History of Bay County.
Butterfield, George Ernest, 1883-, Fuller, George N. (George Newman), 1873-1957., Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society.

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Page  [unnumbered] Fir onerty vt Ulwmi ir chuvi uk,'trict Ba~y City, Mich., T t e E a o! ', MI ol r!Loans tou-bookj to pupils,n the followlng condiftimo I Texi-book, ol every decription are iu be carefully uedj and arm ad to be marked or defaced in any manner wheteVer. S1P 7 1I26 2 They an nor to be taken from the school room without the Iumen V the teacher. 3 it lost, or injured, such loss or injurY must be paid by die prL

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Page  [unnumbered] olwl lld HISTORIC MICHIGAN LAND OF THE GREAT LAKES Its Life, Resources, Industries, People, Politics, Government, Wars Institutions, Achievements, the Press, Schools and Churches, Legendary and Prehistoric Lore In Two Volumes Edited by George N. Fuller, A.M. (Harvard), Ph.D. (Univ. of Mich.) Secretary of the Michigan Historical Commission and Secretary of the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society Also A Third Volume Devoted to. Bay County Edited by George E. Butterfield *. VOLUME III Published by National Historical Association, Inc., and dedicated to the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society in commemoration of its fiftieth anniversary THIS IS THE PROPERTY OF Citizens Historical Association CHAMBER OF COMMERCE BI.D, INDIANAPOLIS, IND.

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Page  [unnumbered] Table of Contents CHAPTER I-INDIANS AND INDIAN TREATIES INDIAN MOUNDS IN BAY COUNTY-THE WARLIKE SAUKS-INDIAN BATTLES IN THIS REGION-INDIAN TREATIES-IMPORTANCE OF THE SAGINAW TREATY-CHIEF OGEMAKEGATO AND HIS INFLUENCE IN THE TREATIES................................................................... 17-21 CHAPTER II-EARLY SETTLEMENT FRENCH AND ENGLISH COMPETITION FOR POSSESSION OF THIS TERRITORY-VISITS OF CARTIER, CHAMPLAIN, NICOLET, MARQUETTE, LASALLE AND OTHERS-BECOMES BRITISH TERRITORY IN 1673-PONTIAC'S CONSPIRACY-THE FUR TRADE-LOUIS TROMr BLE THE FIRST FUR TRADER AT SAGINAW BAY-DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY BY ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE IN 1831-OTHER TRADERS IN THE FIRST THREE DECADES OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY-LEON TROMBLEY REGARDED AS FIRST PERMANENT WHITE SETTLER IN 1831-JOHN B. TRUDELL CAME IN 1834-OTHERS WHO FOLLOWED-VILLAGE OF PORTSMOUTH CONCEIVED BY JUDGE MILLER-THE SAGINAW BAY COMPANY PLATS VILLAGE OF LOWER SAGINAW IN 1837-FIRST STORE OPENED IN THE VILLAGE IN 1840-REMINISCENCES OF MRS. EMILY MARSTON-EARLY SETTLEMENT OF THE TOWNSHIPS AS FOLLOWS: HAMPTON, WILLIAMS, PORTSMOUH, BANGOR, BEAVER, KAWKAWLIN, MONITOR, MERRITT, PINCONNING, FRASER, AND FR A N K EN LU ST..................................................................................................22-41 CHAPTER III-COUNTY ORGANIZATION AND GOVERNMENT COUNTIES OF SAGINAW, MIDLAND AND ARENAC ERECTED IN 1831 TO INCLUDE BAY COUNTY-SUBSEQUENTLY DESIGNATED AS SAGINAW TOWNSHIP OF SAGINAW COUNTY-HAMPTON TOWNSHIP ORGANIZED IN 1843 TO INCLUDE LOWER SAGINAW REGION AS FAR NORTH AS MACKINAW-INITIAL STEPS TAKEN TO ERECT BAY COUNTY IN 1855-INTERESTING DEBATES ON THE QUESTION-BAY COUNTY ORGANIZED IN 1857-LEGAL CONTROVERSY WHICH FOLLOWED-ARENAC COUNTY ERECTED IN 1883-ORGANIZATION OF THE VARIOUS TOWNSHIPS-COUNTY BUILDINGS-COUNTY OFFICERS...............................................................42-53 CHAPTER IV-TRANSPORTATION INDIAN TRAILS, THE SAGINAW TRAIL-SAGINAW RIVER A MAIN ARTERY OF TRAVEL-COASTING VESSELS FROM DETROIT MADE STOPS-FIRST STEAMBOAT COMES IN 1836-RIVER BOAT CONSTRUCTED FOR USE, ON THE SAGINAW IN 1837-IMPORTANCE OF RIVER TRAFFIC IN THE SIXTIES-FIRST LIGHTHOUSE AT THE MOUTH OF THE RIVER IN 1839-FERRY BOATS-HIGHWAYS-FIRST ROADS LAID OUT IN THE COUNTY-TUSCOLA PLANK ROADOTHER PLANK ROADS-HUNDRED THOUSAND DOLLARS BORROWED BY THE COUNTY TO BUILD MACADAMIZED ROADS IN 1882 -DEVELOPMENT OF GOOD ROADS WITH THE COMING OF THE AUTOMOBILE-RAILROADS-FLINT AND PERE MARQUETTE RAILROAD BUILT TO BAY CITY IN 1859-FIRST EFFECTIVE RAILROAD COMPLETED IN 1867 AND WAS CALLED BAY CITY & EAST SAGINAW-SECOND ROAD TO BE BUILT INTO THE COUNTY WAS THE JACKSON, LANSING AND SAGINAW AND TRAINS BEGAN OPERATING OVER IT IN DECEMBER, 1867-OTHER RAILROADSELECTRIC RAILROADS-BUS LINES.......................................................54-64 CHAPTER V-MILITARY THE WAR OF 1812 AND THE MEXICAN WAR-THE CIVIL WAR-FIVE HUNDRED AND ELEVEN MEN FROM BAY COUNTY SERVED IN THE UNION ARMY-PROMINENT SOLDIERS FROM BAY COUNTY-NAMES OF MANY WHO SERVED DURING THE CIVIL WAR —SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR —TWO BAY COUNTY MEN KILLED ON THE "MAINE"-BAY COUNTY FURNISHED ABOUT THREE HUNDRED MEN TO THE ARMY-COMPANY C, 33RD MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY FROM BAY

Page  [unnumbered] COUNTY-SERVED IN CUBA-MUSTER ROLL OF THE COMPANYWORLD WAR-COMPANY B, 33RD MICHIGAN REGIMENT NATIONAL GUARDS COMPOSED PRINCIPALLY OF BAY CITY MEN BECAME PART OF 32ND DIVISION-128TH AMBULANCE CORP ALSO FROM BAY COUNTY-TRAINING OF THE 32ND DIVISION FOR SERVICETORPEDOING OFI THE "TUSCANIA"-NATIONAL ARMY MEN-DETAILED RECORD OF THE 32ND DIVISION-MEDAL AWARDS TO BAY CO U N TY M EN......................................................................................................65-80 CHAPTER VI-EDUCATION F'IRST SCHOOLS AND TEACHERS IN THE COUNTY-DIVISION OF THE VARIOUS TOWNSHIPS INTO SCHOOL DISTRICTS GIVING DIRECTOR, MODERATOR. TREASURER AND TEACHERS FOR EACH DISTRICT —WNEST BAY CITY SCHOOLS-BAY CITY SCHOOLS-EARLY SCHOOLS AND TEACHERS, SUBJECTS TAUGHT AND SALARIES PAID IN THE EARLIER DAYS-UNION SCHOOL DISTRICT OF BAY CITY ORGANIZED IN 1867-THE PRESENT BAY CITY SCHOOL SYSTEM, RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EDUCATIONAL METHODS AND NEW BUILDINGS-THE JUNIOR COLLEGE AND ITS FACULTY —ENROLLMENT IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS-CONTINUATION CLASSESCOUNTY NORMAL SCHOOL-BOARD OF EDUCATION-TEACHERS IN THE VARIOUS SCHOOLS OF BAY CITY-LIBRARIES...................... 81-97 CHAPTER VII-PHYSICIANS AND THE PUBLIC HEALTH HARDSHIPS OF THE PIONEER MEDICAL MEN-JACOB GRAVERODT MIGHT BE CONSIDERED FIRST DOCTOR IN BAY COUNTY ALTHOUGH MRS. ELIZABETH (WILCOX) ROGERS IS GENERALLY GIVEN THIS PLACE-DR. GEORGE E. SMITH CAME IN 1850 AND WVAS THE FIRST REGULAR PRACTICING PHYSICIAN IN THE COUNTY TO HAVE A MEDICAL DEGREE-BAY COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY FORMED IN 1865-NAMES OF EARLY PHYSICIANSPROMINENT PHYSICIANS TODAY —HOSPITALS-MERCY HOSPITAL, GENERAL HOSPITAL AND SAMARITAN HOSPITAL-PERSONNEL AND WORK OF THE BOARD OF HEALTH —NURSES OF THE CIVIC L E A G U E..............................................................................................................98-102 CHAPTER VIII-BENCH AND BAR ESTABLISHMENT OF MICHIGAN COURTS-DISTRICT COURTS ESTABITSHED IN THAT YEAR-ABOLISHED IN 1910-COURTS OF' CHANCERY EXISTED FROM 1836 TO 1847-CIRCUIT COURTS ESTABLISHED IN 1824-BAY COUNTY ORIGINALLY IN SEVENTH JUDICIAL CIRCUIT-TWO YEARS LATER MADE A PART OF TENTH -HIGH ABILITY AND TRAINING OF BAY COUNTY LAWYERS FROM THE FIRST BRIEF SKETCHES OF THE CIRCUIT JUDGES-BAY COUNTY NOW IN THE EIGHTEENTH CIRCUIT-PROMINENT ATTORNEYS-BAY COUNTY BAR ASSOCIATION-SOME PRESENT ATTORNEYS.......................................................................................................... 103-112 CHAPTER IX-BANKS AND BANKING PIONEER BANKS AND THE WILDCAT DAYS-THE GIBSON BANK IN 1863-FIRST NATIONAL OF BAY CITY STARTED IN 1864 BECAME BAY NATIONAL BANK IN 1883. BUT NAME LATER CHANGED BACK TO FIRST NATIONAL-BECAME AFFILIATED WrITH BAY SAVINGS BANK IN 1915-PRESENT OFFICERS AND FINANCES OF FIRST NATIONAL BANK-BRIEF ACCOUNTS OF THE ORGANIZATION, GROWTH AND PRESENT CONDITIONS OF THE BAY COUNTY SAVINGS BANK, PEOPLE'S COMMERCIAL & SAVINGS BANK, BAY CITY BANK, FARMERS STATE SAVINGS BANK OF BAY CITY AND THE OTHER BANKING INSTITUTIONS OF THE COUNTY-BUILDING AND LOAN ASSOCIATIONS-SKETCHES OF PROMINENT BANKERSWEST BAY CITY BANKS................................................... 113-123 CHAPTER X-PRESS PIONEER JOURNALISM-PRECARIOUS EXISTENCE OF EARLY NEWVSPAPERS-FIRST NEWSPAPERS-OTHERS THAT HAVE BEEN PUBLISHED DOWN TO THE PRESENT —BRIEF REVIEWS OF THE EXISTING NEWSPAPERS OF THE COUNTY...............................124-128 CHAPTER XI-CITIES AND VILLAGES BAY CITY A CONSOLIDATION OF OLD VILLAGES-PINCONNING AND ESSEXVILLE ONLY INCORPORATED MUNICIPALITIES OUTSIDE OF BAY CITY-VILLAGES OF BANKS, SALZBURG AND WENONA COMBINE AS THE CITY OF WEST BAY CITY IN 1877 -OFFICIALS OF WEST BAY CITY-BECOMES A PART OF BAY CITY IN 1905-HISTORY OF BAY CITY MUNICIPAL DEVELOPMENT-INCOPOPORATION-VARIOUS FORMS OF CITY GOVERNMENT-LIST OF CITY OFFICIALS-WATER WORKS-FIRE DEPARTMENT-POLICE DEPARTMENT-ELECTRIC LIGHT AND POWER-CITY TRANSPORTATION, COMMUNICATION-BRIEF HISTORIES OF ESSEXVILLE AND PINCONNING..................................129-143

Page  [unnumbered] CHAPTER XII-INDUSTRIAL THE LUMBER INDUSTRY-ENORMOUS SCALE OF OPERATIONS AND FIRMS ENGAGED THEREIN-GRADUAL DECLINE OF LUMBERINGSALT AND ITS PRODUCERS AND METHODS OF PRODUCTION-HIGH TIDE OF THE SALT BUSINESS AND ITS GRADUAL DECLINE-COAL MINING - SHIP BUILDING - FISHING-LEADING INDUSTRIES OF COUNTY AND COMPANIES ENGAGED THEREIN-CHAMBER OF COMM E R CE............................................................................................................... 144-154

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Page  17 CHAPTER I INDIANS AND INDIAN TREATIES HROUGHOUT the state of Michigan, and Bay county claims its share, mounds have been found by archaeologists and explorers filled with old cooking utensils, stone and flint weapons, and articles of a similar nature. Placed usually near the bank of a stream or lake, these mounds were several rods long and six or more feet in height. Their greater height above the surrounding land and the consequent freedom from the danger of flooding from the rising waters of the rivers made them desirable camp sites for the earliest settlers that came into the country. These first people did not know, at first, that they were mounds thrown up by a race of people long extinct, people that have since become known as mound builders after their habit of constructing the burial mounds, for such they must have been as attested by the skeletons found in them. Mounds were located at Twenty-fourth and Twenty-second streets on the river in Bay City, and one near the former Michigan Central railroad roundhouse, which was located a short distance north of the west side passenger depot, supplied sand for the building of that road in this section. When the village of Wenona laid out Linn street, another mound was discovered and still another lay to the south between Midland street and Salzburg. The site of the last was used as an Indian camp ground long after the settlement began to make its appearance on the east side of the river. Copper kettles and implements of various kinds found in the mounds showed that the race was far more advanced in the use of the metal than the Sauks and Chippewas who followed them and were known to the white settlers. The Chippewa Indians told the white settlers of a tribe who had preceded them in the possession of this land. These were the Sauks, who inhabited the central part of Michigan, the northern part being occupied by the Chippewas and the southern by the Pottawatomies. The Sauk Indians were eventually driven from their lands by the Chippewas and went to the Illinois and Wisconsin territories, where they became known as the Sac Indians. The remnants of the tribe are today found in Iowa and are known by a name that sounds like "Squawkee." From this warlike tribe of Indians the name of Saginaw was derived, the early explorers naming the bay and river from "O-sauk-e-non," which means "The land of the Sauks." Early reports of the first explorers seem to indicate that the Sauks were still living in the Saginaw valley at the time they made their explorations. It also appears that the Sauks make so much trouble that the Chippewas, Ottawas, Pottawatomies, and other lesser tribes united to drive the Sauks from the country. One legend states that the Six Nations of New York participated in the campaign against the Sauks, but this is not certain. The Chippewas and their allies assembled a force at the Straits of Mackinaw of about three thousand warriors and

Page  18 18 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY proceeded down the shore of the lake to the point where they believed the Sauks would touch upon their return from a raid in the north against some Chippewas at Traverse bay. The Chippewas halted at the mouth of Squaconning creek until they found that the Sauks were headed for Skull Island. The force of the attackers was divided so as to attack the two Sauk villages on either side of the river at once. The village on the west side of the river, the main village, was surprised and a great number massacred, the remainder retreating across the river where another savage battle was fought near the high piece of ground which was later the site of the Center House, the home of the Trombles and the McCormicks. Apparently the Sauks tried to fortify this eminence, but their defeat caused another retreat, this time to Skull Island as the Chippewa leader had thought. During the next night the attackers effected a crossing to the island and in the early hours of the morning started an attack which ended in the extermination of all but twelve families. The allies then divided, some going up the Cass, Flint, Shiawassee and Tittabawassee rivers to look for other bands of the Sauks who had not been caught in the general massacre on the Saginaw river. The greatest battles were fought on the Flint on a bluff a mile below the present city of Flint, and another near the present village of Flushing in the same county (Genesee). After the Sauks had been exterminated with the exception of the twelve families already mentioned, they were sent to the west, and no Sauk has been seen in the country since that time. Although the allied Indians had agreed to divide the land of the Sauks among them as common hunting grounds, their own superstitious fears defeated them in this aim, for ever since the massacre until the white men put in their appearance, the Chippewas and the others believed the Saginaw valley to be haunted, and only those Indians who wished to escape punishment for a crime lived in this section of the country. With the coming of the whites, however, the Indians began to come again to the fertile valley which had been a virtual colony for so many years. The Chippewas remained in undisputed possession of the territory until the treaty of 1819. TREATIES Thie first Indian treaty affecting Michigan, only, was that concluded in 1807 between Governor William Hull, of the territory of Michigan, ex-officio superintendent of Indian affairs, and the Indians at Detroit. By the provisions of the treaty the land of the southeast part of the state was secured for the United States with the exception of the city of Detroit and a six-mile-wide tract of land along the Detroit river as far south as the River Raisin, which remained in English hands despite the provisions of the treaty of Greenville made in 1795 by General Anthony Wayne. The northern line of the land mentioned in this Detroit treaty was slightly north of the present southern boundaries of Lapeer and Genesee counties and thus the Saginaw valley was unaffected by this treaty directly, it remaining until 1819 in the possession of the Chippewas, as has been said.

Page  19 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 19 However, in 1819, General Cass was commissioned to act as the agent of the United States Government in securing the title to the land in which the Saginaw valley was included. On September 10, 1819, General Cass with a staff of interpreters and assistants came to the Saginaw on the present site of the city of that name. The conferences which lasted ten days, brought forth many stormy scenes, but finally with the help of Stephen V. R. Riley, who had married an Indian woman, and Jacob Smith, another trader, the terms of the treaty were finally agreed upon, and the Indians ceded to the United States all but 40,000 acres of their land in northern Michigan, the reservation being retained for the use of the Chippewas. Stephen V. R. Riley, who has already been mentioned in connection with the early history of Bay City, was remembered by the United States for his part in effecting the satisfactory settlement of the treaty, and to each of his three sons, John, Peter, and James, the treaty gave one of these tracts of land. The square mile of land given to John Riley is now included within the city limits of Bay City. Other reservations were made in the treaty for other persons, among whom were the half-breed children of Jacob Smith. The reservation of 40,000 acres retained by the Chippewas bordered the Saginaw river on the west side of that stream, and a portion of that reservation became the site of the future West Bay City. In 1837 the final treaty with the Indians was concluded. Chiefs O-ge-ma-ke-ga-to, Ton-dog-a-ne, Sha-e-be-no-se, Wos.so, Mose-gaskink, Ma-sha-way, and Nau-qua-chic-a-me journeyed to Washington, where they went into conference with Henry O. Connor, Captain Joseph F. Marsac and Charles Rodd, a half-breed, all of whom acted as interpreters, and Gardner D. Williams and Benjamin O. Williams. It was during this visit that Thomas Jefferson, then president, presented the uniform of a colonel to O-ge-ma-ke-ga-to. The outcome of the first conference was that the Indian commissioner of Michigan, named Schoolcraft, was ordered to call a meeting at Flint for the purpose of drawing up the terms of the treaty. This meeting was accordingly held, the terms of the treaty providing that the lands of the reservation, 40,000 acres in extent, be surveyed and sold by the government at a minimum price of five dollars per acre. If at the end of a specified time, any of the lands remained unsold, the remainder was to be placed on the market at two and a half dollars per acre. An amount of money was to be advanced to the Chippewas to help them pay off their debts, and this amount together with that expended for surveying the lands was to be deducted from the revenue derived from the sale of the reservation and the balance to be credited to the tribe. The number of Indians suffered a gradual decrease after 1857 and many went to the reservation at Isabella. Nau-qua-chic-a-me, the chief of the tribe, took his band to Bau-gan-ing after the death of his father, The former died in Bau-gan-ing in October, 1874. OGEMAKEGATO Something of the part played by the great chief of the Chippewas, Ogemakegato, in the treaty making between his tribe and the United

Page  20 20 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY States Government is worthy of mention at this point, together with some details of his later life. Ogemakegato is described as having been a man of over six feet in height, graceful and handsome, and undoubtedly the outstanding Indian in this section of the country during his lifetime. The undisputed sway he held over the various Chippewa tribes was maintained not only through his ability to ably administer the tribal affairs but through the brilliant eloquence that was his. As a speaker he was perhaps surpassed only by the renowned Red Jacket, and it is related that at the treaty conferences of 1819, though not a chief of the bloodOgemakegato had been elevated to chiefdom by his tribe members-in a speech that lasted two hours, he held the Indians spellbound. He opposed the proposition of General Cass with all the powers at his command, saying: "You do not know our wishes. Our people wonder what has brought you so far from your homes. Your young men have invited us to come and light the council fire; we are here to smoke the pipe of peace, but not to sell our lands. Our American father wants them. Our English father treats us better. He has never asked for them. You flock to our shores; our waters are warm; our lands melt like a cake of ice; our possessions grow smaller and smaller. The warm wave of the white man rolls in upon us and melts us away. Our women reproach us; our children want homes. Shall we sell from under them the spot where they spread their blankets? We have not called you here; we smoke with you the pipe of peace." The treaty was made, however, as has been shown, and Ogemakegato observed his part of the bargain with honorable punctiliousness despite the fact that he had opposed the land sale from the beginning. His power and influence over the Indians were unquestioned, for at the age of twenty-five he was elected head chief of the Chippewa nation, which then comprised ten or twelve bands, and not until his declining years did he govern so small a unit as a single tribe, when he became the chief of the Tittabawassee Indians, his own tribe. He was but twenty-five years of age when he confronted General Cass at Saginaw in the treaty conferences, and later when the reservation treaty was ratified at Detroit and his eloquent speech was translated, not one of the learned lawyers present would accept his challenge to discuss questions of the Indians' welfare with him. Chief Ogemakegato died in 1839 or 1840 and was buried in the colonel's uniform which he received from President Jefferson. Upon the breast of his coat was pinned the oblong silver medal also received from Jefferson. This medal bore the face of Jefferson on one side and a full-length picture of the chief on the other. Joseph Tromble donated the lumber for the construction of his coffin from the timber brought from Detroit to build the first frame house at Bay City. The dead chief was given a burial with all pomp and ceremony. Later his grave was marked with a wooden cross and still later covered by a small wooden house surmounted by a flag staff. However, when Thomas Stevenson built a house close by the grave, he entirely obliterated all

Page  21 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 21 markers of the spot, and it was not until the summer of 1877, when excavation for the foundation of the home of William R. McCormick was being made, that the grave was rediscovered, identification being made possible through the old uniform and medal that clothed the skeleton of one of the greatest chiefs of the Chippewas. A stone was presented by E. B. Denison, of Bay City, as a permanent marker of the grave of Ogemakegato. By 1923 the marker had long been missing, and the remains had again been disinterred. The Daughters of the American Revolution then determined to give the great chief an unusual honor. On August 18, through their efforts and through and with the co-operation of Fremont J. Tromble, the few remains of Ogemakegato, in a leaden box containing also an historical account of the chief, a history of Bay county, and a United States flag, were buried in Roosevelt park and a new marker erected over the spot.

Page  22 CHAPTER II EARLY SETTLEMENT W ITH the discovery of America by Columbus began the race of France, England and Spain for lands in the newly discovered continent of the West. The St. Lawrence valley came into the possession of France, and with the river as an easy artery of travel to the interior of the unknown continent, the French made rapid inroads, establishing settlements along the river and finally reaching the Great Lakes. The French explorers, who were still looking for a passage to India, ascended the St. Lawrence to the site of Montreal, and after following up the Ottawa river crossed a portage to Lake Nipissing, from which Georgian Bay and Lake Huron were reached. Other explorers went through the Great Lakes to approach the same territory by the lake route. In 1540, less than a half century after the discovery of America, Jacques Cartier is believed to have known of the lower peninsula of Michigan, which he called the Saginw region, and in 1611, the Sac Indians, encamped near Saginaw Bay, were visited by the great explorer, Champlain. This famous Frenchman described the Saginaw river as a safe harbor from the stormy waters of the bay, and his accompanying map, now on file in the office of the French Marine, is correct to a surprising degree. Following the visit of Champlain, thirty-three years elapsed before Jean Nicolet came to this region to explore the rivers and the west shore of Lake Huron. Pere Marquette, by whom was established the first permanent settlement in Michigan at Sault Ste. Marie, is believed to have thoroughly explored the same territory as Nicolet, but the authenticity of this reputed exploration trip in the year 1688 has never been definitely established. LaSalle was driven into Saginaw Bay in 1679 by a storm while he was going north in the Griffin, the first sailboat to be brought into the Great Lakes. French workmen were sent to the Saginaw region in the year 1686, and Engelrau, a Jesuit priest, was sent to establish missions among the Indians. The fruit trees showing a high degree of cultivation, found by later settlers in this district, are taken as further evidence of the presence of missionaries in the Saginaw territory. An expedition of ten boats was sent out from Michilimackinac in 1706 by the French to look for food. A small village had been established on Saginaw Bay in 1701 and in 1708 it is recorded that provisions were sent to the Saginaw Indians at that point. The Saginaw Indians supported the French against the English in 1711, but six years later they were told that they need not expect missionaries to go to Saginaw to live. As much as the French explored the Saginaw Bay territory and as much as they knew of the land, they were extremely apathetic when it came to colonizing the region, and during the two hundred years of

Page  23 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 23 French control of the Michigan peninsula, not one permanent trading post was established on the bay. By the Treaty of Paris, which concluded the Seven Years' War in 1763, France gave up Canada to England, and with the cession of Canada to the British she also gave up her claims to any land south of the Great Lakes. Thus it was that the territory of Michigan came under English rule, much to the dissatisfaction of the Indians throughout the northwestern states. The French were ever noted for their ability to placate the inhabitants of any new country in which they settled, and in their attempts to gain the favor of the Indians, the French were no less successful. The result of the change, then, from French to British rule in the wilderness of the Northwest territory was the famous Pontiac conspiracy. Pontiac, the famous Michigan chief, united all the tribes of the Northwest to form an alliance against the English, the plan being that the tribesmen should slowly infiltrate into the forts and upon the appointed day rise against the hated English. But for the treachery of an Indian girl who warned the commandant at Detroit the plan would have succeeded in all its ruthless butchery and the English would have been expelled from the rich Northwest territory. The forts at Detroit and Pitt, formerly Duquesne, were warned in time, and from these two bases the English directed their campaigns against the revolting Indians. Pontiac himself was forced to flee for his life with a price on his head, and some time later he was killed near St. Louis by a Kaskaskia Indian for the reward offered. Of this conspiracy, by means of which the garrisons at all the forts but those mentioned were slaughtered, the Saginaw Indians were a part, and it was a band of 250 of these under the chief Owosson who laid siege to the fort at Detroit. Perhaps it was the warlike character of the Indians of the Saginaw Valley and their early antagonism toward the British that inhibited the settlement of the bay region by the English. The white rulers, however, had certain dealings with the Indians, a party of whom was sent to Niagara in 1779 for corn and two boats being built on the shores of the bay in 1787-88. However, no active settlement of the Saginaw Bay territory was undertaken by the British, and by a second treaty of Paris, concluded in 1783, the nominal control of Michigan passed into the hands of the United States. The British retained the forts at Detroit and Michilimackinac until 1796, when by the provisions of a new treaty, the two forts were surrendered to the Americans. The fur trade, the greatest source of the New World wealth, brought to Saginaw the white traders, who, though they failed to establish permanent posts, nevertheless made frequent visits to the territory. The French traders were followed by the English representatives of the Mackinac Company, who were in turn succeeded by the agents for the Northwest Fur Company following the American Revolution. Just before the War of 1812, John Jacob Astor, an American of Dutch extraction, organized the American Fur Company, which he combined with the Northwest Fur Company to buy out the interests of the British Mackinac Company. Trading posts sprang up rapidly after the cessa

Page  24 24 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY tion of hostilities between the United States and England, and wherever possible Astor employed old fur traders and trappers who were familiar with the business and were acquainted with the peculiarities of Indian character. Estimates were that seven-eighths of those formerly engaged in the business were retained by the American Fur Company in its employ. One of the first white traders to come to the Saginaw Bay region was one Louis Tromble, fur trader, gunsmith, and metal worker. It is known that he came from Detroit to Saginaw as early as 1792 to trade with the Indians. An expert metal worker, he was accustomed to make certain tools and metal ornaments for the Indians in exchange for furs, and it was indirectly through this custom of his that he met his death. It happened that upon one voyage to Saginaw, Tromble made a muskrat spear for each of two Indians. One believed that his spear was inferior to that of the other and in the ensuing quarrel Tromble was wounded. The companions of the trader placed him on board a boat to take him to a doctor at Detroit. Tromble, wrapped in a blanket and supported by a man on either side, was pacing the deck in great pain and the boom swung around and knocked the men off their feet. The two men saved themselves but Tromble had been swept overboard leaving the blanket in the hands of his guardians. The account of Saginaw and the Saginaw river country as given in the memoirs of Alexis de Tocqueville in 1831 gives a better idea of the country than anything that has ever been written of this northeastern portion of Michigan. On his journey from Flint to the little village of the Saginaw he described the forest as follows: "As we proceeded we gradually lost sight of the traces of man. Soon all proofs of savage life disappeared, and before us was the scene that we had so long been seeking-a virgin forest. "Growing in the middle of the thin brushwood, through which objects are perceived at a considerable distance, was a single clump of full grown trees, almost all pines or oaks. Confined to so narrow a space, and deprived of sunshine, each of these trees had run up rapidly, in search of air and light. As straight as the mast of a ship, the most rapid grower had overtopped every surrounding object; only when it had attained a higher region did it venture to spread out its branches and clothe itself with leaves. Others followed quickly in the elevated sphere, and the whole group interlacing their boughs, formed a sort of immense canopy. Underneath this damp, motionless vault, the scene is different. "Majesty and order are overhead-near the ground, all is chaos and confusion; aged trunks, incapable of supporting any longer their branches, are shattered in the middle, and present nothing but a sharp, jagged point. Others, loosened by the wind, have been thrown unbroken on the ground. Torn up from the earth, their roots form a natural barricade, behind which several men might easily find shelter. Huge trees, sustained by the surrounding branches, hang in mid-air, and fall into dust without reaching the ground.

Page  25 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 25 "There is no district with us so scantily peopled as to make it possible for a forest to be so completely abandoned that the trees, after quietly fulfilling the purpose of their existence, attain old age undisturbed, and at last perish from natural decay. Civilized man strikes them while yet in their prime, and clears the ground of their remains. In the solitude of America all-powerful nature is the only instrument of ruin, as well as of reproduction. Here, as well as in the forests over which man rules, death strikes continually, but there is none to clear away the remains-they accumulate day by day. They fall, they are heaped upon one another. Time alone does not work fast enough to reduce them to dust, so as to make way for their successors. Side by side lay several generations of the dead. Some, in the last stage of dissolution, have left on the grass a long line of red dust as the only trace of their presence; others, already half consumed by time, still preserve their outward shape. Others, again, fallen only yesterday, stretch their long branches over the traveler's path. "I have often, at sea, enjoyed one of the calm, serene evenings when the sails, flapping idly from the mast, leave the crew in ignorance even of the quarter whence the breeze will rise. The perfect repose of nature is as striking in the wilderness as on the ocean. When at noonday the sun's rays penetrate the forest, there is often heard a long sob, a kind of plaintive cry echoing in the distance. It is the last breath of the expiring breeze. Deep silence ensues, and such absolute stillness, as fills the mind with a kind of superstitious awe. The traveler stops to contemplate the scene. "Pressed against one another, their boughs interlaced, the trees seem to form one vast indestructible edifice, under whose arches reign eternal darkness. Around are violence and destruction, shattered trees and torn trunks; the traces of long elemental war. But the struggle is suspended. It seems to have been suddenly arrested by the order of a supernatural Being. Half-broken branches seem to hold by some invisible link to the trunk that no longer supports them; trees torn from their roots hang in the air as if they had not had time to reach the ground. "The traveler holds his breath to catch the faintest sound of life. No noise, not even a whisper, reaches him. You may be lost in any European forest, but some noise belonging to life is audible. You hear a church bell, or a woodman's axe, or the report of a gun, or the barking of a dog, or, at any rate, the indistinct hum of civilized life. "Here not only man is absent, but the voice of no animal is to be heard. The smaller ones have sought the neighborhood of human dwellings, and the larger have fled to a still greater distance; the few that remain hide in the shade. Thus all is motionless, all is silent beneath the leafy arch. It seems as if the Creator had for a moment withdrawn his countenance, and all Nature had become paralyzed. "This was not the only time that we noticed the resemblance of the forest to the ocean. In each case the idea of immensity besets you. The succession of similar scenes; their continual monotony overpower the imagination. Perhaps even the sensation of loneliness and desolation

Page  26 26 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY which oppressed us in the middle of the Atlantic was felt by us still more acutely in the deserts of the New World. "At sea the voyager sees the horizon to which he is steering. He sees the sky. His view is bounded only by the power of the human eye. But what is there to indicate a path across this leafy ocean? In vain you may climb the lofty trees; others still higher will surround you. In vain you climb a hill; everywhere the forest follows you, the forest which extends before you to the Arctic Pole, and to the Pacific Ocean. You may travel thousands of miles beneath its shade, and, though always advancing, never appear to stir from the same spot." The great de Tocqueville arrived at Saginaw at night, and at daybreak he and his companion left their cabin after a night made miserable by mosquitos, and his description of the last outpost of civilization, as he was told the village was, is as follows: "This was our first daybreak view of the village of Saginaw, which we had come so far to see. A small, cultivated plain, bounded on the south by a beautiful and gently flowing river; on the east, west and north by the forest; constitutes at present the territory of the embryo city. "Near us was a house whose character announced the easy circumstances of its owner. It was the one in which we had passed the night. A similar dwelling was visible at the other extremity of the clearing. Between them, and on the skirts of the woods, two or three log houses were half hidden in the foliage. "On the opposite side of the river stretched the prairie, resembling a boundless ocean on a calm day. A column of smoke was curling toward the sky. Looking whence it came, we discovered the pointed forms of two or three wigwams, which scarcely stood out from the grass of the prairie. A plough that had upset, its oxen galloping off by themselves to the field, and a few half-wild horses, completed the picture. "On every side the eye searches in vain for a Gothic spire, the mosscovered porch of a clergyman's house, or a wooden cross by the roadside. These venerable relics of our religion have not been carried into the wilderness. It contains as yet nothing to remind one of the past or of the future. No consecrated home even for those who are no more. Death had not had time to claim his domain, nor to have his close marked out. Here, man still seems to steal into life. Several generations do not gather around the cradle to utter hopes often deceitful and rejoicings which the future often belies. The child's name is not inscribed in the register of the city, religion does not mingle its affecting ceremonies with the solicitude of the family. A woman's prayers, a few drops sprinkled on the infant's head by the father's hand, quietly open to it the gates of heaven. "The village of Saginaw is the farthest point inhabited by Europeans to the northwest of the vast peninsula of Michigan. It may be considered as an advance post; a sort of watch-tower, placed by the whites in the midst of the Indian nations.

Page  27 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 27 "European revolutions, the continual noisy clamor of politics, reach this spot only at rare intervals and as the echoes of a sound, the source of which the ear can no longer distinguish nor comprehend. "Sometimes an Indian stops on his journey to relate, in the poetical language of the desert, some of the sad realities of social life; sometimes a newspaper dropped out of a hunter's knapsack, or only the sort of indistinct rumor which spreads, one knows not how, and which seldom fails to tell that something strange is passing in the world. "Once a year a vessel steams up the Saginaw to join this stray link to the great European chain which now binds together the world. She carries to the new settlement the products of human industry, and in return takes away the fruits of the soil. "Thirty persons, men, women, old people, and children, at the time of our visit composed this little society, as yet scarcely formed-an opening seed thrown upon the desert, there to germinate. "Chance, interest, or inclination, had collected them in this narrow space. No common link existed between them, and they differed widely. Among them were Canadians, Americans, Indians, and half-castes." Temporary log houses began to make their appearance along the banks of the river soon after 1800, and among the transient traders who were frequently at Saginaw during those years were: Gassette Trombley, Jacob Graveradt, Louis Campau, who was established at Saginaw as early as 1816; Joseph Tromble, who came in 1829; Masho, who lived in a log cabin irt 1831, near the present site of the woodenware works; and Stephen V. R. Riley, who was one of the best known traders to locate here before 1829 and was powerful among the Indians, for he had an Indian wife and his children were adopted into the Chippewa tribe and given Indian names. Gassette Tromley was known as an "Indian farmer," for he was employed by the government to teach the natives to cultivate the land. Jacob Graveradt has been named by some as the first settler of Bay county, but the fact that he married a daughter of Chief Kish-kan-ko and lived much the same nomadic life as his wife's people, tends to refute the statement that he was the first permanent white settler. He was of Dutch descent and was known as "Old Grave-rod." He claimed to have been a trader in the employ of John Jacob Astor during the early days of the latter's fur trading venture. Leon Trombley is regarded as the first permanent white settler within the present limits of Bay county. Early in 1831 he came to this locality and built a small log house on the bank of the river near what is now the center of Water street, just south of Fourth street. Here half an acre of ground was cleared for an Indian camp ground and for a garden, and Trombley, after planting potatoes, the care of which he entrusted to an Indian and his squaw, returned to Detroit to bring his family to the new home on the Saginaw. When he returned to the Saginaw with his family he found that the Indian he hadi hired to care for the potato patch had failed to so much as give the patch a single hoeing. Trombley, however, dug up the patch in the effort to find some small potatoes that might be suitable for planting the next year. To

Page  28 28 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY his surprise, a fine crop of large potatoes had grown in spite of the neglect of the Indian, and this harvest was probably the first of its kind in the county. Trombley entertained no idea of permanent settlement in Bay county when he came here, his sole object being that of teaching the Indians to grow field crops; and of carrying on a little fur trading on the side. Trombley, it is said, was once offered a section of land that is now occupied by Bay City in exchange for a horse valued at $300, but Trombley refused the offer, little realizing that a city would some day stand on the swamp land surrounded by dense forests. In 1834, John B. Trudell, who married a daughter of Benoit Trombley, built a house in what was later the Fifth ward of the city and lived there until 1850, when he removed to the west side of the river. Benjamin Cushway arrived on the Lower Saginaw sometime during the same year to take up his work as blacksmith for the Indians, a work to which he had been assigned by the government. He built a log house and a blacksmith shop on the west side of the river near the present Twenty-third street bridge. He assisted fur traders in their traffic with the Indians in addition to carrying on his work of blacksmithing for the Indians. The year 1835 witnessed the advent of two brothers, Joseph and Mader Tromble, of French extraction, who were perhaps the first to come to Lower Saginaw with the idea of permanent location in mind. Previous to their arrival here, their father had sent a boatload of provisions and supplies for use upon the arrival of the brothers, but the crew being unable to find a landing ascended the river until they reached the settlement on the Saginaw. The inhabitants of this settlement were very short of supplies at the time and made free use of the Tromble goods, with the result that when Joseph and Mader Tromble arrived, very little in the way of provisions had been left for them. For a time after their arrival, the Trombles were in bad straits through their lack of provisions and the arrival of the second boat was anxiously awaited. When the vessel was sighted, one of the young men went to meet it in a canoe, broke open a barrel of flour, and taking some to shore made bread at once. With the idea of permanent settlement in mind, Joseph and Mader Tromble bought nearly a section of land between the present Twentythird street and Cass avenue on the river, thus becoming the first to secure a government land patent in Bay county. A number of cattle were driven to the new home on the Saginaw river by Mader Tromble. The brothers erected a log trading store, and upon its completion they set about the erection of a frame house on the high ground at Twentyfourth and Water streets, a building which was to be used for both residence and store. The lumber for "Center House," as it was called, was shipped from Detroit and was manufactured at Black River, then a great lumbering region. The interior work was performed by a carpenter named Case, who required a year's time to finish the work. The brothers later met with reverses, however, and lost their property, but they continued to live here, devoting themselves to hunting, trapping

Page  29 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 29 and fishing. The real estate operations of Mader Tromble were extensive and several of the additions to Bay City were platted by him. Mader Tromble was born in Detroit, November 16, 1813, a son of Thomas Tromble. He remained on the home farm until 1835, when he came to what was later known as Portsmouth, where he entered a tract of land on the river and which he later sold to the Portsmouth Company. He also entered another tract of land located south of the Portsmouth tract and also on the river. On this latter piece of ground he built.a frame house in 1845. On August 26, 1847, he married Sarah McCormick, the daughter of James McCormick, one of the earliest settlers of Bay City. As the settlement grew, Tromble's land increased in value and during the later years of his life his activities were devoted to the care of his real estate interests. Joseph Tromble was born in Detroit in 1809, remaining there until he attained his twentieth year, when, upon the advice of his uncle, Gassette Tromble, who had spent considerable time in the Saginaw Valley, he made a journey to this locality and to that part of the Sebewaing, making the journey from Pontiac north on foot. During the years from 1830 to 1835, he was in the employ of the American Fur Company, but in the latter year, as has been recounted, he entered land on the Saginaw river and made his home on it together with his brother. In 1844 or 1845, he removed to the west side of the river, where he had purchased two thousand acres of land, and there he continued to live until the time of his death. In 1837 he married Sophia Chapaton, the daughter of Eustache Chapaton, of Detroit, and to them were born four sons and one daughter. His residence in West Bay City was one of the first brick dwellings to be erected in that section of the city. In 1836 there settled at Portsmouth one Albert Miller. He was born in Hartland, Vermont, May 10, 1810. In September, 1830, he left his native village and started the long journey to Michigan, arriving in Detroit on the twenty-second day of December. The city at that time had a population of little more than two thousand. The first school taught north of Oakland county was under the preceptorship of Miller, and in the winter of 1834 he taught the first school in the Saginaw Valley. In July, 1836, he came to the Lower Saginaw, bought land on the site of what was to be Portsmouth, laid out the village, and began the improvement of the land. The second steam sawmill in the Saginaw Valley was built by him the following winter, and after the erection of Saginaw county he received a commission as probate judge and justice of the peace from Governor Mason, a commission which he held for many years and through which he gained the title of Judge. He engaged in the mercantile business but received severe losses with the panic of 1837. In 1845, however, he was able to undertake the business anew, and during the next seven years he successfully engaged in the business, meanwhile conducting farming operations on his extensive land holdings on the Tittabawassee river. In 1847 he was elected to the state legislature, attending the last session held at Detroit and being one of the strongest supporters of the movement to make Lansing the capital of the state. From 1852 to 1874, Judge Miller was principally engaged

Page  30 30 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY in the disposition of his Portsmouth properties, but in the latter year he removed to Bay City. He was a supervisor of Saginaw, Hampton, and Portsmouth townships; president of the village of Portsmouth; director of the first company to build a railroad to Bay City; a stockholder and director of the Portsmouth Salt Manufacturing Company, the second concern of its kind in the Saginaw Valley; and a stockholder and director of the Second National Bank of Bay City. He was one of the first to attempt the reclamation of the prairie lands but ill health forced him to give up the work before its conclusion. He was one of the organizers of the State Pioneer and Historical Society in 1874 and was its first president. He died September 19, 1893. The tract of land on which Judge Miller attempted to start the village of Portsmouth was purchased from the Tromble brothers. Miller went to Detroit to sell lots, but apparently the sale was small and he concluded to locate there and so show his own belief in the value of such a village. The sawmill was erected in the winter of 1836-37 with the aid of Cromwell Barney and B. K. Hall, two well-known pioneers. The future of the Saginaw valley found another supporter in James Fraser, who was born in Scotland in 1803 and came to Detroit in 1829, where he engaged in the grocery business. He bought farm lands on the Tittabawassee in 1833, where he lived until 1836, when he moved to the Saginaw. Believing that he had found an excellent site for a city, he organized the Saginaw Bay Company, composed mostly of business men from the southern part of the state, including Governor Stevens T. Mason. In 1837 the company purchased that part of the Riley Reserve lying between Woodside avenue and a line 400 feet south of Tenth street and extending from the river to a line 100 feet east of Van Buren street. This tract was called the site of the village of Lower Saginaw and was platted, the original plat being on file in the courthouse today, it being drawn by James G. Birney. The panic of 1837 caught Fraser as it did Miller in his proposed village of Portsmouth, and the buying of land came to a virtual stop. With the exception of the few settlers who had already located here, the village of Lower Saginaw remained almost as it was during the next ten years, although there were some new arrivals during that time. Though the population increased but little during that decade, it is notable that the most influential pioneers of Bay City located here during that time. James Fraser became interested in the enterprises designed to make for the upbuilding of the town. He became connected with the lumbering in 1845 and within a short time was associated with a number of mills. Lumbering on the Kawkawlin river occupied his attention, but it was not until the year 1857 that he finally made his home in Lower Saginaw, or Bay City, as it was then known. He built a fine home on the present site of the Wenonah hotel, but in 1864 he removed to Connecticut, where he died two years later. The panic of 1837 caused the failure of many of the members of the Saginaw Bay Company, but their shares were taken over by James G. Birney, Fraser, Dr. D. H. Fitzhugh, and others. The plat of the town as it was originally laid out provided for three parks, one to be at

Page  31 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 31 First and Water streets, a second at Center and Jefferson streets, and the third at Ninth and Madison streets. In addition, two lots in every other block of Washington avenue was set aside, to become the property of any churches that received permission from the company to erect buildings on them. The Tromble brothers, Joseph and Mader, lost heavily in the Portsmouth project of Judge Albert Miller, but soon purchased other land as already described. In 1837 Thomas Rogers and his wife, Elizabeth (Wilcox) Rogers, located in Portsmouth. Rogers was born in Scotland, October 16, 1804, immigrating to Canada in 1818 to settle five miles north of Toronto. There he learned the trade of blacksmith and machinist. During the Patriot war he espoused the cause of that party and was confined in prison at Kingston for a time, together with his two brothers, one of whom escaped a short time before the other two were released. Thomas Rogers came to Michigan in 1836 or 1837 and was employed to go to Saginaw City to help in the installation of machinery in the first mill on the Saginaw river, being built by Harvey Williams. Rogers was then employed by Judge Miller,. B. K. Hall, and others, to install the machinery in the mill then in the process of construction at Portsmouth. He then moved his family to Portsmouth where he was employed to run the mill and to do the necessary blacksmithing work for the plant. He was also deputy postmaster under Judge Miller and went once a week to Saginaw for the mail for the settlement, traveling by river in the summer and walking on the ice during the winter months. This mail route was kept up for several years until the government established the regular mail route to and from Sault Ste. Marie and Mackinaw, the mail being carried by half-breed Indians with dog teams. In 1842 Rogers removed to Bay City and built a house at the corner of Center and Water streets and on the opposite side of Water street built a blacksmith shop, where he followed his trade for several years. He died August 9, 1852, being stricken suddenly ill as he was cutting prairie hay. Mrs. Elizabeth (Wilcox) Rogers was born in 1809, the daughter of a prominent doctor of Watertown, New York, who moved to Toronto, Canada. During her life before her marriage to Thomas Rogers, she studied medicine with her father, and though she never took the degree of doctor of medicine she was well versed in the profession. During the years between 1837 and 1850 she was the only doctor or nurse known to the settlers in this section and her services were sought by all the early settlers. Even after the first regular physician came to the settlement in 1850, she was sought by many of the old settlers to attend them in their illness. At all hours of the day or night and in every season of the year, she was ready to go to the help of some sick person, and her ministrations have caused her to be named a veritable angel of mercy by those early settlers. She died in Bay City, July 16, 1881. To James Fraser's village of Lower Saginaw came Sidney S. Campbell in 1837. He was a native of Paris, New York, where he was born in 1804, and came to Michigan in 1830 to settle at Pontiac. In the spring of 1836 he removed to the Cass River Ridge, where he laid out

Page  32 32 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY the ill-starred village of Bridgeport, which disappeared in the panic of 1837. At that time he removed to Lower Saginaw to become the first new resident of the village. There he kept the hotel which had been built by Cromwell Barney and Nathan C. Case and which was later known as the "Globe," standing at the northeast corner of Fifth and Water streets. It was in this hotel that the first election was held. Campbell became the first supervisor of Hampton township and for sixteen years was judge of probate of Bay county. Cromwell Barney, the builder of the hotel, was born in Swansea, Massachusetts, September 9, 1807. He came to Detroit in 1836 and then on foot to Saginaw. Learning that a mill was being built at Portsmouth, he sought employment there.and at the end of a year returned to Rhode Island for his family, bringing them to Lower Saginaw to live in the old log house of Leon Tromble, near Water and Fourth streets. He moved his family into the block house nearby within a short time and here was born, on May 22, 1838, Mary E. Barney, the first female white child to be born within the present limits of Bay county. He bought a farm which he cultivated until his removal to the Kawkawlin river, where he engaged in lumbering until the time of his death, which occurred November 30, 1851. Captain Joseph F. Marsac was born five miles north of Detroit about 1790, although his exact age has never been determined, due to the loss of the records. He commanded a company in the battle of the Thames in 1812 and to do so he must have been at least twenty-one years of age. In 1816 he entered the employ of Kinzie Prichard and others, of Chicago, to go to the Illinois village and act as interpreter and sell goods to the Indians. He traveled on horseback to the Indian village near the present town of Niles, Michigan, where he traded the horse for several canoe loads of corn. He then proceeded down the St. Joseph river to the lake and thence to Chicago, remaining for some time in the employ of the fur company. In 1819 he accompanied General Cass to Saginaw to aid in the conclusion of a treaty with the Chippewa Indians, the two traveling on horseback to Saginaw while the soldiers assigned to protect them went by boat. Marsac returned to Detroit on the same boat after the treaty had been drawn up and signed. With the outbreak of Black Hawk's war, Marsac was given a captain's commission and authorized to raise a company. Before he and his company could reach Chicago, Black Hawk was captured and the company ordered to return to Michigan. Captain Marsac was employed as interpreter in making the treaties and sale of lands by the Indians to the United States in 1836 or 1837, the treaties being made on the present site of the city of Flint. After that Marsac came to Lower Saginaw as Government Indian farmer for the Saginaw river and its tributaries, a position which he held for many years until he was succeeded by James Fraser. Captain Marsac died in Bay City, June 18, 1880. Captain John S. Wilson, a native of Jefferson county, New York, where he was born in 1804, first saw Saginaw in 1837, when he came to that city from Thunder Bay Islands, in Lake Huron, to buy supplies. He was so well pleased with the territory that he made preparations to

Page  33 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 33 move his family to that section, and on November 16, 1840, he brought his family to Lower Saginaw. He established his family in a log house at Portsmouth and during the winter hunted and trapped. There he lived until he bought a piece of land from Captain Marsac, located between Eighteenth and Twenty-first streets on the river. To this twentyseven acre tract he removed in the spring of 1842. In the winter of that year he superintended the refitting of the forty-ton schooner, "Mary," at Saginaw for Smith & Little, and the following summer (1843) he was placed in command of the little vessel for trade between Saginaw and Detroit, this being the first regular trading vessel between these two points. Until the autumn of 1844 Captain Wilson remained in command of the boat. At the entrance to Saginaw bay the "Mary" was caught in a storm that drove it to the Canadian shore of Lake Huron and there wrecked it, Captain Wilson and his crew suffering indescribable hardships. They landed about eighty miles north of Goderich, and after salvaging as much of the cargo as possible and leaving one of the crew in charge, Captain Wilson and the rest of the crew started on foot for Goderich. There the unfortunate seamen learned that they must continue to Detroit on foot, and the result was that the entire journey to Saginaw was made in this way. Captain Wilson at that time settled down on his farm and devoted himself to the raising of fruit. He died in Bay City, August 1, 1879, and his widow died soon after. Captain Benjamin F. Pierce came to Lower Saginaw in 1840 where he opened the first store in the village. He was born in Jefferson county, New York in 1814. In 1846, he built the second warehouse to be erected in Lower Saginaw and in 1858 removed to the west side of the river where he engaged in general trade. For a short time prior to this, however, he traded with the Indians on the Au Sable river. He brought into this section of the country the first two stationary steam engines to be installed here, one of which was placed in a mill at Bay City and the other at Saginaw. Captain Pierce was the first clerk of Hampton township which was then a part of Saginaw county and was the only one organized between here and Alpena. He erected some of the first buildings at Au Sable and may be considered one of the pioneers of that place as well. Another store was started in Lower Saginaw in 1842 by Frederick Backus. In 1842 James G. Birney, candidate for election to the presidency of the United States on the Abolition ticket in 1844, was a native of Danville, Kentucky, and graduated from Princeton university in 1810. He returned to his native city to practice law and was elected to the Kentucky legislature. He then went to Huntsville, Alabama, where his success as a lawyer won the election of solicitor-general of the state. In 1828 he was one of the presidential electors of Alabama selected by the Whig party. Though a slave owner by inheritance and purchase, his mind became engrossed with the moral side of the slavery problem soon after this, due perhaps to the fact that he had just embraced the Presbyterian religion. He espoused the cause of emancipation of the slaves and freed all the slaves left to him after the death of his father. In

Page  34 34 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 1840, as candidate of the Liberty party for election to the presidency, he received 7,000 votes. Soon after his defeat he became one of the proprietors of the Saginaw Bay Company, which platted the village of Lower Saginaw, and in the summer of 1841 he came to the village in company with C. C. Fitzhugh and Dr. Daniel H. Fitzhugh to look after his interests here. Birney was so pleased with the prospect that he resolved to bring his family to live in Lower Saginaw, he and his family spending the first winter in the Webster House, a hotel at Saginaw which had closed down that year from lack of business. In the spring of 1842 he removed to Lower Saginaw, taking with him a herd of blooded cattle which he bought in Ohio and which proved a great aid in raising the quality of the county's cattle. In 1844 Birney received 62,300 votes for president as a candidate for that office on the Abolition ticket, and the following year received 3,023 votes for governor of the state of Michigan. In 1855 he went to Englewood, New Jersey, to educate his son and died there the following year. MRS. EMILY MARSTON. (Reminiscences) Mrs. Emily Marston, a pioneer of Bay City, tells us something of the years following 1862, when she came to live in this city. It was war times and Lincoln was calling for volunteers! Then men were conscripted and Bay City bore a heavy burden, having a provide a larger number of soldiers than the population of the city really called for. This occurred because of the fact that large numbers of Canadians came to Bay City during the summer to work in the mills and returned in the fall to Canada, and of course they were exempted. Many a sad call did Prosecuting Attorney Isaac Marston (later judge) make to a home, informing the father of a large family that he had been conscripted. Six hundred dollars was the sum which might be paid to gain exemption, but very few had that amount of cash in those times. Mrs. Marston remembers the first strike in Bay City. It was in 1865 in one of the mills toward what is now Essexville. Prosecuting Attorney Marston and Pat Parrot, a Frenchman who is thought of by the pioneers as the best sheriff Bay City ever had, went to the scene. The leaders of the strikers were arrested and landed in jail-yes, a jail was here along with the first houses. That ended the strike. In 1863 was Bay City's "big fire." The buildings on Water street south of Center street to Sixth or Seventh streets were destroyed by fire or dynamite, as some were dynamited to make a fire-break. An old ice-house alone was left and that had its casing burned off. The only water supply came from the river in those days and help was called from Saginaw. In 1862 and some time following there were no walks and no good roads. There was one old plank road on Center street just wide enough for one wagon; a passing "rig" took the mud road along the sides of the planks. Many a quarrel did that plank-mud road cause-some pioneers still remember. Bay City residents found traveling difficult in the extreme in those days. Whenever possible Saginaw was reached by boat in summer, but in winter one took a stage to Saginaw, went from Saginaw to Flint by

Page  35 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY rail, from Flint to Holly by stage, and then on by rail to Detroit-the journey from Bay City to Detroit consuming a day and a night. HAMPTON TOWNSHIP Nathan Knight, a native of Maine, was one of the early settlers of Hampton township where he made his home in 1856 and engaged in farming. He was active in public life, serving as justice of the peace, supervisor, and representative to the state legislature for four years from 1877-80. Louis Gullette, who was born in Mt. Clemens, Michigan, came to Lower Saginaw in 1836 and worked for the Saginaw Bay Company for about two years and then for Fraser & Barney for a time. In 1858 he settled in Hampton township, where he engaged in farming. His second wife was the widow of Leon Trombley, a pioneer settler of Bay City. J. T. Essex, a native of Connecticut, settled on a farm in Hampton township in 1857. Gerardus Vennix, born in Holland, took up land in the township in 1858. Henry Rooiakers, also a native of Holland, who came to the United States at the same time as Vennix, settled about the same time in Hampton township. William Roecker, another early settler of Hampton township, was a German by birth. He came to Lower Saginaw in 1855 and after a time bought a farm in the township a few miles from the city. Michael Engelhardt, also a native of Germany, was one of the earliest settlers in the township. Joseph Eddy, born in Providence, Rhode Island, came to Bay City in 1855 and three years later bought a farm in Hampton township. Carl Wagner, a German, came to Bay City in 1857 and soon after bought a farm in Hampton township. Patrick Bergan, who was born in Ireland, was connected with James Fraser at Bay City for a time and in 1858 settled on a farm in Hampton township. WILLIAMS TOWNSHIP John Gaffney, one of the early settlers of Williams township, was born in Ireland. He came to Detroit in 1853 and later to Livingston county, Michigan. In 1854, after viewing land in Williams township, he purchased a tract and occupied it in November of that year. He was then the only settler in the township and made weekly trips to Porter's on the Tittabawassee for supplies and to get the bread which was baked there for him. His trials were many, but in spite of the hardships, he eventually developed a good farm in the heart of the wilderness. Charles Bradford, another early settler in the township, was born in Otsego county, New York. After living for short periods in Fredonia, New York, Port Huron and Livingston county, Michigan, he entered the woods of the Saginaw Valley in October, 1854, and bought three hundred and twenty acres in section 26 in Williams township and erected a log house on the land the following February, oak shakes covering the roof and the floor being made of split logs. Mrs. Bradford came to her new home in April, accompanied by Lyman Brainard,

Page  36 36 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY her cousin, carrying her infant daughter, Andella. Bradford developed one of the finest farms of the township, he being an expert orchardist. Ira E. Swart, a native of Hadley, Michigan, where he was born in 1848, came to West Bay City when he was seventeen years of age. In 1869 he engaged in the mercantile business in Williams township with his brother but later dissolved partnership to go into a similar business with William E. Burtless. After two years Burtless retired and Swart was left in charge of the business, which he developed to one of the thriving businesses of the township. Samuel Rowden, a native of England, settled in Williams township in 1855, where he engaged in farming. He was active in politics, serving six consecutive years as township supervisor and for a number of years as justice of the peace. Josiah Perry, of Erie county, New York, settled in the township in 1856, where he had bought one hundred acres. William W. Skelton, born in Lincolnshire, England, settled on a farm in the township in 1855. He was the first settler in North Williams. John C. Rowden, an Englishman, settled in the township in 1855 and from 1862 until the end of the Civil war, he served in the Union army. Other early settlers were Levi Willard and Alonzo J. Willse, the former of whom settled there in 1855 and the latter in 1854 soon after Gaffney. The first marriage to be celebrated in the township was that between William Hendrick and Mrs. Arvilla Story, the ceremony being performed by Justice of the Peace Otto Raoser at the house of Charles Bradford. The first white child to be born in the township was a son of Amos Culver, the child being born in 1855. A mill was built in the township at what was known as Spicer's Corners for the purpose of sawing planks for the road being constructed between West Bay City and Midland in 1866, and it was the intention of the owners to put in stones for a grist mill when the road work was completed, but whether or not this work was ever done the records do not show. PORTSMOUTH TOWNSHIP Among the early settlers in Portsmouth township who have not already been mentioned in connection with the establishment of Portsmouth village were: Henry Hess, of Pennsylvania, who bought land in the township in 1851; W. B. Green, born in Ohio, who lived in Bay City until 1871 and then retired to his farm in Portsmouth township; Job Tromble, of Quebec, Canada, who settled in Bay City in 1850 and in 1860 bought a farm in Portsmouth township; Robert Potter, an Irishman by birth; Adam Beyer, a German, who purchased land in the township in 1869; James W. Hogle, of Vermont, who came to the county in 1865; Louis Knecht, who was born in Canada and settled with his father in Bay county in 1857; Charles Diehl, born in Germany, who came to Portsmouth township in 1858 after three years' residence in Bay City; Albert Birch, a native of New York, who came to Bay City in 1856 and later bought a farm in Portsmouth township; and Daniel Hallock, who came to Bay City in 1856 and bought land in the township in 1870.

Page  37 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 37 BANGOR TOWNSHIP Bangor township was organized in 1859, the second one on the west side of the river. Its first settlers were in what became the village of Banks and later a part of West Bay City. Parts were also removed from the original Bangor to form others of the adjoining townships of Kawkawlin and Monitor. BEAVER TOWNSHIP Levi Willard, who was born in Ohio, came to Michigan in 1856 and in 1857 settled on a farm in Bay county in what later became Beaver township. He remained the only settler in that locality for nine years. About 1865, settlers began to come in and in 1867 the township was organized, Willard becoming the first supervisor and taking an active interest in the improvement of the township. KAWKAWLIN TOWNSHIP In 1842 Harvey Williams, who was known to all the inhabitants of the Saginaw Valley as "Uncle," went to the mouth of the Kawkawlin river, where he engaged in trading with the Indians and fishing. These dealings were extensive gnd he was much loved and respected by the Indians. He continued to live there until 1864. In the winter of 1844-45, James Fraser and Cromwell Barney erected a water mill on the site of the later village of Kawkawlin, the construction work being superintended by Israel Catlin, who operated it for about two years. In 1847 the Indian Mission church, the first church to be erected within the presents limits of Bay county, was erected in Kawkawlin township at the Indian settlement about half way between the village and the mouth of the river. Frederick A. Kaiser, one of the first settlers of Kawkawlin township, was born in Germany and came to America in 1849. He came at once to Kawkawlin township, where he entered the mill in the employ of James Fraser. In 1867 he engaged in the lumber business, establishing mills on the Pinconning and the Kawkawlin rivers, which he connected with a railroad. John Sutherland came from Scotland, his native country, to settle first in Wisconsin in 1852 and in 1855 in Kawkawlin township on section one. He developed a two hundred acre farm in that township and also acquired much property in Bay City. Edward McGuiness, a native of Maryland, settled in the township in 1859 and went to work for the Ballou Lumber Company and in 1865 purchased 320 acres of land in section two, where he developed a good farm. Michael McGuinness, who was born in Virginia, also came to the township in 1859 and after working for the Ballou Lumber Company for several years built the hotel which bore his name and which he operated for many years. A. G. Sinclair and Thomas Munn were also early residents of the township although they later removed to Bay City. O. A. Ballou, the proprietor of the lumber company, bought the interests of James Fraser in 1857 and at that time settled in the township. The first store was

Page  38 38 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY that kept by the company, and in the same building was the first postoffice, which was established in 1868 and placed in charge of D. Stanton. The old water mill was torn down in 1862 to make room for a steam mill, which continued operations at that place until 1880, when it was dismantled and sent to Bay City. The first religious services held in the township were in the Indian Mission church, about 1863, but about the same time the Presbyterian and Methodist Episcopal churches began holding services, the latter body building its own church in 1873. MONITOR TOWNSHIP The Saginaw valley received an influx of German settlers in 1845 and other parties of Germans followed soon after, Frankenlust being founded by Rev. Sievers in 1850. Several of these Germans settled in what is now Monitor township to become the first settlers of that section of the county. Soon after this came Thomas Kent and his five sons from Canada, James Felker, William H. Needham, and William Hemmingway, the last named settling on land in section thirty-one in 1858. Hemmingway was soon followed by Jeremiah Waite, John Hunn, Frederick Shaw, William Gaffney, Owen C. White, T. C. Phillips, and others in the order named. William Hemmingway was born in Yorkshire, England, and within twenty days after he landed in this country he was in Williams township and soon made his purchase of land in section thirty-one, which he supplemented in 1864 with forty acres in section thirty-four. The low, swampy ground made travel through the forests well nigh impossible when he first reached there, and for him to go from Bay City to his home it was necessary for him to go by canoe up the Kawkawlin river to the south bend and thence by a meandering footpath through the forests to his home. In 1861 he married Martha Fletcher and by her had five sons and three daughters. T. C. Phillips, born in Novi, Michigan, learned the trade of carpenter and became an expert in the construction of mills. In 1862, after building mills in various parts of the state, he came to Bay City where he worked for a year as a millwright, and during the ensuing five years conducted a grocery store. He disposed of his mercantile interests and in 1869 became engaged in real estate ventures, acquiring considerable land throughout the county. He was appointed postmaster of Bay City in 1870, serving in that capacity eight years. He then assumed the management of the Bay City Tribune, continuing in that capacity until June, 1881, when he retired to his farm in Monitor township, which he had owned since 1864. William H. Needham, born in Erie, New York, went with his father during the latter's various moves to Batavia, New York, Ingham county, Michigan, Flint and South Saginaw, Michigan. William Needham bought land in Monitor township in 1856 in section thirty-two, but did not occupy it until 1862. He was the first supervisor of the township of Monitor after it was detached from Bangor township, served as

Page  39 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY township clerk and justice of the peace, and held other public offices of less importance. Frederick G. Shaw lived in his native Canada until he was fifteen years of age, and then came to Williams township with his brother, William. There he bought eighty acres of land in section twenty-four in 1855, remaining on this farm until 1871, when he purchased land in Monitor township and there made his permanent home. MERRITT TOWNSHIP Martin Powell, a native of New York, came to Lower Saginaw (Bay City) with his family in 1847. He served with the Union army during the Civil war and later bought a farm in Merritt township. He was active in public life, being township treasurer for five years and justice of the peace sixteen years. Horace Blodgett came from New York to Bay City in 1860, residing there until 1875 when he moved to a farm at Munger station, Merritt township. He was postmaster for a number of years. Rev. Thomas Histed, who was born in Sussex, England, came to Dexter, Michigan, with his parents in 1834 at the age of twenty-three years, soon after removing to Vassar, then to Saginaw. After a short time there, he came to Portsmouth on the old Portsmouth and Cass road, he being the second to traverse that highway. From Portsmouth he was forced to cut much of his own road to his land in Merritt township. His early life in the township was one of privation and hardship, for frequently during the years his land was so covered with water that the seeds in the ground were killed. But persistent effort enabled him to develop a good farm. Robert Whiteside came to Vermont with his parents from his native Ireland in 1833, and on January 1, 1849, he arrived at Bay City. He located at Caseville the following year, and in January, 1869, he located on a farm in Merritt township to become one of the first settlers of that section of the county. Samuel M. Brown, Nicholas Thayer, Henry F. Shuler, William Treiber, B. Schabel, John Fegert, Andrew Lovejoy, DeWitt Burr, Josephus B. Hazen, Frederick Beyer and John M. Lefevre were among the early settlers in the township. The first religious services held in the township were conducted by Rev. Thomas Histed, and he was apparently followed by Rev. Andrews. The Methodist Episcopal church organized a congregation in the township in 1876. PINCONNING TOWNSHIP One of the first settlers of Pinconning township was L. A. Pelkey, who was born in Sebewaing, Michigan, in 1840, and settled at the mouth of the Pinconning river in 1853, engaging in fishing on the bay for many years. He built the Michigan hotel in the village of Pinconning. He served several terms as supervisor of the township as well as being township treasurer and justice of the peace. At the time Pelkey arrived in Pinconning township, an old water mill was in oper

Page  40 40 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY ation near the mouth of the river and had been in operation for several years. It is believed that the mill was owned by a man named Chapell. Lumbering was carried on along the Whitefeather stream in 1868 by a man named Gulliver and the following year James Lomas carried on lumbering along the river. In 1869, when F. G. Stark came to the mouth of the Pinconning river to fish, a log mission church was already located at the site of the Indian village there. Stark later bought a farm in the township and operated a blacksmith shop in Pinconning village. The first church established in the township was the Indian church above mentioned, and in 1876 a Methodist Episcopal congregation was organized by Rev. R. L. Cope. A Presbyterian congregation was organized in 1881 with nineteen members by Rev. D. Shoop. The first school was started in a small frame building but in 1885 the first regular school building was erected and placed under the direction of M. R. Hartwell. The postoffice in the village was established in 1872, E. B. Knight becoming the first postmaster. The second hotel was started in 1876 by J. H. Whitney and James Powrie, who conducted it for about a year and then turned it into a storeroom. With the lapse of another year, it was re-opened as a hotel by James Decker, who was succeeded by Henry Beeching. James Powrie again became the manager in 1883. IRASER TOWNSHIP Among the early settlers of Fraser township were William Michie, Albert Neville and B. W. Merrick, the first of whom became the first supervisor after the erection of the township and who was murdered in 1882 a short distance from his home. William Fitch settled in Bay county in 1868 and in 1875 purchased a farm in Fraser township, where he built his home and barns singlehanded. Before coming to Bay county he had followed the sea as a captain on the Great Lakes. Bina Chute, who was born in Elgin county, Canada, came to Bay county in 1863, and after being employed by McDowell & Park for three years and then engaging in the saloon business he went to Fraser township in 1869 where he purchased a farm on which he built a hotel, which he operated in conjunction with his farming. He also served as township treasurer and school director of his district. William H. Hatton located in the township in 1874 and kept a hotel at the crossing of the Michigan Central railroad and the state road and also operated a general store. He was made postmaster, of the station of Michie when it was established. Stewart Kingston came to Bay City in 1873 and shortly after bought land in Fraser township and began the work of developing a good farm. He died in 1882, and his wife, Susan Trudo Kingston, left in care of two small children, took up the work where her husband had left off. FRANKENLUST TOWNSHIP Frankenlust township, or Kochville township as it was originally known, found its first settlers in a party of Germans who established

Page  41 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 41 the Frankenlust settlement in 1848 under the direction of Rev. Ferdinand Sievers. Rev. Sievers was born in Lunenburg, Germany, and graduated from Goettingen university. He studied theology in the universities of Berlin and Halle, taught school three years, and was then ordained a Lutheran minister and in 1848 led a band of his people to the United States and to the Saginaw valley where the village of Frankenlust was established that later gave its name to the township. During the years 1851-52, the mail was carried from Saginaw to Bay City by John A. Leinberger, who traveled on foot and required two days to make the round trip. It so happened that he met James Fraser on the trail one day and was asked why he didn't use a horse, for Fraser himself was an excellent horseman and made his journeys on horseback. Receiving the reply that Leinberger was unable to buy a horse, he told the mail carrier to go to his stables and take his pick of the animals he found there, saying, "When you get able, you can pay me fifty dollars, and if you never get able, keep the horse anyhow." Leinberger became one of the most prominent farmers of Frankenlust township, and he it was who performed the lobbying at Lansing to secure the attachment of the township to Bay county, and after this was secured, he was elected the first supervisor of the township. That the townships of Gibson, organized in 1888, and Mount Forest, organized in 1890, were erected at such a late date, the names of the first settlers in those localities have been forgotten, for the first settlers of these two townships were inhabitants for years of the townships from which Gibson and Mount Forest were eventually formed.

Page  42 CHAPTER III COUNTY ORGANIZATION AND GOVERNMENT BY an act of the territorial legislature in 1831, Saginaw, Midland, and Arenac counties were erected, each including all of its present territory and a part of what is now Bay county. Arenac was attached to Midland county for judicial purposes, but since the latter county was not itself organized until several years later, the actual seat of the government was in Saginaw. Subsequently this territory was designated as Saginaw township, Saginaw county, and such it was when in 1836 and 1837 Albert Miller and James Fraser platted their towns on the lower Saginaw river. But the population grew apace, and it became undesirable that this section of the county should be a part of Saginaw township. Accordingly, the organization of Hampton township was completed in March, 1843, the name of the township being chosen by James G. Birney after the county seat of the New York county where his wife was born. The original limits of the township included the Lower Saginaw region and the territory north as far as Mackinaw. On April 1, 1843, the first township election was held in the Globe hotel in Lower Saginaw with thirteen eligible voters present. The hat of William R. McCormick was used as the ballot box and for some time thereafter it was the standing joke of the community that McCormick wore a hat large enough to hold all the votes cast between Lower Saginaw and Mackinaw. Sidney S. Campbell, with a total of seven votes, was declared elected supervisor of the township over James G. Birney, who received six votes, Campbell to attend the meetings of the board of supervisors at Saginaw and to paddle his own canoe both ways. The township expenses for the first year were sixty dollars. The second township to be organized was that of Williams. The organization of Midland county, January 1, 1851, brought within its limits a part of the west side of the river. This fact coupled with the increasing population, rendered the erection of a new township necessary, and Williams township was accordingly organized in 1855. It originally comprised all of towns 14, 15, and 16 north, range three east, and all of Arenac county, but organizations of other townships have reduced it to the regulation size of the township, thirty-six sections. By the time Williams township was organized the people in the vicinity of Lower Saginaw and along the river had become so numerous that of the cases then before the Saginaw county courts nearly one-third concerned residents of this district. It is no wonder then that a movement was put on foot to erect another county to include the Saginaw river territory near the bay. The protagonists of this measure little realized, when first they took up the cudgels to obtain their wish, that the organization of such a county bordering the bay was the last thing

Page  43 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 43 desired by Saginaw and Midland counties, each of which wanted the fertile territory for its own. The same year that witnessed the organization of Williams township saw the initial steps taken in securing the erection of Bay county. J. Ss Barclay, a resident of Lower Saginaw, was elected to the legislature in November, 1854, from Saginaw county, and with their own man in the legislature, the people felt that the time was ripe for securing the passage of the enabling act. Judge Albert Miller and Daniel Burns were sent to the capital to lobby for the bill. Many of those approached were too indifferent to care one way or the other, and the rest were too influential and powerful. The indifferent thought it best to wait and see if the territory of the proposed Bay county warranted the establishment of a separate county government, for Lower Saginaw and the rest of the county then did not seem to meet the requirements of what should constitute a good county. The bill was introduced and voted upon, however, and by a small majority was defeated. In 1857, James G. Birney, Colonel Henry Raymond, B. F. Partridge and some others were appointed a committee to secure, if possible, the passage of the enabling act. T. Jerome, of Saginaw, was then representing Saginaw county in the legislature, and Henry Ashman was representing Midland county. Both of these men gave strong opposition to the bill, believing it to be to the best interests of their constituents to defeat a measure which would take from either county the possibility of ever acquiring the desirable bay country. Much debate on both sides ultimately resulted in the compromise bill of February 17, 1857, which had passed both houses and was approved by the governor on that date. The act provided for the erection of Bay county, true enough, but section two carried the proviso that the matter must be submitted to the vote of the qualified electors at the various township meetings in the county of Saginaw, and with the approval of the voters of the county the act was to become effective April 20, 1857. When it is considered that Bay county contained but few voters in comparison with Saginaw county and that the principal part of the county's territory was to be derived from Midland county (the county of Arenac which contained only about ten voters at the utmost), it may be readily seen that the rider in section two meant virtual defeat of the bill. The clause was revised just before the' passage of the act to read: "This act shall be submitted to the electors of Saginaw county, Midland and Arenac counties, at the township meetings to be holden in said county." The amended clause was even more favorable to the opposition than before. However, the election was held, Bay county voting 204 to 14 for erection, but Saginaw and Midland counties voted so overwhelmingly against the bill that the final results seemed to indicate an almost unanimous defeat of the measure, and the rejoicing in Saginaw and Midland counties was great when the results were made known. But the residents of Bay county were not so willing to accept defeat as the others were willing to attribute it to them. C. H. Freeman, a

Page  44 44 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY lawyer of Lower Saginaw, who had drawn up the bill as it was finally passed, asserted that the act left the approval to the voters of said county, Bay county, and that these voters had decisively approved the act, the measure was duly in force and Bay county was in fact a county. Saginaw county, and Midland, too, took the opposite stand, declaring that the defeat of the measure at the polls made the act void and inoperative. Acting according to the vote within Bay county, the officers of Hampton and Williams townships forthwith called the election for the first Monday in June, 1857, according to the provisions of the act, to elect county officers. A sheriff, clerk, treasurer, register of deeds, prosecuting attorney, judge of probate, circuit court commissioner, coroner and surveyor were duly elected and proceeded to administer the affairs of the county. Saginaw county, however, refused to recognize the legality of the election and continued to carry on its business in regard to Bay county as though the latter did not exist. The confusion resulting from this conflict of authority can readily be imagined, and conditions came to such a pass that the majority of the people of the county were inclined to accede to the claims of Saginaw county and abandon their sovereignty as Bay county. But here C. H. Freeman, who drew the bill, interposed with a violent championship of the truth of his interpretation of the bill which had resulted in the problem arising from the ambiguity in the act. A good opportunity of testing the question had never arisen. Many prominent lawyers had decided against Bay county organization when they were questioned on the matter, but finally Freeman appeared as attorney for the defense in a case on which John Moore, prosecuting attorney of Saginaw county, was counsel for the prosecution. Associated with Moore was Colonel William M. Fenton, of Genesee county, one of the prominent lawyers of the state. During the case the wording and construction of the act was questioned, and at first Fenton upheld the Saginaw attorneys, but when Freeman explained the various clauses and pointed out more minutely the phraseology, Fenton changed his opinion and supported the claim of Freeman that Bay county was duly organized. During the winter of 1858, a special session of the legislature was held at Lansing, and C. H. Freeman and Daniel Burns were sent to Lansing to secure an adjustment of the Bay county matter. The representatives of Saginaw and Midland counties were still as strongly opposed to the organization of Bay county as ever, but the chairman of the committee on towns and counties maintained that the clause in question could have no other interpretation than that put upon it by Freeman. Three bills had been prepared by Freeman before he went to the capital and one of these was passed by both houses. Although the governor had promised to approve the measure, he consulted Ashman and Jerome, of Midland and Saginaw counties, about it. The result was that he vetoed the bill, which if passed would have virtually established the organization of Bay county.

Page  45 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 45 This bill authorized the holding of court in Bay City for all cases arising in Bay county and confirming the jurisdiction of the circuit court in that district. A test case was brought up by the interested sides in the controversy to be sent up to the Supreme court for final decision. Dr. Dion Birney vs. Daniel Burns was the case, Burns being charged with perjury said to have been committed in the township of Hampton, June 29, 1857. The defendant filed a plea of abatement, alleging "that the saidl supposed offense was committed within the jurisdiction of Bay county, and not within the jurisdiction of this court" (Saginaw county court). The case went before the Supreme court at its May term in 1858 at Detroit. Freeman had, prepared; a full and' exhaustive argument in support of Burns, but a few days before the case was to come before the court, Freeman was taken so ill that he was unable to appear. Mrs. Freeman then asked Colonel William M. Fenton to take her husband's side of the case, which he readily consented to do,; for he believed that the contention of Freeman was entirely correct. The case was submitted to the court, with Fenton acting as Burns' attorney, and the next morning the decision was announced-the plea was upheld and Bay county was declared a fully organized county by that decision. At the time of its organization, Bay county included the territory now included in Arenac county. Soon after acquiring this section of virgin country, the supervisors turned their attention to administering the affairs of that part of the county, and in February, 1859, at a special meeting of the board of supervisors, Arenac was erected into a township. In 1870 Au, Gres township was formed from a part of Arenac township, and in the same year Clayton township was erected from another part of Arenac, William Smith being the first supervisor of Clayton and W. R. Bates of Au Gres. Peter Marksman was elected the first supervisor of Arenao township. The large northern township was again subdivided' in 1873 when the legislature created, Standish and Deep River townships, which were first represented by Menzo Havens and John Bullock, respectively.. Moffat, first represented by Alvin N. Culver, and Mason, of which Henry M. Smith was the first supervisor, were erected in 1874. Whitney township, also of Arenac county, was erected by the supervisors October 16, 1879. By an act of the legislature passed February, 1883, Arenac was detached from Bay county and erected into a separate county, Bay county at that time losing some valuable timber country through the organization of Arenac. The first regular election of county officers after the favorable decision of the Supreme court was held in November, 1858, and at that time the following officers were elected: Nathaniel Whittemore, sheriff; Thomas W. Lyons, clerk; W. L. Sherman, circuit court commissioner; T. W. Watkins, surveyor; Chester H. Freeman, prosecuting attorney; Thomas W. Bligh, register of deeds; James Watson, treasurer; and Sydney S. Campbell, judge of probate. The last four named had previously filled those offices, having been elected while the sovereignty of Bay county was still in doubt.

