SOO AND COLONEL CiRMGItAN (182t6) The party ]landled at Sault Ste. Ilarie at tvwo o'clock in the mornin0 g f Ily tlh, cold. wet anlld 111111unry but l'tere soonll 1dged ill a house kel)t bIy a. MIr. IIarris, where as 1Mr. McKenna writes. it took him lani hour bef(ore a large fire, and w\ith his (r(eat coat on. to Lcrt \wa'rn. R(efreshlnments were l)rcp)red, ineluding a whitefisih. and th}e goverinor. who had etired, on hearing they iwere to have one of these fish. got up and joined in the repast. The fish is described as thle finest that swimns and with nothing to equal it.

Page  183 TIIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 183 During the day Colonel Croghan reviewed tile troops and the party was cordially received and hospitably entertained by Colonel Lawrence, the commanding officer, and by the entire garrison; by Mr. Johnson, the p)atriarch of the Sault, Mr. Schooleraft and others. IIere, all preparations had been made for the further journey of the commissioners, "six hundred miiles beyond the limits of civilization" and a detachment in charge of Captain 1loardman, an experienced officer in the service, was assigned as escort. with Lieutenant Kingsbury second in command, and Dr. Pitcher as surgeon. Considering the part played by Colonel Croghan in thle war of 1812, and( thereafter in connection with the affairs of this peninsula. it is but X.. D;i~ ~ Y fitting that we make _mnetion of him nd we can not better d() so thlan in the lanruae of his friend and eomanitmon. \[cKenna. written just after witnessing his review of the troops: 'i believe there was not a i ',T,(-?CK r 7 geant Snow to the most unol)serving private, who did not feel the convi(ction of Croghains pow amd his i exac(t fitness for thle place. Indeed, few men lhave more. eitlher of tlhe gait or expression of thle soldier. IHis face is altogetlher a military one. There is somet.hing in his eye that passes from it, in command. like fire. Ite never blunders. Ite knows the forms and thie order. and is gifted with a. voice and language to command, and is a most soldierly 1)erson. Ile is about five feet ten inches high, straight as an arr(ow. with a fine breadth of the shoulders and

Page  184 184 TE-I NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN chest, and is compact and well-made in all respects. There is a spring and elasticity in his movements and a quick and penetrating spirit about him, that makes his presence felt. No man carries a warmer or more generous heart. It is the very fountain of benevolence; and his eye which flashes so in command, is soft and expressive when he mingles in society. If Croghan had not the heart I have described, he would not be worth anything, nor be where he is. It was this generous heart of his that operated upon him at Sandusky; for show me a generous man and I will show you a brave one. Show me a cold, calculating, cruel man, and I will show you a treacherous man and a coward. A brave man is mild in peace; but in war and in a righteous cause, he is a lion. These are the characters who are fit for private friendship or the public service, who adorn and honor both; and Croghan is one of these." To introduce here, copious extracts written at that time by Mr. Mc. Kenna seems to be the best method of picturing the then conditions of the country, its people, business, trades and the relations of the white men and the Indians, as well as the diversity of character found in both Indians and traders. He writes, further, as follows: "Sault dte St. Marie, July 6, 1826. "It was not my intention to have ommited, in my notice of the inspection, a reference to this hospital and this school; yet I believe I said nothing of either. Were I a surgeon, I would adopt as a model this hospital and its entire arrangement -except that the building is too small, and rather low pitched. Every possible attention had been paid by the officers charged with it, toward making it a sweet and even inviting place. The appartments are in the nicest order and well ventilated. The sick are as well provided for, even to a nice linen nightcap, which is carefully placed under every pillow, as if these essential preparations were made by the hands of a provident and affectionate friend. " The cases I saw were generally inflammatory and rheumatic, in the production of which whiskey has no inconsiderable agency; and in which the lancet is, as it ought to be, freely used. It does appear to me that this part of a soldier's rations might be dispensed with, or commuted. It is notorious that many persons enlist, to whom whiskey at the conmmencement is nauceous, but it is part of their supplies. They receive it, taste it, and taste it again, until at last it becomes agreeable and the use of it is continued until they are afflicted with inflammatory diseases, or turn out to be confirmed drunkards. ''The school is kept by a Mr. McCleary, a non-commissioned officer of the post, and a most interesting appendage, truly, it is to the post. The system is Lancashirian in part, but is, in my opinion, in some particulars, at least, an improvement upon it. For example; the pupil is not only require(l to spell the word correctly, but to give its derivation, or meaning. A given number of wor(ls being written on a slate, they are called over by the monitor, when the meaning will be given by the dictator until the meaning of every w-ord is comprehended by each member of the class. The mode of acquiring the definition along with the correct orthography is important. The examinations in geography and astronomy were highly creditable, indeed striking, there being only two of the twenty-four scholars over ten years of age. "This school, which is within the fort, is und(er the direction of a committee of officers who prepare or revise the rules for its government, and visit it, etc.; the whole subject to the approval of the commanding officer. Mir. McCleary, besides being well qualified to conduct so important an(l interesting an establishment, is a man of genius. We were shown two emblematical tranlsparencies which he had prepared in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of our independen ce. One of them represents a soldier of the United States army embracing a Chippeway Indian chief dressed in the costume of his nation, and in the center of the picture is an eagle. with a scroll from his beak, having on it Washington and Lafayette, and this motto:

Page  185 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICIIGAN 185 '"We are a firm and solid brotherhood, Which neither treachery from within, nor Assaults from without, can dissolve." The other is an emblematic scroll having on it: ' NATIONAL J UB1 I I311,' Fiftieth ANNIVERSARY OF AMIERICAN\ INDEPENDENCE' "From a feeble infancy she has grown to a giant size, and a giant's strength. Here may the oppressed of every country find a refuge, and the industrious a home. Our agriculture has reduced the wilderness to submission." This is supposed to have been the first American school at the Sault, and illusstrates the high standard of patriotism represented by the pioneer teacher and officials. After writing further of his inspection of the Military he comments as follows: ''The Indians who live about here in summer, and who subsist on the fish taken by them from the rapids, but who go in winter into the interior to hunt, assembled to witness our maneuverings. It is easy to see tlat they had yielded the contest for supremacy. They looked as though they believed the white men had got the ascendency. They sat in groups on the green, upon their hams, as is their custom, their bodies naked, with a blanket round their hips, smoking their pipes, silent, but watchful. We spent the evening-I mean the Governor, Colonel Croghan, and myself, at Mr. Schooleraft's-where we met NMr. Johnson, the patriarch of the place, and his family, except his wife, who though not of the party this evening, I have seen. "IMr. Johnson is by birth an Irishman, and his connections in the old country are among the nobility. He has been in this country nearly forty years. His wife is a woman of the Chippeway, or, as it should be called O-jib-way nation, and daughter of the famous Wa-ba-jick, the great chief formerly of Le Pointe, of Lake Superior, a man of renown and one who ruled both in wisdom and valor, and proved himself, in every emergency, to have been worthy of the station he held as chief of his band (the same as referred to in the history of the Indians as Waubojeck). A personal acquaintance with Mr. Johnson and his family, I esteem to be among the most interesting circumstances of my, so far, agreeable travels. Allow me to make you acquainted with this family. '"Mr. Johnson is in his sixty-fourth year, and Mrs. Johnson in her fifty-fourth. He is feeble and decrepid. A free liver in earlier life, he now feels the burden of sixty-four winters to be great. His education and intercourse with polished society up to his thirtieth year have given him many very striking advantages over the inhabitants of those distant regions, and indeed fit him to shine anywhere; whilst the genuine Irish hospitality of his heart has made his house a place of most agreeable resort to travelers. In his person, Mr. Johnson is neat; in his manners affable and polite; in conversation, intelligent. Iis language is always that of thought; and often strikingly graphic. He is alw ays cheerful, even when he is afflicted the most. Mrs. Johnson is further and quite fully described in the chapter on the Chippewas. "Governor (Cass, the comnmissioner. was made fully sensible of her power at the council in 1'20, for when every evidence was given that the then pending negotiation wvould issue tot only by a resistance on the luart of the Indians to tie p)ropositions of tile commissioners, but in a serious rupture, she, at the critical mromeat, sent for soime of the principal chiefs, directing that they should, to avoid the observation of the great body of IIndians, make a circuit, and meet her in an a-venue at the back of her resi(lence, and then, by her luninous exposition of their own weakness and the power of the Inited St ttes, ndl by assuriances of the friendly dlisposition of the government towvards tlem, produced a change which resulted, on that sane ever!ini., in the conclusion of the treaty. I have heard (overnor Cass say that he felt himself. then, andl does yet, under the greatest obligations to Mlrs. Johnson for her cooperation at that critical moment; and that the United States are debtor to her, not only on 1acc(ount of that act. but many others." "Of the children," he says, "they have seven, three sons and four daughters. Of M.rs. Schoolcraft you have heard. She is wife, you know, of H. R. Schooleraft, Esq., Author of Travels and other works of great merit, and Indian agent at this place. "The old gentleman, when in Edinburgh, had several propositions made to him to remain. The Duchess of Devonshire, I think it was, would have adopted Mrs. Schooleraft; and several propositions besides were made to settle upon her wealth

Page  186 186 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN and its distinctions, and his own friends and connections joined to keep him among them, by offers of great magnitude. But he told thenm lie h1ad married the daughter of a king in America, and although lie appreciated and was grateful for their offers to himself and his Jane, he must decline them, and return to his -wife, who through such a variety of fortune had been faithful and devoted to hin. "You may be curious to know how a gentlemen of Dubllin or Belfast, should find his way up to Lake Superior; and wllat led him to unite his destiny to the daughter of Wa-ba-jick. He meditated no stepl of the sort when he landed in America; but it occurring to him, when at MAontreal, that he would take a trip up the lakes, he procured an outfit, and, following the impulse, pursued his way until he arrived at St. Michael's Island; thence lie went over to Wa-ba-jick's village. His outfit was such as to enable him to make occasional exchanges witli the natives, which his independence led him to do in preference to being dependent on his family. This resulted in his becoming a trader. Wa-ba-jick's daulghter hiad been solicited by, and refused to other traders; but to IlMr. Johnson W a-bal-jick said; 'I have noticed your behavior. It has been correct. But, white man, your (olor is deceitful. Of you may I hope better things? You say you are going to return to Montreal; go, and if you retlurn, I shall be satisfied of your sincerity, and will give vou nm daughter.' lHe went to Montreal, returned anii mIarried her. She wx'as then lelicate, and, as AMr. Johnson tells me, very beautiful." Of the population and the village, Mr. AMcKenna records there were at the Sault at that time forty-seven men, thirty women and seventyfive children making a total of one hundred alnd fifty-two; and of the buildings, there were twenty-four occupied and thirty-three unoccupied, including one cooper shop, four warehouses. four storehouses, three retail stores and two grocerv stores and he says that among the residences there were but three or four comfortable ones. the best of which was occlupied by Ar. Johnson. The buildings nwre lprineil)ally located al0ong the river shotre, with a street about ninety feet wide between them and the river, but a few buildings were upon a level plain at ani elevation above the river bank. Most of the small buildings were occupied by "voyageurs, and their Indian families. and their (logs." The fort was then pickete(d and was defended with l)lockhouses liut no molundsl. and \was garrisoned by ab)out two lundrled effective ien. The stalles of the place were then -whitefish aindl maplle sugar, and a few furs, and 1(e says tihat lult for tlie beneficen(t provisin )of tlie whitefish })y a kin(td Pro()vi(ldence (it would( be iImp)ossible to live, there. Of the mIethod of takiln the whitefishl M1. eI(Kelnna says: "It is taken 1) l)oth whites and Indias witll a scoo() net, whichl is fastelled to a pole abo)ut ten feet long. Two, o)f tllte men go out in a bark canoe. tlhat you could talke in youlr 1ha(ld like a baslket.,an-l in tile midst of the raI)idls. or ratl(er just b)elow where thely pitch and foam the mo)st. One sits near tlhe steern an(1d I)a(les; the o)tlher stands in the l()w. andl with the dexteerity of a wirte (dacer )bala(nces this 'ggslilhell tlhat you ' o I would be cerztail to turn over in our attempts to keep it steady(. When a fish is seen thrmough the water, which is clear as crystal. the place is indicated by tle miian with the net. when, by a ldexterous landl (luiek motion of the padIdle, 1ythe Indilan holdilng it, he shoots the canoe to the splot, or within reach of it. when the net is thrown over the fish. andl it is scooped up, and thro\wn into the canoe. MIeanwhlile the eye of the person in the stern is kept steadily fixed upon the breakers and the eddy, and whirl. and fury of

Page  187 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 187 the current; and the little, frail bark is mlade to dance among them, lightsome as a cork; or is shot away into a smoother place, or kept stationary by the motion of that single paddle as circumstances may require. It is not possible to look at these fishermen. Indians and Canada French, and even boys and girls, flying about over these rapids without a sensation of terror. These fish are caught in great abundance, and sold as low as two and three cents apiece. The brook trout are taken here also in great abundance." Of the maple sugar Mr. MTcKenna says: "Three families in the neighborhood, of which my old friend Mr. Johnson is one, make, generally. four tons of sugar in a. season. Some of it is very beautiful. I have some mococks of it given to me by Mrs. Johnson. of her own make. It is as white as the Havana sugar, and richer. A mnocock is a little receptacle of a basket form, and oval, though without a handle, made of birch bark." IHe also tells us that the Indians often live wholly upon maple sugar, and are said to grow fat thereby. Also that potatoes of the finest quality, and oats grow here, and tie show of vegetables is much more abundant than he expected. He also mentions that on the Canadian side of the river there was the Northwest Fur Comlpalny's establishimeit, and alonlg down the river for a distance of about two miles were about eighty buildings of every kind. On July 12th the )party again took up its journey toward Fond du Lac. taking its course along the south shore of lake Superior. Mr. IMKeina describes the hazards as well as the pleasures of the voyage. and the beauties of the coast and the islands that they pass. but in all the many' landings inade there is no record of an inhabitant forl a distance of nearly four lhundred mliles. IIe found an Indian lodge under tlhe astern bluff at the mouth of the Montreal river. where there was one lman. with several womnen and children in a starving1 condition, and with no means for taking either game or fish. Of this place M11r. McKeimia records that "over the eastern bluff of this river goes the ipatlway of the portage to Lac d(e Flanbeau. whichl has an outlet in the ChiIppeway river. which runls into the MIississippi at the foot of Lake Pepin. It was from this lake the, party of IndIians went who comi1mitted the lmurder on Lake Pepill. alld who, after having been surrendered1. broke jail at 5Michilimackinac and to recover \lwhom is made p)art of our duty. ST. M:ICHIAEL'S ISL.\ND N LA. POINTE St. Michael's Island is mienitioned as about ei'hiteen miles from the mouth of the lMontreal river and as showing the first evidence of civilization seen since leaving the Sault. Here wer e horses. cattle and fences. As tlhe expedition approach(led the island "Indianls. to the number of seventy, set up a whooping and yelling land ran down to thle beach, each armed with a rifle or gun, and fired a salute of several rounds. Never were poor starving creatures more overjoyed. They had been here, on their way to the treaty, for six (days. and had taken in that time but forty fish. The first question I asked on landing. was to know of Mr.

Page  188 188 TIE NORTIIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Cadotte, who has lived here twenty-five years, if he had any milk, and was rejoiced to get the answer 'Oui tlonsieur'. The governor and his barges arrived about an hour after sundown. We were received by this worthy French trader with great cordiality. His houses were thrown open for us and all he had was put freely at our disposal. He has an Indian wife-a worthy, well disposed woman-and several children, several sons, and two daughters grown; his daughters both married to traders." Of the Indians there he says he was struck with their mute appearance, after the first expression of joy was over, and "we fed them with flour and pork, and made them happy. They had but one want more, and that was for whisky. This we chose not to gratify. "This place was once, a hundred yeais ago, the!e It of a Jesuit mission, and it has been long occupied as a trading post. Now there is scarcely a vestige of a building left where the cross stood, and where its mysteries were attempted to be explained to the natives. Once in about two years a priest passes from Montreal to Fond du Lac, to visit the scattered remnants of traders, and some few Indians, who have only traditions, when all is left to nature again. Opposite this island is La Pointe, significantly so called, of Lake Superior. It is emphatically the point, whether viewed in its length or breadth. It was here, across the narrows of the lake on the western shore, and about four miles west of Michael's Island that our old friend Mr. Johnson used once to live and where he married his wife. In the year 1791 Mr. Johnson remembers to have been on La Pointe and to have seen a scientific Frenchmlan or Italian, with his instruments adjusted, taking observations; and endeavoring to ascertain tile longitude. His name was Count Andriani." Again, writing of La I'ointe and vicinity MIr. lceKenrna says: "It is a fine center for trade, and from which to send out expresses to the hands of Chippeways that inhabit this region; and at which, for a more prompt control of the abuses of every description, the government should have an agency. The Indians at these remote points are out of reach of the agency at the Sault, between which and the St. Peter's is a void which is too often filled up with cruelties, that need to be checked by the presence of some nearer or nore central power." Continuing the journey several encampments of Indians, or lodges were passed along the shore, one of these being at the mouth of the Brule, or Burnt river, and within about eighteen miles of the destination of the commissioners. "Burnt river is a place of divination-the seat of a joiiglcer's incantations. It is a circle,. malde of ei'.iit l)oles, twelve feet high, and crossing at the top, which, being coveredl in with mats, or bark, he enters and foretells future events. iWhen within albout ten miles of the end of the lake, we noticed a line stretching from shoiire to shore, the north and south shores being about ten miles distant, that seemed like a narrow shadow, not very well (lefined. As we approached it became more substantial. It was a well defined beach, with trees, pine and aspen, scattered irregularly over it from one end to the other, and

Page  189 SCENtI:S A BRc I-L E V\E

Page  190 190 TIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MIICHIGAN this was the fond or bottom, or, more properly, head of Lake Superior. We pitched our tents on the southwestern side of the beach, which is washed by the St. Louis river, and here we met about thirty Indians. We were gladly received by them and made them presents as usual." TREATY OF FOND DU LAC There was still a journey of twenty-four miles to the American Fur Company's establishment on the St. Louis river, the place designated as the treaty grounds, and this journey up the river was made, and the commissioners and their escort landed at the treaty grounds, Friday, July 28th, while the date for the meeting was fixed for August 2nd. The council was held at the headquarters of the American Fur Company and the treaty consummated at this meeting received consideration in that part of this work relating especially to the Indians, but to illustrate the feeling as between the Americans and the British that existed thus recently in this section, I will quote an incident of the council as narrated by Mr. McKenna: "The only incidents of interest which occurred today were those which related to the case of a speaker (an Indian) who had a. British medal around his neck. After he had finished his speech, and when in the act of presenting his pipe to be smoked, the governor remarked that we had noticed around his neck a British medal; that we supposed he wore it, not as a badge of authority or power, but as an ornament. If he wore it as a token of authority, we could not smoke with him, but if as an ornament only, we would. He took it from around his neck and laid it on our table, saying he put no value on it. The pipe was then smoked and an American medal given him to take the place of the English one. This may seem fastidious, perhaps, but when you know that one of the chief difficulties with which the government has to contend in this quarter is that which relates to the exercise of British influence over these people; and that an Indian looks, generally, before he elects his side, to the quantum of power that may be there, and compares it carefully with that which he may be solicited to abandon, you will see that our exception to a badge of this sort is all proper. It is intended, and especially in council, where so many witness it, as a protest against their taking any other side, whilst they profess to look to us for protection. This same Indian had a British flag, also, which he afterwards brought and, in full council, laid at our feet. On seeing it there the Indians set up a shout, and in their remarks, gave proof that they knew the import of a flag, and also what its surrender meant. This flag was ordered to be replaced with an American flag." On the 5th of August the treaty was formally signed and the commnissioners then made their demand for the surrender of the murderers, before referred to. Upon this question there was considerable parleying, but the commissioners were firm and insisted that the murderers must be surrendered, which resulted in an agreement on the part of the Indians to "deliver them at the Sault, or at Green Bay the next spring." With this the commnissioners expressed gratification, "and told them it

Page  191 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF M1ICHIGAN 191 would save their people from great calamity, for their great father would not sit still until his white children's blood should be washed out." At the close of the council, it is narrated by \Mr. McKenna, " Everything was begun, and has continued, and ended well. The Indians express themselves in terms of thankfulness. They say their great father's hand is full of good things. I have no doubt the impressions made upon young and old will not be easily effaced. Many prejudices against the people of the United States, of whom they knew nothing before, are dissipated and feelings of friendship are produced." The treaty made as the result of this council had great bearing on the future of the Upper Peninsula. While the primary objects of the council, at the outset, were to have the Chippewa tribe ratify the treaty of Prairie du Chien, establishing peace between the Sioux and the Algonquins, and to require the Chippewas to surrender to the judicial authorities certain of their number who had been arrested on a charge of having murdered four Americans at Lake Pepin and had escaped jail at Michilimackinac, the commissioners took upon themselves further powers, subject, however, to ratification by the president. In addition to providing the main objects of the council, as above related. the treaty granted to the government of the United States all mineral rights in the Chippewa territory, especially granting the right to "search and carry away, any metals or minerals from any part of their country," but specifying that this provision should not affect the title to the land. M[INERAL RIGITS ACQUIRED The treaty also provided for the cession of a section of land by the Chippewa tribe to each of the persons named in the schedule annexed thereto, intended to comprise all the halfbreeds and their children, and certain named full blooded Indians. Through this provision the way was opened to private ownership of lands by quite a large number of individuals. Among other provisions of the treaty the Chippewa tribe acknowledged the authority and jurisdiction of the United States, and disclaimed all connection with any foreign power; and the United States promised the Chippewas an annuity of two thousand dollars per annum in goods and money, and the sum of one thousand dollars per annum to support a school to be located upon the St. Mary's river. An annuity was provided because it was learned that the actual income of the Chippewa tribe from the sales of their furs and other commodities did not exceed three dollars per capita per annum for each member of the tribe, and much of this was in merchandise at a high cost price. With this scant income, in the severe climate of the northern lakes, the Chippewas were indeed a poverty-stricken race, and they often suffered much from want of food. It is true that at certain points fish were abundant at nearly all seasons, but the improvident methods of the Indians were such that this fact did not effect alleviation of the hardships of those of the tribe

Page  192 192 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN living at a distance from the favored points, especially during the long siege of the winter season. Aside from the fact that, by the treaty, the United States secured the right to take minerals from any of the Chippewa lands, the fact that the government was looking interestedly at the promises of mineral wealth in northern Michigan is evidenced by the act of this commission in sending a party of twenty men from Fond du Lac to the Ontonagon river with a view to securing the large copper rock mentioned in the account of the expedition of 1820. This exploring party was in charge of George F. Porter. From his report it is made to appear that they came to the object of their search about thirty-five miles up the river from its mouth; the party having traveled on foot the last five miles "over points of mountains from one to three hundred feet high, separated every few rods by deep ravines, the bottoms of which were bogs, and which, by thick underbrush, were rendered almost impervious to the rays of the sun."' WONDROUS ROCK OF VIRGIN COPPER Of this wonderful rock, much prized by the Indians, and the reports of which had been carried by them and by the traders to the far east many years before, Mr. Porter says: "This remarkable specimen of virgin copper lies a little above low water mark, on the west bank of the river, and about thirty-five miles from its mouth. Its appearance is brilliant wherever the metal is visible. It consists of pure copper, ramified in every direction through a mass of stone (mostly serpentine, intermixed with calcareous spar) in veins of from one to three inches in diameter; and in some parts, exhibiting masses of pure metal of one hundred pounds weight, but so intimately connected with the surrounding body that it was found impossible to detach them with any instruments which we had provided." The report was to the effect that the rock weighed about a ton, two-thirds of which seemed to be of pure copper, but it was impossible for them to move it and take it with them down the precipitous river. This great copper rock was held sacred by the Indians of the locality, as their "Manitou," and after the attempt of Mr. Johnson, in 1828, to remove it, it was allowed to remain until after the coming of Mr. Paul as the first local settler. In 1842 he sold the rock to a Mr. Julius Eldred, of New York. Before it was removed by this purchaser, it was claimed by the United States government through General Cunmmingham, who was instructed by the secretary of war to remove it to Washington. Mr. Eldred was paid for the trouble and expense he had incurred, and the celebrated rock found its way to Washington and is one of the curiosities in the Smithsonian Institution. Its weight is given as 3,708 pounds. After nearly two hundred years had followed the visit of Nicolet to the section of the country now known as the Upper Peninsula, the influence of the Europeans had scarcely made perceptible advance in the

Page  193 THE NORTIIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 193 way of civilization, though the Indians, from their contact with the white people, had acquired many vices to which they were at first strangers. As a consequence of the conditions much remained to be done, after the close of the war of 1812 to 1814, before there was any real opportunity for permanent settlement. WHITE SETTLERS IN 1826 As late as 1826, when Governor Cass and Colonel lcKenna made the treaty of Fond du Lac with the Chippewas, as may be seen from the foregoing quotations from the record of that expedition, there were practically no settlers in the regions they traversed, except the traders and the military. The account of the settlement at the Sault indicates there were a few artisans, probably essential to the business of the fur traders, but outside that hamllet, or post, there were in the distance of four hundred miles along the lake Superior coast only two or three French traders. each of whom resided with his Indian wife and family in the vicinity of some Indian encampment or trading place; those mentioned being a Mr. Holliday, on the main land near Keweenaw Bay, and Jean Baptiste Cadotte, on St. Michael's Island. At the Michigan Sault there was Mr. Johnson in the fur trade; Henry R. Schoolcraft, who had in 1822 been appointed Indian agent, with office at the Sault, and who, from 1828 to 1832 represented this district in the territorial legislature, and was later prominent in much government work among the Indians, and as an historian. The importance of his work may be realized when we consider that the treaties he made with Indians brought to the United States, sixteen million acres of land. There was also at the Sault at that time James L. Schooleraft, a brother of Henry, who established a store there in 1825, and who was later married to Maria Johnson, sister of his brother's wife. and who was in 1846 murdered by Lieutenant Tilden, of the Sault garrison. In speaking of the settlers at the Sault at that time, we diverge to mnake mention of a young native-born boy, then only ten years old, John McDougal Johnson. who attended the mission school at Mackinac island the following year, and in 1829 went east to attend school. In 1831 he returned to the Sault and became an employee of the government, as interpreter for his brother-in-law, Henry R. Schoolcraft, in which capacity he subsequently officiated on many important occasions, among them being the councils at Mackinac in 1836, at Detroit in 1855, at La Point in 1853 and at Grand Portage in 1856. He also acted as interpreter for various other people on different important occasions, and was regarded as one of the very best of Indian interpreters, and is credited with having rendered very valuable services to the United States. He was married in 1842 to 5Miss Justine Piquette, the daughter of an early settler at the Sault, and he died in 1872, leaving a family of ten children. The Lake Michigan and Green Bay boundary of the territory was inl practically the same condition as that of Lake Superior. There was a military post and a considerable settlement at Mackinac, where the Vol. I —13

Page  194 194 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN American Fur Company, with John Jacob Astor at its head, established its headquarters and is said to have expended fifty thousand dollars in the erection of its buildings, and from which it distributed enormous amounts of merchandise, said to have sometimes reached three million dollars annually, to the Indians of this locality, and to the west and south for many hundred miles. The business of this company was largely handled from Mackinac as a trading center, through its coureurs du bois, who travelled far and near among the Indian tribes, or located in the vicinity of important Indian encampments. It was in 1822 that this company erected the Astor House, as its headquarters. At Mackinac the government also maintained an important military post, with a strong garrison of two companies of soldiers, and also erected buildings for, and there established an Indian agency. The business of the Fur Company, and that of the Indian department and the military, attracted a number of artisans and small traders, so that the hamlet assumed considerable proportions. In 1820 Michilimackinac was credited with a white population of eight hundred and nineteen, but this was not all properly attributable to the post settlement, for it included the territory then referred to as Michilimackinac, which extended from Saginaw to Green Bay. PROTESTANT MISSIONS IN MICHILIMACKINAC At this post the first protestant sermon preached in the Upper Peninsula was delivered in June, 1820, by Rev. Dr. Morse, father of the inventor of the telegraph, and as a result of his visit at this time, and of his report thereof to the United Foreign Mission Society of New York, that society in 1822, sent Rev. W. M. Ferry to investigate the conditions, and in 1823 Mr. Ferry and his wife opened a school for Indian children. The work of these Protestant missionaries was assiduous and they soon had a little church in connection with the school. In 1826 this school passed into the hands of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, who considered the work of such importance that it was made a central station, with provisions for taking children from distant tribes, and keeping them in a boarding school. Added to the school were shops and gardens wherein to give the Indian boys the advantage of manual training, while the girls were trained for household duties. According to the report of this school in 1827, W. M. Ferry was superintendent, John S. Hudson, teacher and farmer, and there were six other teachers and one hundred and twelve students; the students having been gathered from all through the Lake region, and as far west as Red river. The names of the other six teachers were Mr. and Mrs. Heydenburk, Mrs. Hudson, Miss Eunice Osmer, Miss Elizabeth McFarland and Miss Delia Cook. This mission house was the birthplace of Michigan's late senator, D. M. Ferry, during the encumbency of his father as superintendent. The next year thirty-three members were added to the church, and even traders were reported as converted in their wilderness homes.

Page  195 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 195 In 1829 the church had a membership of fifty-two, of which twentyfive were Indians and twenty-seven whites, not including the missionaries themselves. The mission school prospered for years, and at times registered as high as two hundred pupils. In 1833, because of the expense attendant upon the school. the plan was modified, and the number of scholars limited to fifty, it being intended that smaller schools should be established in the various Indian centers. The following year Mr. Ferry was released and in 1837 the mission school and church were abandoned because of changed conditions, and especially because the Indians then nearly ceased their visits to the island to trade. During the life of this protestant school and mission there was considerable friction engendered because of the feeling on the part of the Catholics th thtthe field was theirs by right of preemption. As to whether or not there was any beneficial effect as the result of this mission there is a wide diversion of opinion, but the probabilities are that there were benefits derived by some, while perhaps the experience was ruinous to others. John J. Strang says of it: "The civilization of the Protestant Mission gave to the Indian all the white man's wants, with none of the Imeans of gratifying them. It brought before theni every temptation of vice, with none of the means of resisting it. It cast upon the mere child of the forest, all the responsibilities of the highest order of civilized society, with none of its experience. The Indian boys educated there were not received in the society of the whites as equals, and wanted the capital to establish themselves in business, and among the Indians they were so ignorant of the modes of procuring subsistence, and so effeminate as to be dependent and despised. They fell into menial employments and dissipation and soon died.' OTHER PIONEER ITEMS Before the period of which we now speak, for comparison, and as early as 1824, the fishing business had entered the commercial field, and white fish were shipped from Mackinac to Buffalo. This industry grew quite rapidly and was of much importance at this point. A post-office was established on the island in 1819, and then named it Michilimackin.ac, but in 1825 the name was shortened to Mackinac. Among the early pioneers, mention should be made of Ramsay Crooks who, after having represented iMr. Astor in his Pacific coast adventures, and there gained a name as a brave adventurer, became a partner of Mr. Astor, and was the Mackinac agent for the American Fur Company from 1817 to 1822. He was a native of Scotland and entered the employ of Mr. Astor in 1809, having been there three years in the fur trade. In 1834, upon the retirement of Mr. Astor, Mr. Crooks became president of the company. Other pioneers of Mackinac and St. Ignace will be mentioned in connection with the county history. In those days no settlements were made except at garrisoned posts, and none elsewhere would have been considered safe. The French trad

Page  196 196 TIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN ers who located at advantageous points for trade were almost more Indian than European, and, as a rule, lived Indian fashion, with Indian wives and halfbreed children, so that they were not in the same danger as real white settlers would have been. The first important post, or settlement, south of Mackinac was at Green Bay, and we have been unable to learn of but one trader located within the Upper Peninsula to the south of Mackinac in the early years of the 19th century; and that was Louis Chappeau, who located at the mouth of the Menominee river about the year 1800, though there is a conflict of opinion as to the exact date, it having been placed by one writer as early as 1796, and being given by others as about 1805. He is said to have represented George Law, an independent trader who had headquarters at Green Bay. Here, however, the American Fur Company soon played a winning game, and its representative, William Farnsworth, in 1822, with Marinette as his wife, in company with Charles Brush, came from Michilimackinac to Menominee, and, soon after his arrival, forcibly dispossessed Chappeau, and took possession of his stockade trading post; Chappeau, with his Indian wife and family moving about five miles up the Menominee river from its mouth, where he constructed another stockade, and continued his trade, having with him a number of couriers and helpers. Prior to this date, an incident occurred worthy of record in connection with the history of our early settlements, in which Chappeau was a prominent actor. It was in 1816 when the federal government was transporting troops to Green Bay to garrison Fort Howard, that the officer in charge, being unfamiliar with the waters of the bay, called upon Chappeau and compelled him to pilot the boats through the uncharted waters, to their destination. Soon other traders came to Menominee; John G. Kittson and Jos. Duncan coming in 1826; Baptiste Premeau, Charles McCleod and Jos. Decoto in 1832, and Dr. J. C. Hall in 1839. The first settler of Delta county seems to have been Louis A. Roberts, a trader who located at Flat Rock in 1830, coming from Green Bay and bringing with him his wife, the first white woman to settle in that part of the peninsula, and one whose early life was somewhat eventful as a pioneer. Mrs. Roberts came to Green Bay with her father when only nine years old, and at the age of fourteen she was an eye witness to the Indian atrocities at Mackinac, in 1812. She later married Lieutenant Morgan, who was of Captain Pearse's Company of Regulars at Mackinac at that time, and still later, after the death of Lieutenant M1organ, she married Mr. Roberts, and resided with him at Green Bay until their removal to Flat Rock as above mentioned. At Flat Rock Mr. and Mrs. Roberts took prominent part as settlement developed and local government was organized. About the time of Mr. Robert's coming to Flat Rock, or soon thereafter, there came also two men, whose names are unrecorded, who built

Page  197 THE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 197 a snmall sawmnlill, the first in that section. As there was then no method of ac(quliring title to lands in this vicinity, the logs cut must have been taken fromi the general domain of the Ind(ians, or of the United States, and as there' was probably but slight ldemand for lulber, the business does not seeml to have flourished to any great extent. About 1842 the mitll passed to the hanls of John and Joseph Smith who al),andoned it in 1844 and removed to the present site of the N. Ludington Company's mill at Escanaba. Other, than as:mentioned, settlelllent of tlhe lpenillsula awaited the mnaking (,f the land surveys and the placing of lands upon the llmarket, anl the surveying. in turn, awaited the aceluisition of title by the govel:nllent from the Indians. INDIAiN TREATIES Treaty making with the Indians regarding this territory began very soon after the United States came into possession as against the British, following the war of 1812. In 1817 a treaty was made establishing peace between the United States government and the AIenominee nation, the same being necessary because of the Indians having been allies of the British during the war. By this treaty the MIenominees acknowledged themselves under the protection of thle United States. Prior to the actual possession of the Americans. and in 1781, the English. through the Canadian governor, St. Clair. had negotiated a, treaty for the purchase of MIackinac island, and at the same time for certain territory at GTrecii Bay an( Prairie (du Chien, and tile rights of the English under this treaty came to the lUnited States with the gaining of independence. In 1820, b)h a treaty with the Chippewas. negotiated on behalf of the government by Lewis Cass, cession was made to the UTnited States of sixteen square miles of land on St. Mary's river, though the Indians reserved encampment and fishing rights. In 1821, for an insignificant consideration, the Mlenominees ceded to the New York Not-ta-ways a half interest in their entire holdings, including a large territory in the southern part of the UTpper Peninsula. This grant proved very unsatisfactory to a large portion of the Menominee nation, and thus the way, was easily opened for further negotiations. In 1826 there was the treaty of Fond du Lac, of which extended mention has been made, and of which, in this connection, it is only necessary to recall that by it mineral and mining rights were ceded to the government in the entire Chippewa territory. In 1827, following the treaty of Fond din Lac, the same commissioners, Lewis Cass and Thomas L. McKenna, on the part of the United States, at Butte des Morts, on the Fox river, then in the territory of Michigan, met in council the Chippewa,, Menominee and Winnebago tribes of Indians, and effected a treaty for the purpose of establishing the boundary lines between the lands of those several tribes, and the

Page  198 198 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN president of the United States was authorized to establish equitable boundaries between the lands of said tribes and those of the New York Indians. By said treaty the Menominees also acknowledged title in the United States, through former Indian grants to the French and British, of a considerable tract of land at Green Bay. No satisfactory adjustment of the difficulties between the Menominees and the New York Indians was effected through the provisions of this treaty, and in 1830 new commissioners were appointed for the task. This commission also failed to accomplish its purpose. and in 1831 the "Stambaugh Treaty" was concluded, whereby there was set off to the New York Indians a large tract of land west of Green Bay. and there was ceded to the United States a large tract of land along the shores of Green bay in the then Michigan territory, and part of which is within the present Upper Peninsula. This treaty was not formally ratified until 1832. By a treaty concluded at Chicago September 26, 1833, the Chippewas ceded to the United States a large tract of land along the shore of Lake Michigan, including certain lands that had also been claimed by the Menominees and had been by them ceded to the United States. This treaty was negotiated on the part of the United States by Conmissioners George B. Porter, Thomas J. V. Owen and Williaml Weatherford. Continuing the good work. by the treaty of Washington, made in 1836, Henry R. Schooleraft secured from the Chippewas and Ottawas a cession of all their lands in Michigan not theretofore ceded, but from this cession there was reserved to the Indians certain small tracts of the main land near Mackinac and along the lake shores, the Beaver Islands, Schneau Islands and Sugar Island, and encampment and fishing rights at the Sault. In 1838, because of the claims of the New York Indians in and to the lands of the Menominees, another treaty was made, wherein for a considerable money consideration, they (commonly called the Oneidas) ceded to the United States the lands theretofore ceded by the Menominees. In 1842 a treaty was concluded with the Chippewas, which was ratified March 23, 1843, whereby all title not theretofore ceded and lying within the Upper Peninsula, including also Isle Royal, was ceded to the government. This secured to the government of the United States title to practically all the lands in the Upper Peninsula and opened the way for their survey and sale. In 1848, by treaty with the Menominees, supplemented later by the treaty of 1854, any and all remaining claims of that tribe to lands within the Upper Peninsula were extinguished.

