History of Manistee, Mason and Oceana counties, Michigan ...
H.R. Page & Co.

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Page  1 y - ______ I -: - -:::------ --- - --- --- -: -- ISTO I1 OF MANISTEE COUNTY, 4i MICHIGAN, WTITTHi Illustrations, Biographical Sketches OF SOME OF ITS PROMINENT MEN AND PIONEERS. CHICAGO: i-:. I- & P.A-I1 c E& C0O 1882.

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Page  3 I -,, ~ --- I f~ PAGE. Manistee County. History of Manistee County, Manistee County Organized, Pre-Historic Remains, Manistee Fruit Region, Acts of the Early Supervisors, Election Statistics, Vital Statistics, County Agricultural Society, Woman Suffrage in Manistee County, Manistee City, Incorporated as a City, Press of Manistee, Manistee River Improvement Company, The Vanderpool-Field Tragedy, The Great Fire of 1871, Manistee Banking Business, Public Buildings, Business Blocks, Elegant Residences, Church Societies, Public Schools, Tug Lines, Societies, - - * Boom Companies, Manistee Lumber Interests, Manistee Salt Interests, Manistee Harbor, - Suburban Towns, Manistee Township, Filer Township, Stronach Township, Bear Lake Township, Bear Lake Village, Township Histories, Arcadia Township, Pleasanton Township, Springdale Township, Cleon Township, Marilla Township, - Maple Grove Township, - Onekama Township, Pierport Village,Brown Township, Biographies. Andrews, Dr. F. E., Andrus, C. A., Arnold, John L., Babcock, S., Baer, William, Baker, Dr. Seth E., Baldwin, F. B., Balsam, Frederick, Barry & Finan, Baumann, Albert, Baumann, Otto, Baumgardner, W. G., Baur, Joseph, Baxter, John P., Bedford, S., Beebe, Dr. C. V., - Benedict, E. E., Berkman, Swan, 7 8 9 11 13 16 16 17 18 19 29 30 31 31 38 43 44 45 45 45 46 47 47 50 51 54 55 76 76 76 77 77 79 83 83 83 84 85 85 86 86 86 87 81 82 74 65 74 72 75 77 73 74 69 77 59 68 75 66 64 73 Bigge, Charles, Blanchard, J., Bodwell, E. A., Bodwell, J. E., Bristol, P. M., Brooks, Richard, Brownrigg, William, Buckley, J. A., Bunton, Charles B., Burch, Samuel, Cady, Edward J., Calkins, Seymour, Canfield, John, Conover, S. S., Cook, M. S., Cook, Prof. Webster, Cross, M. J., Culver, A. C. & Son, Cutcheon, Gen. B. M., Davidson, J. S., Davies, Evan T., Dempsey, James, Denning, M. R., Doelle, Louis, Douville, E. E., Douville, W. W., Dunlap, Alexander H., Dunlap, Fletcher W., Eaton, Edward B., Ellis, Lathrop S., Emery, Andrew J., Engelmann, M., Erb, Henry, Estes, G. K., Fagan, John, Faulkner, A. L., - Filer, D. L., Filer, D. W., Filer, E. Golden, Finch, Henry, Firzlaff, Frank, Foster, H. D., Fowler, Hon. S. W., Franck, John C., Friend, A., - Frisbie, A., Gardner, C. D., Gnewuch, Capt. Charles, Grannis, C. D., Graves, Gurden, Gray, Wilson H., Haines, Abel S., Hale, L. F., Harley, David S., Harrison, I. M., Harrison, Agnes B., Hart, Geo. A., Hasenfuss, J. H., - Hausen, Christian, Helgesen, Harvey, Hellesvig, John, Henderson, James, Higgins, Andrew, Hilton, Henry S., - IHislop, T. George, PAGE. 71 82 82 87 71 75 75 75 81 75 75 87 58 67 66 66 73 82 56 82 65 59 69 74 71 71 63 66 74 59 74 58 81 81 74 74 76 77 76 44 73 71 61 75 66 73 71 61 74 77 67 68 81 68 72 72 73 74 65 74 72 73 72 66 72 ~fi~b~

Page  4 ,C*2 _ Biographies-Continued. Hoffman, Richard, Hopkins, George W., Hopkins, David H., Hughes, David, Hulburt, Capt. R. W., Hyland, Joseph, Jack, Andrew, James, T. B., Jones, Peter, Joys, C. E., Kies, B. W. King, Lyman T. Kinsley, Dr. J. Krempel, Henry Kuester, H. F. Laird, Capt. W. R. La Montague, George Larsen, H. B. Leonard, Azro B. Lewis, C. B. Long, L. B. Lucas, Jacob Lyman, A. H. McAlvay, A. V. McAnley, James McGuire, John McGuineas, Alex. - McKee, Allen Magnan, Adolphus - Mamerow, Ernst Manseau, Joseph L. Mead, Richard T. Mee, Harry Mee, John Miller, L. W. - Moody, D. F. Morris, Louis E. - Mowatt, David W. Noble, Fred. - Nungesser, William Nuttall, J. F. Nuttall, L. W. Oglethorpe, John - Oldfield, H. V. Overpack, A. L. - Overpack, S. C. Peck, C. J. Perry, C. W. Peters, Richard G. - Peterson, Thorwald Pfeiffer, August Pomeroy, J. C. Rademaker, Henry - Ramsdell, J. M. Ramsdell, Hon. Thomas J. Richardson, V. W. Rietz, Charles Rivers, J. V. Robinson, N. G. Ruggles, Charles F. PAGE. 77 79 79 75 74 69 73 72 70 66 68 82 69 73 74 56 67 71 64 64 75 76 72 67 75 75 74 66 65 71 73 64 75 67 73 71 67 70 71 76 65 65 71 72 72 72 71 86 59 71 75 71 72 70 56 64 65 74 72 68 Russell Brothers, Salling, E. N. Sands, Louis Seymour Brothers, Shattuck, E. M. Short, William E. Shrigley, James H. - Smith, Appleton M. Smith, D.D. Smith, Russell F. Somerville, James E. Sorenson, J. L. Steadman, T. P. Steele, S. J. Sweet, Benjamin Taber, Austin Taber, Horace Taber, Lewis Tillson, Isaac N. - Tomlin, Dr. C. W. Udell, Henry S. Ward, A. O. - Wente, William Wheeler, A. O. Wheeler, Edward D. Wheeler, Hon. H. H. White, Jerry Wilcox, Dr. J. B. Willard, W. H. Wood, John P. Yoss, Peter A. - 11 lustrations. Baldwin, Pierce & Co., Store, Baur, Joseph Bear Lake Roller Mills, Beebe, Dr. C. V. Cutcheon, Gen. B. M. Douville, E. E. Residence, Filer, D. L. & Sons, Mill, - Filer, D. W. Residence, Filer, E. G. Residence, Fowler, S. W. Standard Block, Hopkins, D. H. Residence, Hopkins, Geo. W. Residence, Leonard, A. B. Leonard, A. B. Residence, Mamerow House, Mowatt, D. W. Residence, Perry, C. W. Residence, Peters, R. G. Residence, Rademaker, H. Livery Stable, Ramsdell, Hon. T. J Russell House, Sands, Louis Sands, Louis Gang Mill, Sands, Louis Red Mill, Sands, Louis Residence, Sorenson House, Taber, Horace & Sons, Mill Property, PAGE. 64 70 60 70 74 72 69 69 81 77 73 74 70 82 70 72 65 72 81 81 69 66 65 66 64 67 74 73 73 73 69 72 43 72 34 19 85 52 45 76 68 79 79 64 26 85 46 85 38 72 56 79 60 31 51 10 85 22.. --~-----

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Page  7 CA 1 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. ~ ---- ~- -- -- -- -- -- ---- ~-------~----- -- -- --. The history of American civilization and progress is thronged with instances of rapid development and sturdy growth. Since the " Star of Empire " first took its way into the trackless wilds of a now busy West, wonder has been added to wonder by the transformations that have been wrought. Less than fifty years ago, foxes, wolves and Indians were in possession of the quagmires, upon which has since grown the opulent and magnificent city of Chicago; the pride of its half million inhabitants, and the envy of the East. Fifty years ago, the waters of Lake Michigan were unruffled, save by the bark canoe and the storms of heaven. To-day her sky is blackened with the smoke and whitened with the sails of a busy commerce, and her ports are known in the trading centers of all the world. In 1837 Michigan, the "Lake Country," was admitted to the sisterhood of states. Three years prior to that time, her whole population numbered but 87,278 persons. In 1880 the census found a population of 1,636,937. So this commonwealth has grown; and to-day, looking over its busy cities and strong, young villages; its harbors and its marts of trade; its railroads, its churches and its schools, there is much to justify a feeling of pride over past achievements, and to strengthen faith in the energies of her people to develop and utilize the resources that lie, as yet untouched, in forest, soil and mine. The historian who faithfully performs the task committed to his charge, will sift carefully the material which lie gathers, in conscientious endeavor to preserve and use only such as bears the marks of genuineness. The page of history, to possess the value that is claimed for it, must contain a recital of facts, instead of a tale of fiction. Its mission is not to while away a listless hour, but to transmit to an ever-coming future the events and experiences of an ever-receding past. In the preparation of this work, the aim of the historian has been to crowd these pages with facis, rather than to embellish them with figures of rhetoric, or pictures of fancy. That part of Michigan included within the scope of this work, is an important factor in the prosperity and rank to which the commonwealth has already attained. It would be scarcely possible to have a rational conception of a more rapid and real transformation than has here been wrought through the agency of human foresight, energy and enterprise. The ear is continually being startled with tales of miraculous development; of cities springing into life and attaining the stature of maturity in a day; of fortunes acquired at a single stroke; but here no mine of wealth was suddenly opened to pour out a flood of treasure, yielding fortunes as if by magic. There was not even the charm of natural scenery to entice, nor richness of soil to induce immigration. In the early days, when the pioneers, traveling on foot along the sandy beach, or in boats upon the eastern margin of Lake Michigan, had reached a point 175 miles from Chicago, they found a narrow river emptying its waters into the lake. For about a mile the stream pursued its serpentine course, hedged in upon either side by sand bluffs covered with forests of pine. Beyond, the stream widened into an irregular-shaped lake, stretching away into the forests, and all its shore having a background of pine. About the mouth of the river were sand hills and sand plains all covered with pine. The scene presented was dreary and desolate. But all the products of the great Creator minister to some wise purpose, and the fullness of the earth is for the benefit of man, if his genius and energy are applied to its utilization for wise ends. This forest of pine was destined to become a great commercial product. To convert it into wealth would employ capital and labor, and of this larmonious and profitable union would come homes and shops, tradesmen and artisans, villages and cities. The vein of ore which the miner's pick uncovers to-day may disappear upon the morrow, and the fortune which he gathered, the home he made, the city he founded in the dreams of the intervening night, vanish as a castle in the air, but the pine forest is a reality that furnishes a tangible basis of calculation. In the natural order of things, there came a time when the manufacturer of lumber, hunting for a favorable location, lodged here, and put into operation his primitive methods and machinery. He selected a site for a water mill upon the river beyond the little lake. This was thirty-one years ago. This region was as remote.from civilization as though the continent had never been discovered. Others followed, attracted by the great supply of pine timber, and the favorable location for manufacturing it into lumber. Small clearings were made, and a couple of mills built on the little lake. At the mouth of the river another mill was built, and a village started. Until 1840 Mackinaw County included all that part of the lower peninsula of Michigan lying north of Mason County, and also a large part of the upper peninsula. The rest of this shore, as far south as Allegan, was Ottawa County. In 1840 this vast territory was divided up, and laid off into counties, nearly as they now appear upon the map, and then, for the first time, Manistee County had a local habitation and a name, and for judicial purposes was attached to Mackinaw County. In 1846 it was attached to Ottawa County, and the county offices were at Grand Haven, and there was also the nearest justice of the peace. Matrimony, in those days, was a serious matter, and attended with no little trouble. There was no one nearer than Grand Haven or Milwaukee authorized to speak the magic words so charming to the ear, and a trip of ninety miles by canoe, or on foot, was an excursion of considerable magnitude. In 1851 the county was attached to Oceana, county seat at Middlesex, and in 1853 attached to Grand Traverse, to which it remained attached until the Spring of 1855, when it was organized and raised to the honorable dignity of local sovereignty. Prior to 1855, Manistee, Wexford and Missaukee Counties comprised one township, or rather, they were embraced in the township organization of Manistee town. 1~1_ I_ --- L,or xlr " XV> r--

Page  8 r._ G) _ _.___.~I--~--I I----~---------------------------------- ---------------- 8 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 1 MANISTEE COUNTY ORGANIZED. Manistee County was erected by act of Legislature in the Winter of 1854-'55 and organized in the Spring of 1855. The territory comprised Towns 21, 22, 23 and 24 north, Ranges 17, 16, 15, 14 and 13 west. The county was divided into three townships, Manistee, Stronach and Brown; the name of the first being that inherited by this region, or rather the river, from the Indians, and the last two after their first settlers. Manistee County is situated on the east shore of Lake Michigan and is in the very heart of the famous Michigan fruit belt. Its superior advantages of location and soil will be treated farther along in the work. The county is at present divided into twelve organized townships, viz.: Arcadia, Cleon, Bear Lake, Brown, Filer, Manistee, Maple Grove, Marilla, Onekama, Pleasanton, Springdale, Stronach, with a total population in 1880 of 12,525. Total number of acres assessed in 1881, 312,024.07, having a total equalized valuation of $1,224,417. HYDROGRAPHICAL. A very remarkable feature of Manistee County is its lakes and rivers. The western part of the county has a number of beautiful lakes, which abound in fish, and add greatly to the beauty of the natural scenery. Manistee County is highly favored in its location. Upon its western side is Lake Michigan, affording a great highway for its mighty commerce. The modifying influences of this great lake. have marked effects for good, both upon climate and soil. The extremes of heat and cold are never experienced here, as is explained in another part of this work. One of the most important factors in the prosperity of the county and city is THE MANISTEE RIVER. In many respects this is one of the most remarkable rivers in the world. The river has its source in small springs in Otsego and Antrim Counties, and by its course is fully four hundred miles in length. The course of the river is very crooked, and the distance by an air line is less than one half what it is by the channel of the river. It is fed by innumerable springs in its bed and by small streams which flow mostly from the south. The water never rises to a height sufficient to do any damage, and never freezes, except when its flow is obstructed. The current of the river will average from three to four miles an hour. The banks are very high and admirably adapted to logging purposes. In 1869 an exploration of the river was made under direction of the River Improvement Company, and the following account was written by A. S. Wordsworth who was one of the party: "After leaving for Winchell, September 13, 1869, I returned with Akan, a trusty Indian guide, and camped on the head waters of the Manistee, as a fearful storm with which we had been threatened during the day, burst upon us, the forest roaring as if tempest demons were let loose among the hills. We were soon in snug quarters, and here let me acknowledge my indebtedness to my guide (this is his hunting-ground) for an Indian legend of the Upper Manistee. In the lull of the tempest we could distinctly hear low, distant moanings, as of a huge colian. In answer to my inquiry, my guide informed me that it was the sighing of guardian spirits of springs, whose mission it was to purify and sweeten the waters that fish might live in the stream; that some miles below were rivulets from bitter springs, in which no fish could live. These bitter springs were avoided by the Indians in their hunts, as the abode of evil spirits (maji munedo); that water from the springs medicinally qualified by the good spirits, neutralized the bitter waters. "The moaning, I believe, is the echo of the tempest's roar from distant hills, peculiar to the locality, the changing notes produced by the various distances and configuration of slopes and eminences. "From this encampment my Indian guide went below to bring lip his hunting canoes to the highest point of canoe navigation, while I ranged southwesterly, in pine land, and examined several small lakes. These, like all inland lakes of northern Michigan, are of crystal purity, abounding in fish, and beautiful in their evergreen surroundings. "September 18th, in two canoes, so light that we could carry them upon our shoulders, we commenced the.descent of the Manistee, from Section 18, Township 28 north, Range 4 west. The spring sources of this stream are in hardwood timber land, but changing to pine land near the south boundary of Township 29 north; thence for sixty miles on either bank is good pine laind, or pine plains, some cork pine, but mostly Norway pine; the white pine free from punk knots, but few black knots, and comparatively free from shakes and hollow butts; prime as to age; first-class, common, to good sound pine; the Manistee decidedly floatable for saw logs from Section 18, Township 28 north, Range 4 west; stream fifty feet wide, well defined banks; extreme freshet rise two feet. From Section 29, Township 27 north, Range 4 west, I ranged east to the north fork Anx Sauble River; good pine land, light soil, elevated 100 feet above Aux Sauble and Manistee Rivers, and I venture 900 as an approximate estimate above the waters of Lakes Michigan and Huron. From the left bank towards Higgins and Houghton Lakes, some good pine,but mostly pine plains, and worthless timber. Crossing to the right bank of Manistee River, I find an excellent tract of first quality pine, in which Captain E. B. Ward, of Detroit, is largely interested, extending nearly to the forks above Ash-qua-go-na-be-trail, Section 6. Township 25 north, Range 6 west; thence northwesterly beech and maple land extends to Boardman River; no settlements. "Soon after crossing the western boundary of Range 6 west, we encountered the first flood jam worthy of notice upon the river. This "jam" is twenty rods up and down the stream; estimated expense of removal, $40 per lineal rod, or $800. Near the west boundary of the last-named township, is jam number two; eighteen rods; expeinse of removal $32 per rod. Through Ranges, 7, 8 and 9 west is a pine tract, near the Manistee, unexcellel in quantity per acre and quality, by any tract of pine uncut, in the state, of like extent; thrifty Norway on the south bank, cork pine on the north bank, 10,000 arces of which are owned by Messrs. Dexter & Noble, of Elk Rapids. At the west boundary of Range 7 west, as3ended a hill; angle of elevation 45 degrees, 149 feet altitude, and higher land in the background, from whence the view is uninterrupted, over valleys and eminences, terminated by the blending of the horizon with the line of hill-tops twenty-five miles distant; if not picturesque, it is a truly grand panoramic view of wild woods and waters. At the crossing of the Traverse Bay and Houghton Lake State Road, near the center of Range 8 west, we met the first man since leaving head waters, and fortunately arrived as some laborers at work upon the State Road exhumed from blue clay, four feet below the surface, a pipe of great antiquity, as ancient, perhaps, as the works of the Mound Indians. Though but a small pipe, it may be of interest, and will probably be placed by Prof. Winchell among the archeological relics of the State University at Ann Arbor. At this point we learn that there is a settler three miles distant upon the State Road. On Section 6, Township 24 north, Range 8, west is jam No. 3, at crossing of the Ah-go-sah trail; twenty rods in extent; $40 per rod will remove it. These jams date back in buried centuries. As evidence, we find deep-worn trails around them, where Indians have 1 ni I IN.-,

Page  9 ýA --% 64 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 9 dragged their canoes, and packed their trophies of the chase and war path; also soil accumulations from fallen leaves and freshet of the stream, with forest growth. Cutting to the heart of a cedar twenty inches in diameter, growing over the center, I counted 160 years' growth. This must have been a respectable sapling when King George the Third claimed it as his own. Near the west boundary of Range 9 west, is jam No. 4, twenty rods, and at the Ah-go-she trail, Section 17, Range 10 west, jam No. 5, twenty-five rods; in Range 11 west, near the center line, jam, No. 6, twenty-five rods; and near the west boundary, jam No. 7, thirty rods. Expense of removing last named jams, $40 per rod. At crossing of west boundary, Range 11, State Road, we found the first house in sight from the river-Bryant's. In Ranges 9, 10 and 11, west, is a tract of superior pine, White and Norway, of which Cyrus Woodman, of Massachusetts, owns 7,000 acres. Many forty-acre lots in the last-named townships will cut 1,000,000 feet of lumber each. We also find the names of Bradley, Wheeler, Filer, McGinnis, Rust, Risdon, Smith, Ruggles, Leach, and Duffield, as owners. A few rods below the west line of Range 11 west, is jam number 8, twenty rods. $30 will remove it. We meet, in Range 12 west, with jams No. 9 and 10 respectively, of twenty-five and thirty rods extent. We are now in the midst of a thriving settlement, beech and maple land. One settler, near the river, has a sixty-acre clearing, and 800 bushels of wheat for sale. Near the east boundary of Range 13, is jam No. 11, and the last upon the stream. It is thirty rods long, and with the last named jams in Range 12 west, can be renioved at $40 per rod. To recapitulate: The eleven flood jams of the Manistee have a lineal extent, by the thread of the river, of 263 rods. Expense of working a channel through them, thirty feet wide; in round numbers, $10,000; wing jams and snags, etc., etc., say $5,000; in all, $15,000. The removal of these obstructions will unlock 1,200,000,000 of pine lumber, and if this number is taxed in their removal, it will cost less than 1 cent per 1,000 feet. One mile below the last-named flood jam, commence lumbermen's roll ways; thence down stream they become the noticeable features of the river. The loggers seemed to delight in pitching their sawlogs at us, as we were passing down these steep declivities of over 100 feet, thinking we were Indians. 'Lo, the poor Indian!' Two miles down the stream, we encountered a jam of floating sawlogs of one and one-half mile extent, over or around which we were compelled to drag or carry our canoes, and pack our camp 'fixens,' and rock, clay, sand, gravel and soil specimens. At the foot we Sfound a force of nine men at work breaking the jam. We here see the last of the 'Grayling,' a fish allied to the speckled trout, and called by the residents, the 'Manistee' fish. They are in great abundance near head waters; they feed, at this season, upon a small, white miller, and readily take a fly-hook, often darting above the surface to secure their prey. Their average length is ten inches, weighing from six to twelve ounces. Hundreds can be taken with a single hook, in a day. They are the 'Graylings' of English and Scotch waters, I have not time here to give you a description of the Lower Manistee. Draining an area, including the Upper Manistee, equal to the State of Vermont-the richest state, per capita, in the Union -with double the number of arable acres of that state, with a better soil, and less rigorous climate, with 300 miles, by the meander line, of floatable river, and that a spring brook river, but little affected by drought or frost, with tributaries abounding in water power, with abundance of pine timber; yet two-thirds of its area are beech and maple, of great fertility; and including the fruit-belt, on its lighter soils, near Lake Michigan, it needs not a prophet to predict its future. Nothing less than a first-class commercial city at its mouth can meet the exigencies of its development." This river is the great highway that penetrates the vast pine region of Manistee, and down which, day after day, and year after year, move mighty processions of logs, to feed the hungry mills at its mouth. It is without doubt the best logging stream in the world, and all along its circuitous path, reaching far away, it seems to bear mute testimony to the wonderful wisdom of the Creator. Like all streams emptying into Lake Michigan from this shore, the river widens into a lake a short distance back from the shore. This uniform feature of rivers on this shore is due to the action of the water and wind currents upon the sand. Manistee Lake is nearly five miles long, and about half a mile wide. The water is of great depth, and affords almost unlimited harbor and commercial facilities. The river between the two lakes flows to the west, and is about a mile and a half long, and has a depth of from ten to fourteen feet. A short time ago a writer, speaking of this river, said: " The Manistee River has been long known as one of the most remarkable streams in the Northwest-in this, that it never floods, seldom freezes, and is never affected by droughts. The secret of these singular features of the river is found in the fact that it is fed with springs which flow into the stream from its banks every few rods, so that it is safe to say there are more than a thousand spring streams that bubble up and empty their pure waters into the river within fifty miles of Manistee. These streams vary in size from a small rill to a good mill stream. Everywhere along the banks of this beautiful river they boil out and bubble up in their crystal beauty, affording water as pure and sweet as any in the world; and this probably accounts for the great abundance of the grayling fish, which is sweeter meated and every way as gamey as the brook trout." The Little Manistee River empties into Lake Manistee, and takes its rise in Lake County. Pine River flows from the south, and joins the Manistee farther north. Both of these rivers penetrate extensive pine regions. Bear Creek takes its rise north of the county line, and flows through the townships of Springdale, Maple Grove and Brown, and unites with the Manistee. Bear Lake is a beautiful sheet of water, about two and a half miles long, by one and three-quarers miles wide. It is situated partly in Bear Lake and partly in Pleasanton Townships. It has no outlet, and the water is as clear as crystal. Near the banks the water is shallow, but in some places reaches a depth of twenty-four feet. It abounds with fish, the principal kinds being pickerel and bass. Portage Lake, in Onekama Township, is one of the prettiest bodies of water in the state. It covers about five square miles, and the water in some places is eighty feet deep. It is connected with Lake Michigan by an artificial channel. There are other small lakes, and the entire county is threaded and fertilized by small streams, and countless springs are to be found everywhere, IP RE-H I STO RI C REMAINS. The soil of Manistee County is mostly alluvial, and the result of glacier action, with many boulders from rocks of all ages, and even drift-copper and iron is occasionally met with; but no bed rocks crop out, nor are there any caves or cliffs, or any ancient masonry work; and no sculpture slabs or carved images have been found in this region. There are no earthworks, to any great extent, in the county.,! J e II I I _______._._._._______ -_____________ __ i. 1 ______ '~7

Page  10 4-q-4 I) j HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 10 I Only a few traces of the work of Mound Builders have been found, and this subject has been pretty thoroughly investigated at different times. Near the west end of Bear Lake were found traces of the Mound Builders, and in the Spring of 1877, the largest of these mounds was opened by A. Bowen and others. This mound was near the west end of the lake. It was twenty feet in diameter, seven feet high, and had a lesser mound attached to it on the east, all well defined. In the trench or ditch from which the dirt had been taken around the-larger mound, was a tree about two feet in diameter, and other trees were on and around the mound. The lesser mound was well defined. It was opened and thoroughly searched, but nothing besides ashes and coal from a wood fire was found. A shaft was sunk in the large mound, and an opening made from the lesser mound nearly through the large mound, and the whole opened to the bottom. The balance of the bones of two small-sized persons were found in an advanced stage of decomposition, and some of them had entirely disappeared. The skulls and larger bones were in a tolerable state of preservation, but, like most mound remains, indicated a low order of intellect, and medium-sized persons. There was nothing beyond the bones found of any note, except the remains of fire. There was a strata of charcoal and ashes very evenly distributed over the mound, about two feet below the surface. The remains were buried on the surface of the ground, with the heads to the east, and the mound raised over them. One of the skulls was thick and well developed in the region of firmness, destructiveness, etc., indicating a man of much will, vitality and animal power, while the other is totally unlike it in these respects, and was recognized at once as the skull of a woman, making it probable that it was man and wife, well advanced in years, that received the honors of such a mound. These mounds were unquestionably the work of a race of people who inhabited this continent long prior to the advent of the Indian race; but who they were, whence they came, or the manner of their disappearance, may never be known. In the Fall of the year shell-mounds were found near Cushman & Calkins mill, in the First Ward of the city of Manistee. These were examined by Hon. S. W. Fowler, who had also examined the mounds at Bear Lake. The shell-mounds, a score or more in number, were laid bare by the drifting sands, and in each of them were found pieces of pre-historic pottery, one piece of which was from a pot or vessel at least two feet deep, and ornamented with a notched edge and various figures. At one point were the remains of two skeletons, bearing a striking resemblance to those found in the mounds at Bear Lake, in size, general appearance and apparent age. Some stone tools and flint arrow-heads were also found in these mounds. The shells were larger and heavier than any found in the lake, and the remains of fire indicated that clams and other shell fish were cooked at places where the shells were most numerous. In June, 1879, Mr. Fowler wrote a letter to the president of the Smithsonian Institute, at Washington, in response to a request, and in that letter said: "There have been no extensive shell heaps found, except at one place. Near the mouth of the Manistee River, and between that and Lake Manistee, on the north side, near the little lake, the drifting of the sand has revealed several acres well covered with shell heaps, reduced, by the wear of time, to pieces of the pearl part of the shell. "There were evidently thousands of bushels of these shells, and several mounds have been opened in that vicinity, with usually a few of the larger bones, as skulls and thigh bones, in each mound. Pieces of pottery and a few flint arrows have been found in the mounds, and pieces of pottery are abundant among the remains of shell mounds. "There are several at the west end of Bear Lake, some twentyfive miles up on the north bank of the large Manistee River, and one has been found on the Sable River, twelve miles south of Manistee Lake. I have assisted in opening several, but have never found anything but the skulls of one or two persons, and badly decayed bones, in any, except near two shell piles, and there were pieces of pottery, etc. One at Bear Lake contained only the decayed bones of a small man and woman. I have now in my possession the skulls taken from this mound, and some other bones and skulls from different mounds. So far as I can judge, the Mound Builders were under size and a very low order of intellect. Of the stone age we have several specimens of the stone ax, found in this vicinity. One of these is ten inches long, three and a half inches across the bit, and weighs five pounds. It is of blue granite, and is the finest specimen I have ever seen. "The pottery was evidently made on a sort of grass braid or cloth, and some pieces denote large vessels." GENERAL INTELLIGENCE AND MORALITY. As a general rule people of the older localities are apt to look upon frontier communities, and especially lumbering districts, as being barren of all culture and refinement. The too common impression is that while the backwoodsman may be honest, he must necessarily be rough. There is no one thing more noticeable among the people of Manistee County, than the high standard of intelligence and morality that has always been maintained. The early settlers had a liberal proportion of New England blood in their veins. They were born into Christian homes, and reared in a land of churches and schools. They came to this new, wild country, not because a frontier life was congenial to their tastes, but to better their fortunes. It was no easy task for them to leave the pleasant companionship of neighbors and friends, and the precious privileges of churches and schools, for the solitude, hardships and deprivations of the wilderness. But they brought with them the life lessons they had learned, and their strong wills would soon restore some of the privileges they had left behind. They knew that the great forests of Michigan had no depths that could hide them from the all-seeing eye of the Great Father; and that in the rude life of the frontier, they need not surrender their aspirations for better things. Hence it is that we find in the records of these early settlements, the early introduction of educational facilities. The track to the homestead was cleared, the cabin built for the shelter and comfort of the family, and then the school was established. A public library was not far behind, and facilities for public educational and moral training might years ago have been found in the rude settlements of this remote frontier, that would put to shame many a populous village in well settled localities. The first Sabbath in this wild region did not pass unobserved. The family Bible was brought out, and the truths upon its pages shown as resplendant as though read amid the most elegant surroundings. Sometimes, by the camp-fire, before even any shelter had been provided better than the evergreen bower, the handful of settlers gathered to listen to some "man of God," who had chanced to pass that way, and their hearts strengthened for the trials and hardships that were to come. As the population of the township have increased, and the inhabitants prospered, facilities for education have been improved. The homes are bountifully supplied with books, newspapers and periodicals, and other evidences of intelligence and refined taste. The schools of the county are of a high order, and churches numerous and liberally sustained. The gen -.A!

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Page  11 ,r;J(--_______________________________________________________4 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 11 J eral sentiment of the county is strongly in favor of sobriety and good order, and efforts in behalf of temperance and all moral reforms have been vigorous and constant. Once familiar with the characteristics of the people, it is not so much a matter of surprise to find everywhere an air of thrift and general prosperity. All improvements are substantial, and the people already here appear determined, not only to make this their abiding place, but to induce others to come in and improve the opportunities which the county still affords. THE MANISTEE FRUIT REG(ION. Manistee County is situated in the heart of the great Michigan fruit belt. The experiments that have been made in fruit raising, have been attended with very satisfactory results. There is no doubt but that the climate and soil are peculiarly adapted to fruit growing, and that the importance of the Manistee fruit region will, ere long, be appreciated. Mr. David McNab, who has been selling nursery stock for twenty years in this region, and who is thoroughly informed upon the subject of fruit growing, makes the following statement: " In the Spring of 1859, I was residing at Benona, Oceana County. The following season I found blackberries growing on sandy soil, close to Lake Michigan, that were very fine, and grapes that were as large and good as the Clinton. On examination, I found there was sufficient lime in the soil to make good fruit. In 1862, I purchased land two miles south of Benona, with a view of planting an apple orchard; took an agency for the sale of nursery stock, and made my first delivery of stock in the Spring of 1863. In 1864 sold my place, and in 1865 was employed by nurserymen to solicit. In the Spring of 1866, delivered stock in Oceana County, and in part of Muskegon and Mason Counties. In the Fall of 1870, delivered stock in Manistee County, and have every year since delivered nursery stock in the above comnties, and watched with interest the results obtained, which I find to be far beyond my expectations, especially apples, plums, cherries and small fruits. The peach tree buds, and some of the wood, was injured by frost, in the Winters of 1872-'73 and 1874-'75. " Lake Michigan was supposed to be covered with solid ice in the Winter of 1874-'75, but some peach trees planted in favored localities near the shore, and on elevated ground six to eight miles east of shore, have stood these hard Winters. The first peach orchard in this county was planted by Filer & Sons, in 1868, and some of the trees are living yet, and bearing a good crop of fruit this season. Have operated in my business to the north line of this county, and find the Concord, Delaware, and other hardy grapes do well. On the east shore of Lake Michigan, there is a difference of six days to the degree of north latitude, in the opening of Spring, and the same in the ripening of crops and fruits. The soil is of a forcing nature; deep plowing, and good cultivation early in the Spring will help much towards the ripening of crops and fruits. The tenth annual report of the secretary of the State Pomological Society gives a history of Michigan horticulture, in which is a report from Manistee County, written by Hon. S. W. Fowler, which is as follows: "This county is comparatively new, having been settled but about thirty-five years, and, as lumbering has been the principal business of its inhabitants until within the last six or eight years, farm interests were formerly sadly neglected. The county is well located in the center of the great fruit belt of Michigan, is well adapted to fruit growing, and is probably one of the very best locacations in the world for plums, pears, apples, peaches and small fruits. "The deep waters of the great lake (Michigan), which is never frozen over, give off warmth in the Fall, so that there is no early frost to injure anything, and the cold is kept off nearly two weeks later than in the interior of the state; also, in the Spring, the cold water of the lake prevents buds from starting early, and frost never injures fruit; besides, the soil and climate seem wonderfully well adapted to fruit culture. "The first fruit trees were planted in the county, in 1849, by James Stronach, Sr., in a small place known as Old Stronach. Some of the trees vet remain near the first frame house built in the county. Mr. Stronach only planted a few trees around his house, as he was a lumberman. "Robert Risdon planted the first plum orchard in the county, about the year 1869. He planted two acres, and the orchard is yet the best plum orchard in the county, and yields a revenue of about $400 a year. The plums are splendid, and are not troubled with curculio. Later, D. L. Filer & Sons planted over 3,000 peach, plum and other trees, which yield them now a large revenue. Others have planted orchards, until now there is a young and thriving orchard on nearly every farm in the county, all doing well, and yielding profit and pleasure to the fortunate owners. "The first nursery was started by James M. Fairbanks, on his homestead in Bear Lake, in 1868. He sold trees for several years, and then died. Since his death, no one las engaged in that business in Manistee County, although it is one of the best locations in the state for that business. "The first fruit exported was from the orchard of D. L. Filer & Sons, and about the year 1876. They have shipped peaches and other fruit quite largely each year since, but owing to the fact that there are over 3,000 meni, many of them transient, employed about the mills and in the woods in the Manistee region, Manistee is the best home market in the world for all kinds of fruit and vegetables. "No insects have ever yet troubled the fruit in this region to any serious extent. "There has been no purely horticultural society in the county, though we have an excellent county agricultural society. "Manistee raises more and larger strawberries than any region I know of. There is frequently as high as $300 cleared from a single acre in one season. "In 1880 S. Rice marketed 3,354 quarts, picked from one acre of land. The average price was ten cents per quart-$335.50. Charles Hurd, John M. D. Heath, R. Barns, and many others, have done about as well. "Manistee has direct steamboat communication daily with Chicago and Milwaukee, making this a desirable shipping port. Lands, good for fruit and farms, can be had from five to ten dollars per acre, and we confidently expect that the day is not distant when all this region will be largely devoted to furnishing fruit to the large cities and non-fruit bearing regions of the West. Already Manistee fruit has taken the first premium at the state fair whenever well represented. R. Barnes has taken the first premium on peaches; L. S. Ellison, plums and peaches; S. W. Fowler, plums and peaches; William Probert, apples; and others have been equally successful. IN THE SPRING OF 1871 Richard Hoffman, Esq., editor of the Manistee Times, visited several orchards, and reported the results of his observations as follows: " Some claim that apples can be successfully raised, while peach and some other orchards will not prove a profitable investment. I. _ ~- -C9111119_ --- - ---i~W-~ - ---~ - II~I--~~~IC-~~C-C~-~i~~.-- ~~ ~-------~- ~-.-:-.*--~---r*--- ----;--_ ~ _: -. - --- -

Page  12 @11- rJ 12 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. Others think that peaches can be raised with no more care than in other places. In order to fully test the matter, Mr. Husted, of Lowell, has planted an orchard of ten acres, two miles south of this city. His ground was well prepared, a good stock of trees selected, and they were carefully set out, and the limbs and tops closely trimmed, and the ground planted with potatoes. "We had the pleasure of a ride to the orchard, a few days since, with Mr. McNab, the book-keeper and agent for Husted, and found the trees in a healthy condition, and though they had been planted but six days, several of the trees were in blossom, and the blossoms looked as if they might come to maturity. Mr. McNab says that the trees will be taken care of, but, that there may be a fair test, no extra care, more than trees ought to receive in any place, will be given them. We regird this as the test orchard of Manistee County. Set out and cared for by a practical nurseryman and receiving such care as they need, it will demonstrate the success or failure of fruit growing in this county: "The site is situated on a beautiful plateau, on the bank of the Little Lake, and slightly inclining to the south. "The orchard consists of the following trees: 800 peach, 295 apple, 200 plum, sixty-five crab, 145 cherry, fifty standard pear, ten sweet chestnut, sixty Lombardy poplar, and eight silver leaf maple. The apple trees are set fifteen feet apart, with a row of peach trees in the center. The pear trees are set thirty feet apart, with other fruits in the center, and the shade and ornamental trees surrounding the whole. "In our trip we visited Golden Filer's orchard, and found the trees loaded with blossoms. Mr. McNab thought the prospect for a full crop could not be better. The trees are all about of a size, and are trimmed as near alike as they can be, and present a uniform appearance. We noticed that the apple trees were covered with a small insect, called ' Bark Lice,' but otherwise this is as fine a prospect for a young orchard as we could wish to see. The field contains probably fifteen acres, and is on the same elevated plateau as the orchard of N. P. Husted. Charles Hurd, Esq., has about ten acres set to fruit trees. They are healthy, and will, if properly cared for this season, make a rapid growth. We understand that Mr. Peters has a very nice plum orchard some distance from the city, but we have never seen it and cannot judge of its prospects. The orchards already referred to, together with Mr. Canfield's and T. J. Ramsdell's, and a number of others, present a fine showing in this line, for this new country." Last Fall, Charles Garfield, secretary of the State Pomological Society, issued a pamphlet containing an exhibit of the horticultural interest of Michigan, from which we make the following extract: " OCEANA, MASON, MANISTEE, BENZIE. "These four counties lie along the Michigan shore next north of Muskegon. Each has its lake harbor, and, although less developed than any of the counties before named, still the growing of fruit has become a leading industry in many locations. The finest plums in the world are grown here. Intelligent growers are awakening to the possibilities of this region, and great fruit farms are being planted. A glance at the map will suffice to show that portions of Oceana and Mason Counties extend well out into the lake, giving a water protection even when the wind is directly north or south. "In all this region frozen ground is unknown. A mantle of snow drops down upon the land before severe Winter weather, and remains until the danger from frosts is over in the Spring. "In Manistee and Benzie the fact is especially to be noted that the soil is calcareous in its nature, and the country abounds in pure springs, from which the celebrated grayling are taken in abundance. Pure water, clear air and rich soil, with a delightful climate, make this a famous region. The Pere Marquette Railroad taps Lake Michigan at Ludington, in Mason County; the Chicago & West Michigan line reaches to Pentwater, in Oceana, and will soon be extended further north, while the completion of a road to Manistee is sure to be accomplished this season. "Lake Michigan is truly a 'cherishing mother' to the orchardist. A body of water 360 miles in length, and over 100 miles in breadth, it would float the three states of New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, and it is deep enough almost anywhere to bury Mount Holyoke beneath its surface. With its 3,400 cubic miles of water in one basin, it maintains a very even temperature throughout the year; and this, with the fact that about sixty-five per cent of our Winter winds are westerly, gives the key to our peculiar success in horticulture. We grow peaches successfully along the fortyfifth parallel, which bound- Vermont on the north, and raise figs in the open air in latitude 421:, about on a line with Boston, Mass. It is true that this lake influence is not felt so largely in the interior as along the shore, still, in a large measure, the whole southern peninsula is modified in extremes of weather by this great equalizer. The fact that the western shore from St. Joseph northward to Grand Traverse is especially favored with immunity from frosts has given rise to the term " Michigan fruit belt." This is a strip of territory with a shadowy interior boundary in which peaches are grown with a smaller percentage of failures than elsewhere in the state. Within this belt there is great choice of location for purposes of peach culture, still the purchaser is not compelled to give the same relative importance to altitude that he would farther in the interior." In July, 1881, Charles W. Garfield, Secretary of the State Pomological Society, requested Hon. S. W. Fowler to furnish him with information concerning the Manistee region, and Mr. Fowler replied as follows: "DEAR SIR:--In your circular letter of the 25th you inquire: "' First.-What special features render your part of the state promising to the horticulturist? " ' Second.-What fruits do particularly well with you? " ' Third.-Upon what basis would you uige people who have a taste for any branch of horticulture, and have money to put into a permanent home, to locate in your region?' "It is with pleasure that I respond to these inquiries, because a knowledge of the facts will have a tendency to induce immigration and settle up and improve the country, and thus benefit all concerned. "To the first inquiry I have to say that among the special features of this region, as a fruit-growing country, are its freedom from extremes of heat and cold, the purity of its air and water, and the great quantity of lime in the soil, together with its alluvial nature, rendering it peculiarly adapted to the growth of fruit. The great depth of Lake Michigan causes its waters to gather and retain the heat of Summer, and practically to become a reservoir of heat, tempering the extreme cold of Winter and cooling the great heat of Summer, so that the mercury seldom, and in some Winters never, sinks below zero, and in Summer seldom rises above 80~. "It takes all Summer for the water to become moderately warm, and all Winter for it to become very cold, giving us warm, pleasant Falls and cool and backward Springs, thus cutting off the danger of frosts both Fall and Spring. Often snow falls in the beginning of Winter, before either grass or foliage are blighted by frost, and in the Spring the buds are kept back until all danger from frost is past. Nor is it alone the waters of the lake that accomplish these great results for good, else either shore would be equally benefitted. But so far is this from being the case, that peaches are not a success on the west side of the lake, and in almost every cold snap the mercury marks from 10~ to 200 lower in Milwaukee and Chicago than it does II- --___---- ___---*.- ~--- -- I 1

Page  13 - L I I l -- Y HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY 13 in Manistee. This remarkable difference is undoubtedly due to the fact that the prevailing winds are from the west and southwest. The winds come from 80 to 100 miles diagonally across Lake Michigan, the waters of which are as pure as crystal, and as sweet and beautiful as any in the world; the dust and impurities are sifted out of the air, and it strikes this shore loaded with humidity and tempered by the influences of the lake, giving us a moderate temperature and one of the healthiest climates in the world. Peach trees are not killed by the extreme cold of Winter, and the buds are kept back so that they are not injured by frost in the Spring. "THE WATER OF THIS REGION is among the purest in the world. All our streams are fed by springs, and they never ebb or flood. In fact, the waters of northern Michigan are about the only waters in the world where the celebrated grayling fish abound and thrive, and these fish can be taken in abundance from any of the streams in Manistee County. They are as gamey as the speckled trout, and, if possible, sweeter. THE LIME IN THE SOIL of this region is something wonderful, and it can be seen with the niked eye in every shovelful of earth. This is probably accounted for by the fact that the whole formation is alluvial. These qualities render it pecularly adapted to vegetation and fruit. Trees grow large and thrifty and take up lime in solution, so that frequently cups full of clear lime are found in the bottoms of sugar kettles in the sugar-making season. Clay and sand are about equally divided, and the rich ingredients of lime and plaster make our sandy soil frequently preferable for fruit raising. "TO THE SECOND QUESTION we answer: Apples, plums, pears, peaches and small fruits are all profitable here, especially plums and small fruits. Insects have not as yet damaged plums or any fruit, worth mentioning, and people have cleared as high as $200 to $300 per acre with plums and strawberries. Plums and peaches have proved sure crops nearly every year, and we certainly can compete with any place in the world with cherries and strawberries. 6TO THE THIRD QfESTION we base our claim to the favorable consideration of those who desire homes in a fruit region, upon cheap lands, salubrity of climate, and upon the certainty of speedy and profitable returns for judicious investment. Good fruit lands can be had for from $5 to $10 per acre. The water, soil and climate is everything that could be desired; and this is just the place for those who would escape hay fever, fever and ague, and the thousand and one ills that beset the bilious sections of a more southern location. "We do not claim that fruit will grow without care or culture, or that people can live here without work, but we do claim that fruit planting, care and culture will receive a sure reward, and that the climate (air and water) keeps people healthy and able to work; that here pre-eminently, Mother Earth yields rich reward to those who give her love and labor-that this is one of the most desirable spots in the world for those who love the luscious fruit and are willing to labor through the seed time, that they may enjoy the harvest." In 1869 there were raised 1,000 bushels apples, 1,600 baskets peaches, 18 baskets pears, 2,000 pounds grapes, 1,800 quarts blackberries, 1,400 quarts raspberries, 1,600 quarts strawberries. In 1872 the county produced 341 bushels apples, 200 bushels peaches, 4 bushels pears, 31 bushels plums, 14 bushels cherries, 500 pounds grapes, 155 bushels strawberries. In 1873 the product was 702 bushels apples, 30 bushels peaches, 11 bushels pears, 56 bushels plums, 20 bushels cherries, 900 pounds grapes, 396 bushels strawberries. In 1879 the fruit crop was as follows: Apples, 756 bushels; peaches, 337 bushels; grapes, 1,778 pounds; other fruits, 512 bushels. In 1880 there were 662 acres of apple orchards, and 9.41 peach orchards. The fruit crop was as follows: Apples, 9,754 bushels; peaches, 808 bushels; grapes, 4,215 pounds; other fruits, 1,647 bushels. Last year there were 940.12 acres apple orchards, and 13.25 peach orchards. ACTS OF THE EARLY SUPERVISORS. HOMELESS RECORDS. Public records at an early day were homeless wanderers. Salaries were meagre, and of public buildings there were none. The early postoffice was kept in some mill or boarding house, and some times in the hollow of some faithful tree. The first postmaster at Manistee was Luther G. Smith, and the office was kept at his mill. Afterwards, when James Dempsey became postmaster, it was changed to Buswell's boarding house, and part of the time was kept in Canfield's mill. The county offices and records also led a migratory life. They were pilgrims and wanderers in the earth. At first they found temporary shelter in law offices and private dwellings, and the affairs of the various offices were conducted on a sort of co-operative plan. Then they found room in some hall, changing location so frequently that their whereabouts was at all times a matter of great uncertainty. In 1875, when the question of building a new court house was being agitated, one of the local papers, urging the necessity of a county building, reviewed the situation as follows: " In 1867 the Circuit Court in Manistee was held in a small room called Burpee's Hall over a billiard saloon, near the spot where Willard & Hall's store now stands. The click of the billiard balls chimed in sweet harmony with the forensic eloquence inspired by Coke and Blackstone, while the inspiration below would sometimes become so high that the court would dispatch the sheriff to put them down. "The county clerk's office was held in a small corner room just south of the bridge, and the treasurer's office was down near Canfield's store, with the funds in a safe so unsafe, that some scamp, with the aid of a knife or a similar instrument, cut his way in and scooped the deposits. "We next find the Circuit Court in Ellis' Hall. Then it was transferred to Thurber's Hall where the winds whistled at the court and helped the counsel howl at the jury, while thie witnesses had the truth froze out of them around the stove. "Then it was chased back to Ellis' Hall. Then it perambulated to the Congregational Church, a frame building near the Union school. "Then it slid back to Ellis' Hall. Then it took a trip up to the City Hall, now the billiard saloon near the livery stable. There it tarried long enough to take breath, and then the court was hustled up to the Temperance Hall, where its sessions are sandwiched between temperance lectures, prayer meetings, negro shows and dances; all for the dignity of the city and the good of its people." In course of time, however, both the city and comity provided munificently for their public offices. The first Board of Supervisors of Manistee County met at the office of the county clerk, April 14, 1855. Andrew C. Sherwood was chosen chairman, and Henry S. Udell, county clerk, acted as L I -"V! -- 1 L

Page  14 -T~~~Y ''--- 14 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. clerk of the board. The board being organized, adjourned to the house of William Magill for the transaction of business. May 4th the second meeting was held and a resolution adopted to license Joseph Smith to keep a ferry across the river at his mill. Also, a resolution to receive proposals for the location of the county seat. The August meeting was held at the store of John Canfield. A bounty of $8 was granted John Matowen for killing a full grown wolf. At the October meeting the assessment rolls were examined and the aggregate valuation of taxable real and personal property in the townships determined as follows: Manistee, $58,122.40; Stronach, $32,946.; Brown, $22,157. It was determined to raise $800 for county purposes, $500 of which should be used for the erection of county buildings, and $300 for incidental expenses. A resolution was adopted prohibiting the throwing of saw dust, slabs, etc., into the Manistee River. At a meeting held November 27th, the following resolution was adopted: Resolved, By the Board of Supervisors of Manistee County, that the county seat be located on Lot 6, Section 1, of Town 21, north of Range 17 west, to consist of a tract of land twenty rods square, to be selected by a committee to be appointed for that purpose, as most suitable for a site for county buildings, etc. The first meeting in 1856 was held January 26, at which Andrew C. Sherwood was appointed a committee to draft plans for a court house and jail. February 9th, a meeting was held and bids for the construction of a court house examined. William Magill being the lowest bidder, the contract was awarded to him at $3,000. At a June meeting the assessment rolls, as equalized, were examined and determined as follows: At a June meeting the assessment rolls, as equalized, were examined and determined as follows: MANISTEE. contractor for the erection of county buildings. He had constructed a jail, but the supervisors had withdrawn the contract for the court house, and he was awarded suitable damages. The amount of state tax apportioned for the county for 1859 was $290.25; total county tax, $2,702.99. For 1859 the salaries of county officers were fixed as follows: Clerk, $125; treasurer, $75; prosecuting attorney, $50. In March, 1860, a contract for building a dwelling for the sheriff at the jail was let to Holden N. Green, the consideration being $290. The aggregate valuation of real and personal property in 1860 waas s follows: Manistee, $145,695.63; Brown, $32,967.38; Stronach, $55,658.78. The county treasurer's salary was raised to $100 for 1860. Three thousand dollars was raised for a contingent fund. The prosecuting attorney's salary was also raised to $250. At the October meeting a license was granted Charles Secor to keep a ferry across the river. ADDITIONAL STATISTICS. In 1854, one year prior to the organization of the county, the population of Manistee was 394. In 1860 the county had been divided into three townships, and the population of each was as follows: Brown, 219; Manistee, 594; Stronach, 106. Total population of county, 919. In 1861 the state tax was $905.54, and the contingent fund $1,700. In 1864 the total valuation of the county was $1,673, divided as follows: Brown, $368; Manistee, $1,127; Stronach, $178. There were 1,154 acres of improved land. The products were as follows: Wheat, 950 bushels; corn, 1,224 bushels; wool, 5 lbs.; lumber, 33,600,200 feet; hay, 259 tons. In 1866 the valuation of real and personal estate was $813,258.32. This included the unorganized counties of Wexford and Missaukee. The state tax was $1,536.71. In 1870 the total population of the county was 6,074. The valuation of real and personal estate was $4,411,460. State tax, $1,043; county tax, $16,544; town and city tax, $18,340. Number of dwellings, 1,180; families, 1,193; voters, 1,324. There were 2,629 acres of improved land; 21,051 acres of wood land; 1,544 acres of other unimproved land. Cash value of farms, $229,100. Value of farming implements and machinery, $3,133. Value of live stock, $36,990. Number of horses, 101; sheep, 42; swine, 327. There were produced as follows: 1,089 bushels Spring wheat; 4,428 bushels Winter wheat; 10,509 bushels corn; 4,743 bushels oats; 183 pounds wool; 29,360 bushels potatoes; 12,730 pounds of butter; 565 tons of hay; 8,495 pounds of maple sugar. In 1873 the products of the county were as follows: Bushels of wheat, 9,196; average per acre, 15.50; corn, 19,723, average per acre, 30.43; potatoes, 32,735; 1,919 tons of hay; 528 lbs. wool; 15,141 lbs. of pork; 10 lbs. cheese; 38,550 lbs. butter; 702 bushels apples; 30 bushels peaches; 11 bushels pears; 56 bushels plums; 20 bushels cherries; 900 lbs. grapes; 396 bushels strawberries. In 1874 the total population of the county was 8,471, of whom 4,792 were males, 3,679 females. There were 259,363 acres of taxable land, and 6,534 acres of improved land. Number of farms, 513; average number of acres in farms, 136.21. There were 4,205.47 acres of land exempt from taxation; 10.50 acres for school house sites; 33.75 acres in burying grounds. In 1876 the assessed valuation of real estate in the county was $1,118,807,19; personal estate, $339,685; total as equal ized $2,000,000. 771 acres of wheat were harvested, yielding 7,623 bushels. Number of acres of land assessed, Aggregate valuation, Aggregate valuation of personal property, Aggregate tax, BROWN. Number of acres of land assessed, Aggregate valuation, Aggregate valuation of personal property, Aggregate tax, STRONACH. Number of acres of land assessed, Aggregate valuation, Aggregate valuation of personal property, Aggregate tax, At a meeting in September the two offices of of deeds were united. 12,989.88 $63,163.15 $38,390 $649.85 16,488.29 $56,738.38 $12,188.50 $502.65 8.182.77 $18,937.86 $23,113.55 $247.84 clerk and register In July, 1857, the board adopted a resolution authorizing the sheriff to keep the river free from obstructions to navigation. The aggregate amount of real and personal property assessed for 1857 was as follows: Manistee, $139,313.51; total tax, $246.94. Brown, $94,411.17; total tax, $167.64. Stronach, $64,104.24; total tax, $113.34. In 1858 the amount of state tax apportioned to the county was $121.83. For contingent expenses there was raised $1,100; also, $250 for a bridge over Bear Creek, and $128.17 for a poor fund. In October, 1858, a settlement was had with William Magill, j -- -- ~f----~

Page  15 _ ~_ ~ _ __~_ ~. ~._~~ _ ~r~01"4-*C- -C--~-LIS~IICC- ~----- C-P- 3, HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 15 In 1878 there were 1,605 acres of wheat harvested, yielding 21,340 bushels. In 1879 there were 8,620 acres of improved land in the county. There were 1,764 acres of wheat harvested. The products of the county were as follows: Wheat, 22,573 bushels; barley, 2,045 bushels; corn, 31,764 bushels; oats, 17,359 bushels; peas, 1,126 bushels; potatoes, 40,410 bushels; hay, 2,110 tons; wool, 1,266 lbs.; apples, 756 bushels; peaches, 337 bushels; grapes, 1,778 lbs. In 1880 the population of the county was 12,533, of whom 6,970 were males, 5,563 females, 7,413 native, 5,120 foreign, 12,508 white, 25 colored. Number of children in the county between the ages of 5 and 20 years, 3,445. Total amount of school money apportioned, $3,651.70. There were 10,363 acres of improved land, and 27,246 acres unimproved land, 383 farms, averaging 97.67 acres each. In May, 1880, there were 2,343 acres in wheat, 662 acres of apple orchards, 9.41 acres of peach orchards. The following was the number of live stock, six months old and over, in May, 1880: Horses, 451; milch cows, 766; other cattle, 920; hogs, 778; sheep, 280; sheep sheared in 1879, 234. The farm products of the county for 1880 were as follows: Wheat, 30,001 bushels; corn, 72,800 bushels; oats, 34,789 bushels; clover seeds, 4 bushels; barley, 2,483 bushels; peas, 1,359 bushels; potatoes, 71,360 bushels; hay, 3,423 tons; wool, 1,724 lbs.; apples, 9,754 bushels; peaches, 808 bushels; grapes, 4,215 lbs.; other fruits, 1,647 bushels. In 1881 the number of acres of land assessed in the county was 312,024.07, the equalized valuation of which was $1,224,417,00. There were 12,899 acres of improved land, an increase of 2,536 acres over 1880. The number of acres of unimproved land was 35,174. Number of farms, 487-an increase of 104 over the previous year. Average number of acres in each farm, 98.30. Number of acres in wheat in May, 1881, 1,963. There were 940.12 acres in apple orchards, and 13.25 acres peach. The number of live stock six months old and over, May, 1881, was as follows: Horses, 620; cows, 978; other cattle, 1,224; hogs, 920; sheep, 497. In 1865, the equalized valuation of real and personal estate in the county was as follows: MANISTEE TOWNSHIP. No. of acres...................................21,527.12 Valuation of real eatate........................$176,034.94 S" personal estate.................... 99 622.00 Total......................................$275,656.94 BROWN TOWNSHIP. No. of acres................................... 31,997.55 Valuation of real estate.........................$69,763.75 " " personal estate.................... 6,434.00 Total.........................................$76,197.75 STRONACH TOWNSHIP. Number of acres................................... 19,278.98 Valuation of real estate........................$45,725.76 Valuation of personal estate..................... 21,990.00 Total..................................$67,715.76 TOWNSHIP OF BEAR LAKE. Num ber of acres........................................ 8,056.65 Valuation of real estate.......................... 25,325.65 Valuation of personal estate.................... 7,988.40 Total............................. $33,314.05 Total number of acres in county, 80,860.50. Total valuation of real and personal estate, $452,884.51. The apportionment of the state and county tax among the townships was as follows in 1865: TOWNSHIP. STATE TAX. COUNTY TAX. Manistee, $651.39 $3,376.79 Brown, 180.06 923.42 Stronach, 160.01 829.51 Bear Lake, 78.72 408 09 The salaries of the county officers for 1865 were as follows: Judge of probate, $50; prosecuting attorney, $300; county treasurer, $300; county clerk, $100. In 1870 the several assessment rolls were equalized as follows: 1st Ward City of Manistee, 2d c " " " 3d " c 66 4th " ". Township of Manistee, " " Stronach, " " Brown, " " Onekama, " " Cleon, " Filer, " Bear Lake,. " Arcadia, " " Pleasanton, " " Marilla, 16 51 59 5 9, 10 11 6 9 11 No of Value of Acres personal property. $31,520 67,000 52,587 31,400 566.81 15,300,708.52 25,650,015 13,720,952.30 11,453,600 4,901,965 21,225,279 10,551,672 4,494,166 11,517.200 3,680 Value of Personal and Real and Real Estate Estate. Valuation. $40,060 $ 71,580 145,910 212.910 142,325 194,912 65,410 96,810 64,820 80,120 103,643.68 129,293.68 95,975 109,695 15,286 26,739 15,972 20 873 55,176 76,401 16,863 27,414 12,571 17,065 17,280 28,797 29,995 33,675 TAXABLE PROPERTY AND TAXES FOR 1881. The following table shows the valuations of real and personal property of the several wards and towns of the county, as equalized, by the board of supervisors, together with the taxes for the year 1881, and the valuation of 1880, with the increase or decrease: ~I ToWNs. CITY OF MANISTEE. First Ward............ Second Ward......... Third Ward.......... Fourth Ward............. Total, (City).......... Filer............... Stronach............. Manistee............. Brown................... Marilala.............. Maple Grove.......... Bear Lake............ Onekama............ Arcadia............. Pleasanton............. Springdale............ Cleon............... Grand Totals.......... Add $5,000. REAL ESTATE. No. Acres Valuation Valuation Average Assessed. as as Valuation Assessed. Equalized. Per Acre, 78.990.00 78,990.00.......... 195,3195,310.00 195310........... 154,100.00 154,100.00........... 119,640.00 119,640.00 S 548,040.00 548,040.00............ 8.969.89 59,110.00 59,110.00 6.59 74,790.40 138,487.00 138,487.00 1.74 25,823.40 125,100.00 125,100.00 4.84 63,240.78 100,970.00 100,970.00 1.50 20,155.34 30,440.00 30,440.00 1.51 19,845.05 28.215.00 28,215 00 1.42 20,029.00 40,745.00 * 45,745.00 2.28 10,471.31 31,050.99 31,050.00 2.96 11,854.81 28.340.00 28,340.00 2.39 18,692.35 32,803.00 ~ 34,771.00 1.87 16,336.07 13,650.00 13,650.00 80 21,815.67 42,999.00 + 40,499.00 1.97 312,024.07 1,219.949.00'1,224,417.00 2.16 ~ Add $1,968. t Deduct $2,500. I I Total Valuation Valuation of Personal as Estate. Equalized. 51,400.00 no1IQ P- 0n" I 80,050.00 60,100.00 300,900.00 27,870.00 23,195.00 59,310.00 4,450.00 2,150.00 785 00 13,015.00 13,310,00 6,275.00 6,843.00 2,790.00 5,940.00 466,873.00 130,390.00 304,660.00 234,150.00 179,740.00 848,910.00 86,980.00 161,682.00 184,440.01 105,420.00 32,590.00 29,000 00 58.760.00 44,360.00 34,615.00 41,614.00 16,440.00 46,439.00 1,691,280 00 Per Capita of Per. Estate 38.28 62.55 39.06 30.77 42.45 31.74 37.17 76.63 8.35 12.95 8.09 16.76 19.496 18.73 14.22 27.35 12.12 35.84 Per Capita of Real & Per. Estate 97.67 174.29 114.27 92.03 119.81 99.06 260.35 238.30 197.76 196.32 298.96 75 59 64.85 103.32 86.51 161.17 94.77 129.87 Total Valuation Oct. 1880. 90,295.00 285,420.00 219,845.00 156,9,5.00 752,495.00 84,791.00 162,729.00 124,361,00 93,486.00 29,920.00 26,535.00 53,154,07 33,909.00 23,975.00 38,138.00 15,338.00 1,438,831.07 Increase Decrease over from Valuation Valuation of 1880. of 1880. 40,095.00............ 19,240.00i............. 14,305.00............. 22,805.00......... 96,445 00... 2,189.00................... 1,047.00 60,079.00.............. 11,934.001............. 2,671,.00.............. 2,465.001........... 5,605.93........... 10,451.00.... 10,640,001........... 3,476.001.............. 1,102.00.............. 46,439.00............. 253,495.931 1,047.00 ý j e nrae 5,4.3 Net Increase, $252,448.93. 4 - I

Page  16 f--- ~ -------------------------- - in q -r 3 1 16 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. I TOwNS. CITY OF MANISTEE. First Ward............ Second Ward............ Third Ward......... Fourth Ward............. Total, (City).......... Filer.................... Stronach.............. M anistee............... Brown............. Marilla............ Maple Grove............. Bear Lake................ Onekama............... Arcadia............... Pleasanton............... Springdale............... Cleon............... Grand Totals............ State. $ 380.61 889.30 583.48 524.66 $2,478.05 253.89 472.95 538.29 307.72 95.13 84.65 171.52 124.49 101.04 121.47 47.99 135.55 $ 4.937.74 TAXES FOR 1881. County. $ 2,281.82 5 331.55 4,097.63 3,145.45 $14,856.45 1,522.15 2,829.44 3,227.18 1,844.85 570.32 507.50 1,028.30 776.30 605.76 728.24 287.70 812.68 Total. 2,662.43 6,220 85 4,781.11 3,670.11 17,334.50 1.776.61 3.302,39 3,765.17 2,152.57 665.45 592.15 1,199.82 905.79 706.80 849.71 335.69 948.23 Township. A rcadia...................... Cleon...................... Bear Lake................... Brown..................... Filer...................... Manistee.................... Manistee City............... M aple Grove.................. M arilla.................... Onekarma................ Pleasanton................... Spriingdale................... Stronach...................... Total.................... Population. 335 270 925 533 878 774 7,075 97 166 535 481 102 354 12,525 Rep. vote. 46 241 120. 60 58 71 584 14 7 72 71 13 2 1,162 Dem. vote 10 34 43 24 74 4' 581 12 33 32 10 9 41 957 G"'b'k vote. 24 3 39 23 36 10 41 4 35 16 2 1 237 Total vote. 76 68 198 107 166 128 1,148 30 44 148 96 24 45 2,354 $29,596.87 1 $34,534.61 SUMMARY OF POPULATION. TOWNSHIPS. Arcadia.............. Cleon.............. Bear Lake............. Brown................ F iler................. M anistee.............. Manistee City.......... Maple Grove......... M arilla................ Onekama............ Pleasanton.......... Springdale............. Stronach.............. Total............ 1880. 335 270 925 533 878 774 7,075 97 166 535 481 102 354 12,525 1874. 226 561 526 386 457 4,894 133 327 419 49 493 8,471 1870. 175 85 417 459 376 271 3,343 129 255 283 281 6,074 1864. 1860................ 368 219 1,127 594............................. VITAL STATISTICS. The following statistics of births, deaths and marriages since 1869, are taken from the records: DEATHS. Arcadia... Pleasanton Springdale Onekama. Bear Lake. Maple Gr. Marilla.... Brown.... Manistee.. Filer...... Stronach.. 1st Ward.. 2d Ward.. 3d Ward.. 4th Ward.. Total.... 1870 18711872 1873 1874 1875 1876 2 2 4 1.... 1.... 5 2 9 6 4 8 2............. 1.... 2 2.... 4 1 3 5 3 4 6 5 31 8 7 6 12 8 9.... 12 3! 2........ 3 99 6 7 3.... 9 6 2 2 1 2 6 7 7 6 7 91.. 14 7 17 9 4 15 8 24 32........ 15 15.... 30 18 22 16 13 71 42 102 104 70 69 82 187711878 1 5 4 16 13 10 40 98 1 3 2 2 1 3 6 4 2 13 18 33 '6 94 1879 1880 1881 2 1 8 4 2 11 4 5 12 6.... 4 1 1 1 1 1.... 5 3 6 7 9 11 2 8 19 7 5 15 14........ 9.. 22...... 31........ 115 ELECTION STATISTICS. The first election held in the county of Manistee was in the Spring of 1855, at which the whole number of votes cast was 139. In 1856, at the Fall election, the total vote for president was 198, of which Fremont received 185, and Buchanan 13. For Congress, D. C. Leach received 184, and F. J. Littlejohn 12. For state senator, Thomas W. Ferry received 188 votes to 1 for I. V. Harris. In 1860, at the presidential election for governor, Blair received 125 votes, and Barry 60. In 1862 Blair received sixty-four votes, and Stout sixty. In 1864 the Republican ticket received 145, and the Democratic ticket 70 votes. In 1866 Crapo, Republican candidate for governor, received 271 votes, and Williams, Democrat, one vote. In 1868, at the presidential election, Grant received 656 votes, to 282 for Seymour. In 1872 the vote was as follows: Grant, 785; Greeley, 424; O'Conor, 8. In 1874, for governor, Bagley, Republican, received 635 votes, and Chamberlain, Democratic, 785. There were 237 votes cast in favor of Woman Suffrage, and 846 against. In 1876 the vote at the presidential election was as follows: Hayes, 896; Tilden, 811; Cooper, 76. There were four votes cast for the Prohibition ticket in Manistee City. In 1878 the Republican vote was 591; Democratic, 816; National, 354. In 1880 the total vote of the county was 2,354. The vote by townships was as follows: BIRTHS. 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 18751876 1877 1878 187911880 1881 Arcadia... 13 4 6 8........ 8 3 10 4 7 16 Pleasanton 13 12 13 24 16 15 16 11 13 13.. Springdale.... 4 1. 6 3........ 1....... 4 Onekama.. 6 5 2 8 10 21 11 16 7 13 12 Bear Lake. 71 4 14 16 24 19 8 9 17 26 12 25 Maple Gr............... 4 2.... 1 Marilla.... 4.... 3 4 3 3 3 2 6 5 2 3 Brown..... 13 16 1 2 1 22 12 25 14 24 11 16 Manistee.. 9 30 12 11. 6 12 15 11 18 3.... Filer...... 3 7... 17 20 13 16 7 27 33 14 Stronach.. 241 9 9 16 161 15 21 23 33 20 22 22 1st Ward.. 3 4 18 30 31 34 43 51 38 54....... 2dWard.. 45.... 68 41 19 18 43 53 51 35....... 3d Ward.. - 65 47 54 84 34 17 51 68 83 44...... 4th Ward. 20.... 68 67 113 108 94 136 87 102..... Total... 225 142 282 335 306 299 335 428 378 387 MARRIAGES.-1868, 28; 1869, 83; 1870, 84; 1871, 85; 1872, 51; 1873, 97; 1874, 75; 1875, 65; 1876, 79; 1877, 57; 1878, 56; 1879, 111; 1880, 36; 1881, 121. The above tables do not give the statistics for the city of Manistee for 1880-'81, which were as follows: Total number of deaths in 1880, 64; 1881, 94. Total number of births in 1880, 280; 1881, 256. --- l`r L

Page  17 r ~t I i, I fa HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 17 INDIVIDUAL INCOMES IN 1868. The following were the incomes above the exemption of $1,000 in Manistee County, in 1868: Barnes, Russell.........$ 293 Moore, Wm.............$ 1,000 Benedict, E. E........... 1,780 Markus, Wm.............. 575 Canfield, John.......... 29,000 Magill, Wmi.............. 1,222 Dougherty, P............. 977 Magnan, A............... 500 Engelman, M............ 1,500 Peters, R. G........... 17,422 Ellis, L. S................ 1,318 Paggeot, Chas............ 9,000 Filer, D. L.............. 12,713 Robinson, G. W......... 17,722 Filer, E. G.............. 9,000 Ramsdell, T. J...........2,500 Filer, D. W............. 9,000 Risdon, R. M............. 3,640 Fay, Michael............ Grandjohn, N. C......... Green, H. N............ Hadsell, John............ Milmoe, B............... 500 Ramsdell, E. A.......... 1,461 Randall, C. H........... 4,000 Shrigley, J. H............ 520 Secor, D. D.............. 977 Secor,Chas............. 225 500 6,000 2,729 509 NO. DEALERS. 1875 42 1876 42 1877 35 1878 40 STATISTICS OF THE LIQUOR TRAFFIC. TAX COLLECTED. I NO. DEALERS. $4,488.39 1879 42 4,964.97 1880 45 4,061.76 11881 53 4,580.59 TAX COLLECTED. $4,975.44 8,127.95 9,258.33 The following list furnishes a statement of the liquor traffic for the year ending December 1, 1881: NAMES OF PERSONS. RESIDENCE. KI George Andree...................... City of Manistee. Spirit Charles D. Phillips....................... Charles McKinley & Co.............. ".. John Dehner.................... '. Michael Kehoe........................... Eugene Boulle.................... ". Ernest M am erow...................... Charles Bigge....................... 1 4 James McAnley.................... Charles Wenzel & Co................. Clara Kanouse...................... " " " J. B. Johnson & Co.................. " Charles D. Phillips................... John Beck & Co................. Henry Tiedemen................. " Frank Firzlaff................... John Baur..................... " " " Joseph Baur...................".... Elias Johnson......................... John Higgins........................ " ". George Andree...................... Eugene Boulle..................... E. A. Hornkohl.................... ". Frank Herman....................... John Kehoe..................... John Bartelson..................... Andrew Kihnke..................... John P. Mason...................... C. Pomeroy......................... " " " John L. Sorenson.................... ". Joseph Radka....................... i " German Workingmen's Society....... " " alt L. Jepson.................... " " Spirit Mat Peterson..................... " ". Andrew Eckwald................. " it Charles Beinke..................... James Madison...................... John W aeir........................ i ". i Andrew Johnson.................. Nordisk Fremskridts Forening........ " " Malt Anna Blondin....................... " " Spirit Andrew Grzhwiak................... Peter Hawley..................... " " Peter Hanson...................... Township of Manistee. " Louis Swan....................... " " John Block...................... " of Stronach. " John Mews....................... John Paape........................ ". Bron. Malt Andrew Berg.....................City of Manistee.Spiri Charles Springborn.................. " i " John Schultz....................... " it Joseph Baur......................... " John Mason & Co................... Manistee County has thirty two pensioners, and their payments, with arrears, amount to $6,384. MANISTEE COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. In October, 1871, a county fair was held at Bear Lake. George B. Pierce, of Pleasanton, was president of thle day; Russell F. Smith, Bear Lake, secretary; J. M. Tillson, Pleasanton, treasurer. A permanent organization was not effected until 1876. September 5, [ND OF BUSINESS. nous liquors at retail 44 "9 tious uous iuous " " " " " " " " " " " " " " wholesale retail 66 69 44 44 46 44 64 96 44 49 46 " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " PLACE OF DOING BUSINESS. City of MLanistee. "ý "6 "6 16 "9 "4 " "4 "s o 6 "6 "r " "B " rw "t "i 96 " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " "c " Township of Ma~nistoo. " " Stronlach. "L " Brown. City of ~anistee. "c " "c " "c " " " AMOUNT OF TAX. $ 30.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00.400.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 65.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 65.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 65.00 183.33 150.00 150.00 150.00 150.00 1876, a meeting of delegates from the various townships was held at Bear Lake for the purpose of taking prelimiinary steps in organizing a county fair association. At that meeting James McKay, J. Hilliard and J. E. Bodwell were appointed a committee to draft constitution and by-laws. It was also voted that the fairs should be held at Bear Lake. Final organization was effected at a meeting, September 14, at which the following officers were elected. 11 ' ill r __~~_________I_ __ _ __ I~I; ___~~a I___ __ _1~T~j~ _C~~ ___j___ __ __ _ __ I

Page  18 1 I 1 I'-- 18 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY I President, A. W. Farr; vice presidents, James McDiarmid, James Dodd, S. W. Patch, M. Orrorke, K. Dunke, J. B. Mason, S. W. Fowler, J. Hilliard, W. Probert, G. McKnight, J. Bradford. Secretary, J. E. Bodwell; treasurer, J. E. Cody. EXECUTIVE BOARD.-G. W. Hopkins, William Probert, L. Chamberlain, S. Calkins, E. G. Stokman, C. W. Perry, E. A. Bodwell, James Dodd, James McKay, S. W. Fowler, William Crosby. The first fair of the association were held in Hopkins Hall, at Bear Lake, September 28, 1876. Fairs continued to be held in this hall until 1879, when it was held, September 30, and October 1, at the new grounds located about one hundred rods west of the village of Bear Lake. Buildings were erected and grounds fenced this year. The association is in a prosperous condition. The present officers are as follows: Michael Dunke, president; G. K. Estes, secretary; James Dodd, treasurer. VICE PRESIDENTS.- S. W. Fowler, first vice; James McDiarmid, second vice; E. A. Bodwell, third vice. EXECUTIVE BOARD.-George W. Hopkins, David Lumley, D. R. VanAmburg, E. A Bodwell, Stillman Green, Nelson Keillor, Henry Danville, J. L. Bradford, S. W. Fowler, App. M. Smith, Josiah Hilliard. James D. McDiarmid, general superintendent of fair. WOMAN SUFFRAGE IN MANISTEE COUNTY. At the time of the temperance crusade in 1873-'74, Mrs Fowler, wife of Hon. S. W. Fowler, editor of the Times and AStandard - in an editorial headed "the Woman's Crusade," said:-"As this innovation receives the sanction and support of the highly respectable of both sexes in society, we hope that they will be so well satisfied with the experiment that they will not fear contamination if some of their wives and sisters suggest the practicability of placing the ballot in the hands of women as a means of protection from the evils this movement is intended to mitigate, and to further the cause of moral reform in general. * * Let us suppose that the army of praying women, who are now besieging the saloons of cities, were invested with the rights of citizenship. * * * They would have the majesty and power of the law to protect them, and having a voice in the making of those laws, would not detract from their purity and influence. True it is, that the elective franchise is one of the greatest bulwarks of liberty, and therefore it is consistent with the principles on which our government is founded, that there should be no class distinctions in the exercise of its rights." March 16, 1874, the Legislature of Michigan by a decisive majority, voted to submit a woman suffrage amendment to be voted on separately, at the November election. The State Suffrage Association appointed a committee of three, of which Hon. S. W. Fowler was one, and who did much effective work in the northern towns of the county during the Fall campaign, as the result of the election showed those towns to be largely in favor of the amendment. In an editorial, just after the election, Mrs. Fowler said: "The combined forces of ignorance, vice and prejudice have blocked the wheels of advancing civilization, and Michigan, once the proudest of the sisterhood of states, has lost the opportunity of inaugurating a reform. * * * Now let the women of Michigan organize for a final onset. Through your woman suf frage associations and temperance leagues, by every honorable resource left open to you, fight out this battle with a zeal that shall know no discouragement, a courage, that shall never tire. * * * * This question must be decided by the whole people before we will bow to any adjustment contrary to the consent of the governed." From 1874 no suffrage work was publicly done, except an occasional editorial upon the subject in the Times and Standard until December 3, 1879, when that grand apostle of the cause, Susan B. Anthony, was induced to stop over in Manistee on her way from Traverse City to Ludington, and give her great lecture, "Bread, not the Ballot." She was the guest of Mr. and Mrs. Fowler, and it was through her influence at that time that a suffrage association was eventually formed. A "Woman's Department" had in the meantime been added to the Times and Standard, which is still a feature of that journal. The following year a similar column was for a few months pubished in the Manistee Times under the able editorial management of Mrs. S. M. Barnes, who was also secretary of the M. W. S. A., in 1881. In April, 1880, Elizabeth Cady Stanton gave her lecture, "Our Girls" and speeches before the temperance associations, and mothers of the city, which added courage and enthusiasm to the hearts of the few suffragists who were considering the feasibility of organization. A call was published, signed by Mrs. Fannie H. Fowler, Mrs. O. C. Hawley, and Mrs. Anna Chandler, requesting "women who desire the ballot to meet in Good Templar's Hall, to consider the grave questions of the hour." Twenty-three women responded and the "Manistee Woman Suffrage Association" was formed June 8, 1880, adopting the constitution of the National Woman Suffrage Association, and electing officers as follows: President, Mrs. O. C. Hawley; vice president, Mrs. Fannie H. Fowler; secretary, Miss A. M. Golden; treasurer, Mrs. L. T. Stansell. Mrs. Sarah A. Kies and Miss A. M. Golden were chosen as delegates to the convention of the N. W. S. A., held at Grand Rapids the ensuing week. An active canvassing of the city, by committees of the association, resulted in securing the attendance of tax-paying women at the school-meeting in September, when the first woman vote was cast in Manistee County and has been followed at each successive school meeting with an increased number. The following Spring (1881) a pamphlet was published by the Manistee Woman Suffrage Association and sent broadcast throughout the state, stating its objects and containing its constitution, bylaws and epitome of their work. In August of that year, Mrs. Mary Wright Sewell, of Indiana, was engaged by the M. W. S. A. to deliver two educational lectures, which were free to the public, her expenses being defrayed by the association. In February,1882, a social celebrating Miss Anthony's birthday was given under their auspices,at the residence of Hon. S. W. Fowler, and was voted a grand success. Through the untiring energy of the president, Mrs. L. T. Stansell, who was also one of the Ladies' Lever Lecture League, Mrs. Elizabeth Boynton Harbert, of Evankton, Ill., was induced to give a Manistee audience a rare treat in her " Homes of Representative Women," April 20, 1882, and a public " conversation," which elicited much interest in woman suffrage. The M. W. S. A. have done much quiet work in distributing suffrage literature, and are now canvassing the state with petitions for equal and municipal suffrage, which are to be presented to the Legislature of 1883. They are also helping Nebraska in her strug gle to secure a woman suffrage amendment, having forwarded funds for that purpose. The officers of the M. W. S. A. for the year ending June, 1883, are as follows: President, Mrs. L. T. Stansell; vice-president, Mrs. Fannie Holden Fowler; corresponding secretary, Mrs. Fannie Holden Fowler; recording secretary, Miss Nellie Walker; treasurer, Mrs. Susan Seymour. I- -I w -1 I Q ro

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Page  19 8 6~ I ---1~. HISTORY OF MANISTEE CITY. ~VI ILAI~C-~- r~~~L~-~LAA AAAAAA~UVVI The city of Manistee is the county seat and only city of Manistee County. It is located on the east shore of Lake Michigan, and is about 175 miles distant from Chicago. The city extends east along the Manistee river and south along the west shore of Lake Manistee. The banks of the river on the south side are of sand, and about ten feet high. From this bank a sand plane from ten to twenty rods in width extends back to clay banks,which rise abruptly from ten to thirty feet to a plane which stretches away to the south. This plane has a clay soil, and affords a charming site for dwellings. It is here that the elegant residences, for which Manistee is so justly noted, are situated. At this altitude the air is delightful, and the view obtained is well calculated to excite the admiration of the beholder. Upon the plane below him is the business portion of the city full of life and healthful activity, while along the river and far away upon the shores of the beautiful little lake are the many mills which day after day chant their chorus of an unrivalled prosperity. River Street extends along the south bank of the river for a mile and a half to Lake Manistee. Upon either side of this street are substantial business blocks, and every one is a hive of commercial activity. The river between the two lakes is the most important highway in the city. Its waters are clear and flow with a rapid current and never freeze. The mighty procession of water crafts never stops, for even in Winter when, Lake Michigan sometimes conceals itself under a cover of ice, there is more or less doing upon the river. Twenty years ago the population of the entire county was less than one thousand. A rude hamlet of shanties, and two or three mills were all that relieved the loneliness and dreariness of this remote region. From this obscurity a city struggled to a promising stature, only to be turned to ashes in a night. Then a hurrying hither and thither of determined men and women, builders bend to their work, streets are outlined, blocks follow each other, homes are built, ten years hurry by, and we stand in the midst of a city of nine thousand inhabitants, noted for their morality and culture, while everywhere are the unmistakable evidences of real prosperity and wealth. The early history of this region has already been gathered with a skilful hand. In the Centennial year, 1876, Gen. Byron M. Cutcheon was chosen to deliver a historical address at the 4th of July celebration, which was one of the most notable events in the history of the county. The address shows that the historian of that occasion was wisely chosen. We are indebted to the author for permission to use his manuscript. The following is the address referred to,except such portions as relate to subjects which are treated in their proper order. GEN. CUTCHEON'S HISTORY. "When the mariner has been tossed through toilsome days and starless nights upon the trackless and tempestuous sea, he gladly avails himself of the first favorable opportunity to take his observation of the sun, correct his course and ascertain his whereabouts. "The past is the teacher of the future, and as the surveyor corrects his courses by an occasional back- sight, so we, as a nation and as communities, may correct our errors by occasional reviews of the course we have already run. "It is especially appropriate that as we are about entering upon the second century of our existence as a nation, we should seek to draw wisdom from the lessons of experience, that we may avoid in the future the dangers and follies of the past; that the history of our second century be as much grander than the first, as our opportunities are greater and our foundations broader. "It was in this spirit that the American Congress, at the beginning of this centennial year, passed a joint resolution recommending that in every county in the nation, upon this centennial anniversary of our independence, an historical address should be delivered, embodying the local history-which local histories should be printed and preserved as the materials from which future historians might draw materials for that great history of the century's progress. "The resolutions met the approval of the President of the United States, and by his executive proclamation lie recommended to the favorable action of the several states and communities. The governors of most of the states, including Michigan, have responded to the presidential proclamation by similar proclamations to their respective commonwealths, and the citizens of Manistee County have thought favorably of the suggestion, and have determined to preserve the little history that they have made. " But why the committee should have hit upon me as their historian passes my understanding, unless it be upon the same principle that the humorist, Mark Twain, says he was selected to edit an agricultural newspaper-to wit: because he knew nothing whatever about agriculture-for, he said, he had always observed that the less a man knew about a subject the better he could write about it, for if a man undertook to write about a thing he knew anything about, his mind would be biased, more or less, by the facts, while a man writing about that of which he knew nothing, could rise entirely superior to facts into the region of pure speculation. "Upon this theory I conceive that I am specially fitted to write the history of Manistee County. "I believe it was the author of the Knickerbocker history of New York who remarked that to write the history of any locality correctly, one must begin with the creation of the world. "But at the risk of leaving this history incomplete, I shall entirely dodge the creation of man, shall try to get out of the way of the fdal, shall jump the Garden of Eden, evade the flood, pass over the migration of the lost tribes, flank the question of the Asiatic origin of the American Indians--lightly touch upon the prehistoric Mound Builders who doubtless once inhabited this shore and have left their tracks upon its riversides and their bones within its sand-hills, and come at once to that comparatively modern epoch when the historic American Indian-red skinned, large boned and long haired-roamed and hunted and fished on the Manistee. A ------------------------------______________ ___ _ ___ I ~n ----- - --.I~ _._..

Page  20 w 74 1 j cll--~-------~ - Y 'L, I I -lr- I 1 f3' 20 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. "( There is no evidence that this region had any very considerable Indian population, nor, so far as I am aware, have any well defined Indian traditions of wars or other notable events prior to the coming of the white man, come down to us. We must conclude that they were a rather quiet and peaceable people, whose civilization had not yet degenerated into the era of investigating committees or presidential scalping parties. "It was in 1641 that the first white men-the French Jesuit Fathers, bearing the standard of Christianity, penetrated these far western wilds, and made a lodgment at the Straits of Mackinaw, but whether they extended their journey into this part of the peninsula we have no record. It was several years later, in the year 1668, that a permanent white settlement was effected by the same Jesuit Fathers, within the limits of what is now the state of Michigan. " In 1672 Jacques Marquette, better known by his title of Pere Marquette, a Jesuit Father of exceeding zeal and piety, set out upon his perilous undertaking of discovering and exploring the father of waters. "Passing through what is now the upper peninsula, and so round by Green Bay, he performed his daring and perilous voyage. Returning and settling among the Illinois, in the year 1675-two hundred and one years ago-he undertook the exploratioin of Lake Michigan. Perhaps it would be impossible to establish the fact in proof, but I have but little doubt that Father Jacques Marquette was the first white man who ever looked upon the pine-clad hills of Manistee, or dipped his oar in the waters of our beautiful river. I have no doubt that more than two hundred years ago, with his Indian guides, he camped on the bank of yonder stream, and that the first Christian song and prayer that broke the stillness of these primeval solitudes was the morning and evening devotion of Father Marquette. " Continuing southward on his journey, he reached the mouth of the stream that now bears his name. Thirty miles south on that narrow belt of sand which now lies to the southward of the outlet of Pere Marquette Lake, but formerly formed a spit of land to the northward of that outlet, he breathed his last, and was buried by his Indian followers in the sand. The exact place of his burial is unknown, and even the adjacent city has not done itself the honor to preserve to itself the name and fame of Pere Marquette, the devoted missionary, the intrepid explorer and bold pioneer. It is to be hoped that before another century has rolled around, our children will have done him or his memory some partial justice, by erecting on the spot of his burial some monument worthy of the man and of the state. " At the time of the visit of Marquettee, Manistee existed only as the Indian name of this beautiful river and lake. " The word' Manistee ' is derived from the Indian title of the river which now bears that name. It is a corruption of the original Chippewa, which, in outward appearance, bears but little resemblance to the present name. Whatever may be said of the original, the present name is as beautiful as could be desired-as liquid as!the bright-flowing river it names, and as sparkling as the lake to which it has been assigned, and as neat as the future city we hope shall bear it with honor to the world. "As to the maeaning of the name there appears to be a diversity of opinion. One of Michigan's historians gives its meaning as 'The River with Islands,' but we can see but little appropriateness in that meaning. " The late A. S. Wordsworth, formerly assistant superintendent of the Michigan geological survey, who was one of the first white men to visit this river, and who was familiar with the Indian tongue, stated that he had it from the early Indians that it signified ' The Spirit of the Woods.' Whether this be true or not, we prefer to believe it so. It is stated that this name came to be applied to the stream in the following manner: "Upon the high lands about the sources of the Manistee, stands, and for ages ha3 stood, a dense forest of pines and hemlocks, and the constant sough of the breeze through these forests produces a constant murmur, which the untutored Indians attributed to 'the spirit of the woods,' which they supposed dwelt about the sources of this stream-and hence the name. "But we fear that the spirit has departed. His realm has at last been invaded by sturdy axe men and lumbering camps, and the scream of the locomotive drowns the voice of 'the spirit of the woods,' and soon no man standing on the banks of the Manistee shall be able to say, with the poet: "' These are the forests primevalThe whispering pines and the hemlocks.' "But the name will abide when we are sleeping by the side of these ever-flowing waters, and our sleep will be ullabyed by the unceasing murmur of the spirit of the woods. "The name Manistee, from being applied to the river, came in time to be also applied to the territory adjacent, to the lake near its mouth, and the city on its banks, so that we have Manistee river, town, county, lake and city. This name we have borne. This name we must bear; and it rests with us, fellow-citizens, as we stand at the portal of this new century, whether it shall be a name of honor, or an appellation that shall carry dishlonor with it. "THE INDIANS. " After the visit of Father Marquette, two centuries ago, we lose sight of Manistee for more than a hundred and fifty years. Undoubtedly the Jesuit missionaries occasionally visited it, and adventurous traders, seeking furs, made pilgrimages to its shores. " The first authentic facts that I have been able to discover date as late as 1830. About that time we know that one of the Campeau family, a French trader from Grand Rapids, made visits to this point to traffic with the Indians. The principal tribe that then inhabited this valley was the Chippewas, though there were more or less of the Tawas and Ottawas. But this was the proper hunting-ground of the Chippewas. The blind old Indian whom most of you have seen led about our streets, and who must now be nearly a hundred years old, was the last chief of that tribe. He is now known as the old Manistee Chief. His name, as near as I can get it, is Ke-wax-i-cum. He has inhabited this valley all his life, and he says that his father lived here before him. He says when he was a boy he hoed corn on what is now the marsh at the channels, between the north and middle channel. And it is true that since the settlement by white men, much of that marsh has been tillable meadow lands, and hundreds of tons of hay have been cut on those flats which are now under water. " FIRST WHITES. "1832. In 1832, if I am correctly informed, a party of men from Massachusetts landed here, and with boats proceeded up the river to Section 36, Town 22 north, of Range 14 west, where they commenced to get out square timber to build a dam and blockhouse. They had completed their block-house, and had their timber for the dam prepared, when the Indians assembled, and by menaces compelled them to desist. The party were obliged to abandon their block-house, which was very substantially built, and which was standing until a few years ago. " THE OLD HOUSE. "Mr John Canfield has informed me that when he came here, in 1849, it was already known as the 'old house,' and it has borne that appellation ever since. This whole region was then one vast ~7 /1 -~-- ~ I~ --- ~~~---~- ~-F--- -- h I

Page  21 -Y yl--~t HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 21 forest, and we have it upon the authority of A. S. Wordsworth, before mentioned, that at a very early day this old block-house was taken possession of by a gang of counterfeiters, and that here for some time they plied their trade. Those were 'hard money' times, and those gentlemen were 'inflationists.' They believed that a money of faith was as good as a money of value, and they seem to have conceived the patriotic idea of expanding the currency with a circulating medium that should not absorb so much of the wealth of the country as the regular government issues of silver. I have no doubt that many of those bogus dollars and halves and quarters went on faith and answered all the purposes of a medium of exchange just as well as their cousins, the non-convertible 'greenbacks' of a later day. "But after Mr. Wordsworth blundered upon them and discovered the nature of their retreat, 'they folded their tents like the Arabs, and silently stole away.' Since then the 'old house' has been used as a logging shanty, and a whisky saloon, and a dwelling, but it is gone, and the place that once knew it shall know it no more forever. "CAPT HUMPHRY. "1833. In 1833 old Capt. Humphry, who a few years ago sailed one of the Engelmann boats, visited the mouth of this river, with a vessel, and brought the machinery for a mill, but he found the water in the stream very shallow, and after landing, for some reason which I have been unable to learn, he reshipped his machinery, abandoned his enterprise and sailed away, leaving the Manistee for a few years longer to its primeval quiet. " RESERVATION. " 1835. I have not been able to satisfy myself completely as to when the manistee reservation was set apart for the Chippewas, but from the best information I have been able to obtain, it was in 1832. The reservation is six miles in width and twenty-two east and west, including the valley of the Manistee, on both sides of the river as far east as Section 4, of Range 13 west. It is related that when the surveyors requested instruction as to the shape and extent of the reservation, the government instructed them to lay it off in any shape that Chief Ke-wax-i-cum should direct, and he extended it so far east for the express purpose of including the ' old house.' "About the year 1841 or 1842, when the Stronachs were building their water mill on the Little Manistee, the Indians determined to drive them off. They demanded whisky, but fortunately the whisky was buried in kegs in the sand at the mouth of the river. The Indians then began war-like demonstrations, when Stronach (father of Adam and James) invited them into his boarding shanty, gave themn all they could eat, opened a barrel of pork and divided it, distributed a barrel of flour among them, and so concluded a treaty of peace. The Chippewas, since the whites came on this shore, have generally been kind hearted and well disposed; but with the universal Indian failing of a weakness for bad whisky. " They had two principal planting grounds on the reservation; one near the mouth of Chief Creek, near Samuel Potter's, and another and smaller one near the outlet of the river into the ' little lake.' Their largest planting ground was not on the reservation, but was north of Portage Lake. Their favorite camping ground was on the flat at the northwest corner of Manistee Lake, on what is now Lots 3 and 4 of Section 1, Town 21, 17. Another favorite camping place was on the north bank of the river, in the little valley opposite the City Hotel. Their burying ground was in the little opening back of G. M. Wing's slingle mill, on Lot 2, Section 11, Town 21, 17. "The Jesuit Father's mission house was a log building near the present site of Christy Ashe's place, at the northwest angle of the Lake Manistee. " The agency of these Indians was at Mackinaw, whither they went twice a year to receive their allowances from the Government, making the journey by water in Mackinaw boats. " The reservation was taken up and the land brought into market September,1849, and the tribal relations of the Manistee Indians permanently broken up. At that time there were probably nearly a hundred families of them. Some have migrated northward to the Leland reservation; some have scattered; some have gone to the Spirit hunting grounds, and some still remain among us, a harmless, thriftless, spiritless, vanishing people. " OTHER WHITE VISITORS. " 1836. In 1836 Mr. Wordsworth, who was then a justice of the peace, having jurisdiction from Grand Rapids to the British dominions, holding his seat of justice at Grand Rapids, visited the Manistee with Campeau, the Indian trader. He found the Indians camped near the mouth of the river, holding high carnival upon the occasion of the wedding of one of their distinguished members to one of the belles of that day. A large bough house had been prepared for the wedding dance, and a feast of dog for refreshment. It was a very warm night in the Summer. Whisky obtained from the traders flowed freely, and Wordsworth felt like retiring to private life, when he was prevented by the number and voracity of the mosquitoes. which attacked him with uncommon venom. To obviate this, he was advised by an old squaw to anoint his hands and face with rancid sturgeon oil, which he did, and in a short time was serenely oblivious of song and dance, and mosquitoes. "After a time he was awakened by something sniffling around his nose and opened his eyes to find that a huge black bear was licking the sturgeon grease from his face. His first alarm was modified on finding that the bear was tame and harmless. " After the failure of the attempt to build the dam at the ' old house" in town 22 and 14, another attempt was made to dam the River just above the present swing bridge, near the section line between 11 and 12. This also met with opposition, and the scheme was abandoned. " 1835. At some time between 1835 and 1839, Charles Mears visited this river, looking for a mill site and to locate land, but so far as I can find, left no traces of his visit. " 1835. In December, 1835, a schooner with her crew was cast away between Rush Lake and Portage Lake, and appears to have remained there through the Winter. " Upon a large hemlock tree, from which the bark had been carefully peeled, until within a few years could be seen the name and date of the wreck, the names of the officers and men, and the date of the captain's death. The tree was standing seven years ago, but has since disappeared-probably destroyed by fire. "1840. Up to this time no permanent settlement had been made in this county by the whites. " In the Fall of the year 1840 John Stronach, of Berrien County, Mich., accompanied by his brother Joseph Stronach, of Muskegon, coasted along this shore in a small sail boat, until they arrived at the mouth of the Manistee. They were met by a party of Chippewas, who treated them cordially, and gave them information of the country. " Hiring a company of Indians to take them in their canoes, they explored the Manistee until they came to an ancient 'jam' of logs, flood wood and fallen trees, and finding no good place for a dam, they returned and explored the 'Little River,' called by the Indians ' Mamoosa' or ' Dog River.' After locating a point for a mill site, they set sail and returned to Muskegon.,,1 t v O r- 3

Page  22 -q a - -- I! o 22 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. _1_1 I_ __ 1__1 " 1841. The following Spring, about the 13th of April, John Stronach, with his son, Adam Stronach, chartered the schooner 'Thornton,' of St. Joseph, to convey them and their machinery and supplies to the Manistee. " They arrived at the mouth of the Manistee on the 16th of April 1841, and from that day dates the actual permanent white settlement of Manistee County. " They found it impossible to enter the river, on account of the shallowness of the water, there being not to exceed three feet, on the average, between Lake Michigan and Manistee Lake. " Unable to enter the stream, they constructed a pine raft, bound together with cross pieces and wedges. " This raft they towed with the yawl to and from the vessel, until the cargo, except the cattle, was landed; the cattle they threw overboard, and all but one swam safely to the shore. " They found the yawl boat of the wrecked schooner' Anadogge ' and this they used to tow their raft loaded with machinery and supplies to the head of the little lake and up the ' Mamoosa ' or ' Little-Dog' to the site of Stronach mills. A camp was built, a road cut, a dam constructed, and by the close of 1841 the first saw mill that ever startled the silence of these unbroken forests, was ready for operations. "With the Stronachs came some fifteen other men as employes and laborers, many of whom went away; others are dead, and perhaps a few remain. " About this time the Chippewas were camped on their favorite ground, near Dempsey & Cartier's mill, Lot 3, Section 1, and Campeau, of Grand Rapids, had come to buy furs. He had a tent for a shop, and had succeeded in buying a large quantity, giving in exchange whisky, calico, knives, etc. The peltries, as bought, were thrown in a heap in the rear end of the tent. It seemed remarkable what a yield of furs there was that year. " There was no end to their coming, but some way the pile did not correspondingly increase. He organized himself into an investigating committee, and soon discovered that while one ' poor Lo' was selling him a skin, another was stealing them from under the back end of the tent. " Then there was war! It was the 'French and Indian' war. Campeau seized a club, and straightway sundry and diverse ' noble red men' embraced their kindred clay-or sand. "Peace was soon declared, and whisky and fur continued to change places as before. " EARLY SETTLERS. " Among the earlier settlers that followed the original Stronachs, was Joseph Stronach, who dammed Portage Creek and built a water mill there. " The first saw mill built within what is now Manistee city, was built by James and Adam Stronach, on Lot 2, of Section 1, Town 21 and 17, and was afterwards known as ' Humble' mill, from Mr. Joseph Humble, who owned and operated it. It was burnt many years ago. Next after this was the Joseph Smith mill, built near the site of the present gang mill of Cushman, Calkins & Co., on the north side. Next came the Bachelor mill, on the point at the outlet of Manistee Lake on the south side. " Soon after, 1841, came Joseph Smith, and between that and 1849 came Win. Ward, Roswell Canfield, Samuel Potter, Owen Finan and brother, Michael Finan, in 1847; James O'Connell, John Ogilvie, Cassimer Coultier, William Hall, John Baldwin, Matthias Siebert, James and John O'Neil, George Sullivan, Joseph Harper, Stephen Norman, 1846; James Phelps, Francis Norman, 1847; H. L. Brown (from whom Brown town is named, who was the first town clerk of Manistee town, and first prosecuting attorney of Manistee County), Wm. Magill. " This list was furnished me by Adam Stronach-I presume it is incomplete. * * * * * * * * " MORE EARLY HISTORY. "In 1847 came the Finans-Owen and Michael, to the latter of whom I am indebted for some interesting information respecting the Indians. He estimates the whole number on the reservation at this time at 1,000 souls. According to all accounts, whisky was 'the chief of their diet '-yet strange to say,' these peskey ' old Indians 'would never be quiet.' " It seems that either from the missionaries, or in some other way, they had imbibed some sort of religion. Every Sunday those within convenient reach assembled at the mission house near the north end of the lake, all arrayed in their best calico shirt, breechclout and a gay shawl and feathers about the head. The hour for worship arrived, all were seated on the ground, a number of the men armed with small drums, which they had brought from Mackinaw. Everything in readiness, the exercises were opened by passing the whisky. This put them in a spiritual frame of mind. Then the Chief Ke-wax-i-cum, then already an old man, who was at once prophet, priest and king, stood up in his most impressive paint and commenced the preachment. What he inculated, friend Finan declares himself unable to say, but he says he was profuse and em. pathic in his gestures, and pointed frequently to the sun, and would wax eloquent, when the drummers all would rattle on the drums, the men grunt approval and the chief sit down. More whisky, more drumming, and then more whisky again, and more preaching, until either the whisky, the drummers, or the chief gave out. " On one occasion the Pere Marquette Indians trespassed on the Chippewas reservation, stole the peltries from the traps, captured the traps themselves and commenced their retreat. " Then there were rumors of wars. Red clay was in demand for war paint. There was a whirring of grindstones, a sharpening of knives and hatchets, that would send terror to the heart of a Manistee attorney. "A war party was organized, pursuit was made, the raiders overtaken, the plunder recaptured without bloodshed, and the victors laden with the trophies of victory returned laurel crowned to the banks of the Manistee. (Their claim for additional bounty and pensions is waiting the action of Congress). To resume: "In September, 1849, as already stated, the Chippewa reservation was taken up by treaty, and the land brought into market. " In 1849 also came to Manistee, Mr. John Canfield, with his father, Roswell Canfield, took up land near the mouth of the river and commenced the erection of a steam mill, almost on the same site as the present mill of Canfield & Wheeler, on the southerly angle of the river. At this time the leading business men were the Stronachs, Joseph Smith, H. L. Brown and Wheeler & Son, for whom Mr. Canfield was employed. " In 1849 also came Hugh McGuineas, then a 'braw Scots lad' of nineteen or twenty, and went to work in the Canfield mill. Hugh was fresh from his native Scottish heather, and fresh from a clean Scotch home. I have never heard Hugh deliver but one temperance lecture, (though I hope he may live to deliver many,) and that was when he most graphically described the moral condition of Manistee when he came here. "He says there was then no law here, and none of the restraints of the law. " I dislike to insert here the pictures he draws, but when we become discouraged in our efforts to benefit and elevate men, it may do us good to look back and draw a comparison between these days and those earlier ones. j ~----~7~