Page  46 HISTORY OF BAY.COUNTy The county seat was located at Bay City by the supervisors in their fixst meeting: in 1858, but the following year through the efforts of the Portsmouth supervisor, the county seat was located at that village. However, this attempt was short lived and the county seat was restored to Bay City the next year. At this first meeting of the board of supervisors, held August 1Q, 1858, Sydney S. Campbell represented Hampton township and George W. Smock represented Williams township. Campbell was chosen chairman and it was voted unanimously that the chairman be allowed a vote on all questions coming before the board. The sum of eighty-eight dollars was authorized to be paid to Indians for bounties on eleven wolves and twenty-four dollars to white men for three wolves. The board also allowed $70.43 for constable bills, and the sum of ten dollars was asked for the posting of election notices but for this work the board allowed five dollars. August Kaiser was allowed one dollar for boarding prisoners. The assessed valuation of the property of the county in the first year was found to be $530,589 by the board, and the tax levy for this first year was $1,165. E. N. Bradford, Israel Catlin, and Jule B. Hart were appointed superintendents of the poor. BANGOR TOWNSHIP Eighteen freeholders headed by John G. Kiesel, John Gies, Charles Nickel, Scott W. Sayles, Frederick Kiesler and Mathew Miller, of Hampton township in that section lying northwest of the Saginaw river, petitioned the board of supervisors to erect that area into a township to be known as Bangor township. On March 22, 1859, the supervisors passed a resolution erecting the township and setting the election date for April 7, the place to be the school house located on section twenty. S. W. Sayles, John Raymond, and Frederick Kiesler were appointed inspectors of elections, and at this first polling Scott W. Sayles was chosen the first supervisor of the township. The importance of Bangor township is considerably less than when it was first organized due to the fact that its area has been reduced to approximately six square miles, a condition brought about by the incorporation of West Bay City, which robbed the township of the major portion of its area. BEAVER TOWNSHIP Beaver township, which originally included all of townships 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 north of range 3 east, was organized by an act of the legislature in 1867. The first election was to be held at the home of Levi Willard the first Monday in April, the inspectors of election being Levi Willard, Josiah L. Wellington, and Oscar H. Kellogg. Levi Willard was elected the first supervisor of the township and was re-elected to that office until he had served six years. The present township of Beaver is the standard township of thirty-six sections. FRANKENLUST TOWNSHIP Though Frankenlust township was a logical part of Bay county and the people transacted most of their business in Bay City, the town

Page  47 HISTORY OFJ BAY COUNTY 47 ship, originally known as Kochville township, was. not included in the territory of Bay county when it was erected but remained a part of Saginaw county until February, 1881, when the township was detached from Saginaw county and attached to Bay county, at that time taking the name of Frankenlust township. The township was organized in 1856 upon the petition of seventy-five property holders. G. Stengel, J. P. Weggel, and J. S. Hehelt were appointed inspectors of the election to be held Monday, April 7, 1856, at the home of Andreas Goetz. At that time the following officers were elected: Luke Wellington, supervisor; John C. Schmidt, clerk; Andreas Goetz, treasurer; J. G. Helmrenh, Caspar Linik, school inspectors; William Butts, Heinrich Hipser, and Paul Stephen, highway commissioners; Luke Wellington, Louis Loeffler, George Hengee, and Leonard Fleabite, justices of the peace; George Hengee and Andreas Goetz, overseers of the poor; and G. M. Geigler, George Sturm, Andreas Schmidt, and Mark Kranzlein, constables. Fifty-one voters were present at this first township election. FRASER TOWNSHIP An act of the legislature, passed in 1875, erected Fraser township, which then included all of town 16 north, ranges 3, 4, and 5 east, and by this act the election was set for the first Monday in April, 1875. William Michie, Albert Neville, and B. W. Merrick were appointed inspectors of elections, and the voters met on the appointed day at the home of William Michie, where the following township officers were elected: William Michie, supervisor; B. W. Merrick, clerk; and Albert Neville, treasurer. The township was decreased to nearly one-half its original size when the township of Garfield was created from the western thirtysix sections of Fraser. GARFIELD TOWNSHIP Garfield township was erected from the western part of Fraser on October 19, 1886, after the committee on township organization had reported favorably on the petition presented the preceding day by these residents of the township: Elof Johnson, Gustav Menten, Valentine Knoedel, Owen Hazen, James Potter, Samuel L. Bishop, Francis Gallagher, and Urban Lewenson. At the first election, held April 4, 1887, the following officers were elected: Elof Johnson, supervisor; Joseph EH. Waldron, clerk; Charles Johnson, treasurer; and Erick Erickson and James Potter, school inspectors. Postoffices were established at Tebo and Crump, the latter having been named in honor of R. O. Crump, member of Congress from this district. GIBSON TOWNSHIP On October 18, 1888, a number of residents of Pinconning township, petitioned the board of supervisors to erect the western half of the township into a separate one to be known as Gibson township. On December 3, the prayer of the petitioners was granted and the election date was set for the first Monday in April, 1889, the town meeting to be held in the school house in school district No. 5. Peter Edmunds,

Page  48 48 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY Frank E. Bentley, and 0. G. Davis were appointed inspectors of the election, at which the following officers were chosen: Murray Bentley, supervisor; Edward Walsh, clerk; Smith Bowers, treasurer; and Andrew Faulds and LaFayette Dento, school inspectors. That Gibson township is a projection into Arenac county has been the cause of that county attempting to gain that township for itself. Standish, which was made the county seat of Arenac county, felt that if the township were made a part of the county, her position as county seat would be fixed for all time, because Omer, more centrally located, was making a persistent play to have the seat of justice changed to Omer. In 1903, J. J. McCarthy, of Standish, representing that district in the legislature, introduced a bill into that body detaching Gibson township from Bay county and adding it to Arenac. The Bay county representatives were absent the day the bill was placed before the lower house, and without a voice raised in opposition, the bill easily passed and was sent to the senate. By a strange coincidence, Senator F. L. Westover was absent from his seat; the day the bill appeared before the senate, and again the measure received the stamp of approval and passed on to the governor, who signed it without question. The indignation in Bay county was great, and the supervisors went into the courts in the effort to save Gibson township. It was claimed by the supervisors that this detachment of Gibson township from Bay county divided the Twenty-fourth Senatorial district, in itself contrary to law, and caused confusion and irregularity in the affairs of the county. Judge T. F. Shepard, of the Eighteenth Judicial Circuit, upheld the plea of the supervisors of Bay county, and Gibson township was forthwith returned. HAMPTON TOWNSHIP Hampton township was the first one organized north of Saginaw, and as has been said, was erected in 1843, the first election being held at the Globe hotel in Lower Saginaw with thirteen voters present. Sydney S. Campbell was elected the first supervisor. KAWKAWLIN TOWNSHIP The board of supervisors on January 7, 1868, upon the petition of residents of the Kawkawlin territory, authorized the erection of the township of that name. The petitioners were O. A. Ballou, Samuel Woods, John Sutherland, Charles Radcliff, Patrick Reynolds, Jeremiah Mack, Alexander Baird, A. G. Sinclair, Charles Powell, E. E. Gill, Paul Leme, and Owen A. Maloney. The election was set for the first Monday in April, 1868, to be held in the office of O. A. Ballou in the village of Kawkawlin at 10 a. m., the following men to act as inspectors of elections: 0. A. Ballou, Dennis Stanton, and John Sutherland. At this first town meeting, Alexander Baird was chosen supervisor for the township, which included not only its present territory but also that of the township of Beaver. The early history of the township was the usual one of the lumbering days. The land was heavily timbered and was one of the favorite hunting grounds of the Indians, who reluctantly

Page  49 HISTORT OR BAY COUNTY 49 surrendered their title to the six thousand acres on the Kawkawlin river inm 1837. The lumbermen entered the township relatively soon after, and it was not until by their operations much of the land had been cleared, did the influx of farmers occur to any large extent, thus explaining what seemed to be a tardy organization of the township. The first sawmill was built in the township in 184445, while previous to that Harvey Williams had settled near the mouth of the Kawkawlin and traded with the Indians. Most of these early settlers were not primarily interested in the permanent settlement of the country, the logging industry alone absorbing their attention, and it was left to the farmers to establish the organization of the township. MERRITT TOWNSHIP Merritt township, in the extreme southeastern part of the county, was retarded in its settlement by the fact that much of the land in that section was low and swampy. However, the settlers began the drainage of the land into the Quanicassee river and the results obtained were even better than they had at first expected. Upon the petition of twelve freeholders of Portsmouth township; the board of supervisors on July 8, 1871, erected the southeastern portion of Portsmouth township into a separate one called Merritt. The original petition for separation had been submitted to the board on June 8, and was signed by thirty-one residents, but on July 13, a protest against the separation was filed by eleven residents of the nine sections in range 5 east. Two weeks later the protestants relented and the township erection followed on July 8. The home of Joseph Gerard on the Tuscola plank road was chosen as the scene of the first town meeting, and B. F. Partridge, Henry Hess, and Martin Powell were appointed inspectors of election. Henry Shuler was elected the first supervisor of the township at this election. The discovery of coal under the land of Merritt township brought a new era of prosperity to that section of the county, and the What-Cheer mine, sunk in 1904, penetrated one of the richest coal veins found in Bay county. MONITOR TOWNSHIP Monitor township was erected by an act of the state legislature in 1869 from sections 30 and 31, town 14 north, range 5 east, and all of town 14 north, range 4 east, except sections I and 2. With Owen C. White, William H. Needham, and William Hemmingway as inspectors, the first election was held the first Monday in April, 1869, the first supervisor being William H. Needham. The officials of the township of Bangor entered vigorous protest against the erection of Monitor township, alleging that the act was a political one purely, but because Bangor township was at that time a large township, the protest was not entertained. MOUNT FOREST TOWNSHIP Mount Forest township, one of the most recent township organizations in Bay county, was erected January 14, 1890, by the board of supervisors upon the petition of the following residents of Pinconning

Page  50 - 50 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY township: John T. Lynch, Clarence Fairchild, Charles Miller, Michael.Paul, Lawrence, Joseph and George Wasielewski, Hugh Stevenson, John Barie, Fred Moore, George Collins, John Jankowiak, and George Capter. George Barie, supervisor from Pinconning township, approved -the petition, which was granted, all of township 17 north, range 3 east being set aside as Mount Forest township. At the home of Clarence Fairchild was held the first election, Clarence Fairchild, John T. Lynch, and Charles Miller acting as inspectors. The following officers were elected at that time: John T. Lynch, supervisor; Cash Kelley, clerk; John L. Hudson, treasurer; and John V. Lucas, school inspector. PINCONNING TOWNSHIP Pinconning township was also created by an act of the legislature approved February 28, 1873, the townships of Standish and Deep River in Arenac county having been created at the same time. The original Pinconning township comprised township 17 north, ranges 3, 4, and 5 east, but was later reduced by the erection of Mount Forest township from its western half in 1890. The first election was held on the first Monday in April, 1873, at the warehouse of Kaiser & Van Etten in Pinconning village, with E. B. Knight, Louis Pelkey, and H. Packard as election inspectors. Joseph U. Meechin was chosen the first supervisor of the township at this meeting. The name of the township was derived from the Indian word, "O-pin-nic-con-ing," meaning "potato place," for in this township the wild potatoes grew abundantly. White Feather river in the northern part of the township was named by the Chippewas in honor of the chief of that name. Like the other northern townships of the county, Pinconning was first the scene of extensive lumbering operations, the firm of Kaiser & Van Etten being one of the largest operators in that part of the county. The village of Pinconning was platted by Kaiser, and the Pinconning & Kaiserville railroad, which later became a portion of the Michigan Central system, was constructed by this firm to further its lumbering interests. PORTSMOUTH TOWNSHIP Since some of the earliest settlers in the county settled at Portsmouth village, the township naturally received its population early in the county history, and thus it was that one of the first acts of the board of supervisors after the organization of Bay county had been upheld by the Supreme court was the erection of Portsmouth township on March 25, 1859, Appleton Stevens being elected the first supervisor. -The size of the township was further augmented when, by an act of the legislature approved April 15, 1871, the south half of township 13 north, range 6 east, was detached from Saginaw county and added to Portsmouth town? ship, Bay county. This addition of eighteen sections of land to Portsmouth made the township so large that petitions were received by the board for the erection of Merritt township, which was accordingly done July 8, 1871, after the protests of many of the former residents-of Portsmouth township had been withdrawn.

Page  51 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 51: However, after the village of Portsmouth was consolidated with Bay City, a readjustment of the township boundaries became necessary, and on April 1, 1873, the legislature added to the remaining two sections of Portsmouth thirteen sections from Merritt and nearly six from Hampton to form the township of Portsmouth as it stands today. The revamped township held its first election April 5, 1873, when B. F. Partridge was chosen supervisor, an office which he retained for ten years; Henry Hess, clerk; and Nelson Merritt, treasurer. WILLIAMS TOWNSHIP Williams township was the second one organized in the county, it being erected by the Midland board of supervisors when that section of Bay county was still part of Midland county. It was organized in 1855 with Charles Bradford as the first supervisor, and in 1857 became a part of Bay county, Williams and Hampton townships being the only regularly organized ones in Bay county at that time. Although the township originally included townships 14, 15, and 16 north, range 3 east and all of Arenac county, it is today the regulation township of thirty-six sections. COUNTY BUILDINGS When the Saginaw Bay Company laid out the village of Lower Saginaw, two lots on Center street were set apart for a courthouse and county jail building. The foresight of the village proprietors and their belief in the village which they were starting has been justified by time, for upon these very lots are standing the buildings for which they were designated. In the fall of 1858, immediately after the Supreme court recognized the organization of Bay county, the supervisors of the new county ordered the erection of a temporary jail. This structure, little better than a shack, was erected on Sixth street near Saginaw street during the term of B. F. Partridge as sheriff, and this building was used as the county jail until it was destroyed by fire in 1863. Thereafter until 1870 the county jail was housed in a one-story wooden building erected for that purpose by James Fraser and leased to the county. The county offices were first housed in a wooden building on Water street leased from James Fraser, and there they remained until a fire in 1863 destroyed the building. At that time a one-story brick building was erected immediately in front of the present site of the jail and used for the county offices until the construction of the present county building was completed. The present courthouse and county jail were ordered built in 1868, the county being bonded to the extent of $75,000 for that purpose. The courthouse is a two-story brick building with basement, located at Center and Madison avenues, and the jail is at Center and Jefferson avenues on the opposite side of Center. The jail is a two-story affair supplied with cells of boiler iron entirely surrounded by corridors to prevent prisoners getting free access to the outside walls of the jail. Cells for female prisoners are maintained on the second floor,

Page  52 MISTORY OF BAY COUNTY The couaity poor farm was created in 1866 by the board of supervisors, a 120-acre tract of land on the east side of the river near the bay being purchased for this purpose. The land was thoroughly ditched and drained and upplied with dormitory buildings and other structures for the handling of mental cases. The county officers who have served since the orgafization of By county was officially recognized in 1858, have been as follows: Sheriffs: William Simon, 1858; B. F. Partridge, 1858; Nathaniel Whittemore, 1859; Jonathan S. Barclay, 1860-61; R. H. Wiedman, 1862-63; Patrick J. Perrott, 1864-65; John G. Sweeney, 1866-67; Patrick J. Perrott, 1868-69; Myron Bunnell, 1870-73; Martin W. Brock, 1874-77; George Washington, 1878-81; Charles F. Marsac, 1882-84; Martin Breiinal, 1885; Benson Conklin, 1886-89; Henry Gunterman, 1890-93; Alexander Sutherland, 1894-95; Henry Gunterman, 1896-99; Henry Kinney, 1900-03; John Hartley, 1904-08; Henry Kinney, 1909 -12; William B. Fitzgerald, 1913-16; Carl Schweinsberg, 1917-20; Theo dore Trudell, 1921-24; and Ezra Marvin, 1925 (incumbent). Treasurers: James Watson, 1858-61; Algernon S. Munger, i862 -67; Curtis Munger, 1868-71; Charles Supe, 1872-73; W. H. Fennell, 1874-75; Jacob Knoblauch, 1876-77; James A. McKnight, 1878-79; Charles Babe, 1880-81; William E. Magill, 1882-83; Charles Babe, 1884-85; William E. Magill, 1886-89; W. V. Prybeski, 1890-93; Michael Riegel, 1894-97; Charles J. Smith, 1898-1901; Alexander Zagelmreyer, 1902-06; Oar J. Mortin, 1907-10; Edward E. Corliss, 1911-12; George D. Corbin, 1913-14; Edward E. Corliss, 1915-18; Omar J. Morton, 1919-20; Carl Schweinsberg, 1921-24; J. W. Rusling, 1925. Clerks: Elijah Catlin, 1858; Thomas W. Lyon, 1859; Scott W. Sayles, 1860-61; Nathaniel Whittemore, 1862-65; Harrison H. Wheeler, 1866-67; H. A. Braddock, 1868-75; William M. Kelley, 1876-83; Wiliam Gaffney, 1884-89; George Reilley, 1890-93; Frank L. Westover, 1894-97; Ludwig Daniels, 1898-1901; John G. Buchanan, 1902-03; Warren D. Richardson, 1904-08; Willard D. Sweeney, 1909-10; Octavius A. Marsac, 1911-14; Charles L. Fox, 1915 (incumbent). Registers of Deeds: Thomas M. Bligh, 1858-59; F. A. Martin, 1860-61; August Kaiser, 1862-63; Bernard Wittauer, 1864-67; T. A. Delzell, 1868-71; H. M. Hemstreet, 1872-77; William G. Beard, 1878 -79; William G. McMath, 1880-81; William G. Beard, 1882-83; Johft Svage, Jr., 1884-87; W. A. Pettapiece, 1888-91; Henry Fenton, 1892 -93; Lewis Anders, 1894-97; John Boston, 1898-99; George E. Wedthoff, 1900-06; William J. Lambert, 1907-12; John A. Stewart, 1913-14; William J. Lambert, 1915-20; Lovell U. Grant, 1921-22; Fred A. Lewig, 1923 (incumbent). Prosecuting Attorneys: Chester H. Freeman, 1858-59; Theophilus C. Grier, 1960-61; Luther Beckwith, 1862-65; Isaac Marston, 1866-69; C. H. Dennison, 1870-71; Theron F. Shepard, 1872-73; G. M. Wilsonj 1874-77; Alfred P. Lyon, 1878-81; Henry Lindner, 1882-83; John E, Simonson, 1884-85; James A. Van Kleeck, 1886-87; Curtis E. Pierce 188891; Lee E. Joslyn, 1892-93; I. A. Gilbert, 1894-97; Edward E, Anneke, 1898-1903; Brakie J. Orr, 1904-06; Charles W. HitchCock,

Page  53 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 63 1907-12; James L. McCormick, 1913-18; William A. Collins, 1919-22; Frank C. Patterson, 1923 (incumbent). Probate Judges: Sydney S. Campbell, 1858-66; Herschel H. Hatch, 1867-70; J. W. McMath, 1871-74; John Hyde, 1875-78; Thomas E. Webster, 1879-87; Hamilton M. Wright, 1888-99; Griffith H. Francis, 1900-12; Edward E. Anneke, 1913-20; and James Donnelly, 1921 (incumbent).

Page  54 CHAPTER IV TRANSPORTATION HROUGHOUT all history can be found the truth that the development of nations, states, and small communities is either aided or retarded according to the methods of transportation by which those communities and states are served. The new country that first received its settlers were those sections most accessible, and that Bay county was visited more than three hundred years ago by the great Champlain is directly due to its accessibility from the outside and the safe harbor afforded by the mouth of the Saginaw river. The history of Bay county from the earliest days is but a repetition of incidents which show that its favorable location on a good harbor of a large body of water brought it to the attention of the first explorers. That it was not settled sooner has been a matter of conjecture, and the probable causes of this tardy settlement have already been explained in the chapter on Early Settlement. With the Northwest covered by an almost unbroken forest, the French voyageurs, the fur traders, and the first settlers who followed them, naturally turned to the easiest method of travel wherever possible, namely, the rivers and lakes. The Saginaw river thus became not only a main artery of travel to the Indians but also to the whites who settled on the land, and the canoe was a fixed part of nearly every white settler's equipment. The Indian trails, too, were used by the white men in their travels, and many of the trails, because of the direct routes they took between points and their favorable location were later converted into highways. In 1836 the territorial government of Michigan appropriated money for the construction of a state road to be built along the line of the Indian trail leading north from Detroit through Pontiac, Flint, and Saginaw to Saginaw Bay, but this road was never built clear through to the bay by the state according to the original plan. In 1827 a' similar road had been planned by the United States Government as a military project but only that section as far as Royal Oak was constructed. The project of the state, however, carried the road first to Flint within a comparatively short time and later to Saginaw. The major portion of this road was later planked by various plank road companies who received charters from the state to perform such work and to exact tolls from those using the road. Although an Indian trail paralleled the Saginaw river from Lower Saginaw to Saginaw, it was virtually impassable at some seasons of the year, and the principal means of communication between these two villages was by the river route. It was not until 1860 that a passable road between the two towns was constructed along the river, it, too, following the line of the old Indian trail.

Page  55 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 55: Another trail led from Lower Saginaw to Mackinaw and the Soo, and for many years traders followed this route and it was later chosen by the United States Government as a mail route, the mail being carried during the winter by dog teams with half-breed drivers. Other lesser trails penetrated to other sections of the county, but even they failed to play the important part in the development of the various sections as did the many rivers which flowed into Saginaw Bay. Coasting vessels from Detroit made stops at long and irregular intervals at the Saginaw river in the early days. In 1787, the sloop "Sagina" was built on the Saginaw river for regular trade between Detroit, Michilimackinac, and St. Mary Falls, and the following year the "Esperance" was built on the river. In 1792 relatives of Louis Tromble reported to the military governor at Detroit that this trader and two of his coasting vessels were lost somewhere near the mouth of the Saginaw river. A forty-ton sloop, the "Savage," sailed up the Saginaw river in 1830 seeking furs and trade with the Indians, and two years later a fifty-ton vessel brought freight for the American Fur Company and loaded a cargo of potatoes at Duncan MacClellan's, well above the sand bar, destined for Detroit. This shipment of potatoes is believed to be the first shipment of farm products ever to leave the Saginaw valley. The schooner "North America" was sailed into the river in August, 1837, and for many years after, George Raby, the master of the vessel, traded up and down the river and bay shore with this ship. The first cargo of lumber cut by the McCormick's was carried out of the Saginaw river for Detroit on board the "Conneaut Packet," captained by J. Davis Smith. This was in 1842. The schooner "Mary," which has been mentioned previously, was owned by Saginaw men and was sailed for two years by Captain Wilson before it was wrecked on the Canadian shore of Lake Huron about eighty miles north of Goderich. Although the steamboat was invented by Robert Fulton in 1807, and the first steamer, the "Walk-in-the-Water," appeared at Detroit in 1818, it was not until July, 1836, that the Saginaw river settlers were to see such a vessel or the broad waters of their river. On a day in that month, Judge Albert Miller, Supervisor Eleazer Jewett, and James Fraser were dining at the home of Leon Tromble, when the ten-year-old son of their host rushed into the little log house crying, "A steamboat! A steamboat!" The men hurried outside to see what had deceived the boy into thinking he had seen a steamboat, and to their astonishment they saw the steamer, "Governor Marcy," slowly making headway against the current of the river and a strong south wind. The boat had been chartered by a Mr. Jennison and others of Saginaw. In 1847 a boat was constructed for river traffic much on the order of the Ohio river boats. It was named the "Buena Vista" and was propelled by a paddle wheel at the stern, Orrin Kinney of Bay City being the first engineer. The construction of this river boat was financed by James Fraser, the Fitzhughs and others, and for many years the vessel did a thriving business on the Saginaw river and its tributaries.

Page  56 IWTOSY OF 7SAi XCUNTY Before the lumbering boom hit Bay City the arrival of a boat in the river was an event of such importance that it was heralded,by the firing of a small cannon at the post of the American Fur Company. In 1850, however, the "Columbia" began making regular weekly trips between Detroit and the Saginaw river; soon after the tug "Lathrop" began towing on the river; the "Snow" and the "Charter" were brought to the river by Captain Darius Cole; and after 1854 Captain Wolverton navigated the river in the steamer "Fox." During these years the importance of the Saginaw as a port of call was definitely established and during the years that followed, the stream veritably swarmed with boats of all kinds-freighters, tugs, ferries, sailboats, fishing boats, barges, and the like. The shore line to Alpena was established in 1858 by Captain Cole with the steamer "Columbia," and later the ships "Metropolis," "Arundel," and "Saginaw Valley" were placed on the Alpena run from Bay City. In 1868 the "L. G. Mason" and the "W. R. Burt" were commissioned for the river traffic to make connections with the Alpena boats. The "L. G. Mason" was destroyed by fire near the LaFayette bridge about 1890. Among the steamers plying on the river about 1885 were the "Metropolis," "E. T. Carrington," "Luther Westover," "Emerald," "Dunlap." "Sea Gull," "Handy Boy," "Plow Boy," "Post Boy," "Arundel," and "Forbes." When the lumbering industry was at its height, an immense fleet of steam barges carried the lumber from Bay City to the Ohio ports, and this entire fleet almost without exception wintered in the river. They disappeared, however, when the collapse came in the lumbering business in this section of the state. An idea of the river traffic can be gained from the report for July, 1868, of the number of vessels passing through the Third street bridge during that month. Three hundred and twenty-six steamers, 1,694 tugs, 442 sailing vessels, and 217 barges, making a total of 2,689 vessels. passed through the bridge in that month. The customs reports for 1883 show that 459 propellers and 961 barges entered the port and that 481 propellers and 1,114 barges cleared the port during the shipping season that year, the season being approximately 250 days in length. The deep draught propellers soon discovered a bar at the mouth of the river, and in 1867 the work of dredging this sand-bar was begun and completed in 1869, a channel being made capable of admitting the largest vessels plying on the Great Lakes. The channel up the river was dredged in 1884 and 1885. The first lighthouse at the mouth of the river was built in July, 1839, by Captain Wolverton for the government. It was the conventional white, wooden tower surmounted by the light and served to mark the harbor mouth until 1887 when it was superceded by a more modern structure, the old lighthouse being used as a residence for the lighthouse keeper until 1905. At the time the new lighthouse was built, a range light was installed and the gas buoy was placed at the mouth of the harbor. Since that time marking buoys have been placed beyond the mouth of the river to keep steamers from going too close to the mouth

Page  57 HISTORY OF BAY COaUNT 87 of the Kawkawlin river, which is gradually building up a dangeros sand bar at its mouth. In any river town the ferries have always played an invaluable part in the commerce between the two banks, and Bay City was no exception to the rule, for ferries soon put in an appearance on the river, plying between Bay City and her sister city on the west bank. The original settlers lived near the bank of the riven and all had their own boats or canoes, but as the community developed and homes were built farther and farther from the water, the later arrivals had no boats, and with this condition arose the need for ferries. John Hayes operated a skiff ferry for some time, rowing people across the river at Third street for five cents apiece. Following the construction of the Drake mill and the growth in importance of Bangor and Salzberg, a rope ferry was put into use at Third street and flatboats and sailboats carried passengers and freight to Bangor, Salzberg, and Essexville. A large flatboat with a cabin in the center for passengers and room for teams on each side of it was the rope ferry which was pulled back and forth across the river by a rope stretched from bank to bank. The operator of the first rope ferry is believed to have been Rich Angell, and one of the best known ferrymen on the Bangor route was Benjamin Trudell. The rope ferry served the needs of the communities until the building of the Sage mill in 1863 when a steam ferry was commissioned to handle the increased ferry trade. For two years this steamer operated between Bay City and West Bay City, and in 1865, when a stock company built the wooden bridge at Third street, the ferry was taken off the run. A steel bridge replaced the wooden one in 1876, and while the new structure was in process of construction a pontoon bridge was placed to the edge of the channel from each side of the riverl by Zagelmeyer brothers and a rope ferry was used to carry the passengers across the gap. In the meantime steam ferries were placed in service between Third street and Banks, Essexville, and Salzburg, a service that was continued until the electric line was completed to those places. Ferries ran on af half hour schedule. A wooden bridge was constructed across the river connecting Twenty-third street and Salzburg avenue and was maintained as a toll bridge until 1886. The steel bridge at Third street was purchased from the stock company in 1883 by Bay county. Prior to that time it had been a toll bridge, three cents having been charged for a one-horse carriage or wagon and six cents for a two-horse affair. In 1867, two years after the bridge was opened for use, toll collections for the year totalled ten thousand dollars. HIGHWAYS Some of the first roads laid out in the county followed sand ridges in order that the wagons might avoid the swamps and bogs. The old state road running north through Kawkawlin and Pinconning into Arenac county was such a road, and the "Ridge road" was another. Other roads were the usual dirt roads of that period, the places where they crossed swampy land being corduroy road. The corduroying was

Page  58 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY performed by laying logs in the road, covering them with a mixture of sand, gravel and clay. The first important road in the county was that known as the Tuscola plank road, which was begun in 1859 and partially completed in 1860. B. F. Partridge was employed to survey the route and to superintend the construction, a work in which he was assisted by James Fraser, Alexander McEwan, and Christian Heinsman, the last named acting as axman of the surveying party and McEwan taking the notes. A company was formed to build the road, and the money was advanced by James Fraser, the Fitzhughs, and others, who were given security for their money by those who subscribed for stock in the company. The amount of $40,000 was required to build the road, and it proved to be money well invested, for it opened up a fertile section of the county relatively untouched before that time. During the first year a twelve-mile section from Bay City to Blumfield Junction was completed, and since no railroad entered the county until seven years later, this road proved to be an important artery of travel. Like other roads built by stock companies, the Tuscola plank road was a toll road. The toll gate at the Bay City end of the road was located at Trumbull street and its intersection with the Tuscola road. The Bay City and Midland plank road was the first highway of that type to be constructed on the west side of the river. A Mr. Chilson, who believed that the main route of travel from Wenona to Midland would be along a quarter section line instead of the usual half section line, insisted that the road be built directly west from Midland street. The others with whom he was associated ultimately acceded to his wishes, and he surveyed the route of the proposed road as it was planned. By 1876 ten and a half miles of the plank road had been completed, extending west through Monitor and Williams townships. The planking of the Kawkawlin road was begun in 1876, but this road was superseded sometime later by the state road from Saginaw to Au Sable. The Bay City and Cass River state road, the Bay City and Junction road, and the state road north from West Bay City were other important roads built in the county during the early days. The first great step taken by the county in the matter of obtaining good roads was taken April 25, 1882, when at a meeting of the board of supervisors it was voted to expend $100,000 for the construction of macadam roads throughout the county. At that meeting the following resolution was introduced by A. C. Maxwell: "Resolved, That the sum of $100,000 be borrowed on the faith and credit of Bay county for a period of fifteen years at a rate of interest not exceeding five percent per annum, payable semi-annually, and that the bonds of the county be issued therefor in sums of $500 each; the moneys so to be raised to be applied in improving and macadamizing the state roads in said county as follows: "First-To improve and macadamize that part of the Cass River and Bay City state road between the east line of' the corporate limits of Bay City and the county line. "Second-To improve and macadamize that part of the Port Huron, Bay City and Clinton state road between the west line of the corporate

Page  59 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 59 limits of West Bay City and the west line of section twenty-three, in the township of Williams in said county. "Third-To improve and macadamize that part of the East Saginaw and Au Sable state road between the west line of the corporate limits of West Bay City and crossing of the east and west section line between sections two and eleven, in township thirteen north of range four east. "Fourth-To improve and macadamize that part of the East Saginaw and Au Sable state road lying between the north line of the city of West Bay City and the bridge over the Kawkawlin river on said road in section one, in township fourteen north of range four east. "Provided, That no such loan shall be made and no such bonds shall be issued unless a majority of the electors of said county of Bay voting thereon shall vote therefor at the election hereinafter provided for." The date of the bond election was set for Monday, May 29, of that year but was changed to June 12. The interest rate was changed to four and a half per cent. At the appointed time the election was held and the measure received the approval of a good majority of the residents of the county, so that work was begun almost immediately. By January, 1883, the bonds had been sold for $100,000 and contracts for fourteen miles of the road work had been let. By 1887 more than twenty-five miles of these roads had been completed, affording good means of communication between the various sections of the county. With the invention of the automobile and the rapidly increasing use of automotive vehicles, came the need for radically different types of pavement. The macadam road, excellent though it was for horses and wagons, soon became rutted and filled with chuck holes under the wheels of the swiftly moving automobiles and automobile trucks. Highway engineers at once began experimenting with the various types of pavement calculated to stand up under the terrific wear given by the automobiles, and the results have been various types of concrete, bituminous macadam, brick, and asphalt pavements. Bay county has kept pace with the other counties in the state in the matter of good roads, and up to 1925 the following types of improved roads have been constructed in the county both by the state and county: Concrete, asphalt, water-bound macadam, bituminous macadam, brick. The county and state roads in the limits of Bay county give this section a road system unsurpassed by any other county of the state, and all main portions of the county are easily accessible by paved roads of one type of another. RAILROADS Railroad construction in the state of Michigan was given a support that assured the building of worth-while railroads by the Congressional act of June 3, 1856, under the provisions of which each alternate section of public lands along the right of ways of certain specified proposed railways were granted to the various companies for furthering their work. On January 21, 1857, the Flint & Pere Marquette railroad was organized, and by an act approved February 15, 1857, the legislature granted to the railroad company the alternate sections of land along the

Page  60 60 HISTORY OF -B'Y COU NTY proposed route from Flint to Pere Marquette. Nine days later the company accepted the state grant, which was made in accordance with the Congressional act of 1856, and the map of the location of the railroad was filed in the office of the secretary of state August 7, and in the General Land Office at Washington on August 18, 1857. With the necessary negotiations concluded concerning the public land grant, grading was commenced in the fall of 1857, and ly August, 1859, the roadbed was ready to receive the ties and rails, the first being laid at the edge of the Saginaw river on August 19. A small second-hand locomotive was purchased for $2,000 at Schenectady, New York, to become the first engine on the Flint & Pere Marquette railroad. The "Pollywog," for such the locomotive was named, was used for many years, it being later rebuilt and christened the "Pioneer." After the year 1861, the lumber and salt industries of Bay City had grown to such proportions that an acute need for increased transportation facilities became apparent to the business men of the city, who began casting about for a way in which to connect Bay City with the Flint & Pere Marquette railroad at East Saginaw. Men of the city felt that the embryo industries of the county would undergo strangulation for want of adequate outlets for their products, and in 1863 the first steps for securing the desired railroad were taken. In that year a company was formed, of which James Fraser was president, and Judge James Birney, a leader in the enterprise, attended the extra session of the legislature in January, 1864, and induced Governor Blair to recommend railroad legislation. Judge Birney drew up the bill and it was passed by the legislature, authorizing Bay county to loan its credit to aid in the construction of a railroad from Bay City to East Saginaw. The county was allowed to issue $75,000 worth of bonds to be loaned to the first responsible company formed to construct the desired railway on the east side of the river from Bay City to East Saginaw. The amount of $40,000 was subscribed by the citizens of Bay county, and with that capital, the construction of the road was undertaken, for according to the provisions of the act, the bond issue could not be made until half the road had been graded. Judge Birney succeeded James Fraser as president of the company when the latter removed to Connecticut, and he secured a favorable disposition of the bonds, the grading continuing under the superintendency of A. S. Munger. Dr. H. C. Potter and Samuel Farwell subscribed the remainder of the stock when the grading was nearly complete and agreed to furnish the funds for the rails and rolling stock of the road. To A. S. Munger, construction superintendent of the little railway is given the principal part of the credit for the successful completion of the line. The low ground between Bay City and Saginaw threw consternation into the ranks of the directors of the company, for many engineers claimed that a railroad could not be built over such marshy ground. Munger, however, said that he believed he could perform the work, and with the solid backing of the directors, he set out to solve the problem. Working with an engineer, he discovered that the sub

Page  61 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 61 soil of the swampy ground was a dense clay suitable for a roadbed. Acordingly, he had a canal dredged, the dirt from it being thrown up on the right-of-way to form as good a roadbed as could be desired. The work of grading the road had begun in August, 1866, and the first train passed over the line November 23, 1867. The total cost of building the road had mounted to $215,000 by the time of its completion, and the Bay City & East Saginaw railroad, as it was called, was conveyed to the Flint & Pere Marquette railway before the former was completed. The second road to be built into the county —and it came close on the heels of the first-was the Jackson, Lansing & Saginaw railroad. This company was organized in 1864 for the purpose of building a road from Jackson to Lansing and within a year the project was completed, trains operating over the thirty-seven mile length of track during the winter of 1865. In the autumn of 1866, the company acquired that part of the Amboy, Lansing & Traverse Bay railroad then in operation between Lansing and Owosso, and by January 1, of the following year, trains were in operation over the entire line from Jackson to Owosso. Surveys were commenced at once for the continuation of the line north to Saginaw and Wenona (West Bay City). Sage, McGraw & Company and D. H. Fitzhugh proposed to the Jackson, Lansing & Saginaw railroad company that they would construct the roadbed, build the bridges, and furnish the ties for that part of the road from the bridge at East Saginaw to Wenona within twelve months, payment to be made with $80,000 in paid stock of the toad. The offer was accepted and the work was pushed with such energy that by December, 1867, the trains of the Jackson, Lansing & Saginaw railroad were running into Wenona. Charles C. Fitzhugh acted as superintendent of the work; J. F. Willey was in charge of the grading; and A. A. Wright directed the tracklaying. A railroad unique in the history of the county and a road that was one of the first to be built was originally known as the Pinconning & Kaiserville railroad. The road was built in 1873 by Kaiser, VanEtten & Company, owners of approximately 16,000 acres of timber land, and the eleven mile railroad was built by them merely as an aid to the lumbering industry on their lands. Heavy ties or logs formed the roadbed and to them were pinned hard maple rails 2x5 inches in cross section, and originally the locomotives pulled three to six loaded cats over this track. It was built from Pinconning, on the Jackson, Lansing & Saginaw railroad, to the village of Kaiserville on the head waters of the Kawkawlin river, the cost per mile of construction being approximately $2,000. It was reported of the first locomotive used on the line that it made a speed of from six to eight miles per hour when drawing loaded cars but could make twenty miles per hour when running light. But though the road was little talked of by those who sought the welrfae of the county, it nevertheless served a real want in the lives of the settlers of the northwestern part of the county, and in 1875,

Page  62 62 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY so great was the patronage which it enjoyed, the road was extended to' the bay and the name was changed to that of the Glencoe, Pinconning' & Lake Shore railroad. Two years later a branch was constructed running north about four or five miles to the village of Bentley in Gibson township, the name again being changed, this time to the Pinconning railroad. In 1880, the ownership of the road changed hands: and for the next three years it was operated as the Saginaw Bay & Northwestern railroad. In 1883, the line was purchased by the Michigan Central and by them has since been operated as the Gladwin branch of the Mackinaw division, the road having been extended to the town of Gladwin. As soon as the Jackson, Lansing & Saginaw railroad was in operation between Wenona and southern points, the attention of the officials was turned to the continuation of the line to the north. In May, 1870, the construction of this part of the line was commenced out of Wenona, fifteen miles being completed by January 1, 1871, and forty miles, Wenona to Wells, by January 1, 1872, and by December 20, of the same year, one hundred and twenty miles of the road north of Wenona were completed. The line became a part of the Michigan Central system January 1, 1871, when the Pinconning road was purchased, and has since been extended to Mackinaw, forming the Mackinaw division of the Michigan Central. In 1868 agitation was begun for the construction of what was to be known as the Northern Michigan railroad, James F. Joy and others of Detroit, the Fitzhughs, William and John McEwan and other prominent citizens of Bay City being interested in the project. The object of the company that was formed was the construction of a road from Detroit to Bay City and thence to Superior City connect-. ing there with the Northern Pacific. Approximately $50,000 in stock was subscribed in Bay City alone, and during the next few years, estimates were prepared, meetings held, and the like until 1872. At that time, with nothing more actually done toward the realization of the organizers' dreams than a paper railroad, James F. Joy, of Detroit, took hold of things in earnest and the Detroit and Bay City line, entering the county near the southeast corner, was built and completed in 1873 over substantially the same route as the old Northern Michigan railroad. This line, too, which is about 108 miles in length, became a part of the Michigan Central system, being designated as the Detroit branch of which the northern terminal is in Bay City. The Michigan Central railroad bridge was built across the river, in 1873 and was replaced by a steel one in April, 1905. The sections of the steel bridge were set up on land and floated to their positions and set on the piles of the old bridge as soon as the sections of the old bridge were removed, the whole process of changing the bridges consuming only six hours. The Pere Marquette railroad bought the Flint & Pere Marquette line, and maintains shops in the city. The next road to be built into the county was the Detroit & Mackinaw which was projected as early as 1882 but was not constructed

Page  63 HISTORY 'OF BAY: COUNTY 63.until 1897. The road runs from Bay City to Alpena and Cheboygan, passing through the village of Pinconning in this county. It has been a decided factor in establishing better business relations between Bay county and the northern sections of the state. It parallels the shore of Lake Huron, and has been known as the shore line railroad. The Grand Trunk Western system touches Bay City through the Cincinnati, Saginaw & Mackinaw railroad which was purchased to form a part of the Grand Trunk system, supplying Bay City with connections for Chicago, the East, and Canada. Its line from Saginaw to Bay City closely approximates that of the Pere Marquette railroad. The Detroit, Bay City & Western railroad provides direct rail connection with Port Huron, its line through the county being directly east and west. The road supplied a long felt want of the county by opening up the "Thumb" district of Michigan to the trade of the Saginaw valley territory. It is peculiar, too, that a railroad so much desired by the residents of Bay county should be the last steam road to be built into the county; yet such was the case. The construction of the road was begun in 1910, and by the following year it had been completed as far as Caro, a distance of twenty-nine miles. The Detroit, Bay City & Western railroad went into the hands of a receiver several years ago. It was operated for some time under the direction of the federal judge, and later under an organization of the bondholders, but without success. It appears that for most purposes that territory is better served by the automobile truck. Unable to compete with this new form of transportation, the road was sold at auction to one of the bondholders. He is at present operating a part of the road but has discontinued all trains into Bay City (except for a daily sugar-beet train during the fall of 1925.) The latest form of rail transportation is that of the electric lines, and by this means, Bay City is connected with Detroit by way of Saginaw, Flint and Rochester. The line was completed from Bay City to Saginaw in the summer of 1895. The Saginaw & Bay City, for such is the name of the interurban line, was taken over by another company which was incorporated in 1910. The electric lines have proved invaluable to the county, for they cannot be excelled for short-haul passenger service, and in the matter of freight, they are good feeders for the large railway systems. When the street railway service was discontinued the "Old Line" on the west side of the river was abandoned and its bridge south of the city is being dismantled. The "New Line" or "Third Rail" line on the east side of the river has continued, however, and gives Bay City regular interurban connection with Saginaw, Flint and Detroit. Inter-city transportation has, within the past few years, entered upon a new phase, that of motor bus transportation. The perfection of the automobile trucks and the resultant improvement in the highways to meet the changes, have worked to a logical conclusion, the establishment of bus lines. Bay county has received its share of the bus lines, which might almost be likened to the stages of the pioneer days, and those parts of the county which heretofore were without

Page  64 miwreny Or 9LY CX, IWIY means af masy tr amportation to Bay City. are nowermved' by the busse& From Bay City, lines of motor busses run, to Mid-land', Beaverton, Gladwin, Caro, Pinconning, East Ta-was, Sebewaing, Bad Axe and to Detroit. by way of Saginaw and Flint.

Page  65 CHAPTER V MILITARY T HE soldier has ever commanded the admiration and the love of the citizenry, and rightly so, for none but he realizes more keenly the hardships, the dangers, the suffering of the war which he has fought for the preservation of the ideals and the unity of his country. Yet with the knowledge of what they had to face, the men of Bay county have never been backward in offering their services to their country in time of war as evidenced by the fact that men from this county have served in every war but that of the Revolution. A man destined to become one of the leading citizens of Bay county served in the war of 1812 as captain of an infantry company at the battle of the Thames, and when the Black Hawk war broke out, he answered the call of his governor (Governor Porter of Michigan) and assumed the command of a company of Indian fighters, that was recalled, however, before it saw actual service. This man was Captain Joseph F. Marsac, a friend of General Cass for whom he acted as interpreter during the treaty negotiations in 1819 with the Indians at the Saginaw. One of the first settlers of Merritt township where he settled in 1855 was John Miller who served in the American army during the War of 1812, and he continued to live in Bay county until his death at the age of ninety-one years. The Mexican war and the ensuing troubles with the Indians on the western frontiers, found a man of Bay county, John Grattan Sweeney by name, serving in the ranks of the Sixth United States Infantry. From 1849 to 1855 he served with the army in the operations against the Indians. John Duschene, a pioneer German settler of Bay county, was another who served in the Mexican war. CIVIL WAR The real opportunity for the men of Bay county to show their mettle came with the War of the Rebellion, and as James G. Birney was the foremost advocate of emancipation of the slaves, so the men of the county were among the first to answer Lincoln's call for volunteers when Fort Sumter became the target for the guns of Moultrie operated by the Southerners. The Federal census of 1860 credited Bay county with a population of 3,164 men, and the records of the Adjutant General of Michigan show that 511 men from this county served in the Union army during the Civil war. Truly, this is a record of which the county may well be proud. Of this number of men in the army, eighty-three were either killed in action or died of wounds, and we may be sure that there were many who died premature deaths after being mustered out of the service from wounds received in the performance of duty that undermined their health. But the records of the county have not pre

Page  66 66 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY served the names of those who fought in the Civil war, nor have the names of the gallant 511 been set down for the future generations of the county to see, but there are many of whom we have record who stand out in the annals of the Union army. One of the most prominent of these was Benjamin F. Partridge. He was born in Shelby, Michigan, April 19, 1822, coming to Bay City in 1854 where he engaged in the lumbering business. At the time of the outbreak of the Civil war he was sheriff of Bay county. When his term expired, he began recruiting men for the 16th Michigan Infantry, being commissioned first lieutenant of Company I, that regiment, in March, 1862. He possessed all the best qualities of a soldier and his pronounced ability of leadership brought him steady promotion during the next three years until in March, 1865, he was breveted brigadier-general. In the engagement at Peeble's farm, he was wounded in the neck, and at the battle of Quaker Road, although he was wounded there in the head, he remained in active command of his brigade, remaining with Grant during the final campaign of the war from Petersburg to the surrender at Appomattox court house, where his brigade received twenty-eight of the seventy-one battle flags captured by the Union army. After participating in the Grand Review at Washington, he was sent with his brigade to Louisville, Kentucky, where he was given command of an additional unit of four regiments where he remained until July, 1865, when his brigade was mustered out of the service. In all, he participated in all but two of the fifty-four engagements in which the 16th Michigan Infantry took part, he being confined to the hospital during those two. Colonel Henry S. Raymond, who came to Bay City with his father, Colonel H. Raymond, in 1849, was mustered into the service in 1862 as captain of Company F, 23rd Michigan Infantry, winning promotion during the next three years to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He died in Detroit in 1904. Company F, of the 23rd Infantry, was the first company to be recruited entirely in Bay City. Samuel Maxwell, afterward a justice of the Supreme Court of Nebraska, was one of the first to enter the service from Bay county. He served four years. Archibald L. McCormick, the first white child born north of the Flint river in Michigan, lost his life when leading his company in an assault against a battery on Kenesaw Mountain during Sherman's march to the sea. He had been wounded prior to that time and had known the suffering in the Confederate prison camps. James A. Van Kleeck, commander of the Michigan department of the G. A. R. from 1900-01, served with Company D, 17th Michigan Infantry, known as the Stonewall Regiment. In the battle of Antietam he was severely wounded, and during the next eight months lay in a hospital maintained in a church near the scene of that bloody battle. Major Lyman G. Willcox, at one time national commander of the National League of Veterans and Sons, recruited Troop B, Third Michigan Cavalry, serving until the end of the war with that regiment and being mustered out with the brevet rank of lieutenant-colonel. G. A. VanAlstine, Company L, First Michigan Engineers, enlisted in 1862.

Page  67 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 67 In the Battle of the Wilderness he was wounded and captured by the Confederates by whom he was imprisoned at Andersonville until the close of the war, he returning home in June, 1865. Alonzo B. Freeman enlisted in the Second Michigan Infantry in 1861 and served until 1864 when he was incapacitated for further service from wounds received at Petersburg. Samuel Benson, served with the Third Michigan Cavalry from 1861-65. J. S. Fox, who enlisted in the First Michigan Infantry in 1861 was discharged in 1865. He was wounded at Savage Station, spent six months in enemy prisons and one year in the hospital. John M. Schucker, a pioneer resident of the county who located here in 1853 served with the Second Michigan Cavalry from 1861 to 1865, being wounded in action at Gettysburg. Newcomb Clark, lieutenant of the 14th Michigan Infantry, was promoted to major and assigned to the 102nd United States Infantry, a regiment of negro troops. He served from 1861 to the end of the war. Captain Albert W. Watrous served with the Fifth United States Infantry. Leonard Jewell, born in 1815, came to Bay City in 1844 and enlisted in Company A, 14th Michigan Infantry in 1862, serving until the end of the war. Jewell was the oldest recruit from Bay county. Charles W. Dease was a member of Company D, 10th Michigan Infantry from 1861 to the close of the war. W. E. Carney served with the 15th Michigan Infantry from 1863 to 1865. Horace B. Mix, who enlisted in Company C, United States Engineers of the Veteran Corps, was wounded at Vicksburg, and after spending eleven months in the hospital, he returned to his outfit and served until the close of the war. Daniel Hughes was with the First Mounted Rifles from 1862 to the end of the war. Charles A. Vosburg, who located in Bay county in 1853, enlisted in Company D, 10th Michigan Cavalry, in 1862, serving until the end of the war. Gabriel Widmer was with the First United States Engineers from 1864 to 1865. William Stewart, who enlisted in the Second Michigan Cavalry in 1861, lost a leg at the battle of Spottsylvania court house, he being discharged from the service in 1864. Captain B. W. Merrick, of Company E. Fifth Michigan Infantry, was wounded in the shoulder at the battle of Fredericksburg, and after five months he returned to duty and served until the close of the war. Eugene Burr was a member of Company C, 30th Michigan Infantry, from 1864 to 1865. B. McBrookins, who was a law partner of former Judge Andrew C. Maxwell, enlisted in the army and died in the service. William Catlin enlisted in 1861 in Company A, Fifth Michigan Infantry, and during the Shenandoah campaign he received wounds from which he died January 18, 1865. George E. Aiken gave up the shoe business in Bay City to enlist in Battery D, Michigan Light Artillery, with which he served from 1861 to 1865. Henry Fenton, one time register of deeds of Bay county who died in 1904, served from 1862 to 1865 with the 17th Michigan Infantry. Henry Lindner, who located in Bay county in 1858 and was county prosecuting attorney from 1883-84, served with the Fourth Michigan Infantry.

Page  68 68 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY The case of John Friebe, a resident of Bay City for more than forty years, is unique in the history of the county's Civil war history. Friebe, a sailor on a German ship out of Reugen, was with his ship in Wilmington, Delaware, when Fort Sumter was fired on. Though he could speak no English, Friebe enlisted in the First Delaware, serving with his regiment in more than forty engagements including the battle of Gettysburg. He was wounded several times. He died in Bay City in January, 1905. L. H. Friffin was orderly sergeant in the First Michigan Cavalry from 1861 to 1866. W. H. Lynch, too small to carry a gun in the ranks, became a drummer boy with the First United States Infantry and was captured, being confined in the prisons of Andersonville and Belle Isle for more than a year. H. C. Meyers enlisted in the United States Navy in 1861, but in 1863 he secured a transfer to the 11th Michigan Cavalry with which he served until the end of the war. In 1861, Lieutenant John W. Shearer enlisted in the Second Michigan Infantry with which he participated in thirty-six engagements, being discharged in 1865. Benno A. Katthain served with the 14th Michigan Infantry from 1862 to 1865. Captain James G. Birney, the grandson of the liberator, served through the war with the Seventh Michigan Cavalry, and died in 1869 while serving with United States troops on the Indian frontier. Dr. Henry B. Landon graduated from the University of Michigan in 1861 and at once enlisted in the Seventh Michigan Infantry of which he became adjutant. He was wounded at Fair Oaks and after his discharge he rejoined the army as surgeon, serving in that capacity until 1864. Judge George P. Cobb served with the Fifth Michigan Cavalry for the last two years of the war, and Dr. W. E. Vaughn was an army surgeon from 1862 until the close of the war. J. W. Knaggs, a private in Company A, Fourth Michigan Infantry, lost an arm at the battle of Malvern Hill. After lying on the battlefield for seven days, he was taken prisoner by the Confederates and confined in Libby prison. Soon after he was exchanged and taken to Bellevue hospital, New York, where he stayed until 1863. E. B. Nugent, who enlisted in the Third Michigan Cavalry in 1861, rose to the rank of major by the close of the war. At the age of sixteen years, H. H. Norrington enlisted in the famous Loomis Battery in 1862, participating in thirtytwo engagements and being wounded at the battle of Stone River. He was taken prisoner and later exchanged. He was granted a lieutenant's commission upon the recommendation of General Reynolds after he had carried dispatches through the lines after six previous attempts to do so had failed. George W. Butterfield enlisted in Company B, 22nd Michigan Infantry, August 7, 1862. He was transferred to the signal corps, October 18, 1863, and as wig-wag signaller, he served with Generals Rosecrans, Thomas, Sherman and Grant. He was in the Chattanooga and Atlanta campaigns and was with Sherman on the march to the sea. During the Chattanooga campaign, he was stationed for a time on Lookout Mountain. While at the latter station the signal men and a small detachment of soldiers acting as guards, narrowly escaped capture.

Page  69 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 69 Surrounded by the enemy and ordered to surrender, the captain told the enemy to "come and take us." The bluff worked-the enemy feared a larger force might be concealed behind the breastworks, and waited. At night, Mr. Butterfield and his comrades stripped the bark from trees, and, with rope made from this, they let themselves down over the rocky precipices in the dark. They reached the Union lines near Chattanooga next morning, badly bruised and in rags, but happy to have escaped the horrors of a Southern prison. One of Major L. G. Wilcox' favorite war stores was about the great coolness and braveiy of Mr. Butterfield in a very trying situation. There was urgent need for reinforcements in an engagement eighteen miles south of Nashville, Tennessee, and the signal corps was instructed to send the message. Of course that meant that the enemy's fire would be directed at the one giving the signal. After two men had been shot from the signal platform, it was Butterfield's turn, according to drawn lots. Without hesitation, he mounted the platform and carefully wigwagged the complete message that brought the needed help. He had been in such a shower of bullets that many holes had been made in the signal flag and even in his uniform, though he miraculously escaped without a wound. A rebel captured later asked to see the soldier who had signaled the message, saying, "He's the bravest man this side of hell." Butterfield was present at the surrender of General Johnston and his army. He took part in the Grand Review at Washington and was mustered out of service at St. Louis on July 10, 1865. He later served Bay City for over thirty years in the mail service and twelve years on the board of education. Henry Schindehette, for many years United States marshal at Bay City, enlisted in the 24th Michigan Infantry in 1862. At the battle of Gettysburg he received a hip wound which confined him to a hospital for eight months. He received his discharge in 1864. J. Fred Whittemore served with the Third Michigan Cavalry in which he enlisted in 1862, being discharged in 1865. N. N. Murphy, chief of the Bay City Police Department for many years, enlisted in the 10th New York Artillery in 1862, serving with that regiment until 1865. Fred W. Barclay, a tugboat man on the Saginaw river, enlisted in the United States Navy in 1863 and served two years. From 1861 to 1865, Lafayette N. Brown served with the Seventh Michigan Infantry. James A. McKnight and Henry H. Alpin served with the 16th Michigan Infantry from 1862 until the close of the war. In 1861, George A. Allen enlisted in Company A, 10th Michigan Infantry, with which he served until 1865. Oliver H. Irons, who was a member of the 23rd Michigan Infantry, lost his eyesight from wounds received in action. W. E. Callender served with the Sixth United States Cavalry in 1861-62 and then became captain of the Ninth Battery, Veteran Artillery, until the close of the war. Truman Rundell, of Company H, 23rd Michigan Infantry, was wounded at Nashville and for eleven months was in the hospital. John C. Rowden, pioneer resident of Auburn was a member of Company F, 23rd Michigan Infantry, and was wounded at Franklin and at Altoona Pass. His neighbor, Henry W. Hopler,

Page  70 70 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY served side by side with Rowden and participated in every engagement of the regiment. Augustus Horn, Company E, 22nd Michigan Infantry, enlisted in 1862 and served until 1865, receiving a wound in the shoulder at the battle of Chickamauga. One of the first Bay county men to enlist in the army was George Schultz who served with Company K, Second Michigan Cavalry from 1861 to 1865. Luman S. Harris, with the 10th Michigan Infantry, was permanently disabled at the battle of Shiloh, and William Maxon served with the 10th Michigan Cavalry from 1861 to the close of the war. Captain E. S. Burnham of the First Michigan Artillery was wounded in the battle of Petersburg, and Captain A. J. Cooke, of the 148th New York Infantry, was wounded during the same engagement. Other Bay county men who served in the army during the Civil war are as follows: Dr. Robert W. Erwin, Lieutenant E. T. Carrington, Captain Orrin Bump, Lieutenant H. F. Emery, Lieutenant M. M. Andrews, Lieutenant H. E. Meeker, Captain George E. Turner, Chester L. Collins, Larry McHugh, Dr. H. B. Hulbert, Dr. C. W. Maxon, Captain Richard Armstrong, O. F. Kellogg, J. N. Syrmeyer, James McCabe, Benson Conklin, H. P. Warfield, Solomon Wilhelm, Marion A. Randall, Henry W. Sims, and E. W. Oakes. Bay county was the eighty-fifth subdistrict of Michigan for enrolling recruits in the military service and the officers in charge of that work during 1863 were T. C. Phillips, Judge Isaac Marston, and Ransom P. Essex. By 1864, the number of eligible men had been so far depleted in Bay county that the county's quota was reduced by forty-five, a reduction that meant a saving of approximately $15,000 in bounties. The women of Bay county during the four years of bloody warfare must be given their just dues, for without their support, their willingness to do all in their power to help the cause for which their men were fighting was a material aid in the successful prosecution of the war. Sewing circles were organized to make articles of clothing for the soldiers in the field, to make hospital supplies, to give entertainments that money might be raised for presents to be sent to the men in the army. No records have chronicled the achievements of these women who not only did these things but carried on the farm work and businesses of the county while the husbands, sons and brothers were fighting the war, yet that they did such things we know from the frequent stories of the men who fought for them and who are loudest in the praise of their unsung achievements. SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR The catastrophe which brought on the Spanish-American war, or rather the catastrophe which precipated the declaration of a war against Spain which had been impending for some months, was felt more strongly in the homes of Bay county than in most places of the United States, for when the battleship "Maine" was blown up as she rode at anchor in Havana harbor, two of the 266 men killed were former residents of Bay City. They were

Page  71 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 71 Seamen Hawknis and Elmer W. Meilstrup. The latter was a son of J. S. Meilstrup, who was for many years connected with the Sage company of West Bay City. Young Meilstrup was a graduate of the high school, and until he joined the navy in 1897, he was a member of the Peninsular Military company. William Mattison, color bearer of the same company in 1905, was also a member of the crew of the "Maine," and when the explosion occurred, he was blown overboard and was picked out of the water by a rescuing party. He suffered for months from the scalds and wounds he received in the explosion but finally recovered. The Peninsular Military company was organized in November, 1873, by members of the I. K. U. K. club, and on April 13, 1874, the company was mustered into the service of the state as Company D, Third Regiment, M. S. T. with Frank H. Blackman, a veteran of the Sixth Maine Infantry, as captain, the other officers being L. A. Pratt, first lieutenant, and T. K. Harding, second lieutenant. The non-commissioned officers of the company at that time were: G. Harry Shearer, first sergeant; Charles R. Hawley, later brigadier-general in the Michigan National Guard, T. A. E. Weadock, J. S. McNeil, and Frank Denio, sergeants. Other members of the company who became prominent in the affairs of the city in later life were J. L. Stoddard, Edgar A. Cooley, W. G. McMath, Judge Thomas E. Webster, Charles D. Vail, C. C. Whitney, J. F. Eddy, B. Burton, Mendel J. Bialy, R. C. Bialy, F. S. Pratt, J. A. McKay, Lyman F. Beach, J. K. Mason, R. B. Dolsen, L. Dolsen. In 1877 the company was ordered to Detroit during the riots caused by railroad troubles, and in 1881 it was guard of honor to Governor Begole at the centennial celebration on the battlefield at Yorktown, Virginia, under the command of Captain C. R. Hawley. Under the command of Captain H. P. Warfield, a Civil war veteran, the company was on active duty during the strikes of the sawmill workers in 1884-85 along the river front. When it became certain in March, 1898, that war was inevitable, the young men of Bay county began enlisting in the militia. The companies of the Michigan regiments were limited to 112 men, and thus many who were unable to enlist in home companies found places in other regiments, so that Bay county furnished in all about 300 men to the army during the Spanish-American war. On April 26, 1898, the company, which was to be known later as Company C, 33rd Michigan Volunteer Infantry, entrained for Island Lake to join the rest of the five Michigan regiments at that point. On May 28, the 33rd Michigan Infantry, of which the Peninsulars were a part, left Island Lake for Camp Alger, Virginia, a camp that was still only on paper, the arriving regiments being forced to clear the land to provide barrack room and a parade ground. The 34th Michigan Infantry arrived at the same camp on June 7, and these two regiments were brigaded with the Ninth Massachusetts under General H. M. Duffield, of Detroit, a veteran of the Civil war. The scarcity of water at the camp and the poor food soon resulted in increasing numbers of typhoid fever and dysentery

Page  72 72 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY cases. On June 22, the 33rd and one battalion of the 34th Michigan infantry left for Newport News where they embarked on the "Yale" the following day. The remainder of the battalion embarked on the Harvard three days later. The Michigan regiments landed June 27, 1898, on the beach at Baiquiri, Cuba, and for some time thereafter the 33rd was engaged in various labor jobs. They were ordered to assault the fortified height of Aquadores at daybreak of July 1, but when they reached the Aquadores river, it was found that the bridge had been destroyed, making crossing impossible. A long march was then made to the rear of General Kent's division where they were placed in reserve. During part of this march the men were under heavy rifle fire from the Spaniards. They were then placed in the trenches with the regulars to repell the attacks of the Spaniards and they witnessed the last attack of the losing army on June 10. The surrender of the Spanish army in the valley below San Juan hill, July 17, 1898, was witnessed by the Michigan men. On September 1, the regiments, which had been quarantined at Montauk, Point, New York, for yellow fever, started for home. After a two months furlough, the Michigan regiments were mustered out of service. Those Bay county men who fell in the war are as follows: W. H. Dollard, J. T. Sills, Frank E. Sharp, Guy A. Poole, Arthur Fisette who died in Cuba, Bert F. Becker, Will Thompson, Fred Von Walthausen, Fred Meyers, William Pringle, J. W. McKee, F. Parent, and D. H. Hamilton, all of whom died in the United States, and W. J. McLean, Ralph Thompson, F. Warner, Charles Calkins, Frank L. Harwood, and R. Archambeau, who died in the Philippines. The muster roll of the company from Bay City on the day it entrained for Island Lake was as follows: W. D. Parke, captain; C. H. Dumont, first lieutenant; G. A. Mandley, second lieutenant; J. T. Sills, quartermaster sergeant; H. E. Burton, W. N. Schultz, A. R. Frantz, R. V. Miller, H. J. Hoffman, and J. H. Alberts, sergeants; C. D. Webster, A. N. Rhodes, Frank Koth, G. T. Whaler, E. M. Jones, Louie Irons, J. E. Brockway, and R. S. Young, corporals; W. S. Kursrock and P. M. Lawrence, musicians; and privates, E. A. Annis, George Brisbeau, Henry Campbell, C. C. Carter, F. W. Crosbie, Charles C. Cuthbert, G. A. Cobb, J. J. Coleman, Orrin Coleman, J. C. Delaney, W. H. Dollard, E. C. Eickemeyer, J. M. Goepfert, Emil Gelinas, A. Grimm, Stanley Gilkey, H. J. Graham, G. R. Hoover, F. L. Harwood, F. J. Haut, H. F. Kutella, Fred Karl, H. J. Koth, John Karpus, L. C. Knack, F. G. Leser, Florenz Lutzke, F. Marshall, D. H. MacMillan, C. J. McIntyre, J. W. McKee, William Metzger, C. C. Merritt, F. R. Merrick, W. R. Misener, A. McClellan, H. J. C. Maus, A. L. Montgomery, C. W. Marshall, Chester Nolan, J. J. Parker, H. S. Perry, A. Potter, H. H. Presley, G. G. Reinhardt, J. K. Reigel, H. E. Rogers, William Risto, J. S. Sills, C. C. Stockford, E. A. Spier, J. H. Schultz, J. Schettler, H. H. Schroeder, W. H. Thompson, Roy Verity, E. A. Van Dyke, W. F. Van Dyke, C. L. Walk, B. Walker, F. B. Wiley, G. A. Wright, F. A. Wells, and J. F. Beredan, the last of whom was a veteran of the Civil war and was later barred because of his age.

Page  73 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 73 A number of these men were not mustered into the United States service because of physical unfitness, and to fill the vacancies created in the ranks of the company, these men were mustered in at Island Lake: M. Anderson, J. A. Brown, W. M. H. Carpenter, Charles Calkins, E. S. Dunbar, R. M. Dawley, W. H. Ellis, E. A. Foss, A. E. Fessette, H. D. Fenton, P. E. Filiatrault, F. B. Hammond, F. E. Bence, P. F. Hendrie, A. B. Kelley, F. A. Greening, J. B. Galloway, J. L. Hiliker, H. Hallead, W. E. Hurlbert, J. W. Hutchins, W. E. Johnson, G. P. Labadie, F. Langstaff, A. A. Lyon, C. F. Laframboise, C. L. Martin, J. Lester, D. L. Meyers, Fred Meyers, A. G. Nobeck, Al. Ostrom, C. A. Pusey, Burt Piper, C. A. Pringle, W. Pringle, A. Pellow, G. L. Parent, G. F. Parsons, A. Rouse, J. T. Sills, R. E. Verity, H. L. Warren, L. Wiles, and T. M. McKee. Other companies of the 33rd regiment carried on their roles the names of the following Bay county men: M. Highland, Company B; Bert F. Becker, who died at Montauk Point in 1898, F. Heike, L. G. Wilkinson, R. N. Colburn, F. M. Schindehette, and G. Rabideau Company E; J. E. Rabideau and C. B. Mervick, Company M. The regimental band of the 33rd Michigan Infantry was at first composed largely of Bay City musicians among whom were: T. W. Goldsmith, drum major; Sergeant Frank Heric, Jesse Wagar, E. B. Hartig, Charles Hartig, Victor Heric, Nicholas Heric, Joseph Lafountain, A. Carrier, Frank Sharpe, who died in Cuba, George E. Smart, J. Muschall, J. Schopski, W. Barber, P. Roeder, Ed. Nunn, G. E. Nunn, R. R. Lemke, and A. Goslar. Michigan's naval reserves left for Newport News, Virginia, on April 29, 1898, where they manned the auxiliary cruiser "Yosemite." In this unit of naval reserves were five men from Bay City, who were: E. E. Anneke, W. B. Fox, J. C. Irvine, John Ruge, and M. R. Tousey. WORLD WAR To secure an accurate record of the part of Bay county men in the World war has been well nigh impossible, for many enlisted in the various branches of the service in other parts of the state and are listed as being from other cities. Still others, though they enlisted at Bay City, were placed in regular army units, and though their names are recorded in the War Department records at Washington, the people of Bay county have lost trace of them for the most part. But the records that can be obtained show clearly that the men of the county were as quick to answer the call of their country as they had been in times of previous wars. Even before Congress had declared a state of war existing between the United States and Germany, the army recruiting officer at Bay City announced that in the first four days of April, 1917, ten men from Bay City had applied for enlistment and had been accepted, and during the trying days that followed, enlistments at the Bay City recruiting station were even more rapid than they had been at first.

Page  74 74 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY On April 2, 1917, President Wilson made his memorable address to Congress, and with his message in mind, the Senate and House of Representatives on April 6 passed the joint resolution which plunged the United States into the war then raging in France. Enlistments in Bay county became even faster, and each day the recruiting officer was able to give to the local press the names of men who volunteered for military service. At the time war was declared, the 33rd Michigan regiment of the National Guard was then in the Federal service doing duty on the Mexican border. Company B, of this regiment, was composed of men of Bay county, principally of Bay City men, and the commander of the first battalion was Major August H. Gansser, of Bay City. When the government finally decided to establish Camp Custer at Battle Creek for a national army cantonment, the First Battalion, which included Company B of Bay City, Company C of Port Huron, Company F of Saginaw, and Company H of Owosso, was sent to Camp Custer to do guard duty during the construction of the barracks and other buildings necessary. The first company arrived at Battle Creek on July 7, 1917, and the others, including Company B of Bay City, arrived there on July 17. Thereafter, until the arrival of the commanding general of the camp, Major Gansser, in command of the battalion, was virtually military dictator of the operations then going forward in preparation for the influx of draft men. In October, the battalion rejoined the regiment which was then sent to join the other Michigan and Wisconsin national guard units at Waco, Texas. Soon after came the drastic re-organization of the army system, the Wisconsin and Michigan national guard forming the 32nd Division, and Company B of Bay City becoming Company I, 125th Infantry. The Second Michigan Ambulance company was recruited in Bay City during the summer of 1917, and after the re-organization in Texas, the company was known as the 128th Ambulance Company, 107th Sanitary Train, 32nd Division. This company, too, was composed of Bay county men, the majority of whom hailed from Bay City. In the months that followed, Bay City's two companies participated in the majority of the major offensives undertaken by the American arms in France, and that they conducted themselves as true soldiers is shown by the fact that sixteen Bay county men were awarded medals for valor in action. When Congress of the United States declared war on Germany April 6, 1917, boys from Bay county were not found lagging in loyalty to the Stars and Stripes. No sooner had word been received of the Declaration of War when the boys began to step in line for enlistments and to rapidly don the army uniform for service. Most of the boys were enlisted in the 32nd Division though many enlisted in different parts of the state. This Division had seen active service on the Mexican border in 1916 as National Guard troops and now made up of Bay county boys and Michigan and Wisconsin National Guard it was organized under War Department orders July 18, 1917.

Page  75 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 75 General Parker was placed in command of this Division for the first few months. Major Gansser, who had been down on the Mexican border with old Company B, from Bay City, was sent to Camp Custer with his battalion for guard duty and was given authority over the operations of building and erecting until the arrival of the commanding general of the camp. Under the newly organized Division, the Bay county boys of the infantry became Company I of the 125th Infantry and those who had previously formed the Second Michigan Ambulance Company made up the 128th Ambulance Company of the 107th Sanitary Train, 32nd Division. This Division spent several months in Waco, Texas, where they went through long and hard drilling and became very efficient. Major Gansser came with his battalion to Texas and took up the training which made the Division well fit for active service. Shortly before the Division left Texas, 4,000 National Army men were transferred to it. Brigadier General William G. Haan took command of the Division upon the departure of General Parker for France. The first taste of war came when the Tuscania was sent to the bottom by an enemy submarine. Several Bay county boys were on board. The advance troops of the 32nd Division started on their way to France, January 28, 1918. When headquarters troops pulled out, the Bay county boys were among them. Shortly after the arrival of the 32nd Division in France, there came the sad news that it was to be split up and used as replacements in other divisions. This news was a shock to both officers and men as they had looked forward to going into the front lines together. General Haan, after a stiff debate at headquarters, finally saved the 32nd to fight as a Division and later to break the German line at every point where it was placed. Death came to that Division and after the gaps were filled in with new men, all began drilling harder than ever to fit themselves for combat duty. When the German offensive opened up on March 21, 1918, there came from the training area that mighty force of men who knew no fear, that force of youthful man-power which aimed high and attained that aim, that mass of young blood from the farms and woods and the cities of Michigan and Wisconsin with Bay county boys well represented among those ever ready to serve. Early in the month of May the 32nd Division was given an opportunity to meet the forces of Germany and is credited with being the first American troops to fight on German soil. They fought on the Alsace front until in July when a greater need called them to break through the German stronghold on the Aisne Marne front. Major Gansser, who had been away from the 32nd for some time, had again joined them and it was at the battle of Aisne Marne that Major Agustus Gansser so nobly fought and was so seriously wounded while leading his battalion against a mass of German machine guns. It was also at this battle of Aisne Marne that the 32nd Division successfully took up their position under heavy fire and without an error put a dent

Page  76 76 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY in the German line, fighting through an onrush of bayonets, gas and fire, making the victory which won for them the name which shall live on through the ages-"Les Terribles." The 32nd Division served under General De Mondesir of the French Army. At one time he came up to see how the Division was progressing and upon locating a good observation point where he could watch the battle he saw the American 32nd boys climbing the height to the north of the Cureq and solidly entrenching themselves, mopping up the German forces as they rapidly pushed their way into the German line. He saw the German stronghold weakening and breaking and finally crash under the mighty onslaught of the 32nd and exclaimed, "Oui, oui, les soldats terrible, tres bien, tres bien!" This battle tested the ability of the 32nd and found them worthy and of true mettle. It was on this front, too, that they fought and completely whipped the Prussian Guards. At the battle of Aisne Marne sixty-six officers and 715 enlisted men of the 32nd Division were killed. Bay county felt the blow keenly as several of its boys paid the supreme sacrifice. Among them wereRobert E. Craidge, Company I, 125 Inf. Bay City, Michigan. Walter N. Nadelski, Company I, 125 Inf. Bay City, Michigan. Peter Van Wert, Company I, 125 Inf. Bay City, Michigan. A. A. Wojeichowski, Company I, 125 Inf. Bay City, Michigan. Walter Etue, Company A, 128 Inf. Bay City, Michigan. Anthony Guzal, Company I, 125 Inf. Pinconning, Michigan. Omer Derdowski, Company I, 125 Inf. Bay City, Michigan. There were several other boys who lost their lives at this time who are not on record. The latter part of August in 1918 the 32nd Division was ordered to report to General Mangin of the French Army for duty at the Oise Aisne offensive. Here the boys went through five days of living hell; not a man stopped fighting, not an eyelid closed, not one minute of sleep but real fight from the time they entered the Oise Aisne until they were relieved. None will forget the five days of fighting, hand to hand, day and night, and the splashing blood, steel to steel. The 63rd Brigade which included the Bay county boys, went over the top the minute General Haan took over the line. The 64th Brigade was still stabbing machine-gun nests five days later when the Moroccans relieved the Division. It was then that the great French General wanted to decorate the 32nd Division but the decorations did not come until six months later when the 32nd Divisioin was keeping "watch on the Rhine." In the Oise Aisne battle the 32nd had fifteen officers and 470 enlisted men killed in action and among them wereJohn Olk, 128 Ambulance Company, Bay City, Michigan. Frank Meinkwitz of Bay City, Michigan. Joseph B. Prybylski, Company I, 125 Inf. Pinconning, Michigan. It was at this battle that the Bay county boys of Ambulance Company 128 were well up on the wounded list.

Page  77 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 77 The next big drive for the 32nd Division boys brought them face to face with the Germans' last stronghold, the great Hindenburg line. It was in the Meuse Argonne battle that they wiped out the Kriemhilde Stellung. Here, too, it came to hand-to-hand fighting and over 500 prisoners were taken. A heavy barrage was sent over and was followed by the infantry up to the wire. The onslaught began as soon as the barrage had let up and the 32nd Division sent a stinging blow to the Germans and played fast. The enemy put up a stiff fight but was crushed. The 125th Infantry with Bay county boys was sent in to do the mopping up and brought back over two hundred prisoners. The boys of Ambulance Company 128 were going through with their share, too, for day and night they were on the field caring for wounded comrades while facing the open fire. Never did the Ambulance boys fail the Infantry. They were, indeed, on their job every minute giving first aid to the fallen, thinking not of self ever, but of others. It was while caring for his comrades that Arie C. Sagle contracted influenza and lost his life serving his country, adding another name to Bay City's list of dead soldier boys. The fight came to its very hottest point when the line of Kriemhilde Stellung began to bend and then with set intentions on both sides all fought like mad for the line must break and that was no easy task. Never yet had the 32nd Division, "Les Terribles," failed and on, on, on they fought-cutting, slashing, wading through, man to man until they had again impressed that name upon the mind of every German fighter-"Les Terribles." These Germans had months before learned to fear the Americans of the 32nd Division for had they not been the powerful shock troops of the American Army in France? At this battle they broke the line and gained their objective. They had fought and vanquished 11 German Divisions, among them being the 5th Prussian Guards, the 3rd Prussian Guards, the 28th known as "The Kaiser's Own," the 37th, the 52nd, the 115th, the 39th, the 123rd, the 236th, the 41st and the 13th German Divisions. And the American boys of the 32nd were the first to break through the Kriemhilde Stellung. At the Meuse Argonne the 32nd Division had thirty-seven officers and 1,141 enlisted men killed in action. Among them were Lloyd Harding of Company I, 125th Infantry, Bay City, Michigan, and Glenn R. Abrams, Company I, 125th Infantry, Essexville, in Bay county, Michigan, and there were also others from this same county. Then came the last fight when the "Les Terribles" fought east of the Meuse. In this fight seven officers and 115 enlisted men were killed in action. The 32nd Division boys crossed the river at night and in a heavy fog marched past the German machine guns. With the dawning of the day when the fog began to rise they discovered themselves to be in a death-trap but desperately they fought their way through to victory. They were in the act of an attack on the enemy when the order came to cease fighting-eleven o'clock, November 11, 1918. The 32nd Division boys went on their march into Germany to take up their position on the other side of the Rhine. There they "kept watch" until April 21, 1919, when they left Germany for the United States arriving here the latter part of May and were discharged from

Page  78 78 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY service. They had been six months under fire with but ten days in the rest area. They fought on five fronts in three major offensives. They had a total of 14,000 casualties. They met and vanquished twenty-three German Divisions. They took 2,153 prisoners. They gained thirty-eight kilometers in four attacks and repulsed every enemy counter attack. They never lost a yard of ground. They were the only American unit in General Mangin's famous Tenth French Army. They were in action east of the Meuse when the armistice was signed. They marched 300 kilometers to take up their position across the Rhine. They held sixty-three towns and 400 square kilometers of territory. Sixteen Bay county boys were awarded medals for valor in action. The war is over but suffering still exists among some of those who were wounded then. Many of them are still fighting for life, enduring the constant suffering of open wounds which will never heal. Though time has lapsed since the armistice was signed many are now showing disabilities. The flame of life is rapidly burning out but the memory of all they have given to our country, that American ideals should not fail or be crumpled, must live on. Medal Awards. Frank Beebe, private, Company B, Fifth Machine Gun Battalion, 2nd Division, received the French Croix de Guerre with gilt star under an order dated December 25, 1918, with the following citation: "On October 6, near Somme-Py he displayed great bravery and absolute disregard for danger in transporting ammunition across a violently bombarded zone. Was killed shortly after the execution of his mission." Erwin E. Carl, private first class, 128th Ambulance Company, 32nd Division, received the French Croix de Guerre with bronze star under an order dated March 16, 1919, with the following citation: "Wounded by the explosion of an enemy shell, he continued to care for his comrades in spite of his dreadful wounds." Residence, Bay City. Benjamin B. Zielinski, private, 128th Ambulance Company, 32nd Division, received the French Croix de Guerre under order dated March 16, 1919, with the following citation: "A very brave litter bearer, who though wounded in the performance of his task, refused to be put under shelter until the man whom he was carrying was sent to the rear.' Residence, Bay City. Robert E. Craidge, corporal, Company I, 125th Infantry, 32nd Division, received both the American Distinguished Service Cross and the French Croix de Guerre for extraordinary heroism in action at Hill 212, near Cierges, northeast of Chateau-Thierry, July 31, 1918. He was in charge of an advanced Chauchat rifle position while his company was exposed to severe machine-gun fire from the front and right flank. After three of his men had been killed, and the other

Page  79 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 79' totally blinded by shell fire, Corporal Craidge kept his gun in action until he was killed. Residence, Bay City. He was the son of Mrs. Elinor Craidge of Bay City. Homer G. Dickson, private, Company A, First Field Signal Battalion, 2nd Division, received the French Croix de Guerre with bronze star under order dated March 29, 1918, with the following citation: "At Vierzy, July 18, 1918, he rendered great service in constructing and maintaining the telephone lines under violent bombardments and with the greatest indifference to danger." Residence, Bay City. Arthur V. Fowler, sergeant, Company B, 125th Infantry, 32nd Division, received the French Croix de Guerre with bronze star under order dated December 16, 1918, with the following citation: "During the combat near Cierges on July 31, 1918, his platoon leader having been wounded he took command. His coolness, bravery and qualities of leadership enabled his men to hold fast under an intense fire of artillery and machine guns." Fowler was later killed in action. His residence at time of enlistment was in Bay City. Lonzo L. Fuller, private, Company H, 128th Infantry, 32nd Division, received the American Distinguished Service Cross and the French Croix de Guerre for extraordinary heroism in action near Juvigny, September 1, 1918. During an attack on a strong enemy position, in the face of heavy fire from artillery and machine guns, Private Fuller, a runner, worked unceasingly throughout the attack in maintaining lateral liaison between units. The entire route which he was obliged to travel was exposed to heavy fire from the enemy, and on one of his trips he succeeded in locating an enemy machine-gun nest which had been inflicting heavy losses on our troops. Returning through a hail of bullets, he reported the exact position of the replacement, which enabled the artillery to demolish it. He was a resident of Bay City when he enlisted. Arthur Heritier, private first class, Company I, 125th Infantry, 32nd Division, was awarded the American Distinguished Service Cross and the French Croix de Guerre for extraordinary heroism in action on Hill 212 near Chateau-Thierry, July 31, 1918. After one man had been killed and two others wounded in attempting to render first aid to a lieutenant who lay mortally injured in an area that was subjected to fire from enemy machine guns and snipers, he successfully reached the lieutenant and gave him first aid, risking his own life in doing so. Heritier was a resident of Linwood at the time of his enlistment. Mike F. Janowski, corporal, Company H, 128th Infantry, 32nd Division, was awarded the French Croix de Guerre by an order dated March 15, 1919, with the following citation: "He led his men with much coolness. Although wounded he was not willing to be evacuated until the conquered ground was organized for defense." William R. McMorris, captain, Company M, 16th Infantry, First Division, was awarded the American Distinguished Service Cross and the French Legion d'Honneur (chevalier) for extraordinary heroism in action in the Argonne Forest, October 4, 1918. He directed the advance of his company through an intense artillery barrage and

Page  80 80 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY against heavy machine-gun fire. When the battalion commander had been wounded, he assumed command of the battalion and led it to its objective, after which he consolidated the new position. While personally resisting an enemy counter attack he was wounded. He is a resident of Bay City. Tharold B. Mansfield, corporal, Company C, 314th Field Signal Battalion, received the Distinguished Service Cross for extraordinary heroism in action near Beauclair, November 4-11, 1918. From the 4th to the 11th of November, while continually under heavy shell fire, he laid and maintained lines of communication within his area with utter disregard for his personal safety. He was a resident of Bay City at the time of his enlistment in the army. Neil Ernest Nichols, Commander United States Navy, was awarded the Naval Cross for distinguished service as the commanding officer of the U. S. S. Winslow and the U. S. S. Stringham, engaged in the important duty of escorting and protecting convoys of troops and supplies to European ports, and patrolling the waters infested with enemy submarines and mines. Virgil V. Sabourin, corporal Company I, 125th Infantry, 32nd Division, was awarded the French Croix de Guerre with bronze star under an order dated March 15, 1919, with the following citation: "He carried orders of great importance under a terrible fire of artillery and machine guns and passed through a cloud of gas to fulfill his mission." He was also a resident of Bay City when he went into the army. Leonard St. James, private, first class, Company I, 125th Infantry, 32nd Division, was awarded the American Distinguished Service Cross and the French Croix de Guerre with gilt star for extraordinary heroism in action near Romagne, October 9, 1918. He repeatedly crossed an open area, 500 meters wide, under intense machine-gun fire in carrying messages to battalion headquarters. On one of his trips, he came upon a wounded soldier, whom he took to the first aid station, after administering first aid to him. He was a resident of Bay City at the time of his enlistment in the army. George F. Schultz, private, Company E, 16th Infantry, First Division, received the American Distinguished Service Cross and the French Croix de Guerre with gilt star for extraordinary heroism in action near Sedan, France, November 7, 1918. While accompanying his company as liaison agent in the advance, Private Schultz attacked, single-handed, a machine gun which was delivering a heavy fire, killing the gunner and causing many other casualties among the enemy. His act also caused other enemy machine gunners to withdraw and saved his company from a very dangerous flanking fire. He was a Bay City man. Carl H. Smith, sergeant, 128th Ambulance Company, 32nd Division, received the Croix de Guerre with silver star for continuing to give orders and care for wounded after his arm had been shot away by an enemy shell. He lived on a farm near Bay City at the time he enlisted. In 1924 he became assistant prosecuting attorney of Bay county.

