A history of the upper peninsula of Michigan ...
Fuller, George N. (George Newman), 1873-1957.

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Page  [unnumbered] HISTORIC MICHIGAN LAND OF THE GREAT LAKES Its life, resources, industries, people, politics, government, wars, institutions, achievements, the press, schools and churches, legendary and prehistoric lore In Two Volumes Edited by GEORGE N.FULLER, A.M. (Harvard), Ph.D. (Univ. of Mich.) Also A HISTORY OF THE UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Volume III Published by National Historical Association, Inc., and dedicated to the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society in commemoration of its fiftieth anniversary -- I --

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Page  [unnumbered] Table of Contents CHAPTER I-EXPLORER AND MISSIONARY French foothold on the continent-Expedition of Brule to Upper Peninsula and Lake Superior-Nicollet's journey to the Green Bay regionVoyages of Radisson and Groseilliers in the Lake Superior countryFather Rene Menard comes to L'Anse-His tragic death-Father Allouez establishes mission at La Pointe-Mission founded at Sault Ste. Marie by Marquette and by same man at Mackinac Island-Western Territory claimed by France in 1670--Daniel de Grosollon, Sieur Dulhut -Alexander Henry and Alexander Baxter promote company for copper mining-Mackinac and the Mission-Operations of Cadillac and the depopulation of the Straits region-The Sault region and early explorers to visit the Falls of the St. Mary's River-Chevalier de Repentigny develops land grant at the Sault-Headquarters for first mining expedition maintained at the Sault-The John Johnston family of the Sault-..-18-35 CHAPTER II-TERRITORIAL TIMES British retention of western forest after Revolutionary war-American occupation and territorial organizations in Northwest Territory --.36-37 CHAPTER III--EARLY SETTLEMENT Marquette County settlers, early mining operations-Chippewa County settlement and prominent pioneers-Baraga County settlement-Beginnings in Delta County-First settlement in Menominee County-Early settlers in Ontonagon County-----------------------------38-53 CHAPTER IV-COUNTY ORGANIZATIONS Alger County-Baraga County-Houghton County-Keweenaw County -Ontonagon County-Luce County-Gog'ebic County-Iron CountyDickinson County-Menominee County-Chippewa County-Mackinac County-Marquette County and Public Buildings------------------54-61 CHAPTER V-EDUCATION Mission school at St. Ignace-Early schools in Escanaba and Sault Ste. Marie-Baraga County schools-Houghton County school developmentEstablishment of early schools in Keweenaw County-Early schools in Menominee County-Ontonagon County schools-Iron County-Gogebic County-Dickinson County-Marquette County and Northern State Normal School---------- ------------------------- 62-67 CHAPTER VI-BENCH AND BAR Absence of courts prior to American control-Court of the District of Michilimackinac-Circuit Court of the Upper Peninsula and Daniel Goodwin-Creation of Eleventh Circuit in 1863 and subsequent judgesLife of Daniel Goodwin-Joseph H. Steere-Charles J. Pailthorp-Oscar Adams-Frank Shepard-Twenty-fifth Circuit and its judges-Eleventh Circuit judges since 1891-Thirty-second Circuit-Twelfth Circuit..68-72

Page  [unnumbered] IV TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER VII-BANKS AND BANKING Banks in Baraga County-Delta County-Dickinson County-Gogebic County-Houghton County-Iron County-Keweenaw County-Luce County-Mackinac County-Menominee County-Ontonag'on County, Schoolcraft County-Chippewa County-Marquette County..------73-81 CHAPTER VIII-MILITARY Fort Mackinac in British wars-Fort Brady-Upper Peninsula men in ~I the Civil war-Twenty-first Michigan Infantry-Twenty-third Michigan Infantry-Twenty-seventh Michigan Infantry-Spanish-American warWorld war and Upper Peninsula units in the Thirty-second DivisionHistory of the Thirty-second Division-Eighty-fifth Division-Summaries of Upper Peninsula men in World war by Counties------------82-90 CHAPTER IX-CITIES AND VILLAGES St. Ignace-Marquette-Negaunee-Ishpeming-Cities of Schoolcraft County-Delta County Municipalities-Cities of Alger, Luce, and Baraga Counties-Houghton County Communities-Keweenaw County-Ontonagon County-Gogebic County-Iron County-Dickinson CountyChippewa County-Menominee County Cities_------------ ----91-100 CHAPTER X-INDUSTRIAL Lumbering in the Upper Peninsula-Comparative figures of scope of the industry-Mining-Traces of Indian mining operations-Copper explorations-Copper Mining-Discovery of iron-Beginnings of iron miningIron mines of the Upper Peninsula -----------------------101-117

Page  [unnumbered] Index to Biographical Sketches Adriance, John W.----------- 171 Alholm, Alfred----------------174 Anderson Brothers ----------224 Anderson, Charles L.----------211 Anderson, Gust E.-------------293 Anderson, Oscar G.-----------168 Anderson, Simon R.-----------179 Archambeau Family-------------129 Arnold, George T.-----------299 Asp, Arvid E.---------------294 Asselin, Urgel F.------------- 258 Bacco, Medio J.----- ___------261 Ball, Dan H.---------------203 Barabe, Joseph --------------213 Barnes, Charles-----------------126 Barnes, Charles I.. ------------164 Bartley, George C. ------------304 Beal, Glen I.. ---------------275 Belhumeur, George M..------252 Bell, William ---------------193 Billing, William J. ---------198 Bink, Nicholas A. ------------267 Bourgeois, Leslie J. -----------190 Boynton Family -------------130 Brown, Prentiss M. -----------123 Buchholtz, Rev. Henry A. ----159 Burns, J. Alfred ------------155 Burrit, Barney H. T. ---------232 Calverley, William D. -...------ 224 Chadbourne, Thomas L. -------203 Chambers Family -------------223 Chandler, Thomas ---------_---281 Chandler, William -----------279 Coffin, Leslie E. -------------253 Collins, Thomas L. -------- 209 Conlog'ue, William J. ------145 Coon, David S. ---------------233 Coons, George F. -------------243 Cox, Ernest D. -.---------163 Crisp, Edwin T. --------------156 Crosby, Theodore S. -------242 Crowell, Joseph A. --------- 302 Cudlip, Sam -----------------256 Cullis, Albert E. ----------160 Curtis, Thomas, Jr.,...-------. 216 Dale, James H. -------------229 Davis, John S. --------------173 Delf, Percival J. -----------182 DePaul, Charles ------------...165 Des Jardins, Wilfred J. -------.181 Douglas, Robert A. ---.-------249 Douglass, Courtney C. ---------167 Duncan, Murray M. -----------175 Dundon, Edward J. ------------260 Eggelston, Ray L. _ _-------226 Ellis, John J., Jr..-- ---------220 Erickson, Edward --------------300 Erickson, Hans M. ------------301 Erickson, John B. ------------254 Fair, Martin ---------------146 Farrell, Archibald P. ----------293 Ferguson, Robert G....--------149 Finnigan, John F. -------------287 Fleming, Fred R. --------------286 Frederickson, Gereon.---------266 Geill, Charles T. ------------177 Gentile, Joseph -----------.244 Godwin, John H. -------------180 Gorrilla, John J.. --------241 Granlund, G. Rudolph.--------212 Groos, John 0. -------------273 Gustafson, Carl F. ------------137 Gutelius, Benjamin S. ----.----259 Hackney, David M. -----------167 Hallenbeck, Wells E. ----------264 Hannah, Alexander D. -----------207 Harrington, J. P. -----------170 Harrington, John C. -----------177 Healy, Francis A. --------------243 Hecox, Don M. -------------284 Hedlund, Edwin -------------298 Hill, Alexander ----------------301 Hill, Norman H. -------------148 Hoban, Michael --------------134 Hoffenbacher, William J. --...233 Hogg, David ---------------215 Holt, Clarence W..--------250 Hopkins, Edward W...-----.- 237 Hotchkiss, Edgar H. --------136 Hubbell, Jay A..--------202 Hudson, Roberts P. - -------278 Hult, G. M..------------179 Hunt, Marshall N..--- ----. 263 Johnson, August W..---------188 Johnson, Elmer --------------250 Johnson, Oliver -------------_217 Jones, John ---------------. 305

Page  [unnumbered] VI INDEX TO BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES Keese, Frank E. __---------143 Kemp Family ---------------271 Kennedy, Edward F. ------189 Kielinen, John ---------------198 King, Robert ------------------235 Kinsey, Alfred D. --- ---------281 Kitti, Henry A. --------------219 Klenner, Arthur P. ------------225 Klinglund, Frank David -------210 Knight, James C. ------------292 Kraus, Oscar ------------ 262 Krellwitz, August L. ---------227 La Bonte, Frank ------------193 Lachance, Benoni --------------231 Lachance, Eugene J. ----------231 Laing, Henry H. -----------251 Landers, Thomas J. ---------_245 Langdon, Alfred W. ----------234 Larson, Edwin ----------------178 Lassi, Matthew ------------217 Litzner Brothers ---------147 Lloyd, Marshall B. ------------239 Lofberg, Mathew ------------196 Logic, Frank 0. ------------303 Longyear, John M..------------127 Longyear, John M., Jr..--------128 Lott, Clarence E. ------ 197 Lynch, Jerry L. ----------289 MacAllister, Ray E. - ------257 McCormick, George W. -------247 McEvoy, Charles L. ----------290 MacLachlan, Joseph -----------283 MacLean, Angus -------------218 Mackenzie, Clyde S. ----------228 Maitland, Alexander ----------276 Martinek, Edward M.-. -------296 Miller, William G. ------------189 Miner, Anson B. -------------151 Miniclier, Edward I. ------------156 Minkin, John A. -------------241 Minnear, J. Arthur -----------290 Mitchell, William H. ----------213 Moe, Irving G. ---------------295 Moffat, William -------------227 Moran, Hugh M-. - -------158 Moran, S. B. --- --------158 Mulcrone, Charles J. --- ---140 Murnane, Howard ------------182 Murray, David W. ----------123 Murray, Leonard E. -----------145 Murray, Patrick W. -----------121 Nelson, Albert - ----------238 Nelson, Robert ----------192 Newett, George A. --------- 208 Nikula, Charles..-----------234 Nyberg, Charles -------------237 Obenhoff, Bert M. -----------222 O'Hara, John J....--------- 270 Olson, Peter -------------269 Outhwaite, John ------------- 191 Outhwaite, John P. ---------191 Paquet, Rev. Joseph A. --------220 Partridge, Edgar T. -------153 Patrick, John B. _-------- 246 Paveglio, Peter.---------306 Perala, John W. _----------218 Peterson, Harry S. -------195 Quinlan, James E. ----------124 Redford, Arthur E. _-------282 Rhoades, John H. ---------- 138 Rodd, Arthur L. -- -------228 Rothwell, Benjamin S. 1----166 Royce, J. Charles --------162 Ruona, K. A. ----------------206 Rustenhoven, Martin, Jr. -------169 Rydholm, Roy L. ----------187 Rytkonen, Jafet J. -------215 Sethney, Henry T.-----------297 Shea, Thomas -- -------- 222 Shelden, Carlos D. ------- 184 Shelden, George C. ----- 186 Shelden, Ransom -- -------183 Shelden, Ransom Skiff ------186 Sherman, Henry A. -----------152 Shiras, George, III ------- 120 Silfven, Carl A. ----------230 Sims, John J. ---------284 Smith, Edwin P. _-------- 275 Stickney, Frank ------------170 Stone, John G. ----------201 Stone, John W. ------- -- 199 Strom, Torval E..--------268 Swanson, Albert E. -----------168 Talso, Jacob ---------- 195 Taylor, Fred -- ---------285 Therrien, Charles -----------142 Thomas James A. --------- 207 Thomas, James H. _-------221 Trebilcock, William _---- --194 Threthewey, Clifford A...----- 245 Tripp, Claude H. ----------211 Turner, Raymond -.-------205 Wahlman, John S. - -------196 Walker, Joseph H. __--------- 161 Walker, Louis P. ----------141 Wells, Artemas C. - -------255 Wenberg, Benjamin A..----- -226 White, Peter ----------------119 Wick, Helmer M..----------236 Williams, Rt. Rev. G. Mott --..135 Wing, Chester ---------------133 Wood, Frank A..--------.---- 144 Wynn, Robert J. ------------153

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Page  17 CHAPTER I EXPLORER AND MISSIONARY When John and Sebastian Cabot discovered the coast of Labrador in 1497, and the latter discovered the land of Newfoundland the following year and announced that the waters off that coast teemed with cod, fishermen of Europe began making voyages to these waters, but nothing was recorded of these journeys, whose object was that of fishing only No thought of exploring the lands off which they fished occurred to the hardy fishermen, and thus it was left for Jacques Cartier, a Frenchman, to sail up the St. Lawrence in 1534 after planting the cross and banner of France on the shore of Newfoundland and claiming the country for the king of France. In 1535, Cartier again returned with his ships, this time ascending the mighty river to a point off the Indian village of Hochelaga, which is now the site of the city of Montreal which takes its name from that of Mount Royal, the hill named thus by Cartier on the occasion of his first visit to the place. Even Cartier had learned of great mineral wealth in the New World from the Indians with whom he had talked, and that these deposits might be found and worked was the object of Jean Francis de la Roque, Sieur de Roberval, who was granted the commission of governor of New France in 1541. Roberval appointed Cartier captain-general of the first expedition which was sent in the same year to establish a colony in New France under Cartier The first expedition arrived in August, 1541, and while he waited for the arrival of his superior, Jacques Cartier built two forts, but not until the following spring did Roberval come to the New World, but by that time the discouraged Cartier had broken up his embryo colony and sailed for France. Roberval of course failed in his attempt when he arrived and found that his lieutenant had returned, but a second expedition was started off in 1547, Roberval and his entire company being lost in the passage. The poor success of Roberval and the known hardships of life in New France combined with domestic troubles, diverted the attention of the people from their new possessions in the Western Hemisphere for nearly half a century more. In 1598, therefore, Marquis de la Roche attempted the colonization of Sable Island; Pontgrave established a small fur trading colony at the mouth of the Saguenay river on the St. Lawrence; and in 1603 Champlain made his first visit to New France as cartographer of the expedition sent out under the seal of the crown. The arrival of Champlain in New France spelled the virtual beginnings of this French dependency, for the forceful Champlain made extensive explorations and threw himself wholeheartedly into the development of the new lands. In 1608 he founded Quebec, the

Page  18 18 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN first permanent French settlement in North America, and the following year he participated in an expedition which produced a profound effect upon the entire history of New France and the Upper Peninsula. In 1609, Champlain, with two other Frenchmen and a party of Indians, ventured southward across the St. Lawrence to explore the region that lay there. The party encountered a band of Mohawks, one of the Five Nations, or Six Nations as it was later called, and defeated them in a battle, principally through the agency of the firearms of the white men. Thus was incurred the everlasting hatred of the Iroquois for the French, closing to them Lake Erie and Lake Ontario and forcing the travel route westward through the Ottawa and French rivers and Lake Nipissing to Georgian Bay and the northern lakes. As a consequence, Frenchmen came to the Northern Peninsula of Michigan long before they attempted to gain a foothold in the Lower Peninsula. In this way was prepared the way for the advent of the first white man to what we now term the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Just who the first white man was to penetrate the wilderness of Lake Superior we cannot with definiteness say, but as far as records tell us, Etienne Brule was the first white man to come to this section of the country. Brule was sent by Champlain to live among the Indians in 1610 that he might learn their customs and their language, and he it was who first traversed the route by way of the Ottawa river, Lake Nipissing, and the French river to Georgian bay that became the principal route to the west for the French for half a century. Frequent mention had been made by Champlain in his writings of the copper mines that were reputed to exist along Lake Superior, and Brule's coming to this country was partly to verify as far as possible the statements of the Indians to this effect. During the winter of 1618-19 he came as far as what is now known as the North Channel at the straits of Mackinac, and Fowle, claiming that Brule continued as far as the Sault offers the following argument: "We have seen Brule's ambition, hardihood, and woodcraft demonstrated by his exploration of the Susquehanna to its mouth, and we are prepared to agree with Butterfield, that when, in 1618, Brule reached Georgian Bay he turned his face in the direction of the great lake, 'proceeding probably as far as the nation of the Beaver, living on the shores of what is now known as the North Channel, where he spent the winter.' "Are we not fairly warranted in going further than Butterfield, reasoning that Brule on his expedition would most likely go somewhat beyond the north channel, in fact as far as those rapids of which he had heard many times during the years he had lived with the Hurons? At those rapids Indians lived the year round, sure of food from the never failing, never freezing waters. Tribes from a radius of 500 miles were wont to journey thither; the Hurons frequently exchanged visits with the tribe which had

Page  19 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 19 there its permanent home; the Hurons knew all about that country; Brule would know about it from them. "The locality where Butterfield thinks Brule wintered was at most but a few miles from the rapids, The route thereto not difficult; it was traversed every winter for many years prior to the construction of the railroad by settlers, trappers, and mail carriers. Brule was seeking information regarding those mines and that great lake. Can we imagine him with his known ambition and prowess wintering but fifty or a hundred miles from his goal, in a region where he could secure no information which he did not already possess?" Although there is some doubts as to whether or not Brule actually reached the Sault and saw Lake Superior at that time, it is certain that he came to this part of the country in 1621 upon the express commands of Champlain to obtain still more definite information, and he thus became the first white man to set foot on the shores of Lake Superior. If we are to believe the writings of Sagard, a French historian of that date, we know that the intrepid interpreter had a companion on one of his trips to this section of the country, for he wrote that "About 100 leagues from the Hurons there is a mine of copper from which the interpreter (Brule) showed me an ingot on his return from a voyage he had made to a neighboring nation with a man named Grenolle." Therefore we may reasonably assert that one Grenolle was the second man of the French nation to penetrate this region. Subsequently, Brule turned traitor to his people and guided the British troops to Quebec and in 1632 met his death at the hands of the Hurons, among whom he had formerly lived. Two years after the death of Brule occurred an incident that brings into the history of this peninsula the name of another Frenchman, Jean Nicollet. The French had learned of the Winnebagoes, a name that meant "Men of the Bad Smelling Waters," and to the easily aroused imagination of the Gael, it meant but one thing, the discovery of a route to the Indies, for, they reasoned, the bad smelling waters meant salt seas and the much sought passage. Nicollet had come from France in 1618, and thereafter he spent two years among the Algonquins on the Isle des Allumettes in the Ottawa river. He then spent eight or nine years among the Nipissings to whom he returned for sanctuary from 1629 to 1638, the years in which the British held Quebec. Champlain following out his plan of extensive explorations, ordered Nicollet to make a journey to the Winnebagoes at Green Bay, or Bay des Puans. On July 1, 1634, Nicollet left Three Rivers in the train of three Jesuit missionaries, Brebeuf, Daniel, and Davost. At Ihonatiria, he parted from the Jesuits and with seven Hurons started for Green Bay. He first visited the Sault, beyond which he made no attempt to proceed, and when he again passed Mackinac island it was on the occasion of the one hundredth anniversary of the passage of Belle Isle straits by Cartier. Ar

Page  20 20 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN riving in Green Bay, Nicollet landed, clad in a China silk robe embroidered with birds and flowers and carrying a pistol in each hand, for he, too, believed that he was about to visit Japanese or Chinese. So favorable an impression did he make on the Winnebagoes that he easily induced them to conclude a treaty of peace, whereby they were to bring their furs to the French trading posts on the St. Lawrence river. He then visited the Mascoutens and ascended the Fox river to the prairie country, from which if he had continued, he would have found the Wisconsin river and then the Mississippi river, the discovery of which remained for another man journeying over the same route twenty-five years later. He returned to Quebec and became interpreter for the Hundred Associates, fur traders, until his death by drowning in 1642. In 1885, there was published by the Prince society of Boston a book that purported to be the account of the travels of Pierre Esprit de Radisson among the North American Indians from 1652 to 1694. That this man and his brother-in-law, Medart Chouart des Groseilliers, passed into the Wisconsin country and the Lake Superior region soon after 1650 cannot be doubted, for the Jesuit Relations record the journey of two unknown travelers about that time, and the journal of Radisson serves to clarify the ambiguous reference to the voyageurs mentioned in the Relations. Unfortunately, the journal of Radisson suffered much by the latest of its writing, for it appears the flight of time and the imagination of the author colored much of an otherwise authentic and interesting chronicle of these men. Despite discrepancies that appear in the writings and in spite of the obvious coloring of the tale, the men are given their proper amount of credit for their bold explorations in the Lake Superior and Wisconsin countries. The two men left in 1654 to visit the Indians in Wisconsin, returning two years later wth a flotilla of fifty canoes and many Indians, being received at the settlements with an ovation befitting a king. This was but the first of many similar trips, and Des Groseilliers and Radisson are the first with the exception of Brule to have explored Lake Superior, the first to have traversed the Upper Mississippi river country (a river they claimed to have discovered), and the first to visit the Sioux tribes at the headwaters of the Mississippi. It is evident from the writings of these two men that they made frequent trips into Lake Superior, and it was they who brought civilization to the southern lake shore, the first white man to give it more than a passing glance being Father Rene Menard, S. J. In 1641, Fathers Isaac Joques and Charles Raymbault set out from Ste. Marie, which had been established at the River Wye the preceding year, to visit the Indians at the Sault at the invitation of those tribes. Although the sentiment of the Indians seemed encouraging to the good priests, nothing was done at that time toward establishing a mission among them, and the

Page  21 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 21 two priests shortly after set out for the East whence they never returned. In 1661, Father Pierre Rene Menard, who had come to New France in 1640 and lived among the Indians to learn their language for some two years, was ordered to work among the Ottawas on Lake Superior. Under the guidance of Radisson and Des Groseilliers, he came to the Sault where he was met by the Ottawas. Though aged and infirm, he was burdened in every way possible by the Indians, in the hope, doubtless, that he would wish to return to his people and give up the project of converting them, if possible, to Christianity. He persevered, however, and was finally brought by the Indians to their winter home, where they arrived October 15, St. Theresa's Day, a fact that inspired Father Menard to name the bay in her honor. As near as can be determined, these winter quarters of the Ottawas were in the vicinity of L'Anse at the head of Keweenaw Bay. Undaunted by the antagonistic spirt of his red charges, he established his mission and said mass, but the hardships and indignities heaped upon him could not be long endured by mortal flesh. When spring brought traveling weather, he set out for the interior of Wisconsin with one companion to seek a tribe of Indians more anxious to receive his ministrations than the Ottawas. Near Big Rapids, Wisconsin, he wandered off the portage trail and was never seen again by a white man. Thus ended the career of the first priest to go among the Indians of Lake Superior to teach them the gentle doctrines of the Master he acknowledged. The treatment accorded Menard by the Ottawas influenced his successor, Father Claude Allouez, to pass them by and establish his mission near the present city of Ashland, Wisconsin, on a sandy spit projecting into Lake Superior, which he named La Pointe du St. Esprit. At this place, Father Allouez had arrived in the early autumn of 1665, having endured the indignities of his Indian companions in much the same manner as had his ill starred predecessor. The writings of Allouez again make mention at some length of the copper deposits said to exist in that region and stated that the priest had seen some samples of the metal that were jealously guarded by their owners. Father Allouez even went so far as to gather specimens of the metal and ore and send them to Talon. After two years, he returned to Quebec with a convoy of twenty canoes, arriving there on August 3, 1667. To his superior at that place, he urged the necessity of establishing a mission at the Sault. Father Louis Nicholas and three others volunteered to work under the direction of Allouez, now superior of the Lake Superior missions, to establish the mission at Sault Ste. Marie. Late in 1667, Father Louis Nicholas arrived at the Sault with Allouez, the latter of whom continued on to La Pointe du St. Esprit, but the lateness of the season made it impossible to accomplish much toward erecting buildings. In 1668, came Father Jacques Marquette to work with his lay brother Bohesme and probably Father Nicholas in the erection of a mission church

Page  22 22 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN and other buildings. The following year Marquette was succeeded by Father Claude Dablon, the former going to the straits where he founded his famous mission of St. Ignace. Said Joseph H. Steere of Marquette at the Sault: "In 1668 Fathers Marquette and Dablon established a mission at the Falls of St. Mary, built the first house, erected the first church, cleared and planted the first land and founded the first white settlement in what is now the state of Michigan." Father Dablon was joined in 1670 by Fathers Gabriel Driollette and Louis Andre, the latter of whom was sent on to the Algonquins and lived among them two years. Francois Dollier de Gasson and Rene de Brabant de Galinee, two Sulpitian friars, also visited the Sault in 1670 but found the Jesuits so firmly entrenched there that they stayed but three days and then returned to Quebec. The Sault was the scene of a ceremony of importance in that year from a political standpoint. Radisson, the fur trader and explorer, had taken service with the British and was drawing a considerable part of the Indian fur trade to the Hudson Bay posts of the English. To offset this and to insure the possession of the Great Lakes region to the French, the governor of New France arranged that formal possession of the territory should be acclaimed at a ceremony to be held at the Sault. Nicholas Perrot, who had traveled extensively throughout the Wisconsin and adjacent countries, was largely instrumental in bringing to the Sault the various tribes with whom he was well acquainted and was in no small degree responsible for the success of the enterprise. On June 14, 1670, Monsieur de Saint-Lusson, in the name of the king of France and in the presence of priests, soldiers, trappers, and thousands of Indians, claimed the country tributary to the Great Lakes for the French throne. Thus what is now Marquette county came under the banner of France to remain so for nearly a century. The Sault was by now a definitely established post that was a gathering place for coureurs de bois, traders, and Indians, and from the falls, the traders directed their trading trips through the Lake Superior country. It is much stronger than an assumption to say that white men visited the Marquette region, for we have it on the authority of the writings of the priests at the Sault that many traders had established themselves at that point. Is it not reasonable to suppose, therefore, that these hardy men traversed the south shore of the Lake and were often within the confines of the present county? The names of these men are not recorded, for they but followed the fortunes of the fur trade and gave no thought to settlement in a wilderness inhabited only by Indians. However, the next white man of whom we have specific mention and whose name is a glorious one in the opening of the vast territory tributary to Lake Superior was Daniel de GrosolIon, Sieur Dulhut. A native of St. Germain-en-Laye, he was of high birth and chose the profession of arms, receiving a place in

Page  23 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 23 Garde de la Roi whose nominal commander was the king of France. At the age of twenty, he won the commission of captain of marines and was assigned to a Canadian command. In 1674, he returned to France to fight against the Prince of Orange under the standard of the Prince of Conde, but returning to Canada, he set out on September 1, 1678, with his younger brother, Claude Grosollon de la Tourette, and six other Frenchmen and three Indian slaves, for an expedition into the Sioux country. After wintering on the north shore of Lake Huron, Dulhut and his party passed through the St. Mary's river and coasted along the south shore of Lake Superior. Such a route without a doubt brought him to this county. In due course, he arrived at Kathio, the principal village of the Sioux, and his achievements while he was among the Sioux were signalized by his rescue of Louis Hennepin and his companions from the Indians near the headwaters of the Mississippi. Then came a period of trouble for the intrepid Dulhut, for he was charged with being a free trader and to clear his name he was compelled to go to France. In 1683, after his return from France, he was given command of Michilimackinac to recondition the barracks for the arrival of the garrison under Durantaye. He built Fort Dulhut about three miles from the present Fort William. During this time at Michilimackinac, Dulhut learned of the murder and robbery of two Frenchmen, Jacques La Maire and Colin Burthol, by Indians at Keweenaw. He sent John Pere and some other men to arrest the offenders. The trial and execution of the murderers at the Sault forms a page in the annals of the region that is a strong endorsement of the strength of character and determination of Dulhut, for by his daring act, the execution of the two men in the presence of hundreds of openly hostile tribesmen, made secure the lives of white men then operating throughout the Indian country. Dulhut was relieved of the command at Michilimackinac in 1685 and was sent to build Fort St. Joseph at the outlet of Lake Huron, remaining in command there some two years. Thereafter, he engaged in several expeditions, became governor of Fort Frontenac in 1695, then commahded at Detroit until 1707, and died during the winter of 1709-10. The activities of Cadillac at Detroit beginning in 1701 virtually depopulated the Sault, although the abandonment of the district was not as complete as that of the Mackinac region. Thus for some fifty years, the Sault was not the busy place that it had been heretofore. On June 24, 1751, Louis XIV ratified a grant of land six leagues square to Chevalier de Repentigny and Captain de Bonne on the St. Mary's river at the rapids. Captain de Bonne apparently never took up his residence on the grant, but Repentigny came to the grant in the early fall of 1751, bringing cattle and horses and several men to perform the necessary work around the place. Except for the gardens maintained by the Jesuit priests, the farm of Repentigny was the first attempt at improved

Page  24 24 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN agricultural methods made in the Upper Peninsula, for that first winter he induced a Frenchman who had married an Indian woman to take some of the land and plant corn thereon. The interpreter at the fort was a man named Cadotte, and through him do we attach significance to the fort of Repentigny, for Cadotte subsequently became a trader on Lake Superior with Alexander Henry, an Englishman. Of more direct importance to the Marquette country was the work of the English trader and prolific writer, Alexander Henry, who came to the straits of Mackinas soon after the fort had been taken over by British troops. Henry in his journal, allowed nothing of even trifling importance to go unmentioned, and the garrulous record left by this entertaining and shrewd trader has been valuable source material for the historian of this section of the country. It was this same Alexander Henry who was directly responsible for the first attempt at mining in the Upper Peninsula by white men. He made a visit to the Sault in the winter of 1762 where he lived with Monsieur Cadotte, and though he planned to spend the entire winter there, the burning of the fort and the greater part of the provisions in late December forced him to go to Mackinac in February with the soldiers. In March, 1763, he returned to the Sault with Sir Robert Davers and accompanied him back to the straits in May, where he remained until the fort was captured and the garrison killed or taken prisoner by the Indians when the Pontiac Conspiracy broke out. After harrowing experiences there, he made his way to the Sault, there remaining with Cadotte. At this point Captain John Carver came to Sault Ste. Marie and outlined in his writings the most feasible way of transporting copper ore from Lake Superior through the Sault to the East. Henry by this time had secured the right to trade on Lake Superior and in July, 1765, took Cadotte into partnership with him, the two going to Chequamegon Bay that summer where they wintered. In the spring of 1768, after he had been trading up and down the lake with his partner, Cadotte, Henry went to Michilmackinac and there fell in with Alexander Baxter to whom he told such tales of the supposed copper deposits along the lake, that Baxter proposed the establishment of a company to mine the ore. Baxter accordingly returned to England with the samples supplied him by Henry and set about to form a company, and upon his return in 1770 he announced these men as partners in the mining company: George III, Duke of Gloucester, Secretary Townsend, Sir Samuel Tucket, Mr. Cruikshank, and Baxter, in England and Sir William Johnson, Mr. Bostwick, and Alexander Henry in America. Baxter and Henry spent that winter at the Sault, where they superintended the construction of a barge for lake navigation and laid the keel for a forty-ton sloop at Point aux Pins, six miles above the St. Mary's Falls on the Canadian side. This was the first shipyard on Lake Superior.

Page  25 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 25 It had been reported that gold might be found on the Island of Yellow Sands, now Caribou Island, and the first prospecting of the new company was made the following spring in search of the precious metal on the island. Failing in this, the north shore of the lake was surveyed, and though some traces were found of copper and lead ore (the latter having a trace of silver in it) the samples assayed so low that Henry and Baxter determined to look further. The expedition then made sail for Ontonagon where a workable vein was uncovered. In the spring of 1772, the sloop carrying supplies and miners put out from the Point for the copper mines but returned to the Sault on June 20, 1772. The miners stated that the clay was of such a nature that the drifts continually caved in on the workers. As a result of this, the attempt to mine copper was abandoned, ending the first venture of white men in mining on Lake Superior. During all this time, the fur companies had been operating extensively throughout the Northwest, the white traders were becoming an ordinary sight in the Indian camps of the territory of the Great Lakes, so that to record the names of all the white men who came to this region is obviously impossible. Mackinac. No more colorful settlement existed in the Middle West than the mission and fort at the Straits of Mackinac, for the French early realized its importance and directed their westward explorations from this base. Of all the men associated with the establishment of the mission and settlement there, no man played a more conspicuous part than Father Jacques Marquette. Born at Laon, France, June 1, 1637, he entered the Jesuit order and came to Quebec in 1666. The ensuing two years he spent in the study of Indian languages, and in 1668 he helped in the establishment of the mission at Sault Ste. Marie as mentioned above. The following year, he succeeded Father Claude Allouez, in charge of the mission at La Pointe, but friction between the Ottawas and Hurons at the mission arose, the former tribe removing to Manitoulin Island and the latter to the island of Michilimackinac. A mission was accordingly established among the Hurons at Mackinac, to which Marquette did not come until the following spring, 1671. The mission St. Ignace was thus first established on the island and was not removed to the mainland until the year after Marquette's arrival at the straits. In 1673, Father Marquette, beloved of the Indians whom he had collected around him at St. Ignace, set out with Joliet to discover and explore the Mississippi river, but upon his return from that famous voyage in 1675, he died at the mouth of the Marquette river on the east shore of Lake Michigan. The mission at St. Ignace was continued by the Society of Jesus and exercised a marked influence upon the Indians in that region, thousands having gathered in the vicinity of the French establishment. As the fur trade grew and Fort Mackinaw became more important from a commercial standpoint, the troubles of the

Page  26 26 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN priests increased, for despite their earnest efforts to prevent the sale of brandy to the Indians, the pernicious custom of the traders grew, and finally Cadillac, irritated by the Jesuits, whom he detested, founded Detroit and took most of the Indians with him to that place. Finally, in 1706, five years after the exodus of the tribes, Father Marest, then in charge, burned the chapel and mission buildings and returned in sorrow to Quebec. The fort at the straits continued to watch over the fur trade. It was removed to the south side of the straits, but subsequently was rebuilt on the island when attack on the British was feared at the time of the Revolutionary war, and how it was captured in later years by the British in the War of 1812 and also occupied by the American troops, has been narrated in the foregoing pages. The work of building the new fort on the island was begun in October, 1779, but not until 1781 was removal of the garrison to that place finally completed, due to the slowness experienced in providing adequate accommodations for the troops on the island. The concentration point for the fur trade of the Middle West, Mackinac held an important place for many years, both during the British and the American regimes. The Northwest Fur company of the British, and subsequently the Astor organization of the American Fur company made great use of the natural advantages of the Mackinac location, and thousands of pounds of furs were carried through the straits each year, gathered from the western territory tributary to the Great Lakes. Sault Region. When Champlain sent Etienne Brule to live among the Indians in 1610, Brule was probably the first white man to traverse the route to the west by way of the Ottawa river, Lake Nipissing, and the French river to Georgian Bay that soon after became the principal route of travel for Frenchmen to and from the western country. This preparation for forest life among the Indians paved the way for Brule's journey to the Sault either in 1618-19 or in 1621. "Little doubt now remains," says Newton in the story of Sault Ste. Marie and Chippewa county, "that Etienne Brul6, Frenchman, pioneer of pioneers, interpreter for Champlain, may fairly claim to have turned the first leaf in the white man's history of Bowating, of Sault Ste. Marie as we know it; and consequently of Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and the great Northwest of the United States and Canada. Indeed, there is evidence that he wandered at least to the western confines of Lake Superior in or about the year 1622, twelve years before the coming of Jean Nicollet to Bowating." Fowle entertains the opinion that Brule came to the Sault in 1618-19 to spend the winter and incidentally acquire what information he could about the copper mines of Lake Superior and about the lake itself. Certain it is that Brule came here in 1621, sent here for more definite information by Champlain himself, now acting

Page  27 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 27 governor of New France, and upon his return to the East traveled with a party of Huron Indians. Thus it is that Etienne Brule was the first white man to appear at the St. Mary strait and the first to set foot on the shore of Lake Superior. There is no other record to the effect that Brule ever again visited the Sault and the copper mines of the lake, and his life ended in tragedy and disgrace, for he turned traitor to the French, guided: the British to Quebec in 1629, served the Redcoats during their occupation of Canada, and was clubbed to death and eaten by the Hurons in 1632. Meanwhile, the French continued their search for a passage td the East Indies, overlooking the fact that within their possession were riches far greater than any that might accrue to them through the finding of such a water route. The French learned of the Winnebagoes in Wisconsin, and when they were informed that the name of the tribe meant "Men of the Bad Smelling Waters," they took it to mean that they had once lived on salt water to the west, as the Indian legend had it, and that from them a route to, the Indies might be learned. The inflammable imagination of the French was ignited by the very thought, and even Champlain gave sufficient credence to the story to commission Jean Nicollet to make a journey to these people at Bay des Puans, or Green Bay. Nicollet came from France in 1618 and was soon dispatched by Champlain to live among the Algonquin Indians on the Isle des Allumettes in the Ottawa river, where the young man lived for two years, learning the language and customs of the Indians. He then went among the Nipissings and spent some eight or nine years with that tribe, to which he returned for sanctuary while Quebec was in the hands of the British from 1629 to 1632. After Champlain had taken up the reins of government following the British occupation, he ordered Nicollet to start on the journey to the West, and on July 1, 1634, Jean Nicollet, in the train of the Jesuit priests Brebeuf, Daniel, and Davost, left Three Rivers. At Ihonatiria, Nicollet left the Jesuits and with seven Hurons began the journey that brought him to the Sault, the second man to see the falls, beyond which he made no attempt to proceed. Turning his back upon the falls of the St. Mary's, Nicollet passed to the straits through which he proceeded to the north of Mackinac island on the one hundredth anniversary of the passage of Belle Isle straits by Cartier. When finally he arrived at Green Bay, Nicollet, who also believed that he was meeting either Japanese or Chinese, went ashore clad in a China silk gown embroidered in flowers and birds and carrying a pistol in each hand. The man who carried thunder in each hand made so favorable an impression upon the Winnebagoes that he easily concluded a treaty of peace and induced them to transport their furs to the French trading posts on the St. Lawrence river. Nicollet then visited the Mascoutens and ascended the Fox river to the prairie country, from which, if he had continued, he would have found the

Page  28 28 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Wisconsin river and then the Mississippi river, the discovery of which remained for another man journeying over the same route twenty-five years later. He returned to Quebec after wintering among the western tribes and became interpreter for the Hundred Associates, fur traders, until his death by drowning in 1642. To say with all positiveness that Nicollet was the second white man to visit the Sault is, or may not be strictly true, for Sagard, writing of the travels of Brule, had this to say of another: "About 100 leagues from the Hurons there is a mine of copper from which the interpreter (Brule) showed me an ingot on his return from a voyage he had made to a neighboring nation with a man named Grenolle." Such a trip by Grenolle would have brought him to the Sault before the advent of Nicollet, and there is some evidence that he might have entered Lake Michigan and proceeded as far as Green Bay, although the latter supposition has little to substantiate it. In the meantime, the Jesuits had been quietly and steadily extending their sphere of influence in religious matters among the various tribes of Indians. At St. Jean Baptiste, St. Ignace in Ontario, St. Louis la Conception, St. Joseph, St. Michael, and other places, little missions had arisen in the heart of the Indian country. At the time it was estimated that between fifteen thousand and thirty thousand Hurons were living between Lake Simcoe and Severn river on the east and Nottawasaga Bay on the west, so that it was thought that a central mission would more efficiently serve the Indians of this tribe. Consequently, Ste. Marie was established in 1640 on what is the River Wye not far from the present city of Midland, Ontario, and during the ensuing nine years, Ste. Marie mission was the head of the missions in the Huron country, Fathers Isaac Joques and Du Peron being in charge of the mission. No sooner had the mission been established than the Indians at the Sault invited the Jesuits to come to them, and in September, 1641, Father Charles Raymbault and Father Joques set out for the Sault to discover the real sentiment of those Indians concerning their expressed wish for instruction at the hands of the good fathers. At the Sault, the Jesuits also found the Pottawatomies, who. had fled north to escape the attacks of the Iroquois, but assured of the good faith of the Indians in the matter and after a short stay of two or three weeks, the Black Robes turned their faces to Ste. Marie. Father Raymbault died the following year, and Father Joques started for the lower St. Lawrence on a journey that spelled death in the end. Joques was taken prisoner by the Iroquois, tortured to the verge of death, made his escape to Albany and thence to England and France, and returned to Canada only to be sent as a peace envoy to the Iroquois by whom he was murdered. Pierre Esprit de Radisson and his brother-in-law, Medart Chouart des Groseilliers have already been mentioned. The two, with the exception of Brule, were the first explorers of Lake Superior; they were the first to traverse the Upper Mississippi coun

Page  29 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 29 try; they were the first white men to visit the Sioux tribes west of the lake, spending a full winter, according to their story, among these people. After having spent two winters among the tribes of Wisconsin, they started in the spring of 1656 for the St. Lawrence with a flotilla of fifty canoes, fur laden, and more than two hundred Indians from various tribes, arriving at their destination toward the end of August of that year. The return to the west after this voyage brought the men to the Sault, and Radisson was the first to mention the place at any length in his writings. Said he, "Afterwards we entered into a strait which had ten leagues in length, full of islands where we wanted not fish. We came afterward to a rapid that makes the separation of the lake of the hurrons, that we call Superior or Upper, for that the wild men hold it to be longer and broader, besides a great many islands which makes appear in a bigger extent. This rapid was formerly the dwelling of those with whome we weare. We made cottages at our advantages, and found the truth of what these men had often (said) that if once we could come to this place we should make good cheare of a fish they call assickmack, which signifies a white fish. The beare, the castors and the Orinack showed themselves often, but to their cost; indeed it was to us like a terrestrial paradise." Evidently, then, these two men, Radisson and Groseilliers, passed through the Sault several times, and on one trip, while they were outward bound to the western country, they brought with them Father Rene Menard, who had worked among the Indians since 1642, two years after his arrival on this continent. Going into Lake Superior, Father Menard lived among the Ottawas near what is now L'Anse, Michigan, but the abuse he endured among them drove him to strike south into Wisconsin in the spring of 1661, a trip from which he never returned. Menard was succeeded in 1665 by Father Claude Allouez, who visited the Sault as he went to his new post and rechristened it Sault de Tracy in honor of Marquis de Tracy, then governor of New France. Allouez, with the title of chief of the Lake Tracy missions as he named Lake Superior, sent Father Louis Nicholas to the Sault in 1667 as resident priest. The following year, 1668, came Father Jacques Marquette to work with lay brother Bohesme and probably Father Nicholas in the erection of a mission church, which, although it is not certain, was probably located about at the foot of the present Bingham avenue, Charlevoix's map of 1721, a map of 1789, and a landscape of 1850 showing the mission at the same spot. The following year Father Claude Dablon succeeded Marquette at the Sault mission, which now took the name of Sainte Marie du Sault from the Jesuits. The mission here thrived and thenceforward the Indians in this section of the country found a black robed Jesuit ready to teach them and minister to their spiritual needs after they had been converted to Christianity. Joliet and Jean Pere made a journey through the Sault in search of the copper mines of Lake Superior and it was these two

Page  30 30 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN men with whom Dollier and Galinee, Sulpitian friars, and the party with them fell in when they started their journey to the west in 1669. Pere and Joliet had been the first to travel the lakes from Montreal to the Sault. La Salle, Dollier, and Galinee followed the same route on their outward passage, although Joliet and Pere had proceeded by the usual Ottawa river and Georgian Bay route when they came west. Dollier and Galinee left the party of La Salle at the straits and came to the Sault, where they arrived May 25, 1670, but a three-day stay here convinced them that the Jesuits were too firmly entrenched to allow the presence of Sulpitian friars in the work of Christianizing the Indians. Turning back toward Montreal, the friars finally reached there after a hard journey of twenty-two days, according to the journal of De Galinee. By this time, the government of New France came to the realization that this country was far too rich and vast to take any chances with, and it was accordingly decided to claim the land officially for the king of France. A pageant was planned to be held at the Sault in the summer of 1671 and every effort was bent to receive the sanction of all the Indian tribes in the Middle West and to invite them to the affair. Although most of the tribes in this vicinity agreed to participate in the ceremony, some refused to have anything to do with it, and some, including the Fox Indians of Wisconsin presented a decidedly unfriendly attitude toward the messengers who solicited their attendance. The principal agent in securing the attendance of the Indian tribes was Nicholas Perrot, who, though particularly liked by the Foxes, could not prevail upon them to become nominal vassals of the French king. By April, 1671, Perrot had marshalled his Indian friends at the Sault, where on June 14, that year, Monsieur de Saint-Lusson in the name of the king of France claimed the country for the French crown. The career of Daniel de Grosollon, Sieur Dulhut, has been given above, but the trial of the Indian murderers is of more particular interest to the people of Sault Ste. Marie. Dulhut sent Jean Pere with some other men to arrest the murderers, for the commander believed that to leave unpunished such a crime was to imperil the lives of all Frenchmen in the western country. On October 24, Dulhut at Michilimackinac learned that Folle Avoine, a Menominee, had been responsible for the crime and the the murderer had arrived at the Sault with some fifteen Ojibway families. Dulhut embarked at once with six Frenchmen to apprehend the slayer. Several Indian councils were held with the intent to exonerate Folle Avoine, but Dulhut refused to believe him or to release him. On November 24, Pere arrived at the Sault with the announcement that he had Achiganaga and his four sons under a guard of twelve Frenchmen about twelve leagues distant from the Sault. Achiganaga's innocence was established, but his four sons admitted their participation in the crime and described what dis

Page  31 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 31 position had been made of the bodies and the goods that had been stolen from the Frenchmen. Many of the Indians present made threats of violence if the prisoners were not released, but a compromise was finally reached whereby Folle Avoine and one of the other tribe were to be executed. The two murderers were shot, the execution taking place on the little hill located just south of the Weitsel lock. Though Dulhut incurred some censure for actions that were adjudged to be harsh and impolitic, it cannot be doubted that he adopted the only course open to him to impress upon the Indians that white men could not be slain with impunity, and by this execution of the killers he further guaranteed the lives of the coureurs de bois and trappers in this wild country. At the time of this trial in the autumn of 1683, Sault Ste. Marie was beginning to assume the proportions of a hamlet, for the French residents now numbered between fifteen and twenty and were erecting dwellings for themselves. The first mission church had been burned and replaced by a finer house of worship and augmented by other mission buildings, and Father de la Tour was in charge of the mission at that time. In 1701, Cadillac established his post at Detroit for the combined purpose of guarding the fur trade of the Northwest and of competing with the Jesuits at Michilimackinac and the Sault, for this priesthood was one for which he harbored considerable animosity. So successful was he in his efforts to induce the northern tribes to make their homes in the vicinity of Le Detroit that the Mackinac and Sault posts became almost deserted. The Jesuit Relations make no specific mention of the Sault during the first half of the eighteenth century and the Jesuit mission at the straits was burned by the sorrowing priests in 1706. The suspension of Jesuit activities at the Sault left this section without a post until 1750, when Chevalier de Repentigny and Captain de Bonne asked for a grant of land south of the falls of the St. Mary's river on the consideration that they would establish a post at the Sault and foster agriculture within the grant. The grant to these two military officers was ratified by King Louis XIV on June 24, 1751, the tract of land having a frontage of six leagues on the river and a depth of six leagues. Writing to the governor general of Canada the following year, the Minister of Foreign Affairs stated that trade was only an accessory to the grant, whose main purpose was to be "the multiplication of cattle and the cultivation of the lands." Apparently, De Bonne never came to the Sault for no record exists to that effect. However, Repentigny arrived late in the summer of 1751 and was well received by the Indians. He was able to secure a fort large enough to receive the traders from the straits at a house-warming and during the winter he had his men cut 1,100 pickets to be used in the building of the fort in the spring. The above mentioned letter of the Minister of Foreign Affairs also describes Repentigny's establishment as follows:

Page  32 32 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN "His fort is entirely finished, with the exception of a redoute of oak, which he is to have made twelve feet square, and which shall reach the same distance above the gate of the fort. As soon as his work shall be completed, he will send me the plan of his establishment. As for the cultivation of the land: The Sr. de Repentigny had a bull, two bullocks, three cows, two heifers, one horse and a mare from Michilimackinac. He could not on his arrival, make clearing of lands, for the works of his fort had occupied entirely his hired men. Last spring he cleared off all the small trees within the range of the fort. He has engaged a Frenchman who has married at the Sault Ste. Marie, an Indian woman, to take a farm; they have cleared it up and sowed it, and without a frost they will gather from 30 to 35 sacks of corn." Thus was made the first comprehensive attempt at farming in Chippewa county, although the Jesuits and some of the French who had lived at the Sault had managed to keep small gardens to supply them with fresh vegetables. Fowle locates and describes Repentigny's fort as follows: "The palisade enclosing the four buildings was 110 feet square. The west side of the palisade was about 50 feet east of the east line of Brady street as now constructed, and the north line of the palisade was nearly identical with the north line of Water street. The site, therefore, extends entirely across Water street, just east of Brady, and about fifty feet south of Water street." Came the French and Indian wars that resulted in the British occupation of Canada and the western posts, and as a result of this, we have the writings of the garrulous Alexander Henry, an English trader, for the next vivid account of the Sault. He arrived at the Sault on May 19, 1862, and he was so pleased with the place that he resolved to winter here, living with Monsieur Cadotte, the interpreter at the fort. On December 22, however, the fort and provisions were almost totally destroyed by fire, so that Henry, Lieutenant Jemette and the soldiers were compelled to start in the dead of winter for Michilimackinac, in February, 1763, to be exact. Jemette had been badly burned in the fire and the delay in starting had been to give hint an opportunity to recover sufficiently to travel. After a hard journey, they won the straits, but Henry returned on the tenth of the following March. Soon after, the Sault was visited by Sir Robert Davers "on a voyage of curiosity," and early in May, Alexander Henry accompanied Davers to Mackinac, remaining there until after the massacre of the English and capture of the fort at the outbreak of Pontiac's Conspiracy. Henry managed to make his way to the Sault in time, traveling part of the way with Madame Cadotte, the Chippewa wife of the interpreter. In 1765 there visited the Sault, Captain John Carver, who wrote extensively of his trip and who outlined the most feasible method of bringing copper ore from Lake Superior through the Sault to the East. Henry had secured the right to trade on Lake

Page  33 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 33 Superior and in July, 1765, took Cadotte, the interpreter into partnership with him, the two going to Chequamegon Bay where they wintered. A fish famine the following winter drove Indians and whites away from the Sault. Henry came here the next spring and in the spring of 1768 he went to Michilimackinac where he met Alexander Baxter, who became enthusiastic over copper mining after he had been shown the samples by Henry. Baxter, eager to enter into mining, returned to England to set about the organization of a company to carry through his plan, and when he announced the partners upon his return in 1770, he gave these names: George III, the Duke of Gloucester, Secretary Townsend, Sir Samuel Tucket, Mr. Cruikshank, and Baxter in England, and Sir William Johnson, Mr. Bostwick and Alexander Henry in America. Baxter and Henry spent the winter at the Sault and built a barge for lake navigation and laid the keel for a sloop of forty tons burden at Point aux Pins, six miles above the rapids on the Canadian side. This was the first shipyard on Lake Superior. The new company first prospected for gold on the Island of Yellow Sands,which now bears the name of Caribou Island from the large number of those animals that were found there at one time. They then sailed to the north shore but had no success and returned to Point aux Pins to erect an air furnace, the first to be placed on Lake Superior. Their samples assayed so low in copper and silver, the latter only showing forty ounces to the ton in lead ore, that the expedition sailed for the region of Ontonagon. Here a good vein was found, but when mining operations were begun in the spring of 1772 they were soon suspended because of a cavein in the drift. With the return of the vessel with the miners to the Sault on June 20, 1772, ended the first attempt by white men to mine copper on Lake Superior. J. Long, a trader, wrote that he visited the Sault in June, 1777, but his written description of the place seems to give it no great change in physical aspect than that which had prevailed for some years. In 1796 and 1797, the British established Fort St. Joseph on the island of that name, the ruins of which may still be seen. About this time, in 1797 to be exact, the Northwest Fur company, which had heretofore been located on the south side of the Sault, removed its post to the Canadian side of the river, because by the treaty brought about by Jay, the western posts of the British were to be transferred to American commands in the following year. At that time, according to correspondence of the time, a canal and locks were built by the fur company to facilitate the passage of the canoes up and down the river. This pioneer lock, which was located on the Canadian side of the river, 38 feet long and 8 feet 9 inches wide, while the canal that was built was about 2,580 feet in length. This lock served to good

Page  34 34 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN purpose until it was destroyed by American soldiers in 1814 during the War of 1812. At this juncture, comes the name of Johnston into the history of Sault Ste. Marie, a name that is remarkable for many reasons, but chiefly because John Johnston gained virtual control of the fur trade on the south side of the Sault in opposition to the powerful combine of the Northwest and N. Y. Fur companies which were established on the Canadian side of the river. John Johnston was born in Antrim county, Ireland, near, Colerain in 1763. His father was the civil engineer who planned and built the Belfast waterworks, and his mother was the sister of Mary, Saurin, wife of the Bishop of Dromore, and was also sister of the attorney general of Ireland. Coming to Canada in 1792, he presented such favorable letters of recommendation to the governor that Lord Dorchester tried to persuade Johnston to remain in Montreal until there was an opening in the British service for him. Within a short time, however, Johnston joined a trading party that was starting for Lake Superior. At the Sault he spent several months, then went on Lake Superior as far as La Point opposite the Twelve Apostle Islands where he established a trading post. Soon after his arrival at the Sault, he met a beautiful Indian girl, daughter of Wabojeeg, a chief of the Chippewa nation. In 1793, Johnston married the girl and settled at the Sault where he continued to make his home until the time of his death, which occurred September 22, 1828. Johnston's British training and allegiance were what influenced him to commit the overt acts against the United States Government in the War of 1812 that resulted in the wrecking of his fortune and almost total loss of all that he possessed. When the American expedition under Lieutenant-Colonel Coroghan was sent in 1814 to capture the British garrison at Mackinac, the commandant there, Colonel McDowell appealed to Johnston for aid. Johnston provisioned and equipped a force of 100 men, evaded the force sent to intercept him, and reached the island safely. By so doing, however, he so enraged the Americans who had been sent to capture him that they continued on to the Sault where they burned the trading village at the south of the rapids. With the signing of peace in 1815, Johnston appealed to both the British and the American governments for compensation for his losses, the former refusing to allow his claim and the latter declining to consider it on the grounds that he was an officer in the English army during the War of 1812. Johnston and his wife were the parents of these children: Louis, who was born in 1793 and died at Malden in 1825; George, who was born in 1796 and died at the Sault January 6, 1861; Jane who was born in 1800, married Henry R. Schoolcraft in 1823, and died at Niagara May 22, 1842; Eliza, born in 1802 and died in 1888; Charlotte, who was born in 1806, married an Episcopal clergyman named McMurray at the Sault, and died in 1878; William, who was born in 1811 and

Page  35 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 35 was often Indian interpreter for the United States Government, and died at Mackinac in 1866; Anna Maria, who was born in 1814, married James L. Schoolcraft who was murdered at the Sault in 1846 by Lieutenant Tilden, and died at Pontiac in 1856; and John McDougall, who was born in 1816, acted as Indian interpreter for Schoolcraft and the United States Government, and died at the Sault in 1895. Both Louis and George Johnston fought against the United States in the War of 1812, the former serving aboard the Queen Charlotte when it was captured by Perry's fleet in Lake Erie and the latter fighting in the battle of Mackinac island on August 4, 1814. Such were the beginnings of Sault Ste. Marie and Chippewa county. To attempt to record the names of the first white men to make this a permanent or even semi-permanent home is obviously impossible, but some of the more important have already been mentioned, and those whose names have been omitted were for the most part transient in local fame to warrant mention as upbuilders of the community. Several ministers and priests might here be named, but it must be remembered that such men came here on orders, left for the same reason, and cannot in any sense be considered permanent settlers in the manner in which we regard those who are located as the result of their belief in the advantages and opportunities of the community.

Page  36 CHAPTER II TERRITORIAL TIMES Came the Revolution with its reverses and successes that are familiar to every schoolboy, and at last the land south of the Great Lakes came under the dominion of the United States, although the western forts were retained by the British who were loath to surrender such a rich land. By every conceivable excuse, England attempted to maintain and keep the posts that she had acquired from the French and had established in this western country, for even though the States had won their freedom, the English still harbored ideas that they might be brought back into the fold. English were still frequently seen in the ceded territory, their sole object being that of conciliating the Indian and making him friendly to the British and hostile to the Americans. The intention of the English to thus create an Indian buffer state between Canada and the United States promised fruition for several years, and the success attained by the English agents to the Indians is seen in the relentless opposition to' the advance of the American settlers by the Indian tribes and the part these same tribes took in behalf of the British even as late as the War of 1812, when Tecumseh rallied thousands of red men to the cause of England. That the Indian power was finally broken was due to General Anthony Wayne, who dispelled the major portion of the Indians and wrung from them a reluctant peace by a campaign that ended with the battle of Fallen Timbers. With hope of Indian wars stopping the American advance at last killed, the British agreed to another treaty., which was negotiated by Jay, and the Americans in 1798 came into possession of the western forts to which the English had clung so tenaciously., In 1787,' after the various colonies had consented to surrender their conflicting claims to the Northwest Territory to Congress, the famous ordinance was passed creating the Northwest Territory, which had until then been nominally governed by the Jefferson ordinance of 1784. In 1800, this vast area was divided into two territories, those of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio and the Indian Territory. Michigan was divided between these two territories, the dividing line passing up the center of the Lower Peninsula. Thus the Upper Peninsula and Superior region were then in the Indian Territory, of which it was still a part after Ohio became a state in 1802 and all of Michigan was attached to the Indian Territory as Wayne county. In 1805, after considerable opposition in Congress, Michigan was duly erected into a territory. The western boundary of the Michigan territory was described as being a line drawn from the bend in the southerly end of Lake

Page  37 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 37 Michigan, thence up the center of the lake to its northern extremity, and thence due north to the national boundary. Thus, all but the eastern tip of the Upper Peninsula remained a part of the Indian Territory until the creation of the Illinois Territory in 1809, the Upper Peninsula with the exception of that part already noted being made a part of Illinois until that territory attained the dignity of a state in 1818. In that year, all of the Upper Peninsula, together with Wisconsin and that part of Minnesota east of the Mississippi, was attached to the Michigan Territory. On December 22, 1826, the legislative council of the Michigan Territory erected Chippewa county to include all of the northern peninsula and the northern part of Wisconsin and Minnesota, the county existing until 1836, when the organization of the Wisconsin Territory reduced the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to its present limits as concerns government. When Michigan became a state in 1837, Mackinac county was cut off from Chippewa making two counties in the Upper Peninsula, of which the white population of the former was 664 (mostly at St. Ignace) and of the latter 366 (mostly at the Sault). Governor Lewis Cass, who succeeded William Hull after the War of 1812, is more than distantly connected with the history of Marquette county, for his work of extinguishing the Indian titles to the land of Michigan and of opening the territory to settlement brought him here on such a mission. On June 16, 1820, he came north to Sault Ste. Marie and there met the Indian tribes of this region in council where he obtained the title to a tract of land containing some sixteen square miles of land and also made the opening wedge for the ultimate extinguishing of the Indian land titles. On June 22, of that same year, he and his party arrived at Presque Isle where Cass unfurled the first American flag to float over Lake Superior. From here the party coasted to Keweenaw point, thence by Portage lake to the great copper boulder in Ontonagon river, thence by way of the St. Louis river to the Mississippi. The governor and his party then returned to Green Bay, Chicago and at last Detroit. In this way did Cass gain an extensive knowledge of the territory over which he presided as chief officer. A second expedition came here in 1826 on its way to Fond du Lac to conclude a treaty with the Chippewas. By this treaty, the United States secured the mineral rights to all the Upper Peninsula, and on the strength of this treaty, the great copper boulder in the Ontonagan river became the property of the United States Government and is now housed in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution.