Page  199 CHAPTER X THE DAWANING OF STABILITY THE BURT-IOUGHTON SURVEYS-GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT-THE MICHIGAN-OHIO BOUNDARY DISPUTE-STATEHOOD-DELAY IN BUILDING ST. MIARY'S SHIP CANAL-SURVEYS AND LEASES OF MINERAL LANDS-THE COPPER COUNTRY IN 1846-EARLY MINING IN THIE UPPER PENINSULA-DISCOVERY OF IRON ORE —WANING AND WAXING INDUSTRIES. The government having, in 1843, secured from the Indians title to practically all the lands in the Upper Peninsula, and the mineral and timber resources of the country having already begun to attract attention, the matter of completing the land surveys of this Peninsula became pressing and was promptly undertaken. THE BURT-HOUGHTON SURVEYS The work had already been anticipated, for, in 1840, the United States government, through the surveyor general's office, had contracted with W. R. Burt to survey certain portions of the Upper Peninsula. Up to that time no linear surveys had been made here, and the instructions given to Mr. Burt were, in part, as follows: "It will be necessary for you to carry up one of the range lines in the Southern Peninsula, from the third correction line to the Straits of Mackinac and from thence across the Strait by trigometrical process, in the most accurate manner. On getting a line across the Strait you will pursue such order in the survey as in your judgment will best secure a correct execution of the work in the manner now practiced in the survey of the Township lines." The survey of this Peninsula thus began at Mackinac and the district embraced in those instructions to Mr. Burt included the eastern portion of the Upper Peninsula, and extended as far west as range ten, including the islands as well as the mainland. The work undertaken was arduous and the compensation allowed therefor was grossly inadequate. The country was much of it swampy and covered with a heavy growth of timber and underbrush, making it difficult to penetrate, and extremely hard to survey. Mr. Burt was 199

Page  200 200 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN assisted by his sons, who were also competent surveyors. During the winter following Mr. Burt took up the matter with the commissioner of the General Land Office at Washington, with the result that better compensation was allowed than had theretofore been paid for such work. The survey was resumed the following spring, 1841, and continued to the westward. In the summer of 1842, the Chippewa Indians having ceded to the United States government all the lands east of Fond du Lae, Lake Superior, including the islands of that lake, the work of land surveys was permitted to continue, and almost immediately applications were made for mineral permits within the newly acquired territory. Early in 1844,.Mr. Burt, in company with the state geologist, Dr. Douglass Houghton, contracted for the survey of a large territory then thought to cover the mineral region of this peninsula. Their plan was to conduct a combined linear and geological survey, and to record the location of mineral discoveries and geological formations upon the charts and with the minutes of the land surveys, and this plan was followed in such of the work as was accomplished before the death of Dr. Houghton, which occurred in the fall of 1845. Following the death of Dr. Houghton, October 13th, of that year, Mr. Burt made report of the progress of the work and of the mineral discoveries, and this report had the effect of greatly increasing public attraction to that part of the universe then destined, in its near future, to be recognized as one of the richest mineral bearing sections on the face of the globe. In 1846 Mr. Burt extended the surveys to the Wisconsin boundary, and included or completed a survey of the boundary line between the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and Wisconsin. As early as 1842 survey had been made of the course of the Menominee river, and the same had been charted with great detail. Upon that chart is an illustration of some five or six buildings located on the Wisconsin side of the river, and labeled "Menominee city." There is also a showing of "Chappeau's Trading Post" on the Michigan side of the river, at the foot of the rapids that have ever since borne his name; the location adopted by him when he was dislodged from his first trading post near the mouth of the river by Mr. William Farnsworth, some twenty years previous. Upon the chart there was also located "Kittson's Trading Iouse" in the Wausaukee bend of the Menominee river, about thirty miles above its outlet, and a little farther up stream, and about where the Pike river empties into the Menominee, on the Wisconsin side, the map was labeled "Potato Lands" and "Chippewa Indians," thus indicating that the then accepted boundary between the Chippewas and the Menominees was at or near the mouth of the Pike river. In Mr. Burt's report of his survey he described the location of fourteen beds of ore, and made the prophecy in the form of an estimate, that they constituted about one-seventh of all the ore bodies in the Peninsula. He also reported quite fully upon botanical conditions,

Page  201 THE NORTHIERN PENINSULA OF M.II(ttIGAN 201 and in that connection procured and preserved nlany new and interesting specimens. iMr. Burt's several reports were plublished by the general government, and were included witht the geological report of Dr. Jackson and of Foster & Whitney, in 1849). The original survey by Mr. Bl-urt consisted in establishing township and range lines and this was followed by another survey, begun in 1844, whereby the townships were divided into sections, and the sections were subdivided into quarters, and this survey was completed about the year 1849. When considerable progress had been made by the surveyors in the subdivision of the townships, in the year 1847, a United States land office was established at Sault Ste. MIarie, and the first government lands of the Peninsula were put upon sale. This land office was continued at the Sault until the year 1857, when it was moved to Marquette. During its history at the Sault there were iany hot contests for precedence in the location of particular tracts found to be valuable for either mineral or timber, and from the time of its establishment land purchases became active, and actual settlement of the Peninsula gained rapidly. GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT, ETC. During the time occupied by the United States government in concluding its peace treaties, and its treaties of purchase of lands, with the several Indian nations interested, and the time occupied in making land surveys, a general development of government, both state and municipal, was going on within the state, and although largely within the Lower Peninsula, some portions thereof had important bearing upon the Upper Peninsula and its relation to the state of Michigan. In 1831 the Territorial council authorized the governor to negotiate with the state of Ohio for the adjustment of the boundary line between the two states, but nothing of importance resulted from that move. On June 29, 1832, a statute was enacted providing for an election to be held October 1st of that year to decide "whether it be expedient for the people of this territory to form a state government." By the provisions of the act all free white male inhabitants were allowed to vote, and at the election the measure was carried decisively. During this same year the Black Iawk war occurred, and, while the warfare did not extend to the Upper Peninsula, it was greatly feared that it would have the effect to excite the Indians here, and great caution was used and strong efforts put forth for the suppression of the war which was principally carried on in Illinois and Wisconsin. Because it had threatened the peace of the Peninsula, then of but short duration, and because of the prominent part taken by Michigan territory to suppress the war, a brief mention of the war seems proper in this connection. Early that spring the great chief of the Sacs came back from beyond the Mississippi into what was then Michigan territory and Illinois, and began his raids upon the frontier settlements. In the

Page  202 202 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN forces that joined to oppose him were United States Regulars from St. Louis under General Atkinson; militia from Illinois, under General Whitefish, and a company of Michigan territorial volunteers under Colonel Henry Dodge, whose valued services are considered as having prevented mischief from the Northern Lake Indians. Many battles were fought during the summer of that year, but on August 2nd the forces under Colonel Dodge and Zachary Taylor nearly annihilated the Indian forces and captured the chief. Of the officers who played prominent parts in this war history Zachary Taylor subsequently became president of the United States, while Lieut. Jefferson Davis, then of the United States army, who at the time of the capture of Black Hawk escorted him to Jefferson Barracks, was none other than the then future president of the Southern Confederacy. An epidemic of Asiatic cholera became prevalent in the Lower Peninsula in 1834 and raged to such an extent that seven per cent of the people of Detroit were carried off by its ravages within a single month. One most lamentable result of this epidemic was the death of Territorial Governor Porter, which occurred July 5th of that year. It was especially hazardous during the period when experienced and cool heads were needed in the formation of a state government. Upon the death of the governor, Secretary Mason became acting governor, and at a meeting of the territorial council, held in September of that year, steps were taken to provide a commission for the settlement of the southern territorial boundary with the states of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, but this effort resulted in no accomplishment. In December, 1834, the legislative council of the territory of Michigan sent a communication to congress upon the subject of establishing a territorial government for the state of Wisconsin, from which it appeared that rapid gains had been made in population, to the extent of over sixty thousand people in four years, of which number sufficient were within the proposed territory of Wisconsin to entitle her to territorial government. Congress deferred action upon this communication, however, and that territory was not finally established until the time when Michigan became a state. On the 26th of January, 1835, congress passed an act in contemplation of the admission of Iichigan as a state and fixed the date of election as April 4th, and the convention as the second Monday in May of that year. THE MICHIGAN-OHIO BOUNDARY DISPUTE Up to this time Michigan had been in peaceable possession of the strip of land then about to be claimed by Ohio, and regarding which the Toledo war found place in history, and there was no semblance of right to dispute the claim of Michigan to that property. Notwithstanding the fact that the survey in 1818 fixed the boundary line as Michigan claimed it and to accord with the ordinance of 1787, and Michigan had occupied the land by laying out roads, the governor of

Page  203 TIlE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 203 Ohio sent to the legislature of that state a message asserting jurisdiction over the territory south of the mouth of Maumee Bay and asking legislation to authorize the taking of possession and control thereof. When the legislative council of Michigan, through acting Governor Mason, received notice of the message to the Ohio legislature, it promptly, and on the 12th of February, 1835, passed an act, "to prevent the exercise of foreign jurisdiction within the limits of the territory of Michigan." On the 23d of February the Ohio legislature asserted jurisdiction over the territory then in question, and directing the exercise thereof. Governor Lucas promptly notified the Ohio county officers in the counties adjacent thereto to assert and exercise jurisdiction over the disputed territory; and he directed the major general of his district to enroll the inhabitants in the Ohio militia. He also appointed commissioners to meet him at Perrysburg April 1st, to run the line. The authorities of Michigan brought the matter to the attention of the president. Ohio had theretofore sought to secure this land through an act of congress, but congress adjourned without any action in regard thereto. Governor Mason gave orders to General Joseph W. Brown, who was in command of the Michigan militia, to be ready to resist any attempt on the part of the state of Ohio to actually possess this strip, and the Michigan territorial council appropriated money wherewith the executive might enforce the laws of the territory. The officers of Michigan within that strip of land asserted their rights and resisted intrusion by the officers from Ohio. Benjamin F. Butler was then attorney general of the United States and he decided that Michigan's position was right, and this likewise was then the opinion of the president, but, owing to the threatening situation, commissioners were sent to try and effect an agreement. It was claimed by Governor Lucas that the commissioners recommended that the inhabitants of the strip be permitted to determine the line, but that was denied, and the Michigan authorities never assented to it, and continued to assert authority by arresting offenders under the Michigan law. Governor Lucas called an extra session of the Ohio legislature and represented to that body that the commissioners had determined as above stated, and the legislature passed an act agreeing to the terms on condition that the United States would compel Michigan to abide the same; otherwise providing the enforcement of the laws of Ohio in the disputed territory, and appropriating three hundred thousand dollars for the purpose. A communication from the acting secretary of state at Washington denied that the commissioners had decided as Governor Lucas had reported, and suggested that the president might find it necessary to interfere if the Ohio officials persisted in carrying out their threats. Influence was exerted from Washington to prevent violence, and matters were fairly quiet for some time following. Ohio had legislated to organize the county of Lucas to include this

Page  204 204 TIlE NORTIIERN PENINSIULA OF $ILICIIGAN lanld, and it was later reported that the Ohio authorities would open Court at Toledo Septemnber 7th, and that Ohio troops would protect the judge. On hearing this, Governor Mason ordered out the Michigan forces, andl, in person accompanied the troops to Toledo. No opposing forces were encountered, no attempt to open court was discovered, and the Michigan army returned and was disbanded. It is fortunate there was no open attemlpt on the part of Ohio to open court at that time, for the feeling of the MAichigan populace was intense, they felt that their rights were being openly trampled upon, and they were prepared to defend and enforce them. The rights of Michigan to the territory in question were, so far as the boundary line was concerned, perpetually fixed and established by the ordinance of 1787, which had become in fact a contract, or compact, which congress had no right to abrogate. That ordinance had provided for the establishing of that line, the line had been established in accordance therewith, and it became fixed and unalterable as that ordinance had been construed. Notwithstanding the fact that Michigan unquestionably had the right to that disputed territory there were extended debates in congress regarding it while the question of the admission of Michigan as a state was pending before that body. Every one felt that, without the consent of Michigan, the power of congress to give the territory to Ohio was at least doubtful. Many asserted positively there was no such power. Under the circumstances there was but one method to be pursued by the friends of the Ohio claimants, and that was to keep MAichigan out of the Union until she surrendered to the demands of Ohio. Indiana and Illinois were alike interested with Ohio in the establishment of a boundary line, and therefore brought influence to bear to defeat the rights of Michigan. During the proceedings for admission the constitutional convention met at Detroit, in May, 1835, and resulted in the submission of a constitution for the approval of the people. In October following an election was held, the constitution was ratified, and Stevens T. Mason was elected governor. Considerable friction ensued on account of the conflict between the state and the federal government, evidencing an effort on the part of the president to assist the forces opposed to Michigan and to compel her to yield her rights. To illustrate, the president appointed John S. Horner, of Virginia, secretary of the territory of Michigan "vice Stevens T. Mason, superseded," and the feelings of the Michigan people, upon the subject were emphatically expressed at a mass meeting in Detroit in July, 1836, when, following an address by Secretary Horner, the meeting adopted the following resolution: "Resolved, that if our present secretary of the territory should find it beyond his control, either from the nature of his instructions, his feelings of tenderness toward those who had for a long time set at defiance as well the laws of the territory as those of the United States, or any feelings of delicacy entertained toward the executive of a neighboring state, who has in

Page  205 TIHE NORTHERN PENINSULIA OF M1ICHIGAN 205 vain endeavored to take a forcible possession of a part of our territory, to enable him to properly carry into effect the existing laws of this territory, it is to be hoped he will relinquish the duties of his office, and return to the land of his nativity." The legislature met in November, 1835, and began its work for the perfection of a state government, but adjourned until January in the hope that by that time the state would be admitted. The territorial officers necessarily continued to exercise the functions of their offices, because they could not be superseded by state officers until the state actually came into existence. Violent opposition to the admission was again raised in congress, and to the difficulties over the boundary line, was added a new one of large proportions-that of slavery. The proposed organization of Michigan prohibited slavery within its borders. Arkansas sought to come into the Union with an extreme provision for the protection of slavery, and there arose a determination in each section, north and south, not to allow one state to be admitted without the other coming in also. The boundary line question, however, was kept prominent, and the representatives of the interests of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois succeeded in getting this committee to report in their favor, and to propose to compel Michigan to wait for admission until she conceded the boundaries desired by those states. The acts for the admission of both states were passed, and together signed on the 15th of June, 1836, but, while Arkansas was admitted as a slave state without condition, Michigan was only to be received except on surrender of the boundary line question to Ohio and Indiana. In order to conciliate the people of Michigan and compensate them for the robbery committed, it was proposed to add to the territory at first included within the state boundaries that part of the Upper Peninsula east of Montreal river, and also the American part of Lake Superior adjacent thereto, and it was provided that until the new boundary line was adopted by a convention of delegates elected for the purpose by the people of Michigan, she could not be admitted. The people of the state were largely in favor of admission, but many of them did not relish the idea of being "held up" or forced into a trade, and little did they know of the value of the Upper Peninsula territory offered them. As a consequence there was much opposition to an acceptance of the condition. A special session of the legislature was called and met July 11th and the whole matter was ably and fairly laid before it through a message from Governor Mason. The legislature provided for a convention to be held at Ann Arbor the 4th Monday in September. The convention met accordingly and refused to accept the conditions imposed. Various political questions, and the question of gaining or forfeiting for Michigan an interest in the proceeds of the sale of public lands, caused the matter to be further agitated, and arguments setting forth the value of the Upper Peninsula, as shown by Mr. Schooleraft, were brought to

Page  206 206 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN bear, with the result that an irregularly called convention, made up entirely of delegates favorable to admission (termed the frost-bitten convention), assented to the terms imposed by congress. After a considerable controversy over the validity of the convention, congress accepted its action as that of the people of the state and admitted Michigan to the Union, January 26, 1837; and thus Michigan had a large and valuable portion of the Upper Peninsula thrust upon her, a thrust which she has more recently learned to appreciate. In the act of admission, congress recognized the state as having existed as such since November, 1835, when the officers of the state were elected by the people. The territory of Wisconsin was, concurrently with the admission of Michigan as a state, organized from the remaining portion of what had been Michigan territory, except that the southern boundary was fixed to accord with the wishes of Illinois. STATEHOOD At the time Michigan acquired statehood, the means of transportation and communication were still very imperfect. There was no railway communication with the east, and the travel continued to be by stage and canal boat; while there was no convenient method of land transportation west of Detroit, and it was before the day of the telegraph. The work of development should therefore be considered with reference to these conditions. Under such circumstances the early state legislation was largely enacted with a view to the development of the country, and roads, or highways were laid out in every direction, and railway charters could be had for the asking. As one of the means of developing the country the legislature in 1835 passed an act for the appointment of a state geologist and made provision for a geological survey. Doctor Douglass H-oughton, who had already more than a state-wide reputation, was appointed to the office, and he organized a system and inaugurated the work in that line, of which mention has already been made. DELAY IN BUILDING ST. MIARY 'S SHIP CANAL One of the first measures adopted by the state for internal improvement was its provision in March, 1837, for the construction of the St. Mary's Ship Canal by which to avoid the rapids in the river at the Sault. An appropriation was made for beginning the work, and plans for the canal were approved by the board of internal improvement. Surveys were made, contracts for construction let, and the contractors were ready for operations, and began the purchase of their supplies about the last of the year 1838, expecting to start the work of construction with the opening of navigation the following spring. To aid in this work a small advance was made by the state to the contractors in the spring of 1839, and the contractors arrived at the Sault May 9th

Page  207 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 207 of that year. Just as they were about to begin the work they were served with a. notice from the war department of the United States that they must not interfere with the improvements made by the United States at that place, and saying "among which the millrace is regarded as one of the greatest importance." The contractors were further notified by the officer of the government that he would be obliged to "interfere with any work on the projected canal that might injure the United States millrace near that post.'' The state of Michigan had had no notice from the war department of its proposed interference, and the work contracted for by the state was not within the reservation of land made by the general government. In reply to the notice from the Federal government the contractors informed the officer that "they were bound by the state of Michigan to excavate the canal within the lines run and laid out by the chief engineer, and that they should proceed with the work, and could not allow water to flow through the race, where the canal crosses the same, as it would entirely frustrate the object that the state of Michigan had in view." Captain Johnson was then the commanding officer of the post and he informed the contractor that, under his instructions "the proposed work could not go on peaceably." The contractors went upon the work, and were there met by Captain Johnson at the head of a company of United States soldiers who forcibly took from the men their working tools, and drove them from the place at the point of the bayonet; the military arm of the federal government thus setting at defiance the rights of the young state to have its civil rights adjudicated in the courts. Nothing can be said in justification of the position thus asserted by the federal government, and the unjust and unwarranted occurrence resulted in a delay of nearly fifteen years in the project of constructing the canal. In 1840 Governor Woodbridge treated earnestly of the matter in his message to the legislature after which the facts were carefully investigated and reported upon by a committee, and thereupon a joint resolution of the legislature was adopted in which it was declared that the actions of the federal officials and troops were "unwarranted by the constitution of the United States, and a violation of the rights and sovereignty of the state of Michigan," and calling upon the federal government to pay to the state, as a matter of justice, its advances and expenses. The matter was again taken up by the governor in his message, in 1841, wherein he recited his duty "again to ask the attention of the legislature to the unauthorized and forcible interruption, by the troops of the United States, of the public works of the state, during the year before the last, at the Sault de Ste. Marie," and saying "the pecuniary loss to the state, resulting from that reprehensible interruption, remains unsatisfied, and the injury to its honor unatoned for." For some unexplained reason congress did not recognize the claim of the state, and

Page  208 208 TIHE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN the principles of American government were trampled upon with impunity by the government itself. The same government had shortly before, with as little reason, imposed upon this state as a condition of statehood, its surrender of certain territory to the state of Ohio, and the acceptance in lieu thereof of the Upper Peninsula. The state having yielded, as a matter of policy, proceeded to make available the newly acquired section by the construction of the canal. The fisheries of the lakes were of immediate value, and sufficient had been developed to evidence large future values in minerals. The expense of transfer by land portage at the rapids of the Sault, of all shipments, multiplied the cost of work and the expense of transporting the products and supplies of this region, and better means of boat communication between Lake Superior and the lower lakes was necessary to the proper development of the country and its resources. In the then conditions boats of adequate capacity to meet the demands could not be constructed in Lake Superior, because of the impossibility of bringing here the necessary material, and boats of adequate capacity could not be taken onto Lake Superior except at an enormous expense of a land portage. The banking law of 1837, enacted with good intentions but scant appreciation and foresight, had the opposite effect to that intended. It was thought the banks, and the currency provided for, would aid materially in the development of the country, but, instead thereof, three years later the best property in the most thriving localities had depreciated to fifty per cent of its former value, and other property to a much smaller percentage of its value. The state lost heavily on its bond transactions, and found it difficult to raise sufficient funds to meet its current expenses. The want of shipping facilities, and the fact that land surveys had not been made, and that public lands could not, as a consequence, be put upon the market, added to the strained conditions of finance because of the failure of the state banking system, prevented the development of general business in the Upper Peninsula; and the lack of general business, combined with the great cost of such a project, prevented the construction of vessels upon Lake Superior, or taking there by portage those constructed elsewhere. The canal was therefore a necessity in order to put to use the newly acquired territory, and with such a canal there would be opened up an opportunity for business in many directions. In 1842, when the state had been brought almost to the verge of bankruptcy, because of the collapse of its banking system, and when it was greatly chagrined at the attitude of the general government in so unceremoniously and forcibly stopping its needed public improvements, the legislature took a bold and businesslike stand, and determined to lay a foundation for a safer and more permanent business future. It provided for calling in all state scrip, for prohibiting shinplasters, for specie resumption, and for rigid economy in the administration of all departments of state government.

Page  209 TIHE NORTHERN PENINSUILA OF MIICHIGAN 209 SURVEYS AND LEASES OF MINERAL LANDS The work which the state then had in hand was of great importance, and it was essential to the future welfare of the c(ommolnwealth that men of integrity and ability be in active charge of the vaiious departments. So far as the Upper Peninsula was then imlled(iately concerned the most important branch of the public service was in the line of its mineral and land surveys. Fortunately it had two good men, in the persons of Doctor Douglass Ioughton and W. R. Burt in charge of those works, but unfortunately, when their combined work to make the surveys in unison had but fairly begun, Doctor Houghton came to his death by the capsizing of his boat in a storm at a point near Eagle River, Lake Superior, on the 13th of October, 1845. His death was little less than a calamity to the state, and especially to the Upper Peninsula, and the loss was deeply mourned. Hiis views of the geological conditions here were at variance with those of most scientists who had thus early given this locality their attention, but time has proved that he most clearly appreciated the situation. IIad the surveys of the entire mineral regions of this Peninsula been completed and recorded by Dr. Houghton upon the plan conceived by him, they would have been of incalculable value. It was during the work of Dr. Houghton and Mr. Burt that the discovery was made that the magnetic compa)ss was so affected by local attractions that it could not be relied upon for accuracy, and, indeed, the needle would sometimes box the compass while the surveyors were traveling a small fraction of a mile, thus showing that local attraction controlled the compass in certain places. This raised a serious question, for accuracy in the survey, at once essential, seemed impossible with the instruments then known to science. Again the man of the hour was at hand, and this time it was William A. Burt, who had been prominent for years in the government surveys. The necessity of the hour brought forth the invention of the solar compass, through his genius, in the midst of the woods and mineral bearing hills of this Upper Peninsula. To perfect the instrument invented, IMr. Burt went east, and in a short time returned, and his solar compass was used to complete the surveys, and has ever since been acknowledged as one of the valuable scientific contributions to the engineering world. Interest in the mineral resources of the peninsula could hardly withstand the delays in the survey. and without waiting for their completion the federal government issued permits to locate lands for mining purposes, and then granted mining leases upon the locations made pursuant to those permits. Remarkable developments in minerals soon had the effect to create great excitement which seemed to travel with the winds. Mlining companies were organized, and much money was invested in exploration. At the same time mining interests furnished a new field for speculation which in fact was of a very risky nature, for the mining leases upon which the companies were based, were of very Vol. I —1 4

Page  210 210 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN questionable tenure, and the methods of exploration adopted in many instances were crude and expensive. In 1847 the legislature of Michigan protested that the actions of the general government regarding leases rendered the rights of the lessees of the mines uncertain, and this resulted in a change of procedure, and soon thereafter the lands were put upon sale, and absolute title thereto was conveyed by patent. THE COPPER COUNTRY IN 1846 As an illustration of conditions in the copper country, and of the excitement occasioned by the developments in those regions, some extracts from a letter written at Copper Harbor to a friend in the east, and published in the Buffalo 1Morning Express June 26, 1846, seem appropriate. As an introduction of the letter the paper recites that it is written by a scientific gentleman upon a professional tour in the employ of a "Copper Company," and vouches for his accuracy. Extracts from the letter are as follows: "COPPER HARBOR, June 12, 1846. 'Dear Sir: Considering how nervous I am after prospecting over the hills of conglomerate, trap and sandstone in this wild Siberian end of the world, I hope you will appreciate the amazing triumph of will over the animal propensities of listlessness and lack of nerve when I undertake, on a gun case, upon my knee, to fulfil my promise. Mais celte eqal. "This is a queer country, and a stumbling block to world-makers. Its features and construction would almost warrant the belief that it was made by another hand from the rest of this common footstool, and that some of the B'hoys, or the evil one, had a hand in the matter. Anyway, it is a cold, sterile region, with a great bullying, boisterous sea, subject to sudden tempests, and tremendous north and northwest storms. "The country is bleak, barren and savage, without any signs of cultivation or civilization except the appearance of bedbugs and whiskey; rats and cockroaches have not yet come up, but are expected. It is the land of dirty shirts and long beards. Every one tries to look and act as outre, wild and boorish as possible, and far more than is in any way agreeable. One-a professor, too, save the markbragged that he had not changed his shirt for four weeks, and that a man must be a very dirty fellow if, with the use of unguentum, he could not keep clean, even longer than that. Among dealers arithmetic is not considered a necessary accomplishment, or a Christian virtue. "The way it costs here from a passage in a birch canoe, or a rotten and condemned old steam-boat up to Bohea and Pork, is a caution to the descendants of Abraham. Thus you have the Paleontological features; and you can study out the whole formation at your leisure. "This country is undoubtedly immensely rich in mineral treasure. All the statements you have seen in the newspapers are true, and yet nineteen-twentieths of the whole speculation will be a total failure. Of the working companies, as yet, there are very few that are paying expenses, because everything is done au gauche, with inexperienced overseers, and generally without the most remote knowledge of the contents and value of the veins they are working except so far as: the pure mineral masses are concerned; while many of these are so large and unwieldy that they threaten to prove ruinous to the owners. There is a very strong prospect in some half dozen working veins, that silver is to be produced abundantly. Two of these I have visited, and I have no doubt they will improve, in descending the veins. Further, there is no doubt but that a small part of the valuable deposits is all that has yet been seen by mortal eyes-covered as all is by drift, and the most impenetrable growth of cedar, spruce and tamarack. Nothing short of clairvoyance will for many years discover it. By the way clairvoyance has been tried, but some malign mineral or infernal influence renders this god-like science migratory. ' Those working veins situate in the interior are using oxen or mules (after cut

Page  211 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 211 ting roads at great cost), which are fed upon hay at fifty-five dollars per ton, and all else in proportion. There is not a spear of grass on a whole eternity of this country, and an ox or an ass, turned out, would starve, unless he could feed on pine shadows and moss. "After great expense and incredible pains and trouble, we got our outfit, started for Canada in charge of a little schooner, towing our boats and fixings, and which were totally lost, in the storm of Friday night, a week ago, the vessel and passengers saved by the skin of their teeth. "On the subject of the services of such men as know a hawk from a hand-saw, in geology and mineralogy, I have only to say that such, at least in pretension, are as plenty as blackberries; and of all grades and nations-German, English, Prussian, Swiss and Yankees. You can scarce turn over a stone, as the boys say, without finding them. Assayers, refiners, miners and professors abound; and, like the squaw's puppies, they are all captains. ' EARLY MIINING IN THE UPPER PENINSULA For reasons already mentioned early mining on Lake Superior was attended with large expense. Supplies were carried by steamboat to Sault Ste. Marie. where they were transferred by wagon, and by a tranmway constructed for the purpose, to a point above the rapids, and from such point by small coasting boats to shore landings nearest their destination, and from the landing place they were carted with mules or oxen, or packed to the scene of operations. In the very earliest of mining explorations and developments, and in later ones, even, where the locality was such that it was difficult of access, the supplies were packed in by men, some of whom became adepts in the business, and were able to carry very heavy loads over rough and treacherous trails. The transfer was. however, in most instances, by mules, horses or oxen, or, in winter by dog trains and sleds. During early mining operations, before the construction of highways, most of the mineral was carried from the mines to the lake shore in winter by the use of sleds. To meet the demands of the times a number of steamers were carried around the rapids and launched into Lake Superior, there to take the place of the coasting boats. The transfer of these boats past the rapids was accomplished by constructing a frame work in which the boat rested and was propelled upon a series of rollers. Many of the enterprising pioneers in the mineral regions of the Upper Peninsula were compelled to face failure, and abandon their hopes of a glittering future, even with a fair showing of mineral at hand, because of the enormous burden of expense attendant upon the work, and the uncertainty of their leaseholds, but the widespread interest in the country, combined with the intense spirit of the times, caused the general development to forge ahead in spite of individual failures; and the mining regions became the scenes of great activity. Not only did the president of the United States declare the mineral leases to be without authority of law, but the state legislature also declared "all leases of any of the lands aforesaid within the state, by authority of the United States, are contrary to the interests and policy of the state," whereupon, a joint resolution of the Michigan legislature, approved January 26, 1847, requested of congress the enactment of a law to provide for the disposal by the federal government, of its min

Page  212 212 TIlE NORTHERN PIENINSIUiLA OF MICHIGAN eral lands within the state, in such a manner as to protect those who, acting under the void leases, had invested labor and capital in exploring for and developing the mineral wealth of the country. The nature of the work at hand necessitated the presence of men of ability and character, and their influence has been made manifest, and has been continuous in the development of the country and its various resources, and has had largely to do with the moulding of society upon a high plane of intellectuality and broad-mindedness, while the success of the mining enterprises in general has been so great that the people almost as a whole are thrifty and well-to-do. DISCOVERY OF IRON ORE Alnost concurrently with the development of interest in modern copper mining came the discovery of iron ore in what is now known as the Marquette range. In 1844 Mr. Burt is reported to have discovered and taken from the body of ore, in place, at the site of the present Jackson mine, the first specimen of iron ore found in the Upper Peninsula. The incidents of this discovery are interesting in several ways. It is related that, as Mr. Burt's surveying party, consisting of eight men, were working in that vicinity, one of the men was running a line with the assistance of a compass, when suddenly the needle refused to do its work; being controlled by the local forces; sometimes pointing south instead of north, and thus arousing great interest and occasioning considerable consternation in the party. When the point was reached at which the compass needle was drawn to the south, Mr. Burt instructed a search of the locality to determine the cause. The various members of the party took different courses, but the search was short for they soon found an outcrop of ore from which they took and brought in specimens. The fact that magnetic iron ore existed in the region to be surveyed now brought to the surveyors a realization that the magnetic compass could no longer be relied on for accuracy. Almost as if by a prearranged plan of nature, immediately following this discovery, the sun betook itself behind the clouds, so that no work could be done, and for the next two days it was stormy, rendering traveling in the woods most disagreeable. The party had with them but a scant supply of provisions, and the abundance they had left at a located corner a few miles back afforded them no immediate relief, for they could not retrace their course with either a reliable compass, or the sight of the heavenly bodies to guide them. The supplies that had been intended but for a day were all that the party had for five days, with the exception of porcupine meat, which, under those circumstances was a valuable addition to their bill of fare. The effect of this magnetic ore upon the compass used in surveying not only led to the invention of the solar compass, but the report in the Lower Peninsula of the discovery of iron soon thereafter led. to

Page  213 TIHE NO(RTIIERN PENINSULA OF M IICtIGAN 213 the begyinning of the development of the extensive irol indlustries of thre Peninsula. The follo(wing year, 1845, exp)lorations of this locality were conduclte( by r en from Jackson, M\lhigian, and location was then lade( of the since famlos Jackson mine. In 1846 a (luantity, approximaltely three hundreld pounls, was taken as a test and slmelted. In 1849 the Cleveland line, near Ishlpe(ming. was opened and in 1850 a small lot of its ore was shiplped to Newcastle, Pennlsylvania, where it was made into bar-iron. proving the excellent (luality of the ore, and thus closing the first half of the century with a fair introduction of Idichigan iron to the iron world. In 1850 the government of the United States edede to the several states the "swamp and overflowed lands" still remaining unsold within their respective boundaries, and by this act Michigan became possessed of the title to nearly six million acres of land that had been supposed to be fit for cultivation only after being properly (lrained; but a large portion of which were afterwards found to be very desirable for their timber, and as agricultural lands. The state made liberal use of these lands to induce the eonstruction of state roads or highways, with a view to opening up the territory to actual and active settlement and improvement, and the Upper Peninsula came in for its share of these valuable lands, and many of them were secured by enterprising citizens as compensation for highway construction. In the grants of such lands many piivate fortunes have found their inception, or have been greatly enhanced. Prior to the adoption of the eonstitution of 1850, there were no privileges of general incorporation, and therefore corporations could only exist by means of private charters to be secured f:om the legislature. for and( against which powerful lobbies were often maaintained to influence the legislature, and the granting of which was often the occasion of more or less scandal. Inder the new constitution, adopted at just midway the nineteenth century, the way was opened for general incorporation of colmpanlies for various purposes, and the handling of large finanlcial propositions which the p171)per Peninsula presenteld was more readily accomplished, and the way seemle(1 to be opening ulp for rapid progress. Closely uplon the heels of the copper d(eveloplment in the last decade of the first half of the nineteenth century, followed the intense interest inl lumbler and iron, in each of which there was a scramt)le for the be-t locationls, so that the last half of the nineteenth century practically b)egan with active interests in all three of tliose industries through which tlle U[pper l'enminsula has (contributed in so large a measure to thle coinnierc(e of the world in the period of its m:ost rapid develotipment from tlhat dcay to this. WANING AND WAXING INDUISTRIES At that period it was noticeable that the necessities of the Indians and the activities of the traders had serimously depleted the source of

Page  214 214 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN supply of furs so that the business of the fur-traders was rapidly on the wane, and the coning of permanent settlers was destined to further reduce it. It declined rapidly with the advance of civilization, and now the remaining fragments of that once almost sole colmmlercial industry of this part of the country was scarcely reckoned with in making up an inventory of our commercial and industrial assets. The American Fur Company abandoned the field as the location of its headquarters as early as 1854. The fishing industry developed rapidly, especially in the vicinity of Mackinac, during the second quarter of the nineteenth century, and had assumed considerable proportions, before the advent of a commercialism in our iron and copper, and when lumber was considered for little else than the supply of a very limited local demand. It has continued to be an active participant in the furnishing of supplies to the wide world, and is today an industry of large proportions. Aside from a considerable influx of population into the copper regions during the five years preceding 1850, there was comparatively little progress in the way of settlement in the Peninsula except at the Sault and Mackinac. We have already mentioned the early traders on the mainland and islands of Lake Superior, and those at the mouth of the Menominee. At the last named place a silght interest in lumbering was exhibited during the second quarter of the nineteenth century, but this will be written of in the chapter relating to 5Menominee county. Aside from the early settlers already named as having located at Menominee, there came also, before the year 1850, Andrus Eveland in 1842 and John Quimby in 1845, both of whom engaged extensively in the fishing business, and each of whom subsequently laid out village plats or additions in what is now the city of Menominee.