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Page  81 CHAPTER VI EDUCATION ROM the log school houses of the pioneer days to the splendid school systems of the county and city of today is a far cry, yet the pioneering spirit which resulted in the establishment of the first school in the county in 1838 has been responsible for the great strides that have been made in educational ways. It is difficult for the present day student in the public schools to realize that their forebears attended little log school houses, with puncheon floors and rude wooden benches and desks, presided over by a teacher whose salary was principally room and board secured from the parents of the children who attended the school. It is difficult for the children of today to understand that the curriculum of the early schools embodied little more than the "Three R's," and that the grade school education of today is almost comparable to the High school education of a few decades ago. Yet such is the case. The pioneer settlers, knowing and realizing more keenly, perhaps, that the life of our Democracy depends upon the education of the people for intelligent citizenship, established schools as soon as the number of children in a district warranted the move, and as state education laws were enacted from time to time, the county school system developed along the lines which have brought it to its present perfection. A blockhouse, built on the river at the foot of Fremont avenue in 1838 by Judge Albert Miller, was the first school house in Bay county, and Judge Miller himself was the first teacher of this school. Until 1850, this building served as the school house of Portsmouth township, and in that year a new building was erected which for many years was used for the school sessions and for town meetings. Three school districts now are maintained in the township. District No. 2 has a two-room school with Myrtle Merrit and Bernice Bishop as teachers, and Ambrose Rouech as director, Fred Whipple as moderator, and William Graham, treasurer. District No. 3: Martha Gasta, director; Alma Meiselbach, moderator; Hulda Guinup, treasurer, and Loretta Maloney and Inas Gollin, teachers in the two-room school. District No. 5: John W. Egbert, director; Joseph Poirier, moderator; William Burns, treasurer, and Alvina Walz and Lydia Jonas, teachers. The early school history of Bangor township is found in the school history of the villages of Banks and Wenona under West Bay City schools. The board of education of the township is as follows: George O. Williams, president; W. G. Burton, secretary; Harry Roberts, treasurer; and Mrs. Mima Wanless and Herbert Wilder, trustees. The following school teachers are now employed by the township, the number of teachers with each school indicating the number of rooms in each school: Samuel C. Gardner, Cyrilla Kelly, and Barbe McGuiness, Washington school; Hattie Bishop and Mary Sharpe, Edison

Page  82 82 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY school; Katherine Weber and Martha Stepanski, Lincoln school; and Lyda Lewie and Blanche Westfall, Mt. Vernon school. Before 1880, Beaver township had established only three school districts, and the school houses were used for church services and for public meetings as well as for school purposes. Of the six schools now maintained in the township, that in District No. 1 is a two-room affair. District No. 1: Leo Olszowy, director; Peter Kowalski, moderator; Leo Suida, treasurer; and Mary Piechowiak and Elizabeth Brancheau, teachers. District No. 2: Charles E. Gould, director; Jay H. Gould, moderator; John R. Nowak, treasurer; and Hilda Richards, teacher. District No. 3: Robert Prast, director; Tony Holka, moderator; Gus Collicker, treasurer; and Kathryn Griffiths, teacher. District No. 4: Herman Ratz, director; Anton Hopfinger, moderator; Julius Mieske, treasurer; and Marie Holka, teacher. District No. 5: Herbert Willard, director; Henry Kock, moderator; John P. Ittner, treasurer; and Marie Kenyon, teacher. District No. 6: William J. Deshano, director; S. G. Bruzewski, moderator; Eva A. Fournier, treasurer; and Katherine McDonald, teacher. German parochial schools supplied the educational advantages for the children of Frankenlust township for a number of years after its settlement in 1848, and in 1851 a similar school was established in Amelith where it was continued for several years. The township is now divided into two districts. District No. 1: Adam Staudacher, director; John Ziegler, Jr., moderator; Paul Begick, treasurer; and Caroline Mackensen, Ruth V. Johnson, and Esther J. Johnson, teachers. District No. 2: Henry Kloha, director; John Herbolsheimer, moderator; Adam Lutz, treasurer; and Jules Dallons, teacher. The present township of Fraser is divided into five school districts, two-room schools being maintained in two of the districts. District No. 1: Alexander Blondin, director; Louis Cote, moderator; Albert Ouilete, treasurer; and Ella Collicker, teacher. District No. 2: Oscar Newberg, director; Lawrence Wilson, moderator; Philip Anderson, treasurer; and Forrest B. Eddy and Alice Hanson, teachers. District No. 3: James Leavens, director; Frank Jackett, moderator; Peter Gies, Jr., treasurer; and Anna Moore, teacher. District No. 4: Lawrence Ballor, director; Susie Beson, moderator; Alfred Lemue, treasurer; and Dorothy E. Crump and Ruther E. Coller, teachers. District No. 5: William Hodder, director; T. J. Selman, moderator; Charles Kitchen, treasurer; and Alice Clark, teacher. Garfield township, whose early school history is the same as that of the township of which it was formerly a part, is now divided into six school districts. District No. 1: Guy Enders, director; Henry Denay, moderator; George Foco, treasurer; and Pearl Coggins, teacher. District No. 2: Mina Carlson, director; Edward Wildey, moderator; Malcolm Carlson, treasurer; and Marian Sartain, teacher. District No. 3: Leo Bleshenski, director; Nathan Hazard, moderator; Joseph Plant, treasurer; and Bertha LeBeau, teacher. District No. 4: Claude Gittens, director; H. J. Knowles, moderator; Harry Delano, treasurer; and Bessie Penhaligan, teacher. District No. 5: Ernest Berner, director; Herbert Wood, moderator; John Anderson, treasur

Page  83 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 83 er; and Lena Panzner, teacher. District No. 6: Arthur Dubey, director; E. Morse, moderator; Harvey Ackley, treasurer; and Leona Wilson, teacher. The pupils of Gibson township are afforded educational advantages up to and including the second year of high school work. If they wish to continue their education they must go to other parts of the county or state where the final two years of high school study are given. The personnel of the Gibson township board of education is as follows: Roy Bartlett, president; Arthur Shoultes, secretary; Joseph Lovell, treasurer; and James Shayler and A. W. Payne, trustees. A consolidated school is maintained at the village of Bentley whither the children are transported in school busses. The teaching staff of the school is as follows: William M. Quinlan, high school; Hazel Cook and Neva Wehmeyer, No. 1; Alta Vliet, No. 2; Elsie Begick, No. 3; Lucy Payne, No. 4; Arlene Nickel, No. 5; and Edna Burtch, No. 6. The school system of Hampton township includes the village of Essexville, the children of the village first attending school in 1860 in a log house a mile east of the settlement. The building was replaced by a frame structure in 1870, and after it was destroyed by fire in 1879, a brick school house was built in the village. Essexville comprises the third district of the Hampton township. The board of education of the village is comprised of James Johnson, president; George Essex, secretary; Emil Neering, treasurer; and Carl S. Sharpe and Charles F. Carter, trustees. The teachers employed are Cecil Hughes, Anna L. Rose, Myrtle Maloney, Olive Johnson, and Pauline Stahl. The other districts of the township are as follows: District No. 1: Truman Maxson, director; John VanSumeren, moderator; Joe Johnson, treasurer; and Viola Verellen and Marion Miller, teachers. District No. 2: A. J. Smith, director; William Weber, moderator; Gustave Labrenz, treasurer; and Elizabeth Hughes and Ferolyn Nesbit, teachers. District No. 4: William C. Erno, director; Victor Hugo, moderator; Coba Hages, treasurer; and Caroline VanPoppelen and Pauline Kaczmarek, teachers. District No. 5: William Wagner, director; William Mulders, moderator; William Dunn, treasurer; and Eva Rogers and Ruth Gray, teachers. District No. 6: William Pergande, director; Albert Krause, moderator; Frank Eigner, treasurer; and Edna Peterson and Mary DeWyse, teachers. District No. 7: Arthur Tracy, director; Modest Beslaer, moderator; Anthony Kryzak, treasurer; and Lucy Krause, teacher. The schools of Essexville afford the children an eighth grade education, and if they wish to continue into high school, they attend the Bay City high schools, their tuition being paid by the school districts from which they come. The Indian mission that was built near the mouth of the Kawkawlin river in 1847 served as the first school of the township for several years. In 1857, a school house was built on the Kawkawlin river by James Fraser and Frederick A. Kaiser, Miss Carrie Chillson teaching in that school in 1861. In 1873, the school building was replaced by a larger building and was used until 1885. The township is one of the largest in the county in point of number of school districts, there

Page  84 84 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY being eight in Kawkawlin township. District No. 1: John J. Jackett, director; Charles J. Castanguay, moderator; Fred O. Yakel, treasurer; and Elsie Campau and Mildred Leonard, teachers. District No. 2: Harry Paige, director; Herman Blohm, moderator; Robert Bedell, treasurer; and Anna Hipke and Margarette Howey, teachers. District No. 3: Martin Goulet, director; Eugene Grandmaison, moderator; Louis Sylvester, treasurer; and Anna Schmidt, teacher. District No. 5: Martin Goulet, director; Eugene Grandmaison, moderator; Louis Sylvester, treasurer; and Anna Schmidt, teacher. District No. 6: J. G. Heritier, director; Fred Ott, moderator; John Heritier, treasurer; and Irene Sharpe and Eula Petit, teachers. District No. 7: Louis Ott, director; Fred Bedell, moderator; Ernest Benson, treasurer; and Clarence McGinnis and Leona Baumbach, teachers. District No. 8: Albert Everson, director; Herman Pressler, moderator; Conrad Boehm, treasurer; and Floyd Brashaw and Alice Born, teachers. The children of Merritt township first attended the schools of Merritt township, but when the township was organized, the people of the township established their first school district in 1874. Five school districts are now maintained in the township. District No. 1: E. P. Tennant, director; William Labrenz, moderator; Peter Bittner, treasurer; and Henry Balgooyen and Oriole Skelton, teachers. District No. 2; Roy Grigg, director; Floyd Lee, moderator; William Rachwitz, treasurer; and Alice J. Wesley and Hazel Williams, teachers. District No. 4: Paul Schabel, director; John W. Prior, moderator; Rudolph Treiber, treasurer; and Irma Reinke, teacher. District No. 5: Louie DuRussell, director; Fred French, moderator; John Stockmeyer, treasurer; and Margaret Ray and Theresa Ray, teachers. District No. 6: George Munsch, director; Lewis Lynch, moderator; Gust Klopf, treasurer; Frances Munro, teacher. Monitor township is divided into six school districts, the Sixth district including the village of Kawkawlin. District No. 1; C. L. Wegener, director; Martin Walker, moderator; John Behmlander, treasurer; and Laura Redwitz, teacher. District No. 2: John G. Schwab, director; Adam Klopf, moderator; Ralph Powell, treasurer; and Mildred Fox and Ruth Petit-Ziehmer, teachers. District No. 3: Hiram Valade, director; Joe Kazmarek, moderator; William Gunther, treasurer; and Elizabeth McCullough and Margaret Rivet, teachers. District No. 4: David J. Anderson, director; George L. Arnold, moderator; Gottlieb Strieter, treasurer; and Marion Moors, teacher. District No. 5: Ernest Frank, director; Peter Whyte, moderator; Richard Macey, treasurer; and Agnes Fontaine and Marie Link, teachers. District No. 6: Charles Rafferty, president; William Kaiser, secretary; Carl Wieland, treasurer; Charles Schultz and William Bateson, trustees; and Myrtie Esckilsen and Esther Logan, teachers. Mt. Forest township includes five school districts. District No. 1, Peter M. Haranda, director; B. Gerhardt, moderator; Joseph Kopka, treasurer; and Ella Leffler and Gladys Laforest, teachers. District No. 2: James M. Hartley, director; George D. Gillett, moderator; Ira Slates, treasurer; and Beatrice Umphrey, teacher. District No. 3: William Brown, director; John Bryce, moderator; James Ansley,

Page  85 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 85 treasurer; and Ella Leffler and Gladys Laforest, teachers. District No. 4: George Woods, director; Frank Stuhr, moderator; C. D. Miller, treasurer; and Inez Quigley, teacher. District No. 5: Charles B. Ross, director; William Campbell, moderator; Mary Little, treasurer; and Kathleen Black, teacher. An old school located at the mouth of the Pinconning river kept in the mission church for the children of a few fishermen and the Indians, was the first school in Pinconning township. In 1869, a small frame school building was erected at the village of Pinconning, it being used until 1875 when a larger building was erected and placed under the care of M. R. Hartwell, who continued in charge of the Pinconning schools for more than a quarter of a century. The village of Pinconning comprises District No. 2 of the township schools, and the first two years of high school are given in the village, the teachers being S. M. Perry, who is also the superintendent of schools, Ray T. Fritz, Helen Daly, and Althea Harris. The members of the board of education are George Hartingh, president; William Rohrer, secretary; Edwin Whyte, treasurer; and S. Green and J. C. Yahr, trustees. The graded school teachers are Cora Tremlin, Delia Leterneau, Genevieve Warren, and Grace Shearer. District No. 1: William Maloney, director; John Brant, moderator; J. G. Gibson, treasurer; and Alice Werner, teacher. District No. 3: Mabel E. Knickerbocker, director; George A. Fox, moderator; Mrs. Arthur Damoth, treasurer; and Edna Kitchen, teacher. District No. 4: Omer Racette, director; Richard Byrn, moderator; Victor Dunn, treasurer; and Ada Mayberry, teacher. District No. 5: Percy M. Esseltine, director; John F. Basel, moderator; Fred VonSeggern, treasurer; and Leonore Roberts and Olive E. Haden, teachers. District No. 6: Benjamin Sobieray, director; Mary Poniatowski, moderator; Joseph Scefchuck, treasurer; and Helen Zielinski and Ethel Furtaw, teachers. District No. 7: C. E. Harrow, director; John LaBean, moderator; Lewis Mayette, treasurer; and Bernice Schrier, teacher. The first school in Williams township was kept in the home of Charles Bradford and Mrs. Charles Fitch was the teacher. The schools of Auburn, which includes the third school district of the township, afford education through the first two years of high school, Henry Neuman being in charge of the last two years' work. The board of education of the village includes Mike Wegener, president; D. R Clarey, secretary; Walter Sawden, treasurer; and Alfred Foerster and Edward Kent, trustees. The grade school teachers are Marie Pierson, Hattie Kent-Hoy, and Lydia Werner. District No. 1: William Soper, director; Ralph Wackerly, moderator; John Bluhm, treasurer; and Olive Felker, teacher. District No. 2: Jesse G. Plant, director; Henry Hopler, moderator; Richard Clarey, treasurer; and Ruth Frank, teacher. District No. 4:. Gustave Zimmerman, director; Martin Anderson, moderator; Louis Ehmann, treasurer; and Christina Berg, teacher. District No. 5: Alexander Dzurka, director; Leo DuLude, moderator; Anthony Dzurka, treasurer; and Vina Hemingway, teacher. District No. 6: Norman Lecronier, director; Richard

Page  86 86 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY Milner, moderator; Michael Horneber, treasurer; and Beatrice McDonald, teacher. In country districts the first school building was usually the inexpensive log school house, but these have all disappeared, and today the district schools of Bay county include some of the best in Michigan. Our districts in most of the county are so populated that they have more children of school age than is the average for the state. The Primary School Fund of the State is paid to districts on the basis of the number of children of school age, and is used for teachers' salaries. This is such a help that salaries of teachers in our country schools average higher than those of teachers in many other parts of the state. This help, combined with the fact that our farms are very valuable, make it possible to furnish the well built schools with the best of equipment. Many have modern ventilating and heating plants, inside toilets, and play rooms in the basement. Some have separate rooms for their libraries, and a number have two or more school rooms to accommodate the large enrollment. Other improvements to be found in our newer district schools are: Slate blackboards; seats and desks that can be adjusted to the size of each pupil; windows arranged on a single side of the room and equipped with light colored shades adjustable from the top and bottom, thus protecting the eyes of the children from the evils of cross lights and shadows and from the direct glare of the sun, and yet allowing plenty of light to enter the room; and auditoriums large enough for district meetings and school entertainments. The present high standard maintained by the schools of the county is directly due to the work of John B. Laing, who for twenty-two years has directed the destinies of the county school system. That his work is 'appreciated by the people of the county is evidenced by the fact that he has been successively returned to that office and that he is now verging on a quarter of a century's duty as school commissioner. WEST BAY CITY SCHOOLS The first school house to be erected in the township of Bangor was placed on land donated by the owner for that purpose in 1860. It was located about a quarter of a mile from the river and was used for town meetings and other gatherings of a public nature in addition to being used as the school. Soon after, a school was established in the village of Banks in a small shanty. When the town hall was built in 1863, the village school was kept in that building until 1868. At about this same time, a school was erected in the village of Salzburg. Wenona, started in 1864, was incorporated two years later, and although many of the people of the village were strongly in favor of building a village school, there were many opponents of the movement. However, the protagonists of the school, headed by James A. McKnight, finally managed to put the question to a vote of the people, who, at the polls, elected to bond the village to the extent of $10,000 for the erection of a school building. McKnight negotiated the sale of the bonds in Detroit and the work of construction was begun at once by

Page  87 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 87 George Campbell, of Bay City. The building itself cost approximately $9,500 and the furnishings represented an investment of $1,200. The building was opened Monday, January 27, 1868, and of the three hundred school children of the district, 180 attended the new brick building. At that time, the frame school building was moved to an adjacent lot, and A. L. Cumming was installed as the superintendent of schools of the village of Wenona. After the erection of the Sage Library in 1883 the high school held its sessions there, while the superintendent's office was on the third floor of the library building for many years. A second school house was built in District No. 2 of Bangor township (a part of Banks village) and was used until November, 1877, when it was destroyed by fire, and the following year a brick building was erected at a cost of $8,000. When the villages of Banks, Salzburg, and Wenona were incorporated as West Bay City in 1877, three school districts were organized, and by 1883 six school buildings were in use in the city in addition to one building rented for school purposes. The schools of the west side continued to flourish under their own management, but when West Bay City became a part of Bay City in 1903, the school systems of the two cities came under the same head. BAY CITY SCHOOLS The first school district organized within what are now the limits of Bay City was established in April, 1842, and was held in the Bonnell house on the river front near the foot of Columbus avenue. A Miss Clark was the first teacher, having charge of the school from June 1 to September 1 of the first year, her class including Daniel Marsac, Margaret Campbell, Perry and Philenda Olmstead, Richard Tromble, and P. L., H. B., and Esther Rogers. Judge Sydney S. Campbell was the first director of this school district, Thomas Rogers was moderator, and Cromwell Barney, assessor. On January 1, 1843, the school was placed in charge of Captain David Smith, four of the twenty-three pupils, James McCormick, John Churchfield, and Israel and Daniel Marsac, being more than twenty-one years of age and requiring a man in charge. A one-story school house, 21x26 feet, was completed by Harry Campbell on January 7, 1845, near the foot of Washington avenue, at the cost of $200, this school building serving for the entire district which extended for more than three miles along the river. During the years 1847-48, Miss A. E. Robinson taught the school for the weekly salary of $1.50, and room and board. It was furnished her by the "boarding round" method by which each family with children in school provided her with food and a bed for a given length of time each term. It is said that in good weather the teacher and the children journeyed to school in canoes. The township of Hampton needed school facilities for 160 children in 1854 and at that time the Adams street school was built to accommodate 300 pupils, and for several years this school building was attended by the children of Lower Saginaw. In 1865 it was enlarged to accommodate an additional 200

Page  88 88 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY pupils. The following year a school was built at McKinley and Adams street with a seating capacity of 120 pupils and in the same year, the Farragut school property was bought at a cost of $4,400 for high school purposes and the Sherman school property was purchased for $2,800. The Union School District of Bay City was organized March 20, 1867, and the building of the Farragut School was authorized, George Campbell winning the contract with his bid of $67,350, and beginning construction in 1868. The first session was held in this new school, which was Bay City's first High School, in April, 1869. That continued to be the High School until 1882. It is indeed interesting to learn that it was exactly forty years to a day that students entered new High School buildings in Bay City. On March 27, 1882, scholars marched in a body from old Farragut High to the new High School located on Madison and Eleventh Streets and on March 27, 1922, again a body of students made its way to a new school building, Central High, located on Columbus Avenue between Birney and Johnson streets. Not only was the Farragut School built in 1869 but additions and improvements were made to the other schools of the city. Prof. D. C. Scoville became superintendent of schools in that year and under his regime the schools were graded under the state plan and organized in the most efficient manner. Prof. I W. Morley became school superintendent in 1874, continuing in that office for many years. Such were the beginnings of the Bay City schools system, a system of which the citizens may well be proud. We are proud, too, of the work of the other superintendents for all have accomplished much; among them are J. W. Smith who served a term of years till 1894; J. A. Stewart, superintendent from 1894 to 1911; E. E. Ferguson, 1911 to 1914; F. A. Gause, 1914 to 1922; and our present superintendent, G. L. Jenner who has been head of our schools since 1922. The splendid service of some of the Bay City school teachers should be mentioned,-service extending over a long period of years. Among a large number of faithful, noble teachers are Miss Ida C. Ueberhorst who began teaching here in 1886 and who has been acting as principal of the Farragut School continuously since 1889; Miss Mary Mac Gregor, who began her work in September, 1880, and who, since 1893, has been principal of the Garfield building; and Miss Helen Mac Gregor, who has taught in Bay City schools since January, 1877, and who from the year 1883 has had charge of the Fremont School. Miss Cornelia Chillson not only taught in the first school buildings of Bay City but was a pupil in some of them. She attended Judge Miller's school on Fremont Avenue and was pupil in the school which was only a shanty on Captain Wilson's farm. She continued her education in "reading, riteing and rithmetic" in the place of learning located near Pitt's Mill on First and Washington Streets. The school was a one-room affair with the door at one end; there was a long bench along each of three sides of the room and the pupils sat on those facing the walls with their backs toward the center of the room. When the grand new school, which later became the Salvation Army Barracks, was built on Adams Street she had the pleasure of entering it

Page  89 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 89 to gain more knowledge. What a wonderful place it was to those who had studied and recited in "shacks". The building had two rooms downstairs and one large one overhead which had two big square boxstoves at the two front corners of the room. Pupils came to school from a greater distance now and brought their dinners. Often they would blow the dust from the tops of the stoves and warm up their bread and butter on the smooth, hot surfaces. What splendid times they had skating in the clearing where ponds had formed close around the school building and all else was forest. Miss Chillson, once a pupil, became the primary teacher in this school before the year 1865. At that time Carlos Bacon was principal. She also taught in Williamstown which is now known as Auburn. It was in 1860 and school was kept four months in the year, the teacher signing a contract for that length of time and receiving her salary at its expiration. The late Judge William Gaffney was a pupil in this school. Later Miss Chillson became teacher of the log school at Essexville on the Prairie. She boarded with Mr. Essex and walked one and onehalf miles to the school house each day. Teaching eighteen or twenty children and killing eighteen or twenty snakes was her day's program. As soon as the water dried off the prairie, snakes,-garter, blow and rattlesnakes-would come to the big ditch along the roadway for water and terrify or delight the children as the case might be. In this school the stove was placed in the middle of the floor, the children seated around it. She taught in 1869 and 1870 in the first Bay City High School, now the venerable Farragut School. As a high school teacher she received not more than $450 per year salary but, she says, it probably had the same purchasing value in 1870 as $1,400 has now in 1925. Miss Carrie Chillson taught in her first school in Bay county before 1860. It was located in Frankenlust. German was taught onehalf day and English one-half day. This came about in this way: The place was first settled by a colony of Germans who came from Germany with a wealthy family named Siever. English-speaking people finally joined these in Frankenlust, hence two languages taught in school. Miss Chillson also taught in the school at Monitor township three years or more about the year 1877 and years later, when Mrs. Faxson, she taught the highest grade in the school building which long afterward became West Bay City High School. Miss Clara Corbin first taught in the schools in Bay county in Hampton township on the prairie near Essexville. It was in 1863. That little one-room log school house with the stove in the middle! School was held just about all summer and winter for from twenty to twenty-five pupils, Germans, Hollanders, Frenchmen and Indians and the salary received was $35.00 for the year. Mrs. Thomas says, "I was glad to get it for it was more than was paid in New York State." Her second school was the little white school house in what is now Bay City, West Side. It stood on the south side of Midland Street near the old bayou. Sixty or seventy pupils attended here and the teacher taught all grades from chart up to higher mathematics. Her third

Page  90 90 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY place of teaching was in the Adams Street School, (the one which later was occupied by the Salvation Army.) Here she enrolled 170 pupils all alone: "The Babies," they were called, and alone she taught chart, and up to and including the third reader. The school room was equipped with double seats but the double seats had to hold four children, not two, and besides there were rows of boys seated on the floor along the sides of the room. These boys took turns sitting in the seats every other week. A while later, to accommodate this new population, "The Annex" was built over on Fourth Street and "The Babies" were moved over there. Miss Corbin then had an assistant, a Miss Miller. In September, 1866, she began teaching in the Fifth Ward School known as "The Bell School" for the reason that it was the only school that had a bell on it Two teachers taught here, one upstairs and one down,-Miss Corbin and Miss Fannie Eaton who is still well remembered in Bay City. The school building burned down a number of years ago. Then came teaching in "The Brick School," the one which later became the West Bay City High School. She has been on the teaching force of the Lincoln, Garfield and Park Schools and was for eight years the principal of the Corbin School. She served Bay City loyally and splendidly for many years of her life, teaching at intervals until 1904 when she retired. Miss Emma Haughton came to Bay City in January, 1866, and taught in our schools. She tells of Mrs. Braddock's Prirvate School located on Adams Street near Eighth. This school drew all the children of the better class in the city. This school building had two rooms, one up and one down. The city finally purchased the school and employed Mrs. Braddock to teach the higher classes. Miss Haughton taught here at this time as also did Miss Hellen Sullivan, sister of Mrs. Emily Marston, another one of Bay City's living pioneers. P. S. Heisordt was superintendent of the three schools then existing in Bay City Mr. Wells succeeded him. The Bay City teachers had their pictures taken together and numbered nine, counting Mr. Wells, superintendent. Mrs. Dunham describes the school room as being equipped with double seats and a blackboard hung on a nail on a front wall. Pupils furnished their own slates and pencils and books. Just so it was in the school building on Saginaw Street. Here she taught the little folks and those in the first, second and third readers for one year, that of 1877. Such were the beginnings of the Bay City schools system, a system of which the citizens may well be proud. Words of Pioneer Teachers. Today the Bay City schools are run on the 6-3-3-2 plan which has proved to be much more successful than the old 8-4 or 7-5 plans. The present system groups the first six grades in one building; the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades in the junior high schools, T. L. Handy Junior High on the west side and Eastern Junior High; and the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grades, together with the Junior college students, in the Central High school. On the west side of the city, grades one to six are grouped together, but on the east side grades one to seven are grouped together on ac

Page  91 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 91 count of lack of room in the Eastern Junior High school for the seventh grade. The beginnings of the present school system found their inception in 1918 during the superintendency of Frank A. Gause. At this time, it became apparent to the board of education that increased school facilities were imperative, and while they were casting about in the effort to decide the best improvements to be made, it was suggested that the 6-3-3 system be instituted. The matter found almost instant favor in the minds of the members of the board of education after thorough investigation. It was proposed to the people of the city that such a re-organization of the Bay City schools be made, but unexpected, and very strong opposition to the move arose in many quarters. Twice, the board of education submitted the question to the vote of the people only to have it rejected. It was proposed by the board that the school district be bonded to the extent of $1,000,000 for constructing a central high school and for re-constructing the east side high school as a, junior high school and the building of a new junior high school on the west side. On July 2, 1919, the voters were again called upon to express their opinion in the matter, and by a majority of a scant 103 votes, the measure carried. Bids for the sale of the bonds were opened March 8, 1920, and the People's Commercial & Savings bank, on its bid of par and a premium of $1,250, was awarded the sale of the bonds. Actual construction was begun the same summer, but before the lapse of a year, it became evident that the amount authorized by the people was far too little to carry the work to completion. Accordingly, at an election held June 11, 1921, the bonding of the school district was authorized by the people to the amount of an additional $1,400,000 "to complete the Central High school building, the T. L. Handy and the East Side Junior high school buildings and for four-room additions to the Lincoln and Trombley school buildings and for the improvement of the other graded school buildings." Work on the new buildings was at once resumed and rushed to completion so that by the opening of the school term on September 11, 1922, the buildings were ready for occupancy. In the spring of 1922 Superintendent Gause resigned and his successor, G. L. Jenner, the present superintendent and formerly superintendent at Pontiac, was chosen to fill the vacancy. Superintendent Jenner was heartily in favor of the 6-3-3 grouping that had been planned for the new buildings, but he believed also that the educational system of the city would be much more valuable if a further two years in the form of a Junior college were included. The new Central High school building, with its modern equipment including up-to-date laboratories for the sciences, made this possible with very slight additional expense. The board of education accepted his recommendation and this gave the city the 6-3-3-2 grading plan of the present. The Central High school organization, together with general management of the entire building, was given to the former principal of Eastern High school, N. B. Sloan. W. Leroy Perkins, who had been principal of the West Side High school, became the first dean of the Junior college which opened with an initial registration of fifty, a figure that nearly equalled the enroll

Page  92 9;2 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY ments of Detroit and Grand Rapids. The enrollment in the Junior college at the beginning of the fall term in 1925 was 111. Since the first year, N B. Sloan has been head of the Junior college and of the Central High school, students of both attending classes in the same building. In 1924 he was also made supervising principal of the junior high schools. The Bay City Junior college is accredited at the University of Michigan, and the graduates from the college may enter the state university directly without taking college entrance examinations. Graduates of the Bay City Junior college have also been admitted to the University of Chicago on the same basis, showing that the work in the Junior college is acceptable to the other universities of the country as well as the University of Michigan. A faculty of fifteen members, who give either all or part of their time to the instruction of the college students, is maintained by the city, and the life of the college students is as near like that of the university student at the state instituion as it can be made. This year the college faculty consists of the following: N. B. Sloan, Dean; Geo. E. Butterfield, M. A., Registrar, History and Economics; P. M. Keen, M. A., Psychology; R. C. Shellenbarger, M. A., Mathematics; Mathilda Schroeder, M. A., Rhetoric; Irma Anschutz, M. A., Latin; Henrietta Lord, M. A., French; F. B. Rogers, M. S., Physics; J. H. George, M. S., Astronomy and Geology; Elizabeth Krafka, M. A., Biology; G. L. Martin, A. B., Chemistry; Mrs. Margaret Omans, A. B., Spanish; Verna Grubbs, A. B., Public Speaking; L. L. Yeakey, Woodshop and Drawing; A. E. Kelsey, Metalshop; Marceline Fawley, Art; Garland Nevitt and Frances Townsend, Physical Education, These instructors also teach high school classes and act as heads of their various departments insofar as their work relates to the high school, the junior high schools and the grades. This gives a unity to the courses of study that could not be obtained by other methods. The enrollment of the public schools of the city with the exception of the East Side Junior high school, which had not yet reported its 1925 enrollment when these figures were collected, is as follows: Central high, 856; T. L. Handy Junior high school, 557; Woodside graded school, 319; Dolsen, 361; Farragut, 343; Washington, 366; Lincoln, 276; Garfield, 503; Fremont, 396; Whittier, 284; Riegel, 75; Kolb, 260; Wenona, 244; McKinley, 366; Park, 294; Corbin, 182; and Trombley, 341. Bay City, in accordance with the state law governing such schools, has continuation school classes that are held in the Handy, Dolsen, and Fremont schools. These part time schools are in charge of Anna Sturm, Adeline Gilfoy, and Elizabeth Ferguson. At the present time, no director of continuation schools has been employed by the city, but within the near future such a man may be secured to take over this important branch of modern school work. From about the first of November to the first of April of each school year, night school classes are maintained for those people who feel the need of additional educational opportunities. The students in such classes are, for the most part, men or women of foreign extraction who are availing themselves of the educational advantages denied them in their own countries before their immigration to the United States. P. M. Keen, of the Junior col

Page  93 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 93 lege faculty is director of the night school. The county normal school is kept at the Riegel school under the direction of Miss Agnes True, as principal and its enrollment in the fall of 1925 was thirty-three, women for the most part who are working for teacher's certificates for teaching in the county schools. Carrie White is the training teacher in the county normal school. The officers of the board of education are John S. Dardas, president; H. L. Eickemeyer, vice-president; G. C. Laing, clerk; E. T. Boden, treasurer; and A. G. Nelson, auditor. The other members of the board are Adolphus Blanchard, M. S. Babcock, C. O. Tompkins, Louis Rupff, A. C. Loeffert, Dr. Ward E. Coomer, and Charles Stever. The principals in charge of the various schools of the city are as follows: N. B. Sloan, Central high and Junior college; William G. Burton, Eastern Junior high; A. J. Armstrong, T. L. Handy Junior high; Josephine B. Knoblauch, Woodside; Ella L. Ellsworth, Sherman; Ida J. Carson, Dolsen; Ida C. Ueberhorst, Farragut; Alta M. Porter, Washington; Mary Beckett, Lincoln; Mary MacGregor, Garfield; Helen MacGregor, Fremont; Ida A. Babo, Whittier; Alice Houghton, Riegel; Victoria E. Morse, Kolb; Anna T. Reardon, Wenona; Maud E. Gilbert, McKinley; Helen H. Mackey, Park; Ida Dorland, Corbin; Jennie E. Lindsay, Trombley. In April, 1922, G. L. Jenner came from Pontiac, where he had been superintendent of schools, to Bay City to become the school superintendent here, and he has continued in that office with noteworthy success since that time. Although the 6-3-3 plan was decided upon and put into effect before his arrival in Bay City. The present high standard maintained in the schools of the city is owing in large measure to his administrative ability. The other administrative officers of the department are as follows: Frank F. Price, assistant superintendent and business agent; Edna R. Davis, secretary; Albert F. Gillman, truant officer on the east side; and Victor J. Compau, truant officer for the west side. The teachers of the various schools of Bay City are as follows: Junior College: N. B. Sloan, P. M. Keen, Mathilda Schroeder, R. C. Shellenbarger, Irma Anschutz, Henrietta Lord, Mrs. Margaret Omans, F. B. Rogers, G. L. Martin, J. H. George, Elizabeth Krafka, George E. Butterfield, L. L. Yeakey, Marceline Fawley. Central High Teachers: NS. B. Sloan, G. A. Omans, Philip M. Keen, Julia H. Beese, Mrs. M. R. Carver, Mary O. Killam, Mary McKinney, Grace R. Payne, Miss M. Schroeder, R. C. Shellenbarger, George E. Butterfield, Fred B. Rogers, G. L. Martin, Irma Anschutz, Lola L. Bishop, Margaret B. Omans, Elizabeth Krafka, J. H. George, Verna Grubbs, Marceline Fawley, Clayton R. Garlock, H. E. TenEyck, Garland Nevitt, Frances Townsend, L. L. Yeakey, A. E. Kelsey, Edward G. Ferris, Abe D. Dalzell, Edith Marvel, Lena L. Hand, Mabel L. Asman, Eva Bothe, Ida Clancy, Agnes A. Day, E. L. Dersnah, G. M. French, Dorothy Frost, Erma Hellmuth, Fave J. Hill, Ada E. Hobbs, Grace E. Leas, Henrietta Lord, Charles Maloney, Nellie M. McGregor, Frances H. Merrill, Edith Mowat, C. R. Murphy, Ina B. Palmer, Marion V. Schindler, Thelma King Sherman, Elizabeth

Page  94 94 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY Sparling, Verna Sparling, A. Edward Stiles, George D. Tunison, Clara Marie Wedow, Gwen Whitehouse, Mrs. Helen Wilcox, Margaret Gay, Lyda E. McHenry, A. H. Culbert, W. D. Parke. Eastern Junior High School: William G. Burton, Adeline Ballamy, Dale C. Allen, Julienne Beaubien, Anne M. Brown, Stanton W. Burton, Elizabeth Bassingthwaite, May DeFoe, Isabelle Easterly, G. W. Fogg, Curtis Gustin, Kenneth Geister, Mary Hartley, Marion Hogan, Emma Keen, Paul Leikert, Mary McGinty, Ann Martin, Orpha Marshall, Nellie Newkirk, Helen O'Leary, Susan Perrin, Jessie Reed, Clara Krause, Jennie H. Reagan, Laura Richardson, Lillian Willis, Nelson Bergevin. T. L. Handy Jr. High School: A. J. Armstrong, Leo S. Beach, Arthur H. Cansfield, Christina A. Connery, Cora Fotheringham, Blanch Filiatrault, Eliza Herman, Erma Hodgson, Lea Jensen, L. Emma Hollister, Ida M. Klopp, Orena Luxton, Glen D. Lanham, Blanche Leeming, R. H. MacDonald, Katherine McLaughlin, W. Maxwell Moore, Agnes Olmstead, Nina Shannon, Gertrude Simmerson, J. Irene Tryon, Belle Tunnison, Lillian Wellington, Mary Zielinski, Frank Compau. Woodside School: Josephine B. Knoblauch, Mary J. Pilditch, Margaret A. Lyons, Edyth M. Walker, Faith Walraven, Gertrude Hamme, Agnes G. Freel, Janet E. Shader, Clara W. Rakow, Thomas Greeley. Sherman School: Ella L. Ellsworth, Janet Murray, Anna Deegan, Minnie Hemstreet, Harriet Wurtz, Frances Conlin, Hattie Mather, Mary Parker, Myrtle Griffin, Henry Beck. Dolsen School: Ida J. Carson, Alice F. Moore, Alice Dersnah, Marguerite Walraven, Eva L. Durner, Marie Goppelt, Helen Mitchell, Genevieve Kennedy, Maud B. Beckett,' Olena Bristol, Leon Covyeau. Farragut School: Ida C. Ueberhorst, Mary E. Hamlet, Alicia Thorne, Mary E. East, Mable A. McWilliams, Cora B. Hopkins, Lillie B. Crowell, Florence Gedney, Katherine O'Hare, Melvina LeRoux, Nellie Haggarty, Ella A. Snowden, A. Skorey. Washington School: Alta M. Porter, Anna Murray, Glen Vallender, Charlotte A. McLean, Agnes McLean, Alice M. Mullane, Amelia M. McGibbon, S. Genevieve Kelly, Mary Hurley, Nell Tracey, Frieda Voltz, John W. Martin. Lincoln School: Mary Beckett, Grace Gosler, Anna Green, Josephine Litchfield, Edna Ruhstorfer, Margaret A. Charters, Helen A. Johnson, Marie Masterson, Edith Meiselbach, Cyrus Windiate. Garfield School: Mary MacGregor, Edith Warren, Elizabeth Seebeck, Esther Lundbom, Clara Shaver, May Ruhstorfer, Marie Nellet, Clara Knowles, Loretta Slachikowski, Agatha Chambers, Marian Baumgarten, Romelda Bammel, Ethel Beach, Lillian Rathke, William Graham. Fremont School: Helen MacGregor, Irene C. Washington, Florence E. Weber, Jennie Kulberg, Mary Rathke, Anna B. Scott, Irene L. Cronin, Flora A. Bedell, Frances E. Burtch, Frances Payette, Emma V. Raymond, Edith V. Harper, Margaret Tague, Herman Martens.

Page  95 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 95 Whittier School: Ida A. Babo, Minnie C. Beuthin, Estella A. Cooke, Marie Haffey, Carmen E. Brondyke, Jessamine Shepard, Mary Kabat, Garnet Merritt, Harriet Clark, Albert Anderson. Riegel School: Alice C. Houghton, Ida M. Belknap, Olive B. Mosher, Charles Popp. Kolb School: Victoria E. Morse, Maude Behrisch, Margaret Elliot, Betty Ferguson, Mrs. W. P. Sharpe, Hortense Fletcher, Emma G. Pfeifer, Alice Townsend, Anna R. Lawrence, Charles Giese. Wenona School: Anna T. Reardon, Alice Digby, Harriet Eichorn, Bell Carr, Mary Hunter, Mae Neal, Amy Gleave, Olive Mosher, Claud Bowers. McKinley School: Maud E. Gilbert, Ethel Staudacher, Edith McIntyre, Clara M. Roeder, Kate B. LaFranier, Georgia Kelley, Camille Seaholm, Christina McKay, Fredericka Brams, Nina Cummings, Frank Davis. Park School: Helen H. Mackey, Leo L. Bailey, Ella O'Keefe, Mary L. Neumann, Grace E. Saunders, Christine MacDonald, Antoinette Doyle, Mildred Madill, Janet Black, Alfred Thorson. Corbin School: Ida Dorland, Edna O'Brien, Josephine Kohler, Alice Vanderberg, Beatrice LeVasseur, John McHenry. Trombley School: Jennie E. Linsday, Mollie Lourim, Lillian Leith, Ruth Gilmaster, Carola Schweinsberg, Margaret Griffiths, Barbara Richert, Glayds Brenholtz, Clara Erwin, Frances Dulong, Charles Portt. Supervisors and Special Teachers: Charles H. White, George A. Race, Miranda Merckel, Florence M. List, Jennie B. Logan, Nellie Dichtelmiller, Edna Rae, Edith Nelson, Gertrude Butterfield, Lula LaRose, Howard F. Lentz, Myra Ware, McKinley Brown, Rose Zielinski. LIBRARIES When upon the organization of the Union School District of Bay City a clause was inserted in the act providing for the establishment of a district library, it was stated that the library should be supported on money raised by taxation. A school library was accordingly established under this section of the act organizing the school district. In 1869 a number of people of the city under the leadership of B. E. Warren and Aaron J. Cooke formed the Bay City Library association, whose articles of incorporation were filed with the city clerk on December 4, 1869. Books were issued to subscribers only, and through the efforts of the organizers, sufficient money was raised to permit the purchase of 3,000 volumes during the next two years and to equip a reading room. The state law relating to libraries at that time specified that fines collected from violators of the state laws should be set apart for the benefit of the school district libraries, but up to 1874, no use had been made of this money by the Union School District of Bay City. By March 2, of that year, $2,899.25 had been collected and set aside for the use of the school district library. It was evident, however, that the sum was insufficient to provide adequate library facilities for the school district library, but that if the money were expended by the

Page  96 96 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY Library association, it could be expended to much better advantage. Negotiations tending toward the consolidation of the school library and that of the association were accordingly opened by the association official. An agreement was reached whereby the School Board was to place its books in the library of the association, was to pay the library association $600 for taking care of the libraries, and was to spend $1,700 at once for books. The board was also required to spend the remainder of the fund on hand as well as any which might accrue thereafter. This agreement or merger of the libraries was to be effective for two years, and the library then became a free public library governed by the Joint Committee of the Public Library. It appears from the early records that the library after that time received penal fines as well as the city appropriation. The clause concerning the school district library was repealed and the library organization as it stands today was nominated. A board of trustees, according to the provisions of the act, was to govern the library, and all money to be contributed to the support of the library was to be expended under the direction of the trustees. The first board of library trustees was composed of James Shearer, Archibald McDonnell, H. M. Fitzhugh, James Watrous, William Daglish, and Aaron J. Cooke, with the mayor as ex-officio chairman of the board. The old library association was temporarily housed in the court house, but after the consolidation it was moved to the second floor of the Averell building. From there it was moved to its own building located on Washington avenue 200 feet south of Center avenue, where it remained until the fall of 1887 when it was moved to the southwest corner of Sixth and Adams streets, being opened to the public on October 12. When the new city hall was completed in 1898, the library was moved to that building where it remained until 1922. Before 1922 it became evident to the trustees that larger quarters than those afforded by the city hall would soon be necessary, and a movement was put on foot to build a library building. The present site on Center avenue at North Jackson avenue was donated by H. B. Smith, C. R. Wells, J. E. Davidson, and W. L. Clements. Negotiations were opened with the Carnegie corporation by W. L. Clements who secured from that organization the promise of $35,000 to be used for the library building. A bond issue of $25,000 was authorized by the people and a special appropriation of $6,000 for stacks was made by the city. The sum of $20,000 was donated by J. E. Davidson, C. R. Wells, and W. L. Clements. The building was completed in July, 1922, and on July 22, the doors of the library were closed during the removal to the new building. On September 1, 1922, it was formally opened to the public. The library now has more than 50,000 books with an annual circulation of nearly three times that number. Henry Braddock became the librarian of the old library association and he was succeeded by a Mrs. Ferris who remained in charge until the consolidation in 1877. In June, 1877, Miss Jennie Gilbert became librarian, a position which she held until 1884 when Miss Julia A. Robinson assumed charge of the library. In October, 1888, Mrs. Annie F. Parsons became librarian, being succeeded in August, 1898, by Aaron

Page  97 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 97 J. Cooke, the veteran organizer of the old library association. Following his death in 1908, Annie F. Parsons (or Mrs. Archibald McDonnell, as she is now known) became librarian in 1909 after taking a library course. In August, 1917, Agnes VanValkenburgh was appointed librarian, Emma Pafort having preceded her as acting librarian for a time. Miss VanValkenburgh was forced to resign in the summer of 1919 because of ill health, and in November of that year the present librarian, Isabel A. Ballou, was appointed to succeed her. Five assistant librarians are needed to administer the affairs of the rapidly growing library. West Bay City was considerably slower in securing a library than Bay City, and that she finally obtained one in 1884 was due to the initiative of Henry W. Sage. In 1881, Sage began considering the advisability of presenting to the city a library which would combine a debating school for young men. In April, 1882, the plans for the building arrived in West Bay City and construction was begun at once. On January 16, 1884, public dedication exercises were held in the Westminster Presbyterian church. The library building was two and a half stories in height, 56x90 feet in size, and was built of red brick trimmed in buff brick and blue Amherst limestone. The building itself represented an investment of approximately $50,000, and Henry W. Sage donated 8,000 books to begin the collection. The library was incorporated by an act of the legislature passed March 13, 1883, and the government of the library was placed in the hands of a board of trustees, a form of management under which it continues at the present time. Mrs. M. F. Ostrander, the first librarian to assume charge of the library, held that position until January, 1899, and during her years as librarian placed the institution on the basis of efficient operation which has since characterized its operation. The present librarian is Molly Gilbert. The Sage Public Library now has nearly 45,000 books on its shelves, and the circulation in 1924 was 85,042. That the libraries of both the east and the west sides of the city are well patronized by the people is shown by the fact that the total circulation of the two for the year 1924 was 222,668. There is a very active co-operation between the two libraries and the public schools. The Junior College students, in particular, make continual use of the Public and Sage Libraries for their reference work. It is unusual for such an institution as the Junior College to have available Libraries with approximately 100,000 volumes at the very start. Many volumes that formerly had been seldom used, have been found to be invaluable for use in connection with various college courses.

Page  98 CHAPTER VII PHYSICIANS AND THE PUBLIC HEALTH IFFICULT it is, in these days of easy transportation over hard surfaced roads in swift and comfortable motor cars, to picture the hardships undergone by the doctors in the pioneer days. The families were then widely scattered; the roads, if there were any, were almost impassable in some seasons of the year; they were forced to travel on horseback, pushing through thick underbrush in the forests and swiming rivers where there were no fords. Yet in spite of these hardships, the physician came to the pioneer settlements to minister to the needs of the people. He was not only a guardian of their health, but was also a confidant of the family. The general practitioner was beloved by all who knew him, and to be a "family doctor" meant that he was taken into the joys and the sorrows of all the families whom he attended. What these early physicians lacked in knowledge of the medical science, for medicine was as yet undeveloped compared with the medical knowledge of today, he made up in hard commonsense. Jacob Graverodt, the pioneer trapper of this section of the state, possessed a limited knowledge of the curative powers of herbs, and he was wont to doctor the Chippewa Indians, when they fell sick, with the concoctions he made from the herbs. Long after his death, the Indians told tales of the remarkable cures he effected among the members of the tribe, and though Jacob Graverodt was not a physician by college degree, he was nevertheless one in effect and might be considered the first in Bay county. Mrs. Elizabeth (Wilcox) Rogers has been given place as the first doctor to locate in the county, although she had never received a degree from a medical college. She was the daughter of a prominent physician of Watertown, New York, who removed to Canada when Elizabeth Wilcox was a small girl. There the girl began the study of medicine under the able preceptorship of her father and displayed an aptitude for the medical science which indicated the good use to which she would one day put her knowledge. At the age of nineteen years, she married Thomas Rogers, and after residing in Toronto for a time, they came to Portsmouth in 1837. It was then that her knowledge of Materia Medica, gained through years of study in the office of her father, came to the aid of the settlers. No physician had settled in the county before that time, and from 1837 to 1850, Mrs. Rogers was called to the bedside of the sick as would any regularly graduated doctor of medicine. At all hours of the day and night, she was willing to make a journey to some isolated cabin to ease suffering and cure the sick. Like a physician, she never refused to go on a case, regardless of when she might be called or the hardships attendant upon such a journey. Such was the love she won from the hearts of the settlers that when the first physician came to the county in 1850 and she ceased making her calls

Page  99 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 99 many of the older settlers demanded that she be the only one to attend them in their illness. Mrs. Rogers, who has been termed the good angel of the pioneers, died in Bay City, July 16, 1881. Although Dr. J. T. Miller of Saginaw made occasional trips to Lower Saginaw, the village on the river was without a regular practicing physician until the advent of Dr. George E. Smith in 1850. Doctor Smith was a graduate of the Cleveland Medical college, and he was a registered pharmacist as well as being a doctor of medicine. When he came to Lower Saginaw, he opened a drug store, the first of its kind to be kept within the present limits of Bay county. From 1853 to 1861 he served as postmaster of the village. From 1861 to 1878 he engaged in the lumber business, but in the latter year, he again turned his attention to the active practice of medicine when his failing health rendered the rigorous life of the lumberman too hard for him and he continued in the practice of his profession until the time of his death. The second doctor to locate in the county was Dr. August Nabert, who was born in Brunswick, Germany, January 10, 1828. He was graduated from the medical college of his native city, and after three years on a whaling vessel in the South Seas, he came to Lower Saginaw in 1851. His career was short, however, for the following year he died, a victim of the cholera epidemic which swept the county at that time. Within a few years after the coming of these pioneer physicians, Bay City was becoming a factor in the lumber industry, and as the city and county grew, more doctors located here. So rapid was the influx of doctors, that in 1865 the Bay County Medical society was formed, and by 1875, the following doctors were practicing here: Charles A. Bogert; Sira Carmen; John M. Emery; John H. Burland; James Clark; William W. Elmer; Stephen H. Hagadorn; W. E. Vaughn, who located in the county in 1868; John Hargrave; Norman Johnson; C. C. Kingsbury; Owen Kelley; Richard Kratzch; George LaMontagne; John Oldfield; Jeremy T. Miller; W. R. Tupper; William Cunningham; Edwin H. Gates, who came here in 1866; A. H. Hagadorn; George Heumann; Henry A. Marks; Aaron A. Pratt; Jeffrey R. Thomas; Horace Tupper; Columbus V. Tyler, who came here in 1869; and Mrs. Marion F. Maxon, the only woman physician to be engaged in practice in the county at that time. Among the other early physicians of the county were the following: Dr. Robert W. Erwin; Dr. Harvey Gilbert, who was for years the Bay City Health Officer and also a member of the secretary's department of the State Board of Health; Dr. Henry B. Landon, a veteran of the Civil war, in which he served as surgeon, who came to the county in 1870; Dr. Charles T. Newkirk, who was graduated from Victoria college, Toronto, when barely of age, joined his brother in Argentina, later served three years as army surgeon in the Brazilian army in Paraguay, and after visiting the leading hospitals of Europe, returned to this country and located at Bay City in 1868; Dr. Charles A. Walsh; Dr. George A. Williams; Dr. William F. Hovey, a veteran of the Civil war who located in Bay City soon after leaving the army.

Page  100 100 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY Among the early physicians who settled on the west side of the river may be mentioned Dr. Isaac E. Randall, who began practice in Wenona in 1867 and became one of the leading doctors of that community; Dr. William E. Magill, who located in Wenona in 1870 but who entered public life within a few years and gave up the active practice of his profession; Dr. John W. Hauxhurst located in Wenona in 1876 and is still practicing, hale and hearty. Dr. Fred D. Heisordt was the first native born physician to practice in his home community. He was born in Bay City in 1858, graduated from the high school in 1876 and from the University of Michigan in 1879. He then studied medicine at the Detroit Medical College, being graduated with the degree of Doctor of Medicine in 1881. He then came to Bay City and engaged in practice until his retirement from active life. Dr. Columbus V. Tyler, above mentioned, was one of the outstanding figures in the medicinal fraternity of Bay county. He was born in 1825 and came to Bay City in 1869. He was state senator from 1876 to 1879 and also served on the State Board of Health. The Bay County Medical Society was organized in 1865 but it was not, during the first years of its life, a very active organization. In 1873 a permanent organization was effected by the doctors of the county and Dr. Horace Tupper was chosen the first president of the society. Since that time, the society has been active in promoting the interests of the medical fraternity in Bay county. Among the prominent physicians of the county in 1925 are: Arthur D. Allen, Josiah L. Ambrose, George E. Andrews, Charles W. Ash, Frederick S. Baird, Thomas A. Baird; Charles H. Baker, Sylvester Ballard, William R. Ballard, George M. Brown, Clare H. Crandell, Robert H. Criswell, Ernest F. Crummer, Vanny H. Dumond, Nina M. Ely, Raye E. Everett, Fernald L. Foster, Hugh M. Gale, Joseph C. Grosjeau, Smith E. Gustin, J. William Gustin, John W. Hauxhurst, Fred D. Heisordt, Archie W. Herrick, Charles L. Hess, Everett A. Hoyt, Edward S. Huckins, E. Charles Hughes, Jerry M. Jones, John A. Keho, William Kelly, William Kerr, Mann Kessler, Harold P. Lawrence, Guy M. McDowell, John H. McEwan, James M. McLean, Alfred Macoutel, George W. Moore, Byron H. Ovenshire, Roy C. Perkins, Royston E. Scrafford, R. Newton Sherman, Matthew Slattery, Adolph O. Speckhard, Colin A. Stewart, Albert F. Stone, Virgil L. Tupper, Edward C. Warren, Mary A. W. Williams, Thomas G. Wilson, Ernest A. Wittwer, and Aloysius J. Zaremba. Doctors of Osteopathy are 0. B. Gates, J. E. Downing and W. C. Brenholtz. HOSPITALS Dr. J. A. Waterhouse, a graduate of the Eclectic Medical Institute, of Cincinnati, came to Bay City in 1880 to establish the Bay City hospital, which occupied four rooms in the Smith & Hart block on Water street. The following year he engaged thirty rooms at Third and Saginaw streets and secured the services of his brother Dr. H. M. Waterhouse. For several years the hospital continued to handle cases but it soon declined and Bay City was again left without

Page  101 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 101 a hospital. Similar institutions were started from time to time only to be discontinued within a short time. Until the establishment of the Mercy hospital in 1900, Bay county was virtually without hospital facilities. Early in that year, Sister Hilda, mother superior of the hospital, came to Bay City and presented her plan to the business men of the city in such a light that $7,500 was subscribed to start the much-needed institution. The old Bradley house and property at the corner of Fifteenth street and Howard avenue was purchased and on September 26, 1900, the hospital opened its doors to the first patients. A three-story brick addition was added to the hospital in 1905 and the facilities have been increased from time to time, until now Mercy hospital has 150 beds. A training school for nurses is maintained at the hospital, which is the largest hospital in Bay City. The city's contract with the state of Michigan for the care of venereal cases was closed in May, 1921, and at that time the name was changed from Detention to General Hospital and the building was remodeled and equipped to care for medical and surgical cases. Although sentiment against the work formerly done at the hospital worked toward the detriment of the hospital business during the first year, it was better the following year, and 584 cases were admitted. The hospital has a modern operating room with an electrical sterilizing outfit consisting of two twenty-gallon water tanks, one autoclave and instrument sterilizer and all of the necessary furnishings including a special group of shadowless lights. The hospital has accommodations for thirty-five patients, not including the annex which is reserved for contagious cases. The hospital is now superintended by Miss Theresa M. Gust, appointed November 15, 1924. Bay City's other hospital is the Samaritan hospital, located at the corner of Ninth and Jackson streets. The Bay City Samaritan hospital, located at the corner of Ninth and Jackson streets, was organized in 1918 and incorporated under the laws of the state of Michigan in 1923. It has a capacity of thirty beds and is used exclusively for surgical cases. Its connection with the Jones Clinic gives it access to well equipped Xray, radium and clinical laboratories. It is managed under a board of nine directors: Henry K. McHarg, Jr., president; L. A. Connon, secretary; Cora Parke, R. N., superintendent. BOARD OF HEALTH Dr. G. W. Moore is the present health officer of Bay City, and the other members of the board of health are Drs. J. W. Gustin, J. A. Keho, Charles W. Ash, and Mayor Harry Nelson. In the board of health, the duties have multiplied during the course of the years until the quarantining of contagious diseases is but one phase of the many duties which must be attended by the board. Plumbing inspections, which include inspections of all plumbing jobs, drain installations, and similar work is an important part of the work of the department. T. E. Smith is the present plumbing inspector. Peter Russell, the sanitary officer, has, under his direction, the placarding of houses where contagious cases are confined, fumigation of

Page  102 10'2 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY such houses and schools, the investigation of complaints, serving of orders, and the like. During the year ending July, 1925, he made a total of 1,856 such inspections. Dairy and food inspection is under the supervision of J. K. Smialec. All places which handle food and dairy products in the city are inspected for their cleanliness, and all dairies sending milk to the city are subjected to periodic inspections and forced to produce their milk under sanitary conditions else the sale of their products in Bay City will be forbidden. The report of the inspector for 1925 is as follows: Milk plants inspected, 564; milk wagons, 798; dairy farms, 162; wholesale meats, 315; meat markets, 600; groceries, 521; restaurants, 182; bakeries, 171; fruit stores, 131; commission houses, 275; peddlers, 466; ice cream plants, eight; bakery wagons, 220; candy kitchens, ten; fish houses, eight; peanut butter factories, two; wholesale groceries, twelve. During the year ninety-five complaints were investigated, twelve of which were taken into court and ten convictions being obtained. Milk samples to the number of 766 and eighteen cream samples were tested in the laboratory maintained for that purpose by the city. Fourteen hundred pounds of sausage meat were condemned; two tubercular cows and one tubercular hog were destroyed; and pork loins, spare ribs, veal calves, crates of eggs and cherries were also destroyed. The nurses of the Civic League are doing good work among the poorer people of the city who might otherwise go without the proper medical attention. The nurses are Mary Ellen Redmond, Hazel Opperman, Anna Yeoward, Loretta MacDonald and Teresa Kirchman, all of whom work under the supervision of Rosetta Barber. A baby clinic is held twice a week at the rooms of the Civic League in the armory and a tuberculosis clinic is held the third Wednesday of each month with Drs. William Kerr and Roy Perkins attending. Mrs. Edna Rae is the school nurse and reports to parents and physicians when the children need a doctor's attention.

Page  103 CHAPTER VIII BENCH AND BAR T HE judiciary of a people has been to the historian a barometer of the civilization developed by that people, and in the conduct of their courts may be found the people's conception of the relationship of society and the individual. The judicial system of Michigan has its first roots in the days of the Saxons in England. The English who came to the New World transplanted their judicial system on this continent where it has developed along slightly different lines than the English judiciary. The actual establishment of the Michigan courts came in 1805 with the organization of the Michigan territory, when a supreme court composed of a chief and two associate justices was established. The judges were appointed by the president and continued in office until 1824, when the second grade of territorial government was reached. Thereafter, four supreme court justices were on the bench, an arrangement that continued until 1837. The constitution of 1835 gave the governor the power of appointment of the judges with the consent of the senate, the term to be seven years. The statute revision of 1838 made the supreme court consist of one chief and three associate justices. Two of the justices constituted a quorum for the transaction of business, and two annual terms were to be held at Detroit, two at Ann Arbor, one at Kalamazoo, and one at Pontiac. The terms were altered by the revision of 1846. The constitution of 1850 provided that for the term of six years the judges of the several circuit courts should be judges of the supreme court, four to constitute a quorum and a concurrence of three necessary to a final decision. Four annual terms were provided for by this same constitution. In 1857 the terms were extended to eight years and the offices made elective by the people. The legislature of 1887 increased the number of justices to five and made the terms ten years long. The number of justices was increased to eight in 1903 and the term of office reduced to eight years. Soon after the formation of the Michigan territorial government, the governor established four judicial districts, those of Detroit, Erie, Huron, and Michilimackinac, and on July 25, 1805, an act was adopted establishing three district courts to be conducted by supreme court justices, one for the district of Erie, another for Huron and Detroit, and one for the district of Michilimackinac. Two years later the district courts were made to consist of one chief and two associate justices, all residents of the district where they held court. They were appointed by the governor and held office during good behavior. These courts were abolished in 1910. Other district courts were organized in 1840 and 1843, but they, too, soon ceased to exist after a few years of life. The last district court was that of the northern peninsula and the

Page  104 104 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY adjacent islands, a district that was abolished in 1863. A court of chancery was established in 1836 but was abolished in 1847. The first circuit courts were established in 1824, the supreme court justices being required to hold annual terms in the counties of Wayne, Monroe, Oakland, Macomb, and St. Clair and special sessions in the counties of Crawford, Brown, and Michilimackinac. Circuit courts were established by name in 1825 but the supreme court justices continued to hold the sessions as before. In 1833, county courts were established throughout Michigan consisting of one circuit judge for the entire circuit and two associate judges for each county. Other revisions of the circuit courts followed, but by the revision of 1846 wherein the court of chancery was abolished, chancery powers were conferred upon the circuit courts and since that time their powers have not been materially altered. The office of the judge was made elective in 1850, the term of office being then set at six years. From time to time, circuits have been created by the state legislature until at the present time there are forty. When Bay county was organized in 1857, this territory embraced by the county was included in the Seventh Judicial Circuit, but two years later the county was made a part of the Tenth circuit, of which Wilber F. Woodworth was the judge, a position he continued to hold until his resignation in 1861. James Birney, of Bay City, was appointed by the governor to fill out the unexpired term of Judge Woodworth and filled the office until 1865, when Jabez G. Sutherland took the bench. Judge Sutherland resigned in 1870 to go to Congress. He was prominent in his profession and was a writer of textbooks on law, work for which he was widely known. From the first, the lawyers practicing at the Bay county bar were men of the highest ability and training. The pettifogging lawyer, whose equipment was a pair of leather lungs and a smattering of the law, was not found in Bay county, although many other sections of the state had many such attorneys. Characteristic of the type of men who raised the legal profession to such a high plane in Bay county was James G. Birney, a native of Kentucky, public official of Alabama, and twice candidate for the presidency of the United States. Though he never engaged in active practice after his retirement to the banks of the Saginaw, James G. Birney was a factor in the cases before the bar, for his advice and counsel were sought on all hands by those engaged in litigation. James Birney, his son, was educated in the East and returned to Bay City where, as above mentioned, he was appointed judge of the circuit comprising Bay, Midland, and Arenac counties, a position that he held until 1865. After that time, Judge Birney devoted himself to the active practice of his profession in Bay county where he was one of the leading figures at the bar until his retirement in 1892. He was an ardent supporter of all movements that had for their aim the betterment and development of Bay county, and many bills that were passed by the legislature to this end were drafted by Judge Birney. The first suit to be called before the Bay County Circuit Court was that of John Robertson vs. Harvey Williams, which was called June 25, 1857, W. L. Sherman appearing as the attorney for the plaintiff. At

Page  105 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 105 first no place was set apart especially for the uses of the court, but in April, 1859, a building was secured on Water street for a court house in time for the opening of the court session that term. The grand jurors at this session were as follows: J. S. Barclay, Henry M. Bradley, John Burdon, Daniel Burns, Jonathan Burtch, Calvin C. C. Chilson, W. L. Fay, Lyman Garrison, B. B. Hart, Christian Heinzmann, Fred Keisler, Nathan Knight, Alexander McKay, Gunder Miller, John W. Putnam, Henry Raymond (Foreman), Harvey Stewart, Edward Vosburg, Albert Wedthoff, and Michael Winterhalter. At that same session of the court occurred the trial of Peter Van Gestle for the murder of Peter Van Wert, a crime committed January 31, 1859. Van Gestle was tried and convicted, being sentenced to solitary life imprisonment by Judge Wilber F. Woodworth. This was the first murder conviction obtained in the county. John Moore was appointed to fill out the term of Sutherland in 1870 as judge of the Bay County Circuit Court and he was followed on the bench by Theophilus C. Grier who lived only until 1872. Judge Grier was born in Ravenna, Ohio, January 2, 1834, and after the death of his parents when he was still young, he lived with an uncle. He was a descendant on his mother's side of Rev. John Cotton, the Pilgrim minister of Boston. After serving an apprenticeship in the plant of the Trumbull County Democrat, he attended school at Marietta, Ohio, and then began the study of law in the offices of Riddle & Hathaway, Chardon, Ohio, in 1854. He was married in 1857 and soon after came to Pine Run, Michigan, thence removing in 1859 to Bay City. In 1860 he was elected prosecuting attorney and circuit court commissioner for Bay county but was defeated the following term for the same offices. He was city attorney in 1865 and two years later was elected to represent this district in the state legislature. In 1870, with the unanimous endorsement of the Bay City bar and without opposition, he was elevated to the bench but died two years later in his thirty-ninth year. Sanford M. Green, judge of the Eighteenth Judicial Circuit Court from 1872 to 1888, served on the bench longer than any other judge of the Bay County Circuit Court, either before or since his time. He was born in Grafton, New York, May 30, 1807, and left the home farm at the age of sixteen to work as a farmhand. During the ensuing three years, he studied with a private tutor, for he had been denied the advantages of a sound education before then, and by the time he was nineteen years of age he qualified as a school teacher, although he himself had never had more than three months instruction in a public school. In the winter months of the next two years, he taught school, working on farms during the summer, and in 1828 he commenced the study of law, first with George C. Sherman, then with Judge Ford, both prominent New York lawyers, and then in the office of Stirling & Bronson, of Watertown, New York. With five years of legal training behind him, he was admitted to the bar and entered practice at Brownville, New York, in 1835, later removing to Rochester where he became the partner of H. L. Stevens, who shortly after came to Michigan. Green then went into partnership with I. A. Eastman, continuing the relationship until 1837. In that year he came to Michigan

Page  106 106 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY to settle on land where Owosso now stands. He was one of the pioneers of that village, and during his six years' residence in that place, he served as assessor of a school district, supervisor, justice of the peace, and county prosecutor of Shiawassee county. In 1842, he went to the State Senate and at the close of his term was appointed to revise the statutes, which he did at Pontiac, whither he removed in 1843. He was re-elected to the senate immediately following his report on the revision in 1846, and in 1848, he was appointed judge of the Fourth Circuit Court to fill the vacancy made by the transfer of Judge Whipple to the Third Circuit Court. He served in this capacity until the re-organization of the judicial system in 1858, after which he was judge of the Sixth Circuit Court until his resignation in 1867. He immediately removed to Bay City where he engaged in the practice of his profession. In June, 1872, he was appointed judge of the circuit court, and his conduct of the office, the manner in which he managed the affairs of his court won him successive re-election to the bench, where he served until 1888, more than sixteen years. Upon his death in 1903 at the age of ninety-six years, the Michigan bar lost one of its most brilliant judges and attorneys, and Bay county may well be proud of the record won by her adopted son. George P. Cobb, upon the retirement of Judge Green, was chosen circuit judge by the people who, realizing his worth, elected him to that office despite the fact that he was sponsored by no party but ran as an independent candidate. He first entered practice in Bay City in 1868 and for many years was associated with Archibald McDonell. After his retirement from the bench in 1894, he returned to private practice in Bay City. Andrew C. Maxwell was elected judge of the Bay county circuit court to succeed Judge Cobb. Judge Maxwell was born in Onondaga county, New York, in 1831, and removed with his parents to Oakland county, Michigan, when he was a boy of thirteen. He studied law in Pontiac, and after being admitted to the bar in June, 1853, he settled at Lapeer where he began the practice of his profession. In 1857, he came to Bay City (then Lower Saginaw) where he continued to practice law. He was a member of the Board of Supervisors in 1870-71 and from 1876 to 1880 when he resigned. In 1881 he was re-elected to that office and again in 1882 and 1883. In 1865 he was a member of the State Legislature, and in 1882 was democratic candidate for election to Congress from the Tenth district. In 1894, he was elected judge of the Eighteenth Judicial Circuit Court. His practice was never confined to Bay City, for he won a statewide reputation as an attorney, and throughout the northern part of Michigan he was a familiar figure in the courts. In 1900, Theodore F. Shepard was elevated to the bench of the Eighteenth Judicial Circuit Court to succeed Judge Maxwell. Shepard was born in Livingston county, New York, June 14, 1844. He attended the public schools of his home community and then studied at Alfred University, New York, from which he graduated in 1865. He then began reading law with Marshall B. Champlin, of Cuba, New York, and completed his legal training in the Albany Law school, being

Page  107 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 107 admitted to practice at the bar in 1866. For another year he continued in the office of Champlin and then came to West Bay City where he formed a partnership with C. P. Black. From that time, he began a rapid rise in his profession which was to reach its climax by his election to the judgeship of the Bay county court in 1900. As prosecuting attorney of the county in 1872, he conducted the affairs of the office with a vigor and impartiality that brought him to the forefront of his profession and paved the way for his ultimate elevation to the bench. For several terms, he was city attorney for West Bay City. For ten years he was a member of the water commission and for twelve years was a member of the board of education of which he was acting chairman. In 1890, President Harrison appointed Shepard United States District Attorney for the Eastern District of Michigan, a position which he ably filled until 1894. He was prominent in Republican politics of the state and was a delegate to the Cincinnati convention that nominated President Hayes. Chester L. Collins came to the bench of the Eighteenth Judicial Circuit Court in 1906. He was born in Newcastle, Ohio, June 13, 1847, and received a common school education in Knoxville. Iowa. After graduating from Iowa Wesleyan university, he began the study of law in the offices of Stone & Ayers, the senior member of which was one of Iowa's war governors. He served in Company A, 47th Iowa Volunteer Infantry during the Civil war before he entered the university. In 1869, he was admitted to practice at the Iowa bar, and during the next six years he was engaged in prominent litigation before both the circuit and the supreme courts of the state. In October, 1875, he came to Bay City. But the change in the field of his endeavors wrought no change in the success which he was rapidly attaining, for he became known in the courts of Louisiana and Florida, the United States Court of Appeals, and the United States Supreme Court. His prominence in the legal profession in Michigan is attested by the fact that he was a vice-president and then president of the Michigan State Bar association. He was a leading figure in all movements calculated to better the community in which he lived, for he has served on the bridge committee, the library board, and the police commission. Judge Collins was appointed referee of bankruptcy for the Northern Division of the Eastern District of Michigan, an office which he held until April, 1904, when he resigned. In 1906, he was elected judge of the Bay County Circuit Court and was re-elected to that office in 1912. He died in office early in 1916. With his death the legal fraternity of the county and the state lost one of its most valuable members. Lewis P. Coumans was appointed April 20, 1916, to fill the judgeship until the election of a new judge, and in November, Samuel G. Houghton was elected. Judge Houghton has continued in that office since that time. His conduct on the bench, the sagacity of his decisions, the careful consideration with which he handled each case, have won for him the respect and admiration not only of the members of the Bay county bar but of the citizenry at large. In addition to James Birney, who has already been mentioned, the other attorneys credited with being the first to locate in Lower Saginaw

Page  108 108 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY were W. L. Sherman, Chester H. Freeman, Stephen Wright, and James Fox. W. L. Sherman was born in Rutland, New York, in 1819 and was admitted to the bar in 1837, beginning the active practice of his profession at Adams, New York. In 1854, he came to Lower Saginaw where he engaged in the active practice of his profession until his death, which occurred June 30, 1865. Chester H. Freeman, for the part he played in the organization of Bay county, is ranked as one of the most able of the early attorneys to settle at Lower Saginaw. He was born in Williamstown, New York, in 1822, the son of a farmer, who was also a practicing physician. He attended the public schools of his home community and then in 1837 entered Cazenovia Seminary where he studied for a year. For about three years thereafter he taught school in Mexico, New York, after which he returned to the home farm where he remained ten years. During his school days he had begun the study of law and in 1854 he was admitted to the bar at Syracuse, New York. After a year of practice in the East, he came to Lower Saginaw in July, 1855, where he opened an office on Water street at the foot of Center street. In the fall of 1856, he bought a lot at the corner of Third and Madison streets where he built a frame house for his family. He rose rapidly in the practice of law in the little community, and when Bay county was organized in 1857, it was he who drew up the bill passed by the legislature and who was elected first prosecuting attorney. Then began the memorable struggle of the people of the county for official recognition of their sovereignty as a county, and around Freeman and the bill which he had fostered centered the struggle. At times it seemed that he stood alone in supporting the organization of Bay county, but when the Supreme Court of the state finally ruled that the county had been duly organized, it was Freeman, then sick of a fever, who deserved the credit for the success of the long fight that was brought to a close by the reading of his arguments before the supreme court by Colonel William Fenton, of Genesee county. In many ways, Freeman was an outstanding figure in the life of the little community during his life. For some years he was circuit court commissioner, and many of the important roads constructed in the county were laid out by him when he served as highway commissioner. James Fox came to Bay City about the same time as Freeman but remained but a short time. Stephen C. Wright, after laying the foundation of a good practice in the county, went to California where he remained until his death. Luther Beckwith came to Bay City in 1860, the year in which he was admitted to the bar. He was a native of Washtenaw county and a graduate of the University of Michigan. From 1863 to 1867, he was prosecuting attorney of the county, and he also served as an alderman of the city. He developed a large practice in the county and gained a good reputation as a trial lawyer among the members of his profession. Archibald McDonell settled in Bay City the year after Beckwith came here. He was born in St. Andrews, Nova Scotia, in 1838 and received his elementary education in the public schools of that city after which he taught school for three years in the province. In 1859 he entered the Law school of the University of Michigan, graduating in

Page  109 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 109 1861. The following June he came to Bay City to enter upon the practice of law, winning almost instant popularity as a lawyer. He was chosen to fill many public offices among which have been those of supervisor, circuit court commissioner, city attorney and alderman, and mayor of Bay City in 1876-77. R. McBrookins was one of the early attorneys of Bay City. After practicing in partnership with Andrew C. Maxwell for a year or two, he went into the army in 1862. Archie Stevenson, who studied law in the office of Andrew C. Maxwell in 1858 went West soon after he was admitted to the bar. Samuel Maxwell, a brother of A. C. Maxwell, was admitted to the bar while he was a resident of Bay City, but in 1861 he entered the army. After the war he went to Nebraska where he became one of the prominent figures in the legal fraternity, finally becoming a justice of the Nebraska Supreme Court. Isaac Marston came to Bay City late in 1862 and practiced here until 1874, but the twelve years during which he was identified with the Bay county bar were ones that served to raise him high in his profession. He was born in Ireland in 1839 and came to America in 1856. While working as a farmhand in Oakland county, he attended school for two months, and with this schooling and the education he was able to acquire by himself, he gained admission to the University of Michigan in 1859, graduating from the law department in 1861. For six months he practiced at Alma, Michigan, but when he lost his law library in a fire, he removed to Ithaca End after a time to Bay City. Here, in March, 1863, he formed a partnership with Herschel H. Hatch, a combination that became one of the most formidable legal firms in northern Michigan. The partnership was dissolved in 1874 when Marston was appointed attorney-general of\ Michigan by Governor Bagley. During his residence in Bay City, Isaac Marston held several public offices, among them being those of justice of the peace, city attorney, and prosecuting attorney. He also served as the representative of this district in the state legislature. In April, 1875, Judge Marston was elected to fill the vacancy left on the supreme bench by Justice Christiancy, and he remained a justice of that court until his resignation in February, 1883. Though Judge Marston engaged in practice in Detroit after retiring from the supreme bench, he left his stamp upon the early legal history of Bay county, and it is significant that the fame as a lawyer which he won was gained through his work during his twelve years' residence in Bay City. Herschel H. Hatch, the partner of the Judge Marston, was born in Morrisville, New York, in 1837. He received his early education in the public schools of his native village and from his father. In 1859 he graduated from the law school of Hamilton college, after which, until 1863, he practiced in his home town. In March of that year, he came to Bay City where he at once went into partnership with Isaac Marston. The following year, James Birney joined the firm which then assumed the name of Birney, Marston & Hatch, but at the end of a year, Birney retired and the firm of Marston & Hatch continued until its dissolution in 1874. Hatch was one of the first aldermen of the city, having been elected to that office in 1865, and from 1868 to 1872 he was probate

Page  110 110 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY judge of Bay county. In 1874, he was appointed a member of the commission to revise the constitution, working with ex-Governor Jerome as his colleague from the Saginaw district. His work in this connection was so signal that he was appointed a member of the commission to revise the tax laws of the state in 1881. The following year, he was nominated to represent the Tenth district in Congress, and from 1883-84 he served as a member of the House of Representatives. As a lawyer, he was known as one of the ablest men in the county as well as in the state, and every effort of the man was bent in support of the public good. Hatch afterward moved to Detroit, where he engaged in practice and afterward died. C. H. Denison was one of the brilliant lawyers of the early days, but he remained here only from 1863 to 1879 and then went to New York City. Cushman K. Davis, afterward governor of Minnesota, studied in 1864 in the law office of A. C. Maxwell. In Bay City, he invented the dictionary index that has since come into general use. Thomas A. E. Weadock, who represented this district in Congress for three terms, earned enough money to finance his way through the law school of the University of Michigan from which he was graduated in 1873. The following year, he came to Bay City where he went into partnership with Graeme Wilson and sometime later his brother, John C. Weadock, was taken into the firm, which became known as one of the ablest corporation law firms of the state. Griffith H. Francis, who was probate judge of Bay county from 1900 to 1912, was born in South Trenton, New York, in 1844, and attended the district school near his home. At the age of eleven years, he left home and during the years that followed neglected no opportunity to educate himself. For two years he studied at Cazenovia Seminary and in 1867 matriculated at Ripon College, Ripon, Wisconsin. He remained there four years, part of the time engaging in teaching, and then returned to Cazenovia Seminary where he graduated in 1872. Soon after he entered the law school of the University of Michigan, being graduated from that institution in 1874. For a time, he taught in graded schools and then began the active practice of his:rofession at Saline, Michigan. In 1876, he settled in West tBay City, was elected a justice of the peace the following year, was made a member of the school board, and helped to draft the charter of West Bay City in 1877. He was city attorney of West Bay City seven years, and in 1882 removed his office to Bay City to continue in active practice until he was elected probate judge in 1900. He had previously served one term as county school commissioner and had filled out an unexpired term as circuit court commissioner. He was a well known figure in legal circles of the city and county during his active life here, and that he held the trust and confidence of the people of the county is shown in the fact that he served as probate judge longer than any man either before or since his time. W. French Morgan was a native of Kentucky and came to Bay City in 1861. He took up the study of law and was admitted to the bar in 1878 to become one of the well known lawyers of the county. Another early attorney of the county was Fatio Colt who later removed to Mid

Page  111 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 11 land. Edgar Cooley was also practicing at the Bay county bar before 1870. The names of John L. Stoddard, Daniel Mangan, Henry Selleck, Samuel L. and John Brigham, and John Golden are also found in the list of the early attorneys of the county. John L. Stoddard studied in the office of Senator Roscoe Conklin at Utica, N. Y., was apointed to annotate decisions of Michigan Supreme Court in 1875 and was the first president of Bay County Historical Society, when re-organized. Sidney T. Holmes, founder of the firm of Holmes, Collins & Stoddard, practiced for many years in Bay county and later became a justice of the New York Supreme Court. Emil Anneke received his law training in the University of Berlin, but when the revolutionary troubles of 1848 broke out in his native country, he came to the United States. From 1862 to 1865 he was auditor-general of Michigan, and in 1874 came to Bay City where he engaged in practice, and the name of Anneke was afterwards listed on the rolls of the Bay county bar in the person of his son, Edward E. Anneke, who served several terms as prosecuting attorney, and probate judge of the county, but is now deceased, and in the name of a grandson, Emil Anneke, who still practices here. The Bay County Bar association was established in the early Seventies, and the membership at that time was necessarily rather small. For many years it followed the same lines, but slowly toward the close of the last century, it began to lose the vigor with which it had started. A reorganization was effected in 1905, and the officers selected to head the rejuvenated organization were Edgar A. Cooley, president; John C. Weadock, vice-president; and Frank S. Pratt, secretary and treasurer. As the membership of the Bay county bar has increased, the membership of the bar association has increased in proportion until at the present time between forty and fifty attorneys of Bay county are members of the association. The officers elected at the annual fall meeting in 1925 were Edward W. Porter, president; F. P. McCormick, vice-president and Selwyn A. Lambert, secretary. Edward W. Porter is one of the oldest attorneys in point of service now practicing in Bay county, and that he was chosen president of the Bay County Bar association indicates the high regard in which he is held by his professional confreres. Mr. Porter attended Hillsdale College where he completed his work in 1875 and the following year he was graduated from the law school of the University of Michigan. Three years later he came to Bay City where he has been in practice since that time. Mr. Porter was a native of Oakland county, Michigan. When he was elected head of the county bar association, he succeeded Archibald H. McMillan, city attorney of Bay City, member of the firm of Stoddard & McMillan, and one of the prominent lawyers of the county and city. A law library was started by the members of the Bay county bar in 1899, annual dues being asked of the members of the bar for its maintenance and increase. It has been located in the Shearer building since its inception and at the present time it has 4,600 volumes. A librarian is in constant attendance, and the library is open to the use of public officials as well as to the members of the bar.

Page  112 112 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY Among the prominent members of the Bay county bar today are the following lawyers: Wesley Allison, Emil Anneke, Oscar W. Baker, Albert W. Black, Samuel Brigham, Edward Clark, Lyle Clift, William A. Collins, Morris I. Courtright, Arthur N. DeWaele, James Donnelly, present Judge of Probate Court, James E. Duffy, Griffith H. Francis, Hubert J. Gaffney, Pearl M. Haller, Gilbert W. Hand, Benjamin J. Henderson, William B. Henry, the firm of Hewitt & Wixon, Charles A. Higgs, Dudley J. Kavanaugh, Alfred M. King, Robert L. King, Arthur J. Kinnane, G. C. Leibrand, John E. Kinnane, R. O. Kern, Selwyn A. Lambert, Robert H. Lane, Charles C. Legatz, James L. McCormick, Francis F. McGinnis, Archibald H. McMillan, Otto J. Manary, George A. Marston, Russell H. Neilson, Frank C. Patterson, Edward W. Porter, Hurdis M. Ready, Walter A. Rice, Edward M. Sharpe, John L. Stoddard, Dell H. Thompson, and Lewis J. Weadock; Thomas E. Webster formerly judge of Probate Court and a Civil war veteran, H. M. Wright, former judge of Probate Court and mayor. Frank S. Pratt and F. P. McCormick, both died in October 1925.

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Page  113 CHAPTER IX BANKS AND BANKING HE history of banking in the pioneer days is, for the most part, one of wildcat banks and shady financial deals which culminated in the crash of 1837. Michigan came in for its share of the wildcat banks, as they were named, for the state legislature passed an act permitting anyone who so desired to start a bank on little or practically no capital. Added to this, the banks so organized under the state laws were allowed to issue their own bank notes, and with the flood of practically worthless paper being issued by the banks, the panic of 1837 was the result which should have been foreseen by the proponents of the legislative acts that made such a condition possible. True, the state laws provided for bank examiners and demanded that a certain cash reserve be kept on hand, but unscrupulous bankers soon devised a method to circumvent the cash reserve requirement of the state law. It was customary for banks to notify each other when the examiner was making the rounds in order that they might borrow money from one another to make up the necessary cash reserve, and thus to the eyes of the examiner all the affairs of the bank were entirely regular.' But occasionally some eagleeyed bank examiner would discover that at the last bank on his circuit, the cash reserve would be in exactly the same boxes in which he had seen the money at the first banks he had visited, whereupon he would back track over his route and catch the banks without the money necessary. The bankers had been sending it from one bank to another so that each institution was showing the same money as its cash reserve. Conditions grew steadily worse, and the paper issued by the wildcat banks reached a point where it was frowned upon by the pioneers as good currency. Although Bay county had but few inhabitants by the year 1837, nevertheless those who were here suffered more or less heavily in the panic which occurred in that memorable year. James McCormick, for example, sold a considerable amount of corn that year to people in Saginaw, the purchase price of $1.50 per bushel being paid in notes on the Flint Rapids bank. When McCormick went to the bank to secure the redemption of the notes, he found that the wildcat bank had failed the preceding day, and by the transaction he had lost the profits of a year's labor. The McCormick's were not the only ones who suffered in the collapse of the wildcat banks, however. The Tromble brothers, Medor and Joseph, had invested heavily in land at Portsmouth, the village being projected by Judge Albert Miller, but the crash of the wildcat banks and the resultant panic, swept away their holdings of Portsmouth land. Judge Miller was equally hard hit by the panic. The sawmill which he had built on the village site was closed down and was not reopened until 1842. Time was required to wipe out the biter memories of the disastrous bank failures from the minds of the people, and their sanction was not

Page  114 114 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY placed upon the formation of a bank unless they knew that the promulgators of the scheme were of the strictest integrity. For the next quarter of a century, the business interests of Bay county were able to continue without the services of a reliable bank, but with the lumber industry assuming enormous proportions and the new salt industry making a bid for large industrial honors, Bay county witnessed the organization of her first bank. By 1863, the city of Bay City had grown to a population of between 2,000 and 2,500 people. In March of that year, W. C. Gibson came from Grand Blanc, Michigan, to open a bank in a room in the Union House building on Water street, an institution which he called the Bay Bank and whose business he conducted under the firm name of W. C. Gibson & Company. Though the bank was a private concern and its capital was doubtful, Gibson demonstrated to the people of the city and county that they needed a bank, and the following year, business men took up the matter of chartering a bank for Bay City. Accordingly, in May, 1864, the First National Bank of Bay City was chartered with a capital stock of $50,000. The offices of the bank were moved to its own building erected for bank purposes on Water street by James Fraser, and still later the quarters in the Shearer building at the corner of Center and Water streets were occupied. The officers elected at the first meeting of the organizers were as follows: C. W. Gibson, president; Harvey J. Clarke, cashier; and C. W. Gibson, C. D. W. Gibson, Henry Benson, Harvey J. Clark, and R. L. Warren, directors. The five directors of the company were the sole owners of the capital stock. The bank met with such favor among the business men and the citizens of the town that it was a success from its inception, and in August, 1865, hardly more than a year after its establishment as a national bank, the capitalization of the bank was increased to $100,000. In the fall of 1866, a private bank was started by Byron E. Warren who conducted the bank under the name of B. E. Warren & Company until the re-organization of the First National bank the following year. William C. Green & Company bought the controlling interest in the First National bank in July, 1867, and at that time the following officers assumed charge of the bank's affairs: S. M. Green, president; E. B. Denison, vice-president; Harvey J. Clark, cashier and William C. Green, assistant cashier. Thus matters continued until February, 1868, when the major portion of the bank stock again changed hands, this time the capitalization being increased to $200,000 and the following officers being placed in charge: James Shearer, president; B. E. Warren, cashier; and N. B. Bradley, C. E. Jennison, A. S. Munger, and A. Stevens, directors. The capital stock of the bank was increased to $250,000 in January, 1872, and the following July a further increase was made, the capitalization then becoming $300,000. The rapid growth of the business interests of Bay county are well shown in the increasing capitalization of the bank. Until January, 1873, the bank was located in the Shearer building, but at that time it erected a $40,000 building at the corner of Washington and Center avenues. At that time, the capitalization was increased to $400,000.