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Page  23 ~t-L ~ L~t.F _ -1 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 23 V " He says that John Barrett was then keeping a grocery and saloon on the north side, just back of where the lighthouse now stands. The river then took a sharp turn almost due north, and passing to the rear of where the lighthouse stands, ran along the foot of the high sand bluff, with a long narrow spit or bar of sand between it and Lake Michigan. " After long and severe westerly winds, the mouth of the river would almost bar up for a time, and was at all times shallow. I have been told by the late Robert Risdon, that he has often waded across the mouth of the Manistee, where now vessels drawing ten feet of water come and go with their cargoes. " These westerly winds would drive the bar over into the river, and thus the river encroached upon the sand hill, and so, in time, the house of John Barrett, like the house of the man in scripture who built upon the sand, fell; and great was the fall of it. But this was after 1849. At the time I now speak, his establishment was in full blast. Said Hugh, (I leave out the swear words), ' The first Sunday the boys said, "Lets go over to John Barrett's," and I went.' "It was a small room, and contained a small box stove about twenty inches long, a bunk and a bench. It was full of men drinking and drunken. " The furniture of the room consisted of two whisky barrels, a wash basin and a ladle; they drew the whisky in the wash basin, and every man helped himself with the ladle, and when the wash basin was emptied it was filled and passed again, at twenty-five cents a round. 'I have seen,' said he, 'in one Sunday, seventeen couples of men stripped and fighting around that place; the nearest justice was John Stronach at the old Stronach mills, and only a trail to reach there. When called on, he gravely took his statutes under his arm; the court made his way on foot or in a canoe down to the mouth, and held court in Barrett's saloon; the exercises were introduced by a drink all around, then the case was heard; the court was not annoyed by lawyers, nor embarrassed by law. Having heard the evidence, the court delivered his opinion as follows: "Well, boys, this is a bad muss, and I guess you'd better settle it." The parties were usually of the same opinion, and a drink of whisky all around closed the exercises.' The old block mission house stood near by Barrett's saloon, but the latter had the advantage, as it ran seven days and seven nights in the week and the mission only occasionally. I have not been able to learn the names of the missionaries who visited here, but I hope this poor effort at history may have the effect to bring out, while yet a few are living that know the facts, a complete history of both of the Manistee missions, and the names of those early laborers in the cause of religion. "Here is an Indian anecdote from the same narrator as the last, which has a smack of the frontier, and may prove of interest. "'It was in the year 1851. I was headsawyer in the old mill on Ba'chelor Point. We were sawing day and night, and I was near time for my change of tour. It was just in the gray of the morning, when I saw four Indians in a bark canoe, with something between them, in the bottom of the canoe, paddling rapidly and silently down the stream from the direction of Blackbird Island, where was a large encampment of Chippewas; tIhe four Indians were in their paint, and there was something peculiar in their appearance. "'They landed upon the sand beach a little above the Fisher & Co. shingle mill on the north side, and quickly lifted a body wrapped in a blanket from the canoe, and each taking a corner of the blanket in one hand and a paddle in the other, they rapidly ascended to the adjacent sand hill. Here they lay their burden down, and all set quickly at work with their paddles to make an excavation. '"Quickly a shallow grave was shaped, the body deposited, the sand replaced, and silently and quickly they returned to their canoe and paddled away up stream, chanting in low wild tones the deathsong of their tribe. "'As soon as I could get away, I went over to the encampment. I found the whole camp in a wild, drunken debauch. There were two young squaws tolerably sober; but not one word could I get from man or woman. All were thickly painted and sullen and glum. Some lay drunk upon the ground. After much difficulty, I ascertained that the Indian I had seen buried had had his head cleft with an axe by a squaw, in a drunken row during the night. It was fearful, how drunk they would get. When they were too drunk to stand or fight, they would sit or lie upon the ground and fasten their hands in each other's long hair and pull as long as they had strength to do so.' "I suppose it is hardly to be presumed that this narrative gives us the account of the first whisky murder that has reddened these shores; alas we know it was not the last. "1852. In 1852 came our fellow citizen, H. S. Udell, and went into the employ of John Canfield. He thinks the population was then about 200 in the county. The only settlements were at the mouth, at the Smith and Humble mills on the north side, and at the Stronach mill on the Little (or Dog) River. The Humble mill was already burned, I believe in 1850, but the old Catholic Mission house was still standing near by. The reservation had been surveyed and brought into market in 1849 and 1850. "The mills then in operation were the Stronach mill, Jo. Smith mill, Bachelor mill, and Canfield's two mills at the mouth. "These mills all used the upright or 'muley' saw,-circulars were then unknown. They cut a few thousand per day with their single up and down stroke, and would have deemed the circular or the gang an impracticable vision. "1854. In 1854 the outlet of the river was changed. In consequence of the encroachment of the bar upon the outlet, it was impossible to get depth of water sufficient to enable vessels of any size to enter. This necessitated that lumber vessels should anchor off and load by the slow, expensive and dangerous process of lightering or rafting. A ditch was dug across the spit or tongue of land lying north of the present north pier, and on which the lighthouse stands, and a close row of 'spiles' was driven across the channel of the stream and the water forced into a new channel, which was soon cut to sufficient depth; the same day the Sch. Gen. Wayne entered through the new channel and by piering with slabs, a considerable depth of water was obtained. "The job was done by Samuel Potter, then one of the business men of Manistee. "This work of improvement has been steadily carried forward, jmntil now vessels can sail from lake to lake drawing ten feet of water and upward. "1855. It was late in 1854 or early in 1855 that a meeting was held to see about getting the county organized. Mr. Udell thinks the meeting was held in the old schoolhouse, which then stood near the present site of the Methodist Church; Mr. Finan thinks it was in Canfield's boarding house. The Legislature was in session or about to convene, and Lucius H. Patterson, then of Grand Rapids (this district then included Kent County), was representative in the Legislature. There were present at the meeting D. L. Filer, Joseph Smith, L. G. Smith, H. L. Brown, H. S. Udell, the Finans, and others, not now remembered. After discussion of the advantages of an organization, a resolution was passed requesting our representative in the Legislature to do all in his power to secure the organization of Manistee County. The resolution was communicated to Mr. Patterson, and he secured the passage of the bill organizing Manistee County as a separate municipality. A 4 4* m-4 z.- I -

Page  24 IR, il __ I 24 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. I "We have no account of the rejoicings that followed, but we may safely assume that the event was duly celebrated. "As before stated, the county was divided into three townships, Stronach, Brown and Manistee. "1852-'55. In 1852 and, indeed, until about 1855, there were no mails to Manistee. "All letters or mail matter were directed to Grand Haven and brought from there by occasional vessels, or else to Milwaukee and forwarded in the same way. "1855. The first county election in Manistee County was held on the first Monday of April 1855, and resulted in the election of the following ticket: "Sheiiff, Sam. Potter; clerk and register, H. S. Udell; (D. L. Filer ran against Udell, and received 62 votes to Udell's 71); judge of probate, H. L. Brown; treasurer, Jo. Smith; prosecuting attorney, H. L. Brown. "At this election the whole number of votes cast in the county was 136. "The next county election occurred at the presidential election of 1856, where the following officers where elected: "Sheriff, E. W. Secor, 177 votes; clerk and register, D. L. Filer; probate judge, J. F. Chase, 170 votes; treasurer, Jo. Smith; prosecuting attorney, H. L. Brown. At this election W. T. Thorp ran against D. L. Filer for clerk and register, receiving 33 votes. "For representative in the Legislature, Perry Hannah received the whole vote, 194. For state senator, Thomas W. Ferry, (now acting vice president of the United States) received 188 votes to one for I. V. Harris. For Congress, D. C. Leach received 184 votes to 12 for Flavius J. Littlejohn. For president, Fremont, 185; Buchanan, 13. "It is interesting, to look over these old returns and watch the history of these names. Some have gone up, some have gone down. Some have gone to that bourne whence no traveler returns. "1853. Was a lively time at Manistee. It was noted for the first Manistee war, known as the timber war. It happened in this way: "In those days there was a good deal of land in the United States; much of it belonged to the government, and of necessity a good deal of it had to be left out of doors nights. "Now there came to be a general opinion abroad that this was a 'free country.' This opinion was supposed to be derived from the glorious Declaration of Independence, which we this day celebrate. "People reasoned like this: "This timber belongs to the government. This is a government of the people, by the people, for the people. "We are the people. Ergo, this timber belongs to us. " Quod erat demonstrandum! The very thing to be proved! Therefore we will take our timber,-and if history can be credited they did. "Our venerable Uncle Samuel arose in his wrath; he sent out his officials. One Williams was United States timber agent, and Durkee was United States marshal. All Michigan was one district, with seat at Detroit. The marshal came on with his cohorts; he shut down mills; he seized logs; he gobbled shingle bolts; he went on the booms and put U. S. on all the logs; he forbade the sawing of logs until a settlement was effected; the mill men were contumaceous, and the war was vigorous. At this time the Hon. Stillman Stubbs was keeping a sort of a tavern on the north side, near Shannon's place. The United States marshal made his headquarters there. He was greatly lionized. The hands from the mills on the other side of the river resolved to give him a special display of fireworks. So they prepared large balls of wicking saturated in spirits of turpentine, and after his excellency had retired for the night, the night being warm and the windows being open, they threw their lighted fireballs into the marshal's windows, and so gave him a grand illumination. To add to the vexation, the marshal's boat was sunk in the lake. Some arrests were made and some refused to stay made. There is a tradition which has come down from that remote period, of one who was sleeping, like the apostle of old, bound between two soldiers, and how he 'slid out' in light marching order! but I am not aware that he ever claimed supernatural deliverence. "1854. In 1854 the timber war came to a head. The mill men carried 'the war into Africa', and the marshal, instead of 'seeking new fields to conquer', was finding all the employment he needed in defending himself. The war ended like most wars, in a compromise, and I believe that it has never since been renewed. The idea that this is a free country has suffered an eclipse. "In April, 1855, the first board of supervisors of Manistee County met at the house of William Magill. Andrew C. Sherwood was chairman and Henry S. Udell was clerk. "From 1856 to the beginning of the rebellion I have heard of no incidents of especial interest. A steady growth in business and population; and at the outbreak of the rebellion the population of the county had reached nearly a thousand. In 1860 the settlement was mostly at the mouth. There was a rude trail ran along up river near the present line of River Street, to the Bachelor mill, near the Little Lake, and a wagon road on the north side. There was a small clearing around the Bachelor mill, a clearing on the north side around the Smith mill, about an acre and a half cleared and fenced at the corner of Maple and First Streets, and considerable of the Third Ward had been logged off, but not cleared. The old jailI believe a log building-stood near and a little above Sorensen's boarding house. One of the first acts of the new board of supervisors in 1855 was to establish a ferry across the river near the old Bachelor mill. Joseph Smith owed and run it. At this time there was, in addition to the mills I have already enumerated, the McVickar & Co. mill, which stood where Joseph Bauer's ice house now stands, just above Bedford's dock, which is a part of the old mill dock. This mill had a tramway, which ran back near the site of the old Milwaukee House, to Jack's boiler shop, where the slabs were burned. This mill was owned by J. L. McVickar and Michael Engelmann. The late Nathan Engelmann was their clerk and book-keeper. "It may be of interest here to call up a scrap of personal biography, which has been furnished me by one of the oldest living settlers at Manistee. Some time prior to 1849, but the date I am unable to give, there came to Manistee on a vessel, a large framed, fresh faced, timid German lad, with a pack on his back to peddle. He was treated with roughness by some of the denizens, who threatened to go through his pack. In alarm, he took to the water and waded up to his neck to reach the vessel, in order that he might get away from his persecutors. Disgusted with Manistee, he returned to Milwaukee, but was immediately sent back by his guardian, and he hired out to Jo. Smith. After working two days he was discharged, and came down to 'the mouth' and hired out to James Stronach for ten dollars per month. After working four days he was again discharged and returned again to Joseph Smith's. Here he hired out for 'chore boy', but soon took sick and was discharged a third time, and returned a second time to Milwaukee, but was again sent back to Manistee, and once more hired out to James Stronach as chore boy and man of all work, and continued to work for him until he died. "I will not follow the history through the intervening years, but only say that he has made his mark, not only at Manistee, but IJIR 04-A --'1~

Page  25 J 4t1 1 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 25 all along this shore, and for years his steamers have been the chief connection between Manistee and the rest of the world. He still lives, rotund, broad-faced and hearty, and always likes to come back to Manistee, to the scene of his boyish trials and manhood's triumphs, and is always glad to meet the companions of early days. "1859. There were jokers in those days, as well as before and since. The following is a specimen of how they did it. The first part of April, 1859, Erastus B. Potter was keeping a general grocery near the mouth, on the north side. Jo. Smith was running a saw mill at the outlet of the little lake. He also owned a schooner, the 'Whirlwind', I believe. In the course of the morning, Potter sent word to Smith that his schooner was on the beach, the men in the rigging, in great distress. Immediately the mill shut down, all hands were called and started post-haste to the beach, over the sand hills. Considerably 'blowed', the men reached the lake shore, but no wrecked schooner could be found. "In considerable dudgeon, Smith and crew returned to Potter's store for an explanation. Potter indicated by reference to the almanac that it was the first of April, and allowed that it was Smith's treat. Smith conceded the point, but strange to say-and this is the incredible point of the story-nothing could be found in Potter's store available for a treat, but a barrel of eggs. By this time a large crowd had assembled, and before the treat was completed the better part of a barrel of eggs had been consumed. Everybody was merry at Smith's expense, and were about ready to depart, when Potter signified to Smith the amount of the egg-bill, when Smith sympathetically referred Potter to the almanac, with the remark that seeing it was the first of April, he believed the eggs were already paid for, which, under the circumstances, Potter could scarcely deny. THE BAR. "1860. Early in 1860 came a young attorney with a one-horse sleigh and a box of law books. 'Manistee' was then located below 'Canfield's Hill'. There was no hotel. He brought up at Canfield's boarding house. D. L. Filer was then boss, and the young lawyer was informed, that in order to be taken in, he would need to see Filer, and that Filer was up to the rollway scaling logs. Young lawyer had an idea that 'scaling logs' was 'peeling the bark off'. "With some misgivings, he unpacked his box of books, and stuck out his shingle, down at 'the mouth'. He was the pioneer of that noble fraternity who, by learning, large views, strict morality and integrity and a wise interpretation and enforcement of the laws, have done as much as any class of men to bring law out of lawlessness, to educe order from chaos and to foster public morals and intellectual progress. "That young attorney was the Hon. Thomas J. Ramsdell. His old gray horse and sleigh he traded with D. L. Filer for the forty acres of land on which the residence of John M. Dennett stands, near the trotting park. "The first document that appears upon the records of Manistee County was drawn by him; is a deed and acknowledgment of Hugh and Susan McGuineas, executed March 26, 1860. "The first retainer paid to a lawyer in this county was paid by Hugh McGuineas, and for this he deserves a monument. He has always remained a patron of the bar. In November, 1860, Mr. Ramsdell was elected representative in the lower house of the Legislature, and this one term is all the representation that Manistee has ever had in the legislative or judicial branches of the government in the twenty-one years since the county was organized. "Mr. Ramsdell became at once a leading man in public affairs, and there have been but few enterprises having in view the material, mental or moral improvement of the community in which he has not been active. In 1866 he was active in the organization of the Manistee Bridge Company. In 1867 became one of the corporators of the Boom Company. During the same years he advocated the erection of the union schoolhouse, and became the contractor himself. During the war he was one of the most active in raising funds to secure enlistments, and has been ready to take hold of anything that promised to enhance the importance of Manistee. "Perhaps I may as well say here what is necessary about the legal fraternity of Manistee. Mr. Ramsdell was followed in the same year by W. W. Carpenter, (now of Howell, Mich., who remained but a short time and migrated). Next came in 1865 Capt. George W. Bullis, seeking an opening to practice, as well as to recuperate a physical system broken down by hard service in the army. Next in order in the Spring of 1867 came Daniel W. Dunnett, a young graduate of Ann Arbor, who remained about three years and migrated to Kansas. In May, 1867, came E. E. Benedict, and in July B. M. Cutcheon, the one joining in partnership with Mr. Ramsdell, the other with Mr. Bullis. "In 1868 S. W. Fowler located at Manistee in the double capacity of editor and attorney. Alexander H. Dunlap followed the same year, followed by C. H. Marsh and N. W. Nelson, in 1869, and by Dovel in 1871, and Morris and McAlvay in 1872. "I am aware that it does not become us lawyers to blow our own trumpet, but on my own reponsibility I undertake to say, that I do not believe that there is a town in the state, that, taking its whole history, can show a more public-spirited, temperate, courteous, hightoned bar than that of Manistee. "MANISTEE IN THE WAR. "We come now to the war period. Manistee at this time was a spot in the wilderness, but, nevertheless, the 'shot heard round the world' was heard even here. Communication was slow and infrequent; the mails arrived once a week, brought overland from Grand Haven by John Blanchard. Thursday was universally known as mail day. Here, as everywhere else in the North, the fires of patriotism were kindled. Recruiting officers, not only from the lower part of this state, but from neighboring states, visited Manistee to recruit their companies from the mills and the woods. Many of the first recruits went to Chicago to enlist, and among them Mr. J. H. Shrigley, who enlisted in the Chicago First Light Battery. Many from Manistee entered the old Third Michigan Infantry, but the largest number that enlisted in any one organization, entered the Sixth Michigan Cavalry, Company I, 33. "The adjutant general's report shows that the whole number that enlisted in Michigan organizations from Manistee County was eighty-eight; eleven from Stronach, ten from Brown, the rest from Manistee-composed of Manistee town and city, and Filer. But this is no fair criterion of the part Manistee took in the war; for, beyond doubt, nearly, if not quite, as many enlisted in other states as our own. "I wish I had time and space to enroll here the whole list of brave men who answered to their country's call; but I must forbear. Many of them sleep on battle fields; many more sleep at Andersonville and Belle Isle. In that roll of honor in the capitol at Lansing are the names of some Manistee men, the peers of any in patriotism and gallantry. "There are two among them of whom I would especially speak, partly because I knew them well in the army, and partly because they paid with their lives the full measure of devotion to their country. They are Lieut. and Adj't Jacob F. Seibert and Lieut. and Adj't James F. McGinley. "The first, Adj't Seibert, was my tent mate at the time he fellshot through the body at the battle of Poplar Spring's Church, Sep 1i Jli__ - __ 4 -.

Page  26 * a -1_____ 26 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. tember 30, 1864. lie was German by birth, served in the Prussian army, in the body guard of the Crown Prince. He was every inch a soldier. He enlisted in July, 1862, in the Twentieth Michigan, as a private, in Company 'A.' He had been, and was, I think, at the time, deputy county clerk and register of deeds. He and E.,Golden Filer enlisted together. Seibert was a splendid clerk, and they were so anxious to secure his services at brigade headquarters that he lost chances of promotion he might have had. It was my pleasure, as commander of the regiment, to promote him to sergeant. sergeant major, and finally to first lieutenant and adjutant of the regiment. In the first action after he received his commission, he was killed by my side, in an almost hand to hand encounter in front of Petersburg. We buried him on a grassy knoll, where he fell, with a ceder tree at his head. " 'He lies like a warrior, taking his rest, With his martial cloak around him.' "The general commanding named one of the forts in front of Petersburg in his honor, and that is perhaps his most appropriate monument. "Lieut. McGinley went out in the old Third. He greatly distinguished himself by his cool daring and marked courage, and was one of the hundred men of Birney's division who received the Kearney Cross, a medal of honor, struck in honor of Gen. Phillip Kearney, and which was held in our army in almost as high esteem as the cross of the legion of honor in the French army. This cross he wore with great pride and honor, and after being transferred to the old fighting Fifth, he was promoted to first lieutenant and adjutant, for gallantry. I visited him at his quarters and parted from him the evening before his death. He fell at the battle of Hatchie's Run, in front of Petersburg, October 27, 1864, while leading his men with his accustomed gallantry. I hope the time may yet come when these two brave men,.and their comrades who fell, may receive some fitting memorial at the hands of the people of Manistee. "Besides the promptness of the men in'enlisting, those who remained at home did their full shares in raising subscriptions and voting bounties,and assisting those who went. Seventy-seven hundred dollars was raised by subscription in one day to pay bounties to the volunteers, and nearly as much more was raised by vote of the town, and this out of a population of only one thousand souls. War meetings were held, speeches made, and feeling ran high. Nor were they always particular about the place and manner of holding their meeting. On one occasion a war meeting was called in "Hans & Tom's" saloon, which stood where A. H. Dunlap's block stands. The crowd was dense and the atmosphere, or that which served the purpose of an atmosphere, was denser. Among the speakers on this occasion was our excellent fellow-citizen, Dr. Ellis, who mounted a beer barrel in an atmosphere so redolent of tobacco smoke and whisky that you could cut it with a cheese-knife and shovel it out on a spade, and addressed the assembled crowd. "What greater evidence could I give of the patriotic fervor of the time? Manistee, the babe in the woods, performed her part well in saving the nation, and it forms an honorable page in her history. "FIRE OF 1864. "1864. While the war was still raging, and I believe just twelve years ago to-day, Manistee was visited by her first great fire which came out of the woods just south of where Jack's boiler shop now stands, and burned through to the river, destroying the old McVickar & Co. mill, belonging to D. L. Filer, adjoining Bedford's dock, and many of its appurtenances. On the same day the fire caught in the upper part of the village, in the vicinity of the Bachelor mill, and the old county jail was burned to the ground. "The original jail was a block house, built of square timbers, ironed together. The county did not rebuild on the old site, but sold that site and acquired the present site in 1866. CLOSE OF THE WAR-GROWTH. "1865 to 1869. With the close of the war came the return home of the veterans and great numbers of the soldiers, starting anew in life, sought a settlement in a new country where land was cheap and large interests to develop. The period from the year 1865 to 1869 was marked by no especial incidents of note, but during that period came a more rapid growth and development than at any previous period. Large numbers of homesteaders came in and the splendid forests of Northern Manistee began to resound the sturdy blows of their axes. "Openings were made in the forests; farms began to appear; the pine timber interest took a wonderful impulse at the close of the war. With the revival of general industry and trade came an increased demand and an increased price for lumber. New mills sprang up on every hand. The river and harbor were improved. The piers were commenced; the swing-bridge was constructed; the Boom Company organized; the Union School openied; churches started; commerce expanded, and by the Spring of the year 1869 Manistee blossomed out in a full blown city, with a special charter, a mayor, a common council and four wards; cutting the old town of M anistee in two, leaving Manistee town on one side, and Filer on the other. This was indeed a period of unexampled prosperity. "At the close of the war there were only the three original townships in the county-Manistee, Stronach and Brown. "In 1865 Bear Lake was added; in 1867, Onekama and Pleasonton; in 1869, Manistee city, Filer and Marilla; in 1870, Springdale and Arcadia. "There was once a town by the name of Cleon in the northeast corner of Manistee, but she got married to Wexford, and took her history with her. "1867. When the present writer landed at Manistee, now almost exactly nine years ago (July, 1867), almost the whole of Manistee was in the vicinity of Canfield's store. "The postoffice and a general store were in Dr. Ellis' residence. "Ramsdell & Benedict occupied as a law office the present office of the Boom Company. "In the next building, beyond, now occupied as a tenement house, were Bullis' law office, the office of the only newspaper, the judge of probate's office, the justice of the peace's office, insurance office, the office of the assessor of internal revenue, and a harness shop. "Next door was the American House, then kept by John Bennett, the only hotel in Manistee. "The county treasurer's office was in Ramsdell & Benedict's office, and the prosecuting attorney's and circuit court commissioner's was in George W. Bullis'. "The only meat market was back of Dr. Ellis' barn, and the only news and cigar stand was kept in a small building just opposite Otto Bauman's old stand. "Green's steam mill then stood just above the bridge, and a row of wooden buildings was going up in that vicinity. "The frame of the Tyson House was partly up. "The Tyson & Co. red mill was building, the Gifford & Ruddock mill; Taylor & Wing mill (now Salling's), the Wheeler & Hopkin's mill (now Peters'), the Dennett & Dunham mill, and others, were built that year (1867). The Filer mill was built in 1866, or commenced that year; the Stronach Lumber Company's mill was not built till some years after, I think 1869 or 1870. By 1871 the number of mills had increased to twenty-one. 5r *1 QD1 I

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Page  27 I HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 27 I "Those were flush times in Manistee. Lumber brought high prices. The influx of population was immense. The demand for labor was correspondingly great. "Three hundred buildings of various grades went up in Manistee in the year 1867. The population doubled twice between 1866 and 1870, and this prosperity continued almost unabated until the great fire of 1871. "The first serious drawback was by the fire of 1869. "Christmas night that year, the Tyson House, the finest hotel Manistee ever had, was burned, and all the rest of the block, from what is now the city bank to the Tyson & Sweet store. "The loss was about $100,000. The place of the Tyson House has never been filled, and that fire was a serious and permanent drawback to the prosperity of the young city. * * * * " THE TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT. " This sketch would be wholly incomplete without some mention of the great teLp)erance movement of 1874. " This is too recent to justify extended description. But I may say that it was one of the most remarkable phenomena ever witnessed in the city or any other country. " For thirty-five nights the largest assembly room in the city was packed to suffocation with an eager throng full of a strange and wonderful enthusiasm. More than two thousand signed the temperance pledge, and many hundreds of them keep it to this hour. " This building in which we gather to-day is the enduring monument of that great movement. " I hope to see, in the not far-off future, this building completed and dedicated to all that is beautiful and good and true. I hope to see here established by the liberality of our citizens a complete reading room, with its appurtenance. And after that a noble public library, amply endowed by some of our wealthy citizens and freely devoted to the elevation of the laboring classes of Manistee. Let us all help on the consummation of that much desired end. " Too much cannot be said in praise of the self-denying zeal and noble devotion of the women of Manistee to their work. Let us all lend them a hand, and with a God bless you from the heart, and a greenback from the pocket, speed them on their way. * * " CHURCHES. " As already stated, the first religious work at Manistee was performed by the Jesuit missionaries, and the first religious house was the Jesuit mission house on the north side near the site of the Humble mill, opposite the north channel. Next was erected the mission house at the mouth near the present lighthouse, which I am informed was a Protestant mission; by whom established, I have not been able to satisfy myself. " 1859. The first Evangelical Church organized was the Methodist; they began to have worship about 1869. " 1862. In 1862 they commenced the erection of their meeting * house on the same site still occupied. Their first pastor was a clergyman by the name of Baird. He remained some time and was succeeded by Rev. Mr. Steele. Holden N. Green was for a long time one of the main workers in this church. " 1861. The Catholics first began to have regular worship in 1861, a priest by the name of Father Tucker visiting here occasionally and preaching in Michael Fay's Hotel, which stood on the north side, and, I believe, is the same now occupied as a boarding house. '' 1863. In 1863 they erected the wooden church recently demolished on the north side, but for a long time were without a regular priest. In 1869 Father Henry Meuffles came here, and since that time the church has been greatly strengthened and enlarged. During the present year the old church has been demolished, as in 1875 the congregation had moved into their new brick building on the south side. " 1862. The Congregational Church was organized in 1862, July 20, in the old schoolhouse, by Rev. George Thompson, a returned missionary. Its pastors have been Revs. John McLean, Herman Geer, John B. Fisk, Joseph F. Gaylord. Until 1869 this society worshipped in the old schoolhouse and in Ellis Hall. POPULATION. " The first separate return of population of Manistee County was in 1860, and the census of that year reports the population at 975; in 1864 it was 1,674, in 1870 it was 6,084, and in 1874 it was 8,471. The population at the present time may safely be placed at about 10,000. REPRESENTATIVE DISTRICT. " 1855. The representative district to which Manistee belonged in 1856 included the entire lower peninsula north of the south In 1865 the district embraced twelve counties beside Manistee; in 1871 it was simmered down to Mason and Manistee, and in 1875 Manistee was constituted a district by itself. FINIS. " But it was long since time to bring this sketch to a close. It needs condensation, pruning and correction. I have done the best that I could in the brief time at my disposal, since my appointment working largely nights when tired out and nervously prostrated. I am conscious that there must be some inaccuracies. But I trust it will be found in the main correct. " The generation of pioneers of Manistee is fast passing away. The places that now know them will soon know them no more forever. " Before they pass away the facts connected with early history of the county should be gathered in some reliable and complete form. " To accomplish this a Pioneer Society should be organized at once. " And each of these pioneers should contribute from the fund of his knowledge toward the future and worthy history of Manistee. " If my feeble efforts shall have this effect to awaken a new interest in the subject and lead to more thorough investigation, and fuller facts, I shall be satisfied. " Fellow citizens, the past is gone beyond recall. The future is ours, to shape it at our will. Let us aim to make the name of Manistee as bright as our river, as evergreen as our forests, and as everlasting as this inland sea." SCATTERING NOTES FROM 1864 TO 1868. For a Christmas present in 1864, the ladies of Manistee presented each of the soldiers' families with a barrel of flour, and the gift was twice blessed. The news of President Lincoln's assassination, April 15, 1865, was received in Manistee by vessel from Chicago. The mills were immediately stopped, and all places of business closed. Private residences and public places were draped with mourning, and an immense mass-meeting was held at the Methodist Church. Prayer was offered and remarks made by Rev. O. A. Thomas. He was fol lowed by Hon. T. J. Ramsdell, who delivered an appropriate address and presented resolutions which were adopted. But a few days previous another meeting had been held in the same place to rejoice over the final victory of the Union armies. In September the editor of the village paper reported the appearance of Mr. John Canfield's fruit garden as follows: One plum tree seven feet high, of the Purple Damson variety, had over a bushel of fruit; a single limb ten inches long, having forty-five perfect 4cL- I -t

Page  28 g__________________________ __________________ 28 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. plums, averaging four and a half inches in circumference, the smallest way, and five inches the longest; a Standard Bartlett pear tree eight feet high matured eighty-five pears, weighing one-fourth of a pound each. There were other samples of fruit showing equally well. In June the new bell for the Methodist Church arrived, and for the first time in the history of the place suitable notice of the time of Sabbath worship was served upon the denizens of Manistee. It was in June of this year that the first strawberry church festival made its advent in Manistee. The ladies of the Congregational Church made a very successful experiment and enriched the treasury of the society to the amount $230. In July the propeller " Barber" commenced making regular trips between Manistee and Milwaukee, and immigration was greatly increased. During one week forty persons came here to locate. In April, 1866, sixty emigrants had arrived in Manistee since the opening of navigation. They came to secure homesteads. Wages in the mills ranged from $35 to $40 a month for sawyers, $28 to $30 for experienced mill hands, and about $14 for green hands. Butter was selling at 40 cents, eggs 20 cents, beef-steak 15 cents, maple sugar 20 cents. July 11th, Canfield & Bros. steam sawmill at the mouth of the river burned. Loss $30,000; insured for $15,000. This was the third mill belonging to Canfield & Bros. that had burned within three years. The new store building of this firm, opposite Dr. Ellis' residence, was completed this month. It was an immense building for those days. William Magill became connected with the firm of Canfield & Bros., in the lumbering business. THE BRIDGE. Prior to 1866 there was no bridge across the river, but for a good many years a ferry was kept up where the bridge now is. In April, 1866, the Bridge Company was organized. The stockholders were T. J. Ramsdell, John Canfield, M. Engelmann, D. L. Filer, Charles Secor, and L. G. Smith. John Canfield was president and T. J. Ramsdell secretary. A bridge of the Howe Truss pattern was built at a cost of $6,000. This bridge was maintained as a toll bridge until the fire of 1871, when it was burned. After the fire the site and franchises were sold to the county. The city then received the franchises and $2,000 from the county, and built the elegant iron bridge still in use, at a cost of $14,000. A correspondent of the Detroit Free Press visited Manistee in the Summer of 1866, and in a letter to that paper said: "Manistee village and vicinity contains about 1,100 souls, and is located between Lake Michigan and Lake Manistee. It is the county seat, has ten saw mills, eleven stores, seven blacksmith shops, two churches, two schoolhouses and a union school building of brick, 30x60, with wing 11x32, which will cost, when completed, $15,000. It also has one sash, door and blind factory, one tannery in process of construction, and several lath and picket-mills. There had been a flouring mill here, but it burned down. It has nine docks, and a printing office, publishing the Manistee Gazette. The propeller 'Barber' runs from here, tri-weekly, to Milwaukee; besides some twenty sailing crafts, which run to various points on the lake. The amount of lumber annually shipped from here is sixty million feet. A bridge is nearly completed across the Manistee River, of the Howe Truss pattern, with a turn-table, one hundred and twenty feet long, and when done will cost $12,000. Brick making is about to be started, and this is a good point for a foundry and machine shop, and a tub and pail factory. Fruit-raising is a good business here, as peaches, pears, apples, grapes and plums do well. We were shown by Hon. T. J. Ramsdell a fruit orchard on the bluff above the village, containing all the above-named kinds. The trees were thrifty and were well loaded with fruit. Four men are planting 100 acres of trees just south of the village." In the Fall of 1866 the first barber-shop was started by Jacob Lucas, who put up a building for that purpose near the bridge. George W. Bullis had purchased Mr. Black's farm for the purpose of going into fruit growing. McKee'& Sibbens had just started up their sash factory and grist mill. H. N. Green had just completed a large building near his mill for a dry goods store. In November of 1866 the village editor, reviewing the work of the Summer and Fall, had this to say: " Many dwelling houses have been erected in Manistee during the past seven months, as well as stores and shops innumerable, besides three or four sawmills now being finished. Our town has, during the past season of navigation, taken a stride forward far beyond the expectations of the most imaginative minds, and we expect to see, before the snows of many Winters fall, Manistee applying to the Legislature for a city charter. Our idea may be considered radical, nevertheless, if the business of our town continues to double each year, as it has done for the past two years, such will be the case. The class of men arriving here now, and making this their business point, are those calculated to benefit the place, as well as themselves; and this is true, as new business firms are springing up in all parts of the village. And what better proof should we have of the prosperity of our town than the great advance in value of real estate. Lots near the river that were selling a few months ago for $250, are now valued at $500; and other village lots have increased in value, according to their locality. Manistee will continue growing, and property will continue to enhance in value; and we would say to outsiders-those of a speculative mind and who are desirous of a good business point-to come to Manistee. There is a chance here for smart, active business men." At the beginning of 1867 there were seven dry goods stores and a hardware store. Three new mills were building, and several new store buildings. The Boom Company was organized this year. The whole of Manistee was in the vicinity of the Canfield store. In October the Tyson was opened. The building was 80x98 feet, three stories high, and cost $20,000. W. S. Huin was landlord, and F. F. Campau clerk. MANISTEE IN 1868. JANUARY.-S. W. Fowler succeeds Rice &,Wentworth in the proprietorship of the Gazette.-January 8 was the coldest day of the season, mercury dropping to 8~ below zero. FEBRUARY.-Organization of the Masonic lodge.-Death of Robert R. Rice. APRIL.-First trip of the "Manistee."-Destruction of the "Sea Bird" by fire.-Green & Bros. sawmill blown to pieces by explosion of boiler; eleven men killed and several others injured; loss of property, $24,000.-Miss Hannah Boch burned to death by her clothing, taking fire while burning rubbish in her father's yard.-Organization of I. O. G. T. lodge.-Consolidation of Goodrich and Engelmann lines. JUNE.-Green's mill rebuilt.-Shipment of 4,800 live pigeons to Buffalo.-New dock built by R. Barnes & Co. JULY.-The people of the village receive new notions of met ropolitan life by the visit of Miller's Atheneum, being the first theatre in Manistee.-Two cases of sunstroke. OCTOBER.-Worst storm of the season on the 5th inst.; many vessels disabled along the shore; no mail for six days.-New lighthouse tower at the end of the south pier.-Burning of the old boarding-house of Messrs. Canfield, at the mouth of the river. ''" ---~k~~

Page  29 o1 ` ]Il I - y-, HISTORY OF MANISTE-E COUNTY. 29 NOVEMBER.-Ninety-six Republican majority at the village election.-First snow of the season on the 17th inst. DECEMBER.-The "Manistee" made her last trip of the season on the 7th inst., and the sawmills shut down for the season. During this Fall about 50,000 fruit trees were received at Manistee. During the year there were 2,600 arrivals and 2,600 departures from the port of Manistee. There were shipped from the port of Manistee during the season 150,330,000 feet of lumber. At the beginning of the Fall of 1868 there were nine hotels, thirty-six stores, a foundry and machine shop, boiler works, a sash, door and blind factory, two large ice houses, one brick-yard, one bank, and other business places, such as boot and shoe shops, boarding-houses, saloons, carpenter and paint shops, etc. The lawyers were T. J. Ramsdell, E. E. Benedict, George W. Bullis, Byron M. Cutcheon, D. W. Dunnett, S. W. Fowler, A. H. Dunlap. The physicians were Drs. L. S. Ellis, Mobach, Smith and Shurly. Dr. Ellis was postmaster, and also had a dry goods and grocery store. T. J. Ramsdell was county treasurer, collector of the port and United States revenue collector. George W. Bullis was county prosecuting attorney and deputy revenue assessor. The Times was the only newspaper here, and was published by S. W. Fowler. There were five church organizations, one fine brick union school building, three small schoolhouses and three halls. Prof. Charles Hurd was principal of the union school, and Miss Aldrich, Miss Haight, and Mrs. Stansel, assistants. SAWMILLS AND LUMBER. There were twenty-one sawmills, having an aggregate capacity for cutting 1,508,000 feet of lumber in twenty-four hours, or nearly 500,000,000 feet in year. The actual cut for 1867 was 110,400,010 feet of lumber, which brought, on average, $5 per thousand. The review of the sawmills at this time is as follows: First in order comes the mill of Messrs. Canfield & Bros., at the delta of the river, built in 1866, its capacity 110,000 feet in twenty-four hours. This mill has cut in the last year 9,500,000 feet of lumber. Two mills were burnt down, and this is the third, built on the same site. Second. Green & Bro's. mill, near the bridge; built in 1863. Capacity, 100,000 in twenty-four hours; cut 10,000,000 last year. This mill was blown up last April, with a loss of eleven lives and over $20,000 worth of property. But it was rebuilt and put to running in about twenty days, and will cut more lumber this year than it did last. Third. Messrs. Tyson & Co.'s mill; built sixteen years; oldest mill in the county. Its capacity is 50,000 in twenty-four hours; cut, last year, 6,000,000. Fourth. N. Engelmann's lower mill; built in 1865; capacity, 50,000 in twenty-four hours; cut 7,000,000 last year. Fifth. N. Engelmann's upper mill has a capacity of 200,000 each twenty-four hours, and cut 12,000,000 last year. Sixth. Shrigley & Canfield's mill; built in 1866; capacity, 100, 000 in twenty-four hours; cut 8,000,000 last year. Seventh. Magill & Canfield's mill; capacity, 160,000 in twentyfour hours; cut last year 5,000,000. Eighth. Tyson & Co.'s new mill; capacity, 100,000 in each twenty-four hours; has been running but three months, and has cut 4,000,000. ^^ _ ___ ___________________ Ninth. Tyson & Co. had a mill burnt down November 14, 1867, valued at $50,000. It had a capacity for cutting 90,000 feet in twenty-four hours, and cut 14,000,000 last year. It is expected a mill will be erected in place of the one destroyed. Tenth. Ruddock & Gifford's new mill; capacity 120,000 in twenty-four hours. Maxwell, Pundt & Co.'s mill; capacity, 80,000 in twenty-four hours, has run but a short time, and cut about 3,000,000. Twelfth. Wheeler & Hopkins's mill; capacity, 80,000 each twenty-four hours. Thirteenth. Leach & Russell's new mill; capacity, 40,000 in twenty-four hours. Fourteenth. J. M. Hoffman's new mill; capacity 35,000 in twenty-four hours. Fifteenth. Taber & Bro.'s mill; capacity, 60,000 in twenty-four hours. Sixteenth. Filer & Son's new mill; capacity, 100,000 in twentyfour hours; cut 8,500,000 last year. Paggeott & Thorson's new mill; capacity, 100,000 in twentyfour hours. J. Yhelm's new mill; capacity, 25,000, cut 1,000,000 last year. Nineteenth. Moffat & Skilling's mill; capacity 20,000 in twentyfour hours. Twentieth. Paggeott & Thorson's upper water mill; capacity of 40,000 in twenty-four hours; cut 5,000,000 last year. Twenty-first. Paggeott & Thorson's lower water mill; capacity of 20,000 in twenty-four hours; cut nearly 5,000,000 last year. INCORPORATED AS A CITY. An informal meeting of citizens was held at the office of the county clerk, January 8, 1869, to consider the question of securing a city charter. It was decided to have Manistee incorporated after the general plan of the charter of Bay City, and to include all of Sections 11 and 12 and 1 and 2 lying west of Manistee Lake, and the northeast quarter of Section 13, the line to extend into Manistee Lake fifty rods from the shore. It was also decided to divide the city into four wards. The matter was taken to Lansing, and the charter granted by the Legislature the first week in March. On the 12th inst. there was a people's caucus and a Democratic caucus, and on the 13th the Republicans held a caucus. The first charter election was held on the 15th'inst., and resulted in the election of the following ticket: Mayor, George W. Robinson, 115 majority; recorder, J. L. Taylor, 124 majority; treasurer, M. Fay, 83 majority; marshal, L. S. Johnson, 102 majority; justice, S. S. Conover, 130 majority. Aldermen: First Ward, C. M. Danforth, F. McCormick; Second Ward, B. Milmoe, B. M. Cutcheon; Third Ward, Joseph Baur, A. E. Cartier; Fourth Ward, S. W. Hopkins, N. Norman. Supervisors: First Ward, W. B. Horton; Second Ward, T. J. Ramsdell; Third Ward, Peter Jones; Fourth Ward, W. S. Kendall. Constables: J. E. O'Connor, S. S. Glover, A. S. Jenkins, Geo. S. Allen. The whole number of votes cast was 441. The board of canvassers for the city met at the office of the county clerk, March 18, and declared the result of the first charter election as above stated. The board was composed of W. B. Horton, S. W. Fowler, B. W. Kies and W. S. Kendall. The first meeting of the common council was held at the office of M. S. Tyson & Co., March 23, and the amount of bonds to be -Vm I

Page  30 ~i~I~I~ ~ 1 30 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. given by the recorder, treasurer and street commissioner fixed. At the second meeting, which was held March 30, the following officers were elected: Street commissioner, George A. Shackelton; city attorney, D. W. Dunnett; city surveyor, H. S. Udell; harbor master, J. S. Taylor. At the end of the year the aldermen voted themselves $50 each for their services, and still there was money left in the treasury. The treasurer's report of receipts and expenditures for the year ending March 7, 1870, was as follows: RECEIPTS. Saloon licenses.................................. $4,400.00 Hotel licenses....................................... 205.00 Billiard licenses.................................... 160 00 Ten-pin licenses.................................... 20.00 Peddlers' licenses....................................... 7 00 Auctioneers' licenses................................... 6.00 Concert licenses...................................... 5.00 Circus licenses..................................... 69.00 Butchers' licenses................................ 100.00 Dray licenses........................................... 110.00 Fines by justices.................................... 645.65 Poll-tax................................................ 495.00 Highway tax..................................... 1,779.00 City tax............................................... 493.00 Total.........................................$8,494.65 EXPENDITURES. Highway purposes..........................$2,349.41 Police force........................................ 817.43 Pound........................................... 92.90 Clerks, rent and room............................. 154.03 Sheriff and jail fees..................................... 510.92 Salaries...................................... 1,672.95 Office rent and furniture for marshal...................... 123 50 Hooks and ladders....................................... 70.78 Eight aldermen......................................400.00 G. W. Robinson's trave'ing expenses in connection with river and harbor improvement.......................... 200.00 Office rent of recorder and making tax roll.................. 100.00 J. McGregor, for destruction of building by fire............ 175.00 B. M. Cutcheon, for drafting ordinances................... 37.50 Record books and stationery........................... 61.87 Printing and binding charter............................ 57.90 M. S. Root, board of crazy woman......................... 2 00 Sibbens & Co., ballot-boxes............................... 25.00 Reward for recovery of body of H. Field................... 200.00 Salary of supervisors.................................. 180.00 S. W. Fowler, printing............................... 147.90 Tribune printing...................................... 2.87 Total.......................................$7,381.96 Balance in hands of treasurer........................... $112.69 THE PRESS OF MANISTEE. Soon after the breaking out of the war, a young man who was a native of North Carolina was pressed into the service of the Confederate army. He was a mere lad, not more than fifteen or sixteen years of age, but of the genuine metal. He remained with his company until taken prisoner by Union soldiers and confined at Fortress Monroe. There he took the oath of allegiance to the Federal government, and was set at liberty. He came North to Chicago, and there fell in with some men who were coming to Stronach town to work at lumbering. He was a printer by trade, but not choosing to go into an office at that time, he joined the party, and upon arriving at Stronach went at work. His name was Robert R. Rice. This was in the Summer of 1864, and during that season the subject of starting a local newspaper had been agitated. A stranger came to Manistee, and succeeded in inducing a number of the citizens to club together and buy material for a printing office. The material was purchased in Milwaukee,and consigned to some one of the gentlemen interested in its purchase. About the time the material arrived it was discovered that the party who proposed to take charge of the office was a dissolute adventurer, and he was immediately dropped. Mr. T. J. Ramsdell, who had taken a leading part in the project, learned that there was a printer at Stronach, and at once went there to see him. He found the young man, Robert Rice, and was favorably impressed with his appearance. After a brief consultation it was arranged that Rice should take charge of the material and start a paper. Those were primitive days. The field was vast but sparsely occupied. The entire population of the whole county was but 1,674, but the newspaper enterprise had good backers, and experience proved their wisdom in the choice of an editor and publisher. The office was "set up" in a small board shanty, situated at the north side of the sand hill, east of the Canfield mill. From this building, on the 17th of December, 1864, the first number of the Manistee Gazette was issued. It was a modest appearing, five column folio, well arranged and clearly printed. In his salutatory the editor announced his faith in the future prosperity of Manistee, and stated his political creed to be that of the Republican party. During 1866 Mr. Ramsdell erected a frame building just west of where the Boom Company's office now stands, and upon its completion the printing office moved "out of the old house into the new." About 1867 Mr. Rice found his health failing, and took in a partner, but it soon became evident to him that he had but a little while to live, and the 1st of January, 1868, he sold the office to S. W. Fowler, then of Jackson, who changed the name of the paper to the Manistee Times, and enlarged it to six columns. Mr. Rice died at the residence of T. J. Ramsdell, February 12, 1868, at the age of twenty-three years. His life was short, but eventful. The few years in which he was associated with the interests and people of Manistee, brought many friends to his side who sincerely mourned his death. In 1869 another paper, called the Tribune, was started, and was edited for a short time by George W. Clayton, of Ludington. He was succeeded by John E. Rastell, who continued it for a couple of years, when the paper was suspended, and he left Manistee. In March, 1871, Mr. Fowler sold the Times to Richard Hoffman. About this time the first Democratic paper was started, and called the Standard. Its publisher was 0. H. Godwin. This was burned out in the October fire, and was not again published until April, 1872, when it was re-established and continued until September, 1874, when it was sold to S. W. Fowler. He had 'previously retaken the material of the Times, and upon his purchase of the Standard consolidated the two under the niame of the Times and mStandard, which paper he still continues to publish. Mr. Hoffman continued the publication of the Times until March, 1875, when he sold it to Appleton M. Smith, of Toledo, Ohio, who published it until last Spring, when he sold the office to its present proprietor, F. J. Hilton. During the political campaign of 1874, a small paper, called the People's Advocate, was started and issued for a short time, and then suspended. In the Spring of 1875, a Democratic paper, called the Advocate, was established by E. J. Cady, who continued its publication until last Spring, when he sold an interest in the office to Mr. V. W. Richardson, of Milwaukee, and subsequently sold his remaining interest to S. C. Thompson, the firm being Richardson and Thompson. The name was also changed to Democrat. The political complexion of the newspapers is as follows: `fi5i~~ ~----.--.- ---- - --- --~----~- - ------- --- ~--~-: ~------- --- ~ -- -.,...~..~... ___~. _I VL

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Page  31 1 Y L. HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 31 p Times, Republican; Democrat, Democratic; Times and Standard, Greenback, or Independent. These papers have always been conducted with full average, ability and enterprise, and have received liberal support from the people of the city and the county. MANISTEE RIVER IMPROVEMENT COMPANY. Prior to 1870 no logs had been put into the Manistee River east of the county line. The river was obstructed by a great number of ancient jams, many of them of immense size, and hundreds of years old. The consequence was that all the vast amount of pine upon the headwaters of the Manistee was comparatively valueless, because there was no way of getting it down to where it could be manufactured into lumber. The work of removing these jams was too great to be undertaken by a single individual or as a private enterprise, and it was therefore decided to organize a river improvement company. March 5, 1870, George W. Robinson, D. D. Ruggles, William Wheeler, Robert Risdon, B. M. Cutcheon and George W. Bullis met at the law office of Bullis and Cutcheon, and agreed to organize a company, under the provisions of the statute, for the purpose of clearing the river and improving navigation from the east line of Manistee County to the headwaters of the river, so as to make it practicable for running logs and navigation of all kinds of water craft. March 16 another meeting was held, and articles of association adopted and signed. The capital stock was $100,000, divided into shares of $100 each. The incorporators were George W. Robinson, William Wheeler, Robert M. Risdon, Daniel D. Ruggles, Niel Leitch, Horace Butters, Byron M. Cutcheon and George W. Bullis. The term of existence was fixed at thirty years. The first directors were George W. Robinson, Robert M. Risdon, Byron Cutcheon, William Wheeler and Horace Butters. The officers were: President, George W. Robinson; secretary and treasurer, B. M. Cutcheon. On the 9th of May the directors met and adopted by-laws. The surveys were made, plans adopted, and work commenced the same year. In 1872 tolls were, for the first time, fixed by the board of control, consisting of the governor, state treasurer and auditor general. These tolls, above the actual and necessary expense of conducting the organization, were applied to carry forward the improvement. In this way the work has been carried on, and the company has expended about $60,000. From 1878 to 1880 the company was involved in litigation as to its right to collect tolls. The result' of this litigation was favorable to the company, and put an end to trouble with reference to tolls. The present officers are: President, R. G. Peters; treasurer, T. J. Ramsdell; secretary, B. M. Cutcheon. THE VANDERPOOL-FIELD TRAGEDY. In the days gone by, Manistee has had its share of tragedy and calamity, and the consequent notoriety that comes from such events. Humanity is always shocked by the occurrence of tragic events, and their impress upon the memory of those familiar with their scenes and circumstances can scarcely be effaced. The place where a great tragedy has been enacted becomes invested with historic interest which the changes of time are impotent to destroy. If the act of murder was enveloped in awful mystery, or was attended by circumstances peculiar in any way, then the tragedy has wider notoriety and is more firmly lodged in memory. The Vanderpool-Field tragedy occurred in Manistee, September, 1869, and because of the mystery surrounding it, and the circumstances that followed, the place achieved a notoriety that was almost world-wide. Many persons,, to-day, remember the name of Manistee in connection with that awful tragedy, who know nothing else of the vigorous city that has grown here since that memorable time, and among the first things that will be brought to the notice of the stranger visitor will be that historic event. Any history of Manistee that did not contain a faithful account of the Vanderpool-Field tragedy and the trial of the accused, while, possibly, fairer in its contour, would be strangely wanting in completeness. A very correct and comprehensive account of this notable affair was published in pamphlet form by Dr. L. S. Ellis, an eminent physician of Manistee, and from that we copy as follows: " On the east shore of that great inland sea known as Lake Michigan, eighty miles north of Muskegon, and in nearly the heart of what is known as the finest belt of Michigan, lies, beautifully situated, the embryo city of Manistee, containing about 4,500 inhabitants. The city lies mostly along the south bank of the Manistee River, stretching away nearly two miles from the great lake. Something over three-quarters of a mile from Lake Michigan, near the bridge, and in about the heart of Manistee City, is a building owned by Judge Beecher, of Adrian. It is built on the bank and partly over the river, with doors in front opening upon the sidewalk, and windows in the rear overlooking the water. Prior to 1869 the west half of this building was occupied by R. R. Beecher as a news depot and stationery depot; the other half as a shoe shop. This building of unpretending appearance, thus nestled in the business center of Manistee, is supposed to have been the scene of the awful tragedy that gave rise to the present narrative. "The victim, Herbert Field, who was murdered September 5, 1869, was the partner of the prisoner, George Vanderpool, and under the firm name and style of Vanderpool & Field, had occupied the west part of this building for banking purposes for several months prior to the supposed murder. " LIFE OF HERBERT FIELD. " Herbert Field, son of Stephen Field, formerly of Lewiston, Me., was aged twenty-one years and two months. In early,childhood Field had some very narrow escapes of his life. Thrice was le saved from drowning by being drawn from the water by the hair of the head. Once from the premature discharge of a rifle while loading, which nearly cost him his eyes and life. Again, from fire communicated to his bed while asleep, by which he was nearly suffocated and dangerously burned. At thirteen years of age he left home at Lewiston for Washington; he visited its numerous places of interest; joined a Maine regiment encamped near Richmond, Va.; borrowed money of a soldier acquaintance to meet his expenses and returned home, and worked as a 'newsboy' till a sufficient sum of money had been earned to pay the soldier and settle other accounts. " Field then engaged on board a Government transport carrying supplies to the Union army at New Orleans. On February 5, 1863, at the age of fifteen, he sailed from Boston, in the 'John Tucker,' bound on a South American and European voyage. Harshly treated and poorly fed, living on condemned army stores; near Cape Horn the ship encountered a terrific storm, which continued fifteen days, exposing the men to continual unrest, cold and hunger, and almost superhuman effort to save the storm-driven ship from total destruction. The passage from Boston to Valparaiso was made in ninety-three days in much peril and suffering. While at Valparaiso 14 - L "z2 _ - ~_~_~ c~~-----I--------~-dL ~-~-~~-~-.~-- -~~L~L~h-------------------~ ~-~-~- - _,._.,.~_~~--i=-.._.,;.,. -~_I-~- -T-~---~ __a_ ~-T~

Page  32 mlp 74 1 32 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. I he availed himself of every opportunity to visit the city and surrounding country, as he received permission from the proper authorities, and made himself acquainted with the manners and customs of the people and things of general interest. Here he obtained permission of his captain to leave and ship on board a brig bound to San Francisco, though refusing to give him a discharge, which the captain claimed he could not do lawfully. " Field left, taking lodgings at a hotel, where he was arrested as a runaway, thrown into prison and handcuffed, with some of the vilest wretches he had ever seen-thieves and murderers-not one of whom could speak English, suffering the miseries of his incarceration three weeks, and all by the cruelty of the captain, for having left the ship without a legal discharge, though advised to do so by the author of his impiisonment, taking advantage of his youth and ignorance of law. He soon found and improved an opportunity to leave the John Tucker, and enlisted in the navy, on board the United States flagship 'Lancaster,' commanded by Admiral Porter, in the service of which he continued nine months, visiting many South American cities, and gathering what useful knowledge came within his reach. "Leaving the 'Lancaster,' Field shipped on board an English barque bound for Liverpool; touched at Queenstown, Ireland; thence sailed for Russia, touching the coast of Scotland. While in the Baltic, was shipwrecked near Riga, and in half an hour after his escape from the vessel she sank to rise no more. Here he lost $180 in gold, and all his clothing. Was then taken in charge by the Consul, and sent to London, where he stopped six weeks, visiting places of interest and importance. Then shipped for Boston, arriving home in the Autumn of 1865, and seemed to his friends as one raised from the dead, not having heard from him for a year or more. " Field then commenced a course of study at the commercial college, Auburn; finished the same, and in the following Spring went to New York, in search of a business situation; finding none which suited him, he shipped again for an island of the Caribbean Sea, in search of guano; returned home in Autumn; wrote a lecture of his travels in South America, which, by the request of friends, he delivered at Central Hall, Lewiston, to good acceptance. " The same lecture was subsequently delivered by Mr. Field to a large audience at Manistee, Mich., realizing some $50, which was donated for the purchase of a Sunday-school library. Miss Hill, a lady of some fifty-five years, being much interested in the lecture, and its author, at Central Hall, offered to aid Mr. Field in obtaining a better education, which offer was accepted, and study commenced at the Edward Little Institute, but soon abandoned from failing health. " In the twentieth year of his age, December, 1868, he commenced the banking business at Manistee, Mich., in company with Vanderpool, his alleged murderer. In this movement he had the consent and pecuniary assistance of Miss Hill to the amount of several thousand dollars. She styled herself his 'aunt,' and was recognized as such at Manistee, where he met his untimely and most cruel death. " In the early part of December, 1868, Mr. Vanderpool made his way to Manistee, and soon became known there as a young man who, in company with Mr. Field, proposed to start a bank in the place. Arrangements were accordingly made, and on the 12th day of December the First Bank of Manistee was opened for business. And it is but justice to him who has been convicted of the murder of his former partner, and is now suffering the penalty of that crime within the walls of the State Prison, at Jackson, to say here, though Vanderpool, as yet, was the only representative of the new banking firm in Manistee, it was generally understood, through his own representations, that his means were small, but his experience in the business was the offset of the larger capital of his partner, who was represented as the moneyed man. " Upon opening his place of business, Vanderpool immediately selected, or rather hunted up, a small-sized, ordinary one-anda-half-story dwelling-house, rented it, and with his young wife commenced keeping house, apparently in an economical mode, and lived for some time in a quiet, unostentatious manner, though mingling quite freely in society, making the acquaintance of the citizens of Manistee in a very proper and favorable manner. Having thus commenced business, the great want of a banking house in the place gave this new firm im aediately a real business, and while the business men of the village and the vicinity knew the capital of the new bank was not large---in fact, rather small for such a business-yet they understood Vanderpool's means was mostly obtained on his own credit, from men in the neighboring town, Muskegon, and Mr. Field having a credit whereby he obtained all of his means. This, together with their fair and prompt dealings, tended to very soon build up for them a good business. "Mr. Field joined his partner here in the month of February, 1869, and I think it is safe to say he was femiliarly known as Field, our young banker, in less than a month after his arrival, and, also, that he knew every nook and corner in the town within the same length of time. He made the acquaintance of strangers very easily and readily; always seemed cheerful and pleasant, with a good word for everybody wherever he met them. Perhaps among his greatest faults as a business man was that of telling too much. " But such was the firm of Vanderpool & Field, bankers, of Manistee, two enterprising looking young men with fair ability-the one affable and agreeable in society, with a good reputation for business and an excellent credit for a young man without means in the place from which he had just come, and that a neighboring town; and the other with almost unlimited control of quite a large sum of money, obtained upon his own credit (though not an ordinary business credit), and genial and talkative almost to a fault. And as such they conducted their business in Manistee until they were really gaining a strong hold as business men in their line. " Such was the state of affairs on the fourth day of September, 1869. On the evening of that day they finally dissolved partnership, and the Monday following, September 6th, George Vanderpool was, as the successor of Vanderpool & Field, to continue the banking business in Manistee. As Mr. Vanderpool says: 'He expected to simply do an exchange business until he could procure assistance.' As yet, reader, we have George Vanderpool in Manistee, as an enterprising business young man, with no known stain upon his character, a respectable citizen and clever fellow, with but few, if any, enemies, and many friends, with a quiet, gentle, respected wife, living in good style, and, to all appearances, contented and happy-and he a banker. "While Mr. Field, still younger than Vanderpool, one of the merriest of the merry, to all appearances, living with an adopted aunt in a quiet part of the city, by whom he was furnished, as is supposed, the means upon which he became one of the Manistee bankers. He was of that class of persons who have a large circle of intimate friends, some of whom he managed to be with the major portion of his time, and those for whom he claimed the strongest attachment in Manistee, were young men against whose private and business characters no exception could be taken. "Both made many friends, and were gradually gaining in strength as a business firm, and, I may say, were much respected in the community, so that when, on the following day, that fatal Sunday, Herbert Field was not seen by his more intimate friends in the afternoon-they remember it. And when on Monday it was whispered about and reported in public that he is not to be 1--- --- - ---------- ----I--;-~ ~- --- - ~ _. ~~_;,_,_____~_ _ ___.____.__- L ~

Page  33 1 U_ -. --- -. -- _, - I ~~-~ ~-- --- --;~~ -- I VL ~ HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 33 found--he is missing-the story, started by his late partner, that he supposed he had ran away, struck the public ear like (as it were) an electric shock, and went with amazing rapidity through the city. "And the story that Field's young and roving disposition had broken away from the dull and tedious restraint of his adopted aunt, and sought its freedom in flight, was fast gaining ground, notwithstanding the protestation of his 'aunt,' who felt sure he was the victim of foul play. " The internal workings and late difficulties of the firm, related to a few of our leading citizens by the 'aunt,' together with the fact that over two thousand dollars belonging to Herbert Field was left in the safe of Messrs Willard Hall & Co., led them to inquiries and researches that soon raised their suspicion against him whose position in society, and whose exemplary life, so far as they knew, almost forbade their giving utterance to; but subsequent investigations increased their first terrible suspicions sufficient to repeat them privately to others, and active measures were taken to quietly examine every avenue from which they could hope to obtain any information. Repeated inquiries of Vanderpool brought out his opinion that Field had ran away. Further investigations could establish no satisfactory object for which he would thus run away, and hence found no rational ground upon which Vanderpool should form such an opinion, and thus matters stood until Tuesday evening of that week, when the boat was expected to return, by which those whose fears were strongest, hoped some tidings of the missing man might come. The steamer came, but with no relief for Herbert Field's anxious friends. " More active measures than had already been resorted to were then instituted for the purpose of determining, if possible, the whereabouts of Mr. Field, and more particularly to ascertain whether he had been murdered, and if so, by whom. Accordingly watches were placed upon the bank building, and also upon Mr. Vanderpool's, none of which resulted in anything, except to ascertain that Vanderpool, early on Wednesday morning, was engaged in cleaning the bank, and this fact directed attention to the condition of the inside of the bank; and those engaged in the investigation determined to examine it carefully; and Wednesday afternoon, in the presence of Vanderpool, the sheriff, with several other citizens, including Mr. Conover, did so. Up to this time Mr. Vanderpool only knew that he was suspicioned as the murderer of his former partner by what he saw of the conduct of various citizens towards him, and even that was not probably sufficiently defined to justify him in coming to any definite conclusion; but, of course, by this examination in his presence, he could no longer doubt it. He could see by the manner of those present that they were not only examining the bank, but himself, also. It is sufficient to say here that this part of the investigation resulted in Mr. Vanderpool being taken into custody by the sheriff, partly because circumstances at that time seemed to demand it, and partly on the advice of his attorney. And though no warrant had yet been issued for his arrest, and notwithstanding the fact that the sheriff, while taking him to jail and for a short time afterwards, expressed a strong belief of his innocence, the telegraph wires heralded the fact all over the land that Manistee had their banker in jail, and on the 17th day of September he was there legally charged with the murder of his late partner. During all this time the community at large could not believe him guilty, and some of his more intimate friends exhibited considerable pertinacity in asserting their belief of his innocence, and the great injustice done him in holding him a prisoner, even after a pretty general opinion had been formed that it was a case that, at least, justified. legal investigation. " The general unwillinginess to believe him guilty is very fairly expressed in a letter written shortly after the body of the murdered man was found, in which appears the following: 'The general sentiment among the people here, when suspicion first rested upon George Vanderpool, was that it could not be true. Mr. Vanderpool could not do such a deed-his physical constitution would not permit it.' His business relations with this community had been such as to draw around him a host of friends, and the people could not believe it, until investigation revealed fact after fact too convincing to resist the conclusion. ' A ray of hope that George was innocent based upon one theory and then another, would only dawn upon the minds of his most intimate friends to be totally destroyed by facts that appeared as the investigation progressed.' " As already stated, when Mr. Vanderpool was taken to the jail the sheriff did not think him guilty, nor did the larger proportion of the citizens of the place; but as there was considerable excitement over the suspicious circumstances already made known, it was thought best by many, including Vanderpool and his legal advisers, that he should remain in the custody of the sheriff while investigation progressed, Vanderpool himself declaring that he desired the matter investigated. Accordingly, he remained within the walls of the jail, but shared the hospitality of the jailer's private table, and had the liberties of the jail. Mrs. Vanderpool was permitted to share his society at her will, and by that means, as also by other sources, Vanderpool was kept advised as to what was transpiring outside. " In the meantime, investigation was pushed in every direction to ascertain the whereabouts of Mr. Field, if living, and his body, if dead. The sheriff offered $300, if dead, for his body,-and $50, if alive, for information of his whereabouts. The $300 was afterward increased to $500 by J. L. Taylor, the then recorder and acting mayor of the city, all of which has since been paid to Rollin O'Crispin, the man who found the body. Steadily day by day the net-work of circumstance against Vanderpool seemed to be increasing, until a more general opinion of his guilt was felt and expressed. Efforts had been made to find the body. The river was dragged, and some other localities examined during the week, but a public meeting was called and held on Saturday evening and largely attended for the purpose of making a more thorough search for the body. The general expression at that meeting of those who had been especially engaged in investigating the matter, was that a foul murder had been committed in our midst, and no pains should be spared to find the body, and all concurred in the opinion that too little had been done when Mr. Vanderheyden was murdered almost in our streets, and also when Mr. Daugherty was missing. These were both old citizens of the place-the first of whom was murdered only a short distance from the then village limits, for a trivial sum, and the latter suddenly disappeared, leaving a family and large property, and has never yet been heard of. " Arrangements were there made to make a general search on the following day (Sunday). The result was, the river was thoroughly dragged from lake to lake; also a portion of Lake Manistee, and the surrounding country thoroughly examined; also the beach of Lake Michigan for several miles north and south, but to no purposenothing was found. Of course, during all this investigation, searching for the bcdy and the necessary excitement, various theories were advanced; among them that Field had gone to sea, and that he was really alive, and this communlity was the victim of the romance-loving Field. This last theory was indulged in more freely after the Sunday search proved fruitless, but, notwithstanding this, those who had been most actively engaged in examining the circumstances against Vanderpool still insisted that Field was dead and Vanderpool had murdered him. " After this Sunday but little more search was made, except as private individuals, stimulated by the reward offered, would here ti--

Page  34 ~4---? \I--_ -I. __ ____ 34 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. and there be found searching, some with pike-poles, inflicting grievous wounds upon the bed of the. river, and some with a more delicate instrument in the shape of a novel ' tin water telescope,' while others were pressing their inquiries into some harmless sand bank. " The second week was now passing away since Vanderpool was arrested, and he began to be impatient, desiring to be out attending to his business, which, of course, was being sadly disarranged; still, under advice of his counsel, he decided to make no effort to procure his release until the authorities should have satisfied themselves thoroughly and release him of their own accord. But before the body was found it was feared his counsel would conclude to take him from prison by a writ of habeas corpus, and so sanguine were the prosecution that a murder had been committed, a complaint was legally made on the 17th day of September, in the afternoon, charging Vanderpool with the murder of Herbert Field. (A. W. Briggs took the necessary oath, unconscious of what was transpiring on the beach north of us). A warrant was accordingly issued and placed in hands of the sheriff. " Such was the state of affairs in Manistee on Friday, the 17th day of September, last; but about twenty-eight miles north, on the beach of Lake Michigan, the body of Herbert Field was found, and the wounds upon his head spoke a language a thousand fold stronger than anything that had been before discovered. They forever settled the fact that that young form, so lately full of life and happiness, was murderously crushed from earth by the hand of an assassin. But as to who was the prepetrator of the awful deed, they of themselves were as dumb as the meaningless moan of the damp, cold, lake breeze that swept over his pallid brow. " After the holding of a coroner's inquest, the body was put on board the steamer' J. Barber' and conveyed to Manistee, entering the harbor and river during the still hours of the night, placed in the warehouse, and the authorities notified. Saturday morning came but to chill the heart of the community with the sad intelligence that Herbert.Field was dead, and that he had been cruelly murdered. " Men who had hitherto freely expressed opinions for and against Mr. Vanderpool at first, seemed amazed and almost dumb. No voice but a tremulous one, but countenances told too plainly the secret inner-workings of the mind, and it was feared by some that men under such excitement would forget themselves and hurl Vanderpool headlong into eternity, and thereby add to the already too horrid chapter of crime, but be it said to the credit of the citizens of Manistee, not a single demonstration of that character was actually made, but instead, a patient waiting for the law to take its course. "It is true men took an interest in the matter and worked zealously, but a debt had been incurred by this community; a life had been taken in their midst, and to the spirit that had taken its flight, and to those who were yet here, and to come in the future, every man had a duty to perform, viz.: to do what he could to get at the facts; and if what has been accomplished has been the result of over-zealous work, none should rest until it has been undone; but it is the purpose of this work to lay before the public the facts, and let the discriminating judgment of an impartial people take care of the balance. "Up to the time of finding the body, Mr. Vanderpool manifested great confidence in the theory that Mr. Field was still alive and somewhere in the wide world, and apparently it was with some difficulty that he was made to believe they had found the body. He exhibited some levity at such an idea, when the fact was first made known to him; but once satisfied that it was true, he manifested much feeling and great love and respect for the murdered man, and said he felt deeply for him and wanted to see the corpse, but the state of public feeling was not such then as to warrant his witnessing it, and the body, already much swollen, had to be interred as soon as the coroner's jury had examined it, and while they were yet taking testimony in the case, holding their afternoon session in the bank building. The whole of Saturday was occupied by the coroner's jury in taking testimony, and about 6 o'clock in the evening they rendered the following verdict: 'That the body is the body of Herbert Field; that he came to his death on the 5th of September, A. D., 1869, in the building lately occupied by Vanderpool and Field for banking purposes, in the city of Manistee, by being struck upon the head in two places with some blunt instrument or weapon, used willfully and maliciously by George Vanderpool for the purpose of murdering him, the said Herbert Field.' "The foregoing verdict was drawn up under the supervision of the prosecuting attorney of the county, after the jury had expressed themselves satisfied that Mr. Field came to his death by the hand of George VYanderpool, and upon the same being read to them before signing, several of them said they were not aware that it was their duty to express their opinion as to who was the guilty party; but under advice of the prosecuting attorney, and with the assurance that it was an ex-parte proceeding, and hence could not in any way affect the legal rights of Vanderpool, they signed it. And inasmuch as there was one witness examined at that time who was not at the trial, it may be of some importance to insert his testimony here, though it was not subject to cross-examination-a great safeguard against false evidence. The witness was William D. Ramsdell, who testified as follows: 1" 'On Sunday, about 11 o'clock, September 5, I was sitting in the shoe store, a room adjoining the bank. Mr. Field and Mr. Vanderpool came in together and asked me to witness some paper, which I did. They then called on A. W. Smith to do the same, which he did, and they then went back in the bank. Some ten or fifteen minutes afterward I heard a noise in there, sounding something like a scuffle; I supposed it to be Mr. Field playing with his dog. I was about starting for home, and I noticed that the curtain was up a very little. I thought I would step in, but found the door locked; I placed my face to the glass, but could not see any one; I rattled the door and told them if they did not make less noise I would call the police and have them arrested for riotous conduct, and thought no more of it and passed along home. I should have thought the noise was loud enough to attract attention of passers-by on the side of the street; there was no response. The noise stopped almost immediately. The curtain was up nearly, if not quite, twothiids of the way up the first light of glass. Could not see any one, at all; at least, I did not. In the shape that curtain was, I do not think I could have seen any one behind the desk. I had no desire to go in, however, and did not examine very closely. Having seen them so recently I did not think there was anything wrong. The noise seemed like a shuffling noise on the floor; heard no voices. We were busy in tlhe next room, and there might have been some loud words and we not have noticed them. I have been accustomed to playing with a dog by taking him by the ears and giving him a shove on the floor; I thought the noise sounded like that would, When they were in for us to witness the papers, they both seemed a little excited-not much, however. I heard this noise first while in the adjoining room, and more particularly when out on the sidewalk. I have been told since that Mr. Field's dog was then tied up at home. I was in back of the desk in the bank about Wednesday before this; I did not notice that the carpet was any more worn or dirty where it is now gone than at any other part of it; I did not notice any holes in it. When they came in for witnessing papers Mr. Field was carrying the papers and Mr. Vanderpool the I __ _ __ I__ __~ _ _ cllllll ic~n

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Page  35 J/ HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 35 ink and pen. Mr. Field was in his shirt sleeves. Mr. Wright and Mr. William Brain were in the shoe store at the time.' "As soon as intelligence of finding the body made its way to the sheriff, he placed his prisoner in the most secure' cell the jail afforded, and took every precaution against his escape. "Such was the situation. A murder, in boldness and atrocity not surpassed in the criminal annals of the state, had been committed in our midst; the body of the murdered man, as if by the hand of the Almighty, had broken loose from its anchor and arose from its watery grave to furnish the necessary link of evidence against its cruel murderer, and passed away to the silent tomb; sad messengers, bearing the last painful tidings to those who gave him birth in his New England home, had been dispatched; and, oh! how could it be? and yet, it was: George Vanderpool was in a prisoner's cell, charged with the murder of his former partner. "From this time forward to the trial, the prosecuting attorn ey with his assistants, were diligently engaged in preserving and collecting testimony against the prisoner, on the supposition that he was the murderer; and the prisoner's counsel, with their assistants, were as busily engaged in preserving and collecting testimony for his defense, on the supposition that he was innocent, all of which testimony it is the more especial object of this work to lay before the public, as it was taken at the trial by a phonographic reporter, and which will be found in the subsequent pages of this work. "In the meantime the prisoner was taken before a justice of the peace for examination, which he waived, and was regularly committed for trial. "Of the manner of the prisoner from the time of his committal to the time of the trial, and of incidents connected therewith, much might be said, and yet fail to express the indifference and unconcern manifested by him. If the reader can imagine a young man of life and activity taken from the best society, torn from warm and intimate friends, and among them a tender, loving and idolizing wife, and thrust into prison charged with the awful crime of murder, and yet manifesting but little feeling, appearing precisely the same as if nothing had happened, cracking a joke here and there, where occasion offers, as well when the material for it is drawn directly from the circumstances that led to his imprisonment as from other sources, usually eating his regular meals with the same zest as though they were being earned by himself with strong and ennobling exercise, he can form some idea of George Vanderpool's bearing and demeanor during that time, and without he cannot; for such, to all appearances, was his general bearing. Occasionally, however, very slight indications of feeling could be seen forcing their way up through the smooth surface, but they were as quickly driven back, and his general jovial manner restored, perhaps spiced with some witty remarks. " He professed to sleep well at nights, and of course of that no one would be a better judge than himself. He diligently guarded against ill-health and the effects of prison life by a judicious arrangement of his time-alternately reading, writing and exercising. His mode of exercising was in walking backward and forward across his cell, and in swinging his arms. To make the latter exercise more beneficial, he requested the sheriff to furnish him some dumbbells; they were, however, never furnished. His wife kept him constantly supplied with fruit of various kinds, thereby making his fare much better than it would otherwise have been. These means prob ably aided materially in preserving his healthy appearance, commendable, of course, whether guilty or innocent. " He professed great piety in the presence of the sheriff and some others; but when only in the presence of the keeper or other inmates, he would at times, when matters were not moving as smoothly as at other times, give vent to impatient expressions and some times strong language. There was a more general watch over him than is usually the case with prisoners, from the fact that the large wooden door of his cell was changed for one made of strong iron bars bolted together diagonally, through which his cell could the more easily be kept more comfortably warm. " During his imprisonment the keeper of the jail at night occupied the adjoining hall and more or less during the day time. Mrs. Vanderpool had been permitted to see him and talk with him through the hole in the large wooden door of his cell, though always in the presence of others. On one occasion the letter referred to in the sheriff's testimony, and interlined with pin or stick marks, was discovered, and at first indicated to the authorities that she might in some way have some knowledge of the crime, if her husband had; and she was taken into custody also, and confined within the jail for two days, but permitted to have the society of a lady friend, during which time the officers satisfied themselves that she knew nothing of the matter, and was therefore released. "About the 1st of October the sheriff received for the prisoner a very noble letter from Vanderpool's mother. Evidently, from its tone, the newspapers she had seen were strongly against her son, and probably she had only heard the reports against and none for him; but notwithstanding that she had such confidence in his kind, gentle disposition that she was sure, if he had taken Herbert Field's life, it was not premeditated, but was the result of some difficulty between them, and the result of an unlucky and unintended fatal blow, and therefore she advised him to make a full, complete and truthful statement of the whole matter, giving every particular, whether for or against him, and take the result of the facts, whatever it might be. And in compliance with that advice, he wrote out a statement covering thirty-eight pages of legal cap paper, commencing it on the 3rd of October, and addressing it to his mother. As the beginning and ending of it are the only parts that will not be found in substance, in his statement given on the trial, I give them below. The one is adapted to a statement to his mother and the other to a statement to the jury-that being the only material difference in the two. " The following is the commencement: " 'MANISTEE, October 3d, 1869. " MY DEAR, DEAR MOTHER: " Oh tell me, have I yet a friend? This is a beautiful Sabbath morning. I am seated in my cell, in jail, for the dark and bloody crime of murder. The sheriff just handed me your letter of the 26th ult. Now I am writing, but what use to try, when your imagination must in the end do what pen and ink can never do ' realize my feelings.' 0 how I coauld talk if you were here, but what use to write, when it will come so far short of my feelings. But I will try to answer a few things. I received your other letter in due time, but was very busy and delayed answering it in order to have my wife write some in it, and (as is too often the case) it was laid aside for the cares of every-day life. Now you ask me to write, ' truthfully, faithfully, a statement for God and man to read;' you ask it by my hope of heaven and earth, etc. I can do that and call God and the spirit of poor, poor Herbert to bear witness, yet this is scoffed at as mockery and my very innocence is called impudence. But, oh thanks be to God, He knows. He knows, feeling that I am ready to go, ready now and can go smiling at the world's mistake. My manhood rises with contempt above the man or set of men that would think me so low as to sell my peace of mind in this world and my soul in the next, for a few paltry dollars. But I was to write a statement, so let me go back and bring up the outline, from the date of my last, though I can't exactly remember just when that was. Winter passed and Spring with its warm sunshine set in, mills whistled and the streets put on a look of business. Mr. 41111 - i=-;+~,

Page  36 1 a)Its~ 44 -- S I S36 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. i Field, naturally so full of life, at times seemed downcast.' [And so on down to where he begins in court.1 " The following is the conclusion: " 'I leave it with God and time to prove. It has been a pastime for me to write and I would like it printed, but it is badly written, badly spelled and badly put together, besides being long and tedious; still I would like it preserved, as it is probably the fullest statement I shall ever write. The only object in having it printed would be for my friends, though I would rather the world should not have it to hurl against my poor, defenseless wife till after trial. Now my more than mother, I am to close this and say farewell, but first let me say this: Rest easy as to me. I am content, God's will be done, not mine. My heart is right. You have been a true and noble woman and a guide of my life, and I love you for it, and God will reward you for it. You may freely bet your soul on my innocence, and when the people tell you that George Vanderpool was a murderer, say to them, ' Iou never knew him.' If I die for this crime I will not be the first nor yet the last, that have suffered unjustly. Let us hope in Go. Remember me kindly to Ada, and may Heaven bless and protect you, is the earnest prayer of one whose only crime was the lack of " education " and wealth. SNow as ever, GEORGE VANDERPOOL.' " And so on down to the time the prison door, at Jackson, closed upon him, he as earnestly protested his innocence; but I shall speak more particularly of his bearing again when I come to the trial and its incidents. " The citizens of the place generally seemed satisfied that Vanderpool was guilty, and only awaited the coming of court to legally try and convict him; but while this was true there were many good citizens, who, feeling that Vanderpool could hardly do such a deed, were anxious for more light on the subject. "Such was the state of affairs on the twenty-second day of December, when George Vanderpool was brought before the Circuit Court for the County of Manistee and arraigned for the crime of murder. A vast concourse of citizens gathered to witness the arraignment, packing the court room to its utmost capacity. Many of the audience had never seen Vanderpool and many more had not seen him since he was quietly engaged in his business as banker, and to see him after an imprisonment of three months, charged with the crime of murder, was the curiosity of many. Probably five hundred is a fair estimate of the number of persons present to satisfy their curiosity by a view of him as he appeared before the court that day. And while it is strange, it is nevertheless true, the prisoner walked up the long aisle in that court room, while either side was thus densely packed with people, all eager to get a view of him, unobserved by a large number in the audience as the prisoner, until he arrived at the prisoner's chair and the sheriff was actually taking the irons from his wrists. "And if a stranger had entered immediately after, it would have been quite natural for him to have looked upon the prisoner as some distinguished criminal lawyer, who was there for the purpose of defending Vanderpool. He was usually genteel in his appearance and dress, and while I do not think it can be said he arranged his toilet with more than ordinary care for this occasion, yet his fine black suit of clothes, spotless linen, neatly, fitting kid gloves and glossy silk hat were seemingly in strange contrast with the position he then occupied, and was, at the time, the subject of much remark. "At the proper time he arose and listened to the reading of the information by the prosecuting attorney, with much calmness and self composure, and yet it was not difficult to detect a deep feeling beneath the smooth and seemingly unconcerned surface. To the charge he pleaded 'not guilty', and was immediately returned to jail in charge of an officer. "It needed no extraordinary perceptive faculties to realize that that audience was deeply interested in the case, and watched the proceedings with more than ordinary interest, but, during all, the most perfect order prevailed, considering the crowded situation of the room. "On the following morning a motion was made for a continuance of the case until the next term, on account of the absence of material witnesses, and based upon the affidavit of the prisoner, a copy of which will be found in a subsequent part of the work. Counter affidavits were filed by the prosecution, copies of which will also be found in a subsequent part of this book. Considerable apprehension was felt and expressed among the citizens that by some technicality, and without just cause, the case would be postponed from time to time; in the meantime, evidence might be lost, and in the end, the prisoner discharged, not because of his innocence, but on account of such a style of conducting the case. Such was the state of the public pulse when the motion for continuance was made, but when the judge decided against a continuance, but postponed the case one month, to give the defence an opportunity to procure their witnesses, everybody was satisfied, so far as we could learn, and the trial commenced in February, with a confidence on the part of the people that the trial was to be fair for the people and fair for the prisoner, and the case was commenced and conducted throughout under these circumstances; but of course, the people were deeply interested in the case, and the spacious, but cold and uncomfortable court room was filled to its utmost capacity, the most of the time, and the trial occupied from the 3d to the 26th of February. The prisoner, though he exhibited considerable timidity, when near the crowd, in December, very soon after the trial commenced in February, became very much composed, was quite familiar with those near him and permitted much liberty in the court room, sitting near his counsel quietly advising with them, standing at the stove warming himself, sitting at the table writing, passing bits of paper to his counsel (undoubtedly containing suggestions to them), during the progress of the trial, making suggestions to them at will, cracking some little joke with ladies of his acquaintance who sat near him, consoling his loving wife, whenever he pleased, watching the witnesses upon the stand and noting their evidence, carefully, and becoming so familiar with the audience that was each day witnessing his trial, that during the latter part he would joke with any of his acquaintances who happened to be near him on his way from the court room to the jail. To illustrate: I walked along with him one day and remarked that the end of his trial would come before long. He replied-'Yes, so will Christmas.' At another time, he was walking with an insurance man who was talking insurance business to one of his customers. Vanderpool, hearing it, inquired of him how much he would charge to insure his liberty. The reply was about one hundred per cent. At another time, seeing an acquaintance within hailing distance, he called to him and said - 'You look lonely, see, I have an escort.' "The trial progressed from day to day, in the presence of a large and deeply interested audience, conducted on the part of the prosecution by Messrs. Bullis and Cutcheon, attorneys of Manistee, and Hon. Thomas B. Church, of Grand Rapids; and on the part of the defence by Messrs. Ramsdell and Benedict, and S. W. Fowler, of Manistee; Judge J. G. Ramsdell, presiding. With a jury selected mostly from the agricultural portion of the country, and, to al appearances, intelligent, calm and dignified, inspired renewed confidence in that time-honored institution, the 'jury', which Justice ". - -pi - -

Page  37 4 --pi HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY 37 (e> f Blackstone, one of the world's most eminent jurists, portrays as the 'principal bulwark of our liberties'. "The conduct of the prisoner during the entire case, and especially through the trial, was such as to demand the careful study of every person who ever expects in any way to pass upon the liberty of his fellow-being, and was such as can hardly fail to give the case a place in the legal annals of the country as one of the most remarkable cases founded upon circumstantial evidence the world has ever witnessed, a case that should be carefully scrutinized by legal minds, for the purpose of determining what effect the bearing and appearance of a prisoner upon trial should have upon the jury in making up their verdict. "An attempt to describe in detail his conduct and appearance would simply be a failure, but a general view may be expressed by saying he was calm, composed, and seemingly attending the trial because it was necessary under the circumstances that he should be there; interested in its progress, apparently, like anybody else; in attendence for the purpose of disposing,of so much work that had to be done and ascertaining the result and assisting his attorneys what he could in conducting the case; expressing his opinion of the incorrectness of the testimony as it was being given at times, and at other times going so far as to say to the witnesses themselves, immediately upon leaving the witness stand, during intermission of court, that he had no fault to find with them; occasionally consoling his wife, who was an anxious spectator, yet exhibiting the greatest confidence in her husband's innocence. "The fair and enlightened manner in which prisoners are permitted opportunities to defend themselves against charges of crime in this day and age of the world, and in America, are but indications of the permanency of our free and independent government and institutions; and in this case, though a terrible murder had been committed in our midst, and a very general, amounting almost to a united opinion, had been formed in the community, that Vanderpool was the murderer, the great freedom and familiarity of the prisoner during the progress of the trial, and the privileges afforded him to present his defense, were such as to elicit the admiration of liberty-loving and law-abiding citizens generally. " The interest manifested was intense, and through the whole of the twenty-sixth day occupied by this remarkable trial, a dense crowd packed the seats and lined every avenue of Thurber's Hall, where the court was held. The incidents of the trial sufficiently appeared in the reporter's notes of the evidence and proceedings. Thirteen days were consumed in taking the evidence, and six more in summing up to the jury by counsel. On the first day of February, 1870, the Circuit Court for the County of Manistee was called for the purpose of trying George Vanderpool. Twenty-four days afterward George Vanderpool made his final statement to the jury, which occupied three hours in its delivery, and was universally acknowledged to be one of the most remarkable efforts, in point of ability, apparent candor, and manner of delivery, ever made by a perjurer at the bar. " After the charge of the judge, the jury took the case, and in six hours returned a verdict, ' Guilty of murder in the first degree.' The awful silence that followed was broken by a wail of agony; it came from a young heart, bruised, broken and bleeding-Mrs. Vanderpool had fallen, almost insensible, into the arms of her beloved husband, now a branded murderer. The scene can never be for gotten by those who beheld it. " The next morning, February 26, the prisoner was arraigned for sentence, and when asked why the judgment of the law should not be pronounced upon him, spoke as follows: " Youn HONOR-I got upon that stand the other day and said a few words, and it was afterward said that I play-acted. I merely told the same story that I wrote last October. I never knew before that it was a crime for a man to tell the same story twice alike. I have heard of people being condemned for telling the same story different at different times, but never before heard it charged as a crime to tell a story twice alike. I got up there and told the truth, as I was advised to do, and counsel here have denounced me for daring to dispute the evidence that I knew to be an error, in the case of many very respectable people. I do not think it will avail me anything to get up here and clhrge respectable people of Manistee with intentionally doing wrong. I stated then, as I do now, and I know my feeble voice will have no effect. The evidence is taken as law, while my words are as chaff, but I gave them because I know them to be God's truth. I give them as such now. I don't think these people mean to do wrong. The people of Manistee are as warmhearted as any in the world; I think they mean to do right. That they are over zealous is not for me to say. I believe that the jury have done their part faithfully. There is no question about it. Yet there are facts that I know, as I said the other day. I know these facts, and if sworn to by one man, or ten thousand, I know to the contrary. I don't get up here to denounce them, because I know my words have no effect. The jury have passed in a verdictof guilty, and I stand here to receive the sentence. I am, from the result of my position and circumstances, the sufferer of a crime of which I am not guilty; this I cannot help. There are people in this house that will live long after the cold earth will have closed over my clay, and I hope they will learn of my innocence. I want every one to remember these words-that George (Vanderpool is an innocent man; and he knows not where there is one dollar of Field's money, or anybody else's that I have not given a strict account of. Before God I swear it. I swear it here before the people and before God. I stand here, and my woids have no effect. I go out of the world; my people are bowed into the grave. This world is as bright and sunny to me as to others. These people are persecuting me, and I know not the reason. I have nothing to say to them: they are but human. My life is as sweet to me as theirs is to them; my loved ones are as near and dear to me as theirs are. I am not the first, nor yet the last, that has suffered unjustly. I have but to live, and I know that I shall die, and we all will. I hope to meet these people at the bar of God, and there it will be decided who is guilty of this crime. I say here again, before God and man, that I am an innocent man. I don't say it thinking people will believe it. I say it because it is Almighty -God's truth. Do you think that I have no heart or feeling? Oh, I hope no person in this room or city may suffer what I suffered last night. I have been condemned for smiling. Oh, I have lain for months,--and as the time approached for trial my heart quickened at the thought that I should have justice. As I stepped upon the street I felt that the time was drawing near for my delivery. The prosecution have charged me with being a murderer, a thief, and denounced me as a liar. I had not the power to open my mouth. And I said there is an end to all of this. But now the cloud is darker than ever. All I say is worthless breath, and I will waste no more of it on people that will perhaps forget in a minute. Farewell to all.' " When he commenced speaking he spoke in a clear, firm, unbroken voice, that betrayed no emotion, but in the latter part of his address his voice quivered and broke, and was overcome by his emotions. It was a solemn and impressive scene, and brought tears to the eyes of many in the large audience. "It was a sad and pitiful scene, to see one in the very flower of young manhood, surrounded with so many things to make life precious and attractive, thus untimely consigned to a living tomb. " On Sunday, the 27th, at 11 o'clock, P. m., the sheriff quietly took his prisoner in a two-horse sleigh, accompanied only by a Ij J -------- -------- @ r 4 li~J

Page  38 .A 38 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. neighbor, and started on the last ride the prisoner ever expected to take on this fair earth. "A hundred miles through forest and field, a hundred miles of weary, mournful passage along the silver sheen of the great lakeand Grand Haven meets the view of this poor victim to his own cupidity and baseness; or, otherwise, to the toils of circumstantial evidence, that seemed to the jury conclusive. At Muskegon and other places he received the greetings and farewells of old friends, many of whom still firmly believed in his innocence. On the cars he wrote to the Grand Rapids Eagle as follows: " 'March 1, 1870. " 'MR. TURNER, EDITOR OF THE GRAND ERAPIDS Eagle. " 'I am seated on the cars on my way to Jackson. The hour is near when I am to say farewell to this beautiful world and God's loving sunlight, and shall be entombed in a living tomb. You asked me to-day if I thought I had a fair trial. I don't remember my reply. Will say it may be fair in the eyes of some-but I am not satisfied, as the same assistance was not granted me as was granted the people. They had at their command all the talent of the legal profession, a united and enthusiastic people, and the county treasurer to pay the bills, while I had not a dollar to bring distant witnesses, and people are slow to give aid or evidence in an unpopular cause. With the same aid I cannot but feel that my case would appear far different. I here, too, remember that the jury was taken from that same people; but they have rendered their verdict, and I must abide the law, and say farewell to all that is near and dearto all that makes life desirable. And branded with a dishonor worse than death, I leave this world in the prime of life, yet an innocent man. GEORGE VANDERPOOL.'" " The iron doors close, the gloom of the cell, bordering on the gloom of the grave-heaven's sunlight is shut out and dark despair settles around. If guilty, justice has been done; if innocent, God in mercy right the wrong. There, for the present, we must leave George Vanderpool. " But here the press of the state, and the people generally, were not content to leave him. "Immediately on the close of the trial his counsel took steps looking to a new trial. " Soon after a public meeting was called at Muskegon, a committee of sixteen were appointed to raise funds, and an appeal made to the people of'the state for material aid to secure attorneys and defray the expenses of a new trial. The press and the people took sides, a part contending that the trial was fair and conclusive, while others thought the evidence unsatisfactory and inconclusive." The following are the names of the jury obtained from one hundred persons: William Tunwell, Richard N. Doyle, Charles Rockwell, Elisha Richman, Robert Green, Caleb Groat, James McKay, Phil. J. Conklin, Lucius F. Arner, Henry Arnold, Jr., John W. Allen, Henry A. Austin. The pamphlet also contains the full report of the trial, the result of which we have quoted. The result of the efforts in Vanderpool's behalf was that a new trial was granted; venue changed to Kalamazoo County. At the the conclusion of this trial the jury disagreed, and the following year another trial was again had, in Barry County, which resulted in his acquittal. The accused returned again to the world, but for him it was all changed. Whether in the sight of an all-seeing God he was innocent of the great crime charged against him or not, the brand of Cain was upon his forehead, and he went forth a wanderer in the earth. He has since been engaged in various pursuits, and is still among the living. Miss Hill, the woman who had aided Field with funds, and whom he called "aunt," purchased a small house on the north side of the river, after the trial, and there she lived entirely alone. She was in some respects an eccentric person. She never married. In personal appearance she was not prepossessing, and it may properly be said that she became the benefactor of Field through a freak of friendship. During the latter part of her life she was a great sufferer from neuralgia, and on that account was in the habit of taking morphine freely. One Winter's day Dr. Ellis, in driving past her little home, noticed that the curtains were down, the door step was unswept, and there was no mark of any foot-step in the snow that had recently fallen. His suspicions were aroused, and he stopped to see if there was anything wrong. He found the door fastened, but succeeded in raising a window, and discovered the occupant of the house dead in her bed. In her suffering she had taken a fatal dose of morphine, and sank into that sleep that knows no waking. THE GREAT FIRE OF 1871. The City of Manistee was one of the victims of the great fire period of the month of October, 1871. Its partial destruction was simultaneous with that of Chicago, Holland, Peshtigo, and several other towns. The total loss of property burned in Manistee was about $1,000,000. Immediately after the fire, Gen. B. M. Cutcheon visited Grand Rapids for the purpose of securing relief for the homeless and destitute, and prepared a very accurate and most graphic description of the fire for the columns of the Grand Rapids Eagle, which was widely copied at the time. We copy so much of that article as was purely descriptive of the fire, as follows: "ORIGIN, PROGRESS AND EXTENT OF THE CONFLAGRATION. "First, to describe the locus in quo. Manistee Lake is a body of water nearly five miles long, and from one-fourth to three-fourths of a mile wide, lying nearly parallel with, and about a mile to two miles from Lake Michigan. Near the northern extremity it is connected with the latter lake by the Manistee River, a large navigable stream, from 75 to 125 yards in width. On the north side of this river, between the two lakes, lay the First Ward of the city, and on the south side of the river, and adjacent to it, divided nearly equally by Maple Street, on which was the swing bridge, lay the Third Ward, next the Manistee Lake, and the Second Ward to the west, next the 'big lake.' To the southeast, bordering on the 'little' lake, was the Fourth Ward. The Third Ward was the most populous and embraced the greater part of the foreign and poor population. The Second Ward was the best built part of the town, especially that part between Oak and Maple Streets. "Within the city limits, and directly south of the space embraced between the latter-named streets, was a tract of about twenty acres of dead hemlock forest; the trees partly standing and partly lying upon the ground, but the whole as dry as tinder and as combustible as gun-powder. "On the fatal Sunday, October 8, the fire alarm sounded at about 9 A. M., and the fire department hastened with the steamer to the vicinity of Gifford and Ruddock's mills in the Fourth Ward, where an old chopping was burning furiously, and threatening destruction to that part of the town. By the most unwearied efforts, continued all day, the fire was subdued and that part of the town was saved. "About dark the engine returned to its quarters. It was scarcely housed when the wind, which had been blowing highly all day, rose to a perfect gale. "At about 2 o'clock P. m., while the fire in the Fourth Ward was raging, an alarm whistle was heard from the east side of Manistee Lake, and through the thick smoke it was discovered that the