Page  38 CHAPTER III EARLY SETTLEMENT The names of the first settlers in Marquette county have been lost to the historian for the simple reason that they were never recorded. Further, to separate the first settlement from the beginning of the iron mining industry here is equally difficult, for it was not until the presence of that metal had been discovered that settlers came in any number worth mentioning. True, some years before that event, the discovery of iron, explorers and trappers were frequently seen in the county, but their names have been lost to us. The tale of the beginning of iron mining here, then, will give the true picture of the opening up of the county. P. B. Barbeau, for years an employee of the American Fur company in the Upper Peninsula, may possibly be credited with being one of the first to learn to the presence of iron in Marquette county, but this knowledge that he gained he made no attempt to turn to his material advantage. He once stated that he knew of iron ore at Negaunee as early as 1830 and that the Indians, from whom he had gained the knowledge were acquainted with the iron deposits many years before that. He further said that the Indians knew of lead deposits, and that some of them had found lead pure enough to be used as rifle bullets, for which they had employed the metal thus discovered. The Indians were loath to divulge the secret of where they found the metals, for they believed that disaster would overtake them if once they told it to any white man. In 1844, according to the report of Charles T. Jackson, United States Geologist, P. B. Barbeau presented him with a fine specimen of specular iron ore that Barbeau had obtained from an Indian chief. Jackson reported at the same time(1849) that the main body of the ore, he then learned, lay between Keweenaw Bay and the headwaters of the Menominee river. Returning east, Jackson says, he imparted his information to Charles Pray, of Charlestown, Massachusetts. Pray immediately proceeded to the Sault, hired an Ojibway guide, and after penetrating the forests beyond L'Anse, found the mountain of ore as described to him by Jackson. Thus the geologist ascribes to Pray the discovery of iron, ore in the Marquette district. In the same year, Joseph Stacy, of Maine, explored that land between the mouth of the Dead river and Lake Michigan and found what he described as an inexaustible supply of compact and specular iron ore. P. B. Barbeau said that in 1845 Achille Cadotte, a FrenchIndian half breed, learned of the mountain of iron ore from an Indian chief, Man-je-ke-jik, with whom he went to see it. Cadotte,

Page  39 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 39 according to Barbeau, told John Western of the ore and with him went to the place, whence about a ton of ore was packed from what was later known as the Jackson location and was taken by canoes to the Sault and thence to Detroit. It appears, however, that the man was P. M. Everett, for Western did not visit this country in 1845. W. R. Burt, who was engaged for some years with Dr. Douglass Houghton, the well known state geologist who was drowned in 1845, in surveying the Upper Peninsula and in locating the mineral deposits here, was said to have taken ore from the Jackson location in 1844. The discovery is said to have come when deflection of the compass needle of the surveying party was seen to undergo erratic changes as the party moved from place to place. Burt, it is said directed the members of his party to determine the cause, an outcrop of magnetic iron ore being found from which specimens were taken. Not only did the incident result in the discovery of iron ore but also brought the invention of the solar compass at that time, for Burt realized that surveys based on the magnetic compass would be inaccurate in such a country. His invention of the solar compass in the wilderness of the Northern Peninsula was of incalculable value to the engineering profession. The reported discovery of iron ore in this section of the state, brought a race to develop those hitherto unknown deposits of iron, a race that spelled the real beginning of Marquette county. P. M. Everett is accorded the honor of being practically the first to demonstrate the quality of the iron in this district. In June, 1845, the Jackson company had been organized for copper mining, Everett being one of the original incorporators. He came to Lake Superior armed with permits from the Secretary of War, and set about to find suitable locations for his company. At the Sault he learned of the iron in the vicinity of Marquette and came here to locate land. The square mile on which the Jackson mine was located was then located under permit by a man named Hamilton, who abandoned his land after it was learned that iron had been found, the man not realizing that it had been found on his own land. The Jackson company then managed to find the township lines and to enter an accurate location of the section of land, a requirement stated by law. Everett on his first visit took away a quantity of the ore as above described. The Pittsburgh men to whom some of it was sent for testing pronounced the ore worthless, but Everett sent the remainder to a small forge at Coldwater, where the first iron from Lake Superior ore was smelted. The iron bar thus made supplied the metal for a knife blade for Everett in order that he might demonstrate the high quality of the ore to be found in this region. Everett, therefore, is acknowledged to be the real discoverer and developer of the iron here. Of his first visit, Everett himself wrote to Captain G. D. Johnson as follows:

Page  40 40 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN "Jackson Mich., Nov. 10, 1845. Dear Sir:-Since I have returned from Lake Superior, Charles tells me that he promised to let you know all about my excursion, and wishes me to perform the task for him. In compliance with this request, I will therefore try and give you a brief description of my trip. I left here on the 23d of July last, and was gone until the 24th of October. I had some idea of going to Lake Superior last winter, but did not think seriously of going until a short time before I left. I had considerable difficulty in getting any one to join me in the enterprise; I at last succeeded in forming a company of thirteen. I was appointed treasurer and agent, to explore and make locations, for which last purpose we had secured seven permits from the Secretary of War. I took fur men with me from Jackson, and hired a guide at the Sault, where I bought a boat, and coasted up the lake to Copper Harbor, which is over 300 miles from the Sault Ste. Marie. There are no white men on Lake Superior except those who go there for mining purposes. We incurred many dangers and hardships. - - - - We made several locations-one of which we called Iron at the time. It is a mountain of solid iron ore, 150 feet high. The ore looks as bright as a bar of iron just broken. Since coming home we have had some of it smelted, and find that it produces iron and something resembling gold-some say it is gold and copper. Our location is one mile square and we shall send a company of men up in the spring to begin operations. Our company is called the Jackson Mining company." As stated in the letter, men were sent here in the spring of 1846, in the summer of which year the company began the erection of a forge on the Carp river about three miles from Negaunee. The first opening for iron mining was made by the same concern that autumn, and in the spring of 1847, the forge was placed in operation, where the first ore mined from the Jackson mine was made into blooms. Within a day or two after the forge was started, a freshet carried away the dam, but it was started again in the fall and operated successfully for some time. Using two fires, the forge managed to make four blooms a day, each bloom measuring about four feet long and eight inches thick. The first blooms made at this forge were sold to Eber B. Ward who used them in making the walking beam of the steamer "Ocean." The forge was operated until 1854 when it was finally abandoned, another larger one being built at Marquette just south of the shore end of the Cleveland ore docks, the second forge being erected in 1849 under the supervision of A. R. Harlow. Subsequently two other forges were built at Forestville and Collinsville. The Jackson mine supplied all the ore for these forges, but even by this time, little progress was made in mining until the completion of the company's docks in 1855. Regular shipments of ore then began in 1856, and from that date may be recorded the real prosperity of the mining industry in this section of the state.

Page  41 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 41 Marquette, like most of the Upper Peninsula outside of the regions around the Sault and Mackinac, received very few settlers prior to 1850. Before the adoption of the Constitution of 1850, there were no rights of general incorporation, and those concerns that were incorporated were compelled to get them directly from the legislature by special act. The powerful lobbying machines that thus grew up to assist and hinder the formation of corporations, had, of course, a marked effect upon the development of the Upper Peninsula, for both the lumbering and the mining interests required incorporation for any comprehensive attempts at developing these industries. With the adoption of the new constitution, however, general incorporation of companies was authorized without the red tape and possible defeat to be experienced in carrying the proposition to the legislative body of the state. Consequently, the year 1850 introduced a new era of prosperity and settlement in the Upper Peninsula, and from that time we may actually consider the growth of the county. To the people of the county, the name of Peter White is familiar as one of the early settlers and one of her most popular and influential men. He came in 1845 with ten associates to inspect the Carp River iron region, and wrote in part as follows of Marquette as he found it at that time: "We succeeded in crowding our large Mackinac barge up the rapids, or falls, at Sault Ste. Marie, and, embarking ourselves and provisions, set sail on Lake Superior for the Carp River iron region. After eight days of rowing, towing, poling, and sailing we landed on the spot immediately in front of where George Craig's house now stands. That was then called Indian Town, and was a landing place of the Jackson company. We put up that night at the Cedar House, of Charlie Bawgam. It is true his rooms were not many, but he gave us plenty to eat, clean and well cooked. I remember that he had fresh venison, wild ducks arid geese, fresh fish, good bread and butter, coffee and tea, and splendid potatoes. "The next morning we started for the much talked of iron hills; each one had a pack-strap and blanket, and was directed to use his own discretion in putting into a pack what he thought he could carry. I put up forty pounds and walked bravely up the hill with it for a distance of two miles, by which time I was about as good as used up. Graveraet came up, and taking my pack on top of his, a much heavier one, marched on with both, as if mine was but the addition of a feather, while I trudged on behind and had hard work to keep up. Graveraet, seeing how fatigued I was, invited me to get on top of his load, saying he would carry me too, and he could have done it, I believe; but I had too much pride to accept his offer. When we arrived at the little brook which runs by George Rublein's old brewery, we made some tea and lunched, after which I took my pack and carried it without much difficulty to what is now known as the Cleveland mine, then known as Moody's location. On our.way we had stopped a

Page  42 42 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN few minutes at the Jackson forge, where we met Mr. Everett, Charles Johnson, Alexander McKerchie, A. N. Barney, N. E. Eddy, Nahum Keys, and others. At the Cleveland we found Capt. Sam Moody and John H. Mann, who had spent the previous summer and winter there. I well remember how astonished I was next morning when Captain Moody asked me to Qo with him to dig some potatoes for breakfast. He took a hoe and an old tin pail, and we ascended a high hill, now known as the Marquette Iron company's mountain, and on its pinnacle found half an acre partially cleared and planted to potatoes. He opened but one or two hills when his pail was filled with large and perfectly sound potatoes-and then said: 'I may as well pull a few parsnips and carrots for dinner, to save coming up again'; and sure enough, he had them there in abundance. This was in the month of May. "From this time until the tenth of July, we kept possession of all the iron mountains then known west of the Jackson, employing our time fighting mosquitoes at night, and the black flies during the day; perhaps a small portion of it was given to denuding the iron hills of extraneous matter, preparing the way for the immense products that have since followed. On the 10th of July, we came away from the mountains, bag and baggage, arriving at the lake shore, as we then termed it, before noon. Mr. Harlow had arrived with quite a number of mechanics, some goods, lots of money, and, what was better than all, we got a glimpse of some female faces. "At one o'clock of that day, we commenced clearing the site of the present city of Marquette, though we called it Worcester in honor of Mr. Harlow's native city. We began by chopping off the trees and brush, at the point of rocks near the blacksmith shop, just south of the shore end of the Cleveland Ore docks. We cut the trees close to the ground, and then threw them bodily over the bank onto the lake shore; then, under the direction of Captain Moody, we began the construction of a dock, which was to stand, like the ancient pyramids, for future ages to wonder at and admire! We did this by carrying these whole trees into the water and piling them in tiers, crosswise, until the pile was even with the surface of the water. Then we wheeled sand and gravel upon it, and, by the end of the second day, we had completed a structure which we looked upon with no little pride. Its eastward or outward end was solid rock, and all inside of that was solid dirt, brush and leaves. We could not see why it should not stand as firm and long as the adjacent beach itself. A vessel was expected in a few days with a large lot of machinery and supplies, and we rejoiced that we had a dock on which they could be landed. On the third day, we continued to improve it by corduroying the surface, and by night of that day, it was, in our eyes, a thing of beauty to behold. Our chagrin may be imagined, when, on rising the next morning, we found that a gentle sea had come in during the

Page  43 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 43 night and wafted our dock to some unknown point. Not a trace of it remained; not even a poplar leaf was left to mark the spot. The sand of the beach was as clean and smooth as if it had never been disturbed by the hand of man. I wrote in the smooth sand with a stick, 'This is the spot where Captain Moody built his dock.' The captain trod upon the record, and said I would get my discharge at the end of the month, but he either forgot or forgave the affront. It was a long time before anyone had the hardihood to attempt the building of another dock. "Under the lead of James Kelly, the boss carpenter, who was from Boston, we improved our time, after six o'clock each evening, in erecting a loghouse for sleeping quarters for our particular party. When finished, we called it the Revere House, after the hotel of that name in Boston. This building stood on the original site as late as 1860. "We continued clearing up the land south of Superior street, preparing the ground for a forge, machine shop, sawmill and coal house. Some time in August, the schooner 'Fur Trader' arrived, bringing a large number of Germans, some Irish, and a few French. Among this party were August Machts, George Rublein, Francis Dolf, and Patrick, James and Michael Atfield. All these have resided here continuously - - - -. It was cholera year; Clark died at the Sault on his way back; several others died on the vessel, and many were landed very sick. We were all frightened; but the Indians, who lived here to the number of about one hundred, had everything embarked in their boats and canoes within sixty minutes, and started over the waters to escape a disease to them more dreadful than the small-pox. "At this time, the first steam boiler ever set up in this county was ready to be filled with water, and it must be done the first time by hand. It was a locomotive boiler. A dollar and a half was offered for the job, and I took it; working three days and a night or two, I succeeded in filling it. Steam was got up, and then I was installed as engineer and fireman. "During the winter we had three or four mails only. Mr. Harlow was the first postmaster, and hired the Indian Jimmeca to go to L'Anse after the mail at a cost of ten dollars per trip. I believe the cost was made up by subscription. "The Jackson company had about suspended operations; their credit was at a low ebb; their agent had left in the fall, and was succeeded by 'Czar' Jones, the president, but nearly all work was stopped, and the men thought seriously of hanging and quartering Mr. Jones, who soon after left the country. In the spring (1850) the Jackson company 'bust' all up, and all work at their mine and forge was suspended. By this time the Marquette Iron company's forge was nearly completed and ready for making blooms. Many dwellings, shops, etc., had been erected, together with a small dock at which steamers could land." This letter which is quoted in part and was written by Peter White, is one of the best sources for determining the names of

Page  44 44 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN some of the first settlers of the city and county, for of those names he mentioned some became those of leading and prominent citizens and business men of the county and city. It is regrettable, indeed, that there is no more extensive information concerning the first settlers than does exist, and were it not for Peter White's letter, we should be almost entirely destitute of material on this phase of the history of the county. At least the letter of White gives an accurate picture of Marquette at the time of the beginning of settlement and tells vividly of the founding of the city. Chippewa Counrty. It is impossible to record the names of the first permanent settlers of a community such as Chippewa county, which has its roots buried in the dim past, when no thought of preserving the records of the villages concerned the inhabitants. Though the settlement at the Sault is one of the earliest in this section of the country, the fur trade was not one to encourage permanent settlement on the lands in this vicinity, and the white men who frequented this part of the Upper Peninsula did so only insofar as the demands of their trade brought them here. Agents in charge of the trading posts at the Sault were often changed, and even their names have disappeared. There are some few, however, whose efforts in promoting the development of this section of the Upper Peninsula have gone into history, among them being Chevalier de Repentigny, who, with Captain de Bonne was granted a tract of land six leagues square bordering the river at Sault Ste. Marie in 1750. This grant of 214,000 acres of land was the largest grant within the limits of Michigan. De Bonne remained at Quebec, but De Repentigny came to the grant in 11751, and the following year erected a fort and three other buildings within a palisade one hundred feet square. The west wall of the palisade was about fifty feet east of the present Brady street at Sault Ste. Marie and the north wall was coincidental with the line of Water street. A bull and three cows, some heifers, yoke of oxen, and a horse and a mare were brought to this place by Repentigny and were the first livestock in the present Chippewa county. All the trees within gun range of the fort were cut down, and a clearing outside the palisade was placed under cultivation by Jean Cadotte, the pioneer farmer of Chippewa county. The proprietor remained at the Sault until 1755, superintending the erection of needed buildings and the improvement of the land, but when Quebec became the object of the British attack in 1762, De Repentigny gathered about him as many Frenchmen in this section of the country as he could and went to aid in the defense of New France against the English assaults. The seignory at Sault Ste. Marie was left in charge of Jean Baptiste Cadotte, above named, and was operated by him until the coming of the British. The Cadotte family continued to occupy the land, however, for many years afterward, and the question of legal title to the tract they occupied brought up a legal tangle that is one of the famous pieces of litigation in Mich

Page  45 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 45 igan's legal history. The long occupancy of the Cadotte family, however, worked to win them the title, it was decided by the courts. Although De Repentigny was allowed tenure of his estate provided that he pledge allegiance to the English cause, he returned to France and asked for promotion in the military service, in which his family had long been prominent. The part played by the garrulous Alexander Henry with the development of the new country has already been discussed in part. Henry, after casting about for some time in this section of the country and after making a trip to the Canadian capital, returned to Montreal to find his goods gone. He formed a partnership with Jean Baptiste Cadotte, named above as a tenant on the Repentigny estate, and the two engaged in the fur trade with the Indians with their headquarters at Sault Ste. Marie. Jean Baptiste Cadotte was the son of Cadieux who came to the Sault with St. Lusson in 1671, when France formally claimed this country as part of New France. At the time of his appointment by Repentigny he held a virtual monopoly of the fur trade in the Chippewa villages of Lake Superior. He married the daughter of a Saulteur chief by both the Indian and Christian ceremonies, and his two sons, Jean and Michel, were prominent characters in the fur trade during the time of the Northwest company. The father continued to reside at the Sault until 1803, when he died. Jonathan Carver was another prominent Englishman to come to the rapids of the St. Mary's river, mentioning the place in his journal at the time. In 1833, sixty-seven years after the deed was given, the heirs of Carver filed in the courthouse on Mackinac island an instrument executed by two chiefs of the Naudowessie Indians deeding a tract of land between the falls of St. Anthony and the Chippewa river on the Mississippi river, a part of which land is now occupied by the city of St. Paul. Carver was an earnest searcher for the fabled northwest passage and traveled some seven thousand miles through the northwest looking for such a waterway. With valuable charts and journal, he returned to New York and from there took passage to London, where he was refused permission to publish his book. He died in that city, penniless and heartbroken. Though the fur trade at the Sault during the regime of the Hudson's Bay company was not inconsiderable, it was not until the organization of the Northwest Fur company that Sault Ste. Marie assumed an aspect of considerable importance in connection with this trade. The assembling point was located at Grand Portage and the outgoing peltries and the incoming supplies came through Sault Ste. Marie. The company's warehouses were located on the south bank of the river, and the portage was also located on the south side. When it became apparent that the English would at last be required to give up their western posts to American troops, the Northwest company moved its ware

Page  46 46 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN houses to the north side of the river, where a canal, lock, and sawmill were built in 1797. The canal was about a half mile long, and the lock was thirty-eight feet long with a lift of nine feet. Apparently the lock was little used, for scarcely any mention is made of it in the early records after the end of the century. It was destroyed by American troops in 1814, and subsequently uncovered and rebuilt as a historic reminder of the extensive commerce enjoyed by Sault Ste. Marie in those early days. With the village deserted by the Northwest Fur company, Sault Ste. Marie fell into decline that continued for some time. Among the few traders who remained here and were not affiliated with the large fur companies was John Johnston, who was born in 1763, near Coleraine, Antrim county, Ireland, and came to Canada in 1792. He was the son of a surveyor and civil engineer who planned and executed the water works at Belfast, and his mother was the sister of Mary, the wife of Bishop Saurin, of Dromore, and also sister of the attorney general of Ireland. In the same year in which he arrived in Canada, Johnston determined to visit Sault Ste. Marie and made his journey thither by way of the Ottawa, Nipissing, and French rivers and Georgian bay. He selected La Pointe as the site for his trading post and there entered upon his work of fur trader. Within a short time after settling here, he sought the daughter of an Indian chief as his wife, but the father advised him to wait until he had made another trip to civilized parts of the country in order that Johnston might be certain that he wanted the Indian girl and not a white girl for his wife. Upon his return from England and Ireland whither he had made an extended visit, Johnston married the girl, and to this union were born three sons and four daughters, as follows: Jane, who married Henry Rowe Schoolcraft in 1823; Louis, who was serving on the Queen Charlotte when that vessel was captured by Commodore Perry; George; Eliza, who was born in 1823, and never married; a third daughter who married Reverend Murray, of Buffalo in 1833 and died in January, 1878; Maria, the fourth daughter, who married James Laurence Schoolcraft; and John McDouall Johnston. William and John became interpreters in the United States service and lived out their lives at the Sault. Johnston continued to reside at the Sault, where he developed a trade among the Indians of the south shore of Lake Superior that marked him as one of the influential men of this section of the state. Johnston espoused the cause of the British at the time of the War of 1812, and raised a hundred men for service with the English against Mackinac island. The Americans at that post set out to intercept Johnston, and failing in this, they continued on to the Sault and destroyed his property and that of other British sympathizers. Johnston later attempted to secure compensation for his losses but failed in the effort, the British failing to recognize his services in their behalf. He served as justice of the peace in 1812.

Page  47 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 47 Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, who married Jane Johnston in 1823, was born at Watervliet, New York, March 28, 1793, entered Union college in 1808, and in 1817-18 made a tour of the mining regions of the West and upon his return to the East wrote a treatise on lead mining in Missouri. In 1820, he was a member of the party of exploration to the copper country of Lake Superior and the Upper Mississippi and subsequently served as a United States commissioner in the treaty negotiations. He was appointed Indian agent at the Sault in 1822, and was married the following year. From 1828 to 1832, he served in the Territorial Legislature of Michigan, and during that time, he was the prime mover in founding the Historic and Algic societies at Detroit. His lectures on the Indians won him a medal from the French Institute, and in 1834, he headed an expedition to the Upper Mississippi region, an account of which was published in 1834. He directed the negotiations which brought to the United States approximately 16,000,000 acres of land. He visited Europe in 1842, traveled through West Virginia, Ohio, and Canada in 1843, and in 1845 collected the material on the Six Nations that was published under the name of Notes on the Iroquois. His statistics and works on the Indian tribes were published in six volumes under authority from Congress at a cost of about $650,000. He married a Miss Howard, of South Carolina, in 1847 and died in 1864. James L. Schoolcraft, brother of Henry R., was born at Vernon, New York, and came to the Sault a few years after the advent of his brother to this region. He started a store here about 1825, married Anna Maria Johnston in 1836, and was killed at the Johnston homestead in 1846 by Lieutenant Tilden of Fort Brady. Mrs. Schoolcraft married Rev. O. Taylor, an Episcopalian minister, and died at Pontiac in 1856. John McDouall Johnston, son of John, was born at the Sault, October 12, 1816, received a scanty education in the garrison school, and attended the mission school at Mackinac island in 1827. In 1829, he was sent to a school in Lewis county, New York, and was in attendance there some twenty months. He returned to the Sault in 1831, became a United States interpreter for Schoolcraft in the following year, and in this capacity was present at some of the most important treaty negotiations in this part of the country. He married twenty-year-old Justine Piquette, of Sault Ste. Marie, September 20, 1842. She was a descendant of the Piquette and Defoe families whose arrival at the Sault antedated that of John Johnston. The children born to this union were as follows: Spencer N.; Emma M.; Charlotte J.; Eliza S.; James L.; McD.; Louis H.; Henry G.; William Meddaugh; and Arch W. Peter P. Barbeau was also one of the earliest settlers and fur traders of Sault Ste. Marie of whom we have any record, and his name was a familiar one to men throughout the Upper Peninsula.

Page  48 48 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Baraga County. The first white men to come to Baraga county were the missionaries sent out to the Indians. Father Menard was probably the first white man to make any improvements in the county, for he attempted to establish a mission here. The treatment accorded him by the Indians, however, forced him to abandon the attempt, and he met his death in trying to penetrate the forests of Wisconsin to reach another tribe more anxious to receive his ministrations. In 1834, John Sunday, a preacher of the Methodist Episcopal church came to Kewawenon, in this county, and Rev. John Clark, who visited Fort Brady in the same year, subsequently took charge of the mission established by Sunday. Clark is credited with having built the first log school building, the mission building, and many of the Indian houses bordering the bay. Although the Methodist mission maintained an unbroken existence and did much good, the name of the county is derived from that of Father Frederick Baraga, who established the Catholic mission on the west side of the bay in 1841. His energy and aggressiveness quickly established the mission on a firm foothold. He built a log church and twenty-four log buildings to house the Indian converts, and in time, the colony surrounding the mission grew to be a village of some 350 persons. In 1871, L'Anse was platted pending the speedy completion of the railroad, and from that time forward the village grew rapidly under the impetus of adequate communication and transportation and the development of the marble and slate quarrying that began a few years later. Delta County. Father James Marquette is credited with having made the first explorations within the present limits of Delta county in 1668, a short time after the founding of the mission at St. Ignace. He explored the two Bays de Noquet and discovered St. Martin's island. Louis A. Roberts, with his wife and family, was next to come to Delta county, and a short time after his arrival the old mill on the Flat Rock river was erected, although the names of the builders have long since vanished from the historic records of the county. This mill is also said to have been operating in 1838, at the time Roberts located in the county with his family. The mill and claim passed nto the hands of John and Joseph Smith in 1842, and was abandoned by them in 1844. In that same year, the two Smiths removed to a new location farther down the river and erected a new mill, the second in Delta county. Later in the same year, a small Mackinac fishing boat was beached at Escanaba, and Darius Clark and Silas Billings, the passengers and crew of the little vessel, entered the employ of the Smiths. Clark married. one of the daughters of Louis Roberts two years subsequent to this time. Roberts gained the friendship of the chief of the Chippewas in this region and by the Indian was guided to an admirable site for a water power mill on the White Fish. Roberts and Darius

Page  49 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 49 Clark took a claim on this river five miles from its mouth and there erected a mill to which Roberts moved his family in 1846. The enterprise was operated until the death of Clark. The Flat Rock mill was operated until 1846 by the founders and was sold in that year to Jefferson Sinclair and Daniel Wells, of Milwaukee, who continued its operation until 1851, in which year they disposed of their interests to the N. Ludington company, composed of N. Ludington, Harrison Ludington, and Jefferson Sinclair. The last named retired from the company in 1855. J. K. Stevenson, David Langley, Jefferson Bagley, and Silas Howard were among the first employees of this mill, the last two becoming pioneer farmers of the county, the first going to Marinette, Wisconsin, and the second settling at Escanaba. In 1845, George Richards, Silas Billings, and David Bliss built a mill one mile above the mouth of Ford river and continued its operation until it was destroyed by fire in June, 1856, about two years after it was acquired by Joseph Peacock and George Legan, of Chicago. After the fire, the proprietors erected a steam mill on the same spot and moved it in 1857 to the mill site of the Ford River Lumber company where it was in operation until the winter of 1866-67. A small steam mill was built in 1859 near the mouth of the White Fish river by Messrs. Fergerson & Williamson. It was purchased by Richard Mason in 1852, who had removed from Chicago with his family in that year. This was the first locality in the county to assume the appearance of a village, and the community took the name of Masonville after the mill owner who lived there until 1880. The settlement of the county gained no impetus until 1860. Menominee County. How Jean Nicollet came to Green Bay in the attempt to discover a route to the East, has already been told, and the journeys of many other explorers brought them to the same region, for Green Bay presented an admirable starting place for voyages of exploration among the rivers of the West. Menominee received its first white man in the person of Chappieu, an Indian trader, who came here as an agent for the American Fur company and established his trading post in 1796 or 1798. A French-Canadian himself, he gathered around him a large number of coureurs de bois and operated a highly successful post, for he was aggressive and fearless and found himself in a position to carry on a profitable trade with the hundreds of Indians who frequented the Menominee region. He built a strong fort, or post, and parts of it were still standing as late as 1860, it having been located on the Wisconsin side of the river. After being dispossessed of his property, he built a new trading post at what became known as Chappieu's Rapids about five miles up the river from Menominee. He lived with a squaw, but was not married to her, and she bore him several children. William Farnsworth and Charles Brush are said to have been the next permanent white settlers of the county. They came to

Page  50 50 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN the county in 1882, and entered upon the fur trade, harboring at the same time a desire to drive Chappieu out of the vicinity where he was then located. Trouble between Chappieu and two Indian chiefs gave them the opening for which they sought. Chappieu had the chiefs arrested and sent to Fort Howard at Green Bay, and Farnsworth quickly seized the opportunity to secure their release, the Indians having been led to believe that their offense was a serious one. The tribe placed Farnsworth in high favor as a result of what they considered a high favor, and Chappieu was forced to remove to a new post at the Rapids which now bears his name. Farnsworth came into possession of the Chappieu post, where he conducted his activities as agent of the American Fur company. Brush, associated with Farnsworth, was equally able in business matters and in gaining his own ends. In 1832, the pair erected a saw mill on the Menominee river, the first on that stream, and built on the Wisconsin side a short disstance above the point where the Chicago & Northwestern railroad subsequently crossed. A dam was constructed to one of the islands, and the mill had a capacity of about six thousand or eight thousand feet per day. A Samuel H. Farnsworth is said to have purchased either an interest in the water power at the rapids or in the mill at a date unknown. The mill is also said to have been sold at a sheriff's sale, the bidder, D. M. Whitney, of Green Bay, returning his bid to Samuel Farnsworth for eighteen barrels of white fish. In 1839, Dr. J. C. Hall came to this place, bought out Samuel H. Farnsworth, and also acquired an interest in the establishment of William Farnsworth and Charles Brush. Within two or three years, the dam went out and the mill was abandoned. Hall built another mill and dam in 1844. The original Farnsworth & Brush mill became the scene of fishing activities of the aggressive partners, for seeing the run of white fish up the river, they determined to make a good catch and find a market. They built a weir along the apron of the dam, and during the season when the fish were running, all the partners had to do was to dip out the fish that had been caught, salt them, and ship them. They are said to have shipped about 550 barrels of white fish per year. William Farnsworth was lost when the steamer Lady Elgin sank in a collision with another vessel between Waukegan and Chicago, Illinois. Brush eventually left the country leaving no trace of his whereabouts. Following Farnsworth and Brush in 1826, came John G. Kittson to act as clerk for the American Fur company under Chappieu. He spent the remainder of his life in the county and cleared two farms on the river, his death occurring in 1872. Joseph Duncan came to Menominee county in the same year as a packer for the American Fur company. He fought with the British in the War of 1812, and participated in the battle of Plattsburg.

Page  51 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 51 In 1832, Charles McLeod and Baptiste Premeau came to Menominee, and Joseph DeCoto, who came the same year, developed a good farm at White Rapids. When William Farnsworth came to Menominee county in 1822, his wife was Marinette, who had previously married John B. Jacobs at Mackinaw City and had had several children by him, the children being brought to this county by Farnsworth. The mother of Marinette was the daughter of Wabashish, a Menominee chief, and her father was Bartholomew Chevaliere, a white man. Joseph Bartholomew Chevaliere, brother of Marinette Chevaliere, is credited with having made the claim of being the first white man to settle in this county. Marinette Chevaliere Farnsworth survived her husband by three years, she having several children by her second husband. Her children by her first husband became well-known residents of this county, John B. Jacobs subsequently locating at Green Bay, Wisconsin, and Elizabeth marrying Charles McLeod, above named. Mrs. Farnsworth set out the first apple orchard on the Menominee river, and her home was the first frame house built on the Wisconsin side. In 1842 came the next permanent settler in the person of Andreas Eveland. He engaged in fishing and his house, built in 1853, was the first frame house erected within the present limits of the city of Menominee. Charles McLeod built the first frame house in the county the preceding year. In 1845 came John Quimby to take charge of the fisheries and boarding house for the Hall mill. Subsequently, he built a tavern in Menominee and operated it until it was destroyed by fire in 1859. In that year, he put up a small tavern to replace his former one, and added to it from time to time as he was financially able. He sold out in 1864, but the hostelry was continued under various names and managements for many years. Though Moses Hardwick settled here in 1826, he remained but a few years. Ontonagon County, like the other counties of the mining districts of Lake Superior, presents a decided problem in attempting to determine the first settlers, for the advent of the white men for settlement came almost at once with the discovery of ore deposits and the opening of the mines. James K. Paul came to the mouth of the Ontonagon river, May 2, 1843, and pre-empted land where the village of that name now stands. He was the first white man to settle in the county, and at the little log cabin which he erected in the year of his arrival, he kept a store, called Jim Paul's Deadfall. In 1844, the Government erected a building 16x20 feet on the east side of the river for the accommodation of Major Camp

Page  52 52 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN bell, the Government agent. The building was known as the Mineral Agency. In August, 1845, Daniel S. and Fanny Cash, William W. Spaulding, and E. C. Rahm came from Illinois to settle in the county, Mrs. Cash being the first white woman to make her home in this section of the Upper Peninsula. Their route to the new home was made by way of the Mississippi river from Galena, Illinois, to the St. Croix river, by which and by the Brule they traveled to Lake Superior, along which they coasted to the mouth of the Ontonagon river. Cash and Spaulding entered land on the west side of the river about half a mile from its mouth and erected a log building thereon at that time. On October 21, 1846, Edmond Lockwood, a nephew of Daniel S. Cash, landed from the schooner Algonquin and became associated with his uncle and Spaulding in trade. Early in 1847, they built a store and warehouse on the west side of the river near Cash's claim and thus established the first mercantile and shipping business in the county, unless one consider the limited scope of Jim Paul's operations. The first practical attention was given to the development of the copper mining in this county in 1845, in the Trap Rock range in township 50 north, range 39 west, the mine being known as the Ontonagon and later as the Minnesota. S. O. Knapp was one of the first superintendents, and others connected with its operation at that time were Capt. William Harris, Mr. Roberts, and Mr. Townsend. C. C. Cushman entered a claim in the same township for a Boston company in the same year, and Cyrus Mendenhall entered three sections on the west side of the Ontonagon river for the Isle Royale Mining company, it being known as the Mendenhall location. Others prominent in the early mining operations of the county were: F. G. White, John Cheynoweth, Webb, Richards, Lockwood, W. W. Spaulding, Buzzo, A. Coburn, Abner Sherman, A. C. Davis, S. S. Robinson, Hoyt, Hardee, Edward Sales, Anthony, Doctor Osborn, Sanderson, Martin Beaser, and Dickerson. The first frame house was built in the village by Captain John G. Parker in 1849, it being located on River street in the southeast corner of Block 3. The first white child born in the county was William P. Cash, son of Daniel S. and Fanny Cash, whose birth occurred December 4, 1848, and who subsequently became a physician and surgeon in Minnesota. The first mail was brought to the village by dog team in the winter of 1846-47, D. S. Cash becoming the first postmaster and holding that office six years. Lathrop Johnson purchased the old Mineral Agency in May, 1848, and converted it into a tavern which he named the Johnson House. Prior to that time, Jim Paul had entertained those travelers seeking lodging. For the other counties in the Upper Peninsula, it is virtually impossible to determine the first settlers, for their settlement

Page  53 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 53 and development hinged primarily upon the mines and lumbering, and in the wake of the large operators, came people to work for these concerns, so that almost over night, villages sprang up throughout the counties. Thus, what might be termed the names of the first settlers of such counties are, practically speaking, those of the men who explored and opened the mines and who established mills. Their names may more properly be found, then, in the chapter dealing with the industrial growth of the Upper Peninsula.

Page  54 CHAPTER IV COUNTY ORGANIZATIONS Alger County was set off from Schoolcraft county in 1885 when Munising, the county seat of Alger, was a small village of approximately 400 persons in the midst of heavy forests. The establishment of blast furnaces in the county about 1850, and the resultant influx of settlers to work those enterprises brought the ultimate erection of the county. The Detroit, Mackinac & Marquette railroad was completed to Munising in 1881, giving the last bit of impetus necessary to promote the erection of this governmental unit. Baraga County was formed from Houghton county, February 19, 1875, and the county seat was located at that time at L'Anse. The county takes its name from Rev. Frederick Baraga, who established the Mission of the Holy Name at Baraga in 1843. The first county election held soon after the date of organization resulted in the choice of these officers: Alexander Shields, sheriff; Oscar J. Foote, county clerk and register of deeds; Jeremiah T. Finnegan, prosecuting attorney and circuit court commissioner; James D. Reid, treasurer; Robert M. Stead, surveyor; and John Stewart, judge of probate. Houghton Coundty was organized March 19, 1845, and received its name from Dr. Douglass Houghton, the first state geologist whose reports and surveys placed such an important part in hastening the opening of the Upper Peninsula. At the time of its erection, the county included the present territory embraced by the counties of Baraga and Keweenaxv. The first election was not held until 1846, at Eagle Harbor, Eagle River, and Houghlton. the following men being elected to office: John Bacon, county judge; Edward Burr, probate judge; Charles A. Ammerman, clerk; Hiram joy, register of deeds; Joseph Raymond, sheriff; David French, treasurer; Samuel G. Hill, surveyor; and John Beedon and John Atwood, coroners. On March 16, 1847, the county was divided into townships with the following names: Copper Harbor, Eagle Harbor, Houghton, Portage, Algonquin, and L'Anse. The first meeting of the board of supervisors was held January 20, 1849, at the office of the Lake Superior Copper company, which building the supervisors agreed to rent the office at a cost of no more than a dollar per month for board meetings. The supervisors further ordered the expenditure of $100 for the fitting up of a jail near the office of the same company. Keweenaw County was set off from Houghton on March 11, 1861, the county seat was located at Eagle River, and the first election was held in the fall of the same year. Keweenaw county as yet remains relatively undeveloped, but as the natural resources

Page  55 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 55 of the county come in for their share of exploitation, it may take its place among the larger and influential counties of the Peninsula. Though Ontonagon County was laid off by an act of the legislature, March 9, 1843, its organization was not completed until September, 1852, at which time these men were elected the first county officers: Ira D. Bush, district judge; J. H. Edwards, probate judge; W. W. Spaulding, circuit court commissioner; H. H. Close, clerk and register of deeds; T. B. Hanna, treasurer; Peter Dean, sheriff; Charles Merryweather, surveyor. The first board of supervisors of the county was composed of James Van Alstine for Pewabic and Augustus Coburn for Ontonagon. The first school district was organized in the county in 1853, and the first school board was established in the county in 1856. The first school, however, was taught in 1851 by James Scoville. Luce County was erected from the western part of Chippewa county in 1887, and at the first election held on April 20, that year, these men were raised to office: A. G. Louks, sheriff; Ambro Bettes, clerk and register of deeds; Fred J. Stewart, treasurer; S. N. Dutcher, prosecuting attorney; William J. Aclen, surveyor; and S. J. Fraser and Sanford Helmer, coroners. The county seat was established at Newberry, which was first settled in 1881, when a clearing was made for the Vulcan furnace, and after the projection of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroad through that place, it assumed a position of relative importance in that section of the Upper Peninsula. It is the location of the Newberry State Hospital for the Insane, and the Superior Iron & Chemical company there is one of the leading industries of its kind in the state. Gogebic County was organized by an act of the legislature approved February 2, 1887, and Bessemer, despite the rivalry of other communities, was declared the county seat. A $75,000 brownstone courthouse was erected, and in 1889, Bessemer, under the spur of its position as the seat of justice of the county, assumed its status as a city. Iron Coun'ty was erected from parts of Menominee and Marquette counties in 1885, at which time Crystal Falls was named the seat of justice. Dickinson County came into being in 1891, when an act of the legislature approved October 2, that year, set it off largely from Menominee county with parts of Iron and Marquette counties included. That it was set off as a separate county was largely due to the fact that it was almost entirely an iron mining community whereas Menominee county, of which it had been a part, was almost completely interested in lumbering. The county was named in honor of Don M. Dickinson, of whom a biographical record is contained in this volume, and Iron Mountain was selected by the commissioners as the county seat. Menominee County came into existence under peculiar circumstances. Anson Bangs, an aggressive young man of the county,

Page  56 56 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN secured the erection of the county in 1861 as Bleeker county, named in honor of his wife's family. The dissatisfaction among the people of the county was such that it became impossible to effect an organization of the coupty government, the citizens refusing to honor the act under which they were granted county rights. Judge E. S. Ingalls became the leader of the fight to get the offensive act repealed, and in 1863, a new act was passed organizing Menominee county. On the first Monday of May, that year, the first election was held, resulting in the choice of these officers: John Quimby, sheriff; Salmon P. Saxton, clerk; S. W. Abbott, treasurer; E. S. Ingalls, prosecuting attorney, judge of probate, and circuit court commissioner. In the same year, Menominee and Cedarville townships were erected by the supervisors of the county. Chippewa County has been, as we have seen, under both the French and the English flag as well as that of the United States. When the Northwest Territory was laid off by the Ordinance of 1787 the territory now embraced was not considered a part of the Michigan country. By the organization of the Indiana Territory what are now Sault Ste. Marie and Chippewa county were included within the far flung limits of this new territory. In 1805, however, with the creation of the Michigan territory the present Chippewa county was included therein and was also a part of Wayne county which at that time was composed of the entire territory. The territory of Legislature, composed of the governor and three judges, soon made shift to divide the territory within their jurisdiction into counties. By this means an act of the Legislative Council of the territory of Michigan created and organized Chippewa county, the act being approved December 22, 1826, and reading as follows. "Section 1. Be it enacted by the Legislative Council of Michigan, That all the tract of country to which the Indian title has been extinguished, and comprehended within the following boundaries, namely, beginning at the north side of Lake Huron, at Isle St. Vital, running thence due north until it strikes a river which falls into the northwest part of Muddy lake, of the river Sainte Marie, thence up said river to its source, thence to the Meristic river of Lake Michigan, thence up said river, to the parallel of north latitude 460 31', thence due west to the Mississippi river, thence up said river to its source, thence north to the boundary line of the United States, and with line returning, through Lake Superior, to the mouth of the river Ste. Marie, and thence southwest to the place of beginning, is hereby erected into a separate county, to be called the county of Chippewa, and the same shall be organized from and after the taking effect of this act, and the inhabitants thereof entitled to all the privileges and rights to which, by law, the inhabitants of the other counties of this territory are entitled. "Section 2. That the seat of justice of said county shall be established at such point in the vicinity of Sault Ste. Marie as a

Page  57 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 57 majority of the county commissioners, to be appointed, shall designate. "Section 3. That the county court of said county Chippewa shall be held on the first Monday of August and the second Monday in January in each year. And that suits, prosecutions, and other matters, now pending in the circuit court of the United States, for the county of Michilimackinac, or before the county court of said county, or before any justice of the peace within the same, shall be prosecuted to final judgment and execution, and all taxes heretofore levied, and now due, shall be collected in the same manner as though the said county had not been organized. "Section 4. That this act shall take effect and be enforced from and after the first day of February, 1827." From the above act it may be seen that the county of Chippewa and its original limits embraced a territory equal in size to many of our states and larger than others. It is obvious, too, that governmental and judicial administration of such a vast territory, then scarcely more than a wilderness, punctured with a few tiny settlements, could be anything but effective, and it is not to be wondered at that the western portion of the county as originally defined should soon be detached and the remainder given once and for all as a sop to allay the bitterness engendered by the Toledo war. The Upper Peninsula was unwillingly accepted, for both the people of the state and Congress believed that it was practically worthless. Only those living in this part of the state realized the resources of the Upper Peninsula and the possibilities that lay in the development of those natural advantages. The exploitation of the vast quantities of timber and the tapping of the almost unlimited mineral resources was left for future years to determine the true worth of the land given to Michigan to pacify the people for the loss of Toledo and the Ohio strip. When Michigan was admitted to the Union in 1835, the county of Chippewa, which had heretofore comprised the entire Upper Peninsula, was divided into a new county of Chippewa and the county of Mackinac, the former of which then had a population of 366, mostly at the Sault, and the latter with a white population of 664, mostly at Mackinac. Thus, with the establishment of Mackinac county, began the gradual erection of other counties that has left Chippewa county in its present size, although it is now one of the largest, if not the largest, county in point of area in the Upper Peninsula. Mackinac County, or rather what is now included within the limits of Mackinac county, came under the nominal control of the United States Government after the signing of the peace treaty between the United States and Great Britain at the close of the Revolutionary war, and although the government for this Northwest Territory was provided for by the Ordinance of 1787, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan was not actively governed by the

Page  58 58 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN provisions of that famous instrument until 1798, when the British forts in this territory were surrendered to American garrisons. In 1800, the Indiana Territory was erected, and the original boundaries of that territory included the entire Upper Peninsula of Michigan. On June 30, 1805, an act was passed erecting and organizing the Michigan Territory, the western boundary thereof being described as a line drawn up the center of Lake Michigan to the northern boundary of the United States. By this act, nearly all of the Upper Peninsula and all of the present Mackinac county came into the territory of Michigan, and in due course, into the state of Michigan. Prior to the erection of the Michigan Territory, however, Wayne county, of the Indiana Territory had been created to include all of the present state of Michigan, approximately, and even after the territory was erected, it was a part of Wayne county. By a proclamation of Governor Lewis Cass issued October 26, 1818, Michilimackinac county was erected with these boundaries: Beginning at the White Rock on the shore of Lake Huron, thence with the line of Macomb county to the line between the United States and Upper Canada, thence with the boundary to the western boundary of the Michigan Territory; thence southerly along the western line so far that a line drawn due west from the dividing grounds between the rivers which flow into Lake Superior and those which flow south will strike the same; thence due east to these dividing grounds and with the same to a point due north from Sturgeon bay, thence south to the bay, and thence by the nearest line to the western boundary of the territory as established by Congress. It can be seen from the above mentioned boundaries that the original county of Michilimackinac included a vast amount of territory that comprised a goodly portion of the Lower Peninsula as well as most of the present Upper Peninsula. Obviously, such an unwieldy territory could not long remain as one county, and as county organization proceeded in the Lower Peninsula, Mackinac county shrunk rapidly in size. By a legislative act of March 9, 1843, redefined the boundaries of Mackinac county, naming them as follows: Beginning at a point in Lake Huron, south of line between ranges 2 and 3 east, thence north to the boundary of township 41 north, thence west to the line between ranges 1 and 2 east, thence to the north boundary of township 42 north, thence west to the meridian, north on the meridian line to the north boundary of township 43 north, thence west to the line between ranges 6 and 7 west, north to the north boundary of township 45, thence west on the north boundary of township 45 north, to the line between ranges 12 and 13 west, south on this line to Lake Michigan, and thence east along the lake shore to the place of beginning. Bois Blanc, St. Martin's, Round, Les Chenaux, St. Helena, and Michilimackinac were the islands attached to Michili

Page  59 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 59 mackinac county by this act. Thus the limits of the county have remained the same since the passage of this act, the only changes occurring within the county in the shape of township organizations. Among the first townships organized was St. Ignace, while Holmes township came into being on April 12, 1827, and Moran sometime later. Courthouse and Seat of Justice. When Michilimackinac county was organized, the seat of justice was located at the borough of Michilimackinac, then included in Holmes township, but as the population grew on the mainland, it became increasingly evident that such an arrangement was not one of expediency for the great bulk of the county's population. Came a time when the people of the county moved actively for a change in the county seat, and on April 3, 1882, an election was held, 479 votes being cast in favor of removal to St. Ignace and 128 against. Thus, the county seat came to St. Ignace where it has since remained. From the time of the organization of the county to the removal of the seat of justice to St. Ignace, two county buildings had been erected at the island, one being occupied temporarily until a more suitable structure could be secured for the housing of the county offices and the circuit court rooms. This latter building was an excellent structure for its purpose, considering the size of the county at the time it was built. When the removal was voted, it became necessary to procure a new courthouse, and to this end, a special election was held in June, 1882, to vote on the question of a loan of $17,000 for new county buildings at St. Ignace. At that time, the committee in charge received the following offers of location for the buildings: (1) Michael Marley submitted for consideration three bluff sites on claims 15 and 16, either to be 300 feet square, with streets 100 feet wide to be laid out on each side of the square except around the site on Portage street, where only three sides could have thoroughfares of such width due to the fact that Portage street was already located and of less width than the proposed avenues. (2) In addition to a 300-foot square in the heart of the village, an offer to which Brooks B. Hazelton added a thousand dollars, the Murrays offered any site on their bluff the committee might select. (3) Mrs. Amelia Crain offered two sites, the first containing from three to five acres on Crain's bluff, having an elevation of 200 feet and a fine view of the straits, and the second 100x200 feet on Lake avenue. (4) From three to five acres on claim 3 were offered by P. W. Hombach. (5) Matilda Wendell, through her agent, W. P. Preston, offered a site of two acres in extent on claim 11. (6) The Mackinac Lumber company, through B. B. Hazelton, proposed to give a location 200 feet east of the Reagon shops

Page  60 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN and to donate $1,000 if either the Crain, Murray, or the lumber company site were chosen by the committee. With such generous response from the people of the community, the matter of location of the new county buildings was easily settled, the committee accepting the offer of Michael Marley for the location at Prospect and Marley streets. No sooner had the location been made than negotiations were opened for the construction of the courthouse, sheriff's residence, and jail. Plans for an $18,000 courthouse were accepted by the board, and on August 16, 1882, the cornerstone of the courthouse was laid with ceremonies at which W. P. Preston, chairman of the county board, was presiding officer and Judge Charles R. Brown was the speaker of the day. Thus was the county seat established at St. Ignace, and the courthouse, sheriff's residence and jail, as they stand today, were completed with all dispatch after the laying of the cornerstone, being ready for occupancy within a comparatively short time afterward. Marquette County. As has been pointed out in the chapter on Territorial Michigan, Marquette county was first a part of Chippewa county, remaining so until 1843, when by an act approved March 9, that year, the legislature erected Marquette, Delta, Ontonagon, and Schoolcraft counties from territory that had been parts of Chippewa and Mackinac before that date. By this act, that territory bounded by the line between ranges 23 and 24 west, the north boundary of township 41, the line between ranges 37 and 38 west, and Lake Superior was erected into a county to be called Marquette, this county to be attached to Chippewa county for judicial purposes. By an act approved March 19, 1845, the boundaries of the county were limited on the north by the north line of township 49 instead of by Lake Superior as in the preceding act. On March 16, 1847, the governor approved an act of the legislature creating Marquette township to include all that territory embraced by the unorganized county of Marquette and attached to Chippewa county. A township election was ordered for that year, but no record of a town meeting before July 15, 1850, exists. On that date, however, these township officers were elected: A. R. Harlow, supervisor; R. J. Graveraet, clerk; A. R. Harlow and E. C. Rogers, school inspectors; R. J. Graveraet, treasurer; Joshua Hodgkins, director of the poor; Samuel Moody, Charles Johnson, and A. R. Harlow, road commissioners; Samuel Moody, N. E. Eddy, Czar Jones, justices of the peace; and A. N. Barney, A. H. Mitchell, and Charles Johnson, constables. The influx of settlers that came to this region about this time, brought an increase of population that warranted the organization of Marquette county, and by an act approved by the governor in April, 1851, the county was declared organized and the first election ordered to be held on the second Monday of June, that year,

Page  61 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 61 but the election was not held until November 4, when votes were cast for the state as well as for the county officers, the results in this county being in favor of these men: Robert McClellan, governor; Calvin Britain, lieutenant-governor; Philo M. Everett, judge of probate; James D. Watt, sheriff; Peter White, register of deeds; John S. Livermore, clerk; Charles Johnson, treasurer; and John Burt, surveyor. At the time the county was organized, all that part west of range 26 west was erected into a township under the name of Carp River and the first election was held at the house of B. F. Eaton. By the erection and organization of Iron county in 1885, and Dickinson county in 1891 from land previously included in this county, Marquette county was reduced to its present size. Public Buildings. Standing on a hill overlooking the blue waters of Lake Superior is the imposing edifice of the Marquette county courthouse. Somewhat a radical departure from the usual county building design, the courthouse is nevertheless eminently practical for its needs and is as beautiful as it is unconventional. The usual towers and cupolas are conspicuous by their absence in this structure, their place being taken by a low dome which surmounts a rotunda. It was constructed at an approximate cost of $250,000 and is built of red Marquette limestone, a fitting material for this county. Overlooking Iron bay is the Branch State prison, which is under the general direction of the State Board of Control and the direct superintendency of a warden. It was established in 1885, by the legislature, which appropriated at that time the amount of $150,000 and the first warden installed was 0. C. Thompson, who had been warden of the Jackson State prison before that time. The prison was first opened June 22, 1889, for the reception of prisoners, by which time $206,000 had been spent on the buildings.

Page  62 CHAPTER V EDUCATION As in all pioneer communities, the early schools of the Upper Peninsula were the log cabins so familiar to our grandfathers, yet in the iater settlements in the mining regions, the development of the communities was so rapid, that schools were established under general education laws almost at the first, and excellent facilities were provided for the children. The mission school at St. Ignace must be given the credit of laying the foundations of education among the first white children and the Indians of that region, and for many years it flourished, continuing on the Island even into the nineteenth century. The founder was Father Marquette, beloved of his Indian charges, and the succeeding priests at the mission continued the work he had so ably begun. During the years immediately following the closing of the Catholic mission at the straits and prior to its reopening, apparently no school was maintained, but the mission school remained the main educational institution until after the erection of Mackinac county and the establishment of public schools by the residents at the straits. Soon after the establishment of the county seat at St. Ignace andl the new life that came to the village thereby, the people providled for a public school, marking the beginning of the school system that has maintained an unbroken existence to the present time. Escanaba began its educational work with two teachers, but with the development of the city, the facilities were increased to keep pace with the ever-growing number of children. Today, the city boasts more than a half dozen ward school buildings and a high school bu-ildinrr of the most modern design and equipment. For miany year,,;,, the crowded conditions of the school forced the authorities to devote one entire building to the eighth grade pupils of the city, a move that presaged the establishment of the 6-3-3 plan of grade division that 'has now become widely accepted throughout the country as the most practical and efficient arrangement of the graded schools. The parochial school of St. Joseph's Catholic church is one of the largest institutions of its kind in the Upper Peninsula and has worked hand in hand with the school board of the public system. Sault Ste. Marie, like St. Ignace, found its first schools in connection with the missions that were established here, but practically nothing has been left to tell us of the first school kept in this county. School buildings were erected in 1829 in connection with the establishment of the Baptist mission at the Sault, and these were among the first schools to make their appearance

Page  63 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 63 here. From these beginnings have evolved the present fine school system of the city and county, and since 1878, Sault Ste. Marie has been surpassed by no city of her size in the matter of school buildings and curriculum. Baraga County. The first school district was organized in Baraga county in 1857 at L'Anse, although the Methodist and Catholic missions had done good work among the Indians and the first settlers to come to the county. The amount of $8,000 was voted by the county school authorities in 1882 for the erection of a new school building to supplant the frame buildings that had been used prior to that time, and from this time forward, the schools of L'Anse and Baraga county have made steady progress. Houghton County. The first school district organized in Houghton county was in Portage township and was established April 11, 1857. A small building was erected opposite the Catholic church to serve the purposes of the comparatively small number of children who then needed schooling. As the city grew under the rapid development of the mines, a Union school district was soon formed, for which a $35,000 building was erected, containing a library of some 800 volumes in addition to the schoolrooms. It has a splendid school building at the present time costing approximately $60,000. Houghton is the seat of the Michigan College of Mines, one of the leading institutions of its kind in the United States, for it is admirably equipped to give its students the best practical as well as theoretical training in mining due to its proximity to both copper and iron mines. It was established by an act of the legislature in 1885, and was opened to receive students, September 15, 1886. That such an institution was established at Houghton, is largely due to the efforts of Jay A. Hubbell, of Houghton, who realized that the mining interests of Michigan would be well served by the maintenance of such a school for the training of mining engineers in the fields where they might be most likely to seek their careers. Though the majority of the students are drawn from this state, many come from other states of the Union because of the enviable reputation the institution has acquired. Twenty-three students matriculated the first year, and the succeeding terms have witnessed the enrollment reach well into the hundreds. An $85,000 brownstone structure is the principal building on the campus, while other buildings, totaling nine in number, serve the various departments of the institution. The first school organized in Hancock was kept in a frame building on Franklin street from 1869 to 1875, but in the latter year a school was erected at a cost of approximately $30,000 just outside the western corporate limits of the village, the lower grades and high school being maintained there. In 1867, the people of Calumet, or Red Jacket, built a twostory, frame school, and in the same year a second school district was formed. In 1869, the schools were graded. In 1875, the

Page  64 64 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Calumet & Hecla Mining company built a new building, then one of the largest in the state, it being three stories in height and being 196x100 feet in size. Every possible need of a modern school of that day was anticipated by the builders, and Calumet could well boast of the exceptional educational facilities provided by the company. The supremacy thus gained has been maintained throughout the succeeding years, and the Calumet schools are among the best in the state. The first school was erected in 1867 in Lake Linden, the funds therefor being raised by taxation and personal subscription. Subsequently, an addition was made by the people and a second by the Calumet & Hecla company, the entire structure representing an expenditure of $20,000. It was destroyed by fire in November, 1881, and was rebuilt the same year at a cost of $15,000. Keweenaw County. In 1872, when the school census showed a population of only ninety-six children of school age, the people of Eagle Harbor erected a school, forming the nucleus of the village's school system. The first school established at Eagle River was also used by various church organizations as a place of worship. In 1878, the Central company erected a $7,500 schoolhouse, it being a three-story structure, 40x70 feet. The Lake Superior Copper company built the school at Phoenix, as is common in most communities which are devoted entirely to the mining industry such as this place. Menominee County. As far as can be determined, the first school kept in Menominee county was taught by Emily Burchard in 1857 in the house of Henry Nason at his shingle mill on the Bay Shore, and like most pioneer schools, it was maintained by subscription. It is said that a school was kept by a daughter of A. F. Lyon prior to this time, but nothing in confirmation of this report has ever been learned. The first schoolhouse erected in the county was built by A. F. Lyon, Henry Nason, W. Q. Boswell, Andreas Eveland, E. N. Davis, and others, at the junction of Ogden avenue and the railroad in Menominee village in 1857. It was made of hewn logs and was put up by volunteer labor. After the organization of the county and the division into townships, the schools came under the supervision of the various school districts. The first building used for school purposes in District No. 1, Menominee township, was a small structure owned by Samuel Abbott and used by him for the storing of fish nets. This was used only during the winter of 1863-64, and in the latter year, another and more suitable building was erected. This soon became too small for its purposes and was supplanted in 1868 by a frame building costing approximately $7,000. Ten school buildings now serve the needs of the community, and the Menominee County Agricultural college has done much to train boys for the vocation of farmers. Ontonagon County. The first school was started in the village of Ontonagon in 1851 by James Scoville, a graduate of the

Page  65 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 65 University of Michigan. He rented a room and charged tuition of $3.50 per pupil per term. When the Methodist church was completed in October, 1852, the people used it for school purposes during the week days inasmuch as the village had no school building of its own. William Fox, a graduate of the famous Oxford university, England, was employed as the first teacher and continued in that capacity for two years. By 1857, the number of pupils had grown so large that the church could no longer accommodate them, and James Burtenshaw was awarded the contract of building a union school at a cost of $4,000, which was completed and occupied in June, 1858, 0. E. Fuller, of Maine, acting as the first superintendent. During the winter of 1857-58, one public and two private schools were operating in the village. In 1877, an addition was made to the building costing $1,500. Such were the beginnings of the fine Ontonagon school system of today. Iron County. Mr. McDonald, the groceryman of Iron River, owned the first school building in that place, where Thomas Flannigan taught the first term in the winter of 1883-84. In 1893, the schools were incorporated by the legislature, and in 1905 they were reincorporated. The city today boasts several ward school buildings and a high school that cost $125,000. The schools of Stambaugh were also incorporated in 1905, and in addition to the fine central buildings include several smaller school buildings throughout the city. The first school in Crystal Falls was taught by Martha Parmenter in the summer of 1883, the building she used being located on the south side of Superior avenue between Third and Fourth streets. A high school building costing $65,000 and a graded school erected at a cost of $125,000 are today the boast of the city. Gogebic County. Miss Gertie Fitzsimmons started the first school in Ironwood in 1887, and she was succeeded in that work by Professor Carus and then by Prof. L. L. Wright, the latter of whom organized the high school and served for eighteen years as superintendent of the Ironwood schools. In 1908, a high school was erected at a cost of $35,000, while the present high school cost $120,000. Of the ten graded schools, the Central is the most imposing, having been erected at a contract price of approximately $200,000. The high school at Bessemer, costing $45,000, is indicative of the high character of the schools of that place. Dickinson County. The first school in this county was kept in a logging camp between the Vulcan mine and the mouth of the Sturgeon, Miss Reath serving as the teacher. In 1880, work on a school building was commenced in Iron Mountain, it being located on Brown street between Stephenson and Iron Mountain avenues. It was ready for occupancy January 1, 1881, at which time William N. Shepard took charge, the first term lasting eight months from that date. During the time the school was being built, the

Page  66 66 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN population of the city grew so rapidly that the children were forced to sit two and three in a seat. Other rooms were added before the opening of another term. The city now has two high schools, costing $150,000 and $75,000, a manual training school, a school for the deaf and dumb, five brick and two frame graded school buildings. Marquette County. Once the iron deposits in Marquette county had been uncovered, the settlers began flocking into the region. Almost overnight, Marquette, Negaunee, and Ishpeming, as well as the smaller communities, sprang into being, attaining within a short time the status of incorporated villages and then of cities. Thus it was that the villages and cities of the county jumped into a class where schools were concerned far beyond their ages in years. The laborious building up of a school system by starting with part time teachers, short terms, crude log buildings, and similar disadvantages were pleasingly free. By this time, too, the state had evolved a public school system for incorporated villages and cities that gave the communities of this county a basis on which to work. The newspaper files of the old publications give ample testimony to the progress made in educational lines in the county, and the splendid school buildings in the villages, the cities, and the counties today show that the pioneers were not slow in obtaining the best for their children. Marquette, with eight graded schools, a junior high school, Howard high school, and the new Graveraet high school building on Third street, is offering the most modern and up-to-date elementary courses for the children, the 6-3-3 plan being the prevailing one in this city in accordance with the latest ideas of public school work. Negaunee is possessed of fine graded schools and a fine high school that is one of the modern ones in the county, for it was completed in June, 1909, at a cost of $120,000. The courses offered provide the manual training education that is one of the more recent developments of public instruction in the high schools. Ishpeming is no less progressive than her sister cities, and the school buildings there leave nothing to be desired for the adequate instruction of the children of that community. Northern State Normal School was established by the legislature in 1899, and the first classes were opened on September 19, that year, in the Marquette city hall. By July, 1900, the normal school building had been completed, and in that month the classes were removed to that place. A science building was completed in June, 1902, and a library was started in May, 1904, and completed in September of the same year. The Longyear School of Pedagogy, which was built in June, 1900, burned in December, 1905, and rebuilt and completed in the spring of 1907, is a threestory building. Additions and improvements have been made from time to time, and the library containing close to 20,000 books is an excellent one, indeed. In May, 1902, an arrangement was made with the University of Michigan whereby graduates of the

Page  67 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 67 Northern State Normal school could be admitted to the university with a total advance credit of fifty-six hours. An excellent art collection is also maintained at the school. The Peter White Public library was named in honor of the man who donated so liberally to its support and who was the prime mover in securing the institution for the city. In 1872, he gave the city $4,000 with which to found a library. On August 12, 1879, he donated the old city hall building, located on Spring street in back of the First National bank, to the trustees to be used for a library building. He gave it to the common council with the privilege of using the lower floor as a city hall provided that the council permit the library to occupy the upper floor. In 1886, he fitted up a library room in the First National Bank building at a cost of $1,800 with the stipulation that the city pay the librarian and Peter White to pay the other library expenses. On January 12, 1892, he donated the Thurber building and lots No. 134 and No. 136 on Washington street to the city for the library, which had shortly before been made a department of the city. The value of the gift was then estimated to be in the neighborhood of $20,000. With this start and supported by the city, the Peter White library as it was now known, was eventually able to build its own building, the present one, at the corner of Ridge and Front streets. The library, in point of view of size and usefulness is much in advance of other libraries of cities of the size of Marquette, and the people have shown their appreciation of this fact by making the most of the opportunities for study and amusement afforded by the institution.