Page  115 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 115 The charter of the First National bank was to expire February 24, 1883, and on January 13 of that year, a re-organization was effected, the bank then assuming the name of the Bay National bank. The officers and directors of the new bank remained substantially the same, however, but later, the name was again changed to that of the First National under which it was first organized. The First National bank and the Bay County Savings bank were affiliated early in 1915, and since that time, the officers of the two institutions have been the same and they are housed in the same building at the corner of Washington and Center avenues, which they built and occupied at that time. The officers of the First National bank in 1925 were as follows: William L. Clements, president; A. E. Bousfield, F. T. Norris, O. E. Sovereign, and I. H. Baker, vice-presidents; H. J. Martin, cashier; J. P. Sellers, trust officer; and A. C. Harrison, assistant cashier. The statement of the condition of the bank according to the Bankers' Directory is as follows: Liabilities: Capital, $400,000; surplus and profits, $353,000; deposits, $5,273,310; and other liabilities, $2,930; and Resources: Loans and discounts, $3,214,870; bonds and securities, $2,652,550; miscellaneous, $182,360; and cash and exchange, due from banks etc., $33,190. BAY COUNTY SAVINGS BANK Before its affiliation with the First National bank, was itself a union with the Lumberman's State bank. the latter of which was originally organized January 1, 1875, with a capitalization of $100,000. It was re-incorporated in 1882, and on December 28, 1904, its corporate existence was extended thirty years from January 1, 1905. On July 29, 1914, the stockholders of the bank voted to consolidate with the Bay County Savings bank, whose stockholders voted in favor of the union on August 17. The consolidation became effective December 31, 1914, and the Lumberman's State bank lost its identity as a separate banking institution of Bay City where it had flourished for forty years. The Bay County Savings bank was organized February 1, 1884, with a capitalization of $50,000. The conservative policy of its founders assured its success, and on January 31, 1914, it was granted an extension of thirty years in its corporate existence. The consolidation with the Lumberman's State bank followed that same year and shortly after the First National bank and the Bay County Savings bank combined forces to make one of the strongest and most substantial banking institutions not only in the county but also in the Saginaw Valley. The present officers of the Bay County Savings bank are as follows: William L. Clements, president; A. E. Bousfield, F. T. Norris, O. E. Sovereign, and I. H. Baker, vice-presidents; W. E. Carter, treasurer; I. H. Baker, manager; G. A. Helmreich, assistant treasurer; and W. S. Dicken, assistant treasurer and manager of the West Side branch. PEOPLE'S COMMERCIAL & SAVINGS BANK Through consolidation with other banks, is the lineal descendant of the second bank established in Bay county. In Novem

Page  116 116 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY ber, 1867, the Exchange bank was organized by William and Luther Westover, Charles F. Gibson, James J. McCormick, and H. J. Clark as the incorporators. The bank lived only two years, however, for when the State bank was organized in 1869 with W. S. Patrick as president and Orrin Bump as cashier, the Exchange bank closed its doors. Soon after the organization of the State bank, Alonzo Chesbrough bought out the interests of W. S. Patrick and became president of the bank, increasing the capitalization from $100,000 to $150,000. In May, 1874, William Westover, one of the organizers of the old Exchange bank, established the Second National bank, capital $100,000, with himself as president and W. L. Plum as cashier. The success of the bank was such that a consolidation with the State bank was considered, and finally in May, 1878, the two banks were brought together and the business continued under the charter of the Second National bank. Eventually, as the years rolled on and the bank continued to be one of the thriving financial institutions of the city and county, it came to be known as the Old Second National bank. The officers elected after the consolidation with the State bank were: William Westover, president; Alonzo Chesbrough, vice-president; Orrin Bump, cashier; and M. M. Andrews, assistant cashier. The capitalization was increased to $200,000 at that time and shortly after was again raised to $250,000. Upon the expiration of the first charter on May 5, 1894, the bank was rechartered, this time as the Old Second National bank, beginning business with an increased capital stock of $400,000. The panic of 1897-99 influenced the officials of the bank to reduce the capital to $200,000 during those hard years. The bank continued until 1914 when the stockholders voted to become a party to a three-cornered consolidation with the Commercial bank and the People's Savings bank. The Commercial bank, the second unit of the present People's Commercial and Savings bank, was established July 21, 1887, with a capital stock of $100,000. The following year, on August 15, the People's Savings bank was established, its place of business being located on Midland avenue. These three banks, the Old Second National, the People's Savings, and the Commercial, all thrived, but it was finally decided that by consolidation of the three, a more efficient and profitable organization could be developed. Accordingly a vote was taken among the stockholders of the various companies on October 9, 1914, all voting to consolidate under the name of the People's Commercial & Savings bank. The action of the three banks was approved by the state and became effective November 19, of that year, the first officers elected after that date being James E. Davidson, president; C. R. Hawley and James R. Tanner, vice-presidents; J. R. Watrous, cashier; and M. M. Andrews and C. H. Cook, assistant cashiers. The directors chosen at that time were C. R. Hawley, J. C. Weadock, J. R. Watrous, Guy H. Moulthrop, W. H. Sharp, James E. Davidson, Edgar B. Foss, C. B. Charfield, George B. Jennison, James Davidson, Curtis E. Pierce, James R. Tanner, Louis W. Hine, C. C. Whitney, C. H. Cook, L. J. Weadock, F. C. Finkenstaedt, and W. H. Boutell. The bank now has its fine quarters at Washington and Fifth streets and to business men of the county and the people at large, it is known

Page  117 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 117 for the conservative and careful policy which it pursues, making it one of the largest financial concerns in the city. The officers in 1925 were as follows: James E. Davidson, president; J. R. Watrous, G. P. Moulthrop, and J. R. Tanner, vice-presidents; J. R. Watrous, cashier; and C. H. Cook, G. H. Watrous, and R. E. Graves, assistant cashiers. C. H. Cook is the manager of the branch that is maintained on the west side of the city. The statement of the bank's condition in July, 1925, was as follows: Liabilities: Capital, $400,000; surplus and profits, $802,410; deposits, $10,947,910; other liabilities, $1,430,560; and Resources: Loans and discounts, $4,202,890; bonds and securities, $5,809,950; miscellaneous, $1,643,730; and cash and exchange, due from banks, etc., $1,924,310. BAY CITY BANK No other bank in Bay county has continued as long as the Bay City bank without consolidating with other banks or undergoing changes incident to transference of the controlling interest. It is an outgrowth of the firm of George Lewis & Company established in 1868 as a private banking institution, but in 1871 it sought and received a state charter, being incorporated at that time as the Bay City bank with a capital stock of $50,000. Charter members were George Servis, Wm. Peter, G. W. Buddington, George Young and George H. Young. George Lewis, founder of the parent institution, became the first president, Wm. Peter, vice-president and George H. Young cashier. The business, under the efficient and careful management of these able bankers, grew so rapidly that in July, 1873, the capital stock was increased to $100,000. From time to time, when the charters were renewed, the capitalization of the company was increased until at the present time the capital stock is $350,000. The bank offices are located in the Crapo block. The present officers of the company are: George H. Young, president; James E. Duffy, John C. Ross, David Miller, vice-presidents; David Miller, cashier; and J. I. P. Shearer, J. D. Kinney, and J. F. Asman, assistant cashiers. The statement of the bank's condition in July, 1925, was as follows: Liabilities: Capital, $350,000; surplus and profits, $280,705; deposits, $5,028,330; other liabilities, $61,850; and Resources: Loans and discounts, $1,685,053; bonds and securities, $2,454,031; real estate and stock F. R. Bank $439,490; and cash and exchange, due from banks, etc., $857,005. FARMERS STATE SAVINGS BANK OF BAY CITY On May 17, 1915, was organized the Farmers State Savings Bank of Bay City, and on June 21, the company opened its doors for business. The following men were the first officers of the concern, which was capitalized for $100,000: Frederick Mohr, president; Clifford Olmsted and Samuel Meister, vice-presidents; William S. Fotheringham, cashier. With the addition of Daniel J. Cody and Ray S. Bamford, assistant cashiers, the same officers were still directing the affairs of the bank at the end of the year 1924, Samuel Meister, vice-president, being replaced by John E. Kinnane. The bank is housed in the building at the corner of Washington and Center avenues, and though it has been in ex

Page  118 118 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY istence but ten years, it has established a reputation for conservatism and efficiency in its policies that have won it favor in the eyes of the people of the county. OTHER BANKING INSTITUTIONS The most recent addition to the banking interests of Bay City is the Northern Title & Trust company organized in 1919. Its present officers are James E. Davidson, president; John C. Ross and William F. Jennison, vice-presidents; and George E. Wedthoff, secretary and treasurer. The statement of the institution's condition in July, 1925, is as follows: Liabilities: Capital, $150,000; surplus and profits, $50,560; deposits, $160,840; other liabilities, $107,620; and Resources: Loans and discounts, $171,370; bonds and securities, $197,170; and cash and exchange, due from banks, etc., $100,490. The People's State Savings bank was established at the village of Auburn on January 6, 1909, with a capital stock of $20,000. Though it is situated in a village of a population of little more than three hundred, it filled a long-felt need of the farmers in that section of the county, and the statement of the bank for July, 1925, shows to what extent the people of the village and the country round about patronize the bank. The officers at the present time are C. W. McPhail, president; W. A. Humphrey, C. H. Macomber, and William J. Bierd, vicepresidents; and B. W. Gilman, cashier. The bank statement, according to the bank directory for that same month, is as follows: Liabilities. Capital, $20,000; surplus and profits, $6,160; deposits, $306,160; other liabilities, $2,930; and Resources: Loans and discounts, $63,600; bonds and securities, $277,810; miscellaneous, $10,600; and cash and exchange, due from banks, etc., $33,190. It occupies its own building in the village erected at a cost of more than $2,000 and equipped with vaults and other fixtures valued at $2,000. The Crump bank is a private concern organized in that village in 1908. Although the history of private banking in Michigan shows a much greater proportion of private bank failures than national and state bank failures, the Crump bank has flourished for it has as its officers some of the ablest financiers of the county. The present officers are W. S. Fotheringham, president; H. Fotheringham, vice-president; John Anderson, cashier; and Marie Sharp, assistant cashier. That the bank is well patronized by the people in that section of the county, is indicated by the bank statement for July, 1925, which shows a healthy condition of its affairs and deposits that justify the wisdom of the organizers in establishing their bank in the community. The liabilities are: Capital, $10,000; surplus and profits, $11,500; deposits, $105,000; and the resources are: Loans and discounts, $98,500; miscellaneous, $5,500; and cash and exchange, due from banks, etc., $22,500. The State Savings bank of Essexville has served the people of Bay City's neighboring village since 1913, and that it can show deposits of more than a third of a million dollars, is indicative of the esteem in which it is held and the need it fills in the business and industrial life of that community. The present officers of the bank are W. P. Kavanaugh, president; H. J. Gaffney, vice-president; L. J. Navarre, cashier;

Page  119 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 119 and C. A. Harris, assistant cashier. The bank statement for July, 1925, showed its liabilities to be as follows: Capital, $20,000; surplus and profits, $8,950; deposits, $347,160; other liabilities, $6,000; and its resources to be: Loans and discounts, $55,180; bonds and securities, $279,490; miscellaneous, $17,230; and cash and exchange, due from banks, $30,200. On October 9, 1911, the Farmer's State Bank of Kawkawlin was organized, W. S. Fotheringham, Peter C. Pardee, and John E. McGuiness being the prime movers in the establishment of the bank. That section of the county has been well served by the bank, and the people have rewarded the confidence of the organizers by placing in their hands deposits amounting to nearly $200,000. The officers of the institution in 1925 are A. W. Black, president; Peter C. Pardee and John E. McGuiness, vice-presidents; and R. D. Powell, cashier. The bank statement for July of that year was as follows: Liabilities: Capital, $20,000; surplus and profits, $6,040; deposits, $187,420; other liabilities, $3,950; and Resources: Loans and discounts, $170,890; bonds and securities, $15,550; miscellaneous, $15,610; and cash and exchange, due from banks, etc., $15,270. The State Bank of Linwood was organized in that village January 9, 1909, among the organizers being Paul R. Dinsmore, Henry B. Lints, Leo P. Kalahar, S. M. Dinsmore, and C. W. Kitchen. It is one of the prosperous state banks in the county outside of Bay City, it ranking fourth in size of deposits of the banks either state or private in the balance of the county. Its present officers are: R. E. Graves, president; C. W. Kitchen, H. B. Lints, vice-presidents; J. A. Ouillette, cashier; and A. J. Pamerville, assistant cashier. The sfftement of the bank's condition in July, 1925, is as follows: Liabilities: Capital, $20,000; surplus and profits, $5,150; deposits, $188,880; and Resources: Loans and discounts, $95,380; bonds and securities, $34,450; miscellaneous, $65,710; and cash and exchange, due from banks, $23,180. The Mt. Forest bank, a private company, was established in 1917 and has been a decided aid to the farmers of the northwestern part of the county in their business transactions. The officers are B. J. Henderson, president; F. A. Dunham, vice-president and cashier; and Erma Dunham, assistant cashier. The condition of the bank in July, 1925, is stated as follows in the Banker's Directory: Liabilities: Capital, $6,000; surplus and profits, $3,000; deposits, $23,000; and Resources: Loans and discounts, $31,000. The Bank of Munger, another private concern, has been a recognized institution of Merritt township since 1909, the year in which it was organized. It has an individual responsibility of $100,000, and the present officers of the bank are J. M. Ealy, president; P. C. Pardee, vice-president; Peter C. Bittner, cashier; and S. A. Goodreau, assistant cashier. The largest bank in the county outside of Bay City is the Pinconning State bank, which was organized June 3, 1908. W. S. Fotheringham was one of the principal workers for the organization of this bank as he has been for others in the county, and W. A. McDonald and D. J. Cody were also influential in the establishment of the institution. The placing of a bank in Pinconning was a wise move on the part of the

Page  120 120 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY organizers, for Pinconning is the gathering place of the farmers of the northern and central portions of the county and a bank in that village has received the patronage to be expected from such a favorable location. The present officers of the bank are W. S. Fotheringham, president; J. B. Harris and E. J. Whyte, vice-presidents; J. R. Fotheringham, cashier; and C. W. Green, assistant cashier. The bank statement for July, 1925, was as follows: Liabilities: Capital, $30,000; surplus and profits, $12,150; deposits, $360,000; other liabilities, $177,550; and Resources: Loans and discounts, $165,450; bonds and securities, $312,820; miscellaneous, $39,240; and cash and exchange, due from banks, $62,850. Although building and loan associations form the newest angle of banking, Bay county has had two of these enterprises for nearly forty years. They are both located in Bay City. One, the Savings, Building & Loan Association of Bay City, was incorporated in 1887 with an authorized capitalization of $1,000,000, and since that time, it has enjoyed a steadily growing business, having come to be recognized as one of the substantial institutions of its kind in this part of the state. The Mutual Building & Loan Association of Bay City was organized in 1890 under the laws of the state with an authorized capitalization of $2,000,000. It has won a high place among financial houses of the city and county through the integrity of its officials and the conservative policy adhered to by the directors. Its officers are George E. Wedthoff, president; C. C. Whitney, vice-president; T. E. Webster, secretary and attorney; and D. L. Galbraith, treasurer. The officers of the Savings, Building and Loan Association of Bay City are W. O. Clift, president, Sidney J. Dermant, vice-president; Belle J. Rounds, secretary; and George H. Watrous, treasurer. Building and loan associations have been highly endorsed by the United States government on the grounds that, as the companies make it possible for people not wealthy to buy their own homes, the associations are great aids to the government in making good citizens, for it is claimed that the home owners are the substantial citizens that form the backbone of the Republic. Byron E. Warren, who became cashier of the First National bank in 1868 and later president of the same organization whose affairs he directed for many years thereafter, was one of the prominent bankers and pioneers in that field in Bay county. He was born in Southfield, Michigan, in 1838. His early years were spent on a farm in Shiawassee county, and when he was six years of age, his parents removed to Fenton, Genesee county, where he received his education in the schools of the community. From his earliest years, he helped his father in the mercantile business and in 1855 was made purchasing agent of his father's business at Flint. So apparent was his ability in handling finances that he attracted the attention of men from other cities, and in 1866 he was urged to establish a bank in Bay City. In the fall of that year, he secured an office in that city and opened a private bank, but it was not long before he allied himself with N. B. Bradley in the formation of the First National bank. He became cashier of that institution and later succeeded James Shearer as president, an office which he held for many years. The success of the bank in those years, a success which firmly

Page  121 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 121 established the company as a definite part of the business and industrial life of Bay county, was due primarily to the financial genius of Warren. William Westover, who was connected with the organization of the Exchange bank in 1867 and in 1874 became president of the Second National bank when it was organized, was another leading figure in the financial circles of the county and city. He was born in Massachusetts and in 1852 went to Canada to engage in the lumbering business, later going to New York state, and finally to Bay City in 1865. Here he continued in the lumber business, and in 1868-69, he built the Westover block which housed the opera house. The banking business, as already described in the history of the Second National bank, engaged his attention soon after his arrival in Bay City, and to that business he devoted himself during the rest of his active life here. He nursed the Second National bank through the trying days of its infancy and placed it upon a substantial working basis that carried it through nearly sixty years of faithful service to the community. Orrin Bump was for many years a prominent figure in banking circles of the city and county in his connection with the Second National bank. He was born in Michigan, and during the Civil war, he served in the Union army from 1861 to 1864, receiving three wounds while in the service. After leaving the army, he went to Flint where for a time he was engaged in the banking business. In 1865 he came to Bay City to accept a position as bookkeeper and teller with the First National bank. He was not content, however, to hold a subordinate position, and in 1869 he brought about the organization of the State bank, of which he was cashier until its consolidation with the Second National bank in May, 1878. Thereafter, he held the position of cashier of the Second National bank, eventually becoming president of the organization to which he had contributed so much, and many years before his death he could state that he was the oldest banker in Bay City in point of continuous service. The Bay City bank of today owes its origin to George Lewis whose private banking establishment founded in 1868 became the Bay City bank. He was born in Orange county, New York, in 1827 and was reared on the home farm, receiving his education in the district schools of that community. He came to the Saginaw Valley in 1849, attracted by the apparently limitless supply of pine timber in this section of the state. He settled in the village of Lower Saginaw in 1858 and for several years thereafter, he had charge of the Henry Doty mill. In 1863, he formed a partnership with William Peter to purchase the Partridge mill, which they operated successfully until it was destroyed by fire within a few years. After the destruction of their mill, the partners engaged in the private banking business under the firm name of George Lewis & Company, which was incorporated as the Bay City bank in 1871. From the time he started the private bank in 1868, George Lewis devoted his attention largely to the banking business until 1870 when he sold one-half to George H. Young. That the Bay City bank is today one of the strongest financial concerns in the Saginaw Valley is proof enough of the ability of the founder and the integrity of the principals upon which he builded. With the bank a going concern,

Page  122 122 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY George Lewis once again turned his attention to the lumber milling business, and to that end he purchased a half interest in the sawmill of Albert Miller, the firm adopting the style of Miller & Lewis. The efforts of Lewis in establishing worthwhile enterprises in the county were recognized by the people, and he was elected to represent this district in the state legislature and his ward of Bay City on the board of supervisors. George H. Young is today the veteran banker of Bay county and Bay City, for he can look back upon fifty-five years of uninterrupted service in the Bay City bank, of which he is now the president. He was born in Albany, New York, the son of George Young, a well known capitalist of that city. He came to Bay City in 1870 to go into business with George Lewis & Company, for in his connection with the Union National Bank of Albany, for six years, he had gained a reputation that caused him to be sought by George Lewis as cashier of the private banking enterprise which was established as the Bay City bank the following year. At that time, George H. Young became cashier of the new institution, beginning a work of more than half a century. That the affairs of the bank have been virtually under his direction since that time and that the bank itself is one of the strong firms of its kind in the county, is indicative of the ability of the man. He has been rewarded from time to time by advancement through different offices until now he holds that of president. WEST BAY CITY BANKS The banking history of West Bay City is naturally apart from that of the east side due to the fact that the city was at one time two separate corporations. In January, 1872, Henry H. Norrington, of Bay City, and John S. Taylor, of the firm of Taylor & Moulthrop, formed a company to establish a bank in the village of Wenona. Although the village was then but 2,500 in population, Norrington realized the trend of things and saw that a splendid field for a banking enterprise was developing, and accordingly, he organized the Bank of Wenona. The patronage of the villages of Salzburg, Wenona, and Banks and of much of the southwestern part of the county came to this bank and its business grew so rapidly that it soon became apparent to the bank officials that incorporation would be necessary to handle the swift expansion. Stock subscriptions were taken up in Bay City, Detroit, West Bay City, and other cities, and the result was the organization on January 1, 1875, of the Lumberman's State Bank of West Bay City with a capitalization of $50,000. S. O. Fisher was chosen president of the institution and H. H. Norrington was placed in the office of cashier, the latter assuming the real management of the business because Fisher's business interests precluded active management of the bank. The bank continued to grow and in 1914 it was consolidated with the Bay County Savings bank, as described in the history of that institution. The bank, however, forms the west side branch of the Bay County Savings bank and the First National bank, the last two being owned by the same stockholders.

Page  123 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 123 Henry H. Norrington, the founder of the Bank of Wenona, was born in 1847. Left an orphan, he was placed under the care of Col. H. A. Morrow, who was then a prominent Detroit lawyer, to be educated for the legal profession. But the Civil war broke out soon after, and though but a boy in his early 'teens, Henry Norrington enlisted in the famous Loomis Battery with the rank of quartermaster sergeant. With this organization, he participated in thirty-two engagements, being wounded in the battle of Stone River and taken prisoner. After recovering from his wound and his ensuing exchange, he was assigned to the command of General Heintzmann at Cincinnati as assistant ordnance officer in the campaign against Morgan, who was then conducting his daring raid through Ohio. Norrington was recommended to the secretary of war in September, 1861, for a commission in the report of General Reynolds commanding the department of West Virginia for carrying dispatches through the lines after six previous attempts had failed. After his discharge from the army, he was appointed to a position in the postoffice department but resigned at the end of a year to complete his law studies. He was admitted to the bar and in the fall of 1867 came to Bay City. He was elected circuit court commissioner in 1868 and was re-elected to that position in 1870. It was then that he became interested in the development of the villages on the west side of the river and in 1872 organized the Bank of Wenona. Upon his shoulders during the years that followed rested the responsibility of guiding the destinies of the Lumberman's State Bank of West City. Under his direction the bank prospered so well that within a decade after its organization it occupied new quarters in the Fisher block especially fitted out by the bank for its purposes. By the time it was consolidated with the Bay County Savings bank in 1914, it was one of the influential and substantial banks of the county, and the alliance with the bank on the east side of the river only served to increase immeasurably the prestige of both organizations.

Page  124 CHAPTER X THE PRESS T HE journalistic profession in the pioneer days was a precarious one. The early history of any community and particularly that of a county seat, is filled with the records of newspapers that were started, flourished for a day, and then died. The causes that led to the establishment of newspapers were many. The low cost of the necessary equipment, which included a press, stone, and a few fonts of type, enticed many to start a paper. Of those who were thus led into newspaper work purely as a business venture which required little capital, the majority of them were men of little practical newspaper experience; many of them had not the slightest conception of newspaper ethics and their conduct of the embryo newspaper found reward in failure. Again, many newspapers were started by some politician to support his candidacy for some office, and as a rule these papers lived but a few months if the candidate lost the election. If, on the other hand, the candidate won his race, the paper continued to live during the time he remained in office, often for many years. Such a paper, there were a few such in the state, were so well backed by influential men and politicians, that when those men it supported had retired from the political arena, the position of the paper was strong enough to enable it to continue and thrive. Another cause of the establishment of newspapers was the desire of a political party for an organ of its own, and many of the early papers owed their inception to a group of party leaders who influenced some man to start a paper in the interests of their party. Early newspapers were strongly partizan. Few, if any, independent papers lasted long, for the party patronage either made or broke the newspapers at that time. One of the principal sources of income of the papers of those days was the money received from the publication of various public notices, notices of sales, and the like. This patronage, dispensed by the party in power, was given only to such sheets as supported the party then in the saddle. Politics entered into the newspaper work at the time in a different phase; the party feeling during the early days was so strong that seldom did a merchant advertise in a paper whose political affiliation was other than his own nor did he have display advertising, the printing of hand bills, and similar job work done at the plant of such a sheet. Needless to say that newspapers virtually stood or fell by their political color. They might be able to tide over the period when the opposite party was in power until more favorable times arrived, but it is obvious that a Democratic paper in a strongly Republican county could not long exist. Job printing formed the mainstay of these early papers; without it they could not exist. Yet even in this field of printing as well as in the newspaper work, the question of finances, or rather the bug-bear of

Page  125 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 125 finances rose to stare the editor in the face. Cash was limited in the pioneer times, and it was rather the rule than the exception when the subscribers paid their subscriptions in produce in lieu of cash. Many of the early papers quoted subscription rates both in cash and produce, the rates for the latter form of payment being substantially higher than the former. Merchants who advertised in the papers were all too prone to pay their advertising bills with orders on the store, and, frequently, the employes of the paper received their wages principally in these orders from various merchants. The staff of a newspaper of that time was small, usually consisting of the editor; the foreman who did the printing and some of the more intricate pieces of typesetting; a boy to do typesetting and run errands; and possibly a girl or two to set type. The wages of these employes ran about $10 per week for the foreman and the reporter, if the paper had one, and about $4.50 per week for the boy and the girls. The editor attended to the finances and was the principal news gatherer. Yet credit must be given these early journalists. Among their numbers were found men who later became some of the most prominent men in the state. Such men possessed real newspaper ability and advanced far in the profession from which they frequently branched into other fields more lucrative. The obstacles which they were forced to overcome in establishing their papers on firm bases would keep the majority of newspaper men of today from the attempt. With finances continually a source of worry, with a small staff of helpers, and with the imperfect equipment in the plant, they did much. The development of the community along wholesome lines, they had always at heart. Consider, that with the old Washington flat-bed presses, no more than from 300 to 400 copies of the paper could be turned out during a day. Couple with this the fact that the copy must be gathered and put into shape and set in type, that the employes were few, and that the job printing must also be done, and you have a fair idea of the difficulties under which the early journalists labored. The newspaper field has undergone great developments and changes during the past decade or two. The mechanical side of printing has witnessed changes almost unparalleled in any other industry. The linotype and monotype machines have superceded the slow methods of hand setting, and presses have been evolved that print and fold an entire edition of a paper within a comparatively few minutes. Thousands of copies are now turned out on a modern press in a fraction of the time required in the old days to print 300 copies. Newspaper administration has changed as well. Morning newspapers have become almost extinct. In all Michigan at the present time, there are but three morning daily newspapers, according to the latest available figures, while but two decades ago, the morning paper "ruled the roost" and the evening paper occupied the position now held by the morning paper in importance. The first newspaper to be published in Bay county was the Bay City Press which was established in 1856, being published by Perry Joslin and edited by James Birney. The time was not yet ripe for a news

Page  126 126 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY paper apparently, for within a few weeks the publication was suspended, and for another three years, Bay City was without a newspaper. In 1859 was established Bay county's second newspaper, one that was destined to be a success and that was the forefather of the present Bay City Times and Tribune. In that year the Press and Times was established by William Bryce, who guided the destinies of his paper until 1864. The Bay City Journal, with John Culbert as editor, then superceded the Press and Times, and though it continued successfully, the attempt to make it a' daily in 1871 ultimately brought its discontinuance in February, 1873. James Birney, who had been editor of the first paper started in 1856, established the Daily and Weekly Chronicle after the suspension of publication of the Journal, the daily edition of the Chronicle being issued until 1875 when Birney went to the Hague as United States Minister. The weekly edition was continued by Arthur M. Birney, his son, until 1879, when the paper was merged with the Bay City Tribune which had been started in 1873 by T. K. Harding, Edward Kroencke, and Griffin Lewis. When the three men above mentioned started the Tribune in 1873, John Culbert was placed in charge as editor, but in 1875 the paper was purchased by Henry S. Dow, who discontinued the weekly edition at that time. The publication of the paper was continued by him until 1881 when a stock company was organized to take over the management. As a morning daily supporting the Republican party, the Tribune for years was undisputed leader in the journalistic field of Bay county, but the retirement of morning newspapers affected the Tribune as it did others of its kind, and in 1916 it was consolidated with the Bay City Times, the first edition, now an evening daily, appearing August 1, 1916, as the Bay City Times and Tribune. The Bay City Times was established in 1889 by W. H. Gustin, L. L. Cline, and F. M. VanCampen. In December of the following year, Archibald McMillan became associated with the paper, and under the leadership of McMillan and Gustin, the paper forged rapidly to the front. In 1891, the Bay City Times Publishing company was organized, the Times at that time being consolidated with the Press, the old name of the Bay City Times being retained and the paper being the only evening paper in Bay City. In 1903, the paper was purchased by the Booth Publishing company of Detroit, and since that time W. H. Gustin has served as managing editor, a position which he retained after the consolidation with the Tribune in 1916 and still fills. The circulation of the Times is now 17,884. The history of journalism in Bay county is filled with papers that have lasted but a few years at the most. The Evening Press, which was consolidated with the Times in 1891, was started in 1879 by Moran & Hardwick and was later purchased by E. T. Bennett, who in 1881 took in D. M. Carey as partner. The paper was independent in politics. The Lumberman's Gazette was established in 1872 by Henry S. Dow in the interests of the lumber industry in this section of the state. With the decline of that business here, the paper was removed to Chicago in 1887. It is believed that it was the oldest paper devoted to the lumber business in the world. The Bay City Observer was established

Page  127 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 127 as a weekly in 1876, by A. McMillan and Edward Forsythe, the first edition appearing on August 4. The paper prospered and in December, 1877, the publication of a daily edition as a complement of the weekly was commenced. J. W. Griffith came from Greenville, Michigan, in 1878 and purchased the paper, but its decline began from that time and in 1880 the Observer ceased to be. The Freie Presse, a German independent weekly, began publication in 1878, G. Reuther being the first owner. August Lankenau, with David Koch, later assumed the management of the paper, but after the death of the former, it was discontinued. The struggles of the Democratic party to maintain its own paper in Bay county began in 1867 with the establishment of the Signal which continued until 1870 when it was discontinued. The Weekly Herald was started by Dan P. McMullen and E. D. Cowles in 1869, but in 1872 it was removed from West Bay City to the east side of the river by the new owner, C. S. Wilson, who gave up the attempt to run a Democratic paper within a year, the name being changed to that of the Weekly Leader when it was moved to Bay City. The Wenona Herald was started in West Bay City in 1872 by S. H. Egabroad. W. J. Ward bought the paper the following year but in 1879 removed it to Dowagiac. In 1879, M. A. Dowling and Charles R. Stuart started the Weekly Examiner in West Bay City and soon after converted it into a daily. In 1881 the plant was destroyed by fire and the paper never re-opened publication. The West Bay City Times was issued for three months in 1886, and in 1874 the Michigan Odd Fellow began its semi-monthly issues which continued nearly four years. Dr. Joseph Hooper, Edward Newkirk, and Charles C. Gustin were the editors of this paper. April, 1881, witnessed the advent into the Bay City journalistic field of the Democratic paper, the Morning Call, with Leonard Cline as managing editor and C. S. Wilson as city editor. George F. Lewis took charge of the paper in May, 1881, and though he was a man of good newspaper experience, three years' work with the Call convinced him that the Democratic support was too weak to warrant a newspaper, and in 1884 the Call was suspended. The Red Ribbon was issued for a time during 1877, and the Morning News, a single sheet, was printed from 1877 to 1882. The Echo was printed for a time in 1878, and the Penny Post in 1879. The Greenback party brought into being the National Globe in 1880 under the editorship of Colonel Roberts, but it lasted only until 1882. Boz, a society paper, appeared for a few issues in 1881, and the Daily World, died in less than a year after its inception in 1885. The Daily Star, a paper published in the interests of the Knights of Labor, printed its first edition November 25, 1885, and though the sheet was boomed for a time, it soon disappeared from the journalistic horizon. Garrie C. Laing, who was later associated with the Times, was one of the leaders in the establishment of this paper. The Weekly Sun appeared for a few months in 1886. The Catholic Chronicle survived from 1882 to 1884, and the German Journal was printed in 1884, the French Souvenir in 1883, and L'Entard National in 1884. The Weekly Growler appeared in 1869 under the management of Daniel R. Curry, and though

Page  128 128 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY it continued until 1873, the paper's unsavory policy never won it favor with the people of the city. An attempt was made to revive it in 1875, but after another five years, the Growler issued its last paper in 1880. Town Talk, issued in later years by Bert S. Moran, was an imitation of the Growler, and like its predecessor, soon found the way to the journalistic scrap heap. The Labor Vindicator began its brief career in 1884 and was terminated with the editor's flight to Canada after an inflammatory espousal of the cause of the striking sawmill workers. The Penny Press was established in 1879 by Moran & Hardwicke, td become the forerunner of the Evening Press. The paper was then taken over by Fred M. VanCampen and Edward Forsyth, by whom it was surrendered to E. T. Bennett, who gave it the name of the Evening Press. Armstrong & Rasmussen of Chicago purchased the newspaper in 1886. On January 1, 1887, Archibald McMillan became connected with the paper, an association which continued for fifteen years, he being retained after the Press was consolidated with the Evening Times in 1891. The sole exponent of the Democratic party in Bay county is the Bay City Democrat. This paper was ushered into the field in 1900 as the Daily Advocate, by Garrie C. Laing and Charles C. Wilcox. One year later the property was transferred to George Washington and the name of the paper changed to the Bay City Democrat which still survives. Washington, who has served as a public official of Bay county, is himself one of the leaders of that party in the county, and upon his shoulders has fallen the duty, for such it is, of publishing the party organ in Bay county. In 1901, he also started the Industrial Herald, which he later sold to E. G. Ferris, by whom it is now published. The interests of the Herald are those of labor in the county. In 1902 Lovell U. Grant, Garrie C. Laing and Charles Butler conducted the West Bay City News daily and Sunday News-Graphic. After more than a year of up-hill struggles they transferred the business to other parties whose efforts to stem the tide of adversity also failed of success. In 1885, a Polish paper, the Prawda was started by W. V. Prybeski, who continued the publication of the sheet until 1910. At that time it was bought by a publishing company and the name changed to the Sztandar Polski, which is the name of the publishing company. Ignatius W. Kopec is the president of the company and Stanley Jablonski, the manager. In March, 1883, the Pinconning Times was started by E. J. Dunn, by whom it was published for a time. It was issued by different men from time to time and. finally suspended publication. The newspaper field in the village was filled in 1903, by the establishment of the Pinconning Press, which has continued to serve the people of that community since that time. It is a Republican weekly issued on Fridays and has a circulaion of approximately 500. The present editor is O. H. Segerstrom.

Page  129 CHAPTER XI CITIES AND VILLAGES WO villages and one city make up the incorporated municipalities of Bay county, the villages being Pinconning and Essexville, and the city, of course, Bay City, which is a collection of villages that have from time to time been gathered into a unit. The history of Bay City naturally divides itself into several parts before the year 1905 when West Bay City, in itself a collection of villages, was consolidated with Bay City. West Bay City, representing the union of the villages of Banks, Salzburg and Wenona, will be first treated, the history being carried up to 1905. BANKS In 1851, Joseph Trombley platted twenty-five acres of land into village lots, and to the embryo community, Thomas Whitney, a native of Bangor, Maine, gave the name of his birthplace. However, when the postoffice was established in 1865, another Bangor was discovered in the state, and at that time the name was changed to that of Banks. In the year it received its new name the town population was 350. That section of Bay City is still known as the Banks district. By an act of the legislature approved April 15, 1871, the village was incorporated, and the corporation limits were extepded March 31, 1875. Robert Leng, a prominent salt manufacturer of the village became the first village president. When the charter was amended in 1875, the offices of treasurer, recorder, and assessor became elective. The majority of the inhabitants at that time were French and the results of the first election show this to a marked degree, for the officers elected after the charter amendment were as follows: Fred W. Bradfield, president; John B. Poirier, recorder; Robert Leng, assessor; and Bernard Lourim, treasurer. The trustees elected at that time were Joseph Trombley, John Brown, and Peter Smith. The village made rapid steps forward during the few years of its independent existence, but in 1877, by an act of the legislature, Banks became a part of West Bay City. SALZBURG Was platted by Dr. Daniel Hughes Fitzhugh, in 1862, the territory extending from the Lafayette avenue bridge north to the section line. Several German families had settled there the preceding year, and because of the interest in salt manufacture which was then being boomed, the village was named after Salzburg, Austria. Although the village was never incorporated, the inhabitants were proud of their identity and fought valiantly, but ineffectually, against the consolidation with West Bay City in 1877. The postoffice was established in 1868.

Page  130 130 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY WENONA Henry W. Sage, capitalist and lumberman of Ithaca, New York, picked out the site of the village of Wenona as a good place for the booming of a lumber town during his visit to this section of the country in 1847, but it was not until 1862 that Henry Sage proceeded to put into effect the ideas which he had entertained concerning the town site. The land was then owned by Dr. Daniel Hughes Fitzhugh and Mrs. Elizabeth P. Birney, and the negotiations for the purchase of the site were at a standstill when James Fraser stepped in and adjusted the differences. In 1863, the lumber mills of Sage, McGraw & Company were transferred to Wenona. The settlement grew up around the mills with almost phenomenal rapidity. The lots were laid by the company and sold for $200, and the name of Lake City was given to the village, but when application was made for the establishment of a postoffice, it was found that the name was already that of another village in Michigan. The proprietors of the village then chose the name Wenona, the name of the mother of Hiawatha. In May, 1866, the village was incorporated by the board of supervisors, and the first election was ordered held in the school house in Bangor township. At that time the following village officers were elected: Major Newcomb Clark, president; Harrison H. Wheeler, clerk; David G. Arnold, treasurer; Ainsworth T. Russell, marshal; J. B. Ostrander, poundmaster; John G. Emery, William D. Chambers, Martin W. Brock, Lafayette Roundsville, and Marcellus Faxon, trustees; John G. Sweeney and James A. McKnight, assessors; Wilson O. Craft, Hiram C. Allard, and Ainsworth T. Russell, street commissioners; and William Stuart, Ainsworth T. Russell, and John H. Burt, fire wardens. A charter was granted to the village by the legislature in an act approved in February, 1867. The village continued to develop with such rapidity that the inhabitants soon began to turn their attention to annexing the villages of Banks and Salzburg and incorporating as a city, which was finally accomplished, in spite of the opposition of the other villages, In 1877. The presidents of the village of Wenona were: Harrison H. Wheeler, 1867; David G. Arnold, 1867-69; E. T. Carrington, 1870; C. F. Corbin, 1871; Lafayette Roundsville, 1872; S. A. Plummer, 1873; David G. Arnold, 1874; James A. McKnight, 1875; and George Washington, 1876. Early in 1877, a bill was introduced into the legislature to incorporate Wenona, Banks, and Salzburg as the city of West Bay City. The act passed the legislature and was approved, the charter election being called for May, 1877. The inspectors for the election in three wards into which the city was divided were as follows: P. Lourim, Robert Leng, Alexander B. Moore, Thomas B. Raymond, and Ephraim J. Kelton, First ward; David G. Arnold, T. P. Hawkins, James A. McKnight, Spencer O. Fisher, and George E. Van Alstine, Second ward; and Frank Fitzhugh, J. W. Babcock, Bartholomew Staudacher, Aaron Wellman, and Robert Elliott, Third ward. The polling places for the various wards were situated in the Banks town hall for the First ward, the council rooms for the Second ward, and the Davis hotel for the Third ward.

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Page  131 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 131 The first city officials elected for West Bay City were as follows: David G. Arnold, mayor; E. S. Van Liew, recorder; W. M. Green, treasurer; and E. J. Kelton, C. E. Root, William Davis, William J. Martin, W. I. Tozer, and Michael Hufnagel, aldermen. The salaries of the city officials at this time were as follows: Recorder, $400; comptroller, $300; harbor master, $100; and mayor and aldermen, 50 cents per session. The following officers administered the public offices of West Bay City until its union with Bay City in 1905: Mayors: David G. Arnold, 1877; George Washington, 1878; William I. Tozer, 1879-80; William E. Magill, 1881-82; Spencer O. Fisher, 1883-85; S. A. Plummer, 1886-87; William J. Martin, 1888-91; Rousseau 0. Crump, 1892-95; Peter Lind, 1896-1901; John Walsh, 1902-03; and C. J. Barnett, 1904-05. Recorders: E. S. Van Liew, 1877-81; Henry C. Thompson, 1882 -83; William H. Phillips, 1884-87; William Stewart, 1888-89; William H. Phillips, 1890-91; John C. Angell, 1892-93; George L. Lusk, 1894 -99; Fred G. Sweeney, 1900-01; and John M. Roy, 1902-05. Comptrollers: William E. Magill, 1885-86; Alexander Zagelmeyer, 1887-88; James A. McMcKnight, 1889-90; F. C. Thompson, 1891; Charles Glaser, 1892; James Scott and Charles Glaser, 1893; Charles Glaser, 1894; Henry S. Lewis, 1895-96; F. W. Ingersoll, 1897; Frank G. Walton, 1898-1900; John Boston, 1901-03; and George M. Staudacher, 1904-05. Treasurers: W. M. Green, 1877-81; Andrew Weir, 1882-83; James A. McKnight, 1884; H. W. Weber, 1885-86; D. McLaughlin, 1887-88; Theodore E. Bissel, 1889-90; W. M. Green, 1891-92; R. C. Tasker, 1893-96; August J. Bothe, 1897-1900; C. M. Larue, 1901-02; and William E. Magilll, 1903-05. BAY CITY The history of Bay City rightfully begins with the establishment of the village of Lower Saginaw by the Saginaw Bay company in 1837, but the early events in this village have been given in the chapter on "Early Settlement." The progress of the village before the erection of the county was not phenomenal, but when the organization of the county had been finally upheld and the county seat located at Lower Saginaw, the citizens of the village decided that they needed a village charter to uphold the dignity of being selected the county seat of Bay county. However, these Saginaw and Midland county residents who had opposed the formation of the county also opposed the incorporation of Bay City when the bill was first placed before the legislature in 1858, but in the winter session of 1859, the act was passed by the legislature creating the village of Bay City. The settlement then boasted a population of a bare 700; the east bank of the river had been cleared only as far back as Washington avenue; and the homes of the residents stood about in this clearing still surrounded by the stumps of the trees which had been felled to make way for the growing lumbering village. The limits of the city were defined as they were shown in the original plat of Lower Saginaw, but when Portsmouth was incorporated, it was found that Twenty-fourth street had been left out of both muni

Page  132 132 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY cipalities, and the legislature later corrected the boundaries of Lower Saginaw to include this territory. Birney hall, on Water street, was the scene of the first village election which was held May 2, 1859, and the following officers were elected at that time: Curtis Munger, president; Charles Atwood, recorder; John F. Cottrell, treasurer; and Albert Miller, James J. McCormick, Henry W. Jennison, Israel Catlin, Henry M. Bradley, and Harmon A. Chamberlain, trustees. One hundred and fifty-five votes were cast at this election, at which Calvin C. C. Chilson and Dr. Louis Fuchsius were judges and Albert Wedhoff was clerk. Although the first meeting of the trustees was held on May 5, three days after the election, no business of any import was transacted, but at a meeting held May 23, the office of village marshal was filled by the appointment of John A. Weed and that of street commissioner by the appointment of Henry M. Bradfield. Algernon S. Munger and William Daglish were at this time appointed assessors, but they declined the offices on the grounds that their private business was too heavy for them to discharge the public duties with full regard to justice in the matter. A. G. Sinclair and Charles D. Fisher were appointed in the places of those who declined the office of assessors, but Sinclair, too, refused the appointment on the same grounds as the others. Colonel Henry Raymond was therefore appointed as the second assessor at the meeting held June 6. The ordering of board walks for Washington avenue from First to Tenth streets and the opening of Jefferson street and Madison avenues north of Center street constituted the first official acts of the trustees of the village. At the meeting of June 3, James Birney was appointed village attorney at a salary of seventy-five dollars a year. On June 27, a general tax of $1,047 for village purposes was certified and a highway tax of one-half of one percent was levied. The granting of the village charter was all that was needed to attract the people to come to Lower Saginaw, and the resultant rapid increase in population pointed to the obvious fact that the village would not long remain a village. The lumber industry now began its operations in full force, and the first salt well was sunk in 1860; the construction of the plank roads and the railroads attracted more industries and people and in 1865, a city charter was granted to the community. The officers of the village were, in 1859: C. Munger, president; C. Atwood, recorder; and J. F. Cottrell, treasurer. In 1861 they were W. L. Fay, president; S. S. Campbell, recorder; and B. Witthauer, treasurer. The officers for 1862 were: James Watson, president; J. L. Monroe, recorder; and August Kaiser, treasurer. In 1863 they were: C. Munger, president; N. Whittemore, recorder; and C. Scheurman, treasurer. In 1864 they were the same, and the last village officers were: J. B. Hart, president; P. S. Heisordt, recorder; and E. Frank, treasurer. The population of the village in 1865 was 3,359, and the legislature granted a city charter to the community on the lower Saginaw.

Page  133 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 133 The first city election was held the first Monday in April, 1865, and at that time the following officers were chosen by the people: Nathan B. Bradley, mayor; William T. Kennedy, recorder; Ernst Frank, treasurer; George W. Hotchkiss and Jerome B. Sweet, alderman First ward; Alexander M. Johnson and Jeffrie R. Thomas, alderman Second ward; and James Watson and Herschel H. Hatch, aldermen, Third ward. The first meeting of the common council was held April 11, and at that time Thomas Carney was appointed street commissioner; Theophilus C. Grier, city attorney; C. Fiege, city marshal; and Andrew Huggins, city surveyor. Portsmouth was annexed to Bay City in 1873. The movement to make Bay City and West Bay City, one city, had its inception in 1875, but the inhabitants of the villages on the west side of the river were too engrossed in the development of their own communities to consider even for a moment the feasibility of uniting with the city on the east bank under one government. West Bay City was incorporated two years later, and when the matter was re-opened in 1890, the residents of that city were still as unwilling to lose their identity as a separate city, and the question of consolidation was again dropped. Sentiment changed during the next decade, however, and when again broached to the people of West Bay City they were in a more receptive mood. As a result, an election was held in 1903, and the majority voted for a united city under the name of Bay City. A charter was drawn up and accepted by the legislature, but even at this stage of affairs, the opponents of consolidation rushed through the legislature a repeal bill. A committee of business men from both sides of the river, including W. D. Young, H. E. Buck, S. O. Fisher, Frank Handy, and many others, waited on the governor and convinced him that his only move in the matter was to veto the measure, which he did. On April 3, 1905, the first election of the united cities was held, and at that time the following officers were elected: Gustaves Hine, mayor; John Boston, clerk; Edward E. Corliss, treasurer; and Charles J. Barnett, comptroller. The aldermanic form of government prevailed in the city after the consolidation of the two municipalities. About this time, the city manager and commission form of government was beginning to make its appearance in the United States, and the city fathers of Bay City after thoroughly investigating the innovation in municipal government recommended the establishment of such a form of government in Bay City. In the election of November 2, 1920, the people were given the opportunity to express their views on the matter at the polls, and they elected to place the city affairs in the hands of a commission and a city manager. The charter for this form of government was drawn up and accepted by the legislature, and on April 4, 1921, the new form of government went into effect. The commission form of government places the affairs in the hands of a board of five commissioners, one from each district of the city, and the mayor, all of whom constitute the city commission, and a city manager. The office of city manager is appointive, the commissioners and the mayor being vested with the power to appoint whom they choose

Page  134 134 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY for this office. The manager holds office for no specified term, the length of which is governed solely by the pleasure of the commission, and according to the charter, "He shall be a man of good business and executive ability, and if practicable, a civil, electrical, or mechanical engineer. He may or may not be a resident or elector of the city at the time of his appointment." The duties of the city manager are all that the title he bears implies. Upon him devolves the general control of the electrical, police, fire, and water departments of the city; his duty is to manage and supervise all public improvements, works and undertakings of the city and to have charge of the construction, repair and maintenance of streets, sidewalks, bridges, parks, pavements, sewers and all public buildings, or other property belonging to the city, and to have charge of the cleaning, sprinkling and lighting of the streets and public places. All municipally owned public utilities are placed under his management and control. The mayor is the chief executive of the city, and his signature is required to authenticate ordinances and resolutions passed by the city commission. He must sign all contracts and deeds requiring the assent of the city, and he presides at all meetings of the commission. The administrative departments of the city government are five in number: namely, department of finance, department of safety, department of public utilities, department of public works, and department of health. The department of finance has attached to it the city comptroller, assessor, deputy assessors, and treasurer, and the budgets are determined by the city commission. It is provided that annual assessments be made of the property in the city liable to taxation. The department of safety includes the fire and police forces of the city, the active control of these forces being in the hands of their respective chiefs, who are subject to the city manager. The department of public utilities includes the electric light plant and system and the waterworks as well as the relations and rights of the city in connection with privately owned or operated public utilities in the city. Construction of buildings and plants for the public utilities is under the direction of the city manager. Under this section of the charter the city is empowered to operate its own waterworks and electric light plant. The department of public works includes the construction, improvement, repair and maintenance of streets, sidewalks, alleys, lanes, and all other public highways, buildings, drains, ditches, culverts. The disposal of garbage and waste material, the cleaning of streets and public places, the construction and maintenance of bridges, viaducts, parks, playgrounds, streams, and water fronts, and the planning, designing and ornamenting of the boulevards and drives of the city, and the making and preservation of maps, plans, drawings and estimates of public works, are all listed among the duties of the department of public works. The department of health oversees the enforcement of the sanitary ordinances and laws of the city and preserves and promotes the-health of the public by inspection and supervision of the production, transportation, storage and sale of foodstuffs in the city.

Page  135 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 135 H. W. Stickle was appointed the first city manager by the commission in 1921, but in the same year, W. H. Reid was appointed to the office which he retained until 1925. The present city manager is W. E. Baumgardner. The other officers of the city since its incorporation in 1865 have been as follows: Mayors: N. B. Bradley, 1865; James Watson, 1866-67; W. L. Fay, 1868; J. J. McCormick, 1869; A. S. Munger, 1870; G. H. VanEtten, 1871-73; A. Stevens, 1874-75; A. McDonell, 1876-77; George Lord, 1878; J. H. Wilkins, 1879-82; T. A. E. Weadock, 1883-84; George H. Shearer, 1885-86; Hamilton M. Wright, 1887-89; 0. A. Watrous, 1889 -91; George D. Jackson, 1891-95; Hamilton M. Wright, 1895-97; Alexander McEwan, 1897-1901; William Cunningham, 1901-03; Frank T. Woodworth, 1903-05; Gustaves Hine, 1905-08; Edward E. Evans, 1909; Gustaves Hine, 1910; Roy O. Woodruff, 1911-13; Gustaves Hine, 1913-15; Frank P. S. Kelton, 1915-17; Robert V. Mundy, 1917-21; John G. Dean, 1921-25; J. Harry Nelson, 1925-. City Clerks: W. T. Kennedy, 1865-66; N. Whittemore, 1867-70; I. G. Worden, 1871-77; T. A. Delsell, 1879-85; James B. Barber, 1886 -92; 0. A. Marsac, 1892-1905; John Boston, 1905-07; Lovell U. Grant, 1907-21; Garrie C. Laing, 1921-. Treasurers: E. Frank, 1865-68; I. G. Worden, 1869; L. S. Coman, 1870-74; C. S. Braddock, 1875-76; Charles Supe, 1877; E. Wood, 1878; Jacob Knoblauch, 1879-80; Joseph Cusson and R. J. Campbell, 1881-82; Charles Balbo, 1883-84; William G. Beard, 1885-86; A. Jeffery, 1887 -91; Ernest Frank, 1891-95; L. Daniels, 1895-99; H. A. Gustin, 1899 -1903; Edward E. Corliss, 1903-10; George H. Schindehette appointed January 1, 1911, to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Corliss and served until April 12, 1911; Frank L. Wands, 1911-15; Ross C. Wands, 1915-18; Edwin T. Boden, 1918-. Comptrollers: Robert McKinney, 1868; George Lord, 1869-74; P. J. Perrott, 1875-76; W. H. Fennell, 1877-78; C. F. Braman, 1879 -88; William Keith, 1889-97; George N. Ambrose, 1897-1901; T. W. Moore, 1901-05; Charles J. Barnett, 1905-09; Edward E. Prohazka, 1909-17; William H. Reid, 1917-22; Leslie C. Hale, 1922-. Waterworks. The water supply of Bay City and that of West Bay City, though derived from the same source, were nevertheless distributed to the consumers of the two cities through waterworks operated by each city. The Bay City waterworks on the east side of the river was established in 1872. Realizing that the city needed adequate fire protection as well as pure water for domestic uses, the city officials in that year proposed the waterworks system which would give Bay City an ample supply of pure water. Bonds to the amount of $327,000 were voted by the people of the city for the building of a pumping station and the laying of water mains. The city council appointed a board of water commissioners composed of A. Walton, Thomas Cranage, Jr., William Westover, William Smalley, H. M. Bradley, Andrew Miller, Thomas H. McGraw, and E. L. Dunbar, the last named of whom was to be the engineer of the waterworks plant. The plant was constructed at a cost of approximately $22,000 and was equipped with duplicate sets of piston

Page  136 136 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY and rotary pumps capable of delivering 3,000,000 gallons of water daily. The equipment of the plant was installed by the Holly company at a cost of $32,000. By August, 1874, ten miles of water mains had been placed in service and 275 families and business houses had availed themselves of the advantages of the new water supply. The plan of the council was to construct a large inlet pipe to bring the bay water into the city water mains, and this was completed in 1875 at an approximate cost of $90,000, the pipe being a large wooden affair which brought the water from the bay at a point near Oak Grove, four miles from the city. The original water mains of the city were also made of wood. The waterworks of West Bay City were constructed in 1881 and located north of the mouth of the Kawkawlin river. Although it was enthusiastically predicted in 1875 that the source of the city's water supply could never be contaminated, so many plants manufacturing chemicals and other products, the waste from which was thrown in the river, that the water near the intake for city water became unfit for use. The result was that the city resorted to the usual method of obtaining water from wells sunk in various parts of the city. The result, in the case of Bay City, as it is with the majority of municipalities that depend upon wells for the water supply, was that the city officials were again faced, in 1919, with the problem of giving Bay City an adequate water supply. The establishment of the present water system of Bay City, stands out as one of the foremost achievements of the city government in recent years. In the fall of 1919, upon the advice of a committee of citizens composed of C. A. Bigelow, James E. Davidson, C. F. Hutchings, and E. C. Wood, the city government employed the engineering firm of Frazier-Ellms-Sheal company, of Cleveland, Ohio, to work with the city officers and the citizens' committee in solving the question of a pure and adequate water supply for the city. At the spring election of 1920, the matter was referred to the people for their approval and carried by a large majority. The sale of bonds in the amount of $2,173,360 was authorized by the vote of the people, the amount of the bonds being the engineers' estimates of the cost of the proposed improvements. With the authority in hand to proceed in the matter, nothing was done further, however, until the summer of 1921. The members of the city commission, which had just been elected to office, applied themselves to the work at once. The loose ends of the project were gathered together and the first issue of bonds of $420,000 was sold and a contract made with W. J. Meagher for force mains leading from the bay to the city and for two river crossings, one at Washington street and the other at Seventh street, totaling approximately $442,865.65. Soon after a further issue of $580,000 bonds was sold to provide for further construction, the bonds selling at par plus a premium of $9,060. With this money in hand, the following contracts were let: Suction well and intake, to the T. A. Gillespie company, for $139,362; water valves to the Rensselaer Valve Co., for $5,722.59; one ten-million gallon pump, to the Worthington Pump & Machinery Co., for $36,840;

Page  137 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 137 coal and ash handling machinery to Webster Manufacturing company, $24,307; three, 275 H. P. boilers, to D. Connelly Boiler company for $55,268; construction of chimney to Alphons Custodie Chimney company for $8,169; pump station, sub and superstructure to Sparling & Gilbert, for $184,800; and electric crane to the Northern Engineering company, for $5,520. When the above contracts had been entered into, upon estimates given by the engineers, a further sale of $1,000,000 bonds was decided upon, they being sold to Watling, Lerchen. & Company, of Detroit, at par and a premium of $50,330. The sale came at an opportune time for the city, for the bond market was then at its height and the cost of building materials was low. J. L. Sparling was awarded the contract for the filtration plant on their bid of $495,737.75, and the contract for the superstructure went to the Bay City Stone company on their bid of $167,900. The work progressed rapidly once it was under way, and in January, 1925, the entire system was placed in use and accepted by the city. A 48-inch steel pipe was projected 4,000 feet into the bay, and at the outer end of this intake was built a crib, which prevents the end of the intake clogging with slush ice during the winter months. At the shore end of the intake, is the pumping station and the filtration plant, the pumping station having a daily capacity of 25,000,000 gallons. The water is conducted to the city by a 38-inch riveted steel main lying about four feet below the surface of the ground. The river crossings that supply water to the west side of the city are of 24-inch steel pipe, the Seventh street being the first one laid. The city can well be proud of the water system that it possesses, for though it is not the largest in the United States, none is more thoroughly equipped to supply the needs of the people of the community. Fire Department. The people of Bay City turned their attention to adequate fire protection relatively earlier in their history than those of other cities, for the lumbering industry of the city, and the forests which surrounded it in the early days, always held before the people the possibility of a disastrous fire that might wipe out the village. In 1863, a fire that began at Center and Saginaw streets wiped out the blocks from that point, south of the Seventh street and west to the river, and two years later a fire destroyed the block bounded by Center, Saginaw, Water, and Fifth streets, Arnold's bakery and residence alone escaping destruction. A serious fire occurred in Portsmouth in 1871. Fire fanned by a southwest gale destroyed property to the amount of $180,000 between Water and Washington streets and Eighth and Eleventh streets in 1878. A $90,000 property loss was caused by a fire in West Bay City in 1881. Damage of more than a million dollars was caused by a fire which swept the south side of Bay City in 1892, the mills, stores, and homes from the river to Jennison street and from Twenty-eighth to Thirty-second streets being destroyed in the conflagration. The fire department of the city had its inception in 1859, with the appointment of Israel Catlin, Harmon A. Chamberlain, and Henry M.

Page  138 138 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY Bradley, as a committee on fire protection. On January 4, 1860, the committee was authorized to rent 4,000 feet of leather hose for use until spring and a large triangle with which to sound the fire alarms was purchased. By popular subscription enough money was raised to purchase a small hand pumping engine, which was christened the "Try Us," and for a short time, this equipment served the purposes of the volunteer fire fighters of Bay City. In 1861, another hand engine was purchased and given the name of the "Tiger," this machine serving until the purchase in a short time of the "Red Rover." The "Tiger" was sold to the village of Sebewaing, and H. M. Bradley became the first engineer of the new company. The city had been bonded to the extent of $1,000 for the purchase of the machine. During the fire of 1863, the Red Rover company attempted to pass the flames at Sixth street, but the men in the front of the line pulling the machine turned suddenly west to avoid the terrific heat and the machine and hose rolled over the bank where they were left to burn. In September, 1865, the people approved, at the polls, the plan to purchase for the city a steam fire engine, and on November 18, the new Silsby engine was accepted by the city and the Neptune company was organized. Portsmouth and Wenona purchased steam fire engines in 1873, but the construction of the waterworks in 1874 rendered the engines unnecessary and they were replaced with hose carts. Electric fire alarms were installed in 1876, and from that time forward the fire department of Bay City progressed with great rapidity. T. K. Harding became associated with the departmen in 1867 and was made chief in 1883 and continued in that position until 1912. At that time, Charles H. Crampton was appointed chief and has continued at the head of the department to the present time. The recent innovations in the department have been mainly due to him, and the high state of efficiency is a tribute to his administrative ability and powers of organization. The first, second, and third assistant chief engineers are Dennis C. Rivet, William Wilson, and William H. Reif. The department is organized on the platoon system, whereby the men are divided into two sections or platoons, each of which serves alternate twenty-four hour periods. The personnel of the department includes eighty-two men, the value of the apparatus is $105,000, and the value of the fire houses and lots is set at $100,000. The equipment of the department includes three engines; two chemical wagons; two combination auto chemical hook and ladder trucks; three combination auto hose wagons and pumps; two combination hose and chemical trucks; one automobile for the chief; and three hose wagons. Although ten fire houses were at one time maintained by the department, three have since been discontinued, they being the ones formerly designated as Nos. 3, 4, and 6. The location of the other stations is as follows: Hose Company No. 1, corner Adams and McKinley avenue; Hose Company No. 2, corner Belinda and Fitzgerald streets; Hose Company No. 5, corner Lafayette and Broadway; Hose Company No. 7, corner Eighteenth and Sheridan streets; Hose Company No. 8, corner Vermont avenue and Linn street, west side; Hose Company No. 9, corner Marquette

Page  139 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 139 avenue and Sophia street, west side; and Hose Company No. 1, Wenona avenue between Ivy and Chestnut streets, west side. Police Department. When the lumbering industry began to bring about the rapid development of Bay City, the question of adequate police protection became a real problem to the city officials. Lumberjacks just in from the woods, spent their money in wild carousels; fights between drunken men or between groups of men inflamed with liquor were frequent, and the city marshal and his deputies had their hands full to maintain some semblance of order. Bay City was not the only city where such scenes were common; any lumber town of the early days was forced to contend with the same problem. The report of the police for March, 1887, showed that 156 saloons were located in the city, one for every 180 inhabitants. During that year, 737 arrests were made of which 559 were directly traceable to the liquor traffic. Nearly one-third of the saloon keepers were arrested during that same year. One of the outstanding figures in the work of the police department has been N. N. Murphy, who first joined the force in 1877 as patrolman. He received his initiation into police work during the years when the lumbering industry was at its height, when lumberjacks and sailors made Bay City a rendezvous. He did not stay a patrolman for long, and in 1881 he was made chief of the department. His skill and shrewdness is responsible for the "cleaning up" of Bay City, and when he retired from the office of chief in 1912, the city, unwilling to dispense with services so valuable, prevailed upon him to accept the position of chief of detectives. Since his retirement from the office of chief of police, George V. Davis has handled the affairs of that office. The present personnel of the department is as follows: Harry Anderson, captain; Cornelius Gleason and Charles Welters, detectives; Leon J. Fournier and George A. Craig, sergeants; Peter Russell, sanitary officer; A. F. Gillman, truant officer; one policewoman; one court officer; three traffic officers; thirty-two patrolmen; and the equipment includes two patrol wagons, two motorcycles, and three bicycles. In 1923, a finger print system was installed in the police department and the system has been a decided aid in the work of the police in apprehending criminals. Electric Light and Power. In 1868 a gas company was organized to supply the city with that fuel for heating and lighting purposes, and the streets of the city were lighted by gas until the formation of an electric light and power company in 1882. The city officials were quick to realize the advantage of the new form of lighting gas, and electric street lights were at once installed, Bay City thus becoming the first city in Michigan to be so lighted. When the lights were first installed, they were re-inforced by five batteries of powerful flood lights placed at the tops of five towers erected in various parts of the city. Four of the towers were 125 feet in height, and the fifth, located at Center and Jefferson streets, was 220 feet high, the highest in the Unied States, it was claimed. The towers were constructed of metal pipe, but it was not long before it was decided to take down the five towers. While the light company was facing the problem of razing the 220-foot tower,

Page  140 140 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY the structure collapsed during a storm, causing no damage either to persons or property. In 1887, five years after the company was started, the city bought the plant and since that time has operated it at a profit. The plant as it now exists is valued a $500,000 and supplies light and power for 8,500 consumers, the city being lighted with 985 arc lights. The director of the electric light department is John Crampton. In addition to the Bay City Electric company, owned and operated by the city, the Consumers' Power Company also supplies electric light and power to the city. City Transportation. In 1865 a company was formed with James Fraser, William McEwan, George Campbell, and N. B. Bradley as directors, for the purpose of building a street railway in Bay City. The line was completed and put into operation in that year over a distance of two and three-eighths miles. Cars ran on a half-hour schedule and at that time were horse drawn. The line was extended in 1874 to the mills nearest the mouth of the river, a distance of almost two miles from Third street, and was also projected south to the McGraw mill. With these extensions concluded, the company placed in operation a small steam locomotive to haul freight between mills during the night. The parts of the city not served by the horse car line were afforded their transportation by bus lines, one of which connected Bay City with West Bay City and another joining Portsmouth and Bay City. The first barns were located at Third street at the north end of the Bay CityPortsmouth line, but in 1882, barns, said to be some of the largest in the state, were built in the rear of the Astor House at Portsmouth. A barn was erected at Center and Trumbull streets after the construction of the Essexville line in 1885. The line was extended to Essexville in 1885 and the following year a double track was laid on Center street as far as Trumbull street and a few years later this was extended to the Michigan Central railroad crossing. The Water street line to Portsmouth was abandoned to the railroads in 1886 and the cars were re-routed over Washington, Garfield, and Broadway streets. The first electric street railway line was operated in West Bay City, it being established in 1889. The company established its line in that city as the result of the efforts of S. O. Fisher, and the line extended to Patterson avenue in Banks. The cars operated by electricity were not allowed to cross Third street bridge; consequently they connected at the west side of the river with the horse cars of the Bay City line. Following the electrification of the line, it was controlled by the Consumers Power company. In 1920, following disagreements between the city officials and the officers of the street car company concerning the maintenance of the right-of-way, the cars were taken off, and since that time automobile buses have served as public carriers in Bay City. Eight minute service during eighteen hours of the day is offered by the bus companies, the fare being five cents, a marked contrast to the seven-cent fare charged in the days of the horse cars. The Michigan Railway company, however, still supplies suburban electric service in connection with its Saginaw-Bay City line.

Page  141 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 141 Streets. The city fathers early turned their attention to the pavement of the city's streets, and the first method used, of course, was that of planking, a form of road improvement which was then almost universal in the country districts on main roads and in the streets of smaller cities and villages of the county. It was only natural, too, that the city should select such a means of street improvement when it is considered that the lumbering industry made planks of good grade easily accessible and cheap for the city. Washington avenue, Columbus avenue, and other main streets were at one time or another planked by the city. The difficulty experienced in keeping such roads and streets in repair, soon led them to the experiments with different kinds of paving materials. In 1869, Water street from Third to Sixth streets was paved with wood blocks after what was known as the Nicholson system. Upon two thicknesses of tarred pine boards were laid two layers of square tarred pine blocks with stringers between each tier of blocks, the crevices filled with gravel and the whole covered with tar. The test was not highly successful, it would seem, for the only other stretch of street paved in this way was the west end of Center avenue, which was paved in 1867. The McGonegal pavement, of irregular wooden pine blocks, was then tried on Center street, the pavement being laid as far as Johnson street. The Wyckoff patent wood block pavement was next adopted as the best of wooden pavements. Cedar blocks, cut from the logs at the railroad siding, were immediately laid on boards and the crevices filled in with gravel and tar, a mixture which covered the entire pavement. After some experimentation it was decided to discontinue the use of tar to cover the pavements, but the gutters of the pavements were paved with cobble stones to a distance of some six or eight feet. Eleven miles of this sort of pavement had been laid by 1887, in addition to the several miles of planked streets which had been laid. Sidewalks constructed of planks twelve feet long and two inches in thickness were laid throughout the city, thirty miles of them having been laid by 1881. The era of hard pavemens then came to Bay City and the city government began the work of replacing the obsolete wooden pavements with brick and asphalt and concrete. Bay City now has nearly 194 miles of streets of which nearly 60 miles are improved with various types of hard surface pavement. In 1893, the present city hall was built. It is a handsome stone building, located at the corner of Washington avenue and Tenth street, and it is a building which does credit to any county as a court house. It has a tower 125 feet high with a clock near the top fitted with bells which toll the hours and the quarter hours. All the city offices are housed there, and the foresight of the city officials in making one so large has been more than justified with the passing years for with the expansion of the city and the consequent need of increased space in the city offices, the building has been able to accommodate all expansion. Communication. The first wire connection between Bay City and the outside world was established in 1863 when the Western Union Telegraph and Cable company completed its line to this city, and at almost

Page  142 142 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY the same time, or with the completion of the first railroad, came the first express company. The city was given telephone service in 1879. The first postoffice established in the county was at Portsmouth with Judge Albert Miller as the postmaster. He received his commission with the proviso that mail be carried between the village and Saginaw, at least once a week. After his removal from the village the postoffice was discontinued and was not started until 1857. In 1846, the first office was established in Lower Saginaw, the name being that of Hampton. Thomas Rogers, the first postmaster, carried the mail to and from Saginaw, sometimes on foot and sometimes with a canoe. When the postage collected at Lower Saginaw amounted to a day's payment, he started out for Saginaw with the mail, bringing back the Lower Saginaw mail from that city. The postal rates between Saginaw and Bay City were then twenty-five cents. Until 1859 or 1860, a dog team carried the mail from Bay City to Mackinaw during the winter months, the team being driven on the ice by a half-breed Indian. The first postoffice was located on Center street and its homes were many before the government finally erected the present postoffice building in 1893, at a cost of $200,000. Free delivery was inaugurated in 1881, and the first rural free delivery was begun in 1900. ESS]SXVILLt In 1849 a sailor, Joseph Hudson by name, visited the harbor of Lower Saginaw and was favorably impressed with the lowlands on the east side of the Saginaw near its mouth. Returning to Connecticut to marry Fidelia D. Essex, he told his brother-in-law, Ransom P. Essex, of the country, and they in 1850 settled on the present site of Essexville. Ransom Essex taking up eighty acres of land and Hudson, forty acres. In 1867, Essex laid out a townsite on eight acres of land and named the prospective village Essex, but the early settlers attached the "ville" to the name, and since that time the village has been known as Essexville. An act of the legislature approved in February, 1859, incorporated the village, and the first election held in the village resulted in the selection of the following officers: J. R. Hall, president; William Felker, clerk; George Hall, treasurer; Louis Felker, assessor; William Leighton, highway commissioner; H. VanWert, constable; and Philip Dargis, S. A. Hall, Joseph Hudson, Anthony Johnson, John Garber, and John Widen, trustees. The present village officials of Essexville are as follows: Otto Garber, president; Edward A. Harris, clerk; Joseph R. LeMere, treasurer; and Carl Sharpe, assessor. PINCONNING The village of Pinconning may be said to have started in 1872 when the sawmill of Kaiser & VanEtten was built there at that time, the two partners, Frederick A. Kaiser and George H. VanEtten, being the ones who built the railroad through their timberland for a distance of some eighteen miles. One hundred acres on both sides of the railroad they platted as the village of Pinconning, and a general store

Page  143 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 143 to supply the needs of the men who would come to the village was established as was also the postoffice. As was common with most towns that arose through the agency of the lumber industry and lived by it, Pinconning fell upon evil ways when the lumbermen moved to more richly timbered lands, the mills either burning or being removed by the owners. However, with the land cleared and a village in the making, the real settlers of that section began to arrive, and Pinconning took a new lease on life, so that in 1887, the village was incorporated, being reincorporated in 1891. Pinconning might well have been named Phoenix, for like that mythological bird, Pinconning has repeatedly been destroyed by fire only to rise from its ashes more imposing and beautiful than before. The present officers of the village are as follows: Edward Jennings, president; Valentine B. Klumpp, clerk; Carl B. Schmidt, treasurer; and George Hartingh, assessor.

Page  144 CHAPTER XII INDUSTRIAL T HE industrial history of Bay county rightfully begins with the lumbering interests which were the most potent factors in the early days in bringing settlers to the county, for when the lumberjacks had cleared the land, then came the real influx of settlers, and the sawmills established on the banks of the Saginaw river brought prosperity to the little city and caused it to grow by leaps and bounds. One of the first acts of Judge Albert Miller in the establishment of the village of Portsmouth was the erection of a sawmill. He realized that the future of the village which he planed to develop lay primarily in the lumber industry, and with the characteristic foresight of the true entrepreneur, he caused the erection of the mill which became the first in this section of the state and the second on the Saginaw. The actual building operations began in 1836 and were completed the following year, the carpenter work being performed by Cromwell Barney who later became engineer of the mill. To equip his mill with machinery, Judge Miller went to Detroit where for $2,000 he bought the schooner "Elizabeth Ward," hired a captain and crew, and loaded the little vessel with the necessary machinery and supplies for his settlement for the winter. On November 22, 1836, the boat put out for Portsmouth, Miller traveling overland to his home in Bay county. Upon his arrival here, he found that the river had frozen over and that the boat had not arrived. During the ensuing week, Miller made daily trips to the mouth of the river, but when the boat still failed to appear, he learned that the boat was at Port Huron, the captain and crew living on the supplies Miller had intended for himself. He made a trip to Port Huron, discharged the crew and arranged to have the machinery brought on sleds to Portsmouth through the wilderness. The panic of 1837 and the consequent blight of the village of Portsmouth necessitated the closing down of the mill, but in 1841, James McCormick and his son, James J. McCormick, came to the settlement and re-opened the mill. The following year they shiped their first boatload of lumber to Detroit, the first to leave the mouth of the Saginaw river from this settlement. The lumber was caried by the "Conneaut Packet," Captain George Raby master, sixty percent of the cut being uppers, for which the McCormicks received eight dollars per thousand feet. McCormick continued to operate this mill until 1849 when he joined the gold rush to California. The mill itself was destroyed by fire in 1862. Thus began the lumber milling industry which was destined to make Bay City the center of the lumber industry of North America for a time. A water mill was erected on the Kawkawlin river by James Fraser, Cromwell Barney, and Israel Catlin in 1844-45. James Fraser, in part

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Page  145 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 145 nership with Hopkins and Pomero, built the first mill in Bay City proper in 1845-46, on a site which was occupied by sawmills for nearly a quarter of a century after. In 1847, James Fraser and Israel Catlin built a mill on Water street between Ninth street and McKinley avenue, and from 1850 to 1854, the number of mills was swelled to nearly a dozen. By the year 1857, fourteen mills were in operation on the banks of the Saginaw, at Bay City, the annual output of each mill ranging from 1,500,000 feet to 4,000,000 feet. Eighteen mills on the east side of the river, six on the west, and one at Kawkawlin, were the proud boast of the county in 1865, when Bay City received its city charter. The mills then in operation with their annual output in board feet were as follows: Nathan B. Bradley, 6,800,000; Fay & Gates, 4,500,000; Samuel Pitts, 6,800,000; Watrous & Southworth, 3,000,000; Young, 1,200,000; Miller & Post, 4,000,000; Peter & Lewis, 4,000,000; James J. McCormick, 4,400,000; J. F. Rust company, 4,000,000; James Watson, 3,000,000; William Peter, 7,200,000; Miller & Company, 6,000,000; H. M. Bradley, 4,000,000; Jennison & Catlin, 3,500,000; James Shearer, 6,815,000; Dolson & Walker, 1,500,000; McEwan & Fraser, 6,000,000; and Braddock, 3,000,000. The mills on the west bank of the river at that time were as follows: Huron company, 3,180,000 feet; Drake Brothers, 3,000,000; Bolton, 5,500,000; Taylor & Moulthrop, 6,000,000; Moore & Smith, 7,000,000; and the Kawkawlin mill, 5,000,000. The lumber industry continued to grow during the ensuing years, and. in 1876 it was told of the Bay City Mills that they were producing 200,000,000 feet of lumber a season, and the annual sawdust piles were estimated at 2,000,000 cords. The mill equipment at that time included circular, muley, or gate saws of six-gauge swayed to four-gauge. The invention of the gang saw and its adoption by the mills represented great savings to the manufacturers in the sawdust heaps. Where in 1853, a mill owner managed to get an hourly average of 1,500 feet from a circular saw with great waste, the small gauge gang saw was capable of maintaining an hourly average ranging all the way from 6,000 to 9,000 feet per hour with relatively little lumber lost to the sawdust and slab piles. Sage & McGraw were the first to install the new gang saws in their mill, and with this improvement they were able to increase their annual output from 9,000,000 feet in 1865 to 15,000,000 in 1876. By 1880, the number of mills on the river had increased from twenty-four to thirty-two, but this increase is not at all comparable with the output increases made possible by the improved methods of sawing the lumber, for the capacity of the thirty-two mills was more than three times as large as the annual output of the twenty-four, the total for 1880 being 422,783,141 feet of lumber exclusive of the lath, staves, shingles, and other similar wood products manufactured. With such enormous outputs, the mill operators were not content, and it was not long before the annual output of the mills in Bay county passed the billion mark. By 1885, the supply of timber for the mills began to present a problem to the mill owners, for under the intensive lumbering and milling operations of the Bay county lumbermen, the forests were rapidly disappearing. In that same year, came the movement on the part of the

Page  146 146 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY mill workers for shorter hours. Adopting the slogan, "Ten Hours or No Sawdust," the men struck for higher wages and a ten-hour day in place of the twelve-hour which they had been working before that time. Eventually, after much debate on both sides and riots on the part of the strikers which necessitated calling out the militia, the workers won their point. The few years following 1885, spelled the virtual death of the extensive lumber milling industry in Bay county. The pine had been almost exhausted, and the mill owners sought new fields where a large supply was close at hand. Only the hardwoods remained to be logged off the lands of Bay county and for some years this industry prevailed in the western townships principally. Today, the sawmill industry in Bay county is become a memory; wood working plants are still in operation, it is true, but rough lumber is not among their products; planing mills, box factories, hoop factories, flooring mills, and factories producing house building materials have superceded the mammoth mills that once formed the backbone of Bay county's industrial life. Salt. The annals of the commercial and industrial activities of Bay county must rightly include the operations in salt that opened in 1860, but for which the way had been prepared by acts of Congress and the legislature of Michigan. The act admitting Michigan into the Union granted the right to the state to select no more than twelve salt springs with the six sections of land adjoining each. The legislature by act of July, 1836, authorized the governor to make the selection, and upon the Grand River valley fell his choice. Until June 15, 1838, borings were conducted by Dr. Houghton, the state geologist, but the appropriations being exhausted the work was abandoned. Dr. Houghton believed that the principal portion of the salt basin lay in the Saginaw valley. Judge James Birney, of Bay City, secured the passage in 1859 of an act placing a bounty of ten cents on a bushel of salt. With this encouragement to the industry, boring for salt wells began with renewed vigor. In June, 1860, brine was struck 600 feet below the surface, and the announcement of the event brought interest in the development of the promising industry almost to fever pitch. The Portsmouth Salt company was organized March 13, 1860, with the following incorporators: James J. McCormick, Appleton Stevens, B. F. Beckwith, A. D. Braddock, Albert Miller, Charles E. Jennison, W. Daglish, and William R. McCormick. James Fraser, D. H. Fitzhugh, H. M. Fitzhugh, Curtis Munger, and Algernon S. Munger, incorporated the Bay City Salt company on May 18, the company locating its plant on the site of the present Michigan Pipe company's factory. The first salt was produced in June, 1861, by the South End company, and at that time many people in the county believed that the rapidity with which salt wells were being sunk would soon exhaust the supply despite the report of the original investigators who stated that they believed the supply unlimited. It was soon realized by sawmill operators and other wood working establishments, that salt could be manufactured in conjunction with the milling. The first method of salt manufacture was the kettle sys

Page  147 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 147 tem, the brine being boiled until only salt was left in the kettles. It was apparent to the mill owners that the refuse lumber could be put to good use in heating the salt kettles, and for this reason the lumber and salt industries went hand-in-hand from that time forward. The kettle system was superceded by the pan method, in which pans about twentyfive feet long and from twelve to sixteen feet wide were used in place of the kettles and fires were kept burning under the pans, the method being basically the same as the kettle system. Solar salt, that made by placing the brine in large pans in the open where the water would be evaporated by the sun, was also produced in this section and for a long time during one period of salt manufacture, represented a preponderance in the annual output of salt companies. The pan system was later improved by utilizing the exhaust steam from the mills for the heating of the brine. In later years, a fourth method of salt making was introduced into Bay county although the salt makers of the Saginaw district never adopted it. The process, known as the vacuum pan method, utilizes the physical principal that the reduction of the air pressure on the surface of the brine correspondingly reduces the boiling point. While the pans, in which the evaporation is carried on, differ in some of the minor details, the general principles of the process follow the general design of the vacuum pan described as follows: The pan consists of a steel cylinder tapering at both ends, the upper and lower portions of which are separated by the steam belt through which pass the copper tubes to permit the circulation of the brine and also to increase the heating surface, the pipes carrying the steam for heating purposes. The condensation water from the steam escaped at the upper end of the cylinder containing the brine, and the salt formed falls to the lower end of the cylinder where it is removed by a bucket carrier. One such plant was installed in Bay county and was operated for several years. As the number of mills increased in Bay county, the number of salt wells was correspondingly increased. With more than $700,000 invested in the business in 1865, the annual output exceeded 200,000 barrels of salt; the production in 1880 was more than 900,000 barrels; and two years later, the state reports indicated a production for 1882 of 1,158,279 barrels of salt. As the production increased, however, the per barrel price of salt decreased. The report of one company from 1866 to 1870, inclusive, a drop in cost per barrel from $2.11 to $1.38, while the price received for a barrel of salt over the same period of years decreased from $1.88 to $1.32. By 1882, the price of salt had endured further downward plunges, it being 70 cents per barrel in that year. By 1876, the continued downward trend of the salt prices led to the formation of the Salt Association of Michigan, of which Judge Albert Miller became vice-president; Thomas Cranage, treasurer; John McEwan, J. R. Hall, J. L. Dolsen, H. M. Bradley, and H. C. Moore, all of Bay City, members' of the executive board. The capital stock of $200,000 was divided into 8,000 shares, and of the forty-eight shareholders, fifteen were Bay City men. Each member of the association made salt for sale only through the association which regulated the prices that should prevail for their product.

Page  148 148 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY But even this attempt to bolster up an industry which depended so much on the lumber industry for its very life, served to postpone for a time only, the ultimate extinction of the business in the county. The state report for 1896 showed that twenty-nine salt companies were in operation in Bay county, and although their capacity showed a total of 1,300,000 barrels of salt, the output during 1895 was less than half that amount, or 573,960 barrels. The price received during that year was 48 9-10 cents per barrel, including the price of the barrel. With the descending scale of prices, the rapid abandonment of the lumber mills during these years, it was only to be expected that by 1904, only four salt manufacturing companies still were in operation in Bay county, the aggregate daily capacity of which was estimated at 1,445 barrels of salt. The total output of the plants in that year was 272,502 barrels. It was believed for a time, that the accessibility of coal to the salt plants of Bay county would revive the industry after the lumber mills had ceased operations, but such has not been the case, and at the present time the Hine Lumber company of Bay City is the only concern engaged in the manufacture of salt for trade. Other companies, like the North American Chemical company, now make salt only as they need it in the manufacture of chemicals. When the North American Chemical company was established for the manufacture of sodium chlorate, the wells of the, McGraw Lumber company, twenty-five in number, were bought out by the Chemical company. Although the company for a number of years manufactured salt for commercial purposes, the decline of the prices made it impracticable for them to continue the salt production and for the past few years, only such salt necessary to the manufacture of sodium chlorate and potash is produced by the company. The equipment used by the North American Chemical company in the manufacture of salt on a large scale employed both the grainer and vacuum pan methods, the former containing eight wooden grainers and the latter block comprising two single effect pans, the exhaust steam from the plant being used for heating the brine in both the grainers and the vacuum pans. The well flowage was sufficient to supply about fifty barrels of salt a day. Coal. In the production of coal, Bay county has fought for first place in the state of Michigan, with Saginaw county, these two being the largest producers of bituminous coal in the state. Although the inhabitants of the county were aware from the first that coal might underlay a great part of the county, due to the small outcroppings and bits of coal brought up when salt wells were sunk, it was not for some time that the people began to turn their attention to mining. Although mines in other sections of the state to the south had long been in operation, the business men of the county were too absorbed in the lumber industry to pay attention to the future of other industries. The first mine in the county was the Michigan mine established in 1897 and the first shaft was sunk in that year. After scientific research and borings to determine the quality and extent of the coal in Bay county, Alexander Zagelmeyer and others put down the Michigan mine to a four-foot vein. The capitalists at once formed companies for the

Page  149 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 149 mining of the coal, and within a few years Bay county had fourteen mines. The opening of the Bay and Saginaw county fields gave a great impetus to the coal mining industry of all Michigan. In 1896, the annual coal production for Michigan was 92,882 tons, while the following year, after the opening of Bay county mines, the production was 223 -592 tons, a figure which was swelled to 315,722 tons the following year. Production for the entire state of Michigan, under the stimulus of the Bay county and Saginaw county mines, steadily grew until 1907, when the high point of 2,035,858 tons was produced in the state. From that year forward, the annual production of coal experienced a steady decline, with Saginaw and Bay counties producing an overwhelming majority of the coal. Six mines were in operation in Bay county in 1915. With the discovery of the first mine in the county, miners from Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Illinois were brought to the county; mining companies began to buy up coal land and leases to lands. The first mine in Bangor township was established by Handy Brothers who soon after sunk a second shaft. A shaft was put down near the mouth of the Kawkawlin river by E. B. Foss and George D. Jackson, the vein which they struck proving to be one of the richest in the county, although operations were frequently held up by flooding due to the mine's proximity to the bay. The Pittsburg mine was sunk near Amelith, the Valley mine near Frankenlust and the Bay mine No. 2, near the same point, the Hecla and Central mines near the city limits, the Salzburg mine almost at the center of that part of the city and the United City mine also within the city limits. The Wolverine mines Nos. 2 and 3 were put down in Williams township and another was sunk at Auburn. Ten miles southeast of Bay county, E. B. Foss put down the What-Cheer mine, striking a fine grade of coal. From these beginnings, many mines were put down in the county. At that time, however, the methods of mining coal were exceptionally slow, practically all of the work being done by means of picks. New methods of mining were later introduced, however, and with the mechanical devices employed came a greater production in coal. The natural result was a decrease in the number of mines, for with the new devices it was found that the output could be maintained with a fewer number of mines. At the present time, Bay county has six mines; one is located near Munger, one near Frankenlust, a third and fourth at Salzburg, and two more located to the north of Bay City. The county is fortunately situated in respect to the coal deposits for the people need never fear a shortage of coal and the industries of the county are always certain to be able to secure an ample supply of fuel even in times when troubles at coal mines in other sections of the country are causing serious shortages in other cities. Ship Building. The fact that two vessels for lake transportation were built on the Saginaw river in 1787 and 1788, pointed the way to one of the industries that would develop here in later years. The real beginning of the present day ship building, however, was in 1864. True, fishing boats were built here as early as 1849 and the larger "Essex" and

Page  150 150 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY "Bay City" had been built in 1857 and 1858 by H. D. Braddock & Company, but in 1864, William Crosthwaite opened a shipyard at Banks after the salt industry began its big boom. John A. Weed started another shipyard the following year and soon after George Carpenter opened a shipbuilding plant. The shipyard of James Davidson was started in 1873 and the Wheeler yard in 1879. Within a few years, some of the largest boats on the Great Lakes were being built at the Bay City shipyards, one of the yards then employing nearly 1,400 men. In 1889, after the introduction of the steel boats to the lake traffic, the Wheeler yard was changed to meet the demand and from that time forward continued the manufacture of steel freighters and passenger vessels. The Davidson shipyard was later equipped for the building of steel vessels and the company also installed a drydock for the repairing of lake boats. The ship building business has also declined since the lumbering days, and at the present time there are but two companies located in Bay City manufacturing boats. The work of the Davidson yards is confined principally to drydock work, while that of the Defoe Boat & Motor works includes the manufacture of marine motors and smaller boats, for the most part, and the days of intensive building of large lake vessels have nearly passed. The Defoe Boat and Motor Company has in recent years had several large contracts with the United States government, and is at present working on several government revenue boats. Fishing is another industry that has been instrumental in the upbuilding of Bay City and Bay county. Bela Hubbard, a member of a geological expedition from Detroit to Saginaw bay in 1837, wrote of the great quantities of fish to be found in the waters of the bay, and by the time twenty years had lapsed, fish formed a notable share of the county's exports. Fish valued at $50,000 were exported from the county in 1860. The fish at this time were salted, and with the development of the lumber industry, making coopering easy and cheap, and the development of the salt manufacturing business along with it, the fishing interests of the county rapidly grew to substantial proportions. In 1864, Harvey Williams, who has been mentioned in connection with the early settlement in the region of the Kawkawlin river, got the idea that if fresh fish could be exported from the county, a greater demand for Saginaw Bay fish could be created. The experiment was tried that winter and the success with which the venture met caused the virtual discarding of the salt packing methods. Under the Williams plan, the fish were caught in the winter and frozen, packed in barrels of ice, and shipped to Detroit, Cincinnati, Cleveland, and even as far as New York. Production was immeasurably increased through these improved methods and with the coming of the railroads to the county, the yearly output of the fisheries grew still more. It was stated that in 1882 between 400 and 500 men were employed in the fishing business and that during April of that year the daily catches ranged from forty to sixty tons of fish, the latter amount being taken on April 7, 1882. At the present time in the county, three companies are engaged in the wholesale shipping of fish; they are the Benson Fish company, the Beutel Fisheries

Page  151 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 151 company, and the Booth Fisheries company, the last named of which is a branch of one of the largest fish companies in the United States. The Bay City Freezer company, producer of artificial ice, freezes fish for these companies at all times of the year preparatory to shipment to the large cities. To Bay county comes the credit for being the pioneer in the manufacturing of beet sugar in the state of Michigan. The farmers had successfully demonstrated that sugar beets could be profitably grown on the soil of the county which was admirably suited for such beet culture, and in 1898, the Michigan Sugar company erected a sugar manufacturing plant at Essexville. A state bounty enabled the company to complete the work on its plant in time to use three month supply of beets grown in the county. The Bay City Sugar company, a still larger plant, was built the following year, and in 1900 the West Bay City and German-American sugar factories were added to the growing industrial activities of the county. The budding industry was dealt a severe blow a few years after the establishment of the sugar manufacturing companies when the Cuban reciprocity treaty placed such a low tariff on the Cuban cane sugar that the factories were hard put to it to keep going. No sooner had the crisis been passed through the aid of the American sugar trust than poor crops of beets in 1903 and 1904 prevented the factories from working at capacity production. So discouraging was the prospect that many of the plants were dismantled and the machinery taken to Colorado where interest in sugar beet raising had been steadily growing. The Columbia Sugar company and the Michigan Sugar company are the only large beet sugar manufacturing enterprises now located in Bay City. About 1900, marl sand was discovered a few miles north of Bay City. A company was formed for the manufacture of cement, known as the Hecla Cement company, and built a "Million Dollar Plant" on the west side of the river near the marl beds. Railroads were built to the marl and to the coal mines by the company in order that their own production might benefit. The company later became a subsidiary of the Portland Cement company, which is now one of the largest industrial concerns in the county. Its own vessels bring materials to the plant and carry away the finished product, and the traffic has done much to swell the figures. The Aetna Portland Cement company with a factory on the opposite side of the river in Essexville is a new concern here. The Industrial Works, manufacturers of cranes of all kinds, is one of the largest plants of its kind in the world. The founders of the company realized that the location in Bay City was an admirable one for a manufacturing plant and its proximity to the water and coal fields was an influencing factor in 1868. In 1868, the Industrial Works was begun in a small way, specializing in railroad cranes. The business of the company enjoyed a steady, though not meteoric, growth in volume, and as it became better known throughout the United States, its line of products was increased until now the following are manufactured by the company: Wrecking cranes, locomotive and freight cranes, pile

Page  152 152 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY drivers, transfer tables, rail saws, and clamshell buckets. With the introduction of electricity into general commercial life, the company began the manufacture of various cranes powered by electric motors. Its cranes are in use in all parts of the world. The Michigan Pipe company is one of the oldest and largest companies now operating in the city. It was originally formed for the manufacture of wood pipe, a method in which pipes were bored from logs by means of hollow augers, the cores being rebored to make smaller pipe. Later, the present method of making the pipe from staves wrapped with steel bands and covered with alternate coats of asphaltum and sawdust was evolved. The company now manufactures not only wood pipe but also iron and steel pipe of all kinds. It was incorporated in 1922 with a paid-up capital of $250,000, and the officers are Mrs. M. H. Smith, president; H. B. Smith, Jr., vice-president; and E. H. Smith, secretary and treasurer. The Michigan Chemical company was established as a result of the beet sugar manufacturing business. The company manufactures alcohol from the refuse molasses from the sugar beet factories, and its business has grown to a point where it is one of the large and substantial companies in Bay City. It is capitalized for $250,000 and the officers of the company, of which the Essexville plant is a branch, are men of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 1925, affiliations were made with large cane sugar producers in the West Indies. Cane molasses became the raw material and the plant was further expanded. The North American Chemical company is a corporation capitalized for $1,000,000 and is perhaps the largest manufacturing enterprise in Bay City. It has been established in the city for nearly thirty years, having been incorporated in 1898 for the manufacture of chlorate of potash. For a number of years it manufactured salt as a side line for which purpose it purchased the thirty-one wells of the McGraw Lumber company, but the decline of salt prices made the venture unprofitable and it has been discontinued except where it is necessary for the manufacture of potash. The company also produces electrical power for the people of Bay City. The officers of the company are: Max Muspratt, of Liverpool, England, president; E. S. Clark, vice-president; and Charles F. Hutchings, secretary and treasurer. Recently there has been an impetus given to water transportation as it effects Bay City through the establishment of a freight packet line operating between this city and Port Huron, Detroit and Cleveland. It is thought that this shipping line will give the commerce of the bay region an outlet which will make for economy and greater volume. The Standard Oil Company has made this its distributing point for northeastern Michigan, including every place north of River Rouge, tankers bringing in the products for tank storage. In addition to the complete unit of the Aetna Portland Cement Company now in operation, a second unit is now building and a third is assured. Another recent and important development in the industrial affairs of the city has been the purchase of the Michigan Chemical Company by eastern interests that will supply cane molasses from Cuba by tank steamers.