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Page  39 4-r w i RJ _ _ __ HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 39 ~ large steam mill of Magill & Canfield, on Blackbird Island, was in flames. In an incredibly short space of time, mill, boarding house, stables, shops, docks and lumber were consumed. "As soon as darkness began to close in, a lurid light appeared in the southwest on the shore of Lake Michigan, showing that the pine woods, that line the shore, were on fire. About 9:30 p. M., just as people were returning from evening services, the fire alarm again sounded, and every one now was on the alert, for the wind was blowing a fierce gale. Instantly a red, angry glare lighted up the western sky near the mouth of the river. The fire department rushed to the rescue. At the mouth were located the large mill and tug interests of John Canfield, with boarding house and about twenty-five or thirty dwellings. On the beach several acres were covered with pine saw dust, highly inflammable. Along the river, near the piers, were piled several hundred cords of dry pine slabs-fuel for tugs. "Down from the circling hills on the lake shore pounced the devouring monster. The burning sawdust, whirled by the gale in fiery clouds, filled the air. Hundreds of cords of dry, pitchy slabs sent up great columns of red flame, that swayed in the air like mighty banners of fire, swept across the Manistee, two hundred feet wide, and almost instantly, like great fiery tongues, licked up the government lighthouse, built at a cost of nearly $10,000, and situated a hundred and fifty feet from the north bank of the river. "A large fleet of vessels, wind-bound, lay opposite Canfield's mill, with four tugs, including the three large barges of Tyson & Rob;nson and the great steam tug 'Bismarck.' Now commenced a furious effort to remove the vessels and barges. The wild puffing and screaming of tugs, the hoarse hallooing of sailors, the loud roaring and crackling of the flames, the awe-stricken faces of the gathered multitude, luridly lighted, made up a scene never to be forgotten or adequately described. The efforts of the firemen were in vain -the engine became disabled-and the flames came sweeping all before them. But now A NEW SOURCE. OF TERROR arose. A bright light came up out of the south, directly in rear of the town, and the fierce gale bearing it on directly toward the doomed city. Those who resided in that part of the town, including the writer, rushed to the new scene of danger, the full extent of which few comprehended. The fire had originated two miles south of the city, on thelake shore. It first came upon the farm of L.G.Smith,Esq., which it devoured. Eighty rods north the extensive farm and dairy of E. W. Secor shared the same fate, with all his barns and forage. Another quarter of a mile, and the large farm buildings of Mayor R. G. Peters were quickly annihilated. Here the column of fire divided, the left hand branch keeping to the lake shore hills, and coming in at the mouth; the other taking a northeasterly course and coming in directly south of the town, as before described. Here a small band of determined men, fighting with the energy of despair to protect their homes, kept it at bay till past midnight. But all was vain-at 12:30 o'clock the gale became a tornado,hurling great clouds of sparks cinders, burning bark and rotten wood through the air in "A TERRIFIC, FIERY STORM. "Every man now fled to his own house. The fire now came roaring on through the dead hemlocks south of the blocks included between Maple and Oak Streets, in the Second Ward. The flames leaped to the summits of the great hemlocks, seventy, eighty or ninety feet high, and threw out great flags of fire against the lurid heavens. The scene was grand and terrible beyond description. To us, whose homes and dear ones and all were in the track of the fire, it was heart-rending. Then came A DELUGE OF FIRE like that rained on the cities of the plains. The wooden town, the saw-dust streets, the stumpy vacant lots, the pine clad hills north of the river, all burst into a sea of flame, made furious by the most fearful gale of wind I have ever experienced. "On toward the river and the Manistee Lake, spread the tempest of fire. Men, women, and children, in night clothes, half clothed, or fully clothed-some bareheaded, on foot, in wagons, on horseback, fled for their lives. It was "PANDEMONIUM ON EARTH. "Families were separated-husbands and wives, parents and children. The writer, when he gave over the unequal contest south of the town, rushed to his residence to find it deserted, and for nine hours he could get no word whether his family were dead or alive. They had fled before the tempest of fire across the bridge, which burned behind them, only to be surrounded and almost perished in the smoke and fire on the north side. "EVERYTHING WENT DOWN before the storm-dwellings with their home-treasures, mills with their machinery, stores and their stocks, warehouses and their contents, the fine swing-bridge at the foot of Maple Street, vessels and their cargoes, "ALL MINGLED IN COMMON RUIN. "From Fifth Street, half a mile south of the river, to Cushman & Calkins' mill, half a mile north of the bridge, and from the foot of Oak Street eastward to Tyson & Robinson's mill, at the outlet of Manistee Lake, three-fourths of a mile, was one surging sea of fire. The steam fire engine burned in the street where it stood, the men and horses barely escaping with their lives. About three o'clock the wind abated, but the work of ruin was complete. When Monday morning's sun glared red and lurid through the heavy masses of smoke, where had stood Manistee, it beheld "A SCENE OF DESOLATION scarcely to be described. In the First Ward three buildings remained -the Catholic Church, the Ward Schoolhouse, and a small dwelling -and I should add some small fishing shanties near the mouth of the river. The Third Ward was swcpt clean except a few buildings near Manistee Lake. In the Second Ward the six platted blocks lying between Oak and Maple Streets, and about thirty buildings near the mouth, were swept away. The Fourth Ward escaped nearly untouched, the fine residence of J. L. Taylor, banker, formerly the residence of M. Engelmann, situated in the very corner of the ward, being the only one burned.. His loss was great and almost total. "THE FIRE MADE THOROUGH WORK. "The buildings were built mostly on wooden foundations, and their very site was scarcely distinguishable. Buildings, foundations, fences, sidewalks, trees, shrubbery-everything-were mowed close to the surface of the earth, and grass burned out by the roots. "A THOUSAND PEOPLE HOMELESS. "A thousand men, women and children, houseless, homeless, and many of them penniless, wandered sad and blinded in the black and smoking streets, or had taken refuge on vessels, tugs, boats and barges, to escape the devouring element. "Nothing but the cleared fields of Messrs. Canfield and Peters, south of the western part of the Second Ward, saved that part of the town from utter annihilation, and hundreds from perishing in the tempest of fire. "THE AFTER SCENES. "The writer of this, at 10 o'clock the next morning, found his family three miles northeast of the desolated city, having barely escaped with their lives, with the scanty clothing snatched in the moment of flight. The night before surrounded with the com 4 I-- ~ -- i~t--~-~-~=--e.~YiF_*~ICm-l~h -r^sUC----~~~--~-9rC-~rrrs~--9--- - I- - - ~ --------C-Z I ~ ~-ss;~~~3~;~~.~iTI-~a*=;s~SIiL~i7F;-;-- --~-;-;'-~7~i_ ~.. icl-pp `CI~

Page  40 -i_ 40 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. t forts of a beautiful and happy home, at dawn we found ourselves, blinded with heat and smoke, without home, or so much as a change of raiment-but thankful for life, strength and unconquerable hope and courage. "Then was seen a spectacle to gladden the heart! Every house that remained was opened to receive the sufferers. Hearts and hands were as open as the homes. We almost felt it worth while to suffer for the sake of witnessing how much of generosity was latent in human nature. "Monday every one was staggered with the blow. Tuesday men were strong, cheerful and hopeful, and set their faces to the future with brave hearts. Wednesday night came the terrible tidings from Chicago, almost crushing out all hope, for we felt that our insurance was gone. But from this our people are rallying. "On Tuesday we organized for the serious work before us. Good men are in~charge to alleviate the necessities of the sufferers; to receive aid from abroad and distribute to the needy. "WHAT OF THE FUTURE? "Manistee will rise from her ashes. The work of rebuilding is already commenced. We have hope, energy, faith in the future, and some capital. "We have a splendid natural situation, at the mouth of a beautiful navigable stream penetrating the interior through pine forests 300 miles, on whose banks stand 4,500,000,000 feet of good pine, most of which must be manufactured at, and shipped from Manistee. Help us through this Winter, and the future, though dimmed, is safe. In the name of the suffering and destitute of Manistee, I thank the noble and generous-hearted men and women of Grand Rapids for their prompt and noble response to our call. May God bless them, and keep them from like calamity. "I have written in great haste, and I fear incoherently. It is the first time that I have had the heart to take the pen in hand since the disaster, and I only hope it may avail to help the needy and suffering. "BYRON M. CUTCHEON. The calamity was very great and the needs of the people very pressing. Manistee was remote, in a northern wilderness, eighty miles from any railroad, without telegraphic communication, reached only by way of the lake, with only thirty days of navigation remaining, and a five months Winter of deep snow and steady cold just ahead, and the weather upon this bleak shore already inclement. It is such trials that test the recuperative power of a people, but it is usually true that they are equal to the emergency, and the citizens of Manistee were not an exception. Amid the ruin and disaster there were some consoling features. There had been no loss of life, and no very serious accidents. Friends were left, and a generous world outside was ready to furnish aid. The appeals for relief were met with ready response. Nearly $5,000 were received and distributed, besides commodities of of all kinds in great abundance. With true Western energy, the sufferers applied themselves to the task of rebuilding and repairing their losses. Brick took the place of wood to a large extent in the work of rebuilding, and a substantial and beautiful city gradually rose from the ashes of the conflagration, BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF MANISTEE IN 1873. A very correct and comprehensive review of the commercial interests of the city of Manistee was published in the columns of the Manistee Times the first of June, 1873, and is as follows: " Manistee City is located on the east shore of Lake Michigan, about seventy miles north of Grand Haven, 130 west of Saginaw, and ninety-six miles south of Northport. It is within eight hours ride of Milwaukee by steamer, and is on the direct line of trade by the lake, between Chicago, Milwaukee and the East. " The city is located on both sides of Manistee River, and between Manistee Lake and Lake Michigan. The river between the two lakes flows to the west, and is one mile and a half long, and navigable for vessels and steamers.drawing from eight to twelve feet of water. It has a current of three miles an hour, and is never closed by ice, floating or otherwise. " MANISTEE LAKE lies east of the city, extending south and westward nearly five miles; it is about half a mile wide, of pure water, and has high banks of sand and clay, beautifully situated for building purposes. The water is of great depth, and affords almost unlimited harbor and commercial facilities. There are four villages outside of Manistee City proper, and on the borders of the small lake, as follows: Filer City and Paggeottville, containing about 400 inhabitants each; Rietzville and Sandsville, containing about 200 inhabitants each. " The city proper contains about 5,000 inhabitants. Its business center is half way from lake to lake, and in the geographical center of the city. The city is divided into four wards. The First Ward embraces that part lying north of the river, the Second Ward that part south of the river and west of Maple Street; the Third Ward extends from Maple Street to Lake Manistee and south to Fifth Street; the Fourth Ward lies east of Maple Street, south of Fifth Street, and extends along the border of the little lake, taking in the thriving settlement known as Maxwell town. " THE NEW IRON BRIDGE, across the river on Maple Street, is completed, at a cost of about $18,000, and is far superior to the wooden structure destroyed by the great fire of October 8, 1871. " The soil in the First Ward is mostly of sand or sandy loam. The Second and Third Wards are principally located on good clay loam soil, which is excellent for garden purposes. The country around the city is generally good for farming purposes. Wheat is never Winter-killed, and fruit of all kinds does well, especially pears, plums, peaches and apples, as the mercury seldom touches zero, and never goes far below that point. The river and harbor is always free from ice, and never subject to overflow. The timber of the county consists largely of beech, maple, ash, pine, hemlock and cedar, growing very large and thrifty. Timber land can be bought at from $3 to $15 per acre. City lots bring from $100 to $15,000 each. " THE LARGE MANISTEE RIVER affords excellent water communication with the interior, being navigable for about 200 miles, extending through one of the finest belts of pine timber in the state. The Little Manistee River flows from the southeast and empties into Manistee Lake. It affords floatage for logs a distance of about eighty miles, and excellent waterpower at different points near its mouth. "There are in the city and vicinity some twenty first-class sawmills, with a capacity of about 100,000 feet of lumber each, and there is actually cut and shipped from Manistee about 159,000,000 feet each year. " There is a daily line of steamers connecting with lines to Chicago, Milwaukee and most of the lake ports; a tri-weekly line direct to Milwaukee, and two steamers daily connecting with the cars at Pentwater. "THREE LINES OF TELEGRAPH are already established: One south to Muskegon, Grand Rapids, and east and south; one north to Frankfort, and a line between Stronach and this city. Three lines of

Page  41 L.!t?. ~+"" a 1 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 41 fi ~~ 'If RAILROADS are contemplated, and one or more will probably be completed soon. A line from Reed City would be but forty-eight miles long, and would give first-class connections in every direction, and one extending twenty-four miles south would form a connection with the Flint & P. M. R. R. And the route east on the up river line is pressed with much earnestness. Certainly railroad men will not long delay to avail themselves of the extensive trade of our young city. We have one of the finest UNION SCHOOL BUILDINGS in the state, which, with three ward schools, affords educational facilities seldom equaled in a city of the size of Manistee. " There are five church buildings of good size and appearance, and one, the Congregational, is a very fine brick structure that would do credit to a much older and wealthier town than Manistee. "The water and atmosphere of Manistee are as pure and healthy as any in the world. We have all the advantages of a Lake Superior climate, without its extreme cold or remote location. With Lake Michigan on the west, deep in its crystal beauty, offering a pathway for the commerce of the world, cheaper than iron horse ever followed, and more enduring than rails of steel; while Manistee Lake and rivers stretch away into the interior, offering water communication through a country rich in resources and fertile for cultivation. The city is extremely inviting to those desiring such a location, and affords one of the most promising opportunities for the investment of capital that could be desired. "It is less than two years since THE GREAT FIRE of October 8th, 1871, swept over half of our beautiful city from the face of the earth. At that time we had less than 3,500 inhabitants, but yet from the ashes business houses and homes have sprung up, until last season the school census of the city proved a population of over 4,400, and now we have about 5,000. And all this after the terrible visitation of the fire fiend, and in the face of the thousand and one discouragements produced by the fire, and it is safe to predict that the city will number 10,000 inhabitants inside of five years. " SAWMILLS AND LUMBER INTERESTS. " First at the entrance of the harbor is found the mill of John Canfield. It is on the site of the oldest mill in the place, and is sheeted with iron from smoke-stack to foundation, and has a capacity of about 100,000 feet each eleven hours. Three mills have been burnt down on this site, which is just at the delta of the river; hence the efforts to make this as near fire-proof as possible. " Tyson & Sweet's new mill is located in the Third Ward on the little lake, and is designed to take the place of the two mills burned down near where this now stands. It has a capacity of 150,000 feet. Then comes the other mill of Tyson & Sweet, which is a first-class mill, and has a capacity of 100,000. Across the river, in the First Ward, is the mill of Messrs. Cushman, Calkins & (Jo., built on the ashes of the one burned in the great fire. Capacity, 100,000 feet. "Green & Milmoe's new mill, at the north end of Manistee Lake, was built in the stead of their mill burned down in the city. It has a capacity of 100,000 feet each eleven hours. " Magill & Canfield's, on the east side of the little lake, has a capacity of 90,000. This is a new mill, built on the site of the one destroyed by the great fire. " Shrigley & Canfield's mill has a capacity of 50,000 feet. "Louis Sand's new mill has a capacity of 100,000 feet, and has one of the best whistles in the state. It has been heard over twenty miles. Feet. Dennett & Dunham's mill, capacity of about................. 60,000 Paggeott & Thorson's mill, at Paggeotville.................. 100,000 Filer & Sons, at Filer City...............................100,000 Magnan's mill, at Stronach............................. 30,000 Taber's mill, at Filer City.................................. 80,000 A. W. Briggs & Co's shingle mill......................... 80.000 Leitche's mill............................................ 65,000 Rietz Bros. large mill.................................. 100,000 Rietz Bros. small mill.................................. 70,000 R. G. Peter's mill......................................... 100,000 Engelmann & Salling's mill................................ 100,000 Ruddock & Gifford's mill......................... 130,000 Tyson & Sweet's new mill.............................. 150,000 " It is estimated that nearly 200,000,000 feet of lumber will be shipped from this port during the season. "LIST OF BUSINESS HOUSES AND PLACES OF BUSINESS AND TRADE, ASIDE FROM THE LUMBER INTERESTS. "In this list we cannot attempt to give the names of streets, but commence at the west end of South River Street, which runs parallel with the river and harbor, and extends from lake to lake, a distance of over a mile and a half. " William Crippen's foundry and machine shop. " Root beer manufactory of John Flansburgh. " Store and warehouse of Messrs. Canfield & Wheeler. " Residence office of Dr. Ellis. "Foundry and machine shop of Wheeler & Johnson. "Shoe shop of Caspar Schneider. "A grocery store. "Grist mill of John Baxter & Co. " Union Boiler Works of A. Jack. " Paint shop of Sayles & Gregory. " Joiner shop of Green & Long. "Brick block of James O'Brien. Occupied first story by the dry goods store of H. W. Marsh, and the second story by the Odd Fellows hall and rooms. " Merchant tailor, R. Penzien. " Dock and warehouse, J. F. Kirkland & Company. " Insurance and telegraph office, Wing & Hawley. " Otto Bauman, meat market. " Millinery store, Mrs. Otto Bauman. " Photograph, artist and picture gallery, E. E. Douville. " Lumber inspector's office, Gilbert Young. "Milwaukee House, Baxter & Fitch, proprietors. This is the largest hotel building, probably, on the shore, it being ninety-three feet front by eighty-eight back, and contains 60 rooms. " United States Hotel, L. Magoon, proprietor. This was mostly burned last season, and has been rebuilt and improved. " Blacksmith and carriage shop of Silas C. Overpack. "Livery stable, Hugh McGuineas. " City Hall, Hugh McGuineas. " Postoffice block, L. S. Ellis, proprietor and postmaster. This block contains the drug store of D. Carlton & Co., postoffice, and office of the Manistee Standard, 0. H. Godwin, editor and proprietor. Printing office of R. Hoffman. " Baur's grocery store and steamboat bakery, in Baur's brick block. This block contains also the law offices of Ramsdell & Benedict, N. W. Nelson, Esq., and Dovel & Morris. Justice office, S. S. Glover; sheriff's office, Peter Yoss; dentists' offices of J. B. Wilcox and K. A. Brigham; office of city recorder, T. B. Collins, Recorder; Merchants' Bank, J. L. Taylor, cashier; restaurant in basement, Andree Bros. "Dock and warehouse, J. Baur. " City Hotel, Gregory Bros., proprietors. This hotel is three stories high, and is among the few buildings that survived the great fire. d4 I -r --

Page  42 4- - -i1 (> 42 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. " Barber shop, J. G. McKee. " Dry goods and grocery store, Tyson & Sweet. " New brick block of Douville Bros. Not yet occupied. " Clothing and boot and shoe store, George Nungesser. " Book and stationery store, Douville Bros. "Tobacco and cigar store, Laduc & Duranleau. "Grocery store, Black & Thompson. " Drug store, Willard, Hall & Co. " Office Drs. Mead & Fisher. "Jewelry store, Gardner & Bixby. "Harness store, Russell Bros. " Harness store, J. Somerville. "New auction store, J. Jenkins & Co. " Store wareroom, J. Jenkins. " Store formerly occupied by Lucas & Nungesser. " Shoe shop of P. Johnson. " Tailor shop of Mr. Baer. " Candy store of Mr. A. Bowen. "Grocery store, McMaster & Hyde. " New store of Mr. Dickinson. " Merchant tailor, Mr. John Eagan. " Hardware store, Russell & Mee. " Grocery store, Weymouth & Kennedy. "City Bank, Secor & Dunham. "Insurance office, Secor & Shores. " County clerk's office, C. Hurd, clerk and register. "Law office of Messrs. Bullis & Cutcheon. " Grocery store, J. A. Johnson. " Office of Dr. Siqueland. " Hardware store, E. Buckley & Co. " Star clothing house, Gregory Bros. "Dock and warehouse, Palmiter Bros. " Flour and feed store, Lyman & Wright. " Root beer manufactory, John Flansburgh. " Millinery store, Misses Haley. " New grocery store, L. T. King. "Milwaukee clothing house, M. Herbst. " City meat market, Henry Kremple. " New store unoccupied, J. G. McKee. "New three-story brick block of Lucas & Nungesser, which contains furniture, ware and sale room of Lucas & Nungesser, drug store of W. E. Short & Co., law office of A. V. McAlvay, and restaurant of Messrs. Hornkoe & Co. "Barber shop of J. J. McKee. " Brick store of Cushman, Calkins & Co. "Merchant and tailoring rooms of W. Edwards. " Manistee Lime Works, Wing & Buckley. And one-half mile south-east of the bridge, is the large brick yard of E. Buckley & Co. " Cabinet shop and second-hand furniture store, J. Jenkins. " Manistee City Rink. " Paint shop of Thorp Bros. " Joiner shop, J. W. Tenant & Co. " Shoe shop, W. E. Polhamus. " Times printing office, in Times block. Law and land office, S. W. Fowler. "Lumbermen's store, M. Kahn. " Restaurant, Halber & McFay. " Confectionery and fruit store, M. C. Cox. "Fruit store, J. Banister. " Grocery store, Weymouth & Kennedy. "Fruit and vegetable store, J. C. Nimms. "Dollar store, M. S. Root. "Land looker and surveyor, C. F. Ruggles. " Boot and shoe shop, Christ. Hansen. " New York store, Kahn & Newman. " Dry goods and clothing store, A. Stuies. "Law office, A. H. Dunlap. " Photograph rooms, J. W. Runkle. " Boot and shoe shop, N. Olson. " Furniture store, Nargood Hanson. " Jewelry store, Magnus & Koklin. "Barber shop, H. Young. " Grocery and provisions, Frank 01k. "Restaurant, John Baur. "Blacksmith and wagon shop, John Baur. "Planing mill, Gee & Preston. " Brick block, containing grocery and crockery store, Joseph Baur. Large Masonic hall in second story. "Planing mill, S. Sibben & Co. " Drug store, Dr. J. Kingsley. "Barber shop, Wm. Droher. "Hotel, German Home. "Restaurant, Otto Field. " Grocery and confectionery store, C. Pomeroy & Bros. "Confectionery and tobacco store, Samuel Burch. " Drug store, Neil Jewel. " Scandinavian clothing house, Field & Miller. "Grocery store, Henry Mowe. "Eagle Hotel, Fred. Miller. "Foundry and machine shop, Stokie & Bowie. "Broadway store, W. F. Miller. " Restaurant, John Field. ( Justice office, R. A. Seymour. "Cigar and fruit store, R. A. Seymour. "Boot and shoe shop, P. Klies. " Third Ward market, M. Ciechanowsky. " Restaurant, Hans Peterson. "Drugs and medicines and fancy groceries, Peter Jones. " Shoe shop, 0. Anderson. "Sorenson's Hotel, J. Sorenson. " Shoe shop, P. Anderson. " Shoe shop, H. Shoening. "Manistee Steam Boiler Works, Kirsch & Son. SSt. Charles Hotel, J. Halter. " Scandinavian House, Mrs. Hanson. This house is 111 feet front, and 63 feet deep, and two stories high. " German Home, B. F. Schoenbeck. "Lake House, P. Neihoven. " Fireman's Hall, city building. "Grocery store, Thomas Kinney & Co. "German Hall, German Workingmen's Society, 143 members. " Store, Cushman & Calkins. " Meat market, Solomon Rothchilds. " Store, grocery and supplies, Green & Milmoe. " Grocery store, Charles Grunde. MARINE LIST. There are in constant service and belonging to Manistee harbor nine tugs and steamers, as follows: "Tug Margaret,' Capt. John Crawford; Tyson, Sweet & Co., owners. " The Canfield Tug Line, O. A. Wheeler, superintendent; consists of the following tugs: Tug ' C. Williams,' Capt. C. Gnewuch; tug 'Parsons,' Capt. C. Myers; tug ' Edwards,' Capt. E. Taggart; tug J. C. Osgood,' Capt. T. Ackerman; tug 'Hunter Savidge,' Capt. Peter Marsh; tug' Mud Hen,' Capt. L. Lavine.? I I - 4-7i. l

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Page  43 I' fII - - HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 43 " Next we have the tug Ida M. Stevens,' Capt. Togood; Dempsey & Cartier, owners. " The passenger steamer' Ida,' Capt. Smith; Smith & Son, proprietors. " There are three steam barges owned in the city, as follows: "Barge ' Hilton,' Capt. J. Cochrane, Wing & Buckley, owners; barge ( Chas. Rietz,' Capt., owned by Rietz Bros.; barge ' M. Groh,' Capt. ---, owned by Gifford & Ruddock. " There are seven sailing vessels belonging to the city, as follows: " The bark ' Sanborn,' Capt.; belonging to Lyman & Wright. " The scow ' J. M. Hill,' Capt. Dan Mabee; same owners. " Schooner ' Nellie Church,' Capt. Charles Otto, Wing & Buckley, owners; schooner 'Parker,' Capt. John Larson, Tyson, Sweet & Co., owners; schooner 'Napoleon,' Capt. D. Douglass, same owners; schooner 'L. McDonald,' Capt. -, Cushman, Calkins & Co., owners; schooner ' J and A. Stronach,' Capt. Hall, Gifford & Ruddock, owners, from Racine; schooner ' J. B. Newland,' Capt. H. Jones, same owners, from Racine; schooner ' Gladiator,' Capt. Anderson, Rietz Bros., owners, from Chicago. " The barge ' Harmony,' Capt. -, Rietz Bros., owners; barge ' Windsor,' Capt., Gifford & Ruddock, owners. "There are three hookers: "The 'Jenny Lind,' Gregory Bros., owners; 'The Great West,' Geo. A. Ford, owner;- and another belonging to Mr. Seymour. " Of fishing boats there are three, owned as follows: " One by Messrs. Horton & Hall, one by P. C. Taggart, and one by Norwegian Bill. " The Custom House books show that in the first twenty days of this month, there were 126 arrivals and departures at this port, and 225 since the opening of navigation." There were one or two omissions in the above list which the editor subsequently corrected as follows: " The blocks thus omitted were the fine, large brick blocks on the corner of Maple and River Streets. The first, that of Messrs. Lucas & Nungesser, is the best brick block in the city, and contains the extensive furniture ware rooms of Lucas & Nungesser, the elegant new drug store of W. E. Short & Co., the law office of A. V. McAlvay, and the restaurant of Hornkohl & Conrod. The other, that of Messrs. Cushman, Calkins & Co., contains their extensive mercantile establishment, on the south side of the river, and the merchant tailor rooms of Wilkes Edwards. Messrs. Cushman, Calkins & Co. probably sell more dry goods at retail than any other firm in the city." MANISTEE BANKING BUSINESS. There appears to have been quite an extensive brokerage and exchange business carried on in Manistee between the years 1860 and 1879. The pioneers in this business were T. J. Ramsdell and E. G. Filer, who opened a brokers' office here in 1860. In 1868 Vanderpool & Field came here and engaged in the same business, which terminated in 1869, in the terrible tragedy which gave to Manistee a wide spread celebrity. In 1869 the " Bank of Charles Secor & Co." was started. Soon after Jeremiah Taylor started the " Merchants' Bank," and the "Lumberman's Bank" by N. W. Nelson. Still later Charles F. Ruggles established a brokerage and exchange business, under the name of the " Bank of Charles F. Ruggles." The first incorporated bank was the " State Bank of Manistee" incorporated in February, 1879. Its officers were T. J. Ramsdell, president; James Dempsey, vice-president; William Dunham, cash ier. The capital stock was $50,000. July 1, 1881, it became a national association, under the name of the "First National Bank of Manistee," with its capital increased to $100,000. The officers are T. J. Ramsdell, president; M. Engelmann, vice-president; George A. Dunham, cashier. The directors are T. J. Ramsdell, M. Engelmann, James Dempsey, Joseph Baur, William Wente, John Mee and R. R. Blacker. The folowing is its REPORT OF CONDITION AT CLOSE OF BUSINESS JULY 1, 1882. RESOURCES. Loans and discounts.................................$323,653.67 Overdrafts....................................... 634.03 U. S. Bonds to secure circulation........................ 34,000.00 Premiums paid...................................... 4,710.00 Five per cent. Redemption Fund....................... 1,530 00 Due from banks................................... 34,601.81 Cash on hand.................................... 32,664.72 $431,794.23 LIABILITIES. Capital stock paid in...........................$100,000.00 Surplus............................................... 13.000.00 Undivided profits................................... 723.05 Circulation..................................... 30,600.00 Due to other banks................................. 229.99 Deposits.......................................... 287,241.19 $431,794.23 The " Manisteee National Bank " opened for business January 10, 1882, with a capital stock of $100,000. The directors are R. G. Peters, E. N. Selling, Horace Taber, Louis Sands, M. R. Denning, John F. Nuttall, B. M. Cutcheon, John Seymour, William Vincent. Officers, R. G. Peters, president; Louis Sands, vice-president; George M. Burr, cashier. The following is its REPORT OF CONDITION AT CLOSE OF BUSINESS JULY 1, 1882. RESOURCES. Loans and discounts................................$156,753.94 Overdrafts................. 669.66 U. S. Bonds to secure circulation........................ 50,000.00 Due from approved reserve agents..................... 25,793.50 Due from other national banks.......................... 1,049.55 Real Estate, furniture and fixtures..................... 1,500.00 Current expenses and taxes paid......................... 20.83 Checks and other cash items............................ 1,147.74 Bills of other banks.................................... 1,608.00 Fractiona' paper currency, nickels and pennies............ 5.38 Specie............................................ 2,056.50 Legal tender notes...................................8,500.00 Redemption Fund with U. S. treasurer (5 per cent. of circulation)...................................... 2,250.00 Total, $251,355.10 LIABILITIES. Capital stock paid in...............................$100 000.00 Surplus fund.................................... 2,700.00 Undivided profits................................... 472.47 National bank notes outstanding...................... 45,000.00 Individual deposits subject to check................. 63,666.47 Demand certificates of deposit........................... 39,516.16 Total, $251,355.10 U. S. LIFE BOAT STATION. This station was established at Manistee in the Fall of 1879. The first year it was in charge of James Morgan. He resigned April 1, 1881, and was succeeded by Capt. Henry Finch, who is still in charge. The building is a neat two-story structure, and everything is kept in the most perfect order, and ready for use at a moment's notice. This is what is known as a complete station. The crew consists of nine men, including the captain, as follows: Henry Finch, captain; James Finch, No. 1; Calvin Bradley, No. 2; ^1 4Z ra

Page  44 - Lw ', I 1 -- ------ r In' 44 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. Nicholas Johnson, No. 3; Gunner Clauson, No. 4; Benjamin Genson, No. 5; Thomas Miller, No. 6; Frederick Manigold, Fo. 7; Jason Pratton, No. 8. HENRY FINCH, captain of the station, is a native of the state of New York, and since a boy has followed sailing on the lakes. When the station was established at Manistee, he came here as assistant, and since April, 1881, has been in charge of the station. He is a thorough sailor, and a very efficient officer. Everything about the station denotes the most perfect discipline. LONELY RELICS. Just back of J. G. Younger's grocery store, on River Street, stands a little old one-story house, that has successfully defied the elements for thirty years. In 1852 Samuel Potter built this frame building in order to provide more sleeping room for his boarding house, which stood just in front of it. When this was built, River Street was only a crooked track among the stumps, and it had but one companion. The pine had not even been cut out of the valley where the business part of the city now stands, and there was only one track from the valley of the river over the bluffs above; that led up the gulch in what is now the Second Ward. The old Tyson House, three stories high, stood within thirty feet of this little building, when it was destroyed by fire; Burpee's Hall was equally as near on the other side when it was burned down; the great fire of 1871 swept away two-thirds of the city-other fires have consumed buildings in its immediate vicinity, but no mark of fire appears on this insignificant looking structure. It is the only remaining witness, on the south side of the river, of the days of '52. On the north side of the river, not far from the mouth, stands the first frame house ever built in Manistee. It was built by O'Neil, in 1850, and used as a saloon. Poor whisky was a staple article in those days. Great changes have come to this region since those two buildings were erected. They were palaces in their day, but a city has grown up around them, and now, like abandoned creeds, they are chiefly valuable as relics. PUBLIC BUILDINGS. The public buildings of Manistee are an enduring tribute to the liberality and intelligence of the people of the city and county. THE CENTRAL SCHOOL BUILDING was the first building of any considerable importance erected in Manistee. Its erection was undertaken in 1866, and completed the following year, though it has been greatly enlarged since that time. The contractor was Hon. T. J. Ramsdell. It is located upon one of the high points in the city, the grounds occupying an entire square. It is built of white brick, two stories and a basement, and is furnished with all the modern facilities for heating, ventilation, etc. At the time it was built the enterprise was an undertaking of startling magnitude. Manistee was then only a township organization of twelve or fourteen hundred population. Everything was new, and it reflects great credit upon those who were instrumental in its erection, that the education of the youth was so munificently provided for. It has been worth many times its cost, to Manistee, as an exhibition of the real spirit and temper of her citizens. THE COURT HOUSE is the most showy public building in the city. It was finished in January, 1878, at a cost of about $50,000. It is located upon a high eminence of heavy clay soil, about the centre of the city, between Maple and Oak Streets. The ground is about eighty feet above the level of the lake, and the distance from the top of the spire to the ground is just 1311 feet, or, in other words, the top of the spire stands about 210 feet above the level of the lake, and aiy one going into that can get a finer view of the city and surrounding country than from any other point in the city. The body of the building is 72x88 feet on the ground, and has a basement and two stories with high ceilings. The basement contains the sheriff's residence of seven rooms, and one of the best arranged and most securely built jails in the state of Michigan. There are ten cells 4x8 in size, and eight feet high, all of them opening into an inner hall, about eight feet wide, formed by heavy iron lattice work all around. Outside the lattice work is a large hall secured by iron bars over the windows. The southeast corner of the basement contains the heating apparatus, which carries warmth to every part of the building. There are also cells for women prisoners, and the turnkey's room, all in the basement. The second floor contains large handsome rooms for each of the county officers, and a room for the board of supervisors. In the office of the clerk and register and treasurer is a large vault for the records. In the third story is the magnificent court room, 46x70 feet in size, with a ceiling thirty-eight feet high, having large rooms for attorneys, juries, and the judge, opening into it. The room is handsomely finished and furnished in the most modern style. In short, it is one of the handsomest brick and stone buildings in the West. The grounds are nicely graded and surrounded by a handsome iron fence. TEMPERANCE HALL is situated on River Street. It is built of white brick, two stories high. This building is the enduring monument of the great temperance movement of 1874, and by the noble women of Manistee was built, paid for, and dedicated to all that is good and beautiful and true. The first floor is the reading and lounging room for the Red Ribbon Club. It has two rooms in the rear-one being furnished with cooking stove and apparatus for giving suppers and furnishing refreshments for entertainments. The other is used now for files of papers and books, but will no doubt be kept for the use of the business meetings of the Womans' Temperance Association, by whom the hall is owned. The upstairs is the large hall for public uses. It has a gallery, handsome stage and scenery, and a seating capacity of about 1,000. The hall is reached by two large wide stairways leading up from the street in each side of the building. The entire building was erected by subscriptions, donations, and the proceeds of lectures, entertainments, celebrations, etc., under the supervision of the noble and industrious women who compose the association. UNION HALL. This magnificent building was erected by Mr. R. G. Peters and finished last Spring. He built it for his wife, who dedicated it to the noble work of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. A formal dedication was made, with appropriate exercises, May 28, 1882. It was situated at the corner of Maple and South Water Streets, and cost about $30,000. In August it was destroyed by fire, and the whole community felt the misfortune. Mr. Peters, however, is not one to be daunted by misfortune, and immediately gave orders for rebuilding, and the work is now in progress. The new building will be of the same plan as the one burned, with basement fitted up for a kitchen, furnace room, etc. On the first floor the audience room, 80x60 feet in size, galleries arranged in semi-circle, class rooms, platform, and the whole elegantly finished. This enterprise of Mr. and Mrs. Peters not only adds a splendid ornament to the city, but is an enduring monument to the noble generosity and public spirit of its founders. From the time it was dedicated until it burned, the building was in almost constant use in the,- = - J

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Page  45 ~s~tD-L ~C--~tE 4-4L 1 1 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 45 interest of Christian temperance work. The beautiful motto upon its walls: "For God and home and native land", was the watchword, and prompted by this spirit a noble work was being done. And when another temple of Christian philanthropy shall stand in its place, the great work to which it will be dedicated will again have a habitation in every way worthy of it. BUSINESS BLOCKS. Manistee has a large number of neat and substantial business blocks, and the frame buildings of earlier days are rapidly giving place to more pretentious brick structures. In the new buildings that are being erected, as in all other improvements in progress, there is especial attention given to durability and permanency. The future welfare of the city appears to be kept in view. Among the buildings finished or in process of erection, the finest, and, in fact, the finest in this part of the state, is HON. M. ENGELMANN'S BLOCK. The location of the building, corner of Maple and River Streets, is as central as could be desired. Its frontage on River Street is 68 feet by 102 on Maple, and from basement to cornice the height is eighty-nine feet. The material is Milwaukee pressed brick, with Illinois freestone trimmings and foundation. Underneath the basement are three cellars-two for the use of Friend, Joys & Co., and the third a boiler room for furnishing the steam with which every room in the great building will be warmed. Next above the cellar is the basement. The first floor, containing four as fine business fronts as can be found in the very center of Milwaukee or Chicago, and which arrests the attention and elicits the admiration of all passers-by, is fifteen feet in the clear, and these lofty rooms are rendered as "light as day" by a window frontage composed of fourteen French plate glass 102x73 inches, and fourteen of 41x73 inches-simply a crystal palace. The corner apartment will be occupied by the First National Bank, Mr. Engelmann's private office and the bank directors' room. The other three stores are already occupied by Friend, Joys & Co. The second floor is arranged for offices. The third floor is the grand Masonic Hall, the finest in Michigan, beyond any question. The ceilings are loftier still than even those of the first floor, being nineteen feet in the clear. The various rooms are the lodge room proper, entirely surrounded by a hall for use in the Knight Templar degrees, a drill room and dancing floor, obligation room, kitchen, banquet hall, cloak room, ladies' dressing room, etc., etc. The wood-work is largely oak, carved with Masonic emblems. The furniture of the lodge has already been selected, and will alone cost $2,500, with everything on a proportionate scale of magnificence. The building is an enduring monument to the enterprising spirit of its builder, and is an ornament to the city. THE "STANDARD" BLOCK, in process of construction, is the property of Hon. S. W. Fowler. Its erection was begun last Spring, and it is now nearly finished. A fine full page view of this block appears in this work. The building is three stories high and occupies a sightly place on Maple Street. The first story has two stores and the printing office proper. The second story is for offices and the third for a hall and rooms. The walls are solid brick one foot thick. The body brick are red, and from the Manistee Brick Works, while the pilasters and cornice are of Milwaukee brick. On the front is a stone tablet twenty inches wide and eight feet long, on which in raised letters is the name of the proprietor; above this is a pediment sixteen feet long and five feet high, of galvanized iron, in the centre of which in raised letters are the figures "1882". On the north front is a similar'stone tablet with "Standard" in raised letters and the date below in marble. The whole is, nearly as may be, fire proof, and with the exception of the Engelmann Block, is the largest solid brick building in the city. It is undoubtedly the best printing office building in northern Michigan. H. B. LARSEN'S BLOCK is located on River Street and has been built during the past season. It is built of brick, two stories high, and is occupied by him as a dry goods store. The first floor is a double store room arranged expressly for his mammoth business. ELEGANT RESIDENCES. Manistee is justly famed for the large number of magnificent private residences with which the city is adorned. In this respect the city is probably without a successful rival in the Northwest. The most elegant residence in the city, and, in fact, one of the finest in the state, is that of John Canfield, Esq., the pioneer lumberman of Manistee, and its wealthiest citizen. The structure is built of brick, three stories high, and is 75x100 feet in size. The interior finish is elaborate and elegant. The value of the house and grounds cannot be much less than $100,000. Among the other residences which are especially fine, are those of Hon. T. J. Ramsdell, A. O. Wheeler, Louis Sands, S. Babcock, R. G. Peters, M. Engelmann, D. W. Filer, J. H. Shrigley, E. E. Benedict, A. B. Leonard, Charles Secor. Besides there are a very large number of tasty homes ranging in value from $5,000 to $10,000. Just outside the city are the residences of E. G. Filer and Charles Rietz, both of which are elegant homes. In this work will be found fine lithographic views of the residences of Louis Sands, R. G. Peters, A. B. Leonard, D. W. Mowatt, E. G. Filer, D. W. Filer, E. E. Douville. CHURCH SOCIETIES. The early history of religious work in Manistee is given in our extracts from Gen. Cutcheon's centennial address. As the city has advanced in the scale of commercial importance, the number and strength of church organizations have proportionately increased. All the various societies are liberally sustained, and the attendance upon Sabbath worship is unusually large, especially for a lumbering city. THE CONGREGATIONAL SOCIETY dates from the year 1862. For a considerable portion of the time prior to the erection of the church edifice, services were held in Dr. Ellis' hall. In 1867 the society was formally organized as a corporate body. In 1870 the present church edifice was completed, at a cost of about $16,000. It is built of white brick, and is located upon a high elevation, making it one of the most conspicuous structures in the city. The membership is about 200, and the general attendance upon the Sunday services is very large. The pastors of the society have been as follows: Revs. John M. McLain, 0. A. Thomas, Herman Gear, John B. Fiske, Joseph F. Gaylord, E. G. Chaddock, T. C. Jerome. The last named pastor resigned in July last, since which time the society has been without a pastor, until, a few weeks since, Dr. E. B. Fairfield accepted a call to the pastorate of the society. The present trustees of the society are R. G. Peters, A. V. McVay, A. O. Wheeler, John Canfield, Louis Sands, E. E. Benedict. 11 JrI -- ------------- --------------------- ___ ____ ___ ____~___~~_ __ _~_~__,_~___ _ __ ____ ~__~__~~___~_ ~~~~~~_~ ~ 1

Page  46 165 46 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. I There is a flourishing Sunday-school, having a membership of about 200, of which Dr. L. S. Ellis is superintendent. ST. MARY'S CATHOLIC SOCIETY is one of the oldest and is the largest religious society in the city. The membership includes upwards of 1,000 families, and the average attendance upon Sunday services is not less than 2,500. The church edifice is a mammoth brick structure, located in the Fourth Ward, just east of Maple Street. The first story is used for the school, and the second story for the church. The present pastor is Rev. D. Callaert. THE FIRST METHODIST EPISCOPAL SOCIETY is a leading religious organization of the city, and one of the oldest. It has a large membership, and for many years worshiped in the church building near the Canfield store. Last year this property was sold, and the society is now finishing a new brick structure, very large, and which, when completed, will be a credit to the society and an ornament to the city. The present pastor is Rev. Geo. L. Haight. THE FIRST BAPTIST SOCIETY was organized in the Winter of 1872. The church edifice is a neat, frame building, in the Fourth Ward. The membership, at the present time, is about fifty-five. The present pastor is Rev. V. Pilblad. THE MAPLE STREET BAPTIST SOCIETY was organized about four years ago, with a small membership, and for a time services were held in Armory Hall. The society is at present building a church edifice on Maple Street. The present pastor is Rev. Wm. Snashall.' THE GERMAN LUTHERAN SOCIETY is one of the prominent religious organizations in the city, and has a large membership. The church is a neat frame structure, located on First Street. The present pastor is Rev. H. Lemke. There is also another German Lutheran society, which was organized in 1881, and purchased the M. E. Church property, near the store of Mr. John Canfield. This society has a membership of about 100. The pastor is Rev. Mr. Koehler. THE SCANDINAVIAN M. E. SOCIETY was organized in 1878, under the Rev. Mr. Gustafsen, and has enjoyed a very marked degree of prosperity. The church edifice is a commodious building, on Fourth Street. The present pastor is Rev. Mr. Daniels. GRACE EPISCOPAL SOCIETY was organized about four years ago. The organization has been maintained, and services held most of the time, but the society is yet without a church edifice. The present rector is Rev. Mr. Haywood. In addition to the above, there are also Danish and Norwegian Lutheran societies of recent organization. The pastors are Rev. Mr. Lillesoe, of the former, and Rev. Mr. Norman, of the latter. There is a suburban Congregational church at Maxwelltown, under the pastorate of Rev. W. E. Sillence, and another at Eastlake, under the pastorate of Rev. W. Beal. PUBLIC SCHOOLS. The first school taught in Manistee was in 1852 and 1858, at Canfield's mill, near the mouth of the river. Mrs. Parsons was the first teacher and the school was mainly supported by Mr. John Canfield. The first public school was established in 1854, and Miss Clark the first teacher employed. In 1866 the erection of the Central School building was undertaken, and completed in 1867. Hon. T. J. Ramsdell being the contractor. The first teachers were, D. Carlton, principal, and Miss Ellis, first assistant. The graded Union School was established in 1870, and ward schools established in the First and Third Wards, and in 1871 the ward schoolhouse was built in the Fourth Ward. This building has given place to a new and elegant structure, furnishing ample facilities for the needs of that part of the city. BOARD OF EDUCATION 1881-'82. NAMES. TERM Giles M W ing....................................... Edwin Russell.......................................... David W. Mowatt........................................ Thomas J. Ramsdell................................. Cyrus B. Lewis..................................... David Bemiss................................... EXPIRES. 1882. 1882. 1883. 1883. 1884. 1884. ORGANIZATION OF THE BOARD. Cyrus B. Lewis, president; Edwin Russell, secretary; David W. Mowatt, treasurer. STANDING COMMITTEES. On library and new books, Thomas J. Ramsdell and the superintendent; on buildings, furniture, etc., Giles M. Wing and David Bemiss; on teachers and course of study, Edwin Russell and Thomas J. Ramsdell; on text books and rules, Cyrus B. Lewis and David W. Mowatt. BOARD OF EDUCATION 1882-'83. NAMES. TERM EXPIRES. David W. M owatt...................................... 1883. Thomas J Ramsdell.................................... 1883. Cyrus B. Lewis....................................... 1884. David Bemiss........................................... 1884. Edwi, R u t-ell.......................................... 1885. Simeon Babco k...................................... 1885. TEACHERS FOR 1882-'83. HIGH SCHOOL:-Webster Cook, superintendent; Edwin K.Whitehead, principal; Mary Bassler, first assistant; Harriet L. Taylor, second assistant. RETAINED TEACHERS:-Mary Prowdly, R. A. Sager, Anna Buckner, Anna Sinclair, Ida Beecher, Ella T. Russell, Alice P. Collins, Eva Hamlin, Ada Harris, Ella Spofford, Florence A. Pietre. NEW TEACHERS:-First Ward: Miss Kate Hopson of Oswego, N. Y. Central School: Miss Sarah E. Straight, of Owosso, Mich., for fourth grade; Miss Helen M. Radley, of Oswego, N. Y., fifth grade; Miss Charity N. Green, of Oswego, N. Y., seventh grade. Third Ward: Miss Helen A. Tiffany, of Oswego, N. Y., first grade; Miss Kate Vrooman, of East Saginaw, second grade. Fourth Ward: Miss Harriet 0. Culver, of Ypsilanti, for second grade. STATISTICAL. The most important items for the school year 1881-'82 will be found in the following tables: 1. Population of the district, (estimated)............ 9,000 2. Number of children of school age (5-20)............ 2,094 3. Cash valuation of school property..................$ 50,000.00 4. Assessed valuation of district property............. 2,798,218.98 RECEIPTS. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Balance on hand....................... $ 2,537.15 Direct tax.............................. 14,000.00 Tax for building purposes................ 10,000.00 Three-mill tax.......................... 848.90 Primary school money................... 2,687.65 Insurance.............................. 1,052 54 11. Total available resources.............. $31126.24 p )

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Page  47 -- --- HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY 47 I DISBURSEMENTS. 12. Paid outstanding orders.................. $456.18 Paid other orders as follows: 13. Teachers' salaries..............$ 9.674.50 14. Janitor,' salaries............. 828.10 15. Building and heating........... 7,811.87 16. Directors' salary................ 100.00 17. School furniture............... 341.07 18. Library and care of library...... 351.78 19. Repairs....................... 246.65 20. Rent........................ 235 80 21. Insurance..................... 57.06 22. Fuel......................... 631.02 23. All other purposes.............. 717.71 24. Total orders drawn.......... 20,995.56 25. Deduct orders outstanding... 170.18 26. Total orders paid............ 20,825.38 27. Paid interest on bonds.......... 383.00 $21,208.38 28. Balance on hand.......... In addition to the above there is due 'he district insurance on Fourth'Ward building....... Deduct outstanding orders...... Total amount on hand and due the district................. $ 3,700 00 170.18 $21,664.56 $ 9,461.68 3,529.82 $12,991.50 SCHOOLS. PRIMARY GRAM- HIGH TOTAL MAR SCHOOL. & AV'GE. 1. Total enrollment (transfers excluded. 896 317 73 1286 2. Average number belonging........... 55919 233-82 58-16 851-17 3. Average daily attendance.............. 529-79 223-72 55-89 809-40 4. Number of men teachers, including Supt.................................... 2 2 5. Number of women teachers........... 12 4-3 2 18-3 6. Number of pupils to each teacher.... 4660 53-96 17-45 43-28 7. Cost of education per capita for superintendence and instruction...... 9-50 9-29 i 38-73 11-44 8. Cost of education per capita for incid. 3-23 3-23 3-23 3-23 9. Total cost of education per capita.... 12-73 12-52 41-96 14-67 10. Number of non-resident pupils........ 4 7 1 12 11. Average age of class promoted....... 10-52 14-56 18 -The following table exhibits the growth of the schools for the last six years: SCHOOL TOTAL AVERAGE AVERAGE NO. OF SCHOOL TOTAL NO. DAILY TEACHEES. CENSUS. ENROLLMENT. No. DAILY TEAHERS. ENS. ENOLLMENT. BELONGING. ATTENDANCE. EMPLOYED. 1876-7 1,264 829 506 478 13 1877-8 1,406 900 578 506 13 1878-9 1,516 964 644 613 14 1879-80 1,616 1,070 728 685 16 1880-1 1,814 1,231 882 818 19 1881-2 2,094 1,286 851 810 20 LIBRARY. The library contains about 2,000 volumes, about 250 of which were added during the last year..To this the pupils of the High School have free access at all times, and as many of the books were selected with especial view to high-school work, the library is proving of great practical value to both teachers and pupils. Considerable funds are still on hand for library purposes, and other additions will soon be made. The library is also open to the public every Saturday afternoon from one to four, while the school is in session, and any resident of the district can then obtain books. The leading citizens of Manistee are people of culture and refinement, and they have always pursued a liberal policy towards the schools. Anything that was calculated to improve educational facilities has always been secured, no matter what the cost. The best teachers have been selected and the best methods adopted. No other city of equal size can boast of providing its children with educational facilities superior to those of Manistee. TUG LINES. There are two tug lines doing business on the lakes and river, The oldest is the CANFIELD TUG LINE, which has an invested capital of $75,000, and is owned three-fourths by Mr. A. O. Wheeler, and one-fourth by Capt. Gnewnch. The line comprises seven powerful tugs, viz: the C. Williams, Irma L. Wheeler, Frank Canfield, J. C. Osgood, Charles Gnewuch, Hunter Savidge, and D. Cutler, Jr., and in connection with these, one Holly rotary wrecking pump, and one Worthington, besides lifting screws. lighters and all the latest improved wrecking appliances. The line has been in existence fifteen years. Starting in 1866, with the tug Savidge, three new tugs were added the same season, and under the efficient management of Mr. Wheeler, the line has enjoyed only successive seasons of prosperity. One particularly mentionable fact, and one that speaks highly for the efficiency of the masters of the tugs, is the immunity of the line from accidents and disasters. Not a tug has been lost, or damaged by collision, and not a boiler explosion has occurred during all these years. The only misfortune of the character was the recent burning of the upper works of the Frank Canfield, necessitating the expenditure of some $2,000 for repairs. Of the three men lost, belonging to the tugs, during the fifteen years, only one can properly be accredited to having met his death from his vocation-Capt. Taggert, of the Edwards, in 1875, who was killed by the tug striking a pier. Winckler, the man recently lost, seems to have tumbled overboard while asleep, rising and beginning to walk along the deck near the rail before being fully awake. The other was George Kerwin, who was seized with a fit, one 4th of July, some years ago, and losing control of himself, fell overboard and was drowned. This excellent showing as to the efficiency of the men handling the tugs indicates shrewd judgment on the part of Mr. Wheeler in the selection of his men. It is, however, only the same sound judgment he has shown at all times in working his way up from a poor boy, wholly unassisted, to the rank of a leading citizen of Manistee-foremost in all public movements looking to the building up of the city and to its permanent prosperity. Business in the tugging line, though still fair, has been somewhat supplanted of late years by the increased number of steam barges or propellers. Of the seven tugs of this line five are employed on the river, and occasionally let for excursions, or despatched on wrecking expeditions, while the Williams and Wheeler are kept busy towing scows of limestone hither from Mud Bay, and scows of building stone from Sturgeon Bay, Wis., there being no stone of either kind on this shore of the lake. THE DEMPSEY TUG LINE is of recent origin, having been started in 1880. It belongs to Mr. James Dempsey, one of the leading lumbermen of Manistee. There are two boats-the Alfred P. Wright and William R. Crowell, both of which are large and powerful boats. SOCIETIES. MANISTEE LODGE, F. & A. M., No. 28, was first organized in the Summer of 1867, but was not duly chartered until February, 1868. On the evening of February 3, a public meeting was held, and the following officers installed: W. S. Kendall, W. M.; G. Shackelton, S. W.; R. P. Thurber, J. W.; George W. Bulms, Sec'y.; E. N. Salling, T.; D. W. Mowatt, S. D.; A. O. Wheeler, J. D.; H. Ellis, S.; L. Lucas, S.; W. Coots, T. The lodge has always been very prosperous, and there are at - --

Page  48 -A 48 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. ----- the present time about ninety members. The present officers are: William Wente, W. M.; D. W. Mowatt, P. M.; B. W. Kies, Sec'y; William Brain, Treas. Regular meetings occur Monday night. MANISTEE CHAPTER, NO. 65, was organized in 1869. The present membership is about fifty. The present H. P. is Allen McKee. MANISTEE COUNCIL, NO. 46, was organized in 1879. The first presiding officer was Wm. Dunham. The membership is about twenty. The present officers are as follows: T. I. M., L. E. Morris; D. M., D. W. Mowatt; P. C. of W., Allen McKee; C. of G., William Wente; Steward, S. Bedford; C. of C., A. O. Ward; Recorder, John Kinsley; Treasurer, R. R. Blacker; Sentinel, H. T. Thorp. MANISTEE COMMANDERY, NO. 32, was organized in 1881. The membership is about twenty-one. The presiding officer is A. H. Wagent. BEACON LODGE No. 121, I. O. O. F., was organized in 1869. The regular meetings are held every Wednesday evening. The following are the present officers: N. G., Andrew Blaser; V. G., John Higgins; R. S., Jerome VanSickle; P. S., John Kinsley; treasurer, E. A. Hornkohl; trustee, C. Hauser. THE GERMAN MUTUAL AID SOCIETY is a prosperous and beneficial institution. Their hall was burned in the fire of 1871, but was rebuilt in 1872. The present officers are: President, M. Ciechanwsoky; secretary, August Guhse; treasurer, Christian Hauser. THE ROYAL ARCANUM was organized in 1878, with about twenty members. The following are the present officers: Regent, William Hurd; V. R., N. W. Nelson; Orator, Joseph Brouillet; secretary, L. E. Morris; collector, C. Waal; treasurer, Dr. George LaMontagne; chaplain, P. Marsh; guide, Benjamin Burr; warden, P. Cook; representative, W. R. Laird. THE KNIGHTS OF HONOR Lodge was organized in 1877. It is known as Washington Lodge, No. 700. The following are its present officers: D., F. W. Chandler; V. D., E. A. Hornkohl; A. D., M. Daly; reporter, L. E. Morris; Fin. Rep., John Kinsley; treasurer, Christian Hauser; chaplain, E. E. Douville; guide, William Bear; guardian, C. Wenzel; sentinel C. W. Conat; representative, L. E. Morris. MANISTEE ENCAMPMENT NO. 66, I. O. O. F., was organized in 1874. The p:esent officers are as follows: C. P., M. C. Cox; H. P., Charles Germer; S. W., E. E. Douville; scribe, A. J. Barty; treasurer, Christian Hauser. THE MANISTEE WORKINGMEN'S MUTUAL AID SOCIETY was organized in 1875, and corresponds with the German Aid Society. Its meetings are held the first Saturday evening of each month. The present officers are as follows: President, E. E. Douville; secretary, H. T. Thorp;treasurer, Christian Hauser. THE WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION was organized May 7, 1877, and became auxiliary to the State Union the following September. The association has been well sustained, and has done, and is still doing, a great and noble work. Mrs. R. G. Peters is president of the association. THE WOMAN'S TEMPERANCE ASSOCIATION is an outgrowth of the great temperance agitation and crusade of 1874. Its membership has comprised a large number of the leading ladies of the city, and is one of the most powerful organizations in the city. This association built the Temperance Hall and still owns the building and ground upon which it stands. The present president of the asso ciation is Mrs. M. M. Reynolds. THE SCANDINAVIAN SOCIETY was organized in 1872. Its object is to promote social intercourse. It has a v~ry large membership, and had a large hall, which was burned last August. TEMPLE OF HONOR was organized in 1868. William Fry was the first presiding officer. HEAVY TAX PAYERS OF MANISTEE. The following is a list of tax payers who pay $100 or over taxes in the city of Manistee: L. Sands, $4,652.14; M. Engelmann, $3,266; Rietz Bros., $2,450.31; John Canfield, $2,369.30; Ruddock, Palmiter & Co., $1,745.40; Canfield & Wheeler, $1,674.51; S. Babcock, $1,500; T. J. Ramsdell, $1,261.81; Nettie L. Ramsdell, $241.68; E. E. Benedict, $123.65; Boom Company, $214.84; Canfield Tug Line, $584.21; A. O. Wheeler, $219.11; Wheeler & Johnson, $185.89; J. Baur, $610.97; C. F. Ruggles, $752.70; Buckley & Douglas, $241.94; Seymour Bros., $381.35; Horace Taber, $144.46; Dempsey, Cartier & Co., $534.19; James Dempsey, $185.76; Carrie Filer, $161.13; Larsen Bros., $200.75; A. B. Leonard, $182.63; Lucas & Nungesser, $159.80; J. A. Johnson, $238; Haines & Bemiss, $161.13; 0. Kitzinger, $288.79; W. W. Chapin, $283.86; C. B. Lewis & Son, $381.88; D. W. Lewis & Co., $419.33; J. H. Shrigley, $254.93; S. Bedford, $115.73; E. N. Salling, $268.07; R. R. Blacker & Co., $279.59; Davis, Blacker & Co., $623; S. W. Fowler, $287.01; R. G. Peters, $671.45. THE MANISTEE LIGHT GUARD was mustered into service at the engine house in the city of Manistee, Wednesday evening, May 31, 1876, by Adjutant General Robinson, for the term of six years. The first officers were as follows: Captain, Byron M. Cutcheon; first lieutenant, William Nungesser; second lieutenant, James B. Delbridge; orderly sergeant, George A. Hart. The company still maintains a successful organization. The present officers are. Captain, George A. Hart; first lieutenant, Byron W. Kies; second lieutenant, F. B. Baldwin; orderly sergeant, R. W. Hulburt. LUMBERMEN'S EXCHANGE. The lumbermen of Manistee had felt the necessity of some organization whereby they might act in unison for the protection of their interests, but no positive action was taken until the present season. Their action was hastened by the receipt of a communication early in the Spring, from the secretary of the Chicago Lumber Exchange, asking that the lumbermen of Manistee take such steps as would enable Chicago dealers to form intelligent opinions of Manistee inspection and measurement, which would conduce to the benefit of both buyer and seller. The first meeting was held on the 24th of May, when a committee consisting of Messrs. E. D. Wheeler, E. G. Filer and G. Wiborn was chosen to frame a constitution and by-laws. On the 7th of June, another meeting was convened to receive the report of the committee, when the constitution and by-laws, as reported, were adopted. On the 26th of June a meeting was held, when Messrs. Wheeler, Filer and Wiborn reported that they had procured a sufficient number of members to comply with the act for the incorporation of boards of trade and chambers of commerce, approved March 19, 1863. The meeting then proceeded to the election of officers, resulting in the election of the following: President, John Canfield; vice-president, R. G. Peters; treasurer, E. G. Filer; secretary, James Roberts. Directors-E. G. Filer, M. Engelmann, John Canfield, C. B. Lewis, Edward Buckley, E. D. Wheeler, Louis Sands, G. Wiborn, R. G. Peters. Committee of Arbitration-R. R. Blacker, E. Salling, W. E. Sawyer, W. R. Thorsen, Gus Kitzinger. Committee of Appeals-S. Babcock, William Magill, N. W. Nelson, William Wente, John F. Nuttall. Members-John Canfield, E. D. Wheeler, M. Engelmann, W. R. Thorsen, S. Babcock, Charles Rietz, E. N. Salling, Louis Sands, I W4-- 1 L

Page  49 ~t--" IL~IC~ ----------- i:~ I In HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 49 C. B. Lewis, G. Wiborn, William Wente, James Dempsey, W. S. Newson, W. W. Chapin, E. Buckley, W. E. Sawyer, R. A. Seymour, Jr., D. W. Lewis, John Sweet, E. G. Filer, William Magill, Gus Kitzinger, R. G. Peters, James Roberts, D. A. McCormick, N. W. Nelson, H. A. Tiffany, R. R. Blacker, John F. Nuttall. The directors leased the rooms formerly occupied by the First National Bank, and furnished them with all the appliances necessary to the transaction of business. THE MANISTEE RAILROAD. Until December, 1881, the screech of the " iron horse " never awoke the echoes in the vicinity of the city of Manistee. The manufacture of lumber was the industry of overshadowing importance, and the great highways of Lake Michigan'afforded ample facilities for the transportation of that product. For several years efforts were continually made by a portion of the citizens of the city to secure a railroad, but they were not successful until the Manistee branch of the Flint and Pere Marquette Road was secured. This road was completed and commenced business in December, 1881. This branch leaves the main line eighteen miles east of Ludington, at Manistee Junction, at which point the company has erected a neat depot building. The road runs northwesterly, and the first station is Tallman, four miles from the junction. It is a village of 500 inhabitants, laid out by R. G. Peters and Horace Butters, of the firm of H. Butters & Co., some two years ago. The next is Lincoln, five miles distant, situated on a small stream bearing the same name, surrounded by excellent beech and maple timber land, with considerable pine. There is but one building, aside from the depot. This is an excellent point for the erection of a mill. Traveling still further northwest five and a quarter miles is the station of Free Soil, where is built a comfortable depot building, suitable for passengers and freight. The station is named after the township and postoffice bearing the same name. There are many fine farms in the township, the timber being beech, maple, elm, basswood and ash, with some scattering cork pine. There are two saw mills in operation, one a water power by Tallman & Thompson, the other steam power, owned by Rothchilds, Case & Co. The latter have a store, and have laid out a village. The road crosses Sauble River at this point, on which considerable lumbering is done. The Little Manistee River is crossed by a substantial trestle work 1,800 feet long, and some thirty feet high. The village of Stronach is situated at the head of Manistee Lake, four miles from Manistee, and twenty-one miles from the junction. This is an active place, about 600 inhabitants, where large quantities of lumber and shingles are manufactured, and a salt well will this Winter be sunk. The road from Stronach runs along the easterly shore of Manistee Lake, through the extensive mill yards of John Canfield, R. G. Peters, and Wheeler, Magill & Co. The road bed has been built beyond Stronach, across half a mile of swamp, two dredges having excavated channels on each side, throwing the earth in the center for the embankment, and three bridges have been constructed across the Manistee. The company has purchased some thirty-five acres of land and a number of feet of water frontage on the lake, adjoin ing the city limits for depot purposes, and buildings are being erected thereon. The road, which is entirely laid with steel rails, is twenty-six and one-half miles long, and the road bed is in excellent condition. The Flint and Pere Marquette Railroad, of which the Manistee road is a branch, is one of the most successfully operated roads in the state. The gross earnings of this road for six months of 1881 and 1882 were as follows: 1881. January........................... $131,528 09 February.............................. 119,721 43 M arch............................... 158,214 15 April................................ 171,445 99 May............................... 162,539 57 June................................. 160,098 48 $903,547 71 Operating expenses.................. 642,805 28 Net.............................. $260,742 43 Operating expenses, per cent.......... 71.14 Miles operated........................ 317.71 1882. $ 168,004 39 163,902 74 195,813 55 188,569 20 175,112 63 160,240 38 $1,051,642 89 666,675 04 $ 384,967 85 63.39 345.16 After payment of coupons, there remained $250,602.12 for six months, equal to 3.85 per cent on preferred stock. The pay rolls of the company for six months of 1882, ending June 30, including construction of cars and buildings, were $433,777.20. The gross earnings for July were $147,461.80, against $137,639.60 in 1881, and a gain of $9,822.20. There was expended for construction account in the first six months of this year the sum of $123,080.59. The increase in passenger traffic for the first six months of 1882 was $66,603.70, and for the month of July, 1882, $11,276.57. THE AMERICAN EXPRESS COMPANY established an office in Manistee, in January, 1882, soon after the completion of the railroad. The office was first located on Oak Street, and Mr. J. M. Ramsdell was agent. He resigned early in February, and was succeeded by Mr. G. R. Giesman, and the office removed to the insurance office of Douville & Giesman. In March the office was again removed to its present location, at the corner of River and Maple Streets. THE MANISTEE FLEET. The following is a list of steamers and vessels of Manistee, with the names of owners. When it is considered that nearly all of these steamers, vessels, barges and tugs are first class, both in size and appointment, and that several carry nearly half a million feet of lumber each as a cargo, it will be understood that Manistee stands second only to Chicago and Milwaukee in the magnificence of her fleet. CANFIELD TUG LINE. Dwight Cutler, Jr., steamer. Tug Hunter Savidge. Tug C. J. Gnewuch. Tug Irma L. Wheeler. Tug Frank Canfield. Tug J. C. Osgood. Tug C. Williams. LOUIS SAND'S FLEET. Propeller R. G. Peters. Propeller Maggie Marshall. Schooner Isabella Sands. Schooner A. W. Lucky. Schooner Arendel. ENGELMANN'S FLEET. Steam propeller Albert Miller. Schooner J. B. Prime. Schooner M. Capron. Steamer John A. Dix, Engelmann & Cochrane. Schooner Annie O. Hanson, Engelmann & Babcock. Schooner Cuba, same. n _____________ _.._____~,~,~II-~-.~.~,~--1--1 ---------------- -- - -- - ----- --------------

Page  50 R ). ~ II~' 50 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. RUDDOCK, NUTTALL & CO'S FLEET. Steam propeller Fayette. Schooner Windsor. CHARLES RIETZ & BRO'S FLEET. Steam propeller Charles Rietz. Schooner John Marks. Schooner Florence Lester. Schooner Agnes L. Potter. DEMPSEY, CARTIER & CO'S FLEET. Tug A. P. Wright. Tug Wm. R. Crowell. Schooner City of Toledo. Schooner Truman Mose. (L. Sands has a one-quarter interest in these vessels). R. G. PETER'S FLEET. Steam propeller Norman. Schooner R. C. Crawford. Steam barge. MISCELLANEOUS. Tug Shepherd, H. T. Thorpe. Tug Dick Davis, J. E. Rumbell. Steam propeller Lewis Gilbert, and schooner Wonder, Seymour Brothers. Steamer John Smith, John Smith. Propeller Grace Patterson, Wm. K. Patterson. Schooner Dan Hayes, A. W. Farr. Propeller Milwaukee, Wing, Morgan & Co. Schooner Len Higby, C. Michaelson. Schooner John Mee, W. W. Chapin. Tug Gem, Dan Padder. Schooner Lucia A. Simpson, Filer Bros. Steam propeller James H. Shrigley, Canfield & Shrigley. Schooner Mama Jepson, George Jepson. Schooner Birdie, H. Gezon. Schooner Traveler, X. Lavake. THE MANISTEE WATER COMPANY. This company was incorporated May 8, 1882, for the purpose of putting in and operating a system of water works for the convenience of the city. The company is composed of twenty-two stockholders, and has a capital of $200,000. The officers are: A. 0. Wheeler, president; G. A. Hart, secretary; T. J. Ramsdell, treasurer. About the middle of July, after a thorough investigation by a committee, the Holly system was adopted, The building, which is a magnificent structure, is located upon three lots purchased of John Canfield, Esq., at the corner of Tamarack and South River Streets. The pipes run substantially as follows: Beginning at Tamarack Street with a sixteen-inch pipe, the same runs along First Street to Spruce; thence eastward, along First Street to Sibben Street, with a twelve-inch pipe; thence south to Third Street, east to Ramsdell, south to Fifth, and east to Kosciusko Street, with a ten-inch pipe; thence south on Kosciusko Street to Eighth, east to Vine Street, and south to Eleventh Street, with an eight-inch pipe; thence east on Eleventh Street one block, and south to Babcock's mill and the foot of Rietz's hill, with a six-inch pipe. An eight-inch main, connecting with the sixteen-inch main at Spruce Street, runs north to South River Street, and along South River Street to Sands' office. Between the First Street main and the South River Street main are two connecting mains-an eight-inch pipe on Division and a six-inch pipe on Maple which continues to Fifth Street, where it intersects a main of like size running the entire length of Fifth Street, and turning north at the western end of Fifth Street and running north to Third. A six-inch main also runs from the large main on First Street along Cypress to Fifth, connecting with the Fifth Street main. A six-inch pipe also extends'from the Maple Street main on Fourth to Oak. Cedar Street has a six-inch main extending from the works to Eighth. The river is crossed at a point near the steamboat dock, and an eight-inch main runs from the opposite bank to Fifth Avenue, thence to Washington, north on Washington to Harrison Street, east on Harrison to the location of the new depot, where it is succeeded by a six-inch main running northeast to the mill of the Manistee Lumber Company. According to contract, the works are to be completed and ready for operation by the first of 1883. POPULATION AND GROWTH. The population of the city in 1870, the year after it was incorporated was 3,343; in 1874, 4,894; in 1880, 7,075. In 1881 the school census was as follows: First Ward, 447; Second Ward, 501; Third Ward, 502; Fourth Ward, 644. Total, 2,094. In 1880 the total number of children included in the school census was 1,814. The increase of a year was 280, and the population of the city at that time could safely be estimated at 8,300. At the present time it is between 9,000 and 10,000, and including its suburbs about 13,000. BOOM COMPANIES. The first saw mills of Manistee were located in the very heart of pine forests, and the logs were cut within easy hauling distance of the mills. That was at a time when the possibility of ever exhausting the supply of standing pine never entered into the calculations of lumbermen. Northern Michigan was a wilderness of pine, and trees that now would gladden the sight of a logger, were then scornfully passed by. Where the city of Manistee now stands was then covered with forest which gradually disappeared before the woodman's ax. As the breadth of clearing increased, attention was directed to the two branches of the Manistee River for logging operations. The history of the improvement of this river is given elsewhere on these pages. THE BOOM COMPANY OF MANISTEE was organized February 23, 1869, being incorporated under the laws of the state. The incorporators were John Canfield, Geo. W. Robinson, T. J. Ramsdell, E. E. Benedict, E. G. Filer, Henry B. Tisdale. The first board of directors was composed of John Canfield, E. D. Wheeler, G. W. Robinson, T. J. Ramsdell, E. G. Filer. Officers: John Canfield, president; T. J. Ramsdell, secretary and treasurer. The present officers are the same with the addition of N. G. Robinson, superintendent and boom master. The "drive" is let by contract for five years. The present contractor is M. R. Denning. THE FILER CITY BOOM COMPANY was incorporated in the Spring of 1869 for the purpose of operating on the Little Manistee River. The incorporators were, Geo. W. Robinson, E. G. Filer, D. L. Filer, E. W. Filer and T. J. Ramsdell. Officers: Geo. W. Robinson, president; E. G. Filer secretary and treasurer. The present officers are E. G. Filer, president; T. J. Ramsdell, secretary and treasurer; N. G. Robinson, superintendent. The following is the amount of logs delivered by the boom companies to the mills for a series of years, as furnished by N. G. - ------ ------------ -- -----

Page  [unnumbered] 5

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Page  51 611, HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 51 Robinson, Esq., the superintendent of the Manistee and Filer City Boom Companies: BOOM COMPANY OF MANISTEE. FILER CITY BOOM COMPANY. 1869............ 1870......... 1871............ 1872............ 1873............ 1874............ 1875............ 1876............ 1877........... 1878............ 1879............ 1880............ 1881............ 96,291,417 96,334,696........................ 113,125,740..................... 125,356,904....................... 154,679,382........................ 148,295,060.......................... 151,950,668.......................... 140,294,794........................ 139,570,765........................ 171,422,539........................ 197,010,969...................... 198,915,742........................ 208,391,088........................ 24,886,699 29,243,077 30,199,825 25,140,861 33,923,323 16,975,529 7,429,447 12,850.783 7,935,666 14,711,061 13,352,136 12,995,543 The following table shows the total amount of logs delivered by both boom companies, each year. YEAR. AMOUNT. 1869........................... 96,291,417 1870.......................... 121,221,395 1871............................. 142,368,817 1872.......................... 155,556,729 1873.......................... 179,820,243 1874............................ 182,218,383 1875........................... 168,926,197 1876............................ 147,724,241 1877.......................... 152,221,548 187.8........................... 179,358,205 1879............................. 211,722,030 1880........................... 212,267,878 1881.......................... 221,386,631 The total number of feet of logs delivered by both companies up to 1882 is 2,171,083,714. MANISTEE LUMBER INTERESTS. A moment's reflection will serve to convince the reader that it would be impossible to entirely separate a history of the lumbering interests of Manistee from the general history of this region; so that only a small portion of the earlier lumbering operations appears in this particular department, while the principal part is given along as the general development has been traced. It must be remembered that the forest of pine was the magnet that drew the first settlers to this region. It was the ax of the logger that sounded the first notes of industry awaking the echoes in these forests, and the sawmill first chorused the coming of civilization and progress. This branch of industry has brought Manistee to its present healthy proportions, built its palatial residences and solid business blocks, and made it what it is to-day. Last February a correspondent of the Northwestern Lumberman visited Manistee and gathered some information from lumbermen, which was published in that paper, and from which we quote as follows: "I suppose it is safe to say that there are several men in Manistee who are millionaires, and, what is pleasant to consider, they are self-made men. They settled down here when the country was wild, endured hardships, worked up and up until they met with success, and no one but a mean cur will begrudge it to them. M. Engelmann began here at six dollars a month. Louis Sands worked by the month; so did R. G. Peters, E. D. Wheeler and Messrs. Dempsey, Filer and Magill. Mr. Blacker came here as a lumber inspector, and it is reported of E. T. Davies that in order to get across the lake to Manistee he pawned his tool chest. When such men as these are the foundation of a town, it takes more than a few drizzling rains to wash it away. " ' Tell me something of the early lumber business of the place,' I said to a man who had been here since 1848. " ( Since I came here,' he said,' I have seen some ups and downs. Two and three years ago the manufacturers of lumber thought that prices were pretty small, but I have taken timber on the stump, sawed it into lumber, carried it on scows for three miles and sold it for $3.75 per thousand. I made money at it, too. That year I made $1,900; but we worked differently from now. We began at peep o'day and worked until dungeon dark. We had long working hours, short sleeping hours, and little time to eat. I have been in the woods for seven months without seeing a mouthful of fresh meat or a potato. Some men kicked at their food in one of my camps the other day, and what do you think was on the table? Beefsteak, pork, potatoes, butter, bread, doughnuts and coffee. That is all, and the poor men thought they were starving to death. They ought to be put on the grub that the pioneer lumberman on this river ate thirty years ago, and see how they would like it. Men now-adays go round the camp kicking when they are living better than they ever dared to live at home. The first mill was built by J. & A. Stronach in 1842, and what is strange, for forty years the fire has let it alone. It is now the Paul Camine mill, at Stronach. It may be like the man that had the same jackknife-although a new blade had been put in the handle and afterward a new handle on the blade-nevertheless, we call it the same old mill. Adam Stronach is now living up at Stronach. When I came here not a tree was cut on the present site of Manistee. There was a mission house standing just above here, that was built in 1826, and down at the mouth of the river there were a few Indian huts. It was a howling place in the wilderness then, you can bet. Always a part of the load of every vessel that came up here was whisky, and when she landed the whisky was the first thing that was put on shore. I have seen them break in the heads of the barrels with their heels, dip the whisky up in their boots and drink from them. Many a time I hid in the woods to keep away from the mob, for there was no knowing what would happen to a man who wouldn't join them. It disgusted me clean through, and now I have no use for a man who is given to whisky. I will not keep a drunkard in my employ. I don't want any man to go to his work in the morning around iy mill with a thick head, and a broken nose, maybe, rubbing his eyes, and so blind that he can't tell a shingle bolt from a saw-log. Robert Canfield, father of John, built a mill in 1848, and I helped raise the frame. It had two muley saws. In 1854 a man named Bachelor, from Massachusetts, built a mill and put in a circular. It was a great curiosity. The Indians would stand off and laugh, and think the mill was running away with itself. But like a great many things, in the beginning the circular was voted down, and a muley took its place. The next mill was built in 1856, which afterwards passed into M. Engelmann's hands, who was one of the first sawmill men here to make the circular a success. The next mills were put up by H. N. Green, of Green Brothers, Louis Sands and John Canfield. From that time Manistee began to assume some proportions as a lumber manufacturing town, although for several years she didn't creep up very fast. The men who began operations here did not have many comforts or much money to begin with. It was a hard fight for a foothold, but at last it was gained, and now it can be said, I think, that we are getting along tolerably well.' " The prospect to me," said another gentleman, " does not look as bright as it did a few weeks ago. There are financial difficulties in Europe that are suggestive of trouble here. I do not want average pine at over $2 stumpage. That is, I do not want it to keep. I buy and sell a great deal of it, and if I pay a round price I know pretty well where the pine will be placed. Lumber, I consider, is worth about present prices, but speculation in pine lands is running riot. Men are buying on credit. A great deal of pine changes hands when not a single dollar is passed over. I speak l -'-7;]

Page  52 1 "\I - ----- -LtLS~Ljl~ 52 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. I understandingly, for I know. The men who are buying pine in this way will be called smart business men if fortuitous circumstances keep them out. If they do not come out all right they will be called confounded fools. I did business on this basis, and was ranked as one of the fools in 1857, but don't get in that box again." The logs for the coming season's cut will be obtained largely on the south branch, and on the main stream in the vicinity of Fife Lake. Some of the logs will come by river 250 miles. Mr. Peters will bring 16,000,000 feet on the Flint & Pere Marquette for one of his mills, which would now be running had the track been completed as soon as expected. Peters & Co. have a nine-mile road at Tallman, on which they run a ten-ton engine. The road is owned by a stock company, as are many of the logging roads in the state; such a company, having power, forces a road through the lands of others, when otherwise it could be prevented. Stumpage is worth from $1.75 to $5. These are the current prices, but there is stumpage on the river that cannot be bought for $8. It is favorably located, and the owners would not sell it for any reasonable price. In speaking of estimates, a dealer said: "The pine on the river has grown in quantity wonderfully, recently. As prices go up the amount of pine increases. Estimates, as it has been proved, will stretch like rubber. When timber lands were cheaper, a 9,000,000 estimate might be expected to round up 11,000,000. Now they look it over mighty close, and you pay for about what you get. The men who bought lands on the old canal estimates got a soft thing. They were altogether too low. Land sold on these estimates on a basis of $3 stumpage, stood the purchaser in at about $2." The mills in operation in 1868, and also in 1873, have already been given. The following is a list of the Manistee mills and the capacity of each, (day sawing) in 1876: Canfield & Wheeler........................15,000,000 Wheeler, Magill & Co..................... 15,000,000 J. H. Shrigley & Co....................... 8,000,000 Cushman, Calkins & Co....................15,000,000 Lewis, O'Brien & Co-shingle mill.......... 20,000,000 Gifford, Ruddock & Co......................20,000,000 Engelmann, Babcock & Salling............. 14,000,000 R. G. Peters & Co.......................14 500,000 Charles Rietz Bros.-two mills...............28,000,000 Horace Taber............................ 10,000,000 Filer & Sons............................. 16,000,000 Stronach Lumber Company.................. 14,000,000 Dennett & Dunham........................ 7,500,000 Louis Sands.............................. 15,000,000 Dempsey, Cartier & Co...................16,000,000 0. M. Wing-shingle mill...................20,000,000 Drummond, Lewis & Co.-shingle mill....... 20,000,000 Davis & Calkins- shingle mill............... 20,000,000 B. W. Kies & Co.-shingle mill.............. 13,000,000 Russell & Currier-shingle mill..............20,000,000 Tyson, Sweet & Co.-gang mill..............18,000,000 Tyson, Sweet & Co.-circular mill............ 14,000,000 THE LUMBER PRODUCT. The following table shows the lumber product for several years: LUMBER. Year. Amount. I Year. Amount. 1868................. 125,000,000 1878.................165,000,000 1869................ 170,000,000 1879.................212,552,950 1875................ 150,500,000 1880.................214,615,000 1876.................. 145,750,000 1881............... 224,825,952 1877................ 151,184,104 LATH. Year. Amount. Year. Amount. 1875..................30,000,000 1878.................. 20,000,000 1876...................27,500,000 1881..................25,000,000 1877................ 26,800,000 SHINGLES. Year. Amount. Year. Amount. 1875................. 148,500,000 1879................. 368,184,400 1876................. 181,091,000 1880................ 440,424,600 1877.............. 219,208,250 1881................. 620,648,000 1878................. 363,090,00 The shingle product of Manistee probably exceeds that of any other point in the world. In 1878 the total shingle cut of Michigan was 840,678,000, of which Manistee cut 363,090,000. THE PRODUCT OF 1881. The following tables show the product of lumber, shingles, lath, pickets and rift-sawed siding cut, during the year 1881, by each of the mills: LUMBER. John Canfield........................... 28,340,005 Louis Sands........................... 27,409,034 M. Engelnann........................22,000,000 R. G. Peters...............................16,500,000 Dempsey, Cartier & Co.....................15,500,000 Filer & Sons............................. 14,000,000 Stronach Lumber Co........................13,000,000 Canfield & Wheeler............................ 13,000,000 Ruddock, Palmiter & Co.....................13,000,000 Chas. Rietz & Bros.....................12,000,000 Wheeler, Magill & Co....................... 12,000,000 E. Buckley, at D. & B. mill.................. 9,013,614 H. Taber & Sons................... 8 400,000 Stokoe & Nelson.......................... 5,864,000 S. Babcock & Co.......................... 4,799,299 Dempsey, Simpson & Co..................... 4,500,000 L. M. Haines & Co.......................... 1,500,000 Total cut for year 1881...................224,825,952 Cut for year 1880........................ 214,615,000 SHINGLES. R. G. Peters...........................86,477,000 E. Buckley, at D. & B. mill.................. 62,802,000 M. Engelmann.......................... 47,000,000 R. R. Blacker & Co................... 43,535,000 C. B. Lewis & Son.........................44,000,000 0. Kitzinger & Co........................... 43,419,000 H. Taber & Sons...................... 39,184 000 Stokoe & Nelson..............................38,621,000 D. W. Lewis & Co..........................37,359,000 Russell Bros..........................35,000,000 Dempsey, Simpson & Co.................... 28,000,000 Paul Camine.............................20,000,000 S. Babcock & Co..........................24,629,000 A. S. Haines & Co.......................19,500,000 Ruddock, Palmiter & Co.................... 15,000,000 John Canfield............................. 14,432,000 Chas. Rietz & Bros.......................... 6,690,000 L. M. Haines & Co...................... 15,000,000 Total cut for the year 1881................ 620 648,000 Cut for the year 1880.....................440,424,600 LATH. M. Engelmann........................ 8,000,000 Ruddock, Palmiter & Co..................... 6,000,000 Dempsey, Cartier & Co......................6,000,000 Chas. Rietz & Bros......................5,000,000 Total................................ 25,000,000 PICKETS. Chas. Rietz & Bros.........................98,000 H. Taber & Sons...........................75,000 Total..................................173,000 RIFT-SAWED SIDING. H. Taber & Sons............................1,600,000 S. Babcock & Co......................... 1,500,000 Total....................................3100,000 The foregoing tables show that the cut of 1881 exceeded that of 1880 by 10,210,952 feet of lumber, and 180,223,400 shingles. I __~_ ~_ --ll~C~s~-~r1---1---~--~_-----.

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Page  53 -A" I HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY 53 MANISTEE EXPORTS. Following is a table of the principal exports from the port of Manistee from the opening of navigation to July 28th, 1882. Lumber................................. 117,567,000 feet. Shingles................................238 160,000 " Lath................................... 7,177,000 " Elm lumber............................... 195,000 " Timber................................... 1,432,000 " R I. ties................................... 5,400 Cedar posts......................... 14,980 B ark...................................... 705 c'ds. Wood................................... 363 " Slabs..................................... 1,914 " Sawdust............................... 1,908 b'les JOHN CANFIELD has had a leading part in the lumber interests of Manistee for upwards of thirty years. He is an extensive owner of mill property and pine lands, although at the present time but one mill is operated by him alone. This mill is situated on the east side of Lake Manistee, and was built by J. H. Shrigley & Co., in 1867, and purchased by Mr. Canfield in 1879. The capacity of the mill is about 75,000 feet of lumber a day. There is also a shingle mill belonging to the same property, which was built in 1879, and cuts nearly 100,000 shingles a day. Both mills employ about eighty men. Mr. Canfield is one of the most extensive pine land owners in the state. CANFIELD & WHEELER own the original Canfield mill property, situated at the mouth of the river. The firm is composed of John Canfield and Edward D. Wheeler, and was established in 1871. The capacity of the mill is 75,000 feet of lumber a day, and about sixty men are employed in operating it. WHEELER, MAGILL & CO. have an excellent mill located on what is known as " Blackbird Island." The mill was first built in 1870, but has since been destroyed by fire and rebuilt. It has a daily capacity of 75,000 feet of lumber, and gives employment to about sixty men. ENGELMANN & KITZINGER have one large sawmill and two shingle mills. The sawmill was originally owned by M. Engelmann, and was afterwards known as the Cushman & Calkins mill. Subsequently it came into possession of M. Engelmann, and then Engelmann & Kitzinger. The sawmill cuts about 125,000 feet of lumber, and 60,000 lath a day. Everything about the mill is first-class and is operated under the superintendence of Mr. D. W. Mowatt. The firm also have two shingle mills which cut about 450,000 shingles a day. The firm are extensive owners of pine lands and vessel property and in their business give employment to upwards of 400 men. The senior member of the firm, Hon. M. Engelmann, is one of the pioneer lumbermen of Manistee. LOUIS SANDS owns and operates a very extensive mill property, situated on Lake Manistee, consisting of two sawmills. This property was formerly owned by the firm of Tyson, Sweet & Co., and was purchased by Mr. Sands in 1878. The daily capacity of the two mills is about.. 230,000 feet of lumber. One of the mills is especially fine, and is supplied with the largest burner in the world, being 120 feet in circumference, 40 feet in diameter, and 100 feet high. 400,000 bricks were used in its construction. Mr. Sands is an extensive owner of pine lands in Michigan and Wisconsin. His lumbering operations furnish employment for about 500 men. His fleet consists of two steam barges and three vessels. Last year his mills cut nearly 28, 000,000 feet of lumber. Mr. Sands has recently purchased the W. S. Newson & Co.'s., shingle mill, situated in the Third Ward. THE FILER MILL was built by Delos L. Filer & Sons, in 1866-'67. It is situated on Lake Manistee, at Filer City. The original property purchased included 25,000 acres of land, with seven mill sites. When first built, the mill had a capacity of 8,000,000 feet of lumber a season, but it has since been enlarged and improved so that its present capacity is 16,000,000 feet of lumber a season. About 7,000,000 lath are also manufactured. Since the death of Delos L. Filer, the business has been conducted by E. G. and D. W. Filer, although the firm name has never been changed. HORACE TABER & SONS are extensive manufacturers of lumber and shingles. The saw mill was built by Mr. Taber in 1867 at Filer Town, on Lake Manistee. The original capacity of the mill was 7,000,000 feet of lumber a season, but new improvements have since been added which increase the capacity to 9,000,000 feet. In 1880 the shingle mill was built, which cuts about 18,000,000 shingles a geason. The mill is also supplied with machinery for sawing rift-sawed siding, which is an invention of Mr. Horace Taber, the senior member of the firm. About 2,000,000 lath are also manufactured. The business of the firm gives employment to about 140 men. The firm operate a large store and own seventeen dwelling houses, which are occupied by their employes. R. G. PETERS has become one of the leading lumbermen of the state. His two mills are located at Eastlake, on the east side of Lake Manistee. His purchase at that point included forty acres of land upon which his mills, store, boarding house, and a large number of dwellings are situated. Mr. Peters owns about 700,000,000 feet of standing pine, and is interested in about 100,000,000 feet more. The mills which he owns and is interested in cut about 60,000,000 feet of lumber a season. A list of his vessel property is given elsewhere. S. BABCOCK & CO. The mill property of this firm is situated on Lake Manistee, at what is known as Maxwelltown. The mill was originally built in 1868 by Maxwell & Pundt. The present firm was established in 1877 and succeeded the firm of Engelmann, Babcock, & Salling. The mill has a capacity of 50,000 feet of lumber a day, and the business of the firm gives employment to about 150 men. The firm owns about 150,000,000 feet of standing pine. A shingle mill is also run in connection with the saw mill, which has a daily capacity of 225,000 shingle. Lath and siding are also manufactured. The firm run a large store in connection with the mill and own a number of dwelling houses, which are occupied by employes. DEMPSEY, SIMPSON & CO. The saw mill of this company is situated on the east side of Lake Manistee. It was partially built by Mr. John Brown in 1880, and completed by Dempsey, Simpson & Co., in the Spring of 1881. THE MANISTEE LUMBER COMPANY is composed of James Dempsey, president; G. Wiborn, vice president; William Wente, secretary and treasurer, and A. E. Cartier. The company is the successor of Dempsey, Cartier & Co. The mill is situated on Lake Manistee and cuts about 18,000,000 feet of lumber a season, and about 6,000,000 lath. The business of the company gives employment to about 175 men. -4 -

Page  54 7.4 j -It 54 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. I The company owns several vessels and a large quantity of standing pine. DAVIES, BLACKER & CO. The mill of this firm, situated on the west of Lake Manistee was built by them in 1878, and is one of the finest on the lake. It is 147 feet long by 40 feet wide, with an engine house 40x40 feet. The mill is furnished with a double circular, siding, gang, edger, and cutting-off saws. The capacity of the mill is 90,000 feet of lumber a day. The firm employ about 200 men. There is also a shingle mill run in connection with the saw mill, which cuts upwards of 40,000,000 shingle a season. RUDDOCK, NUTTALL & CO. succeeded the firm of Ruddock, Palmiter & Co., in December, 1881. The mill is situated at the eastern end of Fourth Street, on Lake Manistee, and was built in 1867 by Gifford, Ruddock & Co. It has a shingle and lath mill attached. The daily capacity of the mill is 100,000 feet of lumber, 150,000 shingles and 60,000 lath. About 300 men are employed. The company operate a store in connection with their mill. They own several vessels, and have a well equipped railroad at the head of the lake for logging operations. THE CHAS. RIETZ BROS. LUMBER COMPANY. was organized in the Spring of 1877, and succeeded the firm of Chas. Rietz & Bros. The property was purchased by them in 1867, and at that time consisted of one sawmill, with one circular saw. In 1870 a new mill was built, and a shingle mill was also added. The old mill is now but little used in the manufacture of lumber. The new mill cuts about 85,000 feet of lumber a day. The company owns a large store and considerable vessel property. The officers of the company are as follows: Chas. Rietz, president; F. Rietz, vice-president; August Rietz, secretary; E. G. W. Rietz, treasurer. STOKOE & NELSON succeeded the firm of Stokoe, Nelson, Secor & Co., the present season. Their saw and shingle mill is situated on Lake Manistee, and was built about two years ago by Mr. Stokoe. WM. MCKILLIP & CO. have rebuilt the old Green mill, the present season. The mill is situated on Lake Manistee. THE PAUL CAMINE MILL is situated on the Manistee River, at the point known as old Stronachtown. The original mill was the first one built in this region. In 1876 the property came into the possession of its present owner, and has been renovated and improved until now it is one of the best mills here. The season's product is aboutl5,000,000 feet of lumber and 20,000,000 shingles. THE STRONACH LUMBER COMPANY was organized in the Fall of 1872, and succeeded the firm of Paggeot & Thorsen. The mill is situated at Stronachtown, at the head of Lake Manistee, and was built in 1868, by Charles Paggeot. The mill cuts about 15,000,000 feet of lumber a season. The company employs about 200 men in all its operations. The officers of the company are John Thorsen, president; William B. Remington, vicepresident; P. Welbes, secretary. The company has a large store at Stronachtown. The business is in charge of W. R. Thorsen, son of Mr. John Thorsen. The shingle mills in addition to those operated in connection with sawmills, and not already mentioned, are as follows: D. W. Lewis & Co., C. B. Lewis & Son., Russell Bros., Brooks & Sweet. The statistics of the shingle product has already been given. MANISTEE SALT INTERESTS. The first attempt to discover salt in Michigan was in 1838, when the Legislature appropriated $3,000 to enable Dr. Douglass Houghton, state geologist, to experiment, for the purpose of determining whether it could be found in paying quantities. In June of that year work was commenced near the mouth of Salt River, a tributary of the Tittabawasse, about ten miles above Midland. In one year over $2,000 were spent getting down to a depth of less than 100 feet. The following year the enterprise was abandoned. The Doctor still believed salt could be found in paying quantities, and several private individuals experimented and failed. In 1859 a company was formed and a well sunk near East Saginaw, and salt was reached. The well was finished in February, 1860, and the first barrel of Michigan salt was shipped in July of that year. The salt production of the state has increased from 10,722 barrels, in 1860, to 2,677,000 barrels in 1880. According to Prof. Alexander Winchell's geological map of Michigan, Manistee is near the centre of the Saline group, formerly the Onondaga group. The formation consists of argillaceous magnesium, limestone, and marls, embracing -beds and masses of gypsum in some places, and in other regions strata of rock salt. In sinking an artesian well at Caseville, and at Alpena, a heavy body of rock salt was struck, which was pronounced by Prof. Winchell to be undoubtedly the equivalent of the vein worked at Goderich, on the other side of Lake Huron. According to the same distinguished authority, the Manistee salt deposit belongs to the same groups, and the absence of any considerable quantity of gypsum improves the quality of the salt and removes the difficulty the Goderich people labor under. THE START IN MANISTEE. In 1872 a company of United States coast surveyors visited Manistee, and in conversation with Mr. Charles Rietz told him that, in their opinion, salt could be had here in paying quantities by going deep enough. He was so impressed with the idea that he determined to make the experiment. Time passed on, however, without anything in particular being done, until the Winter of 1879, when the subject revived and he determined to go at work. Some of the leading citizens of Manistee interested themselves in the enterprise, and in February, 1879, the following subscription paper was circulated and signed: " We, the undersigned, citizens of Manistee, being desirous of developing the mineral resources of this vicinity, hereby subscribe for that purpose, and agree to pay the amount set opposite our respective names to the Charles Rietz & Bros. Lumber Company, of the City of Manistee, the same to be used by it in prospecting for salt or other minerals on its premises in said city, to be paid by us to said company as fast as the work progresses; and, if salt or other mineral be discovered in paying quantities, said company hereby agree to pay to the subscribers hereto 80 per cent of the amount of their subscription which they have paid, or assist any of said subscribers who may thereafter desire to engage in a like enterprise in the City of Manistee, if said subscribers so prefer. Chas. Rietz & Bros...................... $2,000 John Canfield............................ 1,000 Louis Sands........................... 1,500 M. Engelmann........................ 1,000 E. G. Filer............................... 500 Stronach Lumber Company................. 500 Joseph Baur............................. 500 R. G. Peters....................... 300 James Dempsey.................300 S. Babcock & Co......................... 200 Horace Taber........................... 200 John Mee............................... 100 E. N. Sailling......................... 100 T. J. Ramsdell................... 100-$8,300" -- - c-* -i

Page  55 -- HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 55 The well was begun and worked to a depth of nearly 500 feet, and then had to be re-worked, but salt was found, and a block built. The cost of the block was about $22,000. The following analysis was taken before the well was fairly in working trim: CHICAGD, Ill., Dec. 16, 1881. MESSRS. CHAS. RIETZ & BROS: Gentlemen-In compliance with your request, I have analyzed a sample of salt, and find the same to contain in 100 parts: Chloride of sodium..................... 95.748 Chloride of magnesium.................... 197 Chloride of calcium....................... 231 Sulphate of liime........................... 1.573 Carbonate of Hime......................... 016 Carbonate of iron.......................... 004 Silica..................................... 007 Organic matter........................... 006 Water................................. 2.218- 100,000 Respectfully submitted, Signed, J. E. SIEBEL. A more recent analysis shows less than.002 organic matter, which proves it to be the purest salt known. The Rietz block is now in successful operation, and produces upward of 200 barrels a day. The capacity of the block is 400 barrels. The size of the pump is 25 inches. The next experiment was made by Mr. M. Engelmann, who sunk a well at his mill, and also found salt. The well is 2,032 feet deep. The block was finished early the present season, and some salt has already been made. This is a pan block, with a capacity of 150 barrels a day. Canfield & Wheeler have just gone through ten feet of salt, (Sept. 25,) and will begin the construction of a block at once. A 31 inch pump will be required for their well. R. G. Peters has the largest salt block in the state, at Eastlake. When finished it will have a capacity of 600 barrels a day. It will be a steam block. He has met with various hindrances in boring, and has abandoned two wells. He is now down about 250 feet in the third. The Stronach Lumber Company are all ready to commence boring, and others are arranging their plans to do so. That salt can be produced here in paying quantities, has already been thoroughly and satisfactorily demonstrated, and it is equally doubtless that Manistee capital and enterprise will rally promptly to the development of this industry, which promises so brilliant a future for this region. Mr. Clark F. Johnson, the deputy salt inspector, for this county, is a native of Canada, but most of his life has been spent in Michigan. He helped build the first salt woiks in the Saginaw Valley, in 1860, and has been connected with the salt interests of the state ever since. He has superintended nearly all the work that has been done here. MANISTEE HARBOER. The work is located in the Michigan collection district, Michigan. The nearest port of entry is Grand Haven, Mich. The nearest lighthouse is the Manistee light (discontinued October 15, 1876). A light is shown near the head of the south pier. A history of the work upon the harbor appears in the annual report of the Chief of Engineers for 1879, and from that most excellent authority we gather the following: The survey of 1861 shows the harbor to be barred about 600 feet out from the outer end of south slab pier, the water on this bar (250 feet in width), being from five to eight feet. From the bar to the entrance, the water varied from seven to nine feet; between the piers from the entrance inward, a distance of 800 feet, was an available channel of ten feet. The survey of September, 1866, fails to show the existence of this bar above-mentioned, and indicates three twelve-foot curves, the first 960 feet out from the lake-end of south slab pier, the second beyond this 190 feet, and the third ninety feet still further out. Beyond this last-mentioned curve 140 feet ran the general eighteen foot water line. After the survey of 1866, 180 feet of north pier was washed away. This caused a slight change in the plans, the north pier being thrown twenty feet further to the north, and the work upon it commenced at the end of the old pier. In 1867, (September), the bar in front of the entrance had eight and a half feet of water on it, and between the piers, the channel had a depth of from nine and a half to ten feet, and in the river above the piers from seven and a half to eight feet. The first appropriation was made by act of March 2, 1867, of $60,000. Work began in July, 1867, under the surpervision of Mr. John Canfield, harbor inspector. Original cost of work 1866, amended 1875, $234,000. Whole amount appropriated from 1866 to 1882, inclusive, $218,000. Amount expended, $201,000. The amount of the appropriation of 1882 is $15,000. Available water-way between the piers, nine and a half feet in October, 1875. In 1875-'76 each pier was extended 150 feet, (six cribs, each fifty feet by twenty-four feet. Soundings May 12, and 13, 1876, show an available channel between the piers of ten feet, with a strong current running in the river. North pier end rested in fifteen feet, and south pier end in thirteen feet of water. In 1876-'77 the south pier was raised an additional course of timber for a length of 450 feet, and slight repairs were made, as required. Also an obstruction of sand at the bend of the river was removed, affording temporary relief for navigation. Soundings of May 3, 1877, showed an available channel-way of ten feet between the piers. In 1877-'78 the point of sand in the bend of the river on north side was dredged away, and the exposed bank faced with a pile revetment for a length of 420 feet, and thirty-two cords of stone were put into the pier as ballast. December 13, 1877, the channel soundings showed not less than nine feet of water available, and this depth only at one point about 450 feet inward fronm the end of north pier. In the Spring of 1878 a bar with but eight feet of water over it obstructed the entrance to the harbor. With the small balance of funds on hand, a channel was dredged through it, leaving a channel of good width and with a depth of fourteen feet. Since 1878 about $30,000 has been expended in dredging the channel and sinking new piers. In his report of 1881 the chief of engineers says: "To complete the projects for this season, curtailed by rise in prices, I shall require next for 1882-'83: For dredging....................................... 3,000 To complete unfinished superstructure.................. 6,000 And it only remains under the existing project to add for two hundred feet pier extension................ 25,000 Total...... $34,000 "Or, taking into consideration all contingencies of engineering, repair, and protection, I shall require to continue the improvement during the years 1882-'83, $40,000." The highest number of vessels entered and cleared during any one year from July 1, 1868 to June 30, 1881, 3,488, between June Iv