Page  215 CHAPTER XI PIONEERS PRIOR TO 1850 FIRST COMERS TO DELTA COUNTY-MISSIONARIES TO BARAGA COUNTYFOUNDING OF MARQUETTE-ONTONAGON AND RISE OF COPPER MINING -THE SAULT AND MACKINAC AGAIN. We have also mentioned the fact that Mr. and Mrs. L. A. Roberts were the first permanent white settlers at what is now Escanaba, Delta County, and that they located there in 1838. They settled first upon the banks of the Whitefish river, a short distance above its outlet into Green Bay. Before their arrival there had been a small sawmill constructed there by parties whose names are now unknown, and that mill was then in operation. About 1842 it passed into the hands of John and Joseph Smith, but was abandoned by them in 1844, at which time the proprietors located anew at the present site of the mill of the N. Ludington Company, and there they built the first steam sawmill in that locality. During that year Darius Clark and Silas Billings took up their abode at that place. In 1846 Messrs. Clark and Roberts erected a small water-mill about five miles up the Whitefish river from its mouth, and in the same year the Clark and Roberts mill passed into the hands of Jefferson Sinclair and Daniel Wells of Milwaukee, and three years later, in 1851, became the property of the N. Ludington Company. This mill had among its early employees some of those who later became prominent citizens of the Peninsula, and who reaped rich fortunes in its lumber resources. One other saw-mill was constructed in that vicinity in 1845 by Silas Billings, George Richards, and David Bliss. It was a water-mill and was operated for about ten years. MISSIONARIES TO BARAGA COUNTY There was, in what is now Baraga county, but little of civilization after the death of the lamented Father Menard, during his missionary work, for many years, though the place was known to and visited by the traders frequently, and the American Fur Company maintained a trader's station there. In 1834 a Protestant mission was established 215

Page  216 216 T-IE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN by John Sunday, a W\esleyan preacher, and he was followed the same year by Rev. John Clark, who erected a log mission house and a school house at Kewawenon, on the shore of Keweenaw Bay. Under his direction quite a large number of Indian houses were also constructed in close proximity to the mission. In 1837 D. M. Chandler, the first regularly appointed Methodist minister to the mission at the Sault and Kewawanon, came to this mission. In 1839 a blacksmith named W. II. Brockway, was appointed superintendent of missions, he having been acting minister at the Sault for the past year. Following Mr. Brockway other Methodist ministers officiated at this mission as follows; George King, from 1838 to 1840; John Kahbeege in 1840; George W. Brown in 1841 and 1842; Peter Marksman in 1843; John II. Pitezel from 1844 to 1846; Joseph W. Holt in 1846 and 1847; Peter O. Johnson in 1847; N. Barnum in 1848; and Rufus C. Crane in 1849. Of the period in which Rev. Pitezel officiated at this mission he wrote descriptive of the mission and its surroundings as follows; " This mission is situated near the head of Keweenaw bay, one of the finest in the world, on a sightly spot, about forty rods back from the water. Near the house bursts forth from the side hill a living spring, an invaluable treasure anywhere. From the shape of the bay, this region, for miles around, is called by the French L'Anse, which may apply to anything shaped like an arch. Should we use this word occasionally, instead of the longer Indian name, it will be understood as designating the same place. The Indian cabins lined the shore and were mostly those built by order of Rev. John Clark. They bore evident marks of age and decay. The mission-house was of hewed logs, about twentyfour by sixteen feet, one and one-half stories high, covered with cedar bark, and a little shanty appended, which some of the missionaries had used for a study. We had on one side of us, near-by, the government blacksmith, and on the other side the carpenter, and off some distance, in another direction, was the farmer's family. These constituted our white neighbors. Across the bay, directly opposite, was the Catholic mission, three miles distant." The govelnment blacksmith referred to was D. 1). Brockway, sent there by the Tnited States governmuent in 1843, pursuant to a treaty with the Indians, and he was subsequently agent for the Cliff Mine and president of the Atlas Miining Company. C. T. Carrier was the farmer referred to, and Cornelius M. Johnson, the carpenter. The Catholic mission referred to was established in 1843 by Rev. Frederick Baraga, and Rev. Edward Jaker, writing thereof, says: "The Rev. Baraga built a church and twenty-four substantial log houses for Indian converts, and that he officiated there until 1853, when there were about three hundred and fifty Indians and half-breeds, of all ages, belonging to the mission." Rev. Baraga was a very highly respected and worthy missionary, and of him Rev. Pitezel. of the Methodist mission, wrote: '"Rev. Frederick Baraga was the resident priest at L'Anse at our arrival; then probably about fifty years old; descended from a

Page  217 THIE NORTHERN I'ENINSIULA OF MIICIIGAN 217 family of distinction in Europe; well educated, speaking readily six or seven living languages, inclulding Germlan. French, English and Ojibwa. Ite spent years on the shores of Superior, building a church and making extensive improvemenlts. Ile traveled extensively on foot and by all methods then in use. rTenlperate in his habits, devout and dignified in his private and ninisterial bearing. he was unversally respected by Indians and the mining coalllmunlity, and affectionately loved by those in closer fellowship. At a more recent date, in consideration of his sacrifices and meritorious services, the pope honored himi with the miter of a bishop.'' The name of this reverend gentleman is appropriately preserved in that of the county wherein he worked so earnestly for the conversion of the natives, and the pioneer miners. FOUNDING OF IMARQUETTE Marquette county had little white population prior to 1850, though the discovery of iron brought in explorers and a few men engaged in the development of mining properties before that date. Interest in the mining resources of the county was awakened immediately following the discovery of iron ore in 1844, and that interest increased as discoveries and developments continued. MIr. Peter White, one of the earliest of the permanent settlers, came to Marquette in a company of ten associates. in 1849, and of the trip there, and the then existing conditions, he writes: "We succeeded in crowding our large Mackinac barge up the rapids, or falls, at Sault Ste. Marie, and, embarking ourselves and provisions, set sail on Lake Superior for the Carp River iron region. After eight days of rowing, towing, poling and sailing, we landed on the spot immediately in front of where Mr. George Craig's dwelling house stands. That was then called Indian Town, and was the landing place of the Jackson Company. We put up that night at the Cedar House, of Charlie Bawgam. It is true his rooms were not many, but he gave us plenty to eat, clean and well cooked. I remember that he had fresh venison, wild ducks andl geese, fresh fish. good bread and butter, coffee and tea, and splendid potatoes. "The next morning, we started for the much talked of iron hills; each one had a pack-strap and blanket, and was directed to exercise his owXVn discretion in putting into a- pack what he thought he could carry. I put up forty pounds and niarched brav-ely up the hills with it for a distance of two miles, by which time I was about as good as used up. Graveraet came up, and, taking mly pack on top of his, a much heavier one, marched on with both, as if mline was only the addition of a feather, while I t:udged on behind, andl ha hadrd work to keep up. Graveraet, seeing ohow fatigued I was, invited me to get on top of his load, saying he would carry me too, and he could have done it I believe; but I had too much pride to accept his offer. When we arrived at the little brook which runs by George Rublein's old brewery, we niade some tea and lunched, after which I took my pack and carried it without much difficulty to what is now known as the Cleveland 5Mine, then known as

Page  218 -1 I N 11) - I I:1 V r A, I IL ' A IL IL A, I h M V I '-, L111:4.I I.Jj , , I _\ N,,

Page  219 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 219 Moody's location. On our way we had stopped a few minutes at the Jackson forge, where we met Mr. Everet, Charles Johnson, Alexander McKerchie, A. N. Barney, N. E. Eddy, Nahum Keys, and others. At the Cleveland we found Capt. Sam Moody and John I. Mann, who had spent the previous summer and winter there. I well remember how astonished I was next morning when Capt. Moody asked me to go with him to dig some potatoes for breakfast. He took a hoe and an old tin pail, and we ascended a high hill, now known as the Marquette Iron Company's mountain, and on its pinnacle found half an acre partially cleared and planted to potatoes. He opened but one or two hills when his pail was filled with large and perfectly sound potatoes-and then said: 'I may as well pull a few parsnips and carrots for dinner, to save coming up again'; and, sure enough, he had them there in abundance. This was in the month of May. "From this time till the tenth of July, we kept possession of all the iron mountains then known west of the Jackson, employing our time fighting mosquitoes at night, and the black flies through the day; perhaps a small portion of it was given to denuding the iron hills of extraneous matter, preparing the way for the immense products that have since followed. On the 10th of July, we came away from the mountains, bag and baggage, arriving at the lake shore. as we then termed it, before noon. Mr. Harlow had arrived with quite a number of mechanics, some goods, lots of money, and, what was better than all, we got a glimpse of some female faces. "At one o'clock of that day, we commenced clearing the site of the of the present city of Marquette, though we called it Worcester in honor of Mr. Iarlow's native city. We began by chopping off the trees and brush, at the point of rocks near the brick blacksmith shop, just south of the shore end of the Cleveland Ore Docks. We cut the trees close to the ground, and then threw them bodily over the bank onto the lake shore; then, under the direction of Capt. Moody, we began the construction of a dock, which was to stand like the ancient pyramids, for future ages to wonder at and admire! We did this by carrying these whole trees into water and piling them in tiers, crosswise, until the pile was even with the surface of the water. Then we wheeled sand and gravel upon it, and, by the end of the second day, we had completed a structure which we looked upon with no little pride. Its eastward or outward end was solid rock, and all inside of that was solid dirt, brush and leaves. We could not see why it should not stand as firm and as long as the adjacent beach itself. A vessel was expected in a few days, with a large lot of machinery and supplies, and we rejoiced in the fact that we had a dock upon which they could be landed. On the third day. we continued to improve it by corduroying the surface, and by night of that day, it was, in our eyes, a thing of beauty to behold. Our chagrin may be imagined, when, on rising the next morning, we found that a gentle sea had come in during the night and wafted our dock to some unknown point. Not a trace of it remained; not even a poplar leaf

Page  220 220 2 TIlE NORTIERN IPENINSULA OF MICIIGAN was left to mark the spot. The sand of the beach was as clean and smooth as if it had never been disturbed by the hand of man. I wrote in the smooth sand with a stick, 'This is the spot where Capt. Moody built his dock.' The Captain trod upon the record, and said I would get my discharge at the end of the month, but he either forgot or forgave the affront. It was a long time before anyone had the hardihood to attempt the building of another dock. "The propellers would come to anchor, some times as far as two miles from the shore, and the freight and passengers had to be landed in small boats. Our large boilers, when they arrived, were plugged, thrown overboard, and floated ashore, and the other machinery was landed with our AMackinae boat, or a scow which we had constructed. Cattle and horses were always pitched overboard and made to swim ashore. "Under the lead of James Kelly, the boss carpenter, who was from Boston, we improved our time, after six o'clock each evening, in erecting a log house for sleeping quarters for our particular party. When finished, we called it the Revere House, after the hotel of that name in Boston. This building stood on its original site as late as 1860. "We continued clearing up the land south of Superior street, preparing the ground for a forge, machine shop, sawmill and coal house. Somne tine in August, the schooner 'Fur Trader' arrived, bringing a large number of Germans, some Irish and a few French. Among this party were August Machts, George Rublein. Francis Dolf, and Patrick, James and Michael Atfield. All these have resided here continuously, * * *. It was cholera year; Clark died at the Sault on his way back; several others had died on the vessel, and many were landed very sick. We were all frightened; but the Indians, who lived here to the number of about one hundred, had everything embarked in their boats and canoes within sixty minutes, and started over the waters to escape a disease to them more fearful than the small-pox. '"At this time, the first steam boiler ever set up in this county was ready to be filled with water, and it must be cone the first time by hand. It was a locomotive boiler. A dollar and a half was offered for the job, and I took it; working three days and a night or two, I succeeded in filling it. Steam was got up, and I then was installed as engineer and fireman. "That summer there were but few boats of any kind on the lake. The reliable mail, freight and passenger craft was the schooner 'Fur Trader,' commanded bv the veteran Capt. Calvin Ripley, from whlom the picturesque rock in Marquette bay took its name. "During the winter we had three or four mails only. Mr. IIarlow was the first postniaster, and hired the Indian Jimiueca to go to LJ'Ane-e after the mail at a cost of ten dollars per trip. I believe the cost was made up by subscription. "The Jackson Company had about suspended operations; their credit was at a low ebb; their agent had left in the fall, and was

Page  221 TIlE NORT-IERN PENINSIULA OF MICHIGAN succeeded by 'Czar' Jones, the President, but nearly all work was stopped, and the men thought seriously of hanging and quartering Mr. Jones, who soon after left the country. In the spring (1850) the Jackson Company 'bust' all up, and( all work at their mine and forge was suspended. By this time the Marquette Iron Company's forge was nearly completed and ready for making blooms. Many dwellings, shops, etc., had been erected, together with a small dock at which steamers could land." Thus the beautiful and prosperous city of Marquette had its beginning in the last year of the first half of the nineteenth century and was equipped for a good start of what proved to be a prosperous future. ONTONAGON AND RISE OF COPPER MINING Prior to the original survey made by Mr. Burt, Samuel W. Hill, in 1841, conducted explorations on the Ontonagon river and he was afterwards engaged in the geological surveys of that locality that were made under the direction of Doctor Douglass Houghton and of Foster and Whitney. In 1843 James K. Paul made a preemption of land where the city of Ontonagon now stands, and he erected a log cabin thereon. Mr. Paul was a Virginian, brave, generous and open-hearted, and his small cabin served not only as a dwelling house, but as a store where he dealt out supplies to the few people that came shortly after. In 1844 the government established a mineral agency at that point, and constructed a building sixteen by twenty feet for an office and Major Campbell was stationed there as the government agent. This was immediately following the ratification of the treaty whereby the Indian rights to lands in that vicinity were acquired by the government. It was immediately following that treaty that the government began the issuing of mineral permits for leases, and the first permits were issued in l1843 to Wilson & Carson, Ansley & Company, and Turner & Company, and in 1844 C. C. Douglass, who had been assistant state geologist, began explorations under those permits. In 1845 the first practical attention was given to the copper mining interests, at what was then called the Ontonagon mine, but later known as the Minnesota mine. Promiinent men that had been connected with this mine are S.. Knapp, its first superintendent, Capt. AWm. Harris, Mr. Townsend and Mr. Roberts. C. C. Cushman, representing a Boston company, located under a permit, in 1845. in the same locality. His company was first called the Ontonagon Copper Company, and later the Forest Mining Coinpany. The same year Cyrus Mendenhall located a claim three miles square on the west side of the Ontonagon River for the Isle Royale Mining Company. The following year many locations were made and the locality was a scene of considerable activity, and at a few places active operations

Page  222 222 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN were begun, and the prospects were very bright. Mining stocks were in good demand for a time, but by the fall of 1847 speculation in stocks got a setback, and as a consequence, development was slow. Among the very early settlers at this locality were F. G. White, John Cheynoweth, W. W. Spalding, A. Cobuin. Abner Sherman, A. C. Davis, S. S. Robinson, Edward Sales, Doctor Osborn, Martin Beaser, and Messrs. Webb, Richards, Lockwood, Hoyt, Hardee, Anthony, Sanderson and Dickerson. Of the early settlers Messrs. Cash, Spalding, and Lockwood built a boat in 1848, with which to do freighting upon the Ontonagon river. The lumber was cut with a whip-saw and the boat was seventy-five feet long, with an eight foot beam, flat bottomed, keel form, and of fifteen tons capacity. It was propelled by a crew of ten Indians, with poles, who were under the command of a white man. The boat was propelled up the river against the rapids by means of a seven hundred foot line which was stretched from the capstan to trees on the shore. It was eighteen miles from the mouth of the river to the mine and it required three days to make the trip up the river, though the boat was able to return down stream in one day. In 1849 the first frame house in Ontonagon was built by Captain John G. Parker, and so the then village of Ontonagon had its beginning almost concurrently with the settlement at Marquette, just at the end of the first half of the nineteenth century. So far as can be learned the first boat to arrive at Ontonagon was the propeller "Napoleon," which landed forty-four passengers on the eighth day of May, 1849. They were mainly laborers who came to work in the Minnesota copper mine. The first shipment of copper was made June 15, 1849, by that company, the copper being floated down the river in two canoes that were tied or lashed together. The first mail to reach Ontonagon overland came by dog-train in the winter of 1846-1847, and the house of D. S. Cash was used as the postoffice, and Mr. Cash continued to be the postmaster for six years. There was but one mail that winter. In 1848 Lathrop Johnson converted the government agency building into a tavern and called it the "Johnson House," which was the first hotel open for the entertainment of the public. Until that time, Mr. Paul's cabin had been the usual stopping place for travelers. THE SAULT AND MACKINAC AGAIN At the Sault there was comparatively little change from 1830 to 1850. In the former year the population is recorded as having been 526 at and near the village. In 1837 it had fallen off to 366. In 1840 it was 534, and in 1845 it again fell to 107; but increased again so that in 1850 it was 898. The settlement at Mackinac continued to be the headquarters for the fur trade throughout the entire first half of the nineteenth century,

Page  223 THE NORT1HERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 223 and the population varied somewhat; the census being of such a very large territory, gives no record so far as we can learn as to just the number in the village in 1850. The then county of Mackinac, prior to the division into a number of counties in 1843, covered a very large territory, and in 1840 was credited with a population of 923. The government Indian agents located at Mackinac were as follows: 1816-24, W. H. Puthuff; 1824-33. George Boyd; 1833-41, TI. R. Schoolcraft; 1841-45. Robert Stuart; 1845-49, William A. Richmlond; and 1849-51, Charles IP. Babcock. Thus the last half of the nineteenth century began, for the Upper Peninsula, with the few settlements we have mentioned, the only ones "', -I-.I~~~~~~~,O. *. Cj^". <^.,2 \ i.r^^ja Ia;i'"-'r;:+^.'^ ^ "*-..;: ~ ~ 9,;.Xa ^ * 1D. '42 1 l 1*^S'r tl TT '< * na..D;:E- -F WATER STREETTH...........m.2....:::,% '_ OLD VIEWV OE WAATER STREET, THE SOO of any considerable importance being those at the Sault and Mackinac, but with substantial beginnings at Marquette, Copper Harbor, on Keweenaw bay, and at Ontonagon. Interest in the Peninsula, however, had assumed considerable proportions, and the three great attractions which were to enlist the attention of the public were copper, iron and lumber. The development in the sixty years from that time to this has been phenomenal, and the history covering that time will be written topically, with reference to localities, industries, etc.

Page  224 CIAPTER XII JUDICIAL AND LEGAL TIE PIONEER LAWYER GETTING TO COURT UPPER PENINSTILA CIRCUIT COURTS —JUDGE D.ANIEL GOODWIN-JUDGE JOSEPII STEERE —TWELFTH CIRCUIT JUDGES —THE PRESENT FOUR CIRCUITS -VETERANS OF TIIE BAR —JUDGES WILLIAMS AND STREETER —JrDGES GRANT AND STONEJUDGE RICHARD C. FLANNIGAN-TIIIRTY-SECOND CIRCUIT JUDGESJ. LOGAN CHIIPMAN, OF THE SOO-DAN II-. BALL, OF IMARQUETTEOTHER MAARQUETTE COUNTY LAWYERS —HIOUITGHTON COUNTY BARONTON'AGON, SCHOOLCRAFT AND DELTA —M[ENOMINEE COUNTY PRACTITIONERS —BAR (F IICKINSON AND IRON COUNTIES. By lHo). John Pouwer A trifle in excess of a (lecade prior to the advent of the titanic struggle between the sections of our country, for that. supremacy of the doctrine of indissolulbl(e union as opposed( to the theory of secession which was estal)lished at Appoliattox Court House in the memorable spring of the year 1865, the judicial history of the Uppe(r Peninsula of MAichigan had its inception. Ilut sixty years having elapsed in a theater coinposed of the miost remote anid inaceessil)le, an1 for il111ny years most sparsely settled portion of the territory forming the state. it mnight well be expected that the nmatter appropriately applicable to the subject of a brief history of the b)ench and bar of the Upl'er -Pe'ninsula, would be so limited and circumsclribed as to defeat any effort to preslnt a sketch of the most elementary interest. Notwithstanding, however, the paucity of lwhalt minay be styled concrete material, there doubtle.ss are many matters and personages connected with these sixty years of ju.dicial and( professional ha)ppeings, which may be found of more or less interest in the future, and hence, worthy of preservation in the pages of a work devoted to a historical recital of mcatters, events. development and progress of that section of our state north of the Straits of Mackinac. where tihe pine of primiest quality and most gigantic dilnensions stretched its ambitious boughs far into the pure atmosphere, surrounding a rugged region, it is true, 224

Page  225 T'E NORTIIIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 225 l)ut. one blessed with a cliimate redolent of health and laden with all those qualities which produce physical vigor, and where nature had selccted stor elhouses in which to deposit almost limitless supplies of the most useful and most wealth-producing of her mineral gifts to man. There are still living in several of these northern counties many of the older npractitioncrs at the bar, w\ho have a store of remliniscences connected witl their professional work and experiences which are full of interest, and which might be of much value to the younger meimbers of the profession as illustrating the virility and endurance, as well as tlhe power to endure privation and hardship. which were possessed and exercised patiently and uncom1)plainingly by the generations of lawyers who served in the courts in this region, beginnling in the year 1850. TIIE PIONEER L'AWYER "GETTING TO COURT" Railroads were an unknown luxury anywhere on the peninsula until the year 1865, when the Marquette Iron Range was connected with the port of Escanaba by a piece of road solme sixty-five miles long. Afterwards. in the year 1871-2, the Northwestern road was extended from Green Bay to Escanaba, thus furnishing an inadequate gateway operated by rail, from Marquette county on the north to the outer world. It wacs not until the year 1883 that the copper regionOntonagon, HIoughton, Keweenaw and Baraga counties-secured railroad transportation facilities. It follows that as late as 1884 and 1885 the lawyer practicing in the counties of the Upper Peninsula had no such comfort in reaching the various circuit courts, in the pursuit of his profession, as is enjoyed nowadays through the agency of the railroad coach, the Pullman car, the observation car and the dining car, with the various other luxurious accessories. In those days of the simple life long journeys were undertaken in the heat and dust and discomforts of the summer day, in an ordinary stage coach, usually an open wagon, or in the vigorous winter weather, wlhen mayhap the mercury would sink to thirty degrees or more below zero Fahrenheit. in a sleigh, and in the earlier days even upon snow shoes. It may be accepted as a fact, that these journeys to the various temples devoted to the admlinistration of even-handed justice were no picnic occasions; far from it. The distance may be described as far more "magnificent" than those which are one of the proud boasts of our nation's capital, and in annihilating them the old practitioner, or he who is now old, enjoyed a more than ordinarily strenuous experience. From HIoughton to L'Anse, thitty-two miles one way had to be covered in this way to each of the several terms; from L'Anse to Marquette, fifty-three miles; from Houghton to Mlarquette, eighty-five miles; from Escanlba. to IManisti(que cxceedecd forty miles by the traveled routes, including over twenty miles of ice in the winter season. The distances to and from St. Ignace and Sault Ste. Marie, and to and fromn Menom\ol. T- 1 5

Page  226 226 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN inee, were still more heroic. The modern hotel and the comforts they afford were, of course, in great measure unknown. The old lawyer "travelling circuit," if you please, had to be content with much plainer fare, and much cruder surroundings, than they afford. The wayside inn with the rough common table, with all else eschewed except only the homely accessories of life, were all that he could look for with any reasonable hope of gratification. Lie would luxuriate in whitewashed walls and sanded floors, and deem himself thrice fortunate did he succeed in commanding a bed for his exclusive use, the occasion often arising when the exigencies required that he could be allowed to preempt only part of that most useful and indispensable article of household economy. Thus he was compelled (and they were cases of "willy nilly") to become a tenant in common of the bed with a person, or persons, whom he had never seen before; the extent and volume of his knowledge about whom was that they belonged to the Caucasian race. The old-time court house, too, was a marvel of architectural sinplicity; slab walls, four in number, with a shingle roof, constituted the temple; the jury room, a contrivance which well illustrated the adage "Necessity is the mother of invention." When the inventive faculty was not equal to tlhe occasion, the "good men and true" were relegated to the neat est inn to deliberate on the knotty entanglements of evidence, and momentous questions involved in the case at bar. All-in-all, it may be accepted that the lawyer who practiced before the courts of the Upper Penlinsula during the first three and a half decades after the adoption of Michigan's second constitution, neither lay on beds of roses nor feasted at Lucullian boards. They often had grim and trying experiences that tested the metal of which they were made, and proved, beyond room for refutation, the sterling, manly and gritty qualities that predominated in their virile make-up; their indomitable resolution, strong fortitude under adverse conditions and dogged determination to win the battle, the gage of which is taken up in every manly man's life struggle. In these reflections upon the characteristic qualities and the labors of the early-day lawyer, in the primeval judicial period of judicial and professional history on the peninsula, there lurks no intention to make or suggest any invidious comparisons between the old lawyers and their juniors who occupy the places formerly filled by many who have passed away; by those who have retired and those who are still in the harness and who have becole the veterans, the old guard of the profession. It is fully recognized that our young men who offer their services to the public as legal advisers, and who hold themselves as worthy to be entrusted with the professional supervision of interests of the greatest possible moment to the people, are, as a rule, men of learning and ability; aye, and integrity; notwithstanding the unpleasant but undesirable fact, that as in all flocks, there are black sheep. It must be borne in mind that this, in the most emphatic degree, is an age of strenuous effort; that competition is rife in every field of en

Page  227 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 227 deavor; that the profession of the law is being invaded by too many persons ambitious of legal and forensic famne, some of whom are lacking in the qualities essential to success, yet, all things considered, the reasonably reflective will conclude that the profession of the law, regardless of the flippantly expressed opinions of the unthinking to the contrary, furnishes as large a measure of capacity, integrity and reliability as can be expected to be afforded by men drawn from any of the most approved constituent parts of the civilized people of today. tUPPER PENINSUILA CIRCUIT COURTS The state of Michigan, prior to the adoption of the constitution of 1850, for judicial purp)oses, was (divided into four circuits. The first circuit, by force of the statute of 1846, emnbraced the counties of Wayne, Monroe, Macoimb, LaPeer, St. Clair, Ia aclkinaw all( Chipplewa. Ahen this statute was enacted, the Upper Peninsula. had but two organized counties: those of Mackinaw and Chippewa. The statute referred to provided that two terms of the circuit court should be held in each of the counties annually; but further provided that the second term might be omitted in some of the counties, among which were those of MIackinaw and Chippewa, unless the sheriff and county clerk of the excepted counties should determine and declare that such second term was neCessary, in the public interest. It will be seen, therefore, that the labors of the judiciary andl of the members of the bar, in that portion of the state known as the Upper Peninsula prior to the adoption of the second state constitution, were limited and few. The organized counties upon the peninsula were judicially served under this statute until the adoption of the constitution of 1850. That constitution as far as respects the Upper Peninsula, provides as follows, according to article XIX: Sec. 1. The counties of Arackinaw, Chippewa, Delta, Marquette, Schooleraft, lHoughton, Ontonagon, and the islands and territory thereunto attached; the islands of Lakes Superior, Huron, and Miichigan, and in Green Bay and the Straits of Mackinaw, an(d the river Sault Ste. Malrie shall constitute a separate judicial district, and be entitled to a district judge and district attorney. Sec. 2. The district judge shall be elected by the electors of such district, and shall perform the same duties and possess the same powers as a circuit judge in his circuit, and shall hold his office for the same period. Sec. 3. The district attorney shall be elected every two years by the electors of the district, and shall perform the duties of prosecuting attorney throughout the entire district, and may issue warrants for the arrest of offenders in cases of felony, to be proceeded with as shall be prescribed by law. Sec. 4. Such judicial district shall be entitled at all times to at least one senator, and until entitled to more by its population, it shall have three members of the house of representatives to be apportioned among the several counties by the legislature. Sec. 5. The legislature may provide for the payment of the district judge a salary not exceeding one thousand ($1,000) dollars a year, and of the district attorney, not exceeding seven hundred ($700) dollars a year; and may allow extra compensation to the members of the legislature from such territory not exceeding two ($2) dollars a day during any session. Section 26 of the schedule of the constitution of 1850 provides that the legislature shall have authority, after the expiration of the terml of office of the district judge first elected for the Upper Peninsula, to

Page  228 228 TIlE NORTIERN P'EN.INSUIJA OF.IMI(CIIGI(AN abolish said office of district ju(dge and dlistrict attorney, or either of them. Act No. 1.50 of the session Laws of 186:3 abolishled thle office of district judge, abolished tile judicial district and created tile Eleventh judicial circuit-the circuit including all the territory of the Upper Peninsula-while the office of district attorney, created ulnder the constitution of 185(), wa.s al)olishedl by act 1!)1 of the session law1s of the year 1.865. Under the provisions of act No. 1:35 of the year 1851 the district judge was required to hold eight terms of court each year in the district; two terms in each of the counties of Mackinaw, Chippewa, Ontonagon and IHoughton. Marquette county was at that tiine attached to IIoughton county for judicial pllrposes; and the latter included the present county of Keweenaw. The county seat of Houghton county was, at the time of the organization of the district court, located at Eagle river, now within the limits of Keweenaw county. JUDGE 1)ANIEL GOODWIN The only district judge of the judicial district organized under the constitutional provisions of 1850, was the lion. l)aniel Goodwin, of Detroit, who was the president of the constitutional convention by which the constitution of 1850 was adopted. Judge Goodwin continued to occupy the bench of the district court of the Upper Peninsula until the court was abolished in the year 1863, and subsequently was elected judge of the Eleventh judicial circuit, created by the act of 1863. IIe served as circuit judge of the Eleventh judicial circuit until the year 1881, so that the venerable judge wore the ermine of the Upper l'eninsula for a period of thirty years; from the inception of the district court until the year last mentioned. I)uring his incumbency of the circuit judgeship, the official title of Judge Goodwin was attacked; the claim having been advanced that it was invalid, and that he was ineligible to the office of circuit judge in this the Eleventh circuit because of non-residence. The judge, being a resident of Detroit, continued to reside in that city during the entire period covered by his service as district and circuit judge. A proceeding in the nature of a quo warranto information was filed agaihst the judge in the supreme court, at the April term in the year 1871. The court held that Judge Goodwin's title to the office was valid, notwithstanding non-residence, and that it is only when a judge actually residing in his circuit removes from it, "that he vacates his office." The case in question is entitled "The People ex rel, Eli P. Royce vs. Daniel Goodwin; Twenty-ttwo (22) Michigan, page four hundred ninety-six (496). The writer of this sketch would fail in duty to the mlemory of a most excellent gentleman, did he pass without further comment than is contained in the recital of mere incidents, an occasion that presents the opportunity to place upon a record which may be scanned by many eyes, his estimate of the character of a just and pure-minded judge.

Page  229 : I V 4I" " VI 1 ll()N. I)ANIVII, (11()()[)\\'IN

Page  230 230 THE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICIIGAN Having had occasion during a few of the last years of Judge Goodwin's administration of the law within the Eleventh judicial circuit to practice in his courts, the impression became deep-seated, as a result of observation and personal experience in the trial of causes before this even-handed jurist, that no state in the union, no country within the limits of civilization, was ever better, more justly and more equitably served upon its bench, than Michigan and the Eleventh circuit while Judge Goodwin presided in the courts of the several counties within that circuit. Iis temper was eminently judicial. PIatient allmost to a fault, he was never known to become irascible, hasty or testy. Counsel was fairly and patiently heard; litigants justly treated, and the public good always conserved by Judge Goodwin during the long years of his honorable service. JUDGE JOSEPH II. STEERE The Eleventh judicial circuit, the first circuit created on the ppl)ler Peninsula, has had since its creation but two judges, I-Ion. Daniel Good. win and the present incumbent, IIon. Joseph H. Steere. As hereinbefore state(l, the circuit was created in the year 1863 and the circuit court took the place of the district court on the first day of Janulary, 1864; so that the Eleventh circuit has now entered upon its forty-eighth year; and its second judge is still in service on its bench. Judge Goodwin's service on the ben'(ch of the Eleventh circuit covered seventeen years, and Judge Steere has now been serving in the neighborlhood of thirty years. This is a tinlle-record, it is believed, unexcelled in the history of any other circuit in Michiigan. Hon. Joseph IT. Steere, when elevated to the blenlh, was for that dignity a very young lan. IIe problabl li ad not yet reached his thirtieth year, and, resultingly. his practice at the )bar had been limited; but, notwithstanding that fact, he has iiad(e one of the most successful judicial offi(ers that Mlichigan lhas had during its entire history. Iis excellent legal equipment at the outset; his extensive reading, his industrious habits, his close application, all stood( him in good stead and( contributed with the aid of a judicial temper, marked by his unvaryving patience arnd courtesy, to win his noted success. His affability off and on the bench, made it a pleasure to practice in his court. In an extended experience at the bar, the writer has appeared in many of the state courts, not only of Michigan but of other states, and in the federal circuit court, district court and circuit court of appeals; has met during that experience a large number of judges, state and federal, and has transacted business in their courts, including that of President Taft when he was presiding justice of the Circuit Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit; and, in the light of that experience, he is prepared to say that no one among these judicial officers excelled in tlhe happy faculty of patient judicial temper the IIon. Joseph I-. Steere. It follows, and goes without saying, that he has achieved a noted success upon the bench. Such men as he can best serve the public interest in presiding in our courts of justice.

Page  231 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 231 TWELFTH CIRCUIT JUDGES By act No. 28 session Laws of the year 1865, the Twelfth judicial circuit was created, comprising the counties of Ontonagon, IHoughton, Keweenaw and Marquette. The present county of Baraga was, at the time of the creation of the Twelfth judicial circuit, part of the county of Houghton, and most of the present county of Iron, as well as a portion of Dickinson county, was then included in the territory of AMarquette county. The last mentioned act provided that (o and after the 10th day of March, in the year 1865, the counties lmentioned should constitute the Twelfth judicial circuit. The act provided for the holding of a judicial election on the first IMon(day in April. 1865, and that the judge thereat elected should hold office commlencing on the twentyeighth (lay of Mlay, 1865, and endlinll on the first day of JaInarIy 1870. At that election, Clarence E. Edd(i was elected cilrcuit ju(lge of tlie Twelfth circuit. Judge Eddie was at the time of his electtion a iesident of IIoughton and had been in the region but a few years; and at the time of his election, he was engaged in the practice of law in partnelshilp with the late J. A. Iubbell, who rel)resented the old Ninth district in congress for several terms. Judge Eddie held the office of judge of the Twelfth circuit until the early part of the year 18(). when he died. though yet a colnparatively younlg lmanl. At the following judicial election in A)pril. 1869. James O'Grady was elected and filled tlhe bench of this circuit until the first day of January, 1876. when he was succeledetd b}) W\illillam ). Williams. Jamlles O'Gradly came to the Mii cliganl copper regioin froml MIarquette. at the close of the ye!,lr 1866, andl lracticed law part of thle timl. l)(illg one of the fiiii of Ilubbelll & O'Grad-. IIe had( been iI pr)actice iln Marquette for two years when he established himlself in lIoughrton. IIe was a resident of New York when he established himiisclf in Mariquette, in the later )portion of the year 1863. le was active as a member of the commiittee which, early afte r the Opening of the war of the 1rebellion, organize(l the bod.y (of troops for field services )popularly kInown\ as the "Irish Brigade." Judge O'Grady took the field with the brigade, as a major in one of its regilents. IIe was a I)emllocrat in politics, and in comnmon with a number of others of lhis political views. fell under the displeasure of the great war secretary, Edlwin 1M1. Stanton, Awlo, lacking faith in the loyalty of the D)cmocratil officers servi gi in the army, compelledl a numblb)er of theml to resign, amonlg whom was Mtajor O'Grady. It was after this army experience that he iimoved to 'Marquette. IIe was by birth a \Vrmlonter. a man of considerablle ability, and especially dignified in manner and in bearing. IIe was a good judge; sonething of a martinet, however, and especially severe upon persons convicted of crime in his court. Ile died at IIoughton in the year 1879. TIE PRESENT FOUR CIRCUITS Act No. 32 of the session Laws of the year 1861 reorganized the Eleventh and Twelfth circuits, and created a new circuit which was

Page  232 232 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN designated as the Twenty-fifth judicial circuit. The Twenty-fifth judicial circuit consisted of Marquette, Delta and Menominee counties. It included all of the territory now known as Marquette county, and( also the principal part of the present county of Iron, and a portion of the county of Dickinson. The counties of Ontonagon, Houghton, Keweenaw, Baraga and Isle Royale constituted the Twelfth circuit under this act. Isle Royale had but a short time before been organized into a separate county. Prior to its county organization. Isle Royale was attached to IIoughton county for judicial purposes. The Eleventh circuit, under the same act, consisted of Chippewa. M\ackinaw, IManitou and Schooleraft counties. Mackinaw county has since been detaehed from the Eleventh circuit and now forms part of the Northe:n circuit of the Lower Peninsula, the Thirty-third circuit. (See Act 110. Publlic Acts 1891.) Since and by act No. 65 of the year 1891, the Thirty-second judicial circuit was organized, and it was made to consist of the new county of Gogebic and the county of Ontonagon, which, by the act, was detached from the Twelfth circuit to form part of the new one. Act No. 32 of the year 1881 provided that no person should be eligible to the office of circuit judge in either the Eleventh, Twelfth or Twenty-fifth judicial circuit who had not resided within the circuit for thirty days prior to his election. This provision as to resident's qualification was inserted in the act with a view of dissipating a considerable dissatisfaction which had existed among members of the bar on account of importation, so to speak, of judges to serve on the bench in the various circuits of the Upper Peninsula. It will be observed, therefore, that the Upper Peninsula at the date of this article, is divided for judicial purposes into four circuits-the Eleventh, Twelfth, Twenty-fifth and Thirty-second. The counties of Alger anid Luce constitute part of the Eleventh circuit, while the county of Mackinaw is attached, as before stated, to the Northern judicial circuit of the Lower Peninsula. VETERANS OF THE BAR In the year 185(), the birth.ear of the second constitution, the bar of the UIlpper I'eninlsula was numerically limited indeed. Its mllenbershil) in that year was confined to the county of Chippewa alld( to the city o-f Marqeltte, and, possibly, the village of IIoughton. If there were lawyers elsewhere on the peninsula, the writer has been uniable to obtain any informlation regarding them. At the present time, the legal professional field is well filled throughout the peninsula, the counties of IIoighton, M\arquette, Delta, Chippewa and lMenoninee being par ticIularly favored by membership in the profession. The bars of these several colinties, as well as those of some other counties in the peninsula, c(()tainll mlle of superior legal ability-men who would achieve sucleses in the prractice of their profession, anywhere and against all competition. It is sonmetirles a subject for wonder that some of these ilen in

Page  233 THE NORTHIERN PENINSULA OF MICIIIGAN 233 duced themselves to select a. field for their life work such as the Upper Peninsula; so llallny lO(calities throughout the country offering superior advantages to the indlustrious, capable. practieing lawyer. Somne of these gentlemlen have (levotedl their whole lives to thle work of their p)rofession in this rlegion, annd hlav-e now reached an11( passed the oftqluote(l setil)tiral (age of tllee-score yelars alnd ten, though yet contilluinig in active anid lseful I)professional work. The (lders of the l)rofessioll ill thle varl0iols (ounliies,. thle lmen who hlave ilImpresse their in(livi(ldal itvuplon the (eourts of the UI )pcer l'eninsula. whilei praeticing in tlhe various circulits, \\ill h1e giv'n prol)er lnotice h1ereafter. At this p)oint, it will 1)erhlia)s 1)e (leeme(ll(d' alppl)roplrilte to llention the several 1lawy!rs who serve(l uplomn t1he h)oi11(elh in thle other circuits of the )peninsula b)-esidles the Eleventh (ircullit. t. the judges of wlilch lnotice lhas alrea(y el(en accor(le(d..J T'DGES,VIIIA.\AMS AND STREETER As alo)ve state(l the 'r welfthl circuit had on its bench Clarence E. Eddlie and( Jamles O'Giaady. in its earlier history. the latter having been succeed(ed by William 1). Williams, of Marquette. After tile deeease of Jludge Williams, J. A. IIllblell. the well known former representative in eonglress, became judge of the Twelfth eircuit. Judge Ilubuhell had serveed in congress twelve years, (luring ywhich tie hle was. of course, oumt of p)ractie, and when he eame upon the bhen(h 1(e was somewhat lan(lical)pped by reason of this f act. I-Ie had not kept as closely in touch with the dec'isions of the courts and iwith the statutory enactinents as would a mlan engaged ill (aily practice. Notwithstanding such disadvantages IIHubll)ell acclquitted himself in the discharge of his iMlI)orta.nt lduties (qluite ahly. IIe was a man of rigid integrity and of a stro(ng, vigorous personality. His sense of justicee was well dev(eloped. all(l le was universally regarded as a just judge. Judge I-ubbell's ic(altil, how()(ver, while he was serving upon the bench, was somewhat feelle and( gr\\ew mnor(e so as his age advaiee(ll so that after two or three y!(ars l(e found himllse(lf pl)y!sically iu-nequal to thle work which the, bench (leiadl(l(d(l. and(1 e wNas frelquently relieved and rested by Judge Noriani \V. Ilaire, of 1r()wo()o(l. Mli(chigan. Judell Ilaire l)resi(ed at s(veral ()-f tle ttlmis il IIight()on colillty. and )'erlhal)s elselwherel in the ci ('llit I)c( 1(l,J II(l(ge I IIII)l( 11 vvacIt('(ed tle b('el('lch l11(lge IIlhl)e11-ll's suIcc(ss()or is thle p)resenlt incumeliit of the ju'dgesilil) il thllat c irclit. Allhet '1. Streeter. of IIouglhto(n. Judi,(g'e Stre(eter \Vas a(lilit( tcl to( t l) 1h 11 l)(i tlie reeommlen(latiol ()f a eo()mllittee of (xalril( lers ill tile (vil'(lit court for thle (ounty of Ilorghtonl ill oIne of tlhe (learlier veaii s f J I(l(ge \illiamls' i ncumlencv, and imimediatelv enteld (d1 i)i a(tive 1pactice at (alumnet. IHoughiton county. For a timle 1(e I)rac(ti{e(dl }his 1)rofessioii almole and sul)seq(uently l)ecaroe a ssociated wit} A. \V. Kerr. n( e of thle prominIent l)ra(ticing attonl(eys inl Iloughton (oumnty at tlle plresent tiiiie. Judge Streeter's service upon the bench at the c(lose of the l)1'selt year, when lhe will retire froml the of

Page  234 234 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN fice, will have exceeded two terms, during which time he has presided at many important trials, civil and criminal. He is a hard-working, patient and conscientious judge; ever earnestly endeavoring to hold the balance even. He has been and is a worthy colleague of the other eminent men who have occupied the various benches in the Upper Peninsula. Judge Streeter will be succeeded on the first day of January, 1912, by Patrick II. O'Brien, the circuit judge elect. JUDGES GRANT AND STONE The first circuit judge of the Twenty-fifth judicial circuit, consisting of 5Marquette, Delta, Iron, Dickinson and Menominee counties, was IIon. Claudius B. Grant, who recently retired fromn the supreme bench of this state. Judge Grant served in the circuit from the first day of January, 1882, until the first day of January, 1888, a full term. At the judicial election, in the spring of 1887. Judge Grant was elected justice of the supreme court. and entered upon its service and occupied his seat on the bench of that court fronm the first day of January, 1888, until the first (lay of Januarly, 1910. a long period of unbroken service, representing-e ill all twenty-eight yealrs upon the circuit and supreme benches. One of the features of Judge Grant's work that would attract interested notice, is the tremendous in(ustry and capacity for work which he displayed. The volumes of the repots of t he cases decided in the suI)remll e court of MIiclhiganl dluring tihe years when Judge Grant was a memeller of the court. in(duces the conviction that he was one of the hardest working judges Michigan has had. Thle decisions handed down )by Judge Grant alone. and written ly him would fill many volumens, an( a rleating of th(em results in the imlpression that in their preparatimo hle was not niggard of his labors in the work of research. Judge Grant was a vigorous trial lawyer, and appeared at the bar in many cases at every term of the courts at Marquette, Ioughton and elsewhere before his I)romlotion to the bench. The lawyers who practiced with him, either as his associates or opponents in the years of his bar work, will recall with what complleteness in every detail his cases were prepared, and( with what vigor and lucidity they were presented. He was, for a time, associated in the practice of tile law with Joseph II. Chandler, one of the foremost lawyers of Houghton in his time. The firm was then known as Chandler & Grant. Later it became, Chandler, Grant & Gray, until Joseph II. Chandler moved to Chicago, when Judge Grant continued to practice as the head of the firm known as Grant & Gray. The judge also served as prosecuting attorney of Houghton county for two terms. I-e was exacting as judge in his demands upon the officers of his courts for the preservation of order, and the seemliness of the surroundings while the work of the courts was in progress. This judge needs no monument other than the many enlightened decisions penned by his hand, to be found within the covers of the Michigan reports from the Sixty-ninth volume to and including the One Hundred Fifty-eighth.