Page  68 CHAPTER VI BENCH AND BAR During the French regime, no regular courts were established in the territory of the Great Lakes, the commandants of the various military posts being the sole administrators of justice as they saw fit, and seldom were cases ever taken up to the courts at Montreal and Quebec on appeal from the decisions of these civil and military officials. The English, on the other hand, did make an attempt to bring what was later known as the Northwest Territory under judicial supervision, but no court, as such, sat at Michilimackinac, the jurisdiction of this territory being vested in a district co~urt sitting at Detroit. To all effects and purposes, then, little if any legal considerations beyond those enforced by the military commanders of the fort restricted the individual sense of right and wrong in this section of the state until after the American occupation and the formation of the Michigan territory. When Michigan was set off as a territory, four district courts were established, one being that of the District of Michilimackinac. The territory embraced by this district was indeed vast, and it is thus safe to suppose that the ends of justice were but indifferently served in a region so broad and so loosely knit as that of Michilimackinac. Despite the fact that the courts were established, no record of appointments in any of the districts remain, except that there is on record the return of a commission of Samuel Abbott on July 16, 1807, as associate justice of the district court of Michilimackinac. The abolition of these district courts in 1810, left no intermediate court between those of justice of the peace and the supreme court until 1815. Thereafter, the region of the straits was nominally, and occasionally in effect, under the care of a supreme court justice who had charge of a ci-rcuit. In 1850, when the new constitution was adopted, a circuit court of the entire Upper Peninsula was created, and Daniel Goodwin, of Detroit, was appointed judge. He remained judge of the court until it was abolished in 1863, at that time- becoming judge of the Eleventh judicial circuit, an office that he held until August 17, 1881. Joseph H. Steere then became judge of the Eleventh circuit until 1892., when a revision of the circuits placed Chippewa county, of which he was a resident, in another circuit. In 1891, the Eleventh circuit was reduced to include Mackinac, Cheboygan, Emmet, and Manitou counties, the Maniton islands subsequently being attached to the Thirteenth circuit. On May 10, 1892, Charles J. Pailthorp, of Petoskey, was elected judge of the circuit thus formed which was named the Thirty-third Judicial circuit. At the next regular election, Oscar Adams, of

Page  69 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 69 Cheboygan, was elected judge of the circuit, serving from January 1, 1894, to December 31, 1899, inclusive. On January 1, 1900, Frank Shepard, of Cheboygan, began a period of service on the bench of the Thirty-third circuit that has continued without interruption to the present time. Daniel Goodwin, first judge of the Upper Peninsula, was born at Geneva, New York, November 24, 1799, the seventh in descent from Oxias Goodwin, who settled at Hartford, Connecticut, in 1635. His mother, Lucretia Collins, was the granddaughter of Timothy Collins, the first pastor of Litchfield, Connecticut. Graduating in 1819 from Union college where he was a classmate of William H. Seward and Bishops Doane and Potter, Daniel Goodwin studied law in the offices of John H. Spencer, of Canandaigua, New York, and after a time spent in practice at Geneva, he came to Indiana for his health, there taking tuberculosis that cost him the use of one lung thereafter. Upon the death of his father at Detroit in 1825, Daniel Goodwin came to the Michigan city and there entered practice, acquiring a high name as a lawyer and being endorsed by the bar association for United States District judge when Michigan was admitted to the Union. He declined the office because of the small salary but accepted the appointment as district attorney and held it for several years. He was a delegate from Wayne county to the Second Convention of Assent in 1836 and became supreme court justice in 1843-46, resigning in the latter year. He was a Wayne county delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1850 and was elected president of that conclave. In 1851, he was made judge of the Upper Peninsula circuit in 1851, held it until the court was abolished in 1863, and was elected judge of the Eleventh circuit, where he remained until August 17, 1881. He maintained his home in Detroit during all the time he sat as a judge in the Upper Peninsula, and during the vacations of court, he practiced law in Detroit. He officiated in other circuits at times, including the Recorder's court at Detroit. On two occasions he lacked but one or two votes of becoming United States senator, and in two elections, he was the only Democratic officer in Michigan. It is said of him that he was a model judge of spotless life, and that when he died at Detroit on August 25, 1887, the Michigan Bar experienced a distinct loss. Joseph H. Steere, who succeeded Goodwin as judge of the Eleventh circuit, was born in Addison, Lenawee county, Michigan, May 19, 1852. He was educated in the Raisin Valley Seminary, the Adrian high school, and the University of Michigan, from the last of which he won the degree of bachelor of arts and by which he was granted the honorary degree of doctor of laws in 1892. After graduating from the university, he studied law for two years in the offices of Geddes & Miller at Adrian, but after his admission to the bar, he taught school for some time before he entered upon the active practice of his profession. Coming to the Upper Peninsula to settle at Sault Ste. Marie, he was

Page  70 70 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN elected judge of the Eleventh Judicial circuit in 1881. To this office he was successively re-elected but resigned August 30, 1911, to accept the appointment of supreme court justice to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Frank A. Hooker. At the succeeding election, Judge Steere was returned to the supreme bench and has continued to hold that office. Charles J. Pailthorp, elected first judge of the newly organized Thirty-third circuit, was born December 25, 1848, at Mt. Morris, Michigan. Receiving a common and high school education in the schools of his native community, he entered the University of Michigan, graduating from the law college of that institution in 1875, with the degree of bachelor of laws. He then removed to Petoskey and commenced the practice of law, and was there elected prosecuting attorney and subsequently appointed United States Commissioner for the Western District of Michigan. On May 10, 1892, he was elected judge of the Thirty-third circuit, serving as such until December 31, 1893. Oscar Adams, second judge of this circuit, was born at Harpersville, Delaware county, New York, April 16, 1827. He began the study of law at Buffalo and graduated from the Ballston Spa Law school when he was twenty years of age and was admitted to the bar in 1850. He entered upon the practice of his profession in Erie county, New York, but after a short time so spent, he went to Wisconsin, where he remained two years. In 1855, he came to Flint, Michigan, and was elected circuit court commissioner of Genesee county in 1860. In the Civil war, he was an army paymaster, and after his return to Flint, he was elected treasurer and then president of the Flint School Board. In 1871-72, he was representative in the legislature from Genesee county, and subsequently, he removed to Cheboygan, whence he was elected circuit judge, serving from January 1, 1894, to December 31, 1899. Frank Shepard, the third judge of the circuit and the one who is still wearing the ermine of the Thirty-third circuit, was born in Dover township, Lenawee county, Michigan, January 28, 1853, and attended there the public schools of Adrian. After taking courses at the State Normal school at Ypsilanti and at Oberlin college, Ohio, he taught school for a period of five years, clerked for a short time in a store, and then studied law in the offices of Stay & Underwood, of Adrian. Being admitted to the bar in 1879, he began at that time at Cheboygan. Here, he was elected prosecuting attorney for the years 1880-82, was appointed probate judge in 1886, and was returned to that office in 1888. In 1890-91, he was a member of the board of control of the Upper Peninsula prison, and was representative from the Cheboygan district to the State Legislature for the terms of 1897-98 and 1899-1900. Being elected judge of the Thirty-third Judicial circuit, he took office as such on January 1, 1900, and has since discharged the duties of that office. Twenty-fifth Circuit. When the legislature in 1863 revised the judicial system of the state, what had been the Mackinac dis

Page  71 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 71 trict became the Eleventh circuit and remained under Judge Daniel Goodwin, but in 1865 the legislature redivided the circuits so that the Twelfth was established to include the counties of Houghton, Ontonagon, Marquette, and Keweenaw, the limits of which were then much more extensive than they now are, for Iron, Dickinson, and Baraga counties were also within the circuit but were then unorganized. On the first Monday in April, 1865, an election was held at which Clarence E. Eddie was chosen judge of the Twelfth circuit, beginning his term on May 28, 1865, which was to have ended January 1, 1870. Eddie was a comparatively young man who had been engaged in the practive of law at Houghton but a few years in partnership with J. A. Hubbell, who represented what was then the Ninth district in Congress. Eddie died in office early in 1869. In April, 1869, James O'Grady was elected to fill out the unexpired term of Eddie and to continue on the bench until January 1, 1876. On the latter date, he was succeeded on the bench by Judge William D. Williams, of Marquette. Judge O'Grady, before coming to the Upper Peninsula, had been a resident of New York, from which he went to serve with the Famous Irish Brigade of that state in the Civil war. A Democrat in politics, he became a victim of the bigotry of Edwin M. Stanton, secretary of war, who feared the loyalty of the Democratic officers and brought about the resignation of many of them, including O'Grady. After leaving the army, James O'Grady came to Marquette in 1863, but in 1866 went to Houghton and formed the law firm of Hubbell & O'Grady. He had been born in Vermont and his death occurred at Houghton in 1879. Judge William D. Williams ascended the bench of the Twelfth circuit on January 1, 1876. He was a Marquette man and had practiced here for some time prior to his election to the bench to succeed Judge O'Grady. In 1881, the legislature created the Twenty-fifth circuit to include the counties of Marquette, Delta, Menominee, and eventually Dickinson counties. Judge Williams, a Marquette man, was retained as judge of the Twelfth circuit although his residence was no longer within the bounds of that circuit, and a Houghton man, Claudius B. Grant, ascended the bench of the Twenty-fifth circuit. Thus, the judges of the two adjoining circuits were sitting in circuits in which they did not live. Judge Grant took the oath of office as judge of the Twentyfifth circuit in 1882 and served until December 31, 1887, when he took the oath of office as supreme court justice of the State of Michigan. He was noted as a vigorous trial lawyer and as a member of the firm of Chandler & Gray, his partner being Joseph H. Chandler, he was one of the leading lawyers practicing before the bars of Houghton and Marquette counties, and it is said of him that he spared no pains to present his cases lucidly and with forcefulness. As a judge, his decisions were characterized by his exacting rendering of fact and detail, and in court he insisted on the observance of etiquette with exactitude and maintenance of

Page  72 72 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN the dignity of the court. In the supreme court, he served continuously from January 1, 1888, to December 31, 1910. Next to be elevated to the bench of the Twenty-fifth circuit was John W. Stone, of Marquette, who began his service in that capacity on January 1, 1888, and finally retired from the judgeship on December 31, 1910, to become a supreme court justice, although he was then more than seventy years of age. He was born in Allegan, Michigan, and at an early age was elected county clerk, later prosecuting attorney, and then circuit judge. From 1880 to 1884 he served as United States District Attorney for the Western District of Michigan, and he also served two terms in Congress for the district in which Allegan was located. When Judge Stone was elected to the supreme bench, his place on the bench of the Twenty-fifth circuit was filled by Richard C. Flannigan, who took office January 1, 1911, and is still discharging the duties of that position. He was born in Ontonagon county in 1857, and entered the practice of law at Norway. When it came time to nominate candidates for election to succeed Stone, he was the unanimous choice of both parties, a fact which alone presents ample testimony to his integrity and ability as a lawyer and jurist. The wisdom of his selection and of his election to the bench by the people has been consistently demonstrated by his work as judge of the Twenty-fifth circuit, for he has been successively returned to the position in which he has made a name for himself of being one of the ablest justices who ever presided in an Upper Peninsula court. Eleventh Circuit. The history of this circuit has been almost entirely given above. Following the retirement of Judge Joseph H. Steere from the bench of this circuit to become a supreme court justice, Louis H. Fead, of Newberry, has presided over the Eleventh circuit, which, since 1891, has included the counties of Chippewa, Luce, Alger, and Schoolcraft. Thirty-second Circuit, comprising Gogebic and Ontonagon counties, was also established in 1891, with Norman W. Haire becoming the first judge. He served brilliantly for many years and was succeeded by Samuel S. Cooper. On January 1, 1918, George W. Driscoll, of Ironwood, took the oath of office as judge of the circuit and has since retained that position. Twelfth Circuit. The early history of this circuit is the same as that of the Twenty-fifth circuit given above. Following the creation of the Twenty-fifth circuit, the Twelfth was reduced to its present size, including Keweenaw, Houghton, and Baraga counties. Albert T. Streeter, of Houghton, was one of the well known judges of the circuit and of the Upper Peninsula. He retired from office December 31, 1917, and was succeeded at that time by Patrick H. O'Brien, of the same city. Judge O'Brien served one term, and since January 1, 1924, the circuit has been in charge of Judge John G. Stone, son of the aforementioned Judge John W. Stone, of Marquette. Biographical records of father and son may be found elsewhere in this volume.

Page  73 CHAPTER VII BANKS AND BANKING The Upper Peninsula of Michigan happily escaped the period of wild cat banking that wrought such havoc among the pioneer communities of the southern sections of the state during the late forties, and due to the later settlement of this part of the state, the banking history is one of substantial and well operated financial institutions that have ever been an aid to the communities rather than a detriment. The First National bank at Munising has served the people of Alger county for many years and is regarded as one of the leading banking houses of that section of the state. Capitalized for $100,000, it has the following officers at the present time: William G. Mather, president; H. R. Harris, vice-president; and 0. E. Brown, cashier. The Peoples State bank of the same city was incorporated May 7, 1910, for $25,000 and has the following officers: Fred S. Case, president; H. H. McMillan, vice-president; and Vernon A. Floria, vice-president and cashier. The only bank in Baraga county is the Baraga County National bank, capitalized for $50,000 and headed by these officers: Thomas D. Tracy, president; J. W. Black, vice-president; and E. S. LeDuc, cashier. The First National bank at Escanaba is capitalized for $100,000 and has these officers: M. K. Bissell, president; C. M. Thatcher, vice-president; and Leslie French, cashier. The Escanaba National bank is also capitalized for $100,000 and has these officers: M. N. Smith, president; J. K. Stack, Jr., vicepresident; and J. E. Morgan, cashier. The State Savings bank, of Escanaba, was incorporated November 2, 1902, with a capital of $100,000 and is headed by these officials: W. R. Smith, president; 0. N. Hughitt and C. W. Malloch, vice-presidents; and William Warmington, cashier. The Bark River State bank was incorporated August 13, 1910, for $20,000 and has these officers: J. B. Frechette, president; M. B. Harýis, vic~e-p~resident; and E. J. Bergman, cashier. The Gladstone State Savings bank was incorporated May 16, 1917, and in spite of the difficult period attending its inception, it has become a strong factor in the development of that section of Delta county. It is capitalized for $40,000 and has the following officers: William H. Aitken, president; Robert Crockery, vice-president; and Fred Leonard, cashier. The First National bank, of Gladstone, is capitalized for $50,000 and is also a substantial banking enterprise of the county. Elof Hanson is vice-president and E. J. Noreus is cashier. The four banks at Iron Mountain, Dickinson county, are all c.qpitalized for $100,000. The officers of the First National bank

Page  74 74 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN are E. F. Brown, president; W. J. Cudlip, vice-president; and F. J. Oliver, cashier. The officers of the United States National bank are C. Meilleur, president; Charles Parent and C. H. Milliman, vice-presidents; and R. J. Bath, cashier. The American Security bank was incorporated October 23, 1920, and has these officers: I. W. Byers, president; G. Harold Earle and W. J. Harding, vicepresidents; and R. C. Hanchette, cashier. The Commercial Bank of Iron Mountain was started February 1, 1892, and has the following officers: 0. C. Davidson, president; William Kelly and E. G. Kingsford, vice-presidents; and Wilbur W. Thompson, cashier. The First National bank, at Norway, is capitalized for $75,000 and has these men as officers: A. E. Asp, president; William Bond, vice-president; and D. A. Stewart, cashier. Five national and one state bank are established in Gogebic county, three of the national banks being located at Ironwood and each of them capitalized for $100,000. The Gogebic National bank has these officers: D. E. Sutherland, president; R. A. Douglas, vice-president; and R. M. Skinner, cashier. The officers of the Iron National bank are B. A. Morgan, president; John W. Black and G. N. Olson, vice-presidents; and F. R. Burrell, cashier. The following men are officers of the Merchants & Miners National bank: F. H. Kearney, president; R. P. Zinn and A. D. Chisholm, vice-presidents; and F. J. Jeppeson, cashier. The First National bank, of Bessemer, is capitalized for $100,000 and has the following officers: Walter F. Treuttner, president; William S. Baird, vice-president; and Samuel J. Williams, cashier. The Peoples State bank in the same city is capitalized for $50,000 and has these officers: Jacob Goldman, president; J. Stanley Rummage, vice-president; and M. A. Hagerman, cashier. Wakefield is served by the First National bank, which has a capital stock of $50,000 and is headed by these officers: Anton Ringsmuth, president; William S. Peters, vice-president; and Victor Lepisto, cashier. In Houghton county, eight national banks, four state banks, and one trust company serve the financial interests of the county. In Hancock are the First National and Superior National banks, each capitalized at $100,000, and the Superior Trust company with a capital of $150,000. The first of these has the following officers: W. R. Thompson, president; George H. Nichols, vice-president; and M. M. Shea, cashier. The second is headed by Charles L. Lawton, president; Joseph Ruppe and Gordon R. Campbell, vicepresidents; and J. C. Jeffery, cashier. The trust company was started June 30, 1902, and has the same officers as the Superior National bank. Two national banks are established at Houghton. The Citizens' National bank is capitalized for $100,000 and has the following officers: James R. Dee, president; A. M. Schulte and A. F. Heidkamp, vice-presidents; and John C. Condon, cashier. The Houghton National bank has a capital of $200,000 and is headed by these men: J. H. Rice, president; W. D. Calverley and A. N. Baudlin, vice-presidents; and C. H. Frimodig, cashier. The two banks at Calumet are both capitalized for $200,000. The First

Page  75 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 75 National bank has these officers: John D. Cuddihy, president; Edward Ulseth, vice-president; and Edward F. Cuddihy, cashier; and the Merchants' & Miners' bank, established August 7, 1873, has these officers: Gordon R. Campbell, president; Thomas Hoatson, vice-president; and Frank R. Kohlhaas, cashier. The State Savings Bank of Laurium was incorporated October 9, 1897, has a capital stock of $100,000, and is now directed by these officers: William H. Thielman, president; James T. Fisher, vice-president; and Edward P. Bast, cashier. The First National bank, of Laurium, is also capitalized for $100,000 and has the following officers: William J. Reynolds, president; Frank H. Haller and -Peter J. McClelland, vice-presidents; and J. B. Paton, cashier. The First National bank at Hubbell has a capital of $50,000, and is headed by these men: D. K. Macdonald, president; A. L. Burgan, vicepresident; and R. E. Odgers, cashier. The Chassell State bank was incorporated June 27, 1912, for $20,000, and has the following officers: Charles H. Worcester, president; Edward A. Hamar, vicepresident; Marcell A. Nadeau, cashier. The First National bank, of Lake Linden, has a capital of $100,000, and is headed by these officers: Joseph Bosch, president; J. H. Wilson, vice-president; and Archie J. Mackerroll, cashier. The South Range State bank, in the village of that name, was incorporated June 27, 1903, for $30,000, and has the following officers: A. D. Edwards, president; W. H. Schacht, vice-president; and G. C. Edwards, cashier. Like the other counties of the Upper Peninsula, Iron county has a preponderance of national banks. The Crystal Falls National bank, with a capital of $50,000, has these officers: W. J. Reynolds, president; John W. Black, vice-president; and Walter Granberg, cashier. The Iron County National bank, of Crystal Falls, has these officers: James F. Corcoran, president; Benjamin C. Neely, vice-president; and G. A. Brotherton, cashier. The First National bank, of Iron River, is capitalized for $100,000, and is headed by Nelson E. Fisher, president; Charles E. Lawrence, vice-president; and Henry J. Veeser, cashier. The Miner's State bank, of the same city, was incorporated April 23, 1912, and has the following officers: D. H. Campbell, president; Herman Holmes, vice-president; and G. L. Hauck, cashier. The First National bank at Alpha is capitalized for $25,000, and has these officers: Henry J. Veeser, president; Fred E. Olin, vice-president; and William H. Veeser, cashier. The Caspian National bank, in the village of that name, has a capital of $25,000 and is headed by Charles E. Lawrence, president; Henry J. Veeser, vice-president; and Carl G. Nelson, cashier. The Commercial Bank of Stambaugh was incorporated August 14, 1913, for $30,000, and has these officers: H. A. Chamberlain, president; Charles E. Weaver, vice-president; and Joseph Martin, cashier. The Keweenaw Savings bank, at Mohawk, is the only bank in Keweenaw county. It was incorporated January 31, 1907, for $25,000, and has the following officers in charge at the present

Page  76 76 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN time: J. P. Peterman, president; W. T. King, vice-president; and A. C. Messner, cashier. Luce county also has but one bank, the Newberry State bank in the village of that name. It was incorporated May 14, 1908, has a capital stock of $50,000, and is headed by Frank P. Bohn, president; L. H. Mead, W. G. Fretz, and E. M. Chamberlain, vicepresidents; and A. A. Mattson, cashier. The First National bank at St. Ignace is the only bank in Mackinac county. It has a capital of $50,000, and has the following officers: Peter W. Murray, president; and E. H. Hotchkiss, vice-president and cashier. Menominee county has seven banks. The First National bank at Menominee has a capital of $200,000 and is headed by G. A. Blesch, president; Edward Daniell, vice-president; and Clinton W. Gram, cashier. The Lumberman's National bank, with a capital stock of $100,000, has these officers: M. B. Lloyd, president; E. P. Smith, vice-president; and Henry Marin, cashier. The third bank in Menominee is the Commercial bank, incorporated May 27, 1905, for $100,000. It has the following officers: Frank St. Peter, president; and Howard E. Nadeau, vice-president and cashier. The First State Bank of Powers was incorporated September 30, 1910, with a capital of $20,000, and has these officers: Louis Nadeau, president; Nicholas Peterson, vice-president; and Ernest T. Wilfong, cashier. The Daggett State bank has a capital of $20,000, was incorporated May 27, 1912, and has the following officers: Andrew E. Weng, president; D. R. Landsborough, vicepresident; and C. O. Larsen, cashier. The First National bank at Hermansville is capitalized for $25,000 and has the following men in charge: I. W. Rowell, president; Stewart E. Earle, vicepresident; and Chris. H. Gribble, cashier. The Bank of Stephenson, in the village of that name, was established November 8, 1902, has a capital stock of $50,000, and is headed by Edward Sawbridge, president; W. B. Winter, vice-president; and Glen E. Sanford, cashier. The Citizens' State bank, of Ontonagon, was incorporated October 16, 1910, with a capital of $40,000. The present officers are Edward Carroll, president; Fred Johnson and Thomas H. Wilcox, vice-presidents; and Allan L. Boyden, cashier. The First National bank, of the same city, has capital of $50,000 and the following officers: Andrew Halter, president; C. F. Eichen, vice-president; and B. F. Barze, cashier. The State Bank of Ewen has a capital of $25,000 and is headed by these officers: E. J. Humphrey, president; Edward Erickson, vice-president; and Andrew M. Anderson, cashier. The Trout Creek State bank was incorporated May 25, 1920, with a paid-up capital of $25,000. The officers are J. S. Weidman, Jr., president; R. M. Weidman, vice-president; and P. W. Saxton, cashier. The First National bank, of Rockland, has a capital of $25,000 and is in charge of these officers: G. W. Stannard, president; Henry Gagnon, vice-president; and C. A. Meuller, cashier. The Miners' & Merchants' State bank at Greenland was

Page  77 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 77 incorporated July 17, 1912, for $20,000 and is now in charge of these officers: B. F. Barze, president; W. B. Hanna, vice-president; and Clarence Dubuque, cashier. Three banks, all located at Manistique, serve Schoolcraft county. The Manistique bank was incorporated April 22, 1889, with a capital of $50,000, and has these officers: Oren G. Quick, president; and Paul R. Baldwin, vice-president and cashier. The State Savings Bank of Manistique was incorporated May 7, 1917, with a capital stock of $25,000, and has the following officers: William J. Shinar, president; G. S. Johnson, vice-president; and H. K. Bundy, cashier. The First National bank has a capitalization of $100,000, and is headed by V. I. Hixson, president; and William S. Crowe, vice-president and cashier. In Chippewa county, unlike the other counties of the Upper Peninsula, the state banks are far in the majority, the only nationally incorporated institution being the First National bank at Sault Ste. Marie. It was established in 1886, and has a capital of $100,000, the present officers being R. G. Ferguson, president; E. H. Mead, vice-president; and Fred S. Case, vice-president and cashier. The Sault Savings bank was established in 1887, also has a capital of $100,000, and is headed by these officers: M. J. Magee, president; Henry Hecker, vice-president; and H. E. Fletcher, cashier. The Central Savings bank at the same place was established in 1902, has a capital of $100,000, and is headed by J. L. Lipsett, president; M. N. Hunt, vice-president; and A. W. Clarke, vicepresident and cashier. The Brimley State bank was started in 1912, had a capital of $20,000, and went into liquidation in 1926, at which time the officers were A. W. Reinhard, president; and A. F. Leach, vice-president and cashier. The Dafter Savings bank was started in 1919, has a capital of $10,000, and is headed by N. L. Field, president; A. L. Hillier, vice-president; and W. F. Roe, cashier. The Bank of Pickford, a private concern, came into being in 1906, has a capital of $25,000, and has these officers at the present time: F. H. Taylor, president; W. H. Best and H. P. Hossack, vice-presidents; and D. Beacon, cashier. Marquette County. The banking history of Marquette county has been one of singular solidity in the financial institutions, both corporate and private, that have served the people. Few indeed have been the failures recorded in this county, and these were private banks. Probably the famous Peter White was one of the first, if not the very first banker to operate in this county, for when he was casting about for business opportunities and was engaged in running a store here, he also conducted a small private banking business in conjunction with his other interests. Considering the early activities of Peter White in the banking business, it is not to be wondered at, then, that he was the prime mover in the organization of the first chartered bank in this county. He and H. R. Mather set about the organization of a national bank, and on January 24, 1864, the First National bank

Page  78 78 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN was chartered with a capital stock of $100,000. During the years that followed, Peter White was connected with the bank, and he it was who placed the company on such a firm footing in the county. His hand was evident in the formulation of those policies that existed during the many years he was actively associated with the bank's affairs. In 1890, the capitalization of the bank was increased to $150,000, a figure at which it has remained since that time. The scope of the bank's activities was enlarged in 1925 to include the functions of a trust company, the name being changed in that year to the First National Bank & Trust company. At the present time, the bank is erecting a new building at the corner of Front and Washington streets, two blocks above its present location where it has been established for years. The present officers of the institution are Louis G. Kaufman, president; Edward S. Bice, vice-president; C. L. Brainerd, cashier; and W. O. Johnason and 0. M. Olson, assistant cashiers. The next chartered bank to be established in Marquette and the second state bank to be founded in this county was the Marquette County Savings bank, which was organized July 28, 1890, and opened for business on the fifth day of the following month, the first banking offices of the company being established in the Manhard block. The first president was a Mr. Call and the first cashier was Charles C. Ames, who had been connected with the savings department of the Union bank, of Jackson, Michigan, for many years. The original capitalization of the institution was $50,000, but the need for such an institution in Marquette county brought it so much business that within a comparatively short time the present capitalization of $100,000 was adopted. The present bank building is located at the corner of Front and Washington streets, it having been built shortly after the opening of the bank. The present officers of the institution are: H. L. Kaufman, president; E. J. Hudson, vice-president; G. A. Carlson, cashier; and Oswald E. Barber, assistant cashier. The third and last bank to be established in the city of Marquette was the Marquette National bank, which got off to an auspicious start late in the year 1901, probably in November. The authorized capitalization of the bank at its inception was $100,000, but so eager were the people to be served by another bank that the stock was oversubscribed almost to a total of $200,000. The original incorporators were F. H. Begole, J. M. Longyear, D. W. Powell, Charles Schaffer, J. G. Reynolds, F. J. Jennison, E. T. Towar, Charles Hebard, Frederick W. Read, William G. Mather, Walter Fitch, of whom Edgar H. Towar was the first president, Frederick W. Read was vice-president, and Frank J. Jennison was cashier. As the Marquette National bank, the concern continued successfully until October 6, 1921, when it began business under the name of the Union National bank with a capital of $150,000 and under the direction of the present management. The officers now are Alton T. Roberts, president; Erbest L. Pearce

Page  79 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 79 and C. H. Schaffer, vice-presidents; W. W. Gasser, vice-president and cashier; and E. A. Brown, assistant cashier. Negaunee Banks. The early history of banking in Negaunee is as much a closed book as that of the rest of the county, but occasional references to private banks found in the old newspaper files give a brief and fleeting glimpse of the banking era before the establishment of chartered banks. The first number of the Negaunee Iron Herald carried advertisements for Haydon's Negaunee bank and for the private concern operated by D. G. Stone under the name of the Miner's bank. The officers of the former bank (which was established in 1868, according to the advertisement) in 1873 were H. E. Haydon, president; Fred Stafford, cashier; and H. M. Boyce, assistant cashier. It is difficult to determine whether or not the bank bearing Haydon's name was a chartered or private concern, for an editorial carried in the same edition of the HIerald has this to say of the banks of the place: "The town has nearly doubled in population and business importance-a city charter has been obtained, the First National bank and D. G. Stones' private bank have been established." From the foregoing paragraph, it might seem that Haydon's bank was the First National bank, or that his bank has succeeded the National bank, or, still more remote, the First National might refer to the institution of that name then doing business at Marquette. However, conjecture on that score must be left to the reader for want of more definite information on the subject. Then, passing to a more recent period, the first of the present banks to be established in Negaunee was the First National bank, founded in 1887, principally through the agency of Alexander Maitland, who was also interested in banking at Ishpeming and founded the First National bank of Escanaba before he located at Negaunee. Even at that early time, the capitalization of the bank was set at $100,000 and the amount has never been changed since that time. The banking quarters were rebuilt and enlarged in 1907-08, for from the time the bank was started-the First National having bought out the private concern operated by a man named Pierce -the company had been located in the same place. The present officers are Joseph H. Winter, president; A. F. Maitland, vicepresident; G. Sherman Collins, cashier; and John J. Beldo and M. G. DeGabriele, assistant cashiers. The Negaunee State bank was organized September 27, 1909, with its present capitalization of $50,000. The first officers were Frank A. Bell, president; Thomas Pellow, vice-president; Thomas Pascoe, cashier; and Y. S. Heinonen, assistant cashier. The officers now are the same as in 1909 with the exception of the vicepresidency which is now occupied by Thomas Connors. The Negaunee National bank was organized October 7, 1909, with a capital stock of $100,000, and with the following officers and directors: E. N. Breitung, president; Benjamin Neely, vicepresident; C. Meilleur, vice-president and manager; and H. C.

Page  80 80 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Wagner, cashier; and A. E. Boswell, J. P. Miller, Philip Levine, J. H. Sawbridge, J. Hodgson, and James F. Foley, other directors. The present officers of the bank are Philip Levine, president; Thomas L. Collins, vice-president; Clarence E. Kearns, cashier; and J. H. Anderson, assistant cashier. The bank occupies quarters that would be a credit to a much larger city than Negaunee, and the policy that has been pursued by its officers has always served to give the maximum of benefit to the community and the greatest possible safety to the stockholders and depositors. Ishpeming Banks. Like Negaunee, Ishpeming possessed several private banks long before chartered banks made their advent into the banking circles of the city, and it is as true of Ishpeming as of Negaunee and the balance of the county that the history of these first private banks is almost completely obliterated by the passage of time. The Peninsula bank, holding a state charter granted in 1887, and thus the oldest state bank in the county, was organized on October 27, that year, principally through the efforts of William Sedgewick, who first directed the policies of the bank. The affairs of the bank have been in careful hands since the time of its inception. Now capitalized for $100,000, the Peninsula bank stands as one of the most substantial and successful financial institutions of the county, and its present officers are John Kandelin, president; Dr. W. S. Picotte, vice-president; Peter Handberg, cashier; and John Jaaski, J. E. Lereggen, and Roy Stansbury, assistant cashiers. A private bank had been conducted in Ishpeming for many years by D. F. Wadsworth & company, but its failure came about 1883. A second bank, the Marquette County bank, a private concern, was then started at the same location but continued only a few months. With the failure of this second private bank, preparations were made for the organization of a chartered concern, the result being the establishment of the Ishpeming National bank on December 25, 1900, with a capital of $100,000, as it is today. The national bank was opened in the same location as that occupied by the two unsuccessful private concerns, and subsequently the building was remodeled in 1914 to prevent the fires that had threatened the bank with disaster on several occasions. After seventeen years successful operation as the Ishpeming National bank, the name was changed to the present one of the Miners' National bank. The first directors were F. Braasted, M. M. Duncan, D. T. Morgan, Alexander Maitland, H. O. Young, D. McVichia, Walter Fitch, W. H. Johnson, and A. B. Miner, and the first officers were F. Braasted, president; D. McVichia, vicepresident; A. B. Miner, cashier; and H. S. Thompson, assistant cashier. The present bank officials are M. M. Duncan, president; Ole Walseth and F. E. Keese, vice-president; C. H. Moss, cashier; and 0. G. Aas, George Hathaway, and H. M. Lally, assistant cashiers. The Gwinn State Savings bank was organized September 29, 1908, with a capital of $25,000, and headed by these officers:

Page  81 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 81 William G. Mather, president; W. F. Hopkins, vice-president; H. H. McMillan, cashier; and M. M. Duncan, C. V. R. Townsend, W. G. Mather, W. F. Hopkins, and G. R. Jackson, directors. The present officers of the bank are William G. Mather, president; G. R. Jackson, vice-president; R. J. Jeffery, cashier; and T. H. Williamson, assistant cashier. During the eighteen years that the bank has been established in that community, it has proved a great aid to the transacting of business in that part of the county and has been a material aid to the development of that region. The Republic State bank, located in the village of that name, was organized August 1, 1912, and opened for business soon after that date. It has been capitalized for $25,000 during its existence, and its first officers and directors were W. A. Siebenthal, president; Louis Levine, vice-president; F. W. Lawrence, cashier; and W. A. Siebenthal, Louis Levine, Carl Peterson, Walter Ericson, Charles Hooper, William Kelly, and C. Meilleur, directors. The service of this bank to the community and section of the county in which it is located cannot be underestimated, and conducted as it is upon a conservative yet progressive basis, it is regarded as an exceptionally solid financial institution and an asset to the banking conditions of the county.

Page  82 CHAPTER V1II MILITARY Despite the fact that the settlement of the Upper Peninsula of Michig-an gyathered little impetus until shortly before the Civil war, this section of the state has a long and relatively shining military record. The story of the fort at Mackinac may be found in the chapter dealing with the early history of this section, and thus it is that we begin the military history of the peninsula with the War of 1812. Almost from the day hostilities between the United States and England had opened, the British had determined to capture Fort Mackinac. About the middle of July, the news of the declaration of war reached the British post on St. Joseph's Island in the St. Mary's river, a fort that was garrisoned by forty-six regulars under the command of Captain Charles Roberts. On July 16, this force embarked for Mackinac aboard the armed brig Caledonia together with 250 agents and employes of the Northwest Fur company and 500 Indians to which were added between eighty and 100 enroute and some seventy allies at Mackinac. While the British force was descending the river, it captured Captain Michael Dousman, of the militia, who had been sent to watch the Indians on St. Joseph's Island by Lieutenant Porter Hanks, the commandant at Fort Mackinac, for the latter had heard that trouble was brewing among the natives there. Dousman was captured when he was but fifteen miles away from Mackinac and was forced to give his parole on condition that he return to the straits and assemble the people on the west side of the island under British guard. He was to keep information of the British actions away from the American commandant of the post. Landing on the side farthest from the fort under cover of darkness, the British occupied Fort Holmes and set up their guns to command Fort Mackinac. Hanks, realizing that his garrison of fifty-seven officers and men could not hope to withstand the attack of such an overwhelming force, arranged honorable terms of surrender. The garrison was paroled and left immediately for Detroit, and the fort remained in the hands of the British throughout the remainder of the war, their possession of it being uncontested by the American troops. Lieutenant Hanks was killed August 16, 1812, during the bombardment of Detroit. After the victories of Perry and of the army around Detroit, Captain Groghan was sent northward with a force of five hundred regulars and two hundred militia with five vessels of Perry's old fleet under the command of Captain Sinclair. The expedition sailed early in July, 1814, ascended the St. Mary's river to St. Joseph's island, and finding that post aban

Page  83 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 83 doned went on to Sault Ste. Marie to find that the post there had also been abandoned and the buildings destroyed. Returning to the straits, Groghan set about the capture of Fort Mackinac. The Americans landed on the north side of the island, whence it was necessary to traverse what seemed to be an impenetrable forest for a distance of two and a half miles. As the American troops debouched into a clearing, they were met by heavy artillery fire from the British, Major Holmes being killed and many other casualties being inflicted. Groghan retired to his boats, and deciding that he would need re-enforcements before he could force the capitulation of the fort, he left the Tigress and Scorpion to blockade the forts while he returned to Detroit for the additional troops. The blockading schooners were soon after captured by the British and their officers and crews made prisoners. Further operations were stopped by the signing of peace, by the terms of the treaty of Michigan and the forts being returned to the United States. In 1822, the United States Government established Fort Brady at Sault Ste. Marie, and with the exception of two short periods, the fort has been garrisoned by the regular army. The old fort was located on the south bank of the rapids at Sault Ste. Marie on the present site of the Federal building and was originally surrounded by a stockade. The ravine crossed by General Cass when he pulled down the last British flag to fly over American soil is still to be seen in the canal park at the Sault. For many years, Fort Brady has occupied a commanding position to the southwest of the city, where the barracks and officers' quarters were completed in 1895. Fort Brady constitutes the last military establishment maintained by the United States Government on the Canadian border. The original site of twenty-six acres was ceded to the United States by the Chippewa Indians on June 16, 1820, the spot having been selected by the French in 1750 for military purposes by the French, at which time Chevalier Repentigny built a stockade there. In July, 1922, General Brady was ordered to the Sault with six companies, there to erect buildings and a stockade, which, upon their completion were given the name of Fort Brady in honor of the first commandant and builder. From 1857 until May 8, 1866, no garrison was maintained at the fort. The force of regular soldiers was withdrawn for service in the Mexican war, during which time the garrison consisted of a half a company of the First Michigan Infantry under the command of Lieutenant E. K. Howard until April 1, 1848, after which the fort was untenanted until June 1, 1849. The transfer of the fort to the present location of seventy-five acres in extent was begun in 1892 and completed in 1895, the buildings there being erected at a cost of $200,000, and garrisoned by a battalion of infantry. Whether or not any men from the Upper Peninsula served in the army during the Mexican war is uncertain, but if the subsequent record of the men of this region may be taken as a criterion,

Page  84 84 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN we may be reasonably sure that some from here offered their services to the government during that time. For want of more definite information, however, we must turn our attention to the Civil war, when the true spirit of the country was more truly manifest than at the time of the Mexican war, when but few white men had taken up their residence in this part of the state. Even in setting forth the record of the Upper Peninsula men in the war for the preservation of the Union, we are again handicapped by the fact that many were the men from this part of the state who enlisted in Wisconsin regiments. Due to the lack of good communication with Lower Peninsula of Michigan, it was much more convenient for the men of this part of the state to enlist in Wisconsin organizations. For example, a call was sent out by a Wisconsin regiment in 1864 for new recruits. Within an hour after hearing of the appeal, Judge Ingalls raised nineteen men in Menominee for service with the Badger outfit. Menominee county furnished eighty-two volunteers for the army; Chippewa county, 21; Delta, 24; Houghton, 460; Keweenaw, 119; Marquette and Schoolcraft, 265; Mackinac, 47; and Ontonagon, 254. These figures were compiled by the state and include those men who enlisted voluntarily prior to September 19, 1863, and those who were inducted into the service under the enrollment system that went in to effect on that date. Without exception, the counties of the Upper Peninsula show an overwhelming majority of voluntary enlistments prior to the date mentioned, testifying anew to the patriotic spirit of the men who were even then struggling to develop a new country. When recruiting began, the first regiments were raised in the southern part of the state, no attempt being made beyond the written appeals to enlist the services of the men in the northern sections of Michigan. Thus it was that those men who served with the early regiments were forced to come south to enter the service. The first opportunity given the men of the Upper Peninsula to enlist in organizations recruited within their own territory came when enlistments were opened July 15, 1862, in the Fourth Congressional district, of which Delta, which included Dickinson county, and Mackinac counties were a part, for service with the Twenty-first Michigan infantry. On September 4, that year, the regiment was mustered into the Federal service at Ionia and left there eight days later under the command of Colonel Ambrose A. Stevens for Louisville. The engagements in which the Twenty-first took part were as follows: Perryville, Ky., October 8, 1862; LaVergne, Tenn., December 27, 1862; Stewart's Creek, Tenn., December 29, 1862; Stone River, Tenn., December 29, 31, 1862, and January 1, 2, and 3, 1863; Tullahoma, Tenn., June 24, 1863; Elk River, Tenn., July 1, 1863; Chickamauga, Ga., September 19, 20, and 21, 1863; Chattanooga, Tenn., October 6, 1863; Brown's Ferry, Tenn., October 27, 1863; Mission Ridge, Tenn., November 26, 1863; Savannah, Ga., December

Page  85 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 85 11, 18, 20, and 21, 1864; Averysboro, N. C., March 16, 1865; and Bentonville, N. C., March 19, 1865. Recruiting for the Twenty-third Michigan infantry began in the Sixth Congressional district on the same day as the above regiment, July 5, 1862, and included in this district were the counties of Marquette, Houghton, Ontonagon, Chippewa, and others as yet unorganized. Company I, of this regiment was raised at Houghton and officered by men of that city, they being Captain Carlos D. Sheldon, First Lieutenant Graham Pope, and Second Lieutenant William D. Patterson. The company entered the state service on August 1, 1862, and with its regiment was mustered into the Federal service on September 13, following under the command of Colonel Marshall W. Chapin. The command left Saginaw, Michigan, September 18, 1862, and was assigned to the command of General Rosecrans in Kentucky. The engagements of the regiment during the course of the war were as follows: Paris, Ky., July 29, 1863; Huff's Ferry, Tenn., November 12, 1863; Campbell's Station, Tenn., November 16, 1863; siege of Knoxville, Tenn., November 17 to December 5, 1863; Dandridge, Tenn., January 14, 1864; Strawberry Plains, Tenn., January 22, 1864; Rocky Face, Ga., May 8, 1864; Resaca, Ga., May 14, 1864; New Hope Church, Ga., June 1, 1864; Lost Mountain, Ga., June 17, 1864; Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., June 27, 1864; Chattahoochee River, Ga., July 5 and 6, 1864; siege of Atlanta, Ga., July 22 to August 25, 1864; Lovejoys Station, Ga., August 31, 1864; Columbia, Tenn., November 25, 1864; Duck River, Tenn., November 28, 1864; Spring Hill, Tenn., November 29, 1864; Franklin, Tenn., November 30, 1864; Nashville, Tenn., December 12 to 16, 1864; Fort Anderson, N. C., February 18, 1865; Town Creek, N. C., February 20, 1865; Wilmington, N. C., February 21, 1865; and Goldsboro, N. C., March 22, 1865. In the order for the recruiting of the Twenty-seventh Michigan infantry it was directed that six companies be raised in the Lake Superior counties, but only three were there organized. These companies were rendezvoused at Port Huron and were for a time in charge of Lieutenant Colonel Thomas S. Sprague, of Detroit, and afterward in command of Colonel Dorus M. Fox. In the meantime, the recruiting of a regiment designated as the Twenty-eighth had been ordered, to rendezvous at Ypsilanti in in charge of Col. Edward Doyle. Recruiting for these regiments proceeded so slowly that it was determined to consolidate them, and on February 1, 1863, the Twenty-seventh was ordered to break camp at Port Huron and proceed to the rendezvous at Ypsilanti. The consolidation was there completed and the regiment, with the designation of the Twenty-seventh, was mustered into the service on April 10, 1863, with eight companies. Those units from the Upper Peninsula were Companies A, B, and C, whose officers in the order named were: Captain Daniel Plummer, First Lieutenant Charles Waite, and Second Lieutenant Daniel G Cash,

Page  86 86 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Company A, the second of whom was from Rockland and the others from Ontonagon; Captain Samuel Moody, First Lieutenant James H. Slawson, and Second Lieutenant Nelson Truckey, Company B, all of Houghton; and Captain William B. Wright, of Eagle Harbor, First Lieutenant Frederick Myers, and Second Lieutenant Chester W. Houghton, of Houghton, Company C. The engagements in which the Twenty-seventh infantry participated were as follows: Jamestown, Ky., June 2, 1863; siege of Vicksburg, June 22 to July 4, 1863; Jackson, Miss., July 11 to 18, 1863; Blue Springs, Tenn., October 10, 1863; Loudon, Tenn., November 14, 1863; Lenoir Station, Tenn., November 15, 1863; Campbell's Station, Tenn., November 16, 1863; siege of Knoxville, Tenn., November 17 to December 5, 1863; Fort Saunders, Tenn., November 29, 1863; Strawberry Plains, Tenn., January 22, 1864; near Knoxville, Tenn., January 23, 1864; Wilderness, Va., May 6, 1864; Ny River, Va., May 9, 1864; Spotsylvania, Va., May 10, 11, 12, 1864; Oxford, Va., May 23, 1864; North Anna, Va., May 24 and 25, 1864; Bethesda Church, Va., June 2 and 3, 1864; Cold Harbor, Va., June 7, 1864; Petersburg, Va., June 17 and 18, 1864; The Crater, Va., July 30, 1864; Weldon Railroad, Va., August 19 and 21, 1864; Ream's Station, Va., August 25, 1864; Poplar Springs Church, Va., September 30, 1864; Pegram Farm, Va., October 2, 1864; Boydton Road, Va., October 8, 1864; Hatcher's Run, Va., October 27 and 28, 1864; Fort Steedman, Va., March 25, 1865; siege of Petersburg, Va., from June 17, 1864, to April 3, 1865. In these regiments of Michigan fought many men of the Upper Peninsula, but it must be remembered that because these three were the only ones in which recruiting was carried on in the Lake Superior country many more men, as mentioned above volunteered for service with other Michigan regiments and with organizations of other states, so that it is virtually impossible to give a recital of the achievements of the organizations in which Michigan men served within the space of this chapter. However, it may well be said that the record of the men from the Upper Peninsula redounds not only to their own credit but to the glory of this region, which was then so sparsely populated. Spanish-American War. At the outbreak of the SpanishAmerican war, the Upper Peninsula could boast several national guard organizations trained and equipped for service in the field. Six companies of the Thirty-fourth Michigan infantry were all located in the Upper Peninsula, they being Company D, of Calumet; Company E, of Iron Mountain; Company F, of Houghton; Company G, of Sault Ste. Marie; Company H, of Ironwood; and Company L, of Marquette and Menominee. The commissioned officers of these companies at the time they were called into service were as follows: Company D, Captain Julius E. Fliege, First Lieutenant William H. Thielman, and Second Lieutenant Angus McDonald; Company E, Captain Silas J. McGregor, First Lieutenant Thomas Touhey, and Second Lieutenant John O'Connell; Company F, Captain George Millar, First Lieutenant Charles A.

Page  87 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 87 Hendrickson, and Second Lieutenant Rudolph J. Haas; Company G, Captain Robert S. Welch, First Lieutenant Henry F. Hughart, and Second Lieutenant Gilmore G. Scranton; Company H, Captain Robert J. Bates, First Lieutenant Frank J. Alexander, and Second Lieutenant William J. Tresise; and Company L, Captain Samuel W. Wheeler, First Lieutenant John S. Wilson, and Second Lieutenant James A. Leisen. On April 28, 1898, the six companies of the Upper Peninsula were called to join the other units of their organization in the Lower Peninsula, where the regiment was collected and prepared for service against the Spanish. On June 7, the regiment arrived at Camp Alger, Virginia. On June 23 one battalion embarked at Newport News and the rest of the regiment boarded the transport on June 26 to be sent to Cuba to reinforce Shafter before Santiago, landing in due course at Baiquiri. The only action seen by the regiment was as support to the men who attacked and captured San Juan hill. Soon after, the Spaniards capitulated, and as the Michigan troops were about to be sent home, they were quarantined for the yellow fever. On September 1, 1898, the quarantine was lifted and the long journey home started. World War. On April, 1917, the United States threw her resources into the struggle on the side of the Allies against Germany, and at that time, but four companies of the Michigan National Guard in the Upper Peninsula were maintained. These were Company G, of Houghton; Company L, of Menominee; and Company M, of Sault Ste. Marie, all of the Thirty-third infantry; and the Battalion Headquarters company, First Michigan Engineers, also of Houghton. The Michigan units had been called into the Federal service in 1916 to take part in the Mexican punitive expedition, and the Thirty-third, reaching the border at a later date than the other organizations was never mustered out before the United States declared war on Germany. The Thirty-third infantry was returned to Michigan after the declaration of war to guard the locks at the Sault and to perform similar duties throughout the state until the entire National Guard should be mobilized at Camp Grayling. In August, 1917, the various units were ordered to Camp MacArthur, Waco, Texas. The officers of the Upper Peninsula companies at the time they were inducted into the service of the Government were as follows: Headquarters company, Major Benjamin W. Vallat and Captain Ira 0. Penberthy, adjutant; Company G, Captain Thomas S. Smith, First Lieutenant Merritt Lamb, and Second Lieutenant Elmer H. Theriault; Company L, Captain Oscar F. Falk, First Lieutenant Grover Thompson, and Second Lieutenant Merritt B. Wilson; and Company M, Captain Ira D. MacLachlan, First Lieutenant J. F. Young, and Second Lieutenant Charles E. Follis. The battalion commander of this unit was Major Charles D. Mathews, of Sault Ste. Marie, the battalion being the third of its regiment.

Page  88 88 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Soon after the arrival of the Michigan men at Camp MacArthur, a general order was issued creating the Thirty-second Division, to be composed of Michigan and Wisconsin units of the National Guard, about 8,000 Michigan and 15,000 Wisconsin men being so united. Subsequently, the deficiencies were supplied by about 4,000 drafted men from these two states. Under the new arrangement, Company G, of Houghton, became Company G, 125th infantry, Company L, of Menominee, was divided between Companies L and K of the 125th, and Company M, of Menominee, was divided between Companies L and K of the 125th, and Company M, of Menominee, was divided between Companies I and M of the same regiment. The Houghton headquarters company became the headquarters company for the first battalion of the 107th Engineers of the same division. Major General James Parker assumed command of the Thirtysecond Division on August 26, 1917, and on September 18, following, was sent to France on a special mission, from which he returned in December, 1917. Almost immediately thereafter he was transferred to the command of the Eighty-fifth Division at Camp Custer, and he was succeeded in the command of the Thirtysecond by William G. Haan, senior brigadier general of the division. Colonel John B. Boucher was made commander of the 125th infantry, which included all the companies but one of the old Thirty-third Michigan infantry and five companies of the Thirty-first Michigan infantry. Training in trench warfare began almost immediately, a work which was greatly aided by five French officers, four British officers, and several French and British non-commissioned officers, who were assigned to the division as instructors. A trench system was constructed outside the camp, where war conditions could be experienced by the troops as near as possible to the actual battle experience. With no training detail overlooked, the division quickly rounded into shape, and late in November and during the early part of December, the War Department inspectors visited the division and pronounced it fit to be sent to France. On January 2, 1918, the first troops entrained at Waco for Hoboken, New Jersey, division headquarters following twelve days later. By the first of March, all the Thirty-second Division had evacuated the camp, and all the infantry had been concentrated at Camp Merritt, New York, before the division headquarters sailed for France. A detachment of the Thirty-second sailed on the Tuscania, one of the few transports sunk by a German submarine, and the thirteen men of the division who lost their lives at that time were the first casualties suffered by the division. The divisional headquarters were established at Prauthoy, Haute Marne, France, on February 24, 1918, and here the troops were rapidly concentrated, the division thus becoming the sixth to arrive in France. However, the high hopes of the men were blasted by the announcement that the Thirty-second was to be used as a replacement organization for the First Army Corps, and

Page  89 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 89 for about four weeks, the division functioned in this capacity. The captains of the 128th infantry were assigned to one battalion of the First Division and all the privates of the regiment to another battalion of the same division. In all, about 7,000 men were taken away from the division during that time. Great was the joy of the men when the order making them replacements was rescinded by one ordering the division into Alsace to begin its actual battle training in a quiet sector. On May 18, 1918, the first troops of the Thirty-second Division, consisting of four battalions, were assigned to front line duty in Haute Alsace, relieving some French troops. Thus, the Thirty-second Division was the first American organization to enter German territory. Although a thirty-five-day course of instruction had been planned in this quiet sector, a new drive by the Germans on Paris cut this short, and on July 19, the first elements of the division entrained for the journey to the Chateau Thierry section, and by July 24 the entire division was in the vicinity of Pont Maxence. Two days later the division was ordered to report to the French at Chateau Thierry. On the night of July 29, the Thirty-second Division took over the front held by the Third Division, and on the following night, the Sixty-third Brigade, in which were serving the men from the Upper Peninsula, moved up from support to receive its baptism of fire. Then began an attack that drove the Germans back step by step until they reached the Vesle, an attack that proved beyond all doubt the fighting qualities of the men of the Thirty-second Division and earned for them the name of "Les Terribles." On the night of August 6-7, the men of the Thirty-second were relieved, and tired and battered as they were, they were happy in the knowledge that they had done more than their share to hurl the Germans back from Paris, serving in what is called the Aisne-Marne offensive. From August 18 to September 6, the division was engaged in the Oise-Aisne offensive in which they signalized their record by the capture of Juvigny in a bitter battle. On September 26, the division went into the Argonne and was engaged in that greatest battle of the war until the signing of the armistice on November 11 relieved them of further fighting. With hostilities concluded and the disorganized Germans fleeing for their fatherland, the Thirty-second was selected to become one of the advance units of the Army of Occupation and to guard one of the bridge heads under the frowning walls of the castle Ehrenbreitstein at Coblentz. Months of duty at this point, months of longing for the return journey home to begin, and orders finally came that the Red Arrow Division was to start its return to the United States. Finally the day had come, and by May 15, all but the casuals were on the Atlantic, sailing for the country for which they had so gallantly fought. At eastern camps, the division was broken up so that the units might be sent to the camps nearest their homes to be discharged.