Page  56 ; ~Lllll~t -- 56 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 30, 1874, and June 30, 1875. The lowest number was 2,382, between July 1, 1868, and June 30, 1869. Capt. W. R. Laird, United States harbor inspector, has had charge of the work since 1869. In May of that year he came to Manistee from Milwaukee, and has resided here since that time. Capt. Laird was born in England and is of Scotch extraction. He was brought up a mechanical engineer, and in 1858 went to Canada, where he studied civil engineering. In 1863 he came to the States. He has been in the service of the Government since 1866, and has earned the reputation of being a reliable and efficient officer. ------~- --------.-- BIOGRAPHICAL. THOMAS J. RAMSDELL. Late one Winter's afternoon, nearly twenty-three years ago, a young man about twenty-seven years of age drove up to the little cluster of buildings near the Canfield mill, at the mouth of the river, and inquired for accommodations for himself and horse, both of which were well worn with the toil of a long, hard journey. The load of law books which his sleigh contained indicated the advent of a lawyer into this region, that hitherto had known neither law nor lawyer. The hotel accommodations of the place were confined to a boarding house, and porters and hostlers were not as numerous as in these latter days, and the new arrival found a place for his horse by hunting around until he found vacant room in a shed. The young man was Thomas J. Ramsdell, who has come from that Winter's afternoon in 1860 to occupy a distinguished place among the lawyers of Michigan. Mr. Ramsdell was born in Plymouth, Wayne Co., N. Y., July 29, 1833. His parents were natives of the State of Massachusetts, and were of good old New England stock. There were four brothers, W. A. Ramsdell, a farmer, D. E. Ramsdell, also a farmer, the well known Judge Ramsdell, of Traverse City, and the subject of this sketch. While a boy, Mr. Ramsdell worked on the farm Summers and attended district school Winters. In 1851 he went to Plymouth Seminary and graduated in 1856, having taught school some during the time. In 1858 he graduated at the National Law School in Poughkeepsie and was admitted to practice in the State of New York. In the Fall of that year he came to Michigan, and being admitted to the bar of this state, began practice in Lansing. He was clerk of the supreme court in 1859. One day, while in conversation with Chief Justice Martin, of the supreme bench, that gentleman, who had become interested in Mr. Ramsdell, advised him to go up on the east shore and open an office at Manistee, at the same time offering to make a selection of books for him. The advice was adopted, and with his law books packed in a sleigh and a young horse, he set out from Lansing to make the journey through the woods. There was no highway this side of Whitehall,-only a blaze trail. It was a tedious journey. Sometimes his young horse would give out and he would be obliged to stop and rest. He traveled one entire night and progressed only five miles, but his grit was good and at last he reached Manistee, as already mentioned. He opened an office in a little shanty near the Canfield mill, and very soon had a lucrative business. There were a good many men here at that time, who needed the assistance of a lawyer, especially to draw contracts and other papers. There were plenty of retainers offered him, but at that time he made it a rule never to accept a retainer, but hold himself free to take any cause. Strange as it may now appear, there was here just at that time a most excellent field for the right kind of a lawyer, and Mr. Ramsdell possessed just those qualities to an eminent degree. His ability as a lawyer was very soon demonstrated, and as a man among men, he was the o e to succeed. Those were wild times in this region, and whisky wa a staple article, and yet while on the best of terms with all classe, of men, he was able to command their respect, and was never even asked to drink. For a long time he rode the circuit with Judge Littlejohn, and was known in those days as the father of the circuit. In the Fall of 1860 he was elected to the Legislature and served one term. He was county treasurer one term and prosecuting attorney several terms. September 7, 1861, he was married at Manistee, to Miss Nettie L. Stanton, a native of Wayne County, and who came to Manistee to teach. She was a young lady of rare culture, and a fitting companion to share her husband's experiences in their pioneer life and the fortune and honors of later days. For a short time after marriage they boarded, but soon tired of that, and went to housekeeping in the building which is now the Boom Company's office. His office had been there and he removed that to a new building, that is now Dr. Ellis' residence. In 1865 lie built a residence at the corner of Second and Cedar Streets, and in 1876 was built the costly and elegant residence which has since been their home. They have eight children, five boys and' three girls. Mr. Ramsdell's success as a lawyer has been very marked. His judgment is clear and correct, and his opinions not only upon questions of law, but ofbusiness, have great weight. In 1867 the present law firm of Ramsdell & Benedict was established. Mr. Ramsdell's financial success'has also been such as to place him upon the list of the wealthy men of Manistee. He has acquired large property interests both in the city and county. The brick block at the corner of River and Oak Streets was built by him in 1879, and the one next to it on Oak Street he built in 1880. He has been connected with the banking business of Manistee ever since that business was first started. He is the father of the First National Bank, and has always been its president. He started the first hardware store in Manistee, and"was instrumental in the establishment of the first newspaper. As contractor lie built the Central School building at a time and under circumstances when the undertaking was one of great magnitude. There were no local improvements, especially for many years, that Le did not have an active part in advancing, and so his history is a part of the history of the city and county of Manistee. His interest in local improvements is still unabated, and whatever is for the welfare of the place is sure to receive his co-operation. As a thorough gentleman, Mr. Ramsdell has few superiors. His devotion to his family and uniform courtesy to all are distinguishing traits of his character. A very fine steel portrait of Mr. Ramsdell appears upon another page. GEN. BYRON M. CUTCHEON. The subjet of this sketch is, in the truest and best sense, one of the representative men of Michigan. His ancestors came to this country more than a hundred and fifty years ago. They participated in the Revolutionary war, and were true and earnest patriots of the olden time. General Cutcheon was born in the state of New Hampshire, in 1836. His parents were rich in the elements of sterling worth, but poor in purse. His earliest ambition was to secure a good education, and though left an orphan at an early age, he went to work in a cotton mill at Pembroke, N. H., to earn for himself the means of enabling him to go to school. At the age of thirteen years rrtc~L~ --. - I.. ~_._ _____ _~ _ ____ __ ~VI

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Page  57 Ii - L~ ~. HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 57 he commenced his schooling at the Pembroke Academy. At the age of seventeen years, only four years after, he was a school teacher in the same place, earning money by which to enable him to proceed still further in his studies. Shortly after this, however, he "pulled up stakes " and came to Michigan, locating himself at Ypsilanti, where he commenced a preparatory course, teaching school during Winter and studying whenever he had means to allow him to do so. His fine natural abilities soon became apparent to those by whom he found himself surrounded, and as early as 1857 he was invited to take charge of the Birmingham Academy, in Oakland County, as principal, intending only to remain long enough to secure means to further progress in his own education. The following Spring he entered the University of Michigan, as a member of the class of 1861. In the Fall of 1859 he again had to go out and accept the principalship of the Oak Grove Academy, in Lenawee County, succeeding the Hon. 0. L. Spalding. As soon as he had acquired sufficient means, he agaili entered the university, and graduated in the class of 1861. All through these varying contests and struggles for an education, he demonstrated to all who knew him a fixed determination and purity of character which challenged admiration on all sides and from all with whom he came in contact. Before graduating he had already secured, in prospective, the position of principal and professor of ancient languages, higher mathematics and mental and moral philosophy, in the high school department of the Ypsilanti school. Here he remained, doing excellent work, and attracting much attention from educators for his efficiency and thoroughness, until the war broke out, when he resigned, in 1862, and raised a company for the Twentieth Michigan Infantry, under the call for three hundred thousand. On the same day the call was issued he was mustered into the service as second lieutenant, and from the time he entered the service until he came out his career was one of brilliant success and meritorious deeds. On July 29, 1862, he was made captain of his company. October 14, 1862, he was made major of the Twentieth Regiment; November 16, 1863, promoted to lieutenant colonel, and by order of the War Department he was made colonel, November 21, 1863. He was transferred and made colonel of the Twenty-seventh Michigan Infantry, November 12, 1864. He was mustered into the United States service as colonel, December 19, 1864. He was breveted colonel of U. S. Volunteers, August 18, 1864, for gallant services at the battles of the Wilderness and Spottsylvania Court House. He was breveted brigadier general of U. S. Volunteers, March 14, 1865, for conspicuous gallantry on the field of battle. On October 16, 1864, he was assigned the command of the Second Brigade, Fifteenth Division Ninth Army Corps, and remained in command of that brigade until March 6, 1865, when he resigned on account of sickness in his family. During his service he was in the battles of Fredericsburg, Va.; Horse Shoe Bend, Ky.; siege of Vicksburg, Miss.; assault on Jackson, Miss.; battles of Blue Sprinigs, Tenn.; London, Tenn.; Campbell Station, Tenn.; siege of Knoxville, Tenn.; assault on Fort Saunders, at Knoxville; Thurley's Ford, Tenn.; Strawberry Plains, Tenn.; Chuckey Bend, Wilderness; Ny River; Spottsylvania Court House (in which he was wounded, while leading a charge of the Twentieth Michigan and Fifty-first Pennsylvania.) He remained at the hospital about two months. For gallant conduct on this occasion hlie received a commission as brevet colonel U. S. V., as mentioned above. He was next in the siege at Peters burg, July, 1864, the Weldon Railroad, Reams Station, Va.; Poplar Spring Church, Va.; Boydton Road, Hatchers Run, and.siege of Petersburg, from November, 1864, to March, 1865. At the close of the war lie came home and immediately entered the law office of Hon. Sullivan M. Cutcheon, his brother, at Ypsilanti. That gentleman was at the time speaker of the Michigan House of Representatives, and has since been well known as the U. S. district attorney of the eastern district of Michigan. He was admitted to practice at the bar of Washtenaw County, January, 1866, entered the law school of the Michigan University, in 1865, and graduated in the degree of B. L. in March, 1866. In the Spring of 1866 he was appointed the state agent of the Michigan Soldiers' Monumental Association. When the association was inaugurated, in 1865, addresses were made on that occasion by Gen. Cutcheon, Hon. Austin Blair, (Michigan's famous war governor), Hon. Jacob M. Howard and Gen. 0. B. Wilcox. The general's address at this time was* pronounced by the press and by such men as Mr. Howard, one of the finest and most polished orations ever listened to. It was through this that he was requested to take the position as agent for the association, as the success of it depended somewhat upon a proper and eloquent presentation of the subject to the people. In this work he traveled all over the state, making appeals to the people and securing their aid in this grand undertaking, giving his services freely to the noble enterprise. It was during this work that Gen. Cutcheon, in company with Gen. R. A. Alger, and Gen. John Robinson, met at Detroit and organized the famous "Boys in Blue," of which association the general was the first president. In September, 1866, he was honored with an invitation from the Republican State Central Committee, under the chairmanship of the lamented Hon. John J. Bagley, to canvass the state in behalf df the party. Although he had previously gone on the stump in behalf of his party, and manifested especial ability and efficiency in this kind of work, he had never before made a general canvass. In the Fall of 1866 he removed to lonia, where he settled down to the practice of law. The fine talent which he had shown in his efforts before the public soon began to bring him a good class of business, and he immediately became prominent in the affairs of the section in which he was known. His name was brought forward in the Fall of 1866 for secretary of state, and without his consent or knowledge, but he failed of the nomination by a few votes. He continued in the practice of law at Ionia until July, 1867, when he removed to Manistee. Previous to his removal here, however, he was appointed member of the State Board of Railroad Commissioners, which office he has held ever since, having been from time to time re-appointed by the governor of the state. In 1866 he was also appointed president of the Michigan Soldiers' Home Commission, by the governor. He conducted the investigation of that commission, and made a full and satisfactory report to the Legislature, and received a vote of thanks from that body highly complimentary of the manner in which he had performed the duties of the position. In 1868 he was nominated and elected one of the presidential electors from this state, and was secretary of the electoral college. In that campaign and, also, in about all of the campaigns in this state, the general has taken an active and prominent part, and in every such campaign his reception by the people, wherever he has spoken, has been one series of successive ovations. In 1875 hlie was nominated and elected regent of the State University, for the term of eight years, and has been an active and leading member of the board ever since. For the past four years he has been chairman of the executive committee, and has also had chalrge of the committee on literary department. He has also been on the committee on the law department and on the library. The positions of trust and usefulness that he has held at home are even more niumerous than those he has held at large. In the early organization of the city of Manistee, he was a member of the first city council, and as chairman of the ordinance committee drafted all the ordinances under which the city was controlled. In 1870 he was chosen city attorney by a Democratic council, though lie was, and always has been, an outspoken Republican. He was i lit G F>

Page  58 IIC----~ _ _ v L 4 I 58 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. on the committee that drew up the old charter of Manistee City, has been a member of our board of education, prosecuting attorney of the county, and has been postmaster since February, 1877. He has been chairman of the county Republican committee for six years, captain of the Light Guards, president of our political clubs, member of the board of trustees of the church to which he belongs, and in addition to all this has been an active and energetic business man, with his hands always full. His law practice has been large and lucrative. Going back to the early days of Manistee. he was associated with the prosecution in the noted Vanderpool trial, and his work upon that case, in company with such lawyers as G. V. N. Lathrop and Dwight May, was commended and admired throughout the state. And still, outside of his law business, he is secretary of the Manistee River Improvement Company, a director in the Manistee National Bank, and a stockholder in the Manistee Water Company. In all these varied and arduous duties we find no chaos, no disorder-every paper, every letter in his office is filed away in its place and can be picked up at a moment's notice. He was married at Dexter, Mich., June 22, 1863, to Miss Marie A. Warner, of Ann Arbor, a lady of thorough culture and refinement. Five children have been born to them, four sons and one daughter, named, respectively, Frank Warner, Charles Tripp, Max Hart, Frederick Richard, and Marie Louise. At the Republican Congressional Convention in August, last, he was unanimously nominated as candidate for representative in Congress, and as the district is strongly Republican, his election is certain to follow. JOHN CANFIELD. Mr. Canfield was born in Sandisfield, Berkshire Co., Mass., in 1830. In 1841 his father came West to Racine, Wis., and the following year he was joined by his family. About 1848 his father began the erection of a sawmill, near the mouth of the Manistee River, on the site where the mill of Canfield & Wheeler now stands. During that year John came here and remained a short time and went away. In 1849 he returned and entered upon the business career which he still continues so successfully. He finished the mill his father had begun, and commenced the manufacture of lumber. All the details of his busy business life are not necessary to the completion of this sketch. He has acquired large wealth, as many others have done and are still doing, but few men acquire a name that commands greater respect in the commercial world than that of John Canfield. He has been interested with various parties in business. For some time the leading business was carried on under the firm name of Canfield Brothers. At present he is a member of the firm of Canfield & Wheeler, Wheeler, Magill & Co., besides carrying on vast business operations in which he is alone. Mr. Canfield is a gentleman of quiet and reserved manner, and strenuously avoids anything like ostentation, but possesses clearness of perception and firmness of purpose to a remarkable degree. He is not easily daunted, and especially in the earlier days was a man whose nerve was known to be ample for all ordinary occasions. The early days in Manistee were witnesses of rough life. There was no law and but few who desired it. Might made right, and the timid man had but a poor show of getting along. A crew of men at work in the woods for Mr. Canfield came down, and for some reason seized upon a pile of lumber and proposed to ship it. Mr. Canfield had been away, but arriving home just as the men were handling the lumber, heard of what was going on. He quietly took a revolver and marched down to where the seven men, and rough ones, too, were gathered upon the lumber. Addressing them, he said, " Now, boys, there isn't probably a man of you but what could whip me, but you know I am a good shot, and just so sure as you don't get away from here, just so sure there will be seven dead men." They knew the man and they did not stop'to argue the matter. About 1851 the Indian lands were offered for sale, and Mr. Canfield bought a large tract east of his mill, and subsequently built the store and office building which he has since occupied. For several years the town was all in that vicinity, and Mr. Canfield was the leading spirit of this region. His counsels have always been sought in matters pertaining to the development of the place, and the wisdom of his advice has been of great value in advancing the interests of the town and city. In 1875 he built the palatial residence which has since been the family home, and which is one of the finest private residences in the state. He was first married in 1854, at New Marlborough, Mass., to Miss Helen M. Beach. Four years afterward she died. In 1864 he was married at Joliet, Ill., to Miss Frances V. Wheeler, his present wife. Mr. Canfield has been actively associated with the business interests of Manistee longer than any other man, and still devotes himself to his vast business interests in the same quiet but effective way that has characterized his whole business life. M. ENGELMANN. The subject of this sketch has had a somewhat remarkable and a very successful career. He was born in Germany, in the year 1832. At about fifteen years of age he determined to see what he might be able to find upon the other side of the ocean, and in 1847 he came to America. In 1848 he reached Manistee, then for the most part a dense forest. He was but a lad, unused to the ways of the country to which he had come, a stranger in a strange land. He had no relative or friend to whom he could turn for counsel or aid. Success or failure were in store for him, but which he was to experience must be determined by himself alone. Few young men have grappled with the business of life under circumstances that afforded fewer encouragements. Even the region of country to which he had come was a wilderness remote from any commercial center, and void of attraction. He spent no time in contemplating the loneliness of his situation, but sought something to do that would afford him a livelihood. He first went to Stronachtown and hired out to the Stronachs, who were running a mill. He applied himself closely to his work, paying but little attention to what was going on about him. In this way he worked and saved from his scanty earnings all that was not actually necessary to use for his living. In 1857 he had come to be familiar with lumbering in all its branches and he began business in a small way for himself. As early as 1854 he owned an interest in a schooner, and from that time to the present has been more or less interested in vessel property. At one time he was extensively interested in a line of boats on the lake, and until the present season was the owner of the steamer "John A. Dix", running between Manistee and Milwaukee. Since 1857 he has been engaged in lumbering and of late years on a very extensive scale. He is at present the senior member of the firm of Engelmann & Kitzinger, and is a member of the firm of S. Babcock & Co., besides having large individual interests in pine lands and lumber. He is largely interested in the First National Bank and has numerous other business and property interests. Mr. Engelmann has always maintained a lively interest in the welfare and prosperity of Manistee, and has contributed in no small degree to the commercial importance which the city has attained. His liberality in all public matters has been pronounced, and the fruits of his enterprise are plainly visible. The magnificent block which he has just finished, and which __ 4 -

Page  59 . - "r 1 rj HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 59 is described in another place, is perpetual testimony to his enterprise and sagacity. Mr. Engelmann is now holding the office of mayor of Manistee for the second time, and his record as a public officer is a most creditable one. His family residence is a large and handsome structure, situated in the southern portion of the city. Men like Mr. Engelmann who, alone in a strange country, have risen by their industry and sagacity from obscurity and poverty to prominence and wealth, furnish illustrations worthy of being preserved and profited by. JOSEPH BAUR. Mr. Baur is a pioneer business man of Manistee, and one of the most prominent representatives of its mercantile interests. He was born in Germany in the year 1833, and came to this country in 1852. He stopped first in Chicago for a short time and then came to Manistee. After remaining a few months, he returned to Chicago. During the next year he was a portion of the time in Manistee, and for several months was in the South. In 1851 he came back and from that time until 1861 was most of the time in the employ of John Canfield. April 24, 1861, he was married in Chicago to Miss Annie Hauser, and from that time until 1865 he was in the employ of Mr. Engelmann. He then went to Racine, Wis., and ran a hotel for about a year, at the end of which time he returned to Manistee again and built a store. He first opened a saloon, and afterwards a grocery store. He prospered in his business and in 1874 opened a hardware store. In 1872 he built a large block on River Street for the use of his business, the whole of which is occupied with his stores. His hardware business is very extensive, and in addition to that he owns a grocery store, saloon, blacksmith shop, and is one of the directors of the First National Bank. Mr. Baur held the office of county treasurer for years, and has been alderman of the city for four years. He has been a successful business man and ranks as one of the leading business men of the county. JAMEES DEMPSEY belongs to the class of Manistee lumbermen who have worked their way along, keeping pace with the prosperity and growth of the place. Mr. Dempsey was born in Ireland in 1832. When about eleven years of age he came to this country and remained in Pennsylvania until about twenty-two years of age. In August, 1854, he landed in Manistee. He knew nothing about lumbering, and his only capital consisted of ability and willingness to work. He went into the woods and remained there a year. For some time he worked for John Canfield. Then he took contracts and so worked his way along accumulating capital and experience and laying the foundation of a successful business career. In course of time the firm of Dempsey & Cartier was established, and this firm was succeeded by the Manistee Lumber Company, of which Mr. Dempsey is president. He is also senior member of the firm of Dempsey, Simpson &c Co., whose mill is on the east side of Lake Manistee. Mention of the mills is made elsewhere. He is proprietor of the Dempsey Tug Line which was started in 1880. Mr. Dempsey was the second postmaster in Manistee and was succeeded by Dr. Ellis, in 1862. When he took the office there was only a weekly mail and the office was kept wherever the postmaster happened to be. Part of the time he kept the office in the Canfield store at the mouth of the river, and then it was kept at the Buswell house, where he boarded. He has been mayor of the city one term and made a most excellent public officer, but he has less ambition for office than for business, and could not be induced to take the mayorship another term. Mr. Dempsey is a straightforward, sagacious business man, and is financially one of the strong men of Manistee. LATHROP S. ELLIS, M. D. The subject of this sketch is the pioneer physician of Manistee County. He was born in Norwich, Mass., in 1828. At the age of.fourteen years his father offered him the choice of remaining at home and have such educational advantages as he could afford, or of taking his time and educate himself. He chose the latter and attended an academy at Worthington one term. He worked at farmwork during vacations for a time, then taught school, and in that way paid the expenses of attending school until about seventeen years of age, when an uncle at Meadville, Pa., rendered him pecuniary aid. He graduated from Alleghany College, at Meadville, in 1851, and then attended the Berkshire Medical College, at Pittsfield, Mass., and also attended two courses at Woodstock, Vt. He graduated in medicine in 1852, and soon after began the practice of his profession at Meadville, Pa., and remained there two years. He then came to Chicago and continued his practice until 1860, when he came to Manistee, where he has since been in active practice. He was married at Meadville, Pa., October 13, 1853, to Sarah M. Harlon. They have six children. The two eldest daughters are married, one of whom lives in this city, and the other in Chicago. Dr. Ellis was postmaster from 1862 to 1877, when he was succeeded by Gen. Cutcheon. He has been an active man, not only in his profession, but in all public matters. He has been especially prominent in religious and temperance work, and has been one of the leading members of the Congregational society since its organization. He has always been an eager and industrious student, and his investigations have taken a wide range. He has frequently lectured upon scientific subjects, and his writings upon these subjects have been quite voluminous, and in all instances clear and interesting. His time and attention are chiefly devoted to his practice, although he has some other interests. He has a fine fruit farm on the lake shore, south of the city, which he carries on very successfully. RICHARD G. PETERS. Manistee is noted for the number of its business men who have risen by their own unaided efforts from poverty and obscurity to wealth and prominence in the commercial world. The city is very largely made up of men who were poor boys and have fought their way over obstacles to success. These men to-day are strong, financially, and they are also strong in character, and their names command respect wherever they are known. Of this class the subject of this sketch is a prominent member. He began at the foot of the ladder, and to-day is one of the boldest and most extensive operators in pine on this shore. He was born in Delaware County, N. Y., July 2, 1832. He lived at home upon the farm, until eighteen years of age, when he started out into the world to delve for himself. In the Spring of 1850 he started for Cincinnati, Ohio, and from that place he came to Michigan. He landed at Point Sable in 1858, and went to work for Charles Mears. He is naturally one of the irrepressible kind of men, and his great energy and business ability very soon made themselves manifest. From Point Sable he went to Ludington to take charge of lumbering interests for James Ludington. In July, 1866, he came to Manistee and became a member of the lumber firm of M. S. Tyson & Co. From that time to the present he has been a bold and successful business man. His remark r VL

Page  60 rC-- 4__ __ 60 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. able energy and great vital force have enabled him to execute the great purposes of a clear brain. At the present time he is the proprietor of Eastlake, a neat little village on the east shore of Lake Michigan, where he has two mills, a salt block, store and boarding house. He is a.member of the firm of Butters, Peters & Co., whose mill is at Tallman, and of the firm of Peters & Butters, at Ludington. He is interested in the ownership of about 800,000,000 feet of standing pine, 700,000,000 feet of which he owns individually. His own mills and those in which he is part owner cut 60,000,000 feet of lumber a season. He is president of the Manistee National Bank, and is also interested in a refrigerator manufactory at Michigan City, Ind. He is perfectly familiar with all the minute details of his vast business, and knows personally all men in his employ. His manner is sharp and decisive, though always courteous and affable. He always interests himself in all local enterprises, and is ever ready to contribute liberally to anything of benefit to Manistee. No fitter monument of individual liberality could be erected than Union Hall, erected by him. This magnificent building is described elsewhere on these pages. He has held the office of mayor one term. Mr. Peters was married April 6, 1858, at Oberlin, Ohio, to Miss Evaline N. Tibbets, of that place, and in his domestic relations he has been truly blessed. Mrs. Peters is one of the noble women of the land, whose whole life seems to be devoted to doing good and bringing comfort and happiness to others, and in this work she has the generous sympathy and co-operation of her husband. The family residence of Mr. Peters is a handsome and spacious structure, surrounded by beautiful grounds, a fine full page view of which is given in this work. LOUIS SANDS. In a local paper we find the following allusion to the subject of this sketch, which also describes some of his vast business operations: "Louis Sands, Esq., of our city, is not only a heavy lumberman, but a pretty solid man. He weighs 250 pounds, stands six feet, four inches, in. his stockings, and came to Manistee a poor boy some thirty years since. Now he pays $4,652.15 city tax, and nearly as much in the county, which is a little more tax than any other man pays in the city. "He has two first-class sawmills in the Third Ward that average about 100,000 feet each of lumber per day. He has recently built a two-story addition to his gang mill, 30x90 feet, and is putting in two of Davis' patent sorting machines, and two of Emery & Garland's trimmers, from Bay City. He has built an addition to the engine room at his red mill-put in five new boilers, and a new smoke stack and, breeching. They are of Andrew Jack's best, made at the Manistee Boiler Works, where every mill man goes who wants good work. He has just erected THE LARGEST BURNER IN THE WORLD. It is 120 feet in circumference, forty feet in diameter, and 100 feet high, bricked up forty-two teet high on the inside, and the walls and foundation required 400,000 brick in their construction. It has no equal as a burner in the world. He is also building "2,200 FEET OF BOOMING around his mills, which, with his old booms, will give him storage for 10,000,000 feet of logs. "His pay roll at the mills in improving since the mills shut down is $4,200. He shipped last year 43,000,000 of lumber and shingles, and cut about 36,000,000. "HIS FLEET consists of two large steam barges, and three vessels, as follows: "The steam barge, 'R. G. Peters,' with a capacity of 400,000 feet of lumber; the steam barge 'Maggie Marshall,' 400,000; the schooner 'A. W. Lucky,' 350,000; 'Isabella Sands,' 250,000; 'Arendal,' 240,000. "And when it is known that there are almost a score of other firms in Manistee that are doing nearly as well, some idea of the business of the city can be had. "Mr. Sands has had no help from any source. He commenced work by the month, endured all the hardships of pioneer life, but labored on through poverty to wealth, until he is able to make the above showing. "His opportunities were no better than those enjoyed by most young men, and his success is certainly very encouraging to all." Mr. Sands was born in Sweden, July 6, 1826, and came to this country in 1854. He came almost directly to Manistee, and went to work in the woods. The following year he took contracts for logging, and thus began to work his way upward. He was even then a man of very large stature and great strength. It is related of him that at one time, while engaged in logging, one of his oxen was taken sick, and could not be worked. Mr. Sands was not a man to stop his work for any slight cause, and so making a yoke having a long arm at one end, he put his well ox into the bow while he grasped the arm and thus they rolled the logs, and kept the work moving. Mr. Sands worked his way along until 1864, when he bought an interest in the sawmill of the firm of Green Bros. He remained a member of that firm for two years, and then went to logging. In 1869-'70 he built what is now the old Peters mill, at Eastlake, which he afterwards sold to Mr. R. G. Peters. In 1878 he came into possession of the immense mill property known as the Tyson & Sweet property. These mills he still operates. He also owns two shingle mills in Manistee and vicinity. At the present time he owns pine lands in eight counties in the state, and also a large quantity of standing pine in Wisconsin. Mention is made elsewhere of his mill and vessel property. Mr. Sands has been twice married; first, August 2, 1857, in Manistee, to Miss Caroline Richard. He was married the second time, September 28, 1865, in this city, to Miss Isabella Marshall. He has six children living. His family residence is one of the finest in the city. It is built of brick, of elegant and elaborate design, and furnished in a style of luxury in keeping with the wealth of its owner. He is vice-president of the Manistee National Bank, and has various property interests outside of his mills and pine. He has two large farms under cultivation, and a store on River Street. Mr. Sands is emphatically a shrewd business man, and generally sees pretty correctly the end from the beginning in his undertakings. He is a man who makes no attempt at show, and is always genial and friendly to strangers or acquaintances who meet him. He manages all his vast business operations alone. There are 500 men in his employ, logging operations going on, four mills running, vessels carrying his lumber, and all the thousand details involved, but everything moves like clock-work, in obedience to a perfect system. Industry, integrity and business sagacity have brought to Mr. Sands the business prominence and wealth he has acquired. In this work will be found lithographic views of Mr. Sand's residence and sawmills, and also a very fine steel portrait of himself. I t 1~~~....- I~II

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Page  61 1~ Y 4 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 61 V5 - ---- ----i A BRAVE CAPTAIN. The man who endangers his own life to save the lives of others is a hero in the highest and best sense. Such service is deserving of recognition and admiration, and the name of whoever performs it is entitled to secure a place in the annals of his country. Any history of Manistee that did not make honorable mention of the name and heroic service of Capt. Charles Gnewuch would be signally incomplete. His life has not been especially eventful except in the valorous service in which he has distinguished himself, (that of rescuing life from a watery grave). Most of his life has been spent upon the water. In the Spring of 1860 he came to Manistee as captain of the tug "Boule." Subsequently he became master of the tug "G. W. Tift," and managed it in the towing business at Manistee and Milwaukee until the time he became captain of the tug "Parsons" of the Canfield Tug Line. He managed her until the old tug "Williams" was put on the line. He then took charge of that, and when the new and powerful tug "-Williams" was put on, took charge of her, and together they have been in places of safety and danger to the present time. The captain has long been famous for his deeds of bravery, and in May, 1881, the United States Government bestowed upon him the highest honor awarded by our laws to deeds of valor in lifesaving, viz., a handsome gold medal. The medal is round in shape, about two inches in diameter, and a quarter of an inch thick. Upon its face is a raised picture representing three men in a boat out upon the water in a fearful storm. The waves are dashing furiously about the frail boat, while the three inmates are throwing lines to struggling persons in the water. In the rear of this scene is an old wreck of a schooner being rapidly dashed in pieces, and from which it is supposed the people in the water have jumped to save themselves, at the last moment. Around the rim of tha face are the words, "Life-saving service of the first class. United States of America." Upon the opposite side of the medal is a picture of a woman standing by a shield, upon which are inscribed the words, " To Capt. Charles Gnewuch for signal heroism in saving life from shipwreck-1874-1880. Act of Congress June 20, 1874." Around the rim on this side are the words, " In testimony of heroic deeds in saving life from the perils of the sea." The medal is said to contain about $80 worth of gold. Accompanying were eulogistic letters from Senator Ferry and Hon. William Windom, secretary of the treasury. The latter refers to various acts of heroism between the years 1874-1880, during which time Capt. Gnewuch saved from drowning in the water of Lake Michigan twenty-four persons, and in nearly every instance at the imminent peril of his life. Prior to the passage of the law under which the medal was given, the captain had saved many lives. His valiant service in this direction dates as far back as 1858, to the time when he was a common sailor, and from that time down to the present his career has been thickly marked with these incidents. Capt. Gnewuch is a gentleman of extreme modesty, and never refers to what he has done unless pressed into a recital of some of his perilous adventures; but he is widely known, not only on account of his great nautical skill, but for his unassuming integrity and worth as a man. At the present time he owns an interest in the Canfield Tug Line, but he sticks as faithfully to his favorite tug as though she could not float without him. HON. S. W. FOWLER. The subject of this sketch was born April 5, 1829, in New Berlin, Chenango Co., N. Y. While yet an infant, his parents moved to Fly Creek, Otsego Co., N. Y., where his boyhood days were mostly passed. This, too, had been the home of his mother and her parents from a very early day. His father, whose name he bore, was one of nine brothers, children of Rev. George Fowler, of Monticello, N. Y., who had been the only son of George Fowler, Sr., who came to America as a British officer under King George II. The mother was gathered to her fathers in the old family buryingground when Smith William, the youngest son, was eight years old, antd from that time he had to depend upon his own exertions both for a living and for an education. When twelve years old he started on foot and alone to find a home in the far West, and in the first week in September, 1841, he landed in Detroit, then but a village, with only 25 cents and not a change of garments-hope, health, and vigor his only capital with which to begin life in the Peninsular State. He worked Summers and attended school Winters until sixteen, when he commenced teaching. For two years he attended the Romeo branch of the Michigan Institution, and then attended Albion College over two years, and other institutions, until, in August, 1853, he received his diploma as Bachelor of Laws from the old State and National Law School of Poughkeepsie, N. Y., and was admitted to practice law before all the courts of that state by the supreme court at Albany. Returning to his adopted state, he was examined for admission at Marshall, Mich., by John Van Arman, D. Darwin Hughes, and Mr. Gibbs (then state reporter), as examining committee, and admitted to practice. In December of that year he opened an office for the practice of the law at Charlotte, Mich., and met with very excellent success. He was elected circuit court commissioner by about seventy majority; afterwards, for three successive terms, he was elected prosecuting attorney by largely increasing majorities. In 1863 he was chosen for the state Senate by nearly one thousand majority. In politics lie was a Wilmot Proviso Democrat, until, in 1854, at Jackson, he attended and helped organize the first Republican convention ever held. At that convention he was a member of the committee on nominations, and helped nominate Kinsley S. Bingham, the first Republican governor of Michigan. He was also one of the delegates appointed from this state to the first National Republican Convention, held at Philadelphia, where John C. Fremont was placed in nomination, Randolph Strickland being the other delegate from that congressional district; and for many years Mr. Fowler was chairman of the Republican Central Committee for Eaton County. When the war broke out, he left a large and lucrative practice, locked his office when the first guns were fired on Sumter, raised a company of 110 men, had them officered and equipped ready to march in nine days, and supported them at a cost of over $300 to himself, in camp on the fair grounds at Charlotte, and telegraphed Gov. Blair that they were ready to miarch. This is believed to have been the first uniformed comnpany raised in Michigan for the war of the rebellion. A part of the company were soon after accepted and placed in drill camp at Fort Wayne, and was finally mustered into the United States service as Company H., Sixth Michigan Infantry. Capt. Fowler was credited with going into camp at Kalamazoo with the best drilled and finest appearing company in the regiment. At Baltimore the regiment took part in the arrest of Marshal Kane and the rebel Legislature that assembled for the avowed purpose of giving the state to the Jeff. Davis governmnent. In early Winter, one battalion of the regiment, including Capt. Fowler's company, were ordered to co-operate with the New York Zouaves, and other troops, to drive the rebels off the east shore of Virginia. They embarked on steamers and sailed down the Chesapeake Bay to the mouth of a river up which the steamers made their winding way until the troops were disembarked at a small vil 14 ý _

Page  62 - ~~LL~ 62 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. lage seven miles from the rebel batteries at Oak Hall. The brigade was commanded by Gen. Lockwood, and was at that time in Gen. Dix's department. After two or three days of preparation, the conimand advanced on Oak Hall batteries and arrived just in time to miss the flying body of the rebels and pick up a few stragglers, with arms and munitions of war in limited quantities. While the army were in camp near Oak Hall batteries, one night, while in charge of the pickets, Capt. Fowler learned from the negroes of a quantity of arms and ammunition that had been buried in a grave-yard a few miles beyond the lines, and with a detail of men he succeeded not only in capturing the arms and ammunition, but also secured a fine twelve-pound brass piece, and brought into camp with him Capt. Fletcher and Lieut. Corbin, of the rebel army. He afterwards commanded every special expedition of either cavalry or artillery or infantry that was detailed for special duty by Gen. Lockwood, while he was in command of that division. He captured Col. Phinney, of the rebel army, and was assigned the duty of conveying him a prisoner to Fort McHenry. He also had command of the expedition that captured the horses and accoutrements of Gov. Wise, near Accomac, and of the expeditiou that broke up and captured the rebel smugglers on the islands at the mouth of the Chesapeakq Bay. After serving in the provost department for several weeks, after his command had returned to Baltimore, at his own special request he was relieved from staff duties and permitted to return to his company, most of-whom were old neighbors and warm personal friends. He received strong letters of commendation from Gen. Lockwood, and a pressing invitation to remain on staff duty in Accomac County, but the desire to be with his men was stronger than any love of promotion, and he determined to share their destiny. He had scarcely joined his command, when the regiment received marching orders for Newport News, via Fortress Monroe. February '21, 1862, they embarked on steam transports and sailed from Baltimore. They were landed at Fortress Monroe, February 22,-Washington's birth-day,-and immediately went into camp, just below the battery, at Newport News.. Capt. Fowler was with his command through the campaign oni the east shore of Virginia, at Sewall's Point, Ship Island, Pass Christian, and the New Orleans campaign, including the first fight at Vicksburg, where, being disabled, he was sent to New Orleans Evans House Hospital, and, after several weeks, almost hopeless illness, his resignation was handed in, and he was sent home, as was supposed, to die. After several month's lingering convalescence he was able to be up. In the meantime he was nominated and soon after elected to the state Senate, in which he took his seat at the opening of the session. He was appointed chairman of the committee on military affairs, and on state library; was author of the soldiers' voting bill, and several other important measures. After serving two sessions, the State Central Committee paid him the distiaguished honor of republishing his speech on national affairs as a campaign document, and an edition of 30,000 copies was struck off, one of which is now in the possession of the writer. The compliment of the publication will be better appreciated when it is remembered that in both houses there were over 100 speeches made on national affairs, and this was the only one selected to be published in full as a campaign document. The Jackson Citizen, in speaking of the facts at the time, in its issue of February 14, 1864, gave him full credit; and commented on his action, as follows: of voting. For the passage of this measure the thanks of the friends of our country are due to Hon. S. W. Fowler, the able senator from Eaton County. Mr. Fowler labored hard and faithfully in the face of the greatest opposition to have the measure passed, and finally had the gratification of seeing it become a law. Had it not been for his hard work with the committee (every one of whom, except himself, was opposed to having a law of the kind enacted) and in the Senate, the brave men of Michigan who to -day are fighting our battles would not have the privilege of having a voice in the affairs of the nation, to preserve the integrity of which they are ready to die. The soldiers owe a heavy debt of gratitude to Senator Fowle.r" The Jackson Citizen also published the report made by Mr. Fowler on said bill, in full, and in its issue of February 9, 1864, commented thereon, as follows: 'SENATOR FOWLER'S REPORT. On the first page of to-day's paper we print the minority report of Hon. S. W. Fowler, senator from Eaton County, on the bill to allow soldiers to vote. It is an able document, and as such we commend it to the attention of our readers. Those of our readers who are opposed to the measure, especially, should read it. It is a candid, clear and argumentative paper, and thoroughly upsets the many objections urged against the soldiers having a voice in the affairs of the nation through the ballot box. We see the House has passed the measure; now let the Senate do our brave boys justice by doing likewise." At the jubilee over the fall of Vicksburg, held in Jackson, soon after that occurrence, Mr. Fowler made a speech, which was commented on as follows, under the head of THE FALL OF VICKSBURG. The Jackson Citizen, in its account of the jubilee, after commenting on the speech of Gov. Blair, Mr. Wood and others, says: " Hon. S. W. Fowler, of Eaton, was then introduced. He was listened to with marked attention. He mentioned the many brilliant victories of our armies, and gave Mr. Wood a good answer, and effectually overturned that gentleman's arguments. The rejoicing was kept up until a late hour." Mr. Fowler, while in the senate, was selected as one to pronounce a eulogy on the death of Se;.ator Northrup, and was on the committee to accompany the remains to Detroit. The severe labors of the session proved too much, and he was taken ill and confined to his bed for the last two weeks. He also drew up and introduced a joint resolution providing for a roll of honor, under which the adjutant general published a full list of the dead and disabled of the Michigan troops, and such list has since been written on parchment, and deposited in the State Library, in accordance with said resolution. See Joint Resolution No. 19, Session Laws of 1873. Mr. Fowler was the first advocate in the Michigan Legislature, of the measure for employing negro troops. He went to Gov. Blair, personally, with Maj. Grummond, to urge the formation of a colored reginient, and used his influence as chairman on nmilitary affairs to promote that object, until it became a success, and colored men were permitted a part in the struggle for national existence. In 1868 lie had been appointed draft commissioner for the Third District of Michigan, in which capacity he served until after the close of the war, when he was honorably mustered out of the service. Home having been desolated by death, and health impaired by the ravages of a southern climate, he bought the Manistee Gazette, in 1867, enlarged it, and changed the name to the Times, and found employment in the then small village of Manistee, as editor and lawyer. Afterwards, in 1873, lie purchased the Standard, and con I "THE SOLDIERS' VOTING BILL. "The Legislature of Michigan did a good thing when they passed the bill allowing the brave soldiers of this state the privilege F L lolk"Mmm

Page  63 ,r. HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY 63 I solidated the two papers, under the name of Times and Standard, of which he is yet the editor and publisher. At the Vanderpool trial he was one of the attorneys for the defense, and incurred the displeasure of many friends and neighbors (who felt positive that the defendant was guilty) by being faithful to his client, taking him out of state's prison, and thus making a new trial possible. He delivered the address at the first agricultural fair ever held in Manistee County. The exhibit was in a small log house, near Hopkins' manufacturing store, in Bear Lake. In 1869 lie was solicited by a committee of citizens, appointed without reference to party, to allow his name to be used as a candidate for circuit judge. The following was his characteristic reply: "MANISTEE, Mich., March 24, 1869. " To the Delegates of iManistee County appointed to choose a candidate for Circuit JTudge. "GENTLEMEN: -I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of yours requesting the use of my name to place on the ticket for the office of circuit judge. This flattering assurance of your confidence comes entirely unexpected. It is well known by those who have written me upon the subject, and others, that I have not been a candidate for the position. The duties are too arduous, the requirements too great, and the compensation too small to make it a place to be sought for by one who has a full and solemn realization of the responsibilities imposed. "The question of judgeship is of vital importance to all concerned. There is no power in a free country so terrible for evil, or so efficient for the well-being of society as that reposed in the office in question. The wrongs of such a place are difficult of redress, and even the right of appeal is a remote remedy, and oft'times of little avail for want,4 time and means. For these and many other considerations, the office should be above party favor or partizan influence, and it should be filled by the choice of the people fully and fairly expressed. The situation in this district at this time is peculiar. "There is but one candidate before the people, Hon. J. G. Ramsdell, and however well he may perform the duties of the office, it can hardly be claimed that all the people ought to be disfranchised who do not choose to vote for the one candidate, and yet, practically, this is the result if there is but one man to vote for. With these views, with charity for all and malice toward none, I sincerely thank you for the honor of your preference, and leave the whole case in the hands of the people, feeling that if only one man votes for me, he will have exercised fairly the freeman's right of the ballot. And if at this late day, the peoples' choice should fall upon me, under God I shall strive to discharge the duties of this high position, faithfully and fearlessly, to the best of my abilities. I remain, gentlemen, Your obedient servant, " S. W. FOWLER." The returns indicate that a change of about one hundred votes would have thrown the election either way. This was certainly very flattering, considering that the district was over two hundred miles long. The consent was only given about ten days before election, and there was no regular nomination or organized effort. THE GREAT FIRE. At the time of the great fire of October 7, 1871, he was attend ing the supreme court, at Detroit, and knew nothing of the disaster until four days later, when the news reached him on his way home, at White Hall. He had the largest library then in northern Michigan, an office, the Times office block, three dwellings, barns, furniture, etc., all were swept away, including the contents of his safe. The track of the fire was from the southwest to the northeast, and swept everything between Oak Street and the Little Lake, leaving only one house north of the river, where there were about 400 inhabitants. Not a tree, shrub or fence post could be found in the district. All were literally left in ashes. He owed no man, had something due him, and his lots and land were left. He had an insurance of $4,000, of which he afterwards got twenty per cent, the companies having failed in the Chicago fire. The proofs and the carpenter's estimates showed a loss of over $15,000, besides barn, safe and contents. He commenced housekeeping again in a small room, with a few chairs, a mattress and a few blankets. In six week's time he had an office building up, 24x35, and two stories high, and moved into three small rooms in the upper story, and lived there a year, until his present brick dwelling was completed. This office was the first building up and occupied on Maple Street after the fire, and excepting the house of William Nungesser, the first in that part of the city. Though not one of the earliest settlers in Manistee, Mr. Fowler may be fairly ranked as one of its pioneers, having always identified himself with the interests of the city and county of his adoption. Had he worked merely for self-aggrandizement, he had the means and ability to have amassed a fortune. Had he been unscrupulous as to principles and methods, he might have held lucrative offices, where "stealings in" form a large inducement. In after years Mr. Fowler will have the proud satisfaction of knowing that he has fulfilled the duties of a citizen, journalist and business man in a manner that will reflect credit upon himself and family, and made a record whose sterling worth will never grow less in the minds of impartial judges. ALEXANDER H. DUNLAP was born in St. Clair County, Mich., June 25, 1830. His father was born in Scotland, and came to this country at the age of eighteen years. His mother was a native of St. Clair County. He lived with his parents on their farm in his native county until he arrived at the age of seventeen years, when his father died. He was educated at home and at the district school until nineteen years of age, when he went to the State Normal School and afterwards to Albion College. After leaving college he followed teaching public and private schools for several years with marked success, in Michigan, Wisconsin and Iowa. The last two years of his teaching were in the Mitchell Academy, as principal. He studied law several years, and was admitted to the bar at Charles City, Iowa, in 1860. He immediately entered upon the practice of his profession in Iowa. April 12, 1860, he married Miss Ada S. Poindexter, a very talented lady, daughter of Rev. Samuel Poindexter, of Maine. He continued the practice of law until April, 1862, when he enlisted as a private, but was soon made lieutenant of Company A., Eighteenth Iowa Volunteer Infantry. He remained in the service about a year and resigned in consequence of injuries received in his right hand. In November, 1862, he was commissioned judge advocate general by Gen. Schofield, and acted as such several months at Springfield, Mo. After returning from the army he resumed the practice of law in Mitchell County, Iowa, and remained there until the Spring of 1867, when lie located in Manistee, where he has kept pace with the growth of the place, and has become eminently popular with the people, and earned the reputation of being an honest and reliable attorney. He has paid but little attention to politics, but has acted with the Republican party, and has held the offices of city attorney two terms, circuit court commissioner one term, and is the present prosecuting attorney of the county. He was the first Republican prosecuting attorney who had been elected for ten years. Mr. Dunlap has accumulated a handsome property in the city and county. In addition to the practice of law, he gives considerable attention to o tv -__-__ --------------------.

Page  64 ~1.~ -- ~Y -L 44 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 1 64 Vpl farming. He owns several fine farms in the county; one especially valuable is located on Portage Lake, upon which there is an excellent mineral spring, which bids fair to be of great importance to this portion of the state. In the great fire of 1871 he lost several houses, including his family residence. He rebuilt all of them immediately after the fire. His family consists of his wife and four children-two girls and two boys. His eldest daughter is about to graduate at the New England Conservatory of Music, Boston. Mr. Dunlap's practice in the supreme court has been large, and the records show it to have been very successful. E. E. BENEDICT, of the well-known law firm of Ramsdell & Benedict, is one of the leading members of the Manistee County bar. He was born in Sweden, N. Y., in 1838. He remained at home until about seventeen years of age; he then went away to attend school. After studying at Olivet, Mich., and Oberlin, Ohio, he entered the law department of the Michigan University, at Ann Arbor, where he graduated in 1863. After spending a short time at Bay City, he removed to Lincoln, then the county seat of Mason County, and located in the practice of his profession. The files of the local newspapers in those days show Mr. Benedict to have been a frequent writer upon subjects of current interest and importance. Those writings give evidence of studious habits and a scholarly mind. In 1867 he came to Manistee and formed a law partnership with Hon. T. J. Ramsdell, which is still continued. The firm have long occupied a leading place among the lawyers of this part cf the state. Mr. Benedict was one of the attorneys in the celebrated McVickar suit, and also in the Vanderpool-Field murder trial. He has held the office of judge of probate one term, but has mainly devoted himself exclusively to the law. He was married, May 16, 1866, at Grand Blanc, Mich., to Miss Sophia A. King, daughter of Dr. King, of that place. Mr. Benedict's family home is one of the many beautiful residences in the city. It was built by him in 1876. He has been a very successful lawyer and has accumulated a comfortable fortune from his practice. EDWARD D. WHEELER, one of the leading lumbermen of Manistee, was born in Southfield, Mass., May 8, 1843. When fourteen years of age he went to Morrison, Ill., where he was clerk in a drug store for a time, and afterwards was in a store at Joliet. In the Spring of 1860 he went to Pikes Peak, and after an absence of nine months returned to Joliet, and in the Spring of 1861 came to Manistee, where he has since advanced to the front rank in commercial prominence. For three years after coming to Manistee he was in the employ of John Canfield. In 1864 he went back to Joliet, and remained a year. He then returned to Manistee, and was in the employ of Mr. Engelmann. In the Fall of 1871 he went into partnership with Mr. John Canfleld in the mill property near the mouth of the river, the firm being Canfleld & Wheeler. Subsequently he became senior member of the firm of Wheeler, Magill & Co., their mill being on what is known as Blackbird Island. Mr. Wheeler is emphatically a practical man, and one of the most successful managers of mill property. RICHARD T. MEAD, M. D., is one of the leading physicians of Manistee County, and a very successful practitioner. He was born in the state of New York, in the year 1839. He remained at home, receiving a common school and academic education until ready for college. He entered Hobart College in 1860, and afterwards attended Albany Medical College, graduating in 1863. He then went into the army as surgeon, and remained until the close of the war. From 1865 until 1871 he practiced at Adrian, Mich. In 1871 he located in Manistee, and has become a leading physician of the county. He was married at Adrian, in 1867, to Miss Jane A. Young. They occupy a very handsome residence on Maple Street, purchased last year. Dr. Mead is a close student, and devotes his whole talents and energy to his profession. His practice is very large and lucrative. THE RusSELL BROTHERS have for several years occupied a prominent place in Manistee. In 1869 the five brothers, Andrew J., James H., Perry, Charles H., and Edwin Russell came to Manistee from Chautauqua County, N. Y., their native place. Perry Russell had come here a little in advance of the others. They embarked in the grocery and hardware business, and also dealt extensively in pine lands, under the firm name of Russell Bros. They continued in business together until the accidental death of Perry, which occurred in November. The circumstances of his death were as follows: He went up the river, in company with R. G. Peters and H. S. Udell, in the interest of the Improvement Company. While coming down in a skiff, an obstruction at a point where the current was very rapid overturned the skiff, and Perry was drowned. He was a good swimmer, but in the darkness, weighed down with a heavy rubber coat, and plunged so suddenly into the swift current, he was overcome and drowned. He was a man universally popular, and his death was lamented by the entire community. He was in the prime of life, his age being thirtyeight years, and had long been a valuable member of society. His family consisted of a wife and four children, who are still living in the city. The remaining brothers continued the business until 1880, when Andrew and James withdrew. James went into the meat and canned fruit business, and Andrew has a dairy farm on the lake shore, near the city limits. Charles and Edwin continue the grocery business and shingle mill. The latter was purchased in 1876, and is located on Lake Manistee, in Filertown. Charles attends to the store and Edwin the mill. The latter has been prominently identified with the city schools for several years. He was superintendent for three years, and has been one of the directors four years. These gentlemen are all enterprising and excellent business men and prominent citizens of the city. V. W. RICHARDSON, editor of the Manistee Democrat, is a native of Pennsylvania. He began his printing experience in the office of the Saginaw Enterprise, in 1866. He published a newspaper at Port Austin, Huron Co., for three years. For some time he was on the Marquette Journal, and later on the Fond du Lac Journal. From the latter place he took a position on Peck's Sun, Milwaukee, where he became widely known as a brilliant newspaper writer. Last Spring he purchased an interest in the Manistee Advocate, now Democrat. Mr. Richardson is a journalist of unusual ability, and he is making the Democrat one of the best papers in the State. C. B. LEwis, senior member of the firm of C. B. Lewis & Son,.shingle manufacturers, came to Manistee from Kenosha, Wis., in 1870. He was a resident of that place for twenty years. Since coming to Manistee he has been engaged in the lumber business. In January, 1881, the firm of C. B. Lewis & Son bought the shingle mill built by W. W. Chapin & Co. The mil cuts about 40,000,000 shingles a season. Mr. Lewis is president of the school board at the present time, and has been a member of the board for eight years. AZno B. LEONARD 1S another~ Of the6 menl who has worked his way along to a comfortable competency. He was born in Stockbridge, Vt., in the year 1823. In the Fall of 1850 he came to Wisconsin, and settled in Eureka, Winnebago Co. There he was engaged in lumbering and other business. When he first came to Wisconsin he worked by the month, and afterwards became interested in a sawmill at Eureka. Becoming interested in a Manistee sawmill, he came here, in 1866, to attend to that business, and + _ _ _ _ _

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Page  65 . -__.4,-_ _ _ HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 65 until 1879 was a member of the firm of Gifford, Ruddock & Co. In 1879 he sold his interest in the business of that firm, and since that time has been engaged in logging and dealing in pine lands. He is also a member of the hardware firm of Kroegan & Leonard, in which he is represented by his son, for whom he purchased the interest. Mr. Leonard has a wife and four children, and lives in a handsome residence situated upon the high ground. This residence property he purchased in 1878. A very fine lithographic view of it is given upon another page. Mr. Leonard has been successful in his business operations. He is an excellent type of the New England gentleman. A fine steel portrait of Mr. Leonard is given in this work. WILLIAM WENTE, secretary and treasurer of the Manistee Lumber Company, is a native of Germany, and came to this country in 1848, with his parents. In 1865 he came to Manistee from Milwaukee, and has always been engaged at office work in connection with the mills. About 1876 he became connected with the lumber firm of Dempsey, Cartier & Co., and at the organization of the present company became one of its officers, as above stated. Mr. Wente is a prominent member of the Masonic fraternity, and one of the oldest members of the Manistee Lodge. He is a careful and correct business man. ADOLPHUS MAGNAN, judge of probate of Manistee County, is one of the early settlers in the county. He is a native of Canada, and came to Manistee in 1855. He settled in Stronach town and has been engaged in lumbering and bookkeeping. He held the office of supervisor of Stronach for fifteen years, and was the first postmaster of that town. In 1880 he was elected probate judge for the term of four years. He is one of the reliable men of the county, and is thoroughly posted in the affairs of the county. CHRISTIAN HAUSER is one of the pioneers of Manistee County. He is a native of Germany, and came to this country in 1846. He first came to Racine, Wis., where he remained until 1853, when he came, to Manistee, and cast his lot in the wilderness with the little handful of people who were here at that time. He has witnessed the growth of the place thus far and has always been active in public matters. He has held several public offices, and in all of them has rendered faithful and efficient service. He held the office of supervisor for several years, was alderman in 1872-'73, and is now serving his second term as county treasurer. He is a prominent member of several benevolent societies, and is a gentleman who has the respect and confidence of the public. EVAN T. DAVIES belongs to the younger class of Manistee lumbermen, who are following in the footsteps of their successful predecessors. He is a native of Wales and came to this country in 1867, and that same year came to Manistee. He was a poor young man, but what he lacked in purse he made up in energy and clear grit. He went to work as mill-wright and followed that trade for eight years. In 1878 the firm of Davies, Blacker & Co. was organized and had their mill built under the direction of Mr. Davies. In 1880 the shingle mill was added. Mr. Davies is the inventor of a valuable machine known as the Davies lumber sorter, which is in use in their mill. He is of that class of men who are bound to succeed at whatever they undertake. This firm has. one of the finest mills in Manistee. S. BABCOCK is one of the substantial business men of Manistee, and senior member of the lumber firm of S. Babcock & Co. Men tion of their mill is made in another part of this work. Mr. Babcock is a native of New York State, but came to Wisconsin while a young man. For several years he was a contractor and builder in Milwaukee. In 1873 he first became interested in the lumber business at Manistee, but did not remove here with his family until 1877. He has invented a machine for the manufac ture of rift-sawed siding, which is in use at their mill, and is a valuable patent. He has recently completed one of the handsomest residences in the city, which is both a private luxury and a public ornament. It is built of red brick, and elegantly furnished. HORACE TABER is the founder and head of the well-known firm of Horace Taber & Sons., lumber manufacturers, whose mill interests are described in another place in this work. Mr. Taber was born in Madison County, Vt., in the year 1827. In the Summer of 1867 he came to Manistee and purchased a mill site and erected a sawmill. At that time there were only a few acres cleared back from where their mills now stand. As soon as the mill was completed he began the manufacture of lumber. In the course of time he took his two sons, Hershell H., and Sumner S. Taber, into partnership, and the firm has since been as at present. Mr. Taber was a practical lumberman, and has been a successful manufacturer. Many improvements have been made in the mill property, and they have built dwelling houses until quite a village has sprung up around their mills. Mr. Taber is the inventor of Taber's rift-sawing siding machine, which is an invention of great value in the manufacture of siding. Mr. Taber is a stockholder and director in the Manistee National Bank. Of late his failing health has compelled him to surrender much of the care of the business to his sons, who are capable and enterprising business men. A fine lithographic view of their mills appears in this work. L. W. NUTTALL is a native of England, and came to this country in 1832. He first settled at Hudson, N. Y. From there he went to Wisconsin and settled in Eureka,Winnebago Co. While there he was engaged in lumbering and building barges. In 1867 he came here, having purchased an interest in the mill business of Gifford, Ruddock & Co. Since then there have been changes in the firm, but Mr. Nuttall has retained an interest in the business, and in December, 1881, the firm was changed to Ruddock, Nuttall & Co. Mr. Nuttall is the only resident member of the firm, and with the assistance of his three sons manages the large business connected with their mill and store. Mention is made of this lumber interest elsewhere. Mr. Nuttall is a thorough business man, and trains his sons to follow in his footsteps. The three sons each have their particular departments, and attend to them closely. He is a gentleman of thorough integrity and honesty, and a most estimable citizen. His family consists of his wife and five children, three sons and two daughters. J. F. NUTTALL is a son of L. W. Nuttall, of the well-known lumber firm of Ruddock, Nuttall & Co. He is a native of Wisconsin and came to Manistee in 1868. He has charge of the company books, and assists in the management of the interests of the firm of which his father is a member. He interests himself in public matters, and has been especially active and efficient in the organization and maintenance of the Congregational Church and Sunday-school at Maxwelltown, a suburb of the city. CHARLES RIETZ, president of the Chas. Rietz & Bros. Lumber Co., has for many years been well known in connection with the lumber interests of Manistee. He was born in Germany, in 1827, and came to this country in 1847. In 1867 he came to Manistee and purchased a sawmill, and laid the foundation of the immense business now carried on by the company. Mr. Rietz's brothers, who are interested with him, reside in Chicago. In 1870 a new mill was built, as mentioned elsewhere. The salt interests of the company are also described in another place. Mr. Rietz occupies an elegant residence near the mills. In the management of the business here he is assisted by his son, Mr. Frank Rietz, who is a practical mill man, and gives his personal attention to superintending the operation of the mills. I ------I

Page  66 1 I t_ y-, 66 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY Mr. Frank Rietz was born in Chicago, and came to Manistee in 1873. A. O. WARD is one of the rising young men of the county. He is a native of the state of New York. In 1874 he came to Manistee, and for some time was engaged in the insurance and real estate business, the firm being Ward & Ramsdell. In 1880 he was elected clerk and register of the county, and has recently been renominated by the Republicans of the county for the same office. Mr. Ward is also a member of the insurance firm of Kies & Ward, which does an extensive business. He is a popular public officer. PROF. WEBSTER COOK, superintendent of schools, is a native of Ann Arbor, Mich. He graduated at the University of Michigan, in 1878, and since that time has been engaged in teaching and educational work. He taught at Union City, Mich., three years, and came from that place to Manistee, in the Fall of 1881, to accept the position of superintendent of schools in this city. His work thus far has been highly satisfactory. M. S. COOK, city surveyor, came to Manistee from Arcadia Township, in the Fall of 1879. He came to this county from Jackson, Mich., in 1877, and was county surveyor from 1878 to 1880, and since then has been city surveyor. He has followed surveying for about twenty-five years. A. O. WHEELER was born in New Marlborough, Mass., in 1845. When ten years of age, his parents removed to Chicago. In 1866 he came to Manistee on a visit, and while here made arrangements to go into the store of Canfield & Secor for a time. He remained there a few months, and then received an appointment to superintend the harbor improvements. In 1866 the Canfield Tug Line was started, and Mr. Wheeler became its manager. After a time he became part owner, and at the present time is principal owner of the line. He is also a member of the firm of Wheeler, Johnson & Co., proprietors of the machine shops. Mr. Wheeler has been a very successful business man, and has become one of the strong capitalists of the city. His family residence, built in 1879, is one of the finest in the city. His family consists of a wife and three children. He has recently received the nomination of the Republican party of the county for state representative. HENRY S. HILTON, proprietor of the Manistee Times, is one of the oldest newspaper publishers in the state. He was born in Fredonia, N. Y., in the year 1832. When about thirteen years of age he commenced work at the case, in a newspaper office in Randolph, N. Y. His first experience as a newspaper publisher was at Sheboygan, Wis., as publisher of the Sheboygan Lake Journal. He came to Michigan in the Spring of 1856, and started what is now the Clinton Republican, which he published for about twenty-five years. He was clerk of the lower house of the Michigan Legislature for two years, and register of deeds for Clinton County from 1874 to 1880. Last June he purchased the Manistee Times of Mr. App. M. Smith, and settled with his family in this city. Mr. Hilton is a thorough newspaper man, and from his long experience is perfectly familiar with all parts of the business. He has always been a zealous and active Republican, and is a man of culture and ripe experience in public affairs. FLETCHER W. DUNLAP Was born in St. Clair County, Mich., in the year 1840. At the age of ten years, he went from home to begin life for himself. His first thought was to secure an education, and he industriously set himself about the attainment of that purpose. He acquired a good common school education, and at eighteen years of age went to Iowa, and for three years published the Mitchell Gazette. He then attended the Michigan State Normal School, and finished the course in 1867. From there he entered the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, where, in 1870, he graduated as Bachelor of Law. He was admitted to the bar, and opened a law office at Holland, Ottawa County. In connection with his practice he published a paper until the fire of 1871, when he was burned out. He then removed to Muskegon, and from there to Manistee, where he opened a law office and continued in practice for two years. At the end of that time he determined to abandon the law and seek a more direct road to fortune. Accordingly, he started a small grocery, and subsequently went at work by the day. At days'labor he paid for sufficient lumber for a small building, which he erected, doing all the work himself, and when it was completed he put in a stock of groceries and started in trade. At first he delivered goods to his customers on a wheelbarrow, and thus by industry and prudence worked his way along until at the present time he owns four business lots, three residence lots and three buildings. He has recently completed a substantial two-story brick store building on River Street, and intends soon to erect another in the place of the frame building, which he occupies with his store. Mr. Dunlap's success in life shows what can be accomplished by persistent industry and prudence. FRIEND, JOYs & Co., dealers in dry goods, groceries, clothing etc. This firm is composed of Albert Friend, C. E. Joys, and was established March 1, 1882, and succeeded A. Friend & Co. The business was at first conducted in the old building of Mr. M. Engelmann, but upon the completion of Mr. Engelmann's new block, the firm moved to their present elegant and spacious quarters. They occupy three large store-rooms, one of which is filled with dry goods, another with clothing and hats and caps, and the third with groceries. In addition to these are a large cloak department, one for fine shoes, and an immense basement room for carpets, crockery and boots and shoes. The interior of the building is sumptuously furnished with the most elegant appointments, and altogether, the house is one of the most extensive and elegant in the Northwest. C. E. JOYS is a native of Norway, and came to this country in the year 1867. In 1868 he came to Manistee and was engaged as book-keeper for Maxwell, Pundt & Co., and also with R. G. Peters & Co. In 1876 he went to Hokah, Minn., and engaged in general merchandising, which he still continues. In March last he returned to Manistee and became a member of the firm of Friend, Joys & Co., as already stated. A. FRIEND, the senior member of the above named firm, has long been prominent in the mercantile interests of Manistee. He first came to Manistee in 1867 and engaged in business with M. Engelmann, and has been interested in business here since that time. From 1870 to 1881 he resided in Milwaukee, but in 1881 returned here, and the following Spring the present firm of Friend, Joys & Co. was established. Mr. Friend belongs to a family of merchants all of whom are successful business men. The firm of which he is the senior member is one of the strongest in this part of the state. ALLEN MC KEE, engineer and machinist at the mill of the Manistee Lumber Company, is a native of Jefferson County, N. Y. He enlisted in the army in 1862, at Manistee, as a member of the Third Michigan, and served until the battle of the Wilderness in 1864, when he was taken prisoner, and was at Andersonville for five months. He was mustered out in June, 1865, and returned to Manistee. He has been in his present place for eight years. Before that he was sailing on the lakes for several years. He made an excellent record as a soldier, and is probably the only survivor of Andersonville now in Manistee County. He is a prominent member of the Masonic Lodge, and bears a good reputation as a citizen. C. V. BEEBE, M. D., is a native of Genesee County, Mich., and in early life received a common school education. In 1870 he graduated at Ann Arbor, and began the practice of medicine in his na-!. ^.------ -^~

Page  67 .A -A LLlr HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 67 tive county. After continuing there a short time, he removed to Ovid, where he remained for eight years, doing a very extensive and successful practice. In the Spring of 1881 he removed to Manistee. This city seemed to offer him a field of labor deserving of his attention, and his success here has shown that he made no mistake in coming. His practice is already very large and his reputation in this region well established. Louis E. MORRIS is a native of Scotland, and first came to this country with his parents in 1852. After receiving a common school education, he returned to Europe to pursue his studies. After remaining abroad about three years, he returned to this country, and entered the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, where he graduated in 1874. Shortly after graduation he was admitted to the bar, and began the practice of law at Ludington. In 1875 lie removed to Manistee, and settled himself permanently here in the practice of his profession. In the Fall of 1876 he was elected prosecuting attorney for the county, and was re-elected in the Fall of 1878. He was city attorney for four years, and last Spring was elected a justice of the peace. Mr. Morris is a prominent member of the Democratic party, and takes a leading part in the politics of the county. He is connected with several of the societies represented in the city. S. S. CONOVER is a native of the state of New York. In 1837, at the age of nineteen years, he went to Milwaukee, and was a resident of that city for thirty years. He was sheriff of Milwaukee County, during the years 1856 and 1857. In 1867 he came to Manistee and engaged in the manufacture of harness, saddles, etc. He manufactured the first harness and saddles made here. He continued in that business until the fire of 1871, when he was burned out, and did not afterwards resume business. Mr. Conover was elected justice of the peace in 1868, and with the exception of two years has held the office ever since. Since 1872 he has been engaged chiefly in real estate and insurance business. During his residence in Milwaukee, Mr. Conover figured prominently in an event that is memorable in Wisconsin history. In 1854 he was under-sheriff of Milwaukee County, and in charge of the jail at the time the fugitive slave Glover was lodged there, and shortly afterwards taken by a crowd who attacked the jail, and got possession of the slave. WILsoN H. GRAY is a member of the Manistee County bar, and is a native of Ireland. In 1852 he came to this country with his parents, and lived at Grand Rapids for fifteen years. In September, 1862, he went into the service with the One Hundred and Sixteenth New York Volunteers. He was promoted to lieutenant and afterwards to captain. He served until August, 1864, when lie received his discharge. After leaving the service lie entered upon the study of law, and was admitted to the bar in 1867. He practiced law at Grand Rapids until the Summer of 1880, when he came to Manistee. He has earned the reputation of being a good lawyer, and is successful in his practice. GEORGE LAMO0NTAGNE, M.D., is a natilVe of Quebec, and received a classical and medical education at the Laval University at Quebec, graduating in the year in 1862. After practicing in Quebec for two years, lie came to the States, and located in Milwaukee, where lie remained about eighteen months, and then removed to Muskegon, where he practiced nine years. He then went to Chicago, where he was in the drug business, and also engaged iii practice. In 1877 lie came to Manistee and engaged in practice. Three years ago he opened a drug store on River Street, which lie runs in connection with his practice. Dr. LaMontagne is a highly educated gentleman, and has an extensive practice. JOHN MEE was born in London, Canada, in 1839. In his earlier years he worked mostly at farming, but becoming ambitious for a more active field than was to be found in Canada, he resolved to seek a new country. In 1867 he came to the States, and located in Manistee. In 1870 lie went into the hardware business, the firm being G. I. Russell & Co., and continued in that business until 1872, when he went out of trade and engaged in lumbering. In 1875 he went back to the hardware business, and in 1877 bought out his partner, and was alone until 1881, when he sold out to the firm of Parry & Legg. In 1881 he bought out Mr. Legg, and the firm became Parry & Mee. Their store, at the present time, is one of the leading mercantile establishments of the city. Mr. Mee is one of the men who has helped to give Manistee the commercial importance it has attained. He has made his own way in the world, and has succeeded. He is engaged in lumbering with Mr. A. B. Leonard; is a director of the First National Bank, and also of the Water Works Company, and always takes an active part in the public enterprises that tend to build up the city. His family consists of a wife and one child. HON. HARRISON H. WHEELER was born in the township of Hadley in the county of Lapeer, and state of Michigan, on the 22nd day of March, 1839. He received a common school education, and after he was eighteen years of age taught school Winters and worked on a farm Summers, until the breaking out of the war of the rebellion, when, on the 11th day of November, 1861, he enlisted as a private of Company C, Tenth Regiment, Michigan Volunteer Infantry. In February, 1862, was promoted to first sergeant of Company C, and in June, 1862, was promoted to second lieutenant of the same company, and in April, 1863, was promoted to first lieutenant of Company E, same regiment, and in February, 1864, was promoted to captain of Company F, same regiment. Mr. Wheeler was wounded three times during the war, the last one being in the left arm, at Jonesborough, Ga., September 1, 1864. This wound was quite severe, rendering the left arm and hand nearly useless. On his return from the army he located at Bay City, Mich., and was elected county clerk of Bay County, in the Fall of 1866, and was duly admitted to practice as an attorney at law, in March, 1868, by Judge J. G. Sutherland. In the Fall of 1870, Mr. Wheeler was elected state senator for the county of Bay, and adjoining counties, and was re-elected in 1872. After the adjournment of the legislature in 1873, he moved to Ludington, Mich., and formed a co-partnership in the law practice with M. D. Ewell, Esq. This co-partnership continued until May, 1874, when Mr. Wheeler was appointed circuit judge of the Nineteenth Circuit, by Gov. Bagley, vice Hon. S. F. White, resigned. In the Fall of 1874, lie was elected circuit judge, having been nominated by both political parties. In the Spring of 1878, Judge Wheeler resigned, and was appointed postmaster at Ludington, and continued to hold that office until the expiration of his term, May 22, 1882. In January, 1879, he formed a co-partnership in the practice of the law with R. P. Bishop, which partnership continued until last Summer, when lie came to Manistee, having professional interests here requiring his attention. Judge Wheeler is an excellent lawyer, and has made a fine record, both as a legislator and upon the bench. A. V. McALVAY is a prominent member of the Manistee County bar. lie was born in Ann Arbor, July 19, 1847. He graduated in the literary department of the University of Michigan in 1868, and from the law department in 1869. He was admitted to the bar, and taught school one year. In November, 1871, he came to Manistee, and entered upon the practice of law. His natural abilities as a lawyer very soon manifested themselves, and in 1878 lie was appointed circuit judge, to fill the unexpired term of Judge H. H. Wheeler, who resigned. His record while upon the bench is a good V

Page  68 _ u L '1 j 68 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. one, and very complimentary to his ability as a jurist. Upon retiring from the bench' at the expiration of his term, he resumed his practice. He has held various local offices, such as supervisor, circuit court commissioner, etc., and has been deputy collector of customs at this port since February, 1881. DAVID S. HARLEY is one of the pioneers of this northern country, and is well known in this part of the state. He was born in Franconiaville, Montgomery Co., Pa., March 10, 1834. He received a common school education, and when twenty years of age went to the State Normal School, and afterwards taught school for several terms. For a time he was in charge of the schools at Marietta, Pa. After giving up teaching, he came to Michigan, and was engaged at surveying and publishing county maps for a time. He then read law, and finally entered the law department of the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, where he graduated in 1867. He was admitted to the bar by the supreme court, and settled at Lincoln, in Mason County. The county was then new, and Lincoln the county seat. Mr. Harley at once took an active part in county affairs, and was prominently identified with all public interests. He held various county offices, beginning with prosecuting attorney, to which office he was appointed by the governor of the state soon after settling in Lincoln. In 1873 he came to Manistee, and associated himself in the plactice of law with S. W. Fowler. In 1878 the firm was dissolved, and Mr. Harley opened an office by himself. Since coming to Manistee he has continued to take a prominent part in local politics, and has held various offices. He has been supervisor from the Second Ward for four years, and is at present chairman of the board. He has also been circuit court commissioner for six years. He was married, in March, 1861, at Detroit, to Miss Jennie Phelps. Two children have been born to them, both of whom are now living. Mr. Harley has the reputation of being a good lawyer, and enjoys the esteem and confidence of the people of the county. CHARLES F. RUGGLES was born at Naples, Me., in 1837. While he was yet a boy, his parents removed to Oshkosh, Wis., where they remained until 1866. His father was extensively engaged in lumbering and dealing in pine lands, and Charles was early schooled in that business. In 1867 the field here offered such inducements that he came to Manistee, and began dealing in logs, pine lands, etc. He is naturally a man of original methods and thorough business habits. He has always relied upon his own efforts for success, and his business prospered from the first. After a time he added a banking business to his other enterprises. This business he conducted very successfully until his general business gradually shaped itself so that he deemed it best to close up the banking part of it. In 1871 he erected the large building on the corner of River and Poplar Streets. The building is seventy-five by forty-three feet in size, and is wholly occupied by himself. In 1876 he instituted an agency of temperance reform, after his own peculiar notions. He believed a thirsty public should be provided with a healthy drink, in order that people upon the street might not feel compelled to quench their thirst at the bar at the liquor saloon. Acting upon his theory, he established a public drinking place, for man and beast, in front of his block. A deep well was dug under the back part of the building, and by means of a pump the water is forced up to a tank, and from thence it is conveyed to the street. In front of the sidewalk is a large trough, that is constantly supplied with pure, cold water for horses, and at the corner of the building is a faucet and cup, where thirsty mortals may refresh themselves with the most delicious beverage ever drank. During the Summer months hundreds of people every day are refreshed by Mr. Ruggles' bounty. In this practical and considerate generosity he has earned a right to the title of public benefactor, while it is a continual proof of his enterprise and liberality. Mr. Ruggles' present business consists largely in loaning money for the purchase of pine lands and logs. He keeps a large force of clerks constantly engaged, and his office is a model of system 'and neatness. He keeps complete abstracts of five counties, which are arranged after a plan of his own, and are very accurate and valuable. While he has built up a large business and a handsome fortune, he has also established a reputation that makes him one of the foremost business men of Northern Michigan. He is yet a comparatively young man, and is full of energy and public spirit. Genial and courteous to all, he allows nothing to divert him from his own business interests or those of others committed to his care, and it is this thorough knowledge of the requisite elements of success that has given him such prestige as a business man. ABEL S. HAINES is one of the business men of Manistee who by his own ability and sagacity has made his way into the front ranks. He is a native of the state of Pennsylvania. In the year 1856 he set out for the West, to see what it had in store for him. He came as far as Indiana, and remained there one year. He then came to Muskegon, where he remained twelve years. Early in 1869 he came to Manistee, and went into the lumber business. In 1876 he engaged in the mercantile business, and at the present time has one of the leading dry goods and grocery establishments in the city. Mr. Haines is a man of liberal and enterprising views, and one who carries his undertakings steadily forward to a successful issue. B. W. KIES is the senior member of the firm of Kies & Ward, general insurance agents, and is a native of Hillsdale County, Mich. In 1867 he came to Manistee, and for about six years was steamboat clerk on the Engelmann Line. Since that time he has been superintendent of the Boom Company for a year and a half, and in the shingle mill business for several years. In the Summer of 1880 he engaged in the real estate and insurance business, the firm being as above stated. JOHN P. BAXTER is a native of Ireland, and came with his parents to this country in 1852. They located at Milwaukee, and he graduated from the Commercial College in that city. At the breaking out of the war, he was eager to enlist, but being only a little over sixteen years of age, was deemed too young to be accepted. In 1862, however, his father and himself enlisted as members of Company G, Twenty-fourth Wisconsin Volunteers. His father was killed at Kenesaw Mountain. The following testimonial from his commanding officer shows what kind of a soldier Mr. Baxter was: "HEADQUARTERS COMPANY A, FIRST U. S. V. V. ENGINEERS, NASHVILLE, TENN., Aug. 9, 1865. "To wzhom it may concern: "The bearer hereof, John P. Baxter, late a member of my company, and formerly a member of Company G, Twenty-fourth I, Wisconsin Volunteers, by his uniform good conduct, promptness to duty, and faithfulness to the discharge of his duties as a soldier, has won for him the respect of all his old comrades, both officers and men. "Entering the service in 1862, he served with credit in the Twenty-fourth Wisconsin, at Perryville, and with the Pioneer Brigade at Stone River, and during the campaigns of Tullahoma, Chickamauga Mission Ridge, and Atlanta. Made an orphan by the death of his father, a member of the Twenty-fourth Wisconsin Infantry Volunteers, who fell at the assault on Kennesau Mountain, he joined this command and participated in the pursuit of Hood's Rebel Legions till they were driven beyond the Tennessee, and deserves well of his country. WM. M. LOUGHLIN, Capt. First U. S. V. V. Engineers, Commanding Company." At the close of the war he returned North, and came to Manistee as book keeper for Green Bros. He remained in their employ sev ~S--.' ~

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Page  69 I --.. ^ HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 69 eral years, and then, in 1871, built a grist mill which he operated for about ten years. This was the only grist mill ever operated here for any length of time. He held the office of supervisor for five years, and was school inspector for two years. In the Spring of 1881 he was elected city recorder, now called city clerk, which office he still holds. The office is an important one, and its duties require his entire time. He is a genial, whole-souled gentleman, and is an excellent public officer. OTTO BAUMANN, sheriff of Manistee County, is one of the early settlers of this region. He is a native of Germany, and upon reaching this country in 1857, made his way directly to Manistee, where he has ever since resided. At that time Manistee was a new world in the fullest sense. The wilderness was here, and the sand was here, but there was no village nor any indication of a future city. But Mr. Bauman belonged to a thrifty class of Germans, who came to this country after homes and fortunes, and he settled into business at once. For eighteen years he "butchered" and sold meats, and did a large and lucrative business. For several years he sold meat from a wagon and in 1864 started the first meat market in Manistee. In 1870, he built the two-story brick block on River Street that is just west of the Dunham House. From 1878 to 1880 he was supervisor of Filer Township, and in the Fall of 1880 was elected to the office of sheriff of the county, for the term ending the 1st of January, 1883. Mr. Bauman is a good officer and one of the substantial citizens of the county. He has been successful in business and takes an active interest in all public matters. JAMES H. SHRIGLEY was born in Chicago in June, 1838. At that time his father was keeping the first hotel ever built in that city. In 1856 he came to Manistee as clerk in the store of J. L. McVickar & Co. He remained in that position about two years, and then went into partnership with H. N. Green, and they operated the McVickar mill, and afterwards the Smith mill. In 1862 he enlisted and was in the army until the close of the war. He then returned to Manistee and kept books for John Canfield, in his old store at the mouth of the river. In about a year, he went in company with Mr. Canfield, in the mill across the lake, known as the Shrigley mill, which was built by him in 1867-'68. In 1879, he sold his interest in the mill to Mr. Canfield. He is a member of the firm of Wheeler, Johnson & Co., proprietors of the machine shop, and also owns an interest in the steam barge "Shrigley," which runs between Manistee and Chicago, in the lumber trade. His family consists of a wife and one daughter, and their home is an elegant brick residence on Cedar Street, built by him in 1874. Mr. Shrigley has grown up with Manistee, and from his-business operations has accumulated a handsome fortune. DR. J. KINSLEY is a native of Pennsylvania, and with one exception is the oldest resident physician in Manistee. After studying medicine in New Jersey, he attended lectures at the Pennsylvania University in Philadelphia. Early in the war he went into the army with Company F, First New Jersey Cavalry, and did good service until he received his discharge in 1864. He was wounded at the battle of Sulphur Springs, Va., and still carries the bullet in his shoulder. In 1866, he began the practice of medicine in Philadelphia, and in 1870, having a desire to plant himself in a new field, came to Manistee, then a city less than one year old. Here he has remained to the present time, and is too well established to think of changing. He has always had an extensive practice, and has been very active in all public affairs. In 1876-'77 he was alderman from the Third Ward, and mayor of the city during 1880-'81. He is a prominent member of the Odd Fellows, Masons, and Knights of Honor. At the time of the fire in 1871, he had a drug store and was burned out. He opened another store directly after the fire, on River Street, but in 1877 removed to his present location, at the corner of First and Division Streets, where he does an extensive business in connection with his practice. Dr. Kinsley is a very genial gentleman, of large culture, and is popular both as a physician and citizen. In practice he belongs to the regular school of medicine. HENRY S. UDELL is a veritable pioneer of Manistee County, and one who has done his share in the development of its interests. He was born in Albany County, N. Y., in 1824. In 1845 he went to Walworth County, Wis., where he operated a sawmill. In June, 1852, he came to Manistee as clerk in the Canfield store. The population of the entire county at that time did not exceed 200, and Manistee consisted of a little settlement at the mouth of the river. It was a dreary and desolate looking region, but the pioneers of those days were bent on business rather than pleasure, and paid but little attention to their surroundings. Mr. Udell remained in the ~tore about a year and then superintended the mill for awhile, after which he took a contract for handling logs on the lake. At the first county election in the Spring of 1855, he was elected clerk and register, and held the office until the next election, which was in the Fall of 1856. In 1859, he went away from Manistee, and was absent until 1864, when he came back and went to surveying and examining lands. He has followed this business most of the time since. He held the office of county surveyor one term, and was deputy surveyor two terms. He has aided in the purchase of a large amount of the pine lands owned by Manistee lumbermen. He owns a large amount of land in the county. He has one large farm which he carries on. He has a wife and eight children, and lives in the city. M. R. DENNING came to Manistee in 1866, from Iowa. The following year he brought his family and located here permanently. He is a native of the state of Maine, and from a boy has been engaged in logging and lumbering. For several years he was lumbering on the Susquehanna River, but in a freshet on the river lost heavily, and then determined to retrieve his losses in a new field. After coming to Manistee, he went to driving on the rivers, first on the Little Manistee. In 1879, he took the contract from the Manistee Boom Company, for driving the Manistee River for five years. He has also for several years been dealing more or less in pine lands, and in all of his operations since coming here, he has been successful. He is one of the directors of the Manistee National Bank. His family residence and office are in the Fourth Ward. JOSEPH HYLAND is a native of England, and came to Manistee in 1869. His father, John Hyland, came to Manistee about 1860. He served in the navy during the war, and was awarded a medal for personal bravery in capturing a battery. He received severe wounds during the service, and died soon after the close of the war. In 1878, Joseph Hyland started a boiler shop on the north side of the river, where he does an extensive business. He is also a member of the firm of Yoss & Hyland, commission merchants. In 1878 a man was buried in a well, by the sides caving in upon him, and at the risk of his life, Mr. Hyland succeeded in rescuing the unfortunate man from death. A number of citizens gave Mr. Hyland a purse of money for his heroic efforts in saving life. PETER A. Yoss, of the firm of Yoss & Hyland, commission merchants, is a native of Wisconsin. In 1861 he went into the army and served until the close of the war. In 1868 he came to Manistee, and was in charge of a dry goods store until the fire of 1871. He was sheriff of the county from 1873 to 1877, and chief of police in 1878. He has been a prominent member of the Democratic party, and for several years was a member of the Democratic state central committee. In the Spring of 1882, in company with Joseph Hyland, he opened a commission store on River Street, and at present devotes most of his time to that business. APPLETON M. SMITH was born in Florida, in the year 1845. His -------- --- f~Si --- --- ------------ - f

Page  70 -4---'A 70 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. __ __ ___ _____ father was a Methodist preacher, and when Appleton was three years of age, removed to Georgia. Appleton remained with his father until 1861, when he enlisted in the Confederate army. He was but a mere boy, and at first went in as marker for the regiment, and was afterwards promoted to corporal. He evidently was possessed of a good amount of grit, for he stuck by his regiment and was with Longstreet in seventeen or eighteen battles. In June, 1864, he was taken prisoner by the Union army at Cold Harbor, Va., and after being confined a short time at Point Lookout, Md., was taken to Elmira, N. Y. After a while he was released and went to Toronto, Canada, where he worked as a common laborer. From Toronto he went to Windsor, and finally to Detroit. About this time he began to write articles for newspapers, and soon came in contact with Rev. John Russell, who was publishing the Peninsular Herald, a temperance paper. Mr. Russell engaged him as assistant editor, which position he retained about two years. He then went upon the Commercial Advertiser, and subsequently was local editor of the Jackson Daily Patriot. He then published a temperance paper at Jackson for a short time, after which he returned to Detroit, and from there went to Toledo as city editor of the Toledo Commercial. In 1874 the temperance agitation in Manistee was at its height, and being a radical temperance advocate, he was attracted hither. He came here and purchased the Times, and published it until last Spring, when he sold the office to Mr. Hilton. Mr. Smith has a wife and three children, and resides upon a small farm just south of the city, where he spends his leisure in fruit-growing and gardening, for the apparent purpose of astonishing his visitors with the remarkable feats of Manistee sand. Mr. Smith is a strong Republican, and a staunch temperance man. As a journalist he has more than average ability, and the files of the Times during his administration show the work of a live editor. As an instance of how the scenes of life shift and bring men into new and strange relationship, Mr. Smith relates that at Knoxville he was in command at the charge of Fort Saunders, and inside the fort were General Cutcheon and several other Manistee soldiers. They returned to their homes, he was captured, and after release drifted hither and thither for a time, and at last became their neighbor, and colaborer in the pursuits of civil life. Mr. Smith has taken an active and prominent part in local matters, and has the esteem of the people of the county. E. N. SALLING is a native of Denmark. He came to this country in 1862, and was in Milwaukee about a year. In 1863 he came to Manistee, and worked in the mills. He was too practical to build castles in the air, but ready to branch out for himself when the right time came. In 1866 he began business by getting out square timber, and gradually extended his operations until he secured a firm footing. At one time he was a member of the firm of Engelmann, Babcock & Salling, and since his first ventures has held a prominent position in business circles. At present he is extensively engaged in logging and dealing in logs and lumber. He was interested in the hardware business with Mr. Krogen, for a time, and now owns the two-story brick block occupied by Krogen & Leonard. This block he built in 1880. His elegant residence on Fourth Street in the Second Ward was built by him in 1875. BENJAMIN SWEET is one of the men who has grown up from boyhood in the lumber business. He first came to Manistee with his father, John Sweet, in 1852. His first lumbering operations were in logging, and afterward, in company with his brother and Mark Tyson, went into the manufacture of lumber, the firm being Tyson, Sweet & Co. This firm did a very extensive business for a time, but was finally forced into bankruptcy. Mr. Sweet, however, had been in the lumber business too long to give it up, and has continued to deal in pine lands and logs to the present time. He has been successful in his operations, as he deserves to be. Mr. Sweet has a family, and occupies a handsome home on the hill. J. M. RAMSDELL is a native of Plymouth, Wayne County, Mich., and came to Manistee in 1872. In September, 1877, he purchased the interest of A. Landolt in the insurance and real estate business of Landolt & Ward, and the firm was changed to Ward & Ramsdell. In May, 1879, Mr. Ramsdell purchased Ward's interest, and since that time has conducted the business alone. His business consists of general insurance, real estate and sewing machines. T. P. STEADMAN is a native of Ohio, and for several years was in charge of telegraph lines. In 1872 lie came to Manistee and engaged in the business of general painting. In 1878 he returned to Ohio and built a line of telegraph for a railway company. Returning to Manistee in 1879 he resumed the painting business, which he has since carried on with wonderful success. He keeps upwards of thirty men employed at house, sign and decorative painting. He has contracts for a great portion of the work that is done in the city. In 1881 he opened an intelligence office which proved a signal success. The present season he opened a marble shop and has already worked up quite a patronage. Mr. Steadman is a thorough and active business man, one of the kind that succeed at whatever they undertake. DAVID W. MOWATT is a native of New Brunswick. He came to Manistee in 1864, and since that time has been indentified with the lumber mills of this city. For ten years he was superintendent of the Canfield mill at the mouth of the river, and since that time has been in charge of the Engelmann mill. He is thoroughly posted in everything pertaining to the manufacture of lumber, and is a man of sound judgment, and thoroughly reliable. He is a prominent member of the Masonic Fraternity, and is extremely popular in the city. He has a wife and five children, and resides in the First Ward. In the Spring of 1881 he was elected alderman from that ward. A view of Mr. Mowatt's residence appears in this work. SEYMOUR BRos. is the firm name of one of the leading business firms in Manistee. It is composed of four brothers, viz., R. A. Seymour Jr., John, Frederick and Elwin. Their father, Richard Seymour, is a native of England, and came to Manistee in 1866, from Canada. He went into trade here and was burned out in 1872. In 1873 the sons started an ice-cream room. They had but little capital but were determined to do business in some way and an establishment of the kind they started, seemed as promising as any, with the small amount of money they possessed. They succeeded from the start, and when their capital had increased sufficiently they opened a grocery store, and prospered so well that in 1879 they added dry goods. They now occupy two large stores on River Street, and do a very extensive business. In addition to their mercantile business, they deal extensively in pine lands and do considerable logging. They also own the large propeller "Champlain" which runs between Chicago and Cheboygan, Mich., and a schooner and barge. In the division of their labors, Frederick attends to the vessel property, Richard to the pine lands, and John and Elwin to the stores. These young men are deserving of great credit for the splendid success which they have achieved. They are all working men, and their close application to business and correct views of economy have placed them where they are to-day, in the front rank of Manistee business men. It is this kind of business energy and sagacity that has made Manistee what it is to-day. PETER JONES is a native of Prussia. He came to this country in 1856 and in 1863 settled in Manistee. He was a carpenter by trade, but soon after coming here bought some land of D. L. Filer, and started the first brewery here. He continued in that until 1866, and then engaged in the drug business in the Third Ward. He 1 It ~1 I _ _ _ _ ljý,

Page  71 "~ __ HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 71 I r built a frame building which was afterward burned, and he rebuilt of brick, and still continues in the same business. When he first started in business he was quite a distance beyond the town, but it has grown past him and his store is now in a good business location. Mr. Jones has a wife and three children. JOHN OGLETHORPE is a native of England, and first came to Manistee in 1865. In 1871 he settled here, and for several years managed the store of Ruddock, Palmiter & Co. In 1881 he bought, out the store of C. Michelson, in the Fourth Ward, at the corner of Sibben and Third Streets. He also has a meat market in connection with his grocery store. Mr. Oglethorpe is a careful and enterprising business man, and has secured a large patronage. CHARLES BIGGE is a native of Germany, and came to Manistee in 1865. He worked at the millwright's trade until 1872, when he lost one of his arms, and was obliged to give up his trade. He erected a building in the First Ward, and engaged in the saloon business, which he still continues. Mr. Bigge was alderman from that ward from 1876 to 1881. THORWALD PETERSON was born in Denmark, in the year 1852. He was educated at a graded school, and at an early age learned the mercantile business. In 1872 he came to this country, and settled in Manistee. Most of the time he has been in the employ of Louis Sands in various capacities. He now has charge of the logging camps on the river, and also attends to various other things connected with Mr. Sands' business. P. M. BRISTOL, filer at the gangmill of Louis Sands, is a native of New York State, and came to Manistee in 1878, from Ludington. Mr. Bristol has been filing and engaged at mill work since he was sixteen years of age. He has been in his present place since he came to Manistee. He went to Ludington in 1862, and was engaged there until coming here, in 1878. ERNST MAMEROW is a native of Germany, and came to Manistee in 1870. He had early learned the blacksmith trade, and after coming here followed it until 1878, when he built a boarding house and saloon building on Harrison Street, and engaged in business. In 1879 he was elected alderman from the First Ward, and re-elected in 1881. He has the Manistee agency for the sale of Ph. Best's and V. Blatz Milwaukee beer, and does an extensive business. Mr. Mamerow is an enterprising man. An excellent view of his building appears in this work. H. D. FOSTER, millwright, is a native of Erie, Penn., and at an early age learned the carpenter's trade. In the Fall of 1866 he came to Manistee and went to lumbering. He remained one year and went to Wisconsin. In June, 1871, he returned to Manistee, and has remained here since that time. For the past eight years he has been engaged at millwright work, and for four years has been in the employ of Louis Sands. He has a wife and one child. FRED. NOBLE is a native of Burlington, Wis., and came to Manistee in the Fall of 1871. He was mostly in the employ of others until 1879 when he went into a grocery with his brother, the firm being F. & W. Noble. In June, 1881, the firm dissolved, and since that time Mr. Fred. Noble has continued the business alone. He has done a large and successful business. Aside from his store he owns an interest in vessel property. He is a prominent member of the Odd Fellows' Lodge and the Royal Arcanum. C. J. PECK, filer at the mill of Horace Taber & Sons., is a na tive of Hillsdale County. In 1859 he went to Hart, Oceana County. In 1864 he enlisted and remained in the service until the close of the war. In the Spring of 1881 he came to Manistee, and has been in his present position since that time. C. D. GARDNER, is a native of Ohio, and came to Manistee in the year 1867, from Pentwater, where he had resided for two years. Upon coming here he opened a jewelry store near the Canfield store, that being in the center of the town at that time. In theWFall of 1867 he removed to River Street, nearly opposite the Baur Exchange. Was burned out in the fire of 1869, and again in 1871. In 1879 he removecd to his present location, at the corner of River and Oak Streets. Mr. Gardner served three years and nine months in the war, having enlisted in April, 1861, in the Eighth Ohio Infantry. He represented the Second Ward as alderman from 1876 to 1880, and has held various other local offices. Last year he was the Republican candidate for city recorder, but as the city is Democratic he was defeated. He has always made an excellent record in the discharge of every public trust, and bears an enviable reputation as a business man and citizen. H. B. LARSEN, dry goods merchant, Manistee, is a native of Denmark, and came to this country in 1855. In 1864 he went to Ludington from Milwaukee, and after remaining awhile came to Manistee. Mr. Larsen worked at the millwright trade for a time, and then engaged in merchandising at Manistee. For a time he was senior member of the firm of Larsen Bros. In 1879 he went to Ludington and opened a large store, which he continued until the present season, when he returned to Manistee, and built a large two-story block on River Street, which he occupies with his large dry goods business. Mr. Larsen is a successful and enterprising merchant, and has one of the largest dry goods establishments in Manistee. He has worked his way to the front by untiring industry and the exercise of good judgment in business matters. DOUVILLE BROS., dealers in books, stationery, news, house furnishing goods, sewing machines, etc., became established in business in the year 1867. They first opened in the store-room now occupied as a tailor shop in the Thorp building. In 1873 E. E. Douville erected a two-story brick building which the firm has since occupied. The firm is composed of W. W. and E. E. Douville. W. W. DOUVILLE, who has charge of the business, is a native of Milwaukee, Wis., and came to Manistee in 1866, and engaged in business as above stated. Mr. Douville is an industrious and enterprising business man, as his success in life attests. He has a wife and one child. E. E. DOUVILLE is also a native of Milwaukee, and came to Manistee in 1866. In addition to his interest in the bookstore of Douville Bros., he is engaged in the insurance, abstract and real estate business. In 1874 he purchased an interest in the insurance business of Secor & Shores, and the firm became Secor, Shores & Douville. At the present time Mr. Douville is alone in business. He has always been very active in public affairs, and has held the office of probate judge for one term. Mr. Douville has a handsome family residence on the hill, a view of which appears in this work. D. F. MooDY is a native of Van Buren County, Mich., and came to Manistee from Pentwater, in the Spring of 1879. Upon coming here he opened a billiard room known as the Palace Billiard Hall. He has four tables and carries a large stock of tobacco, cigars, confectionery, etc., but keeps no liquors of any kind. He has everything fitted up in elegant style, and does a very large business. J. C. POMIEROY, manufacturer of soda water, mineral water and fruit syrups, came to Manistee in 1862, from the state of Maine. He was born in Canada, and came to the States when about nine years of age. In 1869 he went into the grocery business and continued in that until 1872, when he changed to the liquor business, under the firm of Pomeroy Bros. About 1871 he began the manufacture of soda water, pop, mineral waters, etc., and has done a large and flourishing business. Mr. Pomeroy is also a partner in the cigar manufactory of Hormuth & Pomeroy. Mr. Pomeroy is a member I 1 L 9 so kv I ---IL

Page  72 qqýý-, lj -- 74 72 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. of the common council, and is a veteran alderman, having been in that office continuously about six years, and longer than any other person who has been a member of the board. T. G. HiSLOP, deputy clerk and register of the county, is a native of England, and came to this country in 1851, when about a year old. In 1875 he came to Manistee from Milwaukee, and since coming here has been a general accountant. He has been in the clerk and register office as deputy for several years. The present set of abstracts belonging to E. C. Lewis and E. E. Douville are largely the work of Mr. Hislop, who devised the system adopted. At present Mr. Hislop is engaged in a book-keeping and general accounting business, and also has charge of the abstracts above referred to, under appointment as receiver by the circuit court. Mr. Hislop has taken great pains to post himself upon all real estate matters, and has prepared several maps of the county and city, and at present is engaged upon a map of the city of Manistee. JOHN HELLESVIG, book-keeper at the lumber office of Horace Taber & Sons, is a native of Norway, and came to this country in 1871, and located at Manistee. In the Spring of 1875 he engaged with the firm of Horace Taber & Sons, as book-keeper, and has remained in that capacity to the present. Mr. Hellesvig has a wife and one child, and resides in Filer Township. LEWIS TABER, in charge of the old mill of Horace Taber & Sons, is a native of Ohio. In 1877 he came to Manistee from Indiana, where he had been engaged in lumbering. Mr. Taber enlisted in 1861 in Company F, Thirtieth Indiana Volunteers, and served in the army four years and three months. He enlisted as a private and was promoted first to lieutenant, then captain. He has been with the firm of Horace Taber & Sons, since coming to Manistee. He has a wife and five children, and resides in Filer Township. T. B. JAMES, saw-filer at the sawmill of Horace Taber & Sons, is a native of the state of Pennsylvania, and came to Manistee in 1874 from Muskegon. Mr. James has been at work in the mills since 1866, and was seven years with Ruddock, Palmiter & Co. He began with Messrs. Taber & Sons, last Spring. He has a wife and two children, and resides in Filer Township. AUSTIN TABER, son of James Taber, was born in Ohio. In 1867 he came to Manistee with his father. In 1875 he began at work in the sawmill of Horace Taber & Sons, and has remained with the firm ever since. Mr. Taber has a wife and one child, and resides in Filer Township. I. M. HARRISON, M. D., is a native of Missouri. He graduated at the University of Michigan in 1880, and afterwards at the St. Louis Medical College; took a post-graduate course. He began practice at Warrensburgh Mo., in the Fall of 1880. In June, 1882, he located at Manistee, where he is engaged in practice. Dr. Harrison belongs to the regular school of practice. AGNES B., wife of Dr. I. M. Harrison, is a graduate of the medical department of the University of Michigan, and has been in practice since the Summer of 1881. She is a native of Grand Rapids, and is a daughter of W. W. Barlow, of that city. She was married to Dr. I. M. Harrison, December 5, 1881. ANDREW HIGGINS is a native of Canada, and came to this country in 1860, to Saginaw. In 1869 he came to Manistee and worked in the mills until 1878. In 1877 he engaged in the livery business with A. D. Kirby. They continued in business one year, and Mr. Higgins withdrew and opened a stable in the rear of the Dunham House. In 1879 he changed to his present location on River Street. A. H. LYMAN, druggist, is a native of the state of Massachusetts. In 1873 he came to Manistee from West Hampton, Mass., and engaged with Carlton & Co., as salesman. In 1877 he became a partner in the firm of Charles A. Ellis & Co., which continued until 1879, when he purchased Mr. Ellis' interest. In June, 1878, he had purchased the stock of J. B. Delbridge, and since 1879 has been alone in business. He has a large and well arranged store on River Street, at the corner of Maple, and does a prosperous business. WILLIAM E. SHORT, city treasurer of the city of Manistee, is a native of Portland, Me. In 1869 he came to Manistee, and has resided here since that time. In November, 1872, he engaged in the drug business, the firm being W. E. Short & Co. That firm continued until 1877, when it was succeeded by J. B. Delbridge, and Mr. Short continued in charge of the store. In 1873 Mr. Short was alderman from the Second Ward, and in the Spring of 1882 was elected city treasurer. DR. SETH E. BAKER, dentist, is a native of the state of New York. In 1864 he began the practice of dentistry at Alden, N. Y. After remaining there a short time, he removed to Saginaw, where he was in practice until June, 1881, when he came to Manistee and located. His office is in Baldwin & Pierce Block. Dr. Baker was early educated in his profession, his father having been a dentist for many years. A. L. OVERPACK, veterinary surgeon, came to Manistee in 1874, from Kent County, where he had been engaged in the lumber and logging business. Upon coming here he opened an office as veterinary surgeon, and about the same time engaged in the harness business with his brother, under the firm name of S. C. Overpack & Bro. The harness business of the firm has become very extensive, and some of the finest work in use in the county is from their shop. As a veterinary surgeon Mr. Overpack has a large practice, and has the reputation of being very successful in his treatment of diseases of the horse. He is a native of the state of New York, but Sremoved to Michigan with his parents when about nine years of age. HENRY RADEMAKER, proprietor of the City Livery Stable and 'Bus Line, is a native of Germany, and came to this country in the year 1870, and settled in Manistee. In 1878 he operated the stage line between Manistee and Ludington, and continued it until the railroad was built to this city. In 1879 he engaged in the livery business with Andrew Higgins. This firm continued until the Spring of 1882, when Mr. Rademaker purchased the livery barn which he now occupies, and started a stable alone. In connection with the livery business he runs the City 'Bus Line, which was established in the Fall of 1881. His stable contains twenty-four horses and a proportionate number of carriages, sleighs, etc. Everything is first-class. A view of Mr. Rademaker's stable appears in this work. N. G. ROBINSON, superintendent and boom master of the Boom Company of Manistee, is a native of England, and came to this country in 1841. He was at Quebec for a time, and came to the States in 1869, and located in Manistee. Since coming here Mr. Robinson has been logging. In 1871 he became boom master, and since the beginning of the present year has been superintendent and boom master of the Manistee Boom Company, the Filer City Boom Company, and the Manistee River Improvement Company. H. V. OLDFIELD, M. D., is a native of Michigan, and has been in active practice since 1869. After finishing a literary course at the State Normal School at Ypsilanti, he attended two medical courses at Cincinnati, and subsequently graduated at the Missouri Medical College, at St. Louis. Immediately after graduating, in 1869, he commenced the practice of medicine in the state of Pennsylvania. In the Spring of 1881 he came to Manistee, and has already established himself in a lucrative practice. S. C. OVERPACK, wagon and carriage manufacturer, is a native of Pennsylvania, and came to Manistee in 1868, from Oakland County, Mich. Shortly after coming here he started a wagon shop t fi