Page  235 TIIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 235 In the year 1888, John W. Stone, of AIarq(uette, took his seat upon the bench of the Twenty-fifth ju(licial circuit, and served as its judge continuo(usly froin that time until the close of the year 1909. Judge Stone, at the judicial election of the year 190()9, was elected justice of the supreme (ourt of Michigan, ald lhe elntere(l upon the (lischarge of the duties of that exalted office on the first day of Jtanunary, 1'910. Judge Stone, at the bar an(l on the )(bench, was a. la.wyer of exceptional ability and( unfiagging industry. The writer is unalble to reca((ll his failure to meet lny (lemandl uporl his official service aln( timle during all the years, excee(ling a. score, while lie was ineumblent of the lenllch of the 'rT\wentyfifth circuit; the fact that he took his seat upl)on the b(nc(h of the supreme court alfter passinmg his sevelltiethl year, anl d.after a lotng life of continlll 1lS professilonal (a11( judicial 1al)(11rs, Iresenting a vigorous, hearty xappearalncle. sl)eaks eloqluelntly for tl'e robust Ile('th atllll vigor with which lie vwas lib)erally el(l(owed. 'hcr'lll is.-a history.ellilhl(l 'Judge Stole, ill a I)rofeSsio(lal a111 (offici(il wav. V'(ry early ill life. h(; served( the I)lll)lic in tile (cal)a(,ity of ('olllty (l11rk; later, as pI)'()Se(:lti1ig atto('ney; still later, as (irellit jul(dge for a short termia in Lower MIichigan. IBetween the ye(al's _1880) ari 1884 he fitlle(1 tlle (ffice- (ff Ilniit(ed States attorney for tlhe \\'(stern (listri(ct of Ai1 i( l igall. to whi lie w\as al1)pointed by l'rcsid(leit _Arthiur. Judge Stoll( also serve(l tw(o ternls inI tllc emolnlgrl ) of the l( ited States, as re()resentative froml the distlict in which IiIs hl(nle towN, A ileganll, was l)cat(e1 at tlhe timre of hlis ele(ctio; and(, as be foi(e state(l. (e has nl(w) hal a. ('()lltillll()lls jll.i( il {I)I'I erieice froiii the begininig of the vcai'r 1888 t(o this time. This ve(cra.llle jturist givcs I)r(olnise of l1llla!(ve"l's (f valua11lnIle s(rvic(' to tlie le(ol)le of Alichigan, notwitlistad(limg his aldva(lced(t age. JUTDGE RTCII.\ID) C. FLANN,.\NIG.AN Up)oi thle traislation (If l()1lI1 WV. Stone( to tlIe sliprcitl l e()ul'rt, Richard C. Flalnnigan of' No()rway, a man (of filne legal acullenll, large experience at the bar, b)road(l sch(ola.rly attainmlllents an(1 uinassailable iltegiitx was the very wortlhy s(election of (Goverior \\Warner to fill that )portioli of the unexpired tcrlll o() the circuit bench of the T\enty-fifth circuit intervening b)efore thle next general election. Trhe aI)pointment of -Mr. Flannigan commanded the universal ap)pr(oval of judicialry, bar and people of the l)peinsula at large, annd I)articull]rly of all those most closely identified Nwithi the 'Twel ntv-fifth circuit bhy reason of residence within its limoits. So unllimous, indeed, was the sentimenlt of the lawyers respectingL the cap)al)ility, fairness and general fitness for judicial honors of Judge Flannigan, that he rece(ived the envilable colnpliment of a unanimr-ous nomination for the o(ffice of circuit judlge fromn both the Republican and I)emlocratic judi(,ial (oilventionls, coniposed in large part of lawyers. As a consiequence, he was subsequently elected to the office with(olt opplosition and bids fair to fill it for a series of years. The present judge has made a mnost satisfactory beginning in the discharge of his duIties aIn( the conduect of his courts, andl has irm

Page  236 236 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN pressed the members of the bar and the general public most favorably. To use the expressive vernacular, he is "making good" to such extent that it is believed by all who have interestedly observed, that his incumbency of the bench will depend upon his own inclinations. Born to the soil, too, there is much about this most recent acquisition to the bench of the peninsula to attract notice. Ontonagon county l)roduced a future judge when Richard C. Flannigan was born within its limits, in the year 1857. Mentally, intellectually. he is in his prime, while, by reason of his temperate and regular habits of life, he is also physically vigorous, so that he gives promise of a long period of usefulness, in a position which he is eminently fitted to fill with credit to himself and profit to the people. lIe is pre-eminently one of the people, too, having sprung from a parentage having nothing iin (co)llnon with those born to the purple, or those who revel in the luxuries of opulence. It is believed with confidence. that Judge Flannigan, Providence favoring him with extended life, will achieve a fame of which his descendants and his many friends may entertain a just sentiment of pride. THIRTY-SECOND CIRCUIT JUDGES The Thirty-second circuit like the Eleventh, has had but two judgoes since its organization. Norman W. Iaire was the first and Samuel S. Cooper the secondl and present.judge. Both were young men when they mounted the bench, and both are still unadvanced in age while botll acquitted themselves well in the discharge of the judicial duties; Judge IIaire to the close of his work on the bench, and Judge Cooper to the present time. As previously stated, Judge Haire not only took care of the work of his circuit, but also of considerable of that of the Twelfth circuit during the latter part of Judge Hubbell's term. IIe retired from the bench voluntarily, and also withdrew from profe:sional practice and engaged himself in mining work. At the present time, former judge Haire is chief administrator of several important mining properties in Northern Michigan, and elsewhere; the chief of which is perhlaps, the Copper Range Consolidated interests. A very coilpetent lawyer, a judge Owhose judicial fairness was characteristic and a genial generous gentleman, the bar of the IUpper lPe'ninsula could not afford to lose him from its brotherhood. MaIy lie live long a(nd prosper. The county of Chlippecwa affords us with the earliest ilforllmationl regarding the nien, who, perhaps. first engaged in the practice of the law undler recognized bar-forms within the lilnits of the 1'pper Peninsula. J. LOGAN CITIPMAIN, OF TIE SO() In the nature of things, this limited article cannot be expected to sketch every member of the bar who has practiced and who is practicing before the courts of the Upper Peninsula. It is not so intended, but those gentlemen who have by their personality and long association with the records in a professional sense, impressed themselves, so to

Page  237 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 237 speak, upon the coturts and upon the profession, are briefly mentioned, and their records anId characteristics somlewhat detailed. As above stated, Chlipp)ewa. colty givs us examplles of tie earlier practitioners in this region. Among them, was the well known and it maly be added, famnous J. Logoan Chipman, whose professional practice and history are foulnd largely associated with the courts, the b)ar and the city of l)etroit. We find 5IMr. J. Logan Chipman engaged in the work of the profession at Sault Ste. Malrie, as early as tihe year 184!); a time when the county of (hippewa formed a part of the First circuit, of which tile county of Wayne was also a part. The older residents and barmembers of the peninsula will recall that Mr. Chipman illarried a dautghter of old Chief O-shaw-w-aw-no, who resided for many years at the foot of the Soo rapids, and he lived for some years thereafter at Sault Ste. Marie with his Indian wife, engaged in the practice of law. The earliest records of the court work and law practice are found in said Chippewa county. Amlong them is a imost interesting one regarding a case tried in the year 1849!) before a justice of the peace, Ienry MI. Dodge. J. Logan Chiipman represented the defendant in this case, which was entitled I'oissin vs. Anthony, and the suit was brought for the recovery from AInthony of the value of a dog belonging to the plaintiff, which had been shot by Anthony, as was claimed, while the animal was trying to escape through a fence with a ham which he had stolen from Anthony's larder. The plaintiff in the case was represented by Williamn Norman IMcCloud, who, tradition informs us, was a brilliant and highly educated ex-clergynman, who had formerly been a leading minister in one of the principal churches of Philadelphia; but, owing to intemperate habits, he had left the ministry and had taken up the law. He is further said, on the authority of tradition, to have been as learned and brilliant an advocate as ever addressed a court in Michiganl. But he died while comparatively young under unfortunate circumstances at MIackinac. "J. Logan Chipman and MeCloud having ample time on their hands, and each a keen appreciation of humor, made a function of this noted Chippewa trial, and prepared and tried the ease with all the skill and ability which would have graced the Dartmouth College case. They conducted the case with great dignity and detail of erudition. Each appeared before the court in Prince Albert coats, wearing white cravats, and resorted to all the arts known to the profession, both in technical pleading and forensic eloquence. Much Latin was used. The declaration filed by MieCloud was a marvel in pleading, being patterned after the old common-law indictment for murder and freighted with legal phraseology. He also illustrated the document with pen sketches of the tragedy. It began in this wise: 'Before his honor, HIenry M. Dodge! On this Twenty-sixth day of the month of February in the year of the nativity of our Lord, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Forty-ninth as by Archbishop Usher, his computation, although there be Thirty-six (36) conjectures amongst Christian chronologists on this one point alone, cometh the Plaintiff

Page  238 238 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Poisson and Complains, etc.,' " and each statement in the pleading is thus expanded and elaborated in a miost learned manner. The verdict was against Anthony, and the case was promp)tly appealed. This pleading was really a legal curiosity. The writer remembers to have read it. It contained a number of pages all formed in the same peculiar way, but it appears that it has disappeared from the files and it is now out of reach, a circumstance to be regretted. MIr. J. Logan Chipman settled in Detroit, and there practiced his profession most successfully. He became one of the judges in that city, occupied the bench with credit, and represented the district of his residence in congress for at least two terms. With his passing went one of the most noted lawyers of Michigan; a man of great ability and most genial temperament. He was one of those who won by his affability and his personality all who approached hiimi. None is heard to say, nor has been within the knowledge of the writer, a disparaging word in relation to J. Logan Chipman. Besides these two gentlemen, George W. Brown, who was also superintendent of the Soo canal, practiced law in the earlier years at the Soo. DI)AN II. BALL. OF (MARQUETTE In the year 1861, there came to the Upper Peninsula from Lower Michigan, the man who is now in the position of dean of the entire bar of the Upper Peninsula in respect to length of service and active practice, Dan II. Ball, of Marquette. This gentleman has been engaged in the active practice of tie profession without any intermission down to the present titie in the various circuits of the peninsula, as well as in the state at large, and in the federal anl other state courts. I-e has therefore been engaged in the active pIractice of his profession for fifty years, and is hale, hearty and capIable of much laborious achievement today. IIe is found in his office, or in the courts, during every working day, as actively and zealously at work as an ambitious man, full of industry and a)pplication in the very prime of life might be. No man at the bar has won as many legal victories as Dan II. Ball. His work is as perfect as industrious research and broad legal capacity can make it. And these qualifications are fortified by an unswerving and unassailable integrity. lHe is a lawyer of the old school, capable of no petty schemes or devices —one who regards the ethics of the profession as sacred and binding upon his professional conscience. His whole professional life has been exemplary and stands as an example which might well be followed by the younger members of the profession. Mr. Ball, during his professional practice, has been from time to time associated with other members of the profession. He was the head of the firm of Ball & Chandler, which conducted offices at Marquette and Houghton, and also the firm of Ball & Black, and Ball, Black & Owen. The present firm of which the subject of this short sketch is the head, is Ball & Ball, of Marquette. At the time of Mr. Ball's coming to Marquette, there were two

Page  239 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 239 other practicing lawyers there. MI. HI. Maynard and Peter White, who were jointly engaged in professional business under the firm name and style of White & Maaynard. Mr. IMaynard went out of practice about the time James O'Grady became circuit judge. While Mr. Peter White, although admitted to the bar, was not identified with the work of the profession to any great extent, his chief business, even as early as 1861, being that at which he was engaged at the time of his decease banking. Mr. Mlaynard was on the peninsula as early as the year 1855, and there was also a lawyer in practice at Marquette, namled Charles Safford, who lived in the region, however, prior to the year 1861. OTHER MARQUETTE COUNTY LAWYERS A sketch of the lawyers of Marquette count,, would not be conmplete were the names omitted of James MA. Wilkinson, Ienry 1). Smith, F. O. Clark and John Q. Adams. Sr. Smiith, in the seventies, moved to Appleton, Aisconsin, and MJr. Wilkinson, after a few years practice, abandoned the profession and entered the l)anking business. John Q. Adams practiced at Negaunee, entering upo1n his practice there in the early seventies; and F. O. Clark engaged in the practice at Mtarquette shortly after 1870. having practiced in the village of Eseanaba a couple of years prior to that time. IIOUGIITON COUNTY BAR The bar of IIoughton county. in the year of the oplening of the war, consisted of Charles IIascall, James 8I. Ross, Thomas McEntee and J. A. Hubbell. Messrs. Ilascall, Ross andl McEntee. practiced as a firm under the title of Ilascall, Ross & MeEntee. Either in the year 1864 or 1865, Clarence E. Eddie who became first circuit judge of the Twelfth circuit came to IIoughton, and also rl'o)las 1I. Bra.dy. Judge Eddie has already been treated of, as well as J. A. IIubbell. Thomas MI. Brady had served for a time prior to his coiiiing to IHoughton, as a captain in one of the lichigan volunteer regicments. IIe remained in IHoughton until about the year 1890, when he moved to Grand Rapids, Wisconsin. I-Ie was prosecuting attorney of Iloughton county and its judge of probate for a least one term. Ie -was a strong advocate before a jury, and won many noted criminal cases tried in the circuit court of Houghton county, at the time when criminal trials were numerous there. Mr. Brady is still living at St. Paul or Minneapolis, Minnesota. Thomas L. Chadbourne began the practice of law at Eagle River, in what is now Keweenaw county, in tie year 1864, and practiced at the bar until the close of the year 1907; a period of forty-three years of active practice, though perhaps, for two or three years prior to his retirement, the major part of the work devolving upon him was executed by his capable assistant, Allen F. Rees, who, by-the-way, still occupies the same offices at Houghton which were used by the firm of Chadbourne & Rees, and who, I believe, became the successor of Thomas L. Chadbourne as attorney for the Calumet & Hecla Mining Company and

Page  240 240 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN other copper mining corporations. 5Mr. Chadbourne was for a time associated with J... Iubbell, the firil being klnown\ as Hubbell & Chadbottine. Ilr. (Chadboutrne was a very able an(ld ainstaking' lawyer, and was remnarkable for the colIpleteness with whicil he held his cases in lhand. lie calie into court with every point in his e(ase thoroughly investigtated and fortified by text-book and case authorities, and seldoml failed of success. It is believed Mr. Chadlbouine retired from the practice of the profession well equipped financially, and that at his death, which occurred in the early part of April, 1911, at Palml Beach, Florida, he left ills wife and children amply provided for. Ienry MI. Newecombe was at Eagle River engaged in the practice of law, having come there shortly after the advent of M\r. Chadbourne. Ile served for a timlle as prosecuting attorney of Keweenaw county. A. W. IHenssler was another legal practitioner in IHoughton county in several of the years prior to the year 1876. Ile was prosecuting attoIney for a time, and then nioved to one of the cities of Lower Miichigan. Ile was not only a lawyer by profession, but also a physician, and like the proverbial 'Jack of all trades" he Nwas not the most eminent success in either plrofession. IIe came to grief in Lower Michigan, having been brought to trial there for a violation of the criminal laws of the state growing out of anl alleged breach of ti-ust in connection with his professional work. Tlie plresent bar of IIoughton county consists of a. number of young and mii(lle age mien, of str(ong p)ersonality as a rule, and of good legal ability. ONTONAGON, SCIIOOLCRAFT AND I)ELTA The lawyers of Ontonagon county in the year 1861, were George C. Jones and William D. Williamlls. The latter, as before stated, became circuit judge. After remaining a number of years in Ontonagon county, George C. Jones went to Appleton, Wisconsin, and there I believe, he still resides at a good old age. In Mackinac county, Mr. Brown, Janmes McNaniara and Mr. IHoffman have been for many years the leading practitioners, andl arc men of wide experience and extensive practice. Schooleraft county has, at the present day, several young, vigorous and somewhat experienced lawyers at its bar. They are all capable and active workers. The dean of the bar of Delta county is Eli t'. Royce, who is now a nonagenarian. AIr. Royce in his earlier manhood, Ipracticed the surveyor's profession, and planned and laid out, as its first surveyor, the village of Escanaba. IHe began the practice of law in I)elta county in the earlier years in the history of the village of Escanaba, and continued to practice until about the year 1894, since which time he has practically retired from all legal activities. Ile was a candidate for circuit judge, opposing Claudius B. Grant, but was defeated. IIe has been prosecuting attoiney of Delta county, and served also as mayor of the city of Escanaba. IIe is a man of venerable appearance, wonderfully preserved in view of his advanced years.

Page  241 TILE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 241 Delta county lhas a large bar, and the business of its courts has been rapidly growing within the last few years. Its bar at this writing inunbers twenty members, most of whoii are still in the active practice of the profession; and among the elders of whom mnay be reckoned John Power, A. R. Northup, F. D. Icead, Ira C. Jennings, C. 1). McEwen, John Cummiskey, Newton C. Spencer a(nd Jul(dd Yelland. M[ENOMINEE COUNTY PRACTITIONERS In Menominee county, in the earlier years of its legal history, one of the most noted of its practicing lawyers was Judge E. S. Ingalls. Ile served for a time as probate judge, and this circumstance, coupled with the respect and affection in which he was held, was responsible, no doubt, for the fact that he was popularly called for many years of his life, Judge Ingalls. Eleazer S. Ingalls was born at Nashua, New llamupshire, in 1820. \When eighteen he migrated to Illinois. driving an oxteaml, accompanied by a companion of his own age on the tril. IIe passed through the site of Chicago and located at Antioch, where his father engaged in farming. IIe worked at blacksinithing for a time and read law, and finally entered upon practice. IHe married Martha M. IPearson. There were born to them three boys and five girls. Of this family at this time, only tlree survive. They are Mrs. A. L. Sawyer of Menominee, Mrs. P. M1. Beaser and Arthur J. Ingalls. The two latter now live in (California. In the year 1850 Judge Ingalls organize(l a caravan and crossed the plains to California. After remaining in California two years, he returned east with the object of taking his family to the gold-producing state; but he changed his mind and did not return to the Pacific coast. In 1859 h1 locate( on tlll, )bay shore a little south of the mouth of tlie lMenominee river. Shortly after lie moved to Menominee, and theme immiiediately became a prominenit and public-spirited citizen. There vwas an effol t. at t th tile of Judge Ingalll's location in Melonolinee, to establish a county to be known as tlie conty of Bleecker, withl the county seat a few miles from AMeniiominee city. This effort Ju(lge Ingalls vigoroulsly fought and defeated. lie was engaged in the ptlllishing business, and started the MJllnoi),iic Herald, now the Hcrald-Lcader,. Ie xwa s also active in railroad construction interests, and secured a contract from the state to build tlle Green Bay and Bayr De Noc State road within AIenomlinee county. He was very active, too, in the work of bringing ab)out the construction of the [Menominee branch railroad to tile Iron range. IIe was interested in tlie Breen mine at 'WaucedCa, and in the Emmet mine at the same place, whence shipments of iron ore were beguml in tlie year 1878. As a lawyer, J'udlge Ingalls was eslpecially strong before a jlry because of his winning and innpressive personality. Ile was the only attorney whose name appears in the record of tlie first term of the Circuit court of Menomimnee. lIe filled the offices of iprosecuting attorney and circuit court coinmmissioner, as well as that of j(udge of prol)ate. Jludge Ingalls was very widely known and universally respectedt. lie died at a conmparatively early age, that of fifty-niiine. V,I. I - 1 (

Page  242 low4molikk I AvjF )I'IAVOOO" JUDGEEI> 'S. LING'ALLS

Page  243 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 243 Benjamin J. Brown, also of Menominee, was a colleague at the bar of that county of Judge Ingalls, Judge 'lholmas B1. Rice having practiced contemporaneously with them. Judge Ingalls' death occurred in 1879, Judge Rice's about two years later, and Benjamin J. Brown, also famiilarly known as Judge IBown, passed away in the year 1905. Perhaps, the most appropriate nethod which can be adopted to characterize the life and work of lion. Benjalnin J. Brown would be to insert here the resolutions which were ad(opted by the MIenomilnee county bar, his practicing colleagues who knew him best and had opportunity to study his characteristics. and who in these resolutions give expression to their views of the man. The resolutions follow: "'lonI. Benjamin J1. Brown, unanimously acknowledged premier of tlle Menominee county bar, an1dl by general recognition acceIpted as one0 of the leading lawyers of AIichigan, dlidl at his holme, in tile city of AIenominee, on the ninth day of January, 1)05. hlis deatlh for sonme little time past had b)een not wholly ulllooked for. lie had reache(l an age at lwhich resistance to the attacks of dtisease yields; and the community in which he hadl lived continuously for over thirty years w\as not wholly unrll)el)ared for tile sad anllnouncleent thalt tlie disease which had (leveloIed( in his system some years ago lhad at length proved f atal. O()n the occasion of the Ileath of so (listinguished a nimember of tlhe bar it is eminently Iprolper that his surviving colleagues comlie togetlier to give formal ex-hressi(on to tlleir feelings, an1( by prolter ob)servalnce mark their respe(ct for the (ieceasel(. Thle anlnounlcemnlll'lt that or friend anl associate, B. 1. Br1ow.n, is (ead is a comn01111111 d to at onllce SuSI(el O)ur work and1 convene to pay fitting resplect to our (lepartetl co-lal)oirer, although witllout aniy exl)ressionl of action fromn inliviluatll or body tlie loss of 4B.. Brown would h}e (liqickly felt by our coinnuniity. "\Ve have all known lhimi well for mnany years, andlll have learned to love and reslpect hlin for his lanyli adlimirablle q{ualities with -whichl lie has iimpressed hlis social.a11( rnioral wolrtli illnlelibly ulon the c(lllnuiinity; but it is of lilm as a lawyer that we (lesire espIecially. to reco rI thlis tribute. '"Jludge lirown, as lie was famliliarlyI ca(lledl, was -wont to stpeak of himself as hav\ing been 'born into the profession,' his father, 'CBenjalmin S. Brown, lhaving been an able lawyer. atl1 aIt ione tiiiie ass(ociatet l in l)ractice w ithi Noah II. Swayne, aftervar(Is one of the justices of the supreme court of tle iUitel States. "Benjamin,1. -Brown was born at AMt. \er'oni. Ohio, JIly i, 1833, and1 received the princilpl part of his education at the noted Sloan Academy in thtat Iplace. In May, X1855, lie was a(lmitted to tle plractice oIf law by the supreme court of Illinois', and tle followNiing year located at Green Bay, NWisconisin, where lie lived until 1865, at lwhich tile lie rnemoved to Saginaw and beeame a llembler of the M1ichigan bar. In 1873 lie caime to Menominee, and here he has secnt the greater portion of his professiolal life, having particilpated iln a large Ipart in the imIportant legal questions and controversies that have arisen in the dlevelopmlent of our institutions and industries. lie -was well known to our supreme court, where his clear view on legal questions, always expressed in the classic. language of the old school, received the closest attention anll colmmandlied the thoughtful consideration of the court. His acute reasoning pierced the Imost stubborn shield. It is but the truth to say that he had acquired the attributes of readiness, fullness and accuracy. '"ln our every-day practice here none of us dared dispute his enunciation of legal propositions. He was an exemplary practitioner, both in the preparation and presentation of cases. The precision and accuracy of his pleadings, and his insistence to the verge of tyranny on the use of the most apt word and phrase in legal documents will ever be remembered in connection with his name and work. The conciseness and aptness of his briefs, and the lucidity and eloquence of his arguments, are models worthy of imitation by the profession. This fact is exemplified by the records of many of our noted cases; therefore, be it "'Resolved, that the Bar of Menominee County, whose members have been associated with Mr. Brown so long and so pleasantly in the labors of the profession, and in the duties and responsibilities of a common citizenship, and who from their association with him have learned to respect, admire and love him, deploring his loss,

Page  244 244 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN place on record this memorial of his life, and testimlonial to his character as lawyer, citizen and honorable 1mal. "Resolved, that we tender to the family and friends of Mr. Brown our most sincere syminpathy in their great loss and grief, but trust they, as well as all others who mourn his death, will find consolation in the knowledge andi memory of his long, active anil useful career, and his life's work nobly done. " Resolved, that the Bar of Menominee County requests that the Circuit Court for this County and the Supreme Court of the State of Michigan and the Federal Courts of the District of Michigan to receive andl place in their permanent records this memorial to our deceased brother." nAmong the practitioners at the Mienominee county bar at this time, are A. L. Sawyer, M. J. Ioyle, William F. Waite, 5I. C. CCuddy, J. E. Tracy, G. S. Power and others; a strong bar, many of the members of which give promise of much future achievement. BAR OF DICKINSON AND IRON COUNTIES Dickinson county being comparatively young, has few of the men in its personnel who figured more than three decades ago in the professional work of the peninsula. R. C. Flannigan, present judge of the Twenty-fifth circuit, is one of these. A. C. Cook of Iron Mountain, and possibly his professional co-partner. II. M[. Ielhan, is another. The present prosecuting attorney R. C. I-endersol, Attorney Knight and other professionals in that county are com paratively young, though quite successful in their work. One of the oldest lawyers in I)ickinson county is Attorney Ilurley, who is now, I believe, conducting the court of justice of the peace. Iron county, also com)plaratively new, had, however, solle lawyers of note; among \-whom meIntion is dlue of Sellator Ioriarty, Charles E. Watson an(1 Fred II. iA)bbott. all of whom have been engaged in the practice of thle law in Iron county, nearly, if not quite, all tle years of its existence as a. county. Tile younger members of the bar here, too, are lmen of force, genIerally energetic and given to application to the work of the profession. Credit is due, and is hereby appreciatively accorded by the writer of this sketch, to IIon. Dan II. Ball of \larquette, IIon. Joseph II. Steere. of Sault Ste. MIarie, A. L. Sawyer of Menominee. and the klte lTholmas L. Chladbourne. formerly of IIouiglton, MIichigan, for valuable hints and data furnished hlil in its prleparation.

Page  245 CHAPTER XTII TIIE FAMOUS SO0 REG(ION OUTLINE hIISTORY OF LAKE SUPERIOR-ITS VESSEILS —Tl' S COMMRCERCEENORMITY OF TRAFFIC-THE RlAPIDS —"DREAMS OF DE LONG eAGO" -THE LOCKS —THE CITY-AGRICUI,TURAL POSSIBILITIES. By Hon. L. C. Holdleen Iake Superior was discovered by the French explorer Brule in 1629), and is appropriately named. It is the largest body of fresh water in the world. It is 350 miles long, 160 miles wide and has an area of 31,800) square miles-exceeding the combined size of New Hampshire, IMassachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut and New Jersey-whichl states, according to the last census, have an aggregate population of 7,991,521, while the ports on the shores of Lake Superior have a population of only 189,191, of which 9,050 are in Canada and 180,141 in the states; yet the tonnage of ores alone shipped from Lake Superior during eight mlonths of navigation is three times greater than the total tonnage of all kinds and descriptions of freight exported in a whole year from the port of New York, which is the largest export city in the world. The early explorers of the shores of Lake Superior reported imost fabulous tales of the richness of the copper deposits along its south shore. Yet all united in the settled opinion that the locality was so far inland that the mineral could never be transported profitably to the mnarkets of civilized people. Timle has revealed the dimness of their vision, and now we look with prophetic eye to vessels which shall sooln receive their precious cargoes at the ports of this great lake and discharge them a few days later wherever needed in the ports of the Old World. These cargoes will not consist alone of copper froml the world's greatest native copper mines; nor will they be of iron alone from the world's greatest iron mines; nor yet only of the two combined; but. combining the two, as nowhere else on the whole earth, there will be added to that vast and valuable bulk the grains grown on the largest and richest agricultural division of the continent. More than two hundred streams flow into Lake Superior, but it is a remarkable fact that none of them is niavigalble. It discharges 72,000 cubic feet of water per second over the Soo vapids, equalling in me245

Page  246 246 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN chanical energy about 150,000 horse power, or the equivalent of burning 1,500,000 tons of coal per year; which power when fully harnessed and utilized will generate a current of electricity sufficient, if transmitted, to light Detroit and Chicago and all the cities lying between. The greatest known depth of Lake Superior is 1.008 feet, and it is 601 feet above sea level and 407 feet below it. Its shore line is 1,500 miles long, being one and one-half times the length of the coast of California, and much greater than the distance in a direct line fromn Canada to the gulf of Mexico. Its waters are chemically lure, and so cold that bodies drowning in them do not rise to the surface, as dlecollposition do(es not occur, and gases do not form sufficiently in such a temperature to overcome the water pressure, which at the depth of a thousacnd feet is four hundred and thirty-three pounds to the square inch; hence it is that "ILake Superior never gives lup its dead." It has been claiimed that if all oak log six feet long and one foot in diamieter should be stllk to the deplth of 1,000 feet, the water pressure would comlliress it to the size of an ordinary rolling pin. What then imust result to the hitiman body if sunkl to such a depth. In r)oly two other localitie(s alc(, chemiically plure waters knolwn to exist-being two small lakes in Scotland, andt two small lakes iI G(rmniany. LAKE SUPEIRIOR VESSELS Ocean steamIcers goiMlg frolm lMonitrcal to Lake Sullperior 1ass tllhrolgh forty locks, with a total lift of 550) feet. rlhe first saili1ng vessel was built on.lakel Superior by the French in 181.2 and namled tlhe "Fur Trader." Slie was afterwIards wrec(ked in an attcllip)t to run ller over the Soo ralpids to the lower lakes. lBut anlother little boat, built. in 1817 and called tile 'link, was siuccessfully r'u ov(er tIl( ra)idls. In 1835 tlel first Amlericaln )(boatt wacs built ()o this lake anld nalmed the J(ohn Jacob Astor." She was wrecked. In 1845 the steamer "Independence" caime fron Chicago, was hauled out of the river below tlie rapids, portaged about a mile and put afloat above the rapids. Nine years later her boiler exploded near where the head of the presenit canal is and she sunk-a total loss. About fifty years later J. II. 1). Everett, of the Soo, became possessed of a part of tile w reckage a(lnd iia(le many curious souvenirs, such as paper cutters, egg cups, gavels, canes and the like from the well preserved timbers of this famous old boat —tle first steamer on Lake Suiperior. The largest of these early vessels was only about one hundred and fifty feet in leigth, alndl two lhunldred tols callacity. The number of lboats has stel:(lily in('re:i-sed( ()n tlle gre:rt lak.s till there are now 2,500 or more. The size has also increasce( till soiiIe boats passing to and from IJake Superior are nlore than six lun(lred feet long and sixty feet wide; while Noahl's Ark, which carried a pair of every living, breathing thing, was only five hundred and twenty-five feet long, and eighty-seven and one-half feet wide. The Indian name for Lake Superior was "Kitchi Gummi" (Big

Page  247 I-1 1 -7', a P- I.1 1 V,:li, T — il. 71 7 -I,-tI11 1711 f 7" ,;