Page  153 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 153 Other leading companies of Bay City and their products are as follows: Aladdin Co., ready-cut houses; American Paper Box Co., paper boxes; American Textiles, Inc., hosiery and underwear; BarnettThomas Co., awnings; A. Bates & Son, granite and marble works, cut stone; Bateson Brothers, concrete vaults; Bay City Beverage Co., carbonated beverages; Bay City Broom Co., whisk brooms, brushes, etc.; Bay City Cast Stone Block Co., cement blocks; Bay City Dredge Co., walking, crawling, track and floating dredges, cranes, excavators, loaders, and Type Z dredge dippers; Bay City Electric Steel Castings Co., steel castings; Bay City Foundry & Machine Co., winches and cranes; Bay City Freezer, Inc., ice and fish freezing; Bay City Iron Works, foundry, machine, and blacksmith shop; Bay City Wood Plaster Co., wall plaster products; Bayview Scenic company, theatrical scenery and stage settings; Beaver Coal Co., coal miners and shippers; Betty Lane Co., children's dresses and rompers; Beutel Pickling & Canning Co., pickling, canning, and preserving; Bilt-Well Products Co., battery boxes; Bluark Knitting Mills, sweaters, caps; Bradley-Miller & Co., lumber frames and shingles; F. H. Cash & Co., cottage cheese and dairy products; Cass Bean & Grain Co., farm products; Chatfield Milling Co., flour; Chevrolet Motor Co., automobile parts; Clute Coal & Supply Co., lime manufacturers; Cooley Castings Co., iron, aluminum and brass castings; T. R. Coyle, shippers of fish; E. I. Dupont de Nemours Co., charcoal, alcohol, acetate; Economy Canning Co., sauerkraut, pickles; Evenknit Hosiery Mills, hosiery; Fleming Ice Cream Co., manufacturers and shippers of ice cream; E. B. Foss Estate, lumber, lath, boxes, and doors; Frank Chicory Co., chicory; Freeman Dairy Co., makers and shipers of ice cream; Furman Mfg. Co., cisterns and pumps; Robert Gage Coal Co., coal miners and shippers; General Cigar Co., cigars; Gibb Instrument Co., makers of electric welders; Golden Pickle Works, pickles; Great Lakes Brass Foundry, castings; C. & J. Gregory Co., printers and binders; Wright Gregory, monuments; B. R. Hahn Cigar Co., cigars; Hanson-Ward Veneer Co., panels and gluedup stock; Hartig Printing Co., book and job printers; Hemmeter Cigar Co., cigars; Hine Lumber Co., salt and lumber and box shooks; Hogle Knitting Co., sweaters and caps; Hurley Brothers, printers, binders and stationers; Island Lumber Co., lumber; J. Kantzler & Son, ready-cut houses and lumber; W. P. Kavanaugh, wholesale shipers of fish; Kelton-Auran Co., reed and wicker furniture; M. A. Kleinke, crates; Kneeland-Bigelow Co., pine, hemlock, hardwood; Kolb Cer-ola Co., carbonated beverages; Kuhlman Electric Co., electric transformers; Laetz Foundry, iron, brass, and aluminum foundry; Lambert Printing Co., printing; Matthew Lamont Sons Co., Lewis homes, sash, doors, millwork and lumber products; F. Lutzke, printing; Melody Choral Co., music publishers; M. T. Mengel, box manufacturer; Merchants Textile Syndicate, hosiery and underwear; Michigan Dredge Co., land and water dredges; Michigan Light Co., gas; Mueller Chicory Co., chicory; Murray Body Corporation, automobile bodies; National Body Co., automobile bodies; National Boiler Works, boilers; Perkins Brothers, peanut products; Radio Masters Corporation, radio products; H. C.

Page  154 154 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY Reinhardt & Sons, automobile bodies; Republic Fuel Co., coal miners and shippers; Richardson Lumber Co., lumber; A. E. Ripley, printing; Ross & Wentworth, lumber; St. Laurent Bros., Inc., peanut products; Adam Schepper, coppersmiths and metal workers; S. C. Schwartz Boiler Co., boilers; Seidel Creamery Co., butter; Smalley General Co., thread millers; Ford Smith, harnesses; Snover & Laframboise, lithographers, labels, printing; Standard Oil Co., kerosene and gasoline distribution (this is one of the large distributing points in the state, its traffic being done by means of tank ships); Stevens Creamery Co., ice cream; W. G. Thormahlen, wholesale shippers of fish; Toeppner Brothers, automobile body and top manufacturers; Union Motor Truck Co., Union motor trucks; U. S. Bridge & Culvert Co., bridges and culverts; Valley Blank Book & Loose Leaf Ledger Co., binders, ledgers; Valley Castings & Pattern Co., castings and patterns; E. J. Vance Box Co., lumber, lath, box manufacturers; B. E. Wanless, harness makers; Wearplus Hosiery Co., hosiery and underwear; R. F. Weber, potash manufacturer; Wenona Flouring Mills, flour; Westover-Kamm Co., sash, doors, interior trim; What-Cheer Coal Co., miners and shippers of coal; Wildman Rubber Co., automobile tires and tubes; G. A. Williston & Son, carbonated beverages; Wolverine Knitting Mills, sweaters and caps; World's Star Knitting Co., hosiery and underwear; W. D. Young & Co., hardwood lumber, maple and beech; Zagelmeyer Auto Camp Co., trailers, camping outfits; and Zagelmeyer Cast Stone Block Machinery Co., manufacturers of machinery for casting concrete blocks. Chamber of Commerce. The first organization of business men of the city was established in 1865, but though the organization took for its motto the words "Keep Moving," it apparently failed to do so. A Chamber of Commerce was organized February 1, 1882, but by 1884 it, too, had become virtually inoperative. Though these early attempts to establish an organization of manufacturers and business men met with rather disheartening failure, it must be borne in mind that the business men of Bay City had the right idea. That they failed to effect the organization of a going society is no discredit to their intentions and their foresight. The Bay City Business Men's association was the next organization to make its appearance, but apparently its scope was too narrow for in 1898 was organized the Bay City Board of Trade with Selwyn Eddy as president. The purposes of the society were well served by this organization and it flourished until January, 1910, when the Bay City Board of Commerce took its place after a re-organization. As such it continued until 1923 when the name was changed to that of the Bay City Chamber of Commerce by which it is known today.

Page  155 Personal Sketches George Z. Affleck, proprietor of the Affleck Electrical Company, 524 Center street, Bay City, was born in Detroit, April 2, 1863, and came with his parents, John and Harriet (Coomer) Affleck, to Bay county the same year. The father died in 1886 and the mother in 1900. They were the parents of six children, four of whom are now living. George Z. Affleck attended the public schools in Bay City and began working in a sawmill at an early age. After continuing in this occupation awhile he saw the opportunities created by the growing use of electricity, and began to earn his living in the new field in 1884. He is thus one of the pioneers in the electrical business. In 1917 he founded his own firm under the name of the Affleck Electrical Co. The new enterprise was immediately successful, and has earned Mr. Affleck handsome profits as well as many friends. His nineteen years' experience in the Bay City light plant gave him a wide acquaintance among users of electrical appliances, and he has continued to form new business contacts since establishing his own company. He is a member of the Presbyterian church, the Elks and the Masons, and is a member of the Shrine of the latter order. On August 16, 1888, he married Elizabeth Palmer, of Saginaw. They are the parents of two children, of whom Beatrice, the eldest, died in infancy. The other child, Gladys, a graduate of the Bay City high school, is now Mrs. Fred Waldbauer, of Bay City, and the mother of one child, Amanda. Arthur D. Allen, A. B., M. D., 701 East Midland street, Bay City, former house physician at the Wayne County hospital, Detroit, is a young man with a brilliant future, according to statements of older physicians of Bay county. Born in Clarenden, New Brunswick, Canada, March 19, 1894, he is another of the many successful Bay City physicians who were born under the British flag. When he was six years old his parents moved from Canada to Georgetown, South Carolina, where they lived two years and where Dr. Allen started to school. They then resided for a short time at Wiggins, in the same state, after which they settled at Savannah, Georgia. Here Dr. Allen graduated from high school in the class of 1913. Coming to the University of Michigan to obtain his medical education, he received the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1917 and the degree of Doctor of Medicine in 1919. Desiring to prepare himself as well as possible for the practice of his profession, he became an interne at the Philadelphia General Hospital. From this hospital he came to the Wayne county hospital, at Detroit, as junior interne, being promoted later to house physician and spending, in all, three years at this institution. He first entered private practice at Auburn, Michigan, going from there to Ypsilanti, where he remained but a short time, and coming to Bay City in March, 1924. Here he has shown marked ability and has won the approval of not only the public but of other physicians as

Page  156 156 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY well. He is a member of the principal medical associations of the county, state and nation, the Elks, the Knights of Pythias, the Odd Fellows, the Masons and of Alpha Kappa Kappa, medical scholastic fraternity. He was married on February 9, 1920, to Ruth E. McIntyre, of Ypsilanti. They have one daughter, Nancy Jane, born July 23, 1923. Wesley C. Allison, attorney, 118 Shearer building, Bay City, was born August 14, 1868, at Kitchener, Ontario, Canada. He received his early education in public schools in Canada and in Michigan, where his parents moved when he was a boy. After graduating from high school at Bad Axe and from the Ferris Institute at Big Rapids, he began teaching school, and continued in this occupation for a period of twelve years, four of which he spent in Idaho. Returning to his studies when opportunity offered, he graduated from the Detroit College of Law in 1902 and was soon after admitted to the bar. For approximately nine years he practiced in various Michigan cities, meeting with pleasurable success and acquiring a thorough knowledge of all branches of his profession. In 1911 he came to Bay City and opened offices, meeting with immediate favor. Since that time he has received many honors and has handled many important cases from Bay county residents. He has been court commissioner two years and justice of the peace four years. He was married in 1902 to Edna R. Kerr, of Bad Axe. They have five children, as follows: Ralph, a graduate of the Bay City high school in the class of 1923; Kenneth, who graduated from Bay City high school in 1925; Ellsworth, who is now a high school student and two younger children, Ethelyn and Marjorie. Mr. Allison is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, the Elks and the Knights of Pythias. Ignatius Andrzejwski, head of the Church Goods Supply House, was born in Germany. He came to the United States with his parents when a child, the family living for a while at Joliet, Illinois, and finally locating in Bay City, where the father established a grocery store, about the year 1880. When Ignatius Andrzejwski reached the age of twenty-one years he left his father's store, where he had worked four years. Then, with a capital of but one hundred dollars, he started a grocery store on the west side, and after selling out he entered the picture framing business. Later he moved his stock of frames and supplies to that part of the city in which his present large warerooms and offices are situated. For three years after this change of location he continued to frame pictures and do similar work. His next move was to the building on Kosciusko avenue in which his father had conducted a grocery business. He then added a line of wall papers to the stock of framing materials, remaining at that place four years. At the end of that time he erected the building he now occupies at 1304 Kosciusko avenue and entered the wholesale and retail church vestment trade. His firm now is one of the largest importers of church vestments and similar articles in the United States, and operates

Page  157 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 157 a number of branch houses in other cities. Several European countries contribute to the large shipments of vestments and church supplies brought to this country annually by his company. Churches in every state in the union are represented on the list of customers of this enterprising firm. Ignatius Andrzejwski married Martha Polon, a native of Bay City. Seven children were born to this union, as follows: Al; Eugene, now dead; Edward, of the United States air service; Barbara, also deceased; and Floyd, Marie and Leonard. All of the children have received their education in the Bay City schools. Al, the eldest child, completed his school work four years ago, and entered his father's business. He is a member of the Knights of Columbus and the Alpha Mu fraternity. Charles W. Ash, M. D., suite 219-20-22, Shearer building, Bay City, was born November 1, 1877, in Macomb county, Michigan. He received his education in the public elementary and high schools of St. Clair, Michigan, and at the Detroit College of Medicine & Surgery, graduating from the latter institution in 1903. He entered private practice at St. Clair, where he remained until in 1912, when he came to Bay City. He has been favored with an extensive general practice during his time in Bay City, and is now a member of the board of health and the staff of Mercy hospital. He is affiliated with the Bay county, Michigan and American medical associations and various civic and philanthropic organizations. Beyond accepting a place on the board of health he has never taken an active part in politics. He is a member of but one secret order, the Masons. He was married on June 1, 1904, to Mary Marsh, who was born and reared in Bay City. They have two children: Frances J. born December 1, 1906, a graduate of the Central high school class of 1925, and James Dean, born March 13, 1909, now a student in the sophomore class at Central high school. Dr. Ash and family reside at 701 North Hampton street. Frank W. Atkins, general manager of the National Grocer Company, Bay City, was born at Atkins, St. Clair county, Michigan, June 4, 1876. His father, Alexander W. Atkins, was born in the same town, which was named in honor of Frank W. Atkins' grandfather, Wm. Atkins, a native of Scotland, who became a prominent farmer of St. Clair county. Mr. Atkins' mother was, before her marriage, Frances E. Reynolds, of Augusta, Maine. She and her husband are now living in Port Huron, Michigan. Frank W. Atkins attended school in Port Huron after leaving his home town. After a considerable time spent with the Bloom Cattle Company of Trinidad, Colorado, he returned to Port Huron. His first business experience was with O'Neil Brothers & Company, wholesale grocers, for whom he worked four years at Port Huron. He then became a traveling salesman and continued in that occupation two years, selling specialties in various cities in the states of Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin. In 1900 he accepted a traveling position with the National Grocer Company with whom he is still connected, coming in 1909 to Bay City, where he is general manager

Page  158 158 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY of the company's large branch warehouse and offices at the foot of Washington avenue. Mr. Atkins is also a director of the National Grocer Company of Michigan, operating sixteen houses. On May 6, 1899, he married Martha N. Peters, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Herman Peters, of Port Huron. To this union have been born two daughters: Frances M., who is now Mrs. Thomas E. Treleaven, residing in Port Huron, and Dorothy L., a student at the University of Michigan. Mr. Atkins and family reside at 1405 Fourth avenue, and attend the Presbyterian church. He is a member of the Elks lodge, a past president of the Bay City Rotary club, and the first president of the present Bay City Chamber of Commerce, reorganized in 1922. His hobby is sailing and he holds a membership in the International Ship Masters association. He owns a fine yacht in which he and his family and friends make extended cruises about the lakes. Morey Seth Babcock. There is no specific personal title which the true and loyal American holds in higher respect than that of "self-made man," and, while the term is often applied in an indifferent and unjustified way, it has never lost its significence to those appreciative of how essentially our nation has made its progress through the efforts and services of those who have been the architects of their own fortunes. Morey S. Babcock, secretary and treasurer of the Bay City Dredge Works and the United States Bridge & Culvert Company, is one who has made his way to prominence and honorable prestige through his own well directed energy and efforts and well deserves this title. He knows the value of consecutive industry; has had the discipline of "hard knocks," but in the maturing and broadening of his character he has no reason to regret the early struggles and experiences which marked his progress toward the goal of his ambition. By hard work and frugal habits he has risen from the humble beginning, that was his status as a young man, to a place of commanding influence in the business world, and well deserves a place in the front rank, among the leading business men of the country. Nothing came to him by chance. He worked his way up from the bottom rung of the business ladder by sheer pluck and perseverance, and the story of his life cannot fail to interest and inspire the young man who has a regard for honorable manhood and an appreciation for the wise and intelligent use of opportunity. Mr. Babcock was born at Shasta City, California, October 1, 1871, the son of Milton S. Babcock and Jennie (Morey) Babcock. He came to Michigan with his parents in early boyhood and obtained his rudimental education in a Lenawee county district school. His boyhood days were spent upon a farm, where he was taught the habits of industry and economy and the discipline proved a valuable one during the formative period of his life. He remained on the home farm until he attained the age of twenty-one years, but, like many young men of ambitious temperament, he was not satisfied with the confines of farm life and decided to seek his fortune in the city where he believed better opportunities were afforded. The fame of the

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Page  159 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 159 future metropolis of the West, which seems, not unfortunately, to have extended to the farm, drew many aspiring young men to Chicago and in 1892 he decided to cast his lot in that city. He knew little of life except as he had known it in his home neighborhood, and after his arrival in the city he learned many valuable lessons in that time-honored institution known as "the school of hard knocks." Work, at the time he went to Chicago, was difficult to obtain, and five weeks elapsed before he found employment. During these five weeks, which sorely tried his resolution, he suffered from fatigue and exposure, and as a result he became seriously ill. Kind friends cared for him during his illness, and to these and other friends he became indebted in the sum of about one hundred dollars. When he again was strong enough physically to return to work a railroad strike was in progress. He was provided with a job in an "interlocking" tower of the Chicago Belt Line railway at 86th street, near Hammond, Indiana. In this position he found himself forced to exercise great caution in his movements, as the strikers frequently used violent measures in dealing with men who had been hired to fill their places. On several occasions, when he found himself in the midst of a group of strikers, Mr. Babcock was forced to masquerade as one of their number to escape trouble with them. When he had earned sufficient means to free himself of debt and had visited the World's fair, which was then in progress, he returned to his home community, where he worked on a neighbor's farm from November 1st until the following February, at the wage of six dollars per month. In the spring of 1894 Mr. Babcock came to Bay City, possessed of a desire to become a bookkeeper and accountant. At that time Edmund Hall, of Detroit, operated what was known as the Detroit Mill in Bay City, and here Mr. Babcock obtained the position of bookkeeper and general office assistant. His duties he soon found were almost without end. To help him in this work he had no adding machine or other office equipment provided for clerical workers today. He was required to make all computations in long hand; his duties being such as would require several persons to perform in this day of shorter hours and modern methods. However, he was undaunted by the magnitude of his task. He kept the time records and pay-roll of the company's one hundred fifty men; attended to such retail sales as were made by the company which frequently exceeded the total of one thousand dollars in a single day, frequently inspecting and conducting loading operations and other outside activities incident to the handling of logs and lumber. The Detroit saw-mill was one of the most extensive concerns of its kind in the country, and did a large business which included sawing forty million feet of lumber; making thirty million pieces of lath and shipping twenty-five thousand barrels of salt each year. It can easily be seen that Mr. Babcock's time was well occupied with his business duties. Although he was often forced to work at night for several years, he received for his efforts but forty dollars per month. However, he remained in that position eleven years. After Edmund Hall, own

Page  160 160 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY er of this enterprise, died, Mr. Babcock and the latter's uncle, Horace Morey, purchased the mill and real estate, later selling the mill property to Samuel Meister and Frank Buell, who in turn sold it to the Kneeland, Lundeen, Bigelow Company. In 1904 Mr. Babcock purchased one hundred twenty acres of the old Thomas Toohey farm in Bangor township, near Bay City. Later he purchased one hundred sixty acres across the highway in Monitor township and turned his attention to farming on an extensive scale, growing grain and raising hogs until such time as he could establish a dairy, which later grew to produce one hundred gallons of milk per day. For a period of nine years Mr. Babcock arose each morning at three-thirty, delivering his product at six-thirty, a. m., to a dealer, John J. McGinty, at Thirteenth and Monroe streets, Bay City. At the end of nine years Mr. Babcock had realized sufficient profits to pay for his farms, together with a considerable amount of personal property. Due to ill health in his family, he then moved to Bay City, establishing his home at 815 Fifth avenue, and, despite the fact that his friends expected him to retire, he obtained a position as ledger man for the National Grocery Company. Later he was asked to become steward of the old Bay City club, at Center Avenue and Jefferson street, and accepting the position, he served in that capacity for two years. In 1913 he, with others, bought the stock formerly owned by George Jackson and several others, and became officially connected with the Bay City Dredge Works, a growing industrial plant, and engaged in the manufacture of dredges, general contractors' equipment, etc. His salary as secretary and accountant was seventy-five dollars a month at the beginning, but he rose rapidly to a high place in the councils of the company and is today a ranking officer of the corporation. Several years later he, together with W. S. Ramsay, bought out the United States Bridge and Pipe Company which they reorganized, adding new capital and changed the name to the United States Bridge and Culvert Company. Under the able management and executive ability of Mr. Babcock and his colleagues, the Bay City Dredge Works and the United States Bridge and Culvert Company have both become notable enterprises and their status has long been one of prominence in connection with the representative industrial activities of the country. Besides his business connections, Mr. Babcock is loyal and progressive in his civic attitude and gives close consideration to the social, educational and municipal problems of the city. He is interested in all measures tending to the public good and no citizen of Bay City has a finer sense of civic stewardship or a greater measure of public spirit. He is a director in the Chamber of Commerce and in the Bay City bank, and is also a trustee and an elder of the First Presbyterian church. He has also served on the Bay City board of education for the past nine years, during which time he was active in bringing about the issue of bonding the city for funds amounting to $1,400,000 with which to build a new Central high, the Handy Junior high and to remodel and extend the Trombley and Lincoln

Page  161 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 161 wards schools. He also was a member of the stadium committee which made possible the building of an athletic field-stand seating seven thousand people for the public schools of Bay City. Mr. Babcock is an active worker in Masonic circles, having served in York Rite as master of the council and two years as commander of Bay City Commandery, Knights Templar. In Scottish Rite he was singularly honored several years ago by being given the thirtythird degree. He has served several years in the Council Princes of Jerusalem, Chapter of Rose Croix and the Lodge of Perfection degrees, also as a member of the building committee having in charge the financing and construction of the new Scottish Rite cathedral involving the expenditure of a half million dollars. Mr. Babcock was married in 1901 to Miss Lena Kimball, a classmate of the old district school days in Lenawee county, a woman of engaging personality and beauty of character, and to this union were born two daughters: Miss Dorothy Babcock, who resides with her parents, and Helen, who is deceased. The family home for many years, has been at 815 Fifth avenue, and is a hospitable one, where their friends are always welcome. Frederick S. Baird, M. D., 205 Davidson building, Bay City, former captain of the United States Army Medical Corps and now major of the Medical Reserve Corps and present chief of the obstetrical staff at Mercy hospital, was born in Bay City, March 22, 1888, the son of Doctor Thomas A. Baird and wife, who are mentioned elsewhere in this volume. He was graduated from the Bay City high school in 1906, after which he spent one year in the library department of the University of Michigan. He then entered the medical department of McGill university, at Montreal, Canada, where he obtained his medical degree in 1913. In 1913 and 1914 he did special interne work in the Montreal general hospital. After the entry of the United States into the World war he entered the medical corps, receiving the commission of captain, and serving a total of two years in the United States and with the American expeditionary forces overseas. He was honorably discharged on May 8, 1919, and returned to Bay City to begin private practice. He has had a signal success, and is now chief of the obstetrical staff at Mercy hospital, councilor of the Michigan State Medical Society and a member of the Bay County Medical Society and the American Medical Association. He is also a thirty-second degree Mason, an Elk, a member of the American Legion and the Episcopal church. He was married in 1915 to Mary Lawrence, of Bay City. To them have been born two sons, Thomas A. Jr., who is named for his grandfather, one of the most popular physicians of Bay county, and James Fergus. Thomas A. Baird, M. D., 235 Washington avenue, Bay City, chief of the staff of Mercv hospital, is one of the most successful physicians in northern Michigan. He is a member of the Bay County Medical Society, the Michigan State Medical Society, the American Medical Association. the British Medical Association and various civic and charitable organizations. He was born

Page  162 162 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY July 25, 1862, in Ontario, Canada. He received his early education in the public schools, later attending the collegiate Institute of St. Catharines, Ontario. He also studied at Toronto University before entering the medical department of McGill university, Montreal, where he graduated in 1885 with the degree of Doctor of Medicine. He then took a course at the New York Polyclinic, after which he came to Bay City and began general practice. He has for many years been a member of the staff of Mercy hospital, of which he is now chief. He has a host of friends and is known for his sympathetic, charitable nature throughout Bay and surrounding counties. His services, as a consultant, are in great demand. Fraternally he is a thirty-second degree Mason and Knight Templar. Frederick S. Baird, M. D., whose biography is also printed in this volume, is his eldest child. The next is Helena Margaret, now Mrs. Laurence Thomas, of Birmingham, Michigan, and the mother of two children. Dorothy, his youngest child, is now a sophomore at the University of Michigan. Charles H. Baker, M. D., Ph. B., 302 Crapo building, Bay City, member of the staff of Mercy hospital and probably the best-known physician in Bay county, was born in Hillsdale county, Michigan, on December 18, 1859. He received his high school education in Detroit, and was graduated from Hillsdale college in 1880 with the degree of Ph. B. He then entered the medical department of the University of Michigan, from which he graduated in 1882 with the degree of Doctor of Medicine. He returned to Hillsdale to begin practice, remaining there but six months and coming to Bay City in February, 1883. Since that time he has practiced his profession continuously in Bay county, spending seven years in general practice and then confining his attention to diseases of the eye, ear, nose and throat. February, 1926, will mark the end of his forty-third year as a physician in Bay county. He is a member of the Michigan, Bay County and American Medical Associations, the American Academy of Opthalmology and Otolaryngology, Joppa lodge No. 315, F. & A. M., Bay City Chapter R. A. M., and various civic organizations. He has served as president of the Bay County and Michigan State Medical Society as well as being a member of the Bay City board of education. He made trips to Europe in 1892, 1900, 1910 and 1924 to take special courses in hospitals and universities. He was married on December 13, 1882, to Jane Ann Crake, of Perry, Wyoming county, New York. To this union were born three children. May, the eldest, is now the wife of Professor Howard D. Marsh, of the department of pyschology of the College of New York, New York City. Mrs. Marsh is herself a graduate of Bay City high school and of the University of Michigan, where she obtained the degrees of A. B. and M. A. Mr. and Mrs. Marsh have four children; Gordon, Marian, Walton and Raymond. Florence, second child of Dr. and Mrs: Baker, obtained the degrees of A. B. and M. A. from the University of Michigan after finishing her studies in the Bay City public elementary and high schools. She is now living in Birmingham, the wife of Lee A. White, a journal

Page  163 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 163 ist, formerly of Detroit, Michigan. They are the parents of two children, Stoddard and Elizabeth. Robert H. Baker, M. D., A. B., also received his early education in the schools of Bay City. He obtained his degrees from the University of Michigan, where he was an assistant surgeon in the medical department for a period of four years. He is now a successful surgeon at Pontiac, Michigan, and is married, his bride having been Helen Crane, of Summerville, N. J., and a graduate nurse at Ann Arbor, Michigan. Samuel Ball, district manager of the Consumers Power Company, at Bay City, is one of the aggressive and public-spirited men of this city who has gained prominence and honorable prestige through hard work and close application to business and well deserves mention in the history of Bay county. Mr. Ball was born at Grand Rapids, Michigan, August 17, 1880. His parents, Abraham and Elizabeth (VanPopperen) Ball, were both natives of the Netherlands and emigrated from there to the United States, in 1872, establishing their home at Grand Rapids, where they afterwards resided until their deaths, Samuel Ball obtained his early education in the public schools of his native city. He later entered the University of Michigan, and was graduated from that institution in 1903 with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. He was then given a gas fellowship course of one year in the same institution, and in 1904 began his business career as assistant superintendent of the gas works at Jackson, Michigan. He retained that position until April, 1905, when he went to Laporte, Indiana, and served in the same capacity for the gas company of that city until September, 1905. He then went to Saginaw, Michigan, and was assistant superintendent of the Saginaw city gas company until June 1906, when he came to Bay City as superintendent of the Bay City gas company, retaining that position until March, 1910, when he returned to Saginaw as general superintendent of both the Saginaw and Bay City gas companies. In June, 1911, he accepted the position as district manager of the Bay City district for the Consumers Power Company, a position he still retains. He has not only achieved success in business, but has gained distinction in the management of large affairs and well deserves a place in the front rank among the leading business men of the country. Besides his business connection Mr. Ball also finds time and opportunity to give effective co-operation in movements for the social and material betterment of the community, and has ever stood as an exponent of the best type of civic loyalty and progressiveness. He is an active member and a director of the Bay City Chamber of Commerce and is interested in all measures tending to the public good. He is a Mason and an Elk and a member of the Rotary club, and both he and his family are members of the First Presbyterian church. Mr. Ball was married May 8, 1908, to Miss Katherine B. Stuit, of Grand Rapids, Michigan, the daughter of Benjamin F. and Elizabeth (Decker) Stuit, and to this union were born two sons; Willard James and Samuel Mark Ball. The family home is at 606 Park avenue, and is a hospitable one,

Page  164 164 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY Sylvester L. Ballard, M. D., former lieutenant in the United States Medical Corps, 211 Ridotto building, Bay City, was born April 4, 1881, in Pioneer, Williams county, Ohio. He attended the public schools of Williams county, graduating from the Pioneer high school and entering the Michigan College of Medicine and Surgery, where he obtained his M. D. degree in 1905. He then came to Auburn, Michigan, where he was engaged in private practice thirteen years. In 1917 he entered the World war as a first lieutenant in the Medical Corps, and was assigned to hospital and sanitary train No. 64. In 1918 he was promoted to captain, and was discharged from service on December 30, 1918. In 1919, he came to Bay City and opened offices for the practice of medicine and surgery, and is now firmly established in his profession. He is a member of the Bay county, the Michigan and the American Medical Associations, the Odd Fellows, the Elks, the Exchange club and the Izaak Walton League. In the last named organization he is very active, attending all meetings his professional duties will permit and leading in all programs of that body. He is also a member of the city commission of Bay City. He is a thirty-second degree Mason and member of the Shrine and the Methodist Episcopal church. In 1904 he married Lulu Richey, an expert penman and graduate of the Bay City high school. She has taken many prizes for her fine pen work, and the class in which she graduated from high school wrote to music, the only class ever accomplishing this feat in Bay City. She later taught school for a short while. Dr. and Mrs. Ballard have three children; Lawrence Ross, aged seventeen, a junior in Central high school, Russell Edward Linn, aged fifteen, a freshman in high school, and Luellen, nine years old. Dr. Ballard has a lovely residence at 1010 Broadway, Bay City. William Ross Ballard, physician and surgeon, 204 Ridotto building, Bay City, member of the surgical staff of Mercy hospital and one of the most prominent medical men in northern Michigan, was born in Washington, Tazewell county, Illinois, May 10, 1868. His parents moved when he was a child to Pioneer, Williams county, Ohio, where he attended the public schools. In 1894 he graduated from the Michigan College of Medicine and Surgery and at once began practice at Auburn, Bay county. In 1900 he removed his office to Saginaw, returning to Bay City five years later, in 1905. He has, for many years, specialized in surgery, keeping abreast of the latest developments in 'this field and earning an enviable reputation for himself in this work. He is dean of the surgical staff at Mercy hospital, a member of the Bay County Medical Society, the Michigan State Medical Society and the American Medical Association. He is also a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons. He belongs to the Kiwanis club, and fraternally, is an Elk, a member of the Knights of Pythias, and the thirty-second degree Shrine and Knights Templar of the Masons. Dr. Ballard was married on November 28, 1900, to Jean Richey, a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Elward Richey, of Bay City. To this union were born two daughters, Kathleen and Lucile, the latter of whom is

Page  165 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 165 deceased. Kathleen is a graduate of Dana Hall, Wellesley, Massachusetts. Dr. Ballard and family have a handsome residence at 1800 Center avenue. Clyde A. Baxter, of Baxter's Pharmacy, 615 Third street, Bay City, was born November 19, 1892, in Green Lake, Michigan. His parents moved, when he was but a few years old, to Traverse City, where he graduated from high school at the age of sixteen. He began clerking in a drug store when barely twelve years old, as an employe of the Hannah & Lay Mercantile company, of Traverse City. After finishing his school work he went to Battle Creek, where he worked in the C. P. Baker store, as a drug clerk; and later moved to Detroit, where he was employed in the E. C. Kinsel Pharmacy. His next position was that of traveling salesman for Schefflein & Co., of New York. He gave up his connection with this company to return to Detroit as a pharmacist for his former employers, the E. C. Kinsel Co. Here he had charge of the prescription department four years. He then returned to Traverse City and took charge of the drug and stationery departments of the Hannah & Lay Mercantile Co., where he had worked as a boy. On September 15, 1923, he opened his own establishment in West Bay City, where he is still engaged in the drug business. He has made a host of friends, and his store is a busy one. He was married on February 7, 1921, to Myrtle A. Perkins, of Ann Arbor. He is a member of Joppa lodge No. 315 F. & A. M. and Shoppenhagon Grotto, of Bay City. Basil T. Beckerson, manager of the Garber Buick Co. salesrooms and service station, Bay City, was born in Vassar, Michigan, in September, 1888, the son of Edward and Elizabeth Beckerson. His parents came to Bay City in 1923, his father being at this time employed in his son's automobile business. Mr. Beckerson left school after finishing the eighth grade. For many years he was employed in the hotel business at Vassar, Columbiaville, and Mayville, Michigan. In 1911, when he saw that automobiles were no longer an experiment, he began the sale of Overland cars at Vassar. Later he went to Saginaw as a salesman for the Studebaker organization, where he remained two years. He then entered the employment of the Garber Buick Co., his present employers, at Saginaw. He continued as a member of their sales force in that city for six and one-half years, when he was promoted to the position of manager of their Bay City branch. He was married in February, 1920, to Alice M. Murray, of Flint. They have two children, Basil T. Jr., and Madline. Mr. Beckerson is a member of the Elks lodge. Robert Beckett, vice president and manager of the Clute Coal & Supply Co., 963 East Midland street, Bay City, and secretarytreasurer of the Bay City club of the Michigan-Ontario baseball league, was born in Bay City on November 24, 1883, the son of Joseph and Susan (McCarten) Beckett, who were born near Belfast, Ireland, and were married in Canada, where they lived for a while before emigrating to the United States. They arrived in

Page  166 166 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY Bay City in 1881, and have lived there ever since. Mr. Beckett senior was a lime-burner for twenty-five years, and is now associated with his son Robert in the coal and building supply business. He is past seventy years of age, having been born in 1855. Mrs. Beckett was born in 1858. Robert Beckett graduated from the Bay City high school in 1902. Soon afterward he was employed in the B. E. Warren insurance office, where he remained for two and one-half-years. In 1905 he accepted a position with Boutell Brothers & Co., which he held until May 29, 1912, when he resigned to become associated with C. M. Clute, in the coal and building supply business. He continued in Mr. Clute's employ until the latter's death, in January, 1915, and on July 1, of the same year Mr. Beckett assisted in the organizing of the present company, of which he is an executive. He occupies an important position in the business life of Bay City and is active in all civic movements. He is a member of the Knights of Columbus, the Elks, the Kiwanis club and the Builders Exchange, and has been treasurer of the last two mentioned organizations for several years. Mr. Beckett also was one of the members of the original Chamber of Commerce committee formed to devise ways and means of providing central high school with a stadium and was active in the movement all the way through. At present he is a member of the Stadium Trustees, Incorporated, a body of fifteen men having in charge the management and control of the stadium. He was married on August 3, 1910, to Elizabeth Maus, of Bay City. They are the parents of six children; Jane, Robert, Isabel, Thomas, Helen and James. Mr. Beckett and family attend the St. Boniface Catholic church. Harold C. Bellows, whose chain of service stations in Bay City each day sells immense quantities of oils, gasoline and greases for automotive use, is a grandson of Benjamin Cagwin, who operated a stage-coach line in Bay county when that part of Michigan was yet a wilderness. Mr. Cagwin, a native of New York state, taught school in Bay county many years. He died in 1900, in his eightysecond year. His daughter, Stella E. Cagwin, who became the wife of George W. Bellows, was born in Cataraugas county, New York. His wife, Mrs. Elvina (Blanchard) Cagwin, died about 1885, at the age of sixty-five. The paternal grandfather of Harold C. Bellows, with two brothers, died in the Confederate prison at Andersonville, Georgia. Another of his brothers, who was also a Union soldier in the Civil war, is now deceased, having spent the last days of his life at the Soldiers' home at Grand Rapids, Michigan. George W. Bellows was but six years old when his mother died, and only nine years old when his father died. He came to Bay City when a young man and drove stage-coaches for a number of years. Later he became a farmer. His death occurred in 1918, when his son Harold was in France with the A. E. F. His widow, the mother of four children, all of whom are living, is enjoying good health at the family home in Bay City at the age of seventy

Page  167 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 167 years. Harold C. Bellows started to school at Auburn, Bay county, but later entered the second grade in Bay City, graduating from high school in 1913. He was a clerk in a clothing store three years, after which he was a salesman for the Grinnell Brothers, musical instruments, until his enlistment in the World war. He had also served two months on the Mexican border during his six years as a member of the Michigan National Guard. When he joined the United States army, in May, 1918, he was sent for training to Camp Custer, Michigan, where he remained until July 8, when he was sent overseas. He was discharged in March, 1919, after having spent nine months and one day as a member of the A. E. F. He remained with the Grinnell Brothers but a short while after returning to Bay City, as he was offered a better opportunity with the Northern Oil Co. He left this firm in February, 1922, to establish his own company, which operates a number of gasoline, kerosene, oils and service stations in Bay county. On October 25, 1923, he married Laura Swackhamer, of Port Austin, Michigan. They now reside at 504 West Ohio street, Bay City. Mr. Bellows was born September 19, 1895, in Bay county. He is a member of the American Legion, the Elks, Masons, Knights of Pythias and the Izaak Walton League. Abraham H. Bendall, proprietor of the Dick Bendall Shoe Co., 514 East Midland street, Bay City, was born April 5, 1887, in England. He came to Jackson, Michigan, with his parents when a child, and attended the public and high schools of that city. In 1900 he came to Bay City, where he was employed for awhile in the Bradstreet commercial rating company's office. On leaving that company he began selling shoes in the J. Thompson Co. store, and continued in this position until in 1911, when he established his own business under the firm name of Dick Bendall Co. This store has been very successful, and specializes in fitting feet which are tender, have broken arches or other defects or need shoes of special orthopedic construction. Mr. Bendall has taken special educational courses to fit him for this service. He holds a diploma from the Scholl school at Chicago, where he studied for some time, and from the practipedic school of the Homeopathic hospital of New York City. He is regarded as one of the best specialists in fitting footwear in Michigan, and has a clientele which is drawn from all parts of the state. He is past chancellor of the Knights of Pythias, past master of his lodge of Masons, being a member of all bodies of that order, including the Knights Templar and a member of the Elks. Politically he is a staunch republican. He was married in 1911 to Minnie Giese, of Bay City. To them have been born three children: their first child, Helen B., was killed in an automobile accident April 9, 1925, at the age of twelve; the second, Richard Charles, is now eight years old; and the youngest, Edmund Louis, is four. Mr. Bendall and family attend the First Methodist Episcopal church.

Page  168 168 HISTO'RY OF BAY COUNTY August F. Beutel, retired capitalist, ship and fishery owner, 1107 Marquette avenue, Bay City, was born on March 16, 1853, in Prussia. His father, C. F. William Beutel, was born in Prenzlow, Prussia, on March 2, 1823, the son of Jacob and Louisa (Straufild) Beutel, both natives of Prussia. Jacob Beutel, a farmer and consistent member of the Lutheran church, died in his fifty-seventh year. His widow died at the age of sixty-nine, the mother of six children. C. F. William Beutel received an excellent common school education and was apprenticed to learn the weaving trade. On completion of his apprenticeship he traveled in almost every part of Germany, working as a journeyman weaver. In 1847 he married Augusta Wolf, of Schapow, Germany, daughter of Frederick Wolf, a shoemaker, who had been crippled during his service in the German army during the wars with Napoleon Bonaparte. Mr. Wolf was born in Schapow, as was his wife, Mrs. Rebecca (Angell) Wolf. C. F. William Beutel and family left Germany in 1856, crossing the Atlantic on the "Zuba," a sailing vessel. During the voyage, which lasted seven weeks, the ship encountered many storms and more than once came near to being wrecked. The Beutel family landed at New York City, coming from there to New Baltimore, Michigan. Here the father worked in lumber mills until in 1858, when he brought his family to Bay City. Two years later he established his household at Banks, which was then a small town and is now a part of Bay City. He then worked in the Ripley lumber mill, piling finished lumber and packing salt. He remained with this firm until in 1869, when he invested his savings in fishing equipment and started in business for himself. About the same time he purchased one hundred eight-eight acres of land near Quanicasse, Michigan; and this land is still owned by his descendants. C. F. William Beutel was very successful as a fisher, and accumulated much property. He voted for Abraham Lincoln in the presidential campaign of 1860 and remained an ardent republican until his death, on October 12, 1903. His widow lived until November 27, 1910. They were the parents of eight children: August F., Albert, Robert, Amelia, Minnie, Tinnie C., Bertha and Lena. August F. Beutel was not old enough to remember anything of his native land when he was brought to America, in 1856, and his earliest recollections are of his adopted country. He received his education in the public schools of Banks and West Bay City, attending classes during the winter months until he was nineteen years old. As a boy he assisted his father in packing salt, and, later, ran an engine for the Leng & Bradfield Company for approximately five years. Afterward he helped his father in the fishing industry until he was twenty-one years old, when he was admitted to a partnership in the business. After continuing in the fishing industry for a number of years he became associated with C. J. Smith of the Haugwood Steamboat Company in operating sailing and steam vessels. C. J. Smith helped to build the schooner "Olive Janet" which Mr. Beutel helped to build, and which be

Page  169 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 169 came the property of the Haugwood Steamboat Company. This boat had a capacity of three thousand three hundred tons, and made its owners much money. Mr. Beutel was successful in all of his business enterprises, and became a heavy investor in the lake transportation industry. He also conducted extensive fishing operations and real estate developments, retiring from the shipping business after the World war. He was married in Bay City on June 15, 1875, to Maggie McMorris, a native of Albion, Ontario, Canada, and daughter of John and Margaret (Loughhead) McMorris. Her father, who was born in Scotland, came to America when he was a young man and settled on a farm at Albion, later owning another farm at Mono, not far away. Her mother, a native of County Cork, Ireland, was a daughter of David Loughhead, who came to Canada and settled on a farm, where he died. John McMorris died when his daughter, Margaret, was a child. His widow lived until June 14, 1912, when she died at the age of eighty-seven years and five months. Mrs. Beutel has resided in Bay City since she was sixteen years old, when she came to this city to make her home with a sister, Mrs. Aikens. Mr. and Mrs. Beutel have two sons: Frederick R., who is engaged in the insurance business, and Harry R., who succeeded his father in the fishing business. Mr. Beutel is a thirty-second degree Mason, a Knight Templar and a member of all bodies of Masonry with the exception of the thirtythird degree. Mrs. Beutel is a member of the Eastern Star and the White Shrine of Jerusalem. Thomas C. Biller, who is proprietor of Tommy Biller's Auto Inn, at 623 Saginaw street, Bay City, which is favorably known to users of motor vehicles throughout northern Michigan, was born in Bay City in 1884, and is a son of Robert and Rachael (Elbinger) Biller, who came to Bay City in 1880. Thomas C. Biller early became self-reliant, beginning his active business career at the age of five years, by selling papers on the streets of Bay City. In this occupation he acquired a knowledge of business methods early in life. -Of keen intelligence and honest and trustworthy by nature, he made many friends and won the confidence of the business public. In 1908, seeing an opportunity which others had neglected, he established a messenger service and parcel delivery under the name of Tommy's Messenger Service. This enterprise was successful from the start and is yet a thriving institution, though Mr. Biller sold it to other persons in 1920. In this year he opened a modern service and storage garage under the name of Tommy Biller's Auto Inn, at 623 Saginaw street. The good will he had earned during his many years as a newsboy and as proprietor of Tommy's Messenger Service made his success in the new venture certain, and today his establishment is one of the most popular of its kind in Bay county. He is a strong supporter of all civic movements which he thinks are for the betterment of Bay City. He belongs to but one fraternal organization, the Elks. Mrs.

Page  170 170 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY Biller, his mother, died in 1917 at the age of sixty-five. His father is now seventy-two years old. Mr. Biller is unmarried. Albert W. Black, attorney, 427-8 Shearer building, Bay City, orator, civic leader and business man, was born November 21, 1881, at Essexville, Bay county. He came to Bay City when a child, where he attended the public elementary schools, and later lived in Lansing, Michigan, where he attended the high school in that city. There he began the study of law and was admitted to the bar on April 15, 1904. He began practice at East Tawas, Iosco county, Michigan. How high was his standing in that community is shown by the fact that he was elected city attorney, circuit court commissioner, prosecuting attorney for three terms, and was also a member of the board of supervisors while a resident of that city. In 1917, seeking a larger field for his abilities, he returned to Bay City and associated himself with John E. Kinnane, United States District Attorney. The firm later became Kinnane, Black & Leibrand. From 1922 until 1925 Mr. Black practiced independently, associating himself with W. A. Rice at the end of that period. The firm is now Black & Rice, general practitioners. Since his return to Bay City, Mr. Black has been identified with many public matters. In 1924 he was president and director of the Bay City Board of Commerce, president of the Kiwanis club and president of the Farmer's State Bank of Kawkawlin, a town just north of Bay City. He is one of the counsel for the Detroit & Mackinaw railway; a stockholder and member of the board of directors of the Louis Drug Co. and the Fletcher Oil Co., member and attorney for the Bay City Yacht club; member of the B. P. 0. E., a thirty-second degree Mason and member of the Shrine; member of the Bay City Country club; one of the directors of the Bay City Samaritan hospital; vice-president and member of board of directors of the Automobile Club of Northern Michigan; member of the Tri-County Sportsmen's club and the Owl club; member of the Army & Navy club; the United States Chamber of Commerce, of which he is a National Counselor; member of the Bay County, Michigan and American Bar Associations and other lesser societies. He is the holder of a captain's commission in the United States Army Reserve corps, Judge Advocate's Department. Mr. Black has been particularly active in the project for building a highway along the Saginaw river between Bay City and Saginaw. This movement had its inception over forty years ago, and had lain dormant until it was revived by Mr. Black, who is chairman of the general committee, composed of representatives from both cities, in charge of the general work of laying out the route of the highway, procuring its acceptance by the state highway department and unofficially supervising the construction of the road. Mr. Black has justly received much praise for his efforts in behalf of this welcome improvement, on which actual construction was begun on June 1, 1925. The highway, when completed, will be a beautiful boulevard connecting the cities and will serve as a memorial to him and the

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Page  171 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 171 other public-spirited citizens who devoted their time and money to the furtherance of this project. In recent years he has gained a statewide reputation as an orator and speaker on historical, patriotic and general educational subjects, and has made addresses in almost every large city in the state. He found time during 1924 to enjoy a long-wished-for trip to Europe with the American Bar Association. He was married in 1907 to Nina M. Fox, of East Tawas. They have one child, Jean A., age four years. He and Mrs. Black are members of the Episcopal church. Edwin T. Boden, treasurer of Bay City, is well known in the community, having been an active participant in the business life and in the public service of the city for thirty-six years. Mr. Boden was born in Redford, Wayne county, Michigan, September 15, 1864, a son of Luke Boden. The father was born in England, coming to the United States with his family at the-age of eight years. A carpenter and farmer by occupation, he spent most of his life in Wayne county, and in later years removed to Oakland county. Edwin T. Boden began his education in the district schools of Redford, later attending the Normal school at Fenton, Michigan, from which he was graduated in 1887. He then entered the University of Michigan and graduated with the Ph. G., degree in 1889. He practiced pharmacy in Bay City for twentyfive years beginning as a clerk and finally owning his own business. While in the drug business he bought the store building at 510 East Midland street, while it was practically new, later selling the business and the building. The store is now operated under the name of Rupff & Carrigan. Mr. Boden has devoted a great deal of time to civic affairs and he is conspicuous for his public service in the city. He served for eleven years on the board of estimates and was for two years alderman from the eighth ward, and now devotes his capabilities to the office of city treasurer. He served on the Michigan Board of Pharmacy for ten years, holding in that period of time the offices of secretary and president of the board. He married Blanche Chisholm, of Bay City, and there is one son, Edwin A., a student in the Detroit College of Law. Mr. Boden is prominent in Masonic circles, taking an active part in several of the branches of that order. He is a Past Master of Wenona Lodge, No. 256, F. & A. M.,la member of Blanchard Chapter, Bay City Commandery, and Bay City Consistory. He isalso a member of the Bay City Board of Commerce. Mr. Boden is affiliated with the First M. E. church, and is a member of the official board. Fred W. Bradley, president of the Bradley Milling Co. and a director of the First National Bank and Bay County Savings Bank, is, as the sole surviving member of the Bradley & Sons Co., the owner of extensive tracts of timberlands in Washington and Oregon. Mr. Bradley was born in Bay City on January 6, 1860, the son of the Hon. Nathan B. and Hulda (Chase) Bradley. His father, who was the first mayor of Bay City and a leading lumberman and manufacturer of his day, was born in Massachusetts, while

Page  172 172 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY Mrs. Bradley, the mother, was born in Ohio. Both are mentioned in a historical sketch in this volume. They were the parents of two sons-Elmer E., who died in 1919, and Fred W., the subject of this sketch. These two sons, with their father, established the Bradley & Sons lumber firm, which still holds title to large amounts of valuable timber and sawmill property. Fred W. Bradley, after completing his school work in Bay City, began working in the lumber industry under his father's direction. Having spent his life in this business Mr. Bradley is now thoroughly conversant with all phases of the industry-logging, sawmill-operating, and other branches. In addition to being director in the banks mentioned above and being president of the Bradley Milling Co., a large box and frame manufacturing plant, Mr. Bradley is identified with several other mercantile and industrial enterprises. He was married, in 1897, to Bessie Shute, of Detroit. Mr. Bradley has one son, Harold F., who resides in Portland, Oregon. Mr. Bradley is a member of the First Presbyterian church of Bay City, and is known and respected for his fine traits of character and sound business judgment. Nathan B. Bradley. Among the prominent men of Bay City, who have left the impress of their individuality upon the business, social and civic life of the community, none is more worthy of mention in the history of Bay county than the late Nathan B. Bradley, for many years an honored resident of this city. Although nearly two decades have passed since he was called from the scene of earthly activities, he is remembered as one of the sterling pioneer business men of Bay City, whose efforts not only contributed materially to the industrial and financial interests of the community, but in the promotion of charitable movements and all measures tending to the public good, he was an active and unostentatious worker. He was not only a potent factor in the lumber interests of Bay City and elsewhere, but his progressive spirit was evident in many ways, and he never lost an opportunity to do what he could for the advancement of the best interests of the city which figured as the stage of his splendid achievements, and in which his activities were centered for nearly half a century. To him Bay City ever meant much, and his character and achievements meant much to Bay City in whose history his name shall ever merit a place of honor and distinction. Mr. Bradley was born at Lee, Berkshire county, Massachusetts, May 28, 1831, the son of William Bradley and Lucy (Ball) Bradley, and he fully exemplified the alert, enterprising character for which the people of New England have always been noted. Aside from his personal worth and accomplishments, there is much of interest attached to his genealogy, which betokens lines of sterling worth and prominent identification with American history for many generations, being a direct descendant of William Bradley, who came from England to New Haven, Connecticut, in 1637, and whose descendants were moving spirits in the American Revolution, and for

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Page  173 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 173 many years were among the most conspicuous characters of New England. They were epoch-makers in the political, financial, educational and social history of that country, and many have since become prominent in all walks of life in various sections of the United States. When Nathan B. Bradley was four years of age, his parents moved from Lee to Wellington, Lorian county, Ohio, settling on a farm in the Western Reserve. Nathan, who was one of nine children, attended school near his home and worked on the farm until he attained the age of sixteen years. He then learned the fullers' trade, but did not follow that vocation long. In 1849 he went to Wisconsin, where he worked for a year at logging and in a sawmill, returning in 1850 to Ohio, where, with a brother, he built and operated a sawmill for two years. In 1852, he left Ohio and came to Lexington, Sanilac county, Michigan, where he purchased some standing timber, built and operated a sawmill for three years, rafting the lumber out into the lake for loading on schooners, for shipment. In November 1853, after finishing his seasons' sawing, he went back to Ohio and married at Sparta, Morrow county, Hulda L. Chase, a woman of sterling qualities and beauty of character and the daughter of Benjamin and Alvira (Gloyd) Chase, the former of whom was born at Greenbush, New York, in 1796. This wife died at Bay City, March 23, 1881, and Mr. Bradley subsequently married Mrs. Emeline E. Gaylord, widow of the late Augustine Gaylord, of Saginaw. In 1855, having finished cutting the tract of timber at Lexington, Mr. Bradley came to the Saginaw Valley, settling at St. Charles, where he was employed for a time as manager for Frost & Bradley, lumber manufacturers. In 1858, he came to Bay City and embarked in the sawmill business, later, in 1864, he built a salt manufacturing plant and operated it in connection with his sawmill. In 1881 he took his two sons, Elmer E. Bradley and Fred W. Bradley, into partnership under the title of N. B. Bradley & Sons, and this company is still in existence in 1926, the latter named son being the sole survivor. In the winter of 1864-65, Mr. Bradley, with a group of other representative business men, obtained a charter and right-of-way for the building of Bay City's first street railway, of which he was made secretary, treasurer and general manager, in which capacity he continued to serve several years. In 1865, when Bay City obtained its city charter, Mr. Bradley was elected mayor. In 1866, he was elected to the State Senate and served one term. In 1872 he was elected to serve in the Forty-Third Congress, serving on the committee on public lands. He was also elected to the FortyFourth Congress and served on the committee on claims. Mr. Bradley was connected with numerous business and financial enterprises in Bay City and the Saginaw Valley and elsewhere, among which was the Saginaw and Bay City Salt Company and its successor, the Michigan Salt Association. He was one of the original stockholders of the First National Bank at Bay City, and was also largely interested in southern timber, being a stock

Page  174 174 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY holder and officer of the Bradley-Ramsay Lumber Company, of Lake Charles, Louisiana. During the latter years of his life he was interested also in timber on the Pacific Coast. At the time when Bay City's sawmills were going out of commission on account of the decreased supply of timber, Mr. Bradley spent a great deal of time and effort in trying to enlist sufficient capital to build a beet sugar factory, finally meeting with success, and, as a result, the Michigan Sugar Company was organized and the first sugar factory in Michigan, built and operated. Besides his business connections, Mr. Bradley also found time and opportunity to give effective co-operation in movements for the social and material betterment of the community, and he ever stood as an exponent of the best type of civic loyalty and progressiveness. Although essentially a practical business man, he did not neglect those things which represent the higher ideals of human existence and gave generously of his time and means to beneficent causes and all measures tending to the furtherance of useful, helpful and elevating institutions. His efforts were not confined to lines resulting in individual benefit, but were evident in those fields where general interests and public welfare are involved, and during the many years of his residence here he wielded definite and benignant influence, both as a citizen and as a man of splendid business ability. He became a Mason in 1853, joining that order as a charter member of Bay City Blue Lodge and Chapter. He was also an active member of the First Presbyterian Church, of which he was an elder and a trustee for many years. At the time of his death, November 8, 1906, the papers and hundreds of his friends and associates were replete with tribute to his successful career and noble character. Both rich and poor throughout the city united in showing the imperishable qualities of kindness and uprightness of their deceased friend, and thousands were at his funeral to pay their last respects. Arno A. Brauer, of the general insurance firm of Brauer & Steggall, Bay City, Michigan, was born in Dresden, Germany, on January 24, 1894. He came to the United States with his parents, Max and Marie (Vieweg) Brauer, who lived for a while at Sebewaing, Michigan, then at Saginaw, and finally, in 1915, moved to Bay City, where they now reside. The father, a millwright, is now employed at Saginaw, Michigan. Mr. Brauer is a graduate of the Saginaw high school. He was employed at various occupations for a number of years, and during the World War was in Government service as a member of the Quartermaster Department, Motor Vehicle Division, and stationed at Washington, D. C. From there he came to Detroit, where he was employed as a mechanical draughtsman in 1919. He then came to Bay City to accept a position in the Industrial Works. On July 15, 1921, with Marshall B. Steggall, he established the general insurance firm of Brauer & Steggall. Like his partner, Mr. Steggall, he is unmarried and a member of the Masons. He is affiliated with Portsmouth

Page  175 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 175 Lodge No. 190, Bay City Consistory, A. A. S. R., and the Shoppenhagon Grotto. He is well-liked, able and energetic, and shows every promise of becoming one of Bay City's really big men. He takes but little interest in politics, but is active in all projects to boost Bay City. Samuel L. and John Brigham, lawyers, 605 East Midland street, Bay City, are descendants of families that have played important parts in the history of Michigan. Their father, John Brigham, was born in Lowville, Lewis county, New York. He came to Michigan, settled in Genesee county, where he married; moved to a farm near Goodrich, Lapeer county, where his children were born and where he remained until after his wife's death; and died in Bay City, at the home of his son, John. Their mother, Mrs. Elizabeth (Goodrich) Brigham, was born in Sempronius, Cayuga county, New York. She went with her parents as a child to Clarence, Erie county, New York, where they spent many years and the younger sons were born and then accompanied them to Genesee county, Michigan, where they settled on a farm, cleared it of trees, erected buildings, reared their children, and died. Her two brothers, Enos and Reuben, were the founders of the town of Goodrich, and prominent pioneer politicians. They were both elected to the state senate. Enos held a seat in that body at the time the capital was moved to Lansing, and was one of a committee of seven which decided that the capital building should be located north of the Michigan Central railway. This committee of seven made a majority report in favor of locating the capital on the line of the Michigan Central railroad and a minority report in favor of locating the capital at some point south of the Michigan Central railroad and he reported alone in favor of locating the capital at some point north of the Michigan Central railroad. Then the northern members organized and agreed to vote for every place proposed until they located it. Various towns were voted for and came within one or two or three votes of getting the capital. Finally when they struck Lansing, there were a couple of southern members interested in lands near there and they voted with the northern members and located it at Lansing. Reuben Goodrich served several years in the house of representatives in addition to his terms in the senate. John D. Goodrich, uncle of Samuel and John Brigham, was the judge of the Seventh Judicial district of Michigan, which at that time made him judge of the supreme court of the state. Other members of the Goodrich family were also prominent in the history of the United States. Judge Aaron Goodrich, of St. Paul, Minnesota, was chief justice of the supreme court of that state, and was a presidential elector at the time of Zachariah Taylor's election to the presidency. He was appointed by Abraham Lincoln as secretary of the American legation at Brussels, Belgium. He wrote a history of the life of Christopher Columbus, and owned what was said to be the largest private library in Minnesota. Samuel L. Brigham was born December 2,

Page  176 176 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 1850, on his father's farm in Hadley township, Lapeer county, near the pioneer town of Goodrich. He attended school at Flint, and spent two years in high school at Ann Arbor. He then entered the University of Michigan, and graduated from the law department of that school in 1874. For the next two years he remained at his parents' home, and in 1876 came to Bay City and began the practice of his profession. He has held many offices and had many interesting experiences during his years before the bar. During his sixteen years as justice of the peace he acted as magistrate in several criminal cases which are part of the history of the state. On March 26, 1891, he assisted W. Dunnigan in the arrest of Henry Holacher, who had murdered Andrew P. Polsen. The preliminary examination was held before Justice Brigham, who bound the prisoner over to circuit court for trial. Holacher was later confined in the hospital for the criminal insane, at Ionia, Michigan. Mr. Brigham has been a member of the Knights of Pythias for approximately forty years, and of the Odd Fellows since 1877. He was never married. John Brigham, who has practically retired from the practice of law, was born on his father's farm in Lapeer county on August 29, 1842. He graduated from the law department of the University of Michigan in 1868, and from then until 1874 lived at home. He came to Bay City in that year having previously spent six months in the office of Judge Moore, at Lapeer, who has recently retired on a pension as a justice of the supreme court and is the oldest person who has ever held that position. In 1877, John Brigham married Barbara M. Atkins, a school teacher of West Bay City, who received her education in Port Huron, and at the State Normal school. She was a member of the family which founded the town of Atkins, where she was born. She died in 1909, at the age of seventy years, leaving no children. Mr. Brigham, who is now past eighty-three, looks backward on a busy, happy life, and is enjoying an honored, respected and comfortable old age. George Maxwell Brown, B. S., M. D., 207 North Walnut street, Bay City, is one of the physicians on the staff at Mercy hospital. He was born in Lenawee county, Michigan, on March 23, 1895, receiving his early education in the schools of that county and graduating from the Deerfield high school with the class of 1912. His next two years in school were spent at the Western State Normal School, Kalamazoo, Michigan, from where he went to the University of Michigan. At this institution in 1919 he was granted the degree of Bachelor of Science and in 1920 the degree of Doctor of Medicine. Then, for a period of two years, he was an interne in the University hospital at Ann Arbor, in the department of pediatrics and infectious diseases. He came to Bay City to begin private practice in 1922 and is now firmly established in his profession. On July 1, 1922, he married Bessie Caldwell, of Bay City. Dr. Brown is a member of the Bay County Medical Society, the Michigan State Medical Society, the American Medical Associa

Page  177 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 177 tion, Wenonah lodge of Masons, the Elks, the Moose, the Exchange club and the Bay City Country club. He has a keen interest in the raising of silver foxes, and is treasurer of the Bay City Saginaw Silver Fox Co. During the World war he served as an enlisted man in the Medical Reserve Corps. Dr. and Mrs. Brown attend services at the Westminster Presbyterian church. Homer E. Buck, postmaster of Bay City, was born at Bath, Michigan, October 4, 1860, and came to Bay City, March 17, 1863, with his parents, Justus and Alma (Henderson) Buck. The father was interested in the salt industry with N. B. Bradley & Sons and with William Peters, until the time of his death, February 9, 1872. He was the father of five children, of whom Mrs. William Stone and Homer E. Buck are the only two living, the others having died in their youth. Mr. Buck received his education in the public schools of Bay City and at the Farragut high school, his schooling having been completed in 1877 or 1878. He was an ambitious lad and began to work at the age of twelve years as a newsboy. His wages for the first year amounted to fifteen dollars per month. The second year he carried the Detroit Evening News from Twelfth street to the south end of the city and earned thirtyfive dollars per month. He used this money to put himself through school and to support his mother and himself. Later he was employed in a hardware store for about six months, but, not caring for the work, severed his connections there and became an employe of L. F. Miller & Company, wholesale fruit and produce dealers. He next began work with M. Carter & Co., who were engaged in the same sort of business. At that time he was nineteen years of age. He was sent north for the firm and traveled in their interests, selling their goods in the northern part of the state. He has the distinction of being the first man to sell fruit and produce from the valley to the north territory. He continued in this work for about five years and in 1885 bought an interest in this firm, when it became Buck & Leighton. In 1895 the nature of the business changed, and he became a wholesale merchandise broker, selling only to jobbers. Later the partnership was dissolved and Mr. Buck continued the business alone until 1923. On August 1, 1923, he was appointed postmaster at Bay City by President Coolidge, and at once assumed the duties of that office. He has always been active in civic work and at all times has been interested in the welfare of Bay City. It was largely through his efforts that beet seed was obtained from Germany, to begin the beet sugar industry in this territory. He was also active in the erection of a Y. M. C. A. building, and served as chairman of the finance committee. He was of great service to the government during the late war. He was called to Washington to discuss the sugar question, and assisted in the distribution of that commodity in the district comprising Ohio, Indiana and Michigan. He also helped formulate plans for the distribution of beet sugar from here to the west coast. All the sugar cards of Bay county

Page  178 178 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY were distributed through his office and he was likewise of help in the cereal administration at that time. All this work, which involved a tremendous amount of detail and worry, was done as a patriotic duty and without remuneration. Mr. Buck has been married twice. On April 23, 1884, he was married to Margret A. Lewis of Saginaw, Michigan. He took for his second wife, Bertha E. Smoyer. Mrs. Buck is prominent in the State and County Historical Societies and now serves as secretary of the Bay County Historical Society. She is also active in the D. A. R. and in the work of the Presbyterian church. Previous to her marriage she was in lines of activity which brought her in touch with the faculties of most of the colleges of America. Mr. Buck is the father of the following children: Homer C., of Chicago; Marion A., of Bay City; David, who carries on his father's business, both in Bay City and Detroit; Alma Blanche, who died August 15, 1924, in Philadelphia; Harold L., of Grand Rapids; Edna Margret, of Chicago; and Helen Esther of Bay City. Mr. Buck is prominent in Masonic circles. He is a member of Bay City lodge, F. & A. M., No. 129, Council No. 53, Chapter No. 59, K. T. No. 26, Scottish Rite, the Shrine and the Grotto No. 983. He is an Elk and was one of the organizers and the first president of the local Kiwanis club, and was the third Kiwanis president in the United States. He was also an organizer of the United Commercial Travelers. He is a member of the Metropolitan club which is composed of employes of the mail service, the police department, and the fire department. Mr. Buck has been a communicant of the Presbyterian church for many years. He has been an ardent republican all his life, and is a great admirer of Lincoln, McKinley and Roosevelt, and sees President Coolidge as a great president, whose policy is one of economy for the people, at all times watching their interests as a whole; a man of few words but great in action. George A. Burns, of the Burns Vulcanizing Co., 407 East Midland street, Bay City, was born in Bay City on August 30, 1893, the son of Hugh and Angie (Tolson) Burns. Hugh Burns was also born in Bay City, the son of a pioneer resident of Bay county. Hugh Burns is now foreman at the North American Chemical Works, Bay City. His wife, a native of Indiana, and their five children are all living. George A. Burns attended the St. Mary's parochial schools, and dropped his studies in high school to begin work at the age of fourteen. On October 15, 1919, with his brother Frank, he organized the firm with which he is now connected. This company, in addition to doing a large amount of tire repair work, carries in stock at all times a wide variety of tires and automobile accessories. The Burns brothers are among Bay City's most popular young business men, and enjoy a thriving business. During the World war George A. Burns was given training in the Chicago technical school of the United States army, having been sent there soon after his enlistment in April, 1918. He was discharged on December 31, 1918, after having spent four months

Page  179 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 179 overseas. He was married in 1920 to Minnie Johnson, of Bay City. He is a member of the Knights of Columbus, and, as are his parents and brother, a member of the Catholic church. Frank A. Burns, the other member of the Burns Vulcanizing Co., was born December 28, 1897. He received his education in St. Mary's parochial elementary and high school. He is unmarried. John L. Carroll, president of the Bay View Scenic Studio, 303 Water St., Bay City, manufacturers of collapsible scenery, is a scenic painter of long experience. He has been engaged in the painting of backgrounds and drops for theatrical use since he was sixteen years old, and is now regarded as one of the most proficient men in this branch of theatrical work in the United States. He was born in Scotland on February 11, 1890, and came with his parents to Seattle, Washington, when he was three years old. Here he attended the public schools, showing an interest in art work at an early age and dropping his studies at the age of sixteen to begin his career as a painter. His first work was on settings and draperies for stock companies. Since that time he has traveled in every state in the Union and has produced some of the very best scenery ever used on the American stage. He founded his own business in 1914 at Charleston, South Carolina, where he organized the Southern Scenic Studio. In 1915 he returned to Seattle, Washington, and from there he went to San Francisco to do painting for the World's Fair held in that city. He produced the Irish village scene at the exposition, and thousands of persons from all parts of the world even yet remember the high character of this piece of work. In 1915 he came to Bay City to join the Dalley Stock Co., working for this and other organizations until 1916, when he began business alone. He became president of the Bay View Scenic Studio, Inc., when it was organized in 1924. This firm are the sole manufacturers of Carrol's Collapsible Scenery, invented and designed by him. Quality settings and draperies are also produced by this studio, which is one of the most progressive in the country. Mr. Carroll is a member of the Bay City branch of the Scottish Clan and the Red Men. He was married on June 12, 1915, to Lillian Noel, of Bay City. Anton Cederberg, of the firm of Cederberg Brothers, dealers in dairy products, 223 Braddock street, Bay City, was born June 12, 1882, in Sweden, where his father still resides. Mr. Cederberg received his first schooling in his native country. He came to the United States in 1907 and settled in Bay City in 1909. After being employed in the dairy industry ten years he and his brother Joseph established the Cederberg Brothers dairy, built a modern building for the handling of milk, cream and cheese and entered business on a large scale. He was married in 1913 to Anna Johnson, daughter of Andrew Johnson, of Bay City. To this union have been born three children, Ernest, Harold and Gladys. Mr. Cederberg is a member of the Bay City Board of Commerce. His brother, Joseph Cederberg, was born in Sweden on January 7, 1887. He came

Page  180 180 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY to the United States and settled in Bay City in 1913, becoming associated with the firm of Cederberg Brothers seven years later. He was married on October 23, 1923, to Hilma Nelson, of Bay City. They have one son, Carl Edward Cederberg. LeRoy Clapp, owner of the Clapp Brothers Company, dyers and dry cleaners, 607 Washington avenue, Bay City, was born in Mitchell, South Dakota, on August 14, 1891, the son of Luther and Mary (Wright) Clapp, who came to Bay City in 1907 and are now residing on a farm near Ravenna, Ohio. LeRoy Clapp attended high school at Akron, Ohio, and came with his parents to Bay City in 1907. He then went to Saginaw, where he was employed until 1910, when he and his brother, Roland, organized the firm of Clapp Brothers. This partnership was dissolved in 1917, after having been remarkably successful, and Roland Clapp removed to Detroit, where he now has a thriving business in the same line of work. LeRoy Clapp is now the sole proprietor of the Clapp Brothers Company, and owns the building in which he conducts his business. He has an established clientele of pleased customers, and makes every effort to see that his patrons are satisfied with the service rendered them by his firm. He is a member of Joppa lodge No. 315, F. & A. M., the Shrine, Shoppenhagon Grotto, the Elks and the Board of Commerce. He was married in 1910 to Sophia Fournier, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Fournier, of Bay City. Mr. Clapp owns a handsome residence at 311 North Henry street. Edward Salisbury Clark, prominent attorney of Bay City was born in New York City, August 15, 1871, the son of Reverend William H. Clark, who was pastor of the First Presbyterian church. Mr. Clark received his education at the University of Pennsylvania, and was graduated from that institution in 1893 with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. He did not attend law school but studied in the offices of H. M. Gillett, a well known and established attorney. In 1895 he was admitted to the bar and after a few years of individual practice formed a partnership with Mr. Gillett and John E. Simonson, in the firm of Simonson, Gillett & Clark. This later became Gillett & Clark. Since Mr. Gillett's death in 1917 Mr. Clark has been in individual practice. Interested in banking Mr. Clark is a director in the First National bank and in the Bay County Savings bank. He is also a director and vice-president of the North American Chemical Company and the North American Power Company. He was married in 1897 to Lucy Ballou, daughter of Dexter A. Ballou, a pioneer in this part of the state. There are two children to this union, Lucy Clark. now Mrs. Harold H. Perry, a resident of Bay City, and Edward S. Clark Jr., a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania and now a student at the University of Michigan in the law department. William L. Clements. The writer of this short biographical sketch, William L. Clements, was born in Ann Arbor, Michigan, on April 1, 1862. He was educated in the public schools of Michigan

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Page  181 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 181 and entered the University of Michigan in the fall of 1878, and graduated with the degree of B. S. in 1882. His parents were James Clements, an Englishman born in Abington, near Oxford, in 1837, and died in 1896, and Agnes Macready, of Scotch parentage, born in 1838, and died in 1893. Her father's family were carpet manufacturers in Scotland, and came to Thompsonville, Connecticut, and were one of the founders of the Hartford Carpet Company. James Clements was long a resident of Ann Arbor, an engineer by profession, and he also served as representative in the Michigan legislature of 1863. He was the instigator and founder of various manufacturing plants throughout the state, the principal one of which was the Industrial Works of Bay City, Michigan. The writer, after graduating from the University, entered the employ of the Industrial Works at Bay City, and remained continuously with this concern until 1925, occupying the positions of engineer, superintendent and manager, and finally president, which position he has held for the last twenty years. In 1887 he married Jessie N. Young, of Pittsburgh. There were three children, Wallace W., Elizabeth, who married Harry Finkenstaedt and lives in Detroit, Michigan, and James, who died in France in service during the World war. As early as 1893, the formation of a library on the subject of American History was commenced, and with increased financial resources the desires of the book collector were more or less satisfied. With such satisfaction and with an earnest desire that the historical library formed should be of benefit to research workers in American history, he decided, in 1920, to give to the University of Michigan this rather extensive library upon the specific subject of American history, also to erect a proper building for receiving it. Accordingly, this was done with the full approval of the Board of Regents of the University of Michigan, and in the summer of 1922 the building was presented to the University and formally dedicated. The library is now functioning and several important accessions have been made to it since its formal dedication. The last two accessions of importance were the historical manuscripts and documents of Major General Nathanael Greene, pertaining to the Revolution. Still another notable accession was the collection of papers of Sir Henry Clinton, commander-in-general of the British forces during the American Revolution-some twelve thousand documents and letters. These, with the many volumes of printed materials pertaining to the Revolution, make the library at Ann Arbor very strong in this division of American history. A general resume of the library has been written in the form of a book entitled, "The William L. Clements Library at the University of Michigan." The writer has served two terms of eight years as a regent of the University, and is at present serving his third term. He is also a corresponding member of the Massachusetts Historical

Page  182 182 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY Society, the American Antiquarian Society, the Club of Odd Volumes, Grolier Club, and others. He is also a member of the Michigan Historical Commission. He still retains his presidency in the First National and Bay County banks of Bay City, Michigan. In politics he is a republican. Thomas W. S. Conmey is the secretary and manager of the Conmey-Randall Lumber Company. He has been interested in the lumber business all his life and began his work as a boy in the employ of George D. Jackson, continuing until the present firm was established with Mr. Jackson as president and George J. Randall, vice-president. Mr. Conmey, a native of Bay City, was born in 1874, the son of Joseph and Elizabeth Conmey. His paternal grandfather, Thomas Conmey, was born in Ireland, resided in Canada for some time, and then came to the United States and Bay City shortly before the Civil war, where he had a shoe business near Gates Mill. His death occurred in Bay City. The grandfather on his mother's side of the family, spent most of his life in Canada and was a soldier in the British army until his retirement. The father of Thomas Conmey, Joseph, is by profession a building contractor and lives in Chicago where he is active in politics and now holds an official position in that city. Thomas Conmey was educated in Bay City, and this completed, began at once the work in which he has been so successful. In 1902 Mr. Conmey married Iola Burdick of Saginaw, Michigan. He is a member of the Elks and a member since the age of fourteen, of the Ancient Order of Hibernians. His father and grandfather were members of this organization. It was through the influence of his grandfather that he became a member of the Hibernians and for sentimental reasons, retains his membership in that organization. Mr. Conmey is widely and favorably known in his community and is one of Bay City's representative business men. Walter S. Cooley, manager of the Loetz Foundry Co. and the Garber Machine Co., of Bay City, was born November 2, 1878, the son of Edgar A. and Addie (Seymour) Cooley, residents of that city. His grandfather, Thomas M. Cooley, was at one time chief justice of the supreme court of the state of Michigan. He was also a member of the interstate commerce commission for a number of years, and was regarded as an authority on constitutional law. Among the many important offices held by him was the receivership of the Wabash railroad. He was dean of the law department at the University of Michigan, having created this branch of the university with the assistance of two other prominent attorneys. He moved to Ann Arbor from Adrian when his son Edgar M. was but a small boy. After his graduation from the law department at the University of Michigan in 1872, at the age of twenty years, Edgar M. Cooley came to Bay City to enter the practice of law. As his age was not sufficient to permit him to be admitted to the bar, he was forced to employ his time in study and minor duties. On reaching legal age he was admitted to the firm

Page  183 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 183 of Marston, Hatch & Cooley. When the senior member of the firm went on the supreme bench the firm was known as Hatch & Cooley, and, later, as Cooley & Hewitt. This last arrangement was continued during the final ten years of Cooley's practice. During his active years he was always interested in politics. He stood high in his profession, and was elected president of the Bay County Bar Association. He acted as attorney for the Michigan Central railroad almost all of his years before the bar. His son, Walter S. Cooley, attended the elementary schools in Bay City and the high school at Ann Arbor. Leaving school, he obtained a position with the E. J. Vance Box Co., Bay City, remaining in that factory two years. His next employment was with the J. W. McGraw Company, at the Belgian chicory mills, where he stayed one year. He then went with the Bay City plant of the Michigan Sugar Co., giving up that position to spend twelve months as fireman on the Michigan Central railroad. He retired from railway work to accept a position with the Bradstreet company, remaining with this firm twenty years, the last ten of which he was superintendent of the Bay City office. Resigning from this connection he became associated with the Roller Foundry Co., and later the Cooley Castings Co., of which he was the head. He is now manager of the Loetz Foundry Co. and president of the Garber Machine Co. He has at all times been an ardent supporter of the cause of good government, and has served as alderman and as supervisor. He formerly was a leader in the activities of the Bay City Chamber of Commerce. He is also a member of the Rotary club. His wife, whom he married in 1907, was Mary Fenton, of Bay City. They have one child, Walter S. Cooley, Jr., now thirteen years old. Robert H. Criswell, M. D., 7072 Washington avenue, Bay City, former captain in the United States Army Medical Corps, was born in Quincy, Illinois, March 8, 1893. He attended the public schools of Quincy, graduating from high school at Denver, Colorado, in 1910. He then entered the University of Colorado, where he studied one year, and graduated from the medical department of the University of Michigan with the class of 1915. He then took two years of post-graduate work at his Alma Mater, and on August 17, 1917, was commissioned a first lieutenant in the Medical Corps of the United States army and stationed at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indianapolis. After a brief training there he was ordered overseas, and on October 3 he sailed from Hoboken, N. J. During his service overseas he was first assigned to service with British hospital ships, was later transferred to the American forces in France, and was promoted to the rank of captain in February, 1919. On July 5, 1919, he landed at New York City and was honorably discharged from Camp Dix four days later. He then returned to the University of Michigan, where he spent another year in post-graduate study. Having fitted himself admirably for the practice of his profession, he came to Bay City in October, 1920, and opened offices for the treatment of eye, ear,

Page  184 184 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY nose and throat diseases. His natural ability, excellent preparation and experience quickly won for him an extensive clientele, and he is now extremely busy. He is a member of the Bay County Medical Society, the Michigan State Medical Society and the American Medical Association. He is a member of Joppa lodge, F. & A. M. and esteemed leading knight of the Bay City B. P. O. E. No. 88. He is also a member of the American Legion, the Bay City Country club, Shoppenhagon Grotto and the First Presbyterian church. On August 11, 1917, a few days before entering the army, he was married to Mabel Senke, of Rochester, New York. To this union have been born two children; Meta Jane, born June 15, 1920, in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and Suzanne Judy, born March 13, 1924, in Bay City. Charles C. Cuthbert, 129 Ridge road, Bay City, superintendent of all the principal cemeteries in Bay City, was born in that city on February 17, 1880, the son of Charles and Jane (Carter) Cuthbert, natives of England, who came to Canada as children and were married there. They came to Bay county where they settled on a farm. The father died in 1896, at the age of seventy-two, and the mother is now living in Bay City, at the age of eightyfour, Charles C. Cuthbert received forty cents a day for his labor when he first began work in the cemeteries in Bay City. The first superintendent under whom he worked was Charles D. Fisher. Later he was employed by George D. Seamon, founder of Seamon's cemetery. On April 26, 1898, Mr. Cuthbert enlisted in the United States army, to serve in the Spanish-American war. He received his discharge at the end of hostilities, in September of that year, with the rank of sergeant. He was in Company C, Thirtythird Michigan volunteer infantry, during his entire enlistment. He returned to Bay City and resumed his work in the cemeteries. In 1899 he was made superintendent of cemeteries, and is now in charge of the Green Ridge, Pine Ridge, Seamon and Jewish burial grounds, which, by their well-kept appearance, show the care Mr. Cuthbert expends on them. He is a member of Joppa lodge No. 315, F. & A. M., which elected him master in 1921. In the same year he joined Bay City chapter, R. & A. M., and in 1922 became a member of Bay City commandery, Knights Templar. He is also a member of the Scottish Rite Masons. On January 23, 1905, he married Ida M. Pegg, of Bay City. To this union was born one son, Melvin C., in June, 1907, who is now a student at Central high school. James E. Davidson, prominent in ship-building and banking circles, was born in Buffalo, New York, December 7, 1867, son of James and Ellen M. (Rogers) Davidson. He attended the public schools of Buffalo and having graduated from Central high school, entered Hillsdale College at Hillsdale, Michigan, where he was a student in the Greek and Latin classical course, graduating in 1887 with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, his Alma Mater also having recently conferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of