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Page  73 ~-~I~ __~ _~~ ~___ __~__ -- Cr L HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 73 g I on River Street, opposite to where Joseph Baur's store is now located. In 1869 he erected a building at the corner of South Water and Pine Streets, and removed his works to the new building, where he has built up an extensive business, and at the present time employs a large force of men. Mr. Overpack is also senior member of the firm of S. C. Overpack & Bro., manufacturers of harness and dealers in all kinds of horse furnishing goods. ANDREW JACK, proprietor of the Union Boiler Works, is a native of Canada; came to the States in 1845, and located at Burlington, Vt. In 1867 he came to Manistee, and established the Union Boiler Works, which he has operated ever since. This was the first boiler manufactory established in Manistee. The shop is situated at the corner of Spruce and First Streets. Mr. Jack is a practical workman, and has done a successful business. L. W. MILLER, photographer, came to Manistee in May last, from Bay City. He is a native of Pennsylvania, and has been in the photograph business since 1869. In coming to Manistee he bought out Mr. J. A. Hanselman. Mr. Miller is an artist of long experience, and does an extensive business. W. H. WILLARD, druggist, is an old resident of Manistee, having located here in business in 1867. The firm was first Briggs & Willard. This firm continued only a short time, and was succeeded by Willard, Hall & Co., and that firm by Willard & Hall. In IMay, 1882, Mr. Hall went out of the firm, and since that time Mr. Willard has continued the business alone. He is a native of the state of Illinois, and received his early business education in Chicago. He is a careful business man, and has been identified with the business interests of Manistee for so many years that he is now one of the leading merchants of the city. GEO. A. HART came to Manistee in the year 1873, and for about three years was engaged in the clothing trade. At the end of that time he left the mercantile business, and opened a real estate office. He deals in city property and pine lands on an extensive scale, and is quite successful in his operations. His office is supplied with county abstracts and maps, and the fullest information pertaining to lands or any description of real property. Mr. Hart was born, and his early life spent, in Lapeer, Mich. He is secretary of the Manistee Water Company, organized the present year. DR. J. B. WILCOX, dentist, came to Manistee in April, 1867, from Mauston, Wis., and opened an office in Secor's building, on the corner of River and Maple Streets. For the past three years Dr. Wilcox has also been engaged in lumber and pine land operations. He is a native of Ohio, and began the practice of dentistry in Wisconsin, in 1862. At the present time Dr. Wilcox has very fine rooms in Engelmann's new block, and is assisted in his practice by his nephew, Dr. J. L. Sweetman. Dr. Wilcox has a wife and two children. JOHN P. WOOD, architect, has been a resident of Manistee since 1866. He is a native of Berrien County, Mich., and at an early age learned the carpenter trade. In December, 1863, he enlisted in Company L, Third Michigan Cavalry, and remained in the service until February, 1866, having passed through thirty-six battles. After leaving the service, Mr. Wood came to Manistee, and followed his trade as carpenter and builder, but for the past four years has been confining his attention more to architecture. A. FRISBIE came to Manistee from Chicago in the Spring of 1871, and engaged at sawing in the lumber mills. He continued at that work until 1875, when he opened a store, and has since dealt in all kinds of sportsmen's supplies. He owns a steam yacht, which he keeps for the convenience of pleasure parties. Mr. Frisbie is a native of Ohio. JOSEPH L. MANSEAU, son of A. Manseau, was born in Milwaukee, in the year 1847. In 1848 his father came to Manistee and built the Stronach mill, and afterwards built two vessels, the "John Taylor," and the "Racine Clipper." In 1852 the family removed to Leland. In the Fall of 1871 Joseph returned to Manistee, and has remained here since that time, engaged most of the time at his trade as millwright. Antoine Manseau died in Manistee, in 1857. HENRY KREMPEL came to Manistee in 1867, from Milwaukee. Soon after coming here he opened a meat market on the corner of River and Maple Streets. After remaining there about a year, he built a shop, and was burned out in the fire of 1871. Immediately atter the fire he rebuilt his market, and has since done a large business. Mr. Krempel is a thrifty German and a successful business man. FRANK FIRZLAFF was born in Germany, and came to this country in 1867. In the Summer of 1868 he came to Manistee, and went at work by the month. In the Winter he worked in the woods, and in the Summer at carpenter work. He had come to this country to reap some of its advantages, and applied himself industriously to gain a foothold. He saved from his earnings, and after about four years of hard work concluded to make a start. He then built the Franklin House, and ran it until 1881. About three years ago he began to deal in pine lands, buying and selling as opportunity offered chances to make money. Last Spring he fitted up a saloon on River Street, which is in charge of a clerk. Mr. Firzlaff has been very successful in his operations, and owns considerable city property. He has several dwelling houses which he rents, and has the present season erected a substantial brick block, on River Street, which is rented for business purposes. His family consists of a wife and one child. SWAN BERKMAN Was born in Sweden, in the year 1854. He came to this country in April, 1881, and came to Manistee the following September, and went to work at the machinist's trade. Since that time he has been engaged as engineer in the mills. At present he is engineer at the mill of the Stronach Lumber Company. BARRY & FINAN, liverymen, began business in July of the present year, when they purchased a stock of horses and buggies, and are doing a nice business. The firm is composed of T. W. Barry and H. Finan. Mr. Barry, a liveryman of long experience, has charge of the business. Mr. Finan contributes to the capital of the firm, but gives his personal attention to lumbering. M. J. CRoss, proprietor of the Baur Exchange Hotel, came to Manistee in February, 1881, from Pentwater, Oceana County. At that place Mr. Cross kept the Pacific House for two years. He is a native of New York State, and has been in the hotel business about four years. JAMES HENDERSON, liveryman, is a native of England. He came to this country in 1848, and was in Wisconsin until the breaking out of the war. He enlisted in August, 1861, in the Eleventh Wisconsin Infantry, and served until the close of the war. He was in active service, and participated in a large number of battles, but escaped without being wounded. In 1871 he located in Manistee, and was engaged at hauling supplies until 1881, ivhen he built a livery barn in the rear of the Dunham House, and went into the livery business, which he still continues. He keeps an average of ten horses, and does a flourishing business. When a boy Mr. Henderson used to be in this section, and at one time, while up the river, was treed by a wolf, but fortunately was rescued by parties from a lumber camp. JAMES E. SOMERVILLE is a native of Lansing, Mich., and came to Manistee, with his father, in 1869. In 1873 he succeeded his father in the harness business, and subsequently extended his business to books, wall paper, stationery, etc. He has succeeded in working up an extensive trade, and is one of the prosperous merchants of Manistee. ii __ ~ ^~~ ~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~.---------------------.-- --------------___

Page  74 74 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. JERRY WHITE is a native of Pennsylvania, and came to Manistee in the Spring of 1881, in the employ of R. G. Peters, as head sawyer, where he still remains. Mr. White has been at work in sawmills for a number of years, and is an efficient workman. ALEX. MCGUINEAS is a son of Hugh McGuineas, one of the early settlers in Manistee County. For two years he has been engaged as salesman in the store of the Stronach Lumber Company, and is deputy postmaster of Stronach. E. M. SHATTUCK, saw-filer at the mill of Davies, Blacker & Co., is a native of Ohio. At an early age he learned the millwright's trade and followed it for several years. In 1869 he came to Manimstee, and has remained here to the present time. He is industrious and has succeeded in accumulating quite a property. At the present time he owns a large quantity of hard wood timber in the county. He has been at his present place since the Spring of 1880. ALBERT BAUMANN, millwright for Davies, Blacker & Co., is a native of Germany, and came to this country in 1862, and settled in Manistee, where he has been engaged at his trade. He has been in the employ of this firm since the mill was built. He has worked at his trade since 1867. JOHN L. ARNOLD, foreman at the sawmill of Ruddock, Nuttall & Co., is a native of Massachusetts. In 1861 he enlisted in the service and served with Company E, Ninety-seventh New York Volunteers until December, 1864. He enlisted as a private, but was promoted to first sergeant. He came to Manistee in 1867, and with the exception of one year, which he spent in California, has occupied his present position. ANDREW J. EMERY is employed as saw-filer at the mill of Stokoe, Nelson & Secor. He is a native of Knox County, Ill., and came to Manistee in 1873, where he has since lived. He has had an experience of seven years at his trade, and is an industrious and capable man. J. H. HASENFUSS, engineer at the mill of Stokoe, Nelson & Secor, is a native of Wisconsin. In 1864 he enlisted in the United States navy, and served for eleven months. He came to Manistee in 1876, where he has followed his trade. He has been with this firm about three years. He has a wife and two children, and resides at Filertown. WILLIAM BAER, merchant tailor, came to Manistee in 1867, from Chicago. He is a native of Germany, and came to this country in 1866. After coming to Manistee he worked for a few years in the pineries. In 1870 he began work at his trade, as a tailor, and has continued at the business ever since. During that time he has been twice burned out. At the present time he is located on Poplar Street, near River, and is doing a prosperous business. The past season Mr. Baer has erected a nice brick building, on Poplar Street, which he occupies as a store and residence. He has a wife and four children. J. V. RIVERS, foreman and saw-filer at the sawmill of Canfield & Wheeler, is a native of Canada, and came to the States in 1844. In 1855 he came to Manistee, and has remained here ever since. For several years hlie worked in the pineries, and in 1862 he began work in the mill of Canfield & Bro. In 1876 he was made foreman of the mill, which position he still holds. JOHN FAGAN, engineer at Canfield & Wheeler's sawmill, is a native of the state of New York. In 1869 he came to Manistee, from Syracuse, N. Y. After coming to Manistee he worked on a tug for a short time, and then took the position of engineer on the river and lake. In the Spring of 1880 he took the position of engineer at the sawmill of Canfield & Wheeler, which position he still holds. Mr. Fagan has a wife and four children. H. F. KUESTER, proprietor of the Fourth Ward Meat Market, is a native of Germany, and came to this country in the year 1852. He settled in Milwaukee, where lie remained until 1878, when he came to Manistee and opened his present market, at the corner of First and Cypress Streets, where he has built up an excellent business. He has a family consisting of a wife and four children. Louis DOELLE, proprietor of the Franklin House, is a native of Manistee, and most of his life has been spent here. About seven years prior to 1870 he spent at Green Bay, Wis.; at that time he returned to Manistee, and for nearly ten years was in charge of Joseph Baur's hardware store. In the Fall of 1881 he purchased the Franklin House property, and since then has been keeping that hotel. He does a very large business, and is in prosperous circumstances. HULBURT & FAULKNER, commercial job printing, succeeded Thompson & Faulkner in July last. The business was established in February, 1882, by S. E. Thompson, and in May the firm became Thompson & Faulkner. CAPT. R. W. HULBURT came to Manistee in 1878, from Lake Superior, and for about three years was foreman of the Democrat newspaper office. Capt. Hulburt enlisted April 21, 1861, at Freeport, Ill., Company A, Eleventh Illinois Infantry. He enlisted as private, but was put in as eighth corporal, and was drill master for a year. In November, 1863, he was promoted to captain. He served in the army until February, 1866, when he received his discharge. Was in twenty-one battles; wounded three times, and taken prisoner once, but released after seven days' confinement. In 1870 he went to Lake Superior, and remained there until he.came to Manistee in 1878. A. L. FAULKNER is a native of Oneida, N. Y. He came to Manistee in April last, from Rochester, N. Y., where he was in charge of the printing department of H. H. Warner & Co. for one year. He began work at printing in 1872, and has continued at this business ever since. In May last he became a member of the firm of Thompson & Faulkner, as stated above. EDWARD B. EATON, millwright, is a native of New York State, and came to Manistee in 1862, and followed the trade of house carpenter about eleven years. He then bought a farm in Mason County, and worked it until about 1879, and then traveled as salesman for a lumber company until 1881, when he resumed his trade. Last Fall he engaged with the firm of Filer & Sons, as millwright, and is in their employ at the present. Mr. Eaton has a wife and two children, and resides at Filer City. HARVEY HELGESEN, dealer in groceries and general merchandise at Freeland, Manistee, is a native of Norway. He came to this country in 1881, and in last February opened his store. He is an industrious merchant, and does a large business. In the season he deals extensively in berries, and is one of the heaviest shippers in the city. J. L. SORENSON, proprietor of the Sorenson House, is a native of Denmark, and came to this country in 1866. After stopping in Wisconsin a few months, he came to Manistee and opened a boarding house. In 1871 he built a two-story frame building, sixty-six by sixty feet in size, on River Street, and started a hotel and saloon. In 1874 the building was burned, and he immediately rebuilt of brick, on a much larger scale. In 1881 he built a large addition, twenty-eight by eighty feet, which is used as a saloon. Mr. Soren son has prospered in Manistee, and is liberal in the use of his money to aid any good enterprise. He has a fine property on River Street, which is yearly growing more valuable. A view of his hotel may be seen upon another page in this work. C. D. GRANNIS is a native of the state of New York, and came to Manistee from Kalamazoo County in 1878. He has charge of -~---------------------- ' 1-~1

Page  75 -- T h~ HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 75 the telegraph lines in this district, and is also division superintendent of telephones. He built all the lines in this section of the state from 1871 to 1873. The line to Manistee was built in 1871. He placed the telephone exchange here in May, 1880. He has been in charge of the telephone lines since 1878. EDWARD J. CADY came to Manistee in the Fall of 1872, from Muskegon. He is a native of New York State, and at Muskegon was employed in a printing office. In 1862 he enlisted in the army at Lockport, N. Y., as a member of the Nineteenth Independent Battery, and served until the close of the war. It was soon after that he went to Muskegon. In 1874 he started the Manistee Advocate, and continued its publication until last Spring, when he sold it to its present editor, as elsewhere explained. Mr. Cady is a veteran printer, having been a member of the craft since 1857. JAMES MCANLEY, proprietor of the National House, on the North Side, came to Manistee in 1865. His father, John McAnley, came here at that time, and two years later started a hotel, afterwards known as the Washington House. He died in 1877, and James continued the business. The past season he has rebuilt the house, and now has a three-story building, sixty-two by seventy-two feet in size, and supplied with all the conveniences for a hotel. He also changed the name to the National House. He has a good barn connected with the house, and does a large business. JOHN C. FRANCK is a native of Norway, and came to Manistee in 1872. The first year after coming here he worked in a shinglemill. In 1873 he went into the employ of Louis Sands, and has remained with him ever since, acting in various capacities. For some time he has been in charge of Mr. Sands' store on River Street, and is very successful in the management of that business. Mr. Franck is a man of excellent business habits, and a good citizen. HARRY MEE is a native of Canada, and came to Manistee in 1868, and engaged in business as timber broker,:which business he still continues. He has been uniformly successful in his operations, which have reached a large magnitude. He is a liberalminded citizen, and ready to take part in all enterprises which have any merit. He has a handsome family residence at the corner of Maple and Fourth Streets, which was remodeled last year and supplied with all the modern improvements. L. B. LONG, of the firm of Delbridge, Long & Hubbell, is a native of the state of Pennsylvania. At an early age he learned the carpenter's trade by working with his father, who was a carpenter and builder. In 1867 he came to Manistee from Grand Rapids, and for a time was foreman of a sash, door, and blind factory. Afterwards he engaged in business as contractor and builder, and has done a large amount of the work on the principal buildings in the city. In the Spring of 1881 he formed a co-partnership with Messrs. Delbridge & Hubbell, in the planing mill at the north end of the bridge, the style of the firm being Delbridge, Long & Hubbell. The firm are extensive contractors, and Mr. Long devotes his time to superintending outside work. This firm built Union Hall, which was burned last Summer, and have the contract for rebuilding it. F. B. BALDWIN is the senior member of the firm of Baldwin, Pierce & Co., the most extensive clothing merchants in Manistee. Mr. Baldwin is a native of New Jersey. For some time he resided at Muskegon, where he was engaged as salesman in the clothing store of Mann & Pierce. In the Spring of 1881 he came to Manistee, and opened one of the finest clothing stores in Northern Michigan, the style of the firm being Baldwin, Pierce & Co. Mr. Baldwin is the only resident member of the firm, and he has already demonstrated his natural aptitude for this branch of trade in the splendid business which he has already built up. Mr. Baldwin is second lieutenant of the Manistee Light Guards. AUGusT PFEIFFER is one of the old settlers of Manistee. He is a native of Germany, and came to this country in 1847. He came to Manistee from Wisconsin in 1857, and has resided here ever since. He has worked at lumbering most of the time, but since 1874 has been employed as bridge tender, and, on account of his faithful and efficient service, is retained in that position. JOHN McGUIRE was born in Ireland in 1833. He came to this country when twelve years of age. In 1857 he came to Manistee from the state of Maine, and went at work in the woods. His first logging was within the limits of what is now the city of Manistee. He has always continued at lumbering in various capacities. He is an industrious man, of thrifty habits, and has done his full share in clearing the forests from this region of country. DAVID HUGHES was born in Canada in 1835. In 1864 he came to Manistee, from Quebec, and has resided here ever since. He began work at lumbering when fourteen years of age, and has followed it ever since. Mr. Hughes is a hard-working man, of steady habits, and is a good citizen. WILLIAM BROWNRIGG, deputy marshal of the city of Manistee, is a native of Ireland, and came to this country in 1865. In 1872 he came to Manistee from Wisconsin, and went at work in the woods. He held the office of deputy sheriff from 1877 to 1880, and has been deputy city marshal since the Fall of 1881. SAMUEL BURCH was born in London, England, in the year 1821. At an early age he exhibited a marked taste for music, and it was decided that he should enter upon a musical career. In due time he graduated at the Royal Academy of Music in London, and also at the Royal Conservatoir in Paris. About 1837, he came to America and traveled through many of the States, giving lessons in music. He became quite noted for his proficiency, and some of the most distinguished families in the country have furnished him pupils. At the breaking out of the war he was in the South, and from 1862 to 1865 was in the commissary Department at Nashville, Tenn. After the close of the war he returned to London on a visit, and after an absence of about three months returned to this country and settled in Manistee. Here he followed his profession for some time, but having opened a small store soon after coming here, the increasing business soon claimed his attention, and he was obliged to abandon teaching altogether. Since that time he has followed the mercantile business, which of late years has included drugs and confectionery. Mr. Burch has been a very successful man, and has accumulated a handsome property. RICHARD BROOKS, of the firm of Brooks and Sweet, is a native of Canada, and came to Manistee in the Spring of 1873, and for four years was logging in the woods, and then engaged in the manufacture of lumber. For about three years he was a member of the firm of Davies, Blacker & Co. Last Spring the present firm of Brooks & Sweet was organized. They purchased the shingle mill of R. R. Blacker & Co., one of the best in Manistee. Mr. Brooks has charge of the business of the firm, and is a practical and successful business man. J. A. BUCKLEY, of the firm of Bedford & Buckley, is a native of Canada, and was, for several years, engaged in the lumber busi_ ness, a portion of the time in Wisconsin. In 1874 he came to Manistee from Chicago, and since that time has been in the lumber commission business, superintendent of the boom company, and in the Spring of the present season went into the lime, stone and coal business with Mr. S. Bedford, the firm being Bedford & Buckley. S. BEDFORD, senior member of the firm of Beiford and Buckley, is a native of England, and came to this country in 1862. He Jj~4.

Page  76 r F 76 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. first located at Muskegon, where he was engaged as steamboat agent for several years. In 1872 he came to Manistee and was steamboat agent here for several years. In March last he went into the lime, stone and coal business, with J. A. Buckley, the firm being Bedford & Buckley. The firm do a very large and prosperous business. WILLIAM NUNGESSER is a native of Germany, and came to this country in 1846. At the breaking out of the war he was in Wisconsin, and enlisted in 1861 in the Twelfth Wisconsin Infantry as a private, and was promoted to captain. He served until the close of the war, and never missed a roll call nor received a wound. He received his discharge in 1865, and in 1869 came to Manistee. In 1871 he went'into the furniture business with Jacob Lucas, the firm being Lucas & Nungesser. Mr. Nungesser is one of the reliable business men of Manistee, and an excellent citizen. JACOB LUCAS was born in Germany in 1839. At the age of sixteen years he came to this country to work out his own destiny, as many another has done. The first ten years of his residence in America was spent in various places, among others New York, Buffalo, and Milwaukee. In 1866 he came to Manistee, then only a small village, and started the first barber shop here. He was a young man of industrious and thrifty habits, and gradually worked his way along until 1871, when he went into the furniture business with William Nungesser, the firm being Lucas & Nungesser. This firm has done a prosperous and steadily increasing business, until it now ranks among the best in the city. SUBURBAN TOWNS. Manistee, east by Stronach, south by Mason County, and west by Lake Michigan. The soil is sandy loam, and is especially adapted to fruit raising. " There are four school houses in the township. The lumber interests are elsewere mentioned. Filer Town and Filer City are both the outgrowth of the vigor and enterprise of the well known lumber firm of D. L. FILER & SONS. Delos L. Filer, the founder of this firm, was during his life one of the most remarkable business men upon this shore. A partial biography of Mr. Filer, covering his business career at Ludington, from 1869 to the time of his death, appears in the history of the city of Ludington. While he was a very conspicuous figure in the early history of Manistee, yet it seems appropriate, and, in fact, necessary, to speak of him and the firm he founded in immediate connection with the town and village which they developed. Mr. Filer's first connection with Manistee was in 1853, when he came here from Racine, in the employ of the Canfields, in whose employ he had been at Racine. He was a poor man, well towards middle life. Soon after coming here the natural business ability and energy of the man began to grasp hold of the opportunities here afforded for making money. He began making plans for future execution, and laid the foundation of his subsequent enterprises and fortune by purchasing pine and lands as he had opportunity. About 1858 or 1859, in company with the late L. G. Smith, he bought the Bachelor mill, and in 1861 or 1862 bought the McVickar estate, which with his previous purchase covered nearly twothirds of the present city of Manistee. In 1866 he sold out his Manistee interests, and the firm of D. L. Filer & Sons was established, the sons being E. Golden, and Delos Warren Filer. About 2,500 acres of land, known as the Norton lands, lying south of Manistee, and extending back from Lake Manistee, were purchased. The mill still operated by the firm was built and commenced running in 1867. At the time they began operating at this point, the whole region was a dense forest, and was reached from Manistee by a logging trail which extended along quite a distance back from the lake and came out at the head of the lake, some distance above the site of the present mill. The following year Filer Township was organized and Filer City was platted. About this time Mr. D. L. Filer purchased the Ludington interest at Ludington, and in 1869 removed there and until his death devoted his attention to the interests of the Pere Marquette Lumber Co., of which he was president, and in that connection appears an elegant steel portrait of Mr. Filer and a biography of his life. No change has ever been made in the style of the firm, although since Mr. Filer's death the firm has really been composed of the two sons, E. Golden and Delos Warren Filer. E. GOLDEN FILER was born in Jefferson County, N. Y., and came to Racine, and from thence to Manistee, with his parents. In 1862 he enlisted in the army and remained in the service until 1864, when he ieturned to Manistee, and in 1866 went into active business, as already stated. He was married at Racine, Wis., December, 1865, to Miss Julia Filer. In 1869 the ground upon which his elegant residence in Filer Town now stands was logged, and in 1870 he built a frame house, which was totally destroyed by fire in 1875. He immediately built the elegant and costly brick residence which has since been the family home. A fine lithographic view of the house and grounds appears upon another The city of Manistee is so situated that almost the entire interests of three townships center in and about it. These townships are Manistee, Filer and Stronach. The country in each being new and until quite recently almost entirely covered with timber, they have only small interests outside of lumber. The statistical information concerning these townships is given with the general county statistics, and their mill interests appear with the Manistee lumber interests. MANISTEE TOWNSHIP. is one of the three original townships, and its early history has already been given, being inseparably connected with the early history of the county. It is bounded on the north by Onekema, east by Brown and Stronach, south by Filer and Stronach, and west by Lake Michigan. The township contains thirty-five square miles. There are both clay and sand soil. In the north part of the town is considerable hard wood. The poorhouse is located in this town, about three miles from the city. The city of Manistee is situated in the southwest corner of the township. FILER TOWNSHIP is located just south of Manistee City in the extreme southwest part of the county. It embraces about thirteen square miles, with a frontage on Lake Michigan of four miles. It is bounded on the north by C, - _-,

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Page  77 It~-~~,--f 1 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 77 page. It is delightfully situated upon high ground, commanding a charming view of the lake and surrounding country, and in all its appointments denotes refinement and wealth. Mr. Filer has large fruit interests, mentioned elsewhere. DELOS WARREN FILER the other member of the firm, was also born in Jefferson County, N. Y., and came with the family to Manistee, and entered active business in 1866, as stated. He was married at Manistee, in February 1867, to Miss Carrie Paine. In 1878 he built the beautiful residence in Manistee, which is the family home, and of which a fine lithographic view is given in another place. The interior finish of the house is very rich, and is furnished with exquisite taste and elegance. Both these gentlemen are model business men, and among the most esteemed citizens of Manistee County. Although left with large fortunes they have never relaxed their close application to business, and their habits are as industrious as though they had no fortune. They have done much to develop the township in which their interests are located, and have already made Filer City a thrifty village. They pursue a policy that is liberal and enterprising and which never fails to bring rich results. Their mill, which has been greatly enlarged and improved, cuts about 16,000,000 feet of lumber and 7,000,000 feet of lath a season. They own a large quantity of standing pine, and are worthy successors of their father, whose business career is their pattern, and whose memory they cherish with a devotion greatly to be admired. A view of their mill property is given in this work. Statistical information respecting Filer Township is given in the tables that appear elsewhere. GURDEN GRAVES, engineer at the sawmill of Filer & Sons, is a native of New York State, and came to Manistee in 1855, and was engineer in the sawmill of John Canfield. He has followed engineering ever since that time, and is one of the veterans in the service. In 1860 he went into the employ of Filer & Sons, and has been in continuous service for this firm to the present time. Mr. Graves has a wife and three children-two boys and one girl. FREDERICK BALSAM, is a native of Prussia, and came to this country in the yeai 1868. In 1869, at the age of eleven years, he went into the employ of the firm of Filer & Sons, and has remained with them ever since. For some time he has had general charge of the work about the mill, and is a very trustworthy and efficient man. He resides at Filer City. W. G. BAUMGARDNER, saw-filer, at the sawmill of Filer & Sons, is a native of Center County, Penn., and came to Manistee in 1878, from Chicago. After working a month for the Stronach Lumber Company, he engaged with the firm of Filer & Sons, and has continued in their employ ever since. He has a wife, and owns a residence in Filer City. Mr. Baumgardner is a practical millwright as well as a saw-filer. RICHARD HOFFMAN was born in Ontario, Canada, in the year 1840. In 1865 he came to Michigan, and located at Traverse City. In 1870 he came to Manistee, and in March, 1871, succeeded S. W. Fowler as editor and proprietor of the Manistee Times. He continued to publish the Times until May, 1874, when he sold to App. M. Smith. In 1876 he removed to Filer City and taught the school until March, 1882. Since that time he has been in the employ of Filer & Sons, in their store. Mr. Hoffman has a wife and three children. STRONACH TOWNSHIP. The town of Stronach is one of the three original towns into which the county was divided at the time of its organization in 1855. The record reads that the inhabitants of Stronach met pursuant to law at the store of James Stronach, April 2, 1855, and organized by choosing the following persons officers of the day: S. C. Bryant, moderator; Andrew C. Sherwood and Adam Stronach, inspectors; Levi A. McKee and John Stronach, clerks. It was voted that a tax of $40 be raised for contingent purposes. The election of township officers resulted as follows: Supervisor, Andrew C. Sherwood; clerk, John Stronach; treasurer, Adam Stronach; justices of the peace, Elden S. Bryant and Horace Butters. The total vote was twenty-two. In 1878 the total vote cast was ninety-six. The present officers of the town are as follows: Supervisor, Paul Camine; treasurer, W. R. Thorsen; clerk, Charles A. Fisher; justices of the peace, Alfred Johnson and Peter Paggeott. The principal history of this township has already been given in the general history, as it was here that the first mill was built, and lumbering operations first begun. At Old Stronach Town are the mills of Paul Camine, elsewhere mentioned. Paggeotville, or Stronach Village, as now called, is located at the head of Lake Manistee, and is principally made up of the interests of the Stronach Lumber Co. The township is the largest in the county, embracing 137 square miles, and takes in a large part of the pine regions of the county. The land is mostly sandy loam, and is adapted to fruit-growing. It is well watered by the Little Manistee River, Pine Creek, and the South Branch River. Most of the inhabitants of the town live in the west part, near the City of Manistee. BEAR LAKE TOWNSHIP. This township is in the second tier east of Lake Michigan, and, as a whole, is the best township in the county. It embraces thirty-five square miles. The soil is mostly of a light sandy loam, with occasional streaks of clay, and is exceedingly productive when well worked. There are a large number of excellent farms in the township, and many of the farmers have accumulated a handsome property. More farms have been cleared up and been put in good condition in this town than in any other town in the county. EARLY HISTORY. During the Winter of 1864-'65, the tract of land including the present towns of Bear Lake and Pleasanton was set off from the Brown town region, as the Town of Bear Lake. The first election was held at the house of S. Anderson, in the Spring of 1865, and the following officers elected: Supervisor, S. Anderson; town clerk, H. N. Hanaford; treasurer, D. E. Sibley; justice of the peace, J. A. Austin; highway commissioners, A. A. Cooper, R. F. Smith, William Probert; school inspectors, G. R. Pierce and Jerome Hulburt; constables, James Probert and Hiram Walker; directors of the poor, J. B. Mason and Darell Hollister. About the first beginning in what is now Bear Lake Township, was made in 1863 by RUSSELL F. SMITH, now a resident of Bear Lake village. Mr. Smith was born in New York State in 1830, and came to Summit County in 1843. September 3, 1855, he was married at Medina, Ohio, to Miss Harriet L. Crooks, of that place. Having heard something about the Grand Traverse region, he visited it in the Summer of 1863. From Traverse he walked to L oi -1 VI ~- - -` -----rr~~ -1~'1 -

Page  78 r 1 78 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. Bear Lake, following the Indian trail, and being favorably impressed with the appearance of the country, returned to Traverse and entered 172 acres of land bordering on Bear Lake. He then returned to Ohio, to bring his family to this wilderness world. August 20, they left their home in Ohio, and came by boat to Portage Lake. Leaving his family with a fisherman, he armed himself with a loaf of bread, an ax, and a compass, and started to find the place of their future home, and mark the route, for all that region was a trackless forest. While working his way along, he was surprised at the sound of voices, and soon came upon a man drawing a hand-cart loaded with provisions, and a lady with a baby carriage. They proved to be D. E. Sibley and family, who were seeking their homestead on the north shore of Bear Lake, almost opposite the one located by Mr. Smith. This was Saturday. An evergreen bower was put up, and Mr. Smith returned to Portage for his family. He got a pair of oxen, a horse and sled to transport their goods, and she wrapped her babe in a shawl and walked the whole distance. The first religious services ever held in the town were held at their camp soon after their arrival. A Rev. Mr. Thompson, missionary to Africa, came along and word was sent out to settlers some miles away that he would preach a certain evening, and quite a gathering was the result. A large fire was built near the evergreen bower, and the audience, seated upon logs, or upon the ground, listened to the tidings of the gospel of peace. It was in God's great cathedral, without pulpit or cushioned pew., yet no preacher ever was surrounded by morp inspiring circumstances, or spoke to a more appreciative audience. The first work before them was to build a log house. Mr. Smith chopped the trees and got the logs in readiness, and then got help from a Norwegian settlement some ten or twelve miles away, to pile them up. This old log house still stands in Mr. Smith's yard, just back of his present house, and a lithographic view of it may be seen upon another page. Experiences and hardships followed that would stagger the belief of persons unfamiliar with tales of pioneer life. He had always followed a trade, and was unused to any kind of farm labor, but he possessed a brave heart and a wife no less brave than himself. Together he logged a little spot of ground, and while he went away to work by the month, she raised the vegetables, planting potatoes with a hand spike, and doing many other things in the same rude way. At one time,while felling trees near the shanty, they came down upon it and demolished the roof. Fearing that this might happen, they had removed the children and dishes to a safe place. Shortly after he had repaired the injury a violent storm blew the roof off just at night, and the family were obliged to seek shelter under the bank of the lake, and covering them with blankets, he kept a huge fire going the whole night. All supplies came from Manistee or Traverse. When they first came an Indian carried the mail once a week through from Manistee to Traverse. The nearest post-office was Norwalk. Often a barrel of flour would be brought for them to a point a few miles distant, and taking a handcart, the two would bring it to their cabin. For the first four months Mrs. Smith never saw a woman, except at the time of their first arrival. The first Winter the entire family were sick with small pox, and the heroism of the wife and mother was severely tested. Mr. Smith was taken sick at Lincoln, where he was at work for Charles Mears. It was twenty-five miles to his home, and the snow was deep and unmarked by any road. Weak as he was, he walked the entire distance, though often sinking down upon the snow from exhaustion, and when at last he reached home, he found every member of the family sick. There were no doctors, but the nursing of the mothef brought them all to health, and without a single scar from the dreadful disease. For a long time their house was the only stopping-place on the trail, and by Spring their year's stock of provision was gone, and their money nearly gone, but he was always able to supply actual necessaries, and amid all their hardships the family never knew the want of plenty to eat and comfortable shelter. In time, however, other settlers came in. He cleared his land and prospered. Most of the present Village of Bear Lake stands upon a portion of his original farm, and he has recently platted an addition of thirty acres. For some time he kept the principal hotel in the place, having used his dwelling for that purpose, and named it the Russell House. Both Mr. and Mrs. Smith have always been prominent members of the society of the place, and are among its most esteemed residents. The first postmaster was Jerome Hulburt, who took the office in 1867. He was succeeded by J. B. Mason, and then, J. N. Tillson, the present postmaster. J. Edmonson and James Smith came in the Fall of 1863, and located about two miles south of Bear Lake. Simon Anderson had already taken up a homestead, chopped some trees on it, and went away, but returned in the Spring of 1864. Settlers gathered in, gladly welcomed by the oldest inhabitants. Openings were made in the forest, and fruit orchards planted. During the Summer of 1866, Henry Erb brought in a,few goods from Milwaukee, and partitioned off a small room, possibly 6x8 feet, in his log cabin; put up a counter and shelves, and called it a store. And there the settlers flocked for needles, pins, sugar, tea, etc. The Rev. Mr. Lewis also had an accommodation store, containing the same commodities with the exception of tobacco. Immigrants from the east, west and south were at this time coming in crowds to take up the government land, and the business of cutting trees was constantly increasing. But with the hurry of clearing land, building houses and putting in crops, the future wellbeing of the children was not forgotten. They must be educated, for to them would belong much of the future weal or woe of the town. A district school was started, and a good log house built near the farm of J. B. Mason, who was the second postmaster of the town. The house;vas comfortably supplied with school apparatus, and Mrs. J. Guernsey, who years before had much experience in teaching, was again induced to put on the teachers' harness. During the Winter of 1867-'68 the township of Pleasanton was set off from Bear Lake Town. There was now a much smaller range of territory, but the inhabitants were no less enterprising. Thorough going intelligent men found here a chlance to begin a thriving business, on comparatively small capital. The first grist mill and sawmill was built by Messrs. Carpenter & Harrington. Meanwhile, two good stores had been added to the town by T. A. Tillson & Co., and S. A. Anderson. Good school houses dot the town, and show how deeply the people are interested in education. A good library was supplied by the early settlers, containing a large number of well-selected books, and newspapers and periodicals are found in almost every house. The present officers of the township are as follows: Supervisor, James Dodd; clerk, John N. Brodie; treasurer, G. K. Estes; justices of the peace, D. D. Smith, Jerome Hulburt, Isaac Hilliard, A. B. Chamberlain; road commissioner, E. A. Bodwell; school inspectors, George McKnight and William Kingscott. r

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Page  [unnumbered] SSE LL HOUSE, R. F. S OTH,PRO P AR-LAKE, MANISTEE Co. Mich. ISSELL IIOUSER.F.SM~~~~~~I',RP RLKMNITEC.Mct RES.OF GEO.W. HOPKINS RES.ov D.H. HOPKINS BEAR LAKE MANISTEE CO.,MICH.BACK &SIDEo VIw. BEAR LAKE, MANISTEE CO., MICH.

Page  79 lfa41 i a ii 11 I a j HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY 79 BEAR LAKE VILLAGE. This beautiful and enterprising village is located in the north part of the township, and upon the south side of Bear Lake, one of the prettiest bodies of water in the state of Michigan. The lake is about two and one-half miles long, and three-quarters of a mile wide. It has no outlet, and is clear as crystal. Its depth in some places is twenty-four feet, but along the banks the water is very shallow, growing deeper toward the center. It abounds with fish, the principal kinds being pickerel and bass. All around the village can be found genuine clay loam, about half clay and half fine sand, and this is covered to the depth of from ten to eighteen inches with vegetable mold, made by the leaves of centuries which have fallen and rotted. Thus the village has all the advantages of a soil that cannot be surpassed by any soil in the West, or, in fact, anywhere, for general agricultural purposes. The timber in the region round about it is maple and beech, principally, but rock elm and a number of other kinds of hard wood are to be found in great profusion. The maple found here so largely is the prettiest we ever saw. The birds-eye variety, and the curled grain maple, so valuable for veneering and other fine and fancy work, cannot be surpassed for beauty and finish. Large quantities of it are destroyed annually by using it for wood, and in burning it to clear up lands, which seems an absolute and lamentable waste. The village is just eighteen miles north of Manistee. The character of the society is especially a subject of comment by every intelligent observer who passes through the place. The substantial settlers and owners of farms are men of rare intelligence, and their wives and daughters are cultivated and refined to an extent that we challenge any other place of its size in the West to produce its equal in that respect. The people are law-abiding, and we cannot now recall a single arrest that has been made in the village during the past five years of our residence in the county. It has no jail, nor any use for one. The climate, like all this lake region, is mild in the Winter, and cool and pleasant in the Summer. It being located about six miles inland from Lake Michigan, gives it the climatic advantages of that body of water. EARLY HISTORY. The first efforts toward starting a village were made by Russell F. Smith, of whom mention has already been made. He gave land for a mill site and otherwise encouraged immigration and business enterprises. But little progress, however, was made until 1873, in June of that year, when George W. and David H. Hopkins, under the firm name of HOPKINS BROS., purchased the present site of Bear Lake Village. The operations of this firm so largely concern the commercial interests of the village, and, in fact, the entire county, that this work would be incomplete without a brief sketch of its career and interests. GEORGE W. HOPKINS, the founder of the concern, was born on a farm in West Virginia, November 8, 1844. In 1855 he removed to Lenawee County, Michi., with his parents, and remained at home upon the farm until 1863. He then engaged with Samuel Giles making county maps, and remained in that business until twentyone years of age. He then started with a capital of $46.50, and sold fruit trees one year. In the Fall of 1866 he settled in Manistee, and purchased some land with the view of starting a brick-yard. In the Spring of 1867 he made the first brick ever made in Manistee County. In October, 1867, his brother David H. Hopkins, went into partnership with him under the firm name of George W. Hopkins & Bro. They carried on the manufacture of brick, making 25,000 a day until 1870. In the Fall of 1867 they took a logging contract of Gifford, Ruddock & Co., to put in 12,000,000 feet of logs, which they did during the Winter. In 1870 they went out of the brick business and engaged exclusively in dealing in logs and lumber, under the firm name of Hopkins Bros. In June, 1873, they purchased the present site of Bear Lake, and began the extensive operations which have given them such prominence in the commercial world. They at once built a sawmill, which commenced running in August following. The mill is the one now owned by Charles B. Bunton. They also built the grist mill, costing $10,000, and commenced running it January 1, 1874. In the Spring of 1874 they platted eighty-eight acres for a village, and built the large store building which they still occupy. In the Fall of 1874 Mr. George W. Hopkins removed his family to Bear Lake. Where the village now stands was at that time a forest, but the Hopkins' energy and enterprise very soon began to make their impress upon the place. In 1875 they built the Bear Lake Tram Railway, constructed of maple rails and operated by horse-power. This line extended from Bear Lake to Pierport, a distance of six miles, and cost $10,000. In October, 1877, the Hopkins Manufacturing Company was organized, the officers being George W. Hopkins, president; David H. Hopkins, secretary; Ella Hopkins, treasurer. In 1878 they started a livery stable, the first one in the northern part of the county. In 1879 the Bear Lake pier at Pierport was built by the company, and a general store opened there. In 1881 they rebuilt the grist mill at a cost of $25,000. It was the first roller mill in Northern Michigan. Early the present year they constructed the Bear Lake and Eastern Railway, to take the place of the tram railway. This road is built of twenty T rail, and is equipped with forty cars and a locomotive. The first rail was laid in April, and trains commenced running May 1. They have also built a new sawmill the present year, having a capacity of 40,000 feet of lumber a day. The company owns at least 2,000 acres of uncut timber lands in the county, and 5,000 or 6,000 acres of stump lands. They have built most of the buildings in the village, and stand ready to heir any who wish to make the village their home. They loan money to parties desiring to build, or sell homes upon terms of easy pay,.:ient. The results of their enterprise and liberality are seen in tVe beautiful and thrifty village which has grown up in the space of these few years. The buildings are tasty, the streets well laid out, and every one seems prosperous. Mr. George W. Hopkins was married at Bellaire, Ohio, August 4, 1868, to Miss Ella Stuart, of that place. In 1876 he built the handsome residence which is now their home, a view of which appears in this work. As a clear-sighted and successful business man, Mr. Hopkins has few superiors. He was instrumental in securing the location of the county fair grounds at Bear Lake, loaning the society funds with which to improvb the grounds, besides contributing liberally to advance the interests of the society. He keeps thoroughly posted upon public matters, and is active in political and other county affairs. DAVID H. HOPKINS is also a native of West Virginia, and came to Manistee in 1867, and entered upon the prosperous business career already described. He was married December 2, 1876, to Miss Minnie M., daughter of Henry Erb, of Bear Lake. Their family residence, a very handsome structure, was built in 1876. At the I Ik *-;-j

Page  80 1 1_1 80 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. r present time Mr. Hopkins spends most of his time in Chicago, attending to the company's interest in that city. BEAR LAKE VILLAGE, IN 1879. In February, 1879, the village of Bear Lake was described, by a local writer, from whom we quote, as follows: "Bear Lake Village has about seventy-five buildings, all of which were put up substantially and in a comfortable and secure manner. The Hopkins Manufacturing Company's store is the largest building in the village. It contains on the first floor, two large store rooms, one for groceries and dry goods, and the other for hardware, crockery ware and other such merchandise. The second story contains a number of rooms which are used as private rooms by persons connected with the store or in the employ of the firm. The third story is a public hall, about 75x35 feet in size, furnished with staging, scenery and seats for public entertainments, lectures, etc. The private residences of the village are a good deal better, on the average, than will be found in many much larger villages. Messrs. George W. Hopkins and D. H. Hopkins have not only comfortable, but very elegant residences. They stand upon an elevated part of the village, giving a beautiful and magnificent view of the lake and surrounding country. They are both furnished with all the modern conveniences, such as heating apparatus, and are designed in the latest style. They are surrounded by nicely laid out yards, and would be considered very desirable residences in Chicago, Milwaukee, or any other large city. They are worth about $10,000 each. "SCHOOL FACILITIES. "The excellent common school system, of course, is enjoyed here, the same as it is in all other places in this great state of Michigan. The district school is located in the eastern part of the city. The house is a substantial and well built one, one story, and occupies a pretty and convenient site upon a bluff overlooking the lake. There are about sixty scholars in the school, ordinarily. The present -eacher is Miss E. Rogers, a lady of excellent deportment and fine scholarship. Besides this public school, Mr. and Mrs. C. Davidson have a private school, located about the center of the village, where they teach the higher branches. The school is designed to accommodate those who are not able or can not make it convenient to go to the city schools to seek higher branches. They have given excellent satisfaction, and are considered teachers of a high order and unusual qualifications. There is also an excellent singing school in Bear Lake, conducted by Prof. William Andre, well known in northwestern Michigan as a gentleman of fine culture and much musical talent. "CHURCH ORGANIZATIONS. "Bear Lake Village, at present, has only two church societies, the Methodist Episcopal Church, and the Baptist Church. The pastor of the former is Rev. Mr. Steel, and the latter is presided over by Rev. Mr. Davidson. Services are held alternately at Hopkins Hall, the Methodists one Sunday and the Baptists the next Sunday. A union prayer meeting is also held at Hopkins Hall every Thursday evening. People of other religious denominations usually attend the services, and there is also a good general attendance among those who claim allegiance to no church. Both the organi zations are doing well, and are succeeding in maintaining an active religious interest in the community. There is also a Sunday-school held in the hall every Sunday noon, commencing at 12 o'clock, and continuing until about 2. This is also in a flourishing condition, and is doing much good in inculcating religious ideas into the minds of the young people of Bear Lake. "SOCIETIES. "There are only three societies here at present-,the Red Ribbon club, the Literary Society, and the County Agricultural Society. THE RED RIBBON CLUB. "The officers of the club are Mrs. Robert Scott, president; Mrs. Russell Smith, vice-president; Mrs. D. Wise, secretary; Mr. J. E. Bodwell, chaplain. The society holds its regular meetings on every other Friday night. The meetings are not merely temperance nieetings, but are devoted to the reading of essays, music, debates, and other exercises of that kind. They constitute a village entertainment that is attractive and valuable, besides it keeps alive the strong temperance sentiment which has always existed in Bear Lake, and which has always kept all liquor saloons out of the village entirely. The society also have a monthly newspaper which is filled with contributions from unknown writers, that makes considerable amusement, and is quite instructive. THE LITERARY SOCIETY. "The officers of this society are Miss Mattie Hopkins, president; Miss Gracie Tillson, secretary; Mr. J. E. Cody, treasurer; Mrs. Ella Hopkins, critic. This society holds its meetings every other Friday evening, at Hopkins Hall. "THE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. "The Manistee County Agricultural Society is located here because it was originated mostly by Bear Lake men, and is the center of the valuable farming region of the county, but steps have been taken by the society looking toward a change in respect to the location, and we have no doubt the change will be brought about in time. Through the aid and assistance of Mr. George W. Hopkins, the society own a fine piece of ground close by the village to be used as a fair ground, but if the change is made, the grounds will likely not be needed, except occasionally, when it may be decided to hold the fair at that point. However, the matter has not yet been acted upon, and we are simply guessing at the result. The present officers of the society are: President, James McKay; first vice-president, S. W. Fowler; second vice-president, Wm. Crosby; third vice-president, James Dodd; J. E. Cody, secretary; L. F. Hale, treasurer. The executive board is as follows: C. H. Stroud, W. L. Warren, R. F. Smith, G. W. Hopkins, Seymour Calkins, S. W. Patch, C. W. Perry, J. E. Bodwell, A. W. Farr, Josiah Hilliard, L. D. Shirtliff. THE PROFESSIONS-DR. C. W. TOMLIN. "Dr. Tomlin is a graduate of the Detroit Medical College, and an old resident of Manistee County. He settled in Bear Lake some two or three years ago and has established a fine drug business, and an excellent practice in the village and through the adjoining sections of country. "DR. TYLER RICHMOND. "Dr. Richmond is a young physician, who graduated with high honors, and is rapidly building up a practice in this part of the county. "E. J. RICHMOND. "This young and industrious attorney is well known in the county, being a son of Mr. Elisha Richmond, of Norwalk. He has only been in practice at Bear Lake during the past two years. "HOTELS AND BOARDING HOUSES. "Travel of all kinds has increased so largely lately that there is hardly accommodation enough in this respect for those who go to the place. Arrangements are already contemplated for supplying this want in the Spring. <* "W-n-- -

Page  81 6i-. --_I HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 81 "THE RED RIBBON CLUB HOUSE. "This house is the principal place that transient wayfarers seek at the present time. It is located in the eastern part of the city, and fronts the lake, giving a splendid view of this charming body of water at all times. It is kept by Mr. J. Morgan Tillson and his estimable lady. "THE LAKE HOUSE. "This house is located in the southwest part of the village, convenient to the mills and store of Hopkins Manufacturing Company. It is kept by Mr. John Grund, and is well patronized." The business places noted in the same connection were those of the Hopkins Bros.; Dr. Tomlin, drug store; A. Bowen, wagon and blacksmith shop; H. O. Brower, organ agency; Dan. Wise, harness shop; Mrs. John Robinson, millinery; Anthony Healy and L. D. Shirtliff, shoemakers; Sumption & Co., boot and shoe store; P. W. Brooks, barber; A. Mellifont, tin shop; J. E. Cody, meat market; A. H. Cook, groceries. The present population of the village, according to the school census, is five hundred and eighty. There are three church organizations-Baptist, Methodist and Congregational. The temperance and literary societies are liberally sustained. The president of the Red Ribbon Club is Mrs. Dan. Wise, and of the Literary Society, Mrs. G. W. Hopkins. A Good Templars Lodge has recently been organized, with thirtyfive charter members. W. D. Powers is the presiding officer. A new church building is at present in process of construction, as are als alsa large number of business buildings and dwellings. The village has one newspaper, the Bear Lake Independent, a sprightly local sheet, published by A. C. Culver & Son. It was started last August, and is already doing a prosperous business. There is no saloon in the village, and, with the exception of one Winter, there has never been one. The sentiment of the people is strongly upon the side of temperance and good morals, and the result is that the best of order prevails. PERSONAL SKETCHES. CHAS. B. BUNTON is a native of Massachusetts, but most of his early life was spent in New Hampshire. In 1868 he came to Manistee, where he worked for the lumber firm of Ruddock, Palmiter & Co. Afterwards he worked at blacksmithing at Portage. In the Fall of 1880 he came to Bear Lake, and in the Spring of 1881, in company with D. D. Smith, purchased the Hopkins sawmill. In June of that year Mr. Smith retired from the firm, and Mr. Bunton has since been alone in the mill. He is also a member of the mercantile firm of Hale & Bunton. His family consists of a wife and three children. Mr. Bunton is an industrious business man, and is prospering in his undertakings. DR. C. W. TOMLIN is the pioneer physician of Bear Lake. He was born in London, England, in 1830, and came to this country in 1838. He first studied law, and practiced for several years. In 1859 he began the study of medicine at Ann Arbor, and graduated at the Detroit Medical College in 1866. In 1864 he went into the army as a private, and was placed in charge of the medical department of the Twenty-ninth Michigan Infantry. He remained in the service about a year. In 1876 he came to Bear Lake, and in 1877 started a drug store on the Isaac Tillson farm, one mile from where the village now is. In 1878 he built the store buildi'g he now occupies, in a central part of the village. In 1881 he built an addition to his building, and the present season is erecting another building r on the same lot. Dr. Tomlin has a wife and one child. He still gives some attention to the practice of law in connection with medicine. He has always had a large practice, and is well known in the county. HENRY ERB is one of the pioneers of Bear Lake Township. He is a native of Canada, and during the latter part of his residence there, owned a sawmill and farm. He was married June 24, 1857, to Miss Sarah A. Seaman, at Otterville, Oxford Co., Canada. In October, 1865, they started, with two teams, for a new home in Bear Lake. He had two horses and a lumber wagon loaded with household goods, and she drove one horse and cared for her four children. The journey was long and attended with many hardships, but was accomplished without serious accident. They located a homestead of one hundred and sixty acres, one mile east of Bear Lake, and built a log house. He cleared his land, and in course of time added more to it, until now he has a magnificent farm of five hundred and eighty acres, upon which are a fruit orchard of one thousand trees, and excellent buildings. In 1879 they left the farm and moved into the village, where they now reside. During the past year he has completed a tasty residence for their home. They have six children, one of whom is the wife of Mr. David H. Hopkins. Mr. Erb is one of the solid men of the county, and a most excellent citizen. ISAAC N. TILLSON, postmaster at Bear Lake, was born in Winfield, Herkimer Co., N. Y., September 12, 1812. He was married at the same place, September 25, 1834, to Miss Mary A. Jones. They lived for several years in Ohio, and came from there to Bear Lake in 1867. The journey was made by boat from Grand Haven to Manistee, and from there they came with team. They bought one hundred and sixty acres of land, near the east end of the lake, which was their home for many years, and is still in their possession. Mr. Tillson has held the office of postmaster since 1868, and at the present time rents his farm and lives in the village. In connection with farming, Mr. Tillson has been interested in mercantile business, and has done his share in developing the township in which he lived. They have six children, two boys and four girls. G. K. ESTES came to Bear Lake Village, from Wisconsin, in 1875. He was for some time civil engineer on the Milwaukee & Northern Railway in that state. After remaining here about six months he went to Milwaukee. In the Fall of 1876 lie came to Pierport, and was in the employ of C. W. Perry until the Fall of 1880, when he came to Bear Lake, and was in the office of Hopkins Bros. until last Spring, when he went into the insurance, real estate, loan, and collection business. He has a wife and two children, and is in prosperous circumstances. L. F. HALE, of the mercantile firm of Hale & Bunton, is a native of England, and came to this country in 1871. In 1874 he came to Bear Lake, from Pennsylvania, and was book-keeper for Hopkins Bros. He also had an interest in the gristmill. Last Spring he sold his interest in the mill, and in June started a general store, the firm being Hale & Buniton. They do an excellent business, which is under the sole management of M.Ir. Hale. DR. F. E. ANDREWS is a recent acquisition of the professional circles of Bear Lake, having settled here in June, 1881. He is a native of Adrian, Mich., where his father was an old resident physician. He graduated at the University of Michigan in 1878. After practicing one. year at Adrian, he removed to Pentwater, where he practiced until coming to Bear Lake, in 1881. He has a drug store, which he runs in connection with his practice. Dr. Andrews is one of the rising young physicians of the county, and already has an extensive practice. D. D. SMITH is one of the enterprising and successful business _- _ _----- I-~~I ~~-- ~ -~-~-~-- '-~--`------ ~-~ I------

Page  82 1 - 82 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. men of Bear Lake. He is a native of Illinois, and came to Portage from Wisconsin, and was head sawyer in a sawmill until 1874, when he came to Bear Lake, and was in charge of the Hopkins sawmill until the Spring of 1881, when he formed a partnership with Mr. C. B. Bunton, and purchased the mill. The following Summer he withdrew from the firm, and in company with Mr. Bernhardt built their planing mill, which they now operate. Mr. Smith is a justice of the peace, and one of the most active business men of Bear Lake. He is a young man of great energy, and is doing a prosperous business. His wife is a daughter of Mr. Russell Smith, the pioneer of the village. A. C. CULVER & SON, proprietors of the Bear Lake Independent, came to Bear Lake last Summer from Coldwater, where they published the Coldwater 8entinel. Mr. A. C. Culver is one of the old newspaper men of the state, and both gentlemen are thorough newspaper men. S. J. STEELE, engineer at the new Hopkins mill, is one of the early settlers of the village. He is a native of Connecticut, and came to Bear Lake from Missouri, in 1873. Upon coming here he went into the employ of Hopkins Bros., as engineer at their sawmill, and has remained in their employ ever since. He put the machinery in the new mill, and is now in charge as engineer. He is a veteran at his trade, and in every respect competent and trustworthy. He has a wife and five children. One of his sons, Eugene, was almost literally cut in pieces by a circular saw, in a mill at Manistee, but survived the injury, and is now a sound and active man. J. S. DAVIDSON, foreman of the new Hopkins mill, is a native of Ohio, and came to Bear Lake from Iowa, in 1880, and has been foreman of the mill since it started. He has been engaged at mill work for fifteen years. E. A. BODWELL, of the firm of E. A. Bodwell & Co., came into Manistee County in 1871, and took a homestead in Arcadia Township. In 1880 he came into the village of Bear Lake, and opened a meat market, and afterwards added groceries. He still carries on his farm, in connection with his mercantile business. Mr. Bodwell is one of the reliable men of the county. LYMAN T. KING is a resident of Brown town, where he has an extensive farm. He came there in 1863, from Spring Lake, Ottawa County. He has also lived in Manistee several years. Mr. King is a mason by trade, and does a large amount of work in Bear Lake village. He has a wife and six children, who live upon the farm. Mr. King is one of the old residents of the county, and is one of its prosperous citizens. C. A. ANDRUS came to Bear Lake in 1875, from Oberlin, Ohio where he was engaged in the milling business. He came to take charge of the grist-mill of Hopkins Bros., and still remains in that position. He has a wife and two children. Mr. Andrus is a practical and thoroughly competent miller, and ranks well among the business men of Bear Lake village. J. BLANCHARD is one of the oldest pioneers of the Manistee region. He was born in the state of New York, in the year 1829. When seven years of age his father removed to the state of Illinois. At nineteen years of age he went to Lake Superior, and was there three years. He was afterwards at Saginaw, Muskegon, Grand Haven, and for a time in Oceana County. In 1859 he commenced carrying the mail from Grand Haven to Manistee, and was thus employed until 1862. His experience during those years made him familiar with everything that occurred between those points. His first trip was made on horseback, and then he rigged a two-wheel cart drawn by two horses. Until 1861 there was only a weekly mail, but after that he made two trips a week. In 1862 he went into the army, and remained in the service until the close of the war. After returning from the war he followed fishing for several seasons, and about 1869 went into the employ of R. G. Peters, and since that time he has been one of his most trusted men. Last year he came to Bear Lake to take charge of Mr. Peters' lumbering interests at this point. The business here being about closed out, Mr. Blanchard will soon be transferred to some other point, where Mr. Peters may require his services. Few men are more familiar with early times along the east shore than Mr. Blanchard oz V --~--~- 'VL

Page  83 -- L-t~. IP~ TOWNSHIP HISTORIES. ARCADIA TOWNSHIP. This is a fractional township, in the northwest corner of the county. It is bounded on the north by Benzie County, east by Pleasanton, south by Onekama, and west by Lake Michigan. The town embraces about twenty square miles, and has a coast line of six miles. In assorting the contents of various pigeon holes, we came across a historical and descriptive sketch of Arcadia, written in 1879, by one well acquainted with the town. As it serves our purpose here, we copy it as follows: "Early in the Fall of 1866 a number of families sought homes in the northwestern corner of Manistee County, near the shores of a small sheet of water that lay glimmering smilingly in the sunlight, like a beautiful gem upon the brow of mother earth; and this sparkling jewel was known to the newcomers by the unmusical but appropriate name of Bar Lake; so called on account of the sand bar which crosses the channel opening into Lake Michigan. "The first settlers who wandered into this part of the great wilderness were Dr. W. L. Dempster, from Chicago; G. W. Boss, from Pennsylvania; H. Huntington, from Indiana, with their families. Other families followed in quick succession, until the central part of what is a town now was nearly all taken up. "These pioneers were not exempt from hardships and discouragements; pioneers seldom find their paths lined with thornless roses. And though many about to immigrate build splendid castles in their day-dreams, they seldom find their visions realized. "But with much to try the patience of our new settlers, and not a little to encourage them, the years glided away, and with them the forests, and in place of these monuments of slow but sure progress, cozy home-nests sprang up as if by magio; broad fields of waving grain were everywhere to be seen, and by the side of the numerous murmuring streams and mirror-like lake, herds of cattle found pasturage, where for centuries the timid deer had nipped the green herbage and slaked its thirst. "In 1870 the town was organized, and named Arcadia. The first election was held April 4, 1870. The following are the names of the officers: W. H. Cotton, supervisor; W. H. Ross, town clerk; J. D. Padden, treasurer; M. O'Rorke and J. Norton, highway commissioners; S. Calkins, school inspector; S. Tondu, W. L. Dempster, H. Bowen and H. Chapin, justices of the peace; S. Hotchkiss, L. Moore, J. Morton and W. L. Dempster, inspectors of election. "In 1874 the total population numbered 1,229. The town contained 11,512 acres of taxable land; 636 acres of improved land. In 1873 there were raised 1,821 bushels of wheat; 2,895 bushels of corn, and of all other grains 3,397 bushels; also, 3,771 bushels of potatoes; and 234 tons of hay; 3,155 pounds of butter were made, and in the Spring of 1874 there were 2,610 pounds of maple sugar manufactured. "Arcadia has one sawmill, built by C. Huntington & Co. It is operated by steam, and by the census of 1874 employed five persons. There were 3,000,000 feet of lumber cut, which was valued at $7,500. "Education claims its share of attention, as may be seen by the handsome frame school, which was erected a few years ago, at a cost of $800. The inhabitants can boast of a good town library, which is a never failing source of instruction and amusement. "Much of the soil along the lake shore is naturally rather light, but when well cultivated is made capable of raising excellent crops. The timber is of pine, hemlock, maple and beech, all of which is as good as a gold mine to the owners. Large quantities of this timber are exported to Chicago and Milwaukee every year. As yet no public buildings have been erected, but the farm houses that are rapidly taking the place of pioneer cottages are a credit to the town's people. And the years will not be many 'ere we shall see stores, machine shops, and churches rearing their architectural forms equal to any in the county of Manistee." The sawmill of Huntington & Co. was operated until 1880, and then abandoned. Seymour Calkins, one of the early settlers of Arcadia, is now a resident of Pierport. BURNHAMVILLE. is the name of a new place recently started on the lake shore. A pier was built there for the purpose of shipping wood, bark, etc. There is a store, hotel, the sawmill of Shaw Bros., and some other business interests. The Good Templars have a prosperous organization, of which Henry Butter is the presiding officer. The postoffice is named Burnham. There is quite a business done in shipping wood, bark, ties and lumber. STARKIEVILLE. is another new place recently started by Henry Starkie, of the firm of Starkie Bros., Milwaukee. The post-office is called Arcadia. In 1880 a sawmill was built there by the firm of Starkie Bros., and other buildings have followed. There is another sawmill in the township, built the present season, by H. Bowen. There are three schoolhouses in the town, recently built. The present supervisor of the town is L. L. Finch. Statistical facts about Arcadia will be found in that department of this work. PLEASANTON TOWNSHIP. In the Summer of 1877 a contributor to the Manistee Times and Standard wrote about Pleasanton, as follows: "In 1863, it was one unbroken wilderness, and the moccasined J 4 - 4

Page  84 ' 6\r I ------ 84 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY Indian roamed through the forest, hunting bear and deer at his own wild will. Here he constructed his own rude wigwam and bark canoe by the side of the smooth, glassy lake, or, perchance, by some streamlet, where the timid animals came for drink, and the finny tribes afforded him a ready repast when he was too indolent to roam abroad with hatchet or bow. The wild flowersgrew in beauty or blushed unseen, except by the native inhabitants of the forest; only an occasional song bird was heard in the great depths of the wilderness, for birds seem to prefer the haunts of civilized man. "Not far from this time, Rev. George B. Pierce, a retired clergyman, and B. Sibly, sought home and health in this northern climate, and with their axes felled the huge, high-crowned foresters, and of them built each a cabin, wherein to find shelter and repose for themselves and families. Soon after, others seeing the offer of our government to give away large tracts of land upon certain conditions, came and took up homesteads, built log cottages, brought down the centurions to the ground by scores and hundreds, burnt the timber, and in this way laid the foundation for future farms, that, at some time, would be bought ' with a price.' "It was hard, unceasing toil; the early settlers were poor in this world's goods, some of them having spent their last dollar when they landed in Manistee, then a comparatively small lumbering town. "Much of the provisions were 'toted' from some of the lake shore settlements, a distance of ten or twelve miles; and often at the close of a hard day's work, over paths that were almost invisible, even in the broad daylight, on account of the low shrub, commonly known as ' ground hemlock,' by the light of a torch, the marks of an ax called ' blazes,' upon the trees, were followed by the weary traveler who plodded on over bush and brake, logs and cradle knolls, stumbling here and there with his heavy burden of potatoes and flour, with a 'pinch' of sugar and tea, his only luxuries. Not unfrequently did he feel the hair of his head, as one might express it, rise like corn stalks, upon hearing the creaking of decayed bushes, as some of the monarchs of the forest dashed past him, and sped away to some not far off den. There were no well beaten roads; the mail was carried from Manistee to Benzonia by the Indian trail,-no doubt a long, winding way. "In the Fall of 1866 there were only three horse teams in the town; these were owned by B. Gale, Henry Erb, and James M. Allen. Very ordinary cows were held as high as $60 and $70, and these were brought over from Milwaukee. Good butter was a thing almost unknown. Potatoes of poor, mixed varieties, were sold at prices from $1.25 upwards, according to the mercy of the producer, and the depths of the buyer's purse. The potato bugs had not then arrived on this shore. Flour sold at from $16 to $18 per barrel; pork $22 and $24 per barrel, and groceries in proportion. "The centre of the town was settled almost entirely by professional gentlemen belonging to the clergy and their families. The rest of the inhabitants are, for the most part, thorough, go-ahead farmers. "According to the census of 1874, the inhabitants numbered 419. There were 19,724 acres of taxable land; 1,058 acres improved. In that year there were 335 acres of wheat put in; 4,465 bushels of potatoes were raised, and 6,145 bushels of corn, 12,190 pounds of pork marketed; 11,500 pounds of butter, and 37,1 35 pounds of maple sugar were made. In 1876 the improvements had increased and, of course, the yield of produce was much larger. "The soil is a light, sandy loam, and easy of cultivation, and can be made to yield splendidly by applying top dressing. The timber is beech, maple, elm, and hemlock. At present writing the town con tains two churches, a Congregational Church, a simple, common-place structure, situated in the centre of the town, and built, we believe, by a few individuals who 'were among the first settlers, and who brought with them the old Puritan spirit of worshiping God according to the dictates of their own conscience. And no sooner had they provided shelter for their families, than they began to cast about them for ways and means wherewith to build a place in which to worship the great All Father. The building is also used for school purposes, town business, and Grange Hall. " The Methodist Church is a good log building, capable of seating a large congregation. " There are two school buildings, one of which is a well built frame house, and cost in the neighborhood of $800. " There is one store situated near the beautiful sheet of water known as Bear Lake, owned by H. Cook. This lake, by the way, belongs largely to the town of Pleasanton. Its shores contain splendid situations for country villas and mill privileges, and it only requires a few enterprising men to step in and make veritable Edens of these localities. "A good number of pretty frame dwellings, painted white, dot the town in place of the original log cabins, showing the thrift of the inhabitants or ' moss backs.' "Almost every dwelling in town has an organ or some other musical instrument. "One of the best public libraries in the County of Manistee is to be found at Pleasanton, and judging from the appearance of the books, it is a reading community. We do not know of a single family that does not take at least one of the county papers, and very many take two, besides state and other papers, and some one of the best periodicals of the day. "The log house of Mr. Pierce, at the center, was the first house built in Pleasanton, and what is remarkable is that the first marriage in the town took place in this house, and also the first death. "There is a good cemetery, well fenced, handsomely laid out, and decorated with young native trees, and though no elegant monuments adorn its peaceful mounds, we know that our beloved dead will rest quietly beneath the pleasant shade of waving boughs. "The town is for the most part well watered, and the forest affords shade and pasturage for many herds of cattle that now roam at large during the hot Summer days. Almost every farmer owns a span of horses, and many of the best improved farming utensils. A few farmers are stocking their farms with sheep. These are found to be of great service in keeping down the weeds and briars, that are such a constant nuisance in a new country. Some of the resources of wealth are found in maple logs, hemlock bark and small fruits. And whoever chronicles the history of Pleasanton ten years hence, will no doubt inform the world that it is one of the most flourishing towns in the State of Michigan. The town is bounded on the north by Benzie County, east by Springdale, south by Bear Lake and west by Arcadia. The present supervisor of the town is Myron Arnold. For population, productions, etc., see general statistics of the county. SPRINGDALE TOWNSHIP. Springdale Township was erected by the board of supervisors at their meeting in October, 1870, and so named on account of its numerous ever-flowing springs. It is known as Town 24, north of Range 14, west, and is bounded as follows: on the north by Benzie County, east -4ci~ c~`

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Page  85 -J------~ I HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 85 by Cleon Township, south by Maple Grove, and west by Pleasanton. It contains thirty-six square miles. The first election was held at the residence of Titus Glover, one of the first settlers of the township, the first Monday in April, 1871. Joseph Marshall, P. B. Fisk and T. D. Glover were the inspectors of the election. The first township officers elected were as follows: Supervisor, John W. Cowgill; clerk, Willson S. Reed; treasurer, Titus D. Glover; inspectors, J. Marshall and Willson S. Reed; directors of the poor, Lewis E. Hale and William W. Ball; justices of the peace, John W. Cowgill and P. B. Fisk; commissioners of highways, George S. Cowgill, Lewis E. Hale, P. B. Fisk; constables, Augustus C. Cowgill and Robert C. Burling. There were eight votes cast, and every elector was elected to some office, a state of things calculated to excite the envy of the modern politician. EARLY HISTORY. The early history of Springdale is not unlike that of many other localities. The first settlers came about the year 1866, and began the work of making homes which they might call their own. These seekers after homes and fortunes were not wealthy, and the expense of moving, in many instances, nearly exhausted their slender resources. The first work was to provide shelter and then go forth to earn bread and raiment. The work of -clearing up their land progressed slowly. Their own improvements were made at intervals when work abroad could not be had, and then at a great disadvantage. Many of these pioneers had no teams and but few tools. There were times of sickness and distress which called for patience and sorely tried their powers of endurance. In time, other settlers came in and the town was organized, as above stated. The land is gently rolling and the soil very rich. The timber consists for the most part of beech, maple, rock elm, basswood and pine. As a whole, it is considered one of the best farming town ships in the county. The Betsy River flows through the northern part, and is noted for its rapid current. Bear Creek also extends through the township. In Sections 33 and 34 is a beautiful lake with no visible outlet. Thus the town is well supplied with water for all purposes. The total population in 1874 was forty-nine, and there were only seventy-four acres of improved lands. There were in thl town 13,582 acres of taxable land. In 1873 there were raised 127 bushels of wheat, 305 bushels of corn, 100 bushels of other grains; 600 bushels of potatoes and twenty-two tons of hay. In 1874 there were made 1,034 pounds of maple sugar and 800 pounds of butter. The present supervisor of the township is H. W. Dowd. CLEON TOWNSHIP. The township of Cleon was erected by the board of supervisors at their annual meeting. in October, 1868. The town is situated in the northeast corner of the county, being Town 24, north of Range 13, west. The first annual meeting was held at the home of Thomas N. Copley, the first Monday in April, 1869. M. P. Grinnell, E. A. Gilbert and Jacob Sears were inspectors of election. It was subsequently set off to Wexford County, and was only re-united to Manistee County last year. The present supervisor is C. B. Caniff. Such statistical information of the township as is connected with the county is given elsewhere. MARILLA TOWNSHIP. Until the month of June, 1866, the territory now included in the township of Marilla was a dense forest of maple, beech, hemlock and pine, and inhabited only by birds and beasts. At that time a man by the name of C. Churchill, who had left the Empire State, with his family, to find a home in the new West, arrived here and was pleased with the appearance of the country. There were numerous springs and streams, and the soil promised fruitful returns. He built a log cabin and in the dense solitude of the forest formed a home. Shortly after the arrival of Mr. Churchill, two bachelors named Lever wended their way thitherward, and made for themselves a om e. In the Fall of the same year S. Evens and J. Rinard, with their families, came along and settled about a mile from the Lever brothers. D. Boyd and family also located in the same neighborhood, and the work of developing this new and wild country was begun. These new comers were persevering and energetic, and were prepared to battle with hardships and trials. Through the day the cattle browsed twigs and leaves, and at night their mangers were filled with moss gathered from trees by the children. But there were dark days and times that tested their fortitude and endurance. There were times of sickness and misfortune. Some of the cattle died, and some had to be sold to meet various wants. Most of their provisions had to be brought on the shoulders of the men from logging camps, that were miles away. But the dark days passed. The land was cleared, fields cultivated and prosperity came as the years went on. Other settlers arrived, until in the Fall of 1869 the town of Marilla was erected by the board of supervisors. The town was set off from the region known as Brown town. At a special meeting of the supervisors, held in January, 1870, James H. Winters, James B. Boyd and William H. Pope were appointed inspectors of the first election to be held in April, at the house of John Wilson. The first town officers elected were as follows: Supervisor, J. D. Bond; town clerk, J. H. Winters; treasurer, G. Lever; school inspector, 0. Lackey; justices of the peace, W. Pope and L. F. Hall; highway commissioners, P. Hower, B. Yates, J. Willson, H. Farnsworth. The first school in the new township was taught by Mrs. Jennie Pope, who continued to teach for several terms. As the settlers increased, various school districts were formed and comfortable buildings erected. Two of the school buildings are especially fine, costing about $1,000 each. The town has a well filled public library, which speaks well for the enterprise and intelligence of the people. There is a very handsome cemetery located near the central part of the town, which is well fenced and handsomely decorated with trees. The church societies are a Congregational and Baptist. The former was organized in 1872, and the latter in 1876. The first person baptized by immersion in the town was Mrs. M. Snyder. The ordinance was administered ill May, 1876. The town is located in the eastern part of the county, bordering on the county line. It embraces thirty-six square miles. The land is generally rolling, heavily timbered and well watered. The soil is heavy clay loam and sand loam, and some of the best farms in the county have been made in this section. The roads are good and the people thrifty, industrious and intelligent. According to the census of 1874, the population of the town-,I: Nq i SIL

Page  86 - I4 - 86 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. ship was 133. There were 16,811.22 acres of taxable land; 456 acres of improved land. In 1873 there were raised 746 bushels of wheat; 1,635 bushels of corn; 3,327 bushels of other grains; 4,235 bushels of potatoes; 104 tons of hay were cut; 40 pounds of wool sheared; 3,650 pounds of butter, and 2,080 pounds of maple sugar made. Other statistical facts are given elsewhere. The present supervisor is Robert Knowles. MAPLE GROVE TOWNSHIP. Maple Grove is bounded on the north by Springdale, east by Marilla, south by Brown, and west by Bear Lake. It is comparatively a new township, having been organized four years ago. The town embraces thirty-six square miles, and is heavily timbered with hard wood. The soil is clay and black loam. Bear Creek and its tributaries traverse the town, thus giving excellent facilities for putting in logs during the Winter. The present supervisor is P. H. Gaffney. ONEKAMA TOWNSHIP. The township of Onekama was erected in the Fall of 1866, and the first town meeting was held the following April, at Portage. N. P. Pierce, H. Hilliards and J. Hilliard were inspectors of election. The first township officers elected were as follows: Supervisor, E. P. Bates; clerk, Joel Guernsey; treasurer, N. P. Pierce; commissioners, Amos Pierce, S. W. Patch, Josiah Hilliard; school inspectors, E. P. Bates, J. J. McKnight; justices of the peace, S. W. Patch, David Godfrey, Franklin Taylor; constables, Henry Willson, John Wright, Oscar Hull, August Toul. The township contains about twenty-two square miles, about five miles of which are covered by Portage Lake. It has a frontage of six miles on Lake Michigan, and is bounded as follows: North by Arcadia, east by Bear Lake, south by Manistee, and west by Lake Michigan. EARLY HISTORY. The early history of this township was sketched in the columns of the Times and Standard in 1877, from which we quote as follows: " As early as 1856 a few families found their way into the green olc woods, and began cutting down the stately maples, wide-spreading elms, and their companions the beeches, pines and hemlocks.," John Wright, Esq., was the first to seek a home near the shores of Portage Lake. He was a fisherman, and he no doubt found the finny tribe abundant enough to suit his most ardent desire. Very soon he was followed by Messrs. N. P. Pierce, J. Daily and P. McCabe and their families. " It was no easy task to clear away the growth of centuries and make farms of the land that had so long been occupied by the native Indian as a hunting ground, and no doubt those old pioneers often remembered the ancient vow made by the All Father to Adam, when he was turned out of the garden of Eden: -' By the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat thy bread.' " From the early morn till late at night did they toil, that in a few short years they might look upon broad fields of waving grain. Daily and hourly they dreamed dreams, and saw visions of future happiness when they should sit down beneath their own vine and fig tree, and enjoy the fruit of their labors, with their sons and daughters settled about them. " But it was not until 1864-'65 that this section of the country began to really put on the appearance of becoming a farming district. About this time there were several sections of government land taken up, and a goodly number of families emigrated from various states, east and west, to try their fortunes in the wilderness. Brave hearts and strong wills they brought with them to assist them in their enterprise." After the organization of the township, there was a steady increase in the population. The lake shore gave them valuable facilities for making way with the lumber made at the sawmill, and the old forest trees were soon made useful, as well as ornamental. They were converted into commodious and comfortable buildings, and the surplus lumber was exchanged for produce from Milwaukee or Chicago. There are four school houses in the township, and two postoffices, Pierport and Onekama. PIERPORT VILLAGE. is a thriving little village, charmingly situated on the shore of Lake Michigan, some sixteen miles north of Manistee. It is surrounded by an excellent agricultural country. There are already quite a number of large farms in the vicinity, the owners of which are in a sure way of becoming well-to-do, as the soil produces abundantly and an especially good market is offered for all they may choose to sell. The growth of timber is principally beech, maple, oak and ash, is particularly large and thrifty, and is being extensively manufactured at the steam sawmill owned and operated by Charles W. Perry, and the stave mill of Stillman & Calkins. The supply of these woods is practically inexhaustible, and the growth of Pierport, year by year, until it shall become a city of considerable size, is assured. The place was first called Turnersport, and the name was changed to Pierport in 1871. The pioneer business man of Pierport is C. w. PERRY. He first came here in 1868. The place then was called Turnersport. There was a pier that had been built by the Turnersport Pier Company in 1866, for the purpose of getting out wood. The village consisted of three houses or shanties, one board, one slab, and one log. Mr. Perry was born in Vermont, and went to Wisconsin when about nine years of age. In 1862 he enlisted in the army, and remained in the service until the close of the war. In 1871 he finally settled in Pierport, and took possession of the property of the Turnersport company. In 1873 he built a store. Before that he had kept a store in a log building at the pier. He went into the general merchandise and shipping business. In 1879 he built his grist mill. The sawmill was built by George Dwyer in 1876, and bought by Mr. Perry in 1877. He was married in October, 1872, at Waukesha, Wis., to Miss Rilla C. Gough. During the last year he has completed one of the finest residences in that part of the county. It is located upon an elevation commanding a fine view of the lake, and is in every respect an elegant home. Mr. Perry does a very large and successful business and is cne of the enterprising men of the county. He assists all enterprises that will be of advantage to the place, and is well-known as an honorable and energetic business man. The first postmaster at Pierport was Charles Eckel, and for the past twelve years, C. W. Perry. The Bear Lake pier was built in 1879, and the school house in 1874 The first blacksmith shop was built by Charles Conkling and L -1'I

Page  87 4-------.-- HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. 87 I is still owned by him. Another blacksmith shop was built in 1879, which was purchased by Mr. C. W. Perry last Spring. There was a stave factory built in 1877 by Stevens & Mise. It burned a year or two afterwards, and another was built last year by E. R. Stillman. It is now owned by Stillman & Calkins. The Lake House was built in 1875 by Hiram Pratt, its present proprietor. Another hotel, the Commercial House, owned by C. W. Perry, is kept by Charles Fowler. There is a Methodist class, organized in 1876, that holds religious service in the school house. Lake Shore Lodge of Good Templars was organized in September, the present year, with fifty-five charter members. J. E. Bodwell is presiding officer. A young peoples literary society of forty members is well sustained, and is one of the institutions of the place. The citizen's of Pierport are enterprising, and all moral and educational enterprises are liberally supported. SEYMOUR CALKINS, of the firm of Stillman & Calkins, proprietors of the Pierport Stave Factory, is one of the early settlers of the county. He is a native of New York State, and came to Manistee County in 1867. He took up one hundred and sixty acres of land in Arcadia Township, and settled upon it. He came West, from Pennsylvania, and landed at Grand Haven. From there he came on foot, as was the custom of the pioneers. He lived on his farm until last Winter, when he purchased an interest in the stave factory of E. R. Stillman, and removed to Pierport. Mr. Calkins has been a successful farmer and a leading man in the township. He held the office of supervisor for six years, and was chairman of the board in 1881. He has held various other township offices, and has always been active in public affairs. His family consists of a wife and two children. J. E. BODWELL, merchant at Pierport, is a native of Canada, and went to Bear Lake in 1873, in the mercantile business. In the Fall of 1881 he came to Pierport for the Bear Lake Pier Co., and in January of the present year went into the general merchandise business. He also buys wood, bark, and ties, which he ships to Milwaukee. Mr. Bodwell has a wife and six children. He is a careful and upright business man, and a most excellent citizen. He is at the head of the Good Templars' Lodge recently organized. PORTAGE LAKE is becoming a prominent feature of Onekama Township. It is situated eight or ten miles north of Manistee, about midway between Point Au Sable and Point Aux Becs Scies, distant from each other about fifty miles. The shore of Lake Michigan here bows to the eastward, forming a sort of shallow bay, and Portage Lake lies at the deepest point of the bow, just inside of the shore of Lake Michigan, from which it is separated by a belt, thirty rods wide, of high, wooded hills. At a depression in this belt, about one mile south of the narrow, crooked and deep gully, which was the original water communication, now closed, between the two lakes, a channel was dug in 1871, and is maintained. An effort has been made, and is still being made, to secure a harbor of refuge at this point. ONEKAMA, situated on Portage Lake, is a platted village, though but little has been done here in the way of building as yet. Large property interests are owned here by Hon. A. W. Farr, of this place, and Hon. A. H. Dunlap, of Manistee. A newspaper correspondent of Manistee visited Onekama recently, and from him we have the following facts: "Some two years ago Hon. A. W. Farr, whose extensive grounds at Onekama border on Portage Lake-one of the finest sheets of water to be found anywhere in the world-discovered traces of mineral in a spring, near his residence, that bubbled out from the foot of a hill, clear, cold, and sparkling, and sent some of the water to Prof. G. A. Mariner, analytical chemist, at 81 South Clark Street, Chicago. In due time Mr. Farr received from the professor the following analysis (upon the basis of one gallon of the water: "Bicarbonate of Lime................... 11.6969 grains " " Magnesia................ 5.4502. " Iron..................... 1.4373 " " Soda.................... 53.0090 Sulphate of Soda........................0351 Silica..............................8878 Chloride of Sodium..................a trace 72.5181 grains " Upon comparing the analysis with those of the most famous springs of the country, and corroborating his own opinion with those who may have been said to be mineral spring experts, Mr. Farr was exceedingly gratified at the showing. But he was aware that a mineral spring without its cures was like a tree without fruits-that something more satisfactory than an analysis would be required by the indiscriminating public before they would come readily to his way of thinking, and take any interest in the matter. That additional testimony Mr. Farr has secured by the complete cure of a young gentleman of a serious kidney and lung trouble by the use of the water alone, and there are numerous others who have used the water during the past two years, since the making of the analysis, with the most beneficial results for serious affections. It is known that the great virtues claimed for the famous Waukesha Bethesda Water lie in three of its component parts, viz., the chlorides of soda, magnesia, and iron, which are found in the Bethesda analysis to be-soda, 1.25 grains; iron,.04 grains, and magnesia, 12.383 grains. Now, if a comparison of these parts in the analysis of the two springs be made, it will readily be seen that Mr. Farr's has the greater number of grains of these medical agents per gallon of water. Again we say, there is every reason to believe that a mineral spring has been developed at Onekama that will prove to be the equal of the most famous spring anywhere. If such should prove to be the case, its location is extremely advantageous for a famous Summer resort and watering place. A government dredge has been set to work deepening the channel, and before very long vessels of the greatest draft, as well as steamers, will pass through into Portage Lake with perfect ease." It is the present intention of gentlemen interested at Onekama to improve the place the coming year, and erect buildings of some sort not yet determined upon. In 1873 there were raised in the township 458 bushels of wheat, 675 bushels of corn, 1,242 bushels of potatoes, 61 tons of hay were cut, and 1,950 pounds of butter made. The population in 1873 was 327. There were 10,270 acres of taxable land, and 488 acres of improved land. During the Spring of that year 400 pounds of maple sugar were made. BROWN TOWNSHIP. This was one of the original townships into which the county was divided at the time of its erection in 1855. At that time it embraced nearly or quite three-fourths of the entire county. At the present time it is next to the largest town in the county, enbracing 108 square miles. Its boundaries are as follows: North \ O -r

Page  88 (SI. 88 HISTORY OF MANISTEE COUNTY. by Bear Lake, Maple Grove and Manilla; east by Wexford County; south by Stronach and west by Manistee. The township contains a variety of soils, ranging from pure white sand to the heaviest clay. The timber is pine, maple, beech and elm. The land is watered by numerous springs, and the Manistee River runs through the whole length of the township. EARLY HISTORY. Pioneer life is much the same in all parts of the country where the first work of the new comer is to clear away the forest. The early settlers in the region, afterwards included in the limits of Brown Township, were surrounded by a vast expanse of wilderness and solitude. A large part of the county was forest. In the years 18553-'54 several families pushed their way into this locality and founded homes. Among those early settlers were Henry L. Brown, Oliver Miller, Charles Danforth, James O'Neal, Stephen Smith and Harvey Cour. They felled trees, built log cabins, battled with discouragements, and performed the labors of seed time and harvest. The months rolled by and other families came and settled upon sections here and there. The first town meeting was held in the Spring of 1855, and the following officers elected: Supervisor, Stephen Smith; town clerk, H. L. Brown; treasurer, Oliver Miller; school inspectors, Oliver Miller and Harvey Cour; justices of the peace, Stephen Smith, one year; Henry Sargent, two years; Harvey Cour, three years; James Siverly, four years; commissioners of highways, Oliver Miller and James O'Neal; constables, Murdock McNeal, Edwin Secor, John Shores and Richard Flanders. The whole number of votes cast was thirty-three, and most of these were transient votes. In 1857 Messrs. Potter & Rogers -opened a store on a small scale, where the women could supply their meager wardrobes and pantries, and the men could gather for a friendly interchange of ''yarns'' and jokes. in 1859 a township library was purchased, which in 1877 was divided into six district libraries. Most of the men worked out by the day or month, in order to earn money with which to secure the necessaries of life. On this account the work of clearing progressed slowly. The forests along the water courses were made up of grand old pines. After the river was cleared of its debris, these pines were cut down to be manufactured into lumber. The business of logging gave employment to the settlers at good wages, and so long as lumbering continued brisk, but few improvements were made. In 1873 there were produced 250 bushels of wheat, 1,535 bushels of corn, 3,742 bushels of all other grains, 5,111 bushels of potatoes, 691 tons of hay. There were 380 pounds of wool sheared, 6,410 pounds of butter made. According to the census of 1874, the total population numbered 526. There were 65,483 acres of taxable land, and 1,147 acres of improved land. There were made that year 1,295 pounds of maple sugar. There was one fiouring and sawmill combined, operated by water. Two personis were employed in operating it, and the capital invested $4,000. Two hundred barrels of flour, valued at $2,500, and 200,000 feet of lumber were manufactured. There are four burial grounds laid out, one of which is fenced and improved. In the Fall of 1877 a Catholic church was built. The present supervisor is Erastus Potter. *I

Page  1 I

Page  2 __ _ I two, Lr

Page  3 GON 0 TKM^. History of' ason County. Period of Discovery, Appearance of the First White Settler, County Organization, Agriculture, Climate and Health, Education, Bible Society, County Agricultural Society, Military Matters, Incidents of Pioneer Life, Ludiiigtoi City, Pioneers of 1866, Bird's Eye View of Ludington in 1871, Early Settlers of the Village, At the Close of 1872, First Extensive Fire, Incorporated as a City, Changes of a Year, Postal Matters, Ludington Dock, Ludington Cornet Band, City Cemetery Association, Library Association, Banks, Ludington Fire Department, Telegraph and Telephone, - Ludington Water Supply Company, Churches and Sabbath Schools, Secret and Benevolent Orders, Ludington Schools, Newspapers, Ludington Harbor, County Officers, Logs, Saw Mills and Lumber, Personal Sketches, Great Fire of 1881, Out of the Ashes, City Officers, City Finances, Township Histor y, Pere Marquette Township, Free Soil Township, - Summit Township, Lincoln Township, - Hamlin Township, Amber Township, Sherman Township, Riverton Township, - Grant Township, Victory Township, Branch Township, Eden Township,Custer Township, - Illustration 1 s. Allen, E. C., - Armstrong's, J. W., Block, Butters, Peters & Co.'s Mill, Cartier, A. E., Residence, Cartier, A. E. - Cartier, Mrs. A. E., Caswell, Robert, PAGE. 7 7 9 10 13 13 13 14 14 15 16 18 20 21 25 27 28 29 30 31 31 32 32 32 88 33 33 33 34 34 89 41 42 43 48 49 52 54 57 60 360 TO '70 70 71 71 72 73 73 74 74 75 76 76 77 77 Central High School, Danaher, P. M., Dowland, F. J., Dowland, F. J., Residence, Filer, Delos L., Filer, Frank, Residence, Filer House, Foley, James, Residence, Foster, E. A., Foster, E. A., Residence, Foster, J. N., Residence, Foster, L. H., Gebhardt's Block, Gibbs, Chancy, Residence, Gibbs, Chancy, Gibbs, Mrs. Chancy, Gibson, B. B., Residence, Goodsell, B. J., Goodsell, G., Residence, Lake House, Ludington, James, Ludington Boiler Works, Lyon, Thomas R., Agent, McMaster, Thomas P., Mason County Jail, Nickerson, E., Nickerson, Mrs. E., Scott, H. A., Residence, Staffon, Jacob, Stray, George N., Roby, George W., Ward, Capt. E. B., Bioglaplhies. Agens, Alexander M., Agens, Monroe A., Aldrich, Harlin, Alexander, Horace F., Allen, Eugene, Allen, Joshua, Anderson, Soren, Andrew, L. E., Andrews, Edwin, Armstrong, James A., Armstrong & Son, J. W., Baker, Lucius K., Barnett, Hiram, Bentley, Cassius M., Bethune, John, Bishop, Roswell P., Blain, Charles, Boerner, Charles, Booth, F. S., Boyd, James A., Brown, Capt. J. J., Brown, J. T., DBrown, Peter, Bush, William H., Butler, A. J., Butters, Horace, Carroll, Watson, Cartier, Antoine E., Cass, A. J., Caswell, Burr, Caswell, Capt. Robt., PAGE. 16 12 49 41 26 8 58 44 25 37 41 20 41 62 62 62 41 29 44 64 18 46 57 42 16 72 72 46 22 82 52 50 71 67 65 26 31 31 72 68 66 63 64 64 58 52 66 62 33 69 71 65 54 54 73 53 66 63 68 30 73 9 61 68 64 76 30 30 30 61 I T _--------------------------- - - --------------------------- _----- -- I~L

Page  4 I _ _ v r Biographies-Continued. Christensen, N. P., Clayton, George W., Cole, William B., - Compton, Robert J., Comstock, Edwin M., Cook, William E., Crawford, Charles H., Crowly, James, Cushway, William J., Danaher, James E., Danaher, Michael B., Danaher, Patrick M., Davies, Thomas E., Dempsey, Rev. Morgan J. P., Dowland, Frederick J., Drach, Adam, Dundass, Robert F., Eastman, Patrick C., Elliott, Otis A., Ewing, Peleg, Fairbanks, Robert, Fannon, John C., Farrell, J. M., Filer, Delos L., Filer, Frank, Fogg, Edmund H., Foley, James, Ford, Thomas, Foster, Edward A., Foster, Harry H., Foster, Prof. John N., Foster, Luther H., Fralick, Chas. H., - Gale, J. M., Gangnon, Edward, Gebhardt, C., Gibbs, Chancy, Gibson, Burnett B., Glazier, Dexter P., Goodsell, Bennett J., Goodsell, George, Griffin, John, Haight, Hon. Samuel D., Hansen, H. P., Hansen, M., - Harley, William, Hatfield, Richard, - Hawley, Lucius E., Hawley, Smith, - Henry, James V., Hergesell, A., - Herman, Franklin, Hewitt, Rev. Bertrand P., Heysett, William, Hill, Rev. Samuel N., Holmquist, M., Houk, J. B., Hudson, William G., Hull, Chas. W., - Hull, Myron D., Johnson, J. J., Keyes, Rev. Russell M., - Kiesewalter, William, Kistler, John G., Knowles, Frank S., Landt, Bendix P., Latimer, Dr. Frank N., Lloyd, J. S. Francis, Ludington, James, Lyon, Thomas R., McClatchie, George C., McCollum, Isaiah H., McConnell, Dr. A. P., McGrath, John, McKenzie, John, McMahon, George P., McMahon, Hon. James B., - -- PAGE. 68 25 43 53 78 73 64 53 67 63 66 20 66 36 20 67 31 52 64 63 69 68 53 26 62 52 63 68 26 68 42 21 65 68 66 68 62 49 65 29 64 75 61 68 68 75 70 49 72 26 69 75 39 64 37 67 72 67 75 75 76 36 69 72 67 65 65 77 18 62 72 64 63 73 66 65 48 McMaster, Thomas P., Marble, M: P., Marsh, E. W., Martin, Francis D., May, John A., Mendelson, Peter, Mitchell, C. E., Mitchell, John A., Moulton, Sewall, Nason, F. D., Neilan, Michael A., Neumann, Henry, Nickerson, Elihu, O'Connor, Patrick, - Ohland, Fred., Olson, Charles, Osborn, William, Palmiter, Anson, - Paquette, Joseph, Phalan, John, Phillips, J. F., Pierce, Frank B., Pierce, Newton B., Pomeroy, Paul, Powell, A. R., Ramsay, Charles H., Rasmussen, John P., Rasmussen, R., Rayne, Richard, Reed, Wallace W., - Reid, William M., Resseguie, Charles E., Rice, Orenzo, Roby, George W., - Roussin, L. W., Samuels, Hon. Daniel V., Sawyer, Charles T., Schrumpf, Jacob, - Scott, Harry A., Shackleton, Levi, - Shappee, Francis, Share, Richard, - Sherman, Charles G., Shorts, Philip P., - Silver, Fred. C., Smith, Augustus E., Smith, Frank H., Smith, Henry B., Smith, Luke A., Smith, Marshall G., Southworth, Dr. L. T., Spencer, A. G., Staffon, Jacob, Stanchfield, Hon. Oliver 0., Stanton, Calvin P., Stanton, Elmer E., Starr, Williard C. Stearns, J. S., Stitt, Joseph, Stray, George N., Surplice, William, Taylor, Oliver N., - Thompson, David M., Tracy, John F., - Tripp, Charles L., Tripp, George E., Van Sickle, John, Vogel, A., Ward, Capt. E. B., Ward, Louis, Weimer, Capt. George, Wheeler, Rollin R., White, Floyd, White, Joseph, White, Hon. Shubael F., Williams, W. H., - Wood, Isaac, Woodruff, John S., PAGE42 72 43 68 64 67 68 68 48 53 53 69 72 77 69 66 67 67 53 68 71 66 66 69 73 76 S 53 64 66 69 73 29 72 62 67 48 66 72 63 27 72 75 65 63 68 52 76 64 64 - 65 78 53 21 67 66 66 65 64 66 30 65 65 52 53 67 25 75 69 50 66 26 68 53 53 25 63 78 62 J L. -- 4= 1: --w ---- I e)p

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Page  5 I IF HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. PERIOD OF DISCOVERY. The history of exploration and civilization in the Northwest begins with the advent of the Jesuit missionaries. In 1641 a mission was established among the Chippewas, at the Sault, by Fathers Charles Raymbault and Isaac Jacques. This enterprise was soon after abandoned, and Indian wars following, no further attempt was made to establish missions among them until 1668, when Father James Marquette arrived at the Sault, and the following year, in connection with Father Doblon, built a church and planted the first permanent settlement made on the soil of Michigan. The early history of the Northwest can never be written without giving the French Jesuits an honored place on its pages. They were men of the highest order of refinement, learning and piety. Says Shea: "The missionaries who, step by step, threaded the network of lakes and rivers, not only reported the data which they obtained, and preserved them, but they gleaned from members of distant tribes statements as to the geography, fauna and mineralogy of the lands beyond. The holy errand upon which these self-sacrificing men came to the American wilds was to convert the Indians to Christianity and to bring them the blessings and comforts of civilization. Not a cape was turned nor a river entered but a Jesuit led the way." Their detailed records furnished the world with a historical legacy of incalculable value. Says Parkman: "Nowhere is the power of courage, faith and an unflinching purpose more strikingly displayed than in the record of these missions. " * Their virtues shine amidst the rubbish of error like diamonds and gold in the gravel of the torrent." One of the noblest of these noble men was Father James Marquette, whose name and fame are inseparably connected with Mason County. FATHER JAMES MARQUETTE. This illustrious Jesuit missionary was born in France, about the year 1637. His parents were people of high rank, and althoughl his early life was surrounded with all the luxuries and gaieties that wealth and high social rank could command, he abandoned them all and subordinated himself to the strict and hard discipline of the life of the Jesuits. He was highly gifted by nature, and his proficiency as a linguist was so great that in a few years after coming among the Indians he learned to speak six different Indian languages fluently. He was never physically robust, but his fervor of devotion to the cause of Christianity and his intense zeal inspired him with almost superhuman energy, and toil and privation in the Master's cause he esteemed a joy. He was one of those saintly characters that belong to a past age, and his transcendant loveliness of character, and the sublimity of his faith, his sincerity and courageous daring, must ever command the admiration of all who learn the story of his life and death. The Jesuits selected none but the bravest and purest for the American missions, and when he was chosen for one he embraced the opportunity to take up the hard lot of a life among the savage tribes of tile American wilds with the greatest delight. ^C (s--~-- He chose Canada as the field of his labors, and was early transferred to the remotest of the missionary outposts on Lake Superior. This was about 1668. In 1669 he was joined at the Sault by Father Doblon, and a church was built. This was the first permanent settlement on the soil of Michigan. He had heard, in his-intercourse with the "Illinois," of a great river flowing through grassy plains, on which grazed countless herds of buffalo, and he felt a strong desire to explore it and preach the gospel to the savage tribes that dwelt upon its banks. In 1673 he started upon his voyage of discovery, accompanied by Louis Joliet, a native of Quebec, and an agent of the French government. The outfit consisted of two bark canoes, seven men, including Marquette and Joliet, and a quantity of Indian corn and dried meat. The duration of the voyage none could foresee; its hardships and sufferings found no place in their calculations. On the 17th of May, 1673, they set out from the Mission of St. Ignatius, at Michilimackinac. They passed along the coast of Lake Michigan and finally reached Green Bay. From there they ascended the Fox River, passed through Lake Winnebagd, threaded the sluggish stream beyond it to the Portage; then crossing the water-shed, the canoes were re-embarked, and they floated down the Wisconsin River to its mouth. This was on the 17th day of June that the broad current of the Mississippi greeted their delighted vision. From this point they floated down the Mississippi as far as the mouth of the Arkansas, and being satisfied with the result of their voyage in this direction, they decided to return. Reaching the mouth of the Illinois River, they ascended that stream, and were conducted by Indian guides to the Chicago River, descending which they entered Lake Michigan, and, in the latter part of September, again reached Green Bay, having been absent four months. Marquette, being afflicted with consumption, remained at this point until October of the following year, when, with two white companions and a company of Indians, he again coasted along the western shore, and ascended the Chicago River, a short distaince from the mouth of which they encamped for the Winter, Marquette being too feeble to proceed farther. In March, 1675, they proceeded on their journey down the Illinois, but returned in about a month, and started along the east coast of Lake Michigan. On the 19th of May he felt that the seal of death was upon him and that his last hour was rapidly, approaching. The warm breath of Spring fanned his cheek as he lay prostrate in his canoe, but it could not revive him. He told his companions that he was soon to leave them, and as they were passing the mouth of the river that now bears his name, he asked the men to land. Tenderly they bore him to the bank of the stream, and constructed a shed of bark for his shelter. With the greatest cheerfulness and composure he gave directions as to the mode of his burial, and instructed his companions in the duties of life, and expressed his fervent gratitude to them for their devoted kindness. As night came on-he requested them to sleep, assuring them that he would call them when he felt the death hour arrive. A few hours after they heard his feeble - ~ ~ ~ ~ - --