Page  248 248 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Lake), or "Gitchegomee" (Great Water). But in September, 1666, Claude Allouez declared that from thenceforth its name should be Lac Tracy, in honor of M. de Tracy whom Allouez thought had been sufficiently a benefactor of the community to entitle him to such distinction. The early maps showed the name to be Lac Tracy. Soon, however, the importance of the man for whom the lake was named-like most things human-paled into comparative insignificance, while that of the lake increased, is still increasing, and must yet increase in tremendous proportions, so that the name Superior is more expressive of its true importance, than if it had borne the name Tracy, or that of any other man. ITS COMMERCE The United States officials keep strict account of all the Lake Superior traffic passing through the locks at the Soo. That its growth and importance may more readily be understood, the following table is given, showing the most important features of that traffic, season by season, from the opening of the locks June 18, 1855, to the closing December 15, 1910. Passen- Coal (eneral Year Total gers Short Flour Wheat Iron Ore Lumber Merchan- Total Pas- Num- Tons Barrels Bushels Short M. Feet dise Freight sages ber Tons B. M. Short Tons Short Tons 1865 193 8,295 1,414 10,289 1,447 127 5,690 14,503 1856 290 7,992 3,968 17,686 11,597 433 5,538 33,817 1857 376 6,650 5,298 18,515 26,185 680 7,140 51,607 1858 406 9,230 4,118 13,782 31,035 188 9,587 57,002 1859 669 8,884 39,459 74 65,769 766 25,280 122,056 1860 916 50,250 120,000 14,915 153,721 1861 538 8,816 11,507 22,743 223 44,837 664 12,972 87,847 1862 838 8,468 11,346 17,291 113,014 240 19,355 161,675 1863 1,257 18,281 7,805 31,975 181,567 1,414 30,213 236,780 1864 1,411 16,985 11,282 33,937 213,753 2,012 33,477 284,350 1865 997 19,777 34,985 147,459 822 11,226 181,638 1866 1,008 14,067 19,915 33,603 152,102 660 32,310 239,457 1867 1,305 15,120 22,927 28,345 222,861 1,177 33,632 325,357 1868 1,155 10,590 25,814 27,372 191,939 1,404 31,843 299,175 1869 1,338 17,657 27,850 32,007 239,368 1,423 41,813 368,326 1870 1,828 17,153 15,952 33,548 49,700 409,850 814 40,342 539,883 1871 1,637 15,859 46,798 26,040 1,376,705 327,461 1,098 74,227 585,583 1872 2,004 25,830 80,815 136,411 567,134 383,105 1,853 109,663 746,258 1873 2,517 30,966 96,780 172,692 2,119,997 504,121 2,191 123,398 888,432 1874 1,734 22,958 61,124 179,855 1,120,015 427,658 686 55,312 655,138 1875 2,033 19,685 101,260 399,991 1,213,788 493,408 4,498 70,128 833,465 1876 2,417 20,286 124,960 390,577 1,971,549 609,752 17,820 91,119 1,073,570 1877 2,451 21,800 91,575 355,117 1,349,738 568,082 15,373 64,201 912,639 1878 2,567 20,394 91,856 344,599 1,872,940 555,750 34,889 69,007 937,351 1879 3,121 18,979 110,704 451,154 2,60,603,666 540,075 43,439 81,279 1,050,784 1880 3.503 25,766 170,501 523,860 2,105,920 677,073 48,635 100,849 1,321,906 1881 4,004 24,671 295.647 605,453 3,456,965 748,131 58,877 129,031 1,567,741 1882 4,774 29,256 430,184 344,044 3,728,856 987,060 82,783 172,167 2,029,521 1883 4,.15 19,130 714,444 687,031 5,900,473 791,732 87,131 191,571 2,267,105 1884 5,689 54,214 706,379 1,248,243 11,985,791 1,136,071 122,389 207,173 2,874,557 1885 5,380 36(,147 894,991 1,440,093 15,274,213 1,235,122 127,984 184,963 3,256,628 1886 7,424 27,088 1,099,999 1,759,365 18,991,485 2,087,809 138,688 230,726 4,527,759 1887 9,355 32,668 1,352.987 1,572,735 23,096,520 2,497,713 165,226 344,586 5,494,649 1888 7,803 25,558 2,105,041 2,190,725 18,596,351 2,570,517 240.372 345,854 6,411,423 1889 9,579 25,712 1,629,197 2,228,707 16,231,854 4,095,855 315,554 312,410 7,516,022 1890 10,557 24,856 2,176,925 3,239,104 16,217,370 4,774,768 361,129 371,294 9,041,213 1891 10,191 26,190 2,507,532 3,780,143 38,816,570 3,560,213 366,305 417,093 S,888,759 1892 12,580 25,896 2,904,266 5,418,135 40,994,780 4,901,132 512,844 459,146 11,214,333 1893 12,008 18,869 3,008,120 7,420,674 43,481,652 4,014,556 588,545 415,180 10,796,572 1894 14,491 27,236 2,797,184 8,965,773 34,869,483 6,548,876 722,788 451,185 13,195,860 1895 17,956 31,656 2,574,362 8,902,302 46,218,250 8,062,209 740,700 463.308 15,062,580 1896 18,615 37,066 3,023,340 8,882,858 63,256,463 7,909,250 684,986 520,851 16,239,061 1897 17,171 40,213 3,039,172 8,921,143 55,924,302 10,633,715 805,612 579,048 18,982,755 1898 17,761 43,426 3,776,450 7,778,043 62,339,996 11,706,960 895,485 623,146 21,234,664 1899 20,255 49,082 3,940,887 7,114,147 58,397,335 15,328,240 1,038,057 587,484 25,255,810 1900 19,452 58,555 4,486,977 6,760,688 40,489,302 16,443,568 909,651 541,397 25,643,073 1901 20,941 59,663 4,593,13(. 7,634,350 52,812,636 18,090,618 1,072,124 158,041 28,403,065 1902 22,659 59,377 4,812,478 8,910,240 76.730,965 24,277,555 1,091,471 740,100 35,961,146 1903 - 18,596 55,175 6,937,633 7,093,380 61,384,552 21,654,898 1,003,192 659,839 34,674,437 1904 16,120 37,695 6,454,869 4,710,538 49,928,869 19,635,797 923,280 732,009 31,546,106 1905 21.679 54,204 6,509,056 5,772,719 68,321,288 31,332,637 966,806 836,583 44,270,680 1906 22,155 6.,033 8.739.630 6,495,350 84,271,358 35,357,042 900,631 1,134,851 51,751,080 1907 20,437 62,758 11,400,095 6,524,770 98,135,775 39,594,944 649,320 1,022,654 58,217,214 1908 15,181 53,287 9,902,460 5,704,375 106,041,873 24,650,240 453,761 842,901 41,390,557 1909 19,204 59,948 9,940,026 7,094,175 113,253,561 40,014,978 552,.80 1,140,344 57,895,149 1910 20,899 66,933 13,513,727 7,576,789 86,259,974 41,603,634 603,101 1,411,549 62,363,218

Page  249 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 249 As published by the government, the statistics are also given as to the freight traffic in pig iron, salt and copper, covering the period mentioned in the introduction to the foregoing table. For the year 1910 there passed through the canals 444,669 tons of pig iron; 528,610 barrels of salt and 148,070 tons of copper. In the foregoing table showing the commerce through the locks also appears the item, "grain other than wheat," which totals 39,245,485 bushels, which may be sub-divided into bushels as follows: Rye, 408,358; corn, 683,919; flax, 5,811,334; barley, 11,421,583; and oats, 20,920,291. The flax seed alone had a value of $14,627,128. Forty-four new vessels were put in commission for the Lake Superior traffic in 1910. Fourteen of these new vessels do not exceed 258 feet in length, in order that they may use the Welland Canal between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. Six others range between 300 and 500 feet in length, and eighteen of them are 500 feet or more in length, and carry from 10,000 to 13,048 tons of freight in a single cargo on a draft of 18 feet 11 inches. The only bridge spanning the waters of the great lakes, west of Buffalo, crosses the waters of Lake Superior at the head of the Soo rapids, and was built at a cost of $1,000,000. Its length is about one mile. It has swings to enable boats to pass through both the American and Canadian canals. During the entire season of navigation, the total delay of trains in 1910 caused by the passage of boats was only 25 hours and 43 minutes; yet the total number of passages of the boats during that period were 33,638, and the number of engines passing over the bridge and swings during the same period were 3,240; and they hauled 5,057 passenger cars and 26,451 freight cars-so perfect is the system by which the boats are handled at the Soo. From 1855 to 1881 the American canal was controlled by the State of Michigan, and twenty men were employed. When the United States Government took control in 1881, two watches of twelve hours each were established. In 1891 three watches of eight hours each were established and still continue. The force engaged in passing boats has been increased with a growth of commerce, the number now aggregating seventy-four operators and nineteen other persons employed as clerks, watchmen, and janitors. The operating expenses for 1910 were $70,609, and the repair expenses were $32,487. The total expense of the government for operating the canals and locks and keeping them in repair have been reduced since the general government took over the operations from $13.57 per ton, to $3.98 per ton, showing that the cost per ton to the government has greatly decreased, while the number of tons passage has greatly increased. ENORMITY OF LAKE SUPERIOR TRAFFIC That the reader may be able to comprehend the enormity of the Lake Superior traffic, a few comparisons are made with a view of re

Page  250 250 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN ducing incomprehensible millions to items or conditions more readily comprehended. The maximum freight traffic for a single day was on August 26, 1907, when 487,649 tons of freight passed through the locks at the Soo, on 121 vessels. This vast weight, if transferred to a railroad, would load 24,382 freight cars to their full capacity of 20 tons each, which would require 609 engines to haul them, if divided into trains of 40 cars each. If consolidated into a single train of cars it would be 110 miles long-greater than the distance from Saginaw to Detroit, Saginaw to Port Huron, or Saginaw to Jackson. The total weight of freight locked through at the Soo in a single season (April 12, to December 15, 1910), was 124,726,436,000 pounds. The writer leaves the reader and the "School Master" to determine how long a train of cars would be if the season's freight were transferred from boats to cars; and how many days it would take that train to pass a given point running constantly, night and day, at the rate of 20 miles per hour. The largest single cargo was carried by the "D. J. Morrell" in 1908. It consisted of 13,978 tons of iron ore, equaling in weight an army of 186,373 men. The largest cargo of lumber was shipped on the "'Wahnapitae" in 1887. She was owned by the Saginaw Lumber Company and the Emery Lumber Company; loaded at Duluth and unloaded at Tonawanda and consisted of 2,409,800 feet. The largest eargo of wheat passed through the locks at the Soo on the "I. S. De Graff" in 1908. It consisted of 422,000 bushels and was of the value of half a million dollars. To grow this single cargo of wheat would require a field of 28,013 1/3 acres, with a government average of fifteen bushels per acre. In other words, it would take nearly forty-four square miles of land, growing a government average crop of wheat to fill this boat once. But if the yield of wheat should be fifty-one bushels per acre-such as was grown by Joseph N. Welsh, in Dafter township ten miles froim the locks in 1910(-tie acre ge necessary to supply a single cargo for this boat would be reduced to 8,2741/2 acres, or slightly less than thirteen sections. The Welsh field of wheat forms a subject of illustration herein, and is proof of the agricultural value of lands in the Lake Superior district. The summary of the traffic through the locks in 1910 may be taken as a general illustration for preceding years, and the years which shall follow; except, of course, it is greater than for preceding years, and is expected to be less than in the years to follow. The total tons of freight passing through the locks for 1910 were 62,363,218. The total value of that freight was $654,010,844 or an average of $10.49 per ton. It was carried at a freight cost of sixty-two cents per ton for transportation, and the average distance it was carried was 840 miles. The total amount paid for carrying freight was $38,710,904, and the total number of registered vessels which carried this freight was 877. The value of these vessels was $134,698,500; being an average of $154,000 each,

Page  251 A"L I.I I UNION 1PASsLENGER1 1)EPOT ANI I)'1'SVL STl'E.MAE

Page  252 252 TIIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN some being much more valuable than that, and others less. The total mile-tons was 52,405,535,136, and the average cost per mile per ton was.74 mills. The greatest distance run by any of these great freighters in any single season was 45,340 miles in 1902-a distance equal to nearly twice the circumference of the earth. The greatest amount of freight carried by one boat in one season was 339,151 tons in 1907, and the greatest number of mile-tons was 280,610,200 in 1909. The American canal and locks were operated 224 days, and the Canadian canal and locks were operated 248 days, which might be taken as a fair yearly average. The American vessels were ninety-four per cent and the Canadian vessels were six per cent. The average number of vessels per day passing through the Poe lock was 38; through the Weitzel lock 25, and through the Canadian lock 32. The total number of passengers transported through the locks was 66,933, of which American vessels carried thirty-eight per cent and Canadian vessels sixty-two per cent. No charge is made by either government for passage of vessels through the canals and locks. Each government treats the boats of the other precisely as it treats its own. THE RAPIDS The water of Lake Superior is discharged over a rocky incline of about eighteen feet, in the distance of about three fourths of a mile. This outlet is about one half of a mile wide, and many boulders or rocky projections in the incline cause the madly rushing waters to be tumbled and torn to foam. At no place is there a precipitous fall. The national boundary line is midway between the shores. The Indians called this place Ba-Wa-Ting, or Pa-Wa-Teeg, which, in the Chippewa language means, "shallow water pitching over rocks." In the French language is was called La Sault, meaning "the jump," or "the leap." The river formed by the outlet of Lake Superior, of which the rapids are a part, was named "Gaston," in honor of the brother of Louis XIII, king of France. But Father James Marquette changed the name of the river from "Gaston" to St. Mary on his arrival here in 1668; which was the birth year of the present Soo, being the first settlement in Michigan and thirty-three years before the settlement at Detroit. The rapids being a part of the river, were spoken of in French as "La Sault de Ste. Marie," which, being literally translated into English, means "The jump of the St. Mary." The "La" was never much in use, and the "de" was not in general use; except in the name of the postoffice at this place. And while the city and the postoffice each took its name from the rapids, the city has ever been known as Sault Ste. Marie; while the postoffice was named Sault de Ste. Marie, until the latter part of the year 1903, when the "de" was omitted by order of the postoffice department; and the official name of the postoffiee from that date has been the same as that of the city, which

Page  253 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 253 now literally means in English, "Jump Saint Mary." In short, the place is generally spoken of as the "Soo," which Anglicized name was first officially recognized by local act No. 488, of the laws of 1905, when the name of the township adjoining the city was changed from 'St. Mary's" to "Soo" by the Michigan legislature. Many who do not understand the French, pronounce S-A-U-L-T as though it were spelled without the letter "u" in it-salt, a saline product. This is error. It is properly pronounced "So," with the "''o long and sharply accented. While in the name of the township and the name of the city (as familiarly spoken) the "oo" has the same sound as in the final syllable in Kalamazoo. A letter addressed to the "Soo." comes as readily through the mails as though the full French nanme "Sault Ste. Marie,' were used in addressing it. But those who speak of it as "The Soo" should not forget the real meaning of the word, as referring to the waters of the St. Mary's river jumping down the rocky incline of the outlet of Lake Superior. The persons living near the rapids were referred to in the early times by French as "saulteurs." From the earliest knowledge we have of these rapids they were filled with whitefish, as was Lake Superior and its whole river outlet. The water being shallow in the rapids the Indians were, and still are, able to scoop these whitefish out in great numbers. When the French explorers first visited the rapids about two thousand Indians made their homes here, largely because they could, for the most part, subsist on the whitefish they caught in the rapids. They also congregated here in great numbers for religious purposes, believing that Manitoi. the great spirit, dwelt undrer the rapids and that the enormous boulders which lay all along the shores were, for the most part, hollow and filled with the souls of their departed friends. The French Jesuit fathers-the explorers of the early days-came among these Indians bearing aloft the cross of Christ and preaching the precepts of His religion. For the most part they were received kindly by the Indians, who slowly adopted the new faith, which generally took the place of their strange and unreasoning superstitions. The fur traders of the Northwest Company and the American Fur Company, with their commnercialisnm bringing instead of the cross of Christ, Iscodawabo (which literally means, "fire water"), or Mushkuagomee ("strong drink"), being ardent spirits to which the native Indian took more readily than to the cross. Plenty of these liquors with some trivial merchandise of bright and pleasing colors, were given by the fur traders to the Indialns for their furs. Such change of commodities greatly demoralized the Indians and incited them to theft, murder, and all manner of crimes, yet greatly enriched the fur companies. Through it John Jacob Astor became the first millionaire in the United States and laid the foundation of the wealth of the Astor family. The early white settlers of the Soo were largely French, who intermarried with the Indians, and civilization through such settlement and intermarriages began. Later, an influx of Canadians came, and now about three-fourths of the Sooites are from Canada.

Page  254 254 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Visitors at the Soo are delighted with the exhilarating pastime of "shooting the rapids"- as it is popularly called- or passing down the turbulent chute of waters, in birch bark canoes with Indians for pilots. These "Che-maun" boats of the Indian-like the Indian himself-are passing from view, and soon will remain only in history. They are made from the rind of the birch, sewed together with the fine fibrous roots of the cedar or spruce, and made water tight by covering the seams with boiled pine pitch, the whole being distended over and supported by very thin ribs and crossbars of cedar, curiously carved and formed together, turned up at each end like gondolas and often fancifully painted. They are so light that two persons may readily carry one, yet strong enough to bear up a ton's weight on the water. There was much valuable timber in the vicinity of the Soo, and the soils were rich and fertile. Many an interesting anecdote has come down from these early settlers who first made a start in the logging camps, which was afterwards followed, as is usually in new countries, by clearing the land for agricultural purposes. A descriptive story of the early logging times at the Soo is told in French dialect, and published for the first tine as follows: DREAMS OF DE LON(G A(;O. 'Tis har(l forget lose Shankya tans W'enl I was strong an' young; I)ose days we of 'en broke (ie jams, An ' 'ole F'rench songs we suing, For, w'en I sleep right een ma dreams I)ose days corn' back to me, An' soI 'tams too eet realy seems I hear de falling tree. I see de Slankya cc(llboose blaze; I see dat fire glow, She's sem'nind b'out her warmin rays, Joust lak long tam ago; I)e men h'ar sittin roun' (de camIp Som ' smoke w'ile od(lers claw; One grin's hee's h'ax beside de lamp, An 'odder files hee's saw. Der too up'h'on dose bunks above Dey re' singin som h'ole song Of cruel war or ten'er love Wit chorous loud an' long; An den der's some' dats playing cards Right der nex' to de wall Day've got a pack an' chose der pards. Now soon dey'll start to quar'll. An nex' I hear de fiddle soun' An see de boys advance; Dey bow an den dey circle roun; Den start dat "h 'ole stag dance' Dey're pretty h'awkward for a spell Unteel dey re' getting warm Den "'hoe eet don, " an laff an yell Der noise mos' drown de storm.

Page  255 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 255 I'm feelin hongry many tarns For dose h'ole careless days I'm lonesome too to break de jams An see de comboose blaze; I can't tell w'y I feel like dat For I've got happy home But yet dose dreams dat conm' at nat Dey mak' me want to roam. I hope dat feelin weel pas' h'off For I'm too h'ole I guess; An w 'en a man ees h'ole an sof; Dats tam' he took hee's res'; W\e can't h'all tam' be young it seems;Mos' peop' fin' dat was so. Bes' t'ing I try an stop dem dreams Bout days of long ago. TIE LOCKS The Soo locks are the largest and most famous in the world. The first lock at the Soo was built in 179)7 while General Washington was yet living. It was 38 feet long and 8 feet. 9 inches wide; was located on the Canadian side; with a lift of nine feet, and was destroyed by United States troops in 1814. Oxen were the motor power employed to propel "vessels" through it. It has recently been reconstructed as a "keepsake." The first lock on the American side was construeted from 1853 to 1855 by the state at a cost of $999,802.46. There were two tandem locks, each with a lift of 9 feet, 350 feet long and 70 feet wide and having a depth of 111/ feet of water. The present Weitzel lock (nearest the city) was constructed by the United States at the cost of $2.150,000. It was in course of construction from May 1, 1873, until it was opened to navigation Septemb)er 1, 1881. It is 515 feat long, 60 feet wide at gates, and has a chamber 80 feet wide. Its depth is 391,' feet, with a lift of 18 feet, and has 17 feet of water over miter sills. Its capacity is 1.500,000 cubic feet. It was named in honor of Gen. Godfrey Weitzel, the engineer in charge, who had gained fame with General Butler at New Orleans. The Canadian lock was constructed between 1888 and 1895 and is 900 feet long, 60 feet wide and has 22 feet of water. It accolmmodates about thirty per cent of the freight traffic and about fifty-seven per cent of the passenger traffic passing the Soo. On August 3. 1896, the new Poe lock was completed on the American side at a cost of $4,763,865, the work of construction having been in progress nine years. It is 800 feet long, 100 wide and has 22 feet of water over miter sills. It occupies the place of the "Old State Lock." It can be filled and emptied in seven minutes. It was named in honor of Gen. Orlando M. Poe, engineer in charge of construction. The three locks above referred to and now in use are insufficient to accommodate the growing traffic passing the Soo, and work on another and much larger lock adjoining the Poe lock, and between it and the rapids, has just been started. Its cost will be about $6,000,000. The expenditure of this vast sum of money within the city of Sault Ste.

Page  256 if~ /L~~~~~~~~~~~~~~I TuE NNEW WAY-W\IITJNG TO BE PUIT THn.oiT;I- TflE LjOCKS

Page  257 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 257 Marie cannot but stimulate industries generally for the next few years. The United States Government has expended in all about $15,000,000 and the Canadian Government about $5.000.000 in "aids to navigation" at and near the Soo; in the construction of locks, canals, and in deepening channels. The passage of more than one hundred boats per day through these great locks affords a fascinating and bewitching study for visitors; while a study of the locks themselves and their mechanism leads them to an appreciation of the marvels of American engineering. THE CITY From 1668 when the first white settlement was permanently established at the Soo, until 1874, when the village of Sault Ste. Marie was incorporated, the town was a dreamy, though picturesque, colony made up of Indians, French, and persons of English extraction and their admixtures. The city was incorporated in 1887, and the present census shows a population within the city of 12,615, while Chippewa county (the second largest in area in Michigan), in which the city is situated has a total population of 24,472. Its early history is replete with deeds of daring and cruelty of the warlike Chippewa Indians. But the civilizing influences of the white man have got in their deadly work among them, and only a few purebred specimens of the "noble red man" and the "beautiful Indian maiden" remain among us; though traces of their blood may be seen in many of our good citizens. A group picture, showing the better educated, progressive and respected half-breed accompanies this sketch, and may be said to be a typical illustration of the connecting link between Indian savagery and a higher civilization at the Soo. Each of these five men pictured in the group was noted for his good influences over the people from whom he descended, and his teachings by means of moral suasion and precept were of great and lasting value to the comtmunity. The early history of the Soo is rich in the nomenclature of its great men. Its soil was stained by the blood shed in Indian wars and massacres. Many of the spots famous in its early history are yet well known. Amo(ng them is the place where Brule, the explorer of Lake Superior, landed at tie foot of the rapids in 1629, being the same place where Nicolet landed five years later, shown in a picture taken about sixty years ago. which forms a subject of the general history of this work. Another is the house in which Schoolcraft resided and wrote much of his famous history. It still stands and is a subject elsewhere of illustration. The location of the early-constructed fort is well marked, and the new government building containing the postoffice, customs office and immniigration office stands within the lines which marked the famous old fort. The ancient burying ground of the Indians on the brow of the hill Vol. I-17

Page  258 GO iD CITIZENS'- OF' I NDIAN BLO)OD irrin left ti 1gi,_1t I:tier totw-I Jlmi Bitither and~ Louis Cadot te loiter re-itetIStiate-wiate niate (ot~oglni or C hif Mlartiet te aitl jclmi Gtiriioe, whlot wa0 a frietuul of Stchooltraft, carrtied lie toaft front t le Sag, to t le So, toredet on thre old otate eltcs, aith twas stimeftedoutdeoit of tie ('tinty Poor Farmi for itwelee rpears

Page  259 TIIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 259 at the foot of Bingham avenue now forms a part of the government park along the river front. In 1905 the semi-centennial of the opening of navigation through the locks was observed at the Soo. As a memorial of the occasion there was erected on the very site, so sacred to the minds of the early Chippewas, a magnificent granite shaft with tablets of bronze recording permanently the history of the locks. Incidentally it marks the very spot known as "the flag episode" in the life of General Cass, and the ravine, on the east side of which he halted his troops andl over which he personally crossed to where the British flag floatedI from a high staff-but from which the British had fled to the opposite side of the river in Canada- is still preserved in the park. The flag was guarded by savage Indians whom the British had left in charge, the chief of whom stood as though paralyzed by fear aind amazement, while tile brave general personally cut down the flag which had illegally floated on American soil for so many years, after the ratification of the treaty which permanently lmade this territory the property of the United States. This shaft was designed bS Stanford White, and was about the last. if not the very last, of that great architect's designing before he fell a victim of the insane assassin, Ilarry K. Thaw. Mlany an other historic place which links the past to the present time is also preserved. No city in the state has a more interesting past; a more charmiiig pres(ent, or higher hope of future thrift. AGRIC ULTURAL POSSIBILITIES Its commercial hope rests upon the sure basis of more than 800,000 acres of rich farming lands within the county, which are producing through the culture of the sturdy farmer the very best apples, potatoes, roots, oats, barley, wheat, peas, grass, and hay, to be founl anywhere. Chilpewa county, in which the Soo is locatedl although having but (oe-tenth part of its area yet under cultivation, alre(ady is producinig a luarter of a million dollars worth of seed peas annually; also 22,000 tons of prime timothy hay for sale annually bey.ond what the farmers feed to their livestock; while it holds the highest record for the perfeetiio of its dairy products within the state. In recent years these lands have yielded as high as 51 bushels of wheat per acre, 9-3 bushels of oats, and 750 bushels of potatoes; and all over-weight. These facts prove what has long been conce(ded-that the further north vegetable life can be developed, the better that developInent. Added to these agricultural possibilities are those of the tremendous water-power of the famous rapids, now about to be utilized for the first time, and which furnish unlimited means of cheap service in power to be supplied for mlanufacturing industries, and warrant the belief that there is in store for the Soo a bright commercial future; these conditions, coupled with the fact that the pure air and chemically-pure water prevent all forms of bilious disorders and cure hay fever and asthma in a night, make the Soo not only a famous summer resort, but a delightful place in which permanently to dwell.

Page  260 2 71 -— L a~ 72 2 -I H I IH z 24 Q;

Page  261 CHAPTER XIV A KINGDOM WITHIN A REPUBLIC THE RISE AND FALL OF KING STRANG AND HIS KINGDOM The history of the Upper Peninsula has contained more than the ordinary of curious incidents occasioned largely by the individualism of the men at the helm on each particular occasion. At the dawn of her statehood the strange incident of the Toledo war was one, but a still more uncommon experience within the Upper Peninsula was that of the government of King Strang, on Beaver island in the county of Mackinac, in the decade beginning with 1846. The southern shore of the easterly part of the Upper Peninsula is skirted by an archipelago which is made up of the three groups of island(s known as the Beaver, the Fox and the Manitous. They were within the range of travel of most of the early visitors to and settlers in this portibn of the country, and it is with the Beavers that this portion of our history has principally to deal. As the main island of this group, Beaver island is within easy reach of Mackinac, which has been prominently connected with the history of the state from its very beginning, it can readily be understood that the natural advantages and scenic beauty of the islands early attracted attention. There are twelve islands in the group, of which ''Big Beaver" is the largest, being about twelve miles in length north and south, and with about six miles as its greatest width. Others in the group are ornamented with such common names as Garden, Hog, High. and Gull, while, to one, we find was given the classic name of Paros, and to another the apostolic Patmos. This group of islands has from the earliest, and still has the reputation of furnishing the best fishing along the lakes, being the natural home of the iMackinac trout. Big Beaver was possessed of many advantages, including beautiful banks which rise gradually until the surface of the island stands at an altitude of from forty to eighty feet above the lake. Within the island are numerous beautiful lakes, one of which covers over one thousand acres of land; and the whole island was finely timbered, so that it stood out invitingly to all passers-by upon the waterway of the straits, the main highway of travel in those early days. 261

Page  262 262 TIlE NORTHEIRN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 'Thlis (olltry was still eomllparatively new and wild inl 1846, and tlhere wel-e Illt few inhabitants; those of the islands( ill (uestion being fishernllen and trad(ers. Thusll it Nwas in that y-,ear when James Strang first visited thle I)lae anll (lecide( uI)on it as the site whereon to estal)lish his kingdom. To) tlhe strong ill(ividualisml of Strang alole, and( the fact that the c('(unltry was then new and b)llt semi-civiliZ(ed. Inust h)e attrib)uted( whatevert of succ((ess attcl(lte(l his pretentious effort; and for a tiiie it had the apl)earance ()f being enltirely successful. Whil( the incident llay )e withoullt a parallel in the history of rel)ul)lican government. there are many features thereof akill to the efforts of eJoseph Simith, Brighamll (nIlllng a(nil( John( Alexander I)owNie. Jalmes Jes(se Strallg was blorn ill Seip)io, Cayuga c(unllty. Ne( York, MIarch 21. 1813. the son (of a farnller. and(1 a (deseen(ldant. it is claitteed, of Ilenry I). 1, 'Estrallo-e. who canie fro()mi England with thie luke ()f Yor1k. It is highly p)ro)bab)le that he inherited sOmle (of the ambl)itions, as w'(11 as tslhe chlaracteristics o(f his pio(neer a;ncestors of the seventeenth cellturv, and that his ('cll'istian namle was ill nmlllmlrv f the kiiil, fromlll whloini tle (dke (ol)tailne(l his valualble l)ateints anld 1his m(other's mai(lden ame1(, likewise, w\\as James. The )lantillng of those almbitions ill the new and(1 vi:gin soil (of thel -(vst resulted in the events of this c'haplter. Stl'nlllg was edll(ated ill thle c(mnllon schools at Ilanover', New\ Yo(lk, to whi(lh p)la(ce fthe family remll(-ed wh 11en James was a (il(l. like (othller farmller l)oys of his tillne lhe found(l that the mnatter of acq(luirinig an edu(lat iI q('(luirdcl l)esistent work whichl had( to be accoma('('ll)lied b) tlhe ordlinary w-o1rk (of the fai m. lint he 'aIS l)ersistent, alt n as he l '(e towards'l the years of manho )() he took ul) the reading of lawt while still at work o(n thle 1)home farm. IIe early ac(luliredl the rea(ilng hab)it, and b{'in' lim)ssessed (of a1 retelltive tlen(ory, hie became well ilnforlmled on niatters in general. As a lad( he was (c(spicuous in the rural debates of the times. lBy those who knew him then he was described as a y()ung mall of excentric ideas, and fluent language, with anll abundant knlowled(lre of his own wo(rth and an ulnc(mluerable ambition for distinctiol. Ice was ad(lhitte(l to the )bar at the age ()f tvwncty-three, having tiaught school as a means o(f sul)l()rt lduring a portionr (f the time in swhic( heie Ilursue(l the stui(ly of the law. Ile seems to have een restless unlldler his early amllitioiis, and dluring his early career in thle state of his birth he p)racticed( law at Alayville, edited a paper at Rand)olph, and was postmaster at Ellington. lIe was allarried t.o AIiss MIary l'erce, and with hler remove(l to 1Burlington, X\isconsill, in 184'3, where he entere(d into the plractice of law in p)artnership with C. lP. Barnes. For somne years Joseph Smith, the apostle of )onirnanisnl ha(l been floating on the high tide of prosI)erit-, and fronm his home at Naluvo(o, Illinois, ilissiolnali(s had gone forth Ullntil over a hundred thOusand follohwers had been bro(ught within the radlius of his influence''. and il his home he was al)bsolute nionarih, cornman(ding a legion of ariime(l men and( being the civil head of a l)rosl)erous communiinmity, whhose l)eol)lc.

Page  263 THlE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 26 263 tiough frugal aind industriouS. werei tanat 1(111. iii the extreme, beiievingy in thecir rulfer a-s (livimi eeodii to hIls litteralilecs the Sanletitv of (lvil eoi "iinad i-ifldl p" oplheey.' allidl v11(1mg to him impiJlicit ohedieflee. strangm ha"d rea-d, while still Iii the e-ist, of the iAl rniai triuimpi s thac~t ha-d eoiuie to the Pl-mophlet. of Na uvml), and of the (lesi ie of the lea der to eiilargye Illis feld o)f wovk and iii H uemlee, an11d to eiii1ploy you1iig nI-emi of Phi u51Ibde Speeeh, eiierpv, a 11(1 aiflba )1e a ppea ia Ilee III the wvork, and, HI Ja-mi aryN, 1844. 50011 a fteir h'is reiiio1Vall to Wjiseonsjiii hie visited Nauvoo to meet the imuiel hera Ided A ie eiAl ohanmied." It Is evid(ent that. Siliitli Pi'lilplftly r'eeogii ized III Straiig1p tho(se' eleilielits thaIt wveie HIi deiii-i(ld for thle woi-k inl hand, fat hec seeiiis to have iiet. with inst amit favor a 11( ra pid proimiot iou. Febriua r 25th lie wa-~s lbaltised l Al a ieh 3 md was rdai iied I mi E "lder. of the Al ornion C1hureh, a 11(1 reeivdat omiee aws a. t ilisted l ieniher of its ImilIi is tI v. lie a Is a51 gnewl to \\V15(l-1mis -ii s hIls sl e-iald field (I f 1 abet, a id app1)1ied at. (Ii e to founid inl thaIt staIte aI biiraneh o)f the( Al onnomi eliure1-h, or, 'In thle hla(ii guag of the seet, "to p1a ut a staite o)f Zion]." Just at this,juminetuie hlve-aker-s appearled ill thle eouilse o)f ios-epli Sithai~lld at the( inistaneie of the o)p~ lliemits of Alonoimisism.Joselpll Siiiitii1111(1i Ilirimii Siiivth wvene sIirm.ei(-1dl~ere to thle govmeinor ofI(liii a 11(1 lodlgedl iii Iad ii t ( a itlimc e, Wvliemie thiey Were takeni out a ml imur(lel~ed 1 aI 11101. 4 a 111(s St a iig, wlim I all theii ileemi a iieai er o)f the ehiurehi for. les-s t haii five min it lis, pinulp tly maude cIaiiii to thle riight o)f slueeessi (Ii to the Imbsition of,J oseph Smili it. aiimd ini (lilig so) he p~rodlueed what pui~pi r -ted to 1be aii autogia 1)11 letter fronli.Joseph Slinith. (late'd.hi une I 8th, a iid bea miiilou the ImIstnia rk of Nauoo f.J iile 1 9th. It. wa",s ehl aiiiedl by, se veal'A vi tiies~ses to) ha ye bee.,II receeived inl the lmal,iit Burling11(tonl, \ iseon1 -sinl. J ulv 9th. Tili letter wa~s (hUlted nine (hays, iil advanece of thle iiiur1der. O)f Jo)Sep aId wals said to have eae lied Burlingfton ii week before the iiIws, (If tliat t raged v. Th'le letter g-ave (letails of a viiiin whiieh "the spvt of E'li.j.1 a hpeame p 1i the Al0 p10 1.'l)pllet f11(1 ' the voiee of (fiat salid AlN e v 5( xat.Josep~h, thou i ast been fa thfiii over manyi thingos, amid thy- reward is rozlorious the erowii anli sceeItre are thimie, and thiey awa ithe. But thoul hast siliined inl soiiie thingos an11d thyN plinisilshment is hitter. The whirlwin-id groetli be~fore, auld its (loudls a:e dar~k. bult rest followe-(th, amild to its (hal-\s therIe shall Ibe 10 elid. S tudy(I the Wor-ds of the visWi o for it tti rrieth ii t.. And nowv bela~ 111miv se~vamit 4Ja iies J. Str'ang" haitit eonile to thee froml a far for' truth1 Nvhlen lie knlew It not, and ath nlot rejeetedl it, hut ba(.th faithi inl thee, the Sh'-~Iephlerd and S,-toie (If Israel, and to hiiim shall the ga.thering~ (If the people be. for hie shaIll plant aI state of Zion ill W\iseonlsim, amid I will estabil~sis it; alid the(, e shiall 11W-\ peop~le have pe-aee aid~ rest, amid shall iiot he moved, for it shall b~e establiished on \White River. Iin the buids of Rameine amuid WCAal-vortl.h * * * '11( I xviilhave a- house ibuilt unito) mie there of ston-e, andl there xviii I show my~self to my-\ people by iauiry milghty works, andl the namie (If the eity

Page  264 264 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN shall be called Voree, which is, being interpreted. Garden of Peace, for there shall my people have peace and rest, and wax fat and pleasant in the presence of their enemies." The apostles of the church promptly pronounced Strang a presumptuous imposter and the letter a forgery, and they excommunicated him, and drove him from the field of Nauvoo, but he continued to assert his title in sermons and pastoral letters throughout Wisconsin, with the result that he soon gained a small following with whom he founded the "City of Voree" at Spring Prairie, where he organized his colony on the theory of a community in property ownership. There Strang established and published the Voree Herald as the organ of "the primitive Mormons," and as their prophet he was tireless in his labor and skillful in his methods of duping the credulous, wherein he closely imitated those by which Joseph Smith had been successful in the advocacy of his supernatural claims. Brigham Young soon thereafter, as the "Lion of the Lord,7" was recognized as Prophet at Nauvoo, and with the advance of civilization about that place, he led his followers, constituting a large majority of the "saints, " to his newly-chosen field in Utah, while others became followers of Strang at Voree. As Joseph had found in the Ontario hills a volume in which the chronicles of the Iook of AIormlon wvere preserved in characters "translatable only by the crystalline Urim and Thummin. ' so the self styled Prophet "Janmes' discovered in the banks of the White river a miraculously preserved record of the downfall of a great tribe of Israelites that had inhabited the continent centuries ago, and wherein was foretold the coming in the future ages of a nmighty "prophet" who "should bring forth the record."' Strang found witnesses who declared that on Septemnber 14, 1845. they were led by him to a certain hill near the White river bridge, where, after digging through the unbroken swNard and solid clay that had been manifestly undisturbed for many years, unlerneath the network of roots of a large oak tree they found a case of baked earthenware containing three brazen plates, both sides of wllich were used to preserve "an alphabetic and pictorial record." Following this "miraculous" discovery, while in a trance, the Ulrimn and Thulmmin were "brought by an angel of God to the Prophet 'James,' and the records on the "Voree plates" were translated as follows: ' Mly people are no more. The mighty are fallen, and the young men slain in battle. Their bones bleached on the plains by the noon (lay shadow. The houses are leveled with the dust, and in the moat are the walls. They shall be inhabited. I have in the burial served them; and their bones in the death shade, towards the sun's rising, are covered. "They sleep with the mighty dead, and they rest with their fathers. They have fallen in transgression and are not; but the elect and faithful there shall dwell. The word hath revealed it. God hath sworn to give an inheritance to His people where transgressors perished. The word of Ood came to me while I mourned in the death shade, saying, I will avenge me on the destroyer. They shall be driven out. Other strangers shall inhabit thy land. I an ensign will then set up. The escaped