Page  90 90 90 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN The Eighty-fifth Division composed of National Army men of Michigan and Wisconsin has a record to its credit that is in every way as noteworthy as that of the Thirty-second, and many men from the Upper Peninsula saw service in France with this organization. The regular army and the navy also had its complement of enlistments from this section of the state, but to enumerate the military achievements of every man who served with the armed forces of the United States is impossible. The summaries of the various counties of the Upper Peninsula, however, are herewith given: Alger, 320 in service, 4 died, 8 wounded, 1 gassed, 1 shell shocked, 1 in the Canadian army; Baraga, 325 in service and 7 died of various causes; Chippewa, 1359 in service, 27 died, 15 in Canadian army, 1 in British navy; Delta, 1572 in service, 43 died, 7 in Canadian army, 1 in Allied service; Dickinson, 906 in service, 19 died, 7 wounded, 11 gassed, 7 in Allied armies, 16 living in other states at the time of enlistment; Gogebic, 2367 in service, 42 died, 43 in Canadian army, 147 in Polish army, 3 in English army; Houghton, 4618 in service and 58 died of wounds or killed in action; Iron, 1218 in service, 17 died, 7 in Canadian army, 2 in the Polish army; Keweenaw, 216 in service and 4 died; Luce, 279 in service, 11 died, 1 in Canadian army; Mackinac, 387 in service, 21 died, 1 in Canadian army; Marquette, 2194 in service, 35 died, 23 in Allied armies; Menominee, 1336 in service, 58 died, 1 in Canadian army; Ontonagon, 552 in service and 14 died; Schoolcraft, 401 in service, 4 died, 2 in Canadian army. The figures of those who died include those killed in action, died of wounds, and died of disease either in this country, at sea, or in France. The figures herewith given were taken from the records in the State library at Lansing and show more fully than words just how great was the part played by the Lake Superior counties in the World war.

Page  91 CHAPTER IX CITIES AND VILLAGES St. Ignace, though settled in 1671, by Father James Marquette and his followers, enjoyed but little more than a quarter of a century of prosperity, for when Sieur de Mothe de la Cadillac came to the straits, he began a conflict with the Jesuit fathers at the mission and village of St. Ignace that resulted in the ultimate depopulation of the community and the burning of the church and mission buildings by the broken-hearted priests. Thereafter, the village was no longer the main point of intercourse for the travelers who passed through the straits; Mackinac island and the community surrounding the old fort on the south side of the straits attracting what Indians and fur traders made this section their headquarters. Just when settlements began to be made in the St. Ignace locality cannot be definitely determined, nor can it be said with certainty who these first settlers were. A few of the names of the early residents of the rejuvenated St. Ignace have been spared to us. Louis Grondin came here from Canada in 1822, and Peter Grondin located at St. Ignace, two years later. At that time, there were these settlers at Point St. Ignace: John Graham, an Irishman; Francois Perrault, Mitchell Jeandrean, Mitchell Amnaut, Louis Charbonneau, J. B. Lajeunesse, Louis Martin, Francois Trucket, Charles Cettandre, and Francois DeLevere, French; Isaac Blanchette and a Mr. Hobbs, American. Francois De Levere was the first of this number to die, his death occurring in 1832, and his burial being made near the site of the Catholic church that was built in 1834. The first Americans to settle at St. Ignace were Hobbs, Puffer and Rousey, all of whom were veterans of the American Revolution. John Graham, the first Irishman to settle here, did so in 1818, he having been a survivor of the Indian massacre at Hudson bay. Patrick McNally located here in 1847; John Chambers and Dominick, Patrick, David, and Michael Murray came in 1848-49. Although settlers came from time to time and lumbering operations brought the shifting population to be found in places that operated extensively in that product, it was the prospect of the railroad connections with the south and west that brought the first boom in the prospects of the community, with the result that in 1882, on the eve of the completion of the D. M. & M. railroad to St. Ignace, the village had reached a size that warranted incorporation. Accordingly, the matter was laid before the county supervisors, who passed the following resolution: In the matter of the petition of B. B. Hazelton and others, praying for the incorporation of the following described territory

Page  92 92 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN into the village of St. Ignace: Commencing at the shore of Lake Huron, at the dividing line between townships 40 and 41 north, of range 3 west, following the shore of said lake, and thereby to the south line of the land owned by Ignatius Reagon, thence west along the south line of said Reagon's land to the east line of the Detroit, Mackinac & Marquette railroad; thence northerly along said line of said railroad to the north line of private claim No. 19, the dividing line between townships 3 and 4 west; thence north along said dividing line of said townships to the north line of township 40 north, of range 3 west; thence east on the said north line of township 40 north, range 3 west; thence west to the place of beginning. "It was ordered by the Supervisor's Board that this territory be, and the same is, incorporated into a village, to be called the village of St. Ignace. And it is further ordered that B. B. Hazelton, I. Reagon and William Hintz be, and the said B. B. Hazelton, I. Reagon and William Hintz are hereby, appointed inspectors of the first election to be held in the said village of St. Ignace on the third Tuesday in March, 1882." Pursuant to the act of the Board of Supervisors, the first village election was held on the appointed day. Daniel Kanter cast the first vote, and when the polls were closed and the votes were counted, it was found that these men had been chosen as the first village officers: Brooks B. Hazelton, president; Ambro Bettes, clerk; Peter A. Paquin, treasurer; William D'Arcy, marshal; Fred Kruger, assessor; Lewis Ryerse, Ignatius Reagon, and Horatio Crain, trustees for two years; and A. M. Withrow, Hyacinth Chenier, and William Hintz, trustees for one year. Marquette was first platted by the Cleveland Iron Mining company in August, 1854, and recorded the same year before the county register, Peter White. The original plat included that part of the city extending from a point below Fisher street to half a block north of Spring street and from the bay to Fifth street. A thirty-six acre addition was platted shortly after for John Burt, Edward Cook, M. L. Hewitt, Charles Johnson, and Eliza T. Duncan of the Cleveland company. The two additions of Harlow, Hewitt's addition, Burt & Ely's addition, and the additions of Penny & Vaughn were all made before the village was incorporated by the legislature in 1859. The great fire of 1868 that laid waste the community destroyed all the village records, so that the village officers before that time are not known. On April 5, 1869, the people of the village, stimulated to action by the disastrous fire, voted a loan of $100,000 for the establishment of a waterworks and fire system. Through a technicality the vote was declared illegal and on the following August, the amount of $50,000 was voted for the same purpose. The Holly Manufacturing company secured the contract to supply pumps that would have a total capacity of 2,000,000 gallons daily and the T. T. Hurley contracting concern was awarded the contract for building the engine house on

Page  93 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 93 lighthouse point. The waterworks, still located in the same place was remodeled in 1890 to triple the daily capacity, and the city of Marquette, drawing its water from a point seven hundred feet in the lake, has as good a supply as it is possible to secure. In July, 1867, the council granted the Marquette Gas Light company the right to erect buildings and lay mains, so that by 1869 the city was lighted by that means. In 1890, the city council granted a franchise to the Marquette & Presque Isle railway which began laying its tracks that summer and has since served the people of this community. Marquette was incorporated as a city by an act of the legislature approved February 27, 1871, and on April 3, that year, these city officers were elected: H. H. Safford, mayor; Arch Benedict, recorder; F. M. Moore, treasurer; John G. O'Keefe, school inspector and justice of the peace; Jacob Dolf, constable; and T. T. Hurley, P. C. Parkinson, and James M. Wilkinson, aldermen. Negaunee, although mines were in operation and the Marquette & Bay de Noquet railroad had been built to that place, dates its real beginning from 1865, when the construction of the Soo canal opened the Upper Peninsula iron deposits to the outside world. In 1865, J. P. Pendill and the Pioneer company made two separate plats of the village, the latter naming its village Iron and the former taking the name of Negaunee, which means "pioneer" or "first." In the fall of that year, it was incorporated as a village, and a jail and town hall was built at a cost of $10,000. The following year witnessed the erection of a Union school at a cost of $8,000. The burning of the Pioneer Furnace in 1874 caused a local panic that for a time threatened the prosperity of the place, but the community soon recovered, and today it, and its sister city Ishpeming, are the center of the iron mining in this section of the country. Ishpeming, the name of which signifies "heaven," is essentially a mining town. Its site was originally the site of the Lake Superior location which was started in 1853. In 1869, Robert Nelson, who had started the first store in 1860, bought the site from the Cleveland Iron company and in the summer of that year laid it out into lots. In the fall of the year, it was incorporated as a village and Captain G. D. Johnson was elected president with James McLeon as justice of the peace and a Mr. Ryan as town marshal. Thereafter the place grew rapidly and was incorporated as a city in 1873, at which time Captain F. P. Mills was elected mayor. Schoolcraft County has Manistique as its principal city. Incorporated as a village by the legislature in 1885 and as a city in 1901, it has its principal advantage in the fact that an excellent harbor is kept open throughout the winter by the waters from the swift-flowing Manistique river which empties into the bay at that point. Car ferries operate between Frankfort and Manistique because of this ice-free harbor throughout the year, adding immeasurably to the importance of the city as a shipping point. A dam

Page  94 94 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN thrown across the river just below the Indian lake outlet supplies the reservoir necessary to supply an excellent power station, and one of the secrets of the advancement of the city has been this abundance of power for the lumber mills and other industries. In addition to the lumber mills and lime kilns that are the chief industries of the city, Manistique is one of the large shippers of fish on Lake Michigan. Delta County, as stated in another chapter, did not enter upon a period of growth worthy of mention until after 1860. When the Chicago & Northwestern railroad put a line through from Negaunee to Escanaba and erected ore docks, the village began to grow by leaps and bounds. The line began operation in 1864, and the first building of note at the village was the Tilden House, erected by the railroad and the N. Ludington company. The hotel was named in honor of Samuel J. Tilden, Democratic candidate for president against Hayes, and he was one of the first guests at the hostelry. Escanaba became the county seat in 1861, was incorporated as a village in 1866, and was reincorporated as a village in 1883. In the same year, it was granted a city charter by the legislature and was reincorporated by the same body in 1891. Possessing one of the best harbors on the Great Lakes and having excellent rail connections with the various mining centers of this part of the state, the city is regarded as one of the most important ore shipping points on the Lakes. Its great docks supply facilities for the handling of millions of tons of ore annually. In addition to the lines of the Chicago & Northwestern railroad, Escanaba has connections with the great Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul system through the Escanaba & Lake Superior, which was started in November, 1898, as a small logging road some twentysix miles in length. When the C., M. & St. P. sought an entrance into the city, it arranged such an opening through the Escanba & Lake Superior, which was then extended from Watson to Channing, making the distance sixty-five miles. The road is one of the most successful short line railroads in the United States, the main line and branches totaling but little more than 125 miles. The Escanaba Power company supplies the electrical power for the city and plants of the community and to Gladstone, the main power house of the company being located on the river four miles from Escanaba. The principal industries of Escanaba include woodenware factories and brass and iron companies, while one of the important enterprises is a manufactory of acetate of lime and wood alcohol, the former being used in the manufacture of explosives. At one time, nearly a third of the acetate of lime was sold to the British Government. Gladstone is located on the west shore of Little Bay de Noquet and on the main line of the Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie and has excellent communications with Escanaba by means of electric cars. The Northwestern Cooperage & Lumber company has been largely responsible for the development of this community, for through its steady and substantial growth it has

Page  95 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 95 provided employment for hundreds of men even during periods of lowest ebb. The plant was destroyed by fire in 1908 but immediately rebuilt on a larger scale than ever. Wells, situated a few miles north of Escanaba, has a population of 1,500, and has the I. Stephenson company as the chief industry. Manufacturing hardwood flooring and cedar products, the concern has been almost the sole factor in the development of the community. It is served by four railroads. Munising, Alger County, the seat of justice of the county, was established in July, 1895, when engineers platted the town, the first lot being sold in November of that year to Robert Peters, who erected a store building and for a time engaged in mercantile pursuits. The summer of 1896 witnessed the growth of the population to 3,000, which was phenomenal in view of the fact that East Munising and Onata had endured such hard struggles for existence. In 1905 it was incorporated as a village. In 1900, the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron company came into the field at Munising and inaugurated its second period of growth. The company owns large tracts of land in the county and manufactures lumber, it having been particularly aggressive in promoting the development of the city and county in all ways. The Munising Paper company is one of the largest industries at this place and one of the largest paper mills in Michigan. The Munising Woodenware company, manufacturers of wooden products of all kinds, is another of the substantial enterprises of this city. Luce County. The county seat of this county is Newberry, the clearing of the site of which began in 1882 for the Vulcan Furnace and for the houses of the employees of that organization. The village was platted under the supervision of W. 0. Strong, the land superintendent of the Detroit, Mackinac & Marquette railroad. A $5,000 school was erected within five years; incorporation was secured in 1885, and the village now has a population of 2,400 persons. The Newberry State hospital was established on a 680-acre tract of land in November, 1895, the land being donated by the Peninsula Land company and the people of Luce county. The Lake Superior Iron & Chemical company established a plant at Newberry in 1910, and when it was opened it provided one of the principal industries of this part of the state. Baraga County. The beginnings of L'Anse as a mission site has already been given in the chapter on Early Settlement, but it was not until 1891 that the village was granted a charter. The first village election was held in August, that year and resulted as follows: George Hadley, president of the board; S. D. Davenport, clerk; John McIntosh, treasurer; Anthony Girard, T. A. McGrath, and Phillip Foucault, trustees for two years; James McMahon, Nelson E. Penneck, and J. J. Byers, trustees for one year; Peter Gerard, street commissioner; James Bendry, assessor; D. J. Golden, constable; and James Golden, pound master. The village was platted in 1871 by S. L. Smith, Charles H. Palmer, and Captain James Bendry, the original plat containing the names of

Page  96 96 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN twelve streets. For a few years thereafter, L'Anse grew rapidly, for it was thought that with the completion of the railroads, L'Anse would become one of the great shipping points for ore and lumber, the rival of Marquette in this respect. The discovery of ore further enhanced these ideas, but the panic of 1873 and the the playing out of the mine in 1878 banished the fond hopes of the residents and founders of the village, although attempts were made to keep the mining industry alive by further explorations, it remained for the lumber mill and the stone and slate quarries to supply the industrial life of the city and county. Houghton County. The cities and villages of Houghton county, for the most part, grew up around various mine locations and to attempt to attribute their inception to the initiative of any one man or group of men who saw a favorable location for a town is virtually impossible. Houghton was settled in 1852 and was incorporated as a village in 1861. With two banks and two newspapers and served by the Copper Range railroad, Houghton is one of the leading communities in the Copper country. It is the site of the Michigan College of Mines, one of the leading institutions of its kind in the country. Most of the stock of the Copper Range railroad is owned by Houghton people, the road running the entire length of the Keweenaw Peninsula and forming a junction with the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul at Mass City in Ontonagon county. The Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic and Mineral Range railroads also touch Houghton, giving it excellent transportation by land as well as by water for the ore that leaves this place. A sketch of the first settler, Ransom Shelden, may be found on other pages. Hancock, with a population of 8,500, is located on the north shore of Portage lake directly opposite Houghton with which it is connected by electric railway and a bridge. In addition to the Quincy mine, second only to the great Calumet & Hecla mine, the city boasts a varied line of industrial enterprises, including iron and brass foundries, saw and planing mills, machine shops, flour mill, mining machinery manufacturing plant, boiler works, and other industries. Such diversity assures stability at all times, for the community is thus happily liberated from the recurrent periods of depression that often attack the mining industry. The Houghton County Street Railway company was incorporated in 1900 and has proved of great benefit in bringing the communities of the region more closely together, having been of particular benefit to the development of the twin cities of Hancock and Houghton. Red Jacket, which carries the postoffice name of Calumet and is so known to the state at large, is the headquarters for the famous Calumet & Hecla company, which operates one of the largest copper mines in the world. The stamp mills and furnaces of the company are located at Lake Linden and are among the largest in the world. The village of Red Jacket was incorporated by the legislature in 1874, and its first election was held April

Page  97 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 97 10, 1875, with the following officers being elected: Peter Ruppe, Jr., president; James H. Kerwin, recorder; James Mailin, Jr., treasurer; Richard Bastian and James Sullivan, assessors; John Powers, attorney; J. C. Pearce, marshal; and George Wertin, Henry Northy, D. D. Murphy, Martin Foley, Michael Borgo, and Joseph Hermann, trustees. E. J. Hurlbut is regarded as the father of Red Jacket, for he located here in 1856 and erected a log boarding house. He sunk the first one hundred feet of the vertical shaft of the Calumet & Hecla mine, subsequently disposing of the mineral rights while he retained the surface rights to the land now occupied by the village. Soon after incorporation of the village, a fire department was established to protect the city against a recurrence of such a disastrous fire as swept the community in 1870. No city or village of the county is more fully supplied in every way than Red Jacket, for it has three banks, a daily and two weekly newspapers, two hospitals, an electric street railway, and every sanitary convenience. Laurium, originally named Calumet, adjoins Red Jacket village and the Calumet & Hecla location on the south and is an incorporated village with a population of 7,000 persons. It is included in the same mining district as Red Jacket and the majority of its inhabitants are employed in the operations of the companies in that region. It has a bank, hospital, and a daily newspaper with an excellent water works and fire department. The community had its inception in the Laurium Mining company from which it takes its present name, adopted in 1895. On the west shore of Torch Lake is located Lake Linden, established in 1868 and incorporated in 1885. Here are located the stamp mills of the Calumet & Hecla company together with eighteen furnaces of that same company, one of the Quincy company, and one of the Osceola company near the same place. It has a bank, newspaper, and a hospital, and it is served by the Mineral Range, Copper Range, and the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroads. Hubbell, formerly known as South Lake Linden, has a population of 1,200 and is the location of the smelting works of the Calumet & Hecla Mining company and the stamp mills of the Quincy, Osceola, Tamarack, and Ameek Mining companies. A substantial bank is located in the village and has played an important part in the development of the community. Keweenaw County. Eagle River, located at the mouth of the river of the same name, is the seat of justice of that county and located two miles from the nearest railroad, although it has stage connection with Phoenix, two miles distant. The latter community has a population of 400 and is situated on the K. C. railroad. Ontonagon County has had Ontonagon village as its judicial seat since 1846. The early history of the place has been given in the chapter on Early Settlement. The village has a population of 2,200, is the lake terminal of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St.

Page  98 98 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Paul railroad. Saw mills, fishing companies, a cigar factory, and cedar yards represent the chief industrial assets of the community, and a harbor that has been developed into one of the best on Lake Superior makes it an important shipping point, the docks extending along the river for a distance of half a mile. The village owns and operates its own water and electric light plants. As the extensive forests are cut down, the county is rapidly coming to the fore in vegetable, fruit, and grain farming. Gogebic County. Bessemer, the county seat, was incorporated as a village in 1878 and as a city in 1889, and finds its chief claim to fame in the many producing iron mines in the vicinity. The opening of the Colby mine on the site of explorations conducted by Captain N. D. Moore in 1880 gave Bessemer its real start and additional settlers came to the community when the Chicago & Northwestern railroad projected its line through this place in 1884. Ironwood, the largest city in the county, has a population of 17,000 and has iron mining as its chief industry, several mines being located within the corporate limits of the city. It was incorporated in 1889 as a city. It has three hospitals and three banks, and its educational system has equipment that is exceeded by no city of its size in Michigan, having a manual training school that was erected at a cost of $40,000 in addition to a $200,000 central school and a $120,000 high school. The city has a daily and two weekly papers. Wakefield, settled in 1866, was incorporated as a village in 1877 and as a city in 1919, and has a population of 6,000. The Wakefield Advocate is the newspaper, and iron mining is the principal industry of this city as of the rest of the county. Iron County. Crystal Falls, county seat, has a population of 3,500 and has adopted the commission-manager form of city government. S. D. Hollister, Sr., and George Runkel bought the land on which the city stands in 1880 and commenced to lay out the site in town lots the following year, they having organized the Crystal Falls Iron company with James H. Howe the preceding year for this purpose. Many settlers came to the community that year. In all ways, the city is progressive, having expended much money in the perfection of its school system. Two banks, two hospitals, and a weekly newspaper are indicative of the activity in the community. Iron River, the largest village in the county, has a population of 4,500. It has two banks, a daily newspaper, and a weekly newspaper are successfully operating in this community, while the school facilities are all that could be expected in a village of this size. Dickinson County. Quinnesec is the oldest village on the Menominee range and was laid out by Hon. John L. Buell, who made explorations here in 1873 and who took out the first consignment of ore by sleigh in the following winter. Buell platted the village in 1877.

Page  99 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 99 Iron Mountain was started in 1879 and was incorporated as a city in 1887, and is the seat of justice of the county. With a population of more than 12,000, it has four banks and is surrounded by a fine belt of farming land. The immense lumber resources make the place attractive to woodenware manufacturing concerns. A large saw mill is operated by the Van Platen-Fox company and a chemical plant and blast furnace further add to the industrial prestige of the place. A large saw mill and body plant units have recently been erected by the Michigan Iron, Land & Lumber company. The schools in Iron Mountain are unsurpassed and a business college enjoys a wide patronage. With approximately thirty power houses operating in the vicinity of Iron Mountain,. the city is particularly well adapted to manufacturing interests. Norway, with a population of more than 4,000, is the second community in the county. Mining, farming, and lumbering have' played their share in the development of the community, although it was the opening of the mines in this region that brought about the establishment of the city. It was incorporated as a city in 1891 and was first settled in 1879. It has a bank and a weekly newspaper. Vulcan has a population of 2,000, is essentially a mining town, taking its name from the first mining concern there. Chippewa County. Sault Ste. Marie, with its long and absorbingly interesting history, is the judicial seat and the largest city of the county, and the early days of the settlement have been narrated elsewhere. It was incorporated as a village in 1874 and received its city charter in 1887. At the first village meeting, held February 2, 1874, Peter B. Barbeau was elected president. At the present time, the city boasts educational facilities consisting of six ward school buildings, a high school, and the Loretto academy, the last of which is under the direction of the Ladies of Loretto. St. Mary's Parochial school is also under the charge of the same order. The city is noted for its admirable situation with respect to water power development, the plant of the Michigan Northern Power company being one of the largest concerns of its kind in the state. At the lower end of its two-mile canal is situated the power house, which is 1,340 feet in length and has a capacity output of 40,000 horsepower. One of the most important industrial ventures is the Union Carbide company, whose plant is located next to the power house and which is a subsidiary of one of the largest corporations of its kind in the United States. The company supplies employment for large numbers of people. The Lock City Manufacturing company, handling lumber, lath, sash, doors, glass, shingles, roofing, beaver board, and similar products is one of the outstanding local enterprises and is accorded a place among the leading concerns of its kind in the Upper Peninsula. Pickford, twenty-four miles south of Sault Ste. Marie, was settled in 1877, and has a population of approximately 400. It has a bank and is the center of the agricultural communities in that part of the county.

Page  100 100 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Rudyard, twenty-four miles southwest of Sault Ste. Marie, is located on the Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie railroad and has a population of approximately 800 persons. It is the concentration and shipping point for an excellent farming region, and its interests are well served by a substantial and thriving bank. Menominee County. Menominee, the county seat, has a population of about 10,000 persons and has long held a leading place among the lumber cities of the Upper Peninsula. The J. W. Wells Lumber company is one of the leading establishments of its kind in this section of the peninsula and is the successor of the Girard company. The Menominee River Sugar company, organized in 1902, erected a million dollar factory in 1903 and began operations. For the first few years of its existence, it was hampered by the slowness of the farmers in growing sugar beets, but as the advantages of such agricultural employment was demonstrated to them, the business has grown to be one of the largest and most important industrial enterprises of the city. With an annual production amounting to nearly $20,000,000 pounds of sugar, the company brings to the farmers of the county nearly half a million dollars. The canning business has grown to large proportions, the annual production of canneries in this vicinity amounting to 3,500,000 cans of vegetables, 2,500,000 cans of preserves, and 100 carloads of pickles. The Lloyd Manufacturing company, making children's carriages and furniture, is an unusual yet highly successful undertaking that brings the name of Menominee before the entire country. The Menominee Stained Glass company presents still another phase of the industrial life of the community, for it specializes in the making of cathedral glass, mirrows, and stained window and plate glass. A steam pump and engine works, box factories, a chemical plant, saw mill machinery plant, hardwood flooring factory, packing plant, and electric supply plant increase the list of diversified industries that make for the stability and commercial prestige of the city. Menominee was incorporated as a city in 1883, at which time it was divided into five wards and Samuel M. Stephenson was elected the first mayor. It owns its own water system, has an electric street railway, and every sanitary precaution to safeguard the health of the community. Stephenson was incorporated as a village in 1898. It is located twenty-two miles north of Menominee and has a bank and a weekly newspaper. It is the largest community in the county outside of Menominee and is the focal point of a rich agricultural community. Daggett, also in Stephenson township, is one of the important villages of the county. It has a bank and good village schools. Cedar River is the oldest settlement on the Bay Shore; Ingalls and Wallace are located north of Menominee on the Chicago & Northwestern railroad, the former having been settled in the early Fifties; Nadeau is on the same railroad thirty-six miles north of Menominee; and Powers is at the junction point of the main line of the Chicago & Northwestern and the Menominee Range branch.

Page  101 CHAPTER X INDUSTRIAL Natural resources, their abundance or their dearth, form the basis of industrial development, and with this axiom in mind, the treatment of a chapter on the industrial life and growth of the Upper Peninsula necessarily finds its beginnings in a recitation of the discovery of Michigan mineral deposits and the opening up of the lumbering industry. Lumbering, by right of priority in large scale exploitation, merits first mention, for not only were many of the large fortunes of Michigan founded in this industry but also lumbering in the old days presented a colorful picture that is a distinct phase in the advance of the state and an equally important and picturesque development in the life of the nation. The Michigan lumberman has been glorified in literature; the vast pine forests of the state were once a vast reservoir from which almost an entire nation drew its supplies of lumber; and the industry as a whole has contributed that to the progress of the state which merits it primary consideration in a chapter of this nature. The forests of the Upper Peninsula, and the entire Middle West, for that matter, represented to the French nothing more than hunting and trapping grounds, wherein they might find the wealth of peltries for which a European market was clamoring. The commercial value of the forests, if it occurred to the French at all, never encouraged them to exploit this industry, and even the English, once they had acquired possession of this vast, rich territory, continued to view this part of the country as a fur source and used the lumber insofar as it was necessary in the construction of fortifications or dwellings at the scattered posts. That a royal mandate forbade settlers to cross the mountains of the Atlantic Seaboard to establish themselves in the wilderness tributary to the Mississippi river and the Great Lakes, reaffirms the theory that large and influential interests sought to maintain the virgin forests of this great territory intact so that there might be no diminution of the fur trade; yet it was this edict of the king which was a contributing factor to bringing on the Revolutionary war and to opening up the Northwest Territory to settlement, leaving the work of levelling the forests of Michigan and other states to the hardy pioneer lumbermen who played a conspicuous part in the development of the country over a period of more than half a century. With the year 1840 were inaugurated the land surveys in the Upper Peninsula, continuing for a period of nine years, and with the completion of this great task, the way was opened for the comprehensive development of the lumber industry in this part

Page  102 102 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN of the state. A small sawmill was erected and placed in use at Menominee in 1832 and a second in 1841, while a third was built at Escanaba in 1841 and a fourth in 1852 at Ontonagon, the last named having a daily capacity of only 5,000 feet. Though these mills were insignificant as compared to the great mills that followed shortly after, they represented the beginning of an industry that would, for a time, eclipse all else in the scope and importance of its operations. No sooner had the surveyed lands been placed on the market than the land office at Sault Ste. Marie was besieged by eager timber cruisers and landlookers who sought to enter choice tracts of pine lands, either for themselves or for large interests that they represented. One of the great corporations of the Upper Peninsula, the N. Ludington company, was organized in 1851 and took over a mill at Flatrock, now Escanaba, which had been built in 1844, and a mill was subsequently erected by the same company at Menominee, where the Kirby-Carpenter company, the Ludington, Wells & Van Schaick company, and the New York company also established large mills to handle the timber cut from their large holdings in that part of the peninsula. The pioneers in lumbering believed that the forests of the Upper Peninsula were exhaustless, as indeed they might well have been under operations no more intensive than those carried on in the infancy of lumbering. Within a few years after the first large companies established their mills here and sent their axmen into the forests, the number of sawmills, as well as the size and efficieticy of the establishments, has grown to such proportions that less than half a century brought a virtual end to the pine cutting in the Upper Peninsula. Yet it must be remembered that those fifty years formed a period of feverish activity, of relentless and tireless labor that has scarcely found a parallel in industrial history anywhere in the world. "The possibilities of this occasion," says Alvah L. Sawyer, in the Michigan Magazine of History, "cannot compass the details of the fifty active years of pine lumbering in this peninsula, in the various and varied branches of that industry; life in the logging camps where men toiled from dawn till dark, measuring their accomplishments not by an eight-hour yard stick, but by the possibilities of their efforts, the monotony of which was broken by the incentive of competition, and wherein the evenings were enlivened with cards, story-telling, and dancing. The garb of the 'shanty-boys' would be a topic by itself, with mackinaws of most flashy hues, heavy spiked boots and chopped-off trousers. The cook and the cooking, the river-driving, and the 'drives' that followed the coming down of the drive; each of these and many other branches of my topic for subjects for historical elaboration which I hope will find treatment in the system of historical research now being introduced through our schools, fostered by the development bureau of the peninsula."

Page  103 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 103 Figures to give an idea of the magnitude of the lumber industry in the Upper Peninsula are sadly lacking, for none have been compiled embracing the industry as a whole in the peninsula and only a few boom companies still exist so that old records may be consulted in the attempt to make an estimate of the size of the industry. Among the most important lumbering rivers was the Menominee, where lumbering reached its height in 1889, in which year more than 642,000,000 feet of logs passed through the booms of that river, having an approximate value of nearly $12,000,000. The importance of the industry in the peninsula may be gauged by the fact that Menominee was then the largest lumber port in the world. The Menominee River Boom company, which began operations in 1868, has passed more than 10,000,000,000 feet of logs through its booms since that time, and the fact that this is but one company of the many that have operated during the hey-day of lumbering, an idea may be gained of the stupendous proportion on which the lumber industry was conducted. The transportation of logs by water has largely given way to rail transportation, while the huge waste that was prevalent in the cutting and sawing of lumber has now been brought to the irreducible minimum. At first, only those logs were brought to the mills that two, three, or four sixteen-foot logs would cut a thousand feet. In 1888, each log 192 feet each, or about five logs to the thousand, while today between thirty and forty logs are necessary to cut a thousand feet. Improved mill methods have reduced the great waste in slabs and sawdust that figured so prominently in the conduct of the early sawmills, and by-products are manufactured today from the waste material of the mills. The pioneer lumberman scorned to handle anything but pine, and that the best. With the passing of large pine cuttings, Michigan lumbermen and manufacturers turned their attention to the hardwood manufacturing, and the state today boasts some of the largest plants in the world, making hardwood products of various kinds, principal among which is the manufacture of maple flooring, of which Menominee possesses one of the leaders in the J. W. Wells company. Perhaps the picturesqueness of the lumber industry has passed, and certainly the quickly-won fortunes are no longer made in wholesale logging of pine, yet the business men of the Upper Peninsula are finding an equally wide demand for hardwood products and a market for them far more stable than that enjoyed by the pine lumbermen. It must be remembered, however, that thousands of acres of virgin forest still exist in the peninsula, some tributary to the Manistique river and the rest to the Escanaba, Menominee, and other rivers in this section of the northern part of the state. Mining, for both copper and iron, entered upon its period of development at about the same time that the ax of the lumberman

Page  104 104 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN was beginning to cut its way through the forests of the Upper Peninsula. Even before a white man had penetrated the wilderness of the Lake Superior region, the Indians knew of the presence of copper and had told the great Champlain of its existence in this part of the country. To find the mines of this metal became the object of several voyages into the interior under orders from Champlain. Brule, although it is not known definitely that he penetrated farther than the Soo, ascertained that copper undoubtedly existed in the country to the south of Lake Superior, and his reports to Champlain confirmed the stories of the Indians, reports which he substantiated by displaying samples of the ore which he had acquired from Indians at Sault Ste. Marie. But at that early date, the French were too preoccupied with their search for a passage to the Indies to concern themselves at length with the evident wealth of minerals found at hand, and with the passing of the energetic Champlain, further explorations with such a goal ceased, leaving the rich deposits of the Copper country to be uncovered by Americans two hundred years later. To the Indians found by the white men, the copper of the Upper Peninsula apparently represented nothing of a salable commodity. Archaeologists have found traces of an extensive trade between the early Lake Superior inhabitants and the Aztecs and Mayas of Mexico whereby the Mexican and Central American tribes traded with the Northern Indians for the copper ore. That such a trade was carried on is substantiated by the fact that the Mexican tribes made a wide use of copper and by the fact that traces of old mining operations were found in the copper country when the Americans undertook to market the mineral, for the Aztecs and Mayas had no copper within their own reach. When the Chippewas released to the United States in 1843 their control of the Upper Peninsula country, they claimed that they had controlled the region for four hundred years, succeeding the Mascoutens, and that the latter tribe had been the only ones to conduct mining operations. Evidences of this early mining were found throughout the copper country but were chiefly pronounced at Isle Royale and in the vicinity of Ontonagon. Overland trails traversed Wisconsin and Illinois to cross the Menominee river at Wausaukee Bend, and it was probably over these routes and by the rivers and lakes that the ore or copper utensils were transported for trade with the Indians of the Southwest. The discovery of these ancient mining evidences has been attributed to Samuel O. Knapp, mine superintendent for the Minnesota Mining company in that year, 1847. Foster & Whitney, engaged in early geological explorations in this territory, wrote at some length in their book, "Prehistoric Races," on the discoveries of Knapp, part of which is as follows: "The following spring, he explored some of the excavations farther west. One artificial depression was twenty-six feet deep, filled with clay and a matter mass of mouldering vegetable matter. At a depth of eighteen feet he came to a mass of native copper,

Page  105 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 105 ten feet long, three feet wide, and nearly two feet thick, and weighing over six tons. On digging around the mass, it was found to rest on billets of oak, supported by sleepers of the same material. This wood, from its long exposure to moisture, was dark colored, and had lost all its consistency. It opposed no more resistance to a knife blade than so much peat. The earth was so firmly packed as to support the mass of copper. The ancient miners had evidently raised it about five feet and then abandoned the work as too laborious, having first knocked off all projecting points. The vein was wrought in the form of an open trench, and, where the copper was most abundant, there the excavations were deepest. The trench was filled nearly flush with the wash of the surrounding surface.... A few rods farther on west was to be seen another excavation in a cliff, where the miners had left a portion of the vein-stone, in the form of a pillar, to prop up the hanging wall. "Of the fact that a race of skilful miners were operating here long anterior to the historic era, there are abundant proofs. The evidence consists in numerous excavations in the solid rock, from which the vein-stone has been extracted; of heaps of rubble and dirt along the course of the veins; of copper utensils fashioned into knives, chisels, axes, spears and arrowheads; of stone hammers, creased for the attachment of withes; of wooden bowls for the bailing of water from the mines; of wooden shovels for throwing out the debris; of props and levers for raising and supporting the mass of copper, and ladders for ascending and descending the pits." Frequent references to the copper of the Lake Superior region were made in the Jesuit Relations, while mention was made of the deposits in writings of various Frenchmen soon after the presence of the metal wlas definitely ascertained. Alexander Henry, the garrulous British trader whose writings have supplied a wealth of source material in the historical work of this section of the country, became interested in the copper reputed to lie hidden in the soil of the Upper Peninsula, and in 1771, he joined others in equipping an expedition to make explorations for the metal. The party proceeded to Ontonagon, built a house, and began work in the clay to discover copper, masses of the mineral being found at frequent intervals. In 1772, the entire party of miners returned to Sault Ste. Marie, saying that further work was impracticable, because the clay had caved in on the diggings during the winter freezes. Henry, one of the promoters of the project, noted in his writings that undoubtedly large copper deposits were in that region but that it would be impossible to work the mines except for local consumption and operations would have to wait until the country had become populated by white men. The expedition of General Lewis Cass to the Upper Peninsula in 1820 visited the great copper boulder that had been discovered in the Ontonagon river and was thought by the Indians

Page  106 106 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN to possess supernatural powers. The boulder of native copper was subsequently transported to the East and housed in the Smithsonian Institution. It took the report of Dr. Douglass Houghton, state geologist, to the state legislature in 1841, however, to arouse the people to the worth of the copper fields of the northern part of the state. Houghton had begun his surveys in the northern part of the state in 1830, but they were interrupted after a time. He completed his work in 1841; the government se. cured the release of title from the Indians in 1842; and in 1844, the lands of this section of the territory were placed upon the market for active development. Thus, the first great copper field in the United States was discovered and opened, beginning the operations in a copper mining region that has since been one of the most important in the world. Even before the lands were opened for settlement by the Government, Jim Paul and Nick Miniclear, two backwoodsmen, started overland from southern Wisconsin in mid-winter to reach the copper country in March, 1843, becoming known to history as the first miners to locate in that region. A land office was opened at Copper Harbor later in the same year, and from thenceforward, prospectors flocked to the country. Because of the confusion resulting from the overlapping of mining locations, the Government eventually adopted the policy of selling mineral lands outright. The year 1844 brought a fresh influx of prospectors, most of whom were unfamiliar with mining, but in that same year came the first Cornishmen to the copper country, men who sprung from a race of people that had been miners since before history records their activities. The first copper was mined that year at Copper Harbor, a few tons of ore called black oxide being taken from a fissure vein and then abandoned. This vein was soon displaced by a fissure vein containing native copper as the object of the operations of the same company, and in 1849 that concern began paying dividends, payments that have since been made to Lake Superior copper lands. Soon after the Cliff Mine was opened in Keweenaw county, the Minnesota mine was opened in Ontonagon county at the opposite end of the copper producing district. The first methods of mining copper consisted in the working of cross fissures only, and for many years, the stratified beds, in which all the present mines are developed, were untouched for many years. The Portage lake section, containing but few fissure veins, was not an object of early exploitation. The Quincy company was the first to make a success of mining in the cupriferous, opening an amygdaloid lode, so that their example was soon followed by other mining companies. In 1866, the Calumet & Hecla opened the first mine in a conglomerate bed, and this mine has since remained the largest and most profitable mine in the Lake Superior copper country, having paid, it is believed, greater dividends than any other mining company in the world. The Keweenaw formation in Michigan includes four fields, Keweenaw point at the eastward part, the Portage Lake or Cen

Page  107 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 107 tral district, which includes Calumet and South Range fields, the mines of Ontonagon county and the extension into Gogebic county, and Isle Royale. The western end of Keweenaw county possessed the richest cross veins, in which the Cliff, Phoenix, and Central mines were the most important developments. The percentage of copper contained in the rock shows a decrease in all mines opened to a depth of 4,000 feet or more, and the heat and briny water found at that depth coupled with the increased mining costs and lower copper content of the ore makes it a bottom for the mines for the most part. Considerable silver is found in the mines of the Lake Superior region, particularly in the mines of the Evergreen belt of Ontonagon county and those of the Portage Lake district in Houghton county. This precious metal is not alloyed with the copper but is present merely in a physical mixture. Virtually all the commercial copper ores are found in the mines of the Upper Peninsula, including, cuprite, melaconite, azurite, malachite, chalcocite, bornite, chalcopyrite, chrysocolla, algodonite, domeykite, whitneyite, mohawkite, and keweenawite. Metallic copper is found in all rocks of the Keweenaw formation except in the sandstones of the Porcupine mountains. It is found principally in the traps and conglomerates of the main series, the metal of the conglomerates occurring largely as cementing material. In 1846, Professor James T. Hodge made the first attempt at smelting, erecting a small furnace on the Gratiot river in Keweenaw county. But two short seasons spelled the career of the Hodge furnace, for the smelter returns were only 3.5 percent copper from ore that assayed about 20 percent metal, showing that about five-sixths of the metal was lost in the slag. In 1847, the Suffolk Mining company erected a small furnace seven miles southeast of Eagle River, but this venture was likewise a failure. A third furnace was built on Isle Royale in 1849 but was never put into commission. Thus it was that all copper mined in the Upper Peninsula was, until 1850, smelted in Baltimore, but in that year, J. G. Hussey & company built a copper smelter in Cleveland, and in the same year, another was erected at Detroit. Shortly after the establishment of these two furnaces, a successful smelter was built at Hancock, Houghton county, and another was built in Ontonagon county in 1863. Prior to 1867, a small and unsuccessful smelter was erected at Lac La Belle, Keweenaw county. The Calumet & Hecla smelter at Hubbell was built in 1886, the Dollar Bay plant in 1888, the Quincy smelter in 1898, and the Michigan smelter in 1904. Keweenaw, Houghton, and Ontonagon counties are considered the copper counties of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, for it's within their limits that the major portion of the copper has been mined. The unquestioned leaders in the mining of this metal are the Calumet & Hecla and the Quincy Mining companies, the former of which is one of the largest in the United States, and

Page  108 108 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN the latter of which, while it is not as large, is favorably known for the large dividends it has always paid. The Quincy concern was incorporated March 30, 1848, with a capital of $500,000, was reincorporated in 1878 for a second period of thirty years and with a capital stock of $1,000,000, subsequently increased to $2,500,000, and entered upon its third thirty-year period of incorporation in 1908 with a capital stock of $3,750,000. The mine at Hancock was originally explored in 1856. The lands of the company now cover a large area, extending from the northern shore of Portage lake to a point half way between Hancock and Calumet, property that wias acquired, in large part, from other mining enterprises, including the Pewabic Mining company, whose affairs were closed in 1905 and transferred to the Quincy Mining company at that time. The company has been aggressive in the acquirement of extensive docks at Hancock, has built its own railroad to connect its various mines, smelters, and mills, and has spared no pains to equip its mines with the most modern machinery of all kinds. The Calumet & Hecla Mining company, one of the largest copper mining enterprises in the United States, was organized in 1871 under the laws of Michigan, its original capitalization having been $2,500,000. Its charter was renewed in 1900 for thirty years and was altered in 1905 to make the concern a security holding company as well as a mining and smelting organization. With the exception of the smelting, which is done at Buffalo, New York, the Calumet & Hecla company carries on all its mechanical work in this section. Representing a consolidation of the Hecla, Calumet, Portland, and Scott Mining companies, the Calumet & Hecla Mining company has various subsidiary organizations including the Frontenac Copper company, Gratiot Mining company, and the Manitou Mining company, while a majority of the stock of these companies is owned by the Calumet & Hecla company: Centennial, LaSalle, Superior, Dana, and St. Louis Copper companies, and the Allouez Mining company. Minor interests are owned in these companies as well: Osceola Consolidated, Laurium, and Seneca Mining companies. The Calumet & Hecla mine proper covers an approximate area of 2,750 acres, while other tracts are owned by the company as well. The richer portions of the conglomerate are, for the most part, located on the Calumet & Hecla property, this part of their holdings being worked in two separate mines, known as the Calumet & Hecla branches of South Hecla. The Calumet on the north, the Hecla in the center, and the South Hecla together form a continuous mine, developing the conglomerate ore deposits by inclined shafts with the exception of the Red Jacket mine, which taps the ore body vertically. Perhaps no mining company in the United States has a better equipment throughout than has the Calumet & Hecla properties, for in the surface equipment, everything is duplicated as far as possible to obviate delays caused by the breaking of one particular kind of machinery. The company maintains its own large machine shop to handle the repair and building of tools and

Page  109 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 109 machines for use in the mines. The company maintains schoolhouses for the education of the children of its employees and supports a library of many thousand volumes for the use of the employees. At Lake Linden is a combination library and clubhouse for the use of the stamp mill and smelter employees. The company supplies hospital facilities for the miners and other persons in its employ. Three waterworks systems are maintained by the company, one at Lake Linden, one on the shore of Lake Superior four miles from Calumet, and a third at the mines in Calumet. The fire department affords the mines and company buildings the necessary protection and responds to calls from Red Jacket, Laurium, and other towns on the Calumet & Hecla property. The Hecla & Torch Lake railroad, owned by the corporation, connects the mills, mines, shops, and smelters by a line some twenty miles in length. In 1908, the mills of the company at Lake Linden were completely rebuilt, electric equipment being installed at that time. The Torch Lake smelter is located about a mile south of the mills at Hubbell, comprising four furnace buildings and a blister copper building. A sawmill at the head of Torch Lake cuts the lumber logged off the property of the company, the timbers thus made being used in the mines and in the construction of mine buildings of various kinds. The company owns and operates a ship canal from Torch Lake to the Government project at Portage lake, and ample dock facilities are maintained by the concern. The Tamarack mine, said to the deepest copper mine in the world, is owned and operated by the Tamarack Mining company, which was incorporated in 1882 to work the end of the conglomerate lode where it passed from the Calumet & Hecla land into the Tamarack property. Captain John Daniell conceived the idea of tapping the lode by a series of vertical shafts, but inasmuch as the sinking of such deep shafts was considered impracticable in those days, he found some difficulty in interesting capital in the venture. However, the company was formed and three and a half years after the organization of the company, the first shaft was bottomed and production commenced. The Tamarack mine, with shafts sinking to a depth of a mile or more, has been one of the large producers of copper in the Lake Superior fields. The company also mines the Osceola amygdaloid lode, but the conglomerate forms the chief output of the company. Two stamp mills are maintained at Torch Lake about a mile south of the mills of the Calumet & Hecla Mining company. The Copper Range Consolidated company, whose mine office is at Painesdale, Houghton county, and main offices are at Boston, Massachusetts, was organized in November, 1901, and now has a capitalization of $40,000,000. The assets of the company consist largely in stocks in subsidiary companies, by which it is the owner of the Baltic and Trimountain mines and has a half interest in the Champion mine. Thus, it is the second largest producer in the Lake Superior copper country and ranks among the twelve leaders in the world. The Trimountain Mining company

Page  110 i10 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN was organized in 1899 and commenced reproduction in 1902, and the Champion Copper company was also organized in 1899. The stamp mill of the latter organization is located at Freda, on Lake Superior two miles west of Redridge. The Baltic Mining company, of Baltic, Michigan, southwest of Houghton county, was established in 1897 and began producing about three years later. Like the other two mines of the Copper Range Consolidated company, it is served by the Copper Range railroad. The Isle Royale Consolidated Mining company was organized in 1899, and the mill site is located at the mouth of the Pilgrim river and has a frontage of nearly a mile on Portage lake. There the company maintains a six hundred-foot wharf from which ore barges are sent to the smelter of the Lake Superior company across the lake at Dollar Bay. The Wolverine Copper company came into existence in 1890. Although the property of the company at Kearsarge, Houghton county, was opened in 1882, it did not become a good producer until 1892, the change being brought about by John Stanton, whose courage and good management made the venture a successful one. The mill was completed in 1902 and was located on Traverse bay, Lake Superior, near the Mohawk establishment. The Centennial Copper Mining company was organized in 1896 to succeed the Centennial Mining company and is controlled by the Calumet & Hecla company. The first work on the Centennial lands was begun in 1863 by the old Schoolcraft Mining company, which failed to open a paying mine and was succeeded in 1876 by the Centennial Mining company, which was reorganized as the Centennial Copper Mining company in 1896. The new company did a few months' work on the old conglomerate lode in 1897. It then turned its attention to the Osceola lode and to the Kearsarge lode in 1899. The Centennial stamping mills are at Point Mills and were established in 1904 by the Arcadian Mining company. The Mayflower Mining company began its operations in August, 1909, and its property extends from the Eastern Sandstone to the Wolverine mine, and the Old Colony mine, a subsidiary of the Calumet & Hecla, is located just south of the Mayflower. The LaSalle Copper company, another subsidiary of the Calumet & Hecla company, bought the old Tecumseh mine in May, 1910. The Osceola Consolidated Mining company has two stamp mills adjoining those of the Tamarack mills on Torch lake. The first mill, a wooden structure, was built in 1886 and torn down in 1905; the second was completed in 1899 and the third in 1902. The company was organized in 1873 and reincorporated in 1903 with a capital of $2,500,000 and controls the Osceola, Tamarack Junior, North Kearsarge, and South Kearsarge mines, in addition to large timber holdings in Houghton and Keweenaw counties. The Hancock Consolidated Mining company was organized in 1906 and has a location of 936 acres adjoining the Quincy mine

Page  111 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 111 to the southwest. The tract includes the original Hancock mine, which was set aside by the Quincy Mining company in 1859 with mineral rights reserved, and the Quincy West and Hancock, or Sumner copper-bearing property. A subsidiary of the Calumet & Hecla is the Laurium Copper company, which began active mining developments on its property in August, 1909. Its original lands consisted of a section lying east of the Calumet & Hecla property, but about 250 acres of the land has been sold for platting the village of Laurium and another piece of about sixty-five acres was sold many years ago to the Calumet & Hecla Mining company. Iron Mining. Hand in hand with the copper mining and the lumbering of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, came the development of the great iron fields that have been of equal importance in the commercial and industrial prosperity of this section of the state. Although Indians antedating those found by the white men worked the copper deposits of the Upper Peninsula, the iron was apparently unknown to them, and the discovery of iron ore in this region may therefore be attributable to William R. Burt, who found it while conducting government survey work in Marquette county in 1844. Burt found in his surveying that the compass needle could not be relied upon because of peculiar magnetic action, and this observation led to the invention of the solar compass and to the discovery of iron ore. Believing that iron ore underlaid the ground of Marquette county, Burt reported what he had noticed, and in 1845 a company of Jackson men came to the present Marquette county and conducted the explorations that led to the discovery of the iron deposits of the Upper Peninsula. Under the decaying roots of an uprooted tree, the party found the iron ore for which it was looking, and in 1846, the Jackson mine produced the first iron ore of the peninsula, Negaunee, the site of the mine, being so named because it was there that the iron was discovered, Negaunee meaning, the first or pioneer. Early in 1848 blooms were made at a furnace built by the company on Carp river a few miles east of Negaunee. In that year, the dam for the forge, which had been carried away by a freshet soon after the forge had begun operations, February 10, 1848, was replaced, and a certain amount of ore was manufactured into blooms there until 1854. The high cost of transportation of the blooms to the market retarded the infant industry to a point where it was almost inactive, and it was not until the opening of the ship canal at Sault Ste. Marie that the iron mining industry gained the impetus that has made it one of the important fields in the United States. The first shipment of ore was made from the fields in 1850 by A. L. Crawford, of Newcastle, Pennsylvania. The ore was smelted into blooms and rolled into merchant bars with which to make tests of the iron, and so high were the tests that the attention of the Pennsylvania iron and steel manufacturers was at

Page  112 112 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN tracted to the Marquette iron range. General Curtis, proprietor of an iron works at Sharon, Pennsylvania, came to the new fields in the same summer and bought a controlling interest in the Jackson mine, which was thereafter known as the Sharon mine for some years. In 1852, about seventy tons of ore from the Jackson mine were taken to Sharon and smelted. However, the history of the Jackson mine, the pioneer opening in the Marquette iron range, is one of financial embarrassment, changes of management, and disappointments until 1860. In 1861, a new and able board of directors took charge bf the affairs, and this fact coupled with the great demand for iron caused by the outbreak of the Civil war, the Jackson mine became so successful that the value of its stock jumped to five times par and there remained. The Marquette Iron company was the second enterprise of that kind to become established in this region. In the summer of 1848, Edward Clark, of Worcester, Massachusetts, came to Lake Superior in the interest of Boston capitalists to explore for copper. At Sault Ste. Marie, he met Robert J. Graveraet who persuaded him to stop at Carp river and inspect the iron deposits. At that time, the forge of the Jackson company was in operation, and Clark was so impressed with abundance of the ore and the apparent high quality of the iron that he returned to Boston without once looking for copper, taking with him a sample of the ore and a bloom from the Jackson location. At Boston the bloom was drawn into wire with such success that Clark set about the formation of a company to enter the iron mining field of the Marquette range. Robert J. Graveraet joined Clark in Worcester, Massachusetts, that winter and they succeeded in interesting a number of men in the enterprise, including Amos R. Harlow. Against the capital of the others, Clark and Graveraet were to put up leases of iron lands which they claimed to own, and Harlow', the owner of a machine shop, built and purchased the machinery necessary to erect a forge on Lake Superior. Graveraet returned to Marquette early in the spring of 1849 with a party of men to be ready to receive the machinery and supplies, and Harlow and family followed about two months after the arrival of the machinery. Among the party brought by Graveraet was a boy, Peter White, he subsequently became one of the wealthiest and most influential men of that section of the state. More detailed information of the arrival of this party may be found in that part of the history dealing with Marquette county. During the summer of 1849, the men built several loghouses, a large log barn, and a log boarding house, and in the fall of that year the company's mine was opened. During that winter, twenty or more double teams were employed in hauling ore from the mine to the forge, which was completed and put into operation one year after the landing of Harlow and his men. During 1850-51, the Marquette company worked an opening in Section 11 and one in Section 10 and in the following winter as well.

Page  113 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 113 However, the Marquette Iron company came upon difficulties, for each member of the organization denied that the others were partners in the project, and with dissension rife within the ranks of those who financed the company, it was but to be expected that the time was not far off when it should either go out of business or be sold to another enterprise. In April, 1853, the articles of incorporation for the Cleveland Iron Mining company were filed, the capital stock being set at $500,000. The previous winter, the company had acquired the rights and interests of the Marquette Iron company, for the Cleveland company had come into being prior to the adoption of the constitution of 1850. That state instrument prohibited the legislature from granting special charters of the kind which the Cleveland company had gained and thus it was that reincorporation came in 1853. The title to the property of the Cleveland organization was for some time in dispute. In 1846 a Dr. J. L. Cassells, of Cleveland, came to the Sault and took possession of a square mile of territory in the name of the Dead River Silver & Copper Mining company but left the country the next year. At that time, the property was taken possession of by Captain Samuel Moody, John H. Mann, and Edward C. Rogers, the first two claiming what afterward became the porperty of the Cleveland company and the last named squatting on the lands in sections 10 and 11. The Marquette Iron company had leased these lands from Clark and R. J. Graveraet, who claimed to be the representatives of Moody and Mann. A long controversy was settled when the Department of the Interior accorded the right of purchase to Lorenzo Dow Burnell, from whom the Cleveland company purchased the property. The company was subsequently consolidated with the Iron Cliffs company under the present name of the ClevelandCliffs Iron Mining company, an organization that stands as one of the important and large operators in this section of the Michigan iron fields. One of the three oldest companies in the district is the Lake Superior Iron company, which was incorporated March 13, 1873, with a capital stock of $300,000. What is now the Lake Superior mine was claimed by Graveraet under the Rogers' pre-emption in behalf of the Marquette Iron company. Rogers lost his interest by failing to reach the land office at the Sault in November, 1850, to attend a Government sale of lands, a storm on the lake delaying him. Isaiah Briggs then purchased the land in the name of John Burt under an agreement to lease an undivided one-half to Graveraet for a term of ninety-nine years. Graveraet in turn assigned his lease to the Marquette Iron company, the property thus coming to the Cleveland Iron Mining company and by it sold to the Lake Superior Iron company, a transaction that subsequently became a basis for a long suit against the company by A. R. Harlow. The New England Mining company was incorporated in 1848 by a special act of the legislature, but nothing was done in min

Page  114 114 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN ing by this concern, and in 1855 the charter passed into the hands of Captain E. B. Ward, who opened the New England mine in the spring of 1864. The Eureka Iron company and the Collins Iron company were both incorporated in 1853, each having a capital stock of $500,000. The Eureka organization was formed for the purpose of mining Lake Superior iron and manufacturing charcoal pig iron, and to this end, the erection of a furnace was begun at Marquette, but the location was changed to Wyandotte, Michigan, and became the nucleus of the extensive iron works of that place, Captain E. B. Ward being one of the leaders in the enterprise. The property purchased by the company proved to be practically worthless for mining purposes, and it was sold back to A. R. Harlow, the original owner. The Collins Iron company built a forge in the fall of 1854 and began the manufacture of blooms. In 1858, Stephen R. Gay leased the forge, erected a cupola, and began making pig iron. The company then erected a blast furnace and began the manufacture of iron under the supervision of Mr. Gay. It went into its first blast on December 13, 1858. The Peninsular Iron company was incorporated in 1854 and acquired the title to eight hundred acres of land, which was subsequently sold to the Lake Superior Iron company. The company erected a blast furnace at Hamtramck, Detroit, in 1863, and bought the Carp River furnace at Marquette in 1874. The Forest Iron company was incorporated in 1855, but it failed after a brief career. The Pioneer Iron company erected the first blast furnace in the Marquette region, and though work was commenced in June, 1857, the articles of incorporation for the company were not filed until the following month. Stephen R. Gay and Lorenzo D. Harvey were the builders of the furnace which began operations in February, 1858, drawing its ore principally from the Jackson mine near which it was located. For the first few years of its existence, the furnace made no money, for in 1860 I. B. B. Case had contracted to deliver the pig iron on board vessels at Marquette at a contract price less than the manufacturing costs. The furnace was razed by fire in August, 1864, and was almost immediately rebuilt. Two years later, the Iron Cliffs company bought the enterprise and continued to operate it until it went out of business. The Menominee iron range was the second to be discovered in the Upper Peninsula. Bartholomew and Thomas Breen were prominently engaged as timber cruisers and inspectors, and in 1866 they discovered an outcropping of ore at what is now the Breen mine in Dickinson county. But the prospect of development of the region was a poor one at that time, for no railroad penetrated that district to give an outlet to the lakes. The two Breens and Judge E. S. Ingalls set about the task of promoting the development of the great iron fields. They had also discovered what they believed to be large marble deposits a few miles distant from the iron beds, and to open the fields, they inter

Page  115 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 115 ested capital in the organization of the Deer Creek & Marble Quarry railroad to connect the prospective mines and quarries with the lake at Deer Creek. Before the project could be carried out, however, the Chicago & Northwestern railroad entered the field, making unnecessary the construction of the private railroad. This line was projected as far as Escanaba in 1872. The Menominee River Railway company was then organized under the control of the Northwestern to build a line into the Menominee iron range, receiving a grant of seven sections of land per mile to promote the construction of the proposed carrier. The first eighteen miles to the newly-opened works at Vulcan were built in the summer of 1877, and continued to Quinnesec in the fall of the same year. In the meantime, further explorations had been conducted along the proposed route of the railroad in 1872 under the supervision of Dr. N. P. Hulst, the work being continued throughout that season and the one of the following year. Doctor Hulst is given much credit for the extensive explorations in this range and for the additional work on the Breen location under a lease from the Breen company. The Vulcan mine was discovered in 1873, and made its first ore shipments in 1877. The Quinnesec mine formation was discovered in the fall of 1871, but it was not until May, 1873, that work was begun to determine the extent of the deposit and the character of the ore contained therein. Fifty-five'tons of the ore were hauled to Menominee in the spring of 1874, where its tractability was proved in the smelter. The mine was officially opened in 1877 and the first rail shipments of ore made the following year. The Emmet was opened in 1877, and shipped nearly 12,000 tons of ore the following year. The Cyclops mine was discovered October 1, 1878, and was shipping 150 tons of ore per day by the twenty-fourth of that same month. The Curry mine was opened in 1887 and shipments begun the following year, when nearly 14,000 tons left the mine. The Saginaw mine, later named the Perkins, was also discovered in 1879, and began the regular shipments of ore the following year. The Cornell mine was discovered in 1879, and in 1880 shipped more than thirty thousand tons of ore. The Keel Ridge mine was discovered in 1879, and also began its shipments in 1880, although the total for the first year was less than half of that produced by the Cornell mine. The East Vulcan mine was opened in the same year as the two preceding ones. The Ludington mine, too, was opened in 1879, and the famous Chapin mine began its production in 1880. The Indiana mine was discovered in 1879, and the Millie mine in 1880, production beginning the following year. The aggressiveness of the promoters of the mines in that section of the peninsula deserve great commendation for the manner in which they carried through the development of what proved to be one of the richest iron fields in the United States, for from the time the ore was first discovered in the Menominee range, those

Page  116 116 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN who purported to be authorities, claimed that it could never be successfully worked as long as the Marquette range was producing large quantities of high grade ore. Undiscouraged by the skeptical attitude of others, the Menominee entrepeneurs went steadily ahead, and perhaps no field has seen a quicker or more intensive opening than that under discussion. The Breens, Judge Ingalls, John L. Buel, and S. P. Saxton stand among the pioneer developers of this field. To their vision, tireless labors, integrity, and unbounded faith in the future of the iron industry in this section of the state, the Menominee range owed its early and substantial development. However, there are others, younger men, whose names are indissolubly linked with the history of the industry there, they being Hulst, Cole, Davidson, MacNaughton, Jones, Brown, McLean, and others. Close upon the heels of the beginning of iron production in the Menominee range came the discovery of iron in the Gogebic range. As the Breen brothers discovered the ore in the Menominee range while on a timber cruise, so is iron said to have been found on the site of the Colby mine by a lumberman and reported to Captain N. D. Moore, who is generally credited with having made the discovery of the ore in that range. The Colby, the first mine opened in the Gogebic range, was opened on the site of this discovery and within a short time ranked among the leaders in production in the ranges of this part of the peninsula. At that time, the mine was in a wilderness, located far from Ontonagon, the county seat. As in the case of the mines of the Menominee range, the mine was forced to wait for the coming of the railroad for its development. The Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Western was incorporated and projected for this purpose, subsequently becoming a part of the Chicago & Northwestern system. The road was built in 1884, and with the advent of adequate transportation facilities, settlers streamed into the country and the development of the mining properties began on a comprehensive scale. The Ashland mine was discovered in the year of the coming of the railroad, 1884, and shipments of ore were begun the following year. The Norrie mine was opened in 1885 and began its shipments of ore in the same season. The Aurora and the Newport, then called the Iron King, were opened in 1886, and with this beginning, the Gogebic iron range assumed an important place among the iron ore producing fields of the country. Mines were uncovered in rapid succession, following the range easterly into Michigan and westerly into Wisconsin. One of the important mining companies of the Upper Peninsula that has not yet been mentioned is the Oliver Iron Mining company, a subsidiary of the United States Steel Corporation. This company has mines in the Marquette range, operating there largely in the vicinity of Ishpeming, Marquette county, as well as at Bessemer, Gogebic county, and other portions of the various ranges. It is known as one of the largest producers and shippers

Page  117 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 117 of iron ore in the world, for it operates some of the largest and most productive mines in the various ranges of the Lake Superior as well as in the Missabe range of northern Minnesota. Discovery of ore in the Iron River district is attributed to Harvey Mellen, a United States surveyor, who entered in his field book on August 8, 1851, that an outcropping of iron ore five feet high was found on the west face of Stambaugh hill fifty-two chains north of the southwest corner of section 36, township 43 north, range 35 west. Though this surveyor discovered iron there, neither he nor anyone else attempted to promote developments in the ore deposit thus discovered, and it was thirty-one years before active steps were to be taken in that direction. The first mine in that district was opened on the site of the outcropping discovered by Mellen, and the opening of the district came with the advent of the spur of the Chicago & Northwestern railroad from Stager, then known as Iron River Junction. Shipments began almost simultaneously from the Iron River and Nanaimo mines, these enterprises making the only important ore shipments until 1893. The Beta, Sheridan, and Hiawatha mines were opened in 1886, 1889, and 1893, respectively. That the ores of the district were chiefly non-Bessemer has been given as the reason for the slow development of this field, for mining capital was largely attracted to the newly-opened Bessemer fields of Vermilion and Penokee-Gogebic ranges. The deposits, too, were overlaid by deep glacial drift, and titles were in litigation for many years, two more reasons for the slow opening of the range of this section. One of the notable, and unsuccessful achievements of that time, was the attempt of the Iron River Furnace company to establish a blast furnace on the opposite side of the river and north of Nanaimo mine. From 1893 to 1899, the iron mining industry was in a state of depression, but after this period, production began anew. The Mastodon Iron company, of Crystal Falls, explored the property of the Dober mine, which was subsequently purchased by the Oliver Iron Mining company and has become one of the largest producers in the district. The Verona Mining company explored the Baltic mine in 1900, and began shipments of ore from that property in 1901. The Hiawatha began shipping in 1900 and the Caspian in 1902. The Iron River mine, which had been inactive since 1892, was reopened in 1903, and Young's mine came into being in 1904. The first shipments from the James and Brule mines were made in 1907, from the Berkshire and Zimmerman in 1908, and from the Fogarty, Chatham, and Baker mines in 1909. Other Industries. While the lumbering of the past and the mining activities of today form a great part of the industrial life of the Upper Peninsula, it must be remembered that enterprising manufacturers and business men have introduced other lines of endeavor that have added materially to the prosperity of this section of the state, doing much to remove the people from the depressions caused when communities are dependent almost entirely upon one or two industrial ventures for their subsistence.