Page  6 - -A:ýJ 8 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. voice, and hastening to his side, found him at the point of dissolution. Upon the bank of the river, and near the waters of the great lake, they dug his grave, as he had directed, and then pursued their way to Michilimackinac. This was on the 18th of May, 1675. In 1676 a party of Ottawas, being in the vicinity, disinterred the remains and placed them in a birch box. They were then escorted in a procession of thirty canoes to St. Ignace, where they were deposited beneath the floor of the old mission chapel, in which the good man had so often administered the rites of the religion he had so nobly honored and so faithfully taught. In religion Marquette was a Roman Catholic, yet he is the property of no single denomination. He belongs to history, and his name and virtues will be forever associated with the history of the Northwest. His race of duty was nobly run. To save the soul of a fellow mortal was more to him than all else, and sacred are the associations which cluster about the spot where he breathed his last prayer, and his worn-out body was laid at rest. MARQUETTE'S GRAVE. The exact location of the spot where Marquette died and was buried has been a subject of some controversy, and numerous patches of soil have been moistened by the tears of admiring pilgrims who supposed they were weeping over the grave of the illustrious missionary. A few years ago a gentleman visiting Ludington was shown a spot where it was claimed Marquette was buried, but the stranger said he had shed tears over the same grave in so many different places that he should be constrained to do the remainder of his mourning in a general way. It is still believed by some that he was buried near where the Filer mill is now located. At this point is an old Indian burying-ground, and some are of the opinion that a landing was made near where the mill stands, and that his grave was made upon the little eminence a few rods back. A few years ago a party of Roman Catholics came here, and placing a cross temporarily upon this spot, had a photographic view taken of it, to represent the burial-place of the great missionary. A thorough examination of all the information obtainable does not seem to sustain the opinion that he was buried at that place. The channel of the river at that time was just north of the bluff which rises abruptly a short distance south of where the Taylor mill is now situated. This bluff is a short distance north of the Filer mill. All accounts are that the party landed at the mouth of the river, probably entering the channel just enough to make a landing. The shed of bark was made upon the shore, and by it his grave was made. The Indian tradition is that his grave was at this point, near the bluff. It was at this point that the Indians visited his grave. At one time a very large cross was erected, and the tradition is that as the cross decayed a cedar sapling grew up, and that in after years the waves of Lake Michigan washed the sapling and the grave away. The Indian tradition is more authentic than any other information that can be obtained, and the version here given is from the lips of " Good John," the last survivor of the Ottawas, who inhabited the Indian village at this place. In addition to this evidence is the testimony of an old Frenchman who worked for Burr Casweil, soon after he settled here. This Frenchman was brought up at Mackinaw, and he used to relate to Mr. Caswell, how that, when a boy, he came with a boat's crew and a Catholic priest, and they put up a cross on the spot where they supposed Marquette to have beenburied. The cross was erected on the bank of the channel near the bluff, as before described. This must have been some time prior to 1820. It is said that before his death Marquette predicted that the channel of the river would some time change, but there is probably no genuine authority for this statement, as the Indians knew nothing of any such prediction. Marquette requested that his remains be some time removed to St. Ignace, as they afterwards were, for there was the mission he had helped to found, and it was to that point he was hastening, when death overtook him on the way. But at whatever exact spot his grave was dug is a matter of minor importance. It was upon the bank of this river that the life of the good man was ended; here his last prayer was uttered, and the stillness of that night in May was broken only by his benedictions, and the grief-sobs of his bereaved comrades as they laid him tenderly away. The circumstance has made the place forever one of historic interest, and here his name will be perpetuated. VILLAGE OF THE OTTAWAS. From the death of Marquette down to the advent of the first permanent white settler, in 1847, the local history of the territory now included in Mason County is quickly told. The entire area was covered with timber, save here and there small openings, which in more recent years were cultivated by Indians in their rude way. The Indian name of the lake and river, afterwards named Pere Marquette, was Not-a-pe-ka-gon, meaning a "river with heads on sticks:" Very many years ago an encampment of Indians on the lake was nearly exterminated by a band of Pottawotamie Indians, coming from the south. The heads of the slain were severed from their bodies and placed on sticks; hence the'name. For a great many years prior to the settlement by white men, there was an Indian village located near where the Caswell farm is situated. This village consisted of wigwams built of bark, and about fifty in number. The inhabitants of this village were a tribe of Ottawas. They raised some corn and potatoes, but their main occupation was fishing and hunting. The last chief of this tribe was Sog-e-maw, who died about 1845, and was buried in the old Indian burying-ground, where the apple tree planted by " Good John's " grandmother is still standing. This was their buryingground for many years, but at last the Indians became alarmed lest the waters of the lake should wash the graves away, and about 1847 they changed their burial place to the ground near the Filer mill. The Ottawas who lived here were peaceably disposed and obtained some of the notions of civilized life from white traders and trappers who came among them. In matters of dress they tried to adopt the fashions of the whites, as far as the partially civilized Indian tastes will permit. It was not an uncommon sight to see the young men fantastically arrayed in plug hats, black coats and such of their native apparel as they deemed necessary to complete a gorgeous outfit. The name of this Indian village was Nin-de-be-ka-tun-ning, which means "a place of skulls." Toward 1847 the sounds of advancing civilization reached the ears of the Indians, and soon they heard that the Government intended to send them away somewhere into another country. About the year 1848 they abandoned their village and scattered hither and thither. SThe only survivor of the tribe of Ottawas that inhabited this place is now living on a small farm near the village of Custer, and is known by the name of "GOOD JOHN." His Indian name is Naw-gone-ko-ung, which means "Leading Thunder." He was born at the Indian village here about the year 1807. His father, Gee-gush, died when John was ten or twelve years of age, and was buried in the old burying-ground. He is a cousin of the Indian chief Sog-e-maw. His early life was spent in Indian pursuits, and after the village was abandoned he remained j No - zz- - L

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Page  9 -4~11~ HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. 9 k in this vicinity, and in course of time took a homestead of forty acres of land in Riverton Township. This he afterwards sold and took the homestead where he now lives, in Eden. Some years ago he was converted to Christianity, and joined the Methodist Church, and has since that time preached more or less among the Indians. He now remains like a sturdy oak, the only relic of a forest that has been swept away. He is of striking appearance, and while no longer in robust health, is straight as an arrow, and his step is as elastic as that of youth. His head is covered with long, straight hair, now nearly white, and falling almost to his- shoulders. He speaks but little English, but in his native tongue is versatile and eloquent. His memory is quick and accurate, and his statements authentic. He is of quiet disposition, and the early white settlers with whom he has been acquainted, he regards with that strong friendship so proverbial among his people. They have always been his friends, and he is ever welcome at their homes. His face is toward the "happy hunting grounds," whither his kindred have gone before him. His faith in the religion of the Bible is sublime in its simplicity, and more powerful than all the dogmas and creeds of cultured theology. He lives alone in his cabin, but there are plenty to bestow friendly kindnesses when they are needed. APPEARANCE OF THE FIRST WHITE SETTLER. In June, 1840, Joseph L. Wheeler entered a portion of the lake fronts, on Pere Marquette Lake, and in 1844 John H. Harris entered thirty-seven acres at what is now called Free Soil Mills. Inl 1847, Joseph Boyden entered seventy-two acres fronting on Pere Marquette Lake, and the same year, Charles Mears made his first entries of land at what is now called Lincoln. Some time in 1845 or 1846, a man named Porter built a small mill at Free Soil Mills, and operated it for a little while. It afterwards burned down, and was not rebuilt until 1855, when Freeman and Hopkins had it rebuilt, and Mr. S. K. Hutchinson came there in their employ to help rebuild it. When Mr. Hutchinson came there in 1855, there were but two persons living in that vicinity, a white man, named Hopkins, and a negro woman, who had been his father's slave in Missouri. The region about Pere Marquette had been visited by white men, who came to hunt, fish and trade with the Indians for many years. As early as 1835, William Quivillon came here to trade with the Indians, but went away again, and did not return until 1850 to remain, and in 1852 entered his farm, in what is now Summit Township. As early as 1846 there were white men temporarily employed up the Pere MIarquette River, getting out shingles. The Norburgs had a cabin up the river and were employed in this way. In 1845 Burr Caswell came to Pere Marquette, and spent two seasons, most of the time fishing. One Winter he spent at Pentwater. In July, 1847, he entered the farm, which he still owns, and which is situated a short distance south of the Filer Mill. He immediately brought his family here and settled upon his land. It is held by some that the first settlement by white man within the limits of what is now Mason County, was at Free Soil Mills. The operations at that point in 1845 or 1846, however, could hardly be called the beginning of a permanent settlement, as the mill built at about that time was only operated a short time, and after it burned nothiing more was done until 1855, while at Pere Marquette a permanent settlement was begun in 1847, and for two years previous to that time white men were at work in the woods on the river. There is no doubt but that the first actual white settler within the limits of what is now Mason County was BURR CASWELL. He was born at Glens Falls, in the State of New York, in January, 1807. At an early age he learned the cabinet trade in his native village, and followed it for several years. In 1837 he was married at Glens Falls to Miss Hannah Green. They remained at that place for a time, and then made several changes in the next few years. His health becoming poor, lie tried trading on the lower Mississippi, and then came to Illinois and bought a farm in Lake County, where he lived six years. In 1845 lie came to the region of Pere Marquette, as before stated, and in 1847 returned here with his family, which at that time consisted of himself and wife and four children, two girls and two boys. The girls were Helen and Mary, who afterwards married, the former Sewall Moulton, and the latter Richard Hatfield. The boys were George A. and Edgar B. Caswell. George died in 1868, and Edgar still resides in Ludington. Mr. Caswell built a house of drift lumber, and began life among his dusky neighbors. He improved his farm as rapidly as possible, and worked some at lumbering. The Indians at once took a liking to him and were always his friends, ever ready to do him any favor or act of kindness. He remained on his farm until the death of his wife, in February, 1870, when lie moved to Ludington, and had charge of a shingle mill for a time. In 1871 he was again married to Mrs. Sarah Billings, and in 1873 he was given charge of the light-house at Big Point Sauble, and where he still remains. Nothing could be wilder and more uncivilized than the surroundings of the first family of white settlers. Their home was in the midst of dense wilderness, their neighbors a tribe of Ottawa Indians. There were two or three white men at work up the river, but there were no white settlers nearer than Manistee. *The Indians introduced Mr. Caswell into the mysteries of their religious rites, and were as friendly to the family as possible for them to be. Soon after Mr. Caswell settled here the Indians changed their burying-ground to the spot near where the Filer mill now stands. The spot was enclosed with high pickets, and at night the Indians brought food, tobacco, pipes and trinkets, and placed upon the graves of their friends, for the use of spirits, which they believed returned at night. It was during 1848 that the Indian village was abandoned. The friction of a busy age is rapidly wearing away the green roofs of these early graves, and disclosing the skeletons and trinkets buried by the aborigines. The old apple tree planted by "Good John's" grandmother a century ago, still remains a faithful sentinel of historic ground, and a relic of days forever passed. In 1849 Thomas Secor entered forty acres at Free Soil mills, and the same year Messrs. Baird and Bean built the mill at Pere Marquette, which ultimately came into possession of James Ludington. The building of this mill was the beginning of business at Pere Marquette. About this time Charles Mears began operations at Black Creek, now called Lincoln. A log house an I blacksmith shop were first built. The dam that had been built was partially carried away in 1850, and work on the mill in process of construction delayed, so that it was not completed until 1851. In 1850 other white settlers began to come to Pere Marquette. Richard Hatfield, Daniel and Delos Holmes, J. F. Phillips, William Quivillon, William Woodard, and possibly one or two others came about this time, and most of them worked about the mill or at logging. Chas. W. King came soon after. In 1851 the mill was operated by Farnsworth & Bean. ji ---7-- I '- L

Page  10 I 06 ---~ 2 j 10 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. I From 1851 to 1855 the mills at Pere Marquette and Black Creek, now Lincoln, gave employment to a number of men during the Summer, who during the Winter followed fishing. The few settlers who bought land, located on what is known as the Clay Banks. COUNTY ORGANIZATION. Mason County was erected by act of Legislature at the session of 1855. Under that act, Manistee, Mason and Oceana Counties were organized out of Ottawa County. The county of Mason comprised Townships 17, 18, 19 and 20, north, of each of the Ranges numbered 15, 16, 17 and 18 west, and the unorganized Counties of Lake and Osceola were attached to Mason County for judicial purposes. Until the organization of Mason County, the settlers here never had a vote, there being no township organization. The County was divided into three townships, viz: Free Soil, Little Sable and Pere Marquette. The first county election was held April 2, 1855. The whole number of votes polled was forty-one. The number of votes cast for each candidate was as follows: For sheriff, Daniel Holmes, 24; W. H. Morrison, 17. For clerk and register, George B. Roys, 26; Thomas Caine, 15. For treasurer, E. G. Farnum, 41. For coroner, W. Quivillon, 41. For county surveyor, John P. Sedan, 25. For judge of probate, A. D. Hopkins, 17; Burr Caswell, 22. For fish inspector, Burr Caswell, 15. The Board of Canvassers was composed of Hiram Orser, Thos. Anderson and George B. Roys, clerk. The first annual meeting of the Board of Supervisors was held at Little Sable, October 8, 1855. The first official business transacted was an order to borrow $27 of Charles Mears. Another order, that one Timothy Fletcher be engaged to transfer records from the books of Ottawa County, provided he would wait a certain length of time for his pay, closed the business of the first session of the Board. The business of the second session was of a financial character. Richard Hatfield having interviewed three certain wolves with fatal results, was voted $24, as bounty. The first struggle of the supervisors with the problem of public highways was at their annual meeting in October, 1863, when the sum of $200 was ordered to be levied and was appropriated to construct and repair what was known as the Lake Shore Road, for a distance of about five miles on the south end of the road. Mr. Sewall Moulton was appointed a commissioner to expend the money. COUNTY SEAT. At a special meeting of the Board of Supervisors, held November 11, 1856, it was ordered that the county seat be located on the northwest quarter of the southeast quarter of Section 27, Town 18, north of Range 18, west. This was on the Burr Caswell farm, and a frame building was used as court house. In those days Judge Littlejohn held court here. Judge and lawyers used to come on horseback, and stop at Mr. Caswell's. Charles Mears was proprietor of Little Sable, now called Lincoln, and was anxious for the removal of the county seat to that place. He used his influence to that end, and in May, 1860, the Board voted to submit to a vote of the people a proposition to remove the county seat to Little Sable. The proposition was voted upon and carried at the Fall election, and in JTanuary, 1861, the removal took place. The change was never satisfactory to the people of the south part of the county, and after the Record was started at Ludington, in 1867, the matter was more publicly discussed. At this time the list of county officers was of rather remarkable makeup, as follows: Judge of Probate, W. T. Croxson, Hamlin. Supervisor of Hamlin, W. T. Croxson, Hamlin. County Surveyor, W. T. Croxson, Hamlin. Prosecuting Attorney, D. S. Harley, Lincoln. Deputy County Treasurer, D. S. Harley, Lincoln. County Clerk, John Wallace, Lincoln. Register, John Wallace, Lincoln. The people in the south part of the county felt aggrieved at having the county affairs monopolized to such an extent, and there was continual friction for several years. As Ludington increased in population and business importance, the question of removing the county seat to that place was more earnestly discussed. Public meetings were held, and at last, in 1873, the proposition to remove the county seat to Ludington was submitted to a vote of the people, and carried by a large majority. For a number of years after the organization of the county, the county offices were run at an expense of $225 a year. The early records are very meagre, especially of township matters. Many of the early records have been lost or destroyed by fire, and in a good many instances no records were preserved. The present court house was dedicated January 12, 1874. Public dedicatory exercises were held, at which Judge Shubtel F. White delivered an address, and speeches were made by Messrs. Fitch, Haight, Wheeler, Sutherland and Ewell, of the bar, and also by Daniel Prindle, one of the oldest farmers in Amber Township, L. H. Foster, N. L. Bird, and others. REPORT OF BUILDING COMMITTEE. The committee having charge of the erection of the new courthouse was composed of N. L. Bird, F. F. Hopkins, W. A. Bailey, Malon Abbey and B. J. Goodsell. Their report to the Board of Supervisors was as follows: "Your committee, who were entrusted with the important and responsible duty of erecting upon the county grounds in this city a fire-proof building for county offices, according to a plan adopted by your body, beg leave to report as follows: Immediately after the close of that session of the Board, the committee set about securing specific plans, and advertised for proposals to erect said buildings. After due consideration, and for the purpose of giving the most general satisfaction, as your committee believed, and bringing the cost of the work within the amount appropriated by this Board for the same, the committee determined to construct, for the present, but two vaults, instead of four, as contemplated in the plan adopted by the Board, thus leaving a room for the purposes of the Circuit Court and meetings of the Board of Supervisors, and leaving the building in such shape that the other two vaults could be put in at any future time when it was deemed necessary. Your committee, after receiving a number of proposals in various forms, let the contract for furnishing all the material and completing the building for the sum of $5,450, that being the lowest bid, and took good and sufficient bonds to the amount of $6,000. The committee afterwards expended the remaining $50 in extra work in and about the building, not contemplated in the original plan, but deemed necessary to its completion in a proper manner. "Your honorable body, at a subsequent meeting, empowered your committee to make a further expenditure of the sum set apart as a building fund for the purpose of erecting an outbuilding, fencing the grounds, and putting stoves and other necessary furniture into the building, and paying the discount on certain orders issued to the contractor. I--~ - -- 4 1,4

Page  11 4 - -Li wwww7Z 1 ~ L~L ~c HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. 11 "The amounts expended by your committee for various purposes are as follows: "For fire-proof building................................. $5,500 00 " Stoves, pipe and zinc................................. 103 40 " Outbuildings and walks.................. 140 00 " Tables and desk....................................... 57 s0 " Shelves in clerk's vault.............................. 25 00 " Fence......................................... 128 00 Platforms, etc., in court room....................... 30 82 Discount on orders.................................... 120 00 " Carpet on platform in court room................... 5 25 " Wood, etc........................................... Total....................................,127 11" Immediately after the organization of the county, prisoners were taken to the Ottawa County Jail, at Grand Haven, and the Manistee jail was also used. Afterwards a frame building was erected for a county jail, and this was used until the completion of the present brick building, in 1879. The present jail is in a large brick building, which also contains the sheriff's residence. It is a substantial structure, built at an expense of about $9,000. A view of this building appears on another page. CIRCUIT COURT. The first term of the Circuit Court held in Mason County began September 21, 1858, Hon. F. J. Littlejohn presiding. The first recorded business of the Court was to allow the application of Jeremiah F. Phillips, a justice of the peace, for the allowance of $15.37 for the expense of disposing of a dead stranger. At this first term of the court William H. Parks was appointed prosecuting attorney for the county; the jail in Ottawa County was designated as the jail for the confinement of prisoners until otherwise ordered. John W. Miller, upon application, was examined and admitted to the bar, and appointed circuit court commissioner. Having disposed of this business without prejudice or partiality, the court adjourned without day. In 1866 Judge Littlejohn was succeeded by Hon. J. G. Ramsdell, of Manistee. In the Winter of 1873 this judicial district was divided, and Hon. ShubTel F. Whie was elected circuit judge for the new district. Judge White resigned in 1874, and Hon. Harrison H. Wheeler was appointed to fill out the unexpired term, and at the end of that time was elected for another term. He served until 1878, when he resigned. Hon. A. V. McAlvey was appointed as his successor. He was succeeded by Hon. Samuel D. Haight, who was elected in the Fall of 1878, and served until his death, in February, 1881. He was succeeded by Hon. J. Byron Judkins, who is still on the bench. PROBATE COURT. The first term of probate court for Mason County was held at Lincoln, beginning on the 6th day of June, 1864. Prior to thlat time there appears to have been no particular facilities for contesting wills, or prolonging family troubles arising from inherited wealth. There is, however, nothing upon record, nor abiding in the memory of the oldest inhabitant, going to show that any unusual suffering was experienced on account of the meager "courting" facilities of those early days. The first Probate Judge elected in the county was Burr Caswell, but there appears to have been no occasion for any records until 1864. At that time N. L. Bird was judge of probate. The business of the first term of his court was the appointment of an administrator of the estate of Noble C. Woodard, deceased. Judge Bird was succeeded, in 1865, by Sewall Moulton, who was succeeded in 1867 by William T. Croxson. He was succeeded in 1869 by Washington Weldon, who was succeeded in 1873 by Marshall D. Ewell, and he by C. G. Wing, in 1875. Judge Wing held the office until 1881, when he was succeeded by Hon. James B. McMahon, whose term is not yet expired. TIMBER, SOIL AND RIVERS. The territory included within the limits of the county was rich in resources andl in its productive qualities. The eastern portion of the county was heavily timbered with pine, and embraced some of the finest pine timber to be found in the state. Running through the central portion of the county from north to south, and extending in many places near to the shore, was a strip of land covered with beech, maple and other valuable timber. The soil producing this hardwood timber is different from the beech and maple land of southern Michigan or Ohio, being a black sandy loam, mingled with clay. It is highly productive, strong and durable, and much more easily cultivated than the heavier clay soils farther south. The county has numerous inland lakes of various sizes, which abound in fish, and the Pere Marquette River, with its north and south branches, the Little and Big Sable Rivers, with their numerous tributaries, together with branches of the Manistee and Pentwater Rivers, which traverse the county, furnish an ample supply of water, both for lumbering and agricultural purposes. The surface of the county is rolling, but less uneven than in the counties on either side. THE PERE MARQUETTE RIVER. The Indian name of this river was Not-a-pe-ka-gon, meaning a "river with heads on sticks." In the Indian battle described elsewhere, the victors cut off the heads of the slain and placed them on sticks; hence the name. Probably no more comprehensive and accurate description of the Pere Marquette River and the country through which it runs, can be given than is contained in some extracts, published in 1869, of an account written by A. S. Wadsworth, of the Michigan Geological Survey. They are as follows: The spring sources of the Pere Marquette River, of Lower Peninsula, Mich., are mostly in hard wood land, but changing to pine land near the west boundary of Range 11 west; light sandy soil, covered with inferior white pine, unmistakably "punky," some Norway pine, small size, sound. As we range west from the last named boundary, we again enter beech and maple land of great fertility, with some scattering cork pine of the best quality. Through Ranges 13, 14, 15 and 16 west, Townships 15, 16, 17 and 18 north, covering an area of 576 square miles, and drained by the Pere Marquette River, is a region unsurpassed by any portion of the state, in quality of soil, timber and climate, abounding in springs and spring brooks, marl, clay and lime-stone for building or other purposes. A small portion of this area is pine hind, and most of this gives a large yield of first quality white pine. When our esti mates are safe at one and one-half millions feet per forty-acre lot, it means pine; lmany forty-acre lots that I have examined above the forks, will scale this amount each, with a large per cent of upper qualities. Trees tall to first limbs, large girth, free from punk knots, few shaky or hollow butts, or black knots, prime as to age, and much of it growing in hard wood land, where there is little danger from fires; easy down grades and short hauling to Pere Marquette River, either branch of which above the forks is a spring brook stream but little affected by drouth, freshet or frost; the north fork floatable for sawlogs eighteen miles above the forks, the south branch for twelve miles, airline; some flat rollways, but generally precipitous. There is but little swampy land in this district, except upon the Beaver Creek, of south fork. The swamps are not dead " cat holes," but have spring brQok drainage; affording abundance of rail timber, and ultimately meadow lands inexhaustible in richness for generations, from the underlying deposit of shell marl, 1 L? I 1 I Fý9 - __ r

Page  12 .4.-' 12 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. that for frequency, richness and extent, I believe are unequaled in the State. The hard wood land of this district is timbered with sugar maple, beech, elm, basswood, ash, etc.; in some places hilly, generally level or gently rolling; soil a chocolate colored loam with a large per cent of metanmorphic lime gravel; in some places clay; elevated from one to three hundred feet above the level of Lake Michigan. These townships are being occupied by an enterprising class of settlers. I found in some localities the New England element prevalent; other districts are settled principally by immigrants from New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Southern Michigan. Universal thrift and contentment prevail among them. In the first year of settlement is heard the crash of falling forest trees; the next, they " grub "the stumps for roads and sites of churches and school houses, and are obliged to send abroad for help to secure the abundant harvests. This is no fancy sketch, but facts, gleaned from personal observation. On October 15, in front of our encampment, was a ripened field of Ohio yellow dent corn, with well filled ears. Its owner, Mr. Hall, informed me that this field of twenty acres was cleared last season; that it had not been plowed; the corn planted with an ax; estimated yield, sixty bushels per acre. The soil of this region is rich in humus, and in argillaceous and calcareous elements; a first rate wheat soil. Query: Are not these lands worth as much per acre as the lands of Western New York, where, through large districts, wheat culture is abandoned from exhaustion of the needed mineral constituents of the soil? The settlement here is but begun; hundreds of square miles are untouched by the settler's ax, where deciduous forest trees are luxuriating in a rich, virgin soil. As to the salubrity of the climate, I would say that any region in this latitude that, when first denuded of its timber, cannot afford fever and ague, is not worth settling, A mild type of this disease (not dangerous) prevails to some extent among the settlers. These cases will be less frequent when, in the progress of settlement, more perfect drainage is secured, and when there is less decomposition below the surface, and more growing crops above it. Above the forks above named are extensive rapids, and a few valuable water powers; below the forks the stream is less rapid, and will be used to some extent for navigable purposes, when not monopolized by the log and timber interests. The fruit belt through Mason County has a better soil than most of the land bordering upon the eastern shore of Lake Michigan, the hard-wood land extending to the " clay banks " south of the harbor. As we emerged from the dense maple groves, and pitched our tents upon this bold eminence, two hundred feet above the level of Lake Michigan, the view was truly grand. Looking out upon this inland sea, whitened with the wings of commerce, in the golden sunset of an October evening, the mind naturally takes in adjacent States, where piercing prairie winds and fickle climate forbid fruit raising. They may flow with milk, they may raise bees, but they must look to Michigan for timber, for fruits and vines. The demands of civilized humanity will clothe these hills with vines and fruit trees bending beneath Pomona's richest treasures. DELOS L. FILER S LETTER. In October, 1870, IDelos L. Filer wrote a letter to the Detr'oit.Post anl Tribune, as follows: "In your paper of the 15th inst., I see T. B. Brooks, assistant in the charge of the survey of the Marquette iron region, propounds questions and solicits answers in relation to hardwood timbered lands in the Lower Peninsula. I think by sending your paper a description of Mason County it will enlighten the public more than in any other manner. "Mason County contains about ten entire townships of hard wood timbered land. The timber is largely beech and maple; some hemlock and elm. The area is not less than 230,000 acres. It will average not less than fifty-five cords per acre. The soil is largely clay loam. "The Pere Marquette River runs nearly through the center of the tract, and is navigable through the entire width of said tract for small steamboats, there being not less than three feet in depth of water at the lowest stage. It empties into the Pere Marquette Lake. "The water of the Pere Marquette Lake is of sufficient depth for any vessels navigating the lakes. The harbor is very good, and by an expenditure of $75,000 can be made equal to any on Lake Michigan. There is not less than nine feet of water in the shallowest place, and the distance between the Pere Marquette Lake and Lake Michigan, is about 1,200 feet. "The Government has expended about $65,000 on this harbor, and, I think, $75,000 more, judiciously used, would make at least fourteen feet in depth between the two lakes. The distance from Escanaba to this place is about 120 miles. This harbor is easy of access in any winds. Pere Marquette, or Ludington, is situated between Little Point Au Sauble on the south, and Big Point Au Sauble on the north. These points extend so far into Lake Michigan that they break the heavy seas from the south and north. Vessels bound to the lower lakes, to Mijwaukee or Chicago, would not have to make more than ten or fifteen miles out of their course to touch here. "There is a large quantity of pine timber, not less than 3,000,000,000 feet, on the Pere Marquette River, which must largely be manufactured on Pere Marquette Lake. We now have mills of sufficient capacity to manufacture 50,000,000 feet during the season of navigation. The Pere Marquette Lumber Company has reserved the south shore of the Pere Marquette Lake for blast furnaces and iron works; this reservation was made under the supervision and advice of Capt. E. B. Ward, of Detroit. "The village of Ludington is fast growing up around Pere Marquette Lake. We already have 1,200 inhabitants, a gain of about 800 during the past year. "There is being constructed toward this place the Chicago & Michigan Lake Shore Railroad, which is expected to be completed to this point next year. This is also supposed to be the western terminus of the Flint & Pere Marquette Railroad, which is being constructed. "The Pere Marquette Lumber Company offers to donate to any company who may wish to build blast furnaces and iron works sufficient grounds for a site. Capt. E. B. Ward said he knew of no other place in the Northwest affording equal advantages for blast furnaces and plate-iron rolling mills. "The Engelmann Transportation Company's steamers stop at this place daily. We have two boats per day; one goes south to Grand Haven and one north to Manistee, and every other day a boat from Milwaukee, touching at Pentwater, Ludington and Manistee, returning the same day." AN EDITOR S OPINION. Tim editor of the Record published thle following opinion ill the issue of iDecenmber 25, 1872. Speaking of Mason County, he said: "Mason County has more good farming lands than ally of its neighboring shore counties, extending entirely through the county from north to south, and from within one to three miles of the shore of Lake Michigan, nearly to the east line of the county, in some parts reaching quite to the shore of the lake. These are heavy timbered lands, the soil of which varies from a heavy clay to a rich, black, sandy loam with clay subsoil. These lands are unsurpassed for fertility, and are at present being rapidly improved, though their development has, as yet, but fairly begun.

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Page  13 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. 13 "The settlement of our farming lands has been carried on under disadvantageous circumstances, that neighboring counties were not compelled to contend with. They are these: The Railroad Land Grant took out of the market every other section of land, and doubled the government price of the remainder. Homesteaders, too, within these railroad limits, were allowed to locate but eighty acres, while they could just as easily secure twice the amount in other localities. The Indian Reservation, also, has still reduced the.amount of available lands by two geographical townships." AGRICULTURE. REV. S. N. HILL. This county has been condemned by a great many parties, who have seen only the pine forests and sandy bluffs. We have heard traveling-men denounce the farmers as fools for attempting to make a farm here instead of on a prairie soil. Yet, this county is rapidly becoming a rich resource to the city of Ludington. It is found to be very productive. The pine timber is rapidly diminishing, but there remains a great supply of valuable forests, as hemlock, elm, maple, ash and cedar. The soil is diversified with light sand, sandy loam, marsh, muck and clay, all of which is productive when thoroughly worked and seeded according to its producing qualities. All varieties yield a good grass crop. Wheat will harvest from twenty-five to forty bushels per acre. All vegetables and roots grow thriftily under thorough cultivation. Deep plowing with clover converts sand into a rich sandy loam. Draining will soon be an effective method of increasing the fertility of the soil: it will make the low portions tillable, and the high sandy portions productive. The county is quite favorable for fruit. Apples, plums, cherries, pears and strawberries are successfully produced. The whole county is well watered upon the surface by streams, and at a moderate depth the quality of the water is very pure. The general slope of the surface is towards Lake Michigan. The outlet of all the rivers along the eastern coast of Lake Michigan is a lake, because sand-bars are formed by westerly winds. Some mineral springs appear in different localities. The healthfulness of the climate is good, having pure air from the lake; malarial diseases are only moderately prevalent. The improvement of farms is now very rapid, with satisfactory results. The pine lands are not as desirable at present for farms as the hard timbered portions, because the stumps are more difficult to remove. The railroad lands are held at a higher price than is common for wild land; hence they have not been as readily taken, but now are finding frequent purchasers. The market for all productions in the city of Ludington and in the lumber camps-is of the first class, and is a great encouragement to the farmers. They are prospering. New buildings and fences are every where the evidence of prosperity. The industrious and thorough farmer is prospering in every part of the county; very few of these farmers commenced with any capital, but ten or fifteen years of industry and economy finds them free from debt. Many of them have been greatly assisted by their large wages during the Winter in the lumber-camps. Very few early settlements have been as rapidly converted from the heavy forest into productive farms and comfortable homes, as Mason County and the adjoining counties of the lumber district. It is an error that the lumbering is a damage to the farming. Except for the aid of lumbering many of these farms would still be wilderness. Many farmers, by the aid of Winter work, are now prosperous. Mason County is developing her resources. Here is a fine harbor, great lumber supplies, the city of Ludington as a permanient market, railroad advantages, new villages along the railroads, productiveness of soil, pure air, abundance of water, general industry, ~. _ _____ _ educational and Christian institutions, which are rapidly bringing her up to be a thrifty and wealthy portion of the State. CLIMATE AND HEALTH. BY REV. S. N. HILL. These are important factors of history. Atmospheric conditions are a constant force in the human system. Mental and physical vigor are active agents in enterprise. Heat, vapor, wind, season, and chemical gases modify the circulation and secretions of the body. Physical temperament and climate can be favorably adjusted. Along the lake shore of this county the extremes of heat and cold are less than they are ten miles back from the lake. During the open season there is generally a lake breeze, charged with the purest vapor. These winds dissipate any local miasma. The county at large has but little producing cause of intermittent fevers or miasmatic ague, except from the breaking up of new land and draining small marshes. The outlets of streams are not stagnant. The subsoil, being generally sandy, affords an active drainage. The sawdust about the mills and streets does not decompose rapidly, and when undisturbed, exhales no injurious or unpleasant gas. The drainage of the county is peculiarily good. Pure water prevails at the depth of ten to twenty feet. In a few localities water near the surface has a tincture of iron. The atmosphere, during most of the year, is profuse with moisture. The larger portion of the state has a moist air compared with western and mountainous states. This damp air requires special protection of the body. Thin clothing, evening dew, damp rooms, and sitting in a breeze have far more of risk in a moist atmosphere than in a dry climate. This dampness, unguarded, induces bilious attacks by causing irregularity of secretory action. Rheumatic difficulties, catarrh, asthma, and bronchial irritation, are, by neglect, produced. But with judicious protection the county is very healthy, and the people are vivacious and vigorous. Contagious diseases are similar in all climates. Measles, whoopingcough, mumps, and scarlet fever visit this field quite promptly. The contagious epidemic of diphtheria assumes a malignant form, in many places, without any known peculiarity of local causes. It has been severe in Ludington and in the county, but local peculiarities have furnished no satisfactory conclusions respecting its cause or character. The. pioneers here, as in all timbered countries, are subject somewhat to miasmatic ague when breaking up new land, yet have far less disturbance of this kind than in districts of heavier soil and poorer drainage. As the farms are cultivated miasma disappears. The generally healthy countenance and elastic movement of the people is a conclusive evidence of a normal state of the atmosphere. Malarial fevers and mild pneumonia are frequent, but chronic pulmonary disease is rare. The moist air is yet pure and invigorating; especially is the lake shore during the hot season, pleasant and healthy. EDUCATION. BY REV. S. N. HILL. Educational interests are not born in these new counties. Many of the pioneers are educated d nd at once provide the best school advantages for their families. The tax upon non-resident lands is a prompt resource for a school fund. The primary school system, and qualifications of teachers being the same throughout the State, gives to the pioneer district nearly an equal opportunity for education with the older counties. Many of the new farms have been homestead claims, yet a worthy attention has been given -----

Page  14 ~t~C 14 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. I to schools. There are now forty-eight organized districts, and about two-thirds of them have good buildings and the modern desks and furniture. The qualifications and wages of the teachers are about equal to that of the older counties. School boards and leading families are interested in progressive education. The new and small districts are conscious of the necessity of early education, and that each individual is an element of modern enterprise. Moral courage is disciplined by pioneer difficulties. Some gangs of river-drivers and mill-hands are destitute of culture, yet the resident families adopt the usages and sentiments of older places. Civil laws, educational standards and social usages operate similarly in the old and new towns. The new method of securing qualified teachers through the School Board of Examiners seems to be efficient and very satisfactory. There is general intelligence throughout the new settlements; families are supplied with books and popular literature. Sabbath-school books and Sabbath-schools are doing their good work in the districts. The per cent of illiteracy is about the same in the new counties as the old, which, of the American-born population, is only six per cent. The itinerant preacher meets the schoolhouse full of intelligent hearers. Very few of the youth at the age of sixteen are ignorant of reading, writing and common arithmetic. The great incentive to parents and children to be educated is not a police compulsion, but the conviction that social and business advantages demand intelligence. The large and flourishing graded schools of the city of Ludington inspire the educational activity of the districts of the county. Lumbermen allow their timber lands to be liberally taxed for school buildings. It is a pleasant view to see a county so new possessing an intellectual and moral culture nearly equal to the older counties, or to any part of the country. The intelligent and refined homes are decorated with the window of flowering plants, and cheered with the music of the organ or piano. There is no apology for any family in this county to remain ignorant or degraded. The best intellectual and moral opportunities are afforded to all. The grand and liberal educational system of the State of Michigan endows the youth of each sex and every condition with complete opportunities for intellectual and moral culture. The flood of intelligence refreshes every settlement of the State. The world has no better system. The State University waves a banner as perfect as any of the nation. A graduate of the university is a brother or sister of the primary scholar in the log schoolhouse, who in due time will honor the university. The Michigan system provides for all the youth. Her pride is not in massive buildings or a favored few, but she gives intelligence to the sons, the daughters and to the poor and the orphan. This common intelligence and moral sympathy causes the rich resources of the state to be effectively developed and employed for the progress of our own population. Education of such a liberal character is a genial inspiration to every thriving interest of the state. BIBLE SOCIETY. REV. S. N. HILL. Many of the pioneers of Mason County, and the early citizens of Ludington had been trained to Christian work; hence were ready to continue their efforts here. In the year 1871 a County Bible Society was formed auxiliary to the American Bible Society, for the purpose of supplying the destitute, and meeting the demands of the people. Mr. George N. Stray was the secretary, and William Frye, treasurer. The population of the city at that time was 2,000, and of the county about the same. The society received from the American Bible Society a supply of Bibles in several languages, and was to make payment as sales were made. The organization was made in the old schoolhouse, on the corner of Ludington Avenue and James Street. It has since been burned. No church building was then finished. In 1877, under the direction of Rev. George M. Tuthill, the State Secretary of the American Bible Society, the society received a donation of $100 in Bibles and Testaments, to be sold or donated, and the money for sales to replenish the supply. This donation required the county to be immediately canvassed. This work was at once commenced by Rev. Mr. Curtis, of Custer, who also canvassed for the American Tract Society. When this work was about half done, the health of Mr. Curtis failed, and about that time, in 1878, a large portion of the supply was destroyed by the burning of the store of Danaher & Melendy, where the books were deposited. No further canvassing was done until the Summer of 1881, when Mr. A. H. Clafflin, under the appointment of Mr. Tuthill, a student of Olivet, made a rapid and thorough tour through the county, selling and donating Bibles furnished by the publishing house of the American Bible Society. These were in English, German, Swede, French and Indian. He found but a small per cent of families destitute, being mostly young families or foreigners. The present officers are: Dr. A. P. McConnell, president; I. H. McCollum, secretary, and Thomas Stater, treasurer. This growing city and county will soon need to be re-canvassed. But a partial supply is now in the city bookstores. The limited work of this county society has not been in vain. Interest has been awakened and many families are supplied who otherwise would be destitute. COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. In July, 1871, James Ludington wrote a letter to George W. Clayton, editor of the Record, calling attention to the importance of forming an agricultural society. The letter was published in the Record of July 12th, and is as follows: " MILWAUKEE, July 7, 1871. " G. W. CLAYTON, Editor of the Mason (County Record: "I desire to call your attention, and through your paper, the attention of the people of Mason County, to the importance of forming a " County Agricultural Society," and would suggest that a fair be held at the village of Ludington, some time during the month of September or October, the present season. I will willingly contribute $100, to be distributed in premiums in such manner as a committee may determine. I believe if this movement is inaugurated the farmers and mechanics in your county will interest themselves so as to make it self-sustaining. Please call the attention of your people to this matter at an early day. "Yours truly, "JAMES LUDINGTON." In connection with the above letter the editor of the Record suggested that all interested in the project should meet at Demar's Hall, July 29th, at 10 o'clock, A. M. In pursuance to that call a meeting was held at the place designated. S. M. Barron, of Amber Township, was chosen chairman, and W. A. Bailey, secretary. It was voted to call the society the "Mason County Argricultural Society." The temporary officers elected were as follows: S. M. Barron, president; Richard Hatfield, vice-president; William Warner, secretary; George W. Clayton, treasurer. A committee of one from each township was chosen to act in conjunction with the officers in securing aid, etc. The committee selected were William Freeman, Grant; D. L. Filer, Pere Marquette; C. W. Jones, Amber; George C. McClatchie, Summit; Rufus Purdy, Riverton; A. Gott, Lincoln; J. E. Smith, Free Soil; I 1 " I ''------ - -- t`CII)

Page  15 3 V L. HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. 15 L. D. Marsh, Branch; J. Y. Law, Sherman; A. H. Nordhouse, Hamlin; Richard Rayne, Victory. August 19th another meeting was held. Permanent officers were elected, as follows: S. M. Barron, president; Richard Hatfield, vice-president; George W. Clayton, secretary; William Freeman, treasurer. It was decided to hold a fair on Thursday, October 12, 1871, in the village of Ludington. The generous offer of Mr. Ludington was accepted, and a vote of thanks carried. An executive committee was selected, consisting of the following gentlemen: S. M. Barron, Richard Hatfield, George W. Clayton, William Freeman, M. P. Winters, George C. McClatchie, W. A. Bailey, William Warner and J. E. Smith. The yearly membership fee was fixed at fifty cents each. The first fair was held October 12, and was a very gratifying success. The receipts at the gate were $79.34. A meeting of the officers and members was held in the evening at Demar's Hall, and general business pertaining to the society was transacted. The old officers were re-elected for another year, also an executive committee, composed of the following gentlemen: N. M. Chaffey, John Davidson, S. S. Lampman, S. D. Haight, M. P. Winters. The yearly membership fee was fixed at $1. A committee was also appointed to draft by-laws for the society. The next fair was held September 27 and 28, 1872, and was pronounced a success. The Pere Marquette Lumber Co. donated the use of their grounds adjoining the postoffice building, and the Republican wigwam was fitted up for the use of the society. The officers elected for the ensuing year were William Freeman, president; Richard Hatfield, vice-president; George W. Clayton, secretary; S. D. Haight, treasurer. The executive committee consisted of I. H. McCollum, J. Bell, W. H. Foster, M. P.Winters, S. S. Lampman, T. H. Wright, J. Y. Law, R. Rayne, D. S. Harley, N. L. Bird, N. M. Chaffey, J. E. Smith. In 1873 the fair was held September 26 and 27. The annual meeting of the society was held October 14. The treasurer's report showed a balance on hand of $87.05. The officers elected for the ensuing year were William Freeman, president; S. M. Barron, vice-president; S. D. Haight, treasurer; W. B. Cole, secretary. The price of life membership tickets was fixed at $10. The society voted to purchase ten acres of land of A. A. Maxim, at $100 per acre. This purchase, however, was not made. Fairs were held on the Pere Marquette Comparly's ground until 1877. In the Fall of 1876, the society was re-organized, and a committee, consisting of N. J. Gaylord, H. H. Wheeler and C. G. Wing, appointed to arrange for a suitable location. The committee recommended the purchase of twenty acres of land in the Quevillon addition, which was made in 1877. N. J. Gaylord, as chairman of the executive committee, raised some money by subscription, and expended, altogether, about $6,000 in purchase of the grounds and improvements. In 1877 Mr. Gaylord began work upon the track. Most of the clay was taken from the Clay Banks. In the Summex of 1879, the main hall, a building 41x80 feet in size, was completed. The annual fairs held by the society have been uniformly successful, and the premiums have always been paid in full. A small portion of the original debt incurred in the purchase of the grounds still remains unpaid, and it is proposed the present season to form a stock company, and thereby place the affairs of the association on a firmer basis. The fact that it has been possible inl so new a county to make these exhibitions self-sustaining, argues well for the enterprise of the people and the agricultural resources of the county. S The present officers of the society are M. G. Smith, president; S John Rice, secretary; George N. Stray, treasurer. <sI -- The committee appointed to organize a stock company are N. J. Gaylord, Frank Filer and R. P. Bishop. STATE ROADS. Of the public improvements in Mason County none arc of greater value to the county than the Mason County State Road, which extends from Ludington, due east, through the townships of Pere Marquette, Amber, Custer and Branch, to the line of Lake County. The contract for building this road was let in February, 1880. Portions of the road have been finished for some time, and the entire length is now completed, with the exception of about three niles. The Oceana and Manistee State Road has also been surveyed, and the contract for building let to Demar & Wing, of Ludington. This road will run north and south through the county, following the township lines between Riverton and Eden, Amber and Custer, Victory and Sherman, Grant and Free Soil. The length of the road is twenty-four miles. COUNTY POOR FARM. "What to do with the county poor" was a question fruitful of much trouble and doubt to the supervisors for a number of years. No system of maintenance for this unfortunate class having been adopted, each Board of Supervisors bargained in its own peculiar way, and their successors would be tolerably sure to make a change. A tract of land in Victory Township was once purchased with a view of using it for a county farm, but the land proved to be of inferior quality, and different plans were put in operation, so that the land was finally sold. For several years paupers were kept at a boarding house in Ludington, the county paying therefor at the rate of $3 per week. It came to be understood, however, that a county farm is the only economical place to provide for the poqr, and in 1879 a tract of eighty acres, four and one-half miles east of Ludington, in Amber Township, was purchased. The purchase was made in the Spring, and during that season a house and barn were built. The house is a two and one-half story frame building, twenty-eight by forty-eight feet in size, and cost $2,300. The barn is sufficiently large for the needs of the farm, and cost $1,200. In the Fall of 1881 an adjoining tract of woodland, of forty acres, was purchased. James Gamble has been overseer of the farm since it was purchased. The average number of paupers cared for by the county last year was eight, and the present year the average will be about twelve. The present County Superintendent of Poor is Levi Shackelton. MILITARY MATTERS. When civil war burst upon the nation and threatened to blot out our republic, no state gave its sons to defend a common country more willingly than Michigan. On the 13th day of May following the fall of Sumter, the First Regiment left the state for the seat of war. Out of a population of less than 800,000, 90,747 went to the front and fought for the defense of the flag, and upwards of 14,000 of these sleep to-day in soldiers' graves. At the breaking out of the war Mason County was but six years old, and as late as 1864 contained a population of only 845, so that its military history is not distinct from that of the state at large. But scanty as was its population, the county was well represented at the front. A portion of Company A, Twenty-Sixth Michigan Infantry, was recruited from this county, and others who enlisted were scattered through various regiments. Some were in the Thirty-Seventh Illinois. There was no such place as Ludington at that time. Among the citizens of the county at the present time, however, are a large number who kept step to the music of the Union. Men who gave an arm or a limb to their country are here, while in yonder is

Page  16 ~i( 5 _ 16 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. __ ____ cemetery are the graves of a number of their comrades. It is less than ten years since the cemetery grounds were purchased, and yet the soldier graves are multiplying fast. The circle round the campfires of the living is being rapidly thinned by death, and all too soon the roll call will awaken no response. At Ludington is a Grand Army Post, an account of which is given among the Ludington societies. ADDITIONAL STATISTICS. The total vote of the county in 1855 was 41; in 1880 it was 2,114, as follows: Victory Township, 93; Riverton, 139; Sherman, 85; Summit, 82; Custer, 166; Branch, 122; Eden, 89; Hamlin, 49; Lincoln, 25; Pere Marquette, 109; Grant, 33; Free Soil, 95; Amber, 157; City of Ludington, 870. In 1864 the population of the county was 846; in 1870, 3,266; in 1874, 5,361; in 1880, 10,065. The estimated population in 1882 is 15,000. The first assessment for the south half of the county shows 40,000 acres of taxable land, and the amount of taxes raised $500. The records for the north half of the county were destroyed. Two years afterward there were 51,000 acres assessed, and the total valuation of real and personal property was $313,771. In 1881 the number of acres assessed was 285,833; total valuation of real and personal property, $3,206,701. Total amount of taxes, $61,921.32. The number of acres improved in 1864 was 776; in 1870, 4,374; in 1874, 6,444; in 1881, 13,329. The total number of farms in 1881 was 592. In 1873, 648 acres were planted to corn, yielding 19,723 bushels, an average of 30.43 bushels to the acre. In 1874 the aggregate potato crop of the county was 44,199 bushels; number of tons of hay, 2,142; wool, 40 pounds; number of pounds of pork marketed, 4,150; cheese, 10 pounds; butter, 35,306 pounds. In 1873 there were 503 acres of orchards, including peach, apple, pear, plum and cherry. The yield in apples was 3,673 bushels. In 1873 the county contained eight sawmills, all operated by steam power, employing 593 persons. The capital invested was $434,000, and the value of the product $786,461. In 1876 the county had twenty mills, with a capital invested of $3,000,000. The number of acres of primary school state swamp lands in 1874 was 2,465.57, and swamp lands 8,327.84. The minimum price of primary school lands was $4 per acre, for farming lands, 50 per cent of which was payable at the time of entry, the balance at the option of the purchaser, with interest at 7 per cent. Pine and other timbered lands, $5 per acre. The minimum price of the swamp lands was $1.25 per acre. The so-called swamp lands comprised, some of them, the best farming lands in the state. In 1873 the population of the county, by townships, and the number of acres of improved land, were as follows: Popu- No, Acres TOwNSHIPS. lation. Im. Land. Amber.......................... 458 976 Branch............................ 139 Free Soil.......................... 214 426 Grant........................... 209 348 Lincoln........................... 131 282 Pere Marquette................ 196 492 Riverton.......................... 704 1,827 Sherman....................... 290 337 Summit........................... 271 731 Victory.......................... 421 600 Ludington City................. 2,193 Total...................... 5,226 6,019 INCIDENTS OF PIONEER LIFE. Life in the early days of the county was a compound of "roughing it" and good times. The old settlers remember many enjoyable features of their hardships and deprivations. There were no roads, and travel was effected in small boats along the beach or on foot through the woods. In some instances ponies were used. It was a familiar sight to see Uncle Richard Hatfield come striding along with a child or two loaded into a muskrat pouch upon his back. Supplies were "backed" from Muskegon. Families went visiting and attended Fourth of July celebrations on primitive sleds drawn by oxen. This sort of navigation was just as easy in Summer as in Winter, the leaves on the ground through the woods answering all the purposes of snow. Getting married was a little more formidable operation then than now, though possibly attended with less risk. Courting was a simple and inexpensive luxury, but for several years, in order to be pronounced man and wife, it was necessary to import a justice of the peace from Oceana County. The first white people married here were Richard Hatfield and Mary Caswell, the ceremony being performed by James Dexter, a justice of the peace at Pentwater. Of the men here at an early day, George Tripp and Rufus Purdy were perhaps the two that wandering roughs found the least comfortable to fool with. Upon one occasion a party of Swedes, who were working in the woods for Ford, came down and undertook to create some trouble about the mill. Tripp and Pardy took them in hand, and when last seen the Swedes were making lively time in the direction of Muskegon. A lawyer and an officer from Muskegon came up one day and seized a horse belonging to Ford. Mr. Tripp, who was in Ford's employ, saw them leading the horse past the store door. He was out in an instant, and taking hold of the halter, cut the strap with his knife, leaving the severed end in their hands. He took the horse, and told the men to go on with their strap. Somehow, they concluded to do as he advised. The first lawsuit tried in Mason County was before a justice of the peace in Pere Marquette Township. A man named Barber was arrested for selling whisky, upon complaint of an agent of Charles Mears. The attorneys in the suit were Washington Weldon and Alonzo Hyde. A jury of six "good men and true" was impaneled. Four of the jurors were Richard Hatfield, Delos Holmes, J. F. Phillips and G. A. Caswell. The names of the other two cannot be obtained. The suit was tried in the courthouse which was then in a frame building on the Caswell farm. George Tripp was constable. At the conclusion of the trial the jury was closeted in a small room to weigh the evidence and arrive at a verdict. One of the jurors mounted a barrel, standing in the middle of the room, and the head giving way, he dropped into an assortment of very good eating apples. The jury immediately went into a committee of the whole, and took up the apple question. In the court-room, clients, lawyers and officers were waiting impatiently for the verdict, and when the constable appeared at the door to inquire how the jurors were getting along, they assured him that they were making splendid progress, and agreeing perfectly. Once thoroughly filled with the luscious fruit, they felt so perfectly at peace with all mankind, that they made up a verdict of " No cause of action," and the defendant went out of court in happy ignorance of the real cause of his good fortune. The supposed jurisdiction of the early justice was as unlimited as were the imagined powers of his court. The early justice of Pere Marquette was not an exception. It is related that upon one oc casion a woman made complaint to the justice that her husband abused her, and her prayer was for divorce. The justice examined the case with profound care, granted the divorce, and banished the husband from the county. Not doubting the legality of the proceeding, the husband went to Pentwater, in Oceana County. Learning there that the justice had no power to banish a citizen, 1 14

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Page  17 i= \r L/~ L lr HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. 17 III the husband returned. The justice was terribly indignant that his authority should be so grossly set at nought, and he summarily arraigned the offending husband before him and sentenced him to six months' imprisonment in jail for contempt of court. He was taken in charge by the sheriff, and allowed to work the sheriff's garden through the Summer. Along in these early days there was a preacher who visited Pere Marquette, bringing spiritual consolation to the inhabitants. One day Mr. Phillips, George Tripp and a Mr. Caswell, brother of Burr Caswell, were down at the channel of the river, having crossed on a loose jointed raft made of slabs. Caswell started to take the raft back to the other side. The current was strong, and as he was not expert at the use of the pole, the raft went in all directions, but principally to pieces. He did not know that the water was shallow, and was certain that he was on the down grade to a watery grave. He shouted to his companions that he was going down, but they did not appear much alarmed, and told him how to use the pole. Again he shouted that he was going down, and as the raft went in pieces, he supposed his end had come, and with all the pathetic unction of a last appeal he shouted to his friends, " Tell them where I've gone! " and down he went into about two feet of water and stuck fast in the sand. It was easy to see where he had gone. Along late in 1866, some of the sober-minded citizens made a careful calculation and came to the conclusion that in the quantity of supplies unloaded at this port, the ratio of whisky to flour was too great, and accordingly they were on the alert. Pretty soon the "Hooker" came in and began to unload the usual miscellany of flour and whisky. A court was convened at the old schoolhouse, and after mature deliberation it was considered best to visit the vessel in a body, and render a verdict on the spot. Headed by Luther H. Foster, the law administering procession moved upon the "Hooker," saw the evidence, threw the whisky overboard and fined the captain. This was the first mixture of whisky and water ever compounded by a temperance court in the judicial history of Ludington. ---__...._

Page  18 04 - 1 6) iT LUDINGTON CITY. The history of this metropolis of the frontier presents a most remarkable illustration of what may be accomplished through the energy, genius and wisdom of man, in the development of material resources. In tracing the wonderful transformation that has been wrought through these years, so few and yet so fruitful, the historian has found much to excite his wonder and admiration. The chapter opens with a primitive saw-mill, situated upon the shore of Pere Marquette Lake. Besides the mill are a few rude buildings, one of which is a store, and another the mill boardinghouse. A few stump-covered acres have been stripped of their timber, and all around is the mighty forest. Only a little while before the smoke of the red man's wigwam circled above the trees just below the channel, and his bark canoe darted through the waters of Lake Michigan from this very spot. This was in 1864. The mill built in 1849 by Baird & Bean, ten years later came in possession of James Ludington, a prominent business man of Milwaukee. Charles Mears had operated the mill two or three years under a lease, and had changed the channel to its present location. The mill and all the vast property interests connected with it, were now being managed by Mr. Ludington. Eighteen years later the chapter closes with a thrifty city of upwards of five thousand population. Rapid as has been the transformation, the growth has not been of the mushroom order. The streets are broad and straight, the business blocks mostly built of brick, and neatly finished. The citizens live in attractive homes, and the tradesmen have an air of thrift. All the varied industries recorded on these pages show the material prosperity and strength of the city whose history, while brief in lapse of time, is voluminous in achievements. In our search through the archives of record and of memory after material for this work, we have come in contact with something of the same spirit that has been the motive power in all this development, and that generous and enterprising interest on the part of the citizens of Ludington in whatever concerns their public welfare has made the task a pleasing and interesting one. BEGINNING OF LUDINGTON. In the Spring of 1864 the name of Ludington was first applied to this locality, by a postoffice of that name being established here. David A. Melendy, who had recently come here as bookkeeper for James Ludington, was the first postmaster. Many people still suppose that the name of the place was changed from Pere Marquette to Ludington at the time the city was incorporated, in 1873. Such, however, is not the fact. The township still retains the name of Pere Marquette, under which it was organized, while the name of Ludington dates from the time the postoffice was established, as stated above, and when the city was incorporated in 1873 it was voted to retain the name. In recognition of this consideration on the part of the people here, Mr. Ludington donated a munificent gift of $5,000, to be expended in county and city public buildings. Upon the opposite page is given an excellent portrait of the founder of the city that now bears his name, and below is a brief sketch of his life. JAMES LUDINGTON. For more than a third of a century the family name of Ludington has been known throughout the Northwest, and in achieving this distinction, the subject of this sketch did his full shalre during the years of his active business career. James Ludington is a son of Lewis LudingLon, and was born in Carmel, Putnam County, N. Y., April 18, 1827. His boyhood was spent with his parents in Carmel. He was a precocious lad, with a decided fondness for mischief, but was never a bad boy. He received an academic education, and was always quick to learn, and was noted for his intelligence and sagacity. In 1813 he came to Milwaukee, and for a time was engaged in the store of Ludington & Co. Subsequently he accompanied his father to what is now Columbus, Wis. Together they laid out the town, and it was their energy and sagacity that stimulated its early growth. After remaining there a while, Mr. Ludington returned to Milwaukee and continued the business career, in the course of which he achieved such marvelous success. He was treasurer of the La Crosse Railroad for two years; was president of the " Bank of the West," at Madison, and vice-president of the " Juneau Bank," at Milwaukee. His business sagacity was unerring, and he was sure to bring prosperity to whatever enterprise he took hold of. He served for two years as alderman in Milwaukee, and rendered very efficient service to the city in the exercise of his correct judgment and thorough knowledge of all business affairs. Prior to 1859 a small sawmill near the mouth of the Pere Marquette River had been operated by various parties, and finally came into possession of George W. Ford. With the mill property was a large amount of pine land. Mr. Ludington had advanced sums of money upon this property, and in 1859 came into possession of it. He then turned his attention to this new enterprise, and after a few years decided to build a town. In 1867 he platted the village and set himself about stimulating its growth. That year, appreciating the value of the local newspaper, he went to Elisha Starr, who had the leading printing office in Milwaukee, and making known his wants, sought his advice as to a proper person to come to Ludington and start a paper. Mr. Starr recommended George W. Clayton, then a young man in his employ. Mr. Ludington conferred with Clayton, and the result was that he bought him an outfit, and thus started the newspaper enterprise which was so successfully carried on to the mutual advantage of both parties. In 1873 the city was incorporated and was named Ludington in honor of its founder. Mr. Ludington's connection with the place appears on these pages as the development and changes are traced from year to year. In going back over tile records of those early days, the historian L 24 -Xy ( _~~____ ____~Jj.__ __~~_~ _~~~~~_

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Page  19 Q4= -----~ Gi HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. 19 finds frequent and abundant evidence of Mr. Ludington's liberality and superior wisdom. Never a public enterprise was started, of advantage to the place, but that Mr. Ludington's draft for a liberal sum was received as a gift. These are recorded, with the accompanying letters of encouragement, in the proper places. In selling village property his deeds expressly stipulated that no liquor should ever be sold upon the lots deeded, and he strenuously insisted that this stipulation must be complied with. With the organization of the Pere Marquette Lumber Company in 1869, Mr. Ludington practically withdrew from the vigorous business activity he had so long pursued, having sold his entire property interests in this section to that company, for the sum of $500,000. He, however, retained an interest in the company. Soon afterward his failing health rendered it necessary for him to give up all business care. Mr. Ludington never married. He ha s one brother, Charles H. Ludington, who lives in New York, and four sisters. Two of the sisters live at the old homestead, at Carmel, which has been in the family for sixty years. The present house is a handsome frame structure, and was built by James Ludington, of lumber slipped from Wisconsin. For several years he has had apartments at the Newhall House, in Milwaukee, andl always refers with lively interest and justifiable pride to the elegant and prosperous city that bears his name. The earlier settlers who were personally acquainted with him, and were witnesses of his achievements and liberal enterprise, cordially award a full measure of praise to the founder of the splendid city of Ludington. IMMIGRATION AND BUILDING. A new mill boarding house, now the " Filer House," was begun in the Fall of 1865 and finished early in 1866. The old boarding house was a primitive affair, being a long one-story building, situated where the Flint and Pere Marquette depot now stands. Beyond was a long row of rude shanties ranged along an alleged street known by the highly significant name of" Saw Dust Avenue." This romantic thoroughfare dodged along among the stumps until it lost its identity in the woods. In the Fall of 1865 Jacob Staffon came, and went into Mr. Ludington's store as clerk. In 1866 Frederick J. Dowland and Luther H. Foster came in the employ of Mr. Ludington, the former as assistant-bookkeeper, and the latter to superintend outside interests. The business done in the store at this time was very large, and included almost the entire patronage of the county. The old store building used at that time, has been converted into two dwelling houses, which are still standing just south of the Pere Marquette store. If their dumb walls could speak a language fitted to our ears, a volume of stirring incidents could be quickly written. P. ML. Danaher and IR. F. Kasson erected dwelling houses this year, on what is now Ferry St. Of the men who were active in the business interests of the place in 1866, but three are now residents of the city: P. M. Danaher, president of the Danaher and Melendy Company; Jacob Staffon in charge of the store of the Pere Marquette Lumber Company, and Frederick J. Dowland, secretary of that company. David A. Melendy is a resident of Milwaukee; R. G. Peters is at Manistee; William Farrell is in Arkansas, and Luther H. Foster and R. F. Kasson are dead. In 1867 Mr. Ludington platted 360 acres of land for a town, and in the Fall of that year the large store building, which now belongs to the Pere Marquette Lumber Company, was completed and occupied. Messrs, L. H. Foster, Frederick J. Dowland and Geo. W. Clayton completed residences this Fall, and Mr. Clayton began the publication of the Jasona Co0nty lRecord, in the second story of his house. With the appearance of the JIccord the village assumed a dignity and prestige impossible to a community with-------- out a local luminary. Dr. Doty and S. F. White erected a twostory frame building on Main street, the lower portion of which was used by Dr. Doty for a drug store and the second story was occupied by Mr. White as a law office. Mr. White was the first lawyer who located here. The building they erected is still standing a little off Ludington Ave., opposite D. D. Huston's hardware store. In the Fall of this year Geo. Weimer opened a shoe store on Main Street, the first one started here. The Farrell House, now the Clinton House, was finished in the Fall and was the first hotel built in Ludington. A school building was erected in the woods, just east of where the Bank of Ludington now stands. It was first intended to build the business portion of the town north from the dock along Main Street, but the plan was afterward changed, and it was decided to build up a business street extending east from the store, and this led to the opening of Ludington Avenue. This locality had few of the elements of a paradise at that time. Main Street was profusely studded with stumps, and graded with logs to the farther limit of the clearing, which was not more than sixty rods from the store. Ludington Avenue was opened, where stumps and logs did not obstruct the passage, as far east as where Dr. Dundass' drug store now stands. Extending north and south across the street at that point, was a swamp covered with mud, ague and water. Where the Andrews Block now stands was a sand hill ten or twelve feet high, and another just north of where Arbeiter Hall now stands. The little area around what is now the corner of Ludington Avenue and Main Street, was bounded by water and the interminable forests. Whisky and wahoo bitters had been staple articles of merchandise for many years, but when the village was platted, the sale of liquor to be drank upon the premises was supposed to be stopped. The first death recorded in the village paper was that of Capt. George A. Caswell, son of Burr Caswell, which occurred September 21, 1867. His age was thirty-six years and four months. His death was universally mourned by the citizens of the place. The first wedding cake that burst upon the ravished vision of the editor was upon the occasion of the marriage of Frederick J. Dowland and Miss E. C. Mitchell, which occurred at Port Huron, October 22, 1867. Mr. Dowland at that time was bookkeeper for James Ludington. At this time the Methodists held religious services here, and the Rev. Amos Dresser, a Congregational minister, also preached in the hall over Mr. Ludington's store. The village editor, with commendable unction, exhorted the people to arouse themselves to a truer sense of their spiritual necessities. Standing among the logs and stumps of fifteen years ago, it was imposing a too severe strain upon the eye of faith to expect it to span the gulf, and behold the full transformation then just begun. It was a fortunate circumstance that the men who had to do with the interests of the place were men of great energy, clear grit and long sightedness. They were determined that the village should improve, and as a consequence it did improve. The fame of Ludington began to travel abroad, and in the Spring of 1868, one year after the village was platted, it containe:d a population of about 500, and the number was rapidly increasing. Building begamn to extend up Ludington Avenue. Whittaker and Alexander erected a frame building where Dr. Dundass' drug store now stands, and shortly after Geo. Tripp built his meat market. His building was located in the swamp and the foundation was made of sawdust. He was obliged to build a levee around the lot to prevent the sawdust hauled during the day from floating away during the night. In April, 1868, the postmaster had been so besieged with letters soliciting information about Ludington, that he was moved to i I 1 11 -U-- S-,r^

Page  20 44 - -N!- _ 74 1 20 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY set forth the status of affairs through the columns of the Record. That prospectus gives a very good idea of Ludington at that time, and was in part as follows: "We have one large-store here in Ludington, which has supplied the country around with all the different necessities of life, during the past three years, their trade in 1867 amounting in the aggregate to $400,000. Mr. Charles Mears owns a general assortment store two and a half miles north of this place, which has also had a heavy trade for the past four or five years. Mr. Richard Rayne has another store of about the same character, in the Township of Victory, eight or ten miles northeast from here, which is also doing a comfortable business. Besides, there are several of smaller note, who are making a good living. "Our village contains, besides the store above-named, a drug store and three boot and shoe shops. "We also have a first-class hotel here, built last Fall, and capable of accommodating seventy-five or a hundred guests. "We have a splendid schoolhouse, the cost of which was about $3,000. This, at present, is used for divine worship every Sabbath. A subscription paper has been circulated, and some four thousand dollars has been subscribed towards the erection of a handsome church edifice, which will be put up if carpenters enough can be found to take.the job. "Several new buildings for business purposes are being pushed along as fast as men can be got to do the work. Twenty good mechanics can find work the whole season here. Among the new buildings is that of Mr. O'Brien's hardware store, Messrs. Whittaker & Alexander's book store, Mr. Weimer's boot and shoe store, and a grist mill and shingle mill combined. "Mr. James Ludington has a large, powerful sawmill, in which about 150 men are employed. This mill cuts about 100,000 feet of lumber daily, and eight or ten vessels are constantly employed in this trade at this port. "By reference to our advertising columns it will be seen that we have two steamboat lines, and one or more of these boats touch this point every day. Our habor is conceded by all to be the best north of Grand Haven, on the East Shore. "The country adjacent is the best agricultural lands in Michigan, and although considerable land remains yet unsettled, it commands a pretty fair price, ranging all the way from the government price to $20 per acre. "Every lot in our village could be sold, any day, for almost any price put upon it, if the proprietor wished to sell for speculation, but it is not considered the best way to build up a town, to sell to speculators. Every man who wants one or more lots can obtain them for improvements only. "The county contains about 2,500 inhabitants, and this village has about 500 of that number." A Good Templar's Lodge had been established, and was flourishing. A spicy local newspaper was doing a thrifty business. Only one man had "gone crazy," and marriages and births were far more numerous than deaths. In May of that year a rumor was circulated that a liquor saloon was to be started in the village, and great consternation was caused, inasmuch as it was understood that the village lots were sold subject to a condition that no liquors could be sold on the premises. The rumor reached the ears of Mr. Ludington, who immediately wrote a letter to the editor of the Record, in which he said: "I see by your paper of the 19th inst., that I was about making arrangements with other parties to allow a rum-shop to be opened in the village of Ludington. There is not a word of truth in it, and so long as I can control the matter, I will not allow a liquor saloon to live in the village that bears my name. All deeds given for lots have conditions that no liquors are to be sold on the premises." The above letter set that matter at rest, and well would it have been for the place could the conditions have been kept in force. In July, Ludington Avenue was being graded, and the village editor rode over it with a friend. Returning in safety to his sanctum, he was so overcome with ecstasy that he assured the readers of the Record that this new street was without a rival in all this country, and it was his mature opinion that Central Park, New York, would be dwarfed in comparison with it. In 1869 the Pere Marquette Lumber Company was organized, and became the successor of James Ludington, as explained elsewhere in these pages. This event brought such men as Delos L. Filer, Luther H. Foster, and their able corps of assistants, to the front in the local interests of the place, and the prosperity of the village received a fresh impetus. During this year the firm of Danaher & Melendy was organized and began the erection of their saw mill. From this time began a general development of all the resources of this locality, and which has continued down to the present time. The year 1870 was a busy one and marked a considerable increase in the population of the village. During this year a general feeling grew up that the village should be incorporated. In December, 1870, a meeting of citizens was held, the subject of having a village charter discussed, and committees appointed to draft a charter and attend to other necessary details. The matter subsequently came up for consideration, but possibly it began to dawn upon the minds of some that a city was not far distant, and nothing more was done about a charter until the people had outgrown all idea of a village and become animated with a desire to dwell under the more pretentious shelter of a city government. PIONEERS OF 1866. Below we give brief biographical sketches of the three remaining representatives of Ludington in 1866, before alluded to, and also of the late Luther H. Foster, whose family still reside here. PATRICK N. DANAHER, President of the Danaher & Melendy Company, is the pioneer business man of Ludington, and has had a prominent part in the rise and growth of the village and city. Mr. Danaher was born in Ireland, in 1822. When five years of age his parents came to Canada, and remained two years, when they came to the States. After beginning business for himself, Mr. Danaher was engaged for several years at building railroads. In 1863 he came to Pere Marquette. At that time there was nothing where Ludington now stands but a saw-mill, boarding house and a few shanties. After coming here he was engaged at logging, harbor building, and for a time was in the employ of James Ludington. In 1869 he formed a copartnership with David A. Melendy, and they built the second saw-mill here. The history of this firm is given elsewhere. Since that time Mr. Danaher has been an active business man. He was mayor of the city during the years 1874-75. Although sixty years of age, he is still an active business man, and at the head of the Danaher & Melendy Company. He has been connected with the business interests of Ludington longer than any one else now living here, and has been a witness of all the changes that have been wrought. He has participated in many of the im provements that have been made here. He was at one time engaged upon the harbors here and at Pentwater, and had the contract for building a portion of the F. & P. M. R. R. A portrait of Mr. Danaher appears in this work. FREDERICK J. DOWLAND, Secretary and General Manager of the Pere Marquette Lumber Company, is one of the solid business men -- I Mq -!JO111111~11111~11

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Page  21 ~rl~ t--,.1 i:I "---" L~, HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. 21 I of Ludington, who has had a hand in the development and prosperity of this region. Mr. Dowland was born in Newfoundland, in 1837, and came to Wisconsin in 1848. In August, 1862, he enlisted in the service as a private in Company G, Twenty-Sixth Wisconsin Volunteers. Soon after enlisting he was disabled by sickness, and after remaining in hospital for some time was transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps, and detailed at Washington, on clerical duty. In 1865 he received his discharge and returned to Milwaukee. At that time James Ludington was doing n s dng extensive lumber business, at what was then called Pere Marquette, and Mr. Dowland came here to take the position of assistant bookkeeper for-Mr. Ludington. He remained with Mr. Ludington until 1878, when the Pere Marquette Lumber Company was organized, and succeeded Mr. Ludington in the business. At the organization of this company Mr. Dowland was elected secretary and general manager, and it is to his careful management and energy that the company is very largely indebted for its prosperity. Mr. Dowland has always been identified with county and other public affairs. He held the office of county treasurer from January, 1877, to January, 1881. Was county superintendent of schools one year, and treasurer of the county agricultural society until, in 1881, he declined to serve any longer in that capacity. He succeeded the late Delos Filer as president of the Pere Marquette Boom Company, at the death of that gentleman, in 1879, and still continues to hold that office. Mr. Dowland is a liberal and public-spirited citizen, and has always maintained a reputation above reproach. Mr. Dowland was married to Miss E. C. Mitchell, at Port Huron, Mich., October 22, 1867. A view of their family residence appears in this work, and also a portrait of Mr. Dowland. JACOB STAFFON has stuck by Ludington since its infancy, and has shared in the general prosperity of the place. Mr. Staffon was born in Calumet, Wis., in 1845. He remained at home until fifteen years of age, and then went East and remained two years. Returning West, he went to Milwaukee, where he was clerk in a store, and also attended a commercial college. In September, 1865, he came to Ludington, and took a position as salesman in the store of James Ludington. He remained as clerk for the Pere Marquette Lumber Compiny, and since 1872 has had an interest in the business and been in charge of the store. Few young men applied themselves as closely to business as did Mr. Staffon, and this trait of character, and his integrity and superior business habits, were the steppingstones of his prosperity. A portrait of Mr. Staffon appears oin another page. LUTIIER H. FOSTER.-Probably no event has ever occurred in Ludington which produced such a profound sensation as did the assassination of Luther H. Foster, by a burglar, on the morning of the 29th of June, 1876. The burglar had effected an entrance to Mr. Foster's house, and awakened that gentleman, who pursued him to the street, when the burglar shot him dead. Luther Hall Foster descended from parentage who, like himself, possessed great moral worth. He was born at East Machias, Washington Co., Me., May 31, 1827. At the early age of three years his practical education was begun, in a kindergarten school of great excellence. In the course of time he attended the public schools and academy until the age of seventeen years. In mathematical and mechanical studies he was especially distinguished. His father was an accomplished musician, and Luther early com menced the study of music. When about eighteen years of age, lie purchased a reed instrument called a seraphine, which is still preserved in the home of his family. He was successful in his musical studies, and attained a high degree of proficiency. He early developed a taste for select reading, and to the end of his life was a great reader of standard works. In 1851 he went to Ridgeway, Pa., with his brother Edward, to engage in lumbering interests, which business he followed to the time of his death. In 1854 he removed to Oshkosh, Wis., and for three years was chief manager of extensive lumbering interests. On the 25th of May, 1855, he was married to Miss Lucy Schram, in Camden, Oneida Co., N. Y. They went at once to Oshkosh. While at that place he became a member of the Presbyterian Church, and at once took a prominent part in religious affairs. From Oshkosh he went to Stiles, Wis., where he was foreman of tie extensive lumber mills of Eldred & Balcom. In 1864 he removed to Muskegon, Mich., where he was employed in the lumbering interests of Eldred & Farr. In November, 1866, he came to Ludington, then Pere Marquette. His journey here was made in a smaltl sail vessel. This place was then a wilderness, except a small area about the mill. Mr. Foster came here to superintend the lumber interests of James Ludington. Mr. Foster's keen business sagacity and busy brain soon formulated a plan for the development of the vast lumber and real estate interests here, and when his plans were matured, he laid them before Mr. D. L. Filer, and the ultimate result was the organization, in 1869, of the Pere Marquette Lumber Company, with a capital of $500,000. Mr. Foster was secretary of the company until his death, and his energy and clear brain had much to do with the early prosperity of the company and growth of the village. Mr. and Mrs. Foster, with their two children and three others, organized the first Sabbath-school in Ludington, and until his death he was a leading worker in the Sabbath schools. In 1870 he assisted to organize a Congregational Church, and was active in its support until 1874, when the Presbyterian Church was organized, and he united with that society. IIe was a man of great courage, which never faltered through all the hardships of business trials, and his integrity never suffered during all his business career. He was prompt and determined in his decisions, earnest and resolute in all that he did, and his liberal heart and active hands were the benefactors of every good enterprise. Stricken down by the ruthless hand of an asssain, in the full vigor of life, the bereavement was doubly severe. His death was mourned by the entire community. At a regular meeting of the City Council, held July 3, following his death, the following resolution was unanimously adopted: "WHEREAS, In the inscrutable way of Providence, Luther H. Foster, one of our oldest and most valued citizens, has been stricken down by the hand of an assassin, and WHEREAS, Heroic courage in defense of his dear ones has added its tragic weight to his many peaceful virtues at the expense of his own existence: _Resolved, That it is the sense of this council that Luther H. Foster was a wise, generous, faithful, gallant, Christian gentleman, a benefactor of individuals, and one of the greatest benefactors of the city of Ludington, a father to make his sons proud, and to secure them the esteem of this community, a husband to secure for his widow thie loving condolence of every citizen, and as a tribute to his memory, we ever stand ready to engraft these sentiments in marble over his tomb." Soon after coming to Ludington, Mr. Foster built an elegant residence opposite the Lumber Company's store, which his widow and two sons still continue to occupy. BIRDS' EYE VIEW OF LUDINGTON IN 1871. A very correct glimpse of Ludington in the Summer of 1871, may be obtained from a letter written by a correspondent of the Milwaukee Sentinel, in July, 1871. The letter was widely published, and is as follows: "Along the east shore of Lake Michigan are localities that seem to A. L ~_ I eF -------_--j

Page  22 __ I/ 22 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. I have been designed by nature for the manufacture of lumber. Rivers, in the valleys of which are vast forests of timber lands, empty into miniature lakes that are separated from the greater lake by short and navigable outlets, affording the best of facilities for making and shipping this product. "Among these points is Ludington, seventy-five miles north of Grand Haven, and its facilities for the business are not excelled, if equalled, while it has, also, farming and general manufacturing advantages of inestimable value. " THE VILLAGE. "The territory on which this settlement is located, rises to a gentle eminence from the shores of both lakes; and the harbor, overlooking a magnificent view of land and water, and having a southern aspect, lies pleasantly open to the sun and the lake breezes. Four years since, the writer made a visit to this place, at which time James Ludington, Esq., of Milwaukee, who is extensively known as a gentleman of wealth and high standing, was 'lord of all he surveyed' as sole proprietor. "At that time there were few inhabitants, and those chiefly in his employ; and there were only one mill and a store. It was during that season that he laid out the village, and, at the suggestion of the residents, changed the name from Pere Marquette to that of Ludington. "JAMES LUDINGTON, who is a gentleman of taste, and takes a liberal view of the fitness of things, provided broad streets, a public park, built large and handsome buildings, among which was a boarding house for his men, that is equal to a first-class hotel, and is surrounded by ample gronds which are abundantly adorned with choice fruit and ornamental trees, shrubbery, and a profusion of rare flowers, all of which is wonderful in a bachelor of confirmed standing, and will long redound to his credit, as a man of culture and refinement. Upon establishing this village, Mr. Ludington invited in settlers, encouraged their business, and the place took a new start. " THE PERE MARQUETTE LUMBER COMPANY was formed two years since, bought out a three-quarter interest of Mr. James Ludington, and went on with the business. Its members are D. L. Filer, president; L. H. Foster, secretary; both of Ludington; J. M. Loomis, treasurer, of Chicago; and James Ludington, of Milwaukee; E. A. Foster, of Ludington. The company has ample capital, and does its business with ready money. The advent of this company gave renewed impetus to the growth of tihe place. Several lumber mills and manufactories have been added, two streets exhibit the life and bustle of business, and a village of 1,200 inhabitants has been built up with a good class of buildings, many of which are of considerable pretensions. It will be safe to say that few places in theWest have grown up with equal and healthy rapidity, and it has the following " BUSINESS PLACES: "There are four stores selling general stock; two grocery stores; two hardware; two furniture; one jewelry; four dry goods and clothing; two drug; one boot and shoe; four millinery; three meat markets; ten saloons; one bakery; three shoemakers; one barber; one wagon and four blacksmith shops; three hotels; one stationery and news depot; one printing office; one machine shop. "In connection with the above it may be added that there are four lawyers, four practicing physicians, and a Congregational and a Methodist clergyman. "The postoffice was established July 1, 1864, and D. A. Melendy was postmaster for several years, when he turned it over to G. W. Clayton, the present incumbent. It was made a money-order office, August 1, 1870; and to July 1, 1871, the number of orders issued has been 1,393, amounting to $35,977.19, and the number of orders paid, 174, and amount paid out $7,052.15, which is an exceedingly good showing for a place of the size and age of this. Mr. Clayton also publishes the fMason County Record!, which is a very excellent local paper of seven columns, the whole of which is set-up in the office. " GENERAL ITEMS. "There is here a large school building, in which 130 scholars are taught. "The Methodist Society is moving in the matter of building a church, and the Pere Marquette Lumber Company has subscribed $1,000 to the fund. Proposals for building have been issued. " There are three public houses, of which the Farrell House is the best, takes the first-class custom, is very handsomely furnished, and Mr. Farrell takes every possible pains to accommodate and entertain his patrons. "Another hotel is now in process of building. "There are two commodious public halls. " The buildings just completed and others going up are so many that it would be impracticable to give a detailed account of them. " Mr. L. H. Foster has the management of the land department of the Pere Marquette Lumber Company, and is disposing of lots as rapidly as he thinks is desirable for a healthy growth of the place. "Steps are being taken to purchase a fire engine that will cost $1,500, thus calculating to avoid the destructive conflagrations that have visited other new towns for the want of a fire department. "DELOS L. FILER, under whose auspices the Pere Marquette Lumber Company was formed, has the chief direction of the business (aided by the Messrs. Foster,) in whose capacity, perfect integrity, activity, experience and other elements of success the stockholders have implicit confidence. He is senior of the firm of Filer & Sons, of Filer City, near Manistee, and also of Filer, Stowell & Co., of the Cream City Iron Works, Milwaukee. He is a gentleman eminently fitted to head such a company, inaugurate business and build up a town, is the presiding genius of the place, and leads in every worthy enterprise. His residence is the fine and showy house built by Mr. Ludington, (mentioned above,) and he has furnished it with all the elegance of a city dwelling, and domestic felicity abounds within its portals, and while enjoying its warm hospitality the writer was taken by his entertainer for a drive over the village and around the lake shore, behind as fine a span of blood horses as can be found in the country. " PERE MARQUETTE LAKE AND HARBOR. This beautiful sheet of water is two miles long, three-quarters of a mile wide, and lhas an average depth of forty-two feet, with bold shores. The water is very clear, and abounds with the best of fislh. Its outlet into the greater lake forms a harbor, which, with its improvements, is 700 feet in length, 225 feet in width, and fourteen feet deep, and it never freezes over in the Winter, making its value unsurpassed. " THE ENGELMANN LINE OF STEAMERS. " The shore-boats touch here on their daily trips, and the "Messenger tri-weekly from Milwaukee, which latter boat comes into this port and Manistee only during the Winter season. Mr. G. B. Van Pelt is the agent at this place, doing also a warehouse business. The running of those steamers is a great convenience to the business of the place. The management of them is a model of promptness, efficiency and accommodation. Although there are larger, a better boat does not ply the lakes than the "Messenger," or one better J ej t 4-Av

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Page  23 I *^ i 1-- IL--F HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. 23 officered. It is certain that the cooking on board of her is not equalled. " SHIPPING INTERESTS. " S. F. White is Collector of the Port, and from him we gather the following statistics: From the 15th of May to the 15th of June there were sixty-seven clearances, carrying 6,709,000 feet of lumber, and there were other miscellaneous cargoes, aside from goods transported by steamers. Two first-class tug boats are owned here. "AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES. " From the fact that this country is densely wooded with hard timber of a very large growth, it may be iriferred the soil is strong and productive, and such is the fact. The last few years a heavy immigration has been rapidly coming in, clearing up land and establishing homes. Contiguous to Ludington there are numerous settlements which contribute trade to this point. The land produces all the grains well, and for root crops is unsurpassed. Potatoes are raised in the greatest abundance, and the quality of them is beyond precedent--large, mealy and richly flavored. "Of the article of wheat, both kinds of the Winter are raised, of the choicest quality. So abundant is the sugar maple tree in this vicinity that large quantities of maple sugar are yearly made. There are also a quantity of large hemlock trees, the bark of which can be made a source of profit for export. ' IMMIGRANTS will find here particular inducements to make a home. Every needed encouragement is held out to them by the principal proprietors here. Those who can labor in and about mills, and in cutting timber, find ready employment, while those who are disposed to settle down on land will find in this section superior inducements to those afforded by the far-off regions west of the Mississippi River. There are available lands still open for homestead exemption, and those for sale in second hands are offered at low rates. Added to this there is now, and will continue to be, an increasing market at this point for all the productions farmers in this region will have to sell. Lumbermen are great consumers and not producers of the necessaries of life, and the number of these will be constantly multiplying at this place. In the Winter all the teams that can be had in tle country around are employed, at remunerative prices, in the prosecution of logging business during the entire season. " There are a great many acres of government land open for entry, on the line of the F. & P. M. R. R., which are rich in soil and unsurpassable in valuable timber; there is an eastern outlet to East Saginaw, thirty miles, and there soon will be to the west, at Ludington. The climate is excellent, and better openings for farmers are not to be found in the West. " MANUFACTURING. "lWhat is most desirable here is an increase of manufacturing, and for this branch of industry excellent advantages are afforded, especially in all manufactures from wood, and the Pere Marquette Lumber Company is liberal in its encouragement of such enterprise. The hard woods, as well as that of pine, are of superior quality. There are good openings for the making of doors, sash and blinds, hubs and spokes, barrel staves, wooden ware, such as tubs and pails, wooden bowls, shoe lasts, broom handles, and all kinds of utensils made from either hard or soft wood. Timber is abundant, sites for manufacturing plenty and cheap, and advantages for shipment to all parts of the country unsurpassed by any other locality, while for a blast furnace this point affords superior advantages. "IRON MANUFACTURE. " Capt. E. B. Ward, of Detroit, who is extensively interested in iron manufacturing in the West, has said that no place in the North west affords equal advantages for a charcoal furnace with Ludington, and under his advice the Pere Marquette Lumber Company have reserved several sites for furnaces and rolling mills, which they offer to donate to companies or individuals who may wish to engage in the business. The Pere Marquette River runs by its meanderings a distance of thirty miles, through a country timbered almost entirely with maple and beech. The river is navigable for that distance with vessels drawing four feet of water. The sites selected are on the edge of Pere Marquette Lake, and about one mile from the harbor, and there is plenty of water for any sized vessel that is used for navigation on the chain of lakes. The distance to Escanaba is about 120 miles, where Lake Superior iron is brought by railroad. Capt. Ward says that it is one of the best points for a boiler plate iron rolling mill, both as to location and the facility for shipment, of any point in the Northwest. " RAILROADS. "It is calculated that eventually four railroads will centre to this point. The first that will reach here is the Flint and Pere Marquette Railroad. Present contracts will complete this road to within fifty miles of this place by the first of October next, and the same contract continues the construction twenty miles further. Work will also immediately commence on this end of the line, proposals having been issued for the building of ten miles this season. This route forms a junction with the Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad fifty miles east of here, and with the Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad at Holly, 190 miles, crosses the Michigan Central at Wayne, 230 miles, passing through the important towns of Flint, East Saginaw and other points, and terminating at Toledo, Ohio, a distance of the entire line of 278- miles. " The Pere Marquette Lumber Company has donated to this railroad company property for depot grounds to the value of $100,000, comprising one of the best sites on the shore of the inner lake. The machine shops of this road will be located at this point. It is the design to institute a through route by this line by a line of boats crossing the lake to Sheboygan or Manitowoc, for which purpose the company is now building two large, iron propellers. Messrs. White & Ewell, of this place, are attorneys for this road, and are young members of the bar of high standing. " THE DETROIT, LANSING AND LAKE MICIIGAN RAILROAD. "This road is an air line from Detroit to Ludington, and is completed to Howard, a distance of 126 miles from Detroit, and eighty miles more will bring it to this point; thence steamers will ply to Sheboygan. The Pere Marquette Lumber Company have offered the free right-of-way through the long extent of their timber lands over which it must pass to reach this place, and to donate ample depot grounds at the harbor. Pentwater is the onlly place competing for the lake shore terminus. " Mr. Joy is coming here this month to examine the facilities, and has promised Mr. Filer to select the point that has the best harbor, which gives confidence to the people here that this place will win. And it certainly offers inducements, besides its fine harbor, in the pleasant featuresof the locality, its solid and dry soil, and the certain prospect of extensive future business, the resources for which are being rapidly developed. " THE CHICAGO AND MICHIGAN LAKE SHORE ROAD is completed to Whitehall, and its destination being Manistee, must necessarily pass through Ludington. Measures are now being taken to continue work on the line, and it is settled that it will be completed to this place during the next year. The Pere Marquette Lumber Company have stock in the road, and the president of this company (Mr. D. L. Filer) is one of its directors and a member of its executive committee..4 1 / --n I

Page  24 r+L--~ ul*1' 24 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. " It will thus be seen that the prospects of future railroad communication for this place are all that can be desired, and will open a ready outlet to trade and travel and must make the advantages for manufacturing and other business at this point of great value. " PERE MARQUETTE RIVER is navigable for light draft boats to the distance of thirty miles or more. Owing to the great body and force of current, the stream is usually open during the Winter, and requires no freshet to move logs on the stream at any season of the year. " There is an ocean of pine timber lands on the Pere Marquette River and its tributaries. It comprises at least 2,500,000,000 feet of timber. Of these pine timber lands, the Pere Marquette Co. owns about 25,000, and Capt. E. B. Ward owns over 65,000 acres of selected sections. A large portion of this timber lies within twenty-five miles of the mouth of the river, and the trees are in large clusters, which are easy of access. The logs average very large and smooth. " PERE MARQUETTE LUMBER COMPANY S MILL is the original mill of James Ludington, refitted with improved machinery by this company. It uses a double gang, two double circulars, and other saws, with all the improved apparatus pertaining thereunto, and cuts 100,000 feet of lumber per day, employing fiftyfive men. This mill is located nearest the harbor and has the very best possible facilities for handling and shipping lumber. The company occupy the largest store building in the place, and sell annually goods to the amount of $150,000. " THE WARD MILL. "The well known Capt. E. B. Ward owns 65,000 acres of selected timber lands on the Pere Marquette River, and to enable him to make this timber available, purchased a mill site and adjacent land at this place, built a mill las season and installed his son, M. D. Ward, and J. B. Beane managers of the business. " This mill is very complete in every particular, the machinery the best that is manufactured in the country, the engine being of 180 horse-power. It has a double gang, a double and single circular saw, with all the modern appendages of a first-class mill. The gang is based on a hewn stone foundation, which secures the undeviating motion to their action. The mill turns off 100,000 feet of lumber per day. " Adjacent to the mill the proprietor owns forty acres of very eligibly situated land, purchased of ' the Company.' The managers have commenced building a series of twenty-five cottage houses near the mill, for the use of the workmen employed by them. There has also been recently purchased another mill site, near the other, upon which Mr. M. D. Ward has commenced the construction of a mill on his own account. This mill will operate a double gang of forty-two saws, a circular, together with the usual appendages, as well as a lath and shingle mill, with machinery of the latest improvements. There is being put up a building in which Capt. Ward intends to place a library, newspapers and periodicals for the free use of the employes. Upon the completion of the second mill the entire property will have cost $225,000. It is no small compliment to this place that a gentleman who is estimated to be worth at the least calculation $12,000,000, should select it as the point of his extensive lumber operations and place here a son. "DANAHER AND MELENDY'S MILL. "This mill is located near the head of the inner lake, has an excellent site, and the advantage of being contiguous to the assorting boom at the outlet of the river. The site was purchased of the Pere Marquette Lumber Company, and the mill and buildings connected therewith were erected last year. This mill and all its surroundings are a model of order and neatness, and the conveniences for handling lumber are most perfect. There are employed fifty-five men, using two double rotary saws, with gang edgers, log turners and automatic rollers. There are also two lath saws and a sawdust-feeder. The boilers and engine rest on a stone foundation. The mill commenced operations on June 1, 1870, and made 11,500,000 feet last year, and will make 16,000,000 this season, cutting 80,000 feet per day. Connected with the mill is a large warehouse for grain, and another for hay, (of which they use 250 tons) will be added this season. The boarding-house is a large three-story, handsomelypainted building, and there are numerous smaller houses adjacent, forming quite a settlement. The situation is very handsome. A bridge crosses the river at this point. This firm own timber land on the river. They also have a store at the village, and have sold of general merchandise to the amount of $172,000 the last thirteen months, employing four salesmen and a bookkeeper. Mr. George Stray is the head salesman. They are preparing to build a new store this Summer, of Milwaukee brick, and fire-proof, the size to be 28x100 feet, of two stories, and arranged and fitted up in the latest modern style. The members of the firm are P. M. Danaher, who is well known as connected with harbor improvements on Lake Michigan, and D. A. Melendy, for many years confidential clerk at this place of James Ludington, and was formerly a resident of Milwaukee. The writer had the pleasure of riding behind a powerful blood horse brought by Mr. Melendy from Milwaukee, which is a very fine animal. "PLANING AND FLOURING MILL. "Messrs. Sibbin & Co. own and run the above, combined in one building, the main part of which is thirty by fifty feet, of three stories. This is used for a three run grist mill, which has three reels, improved blowers, coolers, and all the apparatus of a first-class mill. It has also storage for 10,000 bushels of grain. The planing and moulding department is thirty-two by fifty feet, with engine room twenty-four by forty-two feet, in which is air engine of sixtyfive horse power. Mr. S. W. Wabruaschek, of the firm, manages the business here, and Mr. S. Sibbin runs a planing mill and sash factory belonging to the company at Manistee, which is the largest of the kind in that city. "SHINGLE MILL. "Messrs. Moulton & Flagg, who also operate two shingle mills at Pentwater, run a shingle mill at this place. The latter mnakes 70,000, and their mills at Pentwater 100,000 per day. Mr. Moulton attends to the business at Ludington and Mr. Flagg at Pentwater. "FRUIT CULTURE. "On the south side of the lake is a splendid territory overlooking both lakes, and on which the company has a farm of 120 acres under cultivation, and an orchard of all kinds of fruits, the trees of which, having been set out only a few years since by Mr. Ludington, have a healthy and thrifty growth. A large portion of those are peach trees, now overloaded with young fruit. There are, also, many other orchards, some of considerable age, that are bearing -apples, pears, cherries, plums and peaches, in abundance, showing that the soil and climate of this locality has an adaptability to fruit culture equal to any other on this shore, while the smaller fruits are abundant in growth and rich in flavor." j _ _ -i

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Page  25 ~S A.A.w HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. 25 i~ EARLY SETTLERS OF THE VILLAGE. The following biographical sketches are of some of the earliest settlers in the village of Ludington: HON. SHUBAEL F. WHITE was born at Marshall, Mich., January 17, 1841, of American parentage. The financial circumstances of his father made it necessary for Shubael to begin the lesson of self-reliance at an early age, and to understand that the successes or failures of his life must be the fruits of his own unaided efforts. He had a natural taste for study and books, and managed in the course of time to enter college at Olivet, where he remained two years, and then entered the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, where he graduated in the classical course in 1864. He worked his way through college by teaching, and earning what money he could during the vacations. In 1861 he enlisted, but was rejected on account of bronchial difficulty, but after leaving college in 1864, he again enlisted as private in the Twenty-Eighth Michigan, was soon promoted first lieutenant, then captain. He was in a number of battles, and remained in the service until August, 1866. During the last year of his service he was for a time in charge of a part of North Carolina during the reconstruction period, and was afterward provost marshal of the District of North Carolina. After leaving the service, he entered the Albany, N. Y., law school, where he graduated in 1867, and came to Ludington, being the first attorney to locate in the, then, village. At this time, and in this wild country, Mr. White entered upon his career as a lawyer and a public man. The lessons of self-reliance which he had learned at an early age, and his natural propensity to master whatever he undertook, together with his correct habits of life and high sense of honor in all his relations, very soon secured for him the confidence and respect of the people among whom he had settled. Shortly after coming here, in connection with Dr. Doty he erected a frame building on Main Street, and opened a law office in the second story. Having heard that it is not good for man "to live alone," lhe was married at Ann Arbor, to Miss Hattie Rogers, May 16, 1868. By this time there had grown up a spirited strife between two factions in the county, the central features of which were the location of the county seat and the alleged monopoly of county affairs by Charles Mears. In the Fall of 1868, Mr. Harley, an employe of Mears, was nominated for prosecuting attorney, and Mr. White was nominated for the same office. The contest was a hot one, and Mr. White was elected. A public letter to the voters of the county, written by Mr. White, and published in the columns of the Record during that campaign, shows that same incisive and vigorous style of utterance, sharpness of intellect, and determined spirit, for which in later years he became noted. He held the office of prosecuting attorney during the years of 1869-'70, and then refused a re-nomination. He was associated with Dr. Ewell from 1871 to 1873, with the late Judge Haight from 1874 to 1879, and since 1879 senior member of the well known law firm of White & McMahon. He has been moderator of the school board every year but one since 1867. In the Fall of 1872 he was elected circuit judge, but after remaining on the bench for two years, resigned, and resumed his practice at the bar. He had distinguished himself as a very successful trial lawyer before going upon the bench, and his record while upon the bench is no discredit to the fame he has achieved at the bar. His practice has been, and still continues to be, extensive, involving many of the most important suits contested in the courts of the state, and many of them he has fought to a successful issue, single-handed and alone, against formidable opposition. In the noted ejectment suits of Roach vs. Andrews, and Roach vs. Butler, which were tried in the United States Circuit Court, in December, 1879, Mr. White defended his clients with such consummate skill and vigor, and achieved such an important triumph, that upon his return from the trial he was given an ovation by the citizens of Ludington, such as is rarely accorded to any man. As soon as the intelligence was received here that he had won the suit, immediate preparations were made for a grand reception, which concluded with a banquet at the Marshall House. Judge White is a natural lawyer. He is a tireless worker, and his intellectual attainments are of a high order. His perceptions are quick and accurate, and he has a habit of leaping to conclusions by what seems more like intuition than a course of reasoning; but he rarely errs in his results. He is perhaps stronger before a court than with a jury, but very good with either. He is remarkably clear and concise in his statements, and possesses a very retentive memory. It was said of him, by Judge Withey, of the United States Court, that no lawyer had ever practiced before him who seemed to have the authorities so completely in his grasp. IIe is a man of correct habits of life, and in all his domestic and social relations is genial and kind. GEORGE W. CLAYTON was born in Monroe Co., N. Y., in 1842. Until seventeen years of age he remained at home, working on his father's farm during the Summer, and attending district school during the Winter. At the age of seventeen he left home and hired out to a farmer, working summers and attending school winters, for a time, until he concluded to try the West. He went to Berlin, Wis., and worked at making earthen ware until 1861, when he enlisted in the First Wisconsin Cavalry, and went to the front. In 1863 he was discharged for disability on account of sickness, and returned to Wisconsin. He worked in a printing office in Berlin until 1865, when he went to Milwaukee, where he worked at his trade until 1867. At that time James Ludington was building up the new village of Ludington, and wanted a newspaper started here. Mr. Clayton was recommended to him as a good man for the place, and Mr. Ludington arranged with him to come to Ludington. In the Summer of 1867, Mr. Clayton came here with his family and material, and began the publication of the Mason County Record, which he continued to publish until 1872, when he admitted a partner, and in 1875 retired altogether from the paper, as stated elsewhere. He was postmaster from May, 1869, to May, 1878. In the fire of 1881 he lost one brick and one frame building. Immediately after the fire he rebuilt an elegant block on the corner of Ludington Avenue and James Street, which he afterwards sold to Mrs. Catharine L. Cameron. In March, 1882, he started the Exchange and Loan Bank, as a private enterprise, and is working up a good business. The early files of the Record show Mr. Clayton to have been an excellent printer, and an editor of more than average ability. As a local writer he was particularly apt, and although for a long time he was publishing a paper in the woods, he made the Record an interesting and reliable journal, and his work had a great influence in building up the interests of the place. He is a public spirited and enterprising citizen, and a man whose honor and integrity are above doubt. GEORGE E. TRIPP is one of the pioneers of Mason County. He was born at Watertown, N. Y., in.1829. At an early age he conceived a liking for sailing and adventure, and for several years followed boating on the Mississippi River. Tiring of that, he concluded to try his fortunes in the wilds of Northern Michigan. In the Fall of 1854 he came up the lake and stopped at Pere Marquette. There was nothing here at that time but the old sawmill, boardinghouse and a few shanties. The first two years after coming here he was in the woods most of the time, hunting pine lands, and lumbering. In 1858 he was married to Miss Harriet A. Hutchinson, and they went to keeping house in a log house he had built, at what is,4 ----------- -- -- -- -- --- ~111~ i r