Page  265 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 265 of my people there shall dwell, when the flock disowns the shepherd, and build not on the rock. "The forerunner, men shall kill, but a mighty prophet there shall dwell. I will be his strength, and he shall bring forth the record. Record my word, and bury it in the hill of promise. "' RAJAI M[ANCHOR,. " Subsequently Strang made claim of discovery of eighteen other metallic sheets 9 by 7:1/2 inches in size, called "The plates of Laban," and they were declared to have been written prior to the "Blabylonish captivity.' A translation of the writing on these plates, in addition to nine sections of "direct revelations" coiimposed "The Book of the Law of the Lord,'' printed and published later on Beaver island, "'By Command of the King. at the Royal Press, Saint James. A. R. I." Strang's colnmmunity at Voree prospered and increased in numbers, and, in 1846, his rival, Brigham Young, having gone west, Strang visited the Northern 5Michigan archipelago, and determined to lplant a colony there. In May, 1847, with four coimpanions, le went thither and explored Beaver island. It is recorded that the few- fisherrlllen and traders already there received themn with the reverse of hosplitality, but, as was thle c(ustom of explorers in those days. they built a canmp) of hemlock boughs, and they were, while there, compelled to live on the sclanty fare which the woods and the swalmps afforded them. Durilg that season five Mormon families perllianently settled on the island at lBeaver Harbor. The next year a score of families came, and in 1849 the ml1e'1 -bership of the colony numberedl into the hundreds. Their gentile neighbors strenuously resisted the immigraLition of the new sect to the island, but they were perscrvering, were a sober and( induistrious people, and soon acquired imiastery of the situation. Their village was rained after its founder, the "City of Saint Jamles." -\which was soon shortened to its plresent title, that of "St. Jamles," and tile beautiful bay;n the north end of the island was called "St. Jamles Bay." Fronl the large lake in the interior of the island a river (outlet flowed to the bay, and this was namedl "rThe Jordan,'" while an interior lake was namned the "Sea of Galilee."' A road was built into the iinter(ior. a saw-miiill constlructed to suipply the necessities of the growing cololly. and( a schooner was built and. launched as a mneans of colllmmuicationi with the outside world. Tlhe missionary w ork \was push(ed forward to such an extent that in 1850 large numbers of converts joined the colony, and St. Jaimes was made the permanent headlquarters of the new church, and at the annual conference, in July of that year. it was re-organized as a "Kingdomn" w-ith Strang as "King." and to his title of office was affixed also the titles "'Apostle, Prophet. Seer, Revelator and Translator." The cormmiunal plan was ab)andoned and the lands of the church were apportioned among its memnbers. By a systeml of tythes the taxes were paid, including the care of the poor, and all general expenses. There were numerous counsellors and subordinates to the King. to (o his bidding and execute his comimtanlds, but his own energetic t)ersonality was

Page  266 566 TIlE NORTHIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN injected into affairs in genleral, alld (1 scools were startedl for the chil(tien, and debl)ating clubls for the a(lllts. A well equiIpedl 1)1 itingI)ress wass installe(l, d(lenolinate(l the 'R( 'ovl ilress," froml which w('er( issued the orders of the king, aii( a lnewsapll)er, 7'h i\orthrria Isla)tlcr). wh\liell was at first a weekldvy and ftlallv a dailv< y publi'eatio(l. It is said that the app)earallee and literal y melllrits of thlis papler sllrprise(l the oc)( casional to{urists to this then remiote and frontiler regioll. In the (governmerit of the island tile prinieiple of )rollil)itioml was rigi(lyl enforced, and aIl)lie(t, Ilo(t oIly to liquor, l)bit to tea., coffree nd1( tobl)ac;o as xvell, an(l the ob)semmllle of Satur(ldal as thle Sal)l)atl. an(l tlhe atte(lldanee ait (church upI)on that (day wee( (')ol1l)llSoiry. Rig)oro()us lpenllties w\ere provided for the offlense) of prostitution. lulit ol!)(iyallv was sane(tione(t; though there Iwere not to cceed t(wenty or twenlty-five polyalllmus families ill the eolo!ny. King Stran' himself 1had fiv( wives. )It 110o other l)persoln hadl to exceed( three. an(l it \vs reilnir(led tlhat ablilit to sul)l)lort a large fiamily shllould e shown as a prlereqllisite to a 11lural From the Royal P'ress abl)ove nitioned(1 was issue " ed 'I'The B1ool of the L.aw. of the Lord.," whicl was c(lilmed( to 1)be of dlivile origin. d111( it ha.l the sanction of the Kiing. It ('onIsists of a sreries of I)re(cep)ts re(latingo to sl)iritual and temporal affairs writteii in imlla('y (If tllhe lille. It w.as inlllli(itl reeI'ived lby that entire colony as a " revelation lliraclil(louslv tralslllitte(l through a (livinely aplp)ointe(d mollmar(ch, to hlis favored(l sulbjects.'" C(opies of it are n1\\1w l)rize(l as (clriOs in (co1lne('ctio Nwith a(In unusual expsericlnee ill froiltiel hlisto(ry. I1n its d(lealings with temmilpomal affa.ils the book co)nt.ains minute rules as to diet. attire and( 1p1crsoIal habl)its, the e()lstru(lti(ili of (Iwe-llis a111(1 r)oa(s. the care (If forests. and (It her(ldetails (f do)mesti(c frulgallity 1 a Id li(i)ial c('()n()1m lin(l those whio disl)ute its (livilie (Irigin mluIlst a(llit thit its ailtlor was oIx(ssesse(l of allility a1(d a fundl of useful informatioln. Thel coInstriltion( of a tal)erllacle was (o)mi(en(ce((1 all(l other illIp)ro()einIclits for the co( lfort of thie ((olI li ( were ilnstitulte(l. The "King's Iigtlway — ' still exists aii(l its namne contilnues, as it wvere(, as ai ech.l(o of tile senitiiieit that then ruled a lkingdom within this repub)lic. One of the domestic( orders wNas to the (effc(;t that a11 \\voll wmlicl mlust wear the short skirts and ample palitalets of the lloollner (oIstule. and while, this vwas generally ob)eyed it vwas the cause( of somic friction that eventually I'esulted (lisastro)isly to l)(th the Imig ai(l hlis kilng(l()i. Though11 this I)orlmon (oln1(y1 grew to a pI))I)ulati(In of al)I)uit 2,()()() it never attaiiled( a civilization al))roaclhing that (Of Salt I1ake (City-; an1 the mcii are spoken of as generally rough and( illiterate. 1anl m1ost of the women as sensual and ignolrant, though Strang. himlself, was ' "vigorous, intelligent. fluent inl Sl)(ee(h of suave mllanners an(l very (monl)l1nionablle." HIe was a mimaster of orato:y al(nd "skilled ill the alrt of apl)pealing to the untrained sensibilities of his hearers." At tilimes his authoritv was resisted by some of the more intelligent of his followers, )but lhe received such unfailing suIpport from the iia.jority that resistan(e rwas ineffective.

Page  267 TIlE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICIIIGAN 267 Notwtitlstan(ing all' ]] tile faitll of hlis follo)ecrs. tle Iruler of this islal(l klingi oiln was nevter able to,Sstal)lis relastions upn a eae'('C fo()tila ' \wit}h thle gentile neliglhl)ors of the islandl s aw1(1 IliXlloillho Illiainlandls. whose resistalncet tto IIormion rule somletinel s tool the forl of inlterfere nee withi their eeetii,,,', a was et lt)y retaliation after thle MormnlO ('0)lmoi hal( gr(v, n to strellngth. This montilille until th' (differeiices d(eveloltped into a. fierce, bloodly. blorder-flleud tlhat existe(l for a iperiod (of son0cl six years. during NwNhiich tinle tile ilIoriiiois gradual l n a111 lc(l gains until tlhey e,-calme almoost sole p)ossessors of the islanlllds anlld were hleartily hate(l and( feared alolng the entire mainlanii (1 eoasts. III his (liillolmiacy Stirang establis}ie(l friiendly rclatiolis ith tlec In1 -(lins of tfhe vicinity. (lesl)ite tlheir inltilate I elationsllsil) ithl tile tra(lers who were\ his bitter enenIies. l)uring the c(oltilulancell of thle )(ordler w-arfare grave accistiols ~of )iay. r(Ol)l)ery nl other,('1ines were fr(eely a(le g,/ainst thle ilhabl)itants of tlhe islands., a1( in 1851 tile I'llitc('l Stlates otffii.als 1)((.an(Ie (colvini(.eod nlot only that the ('}1lage of p)iracy!- \was trille. )ult that thel island(ers 1lad rol)l)e(l tie 'lnitced Stcates Illails. t re.slpasscd(1 111(il) tilhe govnlllnet (()lmain and h a rl)(lord( couiterflters. ()f.a snl(lden in May, 1851, the liiltedl States war stea(mrlil "Aliichiganl l))ea'e ill 11caver IIarlhor., iwith the I 'iite(dl States alirshal and (listrict attolielly (,on o.a 1r(l. Strang and.11( a)olit twe-lit o(f his followers g,'rac(full sIl)bilitte(l to ai'rest, andl \ere tat(en' to) I)(tro(it anl(l put 111ull trial, -lic(h lIasted twx'elit (1ays l)efolre.JJudge Wilkins of tile I'iitc(l States (listrinct court. \\ith tile assistall((e of Andlrew T1. MIeev,!iils. Sti'an,, (X,cmilucte,(l tile defeiins whicth resultedl ill a(lqlittall. The verdict is genlerially aIttril)utetd to thle ilagneti(e effect ul)po the jury,of tile (lralnaitic (lefellsive I)lea of Strallg. wherein hie 1lose(l lcefore the ju!ry as "one p,erse(litedl foir liglit(tlsiIcss sak1(. I is vi(toi(ils return to( his IK iingl()lii gained fofr lhii a(l(l'ed l)restige 811(1 l)ower, ail( lie esily caried(l the next ('(cunty electimoi in ackiii Ce county. iii the fall o)f 1851, and withlin the, fold of the -\Ioimo)n clilrellh were to b)e fomundl thle newly ele(te(l sheriff, l)rosecutor an11(1 othler 11)'rtal t f()ficia lsI, v hille in 185 Stral' Su1('cessfullv wonl his (o\\w electioll to) the office ()f represelntative( ill tlhe le(,iislature ()f MieilialI. in which bo1(dy hle srve(l with suchll all)ility as to win tle (comlillenldation ()f the 1)people)I in ('IIral. 1lBut thle situation wals a novlc] ole, ill that a King Iwho uledII is ownAl Iplople iwitll laws of his o()n making, sat as repl)rsetlfittive in a lecgislature to assist ill tlle 'over'nmellt ()f a re)llublicill state; anll( n1('. after ('assisting ill tlle mnlakillng ()f the laws for the o(vernlllll(llt (of tle pe)(l)le (of thile wh\ole state, he returned to hlis islanl( home. his Nword.alone \was law. ald lie rule(ld with an a)bsolute authority folr the enisuing two yelars. In the collference of 1855 he sterllly (lIenolu(eed tca-ldr'illkers, tobatcc( users aii(l other transgressors. and said: "The law of God shall l b kelpt ill this land or men shall walk over my dead bodvy. ' This furnished a. source of disaffection, to which he ad(led by his systelnatic efforts to induce his followers ii]ore generally to adopt polygamy, so) that some of the more enlightened AIormons becanme dis

Page  268 268 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN gusted with his pretensions and disgruntled by his imposture, and left his church and joined the forces of the Gentiles. H. D. McCulloch, an educated physician of Baltimore and an ex-surgeon of the United States army, but a man of unfortunate habits, had become one of the most capable of Strang's disciples, and, in him, nihilism on the island found an organizing head. In the winter of 1855 difference with his superior ended with his deposition from office in the church, and in the spring he left the island, joined the Gentiles of the coast, and infused into them renewed eagerness for the overthrow of Mormon rule. Among the disaffected of the church were also Thomas Bedford and William Wentworth, whose wives had persistently rebelled against the order for the wearing of the bloomer costume; they upheld their wives in this rebellion and were ready for any scheme of vengeance. Bedford had met with a horse-whipping, and while it could not be traced absolutely to the King's command, it was at the hands of his people and it did not receive his disapproval. Wentworth was publicly rebuked for sonie claimed disobedience of the law of the church. These men published their grievances and pointed out the growth of polygamy on the island under the leadership and practice of Strang. It is said that Bedford, immediately after his punishment, determined to kill Strang; and Wentworth and McCulloch, having each his own grievance, joined him in a conspiracy to accomplish that end and to overthrow the kingdom. McCulloch went to Lansing and laid the matter before Governor Bingham, and through his influence the "Michigan" was again sent to the island and there entered the harbor June 16, 1856. The captain sent an invitation to Strang to come on board, which invitation he hesitated to accept, but in the afternoon of that day he determined to do so anl(d left his home for that purpose. As he was about to step upon the pier to enter the boat Bedford and Wentworth sprang from b)ehind a wood-pile and fired upon him with revolvers, and Strang fell mortally wounlded, twice in the head and once in the region of the spine. IIis assailants immediately went aboard the boat and surrendered thenlselves, and were taken to 5Mackinac where they were received with cheers by the crowd that had come to cherish an undying hatred for Strang and his church. They were never put upon trial, but were rather looked upon as heroes. Strang did not die immediately, but was taken to Voree, where he received the devoted care of the lawful wife of his early manhood, an estimable woman who had rejected his "revelations," but had herself remained faithful to her belief in the life-long continuance of the nmarriage vow. IIe died July 9, 1856, and was buried in the "Cemetery of the Saints" at Spring Prairie. The kingdom did not long survive the king. Some of his followers left on the same boat that carried their dying king. His assassination was the signal to an irritated populace to seek revenge, and there gathered from the islands and the neighboring mnainlands, an exasperated,

Page  269 TIHE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 269 armed mob, on pillage bent. The tabelnacle was burned, the printing office sacked, the King's liblraly was destroye(l and his house pillaged. The faithful among the "Saints" were given on(e d(ay to leave thle island with their movables, and( eve tihen they were driven aboar( boats without the Iprivilege of securing the property they had gathered to take with themi. AMuch property was destroyed by the invaders bly means of axe and torch, but the honesteads were seized and occupied. It was a banishmlent whicl de(lllan(ds for llanv of those who were ldrive( forth from their homes the p)ity of a righteous Iublic; and thle vengeance of that rutliless mlob cal find no justioieti on even in the outrageous practices of the impIoster king and those who fell victiims to his mnagnetic suavity. The King and his kingdoml ended ignolliniously, alnd w\ith the record of this rise and fall of "A Killgdlonl w\ithin a Republic." it is pardonable to digress sufficiently from the realm of history to draw attention of the thoughts of our readers to "what might have been, " had the ability and energy of this gifted man been (lireeted toward the development of the country within the lines of republican institutions and on a moral, law-abiding basis; or "what might have been" had the environment been more conducive to the growth of the teaching of this apostle of Mormonism. But, deprecating the methods of its procurement. let us be thankful for the early ending of the reign of MIormonisin in lichigan. In justice to Mr. Strang it should be recorded. as a set-off to the evils of his misdirected efforts, that he was an intelligent student of natural history, an(l among other approved writings he contril)uted to the Smithsonian Institution a report on the "Natural listory of Beaver Island" and wrote an(d published a b)ook (called "Ancient anll lI od(ern l1ichiilimackinac."

Page  270 CI-JA1TER XV (COiPPERAkNI) IRO)N MIfNING ANCIENT COPPER i\[INLNG-MODERN DISCOVERYT OF ANCIENT MIN1~EFRENCH iACC.UNTS OF COPP'ER CIONTNLR.Y-E NGLISIJl COPPER. RELoT -DR.UILGI YT0N iS FAmoU-s REPORT-ARRIVAL OF IPRAcTiCAi CORlNI1811 MEN-FIRST EFFORTS' AT S )MELTING-TILE, KEWEIEi-TNAv FORm.AT1 ION-COP'PER F(oUND ELSEWH-ERE-.INDUST.RY S~-'INCE 1845-FIRST IRO1N EXPLO(.R.AT~i( NS —I M 1PR1( IVEMENTrs IN HANDLING OWE-TIBE 'E-l NO M INEE RAkNGE-TIlE C ii ICA670 & NORnxTHN1,ST'ERN RAiILwAY-FiRS,'T ('oA iAiERIAL i)ISC(iVERIES-l)R. N. l'. II1ULST AND THE LO4WER MAEN(O(MINEE-THuE QtUINNESEC i\ IiNFl-TFIEIl PIIONFEE I PRomOTERS,-, (h (GEIII3C RA NOBG*R.\~ND) TOTr~l OF P110DIDCIT1ON. )f tile thr ce, u)rea t Stapjle i111 ist 11(8 tilat becaiie activeii the UpperCI P>11usiisi a ill thle midd11 e 1)f thle Iimitectieit ii ceciti-ly X o(p11pelr was fi rst. to attrilct the attelitioti( oftie world a iid was most p)otenit indr1awi-141 hit he i' per1,08alwit sett 1el-s. 81(d tflil il8 111i] (1 ilcillg ioecal (level (1)11 ((lit. It ha-Is (((iItillihedl to 11181fiita ill dec (ledlV promlillellt p osit 101 ill tlie \V(d)I1 (lrT f~l ~oLi (-(heeio~lleltof tile pa85t s ixtv vearls the Itiost 11181vei(m01 tile would haks ever knownl.-, 11(1 it haks gi1veli to its liativ\e lmoeal itxv 8 colitiun0118s lpr()serity that few, if (alyV otherl 10(8 lities, ('811 lboast.. ANCIENT Cor'AuP:R. i1hNING Tbe -Nor~tihel Mich iigani, 0or. 88i it is-, co01llllolllv ccalled tile Latke Sl~iper1017 Cop~per7 was, frst called to tile aItte~ltiMl1l of ('astern civiiization~ in tile p~eriod 'ust plrior to the eojillig of tile early Jesuit lilssoia(LlaC5 ill the seveiiteenith centllrybtitws11w1t( 11Ilnelb the 'savage inhabitants (If this eoun11trv at a miueh earlier day. Tfhere is n1( ree(Icrd, anlid Ho auithenitie p)roof of wvhcn or by wvhomi the Cawieielt minffing wcas (loie, ~Imt, therue is positive prIoof thkat it was done by somie one. cand thcat to (quite a111 extenit, several eenturie's ago() probably four 017 five. When the Europeans visited1 this beauity, theyN folln-d the Chippewas in control of the entire Mlichigan eolpl)er coIuntry, 811( that niationj 270

Page  271 A T(,\\-"

Page  272 272 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN continued in that control until the release thereof to the government of the United States in 1843. The Chippewas claim to have controlled the countily for over four hundred years, and to have displaced the 5Mascoutins. who were their predecessors; and the story among the Chippewas rwas that the [lascoutins were the ones who conducted the ancient miining. Evidences of that ancient mining have been found in various parts,f the copper district, but the locations of greatest activity were apparently at Isle Royal, and in the vicinity of Ontonagon. It has been clailmed that the fact that the greatest part of the mining was close to the shore indicates that the early miiners were navigators of the lakes and came b)y boats to secure the products. It is, however, true that overland trails from lower Wisconsin and Illinois, reaching the copper country, via Shawano, Wisconsin, and making a ford of the 5Menomiinee river at the Wausaukee Bend, existed when the first settlers caime here. These trails. by being so deeply worn, indicated long usage, and it is argued, and plausibly, that the Indians from below came in over this trail to barter their products for the copper of this locality; or, that the copp)er-mining Indians travelled over this trail carrying their copper or copper utensils to barter with the Indians of the southern prairies. It is certain that the trail was much used for considerable time after the cominL of white settlers, and Indians continued to use copper implements long after the ancient mining became a matter of tradition. It was undoubtedly because of the great thoroughfare of this overland trail that the Astor trading post was established by John G. Kittson at the junction of this trail and the Menomiinee river, and that was before the government ma(de survey of this river boundary of the peninsula. It is therefore I)robal)le that the traffic was carried on with tribes in far distant localities, and that transportation was by boat upon the lakes. and by packs carried over the trail. MIODERN DISCOVERY OF ANCIENT MITNE When the present era of mining had its beginning in the forties, there camle manly able men, including promlipent scientists, attracted by the glowing accloults of the richness of the country, just as early as tile (extillngisliient of tlhe Indian titles would perllit the securing of private rights. The first discovery of evidences of the ancient mining seems to have been by Samuel O. Knapp, in the vicinity of Ontonagon in 1847. Foster & Whitney were engaged in the early geological explorations there and Foster wrote of Knapp's discovery in his "Prehistoric Races," as follows: "As suplerintendent of the Minnesota Mining Company's mines, while passing over their grounds, lie observedl a continuous depression of the soil, which lie rightfully conjectured was formed by the disintegration of a vein. There was a bed of snow on the surface three feet deep, but it had been so little disturbed by the wind that it conformed to the inequalities of tile soil. VFollowing up these indlications, as:isplayed along the southern escarpment of a hill, he (ciae to a cavern, into which lie crept, dispossessing several porcupines which hadl resortedl there to hibernate. He saw numerous evidences to convince him that tlhis was an artificial excavation, andl,

Page  273 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 273 at a subsequent day, with the assistance of two or three men, he proceeded to explore it. In clearing out the rubbish, they found numerous stone hammers, showing plainly that they were tile mining implements of a rude race. At the bottom of tle excavation was seen a vein with ragged projections of copper, which the ancient iiners hlul not detac.hed. "The following spring ie explored some of the excavations farther wvest. One artificial depression was twenty-six feet deep, filled with clay and a matted mass of mouldering vegetable matter. At a depth of eighteen feet he came to a mass of native copper, ten feet long, three feet wide and nearly two feet thick, an(d weighing over six tons. On digging around the mass it was found to rest on billets of oak, supported by sleepers of the samne material. This wood, from its long exposure to moisture, was (lark colored, and had lost all its consistency. It opplosed no more resistance to a knife blade than so nmuch peat. The earth was so firmly I)acked as to support the mass of copper. The ancient miners had evidently raisel it about five feet, and then abandoned the work as too laborious, having first knocked off all the projecting points. The vein was wrought in the form of an open trench, and, where the copper was mlost abundant, there the excavations were deepest. The trench was filled nearly flush from the wash of the surrounding surface. The rubbish was thrown up in piles, which coull readily be distinguished from the general contour of the ground. A few rods farther west was to be seen another excavation in a cliff, where the miners had left a portion of the vein-stone, in the form of a pillar, to prop up tile hanging wall. "Of the fact that a race of skillful miners was operating here long anterior to the historic era, there are abundant proofs. The evidence consists in inumeroius excavations in the solid rock, from which the vein-stone has been extracted; of heaps of rubble and dirt along the course of the veins; of copper utensils fashioned into knives, chisels, axes, spears and arrow heads; of stone hammers, creased for the attachment of withers; of wooden bowls for the bailing of water from the mines; of wooden shovels for throwing out the debris; of props and levers for raising andl sulIpporting the mass of copper, and ladders for ascending and descending the pits. "That the work was ldone at a remote period is demonstrated by the facts that the trenches and pits were filled even with the surrounding surface, so that their existence was not siuslected for many years after the region had been thrown open to active exploration; that upon the piles of rubbish were found growing trees which differed in no degree, as to size and character, from those of the adjacent forest, and that the nature of the materials with which the pits were filled, such as tile fine washed clay enveloping the half decayed leaves, and bones of such quadrupedls as bear, (leer and caribou, indicated the slow accumulation of years, rather than a deposit resulting from a torrent of water." Thus this existing material evidence corroborates the tradition of the Chippewas, that the mniners were of a race prior to theirs, and therefore inhabited the country more than fouir hundred years ago. Who they were. and why they left and how and where they went will proba1)ly always relllain a matter of conjecture. FRENCH ACC()[UNTS OF COPPER COUNTRY That these copper deposits were brought to the attention of Euro)peIns at a very earily day in the history of Amlleriea is shown )by the I)pulication. by Lagarde, in lPanis, in 1636, the next year after Nicolet's return to Montreal, of ain account of these copper regions, in which he says: "There are mines (of copper wlhieh might be made profitable, if there were1 inhal)itants and workmen xiwho would lal)or faithfully. That would be doine if colonies were estal)lisihed(. i: About eighty or one hundred leagues from the Ilurons there is a mine of copper froml which Trucllhllel nt BSrusle showed me an ingot, on his return from a voyage to the neighborill nationl. HIe also says: "Amllong the rocks they found stonles coverced w(ith diamonds attached to the rocks,-some vol. I-I S

Page  274 274 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF 'MICHIGAN of them appearing as if just from the hands of the lapidary, they were so beautiful." These were undoubtedly the amethysts of the north shore, and their mention tends to confirll the location of the copper written of as being on Lake Superior. Again. in 1640, a small volume by Pierre Boucher was published in l'aris, ill which, writing of this country it is said: "There are mines of copper, tin, antimony and lead. In LIake Superior there is a great island which is fifty leagues in circuit, in which there is a very beautiful mine of copper; it is also found in various places, in large pieces. all refined." These very early accounts referred to must have been obt.ained through the Indians, even before the coming of the misisionaries to the west, and probably either through local Indians who resorted to the east for trade, or through unknown traders whose unrecorded visits to this country may have antedated the coming of the missionaries. Of the writings of the missionaries, it is recorded in the "Relations" of 1639-40, referrilg to the region of Lake Superior: "It. is enriched on all its bor(lers 1)v mnines of lead almost i)lre, and of copper all refined in pieces as large as the fist, and great r(cks which have whole veins of turlluoises." Repeatedly thereafter, a period of thirty years or more, the Jlesuits in the "Relations," write of the richness in copper of certain parts of the country, and( of the sulperstitions held by the Indians regarding the metal. ENGISIH COPPER REPOr(TS DI)ring the English occupation of the country Alexalnder Ienry was engaged in trade, and of his travels he wrote: "On the 19th of August, 1765, we reached the mouth of the Ontonagon river, one of the largest on the south side of the lake. At. the nmouth was an Indian villaoe and, three leagues above, a fall. at the foot of which sturgeon, at this season, were obtained so abundantly that a 'month's subsistence for a regiment could be obtained in a few hours. BIut I found this river chiefly remarkable for the abundance of virgin copper which is on its banks and in its neighborhood, and of which the reputation is at present more generally spread than it was at the tine of mly first visit. "The attempts which were shortly after made to work the mines of Lake Superior to advantage will very soon claim a place among the facts which I am about to describe. The copper presented itself to the eye in masses of various weights. The Indians showed me one of twenty pounds. They were used to manufacture this metal into spoons and bracelets for thenmselves. In the perfect state in which they found it, it required nothing but to beat it into shape. On mly way back to Michilimackinac I encamped a second time at the mouth of the Ontonagon river, and now took the opportunity of going ten mliles up the river with Indian guides. The object for which I more expressly went, and to which I had the satisfaction of being led, was a mass of copper, of a weight, according to my estimate, of no less than five tons. Such was its pure and malleable state that, with an ax, I was able to cut off a portion weighing a hundred pounds."

Page  275 TIHE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 275 In 1771 TMr. Ienry, with a party of miners again visited the Ontonagon, travelling in a. sloop I)arpared for the purpose, and with them went a Mr. Norburg, a. Russian gentleman acq(uainted with metals, and holding a coinnmission in the Sixtieth Regiment, then in garrison at MIicehilillllackinac. On reaching Ontonagon they com len((ed tlheir explorations in the clay on the hill, not being prepared to work in the solidl rock. A simall house w\as constructed, an( a party disp)atche( to the Sault for provisions. Explorations were comlnenced( at a point where green colored water, wllich tinged iron of a copper color, issued from the hill, and this the miners called a leader. In digging they found freq(uent masses of copper. Mr. Ienry and Mr. Norburgf returned to the Sault, leavingl a party of miners to continue the explorations (idring the wint e intr. frther writes: "Early in tlie spring of 1772, we sent a boat load of plrovisions; bult it (came baclk ()o the 20th of,June, brminging with it. t{o our surI)rise, the whole estal)lismllent of mineis. They reportedl that, in the course of tile winter, tlhey had Ilenetrated forty feet into the hill but, on the arrival of the thaw, the clay, on which, on account of its stiffness, they hadl relied, a nd neglected to secure it. by sl)pporters, had fallen in; that to reconmmience their sealrch woluld b)e attended with 1much la)bor and cost; that from the detached Ima1sses of lmetal. which, to the last, had daily p)resented( themselves, they supI)osed there might be ulltimately reached soeic body of the samle, but (oul(l formll no conjecture of its distance, except that it was 1rolbably so far off as not to be pursued without sinking an air-shafft; iand lastly, thatl tiis work would require the hands of more men thanl could be fed, in the actual condition of the country. Here our operations ended." As indicating the slight appreciation of the future value of tile country, Mr. IHenry says of it: "The coppler ores of Lake Superior can never be profitably sought for but for local consumption. The country mlust lIe cultivated and peopled before they can deserve notice." I)DR.. HIO(GHTO N' FAAMious REPORT Then folloNwed the succession of wars which made the country uniinhabitable by any except the Indians, and aside from the mention nadle of the copper and the attemIpt to secure the great copper mianito imentioneld, in connection with the exp)edlitions of Genleral Cass. iMr. Schoolcraft and Mr. [McKenna in 1821 and 1826, little further was heard regarding these copper regions until the publication of the report of Dr. I)ouglass Houghlton, state geologist. in his report of his explorations of 1841. That report to the Michigan legislature served to iminediately arouse public interest in the locality. Explorations were continued by l)r. Ioughton and the government. by treaty in 1842 (ratified in 1843), succeeded in securing a release of the Indian title to the lands in that part of the peninsula, thus opening it to developmnent. Then came the granting of permits for mining leases, numbers of which were issued, without authority of law, by the federal government, and under which locations were made and active developments were begun in 1844. This

Page  276 276 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN was before the survey was completed and about twenty men were left to hold various locations during the winter of 1844-45. The following year presented a scene of activity at Eagle River, Eagle Harbor, Copper Harbor, on the Ontonagon river and at Portage lake. We can not better or more accurately describe the development of this region than by quoting from "Steven's Copper Ilandbook," as follows: "The Lake Superior Copper district of Michigan was the first American copper field of importance and is now one of the oldest of the leading copper producinlg districts of the world, as well as the third in size of output. It is the lowest in average grade of any successful copper mining district and piobably contains the most copper of any single field. While the cupriferous Keweenawan foriiation of Lake Superior outcrops to the eastward in the district of Algoma, Ontario, and to the westward traverses northern Wisconsin and is found in several of the eastern counties of MIinnesota, the developed and productive mines lie wholl- within the limits of Michigan. "In 1830 the lake was first visited by Dr. Douglass Houghton, a young scientist combining rare technical skill with high courage and indomitable energy. Through his efforts was made the first survey of the Upper 'eninsula of MIichigan, colimprising more than two-thirds of the southern shore of Lake Superior. "The first miners to leach Lake Superior copper field were Jim I'aul and Nick Miniclear, two back-woodslmn who came overland from southern Wisconsin in midwinter, suffering great hardships, aind arriving on the shore of the great lake in March, 1843. Later in the same year a land office was opened by the federal government at Copper Ilarbor, and a number of prospectors reached the field. The early mining locations were of immense area, and ovce:lapped in a most haphazard and ridiculous manner. Confusion grew until the government adopted the expedient of selling the lineral lands outright. ARRIVAL OF PRACTICAL CORNISIIMEN "In 1844 other mineral seekers, mainly devoid of practical knowledge, arrived in the district, and the news of important discoveries became bruited about. In this year arrive(i the first Cornishmen who were the first real miners to reach the district. The first actual mining of copper was (lone in 1844, the original product being a few tons of ore, called black oxide, but possibly chalcocite, taken from a fissure vein near Copper Ilarbor. This vein was aban(ldoned quickly, but tile sa1me company opelned a fissure vein carrying native coppl)er, and begunIl the lIaymlent of dividends in 1849, since which year dividends have been paid annually by Lake Super ior )rol)erties. Shortly after the op)eningI of the Cliff Mline, in Keweenaw county, the Alinnesota AIine was openled in Ontonagon county at the other end of the district. Cross fissures only were worked at first, but these, while producing several highly profitable mines, have pillnched out or lost their workable values at 2.500 feet or less in depth. The stratified beds, on which all the productive

Page  277 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 277 mines at the present day are developed, were neglected in the early years,.and the Plortage Lake District of I-Ioughton county, now much the most imlportant portion of the field, was negllected b)ecause of the few fissure veins found crossing the stratified beds. The first successful mining on cupriferous beds was done lby the Quincy, which la(le a success of an amygdaloid lode. and gradually other amygdaloi d bed(s were developel. The first slccessful mine to be opened on a conglomlerate bed was the Calumet & Itecla, in 18(66. which remains the largest and mIost profitable mine of the Iake Superior district, and has paid greater dividends than ever declared by any other mlining comll)any in the history of the world, these exceeding one hundred millions of dollars. FIRST EFFORTS AT SMELTING "The first efforts at siellting were miiade in 1846, when a small furnace was b)uilt by) I'rof. James T. IIodge, oni Gratiot river il Kew\eenaw couInty. This ran for two short campaigns only, as selected copper rock, assaying about 20 per cent metal, gave simelter returns of only 3.5 per (cent copper. showing that nearly five-sixths of the metal was lost. in the slags. A second furnace was built about 1847, by the Suffolk lMining Company. seven miiles southeast of Eagle river, but this was not a success. In 1849, a third furnace w as built, on Isle Ro!ale, but never put in colmmission. Until about 1850 all lake copper was smelted in 13altimore, but in that year J. G. IIussey & Company built a copper smelter at Cleveland, and a smelter was built in l)etroit the samte year, and shortly thereafter a successful local smelter was built at IIancock, in HIoughton county. About 1863 a smelter was built at Ontonagon, and previous to 1867 a simall and unsuccessful smlelter was built at Lac Ia Belle, in Keween.aw county. The Calumlet & Ilecla smelter, at Hubbell, Nwas built in 1886, the I)ollar Bay works in 1888, the Quincy smelter in 1898, and the(' ichigan smnelter in 1904. TIE KEWEENAW FORMATI()N "The Keweenaw formation in Michigan imay be divided into four parts, the filst including Keweenaw point at the eastward, the second coemprising Portage Ilake, or Central district, which includes the Calumet and South Range fields. and practically HIoughton county, while the mines of Ontonagon county, and the trans-Ontonagon extension in Ontonagon andll Gogebic colunties comprise the third field. The fourth district is Isle Royale. nearly all of the island showing cupriferous beds, with many old and id(le mines, mainly slmall. "The richest cross-veins of Keweenaw( county were at the western end, the most notable being( developed by the Cliff, Central and Phoenix mines. The fissure veins of Keweenaw county usually cross the stratified beds at approxilmately right angles. The most promising copper ore body of the lake district was opened circa 1845, on the northeastern side of lBohemian mountain, and some ore therefrom was shipped to Swansea. The ore was mainly bornite, with some massive chalco

Page  278 278 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN pyrite, occurring in an eighteen inch vein. There are narrow fissure veins of ore, nmainly arsenical, in the AMohawk mnine of Keweenaw county, and also in the South Range mines of IIoughtoii county. Chaloipyrite has b)eenl foundl in the IIuron shafts of the Isle Royale mine at Ilougghton, and at CoIp))er HIarbor, in Keweenlaw county, two shafts were sulnk, to a (lepth of ablout twenty feet each oni what was believed to be itielaconite, ald( ab)out forty tons of ore were extracted thlerefrom. the deposit a.lp)arently l)eillg merely a i)oeket. Th'e green stains of nmalachite are found in mIaniy ci(riferous l)e(ls in the ai-rtly decoipi)osed p)ortions at or near the surface, but it is altogether plrobable that the clarbonates were evolved fromll native col)pper by weathering. M"letallic copper is founld in 'all rocks of the Keweenaw series, incl(lin' tilhe supelimpllosed(l westeiii sandstone, and along the contact of the Iunconfori ial)le eastern sandstone as well, l)ut excepting the sedilmentatr seconidary series of the KeweenaAw belt, in the I'orcupl)in mlounlltains, nlonie of tlle sanl(lstones contain col)l)er in workal)le (quantities. The metfal is fo(undl in bloth traps and conglornerates of the maill series. the lletal of the conglomtierates occurring largely as cemlenting material. Coplper occurs occasionally in the very (lense trap rocks, but is foIuntl 1ll(mre (c11,i11nin in the nmore open upll)er l)ortions of the tral)flows. whiere thie ailyg(lulas have been leac(hed out and rel)laced to greater or less exteInt by) the native mletal. It is obvious that the aiiiyg(laloi(lal 1)portions of the flows were much more suitable for the physical reccAltion of the metal than the extreme (dense traps at the base of each flow. "In the aiyvgtdalo(idal culpriferous beds( the co()l)ler usually favxors eithllr the foot or hlanging wall, but o(ccasionally. in \wide l)cds. O()t(urS ill streaks towards the center. and usuallyv is dissemninated niore or less irrmo'(laly through toglhe entire w-ith of the almygdaloi(l, bit, u with a tedelllley. )perfeetly natural in view of the )physical strulcture of the amv(lalod i(loal tral)s. to favor the lhanging wall. O(ccasionally thle mmineralizationI is so stroing that the dense basal I)ortion of the sul)erileumb1)ent tral)-flow forllling' the hangilg wall has beenl impre gnat c 1) wlitti fiml c(olpp)l)er for' a fcw inllches or even for a nuImber of feet, anll( is foundl( w(orkabl)le for its iimetali( values. 1)EIE'E'ST OF COPPI'EtR INESs "'lhe1 prccJentage of coI)l')cr contained in tIe rock (lc(e(r:ases iIn all l1iii('S Ol)(ened to 1(re than 4()()() feet in deplth. \As a rule, the amygirtali(d I linies usuiallv sho\w decreased values 1)elbow a del)th of albout on(ehalf Iil(:e. 'rle l )ayab)l( cul)lif:rous bIeds sho(w cop)lpl(er cours(es in I)racticall- all instances. thtlse being diagonal chutes of riehly mineralized g1r(ound dcseendling on the plane of the l)ed with a rake al)out mi(ldwav between the strike and dip. Apparently the beds themiselves will (0oltinule in practically all cases, to much greater del)th than mining is pIossible. The ultim-ate (tdepth of mining cannot be foretold with any certainty in view of the steady progress that is being made in knowl

Page  279 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 279 edge, nIethods and elnilpmeniits. te d(eel)est iiines of the world are in this district, the Talllarack hav\illg a -veiti(cal slhaft of nearly one mile deplth, Owhile the Calumet & Ilecla has a shlaft suink at an angle of 37 degrees,:30 liinutcs, that is 8,100 feet ill (delth. witth a wiiize of 190 feet slunk from, the d(rift o)ll thle bottom level of this shaft. The great heat aInd brinly water-s folund at the bottonis of tile deep llill(es ren(ler ork sO)n ewhat diffiicult, Iland thiese facto)l's. comilinedl ith increas(edi hoisting an(ld Ilin lill )Sts, coillci(lellt w\\itll (le('reased( c()ppe)(r cnlltents., ust of Ilecessity. eventuiallv fulinish a h)ottoltl for tile Illost almbitiosus of liiimies. C()llsidlerabl)l silvei is carried in c(iinc1etiil with Col)l)ler in 11lanyy tf the l ake 'Su)erior lliites. The iines of tile Evero'reen l)elt. ()ntolmnagon cotllyt, 'are tlhe rielhest in silver, followedl by thle milles ill tle ilnmledliate viiiiity (,f P',tage lake ill II(,ullt(Itn ounty. The silver is ltecihaicallvy a(liix(edl witlh cot)pci('' l)ltt tile two Illetals arle iiot. alloy{eod. "W\\hile 1)aeti.ally the e'ntire )Ipper pro)(lliction of Alichigatll is ftoia the native mlletal. l(ierl'l (11l ()f thle p)l'il'ilpal c)lllll'('ial ()res are f)lml( in tlhe native cop)l)e' er istrict, and cop)lper or'es are founlll in aill other counities( of t(he Uppe)l' _ l'elinsula of MIichigan. Tlhe list of 1ich ihigan cl)per o.)res itlcludes ctlp)ite. ielacollite. azum ite. malachite, ehaleocite. bolnllite, chahl{op)yite. chlrysocl la. algodonite, dolltnekite, vh\itnevite, niola\vklite, aii kt-.ewleenai ite. C )''ERf Fo (): ND EISENV IIERE "Tlle active ('ol)l)e'' iii'es of Aliehialn are il the three counties of Keweenaw I\iohugtoIn and Ontoiiagon.l, \witli a (considerable numbler of old( and( idle imiines in Isle lRovale. The KeNeenalwan copp)'er belt cxtenlds to the \Viseonlsiln bo()cundary t hrouglh Gogebic county, anII siall (luantitits of challe(o)yrite are nolted in several of tlhe iron mines (of this county. "In lBara,1,a co)untv tllere i x is an11 isolltel otlier of tlle Keweei.awan for()lltio(l, kowll l as Silver mi()llmltaill, and the saie folrmatioll, carryint niative coppl)er. is noted( oil the Ilur()1 slanIds. "Native col)l)ier is salid to b)e founld in 'lltkinls, Delta count\y, but the d(iscovery (loes liot seem of conni)lereial illl)ortance..Native C(ol)l)er evidlently lbroughlt b)y t glacial action fromi the Keweenaw\an menasures to thle n(irth. lhas )ceni foundl in (drift al)ove tIe iron ore l)ody of the Cyclops.mine. at No)rway, Dickinson ctni\ty, ai(td (chalco')yrite is noteul in small quanitities in conniiectioii \it hellmatite in the Enitmet mine. anl1d also inl the (llapii mine at IroIn tountain, in this county. "Copl)ler ore lhas,been re)ported fl oni tlie vicinity of St. Ignace, AaclkinawN c(omty, bult the occurrellice thas not been fully verified. "In Ma rq(lueette counIty lalcopyrite an(d lativ'e oppe)lr occurs oil Pres(lue Isle. in the cit of [farquette and chalcoeite is noted on IMount I\esnard, and( on tile Chocolay riNver, near the satme toxv\n, while a variety of coppl)l)e ores o(clrs near Sauks Head. Small ({u1ntitities of copper sulphides are found ill the gold mines north of Ishlpeming, and tile granite

Page  280 280 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN rocks extending from the serpentine lying north of Ishpeming to the shore of Lake Superior show numerous gash veins carrying copper ores and other minerals. "In MIenominee county copper ores have been found near Carney, and some attempts at mining have been made therein." Again Mr. Stevens says: "In early days the heavy mass copper of Lake Superior mines, ranging in weight from a ton to five hundred tons per mass, was cut up into chunks not too heavy for hoisting by the use of long handled chisels, this process being laborious, slow and costly. The work of cutting up masses underground is now done with pneumatic chisels, at about a tithe of the former cost." COPPER INDUSTRY SINCE 1845 As to the copper production of Michigan the following table wherein the figures down to 1909 have been taken from Mr. Stevens' valuable IIandbook," and those for 1909, from the report of the comrmissioner of mineral statistics, give a fairly accurate illustration of the growth of the copper industry from its beginning in 1845, and at the same time shows with accuracy the immense net income derived from one branch of the natural resources of that part of the country which was "thrust" upon Michigan at the time she attained statehood: PRODUCTION, VALUE AND DIVIDENDS OF LAKE COPPER Pounds Gross Gross Value Total DiviYear Product of of dends Paid Fine Copper Production 1845................. 24,880 $ 5,000 $ 1849................. 1,505,280 360,00( 60,000 1854................. 4,074.560 909.500 1!)8,000 1859................. 8,)37,99)5 1,950,355 360,000 1864................. -12,491,965 5,870,300 1.150,000 1869................. 26,625,301 6,230,016 210,000 1874................. 34,334,389 8,009,356 1,940,000 1879................. 42,671,529 7,327,350 1,818,620 1884................. 69,353.202 9,494,306 1,327,500 1889................. 88,175,675 11,894,942 2,670,000 1894.................114,308,870 10,852,122 2.380,000 1899................ 146,950.338 26,098,382 1.2,318,450 1904................ 208,355355 27,,17,107 5,432,300 1909.................230,123,525 8,405,940 The above table shows only the operations every fifth year. The gross product of lake copper to and including 1908 was 4,669,099,201 pounds, its gross value, $666,520,748 and the total dividends paid amount to the magnificent sum of $169,541,570 and the percentage of dividends to gross values is 25.4.