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Page  119 Biographical Sketches Peter White. Perhaps no man had a more marked influence upon the development of Marquette and this section of the Upper Peninsula than did Peter White, whose life was spent in an unselfish advocacy of those measures which would tend to place this region among the leading industrial and commercial section of the state. He was the grandson of Captain Stephen White, a Revolutionary war soldier of Ballston, Saratoga county, New York, and was the son of Dr. Stephen and Harriette (Tubbs) White, the former of whom kept one of the first hotels at Rome, Oneida county, New York, and the latter of whom was the daughter of Asa and Philette (Corcoran) Tubbs. Peter White was born at Rome, New York, October 31, 1820, and when he was a small boy his mother died, his father taking Mary Quintard to be his second wife. When the boy was twelve years of age, the family came West, locating at Green Bay, Wisconsin. Peter White was unhappy in his new home, and when he was thirteen years of age, he ran away from home, shipping aboard a schooner bound for Mackinac Island. Thus, he inaugurated his independent career, for from that time forward he supported himself. For two years, he was employed in a store at Mackinaw by Edward Kanter, and during this time, he was a member of the boat crew for Captain August Canfield, U.S.A. In 1849, when he was eighteen years of age, Peter White came to Marquette county with a party of prospectors searching for iron deposits, and his own account of his first days in the region where he was destined to rise to prominence is given in part in the history of this county. When Marquette county was organized, he was elected county clerk and register of deeds and served as deputy county treasurer at the same time, so that a deed to be valid in those days, it was thought must have his name in three places as register of deeds, notary, and witness. In 1855, he bought the Cleveland store at Marquette and engaged in a general trade with his brother as partner. In the same year, he was admitted to practice at the bar, he having applied himself to the study of law in his spare hours, and formed a partnership with M. H. Maynard under the firm style of White & Maynard. The firm was engaged in virtually all the lawsuits of the county during the next ten years and was widely known throughout this section of the Upper Peninsula. In 1857, he was appointed register of the United States Land Office and procured its removal from Sault Ste. Marie to Marquette, at which time he disposed of his mercantile interests. Politically, he was an unswerving Democrat until the first Bryan campaign, when he became a Republican, later being elected a regent of the

Page  120 120 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN University of Michigan on that ticket. He assisted in the organization of the first school district in the county in 1855 and served as a member of the school board and treasurer of that body continuously after 1857. In 1856, Mr. White was elected to represent this district in the state legislature, and in 1876, he was elected to a seat in the state senate, during which term of office he secured the passage of many bills of vital importance to the Upper Peninsula, including one for the construction of the railroad from Marquette to the Straits of Mackinac. He was influential in the formation of St. Paul's Episcopal parish in 1855 and was an officer of the church during almost the entire time he was an active member of that body. In 1853, the private banking house of Peter White & Company came into existence and supplied a much needed want of the community during the ensuing ten years. In 1863, the business was incorporated as the First National bank, Mr. White serving as cashier until 1868, at which time he assumed the duties of president, continuing in that capacity throughout the remainder of his life. The work of Mr. White in connection with the bank is one of the high lights of the financial history of the Upper Peninsula, for he was largely instrumental in bringing the institution safely through the panic of 1873. The death of Peter White occurred June 6, 1908, and Marquette mourned the loss of one of her most valuable citizens. In the civic affairs of his community, he was deeply interested, and it is solely through his farsightedness and unselfish interest in the welfare of the city that Presque Isle park has been maintained in its primitive grandeur for the delight of the people. In 1857, Mr. White married Ellen S. Hewitt, the daughter of Dr. M. L. Hewitt, and they became the parents of two daughters, Mrs. A. C. Jopling and Mrs. George Shiras, III. George Shiras, III, is well known to the people of Marquette, Michigan, where he is president of the Lake Superior Development company and a director of the Lake Shore Engine works. He was born at Allegheny, Pennsylvania, January 1, 1859, the son of George, Jr., and Lillie E. (Kennedy) Shiras, and pursued his early studies in the schools of his native place. In 1881, he graduated from Cornell university and two years later he won the degree of bachelor of laws from Yale university. In 1918, Trinity college conferred upon him the doctorate in science. In 1883, Mr. Shiras was admitted to practice in Pennsylvania and Connecticut and at that time went into practice with his father, an association that was continued until the latter was appointed to a seat on the bench of the United States Supreme Court in 1892. Thereafter, until 1904, Mr. Shiras was a member of the law firm of Shiras & Dickey, of Pittsburgh, becoming known as one of the ablest attorneys in that city. During that time, he interested himself in politics. He was elected to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives for the session of 1889-90, and he served in the Fifty-eighth Congress, 1903-5, having been elected to that seat by the Citizens party which was composed of Republicans who were dissatisfied with the local Republican organization. Though nationally a Republican,

Page  121 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 121 in his campaign for election to Congress he received the endorsement of the Democrats in his district. Since 1905, Mr. Shiras has written extensively upon legal questions dealing with federal jurisprudence and upon biological subjects. A student of natural history and a lover of the wild life of the country, Mr. Shiras has been an ardent exponent of measures calculated to conserve the game of the United States. He was the author of a bill placing Federal control over migratory bids which became a law on March 4, 1913. In 1914, he was appointed to serve as a member of the advisory board of the Migratory Bird Treaty Regulations of the Department of Agriculture, and since 1912, he has been vice-president of the American Game Protective association. He is a director of the National Parks association, director of the Council on National Parks, Forests and Wild Life, of New York, a member of the executive committee of the American Conference on Outdoor Recreation, at Washington, a trustee of the National Geographic society, and president of the League of Wild Life Photographers. Mr. Shiras is well known for his ability as a photographer of wild life, having gained national prominence in this field. On October 31, 1885, Mr. Shiras married Frances P. White, the daughter of Peter White, of Marquette, of whom more may be found on other pages of this work, and to this union were born two children, George Peter, deceased, and Ellen Kennedy, who married Frank J. Russell. Mr. Shiras is a member of the Boone and Crockett club and the Explorers club, of New York, the Chevy Chase Country club, of Maryland, the Cosmos club, of Washington, the University club, of Pittsburgh, and the Rotary club, of Marquette. During the winter months, Mr. Shiras maintains a home in Washington, D. C., but his summers are spent at Marquette, where the forests of the Upper Peninsula afford him rich opportunity to observe the wild life of which he is so fond. He is a prominent figure in the industrial life of this city as president of the Lake Superior Development company and a director of the Lake Shore Engine works. Patrick W. Murray, who has long been one of the leaders in civic and business affairs in the city of St. Ignace, judicial center of Mackinac county, was born and reared in this fine "north country" of Michigan, and his has been an appreciative interest in its history and its progress. Mr. Murray was born on Mackinac Island, which is included in the county which still represents his home, and the date of his birth was May 4, 1859. He is a son of Dominic and Ann (White) Murray, the former of whom was born in Ireland, August 1, 1820, and the latter of whom was born at Rutland, Vermont, she having been young when her parents came to the West, the trip having been made partially by boat and the family having thus voyaged on the Great Lakes to Chicago, to the west of which now great metropolis the home was established. Dominic Murray was reared in his native land and was an ambitious youth of twenty years when he came to the United States. He was one of the pioneer settlers on Mackinac

Page  122 122 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Island, where he established himself in 1845, he having been, however, one of the adventurous spirits who went to California at the time of the historic discovery of gold in that state, in 1849. After his return to Mackinac Island he continued for many years to be engaged in the mercantile and hotel business and played a large and worthy part in the local history of this north district of Michigan. He served twenty years as sheriff of Mackinac county, in the early days, and was a pioneer merchant both on Mackinac Island and at St. Ignace, he having initiated his mercantile business in 1860. Dominic Murray was one of the well-known and highly honored pioneer citizens of the Upper Peninsula country at the time of his death, in October, 1902, when he was eighty-two years of age. His religious faith was that of the Catholic church, of which his wife likewise was an earnest communicant, she having been venerable in years at the time of her death, December 25, 1923, and having been one of the gracious and loved pioneer women of Mackinac county, she having come to this county in 1856 and having here passed the remainder of her life. The pioneer schools of his native county afforded Patrick W. Murray his early education, which was supplemented by a course in the Bryant & Stratton Business college in the city of Chicago. He gained youthful experience in connection with his father's hotel and mercantile business, and in 1880 he established at St. Ignace the mercantile business that he has continued during the long intervening years and that has represented one of the leading enterprises of this kind in the city and county. Mr. Murray has seen and participated in much of the development and progress of this section of his native state, and his mercantile business now ranks as the oldest established enterprise of its kind in the county. Mr. Murray has served as county treasurer and as judge of the probate court of Mackinac county, and was for many years a member of the St. Ignace board of education. He has been prominently concerned in lumbering operations, is now president of the First National Bank of St. Ignace, and is treasurer of the St. Ignace Transfer company. He is a communicant of the Catholic church, is affiliated with the Knights of Columbus, is a Democrat in politics, and is a member of the Lions club in his home city. It may be noted incidentally that his father was sheriff of Mackinac county during the period in which "King" Strang reigned over the historic Mormon colony on Beaver Island, which was then a part of Mackinac county. In the history of this county the Murray family has figured as one of major prominence and influence since the early pioneer days, and the subject of this review is one of a family of eleven children, all of whom still survive the honored parents: David W. is now judge of the probate court of Mackinac county and is represented in a personal sketch in this history; Mrs. E. Sims is a resident of Chicago; Misses Winifred, Anna, Delia and Edith still reside on Mackinac Island; Mrs. James E. Quinland of St. Ignace died March 17, 1927; James W. resides at St. Ignace and is manager of the new Murray

Page  123 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 123 Hotel on Mackinac Island; Thomas J. is engaged in lumbering operations and resides at St. Ignace; Bernard D. conducts one of the leading furnishing-goods stores in St. Ignace. David W. Murray, who is now serving as judge of the probate court of Mackinac county, is a representative of one of the old, honored, and influential families of this county, due record concerning his parents being given in the personal sketch of his older brother, P. W., on other pages of this work. Judge Murray was born on Mackinac Island, April 6, 1863, and in the schools of that fair northern isle he gained his early education, which has been amplified by well-ordered reading and study and by active association with the practical affairs of life. After his school days he became associated with his father's mercantile and hotel business on the island, and in the year that he attained to his legal majority he was elected clerk of the village of Mackinac Island. That he proved a popular and efficient public official is indicated by the fact that he was later elected township supervisor, besides serving thereafter as city clerk, city assessor and a member of the city council, besides being finally chosen mayor of Mackinac Island, after the village had gained a city charter. He has served continuously as judge of the probate court of his native county since 1908, with the executive headquarters at St. Ignace, the county seat. Judge Murray is a loyal advocate and supporter of the principles and policies of the Democratic party, he and his family are communicants of the Catholic church, and he is affiliated with the Knights of Columbus. Cecilia L. (Latus) Murray, wife of Judge Murray was born in the city of Chicago, Illinois, and is a daughter of the late Henry and Catherine Latus, her father having long been engaged in the mercantile business in Chicago. Latus, elder of the two children of Judge and Mrs. Murray, is twenty years of age at the time of this writing, in the winter of 1926-27, and is a student in the University of Detroit, in the metropolis of Michigan; Cecelia L., a daughter seventeen years of age, is a student in the Ursuline academy of this city, graduating from that institution this year. Prentiss M. Brown is one of the representative members of the bar of his native city and county, where, in St. Ignace, the county seat, he served as prosecuting attorney of Mackinac county until 1927. Mr. Brown was born at St. Ignace, June 18, 1889, and is a son of James J. and Minnie (Gagnon) Brown, both of whom were born in the city of Detroit, this state, where they were reared and where their marriage was solemnized. James J. Brown gained high reputation in his chosen profession, served as city attorney of Detroit, later engaged in the practice of law at Cheboygan and there served as prosecuting attorney of Cheboygan county, and after his removal to St. Ignace he served as prosecuting attorney of Mackinac county. He established his residence in St. Ignace in 1887, was here engaged in the successful practice of his profession more than thirty years, and he was one

Page  124 124 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN of the leading and honored members of the bar of Mackinac county at the time of his death, in 1920, his wife having passed away in 1902. At the time of birth of Prentiss M. Brown his father was prosecuting attorney of Mackinac county and the circuit court was in session at St. Ignace, when Judge Steere, who was then presiding on the bench of this court, learned of the birth of the son of the able and popular prosecuting attorney of the county, he promptly adjourned court in honor of the event. Prentiss M. Brown gained his early education in the public schools of St. Ignace, and thereafter continued his studies at Albion college, this state. In preparation for the profession that had been dignified and honored by the character and services of his father, he entered the law department of the University of Illinois, and in this institution he was graduated as a member of the class of 1913. After thus receiving his degree of bachelor of laws he was forthwith admitted to the Michigan bar and engaged in the practice of his profession in his native city of St. Ignace. In the following year, 1914, he was elected prosecuting attorney of Mackinac county, and by successive re-elections he has been continuously retained in this office, his sixth consecutive term-the best possible evidence of the high popular estimate placed upon his vigorous and resourceful administration. His professional activities have included also his service as city attorney of St. Ignace and of the city of Mackinac Island, which likewise is in Mackinac county. Mr. Brown has had much of leadership in the councils and campaign activities of the Democratic party in this section of Michigan, was chairman of the Michigan state convention of his party in 1924, in which year he was also a Michigan delegate to the Democratic national convention, in New York City, and in 1924 he was the Democratic nominee for representative of the Eleventh district of Michigan in the United States congress, his campaign having been a canvass of vital order and having made his run excellent, though he met with defeat, with the rest of the party ticket. Mr. Brown is a member of the Mackinac County Bar association and the Michigan State Bar association, is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and the Delta Tau Delta college fraternity, and is an active member of the Lions club in his home city. In the year 1916 Mr. Brown united in marriage to Miss Marian Walker, who likewise was born and reared at St. Ignace, and who is a daughter of Frank S. Walker. Mr. and Mrs. Brown have six children, whose names and respective ages (winter 1926-27) are here recorded: Marianna F., nine years; Ruth M., eight years; James J., named in honor of his paternal grandfather, five years; Barbara J., three years; Patricia Jane, two years; and Prentiss M., Jr., sixteen months. James E. Quinlan, who died March 13, 1927, was a most efficient, scholastic, and executive administrator as commissioner of the public schools of the city of St. Ignace, of which office he had been the incumbent since 1919, he having previously made

Page  125 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 125 a record of successful service as a teacher in the schools of this city during a period of twelve years. He was one of the prominent and influential figures in educational service on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Mr. Quinlan was born at Carsonville, Sanilac county, Michigan, October 27, 1885, a son of William T. and Margaret (McCormick) Quinlan, whose marriage was solemnized in the late sixties. William T. Quinlan was born in Waterford, Ireland, and in the year 1855 he joined his parents in Sanilac county, Michigan, where his father and mother had just established their home, he having preceded them to the United States and having first settled at New Orleans, Louisiana, as a young man. Later he resided in turn at Chicago and Detroit, and it was from the latter city that he went to Sanilac county in 1855, the year in which his parents came from Ireland and gained pioneer honors in that county. William T. Quinlan was graduated in the great University of Dublin, Ireland, was a man of fine intellect, and had followed the profession of accountant and bookkeeper until he joined his parents on their pioneer farm in Sanilac county, Michigan, where he passed the remainder of his life and where he was a venerable pioneer at the time of his death, in 1908, his wife having passed away in 1891. Mrs. Quinlan was born in Sydney, Australia, and was young when her parents came to the United States and established their residence in Mobile, Alabama. The family home was later maintained for a time in the city of Chicago, and finally the parents became pioneer settlers in Sanilac county, Michigan, where in the later sixties, occurred the marriage of the parents of James Quinlan of this review. The public schools of his native county afforded James Quinlan his early education and after there completing his studies in the Carsonville high school, he took a preparatory course at Ferris institute, Big Rapids, this state, besides attending for a time Valparaiso university, at Valparaiso, Indiana. In 1916 he was graduated in the Northern State Normal school of Michigan, and he has since taken effective post-graduate work in the University of Michigan. In the autumn of 1907 Mr. Quinlan became a teacher in the schools of St. Ignace, and in this connection he continued his loyal and successful pedagogic service twelve years. He was principal of the high school at the time of his election to the office of commissioner of the public schools of this county, in 1919, and in this office his work was characteristically loyal and constructive. Mr. Quinlan was a director of the Upper Peninsula Development Bureau and also of the First National bank of St. Ignace. His political allegiance was to the Democratic party, he and his wife were communicants of the Catholic church, and he affiliated with the Knights of Columbus, and in his home community held membership in the Lions club and the St. Ignace Golf & Country club. His wife died March 17, 1927. Her maiden name was Beatrice Murray. She was a representative of one of the honored pioneer families of

Page  126 126 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Mackinac county, and record concerning the family history appears in the personal sketch of her brother Patrick W., on other pages of this work. Charles Barnes has been intermittently associated with his father, Charles I. Barnes, in contract construction work in his native city of Sault Ste. Marie, and he here has rank as one of the successful contractors of the younger generation ini Chippewa county, with headquarters at No. 605 Johnson street. His is the distinction of having served in the United States navy in the World war period, and the same spirit of loyalty has characterized his business career. Of the family history adequate record is given in the personal sketch of his father, on other pages of this work. Mr. Barnes was born at Sault Ste. Marie July 21, 1896, and after duly profiting by the advantages of the public schools of this city he was here employed four years by the Union Carbide company. He was then associated for a time with M. N. Hunt, a successful contractor, and he then resumed his service at the plant of the Union Carbide company, with which he continued his connection until he entered the United States navy for World war service. After the close of the war and his reception of an honorable discharge, Mr. Barnes was employed four months at the establishment of the Soo Machine & Auto works, next followed, a period of further connection with the Union Carbide company, and he then, in 1920, went to Rochester, Minnesota, where he remained one year. Thereafter he was employed for a time at Manistique, Michigan, and he was next employed on the erection of the high-school building at Munising, another of the vital little cities of the Upper Peninsula. He then returned to Sault Ste. Marie and became associated with his father's contracting operations, but he passed the following year in working at his trade of brick mason in the city of Ann Arbor. With occasional intermissions he has maintained since 1922 a partnership with his father in the contracting enterprise, and in this connection, as well as in his status as a loyal and progressive citizen, he is well upholding the honors of the family name. He is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity. His wife, whose maiden name was Florence O. Comb, was born at Sault Ste. Marie August 22, 1897, and is a daughter of John and Sarah (Dean) Comb, the former of whom was born in Edinborough, Scotland, and the latter near Stainer, Ontario, Canada. John Comb was about one year old at the time of his parents' immigration to Canada, where he was reared and educated and where his marriage was solemnized, the major part of his active career having been marked by his close association with farm industry. He celebrated his seventieth birthday anniversary October 4, 1926, and his wife celebrated the sixty-second anniversary of her birth on the 8th of August of the same year. Mr. and Mrs. Barnes are popular figures in the social life of their home city. A son was born to them October 26, 1926.

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Page  127 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 127 John M. Longyear, who died May 28, 1922, at the age of seventy-two years, will long be remembered as one of the influential citizens of Marquette and one of the conspicuous figures in the iron mining industry in this section of the state as well as in the iron ranges of northern Minnesota. On both sides of his house, he traces his ancestry to the early colonial era in America, Jacobus Langjahr, the first of his name to locate in this country, settling in Ulster county, New York, about 1750. In the distaff line, Mr. Longyear traces his lineage to Capt. Josiah Munro, a Connecticut soldier of the Revolution who participated in the Canadian expedition and who subsequently established his home at Pawlet, Vermont. Peter Longyear, grandfather of John M., came to Michigan from Ulster county, New York, about 1840 and John Wesley Longyear, father of John M., became prominent in the affairs of the state, having served as a member of congress and, subsequent to that, judge of the United States District Court at Detroit. John M. Longyear was born at Lansing, Michigan, April 15, 1850, and attended the public schools of his native place until he was thirteen years of age. At that time, he entered Olivet college to pursue a college preparatory course, and after a year so spent, he entered Georgetown university at Washington, where he was in attendance one year. Returning to Lansing when he was fifteen years of age, he became a clerk in the postoffice at a monthly salary of twenty dollars. His health failed, however, and during the ensuing five years, he was virtually an invalid although he managed to scale lumber in the Saginaw valley for a short time and to work in a drug store for a brief period. In 1872, while his family was residing in Detroit, Mr. Longyear determined to find some sort of outside work in the hope of regaining his health, and in company with James M. Turner, he came to Cheboygan county as a land looker. The following year found him in the employ of the state in the Upper Peninsula examining state reserve school lands to determine their mineral values. As a result of his explorations, the public school lands were placed on the market at a substantially increased price. This work consumed but a short time, however, and Mr. Longyear then became a land looker for Charles Hebard, at Pequaming. His travels through the Upper Peninsula convinced Mr. Longyear that great opportunities awaited the energetic and ambitious business man in this region, and he accordingly determined to establish his home in this region. In 1878 he applied for and secured the appointment as agent for the Lake Superior Ship Canal Railroad & Iron company, a position which he retained until the time of his death. The concern subsequently became the Keweenaw Land association, and is still known by that name. With the discovery of vast deposits of non-magnetic iron ore in Northern Minnesota on what became known as the Mesaba range, Mr. Longyear went to that region and allied himself with the late Russell M. Bennett, playing an important part in the development of the district. He interested Jackson capitalists in the possibilities of the Mesaba range, and the result was the organization of the Longyear-Mesaba

Page  128 128 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Land & Iron company. Mr. Longyear, president of the new company, selected all the land, directed explorations, and superintended all development, the headquarters of the organization being maintained at Jackson. Subsequently, he acquired other valuable properties on the Mesaba range. In 1903, when the Michigan Land & Iron company, in which Lord Brassey, of London, owned a large interest, decided upon a change in managers, Mr. Longyear was chosen as the new manager of the property which comprised some 300,000 acres in the center of the Upper Peninsula. In this office, he continued until the time of the sale of the holdings to Henry Ford. Mr. Longyear became interested in the purchase of coal mines at Spitzbergen, being associated with the late Frederick Ayer, of Boston, in this work. The mines were subsequently sold to a group of Norwegian capitalists at a later date, Mr. Longyear retaining some of his interest. Though his business interests were extensive and varied, Mr. Longyear took an active part in the civic affairs of Marquette, for he served as mayor in 1890 and 1891 and was a member of the board which established thie first hydro-electric power plant here. He was one of the original stockholders of the Marquette National bank, now the Union National bank, serving as president for many years, and was a stockholder of the Lake Shore Engine works. He donated the site on which was built the Peter White Public library and was instrumental in bringing to this city the Northern State Normal school, which was built on land donated by Longyear and Ayer. The first building on the campus was named Longyear hall in his honor. He also donated the Longyear Athletic field to the Luther L. Wright high school in Ironwood. He was founder and president of the Huron Mountain club, president of the Marquette County Historical society, a member of the board of control of the Michigan College of Mines since 1888 except for two years, a trustee of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and an honarary member of the Marquette Rotary club. He was a Thirty-second degree Mason, a member of the Francis M. Moore Consistory, and a Shriner. He also belonged to the Marquette club, the Detroit club, and the Twentieth Century club, of Boston, Massachusetts, and attended the First Church of Christ, Scientist, at Boston. On January 4, 1879 he married Mary Hawley Beecher, in Battle Creek, Michigan, and they became the parents of five children, as follows: Mrs. Alton T. Roberts, of Marquette; Mrs. J. M. Lyeth, deceased; Mrs. Carroll Paul, of Marquette; John M., Jr., of Marquette; and Robert Dudley, American consul at Geneva, Switzerland. John Munro Longyear, Jr., is one of the most prominent business men of Marquette, Michigan, where he is carrying on the work in mining properties established by his father. He was born in this city, October 12, 1889, and obtained his early education in the public schools of his native community. He then attended Franklin college of Dresden, Germany; Mr. Denny's school at Auteuil, Paris, France; Noble and Greenough school at Boston, Mass

Page  129 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 129 achusetts; and pursued his college preparatory courses at the Manor school of Stamford, Connecticut, and the Mt. Pleasant Military academy, Ossining, New York. His university career was gained in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard college, Michigan College of Mines, Harvard Graduate School of Applied Science, and the University of Wisconsin. He specialized in mining work and geology in order that he might fit himself in the best possible way to handle the family affairs when such duty should devolve upon him. The extent of the Longyear estate, which may be found in the biographical record of John M. Longyear,, Sr., is such as to demand the highest training and ability in its management, and Mr. Longyear has gained an enviable reputation for his knowledge of mining and mining properties. On May 24, 1913, Mr. Longyear married Elizabeth Barrett, of Houghton, Michigan, and to them were born two children; John Munro, III, born July 30, 1914, at Houghton, Michigan; and Marion, born October 17, 1921, at Jamaica Plains, Boston, Massachusetts. Mrs. Longyear was the daughter of Fred C. and Marion Barrett, the former of whom was the superintendent of the electric light plant at Houghton before its purchase by Stone & Webster, after which he became an electrical contractor. On December 22, 1923, at Tonapah, Nevada, Mr. Longyear married Wanda Rae Archambeau, of Marquette, she being the daughter of Louis E. and Mabel Archambeau, of this city, of whom more may be found elsewhere in this work. Archambeau Family. Among the pioneer families of Marquette county are found those bearing the names of Archambeau and Bergeron, both of French-Canadian extraction. Nicholas T. Archambeau was born at St. Lin, L'Assomption county, Quebec, Canada, July 10, 1840, and when he was seventeen years of age, he came to the vicinity of Green Bay, Wisconsin, whence, in 1857, he walked with several companions to Marquette, Michigan. The long journey afoot was not without its hardships and privations, but the party reached its destination safely. Here, Nicholas T. Archambeau secured employment on the Marquette & Bay de Noquet railroad, then in the course of construction. For twenty years thereafter, he worked on the Marquette, Houghton & Ontonagon railroad. In 1861, he married Adaline Bergeron, who was born at Au Sable, New York, in 1844 and came to Marquette with her parents and grandfather in 1852. This happy union was blessed with the following children: Adalin, Nelson, Alfred E., Joseph C., Louis E., Lucy, and Edward N. Joseph Bergeron, great great grandfather of Mrs. Longyear was a French-Canadian by birth and served with the British troops in the War of 1812 as a cavalryman, participating in the battle of Plattsburgh. Following the war, he settled in New York, whence he came to Marquette with his son and the latter's family. Joseph Bergeron's children, all of whom are deceased, were as follows: Margaret, Louis, Nelson J., Emily, Mathilda, Cyrille, Moses, John, Derrick, Jerome, and Joseph. Nelson J. Bergeron was born in New York state and spent the greater

Page  130 130 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN part of his early life in New York state. He removed to Marquette, Michigan, in 1850 and was followed by his father and family two years later. A carpenter by trade, he erected the first frame building at Negaunee and the first one at Marquette, also assisting in the building of the old courthouse and the first church which was on the site of the present residence of the bishop. His widow, Mrs. Flavia Bergeron, died in 1923, leaving eight children, Oliver, Mrs. Adaline Archambeau, Flavia Nadeau, Mrs. Mary Mitchell, Mrs. Mathilda Ducharme, Nelson, Lucy, and Louis. Nelson J. Bergeron retired from active work in 1875 and died July 14, 1895. His wife had been born at Fort Ticonderoga, New York, August 28, 1823. Her account of the advent of the family to Marquette is given as follows: "We left Au Sable about the middle of July, 1852, traveling overland to Buffalo and from there to Marquette by boat, arriving here on board the steamer Baltimore, September 2, 1852. Other residents of Au Sable who accompanied us were David Laplant, Edward Bureau, Frank LaBonte, and Antoine Deloria. We rented a cabin of Sam Wilkes and my husband made a few necessary articles of furniture, using the lumber of the packing boxes in which our bedding had been packed. In 1853, Father Menet, a Jesuit, came from Sault Ste. Marie and gave first communion to some of the children, among whom were my two daughters, Flavia and Adaline. The services were held at the residence of Oliver Laplant. This was to my knowledge the first class to receive first communion in this city. Two years afterward, my husband helped to erect the first Roman Catholic church or chapel built here. It was a two-story structure. The lower story was constructed of logs and the upper story was frame. Services were held on the first floor, and the pastor, Father Sebastian Duroc, had his living rooms on the second floor. The chapel stood on the site now occupied by the Bishop's residence at the corner of Rock and Fourth streets. The first public school, consisting of two rooms, erected on the site now occupied by the city hall, was attended by my two daughters. Among those who taught at that time were Miss Jones, Miss Buckby, Mr. Gard Maynard, and Miss Mary Huntoon, later Mrs. Mary Campbell." Wanda Rae Archambeau, granddaughter of this woman and the daughter of Louis E. and Mabel Archambeau, married John M. Longyear, Jr., of whom more may be found on other pages of this work. The Boynton Family has been long and prominently concerned with the annals of civic and material development and, progress in the fair Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and a record of the family well merits place in this publication. Captain Lewis R. Boynton who died April 30, 1927 was the original representative of the family on the Upper Peninsula and was numbered among the well known citizens of St. Ignace, his having been a long and successful association with navigation interests on the Great Lakes. Captain Boynton was a representative of a family that was founded in Michigan in the territorial period, as is indicated by the fact

Page  131 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 131 that he was born at Port Huron, Michigan, December 9, 1833. He was a son of Granville F. and Frances (Rendt) Boynton, the former of whom was born in Rochester, New York, and the latter in Montreal, Canada, they having been pioneer settlers at Port Huron, Michigan, where, as a contractor, Granville F. Boynton built the first steam saw mill there to be placed in operation, besides which he was there employed in the office of a pioneer newspaper, he having been comparatively a young man at the time of his death, in 1846, and his widow having survived him by nearly half a century and having continued her residence at Port Huron until her death, February 14, 1894. The Boynton family was founded in America in the early colonial period, the first representatives having come from England and made settlement in Massachusetts. Captain Lewis R. Boynton received his youthful education in the pioneer schools of Port Huron and there he learned the printer's trade, in the office of the Port Huron Observer. However, his was to be of greater prominence in connection with navigation on the Great Lakes. In 1847, when he was a lad of fourteen years, he gained his initial seafaring experience, and in the passing years he advanced to the status of master and owner of lake vessels. His first berth was on the schooner Grace Amelia, commanded by Captain Dillon, and during the next navigation season he was employed on the steamer Mariner, under Captain James. In 1849 he shipped on the schooner Petrel, and in 1850 he took a position on the Huron, the first high-pressure steamboat built by the Wards. In the ensuing three years he served in turn as wheelsman on the Chautauqua, the Champion and the Franklin Moore, plying between Detroit and Port Huron, and in 1854 he was made second mate on the Princeton. Thereafter he served one season as mate of the Huron and one year as mate of the Julius D. Morton. In 1857 he became master of the steamer T. Whitney, of which he had command two seasons. In 1859 he purchased two recently completed lake tugs, the Mayflower and the M. I. Mills, and in 1861 he became master of the Iron City, of which he retained command two years. During the next two seasons he was in command of the Galena, and the ensuing four navigation seasons found him similarly retained on the Winona. He then gave three years of service as master of the St. Paul, and after purchasing an interest in the Rhoda Stewart he was in command of that vessel two years, at the expiration of which he sold his interest. In 1884 Captain Boynton established his residence at St. Ignace and became superintendent of the marine service of the Mackinac Transportation company. In this connection he assumed command of the old icecrusher freight and passenger steamer known as the Algomah, plying between St. Ignace and Mackinaw City, across the straits of Mackinac, besides assuming supervision of the company's car ferries between St. Ignace and Mackinaw City. As commodore of the company's fleet he superintended all construction and repair work, and also became managing owner of the steamers Algomah and Waukon. Captain Boynton had long experience in command of

Page  132 132 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN the Algomah while that gallant old ice-crusher was in service as the connecting transportation link between the upper and. lower peninsulas of Michigan, and in the winter of 1898-99 he thoroughly renovated, and practically rebuilt, this vessel. The Captain was known and honored as one of the loyal and public-spirited citizens of St. Ignace during the many years of his residence here, and he had standing as one of the most venerable of the pioneers in navigation on the Great Lakes, he having been retired on a pension and having celebrated in 1926 the ninety-third anniversary of his birth. This sterling patriarch in St. Ignace affiliated with the Masonic fraternity, the Ancient Order of United Workmen and the Knights of the Maccabees, the while his was a long and loyal support of the DIemocratic.partv. ()O the l:ith of Septei'er 1 3. C aOtain Boynton was united in marriage to Miss Sarah E. Kendall, daughter of Oliver and Betsy (Wilkinson) Kendall, of Algonac, Michigan. She died in 1921. At this juncture is given brief record concerning the children of Captain and Mrs. Boynton: Lewis K. is employed by the Ford Motor company in Detroit, this state; Arthur H. superintendent of the Port Huron Gas works for thirtyseven years, now retired; Granville W. was master of the steamship Algomah, plying as a ferry between St. Ignace and Mackinaw City, now deceased; Wilbur P. now deceased was engineer of the steamer Niagara; Albert H. retired and now lives in Florida; Raymond E. deceased was abstract clerk in the St. Ignace offices of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroad; Oliver C. is engaged in the drug business at St. Ignace; Walter C. deceased was in the grocery business in this city; Fannie is the widow of George W. Westover, of Duluth, Minn.; Adeline A., the widow of Arthur Dudgeon, lives at St. Paul Minn.; and Sarah Irene is the wife of John I. Bellaire, of Manistique, Schoolcraft county. Oliver C. Boynton, Sr. seventh son of Captain Lewis R. Boynton, was born at St. Clair, Michigan, September 26, 1871, and was reared and educated principally at St. Ignace, where he is now successfully established in the retail drug business. His earlier education was obtained in the public schools of Port Huron, and after the removal of the family to St. Ignace, he served a technical and practical experience in the establishment of the Pauly & Dickinson Drug company. Thereafter he was for seven years manager of the Knill Drug company at Port Huron, and in 1896 he returned to St. Ignace and established himself independently in the retail drug business by purchasing the oldest established drug store in the city. In 1924 he admitted to partnership his younger son, Oliver C., Jr., who has since continued his valued coadjutor in conducting the substantial and representative enterprise. Mr. Boynton married Miss Minnie R. Bissell, who was born in St. Clair county, Michigan, a daughter of Philip D. and Sarah S. Bissell, both now deceased, Mr. Bissell having been prominently identified with lumbering operations and also with the newspaper business-as editor and publisher of the St. Ignace Republican. James W., elder of the two children, is now professor

Page  133 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 133 of chemistry at the Western Teachers college, of Kalamazoo, and Oliver C. Jr., is associated with his father in business, as previously noted. Oliver C. Boynton, Jr., was born at St. Ignace, May 13, 1900, and the public schools of his native city, including the high school, afforded him his early education, besides which he is a skilled optometrist, he having been graduated in Northern Illinois college, with the degree of doctor of optometry, and being engaged in the practice of this profession, with a well equipped department in the drug store conducted by his father and himself. His father has given many years of service as county superintendent of the poor. St. Ignace being the judicial center of Mackinac county, besides having had much leadership in the development of the annual county fairs. Oliver C. Boynton, Sr., is vice-president of the St. Ignace Golf & County club, is affiliated with both York and Scottish Rite bodies of the Masonic fraternity, and was the promoter and organizer of the Masonic Temple association of St. Ignace. Chester Wing has shown versatility and resourcefulness in developing in his native city of St. Ignace the substantial and important garage and automobile business that has been conducted by him during a period of nearly twenty years, his garage being the largest and the most metropolitan in equipment and service to be found in Mackinac county. Mr. Wing was born in St. Ignac, September 24, 1888, and is a son of William G. and Adelia (Obeshaw) Wing, the former of whom was born in Elkhart, Indiana, and the latter at St. Ignace, Michigan, where her parents gained pioneer honors. William G. Wing, who now finds gratifying occupation by assisting in the activities of the garage and automobile sales establishment of his son Chester, was identified with pioneer lumbering operations in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and has been known and valued as one of the progressive and public-spirited citizens of St. Ignace, of which city he was mayor twelve years, his administration having done much to advance the best interests of this community. He is now sixty-two years of age (winter of 1926-27), and his wife, now fifty-nine years of age, has long been an active and influential figure in the social church and cultural affairs of her native city. The public school of St. Ignace afforded Chester Wing his youthful education, and he has found in his native city ample opportunity for successful business achievement. He has here been independently engaged in the automobile business since the year 1908, and his modern garage and display and sales rooms figure as the leading establishment of this kind in Mackinac county. Here Mr. Wing controls a substantial business in the sale of the Cadillac and Buick automobiles, and his establishment has the best of service facilities in the repair and the accessory and supply departments. Mr. Wing gives his political allegiance to the Republican party and he is now serving as a member of the municipal water board of St. Ignace. He is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and is an active member of the local Lions club. At St. Ignace was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Wing to Miss Adelia Miabel Johnson, who likewise was born and

Page  134 134 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN reared in this city, where her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Johnson, still maintain their home, the father being a railroad man. Mr. and Mrs. Wing have four children: Chester Blaine, Walter Andrew, Ada May, and William, their respective ages at the time of this writing being ten, eight, six and one years. Michael Hoban has been engaged in the insurance and realestate business in the city of St. Ignace more than thirty-five years, and he has long been one of the influential and highly esteemed citizens of the county in which he was born and reared and of which St. Ignace is the judicial center. Mr. Hoban was born on Mackinac Island, May 4, 1860, and is a son of James and Margaret Hoban, both natives of Ireland. James Hoban was a boy when he came from the fair old Emerald Isle to the United States, and he eventually gained pioneer honors on Mackinac Island, where he established his residence in the decade of the fifties, and where he was long engaged in the livery business, besides having been the owner of docks on the island. He held various local public offices and he was one of the most venerable of the pioneer citizens of the Upper Peninsula district of Michigan at the time of his death, in September, 1924. He had attained to the patriarchal age of ninety-one years, and his wife died many years previously, both having been earnest communicants of the Catholic church. Michael Hoban is indebted to the pioneer schools of Mackinac Island for his early educational discipline, and as a youth he was employed five years by the Martell Furnace company, at St. Ignace. He was then elected to the office of register of deeds for Mackinac county, and in the first year of his tenure of this position he was also appointed county clerk. By successive re-elections thereafter he was retained twelve consecutive years as county clerk of his native county, and in the meanwhile, in 1890, he purchased the W. A. Burt insurance agency at St. Ignace. Since his retirement from the office of county clerk he has given his close attention to the insurance business, in which he is an underwriter of all kinds of insurance with the exception of life insurance, besides which he has developed also a prosperous real-estate depaftment. Mr. Hoban has a host of friends in his native county, and in his business he has a representative clientage. His political allegiance is given to the Democratic party, and he and his family are communicants of the Catholic church. He is affiliated with the Knights of Columbus,, and in his home city he is a member of the Lions club. His wife, whose maiden name was Katherine Dowd, likewise was born on Mackinac Island, and she is a daughter of the late Stephen and Bridget Dowd, her father having been a pioneer in the cooperage business on Mackinac Island. Mr. and Mrs. Hoban have two children: James, now twenty-two years of age (1927), is associated with his father in the insurance and real estate business, as a partner; and Katherine, eighteen years of age, is a student in the Ursuline academy at St. Ignace.

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Page  135 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 135 The Right Reverend Gershom Mott Williams, first bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Diocese of Marquette, came of one of the pioneer families of Michigan. He was the grandson of General John R. Williams, first mayor of Detroit, Michigan, and president of the Constitutional Convention of Assent, under which Michigan was admitted to the Union. General Williams organized the State Militia and was its first Major General. Judge Thomas Williams, great grandfather of Bishop Williams, became a resident of Detroit in the middle of the eighteenth century and served as judge under appointment from the English government. Bishop Williams was born at Fort Hamilton, New York, February 11, 1857, the son of General Thomas Williams, born at Albany, New York, January 16, 1815, and of Mary Neosho Bailey, born at Fort Gibson, Indian Territory, 1835, the daughter of Joseph Bailey, army surgeon. Bishop Williams' father, Major and Brevet Brigadier General in the regular army, commanded the Second Brigade of the Army of the Gulf at the battle of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, where he was killed in action August 5, 1862. Bishop Williams acquired his early education in the Newburgh, New York, schools, where he was graduated from the Free academy in 1871. Subsequently he attended a classical school, spent a year as office boy with the Newburgh Steam Engine works, then came an extended tour in Europe in 1874-75, winning a competitive examination for a scholarship at Cornell university he entered in the fall of 1875 and remained until 1877 when he was called to Detroit, Michigan, to look after business connected with his father's estate. He entered Mr. Robert P. Tom's office and took up the study of law, being admitted to the Detroit bar in 1879. While thus engaged, he had been doing a good deal of work in connection with the Detroit Y. M. C. A. This and other religious activities influenced him to study for the Episcopal ministry. He was ordained deacon in St. John's church, Detroit, December 26, 1880, and became curate to the rector of that church, the Rev. George Worthington, afterwards Bishop of Nebraska, the ordination to the priesthood came in 1882. During his ministry in Detroit, Bishop Williams had charge of and successfully built up St. Mathews colored church and in conjunction with this field he also had charge of the Church of the Messiah in Hamtramck, Detroit. Later, he became rector of St. George's church, Detroit, where he continued to serve until the spring of 1889. He was on temporary duty at the Cathedral in Buffalo, New York for a few months and in the fall of 1889 became Dean of All Saints Cathedral, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, remaining until his appointment in 1891 as archdeacon of Northern Michigan and rector of St. Paul's, Marquette. On the creation of the Diocese of Marquette, he became its first bishop, being consecrated in Grace church, Detroit, May 1, 1896. In 1919, because of ill health, he resigned his diocese, but remained in charge of the American Episcopal churches in Europe, having been appointed by Bishop Tuttle some years before. Bishop Williams served as chaplain of the Fourth Regiment, Michigan National Guard, from 1884 to

Page  136 136 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 1886 and was chaplain of the Wisconsin Commandery of the Loyal Legion during his residence in Milwaukee. Was editor for a short time of the American Church Times. Being an accomplished linguist, he represented the American Episcopal church at a religious conference in Sweden. Both Hobart college and the University of Michigan gave him a master of arts degree and the former his degree of doctor of divinity. Another marked service of Bishop Williams to his church was in connection with the revision of the Hymnal, representing a number of years' work. He was a poet and hymnologist of no mean ability. He served for several years on the board of missions and was a member of the commission to promote the world conference on Faith and Order at the time of his death. In 1879 Bishop Williams married Eliza Bradish Biddle, daughter of William S. Biddle of Grosse Ile, Michigan, and granddaughter of Major John Biddle, president of the first State Constitutional Convention held in Detroit in 1835. Their children are: Susan Dayton Williams, Thomas Victor Williams, Dayton Ogden Williams, Cecil H. Williams, Rhoda Williams Hyde, Margaret Biddle Williams, John Biddle Williams, Everard Mott Williams, Mary Williams Knight. Bishop Williams died in Paris, France, April 14, 1923, and is buried in Elmwood, Detroit, Michigan. Edgar H. Hotchkiss has been cashier of the First National bank of St. Ignace more than thirty-five years, and in addition to this important executive office he holds also that of vice-president of this institution, which is one of the important banks of the Upper Peninsula. Mr. Hotchkiss was born at Hudson, Lenawee county, Michigan, September 25, 1861, a date that connotes that his parents gained a good measure of pioneer precedence in Michigan. He is a son of Ephraim C. and. Alice Irene (Haight) Hotchkiss, the former of whom was born near Rochester, New York, and the latter of whom was born in that city of the old Empire state. Ephraim C. Hotchkiss was a young man when he came to Michigan, and at the inception of the Civil war he was here conducting a general mercantile business in a rural community near Hudson, Lenawee county. On account of his impaired health he was twice rejected when he attempted to enlist for service in defense of the Union, but on his third attempt he was accepted, as a mechanic, and he continued in service in this capacity until the close of the war, when he received his honorable discharge, after a record of loyal and gallant service in connection with the various engagements in which his command was involved. After the war he returned with his family to New York state and established his home in the community in which his parents had settled in 1834. Ephraim C. Hotchkiss passed the closing period of his long and useful life at Chicago and was seventy-two years of age at the time of his death, his wife having passed away at the age of 71 years. The major part of the youthful education of Edgar H. Hotchkiss was obtained in the public schools of Buffalo, New York, he having been an infant at the time of his parents' return from Michigan to that state. After his school days he was employ

Page  137 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 137 ed in the Buffalo office of a railroad treasurer, and later in the office of the auditor of the same railroad, and finally he came to St. Ignace, Michigan, where he gave seven months of service in conducting an investigation into the affairs of a local veneer factory, for the purpose of determining the reason for the negative financial success of the enterprise. After he had rendered decision to the effect that the business could not be conducted with financial success under the conditions of time and place, the factory was closed, and he returned to Buffalo, New York. The lure of the fair north country of his native state remained with him, however, and thus, after remaning two years in Buffalo, he came again to St. Ignace, in 1890, in which year he here assumed his present office as cashier of the First National bank, of which; he has been also the vice-president for a number of years. Mr. Hotchkiss has played a large part in the development of the substantial and representative business of this institution and has done much to make it the safe conservator of all community interests. He also owns and conducts in an individual way one of the leading general insurance agencies of St. Ignace. In the World war period Mr. Hotchkiss was instant in patriotic service and was chairman of the committees in charge of each of the Mackinac county drives in the sale of the government war bonds, besides giving valuable aid in the local Red Cross campaign and serving as an assistant to the provost marshal. The political allegiance of Mr. Hotchkiss is given to the Republican party, and while he has had no ambition for political preferment, his civic loyalty has been shown in his efficient service as a member of the Mackinac county board of road commissioners, and by his progressive administration as mayor of St. Ignace, in which office he served two terms, besides having previously been a member of the city board of aldermen. He is secretary and treasurer of the Mackinac Land company, is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and the Knights of Pythias, and is a valued member of the local Lions club. In the city of Buffalo, New York, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Hotchkiss to Miss Agnes Thomson, who was there born and reared, and she has long been a popular figure in the social, cultural, and church activities of her present home city. The two children of Mr. and Mrs. Hotchkiss were born in Buffalo, New York, and the son, Herbert J., is now associated with the Schulte Realty company of Detroit, Michigan; the daughter Miss Jean B., remains at the parental home, and is one of the popular young women of St. Ignace. The grandfather, Loren Hotchkiss came to Michigan from Medina, N. Y., in territorial days and settled in Lenawee county. He was a member of the first legislature after Michigan was admitted as a state. He died in Lenawee county. He was a Baptist minister and built a church on his land with his own money, also erected a saw mill and grist mill and was the leading citizen of the county. Carl F. Gustafson has secured a place in the confidence and esteem of the people of his native county, as is amply attested by

Page  138 138 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN the fact that he is here serving as county clerk of Mackinac county and is one of the popular and efficient members of the corps of officials in the county court house, in the city of St. Ignace. Mr. Gustafson was born at Brevort, this county, August 2, 1889, and is a son of Charles E. and Ida C. (Johnson) Gustafson, whose acquaintanceship was formed at St. Ignace, Michigan, where also their marriage was solemnized. Charles E. Gustafson was born on Oland Island, in the Baltic sea, off the coast of Sweden, and his wife likewise was born in Sweden, the former having come to the United States in 1880 and the latter in 1881, and both having made settlement in Mackinac county, Michigan, where their marriage occurred, as previously noted. Charles E. Gustafson became a pioneer farmer in this county and also gained pioneer precedence in connection with the commercial fishing industry here, his having" been a secure place as one of the substantial and honored citizens of Mackinac county at the time of his death, December 30, 1925, andi his widow being now a resident of St. Ignace. Carl F. Gustafson profited by the advantages of the public schools of Brevort and St. Ignace, and thereafter continued his studies in the Marion Normal college and Business university at Marion, Indiana. After his school days Mr. Gustafson was for eight years associated with his father's commercial fishing business, and prior to this he had been employed two years in a grocery establishment at Pontiac, Michigan. In 1920, on the Republican ticket, he was elected county clerk of Mackinac county, and that he is now serving his fourth consecutive term in this office gives significant evidence of the high popular estimate placed upon his administration therein. He is affiliated with the local Blue lodge and chapter of York Rite Masonry, and has membership in the St. Ignace Golf and Country club. His wife, whose maiden name was Ingrid Blom, was born in Sweden and was three years of age when her parents came to the United States and established their home on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, both being now residents of Mackinac county. Mrs. Gustafson is a daughter of John and Erika Blom, and her parents have long been identified with the fishing industry of this north district of Michigan. Mr. and Mrs. Gustafson have a fine family of seven children: Della, Albert, Florence, Glenn, Charles, June and Ellis. The first four of the children were born at Brevort and the other three at St. Ignace. They are members of the Swedish Lutheran church. John H. Rhoades was born at St. Ignace, Michigan, in the year 1876, and in this city he now owns and conducts the long established and important general merchandise business that was founded by his maternal grandfather more than half a century ago. He is a son of Stephen Rhoades, who was born in the state of Maine, and as a youth he met parental objections by running away from home and making his way to the city of Boston, where he realized his ambitious purpose by enlisting for service as a soldier of the Union in the Civil war. He proved a gallant and faithful

Page  139 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 139 soldier, took part in numerous engagements, and while at the front he received a wound that destroyed the sight of one of his eyes. It was after the close of the war that he came to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and here he followed the trade of carpenter many years, he having become a successful contractor and builder at St. Ignace and his death having here occurred in 1896, he having been an honored member of the local post of the Grand Army of the Republic. Here he wedded Miss Bridget Chambers, daughter of John and Margaret (O'Malley) Chambers, her father having been the founder of the mercantile business now conducted by her son John H., of this review, and a record concerning the Chambers family being given on other pages of this publication. Mrs. Rhoades was a member of one of the sterling pioneer families of this part of the Upper Peninsula and continued to maintain her home at St. Ignace until her death. The early education of John H. Rhoades was obtained in the St. Ignace schools, and as a youth he proved a successful teacher in the schools of Epoufette and Ozark, villages in his native county of Mackinac. Thereafter he was for two years in the employ of the Mackinac Transportation company, on Mackinac Island, where he had charge of the coaling of the company's various vessels. He next passed a year in the city of Chicago, in the employ of the United States Express company, and he then returned to St. Ignace, where for two years he was in the employ of the Winkelman company. He then assumed managment of the business of the Chambers brothers and in this capacity his service continued until 1922, in March of which year he acquired sole control of the large and prosperous business, with which he had previously been associated during a period of twenty-four years. In 1926 he removed the business to the present quarters, and his store is one of the most excellent equipment and service, the long established enterprise having continuously been one of high order in this community. Mr. Rhoades has served as a member of the St. Ignace board of aldermen, as chairman of the Mackinac county road commission, as president of the St. Ignace Business Men's association, and is now (1927) president of the St. Ignace Golf and Country club, besides which he is an active member of the local Lions club. He is a director of the Gateway City Improvement association, and takes loyal interest in all that concerns the welfare and progress of his home city and county. His wife, whose maiden name was Emma Richardson, was born at West Unity, Ohio, and is a daughter of the late George Richardson, who was long and successfully associated with farm enterprise and who also was engaged in the hotel business a number of years, his death having occurred in 1906 and his widow having passed away in 1912. He was a representative of the Richardson family that was founded in Baltimore, Maryland, in the colonial period of American history. Catherine, firstborn of the children of Mr. and Mrs. Rhoades, died in infancy, in 1902; John Richardson, the next in order of birth, met his death in an accident that occurred in October, 1924, he having been at the time a member of the

Page  140 140 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN sophomore class in the engineering department of the University of Michigan, and his death having resulted from injuries that he received when the horse on which he was riding was struck by a railroad train; Helen was graduated in the Ursuline academy at St. Ignace as a member of the class of 1926; Charles Patrick is, in the winter of 1926-27, a student in the St. Ignace high school; and Georgia Margaret and Robert M., likewise are attending school in their home city. Mr. Rhoades is a Democrat in political alignment and he and his wife are communicants of the Catholic church. Charles J. Mulcrone is a representative of a family that has long been one of prominence and influence in civic and business affairs at St. Ignace, the Gateway City of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and here he is now a leading exponent of the automobile business, his establishment being one of the best in equipment and service in Mackinac county. Mr. Mulcrone was born in the city of Chicago, Illinios, in the year 1883, and was a child at the time of the family removal to St. Ignace. He is a son of Patrick and Ellen (O'Donnell) Mulcrone, both natives of Ireland, where the former was born in County Mayo and the latter in County Kilkenny. Patrick Mulcrone was long and successfully engaged in the meat business at St. Ignace, but was sojourning in Florida at the time of his death, in May 1913, his widow, now sixty-eight years of age (1927), being still a resident of St. Ignace, she being a devout communicant of the Catholic church, as was also her husband. Mr. Mulcrone served as city treasurer of St. Ignace, as well as city assessor and as a member of the board of public works. He was a bank director and was a substantial and honored citizen who did loyal service in community affairs. The earlier education of Charles J. Mulcrone was obtained in the schools of St. Ignace, and thereafter he was a student in Notre Dame university, South Bend, Indiana, where he completed thorough engineer courses and gained the degrees of civil engineer and electrical engineer. Thereafter he gave five years of efficient service as superintendent of the municipal electric and water plants of St. Ignace, and since that time he has been successfully engaged in the automobile business in an independent way, his large garage at St. Ignace having well appointed sales and display rooms and well equipped repair and service departments. He has the local agency for the Packard, Studebaker, Hudson, Essex and Hupmobile motor cars, and controls a large and representative business in all departments of his well ordered enterprise. He has served as president of the local Business Men's association, and also has held the offices of city assessor, city treasurer and member of the board of public works. His political allegiance is given to the Democratic party, he and his wife are communicants of the Catholic church, he is affiliated with the Knights of Columbus and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and his name appears on the membership rolls of the local Lions club and the St. Ignace Golf and Country club. He is a director of the First National bank of St. Ignace, and was former

Page  141 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 141 ly vice-president of the company operating the Grand Hotel on Mackinac Island, he having retired from this office in 1925. At St. Ignace was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Mulcrone to Miss Clara M. Eddy, who was born and reared in this city and who is a daughter of William and Effie (Chapman) Eddy, the former of whom was born in Chicago and the latter in England. William Eddy was long engaged in the cooperage business at St. Ignace, where he is now living retired, at the age of seventy-two years, his wife having passed away in 1911. Mr. and Mrs. Mulcrone have four children: Patrick, Effie, Mary and Dorthy, aged respectively (winter of 1926-27) twelve, ten, seven and five years. Louis P. Walker. In the city of St. Ignace, judicial center of Mackinac county, Mr. Walker is conducting the well ordered furniture and undertaking business that was founded by his maternal grandfather more than half a century ago, and as citizen and business man he is well upholding the prestige of the honored family name. His unqualified popularity in his native city is such as to require no further voucher than the statement that he gave three terms of progressive administration in the office of mayor of St. Ignace. In this Gateway City of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, Mr. Walker was born February 20, 1891,, and is a son of the late Frank S. and Elina (Mallett) Walker, the former of whom was born in the state of New York and the latter in one of the counties of southern Michigan, her father having come to St. Ignace fully fifty years ago and having been a pioneer in the furniture and undertaking business here, the remainder of his life having been passed at St. Ignace and his son-in-law, Frank S. Walker, having been his successor in the business in which the two had been previously associated during a term of years. Frank S. Walker long held precedence as one of the leading furniture dealers and funeral directors of Mackinac county, and since his death, in February, 1922, the business has been successfully continued by his son Louis P. The establishment being modern in equipment and service in all departments. The wife of Frank S. Walker preceded him to the life eternal, her death having occurred in 1915. After having profited by the advantages of the St. Ignace public schools Louis P. Walker entered the Michigan State Agricultural college, at Lansing, and in this institution he was graduated with the degree of bachelor of science in engineering. Thereafter he was for a short time engaged in engineering work in the city of Detroit, and he then returned to St. Ignace and. associated himself with his father's business, to the control and management of which he succeeded upon the death of his father, in 1922. His political alignment is with the Republican party, and it has already been noted that he served three terms as mayor of St. Ignace. He is a loyal member of the local Lions club and is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity. His wife, whose maiden name was Fay Whiteside, was born in Wisconsin, and is a daughter of the late Charles and Melissa Whiteside, her father having been engaged in the abstract business.