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Page  185 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 185 Laws. Soon after the completion of his academic education, Mr. Davidson came to Bay City and began his work in ship building, in which he has been very successful, and holds an important place in that industry at the present time. Although connected with a number of business ventures, Mr. Davidson devotes most of his time to the firm in Bay City, the firm of James E. & Edward C. Davidson, Ship Building and Dry Docking. Mr. Davidson has been married twice, the first marriage, to June Lollette Cobb of Buffalo, occurred February 12, 1890, and on July 28, 1919, he was married to Helen Forrest Knox, also of Buffalo. Mr. Davidson is a republican and takes an active interest in politics. He was a delegate to the republican national convention in Chicago in 1920, and is a member of the republican national committee at the present time. He has been a member of the Michigan state republican committee for the past twenty years, a member of the Bay county republican committee since 1896, and is chairman of the latter committee at the present time. Mr. Davidson has numerous and important connections with banking institutions both in Michigan and New York, and serves as president of the People's Commercial and Savings bank of Bay City, and the Northern Title and Trust Co., also of Bay City. He is a director for the First National bank of Detroit, a director and one of the original incorporators of the Detroit Trust Co., and also serves as director of the Buffalo Trust Co., of Buffalo, New York. Mr. Davidson's largest interests lie in the ship building industry, and he is president of the Davidson Building Co., the Independent Steamship Co., of Cleveland, and the Milwaukee Drydock Co., of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He is vice-president of the American Ship Building Co., of Cleveland, the Duluth Steamship Co., of Duluth, Minnesota, the Triton Steamship Co., of Cleveland, and the Interocean, National, Continental, Zenith and Superior Steamship Companies, all of Duluth. He is also secretary and treasurer of the Davidson Steamship Co., and of the American Ship Building Co., and serves as a director in the Great Lakes Transit Corporation of Buffalo. Mr. Davidson takes an active interest in a number of other business interests acting as vice-president of the Robert Gage Coal Co., of Bay City, secretary and treasurer of Mt. Clemens Sugar Co., of Mt. Clemens, Michigan, and of the Rock County Sugar Co., of Janesville, Wisconsin, and also serves as a director in the Bay City Building and the Tanner Investment Companies of Bay City. Mr. Davidson, an active clubman, claims membership in a number of clubs in various cities, among them, the Metropolitan, the India House, the Lambs and the Rocky Mountain clubs of New York City. the University, the Detroit Athletic and the Union League clubs of Detroit, the Saturn club of Buffalo, the Saginaw Country club and the Bay City Yacht club. Mr. Davidson is chairman of the board of trustees of the Y. W. C. A. and devotes his time as a trustee of his Alma Mater, Hillsdale college, also at the present time being chairman of the board. He is prominent in Masonic circles having been

Page  186 186 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY crowned Thirty-third degree Mason at Pittsburgh, September 16, 1916. He is a member of Joppa lodge No. 315, Bay City chapter No. 59, Bay City Commandery No. 26, Bay City Consistory and Elf Khurafeh Shrine, of which he is past potentate. He is a past commander of the Bay City Commandery, past high priest of Bay City Chapter, and past grand commander of Grand Commandery of Knights Templar of Michigan. He is also a member of Bay City lodge No. 88 of the order of Elks, and is past exalted ruler of that lodge. He is a member of St. Martin's conclave of the Knights of the Red Cross of Constantine, at the present time holding the office of M. P. sovereign; and during his college years became affiliated with the Phi Delta Theta fraternity, and the Epsilon Delta Alpha Honor Key society. Mr. Davidson worships at Trinity Episcopal church and has served as a member of the vestry of that church for twenty-five years. George V. Davis contributes to the welfare of Bay City as chief of police. He is a native of west Bay City, born in 1863, the son of William and Jane Davis. William Davis was a native of New York state who came to Bay City at the beginning of the Sixties. He was occupied for awhile in the salt industry and later operated a hotel. Active in civic affairs, he served for some years and up until the time of his death, as an alderman in west Bay City. Jane Davis was born in the north of Ireland and came to the United States with her parents when a child. George V. Davis had his schooling in west Bay City and before he had reached the age of twenty-one became a patrolman on the west Bay City force. He soon worked his way up to the position of chief of the department, his appointment coming April 16, 1885. When west Bay City was consolidated with Bay City, he became a captain in charge of the west Bay City force and later was called to headquarters as captain there. In 1912 he became chief of police and has efficiently filled that position since. Mr. Davis was married in 1900 to Robina Crawford, a native of Scotland but a resident of Bay City at the time of her marriage. Two daughters were born to this marriage who are: Evelyn, now Mrs. Arthur Louis, wife of a well known druggist, and Genevieve, a high school student. Mr. Davis is a Mason and is a member of the Metropolitan club. The Davis family worship at the Westminster Presbyterian church of this city. Harry J. Defoe, the efficient head of the Defoe Boat and Motor Works, is of a family of Bay City pioneers. His paternal grandfather, Francis Defoe, a native of Canada who came to Bay City by way of Toledo in 1844, was a farmer and fisherman. He fished on a large scale for those days, operating his business as far away as Alpena. His son, Joseph Defoe, was born in Bay City in 1846, at a time when a half dozen houses comprised the settlement. He was, by occupation, a sailor and took part and was interested in the affairs of the city, serving for a number of years as a member of the school board, and also as alderman and a member of the board

Page  187 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 187 of supervisors. His wife came from New York state in 1865 or 1866, and their son Harry J. Defoe, one of a family of six children, was born in Bay City, September 2, 1875. Having completed his education in the public schools and in the west side high school, he became a teacher in the public schools of the city and continued in this work for a period of six years. In 1905 he began to build small launches and was located at the foot of Fifth street. At this time and for two years he was also a sales agent for Buick automobiles. His boat business increased rapidly and it was soon necessary for him to find larger quarters than those he occupied for the business, so he moved the plant to the old Welch mill site. When the United States entered the World war, his business became too large for the plant and he established a steel yacht building plant on his present site in 1918, and later moved the old plant to the same site. The Defoe Boat and Motor Company build medium weight lake craft, both commercial and for pleasure, and also large steel pleasure yachts. Mr. Defoe was married twice, in 1900 to Miss Verna Lusk, who is deceased, and in 1916 to Miss Maud Currey. The children are Thomas and William. Mr. Defoe is a thirty-second degree Mason, and is a member of Wenona lodge, F. &, A. M. He is also an Elk and a member of Othello lodge of the Knights of Pythias. Arthur N. DeWaele, of the firm of DeWaele and Regan, Bay City, was born December 6, 1876, at St. Helen, Roscommon county, Michigan, the son of Charles L. and Blondina (Honey) DeWaele, natives of Belgium, who came to America and settled in Indiana in 1869, moving soon after to Grand Rapids, from there to Bay City and thence to St. Helen in 1876. Charles L. DeWaele was a lawyer who had been educated at the University at Antwerp, Belgium. He served five terms as prosecuting attorney of Roscommon county, was circuit court commissioner and also filled several other civic positions in northern Michigan. He was the father of seven children. His widow, who is now past eighty years of age, is still living at the family home in Roscommon. Arthur N. DeWaele received his early education in the schools at St. Helen and Roscommon and graduated from high school at Grayling, Michigan, at the age of fifteen. He then learned the printers' trade and for a time had charge of the Roscommon News. For awhile he engaged in teaching school, later entering business college at Bay City. He also took several courses in law, besides receiving much practical legal knowledge from his father, and added to his education by a course in the La Salle Extension University, receiving his diploma from that institution in 1913. He passed the state bar examinations and was admitted to the bar in the same year. During the years he was preparing for this profession he pursued various occupations. He was one of the founders of the firm of DeWaele and Regan, real estate dealers, jewelers, insurance agents and makers of loans, Mr. DeWaele conducting the legal department of the firm. He was elected circuit court commissioner

Page  188 188 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY on the republican ticket in 1924. Among the occupations he followed as a young man were those of printer, school teacher and bookkeeper, being employed in the last vocation four years by the firm of Gustin, Cook & Buckley, wholesale grocers. He was married June 15, 1905, to Helen Archambault, of Bay City, who is a registered nurse, but does not engage in her profession at present. Mr. and Mrs. DeWaele have four children: Joseph, who graduated from St. James parochial school in 1925, and is now attending Ferris Institute; Paul L., in the eleventh grade, Alice and Lorraine. Mr. DeWaele is a member of the St. James Catholic church, the Elks, the Knights of Columbus and the Bay County Bar Association. At this time the assets of his company total about one-quarter of a million dollars, showing that the concern is indeed enjoying a rapid growth. Thomas P. Dixon, secretary-treasurer and general manager of the Lewis Manufacturing Company, Bay City, was born at Corbridge-on-Tyne, England, in 1891, the son of Thomas Dixon, a quarry owner and stone merchant. He received his early education at the Royal grammar school at Newcastle, England. In 1907 he came to Canada, locating at Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, where he became employed by McFadden & McFadden, attorneys, first in the capacity of office stenographer, and later as court stenographer. In 1909 he accepted a position with the Morgan Lumber Company having charge of their woods' office in Blind River, Ontario. In 1910 he went with the Eddy Brothers Lumber Company as log scaler, and spent the next year at their logging camps near Blind River in this capacity. He was then employed by Riley & Grabowsky, a firm of lumber inspectors, and inspected lumber for cargo shipment from the various Georgian Bay sawmills. In 1914 he accepted a position with Ross & Wentworth, sawmill operators of Bay City, having charge of their office. Two years later he resigned this position to become secretary of the Lewis Manufacturing Company, with whom he has been since connected, becoming general manager of the company in the latter part of 1918. He was married in 1918 to Florence M. Massnick, of Bay City. They have two children, Richard V. and Marilyn. Mr. Dixon attends the Christian Science church. He is a charter member and past-president of the Exchange club of Bay City, also being a member of the F. & A. M., B. P. 0. E., and several other fraternal and civic organizations. James E. Duffy, attorney, 304 Crapo building, Bay City, member of the state board of law examiners, counsel for and vice-president of the Bay City bank, attorney for the Pere Marquette railway, director and counsel fobr the Columbia Sugar Co., president of the Port Huron & Detroit railway, director of the Michigan Bar Association, member of the board in control of athletics of the University of Michigan, counsel for Consumer's Power Co., the Aladdin Co., the Hanson Ward Veneer Co., the W. D. Young Co., and former city attorney, is not too busy with his professional duties to

Page  189 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 189 find time to devote to the general improvement of the city in which he lives. He has served as a member of the board of trustees of the Bay City public library and has led in many civic movements. He is a member of the Bay City Yacht club, the Bay City Country club, the Chi Psi college fraternity, the Elks and the Bay county bar association. He holds membership in but one social organization which is entirely separate from Bay county, the University club, of Detroit. Mr. Duffy was born on January 10, 1867, at Ann Arbor, where he received his elementary and high school education. He graduated from the University of Michigan literary department in 1890, and from the law department in 1892, and received the honorary degree of Master of Arts from the same institution in 1922. He was admitted to the practice of law in Ann Arbor in 1892 and in January, 1893, he came to Bay City and entered the law office of T. A. E. and J. C. Weadock. In 1900 he formed a partnership with Archibald McDonell under the firm name of McDonell & Duffy, and upon the death of Mr. McDonell he formed with John C. Weadock, the firm of Weadock & Duffy. He is now practicing alone, confining his attention chiefly to the corporations for which he is counsel. He was married in 1900 to May A. Young, daughter of George H. Young, president of the Bay City bank. Their first child, James E., a graduate of the engineering department of the University of Michigan, in the class of 1924, is now a student in Michigan Law school, preparing himself to follow his father's profession. Their second child, George Young Duffy, is a student in the Bay City schools. He has not decided whether he will follow the brilliant example set by his father in the legal profession or prepare himself for come other calling. Van H. Dumond, M. D., 242-44 Shearer building, Bay City, surgeon and member of the staff at Mercy hospital, was born April 28, 1887, in Ontario, Canada. He was educated in the elementary and high schools at Belle River, Ontario, at Windsor Collegiate Institute and at the Detroit College of Medicine & Surgery, receiving his M. D. degree from the latter institution in 1910. After spending two years as an interne in Harper hospital, Detroit, he came to Bay City and began private practice. From the start he specialized in surgery, and today his services in this branch are in great demand. He is a member of the Bay County Medical Society, the Michigan State Medical Society and the American Medical Association. He was married in 1914 to Florence Smith Grow, of Bay City. During the World war Dr. Dumond was stationed at Camp Oglethorpe, Georgia, being honorably discharged in December of 1918. He is a member of the Masons and the Elks. and has a modern, spacious residence at 1700 Fifth street, Bay City. Joseph Z. Duprow, plumber, heater and sheet metal worker, 159 Marshall street, Essexville, was born October 29, 1878, in Canada, the son of Matthew and Louise Duprow. His mother is now a

Page  190 190 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY resident of Bay City, where she came in 1889 after the death of his father. Mr. Duprow attended schools in Canada and in Bay City. His first employment, after leaving school, was as a laborer in a sawmill. Later he was proprietor of a bicycle and sheet metal shop, and was in the latter business with Fred Disher. In 1902 he started a bicycle and confectionery store with himself as sole owner, disposing of this store afterward to enter the plumbing, sheet metal and hardware trade. He continued in these lines nine years, three years of which Wallace Dinsmore was his partner. Since that time he has conducted the business without assistance, and is now sole owner of the firm. He has continued to reside in Essexville since he first came to Michigan, and is identified with many activities in that community. For twelve years he served as a trustee of the village council, and has also been prominent in school affairs. The Sheet Metal Association of Bay City has honored him by election to the presidency of that body. He was married on February 15, 1903, to Lettie Whitmarsh a native of Kansas, whose father, Alonzo E. Whitmarsh died in that state, and whose mother, Mrs. Susan L. (Snow) Whitmarsh, removed to Frazier, Michigan, bringing her daughter with her. Mr. Duprow has three children; Lorenz, who is now a student in the University of Michigan school of business administration, Rollin A., a student at St. James school, Bay City, and Bernadine, a pupil at St. James school, Bay City. He is a member of the Knights of Columbus, the Elks and various trade organizations. Mrs. Duprow is a member of the L. C. B. A., No. 595, the Catholic Daughters of America, the Ladies' National Catholic league and the Royal Neighbors. Charles F. Eddy, former treasurer of Eddy Brothers & Co., lumber manufacturers, and one of Bay City's most influential citizens, was born March 21, 1852 in Bangor, Maine, and died January 21, 1918, in Bay City. He was a son of Colonel Jonathan Eddy and Caroline (Bailey) Eddy, natives of Maine. Col. Jonathan Eddy was a prominent lumberman of Bangor, Maine, and also invested extensively in timber in Michigan, which his sons later utilized and became prominent factors in this field of activity. This land became valuable and after his death it formed a considerable portion of the holdings of Eddy Brothers & Co., of which Charles F. Eddy was treasurer. Charles F. Eddy was educated in the schools at Bangor and at Andover, Massachusetts. He came to Bay City in 1872 and entered the firm of Eddy, Avery & Eddy, which at that time was one of the largest lumber firms in the state of Michigan. Still later he became a member of the co-partnership of Eddy Brothers & Co., having as his associates his brother, J. Frank Eddy, and his cousins, Selwyn and Charles A. Eddy. This company became one of the most important in the Bay City district of Michigan, and handled enormous quantities of forest products. In 1900 the firm moved its mills to Blind River, Michigan, and incorporated under the name of Eddy Brothers & Co. Charles F. Eddy at that time was elected treasurer, and held that

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Page  191 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 191 position continuously until his death. He was also director and treasurer of the Lake Transit Co., director of Mershon, Eddy, Parker & Co., of Saginaw, and the president of the General Machinery Co. He was identified with many other enterprises and he took a leading part in developing the resources of the community in which he lived. He was a member of the Presbyterian church, where he attended divine services regularly, but he was not affiliated with any fraternal orders. He was at all times considerate of his family. He chose to spend his leisure hours at home, which received his first thoughts on every occasion. Mr. Eddy was married in 1874 to Elizabeth Genn, of Bucksport, Maine. Mrs. Eddy died in 1889, leaving a family of three children. The first, Kirty Stuart Eddy, who is now Mrs. Howard L. Shaw, of 1903 Center avenue, Bay City, is the mother of two daughters: Lucy H., who was born December 1, 1905, and Betty E., who was born December 4, 1908. Mr. Eddy's second child, Fred Genn Eddy, is associated with the Randall Lumber & Coal Co., at Flint, Michigan, and has a son, Edwin Carrington Eddy, who was born October 10, 1901. The third child of the Eddy family, Helen L., is now Mrs. Lee B. Woodwarth. Charles F. Eddy married the second time, taking as his wife Helen B. Smalley, of Bay City, a daughter of a family which owned a controlling interest in the Valley Iron Works. Charles F. Eddy is mourned, not only by his family, but by his business associates and many friends who felt that he was indeed an honest, upright, able and conscientious man; one who was truly worthy of their trust and confidence. Carl J. Eichhorn, formerly secretary and treasurer of the Northeastern Radio Co., 913 North Water street, Bay City, was born in Bay City on March 29, 1896, the son of Charles R. and Hattie (Riegeal) Eichhorn. His father, who was born in 1864, died in 1909. His mother is still living at the family home in Bay City. Mr. Eichhorn graduated from the Bay City schools and entered the chemical department of the Dupont company of Bay City, where he remained six years. Just before the World war he spent seven months on the Mexican border as a member of the Bay City ambulance company. During the World war he continued as a chemist for the Dupont factory, and, on May 11, 1920, with the assistance of Robert E. Munger, founded the Northeastern Radio Co., the owners of the largest store dealing exclusively in radio supplies and equipment in Bay City. He disposed of his ownership of Northeastern Radio Company on January 1, 1926, and is now operating Eichhorn's Radio Service Company, specializing in radio repair and aerial installations. Mr. Eichhorn was married on September 10, 1918, to Esther Schroeder, daughter of Otto Schroeder, of Bay City. To this union was born one child, Priscilla Lou, on December 23, 1921. Mr. and Mrs. Eichhorn are members of the First Reformed church. His chief hobby-is trout fishing, and he takes every chance afforded him to practice the

Page  192 192 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY art of fly casting in the streams of his native state. He has a lovely home at 1802 Wenona avenue. Henry L. Eickemeyer, head of the firm of H. & H. L. Eickemeyer, 1305 Columbus avenue, was born November 8, 1882, in Bay City, the son of Henry and Bertha (Patenge) Eickemeyer. Edward Eickemeyer, his grandfather, came to Bay City in 1854 as a contracting carpenter. He later established a planing and finishing mill in this city. He was married twice, his first wife having died, leaving four children, and five children being born to the second union. Henry Eickemeyer's other grandparents, John and Wilhelmina Patenge, natives of Germany, were early residents of Bay City, where they died a number of years ago. Their daughter, Bertha, was but a small girl at the time her parents left their native land. Henry Eickemeyer, senior, received his early education in the public schools of Bay City, later attending the Lutheran parochial schools. He followed his father's example by entering the carpenter trade, and was later a contracting carpenter. For almost six years he was superintendent of construction for the Kilby company of Cleveland, Ohio, for whom he built a number of sugar factories. He had seven children, of whom his son Henry Ludwig, his partner in the hardware business, is the eldest. The others are, in the order of their birth: Dorothy, Oscar, Clara, Gertrude, Erma and Edgar. The Eickemeyers, father and son, purchased their present store at 1305 Columbus avenue on February 21, 1907, from F. E. Burkhart, who had owned and operated the business many years. They enlarged the store by adding new lines, until today it is one of the biggest of its kind in Bay City. The senior member of the firm died February 8, 1922, after having held several important public offices in Bay City. He waas, at the time of his death, a member of the board of education, and had served as building inspector for a number of years. He was also active in community affairs and was a leader in the Immanuel Lutheran church. The present head of the Eickemeyer hardware store was married on August 29, 1906, to Emma Zech, of Bay City. They have three children, Mildred, Dorothea and Ruth. Mr. Eikemeyer is a member of the board of education, taking the same interest in public affairs as did his father. He is a member of the Exchange club and like his father is a leader in activities at Immanuel Lutheran church. He is one of the founders of the Luther club of Bay City. Nina M. Ely, M. D., 208-10 Shearer building, Bay City, a successful and popular member of the Bay county medical profession, and widow of the late Dr. Edwin S. Ely, was born in Corunna, Shiawassee county, Michigan. She is a graduate of the Corunna Michigan high school and of the Herring Homeopathic Medical College, Chicago, class of 1900, and a member of the Bay county, the Michigan and American Medical Associations, as well as the Michigan Homeopathic Medical Society and American Institute of Homeopathy. She was married in 1887 to Edwin S. Ely, who

Page  193 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 193 was born and reared in Mexico, New York, and who graduated in the same class at the Herring Homeopathic College as the subject of this sketch. Dr. Nina M. Ely and her husband came to Bay City in 1901 and opened joint offices for the practice of their profession. They soon established a large and growing clientele, and the community suffered a great loss when, in 1912, Dr. Edwin S. Ely died. Having no children of their own they reared a child of Mrs. Ely's sister, taking the girl, Elizabeth Virginia Farr, into their home when she was seven years old. She graduated from the Bay City high school and married not long afterward. She is now Mrs. G. Ernest Hill, of Hollywood, California, and has one daughter, Jane, sixteen years old, a junior in the Hollywood high school. Dr. Edwin S. Ely was a member of Joppa lodge No. 315, F. & A. M. and the Elks. Dr. Nina M. Ely is a member of the National New Thought Association, in which she takes a lively interest. Samuel S. Fair, president of the Bay City Electric Steel Casting Co., was born at Bailburo, Ontario, Canada, on July 1, 1873. He was brought to Grant Center, Michigan, when he was five years old, and attended school there until he was fourteen. At that young age he began work in a foundry, acquiring the knowledge which later made him successful in the operation of the Bay City Electric Steel Casting Company. In 1887 he became associated with his father, Samuel Fair, who founded the Bay City Plow Works in that year. The company continued in operation until about 1897, when the father sold the business and entered the Electric Steel Foundry at Saginaw, where he died in October 23, 1916, at the age of seventy years. His wife, Mrs. Margaret (Moffat) Fair, was also born in Ontario, Canada, and died September 17, 1923, at Saginaw, Michigan, aged seventy-two years. Both were members of the Episcopal church. Samuel S. Fair went to Saginaw in 1904 and assisted his father in the business there until in May, 1922, when he returned to Bay City. When the Bay City Electric Steel Casting Company, a co-partnership, was organized on May 4, 1922, he was made president and has since held that position. He was married in 1893 to Nell Carter, of Bay City, who died in 1903, leaving two children; Mendall A., a graduate of the Bay City high school, who is now employed by the Louis Manufacturing Co. of Bay City, and who is the father of a son, Samuel S., II. His wife was Irma Donahue, of Bay City. Mr. Fair's second child, Bernice Margaret, is also a graduate of the Bay City high school and is employed in the office of American Factors Limited, in Honolulu, Hawaii. Mr. Fair was married on September 22, 1909, to Dora M. Beierwaltes, of Saginaw, whose birthplace was in Detroit. She is a member of the Eastern Star and the Ladies' Shrine club. Mr. Fair is a member of all bodies of the Masons with the exception of the thirty-third degree, and for twelve years was a member of the drill team of the Temple Shrine in Saginaw. He is also a member of the Bay City Country club and the Elks.

Page  194 194 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY Eugene Fifield. No citizen of Bay City, Michigan, commands a more secure place in popular confidence and esteem than does Eugene Fifield, who has maintained his home here since the year 1876, during which time he has been pre-eminently identified with up-building of the city and has taken active part in all civic affairs for half a century. While during all that time an active republican and offered public office on numerous occasions, he has steadfastly declined, excepting in 1912 when he was a delegate-at-large from the state of Michigan to the republican national convention. His keen interest in improvement and advancement of public affairs has not been confined to his home city only, for during the years between 1884 and 1924 he served the state continuously as a member of the Michigan state fair board and greatly assisted in shaping the policies and conducting the affairs of the association that resulted in an outstanding and successful administration. It is not too much to say that he has deserved and holds the unqualified esteem of the people of this community and this is due to his inviolable integrity that has been an outstanding characteristic of his life. Eugene Fifield was born in Waterford, Oakland county, Michigan, on March 5, 1851, son of Francis W. Fifield and Joan (Morris) Fifield, where he lived with his parents on the farm until he was about fourteen years of age. At that time his father purchased a general store in the village of Waterford and he assisted him in the business while attending the public schools at Clarkston three miles away. In due time he graduated from the high school with the intention of proceeding to the State University of Michigan, but during the panic of 1870 known as the Jay Cook times, his father lost practically his entire holdings and he was prevented from pursuing his college studies thereby. In the year 1870 his father sent him to Newport, Monroe county, to look after his interests in a stave mill, where he was located for two years and then returned to Waterford and engaged in the business of operating a flour mill with his father until the year 1876, at which time he came to Bay City, Michigan, and bought an interest in the wholesale grocery business conducted by the well known firm of Gustin & Merrill, the title of the firm thereafter being Gustin, Merrill & Fifield. This firm-also conducted a general store until 1884, at which time the firm changed to Merrill, Fifield & Company which operated the business until 1893 when the partnership was dissolved and business closed. Eugene Fifield had long been interested in the agricultural possibilities of this state and recognized the possibilities very early of Michigan becoming a great agricultural state after the decline of the lumber industry here. To prove these possibilities he and Robert V. Mundy bought a large tract of land between the cities of Bay City and Saginaw, which was then made up of prairie lands. By putting a dike around approximately one thousand (1,000) acres and using centrifugal pumps, they made one of the finest improved farms in the state. In 1898 the beet sugar industry began in Michigan and Eugene

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Page  195 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 195 Fifield was one of the early pioneers in this business with a clear vision of all its possibilities for the future. The first company was known as the Bay City Sugar Company and Mr. Fifield was made agriculturist of that company, which position he held until 1903, at which time the Michigan Sugar Company and Bay City Sugar Company were consolidated and later known as the Bay CityMichigan Sugar Company, with Eugene Fifield as secretary, which position he held until another consolidation took place in 1906 with other sugar companies. At that time the company took back the original name of the Michigan Sugar Company and Mr. Fifield was elected manager of the business and plant in this city, which position he has held ever since. Mr. Fifield joined the Masonic order in 1886 and has been an active member of both the York and Scottish Rite since. He has been honored by being elected to the York Rite in the Bay City Commandery and has the distinctim-n of being past commander of that commandery. He has held many offices in the Scottish Rite, passing through the chairs of the Lodge of Perfection and has held next to the highest office in the Council of Princes of Jerusalem. Hte is past most wise of the chapter of Rose Croix and past commander-in-chief of the Bay City Consistory. He has also enjoyed being elected an honorary member of the supreme council thirty-third degree Masons. He is also a member of the Elf Khurafeh Shrine in the city of Saginaw and is held in high esteem by all the craft. He is one of the charter members of the lodge of Elks. He also has the distinction of being the only member in Bay City belonging to both Kiwanis and Rotary clubs. Frank Fletcher, secretary and treasurer of the Sun Coal Co., 209 East North Union street, Bay City, was born at Salzburg, now a part of Bay City, on August 11, 1892. He was the son of Albert Abraham Fletcher, a blacksmith, who is now dead. Mr. Fletcher attended the Bay City elementary schools and graduated from the Bay City high school. His first seven years after leaving school were spent in a grocery store, where he was employed as a clerk. Then, for a period of two years, he worked in the offices of the Michigan Central railway. His next move was to buy and operate a grocery store in the western pairt of Bay City. He later sold this store and entered the government service as a shipbuilder at Saginaw. At the end of the World war he returned to Bay City and became foreman of the final assembly department of the Union Motor Truck Co. He remained in this position until 1921, when he and Owen Callahan established the Sun Coal Co. Mr. Fletcher is unmarried and is a member of but one lodge, the Masons. He resides at 300 South Shilson avenue. Richard Henry Fletcher, former state labor commissioner, insurance man and organizer of the Fletcher Auto Sales Co., Bay City, started life with only such schooling as he could obtain in the log school near the farm on which he was born, June 2, 1858, eight miles west of Bay City. He is the son of Robert and Maria

Page  196 196 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY (Wing) Fletcher, natives of England, who came to America in 1844, and settled at Canandagua Lake, New York, moving from there to Flint, Michigan. His mother lived until August 28, 1925, when she died at the advanced age of ninety-two years. She was the daughter of John and Polly Wing, whose son, William, was killed by a "spent" bullet in the Civil war. Another of their sons, Harry Wing, was wounded four times in that conflict, but recovered and lived to be ninety-six years old. Richard H. Fletcher's grandmother was Susan (Wadsworth) Fletcher, who was born in Leeds, England, and came to America several years latesr than her son, Robert. Robert Fletcher served in the Mexican war and received an honorable discharge. At the outbreak of the Civil war he again offered his services and was refused. After trying twice more to enlist, with the same result, his name was drawn in a draft of troops, and, to escape having to serve as a drafted man, he walked to Grand Rapids and there joined Bergdoll's famous regiment of sharpshooters, and remained with this organization until the close of the war, when he returned to his farm west of Bay City. Richard H. Fletcher left school and began to earn his own living at the age of seventeen years. His first job was in a lumber camp and sawmill, where he soon demonstrated his ability as a woodsman. He was promoted to the rank of woods foreman before he reached his twentieth birthday. Later he became a river worker in the logging industry, and "drove" the river for seventeen consecutive years. Still later he did contract work in the forests, and bought and sold lumber. He also helped to build a number of improved stone roads before he entered the insurance business, on June 1, 1910, his present occupation. He has always been active in civic affairs, having served as state labor commissioner six years, under Governors Warner and Sleeper. He was county road commissioner twenty-eight years, was state factory inspector eight years, and was also highway commissioner of Williams township. Other public offices he has held include those of alderman and supervisor. He has been called "the man of many positions" and at one time was required by law to resign from his position as supervisor because he could not legally hold the office of supervisor and act as county road commissioner at the same time. Beside organizing the Fletcher Auto Sales Co. he has helped various other Bay City enterprises in getting established. At the present time he is financially interested in the Miller Tire Sales Co., and in the Zackelmeyer Block Co., of Bay City, Lansing, Detroit and Toledo. Mr. Fletcher was married August 11, 1895, to Miss Harriet Phillips, and to this union were born five children: Richard H. Jr., Olive, Harriet, Dorothea and Gertrude. Five children were also born to a former marriage, as follows: Nettie, Henry, Charles, Alma and Ross. Mr. Fletcher is a member of the Episcopal church, the Elks and the Knights of Pythias, and is prominent in both business and social circles.

Page  197 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 197 Richard Harold Fletcher, Jr., vice-president and treasurer of the Fletcher Auto Sales Co. and vice-president and general manager of the Fletcher Oil Co., of Bay City, was born in Bay City on December 17, 1896, the son of Richard Henry Fletcher, who is mentioned elsewhere in this work. Mr. Fletcher dropped his studies after his second year in high school to become page to Lieutenant Governor Ross of Michigan in 1913. On returning to Bay City after his service in this position he was employed for a year's period in his father's real estate and insurance office. On January 1, 1915, he accepted an appointment in the Bay county treasurer's office, and continued in that position until March 1, 1917. He then helped organize the National Mutual Auto Insurance Co., in which his father was interested. He gave his services to this enterprise until May 1, 1919, when he and his father organized the Fletcher Auto Sales Co., of which he is both vice-president and treasurer. This concern was immediately successful, and in 1924 he assisted in the forming of the Fletcher Oil Co., which is another highly successful enterprise. Incorporation papers were granted this concern on October 8, 1924, with Mr. Fletcher as vice-president and general manager. In addition to attending to his interests in the automobile and oil business he still assists his father in the real estate and insurance office. He is a member of Wenona lodge of the F. & A. M., Blanchard chapter and Grotto, and the B. P. 0. E. He is also active in the Exchange club and various other social organizations. He was married on October 2, 1917, to Marion Lusk, daughter of George Lusk, of Bay City. She died on January 5, 1924, leaving a daughter, Helen, who was born on May 4, 1919. Mr. Fletcher married again on January 31, 1925, his bride being Marie C. Boutell, of Bay City, daughter of Frederick E. Boutell. To this union a son, Frederick, was born December 24, 1925. Edgar B. Foss was born in Williamatic, Connecticut, February 28, 1853, son of John and Sarah (Slade) Foss. His father died when he was just a boy and he was obliged to leave school to aid in the support of the family. As a youth he came to Bay City and remained a resident for forty years. He commenced his lumbering career when he was fifteen years old with D. A. Ballou & Company at Kawkawlin. After several years with the Ballou interests, he entered the employ of the VanEtten-Kaiser Company at Pinconning. When he later went into business for himself, to him came remarkable success. His interests included mills and lumber tracts in Canada, large planing mills and lumber yards in Bay City and a line of vessels which carried the lumber from his Canadian mills to the markets. He also owned lumber interests on the Pacific coast and was interested in coal mining in Bay county. He was prominently identified with the republican party and was a delegate to the republican national convention which nominated Roosevelt and then was chosen by the electoral college as one of the electors to take the vote of Michigan. He was also elected to the convention which nominated Taft in 1908. He was married in Bay

Page  198 198 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY City to Miss Elizabeth Fitzgerald. They were the parents of three children, Walter I., Edgar H., and Edith H. He was a member of the Masonic order belonging to the Consistory, the Knights Templar and an active worker in the First Congregational church. On November 26, 1915, Mr. Foss was killed when an automobile in which he was driving was run down by a train near his office. Edgar Highfield Foss has been interested in the lumber business since boyhood, always associated with his father's business. He is a son of Edgar B. Foss, a' pioneer lumber dealer of Bay City, whose life and activities have been noted in another part of this volume. He was born in Bay City in 1875 and received his education in his home city and at Ithaca, New York. He began his career in the lumber business early, being associated with his father, and although his activities necessitated locating in the upper peninsula or in Canada, has kept his residence in Bay City. Since his father's death, Mr. Foss has been a trustee of the estate. He was married in 1906 to Wilhelmina Fuerstock of Bay City whose father, Frederick Fuerstock, was a pioneer in the city. Mr. Foss saw active service during the Spanish-AAmerican war, serving as a private in Company C, 33rd regiment, a Bay City organization. He is a member of the Spanish-American war veterans, and is affiliated with the Masons. The Foss family have made a commendable contribution to the development of this section of the state and Edgar Foss is a worthy representative of that family. Walter I. Foss carries on successfully the business established by his father, Edgar B. Foss and his uncle, Samuel S. Foss, as has been noted in an outline of the life of the father which appears in this volume. Walter I. Foss was born in Kawkawlin, Bay county, Michigan, in 1872 and was one of three children. He received his early education in the public schools and attended Alma college, and having finished his school work, entered his father's business. For several years he represented the company in the east with headquarters at Philadelphia, returning in 1905 to Bay City to assume the managership of the business, and at the death of his father, he was made trustee of the estate. In 1892 he married Alice La Frambois, and there are seven children as follows: E. Ben, of Detroit, Charles J. of Flint, Elizabeth of Newark, New Jersey, Walter I. Jr., of Detroit, and Alice Madeline, S. Dillon, and William R., who live with their parents in Bay City. Mr. Foss is a member of all Masonic bodies, including membership in the Shrine at Philadelphia, and is also a member of the Elks. Mr. Foss worships at the Congregational church. He has a keen interest in sports and has served four years as president of the Bay City baseball association, from which position he has just resigned, continuing however, as a director of the association. He is, as was his father, widely and favorably known in the community and a representative citizen of Bay City. L. Fernald Foster, M. D., 328 Shearer building, Bay City, is admittedly the leading specialist in children's diseases in northern

Page  199 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 199 Michigan. He was born at Phillipsburg, New Jersey, October 10, 1891, and received his elementary and high school education in the public schools of that city. He graduated from LaFayette college, in eastern Pennsylvania in 1913 with the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy. He then enrolled in the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania, graduating from that institution in 1918 with the degree of Doctor of Medicine. Having decided to specialize in children's diseases, he took a special post-graduate course in pediatrics at his Alma Mater, after which he acted as resident and chief resident physician in the Presbyterian hospital at Philadelphia. Later he was chief resident physician at the Children's hospital of Philadelphia. Having thus fitted himself for the practice of his profession, Dr. Foster came to Bay City in 1920 and opened offices in the Shearer building. In the short period of five years he has established a large clientele and won a permanent approval from the Bay county public. He is now in charge of the pediatrics department of the Mercy hospital, Bay City, and is a member of the principal medical societies and a Fellow of the American Medical Association. Other organizations and fraternal orders with which he is affiliated include Kappa Sigma and Alpha Kappa Kappa, scholastic and medical fraternities respectively. Joppa lodge No. 315, F. & A. M., Bay City chapter No. 59, R. A. M., Knights Templar Commandery No. 26, and Bay City lodge No. 88, B. P. 0. E. He and the members of his family attend the First Presbyterian church. He married on June 11, 1921, Kathryn Keller, of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. They have two children: Phyllis M., born July 15, 1922, and L. Fernald, Jr., born June 26, 1925. During the World war Dr. Foster was a member of the Medical Reserve (orps, U. S: A. W. T. Fowley, one of the proprietors of the Fowley drug stores, Midland avenue, Bay City, was born in Canada in 1877, the son of Canadian parents. He came to the United States as a boy, when his father, James Fowley, moved to Midland county and began farming. After attending the schools of Midland county and graduating from the Midland high school, he entered a drug store and studied pharmacy at Big Rapids, Michigan. In 1901 he moved to Bay City to accept a position in the Wilbur Eldridge drug store, where he remained for some time, later going to Alpena, Michigan, for a period of six months. Returning to Bay City, Fowley and his partner bought the Eldridge pharmacy after the owner's death in 1903. The store was operated under the name of Fowley & Dayton four years, when the name was changed to Fowley & Co. The firm continued to prosper, and in 1908 the partners pure chased the C. M. La Rue pharmacy on Midland avenue. Thus the Fowley company has two modern stores, both of which enjoy a heavy patronage. Besides attending to the management of his two stores, Fowley takes an active part in civic affairs. He is a member of the Bay City Board of Estimates and a director of the Board of Commerce. He holds membership in three fraternal or

Page  200 200 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY ders, the Masons, the Knights of Pythias and the Elks. He was married in 1905 to Mabel Pellette, of Bay City. They have two sons, Harper P. Fowley, and William Therold. Willis D. Fox, lumber dealer, East Fremont street, Bay City, was born July 21, 1857, on a farm in Genesee county, Michigan, the son of Jackson and Melissa (Bush) Fox, natives of New York. Both of his parents came to Genesee county with their parents in the early Forties, when.that portion of the state was little more than a wilderness, with but few highways and entirely without railroads. All of Mr. Fox's grandparents were farmers. The parcel of land acquired by his Grandfather Fox, now is joined on the southwest by the northeast corner of the city of Flint. Here his father, Jackson Fox, lived for many years, purchasing more land and rearing a family of ten children. He is now dead, and his farm divided into building sites. Mr. Fox received his schooling in a day when the teacher "boarded around" among the homes of the pupils. On leaving school he became a farmer, and remained in that occupation until he was twenty-five years old. He then began work in the lumber industry, which he still follows. In 1899 he founded his own business, a retail lumber yard on East Fremont street in the west side of Bay City. The firm was known for many years as the W. D. Fox company, the name having been changed to W. D. Fox & Son at the time L. Curtis Fox was admitted to partnership. Before the consolidation of West Bay City with Bay City he served two terms as a councilman of the first-named municipality. At the present time he is one of the trustees of the state library, a member of the Knights of Pythias, Wenona lodge F. & A. M., Bay City chapter, Bay City Commandery, and has held all of the offices of the Blue lodge and chapter. He and his family attend the Presbyterian church. He was married on October 25, 1882, to Ida Le Barron, who died February 22, 1901, leaving a family of four children, as follows: Carrie M., and Irma A., graduate nurses at Harper hospital, Detroit, L. Curtis, who is with his father in the lumber business, and Irwin J. Fox, proprietor of a drug store in Bay City. Mr. Fox married again on November 2, 1910, his bride having been Mrs. Addie (Timmons) Rae, of Bay City. L. Curtis Fox was born November 11, 1890. He entered his father's lumber yard immediately after his graduation from the Bay City high school, and has since given his entire attention to the business, except for the period he was in the United States service, during the World war. He enlisted December 12, 1917, in the signal corps, and was transferred later to the aviation service. During much of the time he did embarkation depot duty at Hoboken and Jersey City. He was honorably discharged on January 15, 1919, and at once returned to Bay City. On May 20, 1920, he married Minnie Westover, sister of Fred Westover, who is mentioned elsewhere in this book. Mr. Fox is a member of the Presbyterian church, and the Chapter, Commandery, Consistory and Grotto of the Masonic order.

Page  201 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 201 Hubert J. Gaffney, one of Bay City's foremost attorneys, with offices in the Shearer building, was born in Bay county, Michigan, January 20, 1882. His father, William Gaffney, whose life story is an interesting one, was born in Ireland in 1845, and came to the United States with his father at the age of ten years. They landed in New York, but soon afterward removed to Michigan, first settling in Livingston county, and later removing to Bay county. In 1861, William Gaffney bought forty acres of land in section thirty-three, Williams township, where he made some improvements and built a log house. He attended district school in his township and later in 1863 went to high school in Flint. Soon after this he sold the land in Williams township and bought eighty acres in section twenty-two, Monitor township, where he resided four many years adding to the original farm and improving it. He be, gan farming under difficulties, beginning with land that would be considered swamp, but by proper drainage and improvements, brought it to a fine state of cultivation and was probably more responsible than any other for the successful drainage system established in the township at that time. He was interested in the breeding of cattle and was an early breeder of short horn stock. He took an active interest in the affairs of the county, and his record of public service is a worthy one. In 1871, the third year after the organization of the township, he was elected supervisor, and held that office for twelve consecutive years until 1883 when he was elected clerk of Bay county. He has the distinction of being the first man to be elected to that office who was not a resident of one of the two cities in the county. His service as county clerk continued for a period of eight years and he later served on the road commission. He married Catherine Conroy, a native of Canada who lived in Bay City, in 1879, and to this union there were five children. Hubert J. Gaffney received his high school education in Bay City and then entered the University of Michigan and was graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Laws in 1907. He at once began his practice in Bay City, at first individually, but later with Judge L. P. Coumans as Coumans & Gaffney, until the death of Judge Coumans in 1916. He then formed a partnership with the son, Lewis Coumans, which continued until the latter's death in 1923, and at the present time he practices alone. Mr. Gaffney is vice-president of the State Savings bank at Essexville. He is a past exalted ruler of the Elks and is a member, as was his father, of St. James church of Bay City. Mr. Gaffney enjoys a large practice and is widely known in this part of Michigan. Hugh McLaren Gale, M. D., 401 Center avenue, one of the oldest and best-known physicians in Bay county, is an authority on the subject of internal medicine. Born in Ontario, Canada, November 1, 1855, he attended the public schools of that province, later studying at McGill University, at Montreal, where he received his M. D. degree in 1882. He began general practice at Bad Axe, Michigan, coming from there to Bay City in 1885. He has en

Page  202 202 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY joyed a large practice during all of his forty-one years in this community, and is now in much demand as a consultant and as a specialist in internal medicine. He is a member of the Bay County Medical Society, the Michigan State Medical Society and the American Medical Association. Fraternally he is a Mason, a member of the thirty-second degree and Shrine of that order, and an Odd Fellow. He was married in 1883 to Anna McDowell, a granddaughter of the John McDowell who founded the Industrial Works, in Bay City. This wife died in 1907, leaving one son, Esson McDowell Gale, a graduate of the Bay City high school and the University of Michigan and possessor of two degrees, Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts, from that institution, who was appointed by President Roosevelt to Pekin, China, as a student-interpreter. After holding this position five years he resigned to become associated with the Salt Gabelle. In 1910 a loan was made to China for railway purposes etc., by five governments, Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia and Japan, and provision was to be made for payment of this debt by placing in foreign banks a certain percent of the total revenue of China. A representative was chosen from each of these governments to see that these provisions were carried out. The revenue of China is derived from a tax on salt, and this company, in connection with Chinese representatives, is known as "The Salt Gabelle." Esson McD. Gale was appointed by "The Salt Gabelle," in 1914, to manage the collection of revenue in four provinces, bordering on the Yangtse Kiang river, with Hankow as his headquarters. In 1913 the total revenue of China was approximately twenty-nine million dollars. In 1914 Mr. Gale collected in these four provinces some fifteen million dollars. This was so satisfactory to the Chinese government that they requested "The Salt Gabelle" to make Mr. Gale's appointment permanent. In 1922, he was sent by the Chinese government, to Manchuria, to systematize the offices of that district. After spending over two years in this work he was again returned to his head office in Hankow, where he has charge of what is known as "The Chinese Salt Administration." Mr. Gale married, while abroad, Annie Heron, the daughter of a Korean missionary. He is a thirty-second degree Mason, and member of the Shrine. Dr. Gale has a brother, James S. Gale, D. D., a pioneer missionary of Korea since 1888. He is a graduate of Toronto University, and received his D. D. degree from the university in Washington, D. C. His work in Korea has been mostly in the educational line. He is the author of "The Korean-English Dictionary" a very large work, which took him six years to write. This was the first of the kind published. Recently he completed the translation of the Bible into the Korean language. Besides these he is the author of a number of books: "Korean Sketches," "The Vanguard," "Korea in Transition" etc. He is considered an authority on the Korean language. He has traveled extensively in Europe, Asia and America. In 1908 Dr. Gale married Rose E. Clements, of Bay City, and they maintain

Page  203 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 203 a pleasant home at 517 Van Buren street. He has not only achieved success in his profession, but holds prestige by reason of ability and thorough training and as a practitioner his course has ever been marked by inflexible integrity and honor. He keeps in close touch with all that research is bringing to light in the field of scientific knowledge and is a man of broad information along many lines. His work is characterized by devotion to duty and his professional services have ever been discharged with a keen sense of conscientious obligation. Besides the practice of his profession he also finds time and opportunity to give effective cooperation in movements for the social and material betterment of the community and has ever stood as an exponent of the best type of civic loyalty and progressiveness. Emery J. Gauthier, of the Gauthier automobile painting shops, 702 East John street, Bay City, was born in Bay City on May 15, 1896, the son of Joseph and Emma (Rivet) Gauthier, natives of Bay county. The mother is now dead, but the father is living in Bay City. After finishing eight years of school in Bay City, Mr. Gauthier learned the painting trade under the direction of C. H. Schultze, who was a prominent contracting painter. He continued in this occupation until 1920, when he established his present business of painting and refinishing motor cars and trucks. His long experience as a painter has made him fully competent to conduct this highly specialized business, and his shop is always filled with autos waiting their turn to be given new coats of color and varnish. He was married on June 14, 1915, to Irene Duso, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John J. Duso. They have two children, Alberta and Ethelyne. Mr. Gauthier and family reside at 401 Smith street. William C. Gillette, owner of Vaughn's Home Bakery, 503 East Midland street, Bay City, was born in Bay City on September 17, 1893. His father, Marcus Gillette, a telegraph operator, was born in Dayton, Ohio, in 1842, and died in 1914. His mother, Mrs. Anna (Hartley) Gillette, was born in Pennsylvania in 1866 and died in 1924. Mr. Gillette attended the Bay City elementary and high schools, after which he entered a machine shop. After working as a machinist for several years he accepted a position with Vaughn's Home Bakery, and married Mae, daughter of the proprietor, John Vaughn, on December 22, 1921. Mr. Gillette and wife succeeded to the ownership of the bakery at the death of its founder. Mr. Gillette is a thirty-second degree Mason, an Odd Fellow and a Knight of Pythias. He also is affiliated with the Bay City Board of Commerce. He and Mrs. Gillette have a delightful residence at 211 South Dean street, where they often entertain groups of their friends. Morris W. Goldberg, McKinley avenue and Saginaw street, Bay City, the only exclusive wholesale dealer in cigars, tobacco and candy in northern Michigan, was born in Europe and came to the United States at the age of fourteen years. After graduating from the Lincoln school he worked in an uncle's store in the coun

Page  204 204 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY try about sixty-five miles from Bay City, receiving for his services four dollars per week. Wage increases came regularly but not copiously to the young business man. He was raised to five dollars a week, then to six, seven, and, when he demanded the princely sum of eight dollars for each week's labor, his employer refused to meet his demands, and Morris quit. This proved to be a fortunate move for he started a store of his own on Columbus avenue, Bay City, and immediately began to prosper. After operating this store eight years he sold it to his brothers and started the Morris Tobacco Company, in which his father, William Goldberg, was also an investor. This store also thrived, and, in 1924, the company purchased a substantial building containing two floors, each fifty by sixty feet, at the corner of McKinley and Saginaw streets, the present site of the Morris wholesale tobacco and candy house. Twelve persons are employed by this concern, which distributes its wares in Bay City, Saginaw and surrounding territory. Mr. Goldberg married Ida Levinson in 1916. They have two children, Joseph Percival and Miriam Libby. Mr. Goldberg is a member of the Odd Fellows, the Elks, the Board of Commerce and the Eastern Michigan Tourists' association. Edgar C. Gould, of the Sloan-Gould Lumber Co., John and William streets, Bay City, was born in Bay City on August 6, 1879, the son of Fred J. and Emma Gould, natives of England, who came to the United States soon after their marriage. Mr. Gould attended the public schools in Bay City and graduated from the Bay City high school. He entered the lumber industry soon after finishing his studies and has been in this business continuously since that time. A few years ago he became a member of the firm with which he is now associated. This company handles a complete line of building supplies in addition to selling lumber to both the retail and wholesale trade. He is a member of the Blue lodge and Grotto of the Masons, and is also an Elk, a member of the Au Sable River Recreation club and the Board of Commerce. He was married on December 16, 1916, to Beulah Boston, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John Boston, of Blay City, both of whom are now dead. Mr. Boston, for several years, was recorder of Bay City. Mer. Gould's hobby is hunting and fishing. In addition to the lovely home he and his wife occupy at 2320 Broadway street, Bay City, he maintains a cottage at a beautiful spot on the bay, where he and his friends often go for a fishing or hunting expedition. John P. Greenwald, owner of the only laundry in Bay City, was born in Adrian, Michigan, November 11, 1871, the son of John George and Elizabeth Greenwald. He began his business career in a bakery where he worked for two years. He then became owner of the Troy laundry, at Adrian, which he conducted for five years. Seeing the opportunities in the laundry business and having a thorough knowledge of the methods of the industry, he purchased the American Laundry in Bay City, changing the name to the Greenwald Laundry. He at once instituted modern methods

Page  205 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 205 of caring for the articles passing through his plant and quickly established a large and profitable trade. As his business increased he expanded his plant, purchasing, one by one, the McKnight Electric, Star, Ideal, Model, Troy and Bay City Laundry Co. establishments and obtaining their customers. Proof of Mr. Greenwald's ability to please the public is shown by the fact that practically all of the persons who patronized the laundries he purchased are now his patrons. At the present time he is laundryman for almost every resident of Bay City, and the sole owner of the business, which he established in 1901. During a portion of 1916 and 1917 he operated the Hudson Auto Sales Co., which he founded. He is a leader in civic affairs. He is president of the Auto Club of Northern Michigan, which was recently consolidated with the Bay City Motor club, of which he was president for five years previous. He is a member of several fraternal organizations and an enthusiastic Rotarian. As chairman of the Crippled Children's committee of this club he finds an opportunity to express the sympathy and kindliness which is a large part of his nature. He takes much pleasure in making these unfortunate little ones happy, and spares no effort in furthering the constructive program planned in their behalf by the Rotary clubs throughout the country. This work is his chief hobby. He is the father of one child, Geraldine, who is now Mrs. Harvey N. Heald, of Billings, Montana. Chauncey Gregory, printer and stationer, Bay City, was born in Canada in 1859. He came to Bay City as a child and attended the old Farragut school. In addition to managing his printing and stationery business, he is active in many other enterprises. He is a director in the Mutual Building and Loan Association, of Bay City, vice-president of the Samaritan hospital association and vicepresident of the Chamber of Commerce. Though active in civic affairs, he has never aspired to public office. He is a thirty-second degree Mason, a Knight Templar, an Elk, a member of the Bay City Yacht club, Rotary club and Country club. He was married in 1880 to Ethel Cornick, of Saginaw. They have three children, Lawrence C., S. J., and Alice, who is now Mrs. Henry A. Larsen, of Oakland, California. He and his family are members of the Episcopal church. John Gregory, printer, 108 Fifth avenue, Bay City, was born in Canada in 1857, the second child of John and Rebecca Gregory. In 1865, after the death of his mother, his father came to Bay City and entered the building construction business in which he continued until his death. He erected many important structures in Bay City, including a number of schools. He was prominent in civic affairs and served as supervisor several years. Five of his six children are still living. They are: Chauncey, John, Mrs. William Drake, Mrs. F. B. Spear, and Frank H. John Gregory and his brother Chauncey graduated from the elementary schools in Bay City and enrolled in the high school on the day it was opened to students. They were also members of the first graduating class

Page  206 206 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY at the school. Mr. Gregory learned the printing trade in the shop of R. L. Warren, for whom he worked fourteen years. He also was employed by other commercial printers until 1881, when he and his brother assumed the management of the Tribune job printing department. They continued in this location until 1915, when they moved into their present plant at 108 Fifth avenue. This building was one of the many erected by their father. The firm is now incorporated with Lawrence C. and S. J. Gregory, sons of Chauncey Gregory, and George, son of John Gregory as assistants in the business. Mr. Gregory was married in 1888 to Emma Raby. They have three children, Daniel J., George and Jeanette, now Mrs. Harold O'Brien, of Bay City. Wright Gregory, manufacturer of monuments, Ridge road, Bay City, was born in Sheffield, England, February 23, 1869. He received his early education in the schools at Sheffield, coming to the United States at the age of eighteen years. He first lived at Port Huron, Michigan, where he was employed in the Truesdale monument works for seven years. He then moved to Detroit to accept a position with the F. W. Peel company. In 1894 he resigned this position to come to Bay City as manager of the Beard & De Merril Monument Works. Two years later he founded his own business on South Linn street. He afterward obtained a location on Ridge road, opposite Elm Lawn Cemetery, where his present factory is situated, and for awhile he operated both plants, manufacturing monuments and markers. He has since sold the plant on South Linn street. The Ridge road factory is his own business in every way. No other person has any financial interest in the enterprise, which is the oldest and largest monument works in the city. He was married in 1893 to Ann L. McGuire, of Jackson, Michigan. He is a Mason, a Knight Templar and a member of the Shrine. He is also affiliated with the Elks. He and his wife attend the Episcopal church. Joseph C. Grosjean, M. D., Fay building, Bay City, and vicepresident and medical director of the Agricultural Life Insurance Co. of America, Davidson building, was born in Ontario, Canada, on July 13, 1873. After graduating from high school he taught classes in the elementary grades several years. He obtained his medical education at Trinity University, Toronto, graduating in 1900 with the degrees of M. D., C. M. He came at once to Bay City where, for nineteen years, he has been a successful general practitioner. He is a member of the Bay County Medical Society the Michigan State Medical Society, the American Medical Association, Bay City lodge of Elks, No. 88, the Knights of Columbus and St. Boniface Catholic church. He was married in 1897 to Evelyn Fox, of Cobourg, Ontario, Canada. Dr. Grosjean owns a handsome residence at 1214 McKinley avenue. Eugene J. Guillemette, general insurance broker, 208 Davidson building, Bay City, was born in this city, March 18, 1889, the son of Henry J. and Caroline (LaPrise) Guillemette. His father, a na

Page  207 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 207 tive of Quebec, came to Bay City in 1879; and his mother, who was born in Three Rivers, Canada, came to this city in 1880, where they married. Henry J. Guillemette was in the barber business in Bay City twenty-seven years, continuing in that occupation until a short while before his death in 1906, at the age of forty-six years. His widow lived until 1922, when she died at the age of fifty-two. Eugene J. Guillemette obtained his education in the grade and high schools of his native city. He began his business career in a minor position in the Bay City National Bank, where he remained ten years, winning several promotions. In 1918 he resigned from the bank to accept a position with the International Mill & Timber Co., for whom he worked two years. At this time he entered the insurance business, specializing in automobile insurance. In this occupation he has been remarkably successful, and has built up a large clientele. He is a member of St. Joseph's Catholic church; the Knights of Columbus, which he joined in 1914; the St. Joseph's high school alumni association and various civic organizations. He was married on June 2, 1914, to Marie Gougeon, of Bay City. They have three children: Pauline, born May 24, 1915; Marian, born July 26, 1918, and Albert, born January 27, 1923. Wilbert H. Gustin, editor of the Times-Tribune, is a veteran in newspaper work. He was born in Vienna, Ontario, Canada, September 6, 1860, the son of Henry A. and Eliza (Keays) Gustin, who were both natives of Canada. Henry A. Gustin came to Bay City in 1864 and moved his family to the city the following year. He operated a grocery until 1872, when he entered the lumber business. He was interested in the affairs of the city and was assistant treasurer, and later treasurer of Bay City, serving in these capacities for twelve or fifteen years until a little later he retired from active business. He was the father of four sons and two daughters. Wilbert Gustin had his education in the public schools of Bay City and after this was finished became interested with his brother in the job printing business. He continued in this until 1879 when he began his newspaper work as a reporter, and since that time has spent forty-six years at his chosen occupation. In 1889 he started the publication of the Bay City Times which was later merged with several other dailies and then became the present Times-Tribune of which he is managing editor and a stockholder. He was married to Harriet E. Cumming of Churchville, New York, August 5, 1891, and three children have been born to this union, who are: Gertrude, E., now Mrs. W. D. Penwarden, of New York, a successful actress, in which calling her husband is also a success; Herbert A., general manager for a vending company of Chicago; and Harriet C., engaged in the advertising business in Cleveland. All three children are college graduates and are very efficient in their various fields of endeavor. Mr. Gustin is a member of the Knights of Pythias, an Elk, and one of the early members of the Bay City Rotary club. The family attend the First Presby

Page  208 208 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY terian church, but Mr. Gustin is independent of denomination in his religious views. He is to be thought of as one of the city's foremost men and is widely known and respected in the community. Albert H. Halverson, secretary of the Halverson Lumber and Salt Co., was born in Bay City on September 28, 1884, the son of Andrew and Gertrude Louise (Larson) Halverson, natives of Norway. His father, a sawmill employe, came to America about 1881, and his mother soon after. The father died in 1905 and the mother in 1917. They were the parents of four children; Hans, who died in 1917, Louis, who lives in Flint, Michigan, Gertrude, who is a resident of Chicago, and Albert H., the subject of this sketch. Mr. Halverson had but six years in school when he dropped his classes and started his career with a job in a shoe store where he acted as delivery boy, swept the floor and did various lowly tasks. From the shoe store he graduated to other and more responsible positions. He finally obtained a position with the Robert Gage Coal Co., where he remained ten years. During part of this time he had charge of the surface work at number five, six and seven mines of this concern. Resigning from that position he became associated with the Hine Lumber Co., of Bay City, later going to Detroit and opening a yard there for that firm. One year later he returned to Bay City and became manager of that branch of the Hine company. On September 1, 1924, he organized the corporation of which he is both secretary and manager. Other officers of the concern are N. R. Wentworth, president, and L. J. Kantyler, vice-president. He is also interested in other business ventures and owns some valuable Bay county real estate. He is a member of the Elks and the Lions club. His wife, whom he married in 1916, was Clara Louise La France, daughter of George La France, of Bay City. Louis Benjamin Harrison, chief chemist of the Bay City Filtration plant was largely responsible for the installation of Bay City's water filtration plant. He was born June 5, 1891, in Poland, the son of Benjamin and Leah (Grossman) Harrison who came to the United States and settled in New York in 1899, where they remained until moving to Canada. Mr. Harrison was educated in the public schools in New York City. He then entered Ohio State University at Columbus, Ohio, where he received the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1916. He then took a course in chemistry and minor bacteriology, working during his spare hours in the laboratory of the filtration plant at that city. On completion of his studies there, he came to Bay City as city chemist and bacteriologist. Realizing the danger of a contaminated water supply, he at once began advocating the erection of a filtration plant for the city's water system. He carried on his campaign for the improvement with the aid of public-spirited citizens who were informed on the subject, gaining new supporters for the improvement rapidly. At the same time he turned his attention to a new reform, that of instituting a routine and bacteriological analysis of milk sold in

Page  209 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 209 Bay City. The present ordinance covering analysis and inspection of milk was drawn by him and submitted to common council, which passed it without amendment. He built up the present organization and laboratory operated by the health department of Bay City, and is in personal charge of laboratory work at the twomillion-dollar filtration system which he helped to create. He was married in 1916 to Pearl Bleheart of St. Paul, Minnesota. They have one child, Marvin, who was born in Bay City. The Harrisons are members of the Hebrew church, Bay City. Both he and his wife are members of the Eastern Star, and he belongs to the Consistory and thirty-second degree of the Masons, in addition to the Elks lodge. Among the professional organizations in which he holds membership are the American Public Health Association, the American Chemical Society, and the American Water Works association. Ernest C. Hartz, dealer in butter, eggs and produce, 1728 McKinley avenue, Bay City, was born in Germany on April 18, 1868. He came to America at the age of six years with his parents, Charles and Alvina (Kessler) Hartz, who settled at New Baltimore, McComb county, Michigan, on a farm. Both of his parents are now dead. After finishing his studies in the schools of McComb county, Hartz went to work on the Bradley farm in Tuscola county, remaining there several years, and later coming to Bay City in the employ of the same man. He next obtained a position in the McDonald hardware store, where he stayed ten years. Resigning this position he accepted another in the Meisel & Goshel wholesale grocery store, where he was a valued employe for a period of twelve years. In 1902 he started a small produce business, buying and selling butter and eggs, at 1728 McKinley avenue. This property, when he bought it, was part of an open space used for a circus ground. It is now well within the city limits and is valued at many times the price paid for it. In 1912 he built a fine residence on Ninth street, adjoining his big produce warehouse. His business has enjoyed a steady growth since its inception, and last year's receipts totaled over one hundred and fifty-eight thousand dollars. The firm is now known as E. C. Hartz & Son. He is also part owner of the Peoples Coal Co., of Bay City. He was married in 1890 to Clara Chamberline, a native of Vermont. They have three children: Earl, of Bay City, Mildred, a school teacher at Farmington, and Harry, his father's assistant in the produce business. Their other child, Walter, is now dead. Mr. Hartz is a member of the Presbyterian church, an Elk and a former councilman. He feels a certain amount of satisfaction in his accomplishments, having come to Bay City in 1883 as a sixteen-year-old boy with but twenty-five cents in his pockets. George Heinberg, manufacturer of proprietary remedies, Bay City holds many military decorations from his native land, Germany, and also enjoys the distinction of having been able to obtain his liberty after having been captured by the Russian army

Page  210 210 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY during the World war. Born May 4, 1883, he was carefully educated for his profession, the practice of medicine. He attended and received diplomas from the "Wir-Rektor und Senat der Albertus Universitat' zu Konigsberg," Prussia, and also FriedrichWilhelm University at Berlin. On completion of his medical education he began practice, first serving in the ranks of the German army for a period of six months, and then becoming a medical officer, holding the rank for about five years and receiving several promotions. He was awarded the Golden Cross of Germany for religious services, the Red Eagle Cross, given for saving a life after the attending physician had given up the case, and the Red Cross, for medical services. In 1916, while with the German army, he was captured by Russian forces. He later obtained his release and reached America, where a friend brought him to the residence of Fred Gerble, Bay City, his present home. Dr. Heinberg is now a naturalized citizen of the United States and is very proud of that fact. He manufactures a number of medicines which enjoy a wide distribution. He married a Bay county girl, Louise Nestler. Dr. Heinberg is a liberal contributor to the Lutheran church of Bay City. Ira J. Hiller, undertaker, 207 North Wenona avenue, Bay City, was born June 27, 1858, on a farm on the banks of Cass lake, Oakland county, Michigan, the son of Jacob and Arvilla J. Hiller. His father, a native of New York, acquired this farm by an original deed from the United States government and lived on it until his death at the advanced age of eighty-five years. His mother at this time moved to Bay City, where she died four years later. The farm, which then became the property of the son, has thus passed through but one ownership since being deeded by the government. Mr. Hiller attended the schools in Oakland county, and graduated from the high school at Pontiac. He married, on November 11, 1880, Miss Ella J. Bunyeu. They have three children: Carrie Mae, Glenn B., and Beryl Irene; one other child having died at the age of two years. He and his family lived on the home farm until 1898, when he came to Bay City and established himself in the undertaking business. Like his father, who was a leader in all community activities, Hiller takes a keen interest in civic affairs and is prominent in the work of the Methodist Episcopal church. He is a member of all branches of the Masons, the Odd Fellows, the Maccabees and the Knights of Pythias. Samuel G. Houghton, judge of the circuit court, is in every sense of the word a self made man. Born on a farm September 3, 1865, he is the son of David Houghton and Amanda Smith Houghton, early settlers in Oakland county, Michigan. His earliest ambitions were to be a lawyer, and long before he had ever met a member of that profession or entered a law court, he was making plans to that end. He began his education in the district schools of Shiawassee county. He then chose Valparaiso University in which to complete his studies, feeling that he could get through faster in

Page  211 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 211 that institution, and completed three years work in two, teaching between his terms at school. He worked his way through school and was given a first grade teachers license. He then taught in the schools in Williams township and spent the time outside of his work in the study of law. After serving in the office of C. E. Pierce, he was examined in open court in Bay City and admitted to the bar. He established his residence in Bay county, and after teaching a year to provide himself with a few books, began his practice in West Bay City. In 1899 he revised the charter for West Bay City, and in 1900 was appointed city attorney. In this capacity he assisted in 1903 in preparing the consolidation charter for the two cities, and since it was a document of great importance, spent a great deal of time in its composition, reading and rereading it many times in the interest of the community which he represented. After the consolidation of the two cities he became the city attorney and served faithfully in that position for twelve years with the exception of a brief recess. In 1916 by a special election, he became circuit court judge and has filled the office since the first of December of that year, to the satisfaction of those whom he serves. In May of 1899, he married Maud E. Ballard, native of Ohio and a sister of Dr. Ballard of Bay City, and there is one daughter, Marjorie. Judge Houghton's parents were pioneers in Oakland, Michigan. The paternal grandfather helped carry provisions from Freeland to his daughter's home in Williams township. David Houghton, the father of Samuel Houghton, once came to this county enroute to Williams township. He applied to the ferry-man at Bay City for a position and was engaged but after they had reached the opposite shore, he continued his journey. After his marriage he moved to Shiawassee county, Michigan. His wife, Amanda (Smith) Houghton, came to Williams township, where her brother resided, previous to her marriage, about 1861 or 1862. At that time "Mother Hayes' Tavern" constituted the town of West Bay City; there was no bridge across the Saginaw river and the trip from Bay City was made by ox team over a corduroy road that was in a very poor condition. On her arrival in Williams township she was engaged in teaching school until the time of her marriage. Her brother, Henry Smith, mentioned as being a resident of the township before her arrival, was a soldier during the Civil war. Her sister-in-law, Mrs. Maria Shelton, was also an early settler in the county. Judge Houghton is prominent in various fraternal organizations, holding membership in the Knights of Pythias, the I. O. O. F., the Elks, the Eagles, and the Moose. He has reached the highest place in the Masonic order, that of the thirty-third degree. The Houghtons worship at the Presbyterian church on the east side of the city. Judge Houghton is one of Bay City's most widely known and highly respected citizens. William J. Hughes, plumber, of Bay City, traces his ancestry to his great-grandparents, Thomas and Jane (Thompson) Hughes,

Page  212 212 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY who left their native land, Ireland, and settled in Michigan when the state was little more than a wilderness. At that time their son John, grandfather of William J. Hughes, was ten years old. Thomas Hughes was a farmer all his active years. His wife, who preceded him in death, was the first of the many members of the Hughes family to be buried in the cemetery at Bay City. Patrick and Bridget (Dillon) Clifford, also great-grandparents of William J. Hughes, were natives of Ireland and came to America about the same time as Thomas and Jane Hughes. Clifford was a school teacher, who lived to a ripe old age despite the active part he played in the early history of Michigan. John Hughes, who married Margaret Clifford, also a native of Ireland, farmed in southern Michigan many years before he finally came to the Saginaw valley and settled in Bay City. This move was made in 1863, when he obtained employment in the sawmills. Later he worked in the first salt plant in Bay City, which was owned by Sage and McGraw, pioneers of the salt industry. In reaching Bay City, Hughes and his family traveled by way of the Grand Trunk railway to Flint, which was then the terminus of the line. From there to Bay City the trip was made by stagecoach. John Hughes had but one child, a son, William Patrick, who received the bulk of his education at Banks, Michigan, where his father was employed for a few years by the Keystone Lumber Co. The Hughes family returned to Bay City in 1875, and the son immediately obtained a job in the McGraw planing mill. Later he became a stationary boiler fireman, working in both the salt works and planing mills. In 1884 he became an engineer, and for awhile ran the engines in the Edmund Hall mills at Sarnia, Canada. Later he was employed by Jonathan Boyce, and then by the Peters Company, spending in all eight years at Sarnia. He then returned to Bay City, where his father died in 1907. William J. Hughes began his career as a plumber in Bay City, having as an employe for a short while his father, William Patrick Hughes, who later resigned to accept a position with the Bay City Machine & Foundry Co., where he is now employed. W. J. Hughes began to learn the plumbers' trade at the age of seventeen years, and when he started in business for himself was a thorough mechanic. Since the beginning of his business career in 1917 he has enjoyed a steady and profitable patronage. He was married, in 1913, to Sadie Farquharson, daughter of John A. Farquharson, of Bay City. They have three children, Robert Leo, Paul and Gwendolyn. One child, Clifford, is dead. Mr. Hughes is a member of the Knights of Columbus, the Elks and the Lions club. He is a committeeman of St. James' Catholic church, a director of the Michigan Association of Master Plumbers and president of the Bay City plumbers' organization. His mother. who before her marriage was Virginia May Gougeon, daughter of Peter and Matilee (Charlebois) Gougeon, early settlers of Bay City, is living at the family home 401 Eighteenth street. This dwelling was built by her husband's father, John Hughes. She

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Page  213 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 213 is the mother of eight children, all of whom are living. Their names, in the order of their birth, are Margaret, Pearl, William J., Alfred, John, Virginia, Katherine, and Mark. Almond Hutchins, who is head of a general garage and auto repair business at 200 South Henry street, Bay City, was born at Standish, Michigan, February 8, 1892. His father, Stephen Hutchins, came to Bay City with his family in 1907, remaining here until his death. The widow, Mrs. Amelia (Stankey) Hutchins, is still living at the family home. Almond Hutchins attended the schools in Gladwin county until his parents moved to Bay City, when he obtained a job in the DeFoe Boat & Motor Works at the foot of Center street. The entire force of the DeFoe plant consisted at that time of three men and their employer. Hutchins continued in this position until July 13, 1917, when he enlisted in the United States navy. He was on duty with the Atlantic coast patrol forces most of his time in the navy, obtaining his discharge on March 3, 1919. Returning to Bay City he obtained employment with the Farmers' Auto and Machine Co. He later purchased this enterprise, which he enlarged and developed to what is now a thriving business. He is a member of the Masonic order. George D. Jackson, president of the Conmey-Randall Lumber Co., of Bay City, has spent almost a half-century in the lumber business in the Saginaw valley and province of Ontario, Canada. He was born in Algonac, St. Clair county, December 16, 1862, the son of Captain Charles K. and Eleanor (Pangborn) Jackson, both of whom were born and reared in that community. Captain Charles K. Jackson was the son of Michael Jackson, who was born in England in 1805 and who was brought to the United States by his parents when he was eight years old, or in the year 1813. His father and mother, who were the great-grandparents of George D. Jackson, the subject of this sketch, first settled on a farm in the state of New York, but in 1835 the family came to Michigan and became residents of Bedford. Michael Jackson, grandfather of George D. Jackson, was a resident of Algonac for more than fifty years, kept hotel and was the first to look after the lighthouses located at the St. Clair flats. He died in 1883. Charles K. Jackson, father of George D. Jackson, served nearly two years during the Civil war with the twenty-second Michigan volunteer infantry, and was in many important engagements. After the war he returned to Algonac, and resumed his former occupation as captain of steam vessels on the Great Lakes. He died in 1908, and his widow, Mrs. Eleanor (Pangborn) Jackson, died in 1920. She was the descendant of pioneer residents of Algonac. Her father came to Algonac from his native state, Vermont, and her mother was the daughter of William Brown, one of the pioneer settlers of St. Clair county. George D. Jackson attended school in his home town until he became fourteen years of age. He then came to Bay City, where he began working for his uncle, Gurdon K. Jackson, one of the leading lumber shippers of the Saginaw valley, in tallying lumber

Page  214 214 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY on the river docks. He continued in learning the various branches of the lumber industry until 1886. In that year he started in business for himself as a lumber inspector and shipper, and in 1906 he had accumulated sufficient capital to become interested with W. H. Sharp and Guy Moulthrop in Canadian timber in the north, ern district of Ontario. Their sawmill was located at Little Current, Ontario. In 1910 Mr. Jackson acquired the Moulthrop and Sharp interests. His various business ventures were quite successful; and in 1919 Mr. Jackson disposed of his holdings in Ontario to devote his undivided attention to his interests in Bay City and vicinity. Prior to his investing in Canadian timber, he was interested in coal mining, was president of the Bay City Box & Lumber Co. and was also interested in the vessel business. Mr. Jackson has for years been a leader in the campaigns of the democratic party. He served his ward as alderman two years, and was then elected mayor of Bay City, being the youngest man ever to hold that office. His tenure of office was from 1891 to 1895. During a special election in 1901 he was a candidate for congress on the democratic ticket, with a normal republican majority of nine thousand votes to overcome, but in spite of that enormous handicap, Mr. Jackson was defeated by but seven hundred and twenty-eight votes, which is ample evidence of his high standing in his community. He is a director in the First National bank and the Bay County Savings bank. He also belongs to the Bay City lodge of Elks. He was married in 1885 to Imogene Ramsdell, whose father James Ramsdell, a native of Maine and a thorough lumberman, came to Bay City where he was a prominent figure in the lumber industry until he died, in 1877. Mr. Jackson is well-liked and highly respected, and has a host of friends throughout the state. William Harold Jenkins, superintendent of the Bay City office of the Bradstreet mercantile agency, 403 Crapo building, began to earn his own living when he was six years old, by selling newspapers. He was born in Bay City on December 12, 1889, the son of David and Ida (Angus) Jenkins, and one of a family of nine children. His father, a native of Wales, was reared in Pennsylvania. His mother, who was born in England, came to New York when quite young and later moved to Michigan. Mr. and Mrs. David Jenkins, when first married, lived in St. Helen for a whole, going from there to Detroit and coming from that city to Bay county. The father, who was engaged in building lumber mills, was accidentally killed while at work in the south in 1894. His widow never remarried, and is now living in Detroit at the age of sixty years. William H. Jenkins, though busy after school and on Saturdays in selling papers and earning small sums in other work, did not shirk his studies. He finished the elementary grades and entered high school, obtaining a position with the Bradstreet company before he had completed his course in the latter institution. He has been employed by this company continuously since that time, a period of over twenty years. Recognizing his ability

Page  215 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 215 and appreciating his faithfulness, the company made him superintendent of its Bay City office on March 1, 1925. In November, 1911, he married Blanche M. Proulx, of Bay City. He is a member of Joppa lodge No. 315, F. & A. M., Bay City Chapter R. A. M., Shoppenhagon Grotto, Elks, and the Rotary club. His family are members of the Episcopal church, where he and his brothers formerly sang in the choir. G. L. Jenner, superintendent of the Bay City schools, was born December 28, 1873, in Chautauqua county, New York. After coming to Michigan he attended Ypsilanti Normal school, passed the state examination for teachers and was assigned a school at Mt. Pleasant, Michigan. In 1905 he obtained a Life Teacher's Certificate, entitling him to teach in any elementary public school in Michigan without further examination. Later he entered the University of Michigan, obtaining his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1909 and his Master of Arts degree in 1923. The first time Mr. Jenner was in a high school building was when he went to Coleman, Michigan, as superintendent of schools, as he went directly from the elementary school into the higher classes at the Ypsilanti Normal school. He was superintendent of the schools at Pontiac for eleven years. During a part of his time at the University of Michigan he was assistant instructor in the physics department. His first school, in Isabella county, was given him when he was but sixteen years old. He was a student at the Normal school at the age of fifteen years. Since coming to Bay City in 1922 he has instituted several important additions to the school system. One of his valuable innovations is the Bay City Junior college, which high school graduates may attend for a period of two years, receiving full college credits at any university or college in Michigan for all work done in the Bay City institution. This school is also largely attended by high school graduates who desire to become teachers, special courses for these students being a part of the Bay City Junior college curriculum. Mr. Jenner has also accomplished a meritorious work in establishing the junior high school system in Bay City. "Part-time" classes, a county Normal school and vocational departments in the high school are results of his enthusiasm and energy. He is a Mason, belonging to the Moslem temple of the Shrine at Detroit and the Consistory at Bay City. He also is affiliated with the Rotary club. He was married on November 4, 1899, to Maud Lelia Clark of Isabella county. John A. Johnson, was born in Chicago, August 14, 1865, son of Gustav Johnson, a native of Sweden, who came to the United States and located in Chicago in 1865. He was a carpenter and contractor, well known in building circles in Chicago as he was employed for building the first pavilion in Lincoln Park in that city. The family lost all in the Chicago fire of 1871 and as a boy of six years Mr. Johnson moved with his parents to Lockport, Illinois, where his father died the same year. Here he received his education. When he was seventeen he returned to Chicago and be

Page  216 216 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY came employed in a grocery and at several other jobs until he reached the age of twenty. When natural gas began to become an important factor, he went to Pittsburgh where he became connected with a company interested in the piping and confining of gas. He continued in this work in Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana until he had reached the age of twenty-four, when the company in Auburn, Indiana, enlarged its scope of activities to include electricity, and he was placed in charge of that part of the work. In this connection it might be said that this was the beginning of a career in electrical work. The company for which he worked sent him to various places as his services were needed, and in the years between 1887 and 1893, he built and operated the electric light plants at Auburn, Butler, Kendallville, Nappanee and Garrett, Indiana. In December, 1894, Mr. Johnson, with his brother-inlaw, Etna Kuhlman, organized the Kuhlman Electric Company at Elkhart, Indiana. Mr. Johnson became secretary of the company and his duties were the care of the offices and the factory. In 1915 the company moved to Bay City and reorganized under the Michigan laws, retaining the original name. In 1917, Mr. Kuhlman died, and Mr. Johnson has operated the business since. He was married in 1889 to Alda May Prosser, of Auburn, Indiana, and two sons came to bless the union, who are: Frank E., and Richard P., both connected with their father's business. Mr. Johnson is a prominent Mason, holding membership in all branches of the order, and is also affiliated with the Elks and the Rotary club. Mrs. Johnson is 6f the Christian Scientist faith. Mr. Johnson is esteemed in the community, not only for his business ability, but for his excellent personal qualities. Edwin T. Jones, secretary and treasurer of the Clute Coal & Supply Co., 963 East Midland street, Bay City, was born in Bay City on March 11, 1872, while his parents, Frank and Cora (Sharp) Jones, of Livingston county, New York, were visiting here. After his birth his parents returned to New York, where his mother died a few years later. Mr. Jones returned to Bay City in 1890, and he has made this city his home ever since. His father, who was a contractor and builder, returned to Bay City in 1900 and many homes now standing in Bay City were erected by him. He continued in this occupation until two years before his death, on January 12, 1925, at the age of seventy-three years. He was a member of the Elks and the Masons and a sincere believer in the future of Bay City. Edwin T. Jones graduated from the Nunda, Livingston county, New York, high school with the class of 1890 and in September of that year he was employed by Daunt & Sharp, of Bay City. His next position was with the Bell Telephone company, where he spent two years as manager of their new business department. Then went with the Michigan Sugar Company at Saginaw as bookkeeper. After working for this concern three years he resigned to accept a position with the Consumers Power Co., where he stayed three years. On leaving this company he became as

Page  217 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 217 sociated with Handy Brothers of Bay City, for whom he worked ten years. At the death of C. M. Clute, in 1915, Mr. Jones assisted in the organization of the Clute Coal & Supply company and became the secretary and treasurer of the new concern. He was married in 1903 to Mabel Pierce, of Bay City, whose father, Capt. Daniel Pierce, was born in 1838, came to Bay county in 1843, and died in November, 1925. Mr. and Mrs. Jones have two sons, Frank, age eighteen, a senior at Central high school, and Ted, age ten. Mr. Jones has the distinction of being treasurer of more social and fraternal organizations than any other man in Bay county, and perhaps in the state of Michigan. He holds that responsible office in the Bay City Commandery of the Knights Templar, the Rotary club, the Automobile club of Northern Michigan, the Bay City Coal Exchange, and the B. P. 0. E. He is a member of all bodies of the Masons with the exception of the thirty-third degree. He is also a member of the Knights of Pythias. He is known as an able business man and a conscientious citizen. John A. Keho, M. D., 211 Henry street, Bay City, member of the board of health and staff physician at Mercy hospital, was born July 6, 1874, at Saginaw, Michigan. He attended the parochial schools in that city for a number of years before entering Assumption College, Ontario, Canada, where he graduated in 1894. He then enrolled in the Detroit College of Medicine & Surgery, graduating from that institution in 1897. His next two years were spent as an interne in St. Mary's hospital, at Saginaw, where he gained much valuable experience. In 1898 he began general practice at Merrill, Michigan, coming from there to Bay City in 1906. Here he has established a large and lucrative practice of a varied nature. For a period of ten years he was health officer of Bay City, and administered the affairs of that office in a highly satisfactory manner. He is now a member of the board of health and the staff of Mercy hospital. On June 24, 1903, he was married to Sarah McCrickett, of Bay City. They have three children: Clemelia, born April 11, 1904, is a graduate of St. Mary's high school and now a senior at State Normal college, at Ypsilanti; Sarah Louise, born March 6, 1906, is now a student at St. Mary's high school, and John J., born December 25, 1914, is their youngest child. Mrs. Keho is herself a graduate of St. James high school and of St. Mary's training school for nurses. Dr. Keho is a member of the Bay County Medical Society, the Michigan State Medical Society and the American Medical Association. He and his family are members of the parish of St. Mary's Catholic church. Matthew J. Kelley, president of the Bay City Plumbing & Heating Co., 1703 Third street, Bay City, and who resides at 1823 Woodside avenue, was born in Bay City on February 2, 1872, the son of John and Katherine (Slattery) Kelley, both of whom were born in Ireland. John Kelley came to Canada, when he was four years old with his parents, Matthew and Margaret Kelley, who later settled in Bay county. Matthew Kelley was accidentally

Page  218 218 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY killed while working in the woods in 1859. His widow died in Bay City many years later at the advanced age of eighty-six. Katherine Slattery, who later married John Kelley and became the mother of the subject of this sketch, came to New York City from her native land when she was fifteen years old to make her home with a sister, and soon afterward arrived in Bay City. John Kelley, a salt-maker, died in 1914. His widow is now living in Bay City, at the age of seventy-nine years. He was a member of the parish of St. James Catholic church, as was also his wife. He was active in politics, being in some campaigns a democrat and in others a republican. He served as a member of the board of education fourteen years. Mr. and Mrs. Kelley were the parents of eight children, all of whom are living. Their son, Matthew J. Kelley, began to earn his own livelihood at the age of fifteen years. His first job was in the Charles H. Wells barrel factory, where he worked four years. He then became an apprentice in the Watson Brothers & Tossell plumbing shop, where he remained until after he had thoroughly learned the trade. For a number of years he worked in various places, organizing the Bay City Plumbing & Heating Co. in 1904. This concern was at first a partnership, which was very successful. It was incorporated in 1915 with Mr. Kelley as president and R. H. Schafer as secretary and treasurer. Mr. Kelley is a member of the Master Plumbers' Association of Bay City, the Knights of Columbus, the Elks and the Modern Woodmen of America, having been affiliated with the last named organization for more than thirty years. He was married on May 28, 1906, to Ethel McGuire, of East Tawas, Michigan, a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Patrick McGuire. Mr. and Mrs. Kelley have four children: John Patrick, who is named for both of his grandfathers, born August 24, 1907, and now a senior in St. James high school; Katherine, born September 23, 1908, a junior in St. James high school; Matthew James, born October 12, 1910, a freshman at St. James high school, and William Francis, born April 20, 1912. Mr. Kelley and family are members of the parish of St. James Catholic church. William C. Kendell, D. D. S., 310 Center avenue, Bay City, one of the most prominent of the younger dentists of this city, was born April 17, 1894, in Ontario, Canada, where he obtained his early education. After graduating from high school he entered the University of Michigan, graduating from the dental department of that institution in 1919. He came to Bay City later in the same year and began the practice of his profession. Despite his youth, he quickly won the confidence of the public, and he is, today, an extremely busy man. He is entirely modern in all of his methods, and keeps abreast of the latest developments in dental surgery, through attending lectures at his Alma Mater and at the meetings of the various professional organizations with which he is affiliated. He is a member of the Bay county Dental Society, the Michigan Dental Society and the American Dental Association. Fraternally

Page  219 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 219 he is an Elk and a Mason, holding his membership in Joppa lodge No. 315 and the Knights Templar of the latter order. He is also affiliated with the Rotary club and the Automobile Association of Northern Michigan. He was married on December 17, 1919, to Ardell Rayment, of Chatham, Canada. They have one son, William George, born October 20, 1922. Dr. and Mrs. Kendell attend the First Presbyterian church. William Kerr, M. D., 217-18 Ridotto building, Bay City specialist in diseases of the lungs and former officer of the United States Army Medical Corps, was born in Detroit on January 25, 1866. He was taken by his parents to Canada when he was quite young, and there received his elementary and high school education. He obtained his M. D. degree from the Detroit College of Medicine & Surgery in 1894, and came at once to Bay City to begin practice. He did work of a general nature until the World war, when he was attached to the army tuberculosis service, and stationed for a part of the time at Camp Taylor, Kentucky. The rest of his service during the war was spent as a member of the tuberculosis board in Bay City. He was the first chairman of the Red Cross in Bay City, at the beginning of the war, and has served three terms on the board of health of Bay City. He is now a member of the staff of Mercy hospital, and is affiliated with the Bay County, the Michigan and the American Medical Associations. He is a thirty-second degree Mason, an Elk, a Rotarian and a member of the Izaak Walton League. He was married in 1894 to Fannie Belle Mead of Bay City, member of the Bay City Social Musical club. To this union were born two children. The eldest, Margaret, who is a graduate of the Bay City high school and has studied at the University of Michigan and at the University of Chicago. She is now the wife of Walter A. Reichle, of Bay City, and the mother of one daughter, Mary. Dr. and Mrs. Kerr's second child, John M., is a graduate of the Bay City high school and of the mechanical engineering department of the University of Michigan. He is now superintendent of the Bay City Dredge Co. He married Margaret Ross, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John C. Ross, who are mentioned elsewhere in this work. Mr. and Mrs. Kerr have one daughter, Jean Ann, born in 1925. During the World war Mr. Kerr was sent to the training school for artillery officers and commissioned second lieutenant. He served, as an enlisted man and as an officer, twenty-seven months. Henry C. King, superintendent of the Bay City office of the Prudential Insurance Co., was born September 1, 1880, in Bay City, the son of Alfred M. and Frances (Thomson) King, who are mentioned elsewhere in this publication, in conjunction with the history of Robert L. King and family. Mr. King began work at the age of sixteen years. His first eight years in the business world were spent as a clerk in a drygoods store. The next eight years he was employed by the American Lumber Co., after which he spent several years as a clerk in the Industrial Works. On resigning from