Page  281 TIlE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 281 FIRSIT IRON EXPI)RATIONS Ulnlike the copper of the Upper l'eninsula, its iron seems not to have been known to or used by the Indians, and( its existence here. in comnnier(ial quantities, first came to the knowledge of the world soon after its discovery, in 1844, while William R. Burt was conducting the government survey in Aiarquette county-. As a result of the effect of the Iragnetic ore deposits upon the com)pass, at a point where the Jackson mine is now located, the first discovery was lmade, an(d, the following year, 1845, explorations were begun by a company of men fromi Jackson. Alichigaln. These first iron explorations were nmade )b MSr. P. M. Eveiett, who had with hinl in the work Messrs. S. T. Carr and E. S. Rockwell, and their fortunate beginning of the great iron industry in this peninsula developed into the famnous and profitable Jackson mine, at Negaunee. In 1846 the first iron ore mIined, was taken from this mine, and it is said to have been sllelted in a blacksmlith's forge. Early in 1848 blooms were made from the Jackson mine ore. in a bloomerv of the Jackson Company located on the Carp river a few miles east of Negaunee. In.1849 the Cleveland mine near Ishpeming was opened, and in 1850 about five tons of its ore was shipped to New Castle, Pennsylvania, and was there made into bloom and bar iron by A. L. Crawford. proprietor of an iron working establishment at that place. The results were so excellent that it was considered the great value of the ore was established; and this test immediately attracted the attention of the iron-workers of PIennsylvania and -Ohio to the new iron field, as being a desirable source for the supply for their furnaces. FIRST I.AKE SIPERIOR PIG IRON In 1852 about seventy tons of ore was shipped from the Jackson mine to Sharon, Pennsylvania, where, in the "Old Clay" furnace, it was made into "pigi'' the first, in this form, from Lake Superior ore, and this test emphasized the value of the ores and increased the interest of the iron manufactureis therein. This opened up to view the importance of better transportation facilities to and from Lake Superior, and iron ore shipments had to await traInsportation developments. ORE PRODUCTION 1855-64 In 1855, the Sallt de Ste. Marie ship canal, constructed because of the provisions of the federal congress of 1852 granting to the state of Michigan 750,000 acres of land to aid in its construction, was so nearly completed as to admnit of the passage of boats, and as a consequence the local bloomeries were abandoned, and immediate shipments of iron ore were begun. rThe local forges had been located at Forest, Collins and Marquette, and ore for these, and for the early shipments, was hauled in wagons over rough roads; but in 1856 a plank-road was constructed from the

Page  282 282 2 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIIGAN iliines to AIarquette, which was later converted into a tramway, and still later (in 1857) was sulpplanted by a railroad, which became a part of the MIarquette, Iloughton and Ontonagon line. Previous to the conIstruction of this railroad 52,000 tons of o-e had been shipped to and sllcltedl at the local forges mentioned, an(1 the entire outI)ut of ores for tlle (listrict in 1857 was onlyr 21,000 tons froumI which it canl be seen that the in(idustry was then in a very primitive condition. W\ith a good( beginniing the infanit industry n'was ready for rapid growth, anl in 1858 31.()035 tons were shipleld, followed, in 186(), b)y an amounlt exceeding 100.()00() tons. This was colsi(leredt rllemarkable, ani(l the p1roplhecies of the enthulsiaists, for the future of the d(istrict. w-ere ridiculed by- the conservatives as bceing iml)ossible,. but the imost salnguine exp)ectations of that Ipe)iod hla( ve been exceededl in the actulal resuilts of su)seqluent o)perations. In the year 1864. the p)roduct was 235,123 tons fromi which tiime, the increase was ral)id( and will he more particularly mlentioned in con(nection Nwith the' llistory of the several mines. W\Vile those older IillCs thave be)ten continluous producers of large (lqaiantities of ore, the field has gra(lually grown and beent extended(l ) new dtiscov(\lrie(s ildl dceloe)lIlIlt.s, tlhat )lae( thlis (listrict in the front rank of the( irmon I)r(o(lucing (listricts of the (orlld, especially consideting the q-uality {of its ores. l)etails of this develolpmelt cal lie gathered fromil the (olint!- histories of MIar(junette and Blaraga counties through which the Alarue(ltte range extenids. IMPROVEMEENTS IN IIHANDLING ORE Very naturally, beccause of the crude niethods of operation then in voglle, early opI)erations sihowe(l siall annual )pro(luction as co(l)pared to later years wh(n hand and lhorse power has given way to steaml aild electricity; power (Irills have taken the l)la(c( of the han(l-halllllr; wvii(lillg engines have sul)rse(led the old whilll; dynamite has (lisilacd( tle ulse of b)lack p)O\(ler; the steaml shovel has 1lmade the old han1dl-shovel and( wh\\elbarrow uo),j cets of mnlemory; ccars of thirty to fifty tols capl)ac(ity hlave sull)lante(d the (old " ' jul)er" cars of five or six toIms, andl th(e lake freiights are now han(lled( with m1agnificelt b1)oats, as illustrated 1)y tlme chap')ter ()n transl)ortation. Whlethl'r cheapl)er (rc' is the result of the imilr()ovcr syst'is a.111( (()n1 -ditio)ls, o)r 9whether the{ i11)1pr()vcd systemis have )eeii itr(Itlue(ied to m1eet th( de(11man(11ls for (cheial)r ore, is of littl, ('c(nsequencel(; )but the resuilt of ())pr'ations has l)e(cn to very nmaterially re(lu(ce the (o()st an(l l)pri(e of 1iron ()r(,. whi(ch, at. the b)egiilniig o)f the ir() lhist(ory (of this l)eniliisuila. sold as hiig1h as tw-clve dollars per ton. Ti-IE 5MENOMINEE RANGE Th1e Aenoininee range is secon(l inl order of discovery. The first (1disco(very of iroil ore ut)poi that ranrge vwas at thle locaition of thle llre(.en Illill( at W lau(c(dal. 11() ili the( (o()untv of D)ickiils(ni. hl)t thell ill tlhe couit!v of Iel(lonlilne. Thi.s ralge extcnd(s thir()ghoutl(t the couinties of

Page  283 ma V i IHANI)LING ORE: AT TIlE GTREIAT EJSCANABSA LDocKcs

Page  284 284 TIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Dickinson and Iron and has steadily developed its ore-producing area, as well as the product of its mines from its first operation to the present day. It is worthy of note that early residents of what was then Menominee county became enthusiastic champions of the iron prospects of the Menonlinee range, at a date when the geologists seem to have been so over-awed by the results in the Marquette range that they reported that the deposits of the Menominee range would not develop into commercial importance. Among the most prominent of those early residents to bring to the attention of the world the iron interests of this then prospective field were Bartholomew (Bartley) and Thomas Breen and Judge E. S. Ingalls, the latter of whom was active in publishing news of the conditions and the former of whom were both active in the work of exploration and the field of discovery. FIRST COMMERCIAL DISCOVERIES The Breens were prominently engaged in woods work as timber inspectors and cruisers. In the year 1866 they discovered the outcropping of ore at the Breen mine, but there were no railways within the county of Menonminee, the location was far inland, and, as a consequence, development of the locations had to practically await the coming of a railway. The nearest feasible lake port was at Deer Creek, the point now known as Fox, north of Cedar river. The prospectors had also discovered what appeared to them to be large marble deposits on the Sturgeon river, but a few miles from the iron discoveries. A railroad was projected from Deer Creek to the iron and marble locations, called the Deer Creek and Marble Quarry Railroad, in the promotion of which Judge Ingalls took a very active part. Iowever, before this project had reached the point of securing capital for its construction the Chicago & Northwestern Railway entered the field, and the first mentioned project was abandoned. TIE CIICAGO & NORTHWESTERN RAILWAY In this connection Judge Ingalls. in his "Centennial History of MIenominee county," said: "When the Menominee ranges shall be opened by railroads they bid fair to become the most valuable iron districts in the United States." And he also says, that when the building of the Chicago & Northwestern Railway was assured, a petition in chancery was filed for the voluntary dissolution of the Deer Creek & Marble Quarry Railroad Company, of which he was the president, formed for the purpose of giving the Menominee range a rail connection with water transportation. Of the devoted interest of the venerable judge, Mr. A. P. Swineford, in his "Review of the Iron Mining Industries of the Upper Peninsula, says: "The late Judge Ingalls was from the start, an enthusiastic believer in the great mineral wealth of the region, and never tired in his efforts to secure its early developmnent." To further show his faith in the future of the new iron field it is re

Page  285 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 285 corded that Judge Ingalls incorporated the first noining company to operate on this range, in 1872. It was the Breen Iline 1and thle stockholders were E. S. Ingalls, S. P. Saxton. Bartley and Thomas Breen and Seth C. Perry. MIr. Saxton explore(d upon the property in 1870. To lIon. John L. Buell is also due large credit for his efforts to secure the railway to the range. The Chicago & Northwestern road was constructe(1 from IMenomlinee north to Escanaba in 1872, and its course through MIenom(inee county wNas diverted from that along the Bay Shore, as originally 1)lanned, to its present inland route through Powers, because of the discov(ery of ore on the Menonlinee range, and with the purpose of building what is now the Menominee Range Branch of this conimany 's railway. In order to reachl the new discoveries on the Mlenominee range a new railway coilpany! was organized in Michigan known as the Mlenolmince River Railway Complany, which was in thle control of the officers o(f the Chicago & Northlwestern Railw!ay Compa)any. and( tiis conlmany sec.ured froml the state a grant of seven sections of land per mile to ")rollo)te tll( e(arly construction of a railroad through the MAenominee Iron Range." Pl'ans for the prol)osed branch were well imatured, so that everything was ready! for the beginning of operations as soon as the desired grant was secured. Work was begun iimnediately, an1(l the first eighteen mIiles of tle branch railway was constructed to the iron developmlents at. Vulcan in the summler of 1877. and continued to Quinnesec, in the fall of that year. Just at the period when the discoveries of this range were brought to the attention of the public, the government grant to the Portage Lake Ship Canal Company enabled that fortunate company to locate lands along this range, and it promptly proceeded to do so to the extent of about 400,000 acres, from which it has reaped handsome harvests of both timber and iron. DR. N. I). IIuILST AND TIE LOWER AIENOMINEE While awaiting the coming of the railway, explorations were conducted at nunierous locations along the proposed route. In 1872, the Milwaukee Iron ComIpany, under the supervision of Dr. N. P. IIulst, to whom is due a very large measure of credit for the activity and skill displayed( in the development of this range, commIenced explorations on the Breen Iline 1under a lease thereof from the Breen colmpany, owner of the fee, and they conltinued throughout that season and the season of 1873. In this last mentione(d year the Vulcan mine was discovered. It was developed in 1876, in anticipation of the early completion of the railway to thiat point, and it ma(de its first shil)ments in 1877, the year of such compllletion of the railway. Of tlle situation, and the early operations upon this range, it is a pleasure to quote briefly from a paper written by IIon. John L. Buell, one of the very early- pioneers of this region, as follows: "No mlore striking illustration of the ral)id developl)mlent of iron ore in our country, or

Page  286 286 TIlE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICIIGAN in the world, is observable than in the rapid opening of the lower MIenominee range, and the Iron River. Crystal Falls, Gogebic and Mlinnesota districts, disclosing ore fields over a vast territory, which, a short time previous, if it ha1( any aIppreciail)e value in the eves of men, was based solely upon the quantity an(d iluality of pine timber stand(ing thereon. "The first exploring party to enter the territo brcin th lower MIenIominee range was I)r. N. i. Iulst of Milwaukee. As a representative of the M\ilwaukee Iron Company he began active expIlorations with a large force of men on section 10-39)-29, in the summer of 1872. The exploration was not (ionfined to this l)oint, but exten(ded elsewhere along the range, consisting of test-pitting and trenching. with the exception of a long drift across the cilicious formation on section 1). TIE QUINNESEC MINE 'In the fall of 1871. memorable for its devastating fires, which prevailed at Chicago, Peshtigo, and other points, the writer, in company with John Armstrong, encamped at th( little spring at the north end( of Quinnesec Avenue, on the present site of the village of Quinnesec. While Armstrong was preparing dinner (it was his turn that day) a little stroll over the b)llff to the west disclosed the out-(ropping of the easterly terminus of the Quinnesec mine formation. This was near the township liine on the southeast. quarter of section 34-40-30. This tract had been entered by Sales & Lasier, with agricultural scrip, in 1864, but the entry hald been cancelled and the land withdrawn fromr the mar-1 -ket. with all other even sections in this region, to ena1ble the canal coml)pany to compllete its selection. It was not until the spi)ing of 1873 that the title to this tract was restored to Sales & Iasier, and in May of that year, exploration \was begun by the writer of this paper, with a force of fifteen Imen, and prosecuted until a deposit of blue ore was discovered, on the 3d d(ay of August in the samie year. Where the ore was first struck it had a wi(lth of eleven feet of (lean ore, a jasper horse four feet in wi(lth, and then one foot more of clean ore. Seventv-five feet east the deposit had a width of thirty-three feet. The analysis of this ore gave sixty-six per cent metallic iron, four per cent silica and.013 per cent phosphorus. "In the spring and summer of 1874 fifty-five tons of it was hauled to Menominee on sleds and wagons, and smelted in the furnace at that point, with a mixture of Jackson hard ore and Winthrop. The last furnace charge was entirely of the Menominee range ore, thus establishing its tractability. Robert Jackson, superintendent of the furnace, spoke in the highest terms of the quality of the ore. This was lractically the first test of standard ore from the Menominee range, an( was the incentive to rapid and successful exploration along the entire formation." From Mr. Buell's paper we also gather the following facts as to early developments, aside from the work of the Milwaukee company, at the Vulcan and Breen mines, as already spoken of.

Page  287 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF 'MICHIGAN 28 287 EARLIEST MI,1NES OF THlE RANGE rplw BreeIi aline ivals op:erated by the -Menominee.AMining, Compcany) In 1877. and shipped that year 3.812 tons. The Quinnesee was opened1 in 1877 an(1 nlade its first rail shipments in 1878. The Emmet lmie was opened1 in 1877. anid. (ling 1878 there wa,,s shipped therefrom 11.523 tons. The CYclo)ps m1ine( Wivis diseo)vered Oetober 1. 1.878. an11d by tue 24th day o)f the samne month wvas, shipp-incr 130 tons, of o)re per daty. rpie Curry minife was (liseOVelled in 1878. an-d shipments therefrom to the extent~ of 13,010( tons were made in 1879. The 'Saginaw mine, later eahledl the P~erkins. wafs, liseoveredi in 1878. aid~ miade shipment o)f 13.492 tons ii 187!). T'lw( East Vulean wa,,s openedl in 187!). The Cornell mule wNas discoveredl 111 187!). an(1 it p)roduced jIm 1880. 30.83(3 to.ns. rne Keel Ridge ioine was diseovetred in.187!). aml shippe~d 1.1.443 tons ill 1880. 'Ille Llldillgtoll mliune wvas diSeo0Vered in 187!). and( the following-1' yea I ) r o di(lueed 8.87 6 toils. Tile world falmou-s (ha8)11 pin nmle waNs diseovered inl 187!) 811(d in the folmvlowin ye.ar sili p ped 34.33(3 toils. Tihe I rd ianli Iline Nv85s, ( iseo1Ver(1'1 iii 187!). and pro~(duced 709) tons in 1880. Tile Millie minle \W8i (1ilsc(eovred in 1880 811(1 produc~ed the next year 4.332 tons. TTI P~ION EER P1tmOoTrER.S It is safe to saxv that in ho seetion o)f the eomintr-v was there a more ralpidl 'sccessionl of (liscmeo lis 811(1 (eveloqIIle~lt of ililiportant Illilles thanl Wac~s exlwerienceed ill tile shor-t Ilortion (If thle M\enominee ranmge between Waue.1edah1 aiid I rollI~l(intain ill thle three years from 1.877 to 1880. 811( it is also wvorthyv to be reeorded, ill reomito f tile platriotie work a1n( aIlleg"ianee o)f suell mens Judg(e InIgallis. liartley alil Thomlas B31eell John L... Buel 8.11(1 8.. S-`axton. that their~ Ilio)neer P)rophecies hae l) ee n fulfilled ill over-flOwN-11lg mleasure,1T alnd their rewa~rd, at least in pa-(rt. is the existeiilee (If a, prosIperous. p)rogressive an(1 irodiuctiVC eMmlllli11ty, built. upon the founda~tlions, staked (lit by theni. In fultiller test i11olly (If tie aippreeiatifion aeeordIed to thlose andl others aetive in the (liseovery and later developmnent of tile lo)wer Menominee railge. we will (ligress from thle mines, to spleak briefly of thlose instrullentarl ill brining lle ilito use, 811l(1 ill doing so will use tile wor(1s of one of those early1 pioneers speaking of tile others. They are found in the paper (If Mr. Buell 's alreadly quoted1 froml, anod as follows: "This, gentlemenci, eclleludes tile tax 111)01 your platienee. but before a final elosing. referenee is in or-der to sonic (If thme by-products of this rangeliroohults, mnire useful thiai ornamnental. Attention is ealled to a, fewN of tile ymOli llleni\vei cxi(mleac to tllis range of ain early\ datetc and in minor positicmis linked their (lestinly w\ith its amiing plrogress. We are proud (If thlem. proud of thleir positions arid p)rosperity, proud to think that the rang,10e ean claimn them, with all the eniviable repultaition they have aequlir~ed as, lraetical maumers-ea~n claiiii them as Somel (If its most eollilphuIienzmta ipr(IdlctiOlls. -Among these we find the nam~es, of I1ulst, Cole, 1 ri-vidson, \AkeNlaouihton. Jo(Ines, Brown, MefLean auid manv others. Thei- limair is, beginmlincg to rillen. thle sighlt dlinmming somiewhlat hilt the

Page  288 288 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN purpose of their lives is still before them for a worthy and successful completion. The list of absentees of those who were identified with the early development of the lower range is a large one. It includes the names of Conro, A. C. Brown, both the Kimberleys, Foster, Williams, Stockbridge, Ludington, Stephenson, Van Schaick, Daniel Wells, Jr., Ingalls, both the Olivers, Rundle, Iartley, Breen and others not now occurring to nmemory. All these have crossed the dark river, and others are trimming their sails for the fateful voyage." As to its having been a good field for the penetration of a railway, IMr. Iuell says: "The delay in the construction of the road as far as Quinnesec arose from a matter of doubt on the part of capitalists as to whether this range would sustain a railroad costing, exclusive of equipmteent, $475,000. The road paid for its construction in its first year of full operation, and this little stretch of railroad from Iron Mfountain to Esanaiba, since it began operations, has paid for many hundreds of imiles of tr'ack on the western prairies." In 1880 the railroad was continned to Iron Mounitain, there to receive the sanme year a sublstantial initiation into the mammoth shipmlents since made from the Chapin mine that had been discovered the year previous, and from there, pushing on its course through the iron forimation, crossed into Wisconsin and located its stations of Comnnmonwealth and Florence to "accomnlmodate" the iron discoveries there, and, crossing the Brule, returnedl again to 5Michigan and, to meet the Upper MIenominee range discoveries, sent one branch to Crystal Falls and its main line to Iron river, whence it eventually went northward to meet the discoveries of the Gogebic range. In Iron county, and especially in the recent discoveries and developments in the vicinity of Iron river and Palatka, there has been a close approximation to the rapidity of discovery and developiment on the lower MIenominee range, as already described, but of this later development, as well as of that of the individual mnines of the lower range, more will be said in the histories of the several counties which are included in other chapters of this work, and, keeping to the purpose of this chapter, to mention generally the course of discoveries and development of the various iron regions of the peninsula, we pass on to the GOGEIIC RANGE The iron-bearing formlation of this range, different from the broken and irregular formation of the MIenoiilinee, is very regular and extends almost continuously for a distance of about eighty miles. froin Lake Gogebic, Michigan, to MIineral lake, Wisconsin. The developed portion of this formlation is only about one-fourth its entire extent, and extends from(i Castle mine on tile east, in Michigan, to the Atlantic rmine, in the west, in Wisconsin. The general course of the range is a little north of east and a little south of west. As an illustration of the generosity with which nature filled the Upper Peninsula with mineral-bearing measures, ore is found in the north limit of the iron formation, near the village of Wakefield, within three hundred feet of the trap rock of the Copper range.

Page  289 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 289 As in the MIenominee Range ore was first discovered by the Breen Brothers while on a timber cruise, so in the Gogebic Range it is said the first ore was discovered at the site of the great Colby mine, in 1880, by a lumberman who is reported to have informed Captain N. D. Moore thereof; and this gentleman is generally credited with the discovery. This section of the country was then a wilderness and far inland, and being then a part of Ontonagon county, was far from the county seat at Ontonagon. Upon the site of this discovery the Colby, the first mine to be developed on the Gogebic Range, was later opened up. and prompltly took front rank with the heavy producing mines of the older ranges. Its development, however, had to await the coming of the steamhorse and iron-rail which first made its appearance in 1884, in the corporate form of the ilwvaukee. Lake e Shore and Western. which was later acquired by the Chicago & Northwestern Railway Company. On the coming of this railway a tide of emigration set in that soon made populous villages. while explorations for iron were carried on with an activity worthy of the success attained, and here, too, discoveries were frequent that developed into profitable mines. In the year of the coiiing of the railroad (1884), the Ashland mine was discovered, and in the following year it shipped 6.471 tonls of ore. The Norrie was opened in 1885. and shipped that same season 15.419 tons of ore. The Aurora was opened in 1886, in which year the Newport. then called the Iron King, was also opened and 1beaan operations. Other discoveries followed along the range in quick succession following the range easterly into AMichigan and westerly into Wisconsin, until the range at the present day has twenty-three producing lilles. GRAND TOTAL OF PRODUCTION The total shipments from all the iron mlines of the Upper Peninsula now reach more than 13,000,000 tons, which, in 1909, were thus divided among the three ranges: Menominee, 4,875,385; Marquette, 4,256,172; Gogebic, 4,088,057. Since the first shipments were made the production has been as follows: Marquette Range, 91,903,991 tons; Menominee, 71,313.115; Gogebie, 60,820.50(3. Grand total. 224.037,609 tons. The progress made in the mnethods of mining during the mining history of the Upper Peninsula. have not been confined alone to the object of cheapening the cost of production. though wonders have been acconmplished in that directioll but they have followed also the lines of safety to andl comfort of tile mining emlIployees; and in this direction are noticed improved safety alppliances uplon mllinig machinery, wherever the same is possible, and the use of steel shafts and cement buildings, in the place of the wood formerly used, tending largely to reduce the danger from fire; and besides these the numerous club-houses. libraries, and other quarters provided and maintained by the progressive nlining corporations for the comfort, entertainment and enlightenment of their employees, attest a spirit that speaks volumes for tile future prosperity of the mnining localities, and that harmony bletween employer and eniployee so essential to their mutual welfare. VQIl. I —1 )

Page  290 CHAPTER XVI THE LUMBER INDUSTRY RUTHILESS DESTRUCTION OF TIMBER-INDUSTRY FOUNDED IN 1850-IMPORTANCE OF MENOMINEE DISTRICT-IMPROVED TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES-NOW AND TIEN-EARLY 13UYING OF PINE LANDS-PIONEER LOGGING CAMPS-LOG DRIVING —FIRST AND MODERN MILLS-PIONEER AND GREAT LUMBER COMPATNIES-MENOMINEE RIVER BOOM COMPANY -THE PINE LUMBER BUSINESS-ESTIMATE OF IENINSULA PRODUCT. Michigan has been notoriously a lumber-producing state, and the U1)per Peninsula. notwitlhstanding its buried tereasures of copIper a(nd iron (the richest in the world for the territorial area), presented possibilities to the early lumbermen equal to the most favorable of lumbering locations. A very large proportion of the territory was heavily timbered, and it is safe to say that if thle timber that hias been cut in this Peninsula was today preserved in live-timber growth it would be worth more than all the wealth of all the farm, city and town property, including factories of every kind, but not including mines. RUTHLESS DESTRUCTION OF TIMBER To the eye of the first lumberman the stately white pine was about the only kind of lumber worthy of consideration, and, as to that, there are men in the Peninsula now, who commenced lumbering here in the fifties, who vouch that in those days the white pine was so abundant,the area so large and thle growth so heavy and tall-that no one thought it could ever be cut. It was a short step from that seeming unlimited supply of one of the Iost valuable of forest productions to this time, when white pine trees are few in this land of their nativity. The universal idea, that the supply was unlimited, the liberality of the governcent, to the degree of laxness, in allowing this natural resource to pass in unlimited quantities into private ownership for the mere pittance of $1.25 per acre. and the coming of the period of rapid world-development, creating a. vast demand for lumber, just as this valuable timber became obtainable, were responsible for a wasteful extravagance almost if not quite inexcusable. 290

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Page  292 292 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN True, vast fortunes were made by a few men, who were in at the opportune time and appreciated the opportunity; and prosperous communities have developed largely as the result of the activities initiated and carried on by them, but, had there then been exercised even a small degree of the care and conservatism of the lumberman of today, as much or more could have been realized as has been, and at least half the standing pine could have been preserved, and, standing, it would now have a value of twenty-five to fifty times its original cost. Large tracts of pine timber would cut an average of 250,000 feet per 40 acres, and the government price was $50 per 40, which would be 20 cents per thousand. Good white pine on the stump today is almost priceless, varying according to quality and convenience of access at from $10 to $25 per thousand. The opening of the mines opened also a field for smelting furnaces, which, in turn, created a demand for charcoal. A number of furnaces were constructed in various parts of the Peninsula, and, as a result, large areas of hard-wood lands were stripped of their timber contents, and the beautiful maple, birch, beach and other hard woods were ruthlessly piled into kilns and burned to coal. A stumpage price of 25 cents per thousand bought many, many a large tract of beautiful hard woods for charcoal purposes, as late as the seventies, which, if standing today, would be worth at least fifteen times that amount. But the era of charcoal blast furnaces was short, for the owners of timber land soon learned that the methods adopted by the lumbermen would make quick work of the white pine, and that then other woods must take its place. The Peninsula contained a very large variety of woods, many of which have proved valuable for lumber, shingles, etc. As already mentioned, pine was the timber to which value was first given, and it is true that, as to most sections of this Peninsula, other timber standing on the land with pine was not reckoned in fixing the value of the land. In fact, for years after government lands came on the market at $50 per forty, few forties were purchased except for the pine that grew thereon, and, in the mining countries, except for the prospects of mineral. It was many years after the mills of the Peninsula began active operations, before hemlock, now a valuable lumber product, was given any recognition in the making of transfer values, and it is only within the last thirty years that cedar lands came into good demand, though they have been now, in large part, cut over. INDUSTRY FOUNDED IN 1850 Prior to 1850 very little was done in the way of lumbering in the Upper Peninsula, and for very good reasons, either of several of which is sufficient. In the first place, settlement of the adjacent states was so little advanced that they made slight demand for lumber, and, next, transportation facilities were inadequate, but, perhaps the best reason is found in the fact that until the government land surveys had been completed and the lands put upon the market there was no way to ob

Page  293 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 293 tain title to the timber la1(1ds. This last inientioned obstacle being remnoved closel to tlie half century nmark, the decade flomn 1850 to 1860 saw large purcIl'ases of tillinbered landls, and tlhe construl(tion of numerous mills. 'rior thlereto there (lad been small miills constriucted at various places, princiI)ally to accollnimodate local ldenandl, but furnishing some surplus to be sent to suclh miii ket as couldl be olbtaine(l. For tllose mills the tiimber, of course. hadl to cone froml tile public lands. In those days the river and harbor implrovements and tlhe magnificent freighting vessels of to(lay were not even (Ireanled of, and such(' lumber as was shipped was, as a rule, lo(ad(ed twice, first on a liihter tlat transporte(l it to and delivere(l it. upon the sailing (craft anelhored in dle(e water to ireceive it. Of tliose early mills mllention will be mladle in tlhe histories of tlleir various localities. an(l it should be (c(onsid(ered that luilibering in this ipeiinsula, in a (11111ercial seInse. ha1d its b(egininin aoutlt tile vear 1.850 to 1855. rIMPOR.TANCE OF MIENOMINEE I)ISTIICT At the present time,. land for.vears past tlie lumibering business is and has been distrib)uted( all through tlie P'(niisula. on railroads and rivers as well as at lake ports, but in the beginning of the industry it was alllmost. wholly confined to points along tile lake at the out-let of drival)le( streamls. IMenomllinee has at all tiltes in the lhistory of luembering in the Upp er Peninsula, been.and still is the most il)porltant point in this industry, land the south land southeast shore of the Peninsulai has been the scelne off a. very large percentage of all the lumbering that has been (dne. Fhis lhas been the natural result of tile physical construction of the country. which, as lias already been described, (drains thl territory from. tlhe water shed within a few miles of Lake Superior, south to the waters of Green bay. So, too, I(enoniinee has been the princilal lunibering point because, flomi its location at the mouth of the Menominee river it has, jointly with Marinette. on the Wisconsin side, hlad the supply) of timber from the vast area d(rained by the Menominee and its numerous large tribu-taries. among which are the Brule. continuing on the state boundary. the Sturgeon. Paint, Iron and Little Cedar on the Michigan side, and the Wausaukee IPike and Pembine on the Wisconsin side. Nearly all this large territory was natural pine country, but in a considerable part of it, the pine of most excellent quality was interspersed among a fine growth of hard woods. There were many large tracts of solid pine growths, and, throughout the swampy portions, solid bodies of cedar and tamarack. Cedar of fine quality was also found growing among the hard woods in many parts of the country. The Escanaba is the next river of importance in this connection, and this, too, with its numerous tributaries, has contributed vast quantities of lumber to the commerce of the world. Other rivers of importance that have served as nature's highways for the transportation of her products to points on the Green bay shore are Ford, Manistique and Cedar rivers. The lumber industries of each receives specific nien

Page  294 TI-IEj NORftITItERN I'ENINSVLA OF A1ICIIIGAN tion in the history. of the respective counties. Tile Ontonagon is l)rol)ably' the most pIrominent fromi a luml)bering standpoint, of the rivers flowing north. IMPROVED TI1NSISPORTTION FACIIITIE:. At first only the tilb)er that was l(ose to the streaims was considered d(esirable, but as operations i)roce(leld, transportation facilities im-prove(l, an(l the deiltand fotr luimbelr ince lased. longer 1allals of logs to) the river were 111(de(, and( interioir iiills wereI c(ostrulted aIt coivenllielit julctionl points of -rail a1n(l vwatel'. or()1 1 Iaill'((1li in lu11)ber distriets dlistfllt. fionl rivers. L,()gjilnu railwayts Nwere also conlstructcte( on vwhich to hlaul thle timlber growiing ill consi(lel able tracts (listant froill the river, wllich last miiethod has ll(eeil very general-lly a(lopte(d by tilhe large Iills in tile intlerior to haul logs (dirct to the miills. as w\ell as by river lub1111)erllmen to put into-) the 'rive sucIh lo as aare s() f'ilr fl()l a watl'rway that rail lhaIlliinr ii e(',s n ( ve'(!n 'i,h: 11 tl:"t 1) tLe:ils. Nox AND THE I N iA very recent inniovationI ill lo)-haulinll is the use of monster traction enginles, l)'y meal.is f wlicl vast sleili trains of logs are lhauled from forest to mill onI ordinary logginr 1(ioads witliout thle use, of either tram( or rail. This ealables tlIe op(eriatori to cut a road into the heart of a timll)em 1)()(I\l (of nllv k'ild (Ir kil(ids of tilill)er, (clit the lanid cle'lar of everyv marketable varietv. alt d lhaul thci entire 1)rolluct to his i ill (or m1arlket. A n11u111) ('o' )f thl(',(' c )() ''l111 p e ll illnS ala'( ill 11(s 11()\ ill t i(l )( llilnsula. an(l their use is nli(celv illlstrat(ed in tfime aeo('(1tp1yx illn l cutll sow'in toi(' train haulini the logs from() thle fo(rest to the roll-wayls near the lllill at Cedar river. in MIenoiiiniee cominty. TIllis i(eth1o(l is ({uite in cntrast witl tIle OX t<iea and(l travois withl whli(ch1 ear rly haulling was,done(. and even withl tlie later miiethods of heavy t(eam hmauling on ie(l r)ads, and has its adva(ntaflgcs over the logging railway ill thlat it gets more readily li tot thle so(urce of sul)tply. The engin e is of great weight and(l Iropels its train ) i nme(,ns of an endless chain Awhiiell is run under its heavil-y weigllted wheels. EARLY BY ITING OF IPINE LANDS In lumbering the log must be secured froml the forest before it can be put to the saw, and so, in the history of lumbering, by our great luimber conmpanies, the title to the tilmber had to be first secured before the log could be cut, at least proverbially so, though it is common in lumber circles to savf tihat in thiose pI)alilmy days, lefore the value o(f the tinllber was appreciated by the officers of the governllment. there were lumbermen who would buy a forty an(1 cut a section. No doubllt the practice of trespassing upon thIe governm(ent lands was indulged in to quite a large extent; still the practice can hardly be charged against the lumlbermen as a whole, but rather against unscrupulous individuals. somei of whom were later brought to the bar of justice and made to ac