Page  142 142 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN in St. Ignace at the time of his death. Mr. and Mrs. Walker have three children: Howard, Ginevra and Shirley Lou. They are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. Walker is president of the Mackinac Motor Bus company which operates a line of motor buses from the Soo to St. Ignace, also from St. Ignace to Escanaba. They have five modern buses. He is vice-president of the Gateway City Improvement company of St. Ignace. Charles Therrien. That the fine little straits city of St. Ignace has not been lacking in advantages and attractions for its native sons, is shown in the goodly array of such native sons in the personnel of the varied business and professional ranks here. One of the number is Charles Therrien, who is here engaged in the retail grocery business and who is also the local agent for the American Railway Express. Mr. Therrien was born at St. Ignace June 18, 1887, and is of sterling French lineage on both paternal and maternal sides. He is a son of Antoine and Rose Therrien, both of whom were born in Quebec, Canada, the father, who died in 1889, having been at the time identified with the commercial fishing industry, with residence in the city of St. Ignace, which was then little more than a straggling village. The widowed mother now resides in the city of Flint, Michigan, and is seventy-nine years of age at the time of this writing, in the winter of 1926-27. The public schools of St. Ignace afforded Charles Therrien his youthful education, and after leaving school he was employed a number of years in the service of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroad. He gained experience also as clerk in a grocery store at St. Ignace, and in association with commercial fishing in the northern waters of the Great Lakes system, besides having sailed for a time on lake vessels. Since 1923 Mr. Therrien has owned and conducted a well equipped retail grocery in his native city, and its effective service has gained to the establishment a substantial and representative supporting patronage. Mr. Therrien gives his political support to the Democratic party, has for eight years represented the First ward of St. Ignace as a member of the county board of supervisors, and he has been chairman of this board three years. He is secretary and treasurer of the local Lions club, is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity, the Woodmen of the World and Knights of the Maccabees, and is a member of the St. Ignace Golf and Country club. His wife, whose maiden name was Grace Campbell, was born in Ontario, Canada, a daughter of Hugh and Sarah Campbell, who were born at Dalton, Canada, and who now reside in St. Ignace, their respective ages being seventy-three and sixty-seven years, and the active career of the father having been given mainly to farm enterprise. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Therrien are two winsom daughters, Guinevere Elaine, and Lenore Elizabeth, both being pupils in the St. Ignace schools and their respective ages being fourteen and eleven years, at the opening of the year 1927. A son, Charles Alden was six months old in July, 1927.

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Page  [unnumbered] UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 143 Frank Elsworth Keese, general superintendent of the Marquette range of the Oliver Iron Mining company, is well known to the people of this county for his acknowledge proficiency in mining matters and for his conspicuous record as a public official of Ishpeming and Marquette county. He was born August 25, 1866, in Clinton county, New York, a son of William and Carrie (Patterson) Keese, the former of whom was a native of the same county and the latter of whom was born in Scotland and died in Clinton county, New York state, in 1906 at the age of seventy-four years. William Keese was of English descent, his father, the grandfather of Frank Elsworth Keese, having helped in surveying the first district line from Glenn Falls, New York, to Canada on a government survey and then entered a section of land in Clinton county, New York. William Keese, who farmed in his native county throughout his life, was a member of the Society of Friends and died in 1871 at the age of fifty-four years. While he attended the district schools of his home community, Frank Elsworth Keese helped his father on the farm until he had reached his sixteenth year, when he went into the lumber woods of the Adirondack mountains. When he was eighteen years old, he became a miner in New York state, and after a period of six years spent in the mines of that locality, Mr. Keese came west to Florence, Wisconsin, to work in the Florence mine. Subsequently coming to Parma, Michigan, where he became captain of the Platt mines there, continuing as such until 1896. In that year, he went to the Tower mines, Tower, Minnesota, and during the three years spent there, he was advanced to captain of the Minnesota Iron company and then transferred to the Mesaba iron range, where he was in full charge of the Genoa mine for a period of four years. With such a record behind him, Captain Keese came to Marquette, Michigan, in 1900 and was sent to Parma to take charge of the Volunteer and Platt mines, remaining there until 1905. Coming to Ishpeming at that time, he became superintendent for the group of mines of the Lake Superior Iron company, and upon the resignation of W. H. Johnston, he was made general superintendent of the Lake Superior company's operations in this district. Subsequently, the Oliver Iron Mining company purchased the properties, and Mr. Keese was retained in the position he held as general superintendent. He is also a director and vice-president of the Miners bank, of Ishpeming. In public affairs, Mr. Keese is a prominent figure, for from 1908 to 1910 he was mayor of Ishpeming and has been chairman of the board of supervisors for Marquette county for five years. He is a member of the Board of Public works of his city, a trustee of the Marquette County Relief fund for the distribution of money to needy World war veterans, and a member of the Committee of the Marquette County Tuberculosis Sanitarium, with which he has been associated for the past seven years. In 1889, Mr. Keese married Martha Watson, a native of New York State, and to them have been born ten children, as follows: William, who is married and is employed by the Hardine Powder company at Ishpeming; Mildred, who is

Page  144 144 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN a nurse in Ishpeming; Gertrude, who is a teacher in the domestic science department of the Ishpeming schools; Alice, a teacher in the Ishpeming schools; Harriet, who is teaching music in the schools of Calumet, Michigan; Genevieve, who is a student at the Northern State Normal school at Marquette, Michigan; Cassie, who married Thomas Percy Cook, assistant superintendent of the Huron Mountain club of Michigan; Frank, who graduated from the mining school of Houghton, Michigan, and is a mining engineer of Iron River, Michigan; Martha, a student in the Ishpeming high school; and Orissa, who is attending the public schools of Ishpeming. Mr. Keese is a member of the Masons, Mystic Shrine, Knights of Pythias, Elks, Sons of St. George, Lions club, and Golf club and attends the Presbyterian church. Frank A. Wood is now serving his seventh consecutive term as register of deeds for Mackinac county, and his successive reelections offer the best evidence of his efficiency and popularity and of the high estimate placed upon his administration in this important county office. He was an infant at the time of the family removal to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, gained his early education in the public schools of St. Ignace, and in this city, the judicial center of Mackinac county, where he still maintains his residence and his executive headquarters. Mr. Wood was born in Bay City, Michigan, January 1, 1883, and in the same year his parents came to St. Ignace, where they passed the remainder of their lives, Mr. Wood is a son of William Henry and Marceline (Ogg) Wood, both of whom were born in the province of Ontario, Canada. William H. Wood owned and conducted a barber shop in St. Ignace many years and was one of the well known and highly esteemed citizens of this place at the time of his death, January 30, 1926, when he was seventy-one years of age. He had been a resident of Michigan nearly half a century, the year 1880 having marked his arrival in the state and his removal to St. Ignace having occurred in 1883, as previously noted. He survived his wife by only a few months, as she passed away November 15, 1925, both having been earnest communicants of the Catholic church. William H. Wood was a Democrat in politics, and he served three terms as a representative of St. Ignace on the board of supervisors of Mackinac county. Under the effective direction of his father, the present register of deeds of Mackinac county learned the barber's trade, and he still owns a half interest in one of the leading barber shops of St. Ignace, where he continued activity in the work of his trade until 1913, when he was elected register of deeds, the office of which he has since continued the incumbent through successive reelections. He has thoroughly systematised the work of his office and has made various improvements in its service. His political allegiance is given to the Democratic party, he and his wife are communicants of the Catholic church in their home city, and he is affiliated with the local council of the Knights of Columbus. At Quebec, Canada, was solemnized the marriage of Mr.

Page  145 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 145 Wood to Miss Nellie M. Gallagher, who was born and reared in this city, and whose parents, Patrick E. and Anna (O'Donnell) Gallagher, still maintain their home here, the father being engaged in the meat market business. Marceline Ann, only child of Mr. and Mrs. Wood, was born May 2, 1926. William J. Conlogue, the present efficient treasurer of Mackinac county, is one of the popular officials at the county court house, in the city of St. Ignace, where he was formerly employed in the First National bank during a period of six years, the following three years having been marked by his service in the local offices of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroad, and he then having assumed the office of cashier of the Trout Lake State bank, at Trout Lake, Chippewa county, where he remained three years. He was elected treasurer of Mackinac county in 1924, and has since continued his loyal and effective administration of the fiscal affairs of this county. His political convictions place him in the ranks of the Democratic party, he and his wife are communicants of the Catholic church, and he is affiliated with the Knights of Columbus. Mr. Conlogue was born at Palms, Sanilac county, Michigan, May 2, 1892, and is a son of William G. and Barbara (Durkin) Conlogue, both of whom were born in Ireland, they having passed the closing years of their lives at Palms, Mich., where the former died in 1905 and the latter in 1903, the father having been a skilled artisan at the carpenter's trade and having been lor a long period successfully engaged in business as a contractor and builder. The subject of this review was young at the time of the family removal to Toronto, Canada, and in that city he gained the major part of his youthful education. A general outline of his business career in Michigan has already been given, and he is known and honored as an able public official and loyal and public spirited citizen. At St. Ignace was solemnized his marriage to Miss Lydia Machia, who was here born and reared and who is a daughter of Charles and Agnes (Therrien) Machia, the former of whom, a lumberman by vocation, died in 1912, and the latter of whom still maintains her home at St. Ignace. Mr. and Mrs. Conlogue have three children, all of whom were born in St. Ignace, namely; William John, Jr., Agnes Mary, and Helen Gertrude. Mr. Conlogue served in the World war in 1918 for eight months with the 19th divison of Camp Custer infantry. Leonard E. Murray, D.D.S., is one of the leading representatives of his profession in his native city of St. Ignace, county seat of Mackinac county, where he has been engaged in the successful practice of dentistry somewhat more than sixteen years, his office having the most modern facilities in both operative and laboratory departments, and his large and representative practice being based alike on his technical skill and his personal popularity. Doctor Murray was born at St. Ignace, November 6, 1882, and is a son of Patrick and Mary Jane (Early) Murray, the former of whom was born in Ireland and the latter in Vermont, her father,

Page  146 146 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Michael Early, having been the owner of the historic Early farm in the old Green Mountain state. Patrick Murray was about sixteen years of age when he came from Ireland to the United States, and eventually he became one of the representative lumbermen and contractors at St. Ignace, Michigan, where he was long prominent and influential as a citizen and substantial business man and where his death occurred about twenty years ago. He was a youth when he came to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and in the earlier stage of his career he here taught successfully in the schools of the period. His was the distinction of having here discovered the long-sought grave of the historic missionary and explorer, Father Marquette, this discovery having been made by him while he was clearing space for a garden on his land, and the historic spot being now marked by a consistent memorial monument. The venerable widow of Mr. Murray still resides at St. Ignace and is revered by all who have come within the sphere of her kindly and gracious influence. This noble woman reared her fine family of eleven children, of whom five sons and four daughters are living. Dr. Leonard E., of this review, having been the eighth in order of birth. Mrs. Murray is a devout communicant of the Catholic church, as was also her husband. The early education of Doctor Murray was acquired in the parochial and public schools of St. Ignace, and in preparation for his chosen profession he completed a course in the dental department of the University of Michigan, from which he received his degree of doctor of dental surgery when he was graduated as a member of the class of 1910. He forthwith returned to St. Ignace, and here he has been engaged in the successful practice of his profession during the years that have since passed, besides which he is associated with banking enterprise on Mackinac Island. He is a member of the Michigan State Dental society, is a Democrat in politics, is an active communicant of the Catholic church, is affiliated with the Knights of Columbus, and has active membership and interest in the Lions club of his home city. At St. Ignace was solemnized the marriage of Doctor Murray to Miss Cassilda McCann, who was born and reared in this city, a daughter of Patrick and Honora McCann, her father having long been in the government lighthouse service in this section of Michigan. Mrs. Murray passed to the life eternal August 10, 1924, a devoted communicant of the Catholic church and loved by the people of the community in which her entire life was passed. Mrs. Murray is survived by' one son, Leonard Earl, Jr., who was born August 10, 1924. Martin Fair has been a resident of St. Ignace, judicial center of Mackinac county, since his early youth and now owns and conducts the prosperous meat-market business that was founded by his father many years ago. Mr. Fair was born in the province of Ontario, Canada, in 1875, and is a son of Alexander and Mary (Jamieson) Fair, the former of whom was born at Thorold, Canada, and the latter of whom was born in Scotland, she having been

Page  147 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 147 about seven years of age when her parents came to the United States. Alexander Fair came to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan about forty years ago, and he was long engaged successfully in the meat-market business at St. Ignace, he having established in 1894 the market now owned and conducted by his son Martin, of this review, and having continued in active charge of the business until his death, in 1902. His widow, now seventy-five years of age (1927), still maintains her home in St. Ignace. She is a sister of the late Martin Jamieson, who was one of the pioneer citizens of St. Ignace and who served as mayor of this city. After having duly profited by the advantages of the public schools of St. Ignace Martin Fair entered upon an apprenticeship to the printing trade, in the office of the old St. Ignace Republican, where he continued to be employed ten years and where he gained an experience that has been consistently termed the equivalent of a liberal educationthe discipline of a newspaper office. Upon the death of his father he assumed control of the latter's meat market business, which he has successfully continued during the intervening period of a quarter of a century, with standing as one of the substantial business men and loyal and progressive citizens of the community that has long represented his home. Mr. Fair has had no desire for political preferment, but accords loyal allegiance to the Republican party. He is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and is an active member of the local Lions club, of the progressive policies and activities of which he is a staunch supporter. At St. Ignace occurred the marriage of Mr. Fair to Miss Ella Sherwood, who was born in Ontario, Canada, a daughter of E. Sherwood, who established the first hotel in St. Ignace, the Sherwood House, and who became one of the prominent and influential citizens of Mackinac county, which he represented as a member of the Michigan legislature and in which Sherwood township was named in his honor. Mr. Sherwood, now eighty-six years of age, is proprietor of a leading hotel at Bellingham, Washington. His wife, whose maiden name was Margaret Buchan, was born in Scotland and her death occurred in 1904. Charles Sherwood Fair, only child of Mr. and Mrs. Fair, was graduated in the St. Ignace high school and in 1927, at the age of twenty years, is a student in Albion college, at Albion, this state. Litzner Brothers. The constituent members of this progressive firm, which is successfully engaged in the automobile business in Mackinac county, with modern and well equipped garages both at St. Ignace and Moran, are Louis C., Charles, and Dolf Litzner, aged respectively thirty-three, thirty-one, and twenty-nine years, and recognized as reliable, enterprising and representative young business men of their native county, all having been born on their father's homestead farm near Moran, Mackinac county. They are sons of Charles and Lucy Litzner, both of whom were born in Germany and the latter of whom was fifteen years of age when she came to the United States, her death having occurred

Page  148 148 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN at the old home near Moran, Mackinac county, in 1912, when she was forty-two years of age. Charles Litzner, Sr., was born in the city of Berlin, Germany, where he received his early education, and he was seventeen years of age when he came to the United States. He became a pioneer in farm enterprise in Mackinac county Michigan, and here he is now living retired in the village of Moran, he having passed the sixtieth milestone on the journey of life and being one of the sterling and honored citizens of the county that has long represented his home and been the stage of his productive activities. In addition to the three sons who constitute the firm of Litzner brothers, there is one daughter, Emma, wife of Leonard Wixon, of St. Ignace, and two other sons, Theodore, who is nineteen years of age and who has active management of the old home farm near Moran; and Paul, who is twenty-seven years of age is a telegraph operator in the railroad station at Moran. Louis C. Litzner supplemented the discipline of the Moran public schools by taking a course in Ferris institute, at Big Rapids, this state. He continued to be associated with the work of the home farm until he was eighteen years of age, then learned telegraphy, which he followed seven years, as operator at the Moran station of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroad, for which he there served also as station agent. It was upon this retirement from this service that he became associated with his brothers in the automobile business, first at Moran and later also at St. Ignace, the county seat. Charles Litzner, Jr., attended the Moran public schools, and thereafter he continued his alliance with farm enterprise until 1921, when he and his two brothers of the present firm of Litzner brothers became associated in the conducting of a garage, a hotel and a general store at Moran, where they still continue these enterprises. Dolf, youngest member of the firm, likewise profited by the advantages of the Moran schools, and his was active allegiance to farm industry until 1921, when he became a member of the firm of Litzner brothers. In the spring of 1926 the firm instituted the erection of its large and modern garage building in St. Ignace, and here the concern has the sales agency for the Ford Motor company, with repair, accessory and service departments of the best equipment and with a well ordered branch garage and sales agency in the old home town of Moran. Norman H. Hill is one of the prominent representatives of the newspaper business on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, where he is managing editor of "The Evening News" of Sault Ste. Marie and vice-president of the Sault News Printing company, by which the News is published. Mr. Hill was born in the city of Buffalo, New York, March 21, 1887, and is a son of Henry S. and Juliana (Hingston) Hill, both of whom likewise were born and reared at Buffalo, their home now being maintained in New York city, where the father is living virtually retired. Henry S. Hill became prominently concerned in manufacturing and real estate business in his native city, and was for some time president of the Buffalo

Page  149 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 149 Real Estate exchange, besides which he gave a term of efficient service as executive head of the United States custom house in Buffalo. The public schools of Buffalo were the medium through which Norman H. Hill acquired his earlier education, and after his high school course in his native city he entered the University of Michigan, in which institution he was graduated as a member of the class of 1911 and with the degree of bachelor of arts. Thereafter he was for three years associated with the Detroit News, and he then, in June, 1915, came to Sault Ste. Marie, the judicial center of Chippewa county, and assumed his present position of managing editor of the Sault Ste. Marie Evening News. He has done much to bring the News to its present metropolitan standard and has made it a potent influence in advancing the civic and material progress of the community and the Upper Peninsula region. Mr. Hill had gained a good measure of newspaper experience while he was a student in the University of Michigan, as he was there business manager of the university paper, the Michigan Daily, in 1910-11, besides serving simultaneously as captain of the university baseball team. The political allegiance of Mr. Hill is given to the Republican party and he and his wife are communicants of St. James church, Protestant Episcopal, in their home city, he being a member of the vestry of this parish. He is affiliated with the Knights of Pythias and the Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks, and has membership in Le Sault de Sainte Marie club and the local country club. His wife, whose maiden name was Zoe Oven, was born at Petoskey, Michigan, a daughter of Dr. Arthur and Hilda (Pennington) Oven. Her father, now deceased, was a man of exceptional intellectual and professional attainments, having studied in many of the leading universities of Europe and having long held rank as one of the influential physicians and surgeons of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, his widow being still a resident of this state. Mr. and Mrs. Hill have two children, Francis P., who was born at Petoskey, and Arthur N., who was born at Sault Ste. Marie, in the public schools of which latter city both are students at the time of this writing, in the winter of 1926-27. In 1927, Mr. Hill was appointed a commissioner of the Michigan Department of Conservation by Governor Green and is now serving in that capacity. Robert G. Ferguson has been a resident of Sault Ste. Marie during a period of forty years, and was here the founder of the wholesale and retail hardware business of which he still continues the executive head and which under his wise management has been developed into one of the large and important concerns of this kind in the Middle West. In addition to being president and general manager of the Soo Hardware company, Mr. Ferguson is president of the First National bank, the Ojibway Park Hotel company, and the Sooford Auto company, in his home city, and also of the Plummer-Ferguson Hardware company in the sister city of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada. Mr. Ferguson was born at Brampton, Ontario, Canada, October 22, 1858, and is a son of

Page  150 150 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Adam and Catherine (Golden) Ferguson, the former of whom was born at St. Thomas, Ontario, and the latter of whom likewise was a native of that province, the closing years of her life having been passed in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, where occurred also the death of her husband, after he had been for some time retired from the mercantile business, his activities as a merchant in Michigan having been principally centered at Bay City, from which latter place he came to Sault Ste. Marie. Prior to his removal to Bay City he had been engaged for some time in the mercantile business at St. Joseph, Missouri. Robert G. Ferguson acquired his early education in the schools of Brampton, Ontario, and after the removal of the family to St. Joseph, Missouri, he there attended the Christian Brothers college. Thence he accompanied his parents to Bay City, Michigan, where he became a salesman and office executive in a wholesale hardware establishment, and later he was a traveling salesman for the same concern. These experiences gave him intimate and valuable knowledge of the various phases and details of the wholesale hardware trade and fortified him well for later independent operations in the same line. It was in the year 1887 that Mr. Ferguson established his residence in Sault Ste. Marie, and here organized the hardware firm of R. G. Ferguson & company. The business expanded rapidly in scope and importance, and in 1893, as a matter of commercial expediency, the firm was reorganized and the business incorporated, under the title of the Ferguson Hardware company, and with a fully paid in capital stock of $30,000. In 1896 another readjustment occurred and the present corporate title of Soo Hardware company was adopted, the founder of the business having since continued president and general manager, the other executive officers being A. L. Ferguson, vice-president, and D. M. Hackney, secretary and treasurer. The Soo Hardware company occupies a large and modern building that affords ample accommodations for the extensive and well selected stock of heavy and shelf hardware required in meeting the demands of its large wholesale trade, and the retail store of the company is the largest in Chippewa county. Mr. Ferguson has not only proved a vigorous and resourceful business man but has also stood forward as a loyal and progressive citizen. He has given his influence and liberal co-operation in the forwarding of measures and enterprises for the betterment of his home city and county, has served as a member of various public welfare boards, a member of the Michigan State Hospital for the Insane at Newberry, Luce county. He was appointed by Gov. Fred Warner as a member of the board of Newberry hospital and served 14 years in all. When the State Hospital Commission was organized in 1921, he was made a member of the commission by Governor Grosbeck and made chairman as reappointed by Governor Green, and he is still serving as chairman. This commission has control of all state hospitals for the insane and Michigan home and training school and all institutions located in Pontiac, lonia, Kalamazoo and Newberry. He is a stalwart in the local ranks of the Republican party, is

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Page  151 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 151 affiliated with both York and Scottish Rite bodies of the Masonic fraternity, in which connection it may be noted that on the paternal side he is of staunch Scotch-Irish ancestry, and he is an active member also of the local lodge of the Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks. The maiden name of his wife was Christina Bain, and she was born at Belleville, Ontario, Canada, a daughter of James Bain. Helen E., the only child of Mr. and Mrs. Ferguson, is now the wife of'David M. Hackney, who is the present secretary of the Soo Hardware company and who is represented in a personal sketch elsewhere in this publication. Anson B. Miner. Among the leading bankers and financial men of Michigan is included the name of the late Anson B. Miner, of Ishpeming, Michigan, who is prominently identified with some of the most important banking institutions in the Upper Peninsula. The family ancestry is traceable to the early colonial era of our history, when Thomas Miner established the family in Connecticut, where he and his descendants farmed. Subsequent movements of the family found them in New York, in which state, at Lebanon, were born Charles Henry and Mary (Bushnell) Miner, the parents of Anson B. About 1834 or 1836, the parents came to Stark county, Illinois, to farm, subsequently removing to Chicago, where the father died. The mother died at York, Nebraska. Anson B. Miner was born at Toulon, Stark county, Illinois, September 23, 1844, and began his education in the public schools of Galesburg, Illinois. He then attended Knox college in that same city, and when he had completed his college career, he entered the employ of the old City National bank of Chicago, holding various positions with that institution until 1871, when it was destroyed by the great fire that swept the city in that year. Ill health subsequently compelled him to go to Colorado for a time, after which he returned to Chicago and entered the employ of the First National bank, and in 1884, he went to Ishpeming, Michigan, to accept the position of cashier for the Ishpeming National bank. With this company, he was associated until 1901, in which year he effected the organization of the Miners' National bank of Ishpeming, of which he became cashier at that time. To the banking and financial problems of this section of the Upper Peninsula, Mr. Miner devoted most of his time, and in addition to his connection with the bank which he organized in 1901, he was a stockholder and director of the First National bank of Negaunee, and a stockholder in the State bank of Negaunee and the First National bank of Escanaba, Michigan. Possessed of the highest attainments of a financial man, Mr. Miner was recognized as a conspicuous figure in the banking operations in this part of the Upper Peninsula, with which he was actively identified until the time of his death, which occurred January 12, 1913. On August 17, 1886, Mr. Miner married Josephine Coulter, a native of Michigan, and to this union was born a daughter, Mary, whose home is maintained at Ishpeming. Mrs. Miner died November 15, 1925. She was the daughter of

Page  152 152 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Joseph and Nacy (Hanna) Coulter, who came to Ontonagon county in 1846 and settled at Eagle River in 1847. Mr. Coulter was connected with mining operations, served on the board of supervisors of his county, was elected to the state senate in 1860, and died in 1866. Anson B. Miner was a strong supporter of the Republican party, whose principles he embraced from early manhood. He was active in Masonic circles in which he attained the Thirtysecond degree of the Scottish Rite and in which he was a member at Chicago of Ashlar Lodge No. 308, F. & A. M.; Washington Chapter No. 45, Royal Arch Masons; Apollo Commandery No. 1, Knights Templar; and Oriental Consistory. Henry A. Sherman, who holds the office of city manager of Sault Ste. Marie, is giving an administration that fully justifies his selection for this position and also proves the consistency of the office itself. Mr. Sherman was born near Owosso, metropolis of Shiawassee county, Michigan, April 12, 1883, and is a son of Albert A. and Julia (Starring) Sherman, the former of whom was born at Conestota, New York, and the latter at Clarkston, Oakland county, Michigan. Albert A. Sherman became one of the representative exponents of successful farm industry in Shiawassee county, and was seventy-five years of age at the time of his death, in 1923, his widow being still a resident of Shiawassee county and being now (1927) seventy-six years of age. Mrs. Sherman has in past years been notably active in church and missionary work, and she showed all of devotion and zeal in the rearing of her children, six in number. After completing his studies in the high school at Owosso, Henry A. Sherman entered the University of Michigan, in which he carried forward his studies in both the literary and civilengineering departments, in the latter of which he was graduated as a member of the class of 1906. Thereafter he was employed for a time in the office of the county engineer of Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, but he soon became a draftsman in the office of a company engaged in concrete construction work. In November, 1906, he entered the employ of the Detroit River Tunnel company, with which he served as chief inspector until the spring of 1908, when he entered the service of the United States government as inspector and junior engineer in connection with channel improvement, with headquarters at Sault Ste. Marie, where he was resident engineer in charge of three government contracts. In 1915 he left the government service, and thereafter he was in the employ of the Northwestern Leather company at Sault Ste. Marie until 1920, he having become assistant superintendent of this concern. In 1920 he assumed his present office of city manager of Sault Ste. Marie, and in this connection he has given service that has inured greatly to the benefit of the city, along both civic and material lines. He is a registered civil engineer and is a member of the International City Managers association. In his home city he is a member of the Soo club and the Rotary club, is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and the Benevolent & Protective Order of

Page  153 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 153 Elks, and is a communicant of St. James Episcopal church. His wife, whose maiden name was Kristine Flaa, was born at Ishpeming, Michigan, and her parents, Mr. and Mrs. John Flaa, still reside in that city. Mr. and Mrs. Sherman have three children, Henry Starring, James Leonard and Peter Robert, aged respectively (1927) nine, seven and five years. Edgar T. Partridge has been a resident of Chippewa county since his boyhood and is now one of the successful business men in the city of Sault Ste. Marie, the county seat, where he is a representative of both the automobile business and the plumbing business. Mr. Partridge was born at Berry, province of Ontario, Canada, and there also were born his parents, George T. and Emma (Drury) Partridge, the latter having died in 1924, and one of her nephews having gained the distinction of serving as premier of the Canadian government. George T. Partridge was engaged in the real estate business in Seattle, Washington, at the time of his death, December 24, 1924. The early education of Edgar T. Partridge was acquired in the public schools of Chippewa county, including the junior high school of Sault Ste. Marie. In this city he served his apprenticeship in the plumbing trade, as an employe of the firm of Wood & Th, with which he continued his association twelve years. He then, in 1902, engaged in the plumbing business in an independent way, and he is now senior member of the representative plumbing firm of Partridge & Barnes. He sold his original plumbing establishment and business in 1921, and then formed a partnership with William A. Schunck, under the firm name of Partridge & Schunck, this firm having the local sales and service agency for the Studebaker automobiles, and maintaining a well equipped: garage at 30 Maple street, where the service department includes the handling of repairs and accessories for the Studebaker motor cars, the general garage service making adequate provisions for all types of automobiles. Mr. Partridge is affiliated with the Knights of Pythias and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and is known as one of the reliable and progressive business men of his home city. His wife, whose maiden name was Lottie H. Rodey, was born in Ontario, Canada, and is a daughter of John H. and Rosa (Lang) Rodey, both of whom are deceased, her father having been a farmer and having also been keeper of a government lighthouse. Mr. and Mrs. Partridge have six children: Thelma R., Margaret E., Blanche H., George T., Leonard H. and Violet Augusta. Miss Thelma R. is a talented and successful teacher of music; Miss Margaret conducts a beauty parlor in her native city; and Miss Blanche H. is a nurse by profession and vocation. Robert J. Wynn is the owner of valuable improved real estate in the city of Sault Ste. Marie and here he is also a prominent representative of the automobile business. He has resided on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan since his childhood, and has here found opportunity for substantial and successful business achieve

Page  154 154 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN ment. Mr. Wynn was born in the city of Toronto, Canada, in the year 1874, and was about two years of age when the family home was established in Michigan. His father, Thomas Wynn, likewise a native of Toronto, became a successful general contractor at Sault Ste. Marie, and he served for some time as street commissioner of this city, as well as road commissioner of Chippewa county. Here his death occurred in 1899, and his widow passed away May 30, 1915, she likewise having been born in Toronto and her maiden name having been Ann Fitzgerald. Mrs. Wynn was known for her unfailing spmpathy and kindliness and was instant in aiding those who were in straitened financial circumstances, those who were ill, and those in any way afflicted or distressed, in mlind, body or estate. She was loved as a real community benefactor and as a generous and loyal friend. The youthful education of Robert J. Wynn was gained mainly in the schools of Sault Ste. Marie, and after his school days he was here employed several years by the Hammond-Standish company, and the Cornwell company, the Cornwell-Swift company, successively. He was next retained as an employe of a sash and blind company at Brimley, likewise in Chippewa county, and thereafter he worked with his father in connection with the construction of the Poe lock of the St. Marys river, he having served as a stationary engineer during most of his association with this construction work. Following this experience he was for seven years in the service of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroad, and' the last four of these years he was stationed at Soo Junction, in Luce county. In 1902 he assumed control of the Lock City hotel at Sault Ste. Marie, and after conducting the same two years he was retired from active business about one year. He then became proprietor of the old Bay City House, the name of which he changed to Hichler House, and this hotel he successfully conducted during the period of 1905-12. In his hotel enterprise his wife proved an efficient and popular coadjutor and added greatly to the success of the business. She won a host of friends in her home community and among the traveling public entertained at the Wynn hotel, and when she passed to the life eternal, January 12, 1914, her death was deeply mourned in her home city of Sault Ste. Marie. In September 1912, Mr. Wynn sold his hotel business, and established an automobile livery business at Sault Ste. Marie, the enterprise having thereafter been expanded to include the local sales agency for the Buick, Oakland and Olds automobiles. Later he became the local representative of the Dodge Brothers Motor company, and this alliance resulted in his becoming an intimate friend of both John and Horace Dodge, he having been an honorary pallbearer at the funeral of each of these influential motor-car manufacturers in Detroit. Mr. Wynn still retains the agency for the Dodge cars, and in March, 1925 he erected the modern building in which his substantial business is now conducted. He is the owner also of the Wynn apartment building, which valuable property has been in his possession since 1912. Mr. Wynn is a staunch Republican and is a popular member

Page  155 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 155 of the local lodge of the Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks. Reared in this invigorating north country of Michigan, Mr. Wynn has never lost his love of the great outdoors, and he is an ardent devotee of boating, hunting and fishing. Albert Schmidt, of Detroit, has a large tract of land on Moon Bay, and Mr. Wynn is fully appreciative of the privileges that are given him for the hunting of deer and smaller wild game and for fishing in the region thus controlled by Mr. Schmidt, Mr. Wynn married Miss Louise Marcero, who was born at Anchorville, St. Clair county, Michigan, a daughter of James Marcero, who was long numbered among the successful farmers in Saginaw county, this state. As previously noted, Mrs. Wynn has passed from the stage of life's mortal endeavors, her death having occurred January 12, 1914, and she being survived by no children. J. Alfred Burns was born at Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa county, and has resided continuously on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, where he has gained success and precedence as one of the representative business men of the younger generation. He is associated in the ownership and conducting of one of the leading clothing stores in his native city, and the firm has also well equipped clothing stores at Newberry, Munising and Marquette. Mr. Burns is a son of James H. and Margaret Burns, both of whom were born at Lindsey, Ontario, Canada, their home being now maintained at Marquette, Michigan, and the father being a railroad man. The schools of his native county afforded J. Alfred Burns his early education, and from his early youth to the present time he has been associated with the men's clothing and furnishing-goods business. For six years he was in charge of the clothing department of the L. Winkelman mercantile establishment at St. Ignace, thereafter he held a similar position with the firm of Ormsbee & Atkins in the city of Marquette, where he next became associated with the establishment of the present firm of Stern & Field. He then returned to Sault Ste. Marie, to take charge of the clothing department of the Miller mercantile establishment, with which he was connected two and one half years. During the ensuing five years he here had charge of the clothing and shoe department of the Hub, and he then, in June, 1922, formed a partnership with George A. Cowell, with whom he has since continued to be associated in their independent and prosperous business as dealers in men's clothing, furnishing goods and shoes, with a well appointed and commodious store at Sault Ste. Marie, and with excellent branch stores at Munising, Newberry and Marquette, Mr. Cowell being in active charge of the Munising establishment, which handles also apparel for women and children. The firm of Cowell and Burns likewise has the exclusive agency for the celebrated Hart, Shaffner & Marx clothing, and in the handling of this superior line of goods controls a large business. Effective service and fair and honorable dealings have given to this progressive firm a secure place in popular confidence and supporting patronage. Mr.

Page  156 156 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Burns is a communicant of the Catholic church, and in this connection it may be noted that as a boy and youth he was for six years a student in the Ursuline academy at St. Ignace. He has membership in the Knights of Columbus, the Holy Name society, the Soo club, Kiwanis club and the Civic & Commercial association of his home city. At Sault Ste. Marie was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Burns to Miss Doris McGovern who was born and reared in this city, a daughter of Thomas and Margaret McGovern, the former of whom is deceased and the latter of whom still resides in Sault Ste. Marie. Mr. McGovern was long associated with lumbering operations on the Upper Peninsula. Mr. and Mrs. Burns have two children, Katherine and Eleanor. Mrs. Burns is a graduate of Loretto academy and attended Ypsilanti Normal for two years. She also attended La Salle high school and the La Salle Institute of Chicago. Edward I. Miniclier is successfully established in business as an undertaker and funeral director in his native city of Sault Ste. Marie, where he has been long and prominently associated with this line of enterprise. In this Lock City of Michigan Mr. Miniclier was born March 3, 1871, and that he is a representative of one of the pioneer families of this section of the state is indicated by the fact that his father, Captain Louis Miniclier, long in service as master of vessels on the Great Lakes, likewise was born at Sault Ste. Marie, his death having occurred June 2, 1882, and his wife, Mrs. Zoe Miniclier, who was born in Montreal, Canada, having passed away in June, 1897. The early education of Edward I. Miniclier included the discipline of the high school at Sault Ste. Marie, and he has been associated with the undertaking business during virtually his entire active career. In preparation for his service as a licensed embalmer he completed a course and was graduated in the Barnes School of Anatomy, in the city of Chicago. For twenty years Mr. Miniclier had active charge of the undertaking establishment of A. R. Haist, who founded the same in 1900, and of this establishment and business he became the owner in 1924, the appointments, facilities and service being of the best metropolitan standard. In connection with his well equipped establishment, at 130 West Spruce street, Mr. Miniclier conducts also a representative enterprise in the handling of art goods, pictures, picture frames, etc. Mr. Haist established the business July 1, 1900, and conducted the same until its sale to the present owner. Mr. Miniclier is one of the substantial business men and loyal and progressive citizens of his native city, is affiliated with the local lodge of the Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks, and his name still remains on the roster of eligible bachelors in Chippewa county. Edwin T. Crisp is managing director of the Crisp Laundry company, which conducts two laundries of the best modern equipment and service and has status as one of the important business concerns of Sault Ste. Marie. The company specializes in the handling of marine laundry work, and, as established in the Lock

Page  157 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 157 City that is one of the important points of the Great Lakes transportation system, it controls a marine laundry business that is not excelled in scope by that of any similar concern in the world except in New York city. Mr. Crisp was born in the city of Detroit, Michigan, May 22, 1874, and is a son of Christopher and Jane Crisp, the former of whom was born in Yarmouth, England, and the latter at Wallaceburg, Ontario, Canada, her death having occurred July 28, 1888. Christopher Crisp was reared and educated in his native land and was twenty-six years of age when he came to the United States. He had gained in England a goodly experience in seafaring life and in the land of his adoption he continued to be identified with navigation on the Great Lakes until he entered the government lighthouse service, to which he gave his loyal and efficient attention during a period of fifteen years, and in connection with which he maintained a lifesaving station above Whitefish Point, the location of this station being now known as Crisp Point and the name having been given in his honor. This veteran of the Great Lakes marine service passed to the life eternal June 27, 1924, secure in the high regard of all who knew him and honored for his life of faithful service. Both he and his wife were earnest communicants of the Protestant Episcopal church. Edwin T. Crisp profited by the advantages of the public schools of Sault Ste. Marie, but when he was sixteen years of age the family home was broken by the death of his mother, and he became virtually dependent upon his own resources. He continued his school work while residing in the home of Doctor Bacon, during the years 1889 and 1890. As a boy he was employed in gathering laundry for one of the laundries in Sault Ste. Marie, and in the period of 1890-1901 he was in the employ of the Soo Steam laundry. In the latter year he entered into a copartnership with William M. and W. E. Everett in the laundry business, and in 1905 he effected the organization of the Great Lakes Laundry company, in the plant and business of which he retained a substantial financial interest. In 1908 he was residing in California, but in 1910 he returned to Sault Ste. Marie to protect his business interests here. In 1911 he organized the Crisp Laundry company, which took over the plants and business of both the Great Lakes Laundry company and the Superior laundry. He has since continued as the active and efficient executive head of the large and important business, which now includes the operation of a second large laundry plant, purchased by the company in 1920. Mr. Crisp has proved a resourceful and straightforward executive in the development of the extensive business controlled by the company, and is known and valued as one of the progressive business men and loyal and liberal citizens of the vital Lock City of Michigan. He is a member of the local Rotary club, is a Republican in political alignment and he and his wife are communicants of St. James church, Protestant Episcopal. On the 6th of October, 1910, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Crisp to Miss Yeida A. Larson, who was born in Sweden and who was six years of age when she came with her

Page  158 158 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN parents to the United States, the parents having been residents of Michigan at the time of their death. Mr. and Mrs. Crisp have no children. Hugh M. Moran, secretary and assistant treasurer of the Lock City Manufacturing company, one of the well ordered and important industrial concerns of the city of Sault Ste. Marie, was born at Bay City, Michigan, and is a son of John Moran, who is now president of the Lock City Manufacturing company and who is represented in a personal sketch in this publication, so that further review of the family history is not here required. The schools of his native city, afforded Hugh M. Moran his early education, and as a boy he gained practical experience by selling newspapers on the streets of Bay City. As a youth he worked for some time in a planing mill, and thereafter he was for ten years in the employ of the Pittsburgh Coal company, with headquarters in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. In 1903 he came to Sault Ste. Marie and associated himself with his father, in the management of the business of the Lock City Manufacturing company, which had been founded by his father a few years earlier, and with which he himself had been previously associated. He is now secretary and assistant treasurer of the company, and is a director of the First National bank of his home city. His religious faith is that of the Presbyterian church, he is affiliated with the Rotary club, Knights of Pythias, the Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks, and is a popular member of the Soo club. His wife, whose maiden name was Anna Margaret Berry, was born in Ontario, Canada, a daughter of Andrew J. and Mary Berry, the former of whom is now retired from active affairs, at the age of sixty-eight years (1927), and the latter of whom is deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Moran have three children: John (Jack), James, and Stewart, aged respectively eleven, nine and six years. S. B. Moran was associated with his father, John Moran, in the organizing of the Lock City Manufacturing company, one of the important industrial concerns of Sault Ste. Marie, and of this representative company in the vital Lock City of Michigan he is the vice-president, further mention of the company being made on other pages of this work, in the personal sketch of his father, John Moran. S. B. Moran was born in Bay City, Michigan, and after there profiting fully by the advantages of the public schools, he was for three years a student in the University of Michigan, in the period of 1904-06. In the latter year he became associated with his father in the organizing of the Lock City Manufacturing company, and with the management of the business he continued his active alliance until 1909, when he went over into Ontario, Canada, where he was engaged in professional work as an architect until 1913, his preparation for this profession having been made while he was a student in the University of Michigan. In 1913 Mr. Moran returned to Sault Ste. Marie, and here he passed three years as an executive with the Soo Lumber company. Since that time he has

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Page  159 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 159 concentrated his energies and service in his executive administration as vice-president of the Lock City Manufacturing company. However, he is financially interested in one or more other business enterprises in his home city. Mr. Moran has membership in the Soo club and in the local lodge of the Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks. His wife, whose maiden name was Florence Pittman, was born at Calumet, Michigan, a daughter of John and Mary Pittman, both of whom are living. Mr. Pittman is in the service of the government, as a skilled ship carpenter. The marriage of Mr. and, Mrs. Moran was solemnized January 1, 1926. Very Reverend Henry A. Buchholtz has been pastor of the Catholic cathedral at Marquette for more than eleven years, and as head of that church, he is honored and respected by his parishioners as a priest who is wise and sympathetic in his instructions to them and who is exceptionally capable in his administration of the parish affairs. Nor is Father Buchholtz prominent merely in local religious circles, for he has been prominently identified with the diocesan matters as apostolic administrator and vicar general of the diocese. A native of Escanaba, Michigan, he was born June 20, 1874, a son of Jacob and Catherine Buchholtz, both of whom were natives of Luxembourg, Germany, and became pioneers of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Jacob Buchholtz came to the United States when he was eighteen years of age, first setting foot in the Upper Peninsula before the settlement of Escanaba had begun, and here he engaged in the hardware business, also assisting in the building of the first railroad from Escanaba to Negaunee, Michigan. He died in 1917, two years after the demise of his wife, who had come to this country when she was nine years of age and had been one of the founders of St. Joseph's church at Escanaba. Graduating from St. Joseph's school, Escanaba, in 1889, Henry A. Buchholtz went to St. Francis seminary, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where he pursued a classical course in that city. His philosophical and theological studies were carried on at Mount St. Mary's Seminary, Cincinnati, Ohio, upon the completion of which, he was ordained priest at Escanaba, May 15, 1898, by Bishop Vertin, of Marquette. His first assignment after his ordination was to the pastorate of Sacred Heart church at Munising. Taking up his duties there in August, 1898, he completed the church that was then under construction and supervised the erection of the new rectory. In addition, he negotiated the purchase of property for a new school, so that his six years at Sacred Heart parish in Munising constituted a period of labor and achievement that was indicative of his subsequent career in the service of the church. From Munising, he was transferred to St. Ambrose church, Ironwood, Michigan, his eight years as head of that parish being signalized by the erection of a new home for the resident Sisters. Following the death of Monsignor Langner, of St. Paul's church, Negaunee, Michigan, Father Buchholtz succeeded to that charge, and three years and a half of excellent work in that city were terminated

Page  160 160 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN November 4, 1915, by his appointment to the position of pastor of the Cathedral at Marquette, succeeding Monsignor Joseph Pinten, now Bishop of Grand Rapids, in that office. Here Father Buchholtz has remained, accomplishing changes in the physical equipment of the parish that show him to be a man of the highest attainments in an administrative capacity. The cathedral was renovated and the towers completed at a cost of $80,000 in 1922, and in 1924, the new rectory, noted for its beauty of architectural design, was built at a cost of $50,000. On May 4, 1922, came his appointment to the position of vicar general of the diocese by Bishop Eis to succeed Msgr. Joseph Pinten, who was consecrated Bishop of Superior, Wisconsin, at that time, and on August 12, of the same year, he was appointed apostolic administrator of the diocese upon the resignation of Bishop Eis, acting in that capacity until the installation of Bishop Nussbaum, February 7, 1923. Further eulogy of the works and character of Father Buchholtz is unnecessary, for in spite of the material improvements he has wrought in the service of the church-works that are in themselves worthy of further exposition-the greatest manifestation of his character as a man and a priest is found in the place he holds in the hearts of his parishioners. Albert E. Cullis. In the city of Sault Ste. Marie is established the large and modern plant of the Soo Woolen Mills, which constitutes one of the most important industrial and commercial concerns of Michigan's Lock City, in the manufacturing of highgrade mackinaws, shirts, blazers, blouses and men's and boys' trousers, the output of the factory finding demand in virtually every state of the Union. Of this progressive manufacturing corporation Mr. Cullis is vice-president and general manager, besides which he is vice-president of the Soo Machine & Auto company, and a director of the Central Savings bank, as he is also of the Crisp Laundry company, one of the nation's foremost concerns specializing in marine laundry. Mr. Cullis was born at Lindsey, province of Ontario, Canada, in the year of 1862, and is a son of John and Ann Cullis, both natives of Cornwall, England, where they were reared and educated, their respective ages at the time of their coming to Canada having been about thirty and twentyfive years. At Lindsey, Ontario, John Cullis became the owner and operator of a flour mill, and there his death occurred in 1886. He was a representative business man and influential citizen of his community and served a number of years in a public office of his township. His widow survived him by many years, and her death occurred in August, 1920. In the schools of his native place Albert E. Cullis acquired his early education, and there also he learned the flour-milling business, in the mill operated by his father. With this line of enterprise he continued his connection eleven years, and he then came to Michigan, in 1897, and established his residence in Chippewa county, where he has since maintained his home. He was identified with lumbering operations at Fibre, this county,

Page  161 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 161 four years, and then became associated with G. J. Griffith in the control of the Soo Woolen mills. In 1902 the business was incorporated under this title, and Mr. Cullis has since continued his productive service as vice-president and general manager of the company. The present large and modern factory of the company W~as erected and equipped in 1907, and the concern has built up a substantial and prosperous business that has contributed much to the industrial and commercial prestige of Sault Ste. Marie. Mr. Cullis is a member of the Soo club and is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity. His wife, whose maiden name was Bella McKay, was born near Ripley, Ontario, Canada, a daughter of Kenneth McKay, who was a prosperous farmer of that locality. Mr. and Mrs. Cullis have two children: John R. is now the efficient superintendent of the Soo Woolen mills, and Jennie is the wife of C. J. Schank, of Sault Ste. Marie. Joseph H. Walker is a representative of one of the old and honored families of Sault Ste. Marie, in the public schools of which place he received his early education, and he is now numbered among the prominent and influential business men of this city, where he is executive head of the Joseph H. Walker company and the Soo Builders Supply company, besides being vice-president of the Sault Silver Fox company. Mr. Walker was born at Meeford, Ontario, Canada, October 26, 1875, but was reared and educated in the city that is now his home. He is a son of Samuel and Sarah Walker, the former of whom was born in Ireland and the latter in England, both having been children at the time when the respective families came to America and made settlement in Ontario, Canada. Samuel Walker became a successful contractor and builder at Sault Ste. Marie, and many of the older buildings still in evidence in this city were constructed by him. He was one of the venerable and honored pioneer citizens of Sault Ste. Marie at the time of his death, in the early part of the present decade, when he was eighty-one years of age, his widow being still a resident of this city and being seventy-nine years of age at the time of this writing, in the winter of 1926-27. As a youth Joseph H. Walker became associated with the contracting and building operations of his father, by whom he was eventually admitted to partnership in the business. About 1905 he removed to Fort William, Ontario, Canada, where he continued his business activities ten years. In 1915 he returned to Sault Ste. Marie, and the jobbing business that he here established on a modest scale has been developed under his management to the substantial and prosperous enterprise now conducted by the Joseph H. Walker company. Of his other important business activities due mention has already been made in this review. Mr. Walker is a member of the Soo club, is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and the Knights of Pythias, and he and his wife are zealous members of the local Methodist Episcopal church, of which he is an official. Mr. Walker wedded Miss Elissa Jane Mutart, who was born at Owen Sound, Ontario,

Page  162 162 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Canada, a daughter of Thomas and Helena Mutart, the former of whom is still actively engaged in farm enterprise and the latter of whom is deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Walker have four children, whose names and respective ages (1927) are here recorded: Harry Samuel, fourteen years; Russell Thomas, twelve years; Lora Elsie, ten years; and Elizabeth Jane, eight years. All of the children were born at Sault Ste. Marie except Russell T. who was born at Fort William, Ontario. J. Charles Royce is one of the leading representatives of the retail grocery trade in the city of Sault Ste. Marie, and his large and well equipped establishment, at No. 550 Bingham avenue, is known for its metropolitan service in all departments. Mr. Royce was born in Wellington county, Ontario, Canada, August 9, 1872, and is a son of Josiah and Janet (Stewart) Royce, the former of whom was born on the old family homestead farm in Wellington county, Ontario, and the latter of whom was born in Dundee, Scotland, she having been about sixteen years of age when she accompanied her parents from Scotland to Ontario, Canada, where she passed the remainder of her life, her death having occurred April 30, 1916, when she was eighty-one years of age. Josiah Royce, likewise of English ancestry, became one of the substantial and representative exponents of farm industry in his native county, and after many years of worthy and productive activity as an agriculturist and stock grower, he retired from the farm and established his residence at Guelph, Ontario, in which city he died at the patriarchal age of ninety-one years, he having passed away January 26, 1925. The public schools of his native county were the medium through which J. Charles Royce acquired his youthful education, and he continued his association with the activities of the old home farm until he had attained to the age of eighteen years, when, in 1890, he came to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, and where he was employed in turn as clerk in a clothing store and a grocery store. In 1902 he purchased the grocery store and business that had previously been owned and conducted by his older brother, and his grocery establishment now ranks as the fourth oldest retail store of this kind in the city, the while he has continuously conducted the business in its original location. Within the passing years Mr. Royce has had two partners in the business, but since 1917 he has conducted the enterprise in an individual way. When the nation entered the World war Mr. Royce became the executive representative of the Chippewa county merchants in carrying forward the food conservation work in the county, in accordance with the governmental policies, and his service in this capacity, instituted early in 1918, was continued until the close of the war. In this connection he received from the government a certificate of authority, as did he also an official acknowledgment of his loyal and effective work. He was active in the support of other patriotic activities and service in his home city and county during the climacteric period of the war. At the annual convention of the Michigan Retail

Page  163 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 163 Grocers association held in Bay City in 1909, Mr. Royce was elected a member of its executive committee, a position to which he was re-elected in the following year, when the converntion of the association was held at Detroit. As soon as possible after he had established his residence in Sault Ste. Marie, Mr. Royce made application for citizenship, and in February, 1898, he received the final papers that duly certified him a citizen of the United States. His political alignment has since been in the ranks of the Republican party, and he and his wife hold membership in the Methodist Episcopal church. He has passed the official chairs in both branches of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, receiving on April 25, 1927, the Rica 25 year Veteran Jewel, also 25 year Veteran Jewel in the Woodmen of the World in 1918, and is a charter member of the local camp of the Woodmen of the World, which he has represented as an official of the State camp of Michigan. Mrs. Sarah J. (Coulter) Royce, wife of the subject of this review, was born near the attractive little city of Peterboro, Ontario, Canada, has been a resident of Sault Ste. Marie since 1896, and here her marriage to Mr. Royce was solemnized October 19, 1898. She is a daughter of the late Andrew and Rebecca Coulter, and her father was a farmer by vocation. Mr. and Mrs. Royce have two fine sons, Carl Coulter and W. Earl, aged respectively eighteen and fourteen years (1927). The older son is a student in the high school of his native city, and the younger son was graduated in the eighth grade of the local schools as a member of the class of 1926, so that he will be a student in the Sault Ste. Marie high school before this publication is issued from the press. Ernest D. Cox has been a resident of Sault Ste. Marie since the year 1922 and is now associated with Joseph H. Walker in the contracting and building business, under the title of the Joseph H. Walker company, a personal sketch of Mr. Walker being entered elsewhere in this publication. Mr. Cox was born in England, March 20, 1883, and in his native land he not only acquired his youthful education but also learned the carpenter's trade. He was twenty years of age when he came to America and established residence in the Dominion of Canada. He was for two years engaged in the work of his trade in the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, and thereafter he was for eight years foreman of construction work for John L. McRae, a leading contractor and builder at Port Arthur, Ontario, Canada. He then engaged independently as a contractor and builder in that city, where he became the senior member of the firm of Cox & Jones. This firm continued operations until 1914, and Mr. Cox passed the ensuing four years as a skilled workman and executive with the Port Arthur Shipbuilding company, besides having been for a time in the service of the Canada Car Works at Port Arthur. In 1922 he established himself as a contractor and builder at Sault Ste. Marie, and since the early part of 1926 he has been one of the principals of the important contracting corporation of Joseph H. Walker company, one of the

Page  164 164 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN leading concerns of this kind in Chippewa county. In the York Rite of the Masonic fraternity Mr. Cox has basic affiliation with Bethel Lodge, A. F. & A. M., in his home city, here also he has membership in the chapter of Royal Arch Masons and Commandery. His wife, whose maiden name was Daisy Nellie Wicks, likewise was born and reared in England, she being a daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth (Sylvester) Wicks, and the vocation of her father being that of building contractor. Thomas Wicks Cox, elder of the two children of Mr. and Mrs. Cox, was born at Port Arthur, Ontario, is now (1927) eighteen years of age and is actively associated with the Joseph H. Walker company, in which his father is a principal. Robert Tye, the younger son, was born at Port Arthur, Ontario, is now eight years of age, and is attending the public schools of Sault Ste. Marie. Charles I. Barnes has the technical skill and experience and the requisite executive ability to fortify him most admirably for the substantial and successful business that he now controls as a contractor and builder in the city of Sault Ste. Marie. Mr. Barnes was born in England, September 15, 1872, and is a son of William and Mary Jane Barnes, who passed their entire lives in England, the latter having been of Scotch ancestry and her death having occurred about the year 1878, when her son Charles I., of this review, was a boy of about five years. William Barnes was long engaged in the woolen trade in England, maintained headquarters in one location during a period of forty-seven years, and was of venerable age at the time of his death, in 1900. The subject of this sketch was reared and educated in his native land, where he also gained his initial business experience. In 1899, at the age of seventeen years, he came to the Dominion of Canada and entered the employ of a company engaged in the manufacturing of brick at St. Thomas, Ontario. Thereafter he passed five years at McKeesport Pennsylvania, where he was employed in mason work in steel rolling mills. It was at the expiration of this period that Mr. Barnes came to Sault Ste. Marie, and here he was in the employ of the Union Carbide company during the long period of twentyone years. He then engaged independently in business as a contractor and builder, he having previously erected a brick business building on Ashmun street, in an interval during which the plant of the Union Carbide company was closed down. Mr. Barnes has done an appreciable amount of contract work for the city, in the installation of concrete street paving and in 1926 he erected at Sault Ste. Marie a substantial garage building for Chippewa county. Mr. Barnes is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity, the Independent Order of Foresters and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He and his wife were reared in the faith of the Established Church of England, and in the United States they retain this faith, as communicants of the Protestant Episcopal church. At Sault Ste. Marie was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Barnes to Miss Jemima Johnston, who was born on Manitoulin

Page  165 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 165 Island, Ontario, Canada, where she gained her rudimentary education. She was thirteen years of age when her parents came to Sugar Island, Michigan, and later became residents of Sault Ste. Marie. Her father, Robert Alexander Johnston was born at London, Ontario, and his death occurred in 1916, the greater part of his active career having been given to farm enterprise. His widow, whose maiden name was Margaret Miller and who was born at Thornberry, Ontario, now resides in the state of California. Charles, eldest of the three children of Mr. and Mrs. Barnes, is engaged in the contracting business at Sault Ste. Marie and is represented in a personal sketch on another page of this publication. Robert, the second son, is a brick mason by trade and is associated with his father's contracting operations. Arthur, the youngest son, now resides at Pontiac, this state, and is there identified with the hardware business. Charles DePaul is one of the successful and popular representatives of the theater business both in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, and in the sister city of the same name on the opposite side of St. Mary's river in Ontario, Canada. Mr. DePaul was born in Italy, November 21, 1881, and is a son of Patsy and Josephine DePaul, the former of whom died in 1915 and the latter of whom is now a loved member of the family circle in the home of her son Charles, of this review. The schools of his native land afforded Mr. DePaul his youthful education, and as a youth he visited both Germany and Spain. After his return to his native land he served three years in the Italian army, and in 1905, at the age of twenty-three years, he came to the United States. He was employed for a time as a motorman on the street-car lines of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and in 1909 he established his residence at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, where his association with the theater business was initiated in 1912. In that year he bought and remodeled the Dreamland theater, and this he conducted until 1924. In 1921 he erected and equipped the Princess theater at Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and in 1923 he formed a partnership with W. George Cook and they purchased both the Temple and Strand theaters in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. The firm has since conducted these theaters with marked success, and also the Princess theater at Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. These are leading places of entertainment and. present the best grade of films of the moving-picture world. Mr. DePaul has won a host of friends in this fair north country, and is a popular member of the Sault Ste. Marie Commercial and Automobile clubs, is affiliated with the Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks and the Modern Woodmen of America, and is an active member of the Michigan Motion Picture association. His wife, whose maiden name was Hannah Raffaele, likewise was born in Italy, and her parents now reside in Sault Ste. Marie, where her father is engaged in the retail grocery business. Mr. and Mrs. DePaul have two fine sons, Joseph and Tony, aged respectively thirteen and twelve years (1927) and both are

Page  166 166 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN students in the public schools of their native city. He is a member of the Civics Commission organization. On December 1, 1926 he purchased Mr. Cook's interest in the Soo Amusement company which makes him sole owner. Benjamin S. Rothwell. Within a period of a quarter of a century of active association with business affairs in the city of Sault Ste. Marie, Mr. Rothwell has gained high reputation and a large degree of success, as is shown in a concrete way by his ownership of one of the largest and best equipped furniture establishments in this part of the Upper Peninsula, his store, metropolitan in appointments, stock and service, catering to a large and representative patronage and being located at No. 529-31 Ashmun street. Mr. Rothwell was born on the home farm of his parents, in Bruce county, Ontario, Canada, February 19, 1879, and is a son of John and Eliza Rothwell, who likewise were born in that county and who there passed their entire lives, the father having been one of the substantial farmers and representative citizens of Bruce county at the time of his death, in 1911, and his widow having passed away in 1916. To the schools of his native province Benjamin S. Rothwell is indebted for his youthful education, and he early gained a full measure of experience in connection with the activities of the home farm. He was about twenty-three years of age when he came to Sault Ste. Marie, in 1902, and here he has continuously maintained his home, save for a period of about eighteen months that he passed in the West. At Sault Ste. Ma:ie he was employed a number of years in the mercantile establishment of the Eddy & Reynolds company, and in 1916 he here became secretary and treasurer, as well as manager, of the Raymond Furniture company, with which he continued his alliance until 1924, when he here engaged in the furniture business in an independent way, his establishment being now one of the largest and most metropolitan of its kind in this upper country of Michigan, and effective service having caused the business to expand to broad scope. Mr. Rothwell is known and honored as one of the substantial and progressive business men of Sault Ste. Marie, and takes loyal interest in all that concerns the communal welfare. He is a member of the local Kiwanis club, and is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and the Knights of Pythias, in the latter of which he is a past chancellor. His wife, whose maiden name was Caroline Vine, was born at Lake Linden, Houghton, county, Michigan, a daughter of John and Mary Vine, the latter of whom is still living. John Vine, whose death occurred in 1922, was long identified with important mining operations on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Mr. and Mrs. Rothwell have five children, all of whom were born at Sault Ste. Marie, namely: Benjamin John, Paul, Helen, Isabel, and Robert. The three older children are attending the public schools in their native city.