Page  220 220 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY the latter position he began work for the Prudential Insurance Co. as an agent. He has worked his way upward from agent to assistant superintendent and recently obtained his present position as superintendent of the Bay City district of the company, with offices at 403 Phoenix building. He is a member of the Masons and a charter member of Shoppenhagon Grotto club. He was married in 1915 to Jennie Mason, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Anthony Mason of Bay City. Robert Lee King, attorney, Shearer building, Bay City, is a son of Alfred McPherson King, one of the city's best-known lawyers. The father, who was born in Chatham county, Georgia, December 23, 1846, was a son of McMillan and Claudia (Beaufort) King, members of prominent Georgia families. As McMillan King was himself an attorney, Robert Lee King is thus the third member of the family to follow the legal profession. Both of the grandparents were born in America, McMillan King having been of Scotch ancestry, and his wife of French descent. At the close of the Civil war Alfred M. King moved to Canada, where he obtained his legal education at Toronto University. He later entered the law office of Judge Kennedy, a prominent member of the Canadian bar. He then came to Bay City where he taught school for a short while before being admitted to the practice of law, on January 3, 1871. Soon after, on June 4, 1872, he was admitted to practice in United States courts. He has been justice of the peace many years, and has also served as commissioner of the circuit court. At the present time he is a justice of the peace. He was married in 1867 to Frances M. Thomson, of St. Catherines, Canada, a daughter of William and Margaret Thomson who later removed to Michigan, William Thomson's death occurring at Bay City and his wife's demise at Saginaw. Alfred M. King was the father of ten children, five of whom are now living. They are: William H., of California; Robert Lee, namesake of the famous Confederate general; Margaret H.; Harry C.; and John C. King; all of whom with the exception of the first named, were born in Bay City. Robert Lee King received his early education in the schools at Bay City. On leaving school, he learned the machinist trade, at which he was employed for some time. When he decided, later, to follow the example set by his father and grandfather, he entered the Sprague school at Detroit. He obtained his legal education at this institution, and was admitted to the bar on March 29, 1894. He immediately returned to Bay City and opened an office, and has continued to practice in this city since that time. He has showed an admirable adaptation for the legal profession, and has been honored by election to several offices, among which were the police judgeship and the office of circuit court commissioner. He has also been justice of the peace. He has been married twice, having one son Robert F., the child of his first wife, who was, before her marriage, Grace Leonard. His second wife, whom he married in 1906, was Ella Maude Willoughby, of Canada. They have

Page  221 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 221 four children, David, Frances, Hugh, and Bettina. Mr. King is a member of all Masonic bodies. He has held many offices in the Masonic orders, and is now past master of Portsmouth lodge and past high priest of the Blanchard Chapter and Lodge of Perfection. He is also a member of the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks. John E. Kinnane, attorney, Shearer building, Bay City, was born on a farm near Kalamazoo in 1862, the son of Patrick and Mary Kinnane. He received his education in the public schools and at Kalamazoo College, where he graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1885. Then for a period of three years he taught school in Bay county, serving as principal of the school of the village of Essexville, two years of that time. He was elected county school commissioner in 1888, holding that position for five years. In 1889 he passed the bar examinations and was admitted to practice. He became a member of the law firm of Pierce Kinnane, which, twelve years ago, was changed to Kinnane & Leibrand. He is still a member of this partnership, with offices at 404-7 Shearer building. Soon after his admission to the bar, he became assistant prosecuting attorney of Bay county, and in 1911 was a candidate for the office of justice of the supreme court under the democratic standard. He served four years, under two successive governors, as chairman of the Michigan Industrial Accident board which administers the workmen's compensation laws of the state. So able was his conduct of this office and his interpretation of these laws, that he was asked to aid the state of New York in drafting similar legislation. In 1916, he was appointed United States district attorney for the eastern district of Michigan, with offices at Detroit and Bay City. During the World war he was intrusted with the enforcement of much legislation of both military and civil nature. He was prosecutor in the famous Kaldschmidt conspiracy case, in which six persons were found guilty of having conspired to destroy bridges and armories in Canada and the United States. He also prepared and tried the Pillinger-Windhorst "graft" case which grew out of the construction of Camp Custer, Michigan, and obtained the conviction of the principal defendants. What is considered among his greatest legal victories is the Grant Hugh Browne case, in which it was charged that the defendants had conspired to defraud the government in the sale of war materials by the United States salvage boards, which were established throughout the country at the close of the war. This action precipitated a hard fought legal battle which continued three months, resulting finally in conviction of the accused persons. He is known as one of the keenest criminal lawyers in the state of Michigan, and has never failed in his duty toward his client, whether it was the Government, the state or an individual whom he was representing before the bar. He was a delegate from Michigan to the Baltimore National convention of the democratic party in 1912, and to the San Francisco convention in 1920. He has served

Page  222 222 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY as president of the Bay City Board of Commerce and the Bay County Bar Association. He is also a former head of the National Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions. He is now a member of the Detroit Athletic club and the Elks club of Bay City. He was married in 1897 to Maude M. Crosbie. They have two children, Margaret A. and Janet Eleanor. Henry G. Koch, of the Bay City Decorating Co., the leading firm of its kind in this city, was born in Germany, August 9, 1868. His education was obtained in Germany and Austria and included a course in high school and instruction in the art of frescoing and other forms of interior decorating. He came to the United States in 1892, staying for awhile in New York and then going to Saginaw, Michigan. After remaining in that city one year he came to Bay City, where he engaged in the business he now follows, as an employe for other decorators and painters. In 1908 he became identified with his present enterprise which is located at 410 Washington avenue. He has, as a partner in this company, Fred Lutz, who is also an expert in this line of work. A large percentage of the finer buildings in Bay City and surrounding towns have been made beautiful by this enterprising firm. Mr. Koch was married on April 29, 1894, to Amelia Koren, of Bay City. Their first child, Eleanor, a graduate of the Bay City high school, is now the wife of Albert LaVictor, office manager of the Bay City Decorating Co. He was born in Bay Cfty on July 31, 1894, and is a graduate of the high school. He was, before entering the employ of Mr. Koch's company, a metal worker and machinist. Mr. and Mrs. LaVictor have a son, Albert Junior, born February 27, 1922, who is the only grandchild of Mr. and Mrs. Koch. Their second child, Hortense, also a graduate of the Bay City high school, is now Mrs. George W. Thorne, of Santa Cruz, California. Their youngest child, Edward, is now a student at the University of Michigan. I. W. Kopec, proprietor of the Kopec sporting goods store on North Water street, Bay City, was born in Poland on July 24, 1879, the son of Joseph and Josephine Kopec. His father, who came to America in 1880, worked at his trade of blacksmith for a number of years before sending for his family, and died in Bay City, where his widow is now living. I. W. Kopec received his early education in the Polish school in Bay City. His first employment was in a cigar shop, where he was paid $1.50 per week. At this time he was fourteen years old. His next job was in a box factory, at forty-five cents a day. Later he began work in the Peoples Hardware store, where he polished stoves and lifted boxes and other heavy articles for five dollars a week. He then entered the E. & J. Tierney bicycle shop on North Water street at a weekly salary of twelve dollars. Here he learned to repair bicycles, sell goods and manage the various details of the business, and, ten years later, with his savings and a loan from the Tierney brothers, he was able to purchase the store, which at that time had a $10,000 stock of goods. Not long afterward he opened another place of

Page  223 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 223 business in South Bay City, his first store having proved a very profitable investment. While managing these two places he was often compelled to work late at night. Through his industry and frugality he was able, on July 11, 1913, to pay the last of the original fourteen thousand dollar indebtedness with interest at six per cent. He has often expressed his gratitude for the kindness of Edward and James Tierney, who made it possible for him to enter business for himself. His store on North Water street is considered one of the finest of its kind in this section of the state, containing a full line of auto accessories in addition to a large stock of sporting goods. He is very prominent in affairs of the various Polish societies in Bay City, being president of the Kolo Polskie, and a member of the Choir Dzwon, Oswieta, the White Eagle, and the Zwiazek Narodowy. He is also an enthusiastic Elk. He is financially interested in the National Body Co., the Great Lakes Insurance Co. and the Polish Standard Publishing Co. He was married on February 9, 1910, to Margaret Stupak, of Bay City. They have seven children: Delphine, Margaret, Harold, Virginia, Florence, Eugene and Ladislaus. Their second child, Ignatius, died a number of years ago. The Kopecs are members of St. Stanislas Kostka Polish Catholic church. The Rev. Ladislas P. Krakowski, pastor of St. Stanislas Catholic church, Bay City, was born in Poland on May 30, 1876, the son of Thomas and Valeria Krakowski. After the death of his father, who was a sculptor, his mother and the other members of the family came to America. The Rev. Krakowski attended many institutions while being educated for the priesthood. He was a student at St. Francis Seminary at Milwaukee, St. Mary's seminary at Detroit, Sulpician seminary at Baltimore and other schools. After completing his course at the last named institution he returned to St. Francis seminary. He was then ordained at Grand Rapids, Michigan, the ceremony being performed by his own bishop, in 1901. His first active work was at Posen, Michigan, where he remained six weeks. He was then assigned to missionary work and sent to Traverse City, with five missions under his direction. Soon afterward he contracted bronchial trouble, and was sent to Texas to recuperate. He remained there six months, returning to Grand Rapids to accept the post of assistant priest at St. Adelbert's parish. One year later he was commissioned by the bishop to organize a new parish in the Valley avenue district of Grand Rapids. In the period of one year he formed a congregation of ninety families, built a church and school; and, in the following year erected a residence for the pastor. During his third year at this post he supervised the erection of a Sisters' Convent. He was pastor of this parish a total of twelve years, when he was promoted to the church now under his charge at Bay City. Here he has twelve hundred and fifty families, the largest congregation in the diocese, in his care. Since coming to Bay City he has completed the St. Stanislas school building, rebuilt the steeples on the

Page  224 224 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY church, built the pastor's residence and put the parish on a sound financial basis. During the World war he was an active member of the state board of speakers and was one of the "minute men" of Bay City. Some historical data pertaining to St. Stanislas congregation are of interest and are hereunto added. "About 1860 two or three Poles, wandering and seeking opportunity, passed through Bay City. In 1870 the first Poles settled in Bay City. From 1870 to 1874 about one hundred and fifty families drifted into Bay City. In February, 1874, they decided to build a church of their own. In the summer of the same year it was completed, and December 17, 1874, it was dedicated to divine service by the Rt. Rev. Caspar Borgess, Bishop of Detroit. The first pastors were: Rev. Casimir Rohowski, 1875 -76; Rev. Augustus Sklorzyk, 1876-85; Rev. M. Matkowski, 1886-96; Rev. Anthony Bogacki, 1896-97; Rev. Joseph Lewandowski, 1898-1900; Rev. Edward Kozlowski, 1900-14; Rev. Ladislas P. Krakowski, 1914-. Christopher C. Laetz, vice-president and superintendent of the Laetz Foundry Co., Bay City, was born February 15, 1886, in that city, the son of George and Eugene Laetz. His father, a native of Bay county, is now dead, and his mother, who was born in Germany, is still living at the family home in Bay City. George Laetz was for many years the proprietor of a shoe store. He reared a family of one daughter and five sons, four of whom are now residents of Detroit. Christopher, the eldest son, left school when quite young to enter the Industrial Works, where he remained for seven years. During much of this time he attended night school, thereby completing the education he would have obtained had he not gone to work. Leaving his position in the Industrial Works he journeyed about the country, finally reaching the Pacific coast, where he remained for some time before deciding to return to Bay City. Here, in 1915, he accepted a position in the Cooley Castings Co. plant, where he was employed for almost eight years. He then founded his own company, which, in 1924, was incorporated as the Laetz Foundry Co. He has two children: Mildred, a daughter of his first wife, who was, before her marriage, Ada Woodruff; and Marion, daughter of his second wife, whose maiden name was Elsie Schank. He is a member of Bethel Lutheran church. Garrie C. Laing, well known as a publisher and editor, is now serving his community as city clerk. Mr. Laing is a native of Canada, born at Simco, Norfolk county, Ontario, Canada, May 1, 1860, son of John and Sarah E. Laing. John Laing was born in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, December 25, 1799, and his death occurred in 1901 at the age of one hundred and one, having lived in three centuries. He came to Bay City in 1879 and was by occupation, a farmer. He became a Mason at the age of twenty-one. While a resident of Canada he took an active interest in politics but held no offices other than those relative to school work. He was an early advocate of free schools and free text books. Due to

Page  225 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 225 his advanced years, he took little interest in public affairs in Bay City. He was the father of ten children and was a member of the Presbyterian church. His wife, Sarah (Youmans) Laing, was born in Canada. Garrie C. Laing obtained his education in the public schools of his native country. He learned the printing trade in his home town. In 1886 he was the publisher of the Saginaw Valley Daily Star, in business with two others, and after a year sold the paper and established the Daily Advocate. This paper was later sold to George Washington, who operates it at the present time as a weekly and under a different name. He was then with Lovell U. Grant as publisher of the West Side Daily News and Sunday News Graphic. Later he became city editor of the Bay City Tribune, then for twenty-five years Mr. Laing was connected with the Bay City Times as city editor and in other capacities. For the past five years he has occupied his present position as city clerk which includes duties as clerk of the board of education, clerk of the board of estimates, and clerk of the election commission. In 1888 Mr. Laing was united in marriage with Carrie E. Sprague, and there are three children, namely, Ethel, now Mrs. George A. D. Young, of Pontiac, Mac H., an employe of the Michigan Central Railway, and Katherine, who graduated from the State Normal school at Mount Pleasant, in June of 1925 and is now teaching in the public schools at Midland, Michigan. Mr. Laing is affiliated with a number of fraternal and social organizations. He is a member of Portsmouth lodge, F. & A. M., and Shoppenhagon Grotto. He is also a member of the Knights of Pythias, the Exchange club, and the Metropolitan club. He is an associate member of the Presbyterian church. A public spirited, constructive thinker and worker, Mr. Laing is thought of as one of Bay City's most useful citizens. Glenn D. Lanham, proprietor of the Bay City Auto School, is ably fitted for his responsible position. He has had academic training and actual experience as a teacher of manual arts, and has studied the construction of all types of motor vehicles thoroughly. Few men are better qualified to instruct classes in motor repairing than he. Mr. Lanham was born July 26, 1898, in Boone county, Indiana. He attended the public schools in that county and graduated from the Kirkland, Indiana, high school in 1918. From high school in the spring of 1918 he went to the Bradley Institute, at Peoria, Illinois, where he took special work in teachers' training classes. Later in the same year he came to Bay City to teach manual training in the Dolsen school. During the summers of 1919, 1920 and 1922 he returned to the Bradley Institute to complete his education. In addition to the Dolsen school classes Mr. Lanham taught manual training at the Essexville, Fremont, old Eastern and Central high school buildings. He has been instructor in manual training and mechanical drawing at the Handy Junior high school. During a part of his time at Central high school he taught classes in auto mechanics, demonstrating a thorough knowledge of his

Page  226 226 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY subject and the ability to impart his information to the students in a satisfactory manner. On February 28, 1924, he organized the Bay City Auto School, at 518 North Monroe street, of which he is now president. This school has a corps of instructors who are experts in the branches taught which include general repairing, vulcanizing, acetylene welding, ignition, cylinder grinding and battery repairing. Much valuable equipment is operated by this institution, and students are given actual practice in completing various repair jobs. Mr. Lanham's experience at the Indianapolis Speedway, his training at the Bradley Institute, the Haynes Auto factory and in the Bay City schools, assures each student of the thorough, comprehensive nature of the training he will receive in the Bay City Auto School. The garage operated in connection with the school specializes in unusual and difficult repair jobs, taken under a rigid guarantee of entire satisfaction to the customer. In July, 1925, business conditions required larger quarters and the large building at Fifth and Madison was leased. Conditions became so congested here that it required all of Mr. Lanham's attention and on March 12, 1926, he resigned from the public schools. He now has a large enrollment of students from all parts of Michigan, whom he is preparing for a livelihood. He is bringing into Bay City good business and is sending these graduates to all parts of the state as advertisements for Bay City. Each student that comes to Bay City leaves his tuition, board, room rent, money for clothes and takes in exchange for same a life trade to carry him through life. Mr. Lanham is a member of Joppa lodge No. 315 F. & A. M., director of the Bay City Teachers' club and a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. He was married on August 14, 1918, to Opal I. Deer, of Sheridan, Indiana. They have one son, William D., born January 21, 1923. William James La Porte, Jr., dealer in furnaces, 803 East Midland avenue, Bay City, was born in Bay City on March 15, 1900. His parents, William James and Lillian (Gilbert) La Porte, and his grandparents, Joseph and Adeline (Trombley) La Porte, were also born in this city, the offspring of well-known pioneer families. His mother's parents were among the first persons to begin farming in Bay county. Many of the Trombleys and La Portes were connected with the lumber industry. His father learned the barber trade as a young man and was employed at that occupation in Bay City until about 1923, when he removed to Detroit. He is the father of six children; Arthur, former proprietor of an automobile body shop and now "lay-out" foreman for the Wilson Body Works, Bay City; Charles A., a plumber; William J., Jr.; Frank A., of Bay City; Elizabeth, now Mrs. P. E. Johnroe, of Bay City; and Ida, now Mrs. Russell A. Wilde, of Detroit. William J. La Porte, Jr., was educated in the Bay City public schools and at St. Joseph's parochial school. Leaving school after finishing the eighth grade, he began work in the sheet metal shop of W. E. Whittney, where he remained two years. He then was employed, in the same kind

Page  227 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 227 of work, by N. E. La Porte. Six years later he was appointed agent for the Home furnaces and started in business for himself at his present location, 803 East Midland street. He was married on September 30, 1918, to Irene Lucy Johnroe, sister of P. E. Johnroe, mentioned above. They have one child, Betty Jane, Mr. La Porte is a member of the Knights of Columbus, Bay City Council No. 414. Harold P. Lawrence, M. D., 208-9 Ridotto building, Bay City, surgeon and gynecologist and member of the staff of Mercy hospital, obtained his medical degree and began the practice of his profession when he was but twenty-one years old. He was born February 24, 1884, at Detroit, where he received his entire education. He graduated from high school in 1901, took a college preparatory course in the Detroit Church academy, and entered the Detroit College of Medicine & Surgery, completing his studies in the latter institution in 1905. He passed the state medical board examinations and in 1906 began practice at Pinconning, Michigan. Despite his youth and because of his unusual ability he succeeded in building up a lucrative practice at that city, where he remained until in 1916, when he came to Bay City. Here he has specialized in gynecology and surgery, making an excellent record in both fields, and establishing a large clientele. He is now a member of the surgical staff at Mercy hospital, fulfilling all expectations of those who predicted for him a brilliant career. He is a member of the Bay County Medical Society, the Michigan State Medical Society and the American Medical Association. Fraternally he is a thirty-second degree Mason, a Shriner and member of the Elks. Since 1898 he has been a member of the Episcopal church. Dr. Lawrence was married on June 8, 1905, to Irene Margaret Harris, of Detroit. Charles Leikert, manager of the Bay City district agency of the North American Life Assurance Co., with offices at 412 Shearer building, was born in Bay City, May 22, 1870, the son of George Leikert, who was born in Germany in 1819 and settled in Bay City in 1869. George Liekert conducted a grocery in Bay City until his death at an advanced age. His wife, Mrs. Marguerite (Lessner) Leikert, who was born in Germany in 1831, died in Bay City in 1877. Charles Leikert attended the public schools in Bay City and began working in his father's grocery store at an early age. Several years later he established a store of his own, handling groceries and meats, at 924 Garfield avenue. He sold this business in 1908 and engaged in the insurance business with which he is still connected. He is now agent for the North American Life' Assurance Co., and has an established clientele. He has been a member of the Masons for twenty-two years. His wife was Marie Arch, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John Arch, of Saginaw. Mr. and Mrs. Leikert have one daughter Gladys, now Mrs. Edward R. Seagrave. Fred A. Lewis serves Bay county as registrar of deeds. He

Page  228 228 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY was born at Maloe, Franklin county, New York, May 6, 1856, and is the son of Frederick A. and Sophia (Bushey) Lewis. The father fought during the Civil war, was made prisoner, and died in Andersonville prison. His widow married Henry Meno, who brought the family to Michigan in 1871, settling in Wenonah, on the west side of the Saginaw river, a town which is now a part of Bay City. Mr. Lewis was educated in New York state, and one year in Bay City, and as a young man entered the lumber industry, beginning that work in the sawmills where he continued for five years and was later interested in the office part of the work. He was connected with the West Bay City Manufacturing Company for a number of years and with the Little Current Lumber Company, located at Little Current, Manitoulin Island, Georgian Bay, He returned to Bay City in 1918, and after service in the offices of the city treasurer and in the department of the registrar of deeds, was elected to the position which he now holds. Mr. Lewis was married in September, 1882, to Alma Ramsdall, daughter of a prominent lumber man of Bay City. Their son, Arthur Ramsdall Lewis, entered the Great Lakes Training school during the late war and completed the course of training for a commission as ensign, then returning home on leave was stricken with influenza which caused his death. A thirty-second degree Mason and an Elk, Mr. Lewis is well known in fraternal circles. He is a member of the Presbyterian church, and is widely known and respected for his excellent public service and for his ability and integrity. Bert Lindebaum, 601 Patterson avenue, is one of Bay City's busiest and most popular plumbers. His new home, built in 1920, with its lawn and shrubbery, is one of the beauty spots of the city. He was born in Danville, Illinois, September 11, 1895, the son of August Lindebaum, now a resident of California. He learned the plumbing trade at Danville, beginning his apprenticeship immediately after finishing school. On completion of his apprentice work he was employed in various places before coming to Bay City, where he married Katherine Trudell, daughter of Joseph R. Trudell, of Canada. Her mother was also a Trudell, Katherine's maternal grandparent being Louis Trudell, a resident of Tawas, Michigan, and president of the Trudell Fishing Co. there. Mr. Lindebaum has two children, Bettie Jane and Joseph August. He is secretary of the Master Plumbers' association of Bay City, and a member of the Knights of Columbus. He is extremely fond of his family and home, and takes much pleasure in caring for the beautiful lawn and shrubbery surrounding his lovely new home, which adjoins his shop at 601 Patterson avenue. He entered business for himself, as a contracting plumber, in 1919 and enjoys a steady and profitable patronage. Otto F. Louis, prominently identified with the drug business in Bay City was born in Sebewaing, Huron county, Michigan, February 20, 1884, son of A. Louis, a native of Waterloo, Canada, and Mary Louis of Champaigne, Ontario. The family came to Mich

Page  229 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 229 igan in 1880, settling on a farm, and the parents are living at the present time. Mr. Louis graduated from the Unionville high school in 1902, and having served an apprenticeship of two years in a drug business in Unionville, enrolled in the pharmacy department of Ferris Institute, where he was graduated in 1906. His preparatory work completed, he obtained a position in Detroit, and in 1908 became an employe of the Frantz Drug Co., of Bay City where he worked until he left the city for Butte, Montana, in 1911. In 1913 he returned to Michigan establishing a business in Sebewaing, and was there for a year and a half. In 1914 he purchased the Salzburg Pharmacy, and in 1916 the Mason Beach business, now operating under the title of the Louis Drug Company, of which he is sole owner. Interested in several other business enterprises in the city, Mr. Louis is president of Jiffy Products Co., is a director in the Fletcher Oil Co., and is interested in the De Pree Chemical Co. He is president of the Bay City Chamber of Commerce and is a trustee in Ferris Institute. Mr. Louis was married in 1909 to Josie S. Bartlett of Ethica, Michigan, daughter of R. S. Bartlett, one of Michigan's pioneers and a prominent business man of the state. There are two children, David and Ruth. Mr. Louis is affiliated with the Masonic bodies, the Knights Templar, the Shrine and the Consistory, and is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the Elks and the Kiwanis club. He is a member of the Presbyterian church and is chairman of the local Salvation Army activities. Widely known in business, fraternal, and religious circles, interested in the public welfare and in civic improvements, Mr. Louis is one of Bay City's most useful and respected citizens. Fred Lutz, of the Bay City Decorating Co., 410 Washington street, was born February 21, 1872, in Germany, and came to the United States when thirteen years old and settled in Bay City. In 1886, when he was fourteen years old, he apprenticed himself to a journeyman painter and began to learn the trade. He worked under the direction of this man, C. C. Stewart, five years. Having become proficient, he decided to enter business for himself, and, in 1900, he and another painter formed the partnership of Lutz & Saunder. This firm was dissolved in 1915, and Mr. Lutz then continued independently until 1923. In that year he and Henry G. Koch, another expert decorator, established the Bay City Decorating Co., which is now the leading concern of its kind in Bay City. Mr. Lutz has never done any but high class work. He takes an old-fashioned pride in his vocation, and enjoys the full confidence of the residents of his community. His company has decorated several new buildings in Bay City in the short time since it was founded, and has re-decorated other and older buildings. Frescoing and other elaborate forms of interior decoration are done by the Bay City company. Mr. Lutz is a member of all bodies of Masonry with the exception of the thirty-third degree, and also belongs to the Modern Woodmen of America, the Elks and the

Page  230 230 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY First Presbyterian church, where he and his family attend. He was married in 1893 to Emma F. Winkelman, of Bay City. Mr. and Mrs. Lutz have no children of their own, but have reared two children, Carl J. and Carrie Meyers, children of Mr. Lutz's sister, The daughter who became the wife of Allen Knickrehm, now resides at Los Angeles, California, and the son is employed in the Bay City postoffice. Guy M. McDowell, M. D., 823 Garfield avenue, member of the staff of Mercy hospital and former president of the Bay County Medical Society, was born at Dalton, Ohio, on March 31, 1880. He graduated from the Orrville, Ohio, high school in 1900 and after teaching country school for two years he entered Ohio State University College of Medicine graduating with the degree of Doctor of Medicine in 1906. He returned to Dalton to enter private practice, remaining there two years before coming to Bay City. Here he has been very successful, and has established a clientele which extends over the entire country. He is often called as a consultant in difficult cases and is a prominent member of the staff of Mercy hospital. In 1921 he was president of the Bay County Medical Society, and his annual address to that organization in that year won the entire commendation of that body, which voted to have his words published verbatim in the Journal of the Michigan State Medical Society. Dr. McDowell is also a member of the Michigan State and American Medical associations, of Alpha Kappa Kappa honorary scholastic medical fraternity, the Bay City Country club, the Elks, and Wenonah Lodge F. & A. M., Bay City Consistory A. A. S. R. Dr. McDowell was married on August 6, 1913, to Alma Gaertner, of Bay City, who died in 1918 at the age of thirty-three years, leaving one daughter, Carol, born September 17, 1917. Dr. McDowell is a regular attendant at the First Presbyterian church. John H. McEwan, B. S., M. D., 307 Davidson building, Bay City, former captain in the U. S. Medical Corps and member of the staff of Mercy hospital, was born in Bay City on March 22, 1889. His father, John McEwan, was also born in Bay City, the son of a pioneer resident, John McEwan, who was one of the first lumbermen in this part of Michigan. The second John McEwan was also in the lumber industry for a number of years, and is now retired and living in Bay City. Mrs. Flora (Judson) McEwan, mother of Dr. McEwan, was born in Ohio and came to Bay City as a child. She died in this city in 1919. She was an active member of the Presbyterian church, as is also her husband, who survives her. Dr. McEwan attended the public schools of Bay City until 1900, when his parents moved to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, and where they lived until 1910. He graduated from high school in this city and spent two years at the University of Michigan, when his parents returned to Bay City. He continued his studies at the University without interruption, obtaining his Bachelor of Science degree in 1911 and his M. D. degree in 1913. Sparing no effort to

Page  231 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 231 obtain the best possible training for his life work, Dr. McEwan then spent two years as an interne in Harper hospital, Detroit, where he gained invaluable experience. Having thus prepared himself for the practice of his profession, he went to Canada, spending two years in Ontario and the Georgian Bay district. On August 25, 1917, he enlisted in the United States Medical Corps to serve during the World war. He was commissioned first lieutenant and later promoted to captain while stationed at Camp Kearney, California. He was honorably discharged August 25, 1919, and since that time has been in active practice in Bay City. He is now a member of the medical staff at Mercy hospital, a member of the Bay County Medical Society, the Michigan State Medical Society and the American Medical Association. He is a member of all bodies of Masonry with the exception of the thirty-third degree, and is also an Elk, holding his membership in the latter organization in Bay City lodge No. 88. He resides at 1109 Fifth avenue, Bay City. Francis F. McGinnis, president and general manager of the Agricultural Life Insurance Company of America, is another of the many prominent business and professional men who began life on a farm. He was born near Marlette, Sanilac county, Michigan, on June 5, 1880, and received his early education in the public schools near his home. Later he came to Bay City and attended school there and at the Detroit Technical Institute. Still later he entered the Detroit College of Law, taking a course of study and was admitted to the bar in 1914. He has been in the insurance business more than twenty-nine years, and has specialized in the laws of insurance, and has been unusually successful. The first corporation with which he was connected was the Prudential Company. The next was the State Life Insurance Company of Indianapolis, Indiana, and the next was the Northern Assurance Company of Detroit, Michigan, now the American Life of Detroit. Early in 1914 he founded the corporation of which he is now president and general manager, completing all details of the organization of the new enterprise during the latter part of 1916, when the company formally entered the insurance field. Few new life insurance companies have made a quicker or more substantial success than the Agricultural company of Bay City. The thousands of policy-holders and the vast amount of new business written each day by the company's representatives is ample proof of the standing of this concern and the ability of its president and general manager. He is a member of the Kiwanis club, the Elks and of all bodies of the Masons with the exception of the thirty-third degree. He and his wife, who was, before her marriage, Sarah (Wright) Green, of Bay City, attend the First Presbyterian church. John Joseph McGinty, 113 South Madison street, Bay City, wholesale and retail dealer in milk and dairy products, is also an active trader in Bay county real estate. He was born August 6, 1863, in Fulton county, New York, the son of Bernard and Mary

Page  232 232 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY (Eves) McGinty, natives of Ireland. The McGintys moved from New York to Canada, where they settled on a large farm, when their son was a few years old. The father, a tanner, died not long afterward. The mother remained in Canada and died there in 1920 at a ripe old age. McGinty attended the country schools near his home and began farming when quite young. After spending a number of years in that occupation in Canada, he moved to North Dakota and obtained employment on the large wheat ranches near Grand Forks. During his trips to various parts of the country he attended the World's Fair, held in Chicago in 1894, and, in the autumn of the same year, came to Bay City. Here he followed varied occupations until he entered the milk business, in which he has been very successful. He now owns and operates a large, modern plant, sometimes handling as much as five hundred gallons per day. In addition to his milk business he owns parcels of valuable real estate and conducts a real estate brokerage office. He was married in 1901 to Margaret Burns of Mt. Morris, Michigan, and to this union were born three children: Mary, Margaret and John. The McGintys are members of the St. James Catholic church, the father being also a member of the Knights of Columbus. James M. McLean, M. D., 204 Davidson building, Bay City, has made a big success in his chosen field, pediatrics. Few men in Michigan are fitted to render a greater service in this branch of medical science than he, and his large practice is evidence that his ability is not unappreciated by the general public. Born in Ontario on October 4, 1886, he received his early education in the schools of that province. He completed his education at the University of Toronto, graduating from the medical department of that institution in 1910. For a number of years he was engaged in general practice in Western Canada, where he was unusually successful. During these years he prepared himself for special service in the branch of pediatrics, for which he is so well adapted and in which he has won wide recognition. Since coming to Bay City, in 1923, he has devoted his time almost exclusively to this specialty. He is a member of the Bay County Medical Society, the Michigan State Medical Society, the American Medical Association, Alpha Kappa Kappa, honorary medical fraternity, and the Masons. He was married in 1915 to Gerald FitzGerald Follis, of Dublin, Ireland, who died on January 31, 1922, leaving two children: Doreen FitzGerald, born May 21, 1916, and Sheila Highfield, born June 5, 1921. Dr. McLean is a member of the Episcopal church. Archibald H. McMillan, prominent attorney of Bay City, is of a pioneer family in Michigan, a family distinguished for their services for the nation. His great-great grandfather was a son of Archibald McMillan who came to New Boston, New Hampshire, in 1756. He was a member of the state legislature and served in Colonel Starke's regiment in the engagement at Bunker Hill where he was wounded as were nearly one-third of that famous regiment. His grandson, Ananias, was the founder of the family

Page  233 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 233 in Michigan, coming to the state in the early days. Archibald McMillan, the grandson of Ananias, born in Detroit, came to Bay City in 1876, where he established the Bay City Observer, and later was editor of the Bay City Evening Press, and the Bay City Times. He gave practically all of his life to the pursuit of the newspaper business, serving as editor, and interested financially in the enterprises with which he was connected. At the time of his death, Mr. McMillan was editor of the Bay City Times and president of the Bay City Times Publishing Company. He served during the Civil war as a lieutenant of Battery M., First Michigan Light Artillery. Interested in the religious and civic affairs of Bay City, he served as a member and president of the school board, and was a trustee in the Madison Avenue M. E. church. He was married to Theresa A. Willcox, of Rochester, Michigan, and there were two children, one of which died in infancy. Archibald H. McMillan, the son, was born in Bay City in 1876. He received his early education in the public schools of Bay City and this completed, entered the University of Michigan and was graduated in 1899 with the Bachelor of Arts degree. In 1901 he received his Bachelor of Laws degree and was admitted to the bar, then began his practice in Bay City. In 1906, on January 1, he formed a partnership with John L. Stoddard, which continues to the present time and is known as Stoddard & McMillan. He was married to Blanche E. Ballany of Bay City, daughter of the late William T. Ballany, and to this marriage there are four children whose names are as follows: Edward B., Archibald W., Theresa B., and Martha A. Mr. McMillan takes an active interest in the State Historical Association of which he is a member and also acts as treasurer of the Bay County Historical Society. He has been of service to this city in a number of ways, serving as an alderman on, and as attorney for, the commission which drew up the present charter and later, as city attorney. Mr. McMillan is a member of all Masonic bodies and is a Past Master of Joppa lodge. He is a member of the Elks and of the Exchange club, and worships at the First Presbyterian church. W. R. McMorris, owner of the McMorris Service Station, 905 Saginaw street, Bay City, won the three most highly prized decorations awarded soldiers during the World war, in which he served as a captain of United States troops. He was born November 20, 1891, the son of William R. and Catherine McMorris. His father, who for many years was a sea captain and during his later years was proprietor of a grocery and meat store, died in 1923, two years after the death of his wife. They left a family of five children; Casper, Lottie, W. R., Margaret and Edna. W. R. McMorris graduated from high school in 1909. He became bookkeeper and stenographer in a business house where he was soon promoted to manager, remaining with that firm for five years. At the outbreak of the World war he went to an officers' training school, where he was commissioned captain. Soon afterward he was sent

Page  234 234 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY overseas, where he fought in practically all of the principal battles in which the United States forces were engaged. These battles included the Marne, Chateau Thierry, St. Mihiel, and Argonne. After the Armistice he went to Germany with the Army of Occupation. He received for his bravery and gallantry in service, the Distinguished Service Cross, the Legion of Honor and the Croix de Guerre with two palms. He was also honored by being made an officer of the picked regiment of veterans which paraded England, France, Belgium and Italy at the close of the war. This regiment was almost wholly composed of men who had been wounded in action and who had served two years. Most of these veterans were six feet in height, and made an impressive spectacle when they paraded in various cities in the countries mentioned. Captain McMorris was discharged from service in October, 1919. Returning to Bay City he was employed by the Union Motor Truck Co., two years. During the latter part of 1920 he established the McMorris Service Station, handling the complete line of Goodyear tires and supplies. The business has grown rapidly, almost three times the first year's sales having been made in 1925. He is a Mason, a Rotarian, a member of Alpha Omega, high school fraternity, member of the Board of Commerce and a former vicepresident of the Bay City Motor club. In September, 1922, he married Ruth Perkins, of Bay City. They have one child, Kathleen. He and family attend the Presbyterian church. Charles M. McNair, secretary-treasurer of the F. H. Cash Co., dealers in dairy products, was born in Genesee county on October 19, 1874. His father, David McNair, a native of Scotland, came to the United States at the age of seven years and resided in New Jersey until after he was married, when he settled in Genesee county. His mother, Mrs. Mary (Selby) McNair, who was born in England, came with her husband to Michigan in 1865. Mr. McNair died in 1903 and his wife in 1904, at the ages of sixty and fifty-nine years, respectively. Her father, Richard Selby, lived to be over one hundred years old. Charles M. McNair attended the Monroe county schools until he was nine years old, when he went with his parents to Otsego county, and entered school there. Later he returned to Genesee county, where he remained until he obtained his first position, with the Grand Trunk railway, in whose employ he remained two years. He was then a lumber inspector for a period of three years, after which he went to Detroit to accept a position in the wholesale drygoods store of Burnham, Stoepel & Co., for whom he worked seven years. His next four years were spent on a farm in Wexford county, Michigan. Having been offered a position by Cornwell & Co., agents for Swift & Co., packers, and preferring a mercantile life to that of farming, he abandoned the latter occupation and re-entered business as an employe of the first named company. He continued in this capacity ten years, and, in 1909, came to Bay City. In 1920 he had charge of the erection of the plant now occupied by the F. H. Cash com

Page  235 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 235 pany and became secretary of that corporation. Election to the office of treasurer followed in 1925. Mr. McNair is also financially interested in the Crescent Coal Co., Bay City, of which he is a director. He is a past master of Bay City lodge No. 129 F. & A. M. and a member of the Presbyterian church. During his residence in Wexford county he was active in politics, and served as supervisor. He was married in 1898 to Maggie Logan, of Wexford county. They have one daughter, Margaret, a graduate of Bay City high school. She studied for one year at Alma College, and later entered the Presbyterian Training School at Chicago. She engaged in social service work, her present occupation, immediately after her graduation from that institution. Otto J. Manary, attorney, Federal building, Bay City, resident assistant United States Attorney, former circuit court commissioner, past grand master of the Odd Fellows and present secretary of the Bay county republican committee, was born in Bay county, October 22, 1879, the son of Joseph C. and Rebecca (Wilson) Manary, His grandparents, John and Eleanor (Pierson) Wilson were natives of Yorkshire, England, and came to Bay county when the country was yet a wilderness. Mr. Wilson had the contract for cutting the trees for the building of the road which is now Center avenue. When he arrived in the United States he located at Milford, Michigan, and was there married to Eleanor Pierson. They remained there for a short time and then moved to Saginaw. From Saginaw to Bay City they traveled in a flatboat, which held all of their worldly possessions. He became a road contractor and built many roads through the virgin forests. Later he filed upon a homestead claim in Monitor township and began farming. It was on this farm that his grandson, Otto Manary, was born. Mr. Manary's other grandparents, Mr. and Mrs. John Manary were residents of Guelph, Canada, where their son, Joseph C., was born. Joseph Manary came to Bay county in 1861 and settled on a tract of land in Monitor township. He cut down the trees, cleared the land and began farming, which was his occupation until his retirement. He then moved to Bay City. During his active years he took an active part in politics, and served several terms as school director. His family of five children are all living. His son, Otto J. Manary, attended the public schools in Bay City and then entered the Central State Normal school, graduating from that institution in 1900. He then attended Valparaiso University one year and also spent some time at the University of Michigan. On Friday, October 13, 1905, he took the state bar examinations in the senate chamber at Lansing, and sat in seat thirteen while waiting for the results of the tests. Despite the influence superstitious persons believe these numbers to possess. Mr. Manary passed the examinations creditably. He continued in his occupation of teaching school five years before -beginning the practice of law, making a total of ten years spent as a class-room instructor. When he "put up his shingle" in 1910 it bore but one name, Otto J. Manary,

Page  236 236 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY and he has since continued to practice alone. He was elected circuit court commissioner during his first year before the bar, and has since received many honors. He has been president of the Lions club, which he helped to found in Bay City; he has been county school examiner; and has been Chancellor of the Knights of Pythias and Grand Master of the Odd Fellows. He is also a member of the F. & A. M. and the Presbyterian church. Politically he is a republican, and is now the secretary of the Bay county committee of that party. He was married on June 1, 1909, to a former pupil, Mabel Ruffertshofer, daughter of Fred Ruffertshofer, a native of Bay county and the son of a prominent family. They have four children; Viola, Mabel Maria, Otto and Ilah. Ernest A. Martens, secretary of the Bay City Beverage Co., 1119 South Water street, was born in Bay City on September 24, 1878. His father, William Martens, a native of Germany, came to Bay county as a young man and began work in the lumber industry, which he still follows. William Martens married Aluina Nuenke, a native of Germany and a resident of Bay county. To this union were born seven sons and one daughter, all of whom are living. The father is now seventy-seven years old and still busy at his work, and the mother is past seventy. Both are members of the Lutheran church. Ernest A. Martens attended the parochial and public schools of Bay City and the Bay City Business College. His first employment was in a woodenware factory, where he remained about seven years. It was at the end of this period that he took his course in the Bay City Business College. After his graduation he sought an opening in some business enterprise, and in 1902 became associated with the Bay City Beverage Co. He has continued with that firm since, helping it to grow from a small institution to its present dimensions. In 1917 he became secretary of the company, a position which he still holds. He is also a stockholder in the Agricultural Life Insurance Company, a Bay City corporation which is having a remarkable growth. Mr. Martens is a member of the Lutheran church, the Elks, the Moose, the United Commercial Travelers and various civic organizations. He is unmarried. Ezra J. Marvin, in the office of county sheriff, exerts every effort in the maintenance of law and order. He was born in New York state, in 1876, son of Philip and Mary (Carpenter) Marvin, now deceased. Philip Marvin came with his family in the early Seventies to Michigan, making their home in what was then the northern part of Bay county but which has since become Arenac county, where he farmed a tract of land. Ezra J. Marvin, after he had completed his education, spent some time at farming, clearing and operating an eighty acre tract. He began his public service in the interests of law enforcement as an under sheriff in Arenac county, and later was a member of the Bay City police force for ten years. He then became a member of the Government law enforcement forces and in this connection was sent to many

Page  237 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 237 parts of the United States on important cases. At the close of this service, as a mark of appreciation for the work which he had done, he was offered any post in the service that he would choose if he would consent to remain. In the fall of 1924, as the choice of the best people in the county, he was elected to the position of sheriff, and has displayed a marked efficiency in his work. He is especially vigorous in dealing with violators of the liquor laws. Mr. Marvin is well known as a public speaker, spending a great deal of time in talking before various groups and at various churches in the county, on law enforcement. In 1896 he was married to a girl of his own community, Anna Bishop, and there is one daughter, Blanche, now Mrs. Frank Schock. Mrs. Schock is the mother of two fine sons, Wayne and Ronald. Mr. Marvin is prominent in fraternal and social orders in the city holding membership in the Moose, Elk, I. 0. O. F., the Lions club, and the Metropolitan club. Louis M. Meisel, president and treasurer of the Meisel Hardware & Supply Company and treasurer of the Weber Real Estate Company, Bay City, was born in Bay City in 1886, the son of Herman and Henrietta (Goeschel) Meisel, natives of Germany, who came to the United States in 1852. All of his grandparents were pioneer residents of the Saginaw valley, Henrietta Goeschel having settled with her parents at Saginaw and the Meisel family at Bay City. Herman Meisel was in the wholesale grocery business for many years, as a member of the firm of Meisel & Goeschel, and, after the retirement of Mr. Goeschel, as head of The Herman Meisel & Sons Company. This concern is still one of the prominent business houses in Bay City. Louis M. Meisel after finishing school entered the employ of the Jennison Hardware Company, where he remained for a period of sixteen years. In 1920 George O. Williams, together with Louis M. Meisel, organized the firm of The Meisel-Williams Co., dealers in hardware and mill supplies. This firm continued for several years, but on account of the poor health of Mr. Williams it was necessary for him to retire in 1922 from the business. Shortly after this the firm name was changed to the Meisel Hardware & Supply Company. In addition to managing this enterprise, Mr. Meisel is also active in the affairs of the Weber Real Estate Company. Mr. Meisel has never taken an active part in politics, but served for one term as supervisor. He is a member of the Evangelical church, the Exchange club, the Elks, and the Blue lodge, Chapter, Commandery, Consistory and Shrine of the Masons. He was married in 1912 to Hilda R. Weber, of Bay City. They have three children: Louis Weber, Lorne Henry, and Harriet Elaine. Bert M. Michaels and Ernest J. Phillips, of the Michaels-Phillips Lumber Company, are both natives of Michigan. Mr. Michaels was born at Yale, in 1896, the son of C. F. and Emma S. (Gillis) Michaels. He came to Bay City in 1910 when his father entered the real estate and lumber business in Bay county, where his parents

Page  238 238 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY still reside. All but two of the nine children of C. F. and Emma Michaels are still living. Bert M. Michaels took a business school course after graduating from high school, and entered the real estate business under the direction of John C. Harris. Later he conducted a grocery store on Trumbull avenue for a period of two years. Though he was successful in this enterprise he felt that the lumber industry, in which he had been brought up, afforded a greater opportunity, and in 1924 he and his partner, Ernest J. Phillips, founded the company which bears their names. On their lot, which measures one hundred and twenty by three hundred and sixty feet they erected a warehouse measuring sixty by one hundred and twenty feet. They also have a privately owned switch connecting their plant with the Michigan Central Railway. Mr. Michaels is a member of St. Boniface Catholic church and the Knights of Columbus. Ernest J. Phillips, the other member of the firm, was born in Bay City in 1882. His father, Robert Phillips, a native of Caledonia, Canada, came to Bay county as a young man and died here in 1913, at the age of sixty-three years. His mother, who before her marriage was Martha Wright, daughter of a millwright who moved from Bay county to Augonal Springs in 1890, died when he was one year old. Mr. Phillips attended school in Bay City, taking a commercial course in addition to his other work at the high school. On completion of his studies he obtained a position with the Tanner & Daily Company, wholesale grocers, where he gained valuable experience as a bookkeeper. He then became teller of the People's Commercial & Savings bank, where he remained sixteen years. In October, of 1924, he resigned from the bank to enter the lumber industry, and is part owner of the Michaels-Phillips plant at North Henry street and the Michigan Central Railway, Bay City. He was married in 1913, to Lulu Michaels, a daughter of C. F. Michaels. They have but one child, Marguerite. He is a member of St. Mary's Catholic church and a Knight of Columbus. David Miller, vice-president of the Bay City Bank, was born in Bay City, May 28, 1876, the son of Samuel and Rebecca (Atkinson) Miller. His father died in 1903, and his mother is now living at the family home in Bay City. Mr. Miller attended business college after graduating from high school, and started his career as a messenger in the old Second National Bank. Here he worked his way upward to bookkeeper. In 1908 he resigned from that position to become auditor for five banks in southern Michigan, with headquarters at the Central National Bank, Battle Creek. He started with the Bay City Bank in 1915, as cashier. Some years later, in 1923, his ability was recognized by his promotion to the office of vice-president. He still holds that position and the original one of cashier. He is a member of the thirty-second degree, Consistory and Shrine of the Masons; is an Elk, member of the Chamber of Commerce and a charter member, treasurer and director of the Kiwanis club. He and his wife, Mrs. Clara (Daunt) Miller,

Page  239 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 239 are members of the Episcopal church. His marriage occurred on June 18, 1902. Joel P. Miller, of the firm of Miller & Uhlman, general contractors, Clift building, Bay City, was born in Michigan, August 16, 1865. After graduating from high school he took a course in a business college, and then began a career which has been a busy and prosperous one. When he came to Bay City, in 1885, he obtained a position with the Bay City Stone company, where he remained for some years. Later he entered the construction business, in which he has been so successful, and, in 1919, organized the company with which he is now connected. He was also employed for a period of four years as deputy oil inspector for the state of Michigan. In 1893 he married Mabel E. Tennant, of Bay City. Their only child, Margaret, is now married and living in Idaho. He is a member of the Kiwanis club and all bodies of the Masonic order. Edward M. Mills, treasurer of the Bay City Electric Steel Casting Company and expert accountant, was born in Jonesfield, Michigan, on August 13, 1879. He came to Saginaw when ten years old, where he attended high school, and began his business career as a messenger boy for the Western Union Telegraph company. After continuing in this work two years he saw the need for additional education. He then entered the International Business College, at Saginaw, completed the course of study and obtained a position as accountant with the Wicks Brothers company, of Saginaw. He remained with this firm seventeen years, receiving several promotions, and for three years after leaving this position he was engaged in various offices as special auditor and accountant. May 4, 1922, S. S. Fair and E. M. Mills organized the Bay City Electric Steel Casting Company, and Mr. Mills was made treasurer of the co-partnership, a post which his training and business experience fully qualify him to hold. He is a member of Portsmouth lodge No. 190, F. & A. M. and the Bay City Country club. Mr. Mills and family are also members of the First Presbyterian church. He was married in 1907 to Lillian M. Adriance. Their only child, Helen Mae, is a graduate of the Bay City high school. Arthur K. Milster, manager of the Bay City offices of the Western Union Telegraph Company, was born September 24, 1889, at Grand Rapids, Michigan, the son of Charles F. Milster. He attended the elementary schools in that city and then entered the high school at Owosso, where he graduated in 1910. He at once obtained a minor position in the Western Union Telegraph company's office in Owosso, and began the study of the business. He was advanced rapidly, being sent to Detroit soon after entering the Western Union organization. In 1912 he was promoted to operator and stationed at Bay City, where, after attending to his duties in a satisfactory manner until June, 1923, he was made manager

Page  240 240 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY of the company's offices in that city. He holds that position at the present time. He was married, in 1913, to a Bay City girl, Bertha Patterson, daughter of a prominent family. They have two children, Stewart and Harold. Mr. Milster is an Elk, a Rotarian and a member of Portsmouth lodge F. & A. M. Alfred G. Momburg, proprietor of the Michigan Photo Company, 107 Center avenue, Bay City, photo finishing and commercial photography. Mr. Momburg is one of the most expert commercial photographers in the state of Michigan. His pictures are always done in an artistic manner and show the painstaking care of a man who not only thoroughly understands but likes his work. To him photography is not only a vocation, but a pleasure as well. He has a large number of agencies which are located in various cities throughout the state, besides doing an extensive local commercial business. He was born on March 16, 1897, at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the son of Henry and Emma (Reuder) Momburg, both of whom were born in that city. His parents own a small but valuable farm just outside the city limits on Euclid avenue. His father, who was a brewmaster in Milwaukee for many years, came to Bay county in 1895, and is now living a retired life at an advanced age in the manner he had planned early in life. Alfred G. Momburg received his education in the Bay City public schools and the Bay City Business College. Going to Detroit soon after finishing school, he obtained employment with a large commercial photographic corporation where he learned many of the details of the profession which gave him an excellent foundation on which to base his future knowledge. In Detroit, Mr. Momburg became aware of the financial possibilities of commercial photography, and in 1919 he started in business for himself in that city. Not long afterward he returned to Bay City and opened a wellequipped photo-finishing plant in this city, which is today the largest concern of its kind north of Detroit. He prospered from the start, and is now owner of a lucrative, substantial business. He is a member of the German Lutheran church and the Elks lodge. He is unmarried and resides with his parents on North Union avenue, Bay City. William B. G. Moore, contractor, of Bay City, has led a busy and eventful life. He was one of the first men to brave the dangerous White Horse Rapids in Alaska during the gold rush to the Yukon, where he went, overcoming tremendous obstacles in making his way to the region in which the precious metal was found. Born in 1852, in Charlestown, Prince Edward Island, Canada, the son of Bertram and Eliza (Lea) Moore, he came to Bay City in November, 1873, with his parents, who became prominent in the history of the city. Bertram Moore was one of the early fighters in the cause of prohibition. He was a leader in the old "Red and White" movement, one of the pioneer crusades against the sale of intoxicants. He was a teacher and class leader in the Methodist Episcopal church Sunday school, as well as a deacon and elder. He

Page  241 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 241 also is remembered by older residents as having conducted a religious service each Sunday for thirty years at the county jail. His last public address was a plea for the purchase, by the city, of the land which is now the beautiful park at the foot of Center avenue. Though aged and in failing health at the time he pleaded for this project, his efforts were entirely successful, and the park today is a monument to his foresight and public spiritedness. In 1873 he founded the contracting business now conducted by his son, William, he having taken his son, Frank, into the firm as a partner. Moore & Son built many of the fine residences in Bay City, including homes on Center avenue. Among the fine examples of their work are the Ward, Carmen Smith, Captain Shaw, Cressy, C. C. Whitney, Dr. McClurge and Dr. Stone residences. The standing of the Moore firm is now such that it is assured a large volume of business from an established clientele. Moore & Son have completed the residence of F. B. Ward and the HansonWard veneer plant and the Dr. Baker, John Lindsay and Kinnane homes, making in all about two hundred dwellings built by them in and near Bay City. William B. G. Moore, when a young man, had charge of the wood-working department of the Industrial Works two years, and erected one of their first big assembling shops. His adventurous disposition made it impossible for him to resist the lure of the gold rush to Alaska. He made the long trip overland, by way of White Pass and the Yukon, going from there to Dawson, St. Michaels and thence to Vancouver, covering in all over eleven thousand miles. He and his partner, his brother Burt, had a camping and mining outfit weighing almost two tons, which, over rougher portions of the trail, they had to carry in fifty-pound parcels. Thus they often had to make thirty-six trips or more with parts of their equipment on their backs, in order to negotiate some of the extremely hazardous sections of the country. When they reached the point where they could take advantage of river transportation the two brothers built five boats, each of which was approximately three feet deep, seven feet wide and thirty feet long, from trees which stood along the banks of the stream. The Moores then braved the deadly White Horse Rapids which have claimed many lives and are said to be almost impassable, three times in one day. With these boats the two adventurers covered five hundred miles, exclusive of side trips to various spots along the tributary streams. Mr. Moore was gone eight months before he decided to return to Bay City to join his father in business. In 1878 he married Katie Jarmin, a daughter of George and Jane Jarmin, who came to Bay City in 1863 and were leading citizens. he father, who was a carpenter and millwright, was accidentally killed, and his daughter became a teacher in the Bay City schools where she continued until her marriage. Mr. and Mrs. Moore had two children. The eldest, Dr. Arthur S., is now first assistant superintendent of the state hospital at Middletown, New York. During the World war he was made a lieutenant-colonel in the medical

Page  242 242 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY corps. Frank, the younger son, is associated with his father in the construction business. William resides at 406 North Van Buren street, where he has lived for about forty years, and Frank L., lives at 400 North Van Buren street. Grant Morrison, president, treasurer and general manager of the Bay City Iron Company, began working for this enterprise when he was but sixteen years old. He had, however, been employed previously by other concerns. He started his career as a lumber inspector, and later was employed in the office of the master mechanic of the Michigan Central railway. Starting as a clerk with the Bay City Iron Company he worked his way upward to bookkeeper, and, in 1903, became an executive of this corporation, which has been in existence fifty-seven years and is the oldest incorporated concern in Bay City. He was born in Oswego county, New York, on October 29, 1864, where he started to school, and came to West Bay City with his parents when he was eight years old. His father was James H. Morrison, a millwright, who died in 1880, at the age of fifty-one years. His mother, Mrs. Sarah E. (Wheeler) Morrison, died in 1893, aged sixty-one years. Mr. and Mrs. Morrison were the parents of four sons and three daughters, of whom two sons and two daughters are now living. Grant Morrison is a thirty-second degree Mason and a member of the Shrine and Knights of Pythias. He was married on August 10, 1896, to Carrie Leavens, of Bay City. They have one son, James E., born March 1, 1909, who is now a student at Central high school. Mr. Morrison and family attend the First Presbyterian church. Robert J. Munger, president of the Northeastern Radio Company, 913 North Water street, Bay City, was born in Saginaw on July 21, 1890. His father, John A. Munger, is now a resident of Bay City. Mr. Munger attended the public schools in Saginaw and Bay City and graduated from high school. He spent several years with the Security Mortgage Corporation of Detroit. During the World war he served first in the Eighty-fifth Division and then in the Fourteenth Division, being stationed in Texas, at Battle Creek, Michigan, and at Syracuse, New York. Returning to Bay City in 1920 he and Carl J. Eichhorn established the Northeastern Radio Company, which is now the largest firm dealing exclusively in radio supplies and equipment in Bay City. He was married in 1919 to Lorraine Thoburg, of Bay City. He is a member of the American Legion, the Board pf Commerce and the Izaak Walton League. Mrs. Munger is a member of the Eastern Star. They reside at 309 Twenty-second street. Both attend the Presbyterian church. Leo J. Navarre, cashier of the State Savings Bank of Essexville, Bay county, traces his ancestry back to Antoine De Bourbon, Duc of Vendome, who was the father of Henry Fourth of Navarre and France. The son of this ancestor, Jean Navarre, married Perette Barat, in 1572. Their child, Martin Navarre, in 1593, married Jeanne Lefebre. A son, Jean Navarre, born to this union in 1623,

Page  243 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 243 married Susanne Le Clef. Antoine Navarre (du Plessis en Bois) in 1665 married Marie Lallemont, and their son, Antoine Marie Francois Navarre, in 1695, married Jeanne Pluyette. Robert Navarre who, in 1734, married Marie Lothman de Barrois, was sent to Fort Ponchartrain, America. In the year 1762 Robert Navarre, surnamed Robishe (the Speaker) married Marie Louise Archange de Mersac, three sons being born to this union, as follows: Robert, 1764, Jacques, 1766, and Francois, in 1767. This family moved to what is now Monroe, Michigan in 1774. Here, in 1790, Francois married Marie Suzore and became the father of fourteen children, one of whom, Joseph G., in 1830, became the husband of Eliza Ann Martin. They were the parents of six children, two daughters and four sons, one of whom, A. T. Navarre, on May 5, 1867, married Marrietta Peltier. To this union were born three sons, Joseph Alexander, George W. C., and Leo J., and two daughters, Mary V. and Edith M. Through this genealogy Leo J. Navarre traces his descent from one of the most prominent families in France. The province of Navarre, from which this family sprang, is situated on the northern boundary of Spain, and bounded on the north by France, on the east by the province of Aragon, on the south by old Castile and on the west by the Basque states. All of these names abound with reminders of interesting tales of war and romance. Navarre, one of the first Christian principalities founded after the conquest of Spain by the Arabs, was frequently the scene of bloody battles. When the Duc Antoine married Jeanne d'Albret, the province of Navarre was acquired by the House of Bourbon, and their son, Henry, in 1589, inherited the throne of France, His successors, until 1830, styled themselves kings of France and Navarre. Robert de Navarre came to America and landed at Quebec in 1632. Of noble ancestry and great erudition, he was appointed sub-Delegue and royal notary of the French government at Detroit, which was then French territory. At his wedding to Marie Lothman de Barrois at Detroit in 1739, the hereditary Mayor of Quebec, the commander of Fort Ponchartrain and many other important personages were present. Francois was born in Detroit in 1767, being eight years old at the outbreak of the Revolutionary war. Four years after peace was declared he was granted the parcel of ground described in an original deed still in possession of his descendants. He later became a colonel and the father of fourteen children-seven sons and seven daughters. Thus it is not remarkable that his descendants are legion. During the War of 1812 he commanded a regiment in which twenty-six men named Navarre were enrolled. He, with a cousin, Peter Navarre, and his son, Robert, played an important part in the Massacre of the Raisin in that war. They were honored many years later by the city of Toledo for their gallantry and bravery, and Navarre Park in that city is named in their honor. Francois was an active member of the Roman Catholic church in America, and helped greatly in establishing this church among the pioneers of

Page  244 244 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY the northwestern territory. Being a skillful, daring fighter and a deadly enemy to the hostile British and Indians, he was for years a marked man, with a huge bounty awaiting the savage who could take his scalp. He distinguished himself by his strategy and energy in aiding to accomplish the signing of the famous treaty of Greenville, Ohio, whereby the United States became possessor of immense new territory and acquired the right to build roads through Michigan. Colonel Francois Navarre died September 1, 1826, at Monroe at the age of sixty years. Other members of this famous family were also prominent in the early history of our country. At the time of Leo J. Navarre's birth, March 31, 1884, his parents, Alexander T. and Marrietta (Peltier) Navarre, were residents of Monroe, where their parents had lived and died. Here Leo attended the public schools, entering a tailor's shop soon after finishing his classes. He continued as a tailer until he became assistant cashier of the Monroe State Savings Bank, and has never lost interest in his early occupation. As a banker he has been eminently successful, and is a heavy stockholder in the State Savings Bank of Essexville, which he organized in 1911. He was married in 1914 to Mary Kavanagh, daughter of John Kavanagh. Leo J. Navarre is the father of five children: John, Katherine, Robert, Rosemary and Joseph. He is a member of St. John's Catholic church, the Knights of Columbus and the Kiwanis club. He is also an active member of the Elks lodge in Bay City. Charles Needham, manager of the Yellow Cab company, with offices at 714 Saginaw street, Bay City, was born in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 2, 1882, the son of Marion Needham. His parents moved from Atlanta to St. Louis, Missouri, and from there to Indiana, where he received most of his schooling. Mr. and Mrs. Needham later moved to Pontiac, Michigan, where they now reside. Mr. Needham began work in a foundry when a young man, and was later made superintendent of a foundry. He held that position twelve years, but saw a greater opportunity in the taxi cab and baggage transfer business in which he is now engaged as manager of the Yellow Cab Company of Bay City. He has been in the motor transportation business a total of six years, and has been a resident of Bay City since 1919. He is a member of the F. & A. M. and the Grotto, and the Elks. He has one son, Noah, and a daughter, Pearl Needham, and resides at 714 Saginaw avenue. Russel Hugh Neilson, attorney, Crapo building, Bay City, was born September 16, 1892, at West Branch, Michigan, where his father, A. Charles Neilson, a retired merchant, is still living. Mr. Neilson graduated from the high school in his home town and entered the University of Michigan in 1910, graduating with the degee of Bachelor of Arts in 1914 and with the degree of Juris Doctor in 1916. He came to Bay City immediately after completing his education, becoming associated with the law firm of Weadock and Duffy, in the Crapo building. Upon the dissolution of that firm he remained in the same offices, associating with James E. Duffy.

Page  245 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 245 He was quickly successful in building up a lucrative practice, giving his attention chiefly to corporation, probate and civil matters. He was married on October 24, 1917, to Jane Raymoure, of West Branch. They have three children, Russell H., Charles W. and Jane Davey. Mr. Neilson is an Elk, a Mason, and a member of the Episcopal church. He has never held office but has always taken an active interest in political and civic affairs. James Harry Nelson, mayor of Bay City, was born in Bay City, May 7, 1887, the youngest child of Neal and Elizabeth Nelson, natives of Sweden, who came to Bay City in their early twenties. The other children of the Nelson family were, in the order of their ages: Anna, Christine, Emmeline, Edith, Carl, Arthur G., Charles W., and Florence E. Mr. Nelson attended the public schools in Bay City, and after three years' study at Eastern high school, entered the Michigan Agricultural College, where he completed four years of an engineering course. His first position after leaving school was with the Chicago and Northwestern railway as a rodman. Later he was principal superintendent on a two-million-dollar construction job. On completion of this work he returned to Bay county and assisted his father, who was connected with the Bousfield & Company Woodenware Works. On January 17, 1911, he accepted a position in the drafting department of the Industrial Works. He originated and organized the service department of that company and acted as service manager until he resigned to accept a position with the Lewis Ready-Built House Company. Six months later Mr. Nelson returned to the Industrial Works as assistant superintendent, and in October, 1925, was made superintendent. In 1917 he was elected alderman, and served in that position and as supervisor until 1922. In 1920 he was a candidate for mayor, but was defeated. He then was appointed chairman of the City Planning Commission, and held that office until he was elected mayor in 1925. As mayor he is also a member of the Board of Supervisors. Mr. Nelson is a member of all branches of Masonry excepting the Knights Templar. He founded the Grotto in Bay City, and was its Monarch for six years, holding this office longer than any other Monarch in the United States. The Bay City Grotto, which at the start had but seventeen members, had, at the end of his term, a total of nine hundred and ninety-nine applications for membership recorded on its books. The order has acquired the Bay City club at the corner of Center and Jefferson streets, which it intends to use as a recreation center for interested Blue lodge Masons. Mr. Nelson also helped form the Lions club in Bay City, and was the first president of the Noon-luncheon club. He is a member of the Elks, and Knight of Pythias. William L. Nieman, head of the Nieman & Son Bus Company, 607-9 Harrison street, Bay City, was born January 26, 1860, in Chicago, the son of William and Elizabeth (Hill) Nieman. He received his schooling in the Chicago German-American Institution, and came to Bay City in 1882, where for thirty-five years he was

Page  246 246 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY employed as a cigar manufacturer. Seeing that an opportunity to make a success of a bus line existed in Bay City, in 1920 he started what was the first motor transportation line in the city. His judgment proved correct and he is now owner of a fleet of busses which operate all over Bay City. He owns a large garage in which his big cars are serviced and repaired at a minimum cost and he spares no effort to see that his lines are at all times operated on schedule. The firm is now composed of him and his son, Frank T. Nieman. On October 6, 1885, he married Emma Watrous, a native of Bay City, Michigan. They have three children, as follows: Bessie, who is now Mrs. R. W. Hood, of Chicago, and mother of two children, William and Esther Hood; Louis, of Flint, Michigan, father of three children, Dorothy, Marie and William; and Frank T. Nieman married Jennie Jane Harding, October 9, 1923, of Bay City, and to this union has been born one child, Margurete Jane Nieman. Frank T. Nieman was an instructor in aviation during the World war, stationed at St. Paul, Minnesota. Mr. Nieman is an Odd Fellow, a member of the Board of Commerce, American Legion and the Baptist church. He resides at 213 Cass avenue, Bay City. David Olson, agent for the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 314 Shearer building, Bay City, learned the cooper's trade as a boy and followed that occupation many years before he engaged in his present business. He was born in Bay City on March 23, 1887, the son of Alexander and Martha Olson, both of whom were born in Sweden. His father, who was born in 1849, came to Bay City in 1878 and for a while had charge of the lumber piling operations of the McGraw mills. Later he was employed in a woodenware factory, where he remained until his death in 1903. His wife, whom he married in Bay City, did not change her last name when married, as she was also an Olson but not a relative of her husband's family. Mr. and Mrs. Olson were the parents of twelve children, of whom eight are now living. David Olson was a pupil at the old Whittaker school in Bay City, and also attended high school before being apprenticed to learn the cooperage business. He worked for the Columbia Sugar Company, Bay City, for about six years, after which for a period of four years he did work for other concerns as well. He became aware of the possibilities of the insurance business in 1915, and started as an agent for the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., the concern he is now with in the capacity of an unattached agent. He has established a fine business for himself and is one of the Metropolitan company's leading representatives in Northern Michigan. On June 18, 1914, he married Olive Johnson, a native of Ohio. They have four children; Thelma, Donald, Robert and Martha. Mr. Olson and family reside at 901 Harris street. Thaddeus S. Pearll, manager of the Pearll System of Outdoor Advertising, 106 Washington avenue, Bay City, was born in Bay City on February 28, 1886. His father, who was born in Poland and

Page  247 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 247 who came to the United States as a small boy, is now dead, as is also his mother. Mr. Pearll is a graduate of the Bay City high school. In 1900 the business was bought from C. J. Bloomfield, of which he is still owner, the Pearll System of Outdoor Advertising. He paints signs and bulletins of every description for display purposes and his clientele and service extends over all parts of northeastern Michigan. He is a Mason, and belongs to the Grotto of that order; an Elk, a Knight of Pythias, a member of the Michigan and also the National poster advertising associations. On May 20, 1916, he married Iza C. Gamble, of Detroit. They have one child, William. Mr. Pearll and family attend the Presbyterian church. Harry L. Pearsall, D. D. S., 7 Cranage building, Bay City, is a son of Mr. and Mrs. James D. Pearsall, who are mentioned elsewhere in this volume. Dr. Pearsall was born in Bay City, August 27, 1882, and received his early education in St. James parochial school. Later he went to Detroit, where he received private instruction for a number of years. He then entered the dental department of the Detroit College of Medicine & Surgery, where he graduated in 1906 with the degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery. He at once returned to Bay City and began practice. On September 11, 1907, he married Gertrude Wolfe of Bay City. They have seven children living, as follows: Alice Bradley, born August 9, 1908, now a senior student at St. James high school; Mary Winnifred, born July 11, 1910, a sophomore in St. James high school; Mary Gertrude, born July 19, 1912; Thomas J., born March 18, 1915; Margot Cecelia, born February 21, 1920; and Katherine, born March 18, 1922; Harry Leo Jr., born February 18, 1926; Evelyn, their fifth child, born October 21, 1917, died at the age of two years, six months. Dr. Pearsall is a member of the Bay County Dental Society, the Michigan Dental Society and the American Dental Association. Fraternally he is a Knight of Columbus and an Elk. He is very popular, both personally and professionally, and is beyond doubt an outstanding figure in his profession. His fame has spread to other cities and as a result many of his patients are persons from out-of-town. Dr. Pearsall has a handsome modern residence at 710 Trumbull street. James D. Pearsall, 608 North Jackson street, Bay City, retired undertaker and former coroner of Bay county, was born February 22, 1854, at Brighton, Ontario, Canada. His ancestors on the Pearsall side of the house have lived in America since 1538, descending from an ancient family in Alsace, France. His father, William Pearsall, was born on Long Island, New York, July 4, 1812, the son of John Pearsall, a private in the war of 1812. William Pearsall lived for a while in Canada, where his son James was born, and moved to St. Claire, Michigan, in 1870, where he settled on a farm and remained until his death, at the age of sixty-seven. His wife, Mrs. Bridget (Finnegan) Pearsall, who was born in Ireland on December 17, 1814, came to Bay City after his death and died there at the age of sixty-seven. John Pearsall, the veteran of the War of

Page  248 248 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 1812, was also a soldier of the Revolutionary war. After the coming of peace, which followed his second term of service in his country's armed forces, he settled on a farm in Canada, where he died at the age of ninety years. James D. Pearsall attended schools in Ontario, Canada, until he was eleven years old, when his parents removed to Michigan. Here he received additional schooling, and, as he grew to manhood, took charge of his father's estate. In 1877 he began to traffic in nursery stock. Being naturally adapted for this highly specialized occupation and seeing the rapidly growing demand for trees and berry stock in the young state of Michigan, he moved to Bay City one year later and established himself in the nursery business there. He continued in this industry six years, during which he had several salesmen employed in disposing of his merchandise. In 1885 Mr. Pearsall entered the undertaking business in Bay City, in which he was also very successful. He became active in Bay county politics, was elected coroner several terms, served as delegate to county, congressional and state conventions of the democratic party and took a leading part in municipal and civic welfare projects. When he finally retired, after a long and busy career, his business was taken over by his sons, Francis and John D. Pearsall. After three years Francis Pearsall sold his interest to John D. He was married on April 29, 1879, to Alice Bradley, daughter of James Bradley, a farmer of St. Claire, Michigan. She died in 1920, the mother of seven children, as follows: Francis, retired real estate operator, Detroit; Harry L., dentist, Bay City; James Winfield, insurance and real estate, Bay City; Murray A., deceased; John D., undertaker, Bay City; and Roy A., manager of the Wenona Loan Co., Bay City. Though past threescore and ten years, Mr. Pearsall is active and vigorous. His favorite pastime is traveling about the country, seeing the various places of interest in the state and nation his family has helped so greatly to establish. He is still a member of the State Funeral Directors' association. Fraternally he is an Elk and a Knight of Columbus. Roy A. Pearsall, managing head of the Wenona Loan Co., 710 Washington avenue, Bay City, is a son of Mr. and Mrs. James D. Pearsall and a brother of Dr. H. L. Pearsall, who are mentioned in this work. He was born in Bay City, February 15, 1890. After graduating from the St. James high school, he took a course in the Bay City Business College, preparatory to beginning a mercantile career. On completion of his course he obtained the position of assistant chief clerk in the offices of the Bay City Gas Co., where he remained four years. His next employment was with the German-American Sugar Co., which is now the Columbia Sugar Co. Three and one-half years later he resigned to accept a position with the Chevrolet Motor company, where he continued four years. During his association with this concern he helped to organize the Wenona Loan Co., which was granted articles of incorporation in 1921. In 1922, in response to a unanimous request from the other stockholders, he gave up his position with the Chevrolet company

Page  249 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 249 to become secretary, treasurer and manager of the loan company. He has demonstrated his business ability by conducting the affairs of this concern in a successful manner, and is now interested in other business ventures. He was married in 1915 to Gladys Tierney, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Harry J. Tierney, of Bay City. They have three children: Harry J., Mary Elizabeth and James D. Mr. Pearsall is a member of the Knights of Columbus and the Elks. He resides at 317 North Sheridan street. Cyrus I. Perkins, of the George H. Hohes Hardware Company, 1806 Broadway, Bay City, was born at Vassar, Michigan, in 1887. His grandfather, Cyrus Perkins, a native of New York, was one of the early residents of Michigan, where he came to obtain a homestead. The land on which he settled was near what is now the town of Munger, his nearest neighbor at that time being six miles away. He was a close friend of John Cochran, famous pioneer resident of Michigan. His wife, Hannah (Abernethy) Perkins, daughter of one of the first physicians in Bay county, was born in Canada. At the outbreak of the Civil war he enlisted in Company K of the Fourth Michigan Cavalry, serving as a corporal until the end of the conflict, when he returned to Michigan and settled at Vassar, where he died. Otto Zieman and wife, grandparents of Cyrus I. Perkins, came to America from Germany in 1868 and settled on a farm on the Munger road three-fourths of a mile from the county line near Munger, where both remained until they died. Here their daughter, Minnie, mother of Cyrus I. Perkins, was born. His father, Ellis Perkins, who for many years was employed in the woods and sawmills, moved from Vassar to Bay City when Cyrus was but three years old. The father then entered the confectionery business in a building which was just opposite Miller's mill, which later caught fire and burned, also destroying the Perkins' store. Cyrus still remembers the terrific heat caused by that huge conflagration, as he burned his feet in escaping from his blazing home by running over the hot sawdust which was piled about. All of his possessions having been wiped out in this fire, the father was forced to begin life over again as a laborer. He is now living at the family home in Bay City, the father of seven children. Cyrus attended the Fremont school and Whittier school in Bay City and took additional instruction at Vassar, where he later began work in a furniture factory. The tender age of fourteen years found him employed as a section hand on a railroad. So remarkable was his pluck and endurance that he remained at this work for five years. He then came to Bay City and entered the Industrial Works, where he remained approximately five years more. His next employment was in the store of which he is now part owner. His first duties in this enterprise were humble, but he rapidly worked his way upward, and at the death of the owner, George H. Hohes, he was appointed manager of the store for the estate. He has, with the assistance of George C. Reichenbach, son-in-law of the founder of the business, added many new lines to the stock of goods

Page  250 250 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY carried by the company, making the store one of the most attractive in the city. He was married in 1905 to Jessie Townsend, of Vassar. They have six children; Dorothea, nineteen; Ruth, sixteen; Harriet, twelve; Cyrus V., six; Howard, three; and Phyllis, age two years. Mr. Perkins is a member of Portsmouth lodge, F. & A. M., and Valley lodge, I. O. O. F. William H. Perkins, jobber and manufacturer of candy, 1108-10 North Water street, Bay City, was born in Bay City on August 2, 1889. His father, Andrew B. Perkins, who was born in 1859 and died in 1917, was for thirty years proprietor of a wholesale produce and fruit store in Bay City, and this business, known as the A. B. Perkins Co., is now conducted by his son, Harry A., brother of William H. Perkins. The mother of these two men, Mrs. Amelia (Helbig) Perkins, who was born in 1863, is living in West Bay City. William H. Perkins attended the public schools of Bay City, graduated from the Bay City high school and entered the University of Michigan, where he graduated with the class of 1912. Having been employed during school vacations in his father's business, he was able, on completion of his education, to accept a position as a traveling salesman for a Chicago company. He remained with this firm several years, resigning in 1914 to establish the Perkins Candy Co., jobbers and manufacturers of confections. This company distributes its wares throughout Michigan and eastern states. Mr. Perkins is a member of the Presbyterian church, the Elks and the Kiwanis club. He was married, in 1922, to Hilda M. Mertens, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Frederick W. Mertens, of Bay City. They have one son, Frederick Andrew. Mr. Perkins and family reside at 2122 Sixth street. Ernest Blackman Perry is president of the Industrial Works, Bay City, Michigan, the largest plant in the country devoting its whole capacity to the production of locomotive cranes, and heavy railroad equipment. During the World war the whole standard product of the plant was commandeered by the government for use in this country and in France. Organized in 1873 this plant has continually held an increasingly important place in the manufacturing record of the city, state and country. Mr. Perry was born in Prairie Du Chien, Wisconsin, December 9, 1868. He is a son of Walter Scott and Emma (Blackman) Perry. The father was born in Elk Creek, New York, and was an educator and spent the whole of his life in the field of education. For the twenty-seven years preceding his death, he was the superintendent of schools in Ann Arbor. Mr. Perry received his early education in the public schools of Ann Arbor, and this completed, entered the University of Michigan. He was enrolled in the Mechanical Engineering Department, and was graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Science (Mechanical Engineering) from that department in 1889, and in 1896 he received his Master's degree in Mechanical Engineering. While a student in the University he became a member of the Delta Upsilon fraternity, and later, the Tau Beta Pi,

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Page  251 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 251 which is a national honorary engineering fraternity. In 1889 he took a position with the Industrial Works of Bay City as draftsman, and has been connected with the firm since that time. After he had been with the company for awhile he was made superintendent, and mechanical engineer; later, vice-president and general manager, and in 1924 he came into the highest position that the company could give him, the presidency of the concern. It is in -this position that he now serves. On November 28, 1889, he was married to Susie I. Harwood of Ann Arbor, and they have two children, Harold Harwood Perry, who is manager of the Industrial Works, and Ernestine H. Perry, still in school. Mr. Perry is a member of the Congregational church and is active in their Sunday school. He is a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and is affiliated with various other national organizations of engineers. He is also a member of the Rotary club of Bay City. He is a director of the Research Department of the University of Michigan, also a trustee of the University Alumni Fund, and always interested in University affairs. Mr. Perry is one of Bay City's representative business men, a director in two of its banks, and is widely and favorably known in his community. Walter Scott Perry was superintendent of the Ann Arbor City schools from 1870 until his death in 1897. Under his supervision came also the Ann Arbor high school, one of the best preparatory schools for the University, so that its growth and development were associated closely with the epoch-making progress in education, of those years. He was born at Elk Creek, Otsego county, N. Y. June 17, 1831. His father was Nathan Perry, and his mother Betsey (Babcock) Perry. His parents came from Nova Scotia, of Puritan stock, his grandfather having been a soldier in the American Revolution. His early education was received in the district school at Elk Creek, at the Academy in Schenevus, N. Y., and at the church school at Charlottenville, N. Y. He graduated from the Michigan State Normal School at Ypsilanti, June, 1856. During the next year he pursued special studies in preparation for the classical course and entered the class of 1861 in the University of Michigan in the sophomore year. He was one of the most mature and scholarly men in the class. He graduated A. B., June 1861, and received the Master's degree, University of Michigan, 1871, and the degree Master of Pedagogics from the State Normal College, 1890. Professor Perry deliberately chose the life of an educator and thoroughly prepared for it. In college he was a close, accurate scholar, well-read in general literature, a forcible writer, and an able debater. He was superintendent of schools at Marshall, 1861-63, and at Coldwater from 1864 to 1867, inclusive. During a part of this time he edited the Coldwater Republican. He was superintendent of schools for Branch County, 1867-68; principal high school, Toledo, Ohio, 1868; president Prairie Du Chien College, Wisconsin, from 1868 to 1870; superintendent of the Ann Arbor city schools, from 1870 to his death,

Page  252 252 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY December 15, 1897. He was president of the Michigan Teacher's Association, 1875 and 1876. The high promise of his college days was fully met by his eminent success as an educator. For years he stood in the very front rank of Michigan's public school teachers, and his eminent success in organizing and managing public schools proved him to possess administrative abilities of a high order. He has left his indelible impress upon the department of public instruction by his years of earnest labor, characterized by breadth of view and high character. Hundreds of men of affairs throughout our whole country, refer, with gratitude, to the helpful influenqe in their lives, exerted by close sympathetic contact with Professor Perry during their Ann Arbor days. For many years he conducted teachers' institutes throughout the state, thus widening his sphere of influence. He always took a prominent part in the local and national work of the Congregational church. Professor Perry was married December 28, 1865, to Miss Emma Blackman. Four children were born to them, namely: Paul Victor, born February 28, 1867; Ernest Blackman, December 9, 1868; Mabel, and Walter Babcock, October 21, 1881. All four are graduates from the Ann Arbor high school, and all attended the University of Michigan. Paul graduated with the degree of A. B., with the class of 1888, later took up law and was admitted to the bar. Ernest graduated with the degree of B. S., in Mechanical Engineering with the class of 1889, taking his Master's Degree in Mechanical Engineering in 1896. Walter graduated in the class of 1904 with the degree of M. E. Mabel supplemented two years at the University of Michigan with two in the Librarian's Course at the University of Illinois, graduating in 1904. All of the children are living-Paul is engaged in literary work in Chicago; Ernest is president of the Industrial Works, Bay City, Michigan; Walter is general superintendent at the same plant, while Mabel, now Mrs. Dr. Ward J. MacNeal, resides in Forest Hills, Long Island. Mrs. Perry died in Ann Arbor, November 5, 1912. Franklin C. Peters, proprietor of the Peters moving, storage and long distance hauling company, 401 North Walnut street, Bay City, was born April 13, 1868, at Monroe City, Michigan, the son of Charles F. and Adeline (Richards) Peters. His father, who was born in Saginaw in 1843, enlisted in the Union army at the outbreak of the Civil war. He was shot through the face during an engagement, and as a result was forced to wear a plate in the upper portion of his mouth the rest of his life. He operated the first hack and bus line in Bay City and retired from this business in 1920. His death occurred in 1925, on May 4. His wife, who was born on October 5, 1845, died April 29, 1923. Their son, Franklin C. Peters, was a pupil at the West Bay City school. His first work was with his father in the moving business, in which he has been engaged almost all of his life. He now operates a fleet of trucks and moves household goods to and from Bay City and points in Michigan, Indiana and Ohio. He also owns a warehouse

Page  253 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 253 in which he stores quantities of household goods, furniture and other articles for the convenience of the public. He was married on July 25, 1895, to Louisa, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Peter Van Haaren, who are mentioned in this book in conjunction with the history of Gottfried Van Haaren. Mr. Peters has an attractive residence at 401 North Walnut street. Raphael G. Phillips, judge of the Bay City police court, was born in Bay City, May 13, 1895, the son of John P. and Hattie L. (Robertson) Phillips. His father, a veteran of the Civil war, was born in Buffalo, New York. He came to Bay county and became a heavy investor in real estate in this and Tuscola counties. He died in Bay City at the age of fifty-nine years. Mrs. Phillips, a native of Ashtabula, Ohio, came to Bay City when a small girl and died at the family home here at the age of forty-five. Raphael G. Phillips received his early education in the schools of Tuscola county. The major portion of his knowledge was obtained by study during his leisure hours. For several years he was employed as a traveling salesman. On being elected justice of the peace he gave up that position and has since resided permanently in Bay City. He was later elected judge of the Bay City police court, and is now holding that office. His path has been a hard one, but he has overcome all obstacles through pluck and determination. On September 6, 1911, he suffered the loss of both hands in a hunting accident. Undaunted, he set himself to the task of learning to do the common acts of life without assistance from other persons. Today he drives his own car, operates a typewriter and does many other things as easily as a person with full use of both hands. His hobbies are motoring, walking, with an occasional poem as a diversion of mental effort. He was married on June 17, 1918, to Olive Louise Lindsay, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. William W. Lindsay, of Bay City. They have two children, Wendell G., born March 3, 1920, and Raphael G. jr., born May 2, 1924. The Phillips family reside at 1615 Webster street. Mr. Phillips is a member of Portsmouth lodge No. 190, F. & A. M.; Bay City Consistory, Thirty-second Degree; Elf Kuraehf Temple, Mystic Shrine; Shoppenagon Grotto; Blanchard Chapter Royal Arch Mason; Temple Chapter O. E. S.; Ivanhoe lodge, Knight of Pythias; Eden lodge, I. O. O. F.; White Shrine of Jerusalem. Mrs. Phillips is a member of the Eastern Star and the White Shrine of Jerusalem. Ernest F. Potter, garage owner, 702 East John street, Bay City, was born at Geneva, Ohio, July 31, 1873, the son of Frank and Lucy (Thompson) Potter. His father was born in 1847 and died in 1900, and his mother was born in 1852 and died in 1920. They were pioneer residents of Bay City, from where they moved to Geneva, Ohio, returning to Bay City in 1875. The father was an employe of the Michigan Central railway all of his adult years. Their son, Ernest F. Potter, attended the Bay City public schools and then entered a drug store, where he worked four years. He was manager of the National Bicycle repair shop three years, and,