Page  295 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 295 count for such misdeeds as the government could establish against them by proofs. As to the purchase of the lands from the government there was much strife between the early lumbermen, not because of there not being pine enough for all comers, but to secure the nicest timber adjacent to drivable streams; and, in the very early days, near the mouth of those streams, so that it could almost be said the timber was fallen from the stump into the mouth of the mill. A good illustration of the methods then in vogue is found in a story of actual experience written by John J. Sherman. now deceased, late of MIarinette, Wisconsin, while seeking pine on the Michigan side of the Menominee, and only about five mliles from the river's mouth. The story is as follows: "TMy first interview with the grand old river was at Chappie Rapids early in November, 1853, when I came over from Peshtigo, where I had landed from an old lumber brig sailed from Chicago by Captain i\lurphy. a. most excellent sailor of those early days. We left Chicago under full sail with a brisk south wind, and early the seconl night out were at Port De Morts, or Death's Door. In the act of coming up to the wind to enter the Door we were met by a gale of wind from the northwest; the old brig failed to come in stays, and tile captain was obliged to wear ship, and, in doing so, we passed out within twenty-five feet of the I)oor bluffs, reaching the open lake where we scudded under bare poles until we were abreast of Milwaukee. when the wind abated sufficiently to enable the captain to again make sail and again head her for Green Bay. The wind was very light and always ahead, so that we were nearly six days in reaching Peslitigo anchorage. The passengers were my three uncles, brothers of Henry Bentley, aind myself. We landed safely and proceeded to walk up to the Peshtigo mill. Met Henry Bentley a mile or two below the mill where he said he was out looking for the oxen, thinking he might find one fit for beef. There were no regular supplies of fresh meat in those days; an occasional fat ox, and in the season quite a plentiful supply of good fat vension which the Indians killed in abundance. "Shortly after landing at Peshtigo, together with a party of five or six men, I came over to the Mlenominee river to examine and locate pine timber lands at the Chappie Rapids. We et Dr. J. C. Iall who then was living in a small house on the high ground about forty rods below the present catich-marking gap of the Boom Company, which is the Menominee end of the second, or old (lam. The doctor had gone up the river from his place in a canoe, or dugout. of fairly good size, and had assumed the commissariat of the party. Now, while the doctor was a most bountiful provider in his own house, or generally in camps, he was the hardest man to go on a tramp with that I ever met. On this occasion he had provided a chunk of salt pork, about fifteen pounds, a couple of pounds of tea, a tin kettle to boil water in, and intended a fairly good supply of hard-tack for a company of six men for a week, but inadvertently the bag of hard tack had been left behind. The doctor had his fowling piece with him, and we found in the canoe a bag such as shot usually comes in, holding fourteen pounds of shot, nearly full of hard bread which had been carried in a pack until it was reduced to a powder; so the doctor thought we could get along. We would only need two meals a day and that would be a fairly good slice of the salt pork, one pinch of the powdered hard tack and a cup of tea, upon which we would start out in the morning and tramp and estimate pine timber all day. At night we had a supper similar to the breakfast. The second morning Mr. Bentley said to me, 'John, I shall have to go back to Peshtigo as I left things there pretty slack and it won't do for me to be away, the other boys will stay and you will get through in a day or two.' I said 'All right I can stand it, if the rest can.' That night Sands Baker, a cousin of mine and one of the party, suddenly remembered that he had left some work unfinished at Peshtigo and he would have to leave the next day, and Terry Fox and Tom McCarthy left at noon without any excuse. I began to see a grim humor in the situation and set my jaws together and said to myself, 'Old man I will stay as long as you do, or die in the attempt,' and I did. Saturday morning we ate the last morsel except two small slices of pork, and started

Page  296 296 THE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN out for our day 's work. I had to buckle my belt up two or three holes, but we put in tlie day, and as we (.c am int(o ca(mp that night the doctor slot a. partridge, the first gamle we had been able to get. We dressed that partrildge; the doctor divided it in the middle, gave me one half, a.(nd we proceeded to broil it on the coals, seasoning it with the smallI slices of pork, and it was tlhe sweetest morsel I ever ate. After our suplper the doctor said we would go down tle river to Pete I,meres and write up the minutes of the lands we had examined, supposing they would have candles for light; we found they had not one in the house, but i\lrs. Leniere said she had some fat,ork I'ete had tbrought up from tile mouth that day, and that a slice of that would burn and give us a light. So slie proceeded to cut some long narrow strips of fat pork which we lighted the end of, one at a time, and the doctor proceeded to write up his minutes occupying the time until about half past eleven o'clock when he remarked that those minutes ought to go to Peshtigo that night, as the mail boat would pass sometime the next day and that unless they were gotten to the land-office at the Sault Ste. Marie soon, the Soo Canal Company, who had a crew of men examining the same lands, would get ahead of us and we should loose our hard work. I said 'All right, I can carry them over to Peshtigo right away.' Pete Lemere set me across the river in a canoe and showed me the trail which I could only see with my feet. as it was one of the darkest nights I ever experienced. I could feel the bushes on either side with my hands and feel the path with my feet. As it was a pony trail and some several inches deep, I succeeded in getting over to the Peshtigo river at Place's Rapids. From there it was four miles down to the Mills, where T arrived about four o'clock in the morning, and was soon in bed and fast asleep. I was awake at breakfast time, which was not quite as early on Sunday morning as on other days of the week. I hunted up Uncle Bentley and gave him the minutes, when lie sail Si Brooks would be along in the 'Scott' that afternoon with the mail for Green Bay and that I would have to get ready and take the minutes and the land warrants; go down to Levi Hales, who kept a fishing station at or near the nmouth of the Peshtigo; keep a sharp lookout for the 'Scott' and when she came along get Hale to send me out to her with a seine boat. The 'Scott' came along with a light breeze about four o'clock in the afternoon, and MTr. Hale very kindly set me aboard of her, whereupon I found the Soo Canal Company cruisers already o(in oardl of her having finished their rwork and on their way lhonie with their minuites of examinations. I discreetly kept quiet about my business, learning from their conversation that they would go to Chicago, thence to Detroit, and thence by steamer to tIle Soo. I decided that IT would go to Milwaukee and take my chances of getting a steamer to the Soo direct. It took two days' time to go from Green Bay to M ilwaukee. We made rather a quick trip and arrived in Milwaukee same afternoon on the second day. I went direct to the steamboat office and was delighted to learn that the steamer 'Garden City' was expected along that afternoon for the Soo direct. She came about four o'clock, whereupon I took passage and in diue season I arrived at the land-office. I proceeded at once to make application for my lands. There I first met Isaac Stephenson, who informed me that he was there to enter lands upon the Mlenominee for the Ludingtons, and that he had no doubt they would be glad to have him bid on any lands I might wish to enter. I said of course that was his privilege, but immediately began to improvise a list of lands of which I knew nothing, and which did not include the list which I had come to enter. In a short time, however, Isaac. informed me that he would not interfere with my lands. I then went on and made my application and secured the entire list. We remained over night at the Soo and in the morning there were six inches of snow on the decks of the steamer. They put out, however, and we run down to the Beaver islands which were then inhabited by Mormons. There was a hurricane of wind and we remained there several hours, but the captain fancied there was something wrong with the inhabitants, and started on our course notwithstanding the storm. Mr. Stephenson has since told me there was a plot to seize the steamer and her cargo. I knew nothing of it at the time. I went some three miles out on a logging road with an acquaintance I had made on the boat, and was not molested. That winter I went to Lake Noqueray and worked in a logging camp there, the first on that lake where many million feet of lumber have since been taken out." PIONEER LOGGING CAMPS The methods of early lumbering divided the work to accord with the seasons. The lumbermen entered the woods to cut and haul to the

Page  297 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF 5MICHIGAN 297 river during the winter the logs that should be sawed the following suniUerl. Throughout the long winter lmonths the men lived in the warm but rudely constructed logginlg callpls, usulally bllilt of logs and covered with bark, and from tllis metllod of living thley were called "Shanty B1oys," and "Lumber Jlacks. " Their hours of work were controlled by the amount of (layligllt, and teamsters had to have their teams fed and cared for, and every one hlad to be "on the job" as early as daylight. In many of the early logging camps the table fare was very plain and monotonous, consisting largely of beans, salt meats and bread, but as times progressed and competition entered largely into the field, so that in order to keep men they must be well fed, the table fare was greatly improved by the furnishing of fresh meats, and a variety of vegetables, sauces, l)astry, etc.; so that for Ianl years the malljority of the "tLumber Jacks" have set down to more sumpltuous meals during their camp life than during that portion in which they live at home with their own families. As methods of logging improved and oxen largely gave way to horses for the hauling of logs, strife and competition between teamsters and even between campls, gave zest. to the work; between teamsters in the appearance of their teamns and the size of loads they could haul, and between camps as to which could put in the largest amount of logs during the season. Notwithstanding the fact that. the camp life meant a steady drive of hard work during every minute of daylight, and notwithstanding that work was often impeded by snow that fell to the (lelpth (of four or five feet, and the weather sometimes fell to twenty degrees below zero, and even at times to thirty degrees or more, there was much in the camp life of those early days that clings in pleasurable memories to the boys who have now become old men and are scattered throughout the world. The evenings were necessarily short, for, in order to meet the requirements of early rising. the bunks built in tiers upon the sides of the sleeping camp must be early occupied; but there was much of song and story in those evenings that endears camp life to those who experienced it, and many warm friendships were established that will endure as long as life lasts. LOG DRIVING While the "boys" were in camp the lumber villages were usually quiet; they existed as best they could during the winter, but became the scenes of activity when "the boys came down" in the spring. The spring "drive" was at first not a matter of great importance, as the logs were banked so near the mouth of the streams; but as operations extended "up river" and onto the branches and small creeks, it became all-important, for the operation of the mills depended on the coming down of the logs, and, to accomplish this, river improvements were made, including the construction of dams with sluiceways and gates for the control of the water. The "drivers" had to be on hand at the breaking

Page  298 A t "I I I, y I, 4 I..,,; l"L, r. ll I'm -"I — , Nk 11 1 I LITNIBEll SCE'NI E OF TODAY 1. 1.,o,'-I(Iillg 2 1. In o i 4 I D vISIwillI

Page  299 TIHE NORTIERN PENINSULA OF AMICI-IG-AN 2{,9) up of the ice, and the coming of the spring freshet, in order to get the logs out of the creeks and over thle rapids of the river during high water. As river driving was, at best, dangerous. the men that undertook that work were always a husky lot of fellows. They always dressed for the occasion, and were a picturesque lot, with their mackinac jackets of various lbrilliant colors, their trousers chopp)ed off a little below tle knee, or torn off and fringed, and w ith their fo-ot-geare. variou(sly constllcted according to the nature of their work; some with tall hloots of either rubber or leather, but liiost of them with heavy wo\\olen socks Ianl heavy leather boots or sho(es. inlto the soles of wilil- were, drlivnll steel corks that lprotruded for the length of about half an inch for the pu'pose of enabling the wearer to not only secure a foothold for himself 1up)on tlhe logs upon which ie h ad to work in the water. but also to (elable him. by the colmbined use of these corks (anld a long pipe pole. to control the movement of a single log upon which ile woulld ride to direct its course. Often, in the flood-time. logs would go ~)down so rapidly with the current of the stream tlhat they would gather 11upol ralpids lanl( lodlge there, and the succeeding logs would plile one upoll anolther a(1ndt by the force of the water and the resistancle of the logs alead they would be tllrown almost veitically into tile "Jjam" in fact, ie piled and hieaped up and so crisscrossed as to ilake anl immensll e iiass fllit to lbook at would seem immovable. Many tims tis hve tlese log jans occurred and filled thle river for miles, includigl. il a( singlle jaml. mivany millions of feet of logs. To break these jiams was a work that required tile skill and experience which only river drivers could have. a d(l even to tile most skilled of those thle -work was hazard(s: for they must work in front of this immense jam and loosen tl(e key logs in ((rder to stIart thel mass to mioving. With the greatest of care. sometimes Awhen1 tile start comes it is with such force and in such a ianner that the mo(.st skilful operators are thrown beneath the logs and lose their lives in the ra'pid current of the stream. Suchl occurrences have been known where the men involved were drivers of twenty years' experience, and supplosed to know practically every detail pertaining to the work. On the comingi down of the drive in the spring the mills would be in readiness to receive the logs; always having received a thorough overlhauling and repairing by the millwrights, so as to be. as far as possible. ready for a continuous season 's run. FIRST AND MODERN MfILLS The first mills in the Peninsula were crude affairs as c)mpared to those of later date, but. with the growth of the industry and with the settlement of surrounding states, creating a demand for lumber, improvements in mills and milling facilities, as in logging operations, kept pace with the times. In thle early mills the log was hauled onto a rollway adjacent to the saw, by the use of a horse, and then, on the rollway it was rolled to the saw and there adjusted upon the saw carriage, by men with cant-hooks. The saw was usually a single circular saw, from

Page  300 300 TIIE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN which the lumber was carried away by hand. These crude mills with which operations began were soon superseded by those with improved I1laclhil(,ery until tlie logs were brought from the river into the mill by ii'Ieans of an en(lless (cIaiin operating over a long slide. There they were received by a sealer, who scaled tlhem and recorded the scale, and if they wer'e of different ownership- the scales were kep)t separate according to the mark upon each log indicating its owner. As improvements in mtilling developed, the gang saw w\as introduced, and thereafter the band saw, as well as the steam feed-thle pro(duct of a local inventor, Mlr. D. C. Prescott-to meet thle demands of the occasion; lwhereby the log moves automaItically, anld with great rapidity, against the saw, on the carriage of which the log is also turned autonmatically by machinery under the control of the sawyer, who operates it with a view to making thle log produce its utmost of the best grades of lumber. Througlout the mill, all subsequent operations are performed by machinery and the various kinds and grades of lumber product are carried to their resI)ective deIpartments by machinery, acting automatically; the slabs and waste edging being diverted to the wood saws where they are cut up for use as firewo()od. To an operator of a saw-lill in the very early days, who has not seen the gradual development that has been accomplished. the miodlern mill is a wonder of the world. P)IONEER AND GREAT LUMBER COMPANIES As to the early saw-mills of the Ieninsula, -Iienominee seems to have been far in the lead in point of time; the first having been built in 1832 by- Farnsworth & Brush, and the second in 1841, by Charles McLeod, while the first mill on the Escanaba was built about 1841 and the second in 1844. A saw-m-ill was constructed on Beaver island by the 5Mormon Settlement about 1849 or 1850, to supply local demands, and the first mill at Ontonagon was built in 1852, with a capacity of five thousand feet of lumber per day. Those mills were perhaps suitable to the needs of the times, but were trivial affairs when brought into eomparison with an up-to-date mill of the present clday, or even with those in the palmy white-pine days of twenty years ago. In the decade from 1850 to 1860 lumber manufacturing began in earnest, and it was in 1851 that the N. Ludington Company, one of the great lumber corporations of the Peninsula, was organized and took over the mill that had been constructed at Flatrock (Escanaba) in 1844, by John and Joseph Smith; Daniel Wells, Jr., of MIilwaukee, was the official head of this company at the time of its organization, and continued his connection with it until his death, his activities covering almost the entire history of white pine lumbering in Michigan. Hon. Isaac Stephenson, of Marinette, at present United States Senator from Wisconsin, has also been identified with this company almost, if not quite, from its organization, and may be said to have been its active head throughout the company's successful history. The N. Ludington Company was the pioneer of the large lumbering corporations, and has

Page  301 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 301 outlived all its early great completitors. being still actively engaged in manufacturing lumber, and with timber to insure a supply for several years to come. In add(lition to its mill at Escanaba, tlis comnpany also early entered the Menocminee Valley district, and constructed its mill at Marinette, Wisconsin. in the years 1856 and 1857. At the samlie time. the forerunner of another of the large corporations came into the M\enominee(, field, in the person of Ab)ner Kirby, of Milwaukee, whlo (ommenllced lbuilding in 185t6 aIId began sawingi lulmber in AMenominele in 1857, in the mill which, in 1S861. b1ecaiie the property of tle Kirby, Carpenter Com)plllny, on its organization. IHon. Samuel SII. Stephenson had become interested in this mill with SMr. Kirb)y in 1859, and with Mr. Kirby and Messrs. Augustus A. and William O. Carpenter, organized the Kirby Carpenter Company. which was for malny ~years conducted under tlhe active m1anagomlent of MAr. Samuel M1. Stephenson, and which grew in bullsiness capacity until its two monster miills, with accomptanlying planing mills an(ld m.hine shops. al)out twenty years ago, ranked as the most complete lumber nuianufacturing plant in the world; its property tlen exceeded in value.36000.000. and was probably worth nearly double that figure. In the same year, 1856. the New York Lumber Company constructed a large mill at the Imouth of tlhe Mlenominee river, on the Wisconsin side, the same being the property more recently owned by the Menominee River Lumber Company. and in which many lmen of great prolllinence in national, state and great business affairs have been interested, including H. HI. Porter. early the general manager of the Chicago & NorthwNestern Railway Company; Jesse Spalding. lumblerman, banker, and at one time collector of the port of Chicago and and Philetus Sawyer, capitalist, lumbermanl and for a long period United States senator from Wisconsin. While this mill is on the Wisconsin side, it has been closely identified with MIiehigan interests and has drawn largely upon the Upper Peninsula for its timber product. As the individual mills will be written of in the chapters on the respective counties we will, in this instance. pass the eonstruction of some mills, which though prominent factors in the lumber world are not to be compared with those of the great lumber companies. In 1863 the first mill of the Ludington, Wells and Van Schaick Coimpany was built in Menlominee, the comnpany being formed of Ianiel Wells. Jr., of MIilwaukee; IHarrison Ludington, of the Cream City. later governor of tlie state of Wisconsin; Isaac Stephenson. and Robert Stephenson. Tie comlIpany was then known as R. Stephenson and Company. Later Isaac Stephenson conveyed( his interest to Anthony G. Van Schaick, and in 1874 the Ludington. Wells & Van Schaick Company was organized and took over the property. This company promptly constructed an additional mill. and the two had a sawing capacity of 35,000,000 feet of lumbe er per year; and the company, under the active superintendence of Robert Stephenson, became a prominent factor in the lumber-producing world.

Page  302 302 TIlE NORTHERN PENINS:ULA OF MICIIIGAN Having mentioned three brothers, Isaac, Samuel and Robert Stephenson, as being severally identified with three of the largest lumber corporations that ever existed in this northern country, it is proper to record that these gentlemen were products of the lumber sections of New Brunswick, and came to the Upper Peninsula as young men, with practically no education except such as experience in lumbering afforded them, but with an abundance of energy and common sense, and just as opportunities for fortune making were opened up by the placing of our pine lands upon the market. This is not the place for their biographies, but it is proper to say that all three made good in the lumbering world, and, although the mills in which they were severally interested were owned by great corporations, they were known and universally spoken of as "Ike's Mill," "Sam's Alill," and "Bob's Mill," and by many of the old settlers these mills are so known and referred to to(lay, going further, to be specific, by saying-"' Sam's New Mill," "Bob's Old Mill," etc.-; and, to all old settlers, these men were "Ike," "Sam" and "Bob " even after Isaac held down a seat in Congress and then in the United States Senate, and Samuel also became a member of Congress. MENOMINEE RIVER Boom COMPANY But, to return from the lumbermen to the lumber. Many other corporations entered the field that has seemed to have an unlimited supply of white pine, with the result that that great supply diminished with astonishing rapidity, which may perhaps be best illustrated by a reference to the operations of the lMenominee River Boom Company. The company was first organized in 1866 for the purpose of improving the Menominee river and its tributaries. It was then known as the MAenominee River Manufacturing Company, and in 1877 it was re-organized as the Menominee River Boom Company, and during the corporate existence of the two companies it has had charge of the handling and sorting of practically all logs that have come to the mouth of the Menominee river by water. What amount of logs was sawed by the several companies operating prior to 1866 will probably never be known. The Boom Company's records show its first scale of the logs passing through the booms to have been in 1868, so far as the records are now accessible, and the total logs handled by all the mills on the river, according to that scale, that year, was 62,809,804 feet, scaled for merchantable lumber. It had taken about ten years of active lumbering to bring the annual product up to that amount. In 1889, twenty-one years later, the zenith year in white-pine lumbering on the MIenominee, when the Menominee was the largest lumber port in the world, the product, according to the Boom Company's scale, reached the magnificent amount of 642,137,318 board feet. If one will stop to consider, he will realize that an annual cutting of such an amount, or nearly that amount of timber, means the destruction of vast areas of forests, and the converting thereof into large sums

Page  303 TIHE NORTIIERN PENINSULA OF MICIIGAN 303 of nmoney, and it is not surprising that the white pine lumbering era was of short duration. Efforts have been made to ascertain the total amount of lumber that has been cut from the peninsula, but without success, and accurate figures upon this point can probably never be arrived at. Comparatively accurate figures might be arrived at as to the lumber shipped from important points, but even these rail shipments of logs have formed a considerable factor for the past ten years' business, and no scale record thereof has been kept. Shipments are by weight, and the weights of pine, cedar and the various hard woods differ so materially, and there being no designation of the kinds of logs in some of the shipments, the confusion is at once so great as to render solution impossible. Then, too, for many years past many little interior mills have been shipping lumber and many jobbers have been shipping logs in considerable quantities to outside mills, while small mills at Bay Shore points have produced their logs indepeendently of any boom coImpany, and shipped their )products by schooner or small "hookers," so that large quantities of logs and lumber have left the peninsula without any accessible record thereof being retained. THE PINE LUMBER BUSINESS That the pine lumber business has run into large proportions is shown by figures of what has been handled by the boom companies. The record of the Menominee River Boom Company shows the gross lumiber scale of the logs that have passed its booms from the year 1868 to the year 1910 to be 10,633,315.606 feet, which vast amnount has been contributed to the commerce of the world, and lhas returned approximately a mill-run average value of $15 per thousand, or $159,499,734.09. Add to this the product of the years before this record was kept, the overrun in lumber of the Boom Company 's scale, the logs that have been brought in by rail, and the products of rail-way and bay-shore mills, and the prodiuct of thle Menominee river valley will approximatte if not exceed $200,000.000 worth, which is prol)bblly at least three-fourths of the product of the entire peninsula. The vanishing of the pine forests has brought into demand the cedar and hard wood forests, and the recutting of the pine lands, so that the lumber interests of the Peninsula are still inmmense, and are destined to continue for many years to comle. Naturally, the manufacturing is more widely distributed, and while large mills are still operating in old milling centers, many large and well-equipped mills are located inland, receive almost their entire logging product by rail, and ship their lumber likewise. To illustrate that the lumbering business of the peninsula is still, and is destined to continue an active factor in business, the I. Stephenson Company at Wells, Delta county, in its mills, a part rebuilt in 1910, has an annual production of lumber, 100.000,000 feet; shingles, 75,000.000; lath, 75,000,000; and maple flooring, 20,000.000 feet. be

Page  304 304 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN sides 75,000 posts and 10,000 poles; and it expects to be able to continue this record for approximately twenty years. The J. W. Wells Lumber Company, at Menominee, constructed in 1910, a mammoth fire-proof, hard-wood flooring factory, and is (1911), constructing, in connection therewith, a modern saw mill, using concrete in large quantities, with steel frame, and up-to-date in every way, with two nine-inch l'rescott band mnills. one eight-inch l)iamlond resaw, one fifty-two inch Wickes gang, shingle machine, tie mill, wood and lath nill. The maximum capacity of the mill, based on a twenty hours a day run, is, per annum, 50,000,000 feet of lumber, 20,000,000 pieces of shingles, 5,000,000 lath, and 100,000 ties, with the resultant product in fire-wood. This company has large holdings of timber lands and is continually purchasing. and expects to have a supply for at least twenty years to come. Much more could be written of the incidents of lumber history in this peninsula but local details must be left to the history of the respleetive localities. ESTIMATE OF PENINSULA PRODUCT To arrive at the amount in feet, or in money value, of the entire lumber product of the peninsula is more difficult even than in the Menomninee river section; for, in the mrining regions especially, local consumption has played a large part, and the records thereof are practically a minus quantity and lumbermnen variously estimate that the product of the IMenominee River valley has been from three-fourths to fourfifths of the entire product. Escanaba River, which is probably the next largest, has had approximately 1.500,000,000 feet of pine and with such other data as is obtainable, it appears that to put the Menominee product at three-fourths of the whole would be not far from right, which would give us a timber product in the Peninsula, to date, of about $250,000.000. There is no data as to the amount of timber still standing, but there are vast quantities, especially of hard woods, and a movement has been inaugurated by lumber interests to learn the amount.

Page  305 CHAPTER XVII MILITARY HISTORY TRANSFER OF FRENCH TO ENGLISH RULE-AMERICANS OCCUPY TTE UPPER PENINSULA —MEXICAN WAR-CIVIL WAR-SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR AND PRESENT COMMANDS. The general history of this Peninsula up to the year 1814 discloses the fact that this portion of the country was almost continuously, directly or indirectly, involved in or affected by the wars and conflicts that followed, one after another from the time of Queen Ann's war to the close of the war of 1812, involving at different times the English, French and American governments and numerous Indian nations. So much of the military history of those periods has gone to make up the concurrent history of this Peninsula that to give it here would be matter of repetition, and we pass with the simple reminder that the respective grants from the governments of England and France so conflicted with each other that there arose sharp d(isagreements between the claimants under those grants, with the result that conflicts in the mother countries were easily transferred to this. and the bone of contention here resolved itself into the location of the division boundary and early placed this section as a pIrominent point in the field of contest. The territory now known as the Upper. or Northern Peninsula of Michigan was under military rule, first of France and then England until it became a portion of the territory of the United States, at the close of the Revolutionary war; and even for a term of years after its session to the United States, by treaty. did the English government exercise its military control thereof. for purp)oses already mentioned. TRANSFER OF FRENCH TO ENGLISH RtULE The transfer of rule from the French to the British was in 1760, following the contest in which occurred Braddock's defeat, the battles of Niagara, Crown Point and Lake George, and the deaths of the brave Generals Wolfe and MIonltalm. Tile capitulation effected the surrender by the French to the British of all remaining important Canadian posts, including Iichilinlackinac. In tile proceedilngs to effect the actual,ol. I-20 305

Page  306 306 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN transfer to the British, the French inhabitants became officious in arousing the protest of the Indians, which resulted in the Pontiac Conspiracy, which took public form with the great speech of Pontiac delivered near Detroit April 27, 1763, and in which conflict the first prominent event was the massacre of MIichilimakinac, then located on the northern point of the Southern Peninsula, on the site of the present city of Mackinaw. The massacre occurred the following month, and the details thereof have been already quite fully written of. Its terrors of savagery, reeking with atrocities bathed and dripping in human blood, savagely celebrated by the practice of cannibalism, wherein the flesh of white soldiers was eaten and their blood drunk by the infuriated Indians, are too awful for repetition. The escape of Alexander Henry, a trader, was simply miraculous, he having been secreted by friendly Indians in a garret, and there preserved from discovery during a search of the garret by being covered with a lot of prepared birch baskets; and later by being adopted by one of the Indians as a brother. After this massacre the post was unoccupied, except by the Indians and a few friendly traders who ranged this part of the country until about a year thereafter, when Capt. Howard took command and the post was again under the control of an English garrison. As has already been written, the Northern Indians took part in the siege of Detroit, and were active in other Indian disturbances that followed, one upon another, until the breaking out of the Revolutionary war, during which war the Indians were allied with the British, and the post at Mackinac remained in the occupation of the English, and sent forward many Indians to assist in resisting the Americans; Detroit then being the western center of the British command. Again, to write of the Revolutionary conflict, as the same pertains to this Peninsula. would be but repetition, and we mention it here, but to preserve the chronological order of the military events that have affected in one way or another the Upper Peninsula; many of the events mentioned having had practically no direct effect except to postpone the settlement of the Peninsula. AMERICANS OCCUPY THE PENINSULA Following the treaty of peace of 1783 the English continued in actual possession of the territory until 1796, under the pretext that the Americans had not complied with certain treaty provisions, and following the example set by the French when the English acquired the right to the territory, the English in turn incited the Indians against the Americans, so that Indian hostilities continued to keep the country in a turmoil, and the Indians made claim to all the country north and west of the Ohio, and sought to hold it by force. This resulted in action by congress, providing troops for the protection of the frontier, followed by the Indian wars wherein Tecumseh secured a large degree of united action in an Indian confederacy, claiming that all the land belonged to all the Indians, and that no nation could release any portion of it, but

Page  307 TIlE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 3 307 that all Indian nations must join to effectuate a legal release of any teriitory. At this time there were but few white settlements in Michigan, one of which was on Mackinac Island when there were about one thousand inhabitants, including the traders of the surrounding country, and there was a garrison of ninety men. As has been written, the War of 1812 took active form, and an'attack on Mackinac was made, and its surrender to the British was demanded, before the commanding officer at the post had any intimation of the declaration of war. General Hull has been greatly blamed by military men and historians, and may, perhaps, have been in a measure at fault for the surrender of Michigan posts to the British, but had the general government at Washington heeded General Hull's advice as to the country's unpreparedness, and its necessities in the line of military and naval defenses, there might not have been such ready surrender of American posts. It is to the credit of General IIull that in the previous winter he recommended the same course followed by the goverlment later with such signal success. under the active leadership of Perry of the navy and IHarrison, of the land forces. In 1814 the attempt of the Americans to recapture the post at Malckinac was unsuccessful, and Major IIolmes lost his life in a contest wherein he fought at great odds and with awful results, of which the general history has already made mention. After the withdrawal of the American forces to prel)are a(ldeqate re-enfor(emlents, and before another attack was made, peace came to the two English speaking nations by the signing of the treaty of Ghent December 24. 1814. The government of the United States thereafter maintained its garrison at lMaekinae, and( soon after the expedition of General Cass in 1820, constructed a fort and maintained a garrison at Sault Ste. Marie. MEXICAN WAR In 1846, on the occasion of the Mexican war the United States troops stationed at both Mackinac and the Sault were withdrawn and sent. south where they joined the activities. and these two northern posts were for a time without garrisons. For this war there were also some Upper Peninsula Volunteers who went forward with the First Michigan regiment. As has been mentioned, the Peninsula was indirectly interested in the Black-Hawk war in 1832, but otherwise than as mentioned, the military had little palt in the history of the Upper Peninsula after the War,f 1812, until the breaking out of the great Civil war in 1861. CIVIL WAR As Michigan, when admitted, was an anti-slave state, so when the war between the states broke out Michigan was among the first to respond to the call upon the patriotism of the country, and the Northern Peninsula did its full share, in proportion to its then scant population, hastening, as it were, to exercise the first opportunity to display the patriotism which the comparatively new state felt for the Union into which she fought so hard for admission.

Page  308 308 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN To give the Upper Peninsula credit only for such of her citizens as were enrolled in Michigan regiments is to do injustice, yet such has been the case in some histories. At that period the lower part of the Upper Peninsula was so remote from the Lake Superior settlements and from the Lower Peninsula, because of lack of railways or other sufficient methoids of conveyance, that, on the breaking out of the war, numbers of the patriots of Menominee joined Wisconsin regiments and were early in the field of action. There are a number of those patriots living today whose names are not credited to Michigan at all. In fact, in the extended account given to the topic by Andreas, in his valuable work, he has only credited Menominee county with nineteen volunteers, undoubtedly because those are all that appear to have enrolled in Michigan regiments. In the list we do not find the names of Reed, Peaks, the Caquetoshes, Easton and numerous other well known citizens who were among the many that went with Wisconsin regiments, and, therefore due consideration of these facts should be had in reviewing the number of volunteers credited to the Upper Peninsula on the Michigan military records. They are, for the entire war, as follows: Chippewa, 21; Delta, 24; Houghton, 460; Keweenaw, 119; Menominee, 19; Marquette and Schoolcraft, 265; Mackinac, 47 and Ontonagon, 254. Owing to the facts stated above, we find it impossible to give a complete list of the names of all soldiers who actually went from the Upper Peninsula, but that they ranked well is shown by the fact that among them were 68 commissioned officers. In the military history, it appears by the Michigan records (as quoted by Andreas' history), that the nineteen volunteers of Menominee county enlisted in 1864. Mlenominee county was not, in fact, organized until 1863, but at the mIouth of the river the thriving young city contributed liberally at the very outset of the war, but, being so remote from any other settlement in Michigan-about 350 miles with no rail connection -the volunteers mostly went with Wisconsin regiments, and on a call for a certain number of mnen to fill a Wisconsin company Judge Ingalls secured the required number in about an hour. Because of the state records not showing the number of men contributed by Mlenominee, a list has been made up from inquiry showing eighty-two volunteers, the names of whom appear in the chapter on Menominee county. To record the services of the various Michigan regiments in which men from the Upper Peninsula were enrolled is beyond the scope of this work, but to acknowledge their valued services, and great sacrifice, for and in behalf of the government we now enjoy and boast is a pleasure cheerfully and meritoriously recorded. SPANISII-AMERICAN WAR AND PRESENT COMMANDS In the Spanish-American war six companies fron the Upper Peninsula left their homes on the 28th day of April, 1898, and, with ten companies from various parts of the Lower Peninsula, formed the Thirty

Page  309 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 309 fourth Michigan Volunteers Regiment, prelIare(d to do the needful, even to the sacrifice of their lives, to protect the honor of our country and to teach the haughty Spaniards to "remember the Maine." That little actual fighting was required of the volunteers of that war detracts not the least from the spirit of patriotisll that promplted their spontaneous response to the call of the Nation's Chief. The regiment was officered by John P. Peterman, colonel, of Allouez; John R. Bennett, lieutenant colonel, of Muskegon andl formerly of Mienominee; Edwin B. Winans, of IlHaburg and William G. Latiner, of Manistee, majors; James A. King, surgeon, Manistee; John Robb, assistant surgeon, Calumet; Ilenry Roach, quarter-master and first lieutenant, Ft. Clark, Texas; Jas. P. Ryan, sergeant major. Muskegon; Kenneth McLeod, quarter-master sergeant, Calumet; Win. II. Rezin, Iron Mountain; Geo. McElveen, Iancock, and Gilbert V. Carpenter, Iron Mountain, hospital stewards. Company D., of the Upper Peninsula, of Calumet, had Julius E. Fliege, captain; Wnm. H1. Thielman, first lieutenant; Angus McDonald, second lieutenant; Charles Koppelman, first sergeant; Frank J. Kohlhaas, quarter-master sergeant; Thomas I). Richie, Allen Cameron, Chas. Guibord and Daniel Holland, sergeants; Edwin J. Collins, John R. MIcDonald, John Trevarrow, Herman Jusola, Henry Kaufmann and Angus VW. Kerr, corporals; Axel F. Johnson and Frank M. Larson, musicians; Williaml C. Hill, artificer, and Denis HIarrington. wagoner. Company E was from Iron Mountain, with Silas J. 5McGregor, captain; Thomas Touhey, first lieutenant; John O'Connell, second lieutenant; Alfred J. IHolt, first sergeant; Mlaston A. Sturges. quartermaster sergeant; \Wm. J. Ilunting, IIans R. IIansen, Frank -I. Sundstrom and John Oliver, sergeants; William J. Clark, Jas. Chester Knight, Charles BI. Parent, Edward J. Kenney, William G. Sundstrom and Charles R. Warn, corporals; Thomas HIoskings and Robert G. Burbank, musicians; Win. Jacobson, artificer an(l James Reynolds, Jr., wagoner. Company F., of Iloughton. had George 5Millar, captain. Charles A. Hendrickson, first lieutenant; Rudolph J. HIaas. second lieutenant; Charles Thebe, first sergeant; Carl K. Rath, quarter-nmaster sergeant; John C. Osborne, Irving J. Shields, IIten:y A. IHecker and John G. McFarlane, sergeants; W\ i. J. Sanders, Angns MlcDI)onald, Charles B. Crawford, Carl C. Jensen, John I)riscoll and Jos. N. )Delaree. corporals; E. Fenner Douglass and Iomner Covey, nusicians; John E. Mildon, artificer and Louis J. Walters. wagoner. Conpany G, of "The Soo" had Robert S. S\Welch, captain; enry F. Ilughart, first lieutenant; Gillnore G. Scranton, second lieutenant; Wilfred T. Raines, first sergeant; Alfred II. Colwell, quarter-master sergeant; Eldar C. Lemlon. Edward TI. Lacey, Fred H. Smith and John K. D)awson, sergeants; Albert II. I'assmore, John A. Gowen, Wmi. A. Goulding, Robert C. Sweatt. Leo IP. Cook and Geo. Stanley, corporals; Clement C. W'heeler and Eugene J. O'Neill, musicians; Thomas E. Roberts, wagoner and Peter Murray, artificer.

Page  310 310 THE NORTHERN PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Company H., of Ironwood, had Robert J. Bates, coptain; Frank J. Alexander, first lieutenant; Win. J. Tresise, second lieutenant; Fred Brewer, first sergeant; Anton B. Nelson, quarter-master sergeant; Clarence W. Durkee, Christian P. Lee, Win. T. H. Prout and Win. Rodda, sergeants; Charles Richards, James Voyce, Thomas Salter, Albert MLorris, Frank A. HIoffmnan, and Henry J. Grils, corporals;