Page  26 A-X. 26 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY, F now Riverton. He was the first treasurer of the township. About 1867, he engaged at butchering, and peddled meat from house to house. After following this until 1867, he came to Ludington and opened a meat market, which he still continues. He has been a successful business man, and has acquired a competency. The present season he is building a substantial brick building on Ludington Avenue, which he will occupy with his market. Mr. Tripp has served as alderman three terms, first in 1873, and again in 1880 and 1881. He is a man of conservative notions and excellent judgment. He has always been ready to assist all worthy enterprises, and his reputation for integrity and fairness has never been called in question. CAPT. GEORGE WEIMER is a native of Alsace, Germany, and came to this country with his parents in 1814. They first settled in Jackson, Ohio, where Mr. Weimer learned the boot and shoe trade. From Ohio he came to lonia County, Mich., and in 1862 enlisted in Company I, Twenty-First Michigan Infantry, and served with his regiment until August, 1865,when he was discharged. He wasin every skirmish and battle in which his regiment was engaged, and never lost a day during his entire term of service. He enlisted as a private and was promoted to captain during his term of service. In 1867, he came to Ludington and opened the first boot and shoe shop here. He remained in that business until 1873, when he entered upon the duties of county treasurer, to which office he had been elected at the previous Fall election. He held that office for two years, and was afterwards deputy sheriff. In 1877 he engaged in the boot and shoe business again, which he continued for three years. He has been city marshal since 1880. Mr. Weimer has cleared two lots and built two dwelling houses and one store since 1869. HORACE F. ALEXANDER is a native of Vermont, and came to Ludington in 1868. Before coming here he had been in business with a gentleman named Whittaker, and immediately after coming here they put up a frame building on the lot where Dr. Dundass' store now stands, and opened a drug and book store. The firm continued about a year and a half, when Mr. Whittaker went away, and Mr. Alexander continued the business alone. In the Summer of 1873, he erected the first brick building that was built in Ludington. It was a two-story store building, with solid brick walls and stone foundation, and stood on the corner of Loomis and Charles Streets. When completed, Mr. Alexander occupied it as a drug store. The telegraph office was established here that year, and he was placed in charge. He continued in the drug business until burned out in the fire of 1881. Since that time he has given most of his time to the telegraph and telephone business. EDWARD A. FOSTER was born in Washington County, Me., in 1830. His parents, Edward and Fannie Foster, were of the genuine New England stock, and the home life of their children was surrounded by the most elevating and ennobling influences. In 1840 his father and family removed to Milltown, N. B., on the St. Croix River, and again in 1844, across the river to Calais, Me. Until twenty-one years of age, Edward remained with his parents and attended school at the district school and academy. In 1851, being twenty-one years of age, in company with his brother Luther, he went to Ridgeway, Pa., and engaged at lumbering. He remained there two years and then went to Washington Territory, where he continued lumbering for nearly three years, when he came East to Oshkosh, Wis. There he built a large mill and was in the lumber business. From Oshkosh he went to Muskegon, where he remained until 1869. He came to Ludington and was one of the charter members of the Pere Marquette Lumber Company, which was organized that year. For several years he gave his personal attention to the interests of the company, and has always been engaged in the lumber business. At the present time he is engaged in the manufacture of shingles with his son, the firm being E. A. Foster & Co., but for some months he has been obliged to abstain from business cares on account of poor health. Mr. Foster is a gentleman of quiet ways, but has always been a thorough and successful business man. He is a man of unquestioned integrity, and one who makes strong friends, and few enemies. DELOS L. FILER.-Although the subject of this sketch has passed from earth, his memory is still cherished by the many who knew him while in life, and the impress of his character upon. the scenes of his activity may be easily discerned. Mr. Filer was born in Herkimer County, N. Y., September 27, 1817, and was sixty-one years, nine months and twenty-nine days old at the time of his death. His early life was spent in his native county, and then came to Racine, Wis., where he accepted a position as bookkeeper at a salary of $600 per annum. This was in 1852. In 1838 he was married to Miss S. A. Paine, who died in June of the following year, leaving an infant daughter, known in after years as Mrs. John Vahue, who died with yellow fever in Florida, October 19, 1873. In March, 1840, Mr. Filer was married to Miss Juliette Golden, who died in 1864, leaving four children, E. G. and D. W. Filer, of Manistee, Mrs. A. G. Sexton, of Milwaukee, and Frank Filer, of Ludington. January 23, 1866, Mr. Filer was again married to Miss Mary M. Pierce, of Ludington, who is still living, and at present residing in Detroit. Of this union there were born one daughter, Miss Gracie Filer, and two sons, Ellihue and Alanson Filer. From Racine Mr. Filer went to Manistee, and there began a successful career as a business man. After becoming extensively interested in business operations at Manistee, he came to Ludington, in 1869. Ludington was then just beginning to be known, and Mr. Filer's keen sagacity and great energy were valuable auxiliaries to the development of this locality. As late as 1856 he was a poor man with no resources but his salary. But he possessed abundant capital of mind that he at last found opportunity to operate, and it yielded him a handsome fortune. At the time of his death he was president of the Pere Marquette Lumber Company, and heavily interested in manufacturing interests at Manistee and Milwaukee. He was always actively interested in local enterprises, and his name is prominently associated with nearly every project for the advancement of Ludington's interests that camie up during his residence here. He was president of the county agricultural society, and held the office of mayor of the city in 1876. He was strictly honorable in his business transactions, and his judgment upon business and public matters was unusually accurate. His advice was continually sought by others, and he rarely made a mistake when he gave an opinion. He gave liberally, when he thought the object was a worthy one. In the Spring of 1879 lie went to Colorado, accompanied by his wife and daughter, in hopes of benefiting his health, which had been failing for some time. He returned home and entered again upon his business duties, but was soon taken worse, and was obliged to abandon all labor and anxiety. He continued to grow worse until Saturday, July 26, 1879, when he breathed his last. The cause of his death was cancer. The funeral services were held at the residence of the deceased the following Monday, and the remains taken by boat to Milwaukee for burial. The eulogies pronounced at the time of his death by thie local press expressed great admiration of Mr. Filer as a business man and a citizen, and deplored the loss which this portion of the state had sustained in his death. JAMES V. HENRY, lumber inspector, Ludington, is a native of Jackson, Mich. He enlisted in the service in August, 1861, as a private in the Ninth Michigan Infantry, and remained in the service until the close of the war in 1865. He was promoted to a first lieutenant during his term of service. In 1867 he came to Ludington, and for a time worked in the mills, and afterwards S IF) I I

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Page  27 2. & HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. 27 I~C measured lumber by the month. In 1876 he began inspecting lumber, and has continued in that business to the present time. Mr. Henry is also interested in a woolen mill at Richmond, Mich. At the first charter election in 1873, Mr. Henry was elected justice of the peace, and held the office one term. The particular official duties performed by him, to which he now refers with the greatest satisfaction, were in pronouncing the sentence of "husband and wife" upon two couples who have lived together in peace and iharmony to the present time. In the first ceremony, Mr. Henry's wife had to dictate what he should say, while he repeated after her, and gave official sanctity and authority to the declaration. LEVI SHACKELTON was born in Canada in 1817, and came to the States in 1849. He first located in Grand Haven, where he engaged in the grocery business. In 1860 he removed to Muskegon, and was in business there until 1868, when he came to Ludington. Shortly after coming here he cleared up a lot on Loomis Street, and erected a building, which he occupied with a grocery store, and continued in that business about two years. In 1870, he was elected justice of the peace, and with the exception of one year has held the office continuously ever since. In October, 1881, he was elected county superintendent of poor, and now devotes his time to the duties of the two offices which he holds. Mr. Shackelton is a genial gentleman, and a competent and conscientious public officer. AT THE CLOSE OF 1872. In the Record! of December 25, 1872, was published an exhaustive review of the growth and business interests of the city of Ludington, in which the writer said: "Probably no other town in the state of Michigan has attracted so much attention, or offered as great inducements to settlers during the past eighteen months, on account of its favorable location, its advantageous manufacturing facilities, its rapidly increasing business industries, and its flattering promises of future growth, as the village of Ludington. These inducements have brought here men of enterprise and industry from all parts of the state and from other states, who, tired of the monotony of dull business in other localities, have come to add their energy in building up the business interests of our thriving village. "The two branches of the Pere Marquette River, pursuing a westerly course through the county, unite in forming a beautiful inland lake of the same name, which, extending in a northwesterly direction, has its outlet through a short channel, into Lake Michigan Upon the northerly side of this lake is located the present village of Ludington." "A little more than two years ago Mr. Ludington sold his property here, embracing, with other large tracts of land, nearly all that bordering upon Pere Marquette Lake, to the Pere Marquette Lumber Company, of which D. L. Filer, one of the oldest and most successful business men upon the "shore, is president, L. H. Foster secretary and J. M. Loomis treasurer. This village now includes 400 acres platted by the company, eighty by Mr. Resseguie, eighty by Mr. Tinkham, forty by Mr. Quivillon and forty by Mr. White." There were at this time five church organizations, and three church edifices completed and in process of construction. Besides the former Union School Building, there were erected that season two new school buildings, and a site had been procured for a central union school building. The editor then says: "Our railroad prospects are now particularly encouraging, and second to no town in the state. There is now no doubt of the completion of the F. & P. M. R. R. to this place during the next twelve months, and probably in a somewhat shorter period. This road, as far as it is at present completed, is one of the very best constructed roads in the country, and managed and equipped in a superior manner. Upon its completion we shall have a direct route with through trains to Detroit and Toledo, connecting at both points with the various roads diverging therefrom. At East Saginaw it will have connection with the road now being constructed from that city to St. Clair, connecting at that point with the Canada Southern..Across the lake it is only sixty miles to Manitowoc. Our harbor, with the expenditure of the present appropriation, and the additional amount which it is hoped to secure, will have a sufficient depth of water to float the largest vessels that navigate the lakes, and will be open at all seasons of the year. At Manitowoc, connection is made with the Wisconsin Central Railroad running to St. Paul, all but sixty miles of which is now in operation, and upon the remaining portion the work of construction is being rapidly prosecuted. * * * We have the assurance of the extension of the Chicago & Michigan Lake Shore Road to this point during the coming year. The Grand Rapids, Newaygo & Lake Shore Road, also, is seeking a lake shore terminus in this direction, and with the through line established, and a proper spirit of action on the part of our citizens, there can be little doubt of securing this road also, which will be one of the most advantageous to our town, all things considered, of any leading in that direction. Besides this, there is the Orono & Big Rapids Road, running in an almost direct line to this place. "With these unsurpassed railroad and water privileges; with such an abundant supply of timber for manufactories of various kinds; with a farming country surrounding and supporting, which is unsurpassed for fertility; with a climate and soil adapted to successful fruit growing; with that energy and pluck which characterize our chief business men, who shall predict anything but a brilliant future for our rising village "During the past eighteen months our population has more than doubled, and an almost incredible number of new stores and dwellings have been erected, schoolhouses and churches have been built. Still, these have not outgrown our manufacturing interests-they, too, have been more than doubled during the past season." The review then gives a detailed description of the operations of the Pere Marquette Lumber Company, Capt. E. B. Ward, Danaher & Melendy, George W. Roby & Co., Vahue, Hustis & Co., and Sweet & Bean. The history of their mills appears elsewhere, and it is not necessary to repeat it here. Continuing, the account says: " Aside from the mills in our village, Mr. Mears owns one at Lincoln, at the mouth of Lincoln River, which runs one double rotary, an edger, and a lath machine. It has a capacity of 50,000 of lumber and 20,000 lath daily. Mr. J. Collins is foreman. Connected with this mill is a planing and matching machine. He has about 75,000,000 of pine on Lincoln River, and the railroad company owns about as much more on the same stream. " Another mill is located at Hamlin, at the mouth of Big Sauble River, which Mr. Mears has recently sold to a Pennsylvania cormpany, which also contains one double rotary and an edger, and will cut 40,000 daily. They have 150,000,000 of pine on Sauble River, and the railroad company owns about 200,000,000. Mr. Mears has vessels of his own employed in shipping lumber. " There are also three or four other saw mills in the county which are capable of cutting, in the aggregate, from 20,000 to 30,000 daily. There are upon Pere Marquette River 4,000,000,000 feet of good pine; on Sauble River 350,000,000, and on Lincoln River 150,000,000 more, making an aggregate of 4,500,000,000. The capacity of our present number of mills, when fully completed, - ~-~t r ~C

Page  28 G\ I, 1 R1~' 28 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. I will be not far from 130,000,000 per annum, which would require nearly thirty-five years to convert our pine into lumber, and furnish employment to from 500 to 600 men. " WABRUASHEK & FARRELL. " These gentlemen have erected, upon the site of the one burned in July last, a planing mill. The building is a temporary one and will not be occupied another season. This mill is provided with engine and boiler, a surfacing machine, a planer and matcher, a siding machine, sticker' and scroll saw, all of which is new and first-class machinery. The machinery will be removed the present Winter to another building already provided for the purpose, and it is probable that a sash and door factory will be added at no distant day. SWe have also one shingle mill owned by J. M. Loomis & Co., which has been operated during the past season by Mr. M. Danaher. It runs two shingle machines, a bolting saw and drag saw and will cut regularly 60,000 daily, and has cut as high as 80,000 per day. " There are also in the county three manufactories of wooden bowls, one of which is located in Amber, one in Riverton, and another at Lincoln. The former two are owned and operated by Wm. Towles, and the other by W. A. Bailey. These are capable of turning out twenty dozen bowls each, per day, or 72,000 per annum in the aggregate. " We have also a foundry and machine shop operated by E. J. Gould. The foundry has been in operation only during the past few months. " Arrangements have already been made for erecting a hemlock extract factory at this point, which will probably be in operation before the close of another year. " Upon the completion of the F. & P. M. Ry., arrangements will be immediately consummated for the erection of a blast furnace at this point. The site has already been selected and the capital is at hand. Work will commence upon it as soon as a ready supply of fuel can be obtained." BUSINESS MEN OF 1872. In the same paper is given a review of the business men of the village at that time, from which we gather the following information: The Pere Marquette Lumber Company's store was in charge of Jacob Staffon and doing a large trade. Buckley and Marchant were hardware dealers, and had been in business since September, 1871. Mr. C. C. Ward, now a James Street grocer, was in charge of their store, and Robert M. Bowes superintended the manufacturing department. Danaher & Melendy were doing a general merchandise business, and had just completed a new store building 30x100 feet, two stories high. John H. Highland & Co. had been in the hardware business since July, 1871. They were located in the Johnson building, on the corner of Ludington Avenue and Charles Street, and B. J. Goodsell, now in the same business here, was in charge of the manufacturing department. Johnson & Ely were running a drug store. They started in the Fall of 1869, and were burned out in June, 1871, but had immediately rebuilt on the corner of Ludington Avenue and Charles Street. Burton & Blain were dealing in general merchandise. This firm succeeded Blain & Bro., in 1871. P. Anderson was in the grocery business, having commenced here in May, 1870. S. Slaght had a general merchandise store which was made conspicuous by the sign of an elephant. He had been doing business in the county for five years and came to Ludington in the Fall of 1872. D. W. Goodenough had a general merchandise store which he opened in June, 1872. Manchester & Jellison had recently opened a grocery and provision store. S. Marcuse had a variety store which he started in August, 1871. E. W. Marsh, now editor of the Democrat, was doing an extensive business in bo)ts and shoes, having started here in March, 1872. W. H. Fox had just opened a boot and shoe store in Staffon's building. H. P. Bernient had just opened a stock of boots and shoes and groceries on Charles Street. Wm. Frye had a furniture store. He came here and started business in the Spring of 1870. A. Voigt was doing a merchant tailoring business in Demar's new block. Holmquist & Ekroth were in the furniture business and dil considerable manufacturing. A. Abraham was proprietor of the Star Clothing House. P. Mendelsen was doing a good business in ready-made clothing on the corner of Ludington Avenue and Robert Street. W. J. Cushway had been in the jewelry business here since March, 1870. Wilkins & Tatman had a drug store in Staffon's building. Wim. Tolles & Co. were dealing in groceries and provisions on Loomis Street. H. C. Stewart was doing a business in general merchandise. Mrs. Pesant had a millinery and fancy goods store. Misses Whipple, McClintock & Co. had recently succeeded Mrs. Cuddiback in the millinery and dressmaking business. Dr. J. A. Rea was practicing dentistry. F. C. Silvers and A. J. Lawson had each well equipped photograph galleries. P. Ewing had established himself here in the manufacture of wagons in the Spring of 1870, and was doing a good business. S. W. Frisbie had a blacksmith shop on James Street. C. Kinne had a livery stable on James Street. Joshua Allen & Son had lost their curtain fixture factory by fire the previous June, and were just starting business at the Ludington dock. Mr. McCollum was running the Exchange Bank of F. Blackmarr & Co. Mr. George Tripp and Charles Demme had each a meat market. The Kuhli Brothers were running a barber shop. D. Anderson was doing a general business as painter. J. Morden was running a restaurant. The physicians were Drs. A, P. McConnell, J. S. Southworth, J. C. Tatman and Mrs. Dr. Rea. The lawyers were White & Ewell, Haight & Gibson, E. N. Fitch, Kenfield & Westcott. Mr. Ewell was probate judge and S. D. Haight was prosecuting attorney. THE FIRST EXTENSIVE FIRE. On the 29th of June, 1872, a disastrous fire broke out in the southeastern part of the village, and destroyed about $35,000 worth of property. The fire originated in a small wooden building filled with hay, and was supposed to have ignited by sparks from ithe _ ) '- --- I..4.II"

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Page  29 ~dt" C 4-1 _- -___________-----. 61 ^ 1 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY 29 ~I I I smoke-stack of Ward's mill. A planing mill, grist mill, window curtain factory and Ward's warahouse were destroyed. The losses were as follows: S. Sibbin & Co., grist mill, planing mill and machinery..... $23 700 S. Sibbin & Co,, lumber.................................... 600 S. Sibbin & Co., grain....................................... 250 Danaher & Melendy, grain.................................... 1 500 Davidson Bros., grain.......................................... 75 Lumber Co., grain....................................... 28 M. E. Church, lumber....................................... 100 George Meyrs, lumber........................................ 30 Belden, lum ber............................................. 48 J. H. Conrad, wood.................................... 75 G. N. Stray, lumber................................... 100 D. L. Filer, lumber........................... 150 Danaher & Melendy, lumber............................. 100 E. B. Ward, buildings................................. 3 000 E. B. Ward, hay, etc...................................... 2 000 T. D. Ward, furniture....................................... 1 000 Allen & Co., manufacturing business....................... 6 800 There was no insurance on any of the property burned. INCORPORATED AS A CITY. The Winter of 1873 closed in around a people determined to have a city charter. About the middle of January a meeting of citizens was held at the union school building, to arrange for accomplishing that end.. F F. Hopkins was chosen chairman of that meeting, and S. D. Haight secretary. A committee consisting of S. F. White, S. D. Haight and P. Ewing, presented a charter to the meeting, which was adopted. The main provisions of the charter were as follows: Boundaries: Lot No. 3 of fractional Section 9, the south half of Section 10, the west half of Section 14, the whole of Sections 15 and 16, so much of Section 22 as lies north and east of Pere Marquette Lake, and the west half of Section 23. After some discussion the name of Ludington was adopted, with but one dissenting vote. Three wards were first agreed upon by the meeting, but upon subsequent consideration, backed by a petition, the territory was divided into four wards, as follows: First Ward-All west of Charles Street, and a continuation of this line north and south to the city limits. Second Ward-All east of this line and north of Loomis Street, to the east line of Section 15, then extending south to Pine Street, thence east to the city limits. Third Ward-All lying south of Second Ward and east of First Ward, and north of the lake and bayou. Fourth Ward-All the territory south of the Third Ward. The officers of the city to be chosen by the electors thereof, were a mayor, one recorder, one treasurer and three justices of the peace. In each ward there were to be elected two aldermen, one supervisor and one constable. In regard to taxes, the charter provided that the whole amount raised in any one year, for both general and highway purposes, should not exceed one per cent of the assessed valuation. All grading and improvements upon streets were to be made by general assessment, with the exception of work upon alleys and side-walks, which was to be done by special tax. The other provisions of the charter embrace those powers usually granted to like corporations. Messrs. L. H. Foster and S. D. Haight were appointed a committee to transmit the charter to the Legislature and endeavor to secure its passage. After some trouble and delay the charter was granted by the Legislature, and the first city election was held on the first Monday in April. There were two tickets in the field, and the contest was waged with all the patriotic ardor which a municipal election usually inspires. The result was as follows: For mayor, Charles E. Resseguie; recorder, W. F. Kenfield; treasurer, John H. Highland. Aldermen: First Ward, Peter Anderson, George Tripp; Second Ward, Fayette Johnson, L. P. Southworth; Third Ward, Robert Davidson, William Tolles; Fourth Ward, James Crowly, D. Carroll. E. Nelson Fitch was appointed city attorney at the first meeting of the council. The first ordinance voted by the council was as follows: " That it shall not be lawful for any person to keep or maintain, within the limits of the city of Ludington, any saloon, restaurant, grocery, boarding house, or any other place of resort, where spirituous or intoxicating liquors, wine or beer is sold by the glass or drink, without obtaining a license therefor from the common council; and the keeper, or owner or occupant of any such saloon, restaurant, boarding house, grocery, or other place of resort, who shall offend against the provisions of this ordinance, shall be liable to a fine not exceeding $300, or by imprisonment not exceeding three months. The population of the city in 1873 was about 2,000, and the total valuation of property was as follows: First Ward, $178,459; Second Ward, $58,021; Third Ward, $44,780; Fourth Ward $175,485. MAYORS OF LUDINGTON. Since the incorporation of the city the following-named gentlemen have held the office of Mayor: Charles E. Resseguie, P. M. Danaher, D. L. Filer, Bennett J. Goodsell, Antoine E. Cartier and George N. Stray. Below we give brief biographical sketches of those whose biographies do not appear elsewhere. CHARLES E. RESSEGUIE was born at Rome, N. Y., in April, 1826. He remained at home and in that vicinity until 1852, when he came to Ohio and stayed two Summers. In the Fall of 1854 he came to Michigan and was employed as clerk and civil engineer for a contractor on tie Detroit & Milwaukee Railroad. Considerable of his time was spent in hunting lands, and he traversed portions of the territory included in Mason County. He remained thus employed until 1871, when he came to Ludington, and the following year brought his family here. He had purchased eighty acres of land in 1869, in what are now the Second and Third Wards of the city, and upon coming here engaged in the real estate business. He has platted two additions to the city, and still owns a large amount of city real estate. He has been mayor of the city of Ludington in 1873, 1877 and 1878. He was the first mayor of the city after it was incorporated in the Winter of 1873. In 1877 he bought 560 acres of land in the Township of Eden, now Custer. This, in addition to what he previously owned, gave him a tract of 680 acres, a considerable portion of which was heavily timbered. He went at work getting out wood, ties and bark, and employed a large number of men. Soon after he built a store and boarding house, and in the Fall of 1878 platted the village of Custer. Since that time his personal attention has been almost entirely devoted to his extensive interests in and about his new village, which has already become a thrifty business point, as described elsewhere. He has an extensive store, a sawmill, besides a number of dwellings. Mr. Resseguie is a practical and sagacious business man, and one in whom people have great confidence. He resides in Ludington and goes back and forth to Custer as his interests may require. BENNETT J. GOODSELL, hardware mnerchlant, Ludington, is a native of Germany, and came to this country in 1837. He first located at Hillsdale, where he learned the tinners' trade. In 1863 - F K J -i ^ - __ '1 _____ - (* r

Page  30 r ~T~-L J ot3r:: 30 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. 64 he was in the locomotive department at Nashville, Tenn. In 1866 he came to Pentwater and started the first hardware store and machine shop north of Muskegon. In 1873 he came to Ludington and opened a hardware store. He built on the corner of Ludington Avenue and Charles Street the second brick building erected in the city. Since that time he has built the store building which he occupies, the block now owned by Cartier & Filer, and the postoffice block. He held the office of supervisor for nine years, and was prominent in removing the county seat from Lincoln to Ludington. He was mayor of the city in 1869, and for some time after the organization of the fire department was chief engineer. He has been an enterprising man and has done much to improve the city. ANTOINE E. CARTIER belongs to the list of Michigan's leading and successful business men. He was born in Canada in 1836, and during his boyhood did not have the advantages for education which are afforded children at the present time. He was, however, the fortunate possessor of a good stock of common sense and natural aptitude for business. Upon attaining his majority in 1857 he came to the States and stopped in Chicago from July to October. At that time he went to Manistee and there began to lay the foundation of the fortune he has since amassed. He was at first engaged at driving and assorting logs both at Manistee and Ludington. In 1877 he came to Ludington, and in November, 1878, purchased an interest in the business since operated by the firm of Cartier & Filer. This firm have large lumbering interests, a sawmill and store, all of which are described in another part of this work. Mr. Cartier is also half owner of the shingle mill business of Danaher & Cartier, and is a member of the firm of Dempsey, Cartier & Co., at Manistee. Mr. Cartier was mayor of the city of Ludington in 1880-81, and while in Manistee was a member of the city council for four years. His business career has been one of remarkable success achieved by his own untiring efforts. He is a man of generous impulses and is always ready to render assistance where it is needed and deserved. Possessed of clear judgment upon business matters and in public affairs, he is a valuable citizen of the community in which lie lives, and it is to such men tlat the city of Ludington is indebted for its prosperity and sturdy growth. Mr. Cartier was married to Eliza N. Ayers, at Manistee, December 3, 1859. Nine children have been born to them, eight of whom are still living. In 1878 Mr. Cartier built the handsome residence which is now their home, a view of which appears in this work. GEORGE N. STRAY, mayor of the city of Ludington, was born at Evans, N. Y., in 1849. In 1870, attracted by the hopeful predictions for the future of Northern Michigan, lie came to Ludington and entered the employ of Danaher & Melendy, who were doing an extensive business in lumber, general merchandise, etc. He continued in their employ and in the employ of the Danaher & Melendy Company until 1877. The affairs of the company became embarrassed and application was made for the appointment of a trustee. Mr. Stray had been associated with the business, then, for about seven years, and had displayed such business aptitude and integrity of character that he was appointed trustee of the affairs of the Danaher & Melendy Company. He entered at once upon the management of the large business, and with such success that in 1881 a settlement of the company's affairs was effected. In October, 1881, the company was reorganized with Mr. Stray as secretary. Although yet a young man, Mr. Stray is recognized as a successful business manager, and is a man of irreproachable character. From 1876 to 1881 he held the office of city recorder, and in 1875 served one term as alderman from the First Ward. In the Spring of 1882 he was elected mayor of the city, and is serving the people creditably and satisfactorily. Mr. Stray is a Democrat in politics, but taking a conscientious and high-minded view of all questions, he is universally popular. FIRST ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT of the affairs of the city's affairs was made by Mayor Resseguie, April 1, 1874, and was as follows: Amount of orders issued................. $12,412.37 Am ount paid................................ 7,598.00 Total outstanding................$ 4,814.37 Receivable from James Ludington...... 2,500.00 $ 2.314.37 CEMETERY FUND. By bond, Feb. 1, 1874. 1 year....? 500.00 To paid order 308.................... 8175 To cash for Foster & Ressegqie.. 270.00 To exchange................... 25.00 376.75 On hand..............................$.... 123.25 Total amount expended on streets....$7.89S.44 TOTAL INDEBTEDNESS. By city orders........................... $2,314 37 By city bonds.............................. 500.00 $2,814.37 THE CHANGES OF A YEAR. During the year 1873 there was a large increase in population, and nearly 200 new buildings were erected, including the courthouse. About $10,000 was expended upon streets. The city had purchased cemetery grounds and begun their improvement. Three new sawmills were erected, and other manufacturing industries increased. Two new brick yards had been opened, and a ship yard was talked of. Considerable work was done upon the harbor, and the road-bed of the F. & P. M. Ry. was graded to the city limits. Among the changes that occurred during the year in the business of the city, the Record noted the following: Jonn H. Highland, of the firm of J. H. Highland & Co., died during the year, and the business was being conducted by the other members of the firm, Jason Gillette and B. J. Goodsell. They had connected the Ludington Boiler Works with their business. Johnson & McConnell had succeeded Johnson & Ely in the drug business. J. Roussin had opened a boot and shoe shop. B. Betz had opened what was known as the "City Grocery Store," on Ludington Avenue. E. J. Lockman had started a new furniture store, just east of the Record building. H. P. Beardsley had located himself in Johnson & McConnell's drug store, as jeweler and repairer. J. F. Clemens was dealing in knit goods. W. G. Hudson had started in business as a house, sign and carriage painter. Finsterwald & Johnson had purchased the old store formerly occupied by Danaher & Melendy, and opened a clothing store. Fred Falkner and Edward Gagnon had each opened meat markets during the year. The banking house of Blain, Yerkes & Co., was started during this year. Drs. P. P. Shorts and E. N. Dundass had located here during the year. The bar had received accessions in the persons of Hon. H. H. Wheeler, Newcombe & Wing, and M. D. Seeley. It was in 1873 that the first brick block was erected in the city, by Horace F. Alexander. t 4-w q --

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Page  31 #-.;4 -- c--k HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. 31 POSTAL MATTERS. The first postoffice in thin region was started in 1847, and was located in the hollow of a pine tree that stood on the point, south of the present site of the Taylor mill. The Indians were poor correspondents, at best, and the Government did not think it best to send here after the mail patronage of the two or three white men who were stopping here temporarily. Two men named Parkes were making shingles up the river, and the " Hooker," that took the shingles, brought their mail to the old pine tree and took their letters to Grand Haven, which was the nearest postoffice. In 1851, a man named Cooper, in consideration of a small sum raised by subscription among the few inhabitants, made three trips during the Winter from Grand Haven to Manistee, carrying the mail. In 1852 Thomas Livingston performed the same duty. In 1853 a man named Holmes madde several trips. In 1855, the year that the county was organized, a postal route was established by the Government, and the contract for carrying the mails was first taken by one Metcalf, who carried the mail on the back of one pony and rode another alongside. On one occasion, a young man sent by him was drowned whlile crossing the ferry at Pere Marquette River. The ferry-boat was an old raft, and it went to sea with the two horses and man on b1oard. The ferry at this time was just north of the bluff, and on the day that the mail was expected, some one about the mill would keep watch, and when Uncle Samuel's transportation company hove in sight would go down to the ferry and bring the carrier and mail across on the boat, letting the ponies swim behind. Those were the days of primitive postal facilities. The telephone was yet hidden in the mines of genius; postal-cards were not born; and in this region newspapers and letters were luxuries not largely indulged in. For several years the mail was left at the mill store. In 1864 a postoffice was established at Pere Marquette, but the name of the postoffie was Ludington. David A. Melendy was the first postmaster. He held the office until 1868, when he was succeeded by Frederick J. Dowland, who held it about a year and resigned. He was succeeded by George W. Clayton, who retained it until 1878, when he was succeeded by Judge Wheeler, who was succeeded in May, 1882, by the present postmaster, Dr. R. F. Dundass.' The office was first kept in James Ludington's store. When Mr. Claytontootok the office he removed it to a building near where J. Allen & Son's warehouse now stands. In 1871 he moved it into a new building that was erected on Ludington Avenue, opposite where the Filer House now stands. It remained there for three years, when Mr. Clayton erected a building on the corner of Ludington Avenue and James Street, and removed the office to that place. There it remained until the fire in 1881. After the fire, Mr. B. J. Goodsell built a brick building on the corner of Ludington Avenue and Charles Street, and the office was located in a room on Charles Street, where it still remains. It was made a money-order office August 1, 1870, and the amount paid out the first year was about $8,000. In February, 1874, the business of the office for the previous six months was as follows: Amount of stamps cancelled............. $ 1,065.88 Postage on newspapers................... 156.16 Collected on unpaid letters.............. 5902 Box rent................................ 176.00 Number of money orders issued during the year........................... 1,730 Amount of orders......................... $28,535.03 Amount paid out on orders............... 7,797.11 The amount of business done in the office for the year ending December 31, 1881, was as follows: MONEY ORDER BUSINESS. Amt. of domestic money orders issued..$79,461.68 Amt. of foreign money orders issued.... 6,459.20 Amount of domestic money orders paid. 20,742.56 Amount of foreign money orders paid.. 4,232.10 Amount of stamps, postal-cards, stamped envelopes, newspaper wrappers, etc., sold during the year, $6,494.04. DR. ROBERT F. DUNDASS, P. M., was born in Canada in 1847. After two years in New York, he went to Pentwater, in 1867, and came to Ludington in 1869. In 1873 he graduated at Rush Medical College, at Chicago, and soon after began practice in Ludington. For several years he has conducted a drug store in connection with his pr.ictice. Dr. Dundass has always been active in politics, and in the Fall of 1880 was elected to represent his district in the State Legislature. He has been prominent in efforts to secure an exterior harbor of refuge at Ludington, and has visited Washington several times in the interest of that project. Last Spring he received the appointment of postmaster at Ludington, to succeed Judge Wheeler, who held the office for one term. LUDINGTON DOCK. In the Fall of 1871, Joshua Allen and his son, Eugene Allen, came to Ludington from Augusta, Me., and commenced the manufacture of turned goods, such as mop handles, curtain rollers, etc. Their factory was situated in what is now the Fourth Ward, and was operated by them until a disastrous fire, in June, 1872, swept away their factory and stock, involving a loss of seven or eight thousand dollars. While considering the matter of rebuilding, they were induced to improve the dock and establish a forwarding and commission business. They at once purchased from the Pere Marquette Lumber Company the dock property on the north side of Pere Marquette Lake, and adjoining the mill site of that company. The dock had been partially built up of slabs, which had rotted away, and a little old building was all that was there at the time of the purchase. Messrs. Allen & Son went at work to improve the property. They have built a splendid dock, three ware houses, and their business, which at first consisted of handling one ton of hay or a few bushels of oats at a time, has increased every year, and their sales of merchandise amounted last year to over forty thousand dollars. They are continually adding to their business facilities, and use every effort to bring trade to this point. Probably no one enterprise has done more to help the city of Ludington than the business and labors of this firm. JOSHUA ALLEN, senior member of the above-named firm, is an excellent type of the New Englander. He was born at Fairfield, Me., in 1809. Like the majority of New England sons of that day, he spent his early life at home, and when he arrived at years of maturity, settled in business in his native state. His business for the most part was lumbering. He lived at Calais, Me., for a time, and afterwards at Augusta. From the latter place he removed to Ludington, in 1871, and engaged in business as stated above. Mr. Allen is a hale gentleman, although seventy-three years of age. He still attends to business as regularly as ever. EUGENE ALLEN, of the firm of Joshua Allen & Son, was born in Maine, in 1845. His early life was spent for the most part at home, and his business career has been identified with his father. In 1871 he came to Ludington and has been one of the most active business men here since that time. He is an active business man, possesses great energy, and is prominently connected with all public 1 jil. -- JI I= IV V -I

Page  32 V ~ir~ 32 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. improvements. He was a leading spirit in the Library Association, and more recently in the work of the Tax Payers' Improvement Association. At the present time he is prominently connected with the system of waterworks in operation here, and the efforts being made to secure a harbor of refuge at this point. Mr. Allen was married October 1, 1879, to Miss Mary M. Ferry, of Grand Haven, niece of Senator T. W. Ferry. FOUR PLY MUSIC. Some of the musical talent of Ludington was utilized for systematic service by the organization, last Spring, of a quartet club, called the " Congregational Church Quartet," and incorporated under the laws of the state. The quartet is composed of Miss A. R. Bibbins, soprano; Mrs. R. M. Keyes, alto; L. C. Waldo, tenor; E. W. Marsh, basso; Mrs. E. W. Marsh, pianist. The officers are: Mrs. R. M. Keyes, president; E. W. Marsh, secretary; L. C. Waldo, treasurer. The organization owns its music, a piano and organ, and is altogether a prosperous and interesting institution. LUDINGTON CORNET BAND. In the Spring of 1872 a long-felt want began to manifest itself in an effort to organize a cornet band. There was a superabundance of wind power and musical talent waiting to be utilized, and an organization was easily and speedily perfected. The officers were: E. W. Marsh, president; William A. Welch, leader; G. W. Slater, secretary; L. W. Steffy, treasurer; Frank M. Plumb, librarian. A meeting was held at the office of Justice Shackelton, and a stock company formed with a capital of six hundred dollars, divided into sixty shares of ten dollars each. This was early in May, and about the middle of June a set of silver instruments arrived, and sweetest strains of horn music proceeded forthwith to float. The organization was called the " Ludington Cornet Band," and did valorous service until about 1876, seeds of dissolution began to germinate, and in 1881 the organization finally broke up. But one band goeth and another cometh, and after pulling through nearly two years without the aid of horn music, the city was again enlivened, in the Spring of 1880, by the organization of the " Serenade Band," which was composed of ten young men. This band did splendid service until the Spring of 1881, when it consolidated with the Knights Templar Band, which had been recently organized. This band existed until last Spring, when it disbanded. L. N. Curott was leader of the "Serenade Band," and Chas. Bergman, of the "Knights Templar Band." Last Spring the present band was organized under the leadership of Prof. Treloff. CITY CEMETERY ASSOCIATION. Prior to 1873, the burying-ground was located about two miles south of Ludington, on the road to Pentwater. It comprised about an acre of ground rudely enclosed and persistently neglected. But few graves were made there, and fewer grave-stones erected. An old resident said to the writer, "But few people died in those days; they had too much else to do." As the inhabitants multiplied, and the village attained the metropolitan stature of a city, the necessity of a cemetery suitable to the needs of the future as well as the present, began to be felt. In the Spring of 1873, it was manifestly desirable that a cemetery association should be formed, and a suitable spot selected for the location of a burial place for the dead of the city and vicinity. Accordingly, a meeting of citizens was held in the schoolhouse, Monday evening, March 31. The matter was freely discussed, and an association formed. A committee, consisting of Charles E. Resseguie, L. H. Foster, George Tripp, S. D. Haight and M. D. Ward, was appointed to select suitable grounds, and report at the next meeting. During the Summer the matter was considered, and a purchase finally made of Charles Mears. The site selected included a picturesque elevation, fronting on Lincoln Lake, being lot No. 3, and the north half of southwest quarter of northwest quarter of Section 10, embracing fifty-four acres, at an aggregate cost of $1,080. The land, when purchased, was in a wild condition, but it needed only the touch of art to transform it into a beautiful and fitting resting-place for the dead. It is located within easy distance of the city, and yet far enough away to preserve the quiet and serenity in harmony with the place and its associations. Improvements have been pushed forward, as rapidly as circumstances would warrant, and it already reveals treasures of scenery, which henceforth will more rapidly develop. The selection was an admirable one, and is a credit to the thoughtful taste, and refined intelligence of the thrifty city, whose dear ones it will hold. It is the intention of those having the enterprise in charge to beautify the place as rapidly as possible, so that, in the years to come, its cultivated scenes shall awaken affectionate remembrance of those who are sleeping beneath its sod. Already its surface is dotted with numerous graves, and ere long it will become the resting-place of those, who laid the foundation of this growing city. Let the prosperity of the living be contributed toward beautifying their "city of the dead," to which all are hastening. The present officers of the association are P. Ewing, chairman; I. H. McCollum, secretary; Dr. A. P. McConnell, J. B. Roby, Eugene Allen, committee. CATHOLIC CEMETERY. The Catholic cemetery is very beautifully situated, upon a romantic elevation in the southeast part of the city. It was located about four years ago, and is being improved as rapidly as circumstances will permit. The enclosure contains about twenty acres, from which a delightful view of Pere Marquette Lake and adjacent scenery is obtained. LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. In 1872 the village of Ludington presented a physical appearance that was primitive and rude. The eye of a stranger would have wearied in looking for traces of culture and aesthetic tastes among the thronging stumps that bedecked the village in ungraceful profusion. The work of transformation, however, had been begun. The inhabitants had come hither to abide, in the full belief that in due time the wilderness would blossom as the rose. They were, for the most part, possessed of superior intelligence and ambitious to excel. Appreciating the desirability of fostering and encouraging a wholesome taste for reading and mental improvement, the advantages of a public reading-room and library had been frequently discussed, and plans were taking shape for the attainment of that end. On the evening of April 24, 1872, a meeting of those interested was held in Ludington Hall, to effect a permanent organization of a library association. The organization was perfected, and the following officers elected: D. L. Filer, president; S. F. White, vice president; Miss Sarah E. Melendy, secretary; J. E. Danaher, treasurer; Miss Mary J. Filer, librarian; Miss Mary A. Melendy, collector. Executive committee: I. H. McCollum, G. N. Stray, C. C. Ward, M. D. Ward, E. Allen. A meeting of the officers was held the following Tuesday I L f1. I 'c

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Page  33 ;.4 - evening, and it was decided to open a months, and if it proved a success, to r A few days after the organizatio received from James Ludington, expres prise, and containing a draft for $100 t books. Early in June, Mr. S. F. White visi of the association, and made a purcha suitable books were made by citizens, s( good library was gathered. For some a small building that stood just south o Company's store, the free use of w company. In the Spring of 1874, the library 400 volumes, and the association was The question of finding a new locatio: plans considered. Mr. D. L. Filer, wh organization, proposed, on behalf of t Company, to donate a suitable site on the lumber necessary for its constru donated by James Ludington, to the c riated to the erection of a suitable buildi city purposes. June 16, a meeting o and officers elected for the ensuing ye president; C. G. Wing, vice presiden secretary; James Danaher, treasurer; Mrs. G. N. Stray, assistant librariai Board of directors: Mrs. Hutchins, H George Westcott, S. D. Haight. Steps securing the erection of a building. appropriate the $2,500, donated by Mi ditions offered by Mr. Filer. Nothin building, and in time the matter wa association subsequently moved into tl it remained until Temperance Hall was c its new quarters in that building. In 1 books and effects of the association w about $500 worth of books at the tin property, none of which was insured. Mr. Eugene Allen, and a few othel are making an effort the present seasoi tion, and start a new library, and there that their endeavors will be successful. BANKS. In 1871 Mr. I. H. McCollum cam and opened a private bank in a frame bu opposite the building which is now the first called the Exchange Bank of F. was a son-in-law of Mr. McCollumn, an The name was afterwards changed to Bank. The bank did quite an extensiv heavy losses forced it to suspend. bank have since been paid in full. T1 in Ludington. Iu 1872, Mr. Charles Blain sold out business in which he was engaged to private bank, the firm being Blain, Yerk until 1874, when it was succeeded by I the business until July, 1880 At thc Bank was incorporated with a capitw I----- -- ~____~_~ __~___ _ _~~ _ __~ ~ HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. 33 free reading-room, for three were, George W. Roby, president; H. B. Ely, vice president; Charles nake it permanent. Blain, cashier. In August, 1881, Mr. Ely sold his stock to Mr. n was effected, a letter was Blain and resigned the office of vice president, and George N. Stray sing his interest in the enter- was elected as his successor. The stockholders are, George W. Roby, to be used in the purchase of Charles E. Resseguie, A. E. Cartier, Charles Blain, Frank Filer, George N. Stray, Amos Breinig, H. H. Wheeler, R. D. Mallet. The ted Milwaukee in the interest bank does a very safe and prosperous business. ise of books. Donations of CHARLES BLAIN. cashier of the above-named bank, Ludington, o that in a short time quite a was born in Seneca County, N. Y., in 1815. When about time the association occupied twenty years of age, he concluded to try his fortune in the gold ref the Pere Marquette Lumber gions of the great West. After spending about three years at gold,hich was donated by that mining and prospecting, he returned East and entered the employ of the Chicago Hide and Leather Company, in 1869. In the latter contained between 300 and part of 1870 he came to Ludington" and opened a general merchanin a prosperous condition. dise store on Ludington Avenue, near George Tripp's old meat n was agitated, and various market. This was the third store of the kind started in Ludington. o had been president since its He continued in that business two years, and then sold out to James he Pere Marquette Lumber Burton. Soon after that he opened a private bank in a building on Ludington Avenue, also all the lot where the State Bank is now located. The firm was Blain, iction, provided the $2,500 Yerkes & Co. This was the second bank started in the village, *ity of Ludington, be approp- Two years later, Blain, Yerkes & Co. was succeeded by Blain & Ely, ng, to be used for library and who continued to do a private banking business until July, 1880, f the association was held, when the present Ludington State Bank was incorporated, with iar, as follows: ). L. Filer, Charles Blain cashier. Mr. Blain has been a very successful banker. t; Miss Emma Stanchfield, He is a vely cautious business man, and through all the troubleMiss B. Danahier, librarian; some times of the past ten years, has conducted his affairs safely I; George Westcott, janitor. and prosperously. [. B. Dean, George N. Stray, In the Spring of 1881, Thomas R. Lyon started a bank, but were at oice taken toward after running it a few months, not being satisfied with its prospects, The city council voted to lie wound up its affairs and discontinued the business.. Ludington, upon the con- In March of the present year Mr. George W. Clayton started the g further was done toward Exchange and Loan Bank of Ludington, as a private enterprise. s practically dropped. The This bank is gradually working its way into a good business. A ie Gebhardt Building, where biographical sketch of Mr. Clayton appears among the early settlers *ompleted, when it moved into of Ludington. the fire of June 1881, all the 'ere destroyed. There were le of the fire, besides other LUDINGTON FIRE DEPARTMENT. S.. The fire department was first organized in September, 1873, by ' memlbers of the association, Sto z t s i Bennett J. Goodsell, and consisted of one hand engine company n to reorganize the associais some reaso fr eievin with sixty members, and a hook and ladder company with twenty is some reason for believing members. The officers were: B. J. Goodsell, chief engineer; M. J. Danaher, assistant engineer; Thomas Crily, foreman of engine company; F. B. Piatt, foreman hose company; Dr. L. T. Southworth, foreman hook and ladder company. In 1878 the department was without efficient organization and remained so until last Spring, e to Ludington from Detroit when Mr. M. G. Smith was elected chief engineer and a thorough tilding on Ludington Avenue, reorganization has been effected. Filer House. The bank was Blckmrr. r. Blackmarr. Mr. Blackmarr I was interested in the bank. the Lumberman's Exchange TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONES. 'e business until 1878, when A telegraph office was first established here in 1872. Horace Most of the creditors of the F. Alexander has been in charge of the office since it was first his was the first bank started opened. It was kept in his store until the fire of 1881. The Fall after the fire, it was moved into permanent quarters over Cartier & t his interest in the dry goods Filer's store. James Burton, and opened a Telephones were introduced in Ludington, by Horace F. Alex-:es & Co. This firm continued ander, in the Fall of 1881, and up to the present time, less than a 3lain & Ely, who continued year, nearly one hundred instruments have been put in operation. at time the Ludington State The central office is in the telegraph office in the Cartier & Filer al of $50,000. The officers block. i It I - -.10.

Page  34 --6--- 34 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. LUDINGTON WATER SUPPLY COMPANY. The question of water works for the city of Ludington has been repeatedly agitated during the past four or five years. The project has been presented in various forms, but there appeared to be no way for the city to take hold of the enterprise without first amending its charter, and efforts to make it a private enterprise for a long time failed of success. Mr. Cartier, while mayor of the city in 1880, made a vigorous effort to have some plan adopted, and even offered to take ten thousand dollars in stock in a company organized for the purpose of putting in a system of water works, but nothing definite was accomplished at that time. Last year, however, the project was again revived by Mr. Eugene Allen and a few others, and in October an orgtniz ition was effected. A stock company with a paid up capital of thirty thousand dollars was formed, under the name of the Ludington Water Supply Company. The officers are, S. F. White, president; Eugene Allen, secretary; F. J. Dowland, treasurer. There is a board of directors composed of T. R. Lyon, George W. Roby, F. J. Dowland, S. F. White, P. M. Danaher. Work was commenced early in April of the present year, under the supervision of Eugene Allen and F. J. Dowland, with N. J. Gaylord as superintendent. Six thousand feet of main pipe is to be laid, with forty hydrants and one watering trough. The building for the machinery is located at the foot of Ludington Avenue, and is a substantial structure, 52x32 feet in size. The main suction for fire purposes connects with the channel, and for drinking purposes, with an artesian well. The city pays an annual rental of eighty dollars for each hydrant, and the usual water rates are established for private purposes. With these works in successful operation, the city will have ample protection from fire, and residents will have access to a very great convenience. DESCRIPTION OF THE WORKS. On the 4th of July, the works were tested for the first time. The following description of them was published in the Record of July 7: "The Ludington Water Supply Company, which has been laying mains, and putting in the necessary pumps for a complete system of water works in Ludington, steamed up, for the first time, Saturday evening, July 1st, and put a heavy pressure upon the mains, leading to twenty-three hydrants in various parts of the First, Second and Third Wards. The mains through the Fourth Ward are not completed, but will be put under pressure before the 1st of August. The engine, or pump house, is located at the foot of the avenue, 250 feet from Lake Michigan. This building is divided into a boiler room and a room for the pumps and compression chamber. The two boilers are each forty-eight inches in diameter and twelve feet in length with forty eight flues. The steam pumps are Mr. M. Walker's patent and are fine models of workmanship and strength. They are so placed that they will work separately or together. The steam cylinders are each 14x12 inches, and the water cylinders are each 7~x12 inches. The compression chamber is built of heavy boiler iron and is capable of standing an immense pressure. It is forty-eight inches in diameter and twelve feet in height. The suction pipe which leads to the river for present purposes is ten inches in diameter, and the main leading from the engine house to the corner of James Street and Ludington Avenue, is also ten inches. The main extending further up the avenue and the one extending throughl James and Dowland Streets, is eight-inch. The main in the Fourth Ward is six inches, with a four-inch branch on Madison Street. The entire system of piping is the celebrated Wyckoff patent, and will sustain an immense pressure. At present there are 2,500 feet of ten-inch pipe, 6,700 feet of eight-inch pipe, 6,000 feet of six-inch pipe and 4,000 of four-inch pipe in the ground. A total of forty-two hy drants will be in working order as soon as the Fourth Ward branch is completed. The entire system, according to contract, was to be completed by August 1, but good management on the part of Mr. Walker, Supt. Gaylord and others, has given the city a large portion of the works July 1, just one month earlier. The pumping engines have a capacity of 2,000,000 gallons of water per day, and are first-class in every respect. The works were quite thoroughly tested Tuesday, the Fourth, and gave general satisfaction. Displays were given in the morning and again in the evening, with only one pump connected, four streams of water being thrown from various hydrants at one time. Two of the streams were from 1" inch nozzles, one from an inch nozzle and one from a '-inch nozzle. At the time of this exhibition with four streams there was a pressure on the pipes of 13Q pounds, and on the boilers of 65 pounds. Through the 1-inch nozzles water was thrown in a solid horizontal stream, 170 feet; a spray over all, 226 feet. A perpendicular stream was thrown (solid) 90 feet in the air; with spray, 110 feet. This first test gave the best of satisfactory results, and the works are surely a success. Residences and business houses will be connected with the street mains at once, and in a short time a large amount of water will be used for other than fire purposes. A very large well is to be sunk near the lake, and a suction laid from it to the pumps, so that pure water-for all purposes--may be furnished. We here give a partial list of the rates: DWELLING HOUSES. For families consisting of three persons in not more than five rooms........... $6.00 For each additional person................... 75 For each additional room...................... 75 In making assessments for families, all persons appertaining to and living with them are to be counted, all rooms in each dwelling, with the exception of cellars, clothes-presses, halls or pantries, are to be counted. All tenement houses containing more than one family using water from the same hydrant, shall be charged as follows: The second family one dollar less than the foregoing rates; the third family one and a half dollar less than the foregoing rates; the fourth family two dollars less than the foregoing rates; and the same for each family over four. In making assessments in such cases, the family occupying the first front floor shall be designated as the first family; the family next, the second, and so forth, and one assessment only shall be made on such house, and the rate for the whole year be paid together. THE TAX PAYERS' IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION of the city of Ludington, is tie outgrowth of a spirit of enterprise that prevails among the people of this growing city to a very commendable degree. Realizing the power and value of organized effort toward the promotion of all interests affecting the city, this association was formed. Its object is to consider all subjects affecting the rights and interests of thie city, and especially to induce manufacturing institutions to locate her, and thus aid the growth and prosperity of the city. The association was organized in March, 1882, and has already a large membership. Thie officers are: M. G. Smith, president; E. G. Allen, first vice president; B. J. Goodsell, second vice president; E. W. Marsh, secretary; George W. Clayton, treasurer. CHURCHES AND SABBATH-SCHOOLS. THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. The Methodist society was the first church organization within the limits of Mason County, excepting an Indian church. The first church built is the one still used by the Methodist Episcopal society. Much of its earliest history is contained in the following record, b

Page  35 35 V HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. made by Rev. L. M. Garlock, the first pastor in charge of the work. His record is as follows: "Pere Marquette circuit was organized in the Fall of 1865, and Rev. L. M. Garlock was appointed its first pastor. Part of the territory was formerly embraced in the Pentwater chirge, which was set off to this new work, and the society received by transfer, nine members, with which it started on its mission. Having no parsonage to live in, and not being able to hire, the attention of the pastor was first drawn to the necessity of building a parsonage. A subscription was started October 15, 1865, and a house sixteen by twenty-four feet was begun. This was completed all but lathing and plastering, so that I moved into it December 25, 1865. During its construction, I worked with the carpenters during the week, and on Sunday I would ride on an Indian pony from twenty to thirty miles, preach three times and come back home again, and to work on Monday morning. After moving into the house, I dug a small cellar and banked the house, working at this through the day and lathing in the evening. "The work was first organized with six appointments, viz.: Riverton, Clay Banks and Pere Marquette one Sunday, and Pere Marquette settlements, Bird settlement and Lincoln the next; each place having preaching every other Sunday. "Some time in January, having heard of a settlement on the Big Sauble River, which h:id no preaching, I visited the place and arranged for meetings once in four weeks, though it was twenty-two miles from Pere Marquette. During the year a class of eight was formed at the Big Sauble settlement, and William Freeman was appointed its first leader and steward. Classes were also formed at Clay Banks, Riverton, Pere Marquette and Bird settlements. Although a year of hard labor and close fare, yet God has graciously favored us with an increase in Zion, for which we would return unto him our grateful thanks, praying that the little one may become a thousand, and the small one a strong nation. "L. M. GARLOCK, Pastor." Rev. Mr. Garlock was followed by Rev. G. A. Phillips, in the Fall of 1867, and the Pere Marquette circuit was divided so that Bird settlement (now Victory Corners) and Big Sauble settlement (now Free Soil) formed one circuit, and Clay Banks, Riverton, Flory's and Ludington another. The latter circuit had a membership of twenty-three. At the annual conference for the year 1869, Rev. H. H. Hall, afterward missionary to Japan, was appointed pastor of the Pere Marquette circuit, and Riverton and Clay Banks were made into a separate circuit. Pere Marquette circuit was made to consist of Ludington, Lincoln (then the county seat) Flory's settlement and Pere Marquette settlement (now Rice schoolhouse). Rev. H. H. Hall was succeeded by Rev. A. H. Gillett, and he by Rev. Win. Heysett, who caine in the Fall of 1870. When he came, the Pere Marquette (now Ludington) society, consisted of only seven members. Mr. Heysett established the first Sundayschool, increased the membership in Ludington to fifteen, and raised $2,000 toward building the first church. This was done during his one year's pastorate. Rev. Mr. Heysett was succeeded in the Fall of 1871 by Rev. G. L. Mount, who erected the present church edifice and added $200 to the amount previously raised. The membership increased to thirty-two during the year. The church edifice was completed the following year, at a cost of $4,756. Rev. G. L. Mount was followed by Rev. Burton S. Mills, in the Fall of 1872, who, during his pastorate of two years, increased the membership to seventy-one, and appears to have been a very energetic and successful preacher. Rev. Mr. Mills was succeeded by Rev. M. V. Rork, in the Fall of 1874. He remained one year and was followed by Rev. W. H. Sparling, who resigned before the close of the year, and was succeeded in the Fall of 1876 by Rev. John J. Christ. Up to 1876 the society had never been incorporated, and there was virtually no organization. During this year the society was incorp)orated. The first trustees were: Dr. A. P. McConnell, M. A. Kniffin, T. H. Wright, J. H. Conrad, C. T. Sawyer, Thomas Ash. Rev. Mr. Christ was succeeded by Rev. A. E. Ketchum, who remained one year, and was followed by Rev. J. M. Aiken, who remained two years. He was succeeded by Rev. Warren Mooney, who remained two years and was succeeded by Rev. 0. B. Whitmore, the present pastor. The present membership of the church numbers eighty-six. The parsonage has been twice burned, the last time in the great fire of 1881, and has not yet been rebuilt. CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH OF CHRIST. The Congregational Church of Christ, of Ludington, was organized July 9, 1870. The churches present at the council by delegates were the Congregational Churches of Pentwater and Frankfort. The public exercises connected with the organization of the church were held in the hall of the Pere Marquette Lumber Company. The first sacrament was administered to the church July 10, 1870, by Rev. E. Andrus, of Pentwater. At its organization the church was composed of nine members, viz: S. F. White, Luther H. Foster, Joshua A. Allen, Magnus Wetterling, Levi Shackelton, Mrs. Lucy Foster, Mrs. Laura H. Foster, Mrs. Hattie R. White, Mrs. Maria F. Hutchins. The first pastor of the church was Rev. S. P. Barker, who served from September, 1871, to 1872. He was succeeded in October by Rev. J. A. Van Antwerp, who remained until October, 1873, who was succeeded by Rev. H. B. Dean, who remained until November, 1875. During the year 1874, a number withdrew from the church for the purpose of joining the Presbyterian society, which was organized that year. In November, 1875, Rev. Richard Lewis, of Hubbardstoil, Mich., was invited to the pastorate of the church. He accepted the call and began his labors December 1, 1875. Previous to the Fall of 1876, church services were held in the hall over the Pere Marquette Lumber Company's store, but at that time a vigorous and successful effort was made to erect a church edifice, which was completed and dedicated January 1, 1877. The dedicatory sermon was preached by Rev. Leroy Warren. At the dedicatory service the sum of $400 was raised, which, with the grant of $500 from the Congregational Union, left the church free from debt. The total cost of the church edifice, ifncluding furnishing, was $3,000; all raised in the city of Ludington, excepting the grant of $500. The site upon which the building was erected, consisting of two building lots, on the corner of Court and Harrison Streets, was the gift of the Pere Marquette Lumber Company, by their president, the late Delos L. Filer, Esq. The church was self-sustaining from its organization until the erection of the church edifice, when it obtained temporary aid from the American Home Missionary Society. This aid was continued for two years and five months, when the church became again selfsustaining. S On the 1st of March, 1879, Rev. R. Lewis resigned the pastorate of the church, the resignation taking effect May 1, 1879. He Swas succeeded by Rev. Theodore B. Williams, a graduate of Yale College, who was ordained July 24, 1879. Rev. E. W. Miller, of Big Rapids, preached the sermon. The charge to the pastor was given by Rev. W. B. Williams, of Charlotte, and the right hand of fellow

Page  36 04~ r1L_ 1 36 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. _~ ship by Rev. E. G. Chaddock, of Manistee. The charge to the church was given by Rev. W. E. Caldwell, of Pentwater. Rev. Mr. Williams continued his labors with the church until May, 1881, Rev. Russell M. Keyes, of Conneaut, Ohio, was invited to visit the church, with a view to settlement as pastor. In response to that invitation, Mr. Keyes arrived in the city June 11, 1881, expecting to preach the following Sunday. But before Saturday closed, a large portion of the city was in ashes, including the Congregational church edifice. The use of the Presbyterian chapel was tendered the homeless congregation, and the courtesy thankfully accepted. In due time a call was extended to Mr. Keyes, which he accepted, and October 1, 1881, he began his labors here. Immediately after the fire, the question of rebuilding was considered, and it was decided to begin the erection of a new edifice at once. The new building, a very tasty brick structure, was completed and dedicated March 5, 1882. The cost of the new edifice, $5,850; furniture saved from the former church, $400; making a total cost and value of the present building, $6,750. Of this amount only $675 remained unpaid at its dedication. Only twelve years have passed since the organization of the church, and yet many changes have occurred. Fire has once swept away its house, and death has visited its ranks. Some have gone and others come. Of those who were members prior to 1874, only six remain, viz.: S. F. White, Geo. N. Stray, John Woodruff, Mrs. Hattie L. Stray, Mrs. Hattie R. White and Mrs. Helen F. Woodruff. The society is at present in a flourishing condition, comfortable in its new and tasty home, and fortunate in being under the guidance of a pastor beloved by the people. The present membership of the church numbers eighty-one. REV. RUSSELL M. KEYES, the present pastor of the church, was born at Conneaut, Ohio, December 22, 1837. While a boy, he attended district school and the academy, and later attended the academy at Austinburg, Ohio. He entered college at Beloit, Wis., September, 1857, and graduated in 1861. After a year of intermission, he went to the Union Theological Seminary, at New York, and graduated in 1865. Soon after graduation he receivel a cill from the Congregitionil Church of his native place, which he accepted, and was ordained and preached there for thirteen years. He then accepted a call to the Congregational Church at Chardon, Ohio, where he remained three years, when he came to Ludington as pastor of the Congregational Church in this city. Mr. Keyes is a man truly fitted for a successful preacher and pastor. As a preacher he is scholarly and interesting, while his superior social qualities endear him to all with whom he comes in contact. His wife is admirably adapted to the duties of her station, and they occupy a large place in the esteem and affections of the people, not only in their own church, but of the community at large. CATHOLIC SOCIETY OF LUDINGTON. Many of the first settlers of Ludington and Mason County were Catholics, mostly of French descent. Between the years 1860 and 1870, when the manufacturing of lumber began, Catholics of all nationalities, yet mostly American born, flocked into the place to make homes for themselves and help along its industries. During these years missionary priests visited Ludington to administer to the spiritual wants of their people. These visits were necessarily few, owing to the scarcity of clergymen. Among the first clergy to visit the place were Fathers Rivers and Takken, of Muskegon. Finally, Rev. H. H. Meuffles, being stationed in Manistee, took in charge the Catholic interests of Ludington, and pushed the work of building a church. The lot on which the church stands was donated by the Pere Marquette Lumber Company, in 1872. The Catholic society immediately began the erection of a church. The work progressed slowly, as the society was not as strong financially as at the present time. From 1872 to 1876, the society was attended once each month by the priest from Manistee. In October, 1876, the first resident priest, Rev. Charles L. DeCenninck, arrived in Ludington from Cheboygan, Mich. He was a native of Belgium, came to this country when young, and remained in Ludington from October, 1876, to December, 1879. During his administration much improvement was made in the church and property. He placed the church on a solid stone foundation, put in pews, completed the steeple, purchased a bell and put up an addition in the rear of the church. He was succeeded in December, 1879, by Rev. Morgan J. P. Dempsey, a native of Madison, Wis. He received part of his education at the State University, Madison, Wis. His philosophical and theological courses were made at St. Francis' Seminary, Milwaukee, Wis. Was ordained by Bishop Borgess, in Detroit, Mich., on the 29th of June, 1878. His first charge was to fill a vacancy for six months in St. Patrick's, Athlone, Monroe Co., Mich., after which he became assistant pastor for one year in Ionia, Mich.; thence transferred to Ludington. During his administration of two years, he has collected and expended about six thousand dollars in fixing and embellishing the church, purchasing a lot and building a pastoral residence. Within the last two years the society has grown rapidly, both in numbers and prominence. Not less than three hundred families constitute its membership, and many of her adherents are among the wealthiest and most prominent citizens of Ludington. Father Dempsey is the youngest priest in the state, but possessed of superior culture and a thorough knowledge of men and affairs, he has endeared himself to his people, and is very popular with all classes, and if life and health are spared to him, is destined to become distinguished in his sacred calling. THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH AND SOCIETY OF LUDINGTON. BY REV. S. N. HILL. This church originated in the prayerful and intelligent convictions of a few prominent Christians, who believed that a Presbyterian organization was honestly needed for the Christian culture of this new field. The city was growing rapidly; there seemed to be room for the several denominations to do work in their peculiar methods. Efforts seemed to be divinely favored. Rev. S. N. Hill, of Vassar, being just at liberty, was invited to visit this field. After a careful and prayerful canvass of these opportunities, it was decided to proceed with the project. Upon Sabbath, the 20th of Decembel, 1874, in Andrews Hall, with a most impressive service, this church was organized by Rev. S. N. Hill, with twenty members, and a session upon the "limited term system." M. D. Seeley, William Campbell and H. M. Newcombe were the first elders. Upon the following Sabbath, the Sabbath-school was organized, with thirty scholars. Mr. H. M. Newcombe was superintendent, and F. W. Andrews was secretary. The school soon enrolled one hundred members. The "Westminster Lesson Leaves" were used. Soon a donation of 170 volumes of second-hand library books were received as a donation from a friend in New Jersey. They soon had a good library. Upon the llth of January, 1875, the corporate society was formed, and the articles of incorporation were recorded. Andrew's Hall was rented for all church and society purposes. The weekly prayer-meeting immediately became deeply interesting. A ladies' social was organized, and met at the several residences of persons offering their rooms. Thus, within a few weeks, the whole organic forces of this new church were enlisted and operating. At the annual meeting of the Presbytery of Grand Rapids, held at Spring Lake, April 19, 1875, this church was, upon a regular appli el I, rý wp

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Page  37 ~4 ^a= -~ HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY 37 * cation, duly received into that body, with a memership of twentynine. Among the early and active members of the church and society were Messrs. L. H. Foster, J. Allen, E. Allen, M. D. Seeley, William Campbell, H. M. Newcombe, I. H. McCollum, Byron Hammond, Carl Hammond, C. H. Fralick, T. Slater, C. G. Wing as church members; also as members of the society: Messrs. E. A. Foster, Duncan Dewar, H. B. Ely, H. A. Sutherland, together with their families and other ladies as earnest workers. Mr. L. H. Foster enlisted a church-choir of cultured singers, which has continued to perform a noble part in the church services. Ludington, as a city, had a rapid growth of about six years, and a population of 3,000. The leading business has been lumbering, conducted by young and enterprising parties. About one half of the population are of foreign nationality, with their own churches and habits. The P. M. Lumber Company has very liberally donated a lot to any church organization applying for it, and proceeding to build a house of worship. At the present time ten church organizations have their church buildings and services, and are free from debt. Some are small, but prosperous; five of these are of foreign origin and habits, and five are American. Upon the morning of June 29, 1876, the whole place was shocked and afflicted by the assassination of Mr. L. H. Foster, by a burglar. Mr. Foster was a leading man in business and Christian enterprises, and an active force in this new church. In the Autumn of 1876, this society received a church lot from the P. M. Lumber Company, and in September erected a chapel, fifty by thirty, at a cost of $2,000, when furnished. The Congregational Society erected their first church building at the same time. After these churches were dedicated, a very successful and profitable revival meeting was held of undenominational character, conducted by Rev. J. D. Potter, who remained eight days. About the middle of February, 1877, each of the churches received several additions of new converts, and all the Christian services were revived. The Baptist Church, just organized, held a series of meetings in March of the same Spring, conducted by Rev. Mr. Beal, the Baptist State Missionary. Their growth began at that time. In February 1878, Mr. L. P. Rowland, the state secretary of the Young Men's Christian Association, held a series of meetings here in the new Temperance Hall, which for two weeks was fully attended. Much interest was awakened among the young and children. The members of the Young Men's Christian Association became very active, and for two years did a good Christian work. Quite a number of young persons joined the several churches. This church is now in the eighth year of its history. The whole enrollment has been 172; its present resident menmbership is 130. Some of these reside outside of the city. The Sabbath congregations are intelligent, active, and of respectable size. The Sabbathsahool has uniformly enrolled 150, with an average yearly attendance of 100. The weekly prayer-meetings have been well attended, and uniiformly of a deeply devotional character. The Ladies' Home Mission Society is under the supervision of the Presbytery, and has been active in benevolent work. Their contributions to families of home missionaries are about $100 yearly. The young ladies have a foreign mission band, that cultures them in the interests of the mission cause. The temperance cause has received its due attention and support from nearly all of this church and congregation. They have co-operated with such agencies as seem to be timely and effective. Several of the ladies are active members of the W. C. T. U. The regular social gatherings have contributed to several valuable and pleasant interests of the congegation. The Sabbath-school officers and teachers have been uniformly punctual and earnest in their duties, which has secured the success of the school. The Sabbath services during this whole period have been especially favored with cultured music and singing, by the voluntary efforts of Mr. E. Allen and wife; Miss Fannie Allen and Miss Carrie Sutherland, associated with others from time to time. These efforts and services have contributed much to the interest of religious and sanctuary services, and have been happily appreciated by the congregation. The church has been bereaved of six of its members by death. Mr. L. H. Foster and his sister, Mrs. Maria Hutchins, were of the organizing members. For the first three years the society received financial aid from the Ferry Mission Fund; since then it has been self-supporting and without debt. The present members of the session are Messrs. J. Allen, T. Slater, P. Ewing and L. Shackelton. In a city of over 5,000 population, and a rapidly improving country, this church, and the same pastor, find a field for the constant exercise of their faith, prayers, benevolence, and Christian efforts, which will not fail of rich reward. AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF REV. SAMUEL N. HILL. "I am happy to record my Puritanical descent. My parents were natives of Massachusetts, and from agricultural pursuits. I was born in 1815, at Lawsville, Penn., where my father, Rev. Oliver Hill, was laboring as a missionary, under the appointment of the American Board of Domestic Missions. That field, seventy years ago, was in a pioneer condition. Settlements were far apart; traveling was mostly on horseback; business was in home productions; spinning, weaving, tailoring and shoemaking were done at home, the workmen going from house to house. Buildings and furniture were simple and cheap; clothing was very economical, and schools were limited in opportunities. The schoolhouse was furnished with a stone fire-place, pine table, and slab seats, with a long desk against the wall. But few scholars advanced beyond the common branches of study. But the earnest missionary, upon a salary of $400, did a good work, and gathered valuable harvests into the church. My father was at the front in his new mission work. He labored in the north part of Pennsylvania for about ten years. From 1825 to 1835, my father did home mission work in Broome County, state of New York, Binghampton being then but a small village. At Nanticoke, Broome County, my three brothers and myself, in the Summer of 1832, were converted, and joined the Presbyterian Church, under the pastor Rev. Nahum Gould. I commenced immediately, at the age of seventeen, to participate in Christian efforts for the conversion of sinners, and the culture of my own Christian experience. Several young people formed a working band for gathering the young into meetings, and into the kingdom of Jesus Christ. These early activities trained several youth for active service in the church, and two of us started for the ministry, and one died while in college. My three brothers became earnest Christians. In the Autumn of 1837, my father, with his family, except myself, immigrated to the territory of Michigan, and continued home mission work in the new field of Washtenaw County. I was then in Williams College, Mass. I had prepared for college in part under Rev. Marcus Ford, at Newark Valley, Tioga County, N. Y., and completed the course at a new manual labor academy near Columbiaville, on the bank of the Hudson River, four miles north of the city of Hudson, N. Y. This school soon failed. The liberal contributions were lost, and the experiment checked that kind of self-support. I had taught district school some; while in college I taught one year of term time and kept my class standing. I taught in Sabbath-school, and superintended it at times from my early experience, until I began preaching. While in college I gained spiritual life and strength by attending a daily prayer meeting. I also, with other students, did 111 eJli-- --- Lk

Page  38 ~--~ Y 38 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. considerable religious work in the adjacent neighborhoods. I graduated in 1840, with a class of thirty. I paid my way mostly by my own earnings and economy. Many students in Williams College did the same. The students of that college have been from its beginning, a force of earnest and industrious young men. After graduating, I took charge of the Williamstown Academy and continued in it about two years. During this time a revival meeting was held under the management of Dr. Beman, of Troy, N. Y., when twentyfive of my scholars united with the church together. I was then associated with Mr. H. G. Bulkley, in the Regent's Academy at East Greenbush, near Albany, N. Y., for three years. During these years I read my theological course under private direction. In 1846, I started westward to enter upon my ministerial work; was received into the Detroit Presbytery in 1847, and was soon ordained at Troy, Oakland County, Mich.; was about this time married to Miss Harriet L. Ostrander, of Schodack, N. Y. Here I preached and taught a high school for four years. I then went to Rochester, six miles from Troy, and took charge of the Congregational Church and academy, both of which I held for four years. During these years no other preachers were upon this field. My efforts were devoted to church, school, schoolhouse appointments, pastoral visits, funerals and family duties. I had good health and the Lord prospered me. We had good revival work there and the society built a new house of worship. In the Autumn of 1854 my wife died of quick consumption. In the Spring of 1855 I took charge of the Presbyterian Church at Birmingham, Oakland County, ten miles from Rochester. There I labored twelve years. I superintended the high school for five years of this time; also superintended the building of a new church, did active temperance work and supplied regularly, on every Sabbath evening, the church at Royal Oak, for four years, and for eight years at Wing Lake. In 1858 I was married to Miss Sarah C. Coggshall. In 1867 I went to Vassar, Tuscola County, Mich., a thriving village and growing county. I continued preaching here for seven years, and was considerably engaged in educational work. In the Autumn of 1868 I buried my second wife and little daughter. In 187 L I entered upon my present field at Ludington, Mich., a city of five years' growth and three thousand population. I organized the Presbyterian Church, and still continue to be its pastor. Of my six children three are living and are young men. My life of sixty-seven years has been one of self-reliance, good health, fine opportunities and open fields for labor. I have been an educationalist, devoted to our national freedom, temperance, missions and constant gospel labor. I trust that my aims have been true and my activities not in vain. GRACE CHURCH. The parish of Grace Church dates from about May, 1872, when it was visited by Rev. Joseph B. Pritchard, who remained here most of the time until June of the present year, when he closed his labors with this parish. In his farewell sermon he gave a history of the parish, from which we quote as follows: "May 28, 1872, I visited Ludington for the first time. Our services on that occasion were held in the hall over the Pere Marquette Lumber Company's store. I found here three communicants. The Summer following and a part of the year 1873, I held services in Ludington one Sunday in the month, only. Another religious body occupying the hall above mentioned, we found it exceedingly difficult to find a place to hold the two services on the Sunday I came here. I remember we held the service several times in the old Masonic Hall. The buildmg itself was not very inviting, but the floor being beautifully carpeted with sawdust, we were enabled to get along without very much confusion. "In the Fall of 1872 or Spring of 1873, I am not quite certain which, we succeeded in getting the small school building adjoining the old school house, for our use. Here, in the Spring of 1873, we organized a Sunday-school, with considerable encouragement, and with the zeal manifested on the part of the teachers, the school proved a success. In this year the parish was organized and the rectory commenced. This, I think, was in the month of May. In the month of August following, I moved my family to Ludington, and took possession of the rectory in an unfinished state. About this time we changed from the small room where we had been holding service, to the largest room in the building. If I am not mistaken, it was here that we had the first convocation. January 1, 1874, the Bishop of Michigan visited the parish and confirmed five persons. The following Spring we moved into the Opera House, where we held the service and Sunday-school until we moved into the newly-erected church, or chapel, in the month of November, 1874, near the season of advent. The erection of this chapel was begun the previous June. All seemed to have one object in view, and the work went on harmoniously to its completion. And all who were interested are deserving of much credit for their kindness and willingness to make almost any sacrifice to sustain the service both of church and Sunday-school, during those days of toil and discouragement. The church was consecrated by the Bishop, October 12, 1875. * * * "The church and rectory were both destroyed in the great fire of June, 1881. This left us again without a place for worship; consequently we only had occasional service in the M. E. Church. The rebuilding of our chapel was begun at once, and the corner-stone laid by the Bishop, August 28, 1881. The first of December a small room was rented and our services were resumed. The first Sunday after Easter, services were held in Masonic Hall, where we have continued to the present time. The new chapel is still unfinished. The Sunday-school numbers forty-four members and is in a prosperous condition." The vestrymen are, M. Brayman, H. W. Williams, W. H. Phillips, William Foy, James A. Armstrong, O. S. Stout, Fayette Johnson, Rolan Wheeler, Thomas Crilley. The original signers were, William Foy, John W. Thomas, John Fairbanks, George Westcott, William Frye, Lyman DePuy, Fayette Johnson, Charles H. DePuy, George T. Smith, James A. Boyd, Thomas Moone. FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH OF LUDINGTON. The First Baptist Church of Ludington was organized July 15, 1876, with the following constituent members: James Thompson, Lydia Thompson, Julia Coffin, Edwin Andrew, Susan E. Andrew, H. N. Andrew and F. W. Andrew. C. E. Resseguie, Peleg Ewing and H. N. Andrew were elected trustees. James Thompson clerk, and F. W. Andrew treasu:er. July 28, 1876, a council of recognition was called; said council, consisting of pastor and delegates from Manistee, Reed City, Chase and Pentwater, convened at Music Hall, August 8, 1876, and duly recognized the church, which was received with the White River Association, at its meeting at Hazel Grove, Muskegon County, August 16 and 17, 1876. The first Monday in January was fixed as the time for the annual meeting, which has never been changed. Music Hall was used as the place of worship, where only prayer meetings were held until in the Spring of 1877, when Rev. H. C. Beals, the state missionary, conducted a revival meeting 1 which lasted several weeks, and large additions were made, increasing the membership from seven to seventy-one. In July, 1877, the society extended a call to Rev. E. B. Moody, of Midland, to become its pastor. The call was accepted, and he -c. l~g`L

Page  39 sT ------- lil HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY 39 I entered upon his duties the first of tie following August. He continued his pastorate until February, 1878, when he resigned and the church was left without a pastor until the following April, when Rev. Volney Powell, of Rockford, accepted a call from the society. April (), 1878, it was decided to build a house for worship, and a building committee, consisting of Rev. Volney Powell, James Thompson, John N. Foster, Mrs. MI. A. Maxwell and Mrs. John N. Foster, was appointed with full power to act in all particulars as they deemed best, and report to the society when the building was completed. The Pere Marquette Lumber Company donated the lot, and May 1, the work of clearing it began. The committee pushed the work so rapidly that August 4 following, the building was occupied for service, although not entirely finished. October 12, I I. islied October 12, the committee formally reported, and turned the property over to the trustees. The entire cost of the building was $2,400, of which $1,950 lhad been paid, leaving a debt of $450 unprovided for. November 24, the church was dedicated, Rev. E. A. Mather, of Portland, preaching the dedicatory sermon, assisted by Rev. R. Lewis, of the Congregational, and the Rev. J. M. Aiken, of the Methodist Episcopal Church in this city. The debt upon the church was paid during the following year, and the society has kept free from debt ever since that time. Rev. Volney Powell resigned his pastorate in April, 1880, and the following August was succeeded by Rev. B. P. Hewitt, the present pastor. During the Spring of 1882, the society purchased carpets for the church and made other improvements at a total expense of about $400. The following persons have been trustees of the society: H. N. Andrews, P. Ewing, C. E. Resseguie, E. H. Fogg, George Goodsell, John N. Foster, J. A. Borkstanz, A. Stengle, J. S. Stray. The present board of trustees consists of J. S. Stray, John Foster, A. Stengle. John N. Foster, treasurer; Fannie J. Foster, clerk. There have been 107 names on the church roll. The present membership is forty-seven. There have been seven deaths and fifty removals. The pastor, Rev. Bertrand P. Hewitt, was born in Columbia, Jackson Co., Mich., May 28, 1844. He graduated at the Baptist Theological Seminary, in Chicago, in 1876. His first pastorate was at Crystal Lake, Ill., and afterward at Parma, Jackson County, Mich. In August, 1880, he removed from Parma to Ludington, to take charge of the Baptist Church in this city. Mr. Hewitt has been very successful in building up the society since coming here, and is very highly respected by the people of the city. LUTHERAN CHURCH SOCIETIES. The Scandinavian Lutheran Society was organized in 1875. They built a church on Melendy Street costing about $2,500. For some time the society has had no settled pastor, but has been supplied from other places. The Danish Lutheran Society have recently built a church on Madison Street, in the Fourth Ward. This society is without a settled pastor, but is supplied from other places. The German Evangelical Lutheran Society was organized in 1872 with twenty members. Immediately after organization the society erected a building 24x44 feet in size as a place of worship and minister's residence. The first minister was Rev. William Denke, who remained until August, 1872, when he was succeeded by Rev. Henry Torney. In 1880 the building thus far used by the society was changed into a parsonage, and the society rented the use of the Swedish Church for a time. About that time they began to ar range for building a new church. The new edifice was finished the present season. The building is 40x88, and is one of the finest churches in this city. The membership of the church, at the present time, numbers forty. The present pastor, Rev. I. P. Karrer, succeeded Mr. Torney in 1880. He was born in Bavaria in 1838, and came to this country in 1865. He preached first in Ohio, and tlhen in Indiana. He now has five societies under his charge. SABBATH SCHOOLS--S. N. HILL. The Christian people of the city of Ludington and the neighborhoods of the county are not prevented from doing gospel work by the difficulties of a new field. The pluck and zeal developed are worthy of admiration. The several churches in the city make the Sabbathschool a part of their regular Sabbath duties. The Presbyterian Sabbath-school has an annual enrollment of 150; the Congregational enrolls 150; the Methodist Episcopal, 130; the Baptist 120; the Protestant Episcopal, 60; a mission school in the Fourth Ward enrolls about 75. These are conducted and furnished with lesson papers, helps, reading papers and libraries in the same manner and equal to the older towns. Each of these schools is active and successful. Yearly some converts from these are gathered into the church. The Christian people know and feel that the children must be religiously educated, and the glorious record of the past century of Sabbath-schools leaves the fact unquestioned, that the Sabbath-school is at present the great agency in doing this work. The moral contrast of a town with and without Sabbath-schools is like the cultivated field with its growing crops, and that covered with rank briars and thistles. The five churches of foreign nationality in the city also train and educate their children religiously in their own methods, mostly by catechetical exercises at stated times. The world, civilized and savage, know that "As the twig is bent The tree's inclined." The children must be fashioned to the designs for the future. Ignorance of the Bible, Sabbath desecration, novel reading, profanity, vulgarity, and vicious indulgence, cannot result in good morals, refinement, honesty, industry, or Christianity. The Sabbath-schools of the county are mostly undenominational. Tlrey are generally Summer schools and temporary in all their organic arrangements, yet, have the same lessons and reading papers as the city schools; some of the older schools have libraries. About forty neighborhood schools are in operation during the Summer, with an enrollment of from twenty-five to seventy-five, making a county enrollment of 1,500, and'the enrollment for the city Protestant schools of 700. These schools operate many cultured and happy scenes: anniversaries, pic-nics, concerts, class gatherings, Christmas presents, and socials, all of which are refining and refreshing to parents and children, and are a moral geniality to every neighborhood. In every school district are persons competent to conduct a Sabbath-school, and their appointment to some official position calls out their latent ability for the good of themselves and others. The families of neighborhoods are destined to become active elements of society in every part and position of our vast and growing country; and the gospel seed sowing and good moral efforts of these local and soeial Sabbath-schools, will be of invaluable benefit to generations to come. In the great moral reforms and Christian enterprise of society, all earnest and sober effort will yield its fruitful reward. SECRET AND BENEVOLENT ORDERS. CRYSTAL LODGE, No 159, I. O. 0. F., of Ludington, was organized May 4, 1871. The first meeting was held at the Misner House, on Ludington Avenue. The first officers elected were N.G., SamSuel W. Frisbie; V.G., Peter Anderson; R.S., George W. Clayton; e -- II _ 1___ ___1~___ _~____~~_ ~ __ _~I~_~_ _ ___1__~1 ____ ____ ~ ___ _ ______________ __ __ ____ _ ~ __ __ __I I~ 7-. --....

Page  40 \ -^-ti, -19 - i 40 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. V P.S., Charles O. La Sone; Treasurer, Levi Shackelton. The meetings were held for a time in the second story of a building where Huston's hardware store now stands, and afterwards in the hall over the Pere Marquette Lumber Company's store. In July, 1880, the lodge moved into its present elegant quarters, in the Knights of Honor Hall, over the Danaher & Melendy store. The lodge is in a very flourishing condition. The present elective officers are, N.G., Andrew Murphy; V.G., John Tracy; R. S. Pierce; treasurer, William Heysett; P.S., Joseph Mc Master. LAKE MAICHIGAN LODGE, NO. 694, KNIGHTS OF HONOR, waS organ-i ized July 18, 1877, with the following charter members: S. D. IHaight, R. R.Wheeler, M. G. Smith, George Goodsell, W. W. Williams, P. Ewing, George E. Tripp, H. F. Alexander, E. N. Fitch, Joseph Finsterwald, N. J. Gaylord, R. P. Bishop, William B. Roly, T. O'Brien, R. M. Garritt, James H. Boyd, C. T. Sawyer, J. A. Mitchell, L. J. Brown, George B. Hollis, F. J. Dowland, M. D. Seely, W. G. Hudson, M. J. Danaher, Dr. A. P. McConnell, L. C. Waldo, Peter Anderson, R. Arnott, P. MIendelson. The first officers elected were, E. N. Fitch, past dictator; Peleg Ewing, dictator; George E. Tripp, vice-dictator; W. G. Hudson, assistant dictator; A. P. McConnell, chaplain; M. G. Smith, guide; R. P. Bishop, reporter; L. C. Waldo, financial reporter; F. J. Dowland, treasurer; L. J. Brown, guardian; N. J. Gaylord, sentinel. The trustees were, NM. J. Danaher, H. F. Alexan1der, 0. O. Sttnchfield. January 2, 1878, George B. Hollis with N. J. Gaylord, vice-dictator. During the year the lodge increased its membership and was very prosperous. At the June election William G. Hudson was elected dictator, and W. W. Williams vice-dictator. On the 28th of August W. B. Roby resigned his office of financial reporter, previous to leaving Ludington for the West. About this time the lodge gave an entertainment, and the proceeds, amounting to one hundred dollars, donated for the aid of yellow fever sufferers in the South. In January, 1879, W. W. Williams was elected dictator, and N. J. Gaylord, vice-dictator. Mr. Williams held the office of dictator for three successive terms. The meetings of the lodge were leld in the Masonic Hall over the store of the Pere Marquette Lumber Company, until 1879. At thit time the lodge moved into its new hall over the Danaher & Melendy store. The hall was fitted up and furnished in most elegant style at an expense of $1,200. In July, 1880, N. J. Gaylord was elected dictator, and A. E. Smith vice-dictator. In January, 1881,A.E. Smith was elected dictator and Thomas Shorts vice-dictator They were succeeded in July by 0. N. Taylor as dictator, and Thomas Shorts vice-dictator. In November, 1881, the lodge paid the last installment of its debt, and is free from debt at the present time. The present officers are,Thomas Shorts, dictator; R. P. Bishop,vice-dictator; Hiram Barnett, assistant dictator; W. Foy, reporter; H. Aldrich, financial reporter; F. J. Dowland, treasurer; A. P. McConnell, chaplain; Joseph P. Baggot, guide; W. J. Kirk, guardian; W. W. Noble, sentinel. The trustees are, George E. Tripp, O. N. Taylor, R. P. Bishop. The regular meetings of the lodge are held on the second and fourth Wednesday evenings of each month. The membership at present numbers ninety-two, and represents all the business and professional interests in the city. It has prospered from the beginning, and its charities have been wisely and liberally bestowed. GRACE COUNCIL, No. 171, ROYAL ARCANUM, was organized September, 18, 1878, with the following charter members: W. G. Hudson, W. E. Armstrong, Joseph Stitt, R. F. Kasson, A. P. McConnell, M. Brayman, H. N. Scott, J. E. Mailled, E. W. Fogg, J. W. Page, A. E. Cartier, J. H. Root, T. E. Pierce, George Davidson, P. Mendelson, Horace Butters, J. S. Stearns, A. J. Wilcox, F. C. Kuhli, J. V. Henry, John S. Woodruff, Thomas Neilan, William Tolles, Eli Nelson. The following were the first officers elected: W. G. Hud son, regent; W. E. Armstrong,' vice regent; Joseph Stitt, past regent; M. Brayman, orator;A. P. McConnell, chaplain; H. N. Scott, secretary; R. F. Kasson, treasurer; J. E. Mailled, collector; E. W. Fogg, warde(n; W. Tolles, guide; trustees: A. E. Cartier, J. W. Page, J. H. Root. For 1879 the officers were: W. E. Armstrong, regent; J. W. Page, vice regent; J. H. Root, orator; J. E. Mailled, collector; R. F. Kasson, treasurer; A. P. M Connell, chaplain; W. Tolles, guide; E. W. Fogg, warden; J. W. Brown, sentinel; trustees, A. E. Cartier,.). W. Root, J. W. Page. In 1880, William Tolles wats regent. In MIarch, 1880, several officers resigned, and E. W. Fogg was made treasurer; W. E. Armstrong, collector; William Foy, secretary; H. N. Scott, guide; T. F. Crilly, vice regent; William Surplice, orator. The membership at this time nulmbered thirty-eight. During 1880, the membership was inc-reased to seventy. In December, 1880, Robert Kasson, a member of the order, died, and the sum of $3,000 was paid to his mother as a death benefit. Th'e officers for 1881 were: Thomas F. Crilly, regent; A. T. Wiley, vice regent; William Surplice, orator; W. Foy, secretary; J. A. Armstrong, collector; E. W. Fogg, treasurer; A. P. McConnell, chaplain; H. N. Scott, guide; R. Ra:smussen, warden; trustees: W. W. Williams, Joseph Stitt, Thonmas Neilan. For 1882 the officers are: W. W. Williams, regent; G. Chase, vice regent; W. Rath, orator; William Foy, secretary; J. A. Armstrong, collector; E. W. Fogg, treasurer; A. P. McConnell, chaplain; R. Rasmussen, guide; A. Hunter, warden; trustees: W. E. Armstrong, William Rath, Peter Mendelson. The present membership of the Council numbers sixty-eight. John Gee, a member of the Council, died April 7, 1882. PERE MARQUETTE LODGE, No. 299, F. AND A. M., was organized in April, 1871. The first meetings were held in an old building on Ludington Avenue, near Charles Street. Subsequently they met in the second story of the building now occupied by Mr. Huston's hardware store. Still later, they met in the hall over the Pere Marquette Lumber Company's store, and after the fire moved into their present hall in the Clayton Block. The first master of the lodge was M. D. Ewell, and his successors have been Peleg Ewing, Jason Gillette and George N. Stray. The lodge is in a flourishing condition, and has about one hundred members. There is also a Blue Lodge, Chapter, Council and Commandery. LUDINGTON CHAPTER, NO. 92, OF ROYAL ARCH MASONS, was ilnstituted February 3, 1874. The officers installed were: H.P., W. G. Hudson; K., E. N. Fitch; S., Jason Gillette; C.O.H., A. G. Spencer; P.S., L. T. Southworth; R.A.C., William Farrell; MI.lstV., L. B. Wigihtman; M.2dV., R. Audley; M.3dV., L. Lovell; secretary, J. Finsterwald, treasurer, M. D. Ewell. The present term the principal officers are: H.P., H. B. Smith; K., P. Ewing; scribe, F. P. Dunwell. APOLLO COMMANDERY, No(). 31, ws instituted January 31, 1882, with E.C., W. G. Hudson; Gen., F. P. Dunwell; C.G., IH. B. Smith. LUDINGTON COUNCIL, No. 48, was instituted May 31, 1876, with T.I.M., L. T. Southworth; D.I.M., P. Ewing; P.C. of W., W. G. Hudson. The present officers are: T.I.M., P. Ewing; D.T.I.M., George N. Stray; secretary, Jacob Staffon. The membership is thirty-five. THE GERMAN AID SOCIETY was organized in 1876. Its object is mutual aid and relief for its members. The society has been very prosperous from its start. Last year the society erected a large building on James Street, called Arbeiter Hall. It is used for society purposes an l as a public hall. Tile building is fifty by one hundred and twenty feet in size, and contains a roomy stage, fitted up with new and handsome scenery. The present officers of the society are: Henry Neuman, president; Frederic Ohland, vice I - ---

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Page  41 4 -6~,{.t~. i HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. 41 president; P... SpreC'kenl a!l (orge Schmidt, secretaries; W. Peters, treasurer. There are also Swe lish aunl Scýadinavian aid societies, which are 1)en2volent institutions, the objects of which are mutual benefit. THE "PAP" WLLLIAIS PoST, No. 15, G. A. R., was org'nmized Tuesday evening, May 25, 1880, by Col. A. T. McReynold, of (GranI R pis, ldep rtmnent comm iuuler. Its officers were: ClhaIncy Gibbs, comunlider; Isa;ac Gibson, senior vice commn-ander; George Goodsell, j unior vice commander; 1)Dr.. MP.cConnell, surgeon; R. P. Bishop, chaplain; George WV. Clayton, qutrtermin ster; L. E. Hawley, qutertsesergeant; C. G. Wing, adjutint".Jaimes Wood, sergetnt major; W. G. Hudson, officer of the dav; C. P. Stanton, offic r of the g,ýarl.. About forty nimes were signed to thll charter, twenty-nine of whom were mustered in at the first meeting. The post his prospered better thtni might have been expected in so young a co:unty, anl at the present time hi-Is ne.1arly one hundred menimbers. A very pleasant post room has been fitted up over the store of the Pere Marquette Lumber Company, where mneetings of the post are held( twice a month, on Thursday eveniings. The present officers are: Charles G. Ward, commander; C. P. Stanton, senior vice cominiander; Gardner Chaise, junior vice comm;ander; Fayette Johnson, adjutant: R. P. Bishop, officer of the day; Dr. A. P. McConnell, surgeon; Lucius E. Hawley, chaplain: WI. C. McKay, oftfier of the gu Ird; J. Shli:ckelton, quartermlt stcr. On the Fourthi of July lst, the ladies of Lu lingr)n lpresent-lt I the pot with anl elegant silk flag. LUD)INGTON SCHOOLS. Sh )l) Di)strict No. 3, of the Township of Pere MI trquette, w.ts organiize l November 10, 1864, embracinog the same territory that is now inclucded in the limits of Union School District No. 1, of the city of Ludington; and the first schoo,l was taught in the district the succeeding Sumnier by Miss Saral Melendy, in a shitvy ill the rear of the Pere Marquette Lumber Company's mill, which coiintiined to be the only buildinig used for school purposes in the district till the building of the first part of the present Central School building in the Fall of 1867. Previous to that time the termiis of the school had been short S anid termittent-the school being kept up Summers only; but from the month of Februir.ry, 1868, the schools have been kept up) during the whole of the slchoo year. In the year 1870 the former school district organization wCas changeit to a union or g'radedJ school orgaliztion, with six trustees instead of three officers; retaining, however, its old nalne of School District No,. 3, till the organization of tihe city of Ludington, at which timie the district changed its name, and was created by the namnie of Union School District No. 1, of the city of Ludinigton. The first school was taughlt in the Summer of 1865. The first teacher was Miss Sarah Melendv. Miss Katie Mitchell taught ini 1866, and Miss Nellie Mills ini 1867 and 188. The first principal was Miss Mary Mills, in 1868. In 1875 Prof. Johln N. Foster was engaged as principal, and has held that position ever since. The report of the principal, for the year, ending June 830, 1876 showed as follows: No. of cillre ill the ditrict f schl-age is..................604 There have been enrolled in school............................ 14 No. enrolled twice........................................... 26 Actial iunm er (~11 led..................................... 588 These were distributed in the several grades as follows: Hig School....................................... 4 Grannar Grade......................................... 15 'rinmary Grade...................................... 380 Aveu age attendance...................................... 02 The present superintendent, Prof. John N. Foster, begnm his work here ill 1875, "tnd ha:s broughlt the schools of the city t" a very high rank. At the present time the sh-lJools of the city o:ccupy three buildinigs: the Central School, First Ward and Fourth WAtr(d. All pupils illn grades above the eighth, fromi all p:urts of the city, will attend the Central Building. The First Ward School has two departments, anlI all pupils ':f the first five grades, livinig within convienient distance, will atte'nd this school. The Fourth Ward School has three departimeints, anid all p1up1is below the High School, living in that ward, will, as soon as it c;ll be so arranged, attend that school. A new building to cost $3,000 is to be erected the present season ill the Third Ward. The school year is divided into three terms. The first consists of sixteenii weeks, closing the last Friday preceding Christmas. The second termr commences two weeks from the following Monday and continues twelve weeks. The third term consists of twelve weeks, closing oiln Friday immediately precedinmg the Fourth of July. In 1880, the new Central School Building was completed at a cost of about $10,000. A very correct view of this building is given on these pages. It is a substantial structure, and is a credit to the place. Through the efforts of Prof. Foster, the "fine money," as provided by law, has been expended for books, and the school now has ian elegant library of 1,000 volumes of carefully selected books. There is also a teachers' library of fifty volumes. The present numuber of pupils belonging to the schools is about 950. Iln 1875, the number beloniginig was a trifle over 400. At the beginning of the present schmool year two courses of study for the High School were adopted by the board of education, eachi extendiling over a period of four years, called respectively the scientific amnd English courses, each of which is lprepramtory to the corresponding courses in the State University. Upon einteriing the High School pupils may elect which course they will pursue, and when completed may receive diplomas. These diphloinas will be accepted in place of examination in many of the colleges and high schools of the state and at the Normal School. TEACHERS. John N. Foster, superintendent. CENTRA. BILDIB(.---HinH SCHOOL: Miss Hattie B. Taylor, preceptress. GiMxu SCHi()OLS.-M-iss Kate S. Hutchins, principal; Miss Ellen C. Slhaw, assistant; Miss Melissa C. Holliday, sixth grade; Miss Louise V. Schick, fourth and fifth grades. PRIM.IRY DEPARTMENUT: Miss Mollie Danaher, third grade; Mrs. S. D. Htighit, second grade; Miss Tillie Voigt, first grade. FouirTu WAD m:" Mr. Galen A. Merrill, principal; Miss Ainnie Surplice, second and third grades; Miss Kate Sterling, first grade. FIsT WARDI): Miss Maggie Arnott, principal; Miss Lillian Williamis, atssistant. BOARD OF EDUCATION. Shnlamel F. White, term expires 1882; George W. Roby, term expires 1882; George N. Stray, term expires 1883; Robert Arnott, terim expires 1883; Dr. E. N. Dundass, term expires 1884; I. J. Dan1aher, terim expires 1884. George W. Roby, director; Shubael F. White, moderator; George N. Stray, assessor. The board holds regular mmeetings on the last Friday of eachl month, at 4.30( P. I., in the superintendent's office at the Central Buildimng. I~ I~_____ '---~ r7-` I - - ---- ------

Page  42 41_ - t 4 42 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. STATISTICS. Population of the district........................... 5,000 Number of children between the ages of 5 and 20.......... 931 Cash valuation of school property.....................$ 18,000 00 Assessed valuation of district property.................... 944,991 60 Cost of superintendence and instructiol................ 4,663 73 Amount paid superintendent.......................... 1,00 00 Amount paid special teachers............................ 0 00 Cost of incidentals.................................... 856 28 Amount paid for bonds and interest..................... 0 00 Amount paid for permanent improvements and buildings.. 5,311 64 The citizens of Ludington have abundant reasons for feeling a commendable degree of satisfaction and pride in the superior educational advantages which the schools of the city possess. PROF. JOHN N. FOSTER, superintendent of schools at Ludington, is the man to whom the city is indebted for much of the excellence of its public schools. Prof. Foster was born in Schuyler County, N. Y., July 29, 1844. When sixteen years of age he came to Webster, Mich., and two years later, in 1862, enlisted in the Union army as a member of the Twenty-Sixth Michigan Infantry, and remained in the service until the close of the war in 1865. After coming out of the service, he taught school at Danville and Berrien Springs. At the latter place he remained four years. From 1872 to 1874, he was assistant superintendent of the Reform School at Lansing, and came to Ludington in 1875, to accept his present position. When lhe entered upon his duties here, the number of pupils belonging to the schools numbered 400. The present year the report shows the number to have been increased to 932. He was the first to introduce the system of graded schools, and has made many other valuable improvements in the system of public instruction. Prof. Foster is a thorough scholar, and combines to a high degree the qualities of a good instructor, and a thorough disciplinarian, while his practical views have been of great service to the board of education. Under his management, the schools of Ludington have taken high rank, and the people of the city appreciate the value of his services. NEWSPAPERS. The local newspapers of Mason County are of a character that reflects credit upon the intelligence and enterprise of the people of the county. There are three printing establishments in Ludington, each of which publishes a weekly newspaper, and does job printing. Each of the establishments is well equipped, and the character and style of printing executed by them will compare very favorably with that of the larger cities. THE LUDINGTON Recorl is the oldest paper in the county. It was established in the Summer of 1867, by George W. Clayton, now a banker and prominent citizen of Ludington. At that time the village of Ludington contained about 300 inhabitants. James Ludington, after whom the village was named, saw the necessity of hlaving a local newspaper to advocate the interests of the ambitious and promising village. Mr. Clayton was, at that time, employed in the printing office of Starr & Son, in Milwaukee, and Mr. Ludington made him a proposition to come here and start a paper. In July, Mr. Clayton came to Ludington on a tour of inspection, and being satisfied with the prospects, returned to Milwaukee for his family and the material for the office. In a short time Mr. Clayton was back with his family and printing material. He secured a dwelling house and set up his printing and domestic establishments be neath the same roof. The lower rooms of his house were occupied by his family, and from the second story beamed the effulgence of the local luminary at two dollars a year, strictly in advance. The first number of the ilason C(onnty Record, as it was then called, was issued September 17, 1867, and in his salutatory the editor announced that the RcordI would be Republican in its politics and devoted to the interests of Mason County. With an unctious but commendable burst of charity, he promised to make it as pleasant for his Democratic friends as possible. At that time Ludington was not even an incorporated village, and the entire local advertising patronage was confined to Dr. Doty, drug store; S. F. White, attorney; Michael Moore, pump maker; George Winmer, boot and shoe maker; and James Ludington, general merchandise. The paper was first a six column folio, and from the first its tone and spirit betokened the ability and energy of its editor. In 1869 it was enlarged to a seven-colum folio. In 1872 F. F. Hopkins purchased an interest in the office and tle paper was again enlarged to an eightcolumn folio. Those early days appear to have been fraught with many of the precious experiences familiar to local journalists of the present time. The glistening paragraphs scattered here and there through the early files reveal the jarring of political and social elements. There are way marks to indicate the miraculous escape of the editor from the woful vengeance of offended dignity or pride. The political conflicts of those primitive days were as dreadful in their fury, and as bloodless in their consequences as at the present time; but despite all these periodical eccentricities there appears to have been no division of sentiment or effort touching the interests of Ludington. The Record held to its course with steady hand, and prospered. In 1874 Mr. Clayton sold his remaining interest in the office and was succeeded by Hopkins & Darr. In January, 1878, Mr. C. T. Sawyer bought out Mr. Hopkins, and the firm changed to Darr & Sawyer. In April, 1880, Thomas McMaster purchased an interest, and the firm was Darr, Sawyer & McMaster until, August, 1881, they were succeeded by McMaster & Steven-, the present publishers. In 1874 the paper was enlarged to a six-column quarto, and in the Spring of 1880 it was again enlarged to a sevencolumn quarto, and its name changed to the Ludington Recor(d. The office was totally destroyed in the fire of June, 1881, but its publishers immediately equipped a new office and supplied it with steam presses and a splendid outfit of first-class material. The Record is still a faithful exponent of the principles of the Republican party and devoted to the interests of the city and county in which it is published. Since writing the above, Mr. McMaster has purchased the interest of Mr. Stevens, and is now sole proprietor. THOMAS P. McMASTER, editor and proprietor of the Ludington Recolr, was born in the north of Ireland, in 1846, and is of Scotch extraction. When three years of age his parents removed to England, where he remained until twenty years of age. At that time he went to sea and followed sailing for about four years. In the Spring of 1871, he came from New York to Buffalo, and sailed on the lakes during that season. In April, 1873, he came to Ludington and engaged in business. For about four years lie was one of the proprietors of the Ludington Boiler Works, after which, for a time, he measured lumber Summers, and did some work in the Record office during the Winter. In 1880 he became one of the proprietors of thle Record(, and in July of the present year became its sole editor and proprietor. Mr. McMaster is a clear and conscientious writer, a man of strict integrity and honesty of purpose, and has the full confidence of the community. THE LUDINGTON Democrat is a seven-column folio weekly newspaper, published every Saturday, at Ludington, by E. W. Marsh & Co. The Democrat was started December 5, 1878, by E. W. Marsh. The office was in the Clayton Block until August, 1880, when it was removed to its present quarters in the Johnson Block, comer of Ludington Avenue and Charles Street. The paper is Democratic in politics. In September, 1881, L. N. Curott purchased an interest in the business and the style of the firm was changed to E. W.