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Page  167 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 167 Courtney C. Douglass, 62 years of age, well-known Houghton resident died July 17, 1924, at his home in East Houghton. Death was due to a stroke of paralysis, suffered July 5, 1924. The late Mr. Douglass came to Houghton from New York city in 1887 to look after extensive land interests. He had maintained his home here ever since although he made it a practice to spend his winters elsewhere in recent years. Columbus C. Douglass his father was a cousin to Doctor Douglass Houghton and was assistant to the noted scientist when the latter made his Copper Country exploration which ended with his death in 1846. Mr. Douglass continued his interests in the Copper Country after Doctor Houghton's death and laid then the foundations for the interests which later brought his son Courtney to this district. The late Mr. Douglass was born in Algonac, St. Clair county, Michigan, on May 18, 1862, was educated in Michigan and New York, and upon the death of his father in 1874 began to take active interest in his estate, later coming to Houghton to take active charge of interests here. He has been identified with numerous mining and land transactions. Funeral services were held July 19 at the home. The remains, accompanied by the widow, Mrs. H. B. Douglass, and Henry Romph, private secretary to Mr. Douglass, were taken to Algonac, Michigan for burial in the family lot. David M. Hackney has been a resident of Sault Ste. Marie since 1917, and has gained secure place as one of the representative business men of this Lock City of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, where he is secretary of the Soo Hardware company and manager and secretary-treasurer of the Soo Ford company. Mr. Hackney was born at Guelph, Ontario, Canada, in the year 1884, and is son of David and Harriet Hackney, the former of who was born in Scotland and the latter in the province of Ontario, Canada, where she now maintains her home in the city of Toronto. David Hackney, Sr., was educated in Guelph and there became superintendent of the leading concern engaged in the manufacturing of sewing machines. His death occurred in 1890, his widow, as previously noted, being now a resident of Toronto. After profiting by the advantages of the schools of his native city of Guelph, David M. Hackney continued his studies in Harbor Collegiate Institute, Toronto, and in Ontario college, Guelph. Thereafter he was for five years connected with a wholesale and retail hardware business at Guelph, and he then went to Manitoba and established in the city of Winnipeg a virtual brokerage business in the handling of builders' supplies. In 1915 he came to Sault Ste. Marie, where he has since continued as secretary of the Soo Hardware company, and where he has also been secretary and manager of the Soo Ford company from the time its business was here founded, in 1922. This company is the distributor of the all-pervading Ford automobiles, maintaining branches at Rudyard and Pickford, thriving villages of Chippewa county and has the sales and service agency for the Ford and Lincoln motor cars in all of

Page  168 168 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Chippewa county. Mr. Hackney is a Knight Templar Mason, is affiliated also with the Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks, and has membership in the local Rotary club and Country club. At Sault Ste. Marie, 1911, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Hackney to Miss Helen Ferguson, daughter of Robert G. Ferguson, who is represented in a personal sketch in this publication. Margaret, elder of the two children of Mr. and Mrs. Hackey, was born in Winnepeg, Canada, in 1913, and Helen was born at Sault Ste. Marie, in 1919. Oscar G. Anderson, engineer, shop manager of the Lakeside Iron works, Marquette, is justly recognized as one of the ablest men in Marquette county engaged in this sort of work, and that he has attained such a high place in manufacturing circles, is directly due to his experience and training in mechanical lines and to his ability as a shop manager. A son of Albert J., who was born in Sweden and is now living retired in Marquette, and Christine Anderson, who was also a native of Sweden and died in 1895, Oscar G. Anderson was born in Sweden, April 14, 1888, and came to the United States with his parents in 1893. His early education he received in the Marquette public schools, and after serving an apprenticeship in the Lakeside Iron works, he went to Minneapolis, Minnesota, and then to Detriot, Michigan, following his trade in both of those cities. It was this work that gave him the experienfce and training that he needed to secure a higher place in the metal working trades. To Detroit he returned after service in the Coast Artillery during the World war, fourteen months of which he spent with the United States army in France, and after he had spent some time in the'Michigan metropolis, he came to Marquette to take charge of the shops of the Lakeside Iron works, where he has since remained. Mr. Anderson is also interested in the Lakeside Refrigerating company, which is one of the flourishing industries of Marquette, and his association with this enterprise has been as noteworthy as his connection with the Lakeside Iron works. Mr. Anderson married Esther Sweeder, daughter of A. M. and Mathilda Sweeder, the former of whom is the proprietor of the organization with which Mr. Anderson is employed as engineer, and Mvr. and Mrs. Anderson have one daughter, Adele Marie, aged five years. Albert E. Swanson is unquestionably one of the most successful and progressive morticians in Marquette, and to this reputation he has won not merely because he employs the most modern facilities in the operation of his establishment but also because he possesses that innate tact and understanding of another's sorrows that are essential constituents of an undertaker's equipment. His father, Mons Swanson, came to the United States from his native Sweden when he was thirty-three years of age, became a dock inspector, and then engaged in farming at Skandia for eighteen years, where his death occurred in 1917, his widow, Lena Swanson, also a native of Sweden, now living in Marquette

Page  169 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 169 at the age of fifty-seven years. Albert E. Swanson was born at Marquette, May 1, 1896, attended the Skandia public schools, and after working for his father, came to Marquette to enter the employ of the Hager Brothers Furniture company, where he continued two years and five months. Having decided to follow the work of undertaker, he took a course of eight months' duration at the Worsham Embalming & Undertaking school at Chicago, Illinois, in which city he was employed two and a half years by D. W. Edgar, undertaker, after his studies had been completed. Feeling that his training and experience was sufficient to justify the move, Mr. Swanson came to Marquette and opened his own establishment at No. 329 West Washington street, where he installed the most modern appliances necessary to his work, making the establishment one of the most completely equipped in this city. Indicative of his progressive methods is the fact that he is believed to be the first undertaker in the Upper Peninsula to have a limousine hearse. The truly excellent service he is able to furnish and the character of his work have both served to bring him the favor of Marquette people, so that he is now a leader in his field in the city and county despite the fact that he is but a young man. His brother, Emil, is working for Mr. Swanson as an apprentice embalmer. Mr. Swanson is a member of the various Masonic bodies, including the Mystic Shrine, and also maintains membership in the Odd Fellows, Vasa Lodge, a Swedish organization, the Swedish Crown, and the Lions club. Martin Rustenhoven, Jr., is known as one of the leading merchant tailors of Marquette, for he has been engaged in that business here for more than fifteen years, during which time, he has developed his business to a point where it ranks as a leader in its field in the city and county. Mr. Rustenhoven, for his work in building up the enterprise, is known among business men as one possessed of initiative and resourcefulness in commercial affairs. His father, Martin Rustenhoven, was born in Holland, came to the United States when he was a young man, settled first at Appleton, Wisconsin, and then at Marquette, where he is now engaged in the grocery business at the age of sixty-five years. His mother, Katilda (Douchers) Rustenhoven, was born in Belgium, whence she came to Republic, Michigan, and then to Marquette, where she met and married Martin Rustenhoven, Sr. The public schools of Marquette afforded Martin Rustenhoven, Jr., his education, after completion of which he spent three years working in the woods. He opened a tailor shop with a partner, the place being located in Washington street, and in 1910, he opened his present establishment where he handles the finest lines of high grade men's clothes made to order. The store is located at No. 301-3 South Front street. Mr. Rustenhoven is freely accorded the reputation of being one of the ablest business men in his field in Marquette, for the fifteen years that he has been engaged in business for himself have seen him rise from comparative obscurity

Page  170 170 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN to a commanding position in the merchant tailoring field. Mr. Rustenhoven married Mary Ann Hollister, daughter of a Marquette lumberman, and to them have been born three children, Marian Elizabeth, aged ten years: Lucille Gertrude, eight years old; and Martin Bernard, six years of age. Mr. Rustenhoven is active in fraternal circles as a member of the Elks and the Knights of Columbus. J. P. Harrington is recognized as a merchant who is rapidly coming to the front among the able retail store managers in Marquette, for within a few years he has started in business for himself and developed that enterprise into a valuable general merchandise store, an achievement that has stamped him as an aggressive and successful business man. His parents, both of whom are living and were natives of Hancock, Michigan, both having been born near the Quincy Mine, are Michael and Margaret Harrington, the former of whom has been an engineer with the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroad, for many years. J. P. Harrington was born at Marquette, June 25, 1894, graduated from the Baraga high school and then took a commercial and classical course at Marquette. Since completing his studies, he has been engaged in the clothing business, applying himself to learning the many phases of that field of endeavor with the energy that has characterized his subsequent operations as a store proprietor. On July 11, 1923. he opened Harrington's Clothing & Shoe store at Washington and Third streets, where he handles a complete line of men's clothing, shoes for men, women and children, and all established lines ofi merchandise. His store is admirably equipped and stocked, and he employs three men to care for the rapidly growing trade that is his. He married Katherine Herres, daughter of Lorenz and Susan (Kerry) Herres, of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and to Mr. and Mrs. Harrington has been born a daughter, Mary Katherine, who was born at Hancock, Michigan, and is attending the Marquette schools. Mr. Harrington is a member of the Knights of Columbus and the Elks, and in the affairs of these two lodges he takes an active interest. Frank Stickney has been engaged in the brokerage and fire insurance business at Marquette since 1907, in which time, he has come to be recognized as one of the substantial and influential business men of this city. He was born at Eagle Mills, Michigan, April 26, 1876, a son of John and Elizabeth Stickney. His father was born in Germany, came to the United States when he was a year old, and became a lumberman, and he was also active in Marquette county politics, where he served several years as county supervisor. He died February 6, 1924, his wife, a native of Guelph, Ontario, having died February 3, 1923. Frank Stickney, one of nine children, seven boys and two girls, born to his parents, attended the public schools of Eagle Mills and then took a course in business college at Marquette. Completing his studies, he became a lumberman in the woods for a year, after which he entered

Page  171 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 171 the employ of A. B. Turner & Brothers, brokers. Finding this sort of work to his liking, he applied himself to learning the business with all the energy and initiative that have marked his subsequent operations in the same field, and by 1907, he felt that his experience and knowledge of the business was sufficient to allow him to open an establishment of his own. Accordingly, he went into the brokerage business in that year and in 1918 added fire insurance to the scope of his work. In the latter department, he has been as successful as he has always been in the brokerage end of the enterprise. Mr. Stickney married Mary E. McGuire, of Menominee, Michigan, and they have become the parents of the following children ranging in age between twenty-four years and eleven years: Myrtle, now deputy county clerk; Bernadette, in the employ of the Bureau Grocery company; Hazel, employed at Miss Weston's beauty parlor; LeRoy, who is working with Lindstrom & Son; Loretta, who finished school in June, 1926, and is working in the office of her father; Frank, Jr.,; Florence; and Aileen, the last three named attending the Marquette schools. Mr. Stickney is a member of the Knights of Columbus and is secretary of Holy Cross cemetery. John William Adriance needs no introduction to people of Marquette and Marquette county, for he has been prominently identified with manufacturing interests and subsequently with real estate projects that have stamped him as a man of the highest attainments in all fields of endeavor, and because of this consideration, Mr. Adriance is accorded a place among the foremost business men of this city. He was born at Stormville, Dutchess county, New York, a son of Isaac C. and Susan Ida (Storm) Adriance, and received his education there. When he had completed his education, he came to Racine, Wisconsin, where he obtained a clerkship under Allen D. Linn, superintendent of the veneer department of the Racine Hardwood Manufacturing company. Since Mr. Linn had previously hired four or five clerks who had proved unsatisfactory in the work Mr. Adriance determined that he, at least, would be successful in the work, and to such good purpose did he labor to learn the details of the business that he found his first pay check was for forty dollars per month instead of for twenty-five dollars as had been tacitly understood. Such encouragement was but a spur to his ambition, so that he was subsequently made superintendent of the four departments handling the manufacture of parquet flooring. Prior to this time, the company had experienced considerable difficulty in making satisfactory flooring of this kind, for the large output sold the year prior to the superintendency of Mr. Adriance had shrunk when installed in steam heated buildings. Consequently, it was understood that Mr. Adriance was to remedy the defects that had appeared in the parquet flooring manufacture, and that he did effect the necessary changes and brought a stop to the complaints, is a tribute to his ability higher than any words. When he was but twentv

Page  172 172 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN three years of age, Mr. Adriance was in charge of five departments of the Racine Hardwood Manufacturing company. His success in this work, had brought upon him the favorable regard of many leaders in the hardwood manufacturing industry, but after refusing several attractive offers, Mr. Adriance, at the personal solicitation of the Hon. J. M. Longyear, of Marquette, Michigan, came to this city to assume the general managership of the company and the Polygonal Turning company, of which fifty-one percent of the stock was owned by Mr. Longyear. Although the general superintendent of the Racine organization gave him an excellent letter of recommendation and appreciation when he left that company, Mr. Adriance found his greatest satisfaction in the gift from his men of a gold headed, ebony cane as a testimonial of their regard for him as a man and a superintendent. In Marquette, Mr. Adriance shouldered his new responsibilities with the same vigor that had characterized his previous actions, but with the lapse of two and a half years, he relinquished his position to go to Chicago, leaving behind him two companies that had taken a new lease on life through the policies he had originated and introduced. Wishing to form a connection with a well known concern in Chicago, Mr. Adriance sought a position with the Morgan & Wright company, manufacturers of bicycle tires, and during the two and a half years he was associated with this concern, he was steadily promoted until he headed the advertising department. His successful handling of this department, brought him an excellent offer from the sash and door manufacturing company of True & True, to which organization he went as head of the advertising department. The multifarious duties of his office-the thousands of sales promotion letters, arrangement of advertising copy, great masses of personal letters and general correspondencewere but a foil to his ability, for in the figures of the company's annual business is found the measure of his accomplishment. In 1897, when he became connected with True & True, the sales amounted to $196,000, while the sales of the year 1906 closely approximated three-quarters of a million dollars. So valuable did the company deem the services of Mr. Adriance that he and two others were permitted blocks of stock of the company. When True & True company closed out its interests, Mr. Adriance went to the Barrows & Donnellan company as head of the advertising department. Reposed in him was the implicit confidence of his new associates, so that Mr. Adriance was given a free rein in conducting the advertising campaigns of this concern. The result was that the annual volume of the company increased rapidly under the stimulus of the intelligent and effective advertising policies promulgated by Mr. Adriance. During the five years he was associated with the company, Mr. Adriance was called upon to reorganize the East St. Louis office of the'Barrows & Donnellan company, for the conduct of the men at that office had caused rumors to get about to the effect that the company was on an

Page  173 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 173 insecure financial basis. He was made treasurer of the company. Instituting a vigorous advertising campaign in that district and improving the personnel, Mr. Adriance soon placed the East St. Louis office on a secure footing, thereby increasing the business in that district far beyond the point where it had been before the trouble began in that section. For some years before he came to Marquette, Mr. Adriance had studied the real estate business,. absorbing knowledge of costs and worth, adaptability of land for various uses, and similar facts connected with the business. Consequently, he developed an extraordinarily extensive and accurate fund of information on this score, so that when he left the Barrows & Donnellan company, it was but natural that he should turn his attention to this business in which he had been objectively interested for several years. Remindful of the pleasant business connections he had maintained in Marquette, Mr. Adriance elected to enter the real estate field here. Establishing his offices in the Harlow Block, he threw himself into the new work with the same zest and enthusiasm that had been so familiar to his associates in other enterprises, and the advertising methods that he employed were a revelation to the real estate dealers of this section of the state. As a result, Mr. Adriance has developed a large business and is unquestionably regarded as a leader in his field in Marquette. He was married in 1920 to Martha Bacon Clark, of Marquette. They are members of the Presbyterian church, and for the past two years Mr. Adriance has served as superintendent of the Sunday school. John S. Davis, president of the Upper Michigan Motors corporation, is regarded as one of the successful and aggressive automobile sales executives in Marquette, where he has demonstrated on several occasions that he is capable not only of establishing but also of developing a business enterprise into a strong and substantial concern. His parents were William B. and Manla M.. Davis, the former of whom edited the Whitley County Republican in Indiana during the Civil war, subsequently became a traveling salesman, and died in December, 1925, at the age of eightynine years, and the latter of whom was born in Huntington, Inddiana, and is now living with her daughter at the age of seventynine years. J. S. Davis was born at Columbia City, Indiana, October 16, 1865, and attended the public schools of Adrian, Michigan. Completing his education, Mr. Davis became a traveling salesman for the Ohio Rubber company, of Cleveland, Ohio, and during the ensuing thirty years and seven months, he covered the entire United States in his operations for that company. Mr. Davis was keenly alive to the possibilities for advancement and success to be found in the automobile industry and determined to engage in business for himself in some branch of that field. Accordingly, he came to Marquette in January, 1915, and organized an automobile business located on Front street under the name of the J. S. Davis Motor company, a partnership consisting of J. S. Davis.

Page  174 174 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN and G. A. Carlson. After two years spent in the successful operation of this venture, he sold out in February, 1917, to the Peninsular Auto Sales company. Following the failure of this concern in June, 1919, Mr. Davis and G. A. Carlson re-entered the automobile field by purchasing the defunct company and opening it on August 1, 1919, as the J. S. Davis Motor company, and in October, 1920, it was made a stock company known as The Upper Michigan Motors corporation with Mr. Davis as president and general manager, a position that he has since occupied, and G. A. Carlson, secretary-treasurer. The first quarters were found on Baraga avenue, but in 1923, the present building at No. 329-33 West Washington street was erected and occupied. Here are maintained the salesrooms for the Hudson, Essex, and Reo automobiles and for the automobile accessories department, and the garage that is housed in the same building is regarded as one of the largest and most completely equipped' in the Upper Peninsula. As principal organizer of the company and as manager of the enterprise, Mr. Davis is accorded the name of being one of the most successful men engaged in that kind of work in this section of the state. Mr. Davis married Emma Massie, a daughter of Eli Massie, of Crystal Falls, Michigan, both the parents of Mrs. Davis still living in that place. Alfred Alholm is known to Marquette people as a partner in the Marquette Baking company, which has become one of the important concerns of its kind in the city and county since its inception in December, 1919, for the products of the concern are distributed not only in the city but throughout the county as well. He was born in Finland, December 12, 1883, a son of Michael and Sophia, Alholm, both of whom were natives of that country and both of whom are dead. After receiving his education in the schools of his native country, Alfred Alholm came to the United States in 1903 and at that time engaged in the baking business with which he has since been associated in one capacity or another. On December 15, 1919, he, with John A. Norgaard and Oscar Salo, established the Marquette Baking company, which has come to be favorably known for the excellence of its products throughout Marquette county, for it sells large quantities of its bakery goods in the various cities and villages of this locality. In the development of this enterprise, Mr. Alholm is given no small share of the credit, for in addition to being a practical baker, he possesses those qualities of aggressiveness and executive ability that have enabled him to assist in building up the baking company in which he is a partner. Mr. Alholm married Alwina Linquist, daughter of Sam and Marie Linquist, of Finland, the former of whom was a tanner by trade, and to Mr. and Mrs. Alholm have been born two children, Harold, thirteen years old, and Hazel Marie, aged ten months. Mr. Alholm is a member of the U. C. T., Vasa, and Skandia lodges.

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Page  175 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 175 Murray Morris Duncan was born in the city of Washington, D. C., May 10, 1858. His father was the Rev. Thomas Duncan, D.D., of Pennsylvania, a clergyman of the Episcopal church. The Duncan family had lived in the United States for several generations and had come from Scotland. His mother was Maria L. Morris, of Washington, the daughter of Commodore Charles Morris. One of his brothers, Doctor Louis Duncan, the eminent scientist and electrical engineer, was president of the American Institute of Electrical engineers, an honorary member of the Franklin Institute, a member of the Mathematical society of France and of the Physical society of France. After attending school in Washington, Mr. Duncan entered Lehigh university in 1875 and graduated in 1880 with the degrees of E. M. and A. C. (Engineer of Mines and Analytical Chemist). He was first employed by the Cambria Iron company at Johnstown, Pennsylvania, as assistant chemist during 1881. In this year he married Harriette DeWitt Coppee, daughter of Dr. Henry Coppee, the president of Lehigh university. They have three children, namely, William Coppge Duncan, Pauline Coppee Duncan, both of whom are married and living in California, and Helen Coppee Duncan, married and living in Ishpeming. From Johnstown Mr. Duncan moved in 1881 to Chattanooga, Tennessee, where he was employed by the Roan Iron company, of which Hiram S. Chamberlain was president for about ten years, first as chemist and was then placed in charge of open hearth furnaces and later in charge of that company's blast furnace, ores and fuel at Rockwood, Tennessee. In 1891 he left the.Roan Iron company and became general manager of the Cardiff Iron company, which was then building furnaces and opening mines at Cardiff, Tennessee. The next year, 1892, he came to Michigan, taking the position of general manager of the Antrim Iron company's charcoal furnace at Mancelona, oi which the president is J. C. Holt, of Grand Rapids. On January 1, 1897, Mr. Duncan became the agent of the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron company's mines at Ishpeming, Michigan, Frank B. Mills, the former manager, or agent as he was termed, having resigned in 1895. The Cleveland Iron Mining company had operated mines there since 1850 and the control has always been in Cleveland. Samuel L. Mather, who had been an officer in the company since its incorporation and its president for many years, died in 1891 and was succeeded by his son, William G. Mather. The Iron Cliffs company had operated other mines there since 1864 and that company had been controlled by Samuel J. Tilden and others. In 1891 the Cleveland company bought the property of the Iron Cliffs company and as a result the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron company was incorporated on May 9. Following the panic of 1893, several of the company's mines had been closed, but as the ore business revived, these mines were reopened by Mr. Duncan who then began to build up the organization for extended operations. The Lake Superior & Ishpeming railroad with ore docks in Marquette had been built in 1896 by the company and its associates. For the next few years the development of the com

Page  176 176 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN pany's business was rapid, especially from 1900 to 1910 when it purchased or leased several mining properties at Negaunee, Gwinn, and North Lake, besides operating mines on other Michigan ranges and on the Mesaba range, of Minnesota, and proceeded to develop them by the most approved and up-to-date methods of construction. During this period, the development of its water power was begun for the generation of electric power with which to operate its mines in Marquette county. To show the growth of the company's business, the greatest annual tonnage shipped until 1897 was three quarters of a million tons, while in the past few years the annual tonnage has at times exceeded three million tons, with a total of over seventy million tons from 1850 to 1925. On November 30, 1908, Mr. Duncan was chosen a director of the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron company, succeeding the Honorable Peter White, of Marquette, who had died during that year. In 1916 he was appointed vice-president and general manager of mines. Besides the management of the mines, Mr. Duncan had taken an active part in Upper Peninsula affairs. He was appointed by the governor as a member of the board of control of the Michigan College of Mines in 1904. He has long been a member of the Marquette County Republican committee and has been its chairman for over twenty years. He was also Chairman of the Congressional Republican District committee. He has been on the board of the County Road Commission since its organization in 1905. Since the Carnegie library at Ishpeming was built in 1903 he has been a member of the board; also, he was on the Board of Public works for over twenty years. He has been a director of the Miners' National bank since its incorporation in 1900 and has been president for many years. During the war he served on several boards. In 1916 he was appointed by Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the Navy, as a member from Michigan on the board of directors organized for industrial preparedness. In 1918 he was appointed chairman of Sub-District No. 5 of the Resources and Conversion Section of the War Industries Board and the details were conducted under his supervision. He was also chairman of the County War Preparedness Board. Mr. Duncan has taken an active part in mining societies. He has been a member of the American Institute of Mining & Metallurgical Engineers since 1884 and for many years a member of the Mining & Metallurgical society. He joined the Lake Superior Mining Institute in 1897 and served as president in 1908-9 when he called attention to the "urgent necessity for a change in the laws governing personal injury." His presidential address on compensation to workmen in case of injuries was later followed by state legislation. He is a member of the American Iron & Steel Institute and of the American Mining Congress. He was brought up in the Episcopal church, of which he has been an active member. Grace church, Ishpeming, was rebuilt during his residence here. He has been president of the Department of Finance of the Diocese of Marquette since 1920. The Masonic order honored him about ten years ago when he received the Thirty-third degree in recogni

Page  177 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 177 tion of his services. He has been a member of the University club, of Chicago, since 1909. He is a member of the Aztec society, of Washington. For recreation he has had little leisure. Besides traveling for business, which included a trip to Europe in 1910, he has usually spent a few weeks each spring in California or in the South and East. He is a member of the local Golf club, which was started some twenty five years ago, and for many years he regularly joined his friends on the course. The history of the development of the Lake Superior mining region is interesting, not only on account of the wealth of metal furnished for the use of mankind, but also on account of the personality of the leaders, among whom Mr. Duncan was one of the foremost, in carrying out that work. He has been distinguished by persistent energy, attention to details, business ability and broad mindedness, and fortunate in the wise selection of assistants to carry out the operations of development and mining. Through his daily contact with business men and with his sympathetic attitude toward employees and fellow townsmen, he has made and kept a great number of sincere friends and they could add many interesting instances to this brief history. John C. Harrington is prominently identified with the real estate and insurance business in Marquette, and although he has been engaged in that work here but little more than two years, he has nevertheless come to be recognized as an aggressive and resourceful business man. Born at Marquette, Michigan, June 2, 1892, he is a son of Michael and Margaret Harrington, natives of Hancock, Michigan, the former of whom is an engineer in the employ of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroad. After graduating from the Baraga school, of Marquette, Mr. Harrington was connected with the Passenger department of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroad for a period of twelve years. By this time, he felt that his capital was sufficient to justify his goings into business for himself, and casting about for a likely field, he chose insurance and real estate. In 1924, then, he opened his own office in the Huetter Block and has since been general agent for the Detroit Life Insurance company at Marquette, building up a business that is steadily growing under his able direction. To the insurance end of the business, he added real estate and has been as successful in this field as he has been in the insurance work. Developing as he has a substantial enterprise that is a distinct asset to the commercial life of Marquette, Mr. Harrington has forced recognition as one of the ablest men in this city. In fraternal circles, Mr. Harrington is a member of the Knights of Columbus and the Elks, in the affairs of both of which he takes an active interest. Charles T. Geill, a leading Marquette business man, has been engaged in the decorating business in this city for more than forty years, and during that time, he has acquired the reputation of being one of the shrewd and competent entrepeneurs in the city and county. Born in the Netherlands, November 12, 1857, he is a son of George Frederick and Helen Geill, the former of whom

Page  178 178 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN was an officer in the Dutch army and died in 1870 and the latter of whom was a native of the Netherlands and died in 1880. Receiving his education in the schools of his native country, Charles T. Geill came to the United States in 1870, and for a number of years thereafter, he was engaged in the music business as a band and orchestra leader. Wishing to enter commercial fields, he came to Marquette forty years ago and opened a decorating establishment, in the successful operation of which, he has since been engaged. The four decades that have elapsed since his advent to this city have witnessed a steady increase in the annual volume of his business, which under his careful direction has grown to proportions that stamp the proprietor as one of the ablest business men of Marquette. The company is equipped to handle anything in the way of decorating, and the work done by the concern is widely known for its excellence. Mr. Geill married Emma Baker, a daughter of John and Mary Baker, of Canada, the former of whom was a carpenter by trade, and to Mr. and Mrs. Geill have been born these children: Staats L., who was born in Marquette and is now engaged in the decorating business; Emma H., who was also born in Marquette and is now engaged in business with her father; and George Frederick, who is also engaged in the decorating work with his father. Mr. Geill is a member of the Elks, Knights of Pythias, the Maccabees, and the Yeomen. Edwin Larson is well known to business men of Marquette as the founder and proprietor of the Queen City Bakery which he established here nearly thirty years ago, and that the concern is today one of the leading baking companies in the city and county, is due primarily to the ability and knowledge of baking possessed by Mr. Larson. A native of Sweden, he came to the United States when he was quite young and established the Queen City Bakery in 1897. After enduring the usual struggles attendant upon the starting of a new business, he placed the company on a secure footing which has brought him recognition as one of the ablest business men of this city. Mr. Larson is a member of the Vasa, Skandia, Swedish Crown, and Elks lodges. His wife, Mrs. Anna E. Larson, was also born in Sweden and came to the United States when she was a young girl, and Mr. and Mrs. Larson are the parents of three children, Amy, Wilfred H., and Edward R. Another daughter, also named Amy, died at the age of eighteen months, while the living daughter of that name is now the wife of Walter G. McKie, of Rochester, New York. Wilfred H. Larson, the elder son, was born in Marquette, November 23, 1891, attended the Marquette schools, and then worked for ten years at the First National bank, which he left to enter the Queen City bakery with his father. He married Ethel Swanson, daughter of Charles and Annie Swanson, of Ishpeming, Michigan, the former of whom is a tinsmith and the latter of whom is dead. Mr. and Mrs. Wilfred H. Larson are the parents of two children, Wilfred H., Jr. aged six years, and Lloyd, four years old. Edward R. Larson, younger son

Page  179 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 179 of Edwin Larson, was born in Marquette, November 13, 1893, and after graduating from the Marquette schools, entered the Queen City bakery, in 1913. He married Bessie Husby, daughter of Louis and Gertrude Husby, of Ishpeming, Michigan, both of whom are living. Wilfred H. Larson, who is now engaged in business with his father, is recognized as one of the abler of the young business men of Marquette, for he has taken no small part in developing the concern to its present size. He is a member of the Vasa and Skandia lodges and of the United Commercial Travelers, the various Masonic bodies, and the Odd Fellows. Edward R. holds membership in the following orders: Knights of Pythias, Odd Fellows, and Vasa lodges. G. M. Hult has risen to his present position of manager of the Consolidated Fuel & Lumber company, of Marquette, through sheer ability and close attention to his work, so that today he stands forth as one of the substantial business men of the city where he makes his home. His father, Magnus Hult, was born in Sweden and came to the United States as a young man, where he engaged in the mining and lumbering business until the time of his death in 1895 at the age of forty-two years, and his mother, Marie Hult, was also born in Sweden and died at the age of fiftyeight years. G. M. Hult was born at Ishpeming, Michigan, February 16, 1887, and attended the public schools of that city until he was eleven years of age, at which time, he gave up his studies to go to work, being employed on a farm until his thirteenth year. Thereafter and until 1901, he was employed by F. Braastad & company of Ishpeming, but in the latter year he went to work for the Consolidated Fuel & Lumber company, of Ishpeming. During the ten years that he spent there, he applied himself to learning everything possible of the business in which he was engaged, and it was his hard work and evident ability displayed at this time that attracted the favorable attention of his superiors and paved the way to the position he now holds with that concern. From 1911 to 1913, he was connected with the J. E. du Pont Powder company. In 1913, he returned to the Consolidated Fuel & Lumber company, where his industry and knowledge of the business were subsequently rewarded by his promotion to the position of manager, the duties of which office he has since discharged. His administration of the position, has been of benefit not only to him but to the company as well for he is known among business men of Marquette as one of the efficient and resourceful executives in that field of work. Mr. Hult married Elsie Roberts, of Isheming, Michigan, who died April 11, 1924, at the age of forty-three years leaving three children, Elton, aged fifteen years, Robert, twelve years old, and Geneva, six years of age, all of whom are now attending the Ishpeming schools. Simon R. Anderson was first elected school commissioner for Marquette county in 1915 and has been successively returned to that office since that time, a fact that shows more conclusively

Page  180 180 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN than words in what regard he is held by the people of the county both as respects his work as school commissioner and his personality as a man. Born at Ishpeming, Michigan, December 19, 1886, he is a son of Alfred and Maria Anderson, natives of Sweden, the former of whom came to the United States when he was thirty years of age and died at Ishpeming in 1922, where his widow is still living. Alfred and Maria Anderson were the parents of six children, Simon R., Alfred, Edwin, Paul, Ruth, and Gerda. Simon R. Anderson elected to follow the teaching profession after his graduation from the Ishpeming high school and accordingly studied at the Northern State Normal school, at Marquette, the Stout Institute, and the University of Wisconsin. Having completed his studies, Mr. Anderson returned to Marquette county where for two years he was in charge of a rural school. He then secured the position of principal in the graded schools of Iron Mountain, Michigan, and after a six-year period spent in that capacity, he returned to Marquette and became the successful candidate for election to the office of school commissioner of this county in 1915. Admirably equipped for the office in education and experience, Mr. Anderson shouldered the duties of the new position, and since that time, he has handled the affairs of school commissioner with an ability that has influenced the county electors to return him to office at each succeeding election. Mr. Anderson is also the Marquette county agent for the State Welfare work, in which he has acquitted himself as capably as in the school work. He married Miss M. D. Anderson, of Ishpeming, Michigan, and they have one daughter, Dorthy Jean, who is attending the Marquette schools. Mr. Anderson is a member of the Masonic order and the Knights of Pythias. John H. Godwin, who has been engaged in the contracting business in Marquette for more than fifteen years, is regarded as one of the most successful men in that field in this county, for since he went into contracting for himself, he has developed an enterprise into one of the most substantial of its kind in this section of the state. His parents were John and Elizabeth (Peters) Godwin, both of whom were born in England, the former in 1824 and the latter in 1830. John Godwin came to Canada when he was a young man, taught in the Canadian schools, and subsequently became manager of the gas company of Three Rivers, Quebec, Canada, where he died in March, 1887, his wife, dying in the same year. They were the parents of nine children, six of whom are living, J. H., Fred, William, Charles, Percival, and Alice. J. H. Godwin was born at Montreal, Canada, June 27, 1859, and attended the schools of Three Rivers, Quebec, until he was thirteen years of age. He then entered the postoffice at Three Rivers, and after working there for three years, he entered the employ of the-George Baptiste Sons company, a lumber concern with which he was connected for a period of eight years. At this-juncture, he was one of Lord Wolseley's expedition which went to the relief of General Charles Gordon in the Egyptian Sudan, a famous mili

Page  181 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 181 tary operation. Returning to Canada from that expedition, Mr. Godwin followed the lumber business for a number of years, and in 1896, he came to Marquette to enter the lumber and contracting business, in which he has been engaged since that year. Here, he has made an unqualified success of the enterprise he established, so that the subsequent sixteen years have brought him universal accord as an exceedingly able contractor and business man. His late wife, Mrs. Clara Godwin, was a native of Three Rivers, Quebec, and was active in church work until the time of her death in 1922 at the age of sixty years. Mr. Godwin is a member of the United Commercial Travelers league, and also served as a member of the charter commission which placed the city under the commission form of government. Wilfred J. Des Jardins is a prominent figure in the commercial life of the county, for as owner and manager of the W. J. Des Jardins Oil company, of Marquette, he is steadily expanding his business to include other cities and villages of Marquette county. He was born at Republic, Michigan, whither his parents, Alfred and Olivine Des Jardins, came from their native Canada, the former having been born at St. Theresa and the latter at St. Catherine, that country. Alfred Des Jardins, a miner, died at Republic, Michigan, February 20, 1921, while his widow died July 15, 1926. Wilfred Des Jardins attended the public schools of his native city until he was thirteen years of age, at which time he sought employment in the mines, where for three years he labored that he might acquire sufficient funds to enable him to take a course of study at Ferris Institute, Big Rapids, Michigan. When he was sixteen years old, he attended that institution and after relinquishing his studies was a telegraph operator and agent for a period of thirteen years. He then became a commission agent for the Standard Oil company at Republic for two years. It was his signal work in this capacity that influenced his superiors to transfer him to Marquette as the manager of the Standard Oil company's stations at this place. Four years he worked for the Standard Oil company at Marquette and then became associated with the Cloverland Oil company, of Marquette, for two years. With the expiration of that time, he purchased the Cloverland enterprise and has since been the owner and manager of the venture. Under his direction, the concern has enjoyed unqualified prosperity and branches have been established at Skandia, Michigan, and Ishpeming, Michigan. Mr. Des Jardins is thus recognized as one of the dynamic business men of Marquette, for solely through his efforts has the company won its present prestige as one of the substantial and growing oil and gasoline ventures in Marquette county. Mr. Des Jardins was united in marriage to Miss Elma M. Platt, of Hilbert, Wisconsin, and they have three children, Roylance, who is eighteen years of age, graduated from the Marquette high school and is now a student at Marquette University of Milwaukee; Olive Ann, who is eight years of age and is now at

Page  182 182 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN tending the Marquette schools; and Mary Jean, aged three years. Mr. Des Jardins is a member of the Knights of Columbus, the Catholic Foresters, the United Commercial Travelers, and the Elks. Howard Murnane, although he has been engaged in the plumbing, heating, and contracting business in Marquette for but little more than two years, has already developed a business that is rapidly forging to the front in its field and that he has performed such a work within a comparatively short time, stamps him as a man of aggressiveness, initiative, and wide technical knowledge in his particular field. He was born at St. Paul, Minnesota, May 26, 1892, a son of J. J. and Margaret (Handrahan) Murnane, the former of whom was born in Illinois and is now a district fire chief with the St. Paul Fire department with which he has been connected for thirty-nine years and the latter of whom was born in Wisconsin. Two sons, Jay and Edward, and a daughter, Mrs. J. P. Sarsfield, all of whom live in St. Paul, were the other three children born to J. J. and Margaret Murnane. Howard Murnane learned the heating and plumbing business after he had completed his education in the St. Paul schools, and one of his most valuable pieces of experience during this time was that of being employed as foreman on the $4,000,000 high school at Hibbing, Minnesota. By this time, he had accumulated sufficient capital to go into business for himself, and when he looked about for a likely place in which to locate, he chose Marquette, Michigan. Here, in 1924, he opened his present establishment and has since been engaged in the plumbing, heating, and contracting business, in which he has been more than moderately successful. His achievement in building up a substantial business within such a comparatively short time, stamps him as one of the dynamic younger business men of Marquette. He married Irene Kasenow, a native of St. Paul, Minnesota, and Mr. Murnane is a member of the Elks and the Knights of Columbus, in the affairs of both of which he takes an active interest. He has since added the silent automatic oil burner installation to his line of work and Copeland electric refrigeration for homes. Percival J. Delf. For nearly a half century, Percival J. Delf has been a familiar figure to the people of Marquette, Michigan, for during that time he has been connected with the grocery business here and is now known as one of the most substantial and successful grocery store proprietors in this city. Born at Hancock, Michigan, March 22, 1869, he is a son of Arthur and Marion E. Delf, the former of whom was born in London, England, was a printer by trade, and died in 1896 at the age of sixty-four years and the latter of whom was a native of Australia and died in 1918. Attending the public schools of Negaunee, Michigan, and Marquette, Michigan, Percival J. Delf left school at the age of thirteen years to go to work for his father who was then conducting a grocery store in Marquette. Following his father's death in 1896,

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Page  183 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 183 he continued the operation of the store on his mother's behalf. In 1918, after the death of Mrs. Marion E. Delf, he took over the store for himself, and today Mr. Delf can point with worthy pride to the fact that his forty-three years in the grocery business find him the owner of one of the most completely equipped and stocked stores of its kind in Marquette. Needless to say, he is regarded favorably by business men of this city as one of the successful retail store managers of this locality. Mr. Delf was united in marriage to Marian E. Van Iderstine, who was born in Marquette. Mr. Delf is active in fraternal circles, he being a Thirty-second Degree Scottish Rite Mason and a member of the Elks. Ransom Shelden occupied a conspicuous place in the pioneer development of the Copper Country of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, for his advent to this region came at a time when the vast mineral resources were little more than a matter of conjecture. A son of George and Hannah Shelden, he was born in Essex county, New York, July 7, 1814, and passed his early life on his father's farm, where he acquired habits of industry and frugality that characterized his future life. In 1835, having procured a horse and light wagon and a stock of merchandise, he set out from his home in the Empire State for the West. He arrived in Chicago in 1837, and after remaining there a short time, he went to Bigfoot Prairie, Walworth county, Wisconsin, where he began work on a farm about two miles from the southern end of Lake Geneva. He was widely known in that community for his skill and speed with the cradle in reaping and in other kinds of farm work. At that place, in 1839, he married Miss Theresa M. Douglass, a daughter of Christopher Douglass and a cousin of Dr. Douglass Houghton, the first State Geologist of Michigan and for whom Houghton county is named. She was born at Fredonia, New York, and came West with her parents to settle at Mt. Clemens and, later, Algonac, Michigan, where the declining years of her parents were spent. Failing health induced him to make a change, and in 1845, he located at L'Anse, Baraga county, in the Upper Peninsula near Portage Entry, where he engaged in trading with the Indians in partnership with his brother-in-law, Columbus C. Douglass. At Portage Entry, whither the business had been removed from L'Anse in the spring of 1847, the partners inaugurated a fishing business in conjunction with their mercantile enterprise, and here they were established until 1851. In that year, they removed to Houghton, being the only white family for thirty miles around there conducting a mine store for general merchandise, and in the spring of the following year, they platted the village of Houghton, removing their goods at the time opposite the site of the present Northern Garage on Isle Royale street. The partners continued to operate the store until the autumn of 1862, when it was sold to the firm of Smith & Harris. Ransom Shelden spent the summer months of 1849 and 1850 exploring for copper in the vicinity of Houghton and Hancock. As a result of his efforts, he and Mr.

Page  184 184 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Douglass, during the winters of 1851 and 1852, organized the Portage, Isle Royale, and Huron mining companies, by which several mines were opened in this section. The two men acquired land aggregating 55,000 acres in extent in Houghton and adjoining counties, and about two miles below Houghton, they erected a saw mill at Dollar Bay. They placed two small steamers in service between Houghton and Portage Entry and acquired the "Napoleon" to ply between Sault Ste. Marie and the head of Lake Superior. Disaster overtook the "Napoleon," for she foundered on her second trip. The business relations of Mr. Shelden in his life in the Upper Peninsula were of a nature to inspire confidence and trust in his associates, for he combined a superior intelligence with the initiative and enterprising spirit of the pioneer, and upon the industrial and commercial annals of this section of the Upper Peninsula his hand is indelibly stamped. His political allegiance was given to the Whigs until the Republican party was organized, at which time he espoused the cause of the new party, remaining one of its staunch adherents during the remainder of his life. About 1855, he built the fine mansion that fronts the street bearing his name, and it was there that his life was terminated, May 17, 1878. He and his wife were the parents of four children. Carlos D. Shelden, the eldest son, is mentioned elsewhere in this volume. George C., the second son, who is also mentioned elsewhere in this volume. The only daughter, Christine M., married Edward Gilbert and died at the age of thirty-two years, leaving three children, Shelden D., Edwin G., and Theresa C. The youngest son, Ransom Bird Shelden, married Miss Cora A. Paull and they had three children. He is now a fruit grower at Riverside, California. After the death of Ransom Shelden his estate was ably handled by his two sons, the Honorable Carlos D. and George C., both of whom are now deceased. But the name of Shelden will long be remembered with respect and interest as one of the most important connected with the history of the Northern Peninsula. Carlos D. Shelden, came of a family that has contributed much to the development of Houghton county and the Copper Country, and as a representative to congress from the Twelfth Congressional District of Michigan, Honorable Carlos D. Shelden carried the achievements of his family into still a second great field of endeavor by his zealous championship of the interests of the people. He was born in Walworth county, Wisconsin, June 10, 1840, the son of Ransom and Theresa M. (Douglass) Shelden, of whom more may be found on other pages of this work. He removed with his parents to the Upper Peninsula when he was a small boy, locating with them in Baraga county and then in Houghton. He obtained his education at the Union school, of Ypsilanti, Michigan. When the clouds of civil war gathered over the country, he returned to his home in the fall of 1861 and raised a company at Houghton for service in the Union army, and in the following year, he was commissioned captain in the Twenty-third Michigan Volunteer In

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Page  185 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 185 fantry. With this regiment, he served until the latter part of 1864, his organization being under the command of General Thomas during the greater part of that time. Returning to Houghton, he went into business with the extensive Shelden interests. A publicspirited citizen who was ever on the alert to promote the welfare of his community, he took an active part in the Republican politics of the city, county and state. He was elected to the position of president of the village of Houghton and served several years as a member of the board of supervisors of Houghton county. His diligence in behalf of the people found further endorsement in his election to a seat in the legislature in 1892 and to the State Senate in 1894. His advancement through the two houses of the legislature added new honors to his public career, and it was only to be expected that he be nominated for election to congress from his district, the twelfth. He served in the 55th and 56th congresses, and when he became a candidate for election to a third consecutive term, the people returned him to his trust with the overwhelming majority of 21,000 votes. In the legislature and in congress, Mr. Shelden distinguished himself by his faithful attention to duty, his penetrating insight into the merits or demerits of various measures, and his fearless espousal of those bills which he believed to be greatest in their benefits to the people. A strong party man, he was nevertheless equally strong in his observance of the right when party affiliation might cause him to temper his adherence to party customs or practices. Since the death of his father, he handled the affairs of the Shelden estate, his brother, George C., being associated with him in this work until the death of the brother on October 2, 1896. During the two years of 1885-86 Mr. Shelden was superintendent of the Shelden and Shafer mines at Crystal Falls. This property having been acquired after he and Mr. Shafer had gone prospecting a few years before in this territory and took over four to five thousand acres of government land. Since then this property has proved to be rich in iron ore and the following mines have been opened up: Crystal Falls, The Dunn, Tobin and the Odgers. After Mr. Shafer's death his half interest was purchased by Mr. William Calverley and the property is now known by the name of Shelden & Calverley holdings. On June 24, 1904, Carlos D. Shelden died, thus ending a life that had been a useful one in the service of the people. In 1865, Mr. Shelden married Mary E. Skiff, the daughter of George and Eliza Skiff, of Willoughby, Ohio. She died in 1868 leaving a son, Ransom Skiff Shelden, who was then six months of age and is mentioned elsewhere in this volume. In 1888, Carlos D. Shelden was again married, taking for his second wife Mrs. Sarah Wales Gardner, nee Dashiell, a native of Princess Anne, Maryland. Mrs. Shelden has two daughters, Mrs. J. D. Ryan, of Butte, Montana, and New York City, and Nellie, who is the wife of William R. Thompson, president of the First National bank of Hancock. Mr. Shelden was a Thirty-second Degree Mason, maintaining membership in the Blue Lodge at Houghton, the Chapter at Hancock, the Montrose Commandery at

Page  186 186 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Calumet, the Consistory at Grand Rapids, and the Shrine at Marquette. Ransom Skiff Shelden was one of the foremost attorneys and business men of Houghton, for he was engaged in the practice of law in this city for a period of fifteen years and was subsequently identified with the management of the Shelden Estate company, which is largely interested in iron mining and mineral and timber lands in Houghton and Iron counties. He was Circuit Court commissioner for twelve years and had the distinction of being the youngest officer Houghton county ever had, being only twenty-one years of age. Born at Houghton, Michigan, on December 4, 1869, he was the son of the late Carlos D. and Mary E. (Skiff) Shelden, of whom more may be found on other pages of this work. Following the death of his mother when he was but six months of age, he was placed in the care of his Grandfather and Grandmother Skiff of Willoughby, Ohio, where he remained until he was twelve years of age. He then returned to Houghton but in a short time entered Orchard Lake academy, whence he went to Racine college, Racine, Wisconsin. Completing the course of study at the latter institution, he matriculated in the Law school of the University of Wisconsin from which he was graduated in due course. Returning to Houghton, he entered upon the active practice of his profession and was so engaged until 1906. He acquired an excellent reputation through his work before the bar of his native county and established a practice that ranked him unquestionably among the leading lawyers of the Upper Peninsula. When his father, administrator of the Shelden estate, died in 1904, the duties of that work fell upon the shoulders of Ransom Skiff Shelden. Here again he displayed an initiative and ability that proved him to be a man of wide attainments, his success as a business man being equally as conspicuous as that as a lawyer. He was also a member of the firm of Shelden & Calverley, dealing in real estate in Houghton and Iron counties and in iron mining properties. He was also a partner in the firm of Shelden & Dickens, a real estate and insurance organization of Houghton that occupied a prominent place in its field in this section of the state. Fraternally, Mr. Shelden was a member of Houghton Lodge No. 218, F. & A. M., and the Hancock Lodge of Elks, also the University club and the Athletic club of Chicago. He was active in the affairs of Trinity Episcopal church, of Houghton, and served twenty-five years as choirmaster there. His later years found him an extensive traveler, and it was during the course of a world cruise in 1922 that he died of pneumonia at Nice, France, on March 27, that year, his mother being with him at the time of his death and returned with his body to Houghton for burial. George C. Shelden was a man well-known in the Northern Peninsula, public-spirited and successful in business. The son of Ransom Shelden, one of the most distinguished pioneers whose deeds are chronicled in the history of the copper region, he was

Page  187 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 187 born, December 27, 1842, in Walworth county, Wisconsin, and died in Houghton, Michigan, October 2, 1896. He passed his early boyhood in Houghton county, obtaining his education in the public schools and until he was about twenty years of age he assisted his father who was engaged in the mining and mercantile business. His business career was interrupted by the breaking out of the Civil war, and although he was a very young man being only eighteen years old he gave eminently valuable service to his country by recruiting and organizing a company of the Sixteenth Michigan Regiment. He was commissioned first lieutenant, and participated in several small engagements, later being commissioned captain of his company in which he served until the close of the war, and was in the battles of Gettysburg, Antietam, Weldon R. R., Peebles farm, Spottsylvania courthouse, Five Forks, Norfolk R. R., Hatchers Run No. 1, Hatcher's Run No. 2 and Appomattox. When peace was concluded young Shelden returned to Michigan and took his place in the world of affairs, his special line of endeavor being the mercantile and commission business and he was one whose executive qualifications secured him entire success. He was associated in different partnerships in the mercantile business and was the means of adding materially to the wealth and progress of the community. He also organized the company which built the Portage Lake bridge connecting the cities of Houghton and Hancock. This bridge was operated on a toll basis until it was sold to Houghton county. He invested extensively in real estate and usually realized handsomely in all of his dealings. When he died in the fullness of his powers he left a fine property. He was the brother of one of Michigan's eminent congressmen, Honorable Carlos D. Shelden, also deceased. George C. Shelden was married April 17, 1867, to Miss Mary E. Edwards, daughter of Hon. Richard Edwards. Their happy union was blessed by the birth of two daughters; Jennie, now Mrs. S. J. Bowling of Detroit, and Mary, now Mrs. B. T. Barry of Houghton, Michigan. No where did those admirable and endearing qualities which distinguished Mr. Shelden among his fellows shine forth more clearly than in the home circle, for he was a man of quiet, domestic tastes, who was never more content than when under his own vine and fig-tree. Like his distinguished brother and his equally distinguished father Mr. Shelden gave his heart and hand to the Republican party and he found great pleasure in his fraternal connection with the Masonic order. Of his brothers only one survives, Ransom Bird Shelden of Riverside California. A sister who became Mrs. E. S. Gilbert, having died some years ago. Roy L. Rydholm, as a partner in Rydholm Brothers grocery, is well known to business men of Marquette as a man well acquainted with the ramifications of his business and exceedingly able in store management. He was born in this city, March 12, 1890, a son of Charles F. and Selma Rydholm, both of whom were born in Sweden and the former of whom is a laborer and now lives

Page  188 188 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN in Marquette with his wife. Graduating from the Marquette high school in 1907, Roy L. Rydholm enlisted in the United States navy, serving one enlistment of four years, and in 1911 he returned to Marquette to engage in the grocery business. During the ensuing six years, he applied himself to learning the details of the business with an energy and application that has since characterized his operations in the business world, but his progress was interrupted by the declaration of war on Germany in 1917. Enlisting again in the navy for war service, he was so employed until 1919, when he received an honorable discharge and returned to Marquette. Here again he entered the grocery business as a partner in Rydholm Brothers grocery in 1920. The six years subsequent to the establishment of this partnership have been highly successful ones for Mr. Rydholm, who is becoming known as one of the progressive and able grocers of Marquette Mr. Rydholm married Hazel Zerbel, of Marquette, and has three daughters, Marjorie, Dorothy, and Shirley, aged four years, three years, and one year, respectively. Mr. Rydholm is a Thirty-second Degree Scottish Rite Mason and a member of the Mystic Shrine. August W. Johnson, a leading figure in the plumbing and heating business in Marquette, Michigan, was born in this city, March 3, 1894, a son of Gus and, Emma Johnson, both of whom were natives of Sweden and are now living in Marquette. After receiving a public school education, August W. Johnson became a plumber's apprentice and during the years that followed did everything within his power to perfect his knowledge of that work. While he labored, he carefully husbanded his wages against the day when he should engage in business for himself, and that day came in 1921, when he joined his brother in plumbing and heating engineering under the firm style of Johnson brothers, a partnership that exists today. Mr. Johnson married Louise Koepp, of Marquette, and they have one son, Walter, aged five years. Mr. Johnson is a member of the Superior lodge. Oscar W. Johnson, brother of August W. and a partner in the firm of Johnson brothers, was born in Marquette, August 27, 1892, and like his brother, attended the public schools of this city. For a number of years following the completion of his education, he followed the trades of printer and subsequently machinist, and in 1921 joined his brother in the plumbing and heating business as above stated. He, too, is a member of the Superior lodge and also of the Swedish Crown lodge, of Marquette. The five years that have elapsed since the establishment of the business have been profitable ones for the two brothers, for they have developed a large business in their field and are equally regarded for their business ability in building up a substantial enterprise in such a comparatively short time. No higher grade of work can be found in Marquette than that performed by Johnson brothers, who owe their rise to honest effort, workmanship, and ability of a high degree.

Page  189 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 189 Edward F. Kennedy is known to people of the county and city of Marquette not only as one of the ablest business executives of which this section can boast but also as a public servant in the office of county supervisor. A native of Atlantic, Iowa, he was born December 17, 1870, a son of James and Mary Kennedy, the former of whom, a mechanic, was born in Ireland and died in 1883 at the age of fifty-two years and the latter of whom was born in Canada and died in 1909 at the age of seventy years. After attending the public schools of Plattsmouth, Nebraska, until he was eleven years old, Edward F. Kennedy started life as a water boy in the employ of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railroad, and two years later, though he was but thirteen years of age, he apprenticed himself to the boilermaker's trade with the same railroad company. To such good purpose did he employ his time, that when he was eighteen years of age, he was transferred to Alliance, Nebraska, as boilermaker foreman, work in which he continued for several years. In 1897, he became an employe of the Union Pacific railway as boilermaker, and in 1902, it was he who conducted the strike on that railroad and was chairman of the agreement committee. In 1903, he came to Marquette, Michigan, as master boilermaker for the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroad, a position in which he continued four years. Giving up the work in the railroad shops, he established the Marquette Boiler & Sheet Iron works in 1907 and has since continued at the head of that enterprise. He has developed the company into one of the substantial manufacturing concerns of this city, demonstrating his ability as an executive beyond all possible refutation. To this activity he added the Northern Michigan agencies for the No-Kol and Hardinge Automatic Oil burners in 1924 and the Frigidaire agency for Marquette in 1926. These products he distributes through the medium of the Kennedy Automatic Servis company, which has already won for itself a permanent place in the commercial life of the city and county. Mr. Kennedy has shown himself to be actively interested in the problems of the city and county, and at the present time he is serving as a county supervisor. His wife, Mrs. Caroline Kennedy, whom he married in 1897, was a native of Clarks, Nebraska. Mr. Kennedy is a member of the Knights of Columbus and is actively interested in the affairs of that order. William G. Miller, prominent building contractor of Marquette, Michigan, was born in Wisconsin, October 5, 1887, a son of George and Katherine Miller, the former of whom was born in Milwaukee county, Wisconsin, and was a general contractor until the time of his death in 1926 at the age of sixty-three years and the latter of whom was born in New Berlin, Wisconsin, and is now living at Waukesha, that state. After attending the public schools of Waukesha, Wisconsin, William G. Miller matriculated at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, and following his two

Page  190 190 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN years at that institution, he became associated with the Foster Construction company as timekeeper and material clerk. When he left the company nine years later, he was holding the important position of building superintendent. Coming to Gogebic county, Michigan, Mr. Miller assumed the duties of county engineer, designing steel bridges that were then being constructed throughout the county. In 1915, he came to Marquette, Michigan, and engaged in the general contracting business in which he has been since employed. In his particular field, perhaps no man is more widely and favorably known than is Mr. Miller, and fitting recognition of his ability as a contractor was accorded him in 1921 by his appointment to the responsible position of building superintendent for the State of Michigan for the prison and state schools in Marquette county. In addition to the contracting business, Mr. Miller has become interested in other enterprises, for he is a stockholder in the Consolidated Fuel & Lumber company and of the Union National bank, both of Marquette. For these three reasons, Mr. Miller is recognized as one of the influential and capable business men in Marquette, and without exception, his business associates designate him as an executive of initiative and aggressiveness. He married Clara A. Smith, born in Marquette, a daughter of Jacob and Augusta Smith, the former of whom was born in Germany and subsequently entered the grocery business at Marquette and the latter of whom was a native of this county. Mr. and Mrs. Miller are the parents of three children, Bruce, seven years old; William G., Jr., aged two; and Jack S., who is eight months old. Mr. Miller is a member of the Masonic fraternity and of the Mystic Shrine. Leslie J. Bourgeois is well known in business circles of Marquette as the proprietor of the Wicker Shoppe, which is regarded as one of the finest establishments of its kind in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. He was born at Marquette, July 28, 1901, a son of Arthur and Elizabeth Bourgeois, the former of whom is a mechanic and boiler inspector and both of whom are now living in this city. After leaving the Marquette public schools, he worked as a mechanic in various machine shops at Marquette, but tiring of the work, he found a position as traveling salesman for a candy manufacturing concern, which he represented throughout the Upper Peninsula. In this work, he gained the knowledge of candy and similar products that assured him success in business for himself, so that when he opened the Wicker Shoppe at No. 727 North Third street, he was fully acquainted with the various lines of products which he prepared to market. Consequently, his venture has been an unqualified success from the time of its inception, and the constantly growing trade is ample testimony to the ability of Mr. Bourgeois as a store manager and business man. Mr. Bourgeois is a member of the Knights of Columbus and the United Commercial Travelers.