Page  254 254 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY having learned the machinist trade, in 1899 he started the first automobile repair shop in Bay City. Later he disposed of this concern and spent several years as an employe in various automobile factories. He returned to Bay City in 1920, to become proprietor of the garage he now owns. He is also distributor in Bay county and surrounding territory for the Van Auken tops for Ford automobiles. On November 15, 1899, he married Agnes Walther, daughter of Albert Walther, pioneer plumbing contractor of Bay City. To this union were born five children: Christine, who is now Mrs. Ernest Keipert, of Bay City, and the mother of two children, Jack and Joan; Ernest, deceased; Agnes L., who lives at home; and Frank and Ernie, who are now dead. Mr. Potter's residence is at 517 North Jefferson street, Bay City. Richard J. Powers, Jr., was vice-president of the Bay View Scenic Studio, 303 South Water street, Bay City. He was born in Ireland on February 20, 1898, the son of Richard and Anna Powers, parents of four sons and one daughter, all of whom are living. He attended school in Ireland until he was ten years old, when he came with his parents to the United States and settled in Bay City. Here he attended the public schools until he was sixteen years old, when he began work in the show business. His first employment was with a circus and carnival, and by obtaining this position he not only gratified a boyhood desire but laid the foundation for a successful future, as well. As a circus and carnival employe he traveled through every state in the Union and all provinces of Canada, learning the business thoroughly and preparing himself for more responsible positions later. In 1916, as a member of the National Guard, he' was sent to the Mexican Border, where he served until January 17, 1917. He returned to Bay City, and, at the outbreak of the World war, made an effort to enlist for overseas service, but was rejected. He then went to Canada and enlisted in the Veteran Corps of the Canadian Army. In this organization he was sent overseas. After eleven months strenuous service he was returned to the United States and honorably discharged. He again returned to /Bay City and engaged in the outdoor show business, in which he has been very successful. He traveled with various organizations until the incorporation of the Bay View Scenic Studio, when he became vice-president of the new concern. During twenty-one weeks with one show he covered an intinerary which led from Jacksonville, Florida, up the Mississippi valley and across Canada to Quebec and from there to Richmond, Virginia. He is a member of the International Alliance of Stage Employes, the Elks, and local civic organizations. He was married on August 28, 1924, to Susie Fletcher, of Bay City. William Selwyn Ramsay, president of the Bay City Dredge Works, and one of Bay City's prominent business men, was born on a farm in Grey county, Ontario, Canada, January 29, 1874. He is a son of David Ramsay who was born in County Tyrone, Ireland, of Scotch parentage and who lived the later part of his life in Bay

Page  255 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 2i55: City, retired from active business. Mr. Ramsay received his education in the public schools of Canada and came to Bay City in 1890. Mr. Ramsay has had a valuable experience in the business world and has been notably successful in the several ventures in which he has been engaged. The four years that he spent in the law offices of Chester L. Collins furnished a valuable background for his later work. He spent four years with the Old Second National Bank and leaving there was connected with the Chatfield Milling Company for a number of years. His next work was with the Industrial Works in the sales department where he continued for nine or ten years, and eventually was made head of that department. In company with several others he organized the Bay City Dredge Works in 1913, and in the second year of the business was made president of the firm and serves in that capacity at the present time. He is also the president of the U. S. Bridge and Culvert Company, of Bay City, and does ample justice to the management of both concerns. In 1898 he married Adah Morgan of Albion, New York, and to this marriage were born two children, namely, Morgan, who is with the Bay City Dredge Works, and William Selwyn Jr., a student at the University of Michigan. Mr. Ramsay takes an active interest in civic affairs and has been of service to the city in a number of ways. He was president of the Charter club, an organization which was instrumental in obtaining a new city charter. He is widely known in Masonic circles, is a thirty-second degree Mason, and in 1906 was Master of the local lodge, holding the distinction of being the youngest man to hold that position in the lodge. Mr. Ramsay is a charter member of the Rotary club and has served as president of that club. He has served as president of the board of trustees of the Y. M. C. A., and is a member of the Presbyterian church. A capable and successful business man, devoted to furthering the best interests of the community, Mr. Ramsay is favorably known and esteemed by his fellow citizens. George C. Reichenbach, of the George H. Hohes Company, hardware, 1806 Broadway, Bay City, was born September 16, 1892, in Frankenlust township, Bay county. His grandfather, William Reichenbach, who was the proprietor of a large bakery in Germany, disposed of his interests there and came to America at the time his son, William, father of George C. Reichenbach, was about seven years old. His mother, Mrs. Barbara Reichenbach, was a daughter of John and Barbara Buchinger, natives of Germany, who came to America and settled at Frankenmuth, Michigan, her birthplace, and later moved to Richville, where both of the parents died. William Reichenbach was in the retail liquor business in Frankenlust township, Bay county, many years. He took an active part in public matters, and was a leader in the fight for improved highways. The Cass avenue road was built as a result of the efforts of a group of citizens of whom he was a guiding head. He also held various public offices, including membership on the board of education. He

Page  256 256 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY is now living on Columbus avenue, Bay City. George C. Reichenbach, one of a family of seven children, began his business career as a messenger boy for the Western Union Telegraph Co. Having finished the Bay City schools, he felt the need of a higher education, and enrolled for an electrical engineering course with the International Correspondence Schools. The knowledge obtained from this institution has helped him greatly in his career. His next position was with the Affleck Electric Co., where he began as an apprentice and worked his way upward to the foremanship of the company's shops. After remaining with this concern sixteen years he formed a partnership with Cyrus I. Perkins and became one of the owners of the hardware company in which he is now interested. His knowledge of electricity made it possible for the firm to add a line of electrical supplies to the stock of hardware and furniture already carried by the Hohes company. Later a complete stock of radio equipment and supplies was added to the business, under his direction. He is a member of the Odd Fellows, Portsmouth lodge, F. & A. M., as well as the Scottish Rite and the Shrine of that order. His wife, whom he married on September 16, 1913, was Blanche Hohes, daughter of the founder of the George H. Hohes hardware company. He and his wife are members of the Fremont Methodist Episcopal church. Henry C. and Ferdinand J. Reinhardt, of the firm of Reinhardt Brothers, blacksmiths and manufacturers of commercial automobile bodies, 105 North Henry street, Bay City, are sons of the founder of the business, Henry C. Reinhardt, who was born in West Bay City on November 25, 1857, and who died in 1921. He established a blacksmith shop in West Bay City in 1878, which he enlarged in 1882 to provide space for the manufacture of carriages and wagons. The firm he founded is the oldest of its kind in Bay county, as other carriage makers gradually gave up their efforts to continue in business after motor-driven vehicles came into general use. Mr. Reinhardt, instead of giving way before the flood of motor cars, adjusted his business to take advantage of the change in transportation methods, and today his sons are owners of a busy, profitable establishment. His wife, who was before her marriage, Christine Wirth, of Frankenhurst, Michigan, was born in 1861 and died in 1899. Ferdinand J. Reinhardt, the younger of the two sons, was born in Bay City on August 12, 1886. He became associated with his father and brother upon leaving school and has continued in the family business since that time. On June 9, 1908, he married Julia Scherer, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John Scherer, of Sandusky, Ohio. They have two children, twins, Eleanor and Alma, born on February 28, 1911. They are members of St. John's Lutheran church and reside at 105 North Henry street. Mr. Reinhardt is a member of the Knights of Pythias and the Board of Commerce. His brother, Henry C. Reinhardt, was born in Bay City on December 12, 1883. He entered his father's shop immediately after finishing his studies. He bears the honor of being the last

Page  257 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 257 captain in the old barn and the first captain in the new No. 8 Hose company, Bay City, west side, having been promoted to that position at the beginning of the last two of his seven years' service at the No. 8 hose house. He is now proprietor of the Victor Theatre, Bay City. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias, the Odd Fellows, Board of Commerce and the St. John's Lutheran church. On September 5, 1908, he married Catherine, daughter of Andrew Hammereachk. To this union have been born two children, Madeline and Roy. Odilon Ricard, undertaker, 1020 North Madison street, Bay City, was born in Canada, in November, 1875, the son of Hilaire and Marie (Laferty) Ricard, both of whom were born in France. After completing his education in Sorrel College, Canada, he engaged in the grocery and meat business at New Montreal, where he remained for four years. In 1899 he moved to Rhode Island, where he started in the undertaking business. He disposed of his interests there in 1916 and came to Bay City. His first location in this city was on Washington avenue, where he did an excellent business for six years before moving to his present establishment at 1020 North Madison street. His parents, who left Canada and settled in New Hampshire, are now dead. He was married, in 1892, to Emma Pinard, of Canada, who is also of French descent. Both are members of St. Joseph's Catholic church. He is a prominent member of several secret orders, including Council No. 414 of the Knights of Columbus, Catholic Order of Foresters No. 41, Alliance Marquette No. 1, St. John the Baptist No. 372, and the L. A. C. A. No. 46, Eagle Aerie No. 1010. He formerly was a member of the Knights of Pythias. John W. Richards, Jr., owner of the Wenonah Garage, 1313 Washington avenue, Bay City, was born in Essexville, Bay county, on May 21, 1885, the son of John W. Richards and wife, natives of England, who are still residents of Essexville. Mr. Richards acquired his knowledge of the automobile business while employed by the Smalley Motor Company and Buick and Chevrolet Company, Flint, Michigan. Returning to Bay City in 1916 he started a small garage which he operated until in 1918, when he sold the plant and equipment to another firm. For two years afterward he was employed as shop foreman for the Hubble Motor Company. In 1920, with the assistance of another man, he established the Wenonah Garage. He later purchased his partner's interest and is now the sole owner of the enterprise, which enjoys a wide patronage. On April 12, 1909, he married Rose B. Smith, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Mason J. Smith, of Maple Ridge, Michigan. To this union were born five children, Marian E., John James, Vance Curtis, Madeline Rachel and Warren Harding. Mr. Richards is a member of the F. & A. M., No. 129, and Mrs. Richards is a member of the Eastern Star, Temple chapter. Both attend the Congregational church. Mr. Richards has, for the past eight years, been a member of the

Page  258 258 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY Essexville council. He has a modern residence at 1020 Woodside avenue, in that village. William H. Richardson, secretary of the Watson & Richardson and the Island Lumber Companies, was born in 1872 in Portsmouth township, Bay county, the son of Charles Dexter and Elizabeth (Valentine) Richardson. His father, who was the son of an attorney, was born in Wayne county, Pennsylvania. His mother, the daughter of a linguist who spoke seven languages, was born in Detroit, where her father, a native of Copenhagen, Denmark, was proprietor of a jewelry store. Mr. Richardson's father helped to build one of the first railroads to reach Bay City, he having arrived here by way of a lake steamer in 1865. His first residence in this city was at the old Center House, which was the abode of many persons who were prominent in Bay county history. In later years he conducted a grocery store, dying on July 29, 1924, when almost eighty years old. He was the father of three children, William H., Laura M., a teacher in the junior high school, Bay City, and Mabel, who is now married and living in Bay City. William H. Richardson attended what is now known as the Whittier school, after which he entered the logging industry and "drove" the river many years. He then went into the grocery business with his father, where he remained until establishing himself in the retail lumber business with J. H. Watson under the firm name of Watson & Richardson. This venture having proved successful, he helped organize the Island Lumber Company, manufacturers and jobbers of lumber. He was made secretary of these companies, both of which are still thriving concerns. He was married on August 8, 1899, to Emma B. Comstock, whose mother, a member of the Green family, pioneer residents of Bay City, had arrived in Michigan at the time the McCormick and Tromble families settled here. The Richardsons have but two children; Dexter Comstock, who is in the lumber business with his father, and Margaret Elizabeth, a graduate of the Kalamazoo Normal school. Though he has been a leader in civic affairs, Mr. Richardson has never aspired to political office. He was, for twenty-six years, a "call man" in the Bay City fire department with the rank of lieutenant, receiving for his services in those days but eighteen dollars a month. He is affiliated with two secret orders; the Odd Fellows, to which he has belonged thirty-two years, and the Masons, holding membership in Portsmouth lodge and the Shrine of that order. Walter R. Richardson, general manager of the Wenona Beach Company, and who was secretary and treasurer of the Bay View Scenic Studio, Inc., 303 South Water street, Bay City, was born in Bay City, September 6, 1896. He received his education in the schools of Bay City, graduating from high school and beginning his present line of work at an early age. He is now regarded as a thorough artist, and his services are eagerly sought by a large clientele. He was the organizer of the Bay View Scenic Studio, which was founded in 1921 and of which he was secretary and treasurer. He is

Page  259 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 259 a member of the B. P. O. E. and of Joppa lodge No. 315 F. & A. M., and Shoppenhagon Grotto. He is also affiliated with the International Alliance of Stage Employes. He was married in 1919 to Margaret Dooling, who was born in Holly, Michigan. To this union have been born two children, Marjorie, born June 22, 1922, and Elizabeth, born September 27, 1923. Mr. Richardson was formerly traffic manager of the Bay City Dredge Works, which was incorporated in 1924. John C. Ross, president of the Columbia Sugar Company, the Lewis Manufacturing Company and member of the firm of Ross and Wentworth, and vice-president of the Bay City Bank and the Northern Title & Trust Company, was born in Bay City on May 19, 1869, the son of William and Abbie (Case) Ross. His father, who was a native of Scotland, came to Bay City in 1861, and for many years was a carpenter and contractor, entering the lumber business when he had accumulated sufficient capital to conduct operations on the large scale required in that industry. His firm was first known as the William Ross and later as William Ross & Son. He was actively engaged in the management of his business at the time of his death. John C. Ross started in the lumber business as soon as he finished school, taking a minor position in his father's establishment and working his way upward. In 1900 he expanded the firm in which he and his father had been mutually interested to include a partner, the concern now being known as the Ross and Wentworth. He was married on October 14, 1897, to Margaret Keith, of Bay City. They have four children, Margaret, who is now Mrs. John M. Kerr, Dorothy, who is the wife of Randall Graves, and Ann and John K., who live at home. Mr. Ross is a Rotarian, an Elk and a Mason. James W. Rusling, treasurer of Bay county, was born in northern Indiana, and moved to Canada with his parents at the age of two years. His father was Thomas F. Rusling and his mother, Eliza A. (Deming) Rusling. Mr. Rusling began his education in the common schools of Norfolk county, Canada, and after completing his high school work entered normal school. After his graduation from the Toronto Normal College, he spent seven years teaching in the schools of Norfolk county, and then came to Bay City where he continued to teach for ten years. After he left school work, Mr. Rusling was interested in a number of business concerns, holding positions with the Chesbrough Lumber Company, the Bay City Cold Storage Company, and the Michigan Central Railway Company. In 1908 he entered the county treasure er's office under Homer J. Norton and remained there as an assistant until he was made treasurer, November 4, 1924. Mr. Rusling has been able to make a contribution to the city welfare, particularly in educational lines. During his service in the public schools he organized the evening school system in the city and established three separate evening schools in Bay City. Mr. Rusling was married in Canada before coming to Bay City, to Mary

Page  260 260 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY Ida Fitzgerald, daughter of George Fitzgerald of Peterboro, Ontario, Canada. Their two daughters, Laota and Beatrice, are married, the former is Mrs. T. D. Vermilya, of Detroit, Michigan, and the latter, Mrs. F. L. Hughes, of Bay City. There are two grandchildren, Geraldine and Marjorie, daughters of Mr. and Mrs. Hughes. Mr. Rusling is well known through his connections with the various fraternal organizations of which he is a member. He is a Mason, member of Joppa lodge, F. & A. M., a member of Bay City Consistory, and also a member of the Modern Woodmen of America. He is affiliated with the First Baptist Church, and was formerly active in the Sunday school of the Woodside M. E. church, still holding membership in the welfare club of that church. Alexander St. Laurent, wholesale dealer in peanuts, manufacturer of peanut butter and pulverizer of sugar, corner Third and North Water streets, Bay City, was born in Bay City on July 18, 1874, the son of Louis and Rachel (Turgeon) St. Laurent, both of whom were born in Canada in 1844. His father conducted a grocery store in Bay City for a period of thirty-five years, and died in 1922. His mother's death occurred in 1917. After finishing his studies in the Bay City schools, Alexander St. Laurent began clerking in his father's grocery store. Later, with his brother Joseph, he entered the wholesale and retail peanut business in Bay City, opening a store in 1904 under the name of St. Laurent Brothers. On February 19, 1920, the business was incorporated under the title of St. Laurent Brothers, Inc., with Alexander St. Laurent, president, Joseph St. Laurent, vice-president and Earl W. Miller, secretary and treasurer. The firm holds membership in the Bay City Chamber of Commerce and stands high in commercial circles. The firm has enoyed a healthy growth, and today is one of the largest of its kind in Michigan. The company manufactures a well-known brand of peanut butter and salted peanuts, which has a wide distribution throughout the state. Mr. St. Laurent is a member of the St. Joseph's Catholic church, and the Elks lodge. He is unmarried, and resides in the same block in which he was born. Roland H. Schafer, secretary and treasurer of the Bay City Plumbing & Heating Company, 1703 Third street, was born in the First Ward, Bay City, on April 4, 1884, the son of Herbert and Tern (Waller) Schafer. His father was born in St. Clair, Michigan, February 14, 1857, the son of Joseph and Mary Ann Schafer, natives of Germany, who came to America and settled in St. Clair about 1855. About 1857 Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Schafer came to Bay City and engaged in the hotel business at the corner of Woodside and Monroe streets in a building which is still standing on that site. Here they reared their family and died. Francis Waller, father of Mrs. Herbert Schafer, was a native of Ireland. He came to Hillsdale, Michigan, when a boy, making the long trip alone. He came to Bay City soon after his marriage, and was employed as a blacksmith many years. He took charge of the logging business of S. O. Fisher, a pioneer

Page  261 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 261 resident, and after conducting this enterprise in a successful manner for some time, he founded his own business under the firm name of Waller & Carson. The site on which this partnership operated a general blacksmith shop, is now occupied by the Bromfield & Colvin mill. He is now retired at the age of eighty-six, and his wife is eighty-three. Herbert Schafer attended the Sherman and Dolsen schools in Bay City and began work as a teamster when hardly more than a boy. He was employed in this capacity for several years by the Bay City Hardware Company. He was reared a Catholic, but later became a member of the Woodside Methodist church which his wife, Tena, and her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Francis Waller, also attended. Francis Waller was a soldier in the Civil war and fought through almost the entire battle of Gettysburg, in which he was wounded and taken prisoner, though he later escaped and returned to his own troops. Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Schafer were the parents of two children, Roland H. and Marion, a graduate of the Bay City high school, who is now Mrs. William Bateson. Mr. Schafer died October 19, 1912. Mrs. Schafer is living in Bay City, being now almost sixty-three years old. She was born February 13, 1863, at Hillsdale. Roland H. Schafer graduated from Bay City high school in 1901 and at once entered apprenticeship in the Wilson & Wanless sheet metal shop. Here he learned his trade so thoroughly that he later was placed in charge of the shop. After remaining in the employ of this firm fifteen years he decided to enter business for himself, and in 1915 he and Matthew Kelly incorporated the Bay City Plumbing & Heating Company, of which he is secretary and treasurer. He is a member of the Woodside Methodist church, where he served as superintendent of the Sunday school fifteen years. Fraternally he is an Elk holding his membership in lodge No. 88, Bay City. He was married in 1906, to Harriet Johnstone, of Bay City. To this union were born five children, as follows: Herbert Martin, born May 6, 1907, now a student in Junior high school; Vaughn Robert, born in September, 1908, also a student in Junior high school; Francis, born February 20, 1912; Roland Nelson, born April 19, 1915 and Joy, who died in infancy. Charles M. Schwartz, president of the Schwartz Boiler Co., 242-46 North Water street, Bay City, was born in Cheboygan, Michigan, on March 27, 1876. His father, who was born in Germany in 1849, was for many years a steamboat captain on the Great Lakes. He died in 1892. His widow, Mrs. Rosa (King) Schwartz, who was born in 1856, is still living at the family home in Cheboygan. Mr. Schwartz learned the carpenter trade at an early age, and followed that occupation for awhile. He then entered a boiler making shop and mastered the details of this vocation. In 1907 he and his brother, John Schwartz, established the Schwartz Brothers Boiler Works in Cheboygan. Two years later, in 1909, they purchased the Cheboygan Boiler Works, taking D. A. Hastings as a partner. In 1920 Mr. Schwartz came to Bay City

Page  262 262 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY and founded the Schwartz Boiler Co., of which he is president. This company manufactures structural steel work for contractors and builders, and does various kinds of heavy sheet metal work in addition to buying and selling old and new boilers of all kinds. The firm also repairs boilers in Bay City and surrounding territory. He is a member of the Catholic church, the Elks and the Board of Commerce. He was married, on December 23, 1900, to Emma Fournier, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Fournier, of Huron county, both of whom are now dead. To this union were born six children: Pearl Marie who lives at home; Bernice, now Mrs. Clyde Galbreath, of Detroit; Lloyd, of Bay City; Hazel, Arnold and John Henry, who live at home. Mr. and Mrs. Schwartz have one grandchild, Wallace Galbreath, of Detroit. Mr. Schwartz owns a large modern residence at North Henry street. Royston E. Scrafford, M. D., 305-6 Davidson building, Bay City, former captain in the U. S. Medical Corps and present chief of the X-ray department at Mercy hospital, is one of the most prominent surgeons in this section of Michigan. He was born February 11, 1882 at Midland, Michigan. He graduated from the Alpena high school, entered the medical department of the University of Michigan, where he obtained his M. D. degree in 1906, and began an interneship in the University hospital in September of the same year. On completion of his work in the hospital he sought a suitable place in which to begin practice, and in February, 1908, he opened an office in Bay City. He has devoted much of his attention to surgery and roentgenology, and is admittedly an expert in these branches of medicine. In 1917 he enlisted in the medical corps of the United States Army to serve during the World war, and was assigned to Base Hospital No. 36. He was commissioned captain and given additional special training before being sent overseas on October 27, 1918. He was returned to the United States on April 19, 19-19, and honorably discharged two days later. He immediately returned to Bay City and resumed his practice. In addition to being a member of the Bay County Medical Society, the Michigan State Medical Society and the American Medical Association, Dr. Scrafford is affiliated with the Radiological Society of North America. He is an Elk, a member of the American Legion, the Automobile club of Northern Michigan, the Board of Commerce and the fashionable Bay City Yacht and Country clubs. He married on June 29, 1910, Ruby Jeannette Kerr, of Bay City. Dr. and Mrs. Scrafford are members of the Episcopal church and reside at 1853 McKinley avenue. Allan C. See, upholsterer of fine furniture and manufacturer of slip covers, 903 Center avenue, Bay City, was born in Bay City on April 19, 1874. His father, Albert See, who was born in Canada in 1867, came to Bay City in 1870, where he followed his trade of furniture maker. His mother, Mrs. Mary (Allan) See, died when he was five years old. Mr. See has worked in the furniture industry practically all his life. Twenty years ago he established

Page  263 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 263 his own business, which consists principally of upholstering and refinishing fine furniture and the manufacture of slip covers for furniture. On August 7, 1901, he married Mary Fitzgerald, daughter of Jean E. and Joanna (McCarthy) Fitzgerald, pioneer residents of Bay City, and who are now dead. To this union were born two children, Gerald C. and Helen C. See. Mr. See is an Elk and a member of the Methodist church, while Mrs. See is a member of the St. James church. They reside at 1301 McKinley avenue. Charles W. See, furniture dealer, 812 North Water street, Bay City, was born March 21, 1885, in Bay City, the son of John A. See, founder of the furniture company of that name, who was born in Canada on December 16, 1853. John A. See's first employment was in a sawmill in Bay City, in 1870, when he was not yet seventeen years old. Before his eighteenth birthday he had left the sawmill and had begun work in the Bloden furniture store on Center street. Here he remained for two years. Then, with James See, a brother, he started the See Brothers furniture store, on Center street. Later he became associated with the Peoples House Furnishing Company, which was then on North Water street, where the park is now. Still later he formed a partnership with C. Wilson, in the furniture trade. This partnership was dissolved when he and his son, Charles, established the John A. See Furniture Co., at 812 North Water street. At the time this company was formed the store occupied two buildings which contained fifty thousand feet of floor space. Today the firm uses the rooms above both of the adjoining buildings from Water to Saginaw streets, making a total of one-fifth million square feet, or an approximate increase of twelve times the original space. Rugs, stoves and dishes have been added to the original line of furniture. John A. See was married February 10, 1881, to Catherine Haste, of St. Clair, Michigan. They have two children; Nellie May, who is now married and living in Detroit, and Charles W. See. Mr. See is a Mason and a member of the Baptist church. Paul A. Shares, proprietor of the Wenonah Hotel, Bay City, was born September 17, 1882, in New Haven, Connecticut, the son of Horace P. and Susan Shares. After finishing school Mr. Shares went to the state of Florida, where he learned the hotel business thoroughly. He began as a helper in the store-room of a large hostelry, and worked his way through all departments, mastering every detail of his occupation. He remained in Florida almost seven years, and operated a hotel at Rocklidge, in that state, for almost six years of that time. He came to Bay City at the age of twenty-five years and leased the Wenonah Hotel, of which he and Horace A. Shares are now proprietors. He is an Elk and a Rotarian, and the father of two children, Pauline and Muriel. His wife was, before her marriage, Helen J. Jones, of Chicago. Edward M. Sharpe, attorney, 412 Crapo building, Bay City, was born in Hampton township, Bay county, on December 18, 1887. His father, John H. Sharpe, was born in New York in 1848

Page  264 264 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY and came to Fenton, Michigan, at the age of seventeen years. Later he moved to Bay county, where he taught school for thirty years, part of which time he was principal of Sterling school and the Essexville school. His wife was Mary Ellen (Dillon) Sharpe, who was born in Strathroy, Ontario, in 1854. After finishing his studies in the rural schools, Edward M. Sharpe graduated from the State Normal college, and entered Ferris Institute. Still later he graduated from the Law department of the University of Michigan. After teaching school for a period of five years he opened an office for the practice of law and is now one of Bay county's most successful attorneys. In addition to his professional duties he is active in several mercantile projects, and is president of the F. H. Cash Company, and secretary and treasurer of the Crescent Coal Company. He served as assistant prosecuting attorney of Bay county from 1914 to 1918. He is now president of the Lions club and a member of the Masons, the Elks, and the Bay City and Grand lodges of the I. O. O. F. On December 24, 1914, he married Mary A. Corven. They have one daughter, Margaret, born November 4, 1915. Mr. Sharpe has a residence at 401 North Sheridan street, Bay City. Isaac W. Sherman, proprietor of the Bay City Battery Company, 202 Sixth street, was born in Bay City on May 28, 1893, the son of W. T. Sherman, a native of Lockport, New York, who came to Bay City in 1890, and now is custodian of the Crapo building. His first wife, the mother of Isaac W. Sherman, was, before her marriage, Catherine Chismore, a native of Canada. She died in 1897, leaving but the one child. Mr. Sherman married again, his bride being Eva Hughes, of Bay City. Their only child, Glenn, is now employed by the Bay City Battery Co. Isaac W. Sherman graduated from high school in Bay City and left for Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, where he was employed in a machine shop with his great-uncle, Nathan Sherman. Soon afterward he began to learn electrical work in the shops of the Thorne Electrical Co., Bay City. He remained with this firm seven years, leaving their employment to found his own company in 1923. He now has a well-established demand for his products, which consist of nationally advertised merchandise. He offers a free battery inspection service to all of his patrons and meets all demands with promptness and courtesy. On September 17, 1913, he married Lillian Emerick, of Freeland Michigan. They now have two children: Marjorie, born in 1917, and Richard, born in 1924. Mr. Sherman is a member of Bay City lodge, No. 129, F. & A. M. William S. Slater, manager of the Alert Trucking Company, 606-612 Twenty-second street, Bay City, is a grandson of Aquilla and Anna (Galbraith) Slater, pioneer residents of Bay county, and a son of N. P. Slater, marine engineer, who is president of the company. N. P. Slater was born in Bay City on January 26, 1868. He attended the public schools until he was thirteen years old, when he dropped his studies to take up work around boiler rooms

Page  265 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 265 and engines. Through study and application he became a marine engineer, and has followed that occupation practically all of his adult life. In May, 1892, he married Grace Pulling, a Mason, Michigan girl. Mr. Slater founded the Alert Trucking Company, of which he is president and his wife secretary and treasurer, in 1920. He still continues in his regular employment, while his son conducts the trucking business in an able manner. Mr. Slater is a thirty-second degree Mason, a Shriner and a member of the Odd Fellows. His son, William S. Slater, was born in Bay City on September 18, 1896. He attended the Bay City elementary and high schools, and enlisted in the United States Army on June 23, 1917, to serve in the World war. He was assigned to the air service branch, in which he remained until discharged in March, 1919, with rank of first lieutenant. Returning to Bay City he obtained a position as mechanical draftsman, which he held until in January, 1920, when the Alert Trucking Company was incorporated. He is now managing head of this concern, which does a thriving business. He is a Mason, a member of the American Legion, the Metropolitan club, Shoppenhagon Grotto and the Caterpillar Air Service club. He was married on June 1, 1919, to Inez F. Hagen, of Saginaw. They have one daughter, Myra Grace, born July 24, 1920. Matthew R. Slattery, M. D., former commanding officer of the Bay City Ambulance No. 128 of the Thirty-second Division during the World war, and now a practicing physician with offices at 820 North Monroe street, Bay City, was born in Jackson, Michigan, on June 15, 1890. He attended parochial schools in Jackson until in 1905, when his parents moved to Bay City. His father, Michael Slattery, was born in Tipperary, Ireland, in 1857; and his mother, Mrs. Sarah (Wilson) Slattery, was born in Port Stanley, Ontario, Canada, in 1859. Michael Slattery is now road-master of the Michigan Central railway, and in two years will be eligible for retirement on pension. He resides at 820 North Monroe street, and as do also the members of his family, attends services at the Catholic church. Mr. and Mrs. Slattery are the parents of five children, all of whom are living. Dr. Slattery graduated from the Bay City Eastern high school in 1910, and entered the Detroit College of Medicine & Surgery, graduating from that institution in 1914. Since that time, with the exception of the period he was a medical officer in the United States army, he has practiced continuously in Bay City. As a member of the National Guard he was inducted into- Federal service and sent to the Mexican Border in 1916, and stationed at El Paso, Texas. In March, 1917, he was located at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indianapolis, at the Medical Officers' Training School. From there he was transferred back to duty with the Michigan troops and stationed at Grayling, Michigan, two weeks. He then accompanied the troops to Waco, Texas, where they became a part of the Thirty-second Division. Dr. Slattery was made commanding officer of Ambulance Company

Page  266 266 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY No. 128, which had been organized in Bay City. He held this post during the remainder of the World war, going overseas from New York City on February 17, 1918. He saw much service on the different fronts, and, after the signing of the Armistice, accompanied his command to Germany with the Army of Occupation. He returned to the United States in March, 1919, and was discharged on April 12, 1919, at the United States General Hospital in Detroit. He then returned to Bay City and again began general practice, in which he has been very successful. He is a member of the Bay County Medical Society, the Michigan State Medical Society, the American Medical Association, the Knights of Columbus, the Bay City Country club, the Elks, and the Chamber of Commerce. On October 11, 1923, he married Marion, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Harry J. Tierney. Dr. and Mrs. Slattery have had two children, Michael J., who died in infancy, and Patricia, born January 4, 1925. Eugene Hill Smith, born in Bay City in 1883, has been identified with various important industrial, commercial and social enterprises of this city and is well known in the community as a progressive and public-spirited citizen. Mr. Smith has been connected with the Michigan Pipe Company for twenty-one years and has served as vice-president and is now secretary and treasurer of the concern. He is vice-president of the Cripple Creek Water Company, and is director in the following: The American Textile Company, the People's Commercial Bank, Jefferson Park Land Company, Robert Gage Coal Co., the Northern Title & Trust Company, and the Union Motor Truck Company. He is also a director in Elmlawn Cemetery and of Alma College. Mr. Smith received his education in the public schools of Bay City and after the completion of his high school work entered the University of Michigan, entering his business career after spending two years at that school. Mr. Smith is of a family which originated in Holland and whose first representatives in the United States were his great-grandparents who settled in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. His grandfather, Henry P. Smith, was born at Lake George, Warren county, New York, in 1811, and his grandmother, Christiana (Long) Smith, in Marietta, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, in 1820. His father, Henry B. Smith, now deceased, of LaSalle, N. Y., was born in Norfolk, Ontario, Canada, in 1848. In February, 1881, he married Mary Hill of New York state, the daughter of Isaac Hill. To this union there were born six children, all boys, namely: George P., deceased; Eugene H.; Henry B. Jr.; Howard F.; Hubert S.; and Maynard L. Mr. Smith attends the First Presbyterian church of Bay City and serves on the board of trustees of the church. Henry B. Smith. The late Henry B. Smith of Bay City whose death occurred on September 25, 1920, at Chatham, Ontario, while in that city on business, was a man both city and state could ill afford to lose, and the reader may gain some estimate of his character from the following editorial which appeared in one of the

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Page  267 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 2,67 papers of his home city at the time of his passing. "When a man like Henry B. Smith lays down the battle of life, the people of Bay City may well quote, 'Well done thou good and faithful servant.' Few men have lived such an active life, with interests scattered all over the land and into the realm of Canada also. He was never too busy to grant a hearing to a caller at his office, nor to neglect his church or social duties. Mr. Smith was a good man-good in his heart. He was genuine through and through. He held the respect of his business comrades. Men who have been associated with him for years are loudest in praise of his honesty and integrity. All of his business dealings had to be on the square or he would not engage in them, and the fortune which he amassed proves that honesty in business can be made to pay big returns. Bay City can ill afford to lose men of Henry Smith's standard." Henry B. Smith was born in the town of Walsingham, Norfolk county, in the Province of Ontario, Canada, on August 27, 1848. His parents, the Honorable Henry P. and Christiana (Long) Smith, were natives of Washington county, New York, and Lancaster, Pennsylvania, respectively. His father was born in Washington county, New York, April 24, 1811, and died at Tonawanda, N. Y., in his sixty-fourth year. He was the youngest of a family of thirteen children. The family removed to Niagara Falls while he was yet a child and after reaching man's estate he removed to Tonawanda and there engaged in the timber business and became one of the most prominent and successful timber dealers in western New York. He also purchased large tracts of pine land in northern Michigan, was a stockholder and director in two of the Lockport, N. Y. Banks. Some years later he removed to La Salle, N. Y., where he developed one of the most lovely fruit farms to be found on the river. In 1861 he represented the First District of his home county in the State Assembly, where he made an honorable record. On May 6, 1841, he married Christiana Long, a daughter of Benjamin L. Long, one of the pioneers of the Niagara frontier, having removed from Lancaster, Pennsylvania, when that section was still a wilderness, bringing his family and household effects by ox-team, the journey requiring from June until the middle of December. The mother was of Mennonite descent, having descended from Christian Hershi, a Mennonite preacher in Switzerland, who was condemned to death and beheaded for heresy. He had three sons, who immigrated to America, and became Mennonite preachers and prosperous farmers in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania. At the time of her death which occurred on June 8, 1910, a most interesting article appeared in the North Tonawanda Evening News, which described in detail the immigration of the family from Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, and gave many interesting details of the trip, and noting many of the hardships and privations which the early settlers were forced to undergo at that period of American history. In 1844 they moved to Walsingham. Canada, where they resided for two years in a one

Page  268 268 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY room log house on the bank of Venison Creek, near Big Creek, where the husband and father was engaged in lumbering operations, and it was here that the subject of this sketch was born. In December, 1865, they removed to La Salle, N. Y., where the father died July 14, 1874. Six children were born to this union. One is still living, George of Missoula, Montana. Henry B. Smith, the subject of this sketch, was educated in a private school of Detroit, and at Hobart College, Geneva, N. Y. In 1877 he paid his first visit to Bay City, while looking after his father's large lumber interests near here. In 1881 upon the reorganization of the North Western Water Pipe Company, he was made secretary and treasurer of the new company which was known as the Michigan Pipe Company; that position Mr. Smith filled until the time of his death. He was also president of the Dominion Sugar Company, of Canada, and it was while looking after the interests of this company that his death occurred at Chatham, Ontario. He was also president of the Chevrolet Motor Company, of Bay City; president of the Worlds Star Knitting Company; vice-president of the First National Bank; president of the Cripple Creek Colorado Water Works Company; also secretary-treasurer of the Bucyrus Water Company, of Bucyrus, Ohio, and held large interests in other business industries and had been actively engaged in the lumber business for many years. He was also engaged in the manufacture of bicycles and made the National wheel. Later he began the manufacture of automobile parts and later sold to the General Motors. Mr. Smith was religiously inclined, and while a student in Detroit it was not uncommon for him to attend the Episcopal church in the morning, Methodist church in the afternoon, and the Presbyterian church in the evening, but after coming to Bay City he affiliated with the First Presbyterian church, and for many years prior to his death served as chairman of the board of trustees. He was always a leader in every philanthropical movement which promised to advance the best interests of his home city, and no enterprise ever failed to receive his support which would tend toward the uplifting of the best interests of the community. He was uniformly modest and unassuming, making no bluster about his civic or business deeds, but readily contributed of his wealth to all charities and other good purposes. At the time of his death, Mr. Smith held memberships in several Masonic organizations, including Joppa lodge, No. 315, F. & A. M., Bay City Consistory, A. A. S. R. Elf Khurafeh Shrine of Saginaw and Bay City Commandery No. 26, Knights Templar. He was also an honorary member of the Bay City Rotary club. In 1881 Mr. Smith was united in marriage to Mary Hill, a daughter of his business partner, Isaac H. Hill, to this union six sons were born, five of whom are still living, as is the mother. The sons are Eugene H., and Henry B. Jr., of Bay City, Howard F. of Detroit, and Hubert S., and Maynard L., of Bay City.

Page  269 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 269 Henry B. Smith Jr., is a son of Henry B. Smith, deceased. He was born in Bay City, April 29, 1885. Mr. Smith received his early education in the public schools of Bay City and after he had completed a course at the Detroit University Preparatory school, entered the University of Michigan. His education completed, he returned to Bay City and became connected with the Michigan Pipe Company, becoming vice-president, which office he now holds. His more active business connection is with the American Textile Inc., which he has served since December 1924 as director, secretary and treasurer. He is also interested in the Cripple Creek Water Company of Colorado, of which he is secretary and treasurer. He was married in 1915 to Katherine Schultz of Saginaw and there are three children, Henry Jr., Frederick B., and Cynthia. Mr. Smith is a member of the Elks and of the Presbyterian church. Through his important business connections, and his ability to handle their promotion successfully, Mr. Smith has gained a place of prominence in the business world of Bay City, and is widely known in the community. Jacob L. Sparling, president of the J. L. Sparling Company, dealers in mill supplies, contractors and builders of industrial plants, East Midland street and the Grand Trunk railway, Bay City, was born in Canada on November 2, 1881. His father, James M. Sparling, was born in Sanilac City, Michigan, in 1843, and after his marriage to Elizabeth Warren, who was born in Sarnia, Ontario, in 1852, he moved to Canada. While there he became an expert machinist, and when he returned to his farm near Tyre and Sanilac City he did machine work and farmed as a spare time occupation. He served as a deputy sheriff for sixteen years, and is now retired and living in Detroit. His wife died in 1898. Jacob L. Sparling was educated in schools at Tyre and Ubly, Michigan, and at Armour Institute, Chicago. After finishing his studies at Chicago he returned to Ubly and began work in a sheet metal shop, where he remained several years. He then started in business for himself as a contractor and builder and has erected many sugar factories in Michigan and other states. He has been superintendent and plant engineer at the Chevrolet factory at Flint, plant engineer for the Wilson Body Company, Bay City, and has acted as consulting engineer in the erection of many other industrial buildings. He was awarded the contract to build the Union Motor Truck Company plant in Bay City, and also constructed the new water works system of that city. His firm at the present time offers a complete service to factories and builders needing assistance in their operations. Belt makers, millwrights, steam fitters, plumbers, electricians and sheet iron workers are available at all hours at the Sparling mill supply plant. The firm also sells pumps, engines, motors and dynamos, as well as a vast amount of other miscellaneous factory equipment. Mr. Sparling was married in 1912 to Viola B. Gilbert, daughter of Richard Gilbert, of Bay City. They have three children, Kathryn, and Marshall and El

Page  270 270 THISTORY OF BAY COUNTY gretta, twins. He is a member of the Masons, the Knights of Pythias and the Elks. With his family he attends the Episcopal church. The Sparlings have a handsome residence at 400 North Walnut street, Bay City. Marshall B. Steggall, of the firm of Brauer & Steggall, Bay City, Michigan, is one ot the most widely-known insurance men in Bay county. He was born in Bay City on January 15, 1894, the son of Nathaniel and Elizabeth (Ziegler) Steggall. His father, who was born in Stowmarket, England, came to the United States at the age of twenty years and settled in Chicago, where he worked at his trade of wagon-making for a period ot six years. He came to Bay City at the time of his marriage and is still living here, being now seventy-three years old. He is also a stationary engineer, and followed that occupation during much of the time he has lived in Bay City. He is a member of but one order, the Modern Woodmen of America. His wife, who was born at Unionville, Tuscola county, Michigan, is now fifty-two years old. Marshall B. Steggall received his education in the Bay City public schools and entered factory work at an early age. He soon demonstrated his ability as an executive and was made assistant production manager of the Chevrolet Motor company plant. He held that position four years and, in 1919, entered the general insurance business. He found this occupation pleasant and remunerative. As he continued to make new business friends and acquired business experience he decided to establish an agency of his own. He fulfilled this desire on July 15, 1921, when he and Arno Brauer, under the firm name of Brauer & Steggall, opened offices in the Elks Temple building, 400 Center avenue. The success of the new firm exceeded the fondest expectations of the partners, and they moved into a more suitable location on March 1, 1924. Mr. Steggall is a member of Wenonah lodge No. 256, F. & A. M., Bay City Consistory, A. A. S. R., and Shoppenhagon Grotto, and the First Presbyterian church. He is unmarried. Theodore Stegman, who was born in Germany, May 17, 1859, came to the United States in 1872 and settled in Bay City in 1880. He founded the hide and pelt business, which his four sons now conduct, in the same year. He was an able business man and was known all over the state of Michigan as a big dealer in hides and pelts. He remained active in the firm he founded until his death, August 21, 1924. His widow who before marriage was Anna Cook, was born in Bay City, May 10, 1859, and is still living at the family home. To her and her husband, were born eight children: Clara (Mrs. R. L. Wardell); Alma (Mrs. H. Griffith); Hattie (Mrs. C. London); Miss Lillian Stegman; William F.; Otto F.; Lawrence A., and Harold. William F. Stegman, who with his brothers, Otto, Lawrence and Harold, comprise the firm of Theodore Stegman & Sons, are members of the Odd Fellows and the Bay City Board of Commerce. They are all practical business men and are well upholding the honors of the family name.

Page  271 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 271 Colin A. Stewart, M. D., 1106 North Johnson street, Bay City, is largely responsible for the present popularity and success of the Bay County Medical Society. The same geniality and force of personality that have helped him to build a large and lucrative private practice have also aided him in establishing a continued interest, among physicians, in the activities of the society, of which he is now a program committeeman. He was born January 22, 1877, in Ontario, Canada, where he attended public schools. He also graduated from the Collegiate Institute of St. Thomas, Ontario, in 1896, after which he entered the Detroit College of Medicine & Surgery, where he obtained his M. D. degree in 1900. He then supplemented this excellent education with interne work at Harper hospital, Detroit, where he received much valuable experience. Soon after completing his work in this hospital he came to Bay City and opened an office for the general practice of medicine, in which he has so greatly distinguished himself. Besides the Bay County Medical Society, in which he is deeply interested, Dr. Stewart also is affiliated with the Michigan State and American Medical Associations. He is a member of Bay City lodge No. 129, F. & A. M., Bay City Lodge No. 88 of the Elks, and the Odd Fellows, and holds his church affiliation with the First Presbyterian congregation. He was married on February 10, 1904, to Gertrude Blaicher, of Bay City. They have two children: Elaine G., born November 8, 1905, a graduate of Central high school and of the Mt. Ida School for Girls, of Boston, Massachusetts, class of 1924, and now a student in the sophomore class at the University of Wisconsin. Dr. and Mrs. Stewart's second child, Colin R., born June 17, 1909, is now a junior in high school. William J. Stokes, chief telegraph operator in charge of the 'Salzburg station of the Michigan Central railway, was born in Bay City on May 9, 1879, the son of George and Elizabeth A. (Patterson) Stokes. His father was born in England in 1846 and came to Bay City when he was but eighteen years old. A stone cutter by trade, he dropped that occupation at the advent of horse-drawn cars in Bay City, but when electrically operated vehicles supplanted the use of the older cars he returned to his original vocation. He died in 1901. His widow, the mother of William J. Stokes, died October 11, 1925. Mr. Stokes, the subject of this sketch, attended school in Bay City and when sixteen years old started as a messenger boy for the Western Union Telegraph Company. Here he learned to operate a telegraph instrument, and in 1898 he obtained a position with the Michigan Central railway. He has remained with this company since that time and has held many positions. He is now in charge of the Salzburg station of that company. On October 7, 1902, he married Ada Sheay, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. M. A. Sheay, of Bay City. They are the parents of four children: William, Earl, Avera and Ada Stokes. Mr. Stokes attends the Christian Assembly church and is a member of the Knights of Pythias. He resides at 1907 South Euclid avenue.

Page  272 272 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY Frank H. Stover, Sr., 303 Eighteenth street, Bay City, was born March 29, 1863, at Saginaw, Michigan, and his family moved to Bay City about three years after his birth. His father was Hiram H. Stover and his mother, Harriet (Peer) Stover. His father was engaged in the lumber industry some fifteen years prior to his death in 1880. He received his education in the Bay City schools and in the winter of 1879-80, took a course in the business college of Bryant and Stratton at Detroit. He started to learn the hardware business with the firm of Forsyth & Pierson, Fourth and Water streets, Bay City, in the spring of 1879 and has been in the hardware trade ever since. Mr. Stover is now secretary-treasurer of the Bay City Hardware Company. He spent some fifteen years as traveling salesman, covering territory north of Bay City. This was a period known as "the good old lumber days," the like we will never have again. On February 16, 1887, he was married to Elizabeth Laing, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. James M. Laing, and to this union were born three children: one boy and two girls. The son, Frank H. Stover, Jr., is now vice-president of the Bay City Hardware Company. Mrs. Sidney Smith of Flint, Michigan, is their daughter Agnes, and Mrs. W. H. Eyre of Royal Oak is their daughter Marjorie. He has a sister, Mrs. Fred J. West, now living at North Bay, Ontario. Mr. and Mrs. Stover are now the proud possessors of eleven grandchildren. The sixty years he has lived in this community rates him as one of the few "Old Timers" left. Sidney J. Tennant, manager of the Bay City Stone Co., 327 Shearer building, was born in Bay City, November 28, 1875, the son of James and Emily (Horsham) Tennant, and grandson of George and Mary (Smith) Tennant, natives of England, and greatgrandson of George Tennant, who was the first of the family, as far as is known, to be engaged in the occupation of stone contracting. His grandfather did much ornamental stone work, and was one of the stone-masons who built the Lower Wyke tunnel, near Barsley, England. Over two hundred men were required to complete this immense structure, which is three miles long and one of the largest in the British Isles. In 1857 he brought his family to Cobourg, Canada, and entered the building industry there. He was a contractor in bridge construction work on the Buffalo & Lake Huron railway, and built bridges from Goodrich to West Stratford. In 1880 he went to Texas, where he continued as a contracting stone-mason, with headquarters in the city of Dallas. He left the south in 1883, and spent his last days at Gratiot, Michigan. His son, James Tennant, was but twenty years old when he took charge of a force of men in partnership with James Stewart, to quarry stone for a jail in Detroit. He had been in America but four years when he formed this business connection. On the completion of this contract he became interested in contracts for building bridges on a railroad between Akron and Dayton, Ohio. This work lasted two years, and netted a handsome profit. He then obtained contracts for erection of the machine shops for the On

Page  273 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 273 tanagon railway, at Marquette, Michigan. When this work was finished he went to Massilon, Ohio, and took charge of the stone which was then being quarried for the Trinity church, at Pittsburgh. He superintended the construction of the People's Savings bank at Saginaw, and came to Bay City in 1872 to build the First National bank. Here he founded what is now the Bay City Stone Co., which, at that time, was known as the Tennant Brothers company. This concern in 1889 erected the Crapo building and the Michigan Central depot, and later did the stone work on the Phoenix building, the Shearer building and the Commercial block. The company also built the high school at Flint and the Manistee county court house. At this time the Bay City Stone Company owns thirty-five acres of land underlaid with stone along Lake Huron, where it quarries an excellent product. James Tennant was born in Yorkshire, England, on June 20, 1841. His wife, whom he married on June 26, 1867, was a native of Devonshire, England, and died in 1909, at the age of seventy years. He died in 1915 in his seventy-fourth year.. They were the parents of four children: Arthur J., Mabel, Gertrude and Sidney J. Tennant. The latter began his business career with the education gained in the Bay City public elementary and high schools and a course in the International Business College, Bay City. Like his father and grandfather, he has adhered to the family occupation of general contracting, and, since his father's death, has been manager of the family business enterprise. Mr. Tennant is also active in other companies, and is now vice-president of the Bay City Savings, Building & Loan Association and president of the Bay City Tire & Rubber Company. Fraternally he is a Mason, having taken all but the thirty-third degree of that order. He has also been a member of the Elks for the past twenty years. His wife was Edith M. Landeryou, of Kingston, Ontario, Canada. They have one son, Arthur James, who was born March 24, 1917. Mr. Tennant and family attend the Congregational church. Both he and his wife are prominent socially. Charles W. Uhlman, of the firm of Miller & Uhlman, general contractors, Clift building, Bay City, came to Bay county as a boy with his parents from Germany, his birthplace. After attending the district schools in Bay county he learned the carpenter trade, at which he was employed until he started in business for himself as a carpenter-contractor. He continued as an independent construction firm until the organizing of the Miller & Uhlman company in 1919. He is a member of the German Lutheran church, an Elk and an Arbeiter. He has two children, Viola L. and Rudolph C. Uhlman. Francis W. Urch, who was connected with the Robert Gage Coal Co., for over thirty years, and who came up through the ranks, reaching the position of secretary and treasurer of the firm, and who also filled the positions of secretary and treasurer of the Standard Mining Co., was born in Kingswood, England, March

Page  274 274 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 16, 1869, son of Frederick and Mary Ann (Gait) Urch. The father, a manufacturer of jams and pickles, moved the family to the United States in 1876, settling in Oakland county where he remained, continuing in the business which he had established in England. After Francis W. Urch had completed his preliminary education in the schools of Oakland county, he entered New Baltimore high school, and was graduated from Albion college in 1899. The two years following were spent in teaching, after which he began his work with the Robert Gage Coal Co. His first work with the company was a clerk in Jackson county, later in Saginaw with the Standard Mining Company and Robert Gage Coal Co., where he remained for two years, then in 1906 came to Bay City, soon gaining prominence in the business circles of the city. In 1893 he was married to Hattie May Tanner of Jackson. There are six children, three girls and three boys. The daughters are: Grace W., and Lucille Harriett, graduates of the Michigan State College, and Catherine Elizabeth, a graduate of Albion College; the sons are Wellington Tanner, a graduate of the University of Michigan, Francis Walter, a graduate of Albion College, and Frederick James, who graduated from Bay City Central high school in 1925. Interested in civic affairs, Mr. Urch serves as commissioner of Bay City representing the first district. He is a Mason, holding membership in the Consistory, the Knights Templar, Elf Khurafeh Shrine and Elks of Bay City and is a member of the Exchange club. Mr. Urch is a member of the Madison avenue M. E. church. Paul R. Urmston, M. D., 303 Davidson building, Bay City, member of the eye, ear, nose and throat staff at Mercy hospital and physician for the Bay City schools, served over nine months overseas as a member of the Medical Corps of the American Expeditionary Forces. He was born in Hamilton, Butler county, Ohio, on January 7, 1880, and received his elementary and high school education in the schools of that city. He obtained his medical degree from the University of Illinois in 1903, and, after serving an interneship in the West Side Hospital, Chicago, began general practice at Valparaiso, Ind. Later he specialized in the treatment of diseases of the eye, ear, nose and throat, which he continued after coming to Bay City in 1908. He is a member of the Bay County Medical Society, the Michigan State Medical Society, the American Medical Association, the Elks, Bay City Yacht club and the Bay City Country club. He was married in 1907 to Louise Tillotson, of Saginaw. They have two children, Benton E., born January 24, 1916, and Elizabeth, born June 10, 1920. Dr. Urmston and family attend the First Presbyterian church. He enlisted in May, 1918, in the Medical Corps of the United States Army, receiving the commission of first lieutenant. He was stationed for awhile at Camp Oglethorpe, Georgia, and was sent overseas in September of that year. He was returned to the United States on June 29, 1919, and honorably discharged.

Page  275 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 275 Gottfried Van Haaren, secretary and treasurer of P. Van Haaren & Sons, long distance hauling and storage, First near Sheridan street, Bay City, was born in Bay City, May 21, 1887. His father, Peter Van Haaren, who was born in Holland, May 12, 1851, came to the United States with his parents in 1854. He had a fine physique and was reputed to be the most powerful man physically in Bay City. The Van Haarens settled on a homestead claim of forty acres in Bay county. Peter Van Haaren, in 1880, established a transfer and truck business, in which he took his sons as partners in 1912. He lived to see the erection of the firm's large storage warehouse in 1914. He was active in civic affairs and held several public offices. He was a charter member of the old Peninsular (military) Company, and was ever active in all measures tending to the betterment of this city and state. He died January 31, 1919. His wife, Johanna (Boutreur) Van Haaren, who was born in Belgium, July 6, 1855, died September 7, 1898, in Bay county. Gottfried Van Haaren attended the public schools and high school in Bay City, and began work for his father in the family business at an early age. He is secretary and treasurer of the firm his father founded and his brother, Venus Van Haaren, is president. Gottfried Van Haaren on June 15, 1908, married Catherine White, of Bay City, who died March 3, 1923, leaving two children, Russell John and Pauline Elizabeth. Mr. Van Haaren again married on January 1, 1925, his bride being Florence W. Williams, of Bay City. He is a thirty-second degree Mason, Shriner and Knight Templar and was a delegate of Shoppenhagon Grotto, Bay City, to the convention held in 1922 at Rock Island, Illinois. He is a member of the Eastern Star, as is Mrs. Van Haaren, who also belongs to the White Shrine. Mr. Van Haaren is also affiliated with the Kiwanis club, the Bay City Motor club and the Chamber of Commerce. He and his family reside at 1403 Fifth avenue, Bay City. Venus Van Haaren was married July 4, 1914, to Hazel May Grant, of Bay City. They have three children: Grant, Johanna Carrie and Donald Venus. He is a thirty-second degree Mason, Shriner and Knight Templar and an Elk, and is also a member of the Chamber of Commerce. Venus Van Haaren and family reside at 1218 North Sherman street, Bay City. Valentine Waldbauer, shoe dealer, 215 Salzburg street, Bay City, was born March 14, 1853, in Germany, the son of Thomas Waldbauer. He came to Bay City from his native land at the age of seventeen years. His first employment was in the boot and shoe business, which has been his occupation ever since. In 1874 he started a shop in which he did repair work and made custom shoes for a selected clientele, and, in 1882, erected a new and larger building near his first location and began the manufacture of shoes on a larger scale. Recently he has been discontinuing the manufacture of shoes and confines his business to selling quality footwear of standard brands. He and his wife, whom he married in 1876, are members of the St. John's church. Mrs. Waldbauer's

Page  276 276 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY name, before her marriage, was Mary Reinhardt. They have five children: Henry, Fred, Will, Katherine and Christine; and eight grandchildren, Irwin, son of Henry, Amanda, daughter of Fred, and Mary, daughter of Will; Ruth, Arline, Louis, Margaret and Adam Jr., children of Christine. Mr. Waldbauer was formerly active in Bay City politics, and served as alderman four years. Henry Wanless, of H. Wanless & Son, trunks, harnesses and leather goods, 922 North Water street, Bay City, Michigan, was born in Montreal, Canada, on October 30, 1844, a son of Thomas Wanless. He learned the leather-working trade at an early age at Chatham, Canada, and came to Detroit in 1863. One year later he came to Bay City, where he was employed as a harness-maker for Thomas Luxton. He then went into business for himself as a member of the firm of Hemstreet & Wanless, harness manufacturers and leather workers. Later he worked as a harnessmaker in the Nichols-Sangle Company shop, where he remained twenty-five years. Upon the death of Mr. Nichols, he worked for the Nichols estate under Mr. Nickless, the administrator, for thirteen months, and purchased from the firm and established a shop of his own under the name of H. Wanless & Son. He has continued in the business and is now one of the oldest harness makers living in Bay City. While, he has officially retired from the active management of the firm, he is usually found about the.s.hop working at the trade he followed for so many years. His energetic nature will not permit him to spend his 'time in idleness, and he takes this means of whiling away the hours. He was married in April 1870 to Martha Fisher, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Fisher, pioneer residents of Flushing, Michigan. Mrs. Wanless died on May 17, 1924, leaving a family of four children, who are, in the order of their ages, Bernard K. of H. Wanless & Son store, and father of two children, Evelyn and Roy Wanless; Elvira, who is now Mrs Walter J. Long, of Bay City; Guy F., of Wisconsin, father of two children; and T. Ray Wanless of Bangor township. Mr. Wanless lives at 1112 Jennison avenue, Bay City, Michigan. William John Wanless, owner of the Ideal Plumbing Co., Bay City, was born in Chatham, Ontario, Canada, in 1861, the son of George Wanless, a carpenter, who came to Bay City in 1860, sending for his family a year later. George Wanless became a contracting carpenter and did special work for various lumber mills in Bay City. He was a captain in the old volunteer fire department when the apparatus was drawn by hand, and fought many conflagrations as leader of the First Ward department. He died in 1881, the father of five children, all residents of Bay City. Their names are: William John, Mrs. Ann Marshall, George E., Mrs. May Monahan and Clayton Wanless. William J. Wanless learned the blacksmith trade at the Bay City Iron Works, and worked for that concern seventeen years. He joined the volunteer fire department and worked his way upward to the captaincy of the First Ward company, formerly commanded by his father. With

Page  277 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 277 Samuel Meister and Michael Smaltz, he organized the Bay City Dry Dock Co., which remained in business five years, when the establishment burned and the company dissolved. Mr. Wanless then went to New Orleans to dispose of his patents and machinery, remaining there several months, when he returned to Bay City and moved his family to Cleveland, and there purchased a sheet metal and heating shop in partnership with Frank Wilson and moved the equipment to Bay City. The shop was operated for awhile under the firm name of Wilson & Wanless, specializing in sheet metal work and heating equipment. Later the firm became the Ideal Plumbing Co., of which Mr. Wanless is sole owner. He has established an excellent business, which still continues to grow. He is an active member of several trade associations. In 1884 he married Catherine Phillips, of Bay City. They have one child, May, who is the wife of Palmer D. Holmes and the mother of a son, Gerald. Mr. Wanless is a member of the Bay City Board of Commerce, is a thirty-second degree Mason, an Elk, a Kiwanian, a member of the Y. M. C. A. and the Bay City Auto club. Bernard N. Ward, certified public accountant, 435 Shearer building, Bay City, was born in Essexville, Bay county, May 22, 1891. His mother, Mrs. Margaret (Hess) Ward, was born in Canada in 1860. His father, Nicholas E. Ward, who was born in Kawkawlin, May 26, 1864, was supervisor and clerk of Hampton township. He also supervised the laying out and incorporation of Essexville, and was one of the early presidents of that municipality. At the present time he is a contracting carpenter, and president of the Bay City carpenters' union. Bernard N. Ward attended the elementary classes in the Essexville schools and graduated from high school in Bay City. On finishing high school he began the study of accountancy, and, in 1923, received his certified public accountant's certificate from the state of Michigan. He has been practicing his profession in Bay City since 1920 and has established a wide clientele. He is affiliated with both the Michigan and the American associations of certified public accountants, being a director of the former. He is also a member of the Bay City Lion's club and both he and family attend St. Joseph's church. His hobby is outdoor recreation, and he spends every possible moment enjoying some form of open-air amusement. He was married on July 18, 1916, to Ruth, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. William Lamoreaux, of Holland, Michigan. Since the death of her husband, Mrs. Lamoreaux has been living with her daughter, Mrs. Ward. Mr. and Mrs, Ward have two sons: George Karl, and Wilson Bernard, both of whom reside with their parents. George Washington, founder of the Bay City Democrat, former sheriff of Bay county and second mayor of West Bay City, is a man who has made a success of every enterprise he has undertaken. He was born in Ireland on July 22, 1851, and was brought to America when he was six years old. He graduated from high

Page  278 278 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY school in Canada, and came to Bay City when he was eighteen years old. He was in the grocery business in West Bay City several years, and was the second mayor of that municipality. He served two terms as sheriff of Bay county and has always been a forceful character in both county and state politics. He founded the Bay City Democrat, one of the strongest weekly papers in the state, in 1890. This publication has always been strongly democratic, as its name would indicate, but its owner has never hesitated to express his views, regardless of their effect on the other members of his party. Many strong editorials have been carried in its columns, and more than one political success owes its origin to Mr. Washington. His paper is both popular and prosperous, and is more than holding its own against the encroachments of daily publications. Mr. Washington is a Roman Catholic, a member of the Knights of Columbus, the Elks and various civic organizations. He was married to Adeline Campbell, daughter of James and Bridget (Brophy) Campbell, pioneer residents of Bay City, where Mr. Campbell was engaged in the lumber business. To this union were born five children. The eldest, Adeline, a graduate of St. James high school, is now the wife of Giles Kavanaugh, editor of the Bay City Democrat, and the mother of five children: Pauline, Maurine, George, Thomas and John Kavanaugh. Blanche, Mr. and Mrs. Washington's second child, is also a graduate of St. James high school. She is now the wife of John H. Hurley, sales manager of the National Biscuit Co., branch in Bay City. Edward C. Washington, born October 19, 1890, also graduated from St. James high school, and, since 1909, has been associated with his father in publishing the Bay City Democrat. He is now superintendent of that establishment. He was married in 1915 to Irene Wackerly of Bay City, and has one daughter, Georgia Rose, now nine years old. He is a member of St. James parish, the Knights of Columbus and the Elks. Ruth Washington, fourth child of Mr. and Mrs. George Washington, became the wife of John Ress, who is now advertising manager of the Democrat, not long after completing her course at St. James high school. Mary, the next daughter, is now Mrs. Mark N. Gilbert. Her husband was formerly superintendent of the state highway department, and resided in Jackson, but now resides in Bay City. She is a graduate of St. James school. Duncan L. Watson, secretary-treasurer of the Cowan-Watson company, Chevrolet Sales and Service, 906-8-10 Saginaw avenue, Bay City, was born in Missouri on February 20, 1884. He received his elementary schooling in Kokomo, Indiana, where he was taken when a few years old, and attended high school at Butler, Pennsylvania. He began work in the automobile industry almost as soon as he completed his education, and at the end of the present year, will have spent twenty-four years as a motor mechanic, salesman and dealer. He was employed in Detroit seven years, coming from there to Bay City in March, 1924, to organize the firm of Cowan &

Page  279 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 279 Watson with which he is now connected. On November 3, 1911, he married Roma Hayes, of Butler, Pennsylvania, who has been a great help to him in his business career. They have one child, a daughter, Martha, who is now twelve years old. Mr. Watson is a member of the Episcopal church, the Knights of Pythias and the Shrine of the Masonic order. Though he has been a resident of Bay City but a short while, he has made a host of friends, both business and personal. John Henry Watson, of the Watson & Richardson and Island lumber companies, was born in Bay City on November 20, 1882. His father, John Watson, was born and educated in Memphis, Tennessee, and was taken to Canada by his parents when he was a child. In 1876, or soon after, John Watson moved to Bay City to follow his trade of cooper. He was a captain in the old "Call" fire department of Bay City, and, during the last twenty-five years of his life, he manufactured barrels for the Michigan Sugar Co. and the Bay City Sugar Co. He died in 1921. His wife, Caroline, a daughter of Abner and Anges Conners, came to Bay City at the age of five years. She died March 17, 1926. John and Caroline Watson were the parents of four children, all of whom are living. They are, in the order of their birth: Florence Etta, Ella May, John Henry and Abner Watson. John Henry Watson obtained his education in the schools of Bay City, working at odd hours as a "tally boy" in the lumber yards. On leaving school he worked in the E. C. Hargrave and Knapp and Scott lumber yards, learning all details of the business. He then founded his own firm, the Watson & Richardson Company, which was successful. He later became president of the Island Lumber Co. He still is an active member of each of these firms, which are situated in Bay City. He was married on August 27, 1901, to Bessie E. Morton, daughter of Delos Morton, who for many years was the head of the Bay City branch of the National Biscuit Co. Seven of the nine children born to this union are living. They are, in the order of their ages: Raymond A., student at the University of Michigan, Russell, student at the University of Chicago, Gerald, Carl, Margaret, Ruth and Helen, who live at home. Mr. Watson loves outdoor life and sports and is an enthusiastic fisherman and hunter, and member of several hunting clubs. He frequently takes his sons with him on fishing and hunting trips, but his chief pleasure is in rambling through the woods alone, enjoying the beauties of nature unmolested by any other human contact. As would be supposed, he is an ardent booster for Bay City, and a member of Portsmouth lodge F. & A. M. William Coleman Watson, managing director of the Regent, Washington, Wenona, Columbus and State theatres at Bay City, with offices in the first, is one of the aggressive and publicspirited men of this city who has made his way to prominence and honorable prestige through his own well directed energy and efforts. He has not only had a varied business experience, but has

Page  280 280 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY achieved success and is admirably equipped to take the leading part in all matters in which he is interested. A native Mississippian, Mr. Watson comes of prominent old established American families which date back to the Colonial epoch in our national history, and he fully exemplifies the courteous and hospitable character for which the people of the "Sunny South" have always been noted. His father, R. H. Watson, a native of South Carolina, was for many years the owner and operator of an extensive cotton plantation in Mississippi and was a man of sagacity and influence. His mother, who before marriage was Morella Coleman, was a native of Alabama and was a woman of exceptional intellectual ability and beauty of character. William C. Watson obtained his education in the grade and high schools of his native state, and after graduating from the latter, he began the study of electrical engineering. After becoming proficient in this profession he engaged in business at Birmingham, Alabama, and for several years was actively identified with the profession in that city. In 1912 he accepted a position with the Westinghouse Company, at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and remained with that corporation for several years. He later came to Bay City where he became manager for the Publix Theatres Corporation, and is now the executive head of five notable theatres in this city. Under his able and efficient management these play-houses have become both popular and profitable and have the patronage of the best citizens of the community. Only first-class and elite productions are introduced and the high standard of these theatres may be attributed in no small degree to Mr. Watson's ability as a theatrical manager. Mr. Watson was married May 30, 1910, to Miss Mary Carpenter, a daughter of A. J. Carpenter, of Mississippi, and a member of a prominent old established family of that commonwealth, and to this union were born two daughters, Caroline,and Virginia. Lewis J. Weadock, attorney, 209 Davidson building, Bay City, was born in Bay City on January 11, 1882, the son of Thomas A. E. Weadock, who was born in Wexford county, Ireland, in 1850, and came to the United States and settled in Bay City in 1873. The senior Weadock moved his offices to Detroit in 1898, and is still an active member of the bar there. He served four years as a member of congress, from 1892 to 1896. His wife, Mrs. Mary E. (Tarsney) Weadock, was born in Hillsdale, Michigan. Lewis J. Weadock graduated from St. James school in Bay City and from the law department of the University of Michigan in the class of 1905. He immediately returned to Bay City and began the practice of his profession. In 1911 he married Gertrude, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John C. Greening, of Bay City. Mr. Weadock is a member of the Catholic church and the Elks lodge. He resides at 2123 Center avenue. Alvin H. Weber, secretary of the Henry C. Weber Construction Co., 514 Crapo building, Bay City, was born in Bay City in 1892, the son of Henry C. and Rose (Blind) Weber, who were born in

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Page  281 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 281 Germany in 1856. His parents came to America and settled in Bay City in 1881, where his father was employed in the lumber industry. Henry C. Weber established his own firm of contracting builders in 1885. With him in this business now are his two sons, Fred C., vice-president of the company, and Alvin H., secretary. The firm is a progressive one and operates not only in Bay City and Michigan but throughout the United States. Among the important buildings erected by it are the Davidson building, the Central high school, Junior high school, the Y. M. C. A., Industrial Works office and shops, Chevrolet Motor Co. plant, Murray Body Co. factory, and many others. The firm has just recently completed the new Bay City Consistory temple. Many fine homes have been erected by the Weber company. Among these residences are the Wm. L. Clements, E. B. Perry, W. F. Jennison, R. B. Eddy, and C. R. Wells homes, in Bay City. Mr. Weber was an assisting contractor in the building of the new city hall in Bay City. He is still an active member of the firm. His son, Alvin H. Weber, was graduated from the Bay City high school and from the University of Michigan with the degree of Bachelor of Civil Engineering. On completion of his studies he returned to Bay City and immediately entered his father's business. On April 4, 1919, he married Alice Armstrong. They have one daughter, Morrow, born February 5, 1922. Mr. Weber is a member of numerous fraternal and social organizations in Bay City and has been active in several national engineering societies. Charles R. Wells, who is now living retired in Bay City enjoying a well-earned rest after serving half a century of active business life principally as secretary and treasurer of the Industrial Works of that city, is one of Michigan's most highly respected and honored citizens. Mr. Wells is a "native son," having been born in the city of Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1852 and has passed his entire life within her borders. His parents Dr. Ebenezer and Margaret (Hubbard) Wells were natives of Massachusetts and Western New York. The father was a graduate of Jefferson Medical College and a pioneer physician and surgeon of Michigan, having come to Ann Arbor in the early Thirties, and practiced his profession there and throughout the surrounding territory for the remainder of his life. He became widely known throughout the state, and in 1842 was appointed by Governor Barry as surgeon-inchief of the State Militia, which position he filled for a number of years. He also served as mayor of Ann Arbor during the years of 1864 and 1865. He was a man possessed of exceptional business ability and was instrumental in the founding of the First National Bank of Ann Arbor, of which he served as president for many years. His death occurred in 1882. Dr. Wells was the father of two sons and one daughter, all of whom are now dead with the exception of the subject of our sketch. The brother, Wm. H. Wells, was for many years a leading attorney in the city of Detroit. The mother who lived to the ripe old age of ninety-two years

Page  282 282 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY passed the last years of her life at the home of her son, Charles R., in Bay City, her death occurring in 1918. Charles R. Wells, grew to manhood in his native city, attending its public schools, and completed his education by a literary course in the University of Michigan, graduating with the class of 1873. In the fall of that year he came to Bay City as a representative of his father and assisted in the organization of the Industrial Works of this city, whose original capital stock was $100,000. George C. Kimball was elected its first president, James Clements, vice-president, C. R. Wells, secretary and E. Wells, treasurer. Subsequently C. R. Wells assumed the dual duties of both secretary and treasurer, and James Clements succeeded Mr. Kimball as president, while Wm. L. Clements was made mechanical engineer. This group of men continued in active control of the works for many years, and few changes were made with the exception that Wm. L. Clements later became president, and E. B. Perry general manager, these gentlemen continuing to serve until the sale of the works to eastern parties in 1924, when both Messrs. Wells and Clements retired and E. B. Perry is now serving as president. Mr. Wells' active association with the business covered a period of fifty-one years, and during that time as one of its principal owners, he ably discharged the duties of his office, but also found time to take an active interest in other enterprises of importance in Bay City. He served for a number of years as president and director of the Gas Light Company, and was for years one of the directors of the Bay City Street Railway Co. and is at the present time serving on the board of directors of both the First National and Bay County Savings Banks of this city. He is also a member of the directorate of the Detroit Fire & Marine Insurance Co., of Detroit, and is still a stockholder in the Old First National Bank of Ann Arbor, which his father founded so many years ago. Mr. Wells was united in marriage in 1882 to Miss Isabella S. Fitzhugh, a daughter of Charles C. Fitzhugh, a prominent pioneer family of this city and county. Mrs. Wells' grandfather, Horatio Jones, was a prominent figure in the early history of central and western New York, as he participated in many of the battles of the Revolutionary war waged against the Red men in the historic Wyoming valley, and New York. He was at one time captured by the Indians and held a prisoner for five years, and was adopted by that famous Indian chief, "Red Jacket." He was granted large tracts of land by different Indian tribes. A part of one later became the site of the city of Buffalo, N. Y. He gained the friendship of the Indians and later acted as an advisor and interpreter in their negotiations with the United States government for the disposal of their lands, etc. To Mr. and Mrs. Wells have been born two children, William R. Wells, who is now associated with the Industrial Works of Bay City, and Margaret Helen, now Mrs. James Stanley See, also of Bay City, Michigan. Mr. Wells has never taken an active part in politics nor sought political preferment of any kind.

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Page  283 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 283 He and his wife are members of Trinity Episcopal church of which he is senior warden. He has also served as a member of the executive council of Michigan, and as a delegate to the general convention of the church at different times. Mr. Wells has passed his entire business life in Bay City, and has contributed in many ways toward the upbuilding of her best interests along all lines. He has traveled extensively, and is exceptionally well informed on early American history, and especially on that period covering the Civil war, having visited many battlefields in the south. Frederick C. Westover, prominently identified for several years with industrial and civic enterprises in Bay City, came to America with his parents, Emil and Kunnigunda Westover, in 1879. He was then two years old, having been born in Germany, August 15, 1877. The family came directly to Bay City where Mr. Westover started to school a few years later. He continued his studies until sixteen years old, then turned his attention to the lumber business which at that time constituted the principal part of the city's industrial life. He has remained in that particular line of business ever since. The first few years of Mr. Westover's experience in the lumber business were spent as tally boy and lumber inspector for Alfred Mosher & Son. His work with that firm fitted him for a more responsible position, and in 1895, when but eighteen years of age, he joined the Crump Manufacturing Co. as superintendent of its sawmills and woods. He remained with the concern until fire razed the plant in 1901. Later he worked in a similar capacity at the Campbell & Brown mill for Robert Beutel. During the year of 1903 Mr. Westover was in direct charge of the construction of the Hine Lumber Co.'s mill of which organization the late Theodore Hine was the head. In 1904 Mr. Westover affiliated with the Lewis Manufacturing Co. of this city as secretary and a stockholder. He remained with the firm for ten years at the end of which period he sponsored the organization of the Westover-Kamm Co., a flourishing lumber concern interested chiefly in the manufacture of interior trim, window sash and doors. He has served as president and general manager of the enterprise continuously since its inception. Aside from his private business, Mr. Westover takes an active part in many of the community's civic and public welfare agencies. He was chairman of the commission which designed the charter under which the city of Bay City now operates. For ten years he served as a trustee on the board of education of which body he was president for one term. He acted as a director of the Bay City Chamber of Commerce for six years, serving two years during the World war as president. He was vice-president of the Michigan Pikes Association and is an official of the Automobile club of northern Michigan. He has been closely allied with the activities of the Northeastern Fair Association for many years, also with the Bay City Manufacturers' Association. Throughout the state Mr. Westover's popularity increased through his service as president of the Michigan Retail Lumber Dealers' Association,

Page  284 284 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY as director of the National Retail Lumber Dealers' Association, and as an active member of the Michigan Manufacturers' Association. He is a member of both the Bay County and State Historical societies. In 1901 Mr. Westover married Miss Louise Boehm of Bay City. They have three children, Florence, Edwin and Louis. Fraternally, Mr. Westover is a Mason. He is a thirty-second degree member as well as a Shriner. He also belongs to the Rotary club, Elks lodge and the Lumbermen's order of Hoo Hoo. The family are members of the First Presbyterian church. William E. Whitney, head of the firm of W. E. Whitney & Son, furnaces and sheet metal work, 1215 North Madison avenue, Bay City, was born November 4, 1854, at Bradford, Ontario, Canada. His father, Edmund Whitney, was born in Canada in 1832, and for many years was proprietor of a hardware store at Seaport, Canada. After the death of her husband in 1871 Mr. Whitney's mother, Mrs. Frances (Morteme) Whitney, who was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1834, conducted the hardware store. She died in 1922, seven years after she came to Bay City to live with her son. His grandfather, Louis Whitney, was a veteran of the war of the Revolution and the War of 1812. Mr. Whitney learned the metal working trade in Canada, soon after finishing school. In 1878 he came to Port Huron, Michigan, where he worked at his trade. In 1879 he went to Saginaw, where he worked in a hardware store until in 1881. During this year he married May, daughter of John McCarthy, of Canada, a retired English soldier. The Whitneys then moved to Bay City, where he became foreman for a hardware and sheet metal company. He held this position eleven years, with entire satisfaction to his employers, when he resigned, in 1892, to establish his own tin, copper and sheet metal works. The business is now conducted under the name of W. E. Whitney & Son. In addition to doing sheet iron and other metal work, the firm handles a complete line of hot air furnaces. Mr. Whitney still takes an active part in the business and is found at his office each day of the week. He is a member of but one fraternal order, the Modern Woodmen, of which he is a charter member. The Whitneys have two children. The eldest, Frances, is now Mrs. Andrew Nielstrup, of Detroit, and is the mother of four children, Maxine, Whitney, William and John. Edwin, Mr. Whitney's second child, is now associated with his father in the furnace and metal business. The Whitneys attend the Methodist church. Henry J. Wisniewski, heating and plumbing contractor and dealer in plumbing supplies, 923 South Farragut street, Bay City, was born in Bay City on May 18, 1890, the son of Mr. and Mrs. Casmer Wisniewski, natives of Poland, who came to the United States on their honeymoon trip. Mr. Wisniewski learned the plumbing trade at an early age and has followed this occupation or its branches practically all of his adult years. In 1917 he founded his own business, and, in addition to doing a large amount of contract heating and plumbing work, he handles a complete line of

Page  285 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 285 plumbing supplies. He is a member of but one lodge, the Knights of Columbus, and the Catholic church. He was married October 23, 1912, to Margaret Kasperski, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Frank Kasperski, of Bay City. To this union have been born four children: Elsie, Delphine, Robert and Jerrie. W. Edgar Wylie, executive for Bay City's Boy Scouts, has been in charge of the local work since April, 1922. He was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on April 5, 1890, and educated in the public and high schools of that city. He became interested in scouting as an assistant scoutmaster early in 1911 and in January, 1914, this interest had so developed that he decided to devote his life to boys' work. Resigning his position as salesman, he became assistant scout executive of the Alleghany County Council in charge of leadership training. In the fall of 1915 he went to the national headquarters for training and from there to take charge of the newly organized council at Spokane, Washington, in January 1916. In April, 1918, Mr. Wylie enlisted as a private in the United States Marine Corps. Upon discharge from service he returned to Pittsburgh to become executive secretary of the Manchester Community Branch Y. M. C. A., promoting industrial and community recreational work, but continuing his interest in scouting as a volunteer leader. The lure of scouting again dominated when in May, 1920, he again entered the service of the National Council of Boy Scouts as deputy regional executive, traveling the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin and Iowa, organizing local councils, conducting financial campaigns, training volunteer leaders and local executives. Mr. Wylie was married to Hattie Spencer of Pittsburgh in September, 1920, and has a daughter, Betty, born in June 1921. He is a member of the Elks, I. O. O. F. and Methodist Episcopal church. Walter Dickson Young, deceased. Mr. Young was for many years one of Bay City's most progressive business men and manufacturers. He was ever alert to advance the best interests of his home city and contribute liberally of both his means and time to promote those projects which he believed would be of material benefit to the community. Walter D. Young was born at Albany, New York, September 25, 1855, and passed to the life beyond at his home in Bay City on December 23, 1916. He was the son of George and Ammie (McCormick) Young. The father was a native of Scotland, coming from Stewarton in Ayshire to the United States in about 1845. Upon his arrival in America he engaged in the grocery trade at Albany, New York, continuing there until 1870, when he came to Bay City, Michigan, and founded the Bay City bank of which he served as president for many years and was identified with its management until his death, January 18, 1890. His wife survived him sixteen years, her death occurring in 1906. To them were born four sons, all of whom are now deceased with the exception of George H., who is proving himself a worthy successor to his father as president of the Bay City bank. The sub

Page  286 286 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY ject of this mention grew to manhood in Albany, New York, and Bay City, Michigan. He received a good education in the public schools of both places and for a time attended the Albany Academy of Albany, New York. After completing his schooling, he was given a position as clerk in his father's bank in Bay City. He proved himself worthy of trust and some time later when the bank was compelled to take charge of the Bay City Brewing Company he was selected to represent them, and the brewery was operated under his direction for many years, he later becoming president of the company. Mr. Young was interested in a number of Bay City's leading industries and left the stamp of his personality on all the various enterprises with which he was identified. For a number of years he was engaged, in company with his brother, in the coal, wood and ice trade, and following that became identified with Mr. Reid as a member of the Reid Towing and Wrecking Company, which was engaged in towing logs from Canada to the mills at Bay City. He also assisted in founding and was president of the W. D. Young and Company corporation which became the largest manufacturers of hardwood flooring in the United States if not in the entire world. This company is still operating in West Bay City. When the beet sugar industry was still in its infancy, he was among the first to grasp the importance of this work and of making Bay City the center of that now important product, and assisted in the organization of the German-American Sugar Company, serving as its president for some time. This company later underwent a re-organization and is now known as the Columbia Sugar Company. In addition to these various enterprises which consumed a great deal of his time and attention, he also filled the position of vice-president of the Bay City bank, president of the Young Brothers Building Company, and a short time before his death started the Young Brothers Cattle and Packing Company with a view to making Bay City a packing center but this project was abandoned after his demise. He was ever mindful of his duties as a citizen and took an active interest in civic affairs but never permitted himself to become a candidate for public office, though often urged to do so by his many friends and admirers. In politics he was a staunch republican, and in religious matters he affiliated with the Episcopal church and was for years a member of the board of vestrymen of Trinity church of this city. He was a Mason, holding membership in its various branches, including the Shrine, Consistory, Knights Templar and was at the time of his death a thirtythird degree Mason. Mr. Young was twice married, first in 1878 to Florence E. Blanchett, who bore him one daughter, Fannie, now the wife of Dr. W. L. Bishop of Portland, Oregon. His second marriage was consummated February 27, 1890, when he was united in the holy bonds of matrimony with Elizabeth Ambrose of Chicago, Illinois. Mrs. Young is a daughter of George H. Ambrose, a pioneer lumberman of Chicago who settled in that city in 1861 and became a member of the firm of Moore, Bates & Company,

Page  287 HISTORY OF BAY COUNTY 287 who operated a line of lumber yards in Chicago at that period and which were destroyed by the fire of 1871. He later became a member of the firm of Ambrose & Brooks and was also associated with George Farnsworth in the Bay de Natet Lumber Company of Green Bay, Wisconsin. He was a native of New Hampshire but for years prior to his coming west was engaged in the drygoods trade at Auburn, Maine. His death occurred April 13, 1884. Three children were born to Mr. Young by his second wife, all of whom survive him, as does the mother. Walter Dickson Young is now engaged in the lumber trade at Flint, Michigan. Florence A. is now the wife of Roy Richardson of Alpena, Michigan, and Francis L. is associated with his brother in the lumber business at Flint. To enumerate all the various enterprises with which Mr. Young was identified during the active years of his life would require pages. Suffice to say that he was regarded as one of the leading men of this section of Michigan and enjoyed a wide acquaintance in both business and social circles throughout the state. Aloysius J. Zaremba, M. D., 108 South Madison avenue, Bay City, general practitioner and specialist in obstetrics, was born in LaSalle, Illinois. He was brought by his parents to Bay City when he was but a few years old, where he attended the public and parochial schools and St. Mary's Academy. He then enrolled in the Michigan College of Medicine and Surgery, from which he was graduated in April, 1905. He at once returned to Bay City, where he was for some time the youngest practicing physician, and became house physician at Mercy hospital. He held this position two years, gaining valuable experience, and maintaining, at the same time, an office in the central part of the city. He has a thriving general practice and devotes much of his time to obstetrics. He is a member of the Bay County Medical Society, the Michigan State Medical Society and the American Medical Association. Fraternally he is a Knight of Columbus, a member of the White Eagle Society and the Polish National Alliance. He at. tends both the St. Stanislaus and St. James Catholic churches. On January 1, 1907, Dr. Zaremba was united in marriage with Gertrude Galarno, daughter of a prominent Bay City family. To this union have been born two children: Madaline, born January 10, 1909, now a senior in St. James high school, and Aloysius J. Jr., born September 1, 1910, a freshman at St. James high school. Dr. Zaremba is an active member of the staff at Mercy hospital, and, during the World war, served as a member of the examining board for Bay county. He has been a candidate for coroner on the democratic ticket, obtaining a heavy vote but being defeated because of the fact that Bay county is overwhelmingly republican. He is very popular, both personally and professionally.

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