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Page  43 .__A _ T"" -_-_ ^ HISTORY OF I Marsh & Co. The office escaped the fire of June, 1881. The publishers are live, energetic men, and the office is equipped with steam presses and all the necessary material for doing first-class work. The columns of the ])emocyf give evidence of editorial industry and ability, which are securing for it a wide circulation among the people of the city and county. E.. W; MARSH, editor of the Ludington )Democrat, was born in Wayne County, N. Y., in 1851. When six years of age his parents removed to Hillsdale, Mich., where he remained until the Spring of 1872, when he came to Ludington and opened a boot and shoe store. He continued in that business for about a year and a half, when lie went to keeping books for the lumber firm of Stanchfield & Foster, and continued in that position until 1878, when he started the Ludington Democrat.r.Mr. Marsh is a young man, but is full of enterprise and has always taken an active interest in public affairs. He was a member of the city council during the years 1878-9, and was again elected last Spring. He is secretary of the Tax Payers Imlprovement Association. As an editor, Mr. Marsh is a sharp and pungent writer, liberal in his views, but earnest in his advocacy of measures which his judgment approves. THE LUDINGTON WEEKLY lj))eal was establlished in 18738 the first issue being on June 27. Its editor and proprietor, William 1B. Cole, had previously published the Pontiac.Jackso-lia, but having suspended its publication, removed the material to Ludington and established the Al1pal. In his salutatory the editor declared his purpose to establish an independent newspaper, devoted to the commercial interests of Ludington and Mason County. The office was well equipped with material and has always done a good business. It has never been the organ of any political party, but has not avoided the discussion of political subjects as they presented themselves. Mr. Cole still continues as editor and proprietor of the A ),j)eal, although his feeble health does not permit him to apply himself to editorial work. WILLIAM B. COLE, editor and proprietor of the Ludington.AIppeal, was born in Ellisburg, Jefferson Co., N. Y., December 22, 1822. He studied medicine, and graduated as a physician and surgeon in 1846, and began practice in Pottsville, Pa., in 1847. In 1848 he removed to Fenton, Mich., and pursued his practice and was elected censor of the Genesee County Medical Society. In the Winter of 1849-50 he attended lectures at the Rush Medical College, Chicago, and returned to Fenton in 1851, and married. He continued practice there until 1871, when he purchased the Pontiac JacWksniiu and removed to that place. In 1873 the publication of the Jacksonomi was discontinued and the printing material removed to Ludington, where, in June of that year, he began the publication of the Ludington iAl>eld. In the Fall of 1874 he was elected on the Democratic ticket to represent the counties of Mason and Manistee in the Legislature. Since the expiration of his term in the Legislature, he has devoted his time to his paper, until about a year ago, he suffered a slight paralytic stroke and has since been unable to apply himself closely to business or writing. TEMPERANCE--S. N. HILL. JASON COUNTY. 43 stores take out license. Prosecutions and penalties are a restraint, but do not cancel the business. In 1868, before the town began its rapid growth, a lodge of (rood Templars was organized. Messrs. Charles Caldwell and George Clayton were leaders in this effort. This soon ceased action. In 1870 a second lodge was organized, which continued about four years. Also, in 1881 a third lodge was organized, which is at present active and useful. With a large per cent of mill hands and foreigners, efforts have a transient effect. Many can be called out to a single lecture, and no more is seen of them. In April, 1877, Mr. A. C. Cameron, a volunteer lecturer and organizer, opened a campaign here, and the first pledge enrolled two hundred and fifty names, mostly of temperance people. The next evening about 300 more were added. Some of these were hard drinkers. The Red Ribbon Club was immnediately organized. Mr. E. N. Fitch was president. About three hundred members joined the club. Red Ribbon clubs were at this time being formed rapidly throughout the country. Great enthusiasm prevailed. The thirty saloons of this city felt the force. Some dried up. At this time, also under the direction of Mr. Cameron, the Young Men's Christian Association wias organized, with a roll of forty members. Dr. A. P. McConnell was president. The Women's Christian Temperance Union was organized April 11, 1877. Mrs. J. S. Woodruff was president and Mrs. C. H. Fralick secretary. They obtained a charter, and have continued to be very efficient in the work, employing lecturers, Bible readings, prayer meetings, children's meetings, and entertainments, and often circulating special temperance publications. They have co-operated with the Red Ribbon Club, and with the general temperance movements of the state, and are positively prohibition in their purposes. The club immediately proceeded to build a temperance hall, which was done at a cost of $2,000. The hall had an audience room of one hundred feet in length, with library room, reading room, and kitchen. It was well furnished and for four years served a good purpose for all public occasions. The club was aided by the W. C. T. U. in the furnishing of the building. This hall was burned in the big fire of June, 1881. In January, 1880, Mr. J. C. Bontecue, a state lecturer, held a series of temperance meetings, preparatory to the canvass for a state constitutional amendment for prohibition. These created considerable interest, but nothing permanent followed. In May, 1882, a series of public temperance meetings was held by Mr. Woodford, of Illinois, invited here by the W. C. T. U. As a result a Temperance League was formed, Mr. Thomas Shorts, president, to enforce the present laws and to act efficiently in the approaching canvass for the prohibition amendment to the state constitution. The general temperance sentiment in the city and county, aside from the foreign population, is strong, but generally in favor of the present ttax-license system, as being at present the most efficient. The churches and several pastors are quite co-operative in all efficient efforts in the cause of temperance. LUDINGTON HARBOR. In the early days there was an old slab dock below the present dock of Allen & Son. For ten years after the mill was built, the channel of the river was south of the present side of the Taylor mill. In 1858--9, Charles Mears dug the present channel to better accommodate the sawmill, which lie was operating under lease. As soon as Ludington began to give evidence of business development, improvement of the harbor was begun. There was an excellent natural harbor, perhaps one of the best on the east shore of Lake Temperance reform has its local battle-fields. This county and the city of Ludington are noted for the conflict. The fortifications are strengthened by imported material. Emigrated habits do not reform easily-but temperance armies are brave. Drunkenness arouses honest hearts to self-defense. Temperance efforts here for several years past have been constant; many have been rescued and fashioned into safe habits. The conflict is mostly within the city. The municipal laws are as complete and stringent as can be made under the general liquor laws of the state. Yet saloons live. About twenty-five uniformly operate, and several drug I i S-- 1 - --

Page  44 4.--~I-F 44 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. Michigan. In 1871 $75,000 had been expended on improvements. The light was finished and started this year. Since 1871 an average annual expenditure of about $10,000 Ihas been made in harbor improvements. The citizens of Ludington are now urging upon Congress the necessity of a harbor of refuge at this point. The following reports made to the House of Representatives convey important information which seems desirable to incorporate in this work. They are as follows: HARBOR OF REFUGE AT LUDINGTON, MICH. Letter from the Secretary of War, in response to a resolution of the House of Representatives, transmitting reports in relation to a harbor of refuge at Ludington, Mich. March 27, 1882.-Referred to the Committee on Commerce and ordered to be printed. WAR )EPARTMENT, WASHINGTON CITY, March 24, 1882. The Secretary of War has the honor to transmit to the House of Representatives, in compliance with the resolution of that body of January 24, 1882, calling for the information, a letter from the Chief of Engineers of yesterday's date, and the accompanying copy of report from Major F. Harwood, corps of engineers, relative to the necessity for a harbor of refuge at Lnudington, Mich., with plans and estimates therefor. ROBERT T. LINCOLN, Secretary of War. The Speaker of the House of Representatives. OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF ENGINEEtRS, UNITED STATES ApRMY, WASHINGTON, I). C., MNarcel 23, 1882. S: IR - have the honor to return herewith the resolution of the House of Representatives of the United States, dated January 24, 1882, requesting the Secretary of War "to report to the House as to Sthe necessity for a harbor of refuge at Ludington, Mich., and that he submit plans and estimates therefor;' and in obedience to its requirements to submit the accompanying copy of the report thereon by Major F. Harwood, corps of engineers, to whom it was referred, which it is hoped will afford the desired information so far as tihe questions of plans and estimates are concerned. Major Harwood's views as to tlhe necessity for the proposed harbor of refuge are entitled to consideration. I concur in them so far as they relate to the desirabi ity of an additional harbor of refuge at the most available point between Grand Haven and Portage Lake, but in my judgment it is important that the selection of that point should not be made till after a special investigation shall have been had of the coast between tile places named, and the relative advantages of various localities determined. For this purpose, the authority of Congress will be necessary, and a small appropriation required. The policy of making appropriation for a new harbor of refuge in this vicinity before those at Grand Haven and Portage Lake, already authorized and in course of execution, shall be further advanced towards completion, may well be doubted, and is worthy the consideration of Congress. Should Congress, however, deem it proper to authorize, at this time, the construction of a harbor of refuge at Luciington, it is sug gested that the plan, location, and estimate now submitted be referred to a board of engineer officers for revision before the work is mudertaken. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, H. G. WRIGHT, Cllief of Engineers, Brig. and Bvt. Maj. Gen. S Hlon. Robert T. Lincoln, Secretary of War. PLANS AND ESTIMATES FOR A HARBOR OF REFUGE AT LUDINGTON, MICH. UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE, DETROIT, MICH., March 7, 1882. ' GENERAL: -Unde11r resolution of the House of Representatives of January 24 ultimo, transmitted to me by the Chief of Engineer's letter of the 27th, I am required to report upon the necessity for a harbor of refuge at Ludington, Mich., and to submlit plans and estimates therefor. There is at present no harbor of refuge on tile east coast of Lake Michigan, and the necessity for at least one readily accessible to vessels of all characters in any stress of weather is obvious, and has been repeatedly presented to the notice of the War Department and Congress by officers in charge of the improvements on this coast in reports having a bearing 1upon this subject. As a result of the demands of commerce and the official representations above referred to, there are at present two harbors of refuge in process of construction, one at Grand Haven and one at Portage Lake, Manistee County. Both of these harbors are admirably situated for the purposes for which they are designed, but are not at present in a condition of safe access in a gale of wind. Portage Lake Harbor of Refuge is in an incipient condition, being at present entirely inaccessible. It could be completed by aid of liberal appropriations within two or three years, but at the rate of appropriation heretofore afforded would be at least twenty years in process of construction. Grand Haven Harbor is approaching completion under the existing approved project, and at the present rate of appropriation will be finished in four or five years. These two harbors when completed will afford, in a, great measure, much needed relief to the commerce of the coast, but will not fully secure it against disaster in stormy weather. Grand Haven will be available for vessels caulghlt in a storm toward the head of the lake, and Portage Lake for those similarly unfortunate, while upon the course from thle Straits of Mackinac to the west coast, which course bears well away from the east coast abreast of Point Aux Becs Scies, which is only twenty-three miles below Portage Lake.:But between Portage Lake and Graind Haven there is a long stretch of about 100 miles of dangerous coast, totally unprovided with alny harbor which a vessel could safely attempt to enter in stormy weather. As regards danger to navigation, the portion of the east coast of Lake Michigan under my charge may properly be divided into three bights, in either of which if a vessel is caught in stormy weather on a lee shore she must make a harbor of refuge within the bight or expect to go upon the beach. Reckoning from south northward there is first to be noticed the long reach of a little over 100 miles coast line between Saint Joseph and Little Point Sable, which will be provided for by tile lharbor of refuge at Grand Haven; and passing to Big Point Sable the coast northward from that point will be provided for, by the harbor of refuge at Portage Lake, but the short and most dangerous, becaulse most concave, bight between the two Points Sable, remains at present unprovided for; and no matter how generally accessible in the future the harbors of Grand Haven and Portage Lake may become, any vessel unfortunate enough to get caught on a lee shore between the two Points Sable could reap no benefit from either of tile harbors just mentioned, but being unable to round either point would be in imminent danger of stranding. In this connection I respectfully submit the appended table of statistics of wrecks which have occurred between the two Points Sable since 1818, kindly furnished me by the deputy collector of customs at Ludington. This table does not by any means state all the cases of vessels stranded between the points, but is full as far as definite information could be obtained. It omits many cases -'-- )F

Page  [unnumbered] RES. OF JAMES FOLEY, LUDINGTON,MICH. RES. OF G.GOODSELL, LUDINGTON,MASON,LLO. MICH.

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Page  45 Pig HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. 45 where information afforded is too vague to entitle the instance to definite record. From the foregoing course of reasoning and these statistics of wrecks, it will be seen that a harbor of refuge at some site between the two Points Sable is at least desirable, if not a general necessity. That it is a necessity as regards local commerce of that region I think I have demonstrated. Either Ludington or Pentwater, both of which harbors are situated within the bight above specified, would be suitable for a site for a harbor of refuge, each beingi partially under cover of one or the other of the Points Sable, but Ludington, being one of the termini of the Flint & Pere \Marquette Railroad, a trunk line crossing the lower peninsula of Michigan and having direct communication with all points east, in a connlerical point of view, would seem to offer the greater advantages. It is probable that the assurance of safe access in any weather to the port of Ludington would induce capitalists to place on one or more lines of steamers connecting the Flint & Pere Marquette Bailroad withI roads on the opposite side of the lake having termini at west coast ports, in which event the commerce of Ludington would be greatly stimulated and the revenues of the United States at this point correspondingly increated. The most important characteristic of a harbor of refuge for general lake commerce at this location, intermediate as to the head and foot of the lake, should be its perfect accessibility in the stormiest weather, and under most adverse circumstances. This characteristic, in my opinion, can only be secured by building the harbor exterior to the coast line. I maintain that no system of parallel piers of entrance to an interior basin can ever afford perfect security, for either the piers have to be placed so far apart that the channel canniot be certainly secured from shoaling, or else, if placed nearer together, form too narrow an entrance for a vessel to attempt with perfect security in stormy weather, particularly in the dark or in fog or thick mist. The interval of 300 feet fixed upon for the harbor of refuge at Portage Lake appears to have been adopted as a judicious medium, the result of practicable experience in the construction of harbors of this character. But at the harbor of Grand Haven, where the pier interval is nearly 400 feet, even when there is good water in advance of the piers, vessels occasionally miss the entrance; nor do I think this difficulty will be entirely remedied even when the piers have been carried into deep water, and all fears of shoals at the entrance have disappeared. It is no easy matter ini thick weather when a heavy sea is rolling to hit an entrance of even 400 feet width, and when a vessel in such weather misses the entrance to leeward she is invariably stranded. No hawsers will hold her in such a sea as rolls behind the piers of the east shore of Lake Michigan in a heavy gale of wind. If she is fortunate enough to make the error to weather, which is the exceptional case, she may possibly escape, although the tendency is to set her ashore. The reflex wave in this case assists her efforts to keep off the pier, and by hard hauling she may get clear, but always in a more or less damaged condition. With exterior works, however, the case is entirely different, and the maximum amount of security is afforded to the distressed vessel. The heavier and more direct the sea dashing against the breakwater, the more pronounced is the reflex wave, acting as a water-cushion, fending her off from collision, and unless the vessel is so small or the waves so heavy as to swamp her, by good maneuvering she may be worked along the breakwater to the end, where, if she is at all in a navigable condition, she has plenty of sea room to work up and let go her anchor under cover of the work. With a work having eight feet height of superstructure and finished with substantial snubbing posts, she could do this by aid of hawsers in any ordinary gale I--- without great difficulty. A vessel approaching a harbor of refuge of this character does so with her greatest confidence, no matter how thick and heavy the weather may be, for the master knows that even if lie is unfortunate enough to miss the entrance to the exterior harbor, he has every opportunity of extricating himself, and plenty of sea room to remedy his misfortune by casting anchor under the lee of the work before being thrown on the beach. In the case of interior harbors, however, the master of the unfortunate vessel is mnorally certain that if lie misses the entimnce there are nine chances out of ten that he will lose his vessel. Thlie piers of Ludington have only 200 foot interval, and Pere Marquette Lake, at the town front, is fully moinopolized by the local commerce. The harbor, therefore, in its present condition, is unsuitable for refuge, nor from conditions just advancted do I think it can be modified for such a purpose to advantage. I therefore propose for a harbor of refuge at Ludington, if Congress should so provide, the trace indicated on the map hereto appended. The project contemplates the extension of the present south pier of entrance for 1,000 feet, to end in twenty-eight feet soundings. This extension is necessary to head off a sand spit, which the littoral current flowing from the southward is gradually pushing inoithward, thus threatening the present channel of entrance at a point about 350 feet in advance of the present pier head. As this extension is a necessity for the preservation. of the channel, as long as it is in hand it may as well be pushed still further, converting the south pier of entrance into a south breakwater. Unfortunately, at the Ludington front the water deepens so suddenly that from motives of economy only a minimum area for anchorage can be projected without making the project cost enormously, and altogether out of proportion to the benefit sought to be obtained. The degree of pier extension, 1,000 feet, is determined by the position of the detached breakwater, the most imiportant feature of the project. The main arm of this breakwater, which is 2,000 feet long, I have located in an average depth of thirty feet soundings, which is as deep as it can be built in with any degree of economy, and at a distance of 2,200 feet from the shore, which is little enough to give good sea room. From the main arm at the northerly end I set off a return of 1,000 feet in an oblique direction shoreward, to shut off what little northwesterly sea may occasionally arise, and thus make thie lee of the breakwater a snug harbor in all weathers. Northwesterly gales are thie least frequent at Ludington, and less felt on account of the lay of the land to the northward; the partial interposition of Big Point Sable interfering to break the full force of the sea. Vessels seeking shelter from such a gale, even if abnormal in severity, would find easy access to - the harbor of refuge by rounding thie north end of the breakwater, whichi is situated at a distance of 1,600 feet from the shore line, affording ample room for thie maneuver, and giving thie vessel the option of letting go her anchor under thie lee of the short arm or seeking the entrance to the inner harbor, where there would be comparatively still water. The most violent gales at Ludington are from the southwest, veering to due west. I have established the width of entrance between thie south b)reakwater hiead and the south end of the detached breakwater at 350 feet, which I consider ample for works with the relative situations of those I project. There is a vast difference between the force and character of the wave in open lake driving through a clear entrance in deep water into a large area of roadstead, and the same wave striking an entrance even of the same width between parallel piers. In the first case the wave enters naturally, with no excessive combing, and is dissipated in the covered area beyond; in the second case, between parallel walls, its mass-accu------------------------------------f[

Page  46 .__@ 4' j 46 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. nmulates in a towering crest, which gives the vessel entering a(ll sihe Ican do to keep her course and avoid being flung upon the end of the long line of work abreast of her; which end in the other case she has passed in an instant, and finds in the main line a shelter rather than a dangerous lee wall, as in the instance of parallel piers. For a vessel, then, to enter the projected harbor under stress of a southwest gale, the entrance of the head of the south lreakwater should be sought; and this passed, as it could be in the heaviest weather, instantaneously and with perfect safety, the vessel could then either pursue her course in still water, under cover of the south breakwater, into the inner harbor, or keep away to anchor under the lee of the detached work until the storm blew over. It will be noticed that in all cases but one there will be perfectly still water at the entrance to the inner harbor, which, in the case of parallel piers, is the most dangerous point of all, no matter from what directioln the gale may come. At Ludington the wind sometimes veers and blows heavily from due west. In this case the south breakwater would be of little service, and a heavy sea would roll as at present directly toward the inner harbor. This sea might in this instance make entrance to the inner harbor inconvenient, but in this case the whole 3,000 feet of detached breakwater would make the area of sixty acres anchorage a snug harbor throughout its whole extent, and a vessel could readily wait there until the services of a tug were available. The question may here be asked, Why not extend the south breakwater to lap the detached work covering the entire area of anchorage just as completely against waves from the southwest as from the west? The answer is that it has been shown by experience that such a relative arrangement is dangerous and apt to throw the entering vessel upon the detached breakwater, which would then be to leeward of the south breakwater head. In other words, this arrangement practically reproduces the vital defect of the parallel pier system, and it is better to suffer the inconvenience of a subsiding swell in a portion of the area of anchorage than to endanger the entrance by any obstruction designed to remedy an interior inconvenience. The same objection applies to an additional covering breakwater shutting off waves from the westward. The simpler the entrance consistent with absolute safety, the easier the harbor is of access, and therefore the more serviceable. Again, it may be asked, why not arrange the covering works to the southward of an extension of the north pier and therebly make a perfect lee in a southwest gale? There are practical difficulties in arranging the entrance for such a harbor as this, which it is not necessary to enumerate here; but the main objection is that the littoral current which flows from the southward would convert such a harbor in Winter-time into a large field of drifted ice anchored and compacted so as to block all navigation, probably until long after it had opened elsewhere. On the other hand, under the project I have the honor to submit, I should expect Ludington to be accessible by steam navigation all Winter, the south breakwater being connected with the shore and effectually proti/cting the channel of entrance from all drift. In carrying into effect this project, the first measure to be taken in hand is the south pier extension converting it into a south breakwater. Owing to the great amount of driftlogs and ice which is dashed against this pier in southwest gales, its construction must be of substantial timber work filled with stone and resting upon a firm foundation. For such a work, resting on brush mattress, which will probably be less expensive, and has been proved by last year's experience to be as unyielding and secure as a pile or stone foundation, I estimate the expense as follows: 700 feet piering, 30 feet wide, with 6 feet superstructure, in an average of 23 feet soundings, at $186 per linear foot.. $130,200 250 feet piering, 34 feet wide, with 8 feet superstructure, in an average of 25 feet soundings, at $250 per linear foot.. 62,500 A pier-head 50' X 40', in 281j feet soundings, with 8 feet superstructure....................................... 15,000 Total................................... 207,700 10 per cent contingencies............................... 20,770 Estimated cost of south breakwater.......... 228,470 The detached breakwater upon a pile foundation with stone filling, built according to the plan successfully used at Michigan City, Ind., and other places, would cost as follows: 2,000 linear feet, 40 feet wide, with 8 feet superstructure, in aun average of 30 feet soundings, at $300 per linear foot.. $600,000 1,000 linear feet, withi an average width of 34 feet. and with 8 feet sulperstruct re, standing in an average of 27 feet Total t....................... 865,000 sounlings, at $265 per linear feet..................... 265,000 Total.................................... 865,00() 10 per cent contingencies............................. 86,500 Estimated cost of detached breakwater................... 951,500 To which adding cost of south breakwater................ 228,470 Gives cost of entire project.................... 1,179,970 Making allowance for the variation in cost of labor and material during the series of years through which the project would probably be in course of execution, it may be fairly estimated that it will cost from $1,000,000 to $1,500,000, depending upon the variations above mentioned and the length of time the project is under construction. The detached breakwater could be constructed of piles and mill edgings, with stone filling at the top, at a much less expense than by building in timber and stone on a pile foundation, if a method can be devised to secure the work while in process of construction. To this end I have devised a frame caisson for carrying edgings in raft in sections of 100 feet length, which I would prefer testing in shoaler water before applying the system to a work of so great depth as the one under consideration. I shall submit a project to this effect in a report upon another work to be rendered very shortly, and if the work in question is ordered will have ample opportunity to test the efficacy of this method before the time would arrive to begin the detached breakwater construction under the project herewith presented. Pile and edging construction has a record for standing a great deal of wear and tear at points as much exposed as the site of the proposed breakwater, and I do not see why it cannot be applied to advantage at this point when the mechanical difficulties and question of supply are solved. The breakwater in pile and edging construction would cost as follows: 2,000 linear feet, at $110 per linear foot.................. $220,000 1,000 linear feet, at $70 per linear foot................... 70,000 Total.............................. 290,000 10 per cent contingencies............................ 29,000 319,000 Which, substituted for the $951,500 estimate for the same work in timber and stone, would reduce the estimated cost of the entire project to $547,470, or about one-half. As, under the existing approved project of pier extension at Ludington Harbor, the south United States pier must be soon rapidly extended to head off the sand spit which is threatening the approach to the channel of entrance, in the event of the adoption of the project for a harbor of refuge, it would be well, while having the entire project in view, to hold the construction.of the detached breakwater in abeyance until the south breakwater was completed;.. ' _ _ ______ _ ------ -------------------------------------;-----------r I~

Page  [unnumbered] APý We H.A C T.thWr iLD TN IH LUDINGTON BOILER WORKS,THOS E.DAVIEs,PROP'R,LUDINGTON,MiGh.

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Page  47 IJ ' 1I HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. 47 and if, in the meanwhile, experiment in the cheaper pile and edging construction should show it to be available, by its adoption the total cost of the project would be reduced one-half, as above demonstrated. Should it be decided to construct the harbor of refuge at Ludington on the plan I propose, or any other plan involving the extension of the south United States pier, I should require for the first year $140,000 to enable me to build the first 700 feet, in order to throw out of consideration the threatened attack of sand from the southward, which, if permitted to advance and encroach in any large mass upon the channel of entrance to the interior harbor, would add an estimate for its removal or dispersion to the estimates I have already made. One hundred and forty thousand dollars is, therefore, my estimate for the first year's work; and the balance of the estimate for the south breakwater for the second year, in order to complete that work in two years. The detached breakwater could then be taken up, and built upon any plan and with such degree of annual progress as might be deemed advisable and Congress by appropriation might afford. I have the honor to be, General, very respectfully, your obedient servant, F. HARWOOD, Major of Engineers. The Chief of Engineers, U. S. A. LETTER OF COLLECTOR OF CUSTOMS AT LUDINGTON, MICH. LUDINGTON, MICH., February 8, 1882. DEAR SIR:--In compliance with your request that the citizens of this place forward to you an account of the wrecks on this shore and included between "Big and Little Point Sable," I have compiled the inclosed statement, giving names of vessels, value of vessels, value of cargoes, total loss, number of lives lost and where lost. In compiling my statement, I have been as careful as possible, gaining my information from my own books, the books of the lifesaving stations, and from the older citizens-reliable men. Some of the cargoes lost I could not ascertain the value of, so have left blank. Any other information required please let me know, and I will give it my personal and immediate attention. Hoping this may be of much service to you, and that our legislators may recognize the necessities of the proposed project, I remain, Major, very truly and sincerely yours, EUGENE ALLEN, Collector of Customs for the District of Michigan, To Maj. F. Harwood. City of Ludington. P. S.-Should some of the values prove incorrect, you will know that the account is as near as could be made. i 1 Year. 1848 1852 1854 1855 1855 1855 1855 1855 1855 1855 1855 1855 1855 1855 1855 1855 1855 1856 1857 1858 1858 1858 1860 1864 1865 1865 1865 1865 1866 1866 1866 1866 1867 1867 1869 1871 1872 1875 1875 1875 1875 1875 1879 1879 1879 1879 Name and denomination of vessel. Barge Neptune.......................... Schooner A cia Wilcox...................... Schooner Falchon.......................... Schooner Skinner*......................... Bark Samuel Strong*..................... Schooner J. B. W right*..................... Schooner A!mina...................... Schooner D ole*............................ Schooner Buckeye*.............0.......... Schooner W icks*......................... Schooner Pacific....................... Schooner Fashion..................... Schooner Cherokee*..................... Steamer Reindeer*..................... Schooner Helen Kent*................... Schooner Telegraph*....................... Steamer Amanda Howard*................. Propeller Mary Stewart*................ Schooner North Yuva*..................... Schooner Maria Cobb.................. Schooner Titon............................ Schooner Equator.......................... Schooner Garden City.................. Schooner H. N. Gates*..................... Schooner Lavant*.......................... Schooner Monsoon.................... Schooner G. F. Foster.................. Steamer (a Canadian).................. Schooner A. D. Fartior................. Brig A. H. Mitchell*................... Propeller Brockwell*................... Schooner Burnsides.................... Schooner Kate Doak*.................. Schooner Argo....................... Schooner Ben Flint*................... Schooner City of Boston*................... Schooner Jennie Lind.................. Bark Kate Bully*...................... Propeller City of Painesville*............... Schooner Thomas Mott................. Schooner Suvenier.................... Schooner Minnie Carlett................ Schooner A. O. Hanson................. Schooner Mercury..................... Tug Lamont........................ Schooner Gen. Grant.................. $35,000 20,000 10,500 25,500 12,000 12,000 10,500 15,500 10,300 10,500 15,000 12,800 35 500 10,500 20,000 15,000 20,000 15,000 30,000 25,000 7,500 25,500 9,500 11,000 11,000 12,000.......... 8,500 40,000 25,000 30,000 4,300 10,500 25.000 30,000 10,500 20,000 35,000 25,000 12,000 12,000 10,000 12,000 2,000 10,000 $35,000 15,000.......... 4,500 7,500 6,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 4300 4,500 6,000 6,000 25,000 3,500 20,o000 10,000 20,000 12,000 25,000 25,000 2,500 8,500 9,000 8,000 7,000 5,000,.......... 8,000 36,000 15,000 25,000 4,000 8,000 10,000 20,000 5,500 10,000 25,000 20,000 3,500 3,600 3,000 5,000 2,000 Where wrecked. oz - a $7000 I El $70,000 35,600 15,000 33,000 18,500 16,000 15,000 20,500 14,600 15,000 21,000 18,800 60,500 14,000 40 000 25,000 40,000 27,000 55,000 50,000 10,000 34,000 18,500 19,000 18,000 17,000 Unknown 16,500 76,000 40,000 55,000 8,300 18,500 35,000 50,000 16,000 30,000 60,000 45,000 15.500 15,600 13,000 17,000 2,000 12,000 Off Big Point Sable.................... 37 Off Ludington.......................... 4......d o.................................. Seven miles north of Ludington............. Off Ludington............................ 9......do................................ 12...... d o........................................ do........................................ d o........................................do....................................do.......................................do............................... North of Ludington....................... 10 Off Big Point Sable...................... 16......do................................. 1 Off Little Point Sable........................ d o............................... South of Ludington.............................do................................. 8 North of Ludington...................... 3 Off Ludington............................ Off Little Point Sable.................. South of Ludington....................... 12 miles south of Ludington............... Off Ludington................................. d o.................................. North of Ludington................ Off Hamlin...................... Off Ludington............................. 10 Off Little Point Sable................. Off Lincoln.............................. Off Big Point Sable.................... Off Ludington........................... 3......do............................ Off Big Point Sable....................I..........do............................. Off Ludington............................. North of Ludington.............................do............................ Off Ludington...................................do................................. 6 South of Ludington....................... North of Ludington........................ Off Ludington........................... 1 South of Ludington..................... 3......do.................................. 3 tUnknown. 4 *Indicates that vess l was total loss. Lk + f

Page  48 ^t. =^ 48 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. Year. 1879 1879 1879 1879 1880 1880 1880 1880 1881 1881 1881 t t t Name and denomination of vessel. Qm 03 0C) C 0 c Schooner G. P. Ward*.................... 6,00( Schooner Restless................................. Schooner Gen. Worth............................. Schooner Chas. Smith....................... 3,00( Propeller City of Toledo*................... 40,00C Schooner City of New York................. 15,00( Propeller Hilton........................ 20,00( Barge Rutter............................ 70,00( Schooner Thayer*......................... 40,00( Propeller Columbia*....................... 80,00( Schooner Win. Sturgis*.................... 10,00( Schooner Jefferson........................ 15,50( Schooner Frank Forest..................... 15,50( Schooner David Vance.......................... ~4 S 2,000...................... S 600 S 30,000 0.......... 0 4.500 0 60,000 0 7,500 0 35,000 0 8,000 Unknown Unknown 3,600 70,000.......... 24,500 130,000 47,500 115,000 10,000 25,500 25,500 I Where wrecked....... d o.................................... do,................................. do........................................do........................... North of Ludington..................... Off Ludington......................... South of Ludington..................... Off Ludington.......................... Off Sheboygan, Wis....................... North of Big Point Sable................. On beach at Ludington..................... Off Ludington......................... Off Big Point Sable................... Off Ludington........................... 16 4 S. 0 10,000 0 10,000 T otal............................... 1,073,90( ) 646,500 1,705,400. 146................................. i ~~~~~ ~ ~~~ *undicates that vessel was total loss. tUnknown. All the cargoes were total losses. The captain of the schooner Thayer, which went ashore at Siheb)ygan, Wis., siys that if there had been a harbor on the east shore of Lake Michigan he could have saved his vessel; as it was, he lost his vessel and cargo. THE FORD CASE. The most important law suit that has occurred in connection with the history of Ludington was the famous suit between George W. Ford and James Ludington, which was begun in 1869, and concluded in 1876. The issue involved the title to certain lands, which belonged to Ford prior to 1859, and which he claimed were not included in the conveyance to Ludington. The Pere Marquette Lumber Company, as the successor of James Ludington, at last effected a settlement by the payment of a certain amount of money. COUNTY OFFICERS. HON. DANIEL V. SAMUELS, prosecuting attorney for Mason County. The subject of this sketch furnishes a striking example of what is possible, in this country, for a young man who has the natural ability and requisite will-power, to carve out for himself honorable distinction, no matter how adverse may be the circumstances which surround him. Mr. Samuels was born in South Wales in 1856, and is, therefore, but little past twenty-six years of age at the present time. When fifteen years of age, in company with another lad, but little older than himself, he came to this country and began his struggle. His parents died when he was quite young, and he was in a new world, with no friends, and but a few dollars in money. He managed to reach Chicago, and there pawned his satchel to get money with which to reach Ludington. Arriving here, he eagerly set himself about finding work, and from 1871 to 1876, his pursuits took a wide range,-sometimes at work upon the railroad, then in the lumber woods, then driving delivery wagon in the city, but always engaged in some work that afforded an honorable living. In 1876, having acquired some education during the intervals of labor, he went to Missouri, and taught school and music for eleven months. At the end of that time he returned to Ludington with the problem of his future still unsolved. After his return, some of his friends among the lawyers of the city advised him to study law. The proposition impressed him favorably, and he at once entered the office of White & Haight as a student. He took hold of his studies with the same energy and determination that had characterized all his movements, and at the end of sixteen months passed a creditable examination, and was admitted to the bar, in 1879. The first year of his practice he was elected justice of the peace, and appointed police justice by the city council. In the Fall of that year he was elected prosecuting attorney for the county, an office which he still holds. Few young men have risen more rapidly and battled more successfully with adverse circumstances than Mr. Samuels, who, though yet but a young man, has already acquired marked distinction, both as a public speaker and lawyer. HON. JAMES B. MCMAHON, judge of probate. James B. McMahon was born in Manchester, Mich., April 17, 1848. His parents were farmers, and the early years of his life were spent at home. He assisted his father upon the farm, and his leisure hours were devoted to study. He early determined to secure an education, and all his energies were directed toward the accomplishment of that object. One or two Winters he taught school, and in 1871 entered the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. Here his studious habits were of great service to him, and he soon obtained a foremost rank as a scholar in all his classes. He was chosen editor of the University Chronicle, was class poet, and also chosen to deliver the class address at Commencement, all of which were honors to be highly prized. He graduated in the literary class of 1875, and later in the same year came to Ludington, where he read law, and in 1878 was admitted to practice. In the Fall of 1878, the late Hon. Samuel D. Haight was elected circuit judge, and Mr. McMahon succeeded him as law partner of Judge White. Although but thirty years of age, Mr. McMahon was a man of ripe judgment and scholarly attainments. He was always a close student, and possessed of natural qualities well adapted to the profession he had chosen, and soon took high rank as a successful lawyer, and, at the same time, gained his way to the confidence and esteem of the public. For several years he has held the office of United States court commissioner, and in the Fall of 1880 was elected to the office of judge of probate for Mason County. He is a man void of ostentation, but of dignified manner, and has made himself very popular with the people, in the discharge of his official duties. SEWALL MOULTON was born in Maine in 1827. At an early age he left home, and for several years led a wandering life, traveling through the Middle and Southern States. He finally went to Canada, and was in charge of a sawmill for a time. From Canada he went to Chicago with a lot of horses. After disposing of his horses in Chicago, he wanted to go into the woods, and came to Pere Marquette, where he arrived in the Spring of 1856. He first L _ e _ I.

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Page  49 2 eg -- ----Y L HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. 49 went to work for George W. Ford as foreman of the mill. He continued at lumbering in the employ of others for a time, and then engaged in business for himself. For about nine years he was very extensively engaged in lumbering and merchandising, at Pentwater. He was elected probate judge, and held the office a portion of one term, was deputy United States marshal, and during the war was deputy provost marshal and recruiting officer. He has been sheriff of the county since 1880. He was married in 1858 to Ellen M. Caswell, daughter of Burr Caswell. Mr. Moulton is a well preserved specimen of the ideal frontiersman. He is full six feet in height, of heavy build, and while he is courteous to all deserving of courtesy, is not a man that the average "rough" would be eager to molest. A little out of Ludington he has a large farm upon which he has recently planted a peach orchard of two thousand trees. Lucius E. HAWLEY, clerk and register of Mason County, was born in Litchfield County, Conn., in 1839. When seventeen years of age he left home and came West as far as Illinois. The breaking out of the rebellion stirred his New England blood, and in May, 1861, he enlisted at Sterling, Ill., with Company B, Thirteenth Illinois Infantry. At the close of his first term of service he re-enlisted as a veteran volunteer in Company I, Fifty-Sixth Illinois, and remained in the service until the close of the war. He was a good soldier and would have fought longer if there had been anybody left to fight. After returning from the war he came to Allegan County, where he remained until 1870, when he came to Mason County. The loss of his left arm in 1867, disabled him from many kinds of hard labor, and after coming to Mason County he taught school until 1874, when he was elected county superintendent of schools. His published reports while in that office, show that he thoroughly understood the needs of the district school. In 1876 he was elected to his present office by a good majority, and has held it continuously since that time. His administration of the duties of the office has been eminently satisfactory to the people of the county, and there is little doubt but that he will be continued through another term. BURNETT B. GIBSON was born in Grand Rapids, Mich., December 1-1, 1850. His father, Isaac Gibson, was a lawyer, and moved from Grand Rapids to Illinois, in 1857. Burnett remained with his parents and attended school until 1869, when he went to Effingham and began the study of law. In 1871 he went to Indiana and remained a year, and in May of 1872, he came to Ludington. In 1873 he was admitted to the bar and practiced law about a year. From the Fall of 1874 to 1876, he was engaged at various outside matters, and in August, 1876, was appointed deputy treasurer of the county. In 1881 he was elected county treasurer for a term of two years, and at the present time is discharging the duties of this office. Mr. Gibson is a man of varied accomplishments and has achieved an excellent reputation as a public officer. In the Summer of 1881 he built a fine residence on Lewis Street, a view of which is given upon another page in this work. LOGS, SAW-MILLS AND LUMBER. Twenty years ago the finest logging in all this state of pine, was to be found upon the very spot where Ludington now stands. It was this vast forest stretching far away in every direction that induced the building of the first mill at this point, in 1848. But in those early days there was no greed for pine lands, and it had not entered into the calculations of men that the supply would ever be exhausted. The forests were vast, while the sawmills with their primitive machinery made no perceptible inroads. It was not until 1869 that a general movement in the man ufacture of lumber began at this point. James Ludington had been operating his mill for ten years, and considerable logging had been done, but the mighty forests scarcely showed the trace of the woodman's axe. In 1870 it was estimated that the amount of pine on the Pere Marquette River would exceed 3,000,000,000 feet, and at that time the hardwood timber, so plentiful in Mason County, attracted but little attention. After James Ludington platted the village of Ludington and began to sound its advantages abroad, attention was directed to the great abundance of pine in this region and the superior advantbges of this point for manufacturing. The organization of the Pere Marquette Lumber Company was the starting point, and probably no one man had more to do with bringing about that organization than Hon. Luther H. Foster, whose tragic death occasioned a loss to the material interests of Ludington that was fully realized and deeply mourned. In order to present the lumbering operations and interests of Ludington as clearly, and in as comprehensive a form as possible, we give the history and descriptions of the' mills, beginning with THE PERE MARQUETTE LUMBER COMPANY. This company was organized July 24, 1869. The gentlemen composing the company were D. L. Filer, John Mason Loomis, James Ludington, Edward A. Foster, Luther H. Foster. The officers were: D. L. Filer, president; L. H. Foster, secretary; John Mason Loomis, treasurer. The capital stock was $500,000. The company purchased of James Ludington his entire property in Mason County, consisting of village lots, store and building, mills, and pine lands. The sale was an important event in the history of Ludington. The Milwaukee Wisconsin, speaking of the sale said: "It is known that our well known townsman, Mr. James Ludington, has built up on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan one of the finest lumbering interests, and one of the handsomest towns in that or any section. We learn to-day that Mr. Ludington has disposed of all this interest, for the sum of $500,000, to Mr. D. L. Filer, of Manistee, and his associates. The property consists of all the Ludington lumbering interests, the town of Ludington, timber lands, mills, etc., and the tract is twenty-five thousand acres in extent, embracing some of the best timber lands in the country. Since Mr. Ludington purchased the property he has improved and developed it wonderfully. A large town has sprung up, although laboring under many disadvantages, which time and energy have overcome. The new company will at once extend these improvements, as they have the ability, the energy and the money to do so. Mr. Filer is known as a man of means and business qualifications, and his associates are no less so. "The town of Ludington has grown rapidly, and there is everything to warrant an increase of this growth, even outside the inmpetus which the new company will give it. It is a harbor unexcelled and accessible at all times. Now there is ten feet of water up to the town, and the National Government is still spending a large amount for stili further improving this. New piers are being built and extended far out into the lake, so that all classes of lake vessels will be enabled to go in and out easily with full loads." The mill site upon which the company's mill stood was the starting-point of Ludington. In 1848 Messrs. Baird & Bean built a mill which was owned and operated by different parties, until it came into possession of James Ludington, in 1859. Mr. Ludington continued to develop his property, until failing health compelled him to retire from the cares of business. It was in the management of this vast business that Mr. Filer's great executive ability and clear judgment were exer 1l L J t- _ F-p

Page  50 4I'A 50 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY cised to the advantage of the company and of the place, and he was greatly aided by his business associates. In March, 1874, the old mill that had stood for twenty-six years, burned to the ground. The company rebuilt the large and valuable mill which is still running. This mill is 30x145 feet in size, with an engine and boilerroom 40x60 feet. The mill is a single circular, with gang edger, and has an annual capacity of 10,000,000 feet of lumber. In 1879, the city property belonging to the company was distributed among the stockholders, as required by the laws of the state. In August, 1876, Mr. Frank Filer was appointed secretary, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Mr. Foster. In January, 1878, he resigned, and Mr. F. J. Dowland, the present secretary, was elected. At that time Mr. Loomis was elected vice-president. In August, 1879. Mr. Loomis was elected president, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Mr. Filer. ThE present stockholders of the company are, John Mason Loomis, E. G. Filer, (trustee), Mrs. Mary M. Filer, Mrs. Lucy A. Foster, Jacob A. Staffon, F. J. Dowland, John P. McLaren. The present officers are: John Mason Loomis, president and treasurer; John McLaren, vice-president; F. J. Dowland, secretary. The company still owns the large store at the foot of Ludington Avenue, and a large amount of real estate. Its standing pine is estimated at 130,000,000, with about 10,000,000 logs on hand. The mill gives employment to about fifty men. The company do all their logging by contract. The business of the company is under the management of the secretary, F. J. Dowland, who has been connected with the business since 1866. Col. Loomis and Mr. McLaren are both residents of Chicago. THE DANAHER & MELENDY COMPANY. Patrick M. Danaher and David A. Melendy commenced business under the firm name of Danaher & Melendy, in 1869. Mr. Danaher had been a prominent contractor in connection with the large lumbering and mercantile business of James. Ludington, and Mr. Melendy was general manager of Mr. Ludington's business at this point. They purchased a mill-site on Lake Pere Marquette, near the head of the inner lake, and in what is now the Fourth Ward. The old mill, afterward burned, on the site of the Pere Marquette Lumber Company's present mill, was the only one here at that time. Their mill-site was at the water-edge of a pine forest that covered the entire area of the Fourth Ward. In the fall of 1869 they began the erection of a steam sawmill, which was completed and commenced running in June, 1870. The main part of the mill rested upon a solid foundation made of piles driven closely together. This part of the mill was 45x110 feet, 13 feet between the two first floors and 91- feet between the second. The mill was equipped with two double rotary saws, with gang edgers, log-turners and automatic rollers. There were also two lath saws, and a saw-dust feeder. The mill was what is termed a " friction mill," and at that time there was great doubt about a friction mill being a success. The cost of the mill, including site, was about $35,000. The firm also built a boarding-house, at a cost of $4,000, a large warehouse near the mill, and a store building in the village. The boarding-house stood on the corner where J. V. Henry's office now stands, and was burned in 1874. The mill started up in June, giving employment to about fifty-five men, and sawed that year, on contract for E. B. Ward, about 16,000,000. During 1869-70, the firm purchased a large quantity of pine lands in Mason, Lake, and Newaygo Counties, and since that time have manufactured mostly their own stock. The original capacity of the mill was about 75,000 feet of lumber in twelve hours, but by the addition of improved machinery, and a more powerful engine, its capacity has been increased to 125,000 feet in twelve hours. In August, 1876, the firm deemed it advisable to organize a stock company, and the original firm, with James E. Danaher, organized the Danaher & Melendy Company. Owing to the low price of lumber, and losses in logging, the corporation was forced into bankruptcy in July, 1877. Mr. George N. Stray was appointed trustee, and the business was continued under his management until October, 1881, when the creditors were paid and the company reorganized, with P. M. Danaher, president; James E. Danaher, vice-president; George N. Stray, secretary; John Mason Loomis, treasurer. The company has a paid up capital of $238,000, and is in a flourishing condition. They still have about 8,000 acres of uncut pine in Mason, Lake and Newaygo Counties, estimated to cut 80,000,000 feet. Since their mill started in 1870, it has cut 263,000,000 feet of lumber, and is now cutting from 22,000,000 to 24,000,000 feet a year. THE " WARD" LUMBERING INTERESTS. The name of Capt. E. B. Ward was long familiar in all parts of the country. He was born in Canada in 1811. Soon after his birth his parents returned to Vermont, their native state, and remained there until Eber was six years old. In 1817 his parents started for Kentucky, but while in Pennsylvania his mother sickened and died. This event caused his father to change his plans, and they went to Ohio, and later to Detroit, which place they reached in 1821. At twelve years of age Eber obtained a situation as cabin boy on a small schooner on the lakes, and from that time he followed the lakes until long after he was the owner of a handsome fortune. He advanced gradually until he was in charge of a vessel, then to own one, and finally became the owner of a very large amount of vessel property. At the time of his death, in Jan. 1875, he owned a large amount of stock in the Chicago Rolling Mill, the Milwaukee Rolling Mill, about $2,000,000 in real estate, $500,000 worth of floating property, all accumulated through his own energy and sagacity. As early as 1852 he acquired possession of large tracts of timber lands on the Pere Marquette River. These lands were held by him awaiting the time when the development of this northern country would render the timber available. In 1869 he was president of the Flint and Pere Marquette Railroad Company, and interested himself very actively in securing an extension of that road to Ludington. At that time he was carrying on logging operations through his agents, and a little later purchased a tract of land on Lake Pere Marquette, and in what is now the Fourth Ward of the city, for a mill-site. From the very first Capt. Ward had unbounded faith in the future of Ludington, and earnestly advocated the establishment of iron mills and other manufacturing interests. At this time he owned at least 70,000 acres of pine lands accessible from this point, and in the Spring of 1870 the initiatory steps were taken in building up the business which has since grown to such mammoth proportions. Mr. J. B. Bean was installed here as manager of Capt. Ward's operations at this point, and during the season of 1870 the mill now known as the "North" mill was built. All that part of the town where the mill stands was dense forest, and there were not many indications that within so short a time as twelve years it would be transformed into a populous and busy ward of a thriving city. The mill was located well out into the lake, and rested upon fifty-five stone piers. These piers were placed on clumps of spiles driven closely together, cut off twenty inches under water, and capped with heavy plank. The foundation of the gangs was solid stone masonry, resting upon spiles with stone filled in between them. The size of the mill was 50x130 feet. The roof was tightly boarded and covered with shingle bedded in mortar. The engine r -8 ~2---~--~-~--------

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Page  51 54 -(3 ^ -d HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. 51 I was twenty-six inches in diameter, with thirty-four inches stroke. There were five boilers four feet in diameter and twenty feet long. The smoke stack was ninety feet high and sixty-four inches in diameter. The mill was equipped with two circular mills, two gang edgers and all the most recent improvements. It had complete facilities for extinguishing fire, and for lighting the mill at night. The docks about the mill were built on spiles and heavily planked. The cost of the mill was estimated at $60,000, and had a capacity of 100,000 feet per day. In the Spring of 1871 Capt. Ward purchased all the land lying between his mill and that of Messrs. Danaher & Melendy, which bordered on the lake. This purchase was made with a view of making more extensive improvements along that part of the lake, including the erection of another large saw-mill. During that season a warehouse 50x120 feet in size was built near the mill, which was used for storing supplies. It was in this building that the business of selling goods to employes was first inaugurated. The following season the mill since known as the "South" mill was built, and was considered the finest sawmill in the United States. Mr. M. D. Ward, a son of Capt. Ward, came to Ludington about this time and took charge of the construction of the mill. A solid foundation of masonry was built upon spiles driven firmly in the lake and cut several feet below the water. The size of the main building was 56x160 feet, covered by a shingle roof laid in mortar and covered with fire-proof paint. The roof was surmounted by a cupola eighteen feet in diameter, which furnished light for the filing-room underneath. The engine and boiler-room was built of brick, and was 554x71 feet in size. The circular smoke stack was also constructed of brick, fourteen feet in diameter at the base and 125 in height, with a seventy-inch flue, and rested upon a stone foundation twenty feet in diameter. The mill was run with a double circular sixty-inch saw, and a single circular sixtyinch saw, a gang of forty-two saws, two large gang edgers with four saws each, and a gang lath mill with two bolters. The foundation of the gangs was constructed of stone, and the same as that in the North mill. The gang bed-plate and frame weighed sixteen tons, and the speed of the saw was 180 revolutions per minute. The circulars were run by friction pulleys with thirtyinch face. The rollers throughout the mill were of iron. Immediately under the cupola was a platform 30x42 feet, used as a filingroom. The power for running this machinery was supplied by seven boilers, each twenty feet in length and forty-eight inches in diameter. The water for the boilers was supplied from an iron tank having a capacity of 600 barrels. The capacity of the mill was about 22,000,000 feet for the season. The mill cost about $125,000, and started up about the first of October, 1872. In the Summer of this year Mr. Bean was obliged to resign his position on account of ill-health. He was succeeded by Mr. John S. Woodruff, who continued as manager until Capt. Ward's death, and was then agent and manager for the estate until the reorganization in 1878. The business office was first in a small building near the Pere Marquette Company's store, but in the latter part of 1871 an office building was built near the North mill. In 1872 six cottages and a boarding-house were built for the convenience of the North mill. The boarding-house is a three-story building, 60x110 feet in size, and cost, when furnished, about $7,000. The next year five more cottages were built near the South mill, and an engine-house and cottage near the North mill. Immediately after the warehouse was burned, in 1871, another large building was erected which was used as a warehouse and store. Both the mills were built some distance out in the lake, and the intervening space was filled in with edgings and waste. About 17,000 cords of edgings were used in extending docks into the lake, and about fifteen acres of the ground now occupied by the mills have been made by the deposits from the mills. Some time after the North mill started up, Mr. Woodruff made a contract with the city to furnish saw-dust for the streets, and from that mill alone was hauled and spread on the streets fifty-six cubic yards of saw-dust per day. In 1879 two burners, one for each mill, were built, costing $5,000 each. In 1880 a shingle mill was built near the North mill. The size of the main building is 40x50 feet, with a boiler and engine-room 30x40 feet, the whole covered with iron. The cost of the mill was $12,000, with a daily capacity of 225,000 shingle. The mill commenced running September, 1880. Capt. Ward died in 1875, and the business continued in the name of Catharine L. Ward, his widow, until May, 1878. At that time the business passed into the hands of Catharine L. Ward, John B. Lyon and Thomas R. Lyon, and has been conducted under the name of " Thomas R. Lyon, Agent." With this reorganization the entire management passed to Thomas R. Lyon, and Mr. Woodruff remained in charge of certain departments of the business. In 1880 Mr. Lyon built a railroad in Lake County, and equipped it with two locomotives and thirty cars for the use of his logging operations. There are seven miles of track, and on this road the logs from that region are brought to the river at a point about sixteen miles from the mills. The present year a handsome brick block has been built on Washington Avenue for the use of the business. The block is 50x132 feet in size, two stories high, and divided into two stores, with an elegant suite of office rooms in the rear. The stores are a part of the general business. The company own three scows, capable of carrying 700,000 feet of lumber each, two schooners, with a capacity of 250,000 feet of lumber, and a tug used in towing the scows. The mills and business connected with them in the Fourth Ward occupy about forty acres of ground, with a lake front of more than half a mile. They have also a large lumber yard in Chicago. It is estimated that the two mills have cut, since first started, about 420,000,000 feet of lumber, and are now cutting at the rate of about 50,000,000 a year. The company own 50,000 acres of standing pine within fifty miles of Ludington, estimated to cut 600,000,000 feet of lumber, and new purchases are being made as rapidly as possible. The business, in all departments of its vast operations, gives employment to 1,000 men, nearly all of whom contribute, more or less, to the business of Ludington. CARTIER & FILER. During the season of 1872 the firm of Vahue, Hustis & Co., of which D. L. Filer was an important part, built a mill on the south side of Pere Marquette Lake. The main mill was 32x92 feet, with a boiler-room 32x48. The mill contained one double rotary, a gang edger and a lath machine. The daily capacity was 50,000 feet of lumber and 20,000 lath. The cost of the mill was about $25,000. Since 1878 the mill has been owned by Cartier & Filer. They have added many new improvements to the mill in way of facilities for fire protection, machinery, etc. The mill is lighted at night with electric light. An average of twenty-eight men are employed in operating the mill. The firm own about 80,000,000 feet of standing pine, and are cutting lumber at the rate of about 10,000,000 a year. GEORGE W. ROBY LUMBER COMPANY. In 1871 George W. Roby came to Ludington from Ohio. Pleased with the general outlook, he decided to locate here permanently, and engage in the manufacture of lumber. The firm of George W. Roby & Co. was organized, being composed of George W. Roby, Nelson Rush and the heirs of Samuel Galloway. A mill site was -q, CA -

Page  52 DL- ~ 52 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. i---- purchased on Pere Marquette Lake, and a mill erected during the season of 1872. The size of the mill was 50x130 feet, besides engine and boiler-room, which was built of brick. There were five large boilers, and an engine of thirty-two-inch stroke. The mill contained a single circular, one double rotary, a gang and two gang edgers, with a capacity of 125,000 feet a day. The mill was built well out in the lake, but deposits of saw-dust and edgings have since that time filled up the space between the mill and the bank of the lake. At that time the firm owned about 140,000,000 of standing pine, and had between 60,000,000 and 70,000,000 logs on hand, when the mill started up-early in 1873. A large building was erected which has since been used as the company's store and office. James Crowly was in charge of the mill when it started, and for some time afterward. At the time the store and office building was built, there were only the Danaher & Melendy mill and one house in that part of what is now the Fourth Ward. The cost of the mill was about $75,000. Between sixty and seventy-five men have been employed in and about the mill. January 1, 1882, a stock company was organized under the name of The George W. Roby Lumber Company. The officers are George W. Roby, president; Nelson Rush, of Chicago, vice-president; L. C. Waldo, secretary; J. B. Roby, treasurer. The business of the firm, and also of the company, has been very successfully managed and has prospered. The company owns large tracts of pine in Oceana, Lake and Newaygo Counties. The mill has cut since it first started about 130,000,000 feet of lumber, and the company own about 150,000,000 feet of standing pine. THE TAYLOR MILL. In 1872 the firm of Sweet & Bean built a mill on the south side of the lake. The main building was 36x120 feet. It was supplied with three boilers eighteen feet by forty-two inches, engine eighteen by twenty-four inches. It had a double rotary and a gang edger, with a daily capacity of 50,000 feet. The cost of the mill was $25,000. In 1873 0. N. Taylor purchased a half-interest in the mill, and in 1880 purchased the remaining interest of Mr. Sweet. Mr. Taylor now runs the mill and does chiefly custom work. ALLEN & GOODSELL have completed the present season a first-class sawmill, which started up in July. This mill is a double circular, and has a capacity of 16,000,000 per season. The mill is situated in the Third Ward. E. A. FOSTER & CO. operated until recently a large shinglemill in the Fourth Ward, which employs nearly forty men, and has a yearly capacity of 36,000,000. The mill was built in 1877, and has been in successful operation since that time. The mill has lately been sold to T. R. Lyon, and is now operated by him. DANAHER & CARTIER built their present shinglemill in 1880, on the site of the one burned. The daily capacity of their mill is 250,000. SMITH & FOLEY are proprietors of the shinglemill in the Fourth Ward, built by Horace Butters & Co. They employ about twenty-five men and manufacture 25,000,000 shingle in a season. THE PERE MARQUETTE BOOM COMPANY. This company was incorporated March 20, 1872, under the title of the "The Ludington Boom Company." The first directors wereD. L. Filer, L. H. Foster, E. B. Ward, M. D. Ward, George W. Roby, P. M., Danaher and J. B. Beane. D. L. Filer was president, and J. B. Beane secretary. D. L. Filer and E. B. Ward had purchased ground along the margin of the river, for which $25,000 was paid. They afterward sold shares to other parties who became members of the company. In November, 1872, the name was changed to The Pere Marquette Boom Company, and John S. Woodruff was elected secretary and treasurer. At the meeting in February, 1876, P. M. Danaher was elected president, and served for one year, and the next year Mr. Filer was again elected. Mr. Woodruff was secretary and treasurer until the January meeting in 1882, when he declined a re-election, and Louis Ward was elected to succeed him. In February, 1880, Frederick J. Dowland was elected president, and still holds the office. The first contract for driving the river for five years was given to Gibbs, Foley & Butler. Gibbs & Maxim had the first contract for assorting, towing and delivering logs. In 1877 Dempsey & Cartier had the contract for all the work. At the expiration of their contract the company commenced doing work under the direction of a superintendent. The present officers are as follows: President, F. J. Dowland; secretary and treasurer, Louis Ward; superintendent, Louis Ward. Directors: George W. Roby, T. R. Lyon, F. J. Dowland, Frank Filer, James E. Danaher, Louis Ward and John S. Woodruff. The property of the company at the present time is valued at upwards of $100,000. PERSONAL SKETCHES We give below brief biographical sketches of some of the men connected with the various sawmills at Ludington. PERE MARQUETTE LUMBER COMPANY. AUGUSTus E. SMITH, foreman of the Pere Marquette mill, Ludington, came here in 1872 from Manistee. Ile was born in Maine, in 1837, and came to Michigan in 1847. For a time after coming to Ludington he was saw-filer in the mill, but in 1877 was made foreman, which position he still holds. Mr. Smith is a prominent member of the Odd Fellows and Knights of Honor, and is one of the substantial citizens of the place. EDMUND H. FoGa is one of the old settlers of Ludington, having settled here in 1866. He was born in New Hampshire in 1834, and learned the millwright trade at an early age. In 1866 he came to Ludington as millwright for James Ludington. In 1876 he took the position of saw-filer at the mill of the Pere Marquette Lumber Company, which position he still holds. Mr. Fogg is one of the original members of the Odd Fellows Lodge, and is properly a member of the Pioneer Corps of Ludington. CASSIUS M. BENTLEY, engineer at the mill of the Pere Marquette Lumber Company, is a native of Ohio. In 1880 he came to Ludington. For a time he was an engineer at Smith's planing mill, and in the Spring of 1882 changed to his present place. He has been engineer and machinist since 1867, and is very competent in both branches. CARTIER & FILER. PATRICK C. EASTMAN is a native of Canada, and came to the States in 1865. He first located at Flint, Mich., where he worked in the mills, and from there went into the employ of Cutler & Say idge, at Spring Lake. In 1872 he came to Ludington, and for the past six years has been in the Filer mill, and since the Spring of 1880 has been foreman of the mill. He has been employed in and about lumber mills ever since he was fifteen years of age. DAVID M. THOMPSON is a native of Scotland, and came to this 11I 1 pz 6 K.096.---4 -.~ 0

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Page  53 4 - HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. 53 country with his parents while a small child. When twelve years of age he began to work about lumber mills. For some time he was employed at Reed City, and in 1879 came to Ludington, and was employed at the Filer mill. In 1881 he was assistant engineer, and since that time has been engineer of the mill. DANAHER & MELENDY. JOHN P. RASMUSSEN is a native of Denmark, and came to this country in 1879. Soon after landing in this country he came to Ludington and went to work at his trade, blacksmithing. In the Spring of 1882 he was engaged as blacksmith at the mill of the Danaher & Melendy Company, where he is still at work. JOSEPH PAQUETTE is a native of Canada, and came to the States in 1868. After spending six months in Milwaukee he went to Muskegon, where he worked at his trade as machinist. In 1870 he came to Ludington and worked at his trade. In the Spring of 1882 he went with the Danaher & Melendy Company, as engineer at their mill, and is still in that position. GEORGE W. ROBY LUMBER COMPANY. ROBERT J. COMPTON came to Ludington in 1875, from Ottawa County, Mich. He is a native of New York State, and came to Ottawa County in 1855. In May, 1861, he enlisted at Grand Rapids in the Third Michigan Infantry and served in the war until 1864, when he returned to Ottawa County. In 1875 he came to Ludington and engaged at farming and lumbering until 1878, when he took the position of yard foreman at the mill of the George W. Roby Lumber Company, and still continues in that place. JOSEPH WHITE, blacksmith at the mill of the George W. Roby Lumber Company, Ludington, is a native of Canada, and came to the States in 1852. He served in the navy from 1862 to 1864. In 1871 he came to Ludington from Chicago, and when the Roby mill was built, in 1872, he entered the employ of that company, and has remained there ever since. Mr. White is one of the veterans in the service. T. R. LYON AGENT. MICHAEL A. NEILAN is a native of Canada, and came to Ludington in 1874. For several years he scaled logs and was in the employ of the Ward estate, then operated under the name of Catharine L. Ward. In 1879 he was put in charge of all the logging of this vast lumber concern, and at the present time continues in the management of all the logging business of the firm. JAMES CROWLY is a native of Wisconsin, and came to Ludington in 1870. He has always been engaged in and about lumber mills and for a time was with George W. Roby & Co. In 1879 he went into the employ of Thomas R. Lyon, Agent, and is at present foreman of the North mill. Mr. Crowly is also the senior member of the firm of Crowly & Scott, at Sweetland. This firm dates from 1879, and owns a sawmill, store and hotel at Sweetland, and does an extensive business. F. D. NASON, saw-filer at the South mill of T. R. Lyon, Agent, is a native of Maine. He served in the army from 1862 to the close of the war in 1865, and was in prison five months during that time. After the close of the war he went to Saginaw, where he remained until 1876, when he came to Ludington and took the place he now holds. Mr. Nason has been filing for nearly twenty years. JOHN F. TRACY is a native of the State of Maine. He served in the war with the Thirty-second Wisconsin Infantry from the Fall of 1863 to 1865. At the close of the war he went to Minneapolis, where he remained until 1876, when he came to Ludington, and at first ran a gang in the South mill. In 1877 he took charge of the saws as filer, in which capacity he still continues. Mr. Tracy is a member of the Odd Fellows Order, and is very efficient in his business. WILLIAM H. BUSH is a native of Canada, and came to the States in 1861. He was in the war with the Forty-eighth Wisconsin Infantry from 1864 until the close of the war in 1865. Upon coming out of the army he came to Ludington and was engaged in the mills as engineer. He helped build the South mill now belonging to T. R. Lyon, Agent, and has been engineer there ever since it started up, in 1872. Mr. Bush is one of the early settlers here, and is about to leave mill work for the farm. HIRAM BARNETT is a native of Wisconsin, and is a machinist by trade. He was engineer in lumber mills in Wisconsin for five seasons, and in 1876 came to Ludington and entered the employ of T. R. Lyon, Agent. For a time he was watchman about the mills and afterward was fireman at the North mill. Last Spring he was given the position of engineer at the shingle mill, where he still continues. A. G. SPENCER is a native of the state of New York. He enlisted in 1861 with the Twenty-third New York Infantry, and served until the close of the war in 1865. In 1867 he went to Manistee, where he remained until 1872, when he came to Ludington to take the position of foreman of the South mill, belonging to Catharine L. Ward, and continues in that position at the present time. Mr. Spencer has been connected with lumber mills all his life, and is a very competent man. FLOYD WHITE is a native of Pennsylvania, and came to Ludington in the Spring of 1872. He followed blacksmithing most of the time until last Spring, when he went in the employ of T. R. Lyon, Agent, as saw-filer at the South mill. Mr. White was engaged at filing in Indiana before coming to Ludington. J. M. FARRELL is a native of New Brunswick. In 1857 he went to Wisconsin and lived in Oshkosh about ten years. From there he went to Marinette, Wis., where he remained for a time, and then went to Manistee. In 1879 he came to Ludington and engaged as millwright at the South mill of T. R. Lyon, Agent. Mr. Farrell has been following his trade for many years, and is a skilful workman. EARLY LOGGING. Logging in the early days was nothing more or less than "slashing." The choicest trees were taken, and no notice taken of any others. The vastness of the supply made it seemingly inexhaustible. After these slashings came the fires sweeping through the forests, and to-day there are thousands of acres covered with dead pine, all of which might have been saved had it been taken care of. Millions of dollars worth of pine in this part of Michigan has been allowed to become worthless. The sight of these broad tracts of noble trees, now worthless for lumbering purposes, makes the heart of the lumberman ache as he thinks of the vast wealth that might have been preserved with a little care. They are monuments of the improvidence of the early days. These now worthless tracts of pine, had they been cared for, would now afford the choicest logging to be found anywhere. Passing along its shores around the lake of historic name, one is able to understand the mighty power that has been driving the wheels of Ludington's prosperity in the past, and will continue to do so in years to come. The procession of mighty vessels moving out the harbor laden with lumber day after day seems never to lessen the gigantic piles of lumber that throng the docks. These mills have already cut at least 1,500,000,000 feet of lumber, and are cut ting at the rate of 120,000,000 feet a year. The amount of standing pine now owned by the lumber manufacturers is estimated at 1,100,000,000 feet, and new purchases are continually being made. The amount owned by the mill owners is not more than one-half the amount of standing pine accessible from Ludington. The sawmill owners are for the most part enterprising and public r

Page  54 q - 4 4 54 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. spirited. Their business is made to contribute as much as possible to the growth and prosperity of the city. They encourage the introduction of other manufacturing interests. With proper management the sawmills of Ludington may be kept running for twenty years to come, a fact which can not fail to advance all the material interests of the city. FLINT AND PERE MARQUETTE RAILROAD. This road was completed to Ludington in the Fall of 1874, and the first passenger train arrived here December 6th of that year. The company owns a dock front of about 2,500 feet, and in 1877 built an elevator with a capacity of 75,000 bushels. The company's buildings here consist of a depot, elevator, round-house and warehouse. Two elegant steamboats have been completed the present season and are running between Ludington and Milwaukee in connection with the trains. The passenger business at this point amounts to about $35,000 a year. The Manistee branch, extending from Manistee Junction, near Tallman, to Manistee, was completed in December, 1881. UNITED STATES LIFE SAVING STATION. In November, 1879, the Life Saving Station at this point was completed and Capt. J. J. Brown placed in charge. The station is a neat two-story structure, and everything about it is kept neat as wax-work. The situation of the station, however, shows a reprehensible degree of ignorance, or a stupendous blunder on the part of whoever had charge of its location. Instead of being at a convenient point, it is situated on Pere Marquette Lake, several rods below the channel, thus necessitating a long row before Lake Michigan is reached. In 1880 there was a crew of six men. The crew was increased to seven in 1881, and to eight men in 1882. All members of the crew are of the same rank, but are designated by numbers. The present crew is as follows: J. J. Brown, Captain; Jesse T. Brown, No. 1; Henry W. Beaupre, No. 2; Charles Lufts, No. 3; William Lufts, No. 4; William Wishart, No. 5; Daniel D: Ludwig, No. 6; Van B. Ludwig, No. 7; John Stram, No. 8. Of these, Jesse T. Brown, Henry W. Beaupre and John Stram belonged to the original crew of 1880. The station is what is called a "Complete Station," and is equipped with a self-bailing and self-righting boat, one Long Branch surf boat, a life car, and beach apparatus. The station has assisted six wrecks since it was established, three in 1879, two in 1880 and one in 1881. Capt. J. J. Brown, who has charge of the station, was born at Sheboygan, Wis., in 1844. In 1861 he went to Chicago, and from there followed sailing on the lake for several years. In 1877 he returned to Sheboygan and remained there until coming here in 1879. He is a courteous gentleman and a brave, competent officer. Jesse T. Brown, No. 1, surfman, is a brother of Capt. Brown, and was born in Sheboygan, Wis., in 1841. At sixteen years of age he began sailing on the lakes and continued at that until 1862, when he enlisted in Company M. Fourteenth Illinois Cavalry, and was in the service until the close of the war. After returning North he sailed the lakes until 1880, when he came to Ludington and has been continued in the Life Saving Service since that time. THE GREAT FIRE OF 1881. Saturday, June 11th, 1881, the city of Ludington was visited by a destructive fire that, in the space of a few hours, wiped out of existence nearly one hundred buildings, and destroyed property mounting in value to about $200,000. The total insurance on the property destroyed was about $95,000. A very full account of the fire was published in the columns of the Ludington Democrat, and we quote from its columns: " The fire originated under the bakery building situated on West Loomis Street opposite the site of the old Marshall House. It was first discovered about fifteen minutes to 12 o'clock, and the alarm was given at once. Flames burst from under the bakery building, between it and the Eberle building, and within a few minutes both structures were in flames. The wind was brisk from the southward, and during the afternoon veered to the southwest. The hand fire-engine was placed in position and two streams of water were thrown to check, if possible, the rapid progress of the flames. The fire was either caused by the careless stub of a cigar, or it was the work of an incendiary. Both these theories have earnest believers. "At one time the fire seemed to be under control when it was confined to the building under which it originated, but the bursting of the hose delayed the work of the engine, and during the interval the fire gained sufficient headway to defy all attempts to check its progress. The flames rapidly devoured the buildings located on the rear alley, and also those on either side. The wind seemed to freshen to a gale, and flying cinders communicated destruction to the old school buildings on the corner of Ludington Avenue and James Street, and to the frame buildings located on South Charles Street. By this time the utmost confusion prevailed, hurrying to and fro were the many occupants of the buildings in range of the fire on the avenue, and all with the intent of saving what little property they could. The heavy column of smoke darkened the sky and blinded the buildings in its wake from people a block distant. The flames communicated to Kuhli's barber shop, on the east side of South James Street; and also to the Ludington Record building on the same street. They also leaped across South Charles Street, and in an instant Ewing's carriage warehouse was in flames. From the Ewing warehouse the Alexander brick block caught on fire, and with its contents was entirely destroyed. The Ewing carriage factory,, west of the Alexander Block, caught on fire, and destruction spread to Robert Street, burning the residences of Mr. Lafayette Bennett and Mr. D. Abair, together with a greater portion of their contents. Fire was communicated to the barns and buildings on the alley, and to the Holmquist undertaking establishment, where it was finally checked on that block by the united effort of a large force of men and one stream from the engine. On the east side of James Street Clayton's brick block, with its contents, was entirely destroyed. Stout's furniture ware-rooms and every building on the entire block, with the exception of the David Wilson brick block, the Demme market, and two small residences located on the extreme southeast corner, near the M. E. Church, were burned to the ground. The engine house and council room, on North Charles Street, was destroyed; also every building on the block fronting on Ludington Avenue and lying between North Charles and North James Streets, except the brick stores of Cartier & Filer, B. J. Goodsell & Co., George N. Stray and W. C. Starr, and the frame residences of Mrs. James Thompson and Mr. Wm. Allen. Every building on the block facing Ludington Avenue, and lying between North James and North Harrison Streets was destroyed, including Temperance Hall, the Congregational Church and the M. E. parsonage. The flames spread east of South Harrison street and burned Gebhardt's brick building to the ground, and running north burned the Episcopal church and parsonage, and on the west side of North Harrison, and north of Court Street, the residences of Mr. Thomas G. Bishop, Mr. John Davidson and Mr. Frank Stevens were destroyed, with nearly their entire contents. The fire was at last got under control by the exertion of almost superhuman efforts on the part of the people. Several buildings were saved A -I,) V. c: I rza

Page  55 SIr ~~ H ISTORY OF MASON COUNTY 55 V - a, p a: a e from destruction by the utmost exertions, among them the Presbyterian church, the residence of Mr. J. A. Gebhardt, the stores of Cartier & Filer, B. J. Goodsell & Co., George N. Stray and W. C. Starr, the shoe store of Mr. D. W. Goodenough, the Fayette Johnson block (in which is located the Democrat office), the Ennis house, the residence of Mrs. James Thompson and the residence of Mr. H. M. Newcomb. The fire was placed under control about half-past five o'clock, and the scene of destruction was, to the citizens of Ludington, as the scenes in Chicago after the great fire of 1871 were to the average citizen of that city. "SCENES AFTER THE FIRE. "As the smoke rolled away and unveiled the burned district and its surroundings, the utmost confusion prevailed. Every vacant lot in the vicinity of the fire for blocks around, was covered with reimnants of some mercantile stock, or the household furniture of some unfortunate. Wearing apparel and cooking utensils were scattered in confusion, and groups of men, women and children, who had been driven from their homes by the fire demon, were guarding what little effects they had saved from their late homes. The walls of burned buildings were adding their might to the din of confusion, as one after another gave away and tumbled to the ground with a crash. Heaps of half-burned furniture and household goods were scattered through the streets in every direction, and as night threw its sable mantle o'er the earth, teams, carts, and conveyances of all kinds were busily employed in conveying the remnants saved from the fire to some friendly shelter. A friendly hand was extended to all, and by 8 o'clock in the evening a greater portion of the saved was under shelter, and the owners lodged in some residence of a friend or acquaintance. "During the conflagration, and while the property of many of our citizens was being destroyed or removed to some place of safety, the thief was abroad in the land, and goods of all kinds were stolen and secreted by men and boys, whose names should grace the register of Jackson state's prison or the house of correction. In a very few instances arrests were made, and the guilty party dealt with according to law. We are informed that several arrests will be made, during the next few days, of parties known to have stolen goods in their possession. We hope that every man guilty of such a debased act will be ferreted out, and justice dealt out to him as he deserves. "WORK OF REBUILDING. "Our reporter visited nearly all of the land owners of the burned district, and has ascertained that the better class of buildings will be rebuilt at once if proper protection from fire is guaranteed by the city. Mr. H. F. Alexander will either rebuild his store or a fine office for the use of the Western Union Telegraph Company and the American Express Company. Hon. P. M. Danaher will rebuild the large brick store occupied by Adam Drach & Co., and will, in the coming Spring, rebuild on the corner of Ludington Avenue and Charles Street. Messrs. White & Foster will probably rebuild the brick block on the corner of Ludington Avenue and North James Street. Mr. George W. Clayton will build on the corner of Ludington Avenue and James Street five bricikstores; one of them will front on the avenue and four on James Street. These stores will probably be built three stories in height. Mr. T. G. Bishop will rebuild his residence and barn on the corner of North Harrison and West Court Streets. The Congregational Church society held a meeting at the residence of Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. Resseguie Monday evening, and voted to rebuild their church at once. A building committee was appointed, and a church larger than the old one will be erected. The Episcopalian Church society will also rebuild. John A. Gebhardt has purchased a building on James Street, and is moving the same onto his lot on the avenue for temporary purposes, until he can have time to again build on the site of his brick block. Mr. C. G. Wing has already up and enclosed, a small barn, situated on his lot, known as the Slater lot, fronting on the avenue, and will use the same for an office until he has time to erect a fire proof building on the same lot fronting on the avenue. Mr. John Fannon had his brick and other material on the site of his old building Monday morning, and his brick foundation is already completed and ready for the superstructure. Messrs. Williams & Wheeler have the material on the ground for a two-story brick veneered building, which they will build on their lot lately purchased of David Wilson. The lot is situated just south of R. M. Garrett's shoe store, on South James Street. Mr. J. N. Foster has the material on the ground for a new residence on the site of the old one, and by Saturday night will have it enclosed. Mr. Herman Kuhli will probably build a two-story brick on the site of his South James Street barber shop. Messrs. Darr, Sawyer & McMaster, proprietors of the Ludington Record, will erect a fire proof building on South James Street. "Mr. David Wilson will build a fine brick store two stories in height on his lots on South James Street. Mr. H. Voigt will probably build a two-story brick store building on his lot on the avenue. Mr. Frank Stevens wishes to sell a part of his avenue lot, and build a two-story brick on the balance of his lot. Mr. William A. Kiesewalter will rebuild his building on the avenue. Mr. B. J. Goodsell will erect four brick stores, two fronting on the avenue and two on South Charles Street. "LOCATION OF FIRMS BURNED OUT. " The office of the Western Union Telegraph Company is now located in the office of George N. Stray, in the rear of the store. Messrs. Williams & Wheeler have taken up an office in the store of H. H. Shackelton, on South James Street. Hon. Isaac Gibson has taken an office in the basement of Goodenough's shoe store. Mr. C. L. Tripp has established himself in the James Thompson building on North Charles Street. Messrs. F. W. Andrew & Co. have moved the remnants of their stock into the store just east of Newcomb's office on the avenue. Messrs. Wheeler and Bishop have rented the H. M. Newcomb office on the avenue. The proprietors of the Ludington Record have taken up their office with the Democrat, in the basement of the Johnson block. Mr. D. V. Samuels has taken an office in the second story of the Cartier & Filer block. Messrs. White & McMahon have taken up an office in the same building. Mr. William Heysett has started a new store in the building just west of Huston's hardware. Mrs. S. A. Cilley has opened her millinery rooms at the Piatt House, with entrance on Charles Street. Mr. C. G. Wing is located in his temporary office on the rear of his lot located on the south side of the avenue. Mr. John Fairbanks has moved what material he saved into the rooms occupied by him as a residence, over the new store of F. W. Andrew & Co. J. A. Gebhardt has his work-shop located at his residence, in the rear of his old store. The postoffice is located on East Dowland Street, near the corner of South James, in the Armstrong building. Shackelton Bros. have moved their second-hand store into the Iniffin building on the avenue. Aldrich Bros. have rented the Mike Kennedy building on South James Street, and moved their goods therein. Dr. F. S. Knowles has established his dental rooms in the Shorts building, on South James Street. Mrs. A. L. Bartlett has her dress-making rooms with Mrs. S. A. Cilley, at the Piatt House; entrance on Charles street. Mr. F. C. Silver will remain in Ludington, and open his photograph business as soon as suitable rooms can be found. Mr. M. B. Danaher has his law office for the present at the store of George N. Stray. Sherman Bros. have taken up 11 JI ir, I `~~;~-F L

Page  56 g\ I. ---------------- re) 56 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. a temporary office in the store of H. H. Shackelton, on South James Street. The American Express Company has its office at Young's grocery store on South James Street. "Mrs. D. G. Scroggs is located with her millinery for the present in Goodenough's shoe store. "Mr. A. H. Voigt is located at the Fisk boarding house, on the avenue. "Mr. Joel Whipple is located in J. Allen & Son's hay pressing warehouse, with his marble works. "Mr. Joseph Roussin is located near the Hanson House, on South James Street. "Mr. C. C. Ward has his office at the state bank. "Dr. May has his office at the Fisk boarding house. "Mr. W. G. Hudson is building a temporary paint shop on the Dowland lot on Ludington Avenue. "INCIDENTS AND ACCIDENTS. "Mr. J. E. Carleton was terribly burned in the face and on the hands while trying to secure a portion of his household furniture. "Mr. Charles T. Sawyer had his hands badly burned. "Mrs. C. L. Tripp was in Detroit at the time of the fire. "Judge Shubael F. White was at Denver, Col., at the time of the fire. "Rev. B. P. Hewitt injured his foot very badly. "Mr. C. P. Stanton was severely burned while attempting to save property from the Williams & Wheeler hardware store. "DRIVEN OUT WITH PARTIAL LOSS. "H. A. Sutherland, law office; J. B. Schick, law office; Samuel Kee, blacksmith and wagon making, tools and stock; Louie Gagnon, household goods; Samuel Fisher, market fixtures; Mr. Lafromway, furniture; Mr. R. Beatie, furniture; Mrs. John Crowley, furniture; Caswell & More, pump stock; John Kratz, furniture and stock; Dennis Kinney, furniture; John Fannon, saloon fixtures and stock, also household furniture; W. W. Clark, furniture; L. N. Roussin, furniture; J. N. Roussin, furniture, etc.; D. Abair, furniture; Mrs. D. G. Scroggs, millinery goods; Singer Sewing Machine Company; George Alexander and Mrs. John Bosley, furniture; Wheeler & Bishop, law office; C. G. Wing, law office; J. A. Mitchell, surveyor's office; I. H. McCollum, insurance office; Isaac Gibson, law office; Dr. J. A. May, office fixtures; C. T. Sawyer, abstract office; Mrs. Albert Miller, household furniture; Mrs. D. G. Scroggs, household furniture; Mrs. Slater, household furniture; Mrs. James Morgan & Co., household furniture, etc.; W. W. Clark, barber; C. W. Hudson, boarding house; H. P. Beardsley, jeweler." "HELP FROM THE MILLS AND COUNTRY. "As soon as the alarm was sounded, all mills and places where men were employed, were shut down, the men sent to aid in putting out the fire, and the most of them did valuable aid, for which every good citizen is thankful. There were also a large number of people from the surrounding country, and to whom we wish to express the many thanks of our citizens. We could name a number, but space forbids in this issue. We have heard it remarked on every hand that had it not been for the men from the surrQunding country, Ludington would have suffered a severer scorch than she did." "LOSSES BEING PAID. "Already the insurance adjusters are on the ground, and the holders of policies are receiving their money. A large number of policies have been paid, and the prospects are that no trouble will arise from any adjustment. The White agency and the McCollum, held the majority of the insurance on the property burned, and agents McMahon and McCollum are aiding in the quick work being done by the companies and the insured. The losses with amount of insurance and value of property destroyed were as follows: Meyers' estate, store....................... S. A. Aldrich, merchandise................. M eyers' estate, store........................ A. Palmiter, furniture.................... Sam Kee, wagon shop.................... Sam Kee, residence........................ Anna Eberle, store....................... F. Ohland, saloon stock................. F. Ohland, furniture............ C. E. Resseguie, two stores................. Samuel Fisher, furniture................. Pat. Butler, stores........................... Pat. Butler, barn.......................... A. D. Culver, merchandise................... John A. Roach, two stores........ Caswell & Moore, pump factory............... C. G. Wing, store....................... Harvey & Strickland, store................... Moses Zief, merchandise................... Frank Kuhli, store....................... H. M. Shoemaker, saloon goods............... H. M. Shoemaker, furniture................ School district, two buildings............... Pat. Butler, saloon fixtures................... Shackelton Bros............................. John Fannon............................... H. F. Alexander, store...................... H. F. Alexander, merchandise................ Nettie Briggs, furniture, etc................. Dr. Donavin............................... P. Ewing, warehouse....................... P. Ewing, carriage factory................... P. Ewing, stock............................ Sam. Kee, furniture.......................... Joseph Roussin............................. G. Weatherwax, paint shop................. Lafe Bennett. residence................... Lafe Bennett, furniture....................... Lafe Bennett, shop........................ Lafe Bennett, tools..................... D. Abair, residence........................ D. Abair, bar............................... Pomier & Perrin, residence................... Po iner & Perrin, furniture................... M Holmquest, undertaker.................. Fayette Johnston, barn............... Peter Mendelson, clothing.................. City, engine house...................... City, contents.............................. J. N. Foster, two dwellings................... J. N. Foster, barn......................... W in. Allen, barn............................. Mrs. Thompson, furniture, etc................ Mrs. Jas. Thompson, barn................... H. F. Dietrich, store...................... H. F. Dietrich, tools......................... Frank Stevens, three stores.................. L. N. Roussin, market....................... C. L. Tripp, merchandise.................... C. L. Tripp, fixtures...................... I. Rayne, store.............................. F. W. Andrews & Co., merchandise.......... A. E. Cartier, furniture.................... Mrs. Crawford, furniture................... H. Voigt, store............................. H. Voigt furniture........................ Danaher & White, store..................... Adam Drach & Co., merchandise............. White & Foster, store.......................... F. N. Latimer, merchandise................. White & McMahon, library, etc............... Fitch & Samuels, library, etc................ F. C. Silvers, gallery, etc..................... Red Ribbon Club, hall..................... Meyers' estate, tenement house................. David \Vilson, barn......................... H. Kuhli, barber shop................... H. K uhli, tools............................ G. W. Clayton, brick block................... Williams & Wheeler, merchandise............ C. C. W ard, merchandise..................... INS. 800 2,500 250 800 700 300 200 450 50 300 1,900 750 500 600 2,000 4,000 600 200 500 600 1.50 900 200 150 100 800 400 100 1,000 1,000 300 1,000 200 800 200 900 1,2l 0 1,800 600 2.000 10 500 1,400 2,000 2,000 1,200 1,200 400 300 200 4,000 6,000 2,000 VALUE. $ 1,600 2,500 1,000 300 300 800 1,400 4,000 700 2,000 400 1,200 100 400 1,200 100 500 600 12,000 1,400 400 350 1,200 300 1,200 4.000 6,000 800 300 350 1,000 1,000 400 500 300 1.200 200 300 200 1,400 200 600 200 500 100 1,000 2,.000 500 2,000 200 200 500 100 700 300 3,00) 400 1,000 400 1,800 1,600 300 500 2,200 400 4,000 13,000 3,0()0 6,000 4,000 300 2,000 2,000 1,000 300 800 350 8,000 9,500 3,000 r--

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Page  57 -I-.-,--r-- _ __ ___ ___ _ _ HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. 57 - ------~- I Dr. 1. S. Knowles, dental................. G. W. Clayton, store...................... Wm Heysett, merchandise................... W. C. Hudson, merchandise................. Record office.............................. Sherman Bros, store...................... Sherman Bros., merchandise................ H. H. W heeler, P. 0. fixtures............... Mrs. A L. Bartlett, store................... Mrs A. L. Bartlett, furniture................. Mrs. S. A. Cilley, merchandise, etc............ E. Andrew, music hall..................... 0. S. Stout, furniture stock.................. Mrs. 0. S. Stout, millinery................... H. H. Mueffels, store.................. E. Cotton, merchandise................... A. Stingle, furniture....................... A Stingle, tools........................... C. 0 Wing, store......................... Joel Whipple, marble stock................ Mrs. Albert Miller, store.................... W. A. Kieswalter, store.'"..................... W. A. Kieswalter, residence................. W. A. Kieswalter. barn.................. W. A. Kieswalter, merchandise.............. C. G. W ing, dwelling........................ John A. Gebhardt, store..................... John A. Gebhardt, merchandise.............. F. J. Dowland, store..................... Mrs. J. Morgan & Co., merchandise........... John Fairbanks, merchandise................ H Kuhli, office and residence................ H. Kuhli, furniture..................... C. H. Fralick, building, etc................... Methodist Episcopal parsonage.............. Congregational Church...................... C. H. Fralick, barn.......................... Frank Stevens, residence, etc................ T. G. Bishop, residence, barn, etc............ Jennie Davidson, residence.................. E. Surplice, furniture...................... Episcopal Chuich and parsonage.............. Rev. J. B. Prichard, furniture............. INS. 300 800 2,500 600 1,800 700 650 250 750 250 800 950 2,000 1,400 400 1,000 1,500 1 500 1,000 500 800 350 800 600 500 1,900 400 VALUE. 400 1,400 2,500 700 3,300 1,200 1,500 500 1,400 600 1,500 2,800 4,000 500 1,400 100 500 300 200 800 1,200 1,600 500 100 4,000 200 3,300 2,500 700 400 600 1,300 900 1,500 1,200 5,000 200 650 1,775 800 600 3,000 800 $10,975 8,625 * 9,750 6,500 5,000 5,000 4,500 4,000 3,550 3,300 3.000 2,800 2,750 2,600 2,500 2,250 2,200 2 150 2,000 1,475 600 10,000.$95,525 themselves for consideration, the determined energy of the business men was aroused, and plans for rebuilding began at once to take shape. Early Monday morning Mr. John Fannon sounded the watchword by getting men and material upon the ground for a new building. Others followed in quick succession, and in six months' time the city was in better shape than before the fire. Six months after the fire the Democrat reviewed the situation as follows: "After the smoke had cleared away on the morning of June 12, 1881, the best of the business portion of Ludington was a smoldering ruin. A large number of the merchants had saved a part of their goods, but could find no place to again open business. Ex-Mayor Bennett J. Goodsell was the owner of one of the best building sites in the city, surrounding the corner of Ludington Avenue and Charles Street, and at once appreciated the situation of affairs, and to relieve as far as possible the great demand for stores and offices, he commenced the foundation walls of the second largest block in the city, with his usual energy. The structure was pushed rapidly to completion, and the building is now occupied from cellar to garret. It is in size 48x80 feet, with an L on James Street 40x70 feet. It covers 6,800 square feet of surface, and is a twostory brick veneered structure standing upon a solid stone and brick foundation. The first story is divided into one large double store room and two medium sized store rooms. The double room, fronting on the avenue and South Charles Street, is occupied by the United States post-office and Mr. W. G. Budd as a jewelry store and a confectionery store. The other store room fronting on the avenue is occupied by L. Shackelton & Co., with a stock of furniture, and the store room fronting on South Charles Street is occupied by Mr. E. E. Ingram, with a wholesale liquor store. The second story is occupied as offices and the city council rooms. The offices are occupied by Prosecuting Attorney D. V. Samuels, Wheeler & Bishop, E. N. Fitch, lawyers; H. A. Sutherland, police judge; J. B. Schick, justice of the peace, and others. The block was put up at a cost of $16,000, and is one of the finest blocks on the east shore of Lake Michigan. Its location is central, and it reflects much credit upon its builder, Mr. B. J. Goodsell. " THE CLAYTON BLOCK. ( This is the largest and best built block in the burnt district. In size it is 44x92 feet, with an L 48x70 feet. It is a two-story and basement block, and is not only the largest block in Ludington, but one of the largest north of Muskegon. It is a brick veneered building built upon a solid stone and brick foundation, and is a model of architecture. It is divided into five stores in the first story, and each front is adorned with large French glass plates and iron columns. These stores are occupied by Mr. William Heysett, with a stock of drugs; Sherman Bros., with books and stationery; William G. Hudson, with paints, oils, glass and wall paper; D. P. Glazier, with jewelry, clocks and silverware, and C. C. Ward, with a stock of groceries, provisions and crockery. A part of the second story is being finished off for a Masonic hall, and the balance is finished expressly for offices. Dr. F. S. Knowles occupies the corner office in the second story. The entire building complete covers 7,408 feet of surface, and was built by George W. Clayton at a cost of $18,000. It is not only a credit to the energy and enterprise of Mr. Clayton, but to the city at large. It is finely situated, on the corner of Ludington Avenue and James Street, fronting on James Street. " THE WHITE & DANAHER BLOCK. " This block lies on the corner of Ludington Avenue and North James Street, and stands upon one of the best sites in the city. It is a two-story and basement block, brick veneered, with stone foundation, and was built at a cost of $8,C00. The basement is e> INSURANCE ON PROPERTY BURNED. Watertown, of New York........................... Phoenix, of Brooklyn................................ Aurora, of Cincinnati............................. Detroit Fire & Marine.............................. Home, of New York................................ Lancashire, of Manchester, England................ M ercantile, of Cleveland............................... Traders'................................................ Newark, City of New Jersey............................ Hamburg, Magdeburg.................................. Manhattan, of New York........................... North Western National........................... Imperial & Northern.................................... Underwriters Association............................ American, of Philadelphia.............................. G erm an A nerican........................................ Fire Association................................ Newark, of New Jersey.............................. Hartford, of Hartford.............................. Fire Association, of London......................... Peoples..................................... U nknow n........................................... Grandl total..................................... OUT OF THE ASHES. Sunday, following the fire, was a day well to be remembered. In a few hours had been wrought widespread and terrible desolation. Hope st -uggled for mastery over despair. But this was only a brief struggle for the bone and sinew of Ludington was made of too good material to sit idly down and mourn over what could not be recalled. As questions affecting the future of the city presented i i b;;e 7 - ~21

Page  58 I 58 HISTORY OF MASON COUNTY. occupied by Mr. C. L. Tripp, with several fine billiard and pool tables. The first story is divided into two store-rooms, with French plate glass fronts fronting the avenue. One is occupied by Adam Drach & Co., with dry goods, silks, etc., the other by C. L. Tripp, with cigars, tobacco, confectionery and restaurant. The second story is occupied by White & McMahon as a law office, F. C. Silver, with photograph gallery, and Mrs. D. G. Scroggs, with millinery. This block was built by Hon. Patrick M. Danaher and Judge White, and it reflects much credit upon these gentlemen for the interest they take in our prosperous city. " THE WING BLOCK. " This block stands upon the avenue, between South James and South Harrison Streets, and in point of architecture is not only tasty but substantial. It was built by Mr. C. G. Wing at a cost of $8,000, and is a credit to the enterprise of its owner. Being new and just completed, it is not occupied except in the second story as a law office by Mr. Wing. The building is a brick veneered structure, standing two stories in height upon a solid stone foundation with a basement full size of the block. The first story is divided into two stores fronting the avenue. The cut-stone and fine work upon the front of the block are unique and showy. "THE CUSHWAY BLOCK. " This structure is a two-story brick veneered building, standing upon a solid foundation of solid masonry. It was built by Mr. Cushway expressly for the jewelry business in the first story, and residence in the second. The first story is furnished with a fire and burglar-proof vault and a French plate glass front with iron columns. The building is crested with a galvanized iron cornice, and is furnished with iron shutters. It is a brick veneered structure 25x70 feet, and is centrally located upon the corner of South James and East Loomis Streets, fronting on South James Street. It was built at a cost of $6,000, and is an ornament and credit to its builder and the city. "THE NEW ANDREW BLOCK