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Page  191 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 191 John P. Outhwaite played a prominent part in the early history of Ishpeming, where he came to make his home in 1866. His father, John Outhwaite, first came to this locality in 1846, shortly after iron was discovered on what is now the Marquette range, and was interested with several others in the ownership of the old Cleveland mine. The elder Outhwaite held possession of the Jasper Hill at the Cleveland location, which was believed in the early days to be a hill of commercial ore, but it still stands untouched, the grade being too low to make it of value. He was successful in keeping possession of his claims in spite of the efforts of others to gain the titles. John P. Outhwaite was born in Cleveland, Ohio, seventy-five years ago and made his first trip to this section in 1850, coming by boat to Marquette. He made several other trips prior to 1866, when he settled in Ishpeming. His first work here was with the Cleveland Iron Mining company, he being in charge of a crew of explorers for about a year, after which he took a position in the office. He severed his connection with the mining company about 1875 to engage in the mercantile business with B. W. Wright, now of Marquette, the two conducting the old New York store. Mr. Outhwaite disposed of his store interests to his partner and entered the livery business, later opening a meat market in the Robbins' building, on Main street, opposite the Miners National bank. For years Mr. Outhwaite took an active part in politics, being a staunch member of the Republican party, and he was chosen a member of the first board of aldermen, elected in 1873 when the city was incorporated. He served as a councilman until 1876 when he was chosen mayor of the city and he was re-elected the following year. He was out of office in 1878, but in 1879 was again named as the city's executive, being chosen the fourth and fifth terms in 1881 and 1882. Later he held the office of county treasurer and highway commissioner. Mr. Outhwaite was the first chief of the Ishpeming fire department and held that position for a number of years. He was also president of the Peninsular bank from 1903 to 1913. In 1870 Mr. Outhwaite married Miss Mary Nelson, only daughter of the late Robert Nelson, who was known as the founder of Ishpeming. Mr. Nelson platted the greater portion of the present city of Ishpeming and erected the Barnum House, which was a prominent hotel for many years. Following the destruction of the Barnum House, he built the present Nelson House, which later became the property of Mr. Outhwaite. Mr. Outhwaite is survived by Mrs. Outhwaite and one son, John N. Outhwaite, of Cleveland, who is captain of one of the Great Lakes vessels, and two daughters, Mrs. Charles M. Leonard, of Richmond, Virginia, and Miss Mary, at home. Mr. Outhwaite was a member of the Ishpeming branches of the Masonic order and the Ishpeming lodge of Elks. Mr. Outhwaite died Sunday, December 21, 1919. John Outhwaite, father of John P. Outhwaite, was born in Hunton, Yorkshire, England, in 1811. He came to this country in 1832 and after a short sojourn in Buffalo, took up his residence in

Page  192 192 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN this city, which for the remainder of his life was his home. In the summer of 1848 Mr. Outhwaite went to Lake Superior, landing where now is the town of Marquette. The first timbers for the building of the town were not felled till the following year. Sleeping the first night upon the sand by the shore, he began next day with his Indian guides to prospect for iron. He located the claims of what later became known as the Cleveland Iron Mining company, being himself one of the incorporators in 1850. From this early beginning Mr. Outhwaite was closely identified with the development of the mining interests of that region, shipping the first thousand tons of Lake Superior ore down the lakes. He was also connected with the construction of the first rolling mill in Northern Ohio. At the time of his death he was director and president of the Pittsburgh & Lake Angeline Iron company, of the Curry Iron company, and of the Sterling Iron company. Mr. Outhwaite was a man of unspotted integrity, thoroughly honorable in all his business relations and possessed the sincere respect of the community of which he was so long a member. But only those who knew him in private could know the real excellence and fine make-up of the man. He died at Vulcan, Michigan, on Thursday, April 27, 1881. He'left a wife, two sons and two daughters. Robert Nelson. A history of Robert Nelson's career is practically a history of Ishpeming. The founder of the city, the head and front of many of its most important enterprises, he was from the beginning the city's first citizen in every sense. During the prosperous days in Ishpeming's infancy, Mr. Nelson's business activity was manifest in almost every branch of trade. He established the Bank of Ishpeming and in 1874 built the Barnum House, which latter in those days was an extraordinary enterprise. The panic of 1873 which closed so many banks and caused many others to temporarily suspend, never stopped the one over which Robert Nelson presided, and when in 1879 the Barnum House was destroyed by fire the Nelson House rose from its ashes as rapidly as the plans for it could be completed and the work of building performed. Though well along in years then he was undaunted by the disaster to the old Barnum House. One of his most prominent and successful enterprises was the development of what is now the Cleveland Hematite mine. In 1876 Mr. Nelson was elected county treasurer, an office he did not seek, but which sought the man. By the death of Robert Nelson, which occurred on June 16, 1895, Ishpeming lost one of its foremost citizens. Though not a resident here for several years, his name was so indelibly stamped on Ishpeming's record and its interests so much his own that he would be an Ishpeming man wherever he dwelt. He was a man of keen business ability, tireless industry and strict integrity. His manner was sometimes gruff and to some it seemed harsh but there was a good heart in his breast and the deserving person who wanted a friend did not seek one in him in vain. Every public enterprise had his support if it was for the benefit of Ishpeming.

Page  193 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 193 Frank La Bonte stands out as one of the leading business men of Marquette, for in the conduct of his grocery and meat business, he has displayed a resourcefulness, initiative, and ability far above the ordinary retail store manager. His father, Frank La Bonte, a merchant of Marquette, was born in 1856 and died in 1914, and his mother, Louise La Bonte, was born in Canada and was active in church work until the time of her death in 1920. Frank La Bonte, the younger, was born in Marquette, November 19, 1876, and here attended the public schools. When he was sixteen years of age, he became a clerk in the employ of Watson & Palmer, with whom he continued five years, and he then worked as a grocery clerk for E. L. Kellar for a period of seven years. In these two positions, he learned all that he could of store management, so that when he opened his own store in 1903, he already possessed an extensive and accurate knowledge of the grocery business. Starting in a small way, Mr. La Bonte conducted his grocery store for a period of twelve years, but; realizing that success awaited only the venturesome, he decided to materially expand his business. Accordingly, he purchased property and built thereon a store that is unrivaled in Marquette for completeness of equipment and stock, for he handles a Cull line of groceries, meats, and vegetables. In building up this 'u4sness, Mr. La Bonte has justly acquired the name of being _ s1fewd and progressive business man, for none knows better t' n his associates in business the manner in which he has virtuall},ifted himself by his bootstraps from a position of comparative insignificance to one of leadership in the commerce of Marquette. Having taken a deep interest in the civic affairs of his community since the days of his young manhood, he was chosen a charter member of the Marquette City Fire department. He and his wife, who was Agnes Delaria, of Negaunee, Michigan, are the parents of these three children: Mark L., aged twenty-two years; Fern, who is nineteen years of age and is a student at the Northern State Normal school, of Marquette; and Madonne, who is a student in the Marquette high school. Mr. La Bonte is a member of the Merchants' association and of the Knights of Columbus. William Bell, veterinary surgeon and automobile dealer of Ishpeming, Michigan, is one of the successful men of that locality, where he has been engaged in the practice of his profession and in business since 1913. He was born in Ishpeming, April 4, 1883, a son of William and Margaret Bell, both of whom were born in Montreal, Canada, of Scotch parentage, and the former of whom came to the United States when he was a young man and followed the business of liveryman and stock dealer until the time of his death in 1888 at the age of forty-four years. In the public schools of his home community, William Bell began his education, and after a year at Toronto college, he entered the McKillip Veterinary college, of Chicago, Illinois, whence he graduated in 1908. For a short time thereafter, he was located at Ishpeming but in 1909 went

Page  194 194 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN to Virginia, where he was engaged in the practice of veterinary surgery until 1913. Returning to Ishpeming in the latter year, he began the practice of his profession here, a work in which he has since been employed and in which he has gained an enviable reputation throughout Marquette county. In 1914, the year following his return to Ishpeming, he established a livery, sale, and teaming business which he still operates successfully. But Mr. Bell has consistently shown his farsightedness in business affairs, for in 1920, he acquired the agency for Maxwell and Chrysler automobiles, which he surrendered in 1925 to assume charge of the Chevrolet and Buick sales organization at Ishpeming, a business that he operates under the firm style of the Ishpeming Motor company. Mr. Bell married Winifred Moutrie, who was born in England to Alfred and Mary Moutrie, and they have one daughter, Winifred, who is a graduate of the Ishpeming high school and is employed as a bookkeeper with her father. William Trebilcock, of Ishpeming, Michigan, is one of the leading men of that city and of Marquette county, for the many enterprises to which he has set his hand are leaders in their several fields. His father, James Trebilcock, was born in Cornwall, England, in 1848, came to the United States when he was a young man, and died at Ishpeming, where he had been engaged in mining, in 1901, while his widow, Elizabeth Trebilcock, mother of William, still resides at Ishpeming, where she takes an active interest in the affairs of the Ladies Aid society and the Rebekah lodge. Born at Ishpeming, June 22, 1876, William Trebilcock attended the public schools of the city until he was eleven years of age, at which time he left school to enter the mines, subsequently spending two years as a fireman on the railroad, work which he followed by three years as a stationary engineer in California. In 1900, Mr. Trebilcock returned to Ishpeming where he started the greenhouse business which he still operates and which has become one of the leading establishments of its kind in the county. Two years after the birth of that enterprise, he entered the contracting business, developing that venture into one of large proportions. Not content with the work entailed by the management of these two concerns, he organized the Northern Leather company in 1909, of which he has been president since that time. Thus, through the agency of these three companies that he has built up unaided, Mr. Trebilcock has come to be known as one who holds a commanding position in the commercial and industrial life of the city and county where he makes his home. A conspicuous figure in the life of his community, he was appointed postmaster in 1921 and still discharges the duties of that office. During the past fifteen years, Mr. Trebilcock has been engaged in the ice business in Ishpeming, providing a service in this commodity that cannot be excelled in a city of the size of Ishpeming. Mr. Trebilcock and his wife, Lydia E. Trebilcock, a native of Ishpeming, are the parents of these children: Merle, who is the wife of Doctor Malin, of Iron Mountain;

Page  195 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 195 Verna, aged twenty-three years, who is attending the University of Michigan; Ruth, twenty-one years of age, who is also attending the University of Michigan; Dorothy, who entered the same university in September, 1926; Winifred, aged twelve years; and William A., nine years old, who is attending the Ishpeming schools as is his youngest sister. In Masonry, Mr. Trebilcock is a Thirtysecond Degree Scottish Rite Mason, a Shriner, and a member of Eastern Star, and he is also a member of the Odd Fellows, Elks, Knights of Pythias, American Order of the Sons of St. George, the Maccabees, and the Modern Woodmen of America. Jacob Talso, M. D., director and owner of the Finnish hospital at Ishpeming, was born in Finland in 1872, a son of Jacob and Lisie (Luooma) Talso, both natives of Finland, the former of whom was a farmer and died in 1908 at the age of sixty-three years and the latter of whom died in 1922 at the age of seventythree years. Subsequent to his graduation from the high school of his native community, young Jacob Talso came to the United States, and imbued with the determination to better his situation in life, he entered Valparaiso university, from which he received the degree of bachelor of arts, and in 1910 graduated from the Chicago College of Medicine and Surgery with the degree of doctor of medicine. Having completed his studies, Doctor Talso went: to Calumet, Michigan, where he engaged in the practice of his profession over a period of ten years and in 1921 came to Ishpeming, where he bought the Finnish hospital from Dr. H. Holm. Doctor Talso is favorably known for the work he has accomplished as director of the Finnish hospital, which is complete to, every detail, including an X-ray room, a laboratory, and an excellent operating room. He has met with unusual success in the handling of the cases that have been placed under his care and has thus made the hospital widely known throughout this section of the county. Doctor Talso married Jennie Mattson, a native of Finland, and they have one son, Peter, who is five years of age. Doctor Talso is a member of the Masons, Knights of Pythias, Knights of Kaleva, and the Maccabees, and his wife is a member of Eastern Star, Ladies of Kaleva, and the Finnish Lutheran church, which her husband also attends. Harry Sigfrid Peterson, superintendent of the Michigan mining properties of the Jones & Laughlin Ore company, has arrived at his responsible position in that organization through years of hard work and close attention to duty. John A. Peterson, his father, was born in Sweden and now, at the age of sixty-five years, is following his trade of blacksmith in the employ of the Lake Shore Engine works, of Marquette, Michigan, where he was also leader of the band as he was at Ishpeming, where he also served as city alderman for several years. Augusta (Carlston) Peterson, mother of Harry S., was born in Sweden and is still living, having attained the age of sixty-four years. Born at Calumet, Michigan, October 20, 1883, Harry Sigfrid Peterson attended the Ishpeming

Page  196 196 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN high school, and following his graduation therefrom, he studied for a year at the University of Wisconsin and for a like period at the University of North Dakota. It was in 1906 that he entered the employ of the Jones & Laughlin Ore company, beginning a term of service with the organization that has witnessed his rise to the position of superintendent in charge of the Michigan properties of that company. Unquestionably, then, he is recognized as an important figure in iron mining on the Marquette range. Attesting his ability and popularity is the fact that he has served continuously as alderman of Ishpeming for fourteen years, a time in which he has devoted every effort to promoting the welfare of the people. He is now president of the city council by virtue of his long and noteworthy service as a public official. Mr. Peterson married Norma Altschwager, of Jefferson, Wisconsin, and they have two children, John Avery and Betty Barbara, aged fourteen years and nine years, respectively. Mr. Peterson is a Thirty-second degree Mason, a Shriner, and a member of the Golf club, Sportmen's club, and Legion club. He and his family attend the Presbyterian church. Mathew Lofberg has been in the men's furnishings business at Ishpeming since 1896 and has developed a retail store in this field that stamps him as an able and progressive business man. He was born in Finland, February 9, 1870, a son of Christian and Susina Lofberg, both natives of Finland, the former of whom, a farmer, was born in 1844 and died March 1, 1915, and the latter of whom died July 5, 1922. After completing his studies in the public schools of his native land, Mathew Lofberg spent two years in Russia. Coming to the United States in 1892, he became a mtiner at Ishpeming, Michigan, and in 1896 engaged in the men's furnishings business, first as a clerk and in 1908 in a business of his own. He has built up a large trade during the ensuing thirty years, and he is known as one of the most able men engaged in retail store operation in Ishpeming, for his establishment is equipped in the most modern way and carries a complete line of the highest grade clothing and haberdashery. Mr. Lofberg is a member of the Elks, the Knights of Kaleva, the Knights of Pythias, and Modern Woodmen. In addition to the clothing business, Mr. Lofberg is a director of the Miners National bank, of Ishpeming, one of the oldest and strongest financial institutions in the county. John S. Wahlman is a prominent figure in Ishpeming not only for his record as a public official but also because of his eminence as a leader in the contracting field in the city. His father, John Wahlman was born in Sweden in 1837, came to Ishpeming in 1872, and here engaged in the general contracting business until his retirement, since which time he has made his home at Minneapolis, Minnesota. Christina (Johnston) Wahlman, mother of John S., was born in Sweden and died in 1914 at the age of seventysix years. John S. Wahlman was born at Ishpeming, Michigan, July 9, 1875, and after graduating from the high school there, pur

Page  197 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 197 sued a course of study at Augustana college, Rock Island, Illinois. Returning to Ishpeming in 1894, he entered the contracting business in the employ of his father. Under his parent's careful guidance, he learned the ramifications of the contracting business with a thoroughness that brought him a partnership in the business with his father in 1904. From that time forward, the senior Wahlman gradually relinquished the burdens of the work in favor of his son, who finally took over the entire concern in 1916 when his father retired from active life. Since that time, Mr. Wahlman has been sole proprietor of the enterprise which is a leader in its field in this section of the county. Mr. Wahlman married Dagmar Windsand, born in Europe, and to them have been born four sons: Windfred, aged twenty-nine years, who served in the United States navy in the World war, married Mildred Ramsdell, of Ishpeming, and is now building inspector of St. Petersburg, Florida; Edgar, who is twenty-seven years of age and is a mechanical engineer in the employ of the International Harvester company at Chicago, Illinois; and Spencer, aged thirteen years, who is living at home. Elmer died at the age of fifteen years. Mr. Wahlman is a member of the Knights of Pythias and the Modern Woodmen. Clarence Ellsworth Lott is recognized as one of the leading young attorneys of Marquette county, and the measure of his ability and popularity is seen in the fact that he is city attorney of Negaunee and is a candidate for election to the office of county prosecutor. He was born at Iron River, Michigan, May 10. 1900, and is a son of Edward P. Lott, who was born at Escanaba, Michigan, of Dutch parentage and is a general contractor of Iron River. Graduating from the Iron River high school. Clarence E. Lott studied at Beloit college, Beloit, Wisconsin, during the year of 1916-17, after which he spent a like period at the Northern State Normal school at Marquette. Michigan, he being a sergeant in the Student Army Training Corps in the World war. With this prelegal training, Mr. Lott matriculated in the law department of the University of Michigan, whence he graduated in 1921 with the degree of bachelor of laws. Following his admission to the bar, he entered practice at Marquette. In 1923, he opened offices at Muskegon Heights, Michigan, and in 1924 returned to Marquette county to enter practice at Negaunee, where he has since remained. His ability as an attorney was apparent from the first, and in 1925 he became city attorney of Negaunee, an office that be still retains. His quick rise caused him to be sought as a candidate for prosecuting attorney, and as this volume goes to press, the voters of the county are but waiting the time to show their preference. Mr. Lott has gained a remarkable success with the cases that have been placed in his hands, and it is this fact that stamps him as one of the ablest young lawyers of the city and county, and possessed of a winning personality as well as the highest attainments of a barrister, he cannot fail to reach the heights in his profession in this section of the state. He was district governor of

Page  198 198 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN the Lions club in the Upper Peninsula and is a member of the Masonic fraternity, the Elks, American Legion, Marquette club, Wawonowin Golf club, Phi Kappa Psi, college social fraternity, and Delta Theta Phi, legal fraternity. Mr. Lott was elected prosecuting attorney November 2, 1926, for a term of two years. William James Billing, proprietor of the Billing Motor Sales company, of Ishpeming, Michigan, is one of the leading business men of the city, having been a pioneer automobile man of this section of the county. His paternal grandparents were William Henry and Elizabeth Ann (May) Billing, both natives of Cornwall, England, the former of whom was a miner and died in 1873 at the age of thirty-seven years and the latter of whom died in 1909 at the age of sixty-nine years. Their son, James Henry Billing, father of him whose name heads this review, was born in Cornwall, became a miner and lumberman after coming to the United States in 1887, and subsequently engaged in the hotel business at Ishpeming, where he operates the Billing House. He married Rosenia Menhenett, a native of Cornwall, England, and he is a member of the Sons of St. George. Born at Negaunee, Michigan, April 10, 1893, William James Billing attended the public schools of Ishpeming until he was fourteen years of age, when he gave up his studies to learn the automobile business. Subsequently, when his capital and experience warranted the move, he established the Billing Motor Sales company, at Ishpeming, and to this work he has added automobile painting and taxi service. That he has been more than moderately successful in the conduct of the enterprise is attested by the fact that he is one of the influential men in his field in this section of the county, a position that he has won through hard work and executive ability of a high order. Mr. Billing married Viola Marian Bonen, of Iron Mountain, Michigan, and he and his wife are members of the Grace Episcopal church. John Kielinen well known building contractor of Ishpeming, Michigan, was born in Finland, May 24, 1880, a son of Herman and Sanna (Saugula) Kielinen, both natives of Finland, the former of whom died in 1883 at the age of twenty-four years and the latter of whom is living at Ishpeming at the age of sixty-six years. After attending the public schools of his native country, John Kielinen came to the United States when he was seventeen years of age, and for a period of two years thereafter, he was employed as a carpenter in Brooklyn, New York. In 1900, he came to Ishpeming to follow tue same trade until 1906, when he went to California, remaining there until 1915. In the latter year he returned to Ishpeming and at that time established the building contracting business in which he has since been successfully engaged. His operations in this field, which includes not only the city but the section of the county in the immediate vicinity, have shown him to be one of the able and efficient men in this work. In addition to the contracting business, he is a partner with his brother in the operation of the Finnish Bath House at Ishpeming. In 1903, Mr.

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Page  199 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 199 Kielinen married Anna Leppla, a native of Finland, and to, them have been born two children, Elmer, aged twenty years and Elline. Mr. Kielinen is a member of the Elks, Maccabees, and the Knights of Kaleva, and he and his wife attend the Finnish Lutheran church. John W. Stone, late of Marquette, Michigan. It is given some men to excell in the work to which they set their hands, and it was not by chance that the late Judge John W. Stone rose steadily in the legal profession until he attained a seat on the supreme bench of the State of Michigan, a fitting acknowledgment of the place held by one of the ablest jurists and legists of the Upper Peninsula. A native of Wadsworth, Medina county, Ohio, he was born July 18, 1838, a son of Rev. Chauncey and Sarah (Bird) Stone, both of whom were natives of Vermont and came of families established in this country during the colonial period of our history. His great grandfather, Edmund Stone, served in the War of the Revolution. Benjamin Stone, grandfather of Judge Stone, served in the War of 1812 with a Vermont regiment, subsequently removing with his family to Medina county, Ohio, where he spent the remainder of his life. Rev. Chauncey Stone, father of Judge Stone, was born in Vermont, educated in his native state, and there married. In 1836, he came to Medina county, Ohio, and there cleared a farm where he continued to make his home until 1856. In the latter year, he removed to Allegan county, Michigan, where he resided until the time of his death, which occurred in 1881. His wife survived until 1897, dying at the age of eighty-seven years. Of the children born to this union, four sons and three daughters reached maturity; namely, Dr. Benjamin V., who was hospital steward and assistant surgeon of the Twenty-eighth Michigan Volunteer Infantry in the Civil war and who died at Alexandria, Virginia, in March, 1865; John W., whose name heads this review; Maria, who married H. N. Averill, of Grand Rapids, Michigan; Cynthia L., who died in California in 1880; Chauncey C., who became a resident of California; Charles W., who resides in Muskegon, Michigan; and Melissa, who is the wife of Joseph McConnell, of Allegan county, Michigan. John W. Stone obtained his early education in the schools of his native community. He was eighteen years of age at the time of the removal of the family to Michigan in 1856, and there he assisted his father in clearing a farm, spending the winter months teaching in the district schools of Allegan county. In 1859, he began reading law under the preceptorship of Silas Stafford, one of the foremost members of the Allegan county bar, and in 1860, he was elected clerk of Allegan county, an office to which he was returned in 1862. In January, 1862, Judge Stone was admitted to the bar, and upon the close of his second term as county clerk, he was the successful candidate for election to the office of county prosecutor in 1864. By successive re-elections, he was the incumbent of that office for a period of six years. His private practice was initiated in partnership with Judge Dan J. Arnold, and his success as an attorney and prosecutor were

Page  200 200 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN such as to win him the election in 1873 to the bench of the Twentieth Judicial Circuit, composed of the counties of Allegan and Ottawa. He resigned the position the following year to ally himself with the law firm of Norris & Blair, of Grand Rapids, Michigan, under the firm style of Norris, Blair & Stone, and in 1875, following the retirement of Mr. Norris, Willard Kingsley joined the firm, which then adopted the name of Blair, Stone & Kingsley. His record in public office and in private practice brought Judge Stone to the favorable attention of the people of that section of the state, and in 1876, he was elected to represent the counties of Allegan, Kent, Ottawa, lonia, and Muskegon in the Forty-fifth Congress, a seat to which he was returned by the electors of the district in 1878. Coincident with his election to Congress, he retired from the firm of Blair, Stone & Kingsley, and in 1878. he joined Edward Taggart and N. A. Earle under the firm style of Taggart, Stone & Earle, an arrangement that was maintained until 1882. In the same year, following the conclusion of his service as Congressman, Judge Stone was appointed by President Arthur to the position of United States Attorney for the Western District of Michigan. During the four years he was so engaged, he was in partnership with Wesley W. Hyde as Stone & Hyde. It was during this fouryear period as United States Attorney that Judge Stone became acquainted with the Upper Peninsula, to which he made frequent trips in the performance of his duties, and so favorable was the impression the country made upon him that in May, 1887, he established his home in Houghton, where he allied himself with A. R. Gray under the name of Stone & Gray. The partnership was a happy combination, for Judge Stone's reputation had by this time become statewide and Mr. Gray's local name was an enviable one. The firm sprang into immediate prominence, and within a short time, a large practice was enjoyed by the partners. When Judge Grant of the Twenty-fifth Judicial Circuit was elected to the bench of the supreme court in the spring of 1889, a vacancy was created in that circuit. At the earnest solicitation of the influential men of that circuit, Judge Stone removed to Marquette and was elected to fill the vacancy in 1890, although prior to that time, he had been a resident of another circuit. Such was the manner in which he discharged the duties of that responsible position that when the delegates to the Republican and Democratic conventions assembled in Escanaba in the spring of 1893, Judge Stone was the choice of both parties for re-election to the bench of the Twentyfifth Circuit. His election followed as a matter of course, having the support of both parties, and by successive re-elections, he continued as judge of the circuit until December 31, 1909. In April, that year, he had been elected a Justice of the Michigan Supreme Court, and on January 1, 1910, he took the oath of office. In this high trust, he continued until the time of his death, which occurred March 24, 1922. Upon the occasion of his death, a Detroit newspaper printed an appreciation of the work of Judge Stone from

Page  201 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 201 which the following extract is taken: "Bred in the common law and armored in his knowledge of it, he was not only an honest lawyer, but a great lawyer. He had that valuable cast of mind which can think a proposition through and weigh it on its merits. 'Of law it must be acknowledged that her voice is the harmony of her world'; and of that harmony John W. Stone was always the faithful and jealous exponent. He was a wise man-rich in that wisdom which is the distilled essence of what he had learned from experience; and his had been an unusually long and varied experience. He was furnished with that openness to nature-with that oldfashioned simplicity and decisiveness of judgment-which rendered him incapable of being insincere or hesitant in the presence of his duty." Politically, Judge Stone was an unswerving Republican, yet it is a high tribute to his public character and political faith that he enjoyed the support of Republican and Democrat alike. He was a communicant of the Protestant Episcopal church and served as a vestryman and warden of St. Paul's church at Marquette, and as Chancellor of the Diocese of Marquette. At Allegan, Michigan, in 1861, Judge Stone married Miss Delia M. Grover, the daughter of Andrew P. Grover, who was then sheriff of Allegan county. Mrs. Stone died in Marquette, January 25, 1902. To this union were born these children: Carrie M., who married Fred M. Champlin, of Grand Rapids; Nina; Edith M.; Judge John G., who is mentioned elsewhere in this work, and Frank B., who died at Riverside, California, September 15, 1896, at the age of seventeen years. John G. Stone, of Houghton, Michigan, has presided as Judge of the Twelfth Judicial Circuit of Michigan since May, 1922, succeeding by appointment and subsequent election Judge Patrick H. O'Brien on the latter's removal to Detroit. John G. Stone is the son of the late Judge John W. Stone and Delia M. (Grover) Stone. He was born at Allegan, Michigan, September 29, 1871, and received his elementary education in the public schools at Grand Rapids and Houghton, and later at Beloit College academy and Beloit college, at Beloit, Wisconsin. He pursued his law studies at the University of Michigan from whence he graduated as a member of the law class of 1894. On his admission to practice following his graduation he located at Grand Rapids, Michigan, and became associated with Judge John W. Champlin, who, like his father, was a Justice of the Supreme Court of Michigan. This association continued until 1900, at which time he came to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and established himself in Ontonagon. Two years later he removed to Houghton where he joined A. R. Gray, who had been his father's junior partner, and Judge Norman W. Haire, in the law firm of Gray, Haire & Stone. With this firm, and its succeeding members, he was continuously identified until 1922 when he went upon the bench of the Twelfth Judicial Circuit. Prior to ascending the bench Judge Stone had acquired a large practice as an attorney, fitting him for his present position.

Page  202 202 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN On October 4, 1899 at Marquette, Michigan, Judge Stone married Helen Grace Ball, a daughter of Dan H. Ball. To this union have been born the following children: Helen Grover, who married the late Charles L. Brace, Jr., of New York City, John Ball, who is now a geologist in South America, Everett, who is a student in Carleton college, Northfield, Minnesota, Mildred Chandler, a student at Sweet Briar college, Sweet Briar, Virginia, and Frank Bush, a student, at home. Judge Stone, like his father, is a staunch supporter of the Republican party. He is a communicant of the Episcopal church; a vestryman of Trinity Episcopal church, Houghton, and Chancellor of the Diocese of Marquette. He is a Knight Templar in Masonry, a member of the Elks, and of the American Order of the Sons of St. George. Hon. Jay A. Hubbell, was for eight years a member of the United States Congress, during which time his name became familiar not alone to the citizens of Michigan, but throughout the United States, true merit and ability receiving their due recognition. He was known as the father of the Michigan College of Mines, located at Houghton. That city has him to thank for its location there and the securing of the large appropriation that made its establishment possible. Judge Hubbell, was born in Avon township, Oakland county, Michigan, September 15, 1829, and was a son of Samuel S. Hubbell. The family came to Michigan from Connecticut. Samuel S. Hubbell his father was one of the early settlers of Oakland county, Michigan, where he located in 1820. Jay A. Hubbell attended the district schools of Avon township during the winter terms until he reached the age of eighteen, when he went to Rochester academy at Rochester, Oakland county, Michigan, for two years. He then studied two years more at Romeo high school. In the fall of 1850 he was in a position, financially, to enter the literary department of the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, where he spent three years and graduated in 1853. He then taught school in order to secure the money with which to complete his education and prepare himself for the bar. In the meantime he read law in the office of Judge Manning of Pontiac, Michigan, and later studied in the office of Howard, Bishop & Holbrook at Detroit, being admitted to practice by the Supreme Court of Michigan in 1855. He then started for the Upper Peninsula, landing at Ontonagon, June 17, 1855, with but three dollars in capital, and it is said that he was in debt to the captain of the steamer that brought him up from Sault Ste. Marie. Shortly after his arrival he went into partnership with A. H. Hanscomb, but for the three years following his practice was very limited. In 1858 he was elected prosecuting attorney of Ontonagon county, and was appointed District Attorney of the Northern Peninsula. He moved to Houghton in 1860, and was soon well established in a lucrative practice. In 1861, he was elected Prosecuting Attorney for Houghton county. He was thereafter frequently called upon to fill positions of honor. In 1876 he was State Commissioner to

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Page  203 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 203 the Centennial Exposition held at Philadelphia. He made his first appearance in national politics as a member of the House of Representatives of the 43d Congress, and was re-elected to the succeeding three Congresses. He served on the ways and means committee, the most important and most sought for committee of Congress, and during a larger part of the time was chairman of the National Republican Congressional Committee. He was elected judge of the Twelfth Judicial Circuit and served until his retirement January 1, 1900. He was a man who commanded the respect and admiration of all who knew him. The people from all walks of life were treated by him with the same kindly consideration. His death was sadly lamented as an irreparable loss to the community in which he lived. Judge Hubbell was married in 1861 to Florence Doolittle at Ontonagon, Michigan, and they had two children, Florence M., now deceased who married Lessing Karger of Houghton, Michigan; and Blanche D., now deceased who married Alvin B. Carpenter of Hollywood, California. Judge Hubbell was a prominent Mason, and a member of Montrose Commandery, Knights Templar of Calumet; Saladin Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S.; and Grand Rapids Consistory, S. P. R. S. He died at his home in Houghton in 1900, Thomas L. Chadbourne was born at Eastport, Maine, April 13, 1841, the son of I. R. Hannah (Lincoln) Chadbourne. He received a collegiate education at Harvard and graduated in 1862. Soon after completing his course at Harvard he came to Houghton and began the study of law with Hon. J. A. Hubbell. He was admitted to practice in 1864 in the Circuit Court of Houghton county. He entered upon the practice of his profession at Eagle River, Keweenaw county, Michigan, and thus continued until 1868 when he came to Houghton, Michigan, and formed a law partnership with Mr. J. A. Hubbell, under the firm name of Hubbell & Chadbourne, which continued from January 1, 1869 to January 1, 1876. After the expiration of his partnership with Mr. Hubbell he practised alone until 1893 when the firm became Chadbourne & Rees and so continued to the time of his death which occurred in April, 1911, at West Palm Beach, Florida. Mr. Chadbourne was married at Copper Falls, July, 1869, to Miss Georgina, daughter of George Kay. Mrs. Chadbourne was born on Prince Edward Island. They had seven children: Hannah L. (Mrs. F. W. Denton), Thomas L., Eliza A. (who died in infancy), Alice G. (Mrs. R. B. Harkness), Waldemar A., Alexander S., (now deceased), and Humphrey W. Dan H. Ball, late of Marquette, Michigan, was for many years a leading attorney of the Upper Peninsula. He will long be remembered as one of the conspicuous figures before the bar and in business circles of that section of the state. On both sides of his house, his ancestry is traceable to colonial days in America. His maternal grandfather served in the Continental army during the Revolutionary war and his paternal grandfather was a soldier dur

Page  204 204 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN ing the War of 1812. The latter removed from Vermont to New York, his forebears having been early settlers of the Green Mountain State, and became a pioneer settler of New York. In 1836, he removed to Michigan and spent the remainder of his life in Washtenaw county, where he was a farmer. James Ball, his son and the father of Dan H., also located in Washtenaw county, Michigan, in 1836, and lived there until his death, which occurred in 1852. He was a native of Vermont. His wife, Lucy (Chandler) Ball, was born in New York. She died in August, 1892, at the home of her daughter, Phoebe M. (Ball) Lewis, at Atlanta, Georgia. Dan H. Ball was born in Sempronius, Cayuga county, New York, January 15, 1836, and was an infant at the time of the removal of his parents to Michigan. He was reared to manhood in Washtenaw county, this state, and obtained his early education in the district schools of that county. When he was fifteen years of age, shortly after the death of his father, he entered the Wesleyan seminary, Albion, Michigan, where he studied about one year. The ensuing two years, he spent as a school teacher, after which he matriculated at the University of Michigan in the autumn of 1856. His finances reached such a low ebb within a year, however, that he was compelled to give up his studies to return to school teaching, and while he was so employed, he turned his attention to the study of law. Such was his application and earnestness, that he was admitted to the Law department of the University of Michigan in 1860, and after a year's study there, was admitted to the bar. Soon after the completion of his studies, he removed to Marquette, Michigan, to assume the management of a small mercantile enterprise left by his deceased brother, James Wilson Ball, but after a year in this work, he sold the business to purchase an interest in the Lake Superior News and the Lake Superior Journal, which were then consolidated and became the predecessor of the Marquette Mining Journal. For about two years thereafter, he was associated with Alexander Campbell in the newspaper business, but gave up the work in the autumn of 1862 to accept the appointment of Register of the United States Land Office at Marquette to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Dr. James St. Clair. Upon the expiration of his term, he was reappointed by President Lincoln and discharged the duties of that office until 1865. During his incumbency, he devoted as much time as possible to the practice of law, and upon his retirement from office, turned his entire attention to the legal profession, remaining at Marquette until September, 1866, when he removed to Houghton to form a partnership with James B. Ross. In September, 1870, he returned to Marquette, although he maintained connections at Houghton for some time thereafter in association with J. H. Chandler. In addition to his practice of law, in which he was a recognized leader in the Upper Peninsula, Mr. Ball became president of the Marquette Building & Loan Association at the time of its organization, and subsequently became a director of the Marquette National bank He took an active interest in the civic affairs of his community

Page  205 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 205 and served in various offices of public trust, including that of alderman of Marquette. He declined the nomination for Judge of the Twenty-fifth Judicial Circuit, and at the Republican State convention in February, 1895, he was considered for the nomination for the office of Justice of the Supreme Court of Michigan. In 1893, his son, James Everett Ball, joined him in the practice of law, and in 1905, Mr. Ball, Sr., was associated with John G. Stone in the partnership of Ball & Stone at Houghton, which association continued for some years. Mr. Ball was active in the Protestant Episcopal church, being vestryman and senior warden of St. Paul's church for many years. On May 2, 1863, he married Emma E. Everett, the daughter of Philo M. Everett, an early settler of Marquette, and to this union were born six children, as follows: James Everett, who married Sarah McConnell, of Madison, Wisconsin, and who died April 4, 1914; Charles W. who died in infancy; Emily M., deceased, who married Clarence M. Smith of Redlands, California; Colonel George E., of the United States Army now stationed at Chicago; Mabel E., who married Walter B. Hill, of East Liverpool, Ohio; and Helen G., who married Judge John G. Stone, of Houghton. Dan H. Ball died February 21, 1918, closing a career that had made his name a familiar one to the people of the Upper Peninsula. His wife died March 10, 1922. Raymond Turner, one of the representative members of the bar of Dickinson county, has here been engaged in the practice of his profession since 1908, and he has maintained his home and professional headquarters since 1921 at Iron Mountain, the county seat. Mr. Turner was born at Vulcan, Dickinson county, Michigan, July 30, 1884, and is a son of William J. and Elizabeth (Howard) Turner, both natives of Wisconsin. William J. Turner was born in the year 1857 and was reared and educated in the Badger State. He came to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan in 1879 and established his residence at Vulcan, Dickinson county. He died in 1913, at the age of fifty-six years, and his widow, who was born at Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, is now a resident of New Jersey. To the Michigan public schools Raymond Turner is indebted for his early education, and in 1908 he was graduated in the law department of the University of Michigan, his admission to the bar of his native state having been virtually coincident with his reception of the degree of bachelor of laws. He forthwith engaged in the practice of law at Norway, Dickinson county, and that he proved his resourcefulness and ability, besides gaining secure place in communal esteem, was shown when. in 1914, he was elected prosecuting attorney of Dickinson county. Of this office he continued the incumbent until 1917, when he resigned, in order to respond to the call of patriotism, when the nation became involved in the World war. He enlisted in the United States army, entered the officers training school at Fort Sheridan, near Chicago, Illinois, and there received a commission as second lieutenant. He served overseas with the famed Rainbow Division, one of the, first divi

Page  206 206 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN sions of the American Expeditionary Forces to land in France. and with his command he lived up to the full tension of conflict. He was in France at the time the armistice brought the war to a close and after his return to his native land he received his honorable discharge, in the summer of 1919, and resumed the practice of his profession at Norway, whence, as before stated, he removed to Iron Mountain in 1921, his law practice at the county seat being of substantial and important order. Mr. Turner is a staunch advocate of the principles of the Republican party, and is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and the American Legion. He is a director of the Commercial bank of Iron Mountain, and also of the Dickinson County Land & Abstract company, besides which he is vice-president of the Iron Range Transportation company, and a director of the Champion Sand & Gravel company. October 15, 1919, Mr. Turner was united in marriage to Miss Esther Junell, who was born at Ironwood, this state, her religious affiliation being with the Lutheran church, and she having membership in the Woman's club at Norway, as well as the Delphian Study club. Mr. and Mrs. Turner have three children: Dorothy, Irene, and William. K. A. Ruona, proprietor of the Ishpeming Bottling works, is a well known business man of that city where he has been engaged in business for himself for nearly a quarter of a century. Born in Finland, September 25, 1869, he is a son of Eric Franslae and Susie Ruona, both natives of Finland, the former of whom was a farmer and shoemaker and died in 1916 and the latter of whom died in 1876. After obtaining his early education in the schools of his native land, K. A. Ruona came to the United States in 1889, settling first at Calumet, Michigan, and at Ishpeming in 1890. For a period of twelve years after he arrived in Ishpeming, Mr. Ruona worked in the iron mines, but by that time he had acquired sufficient funds to allow him to go into business for himself. Accordingly, he established the Ishpeming Bottling works in 1902 and has since been engaged in the successful operation of that enterprise. He has taken an active interest in the civic affairs of his community, and at the present time, he is a member of the Ishpeming city council. Mr. Ruona married Susie Marie Ekola, a native of Finland, and they are the parents of the following children: Limpi, who married Rev. Eli Marijavi and is living in Minnesota; Marie, a teacher in the schools of Ishpeming; John, who is twenty-six years of age, served in the United States navy in the World war, and is manager of the Ishpeming Bottling works; Ida, who is now living in Minnesota; Arthur, employed in the mines at Ishpeming; Lenniece, dead; Rudolph, who is working with his father; Martin and Dorothy, who are attending the Ishpeming schools; and Leonard and Fannie, who are dead. Mr. Ruona is a member of the Elks and is treasurer of the

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Page  207 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 207 Michigan conference of the Finnish Lutheran church. For the past twelve years, he has been a director of the Finnish college at Hancock, Michigan. Alexander D. Hannah, once prominent in Chicago business circles as a member of the firm of Hannah & Hogg and one of the proprietors of the Brevoort hotel in that city, became a cottager on Mackinac Island in 1889 and maintained his summer home at that place until the time of his death in 1913. Like his business partner, he was a native of Scotland, having been born at Whithorn on Solway Firth in 1846. He was one of four sons born to Alexander and Mary (Patterson) Hannah, the former of whom was a fisherman and shoemaker. Alexander D. Hannah received his early education in the public schools of his native community and became a grocery salesman when he laid aside his school books. In the late sixties, he came to the United States and located in Eastern Kansas at a time when that region was frontier country. There he worked in a grocery store and subsequently entered the employ of an uncle at Kansas City, where he remained until 1871. In that year, he came to Chicago to become associated with the wholesale liquor house of Weadley, Senndy & Clarey, and in 1874, he formed a partnership with David Hogg under the name of Hannah & Hogg to engage in the same field of endeavor. The organization which they built up became one of the large and successful concerns of its kind in this part of the country. Subsequently, the partners acquired ownership of the Brevoort hotel in Chicago, and when the building was destroyed by fire in 1905, they rebuilt the hotel the following year at a cost of approximately a million dollars. In 1889, Alexander Hannah and David Hogg erected two cottages on Mackinac Island and became two of the first cottagers at what has become one of the leading summer places in the country. In 1913, Alexander Hannah died, terminating a partnership that had existed for nearly forty years. In 1875, Mr. Hannah married Catherine Grady, of Chicago, who still survives him, and to them were born one son, Alexander, and two daughters. Mr. Hannah took a deep interest in promoting the welfare and development of the island where he spent his summers and was a director of the Grand Hotel company there. In fraternal circles, he was a member of the Masonic order. James A. Thomas is unquestionably the leading plumber of Negaunee, Michigan, where he has been engaged in that business for himself since 1911, developing his concern from one conducted on a small scale to the largest and most completely stocked organization of its kind in the city. He was born in this city, May 27, 1891, a son of Henry and Catherine Thomas, both of whom were born in England and came to Negaunee, where Henry Thomas was engaged in the transfer business until the time of his death in 1920 at the age of fifty-six years. James A. Thomas was educated in the Negaunee public schools until he was fourteen years old, when he relinquished his studies to learn the trade of

Page  208 208 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN plumber. He applied himself so assiduously to absorbing every bit of knowledge of the trade, that by 1911 he felt that his experience and training were sufficient to permit him to go into business for himself, which he did in that year. Starting in a small way, Mr. Thomas has developed his establishment into the undisputed leader in its field in Negaunee, and he is thus accorded the name of being one of the able business men of this locality. Mr. Thomas was united in marriage to Florence Perkins, daughter of William and Harriet Perkins, of Negaunee, and to them have been born four children: James, aged ten years; William P.; Catherine, seven years old; and John Arthur, two years of age. Mr. Thomas is a Thirty-second Degree Mason and a Shriner and is a member of the Elks, Odd Fellows, Sons of St. George, and the Master Plumbers association. George A. Newett, publisher of the Iron Ore, of Ishpeming, Michigan, is recognized as one of the leading newspaper men not only of Marquette county but also of this section of the state, for he is a pioneer journalist of the Upper Peninsula. His parents, William H. and Anna (McCullough) Neivett were both natives of the British Isles, the former having been born in Scotland and the latter in England. William H. Newett came to the United States when he was eighteen years of age, settling first in Connecticut and then at Janesville, Wisconsin, where he engaged in the milling business until 1873, at which time he came to Ishpeming to operate a hotel, a career that was cut short by death three years later. Born at Janesville, Wisconsin, October 8, 1856, George A. Newett received his early education in the public schools of that city, and after the removal of the family to Ishpeming in 1873, he became an apprentice printer in the employ of the Ishpeming Iron Home, the first newspaper published in this city. Here he continued until 1879, learning everything possible of the mechanical and editorial departments of newspaper work, and in that year, Mr. Newett founded the Iron Agitator, the name of which he changed to the Iron Ore in 1882. When it is considered that Mr. Newett started his newspaper and continued without interruption as its publisher at a time when frequent changes in ownership and management were the rule rather than the exception in the field of journalism, the true ability of Mr. Newett as a publisher and editor may be comprehended more readily. Perhaps, no paper in the county is more firmly entrenched in the regard of its subscribers than is the aggressive Iron Ore, and that such is the case, is due directly to the business and editorial policies promulgated by Mr. Newett in his half century of newspaper ownership. As an earnest champion of progressive measures in civic matters, Mr. Newett has served on the board of education and the board of public works, and in 1906, he received the appointment of postmaster of Ishpeming, an office that he held four years, or until his resignation. In addition to his newspaper interests, Mr. Newett is in terested in mining operations, he being a director of the Calumet &

Page  209 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 209 Arizona Mining company, of Bisbee, Arizona, and of the New Cornelia Copper company, of Ajo, Arizona. Mr. Newett married Mary E. Nichols, born in Cleveland, Ohio, of German parentage, who died in 1897 leaving these children: Mrs. George E. Nelson, of Ishpeming; Mrs. C. H. Dawson, of Kansas City, Missouri; William H., of Ishpeming; George A., Jr., of Ishpeming; and Mrs. H. V. Niss, of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In 1904, Mr. Newett married Edel A. Windsand, of Ishpeming, who was born in Stavanger, Norway, and to them has been born one son, John W. Mr. Newett is a member of the Elks, the Knights of Pythias, the Lake Superior Mining Institute, and the Wawonowin Golf club, of Ishpeming. He is a Republican and has served as delegate to state and national conventions and was state statistician under Pingree. He had two sons in service: William H., member 32nd Division, 107th Regiment of Engineers, over seas, who saw much active service as master engineer; and George A., Jr., who was with the naval forces. Thomas L. Collins, mayor of Negaunee, is not only respected for his record as a public official but is also one of the leading business men of the city and county. His parents, Samuel and Hanna (Lauthford) Collins, were natives of the adjoining English counties of Devonshire and Cornwall, respectively, and came to Negaunee in 1866. Samuel Collins was a miner for a number of years and then engaged in the livestock business, which he surrendered to enter the meat business. In this field, he became one of the leading merchants of Negaunee, where he also served on the board of county supervisors. He died in 1924 at the age of eighty-two years, his wife having preceded him in death in 1898. Thomas L. Collins was born in Negaunee, March 30, 1872, attended the public schools of that city, and then worked for his father until 1891, when he went to Iron Mountain, Michigan, to work on the surface for a mining company. After a year so occupied, he returned to his father's store at Negaunee, there rounding out his knowledge of the meat business under the careful tutelage of his parent, so that in 1893 he felt that he was sufficiently trained to start in business for himself. In that year, then, he opened a store at Ishpeming, continuing there until 1897, when he returned to Negaunee to establish the meat market which he still operates. He is unquestionably a leader in his field in this section of the county, and his initiative and enterprise in business matters is conceded by all who know him. In addition to the meat business, Mr. Collins is a director and vice-president of the Negaunee National bank and a director of the Gannon Grocery company, of Marquette, Michigan. Signal as has been his success in mercantile and financial ventures, Mr. Collins has been no less a leader in the public life of his community, for twelve years as city alderman were brought to a triumphant climax in 1925 by his election to the office of mayor of Negaunee, a position which he still holds. His administration of the responsible public office has been but a

Page  210 210 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN confirmation of his known progressiveness in civic matters, for Mr. Collins has consistently advocated and supported those measures that tended to enhance the welfare of the community where he has always made his home. Mr. Collins married Anna Rafferty, born in England of Irish parentage, and they have the following children: Mrs. Anna L. Hanson, who resides in Negaunee; Raymond, aged thirty-one years, who served in the World war with the 28th Infantry, First Division, and is now living in Negaunee; William G., now residing in Milwaukee, who served in the navy during the war and is a noted ball player: Thomas, twentysix years old, who is a civil engineer of Grand Rapids, Michigan; and Samuel R., aged twenty-three years, who was a student in the law college of the University of Michigan. Mr. Collins is a Republican in national issues but is independent in local affairs. He is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Modern Woodmen, and Sons of St. George. Frank David Klinglund is well known to residents of Negau nee not only as the proprietor of a successful automobile sales organization but also as a public official who has rendered signal service in the offices to which he was elected. Born at Whitehall, Michigan, December 1, 1884, he is a son of August and Emma (Olson) Klinglund, both natives of Sweden, who settled at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, where August Klinglund conducted a hotel, he dying in 1913 and his wife in 1907. After obtaining a graded and high school education in Sault Ste. Marie, Frank Klinglund matriculated at the Houghton College of Mines, from which he graduated with the class of 1905. His first position upon completing his university education was that of chemist at Port Arthur, Ontario, but after a short time, he secured a position as mining engineer with the Ogleby Norton & Company mining concern of Commonwealth, Wisconsin, by whom he was stationed at Stambaugh, Michigan, in charge of the mines of the company at that place. So he continued until 1912, when he became superintendent and manager of the Empire Iron company, of Palmer, Michigan. In 1920, he gave up the mining work to come to Negaunee, where he established a garage business and secured the franchise to handle Chevrolet and Studebaker automobiles. The subsequent six years have seen him rise to a high position in this field of endeavor in this section of Marquette county. In 1921, Mr. Klinglund was elected a member of the board of public works, was chosen mayor of Negaunee in 1922, and in 1925 was elected chairman of the board of public works. His administration of the city offices that he has held shows him to be a man of more than ordinary ability in matters pertaining to municipal government, for he shares the respect and the confidence of the people. Mrs. Iva (Steele) Klinglund, who was born at Lockport, New York, is a member of the Negaunee Woman's club and the Episcopal church. Mr. Klinglund is a Thirty-second Degree Mason, a Shriner, and a member of the Elks.

Page  211 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 211 Claude Henry Tripp, manager of the H. W. Gossard Corset company, of Ishpeming, has held that position since 1921, and during the five years that have elapsed since that year, he has shown himself to be one of the able business men of this section of the county and Upper Peninsula. Born at Belvidere, Illinois, June 19, 1894, he is a son of Edward and Hattie E. (Manchester) Tripp. The elder Tripp was a native of England, was a jeweler, and died December 4, 1919, while his wife was born in Syracuse, New York, June 26, 1860, and died March 9, 1916. After graduating from the high school of Belvidere, Claude Henry Tripp studied at the college of Rockford, Illinois. Completing his education, he entered the employ of the Gossard Corset company of Canada, with whom he remained until he was promoted to manager of the company's establishment at Ishpeming in 1921. Since that time, he has directed the affairs of the concern at this point an(d has taken an active interest in the commercial and industrial life of the community in general. While he was in Canada, Mr. Tripp enlisted in the flying corps and served in France for a period of eighteen months as a pilot. On August 23, 1920, Mr. Tripp married Grace Stupple, who was born at Whitstable, England, June 20, 1900, and they have two children, Robert Donald, aged five years, and Marjorie Claire, nine months old. Mr. Tripp is a Thirty-second Degree Mason and a Shriner and a member of the American Legion and the Knights of Pythias. Charles Ludvig Anderson is known to people of Marquette county as a leader in the field of heating and plumbing, for he has been engaged in that business at Ishpeming since 1890. Carl Avon Anderson, father of Charles L., was a native of Kopperber-, Sweden, and in 1864 came to the United States with a company of men to work in the copper mines when that industry was controlled by the United States government. Subsequently, he engaged in various commercial undertakings, including those of mining contracting, building contracting, and transfer business at Ishpeming. He erected the first mine shaft house on the Marquette iron range. In 1879, he took a number of men to Colorado and was superintendent of the rock work through the Royal Gorge until 1883, but the breaking down of his health forced him to go to Prescott, Arizona. Retiring from business in 1890, he thereafter made his home at Portland, Oregon, until the time of his death in 1922. He and his wife, who was Johanna Anderson, a native of Sweden, and died in 1874 in her thirty-ninth year, were the parents of nine children. Charles Ludvig Anderson was born at Kopperberg, Sweden, November 5, 1855, and attended the pubic schools of Ishpeming. When he was fourteen years old, he became a clerk in the company store of the Cleveland mine and owned by Wright & Outhwaite. Between the ages of seventeen and twenty, he was employed by his father, and in 1877, he entered the grocery business as a partner of William Curtis, to whom he subsequently sold out. He then started a wagon and black

Page  212 212 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN smith shop, which he sold in 1879 to go to Norway, Michigan, where he conducted a hardware store until 1883. Going to Iron Mountain, Michigan, at that time, he opened the C. L. Anderson bank but sold the enterprise in 1886 in order that he might open a hardware store at Sault Ste. Marie. After three years spent in this way, he converted his business into a heating and plumbing establishment in 1889 under the name of the Lake Superior company, removing the following year to Ishpeming, where he has since been recognized as one of the prominent men in this section of the county in the operation of a plumbing and heating business. In 1877, Mr. Anderson was united in marriage with Ella A. Norberry, a native of Koping, Sweden, who died in 1923 at the age of sixty-six years, leaving two sons, Leslie Douglass and Carl Elbridge. Leslie Douglass Anderson, who was born March 27. 1879, is now chief engineer for the United States Mining, Smelting & Refining company, of Salt Lake City, Utah, and Carl Elbridge Anderson, who was born October 31, 1882, is general superintendent of the Ruggles Truck company at Miami, Florida. Mr. Anderson, Sr., is director of the Ishpeming Y. M. C. A. G. Rudolph Granlund, proprietor of the Granlund Oil company, of Negaunee, is recognized as one of the able young business men of the county, for he owns and manages a concern that is rapidly becoming one of the influential organizations of its kind in the county. He was born at Jakobstad, Finland, October 26, 1900, and is a son of Gustav and Mary S. (Smith) Granlund, the former of whom died in 1926 at the age of forty-seven years and the latter of whom is still living at Negaunee. Gustav Granlund came to Negaunee in 1902,- where he worked in the mines for the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron company. G. Rudolph Granlund attended the Negaunee public schools, and after graduating from high school, he took a two-year course at Ferris Institute, of Big Rapids, Michigan, in the years 1918 and 1919. Thereafter, he was employed at the plant of the Novo Engine company, of Lansing, Michigan, for a period of two years. In 1921 he returned to Negaunee establishing The Tire Shop at that place. Eventually, the two were able to purchase the Negaunee Oil company, which they did in February, 1926, and immediately after set about expanding the business to embrace the surrounding territory. Despite the death of Gustav Granlund that same year, the development continued, so that service stations have been established at Marquette and at Ishpeming in addition to the Negaunee plant of the company. The greater part of this expansion and success is directly attributable to Rudolph Granlund, and that he has succeeded in developing a concern of such proportions in approximately a half year, is the reason for his place among the enterprising business men of this city and county. In 1924, Mr. Granlund married Marie Y. Garratt, who was born in California of Irish parentage, is a member of the Church of Christ, Scientist, and is prominent in the social life of the younger set of her com

Page  213 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 213 munity. Mr. Granlund is a member of the Elks, Order of Runeberg, the Negaunee Rod and Gun club, and the Swedish Lutheran church. William Henry Mitchell, insurance and real estate dealer of Negaunee, is one of the well known and influential business men of that section of the county. Born at Negaunee, January 4, 1871, he is a son of George and Mary (Bennalack) Mitchell, the former of whom was born in Tavistock, England, and the latter of whom was born in the same country. George Mitchell, a miner, came to the United States and assisted in the opening of the Negaunee mine, of which he became captain, and he was also one of those instrumental in the discovery of the Buffalo mine at Negaunee. He was a member of the Odd Fellows and the Masons and died in 1889 at the age of fifty-five years, while his widow survived until 1896, when she died in her sixty-fifth year. William Henry Mitchell, after graduating from the Negaunee high school, matriculated at Valparaiso university, Valparaiso, Indiana, in 1889 for a two-year commercial course at that institution, upon the completion of which in 1890 he returned to Negaunee to become a bookkeeper for Lucas & Hanson. In 1893, he secured a position as shovel runner with the Negaunee Mining company, and with that organization he operated a steam shovel until 1895. In that year, he became associated with George B. Mitchell, a diamond drill contractor, with whom he continued until 1900. Having been elected city recorder of Negaunee, Mr. Mitchell gave up the drilling work to assume the duties of that office, which he filled until 1911. In 1912, then, he became local superintendent for the Jones & Laughlin Ore company, work in which he continued until he received the appointment as deputy city treasurer of Negaunee in 1915. After about a year spent in that capacity, Mr. Mitchell engaged in the real estate and insurance business in 1916, and since that time, he has been prominently identified with those fields in this, section of the county. Fitting recognition of his services to the people as a public official came in 1918 when he was chosen manager of the Marquette County War Relief Fund, established for the purpose of assisting needy veterans of the World war and their families. In 1899, Mr. Mitchell married Ann Penglase, born in Negaunee to William and Ann (Allen) Penglase, who were natives of England and Ireland, respectively. Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell are the parents of two daughters, Lois, twenty-six years of age, who is a graduate of the Northern State Normal school and a teacher in the Negaunee schools, and Ruth, twenty-five years old, who is also a graduate of the Northern State Normal school and is a teacher in the schools of Ishpeming, Michigan. Mr. Mitchell is a Thirty-second Degree Mason and a Shriner and is a member of the Modern Woodmen of the World, Elks, Sons of St. George, and the Methodist Episcopal church. Joseph Barabe, a resident of Negaunee since 1865, has been prominently identified with the grocery business here since 1888,

Page  214 214 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN winning the reputation of being one of the successful business men of the community. Joseph Barabe, his father, was born in Ausable, New York, of French parentage in May, 1833, and came to Negaunee in 1865, where he engaged in the contracting and coal and wood business until the time of his death, which occurred July 17, 1896. Amanda (Renmerald) Barabe, mother of him whose name heads this review, was of French descent, was born in Canada, May 19, 1841, and died December 28, 1913. Born at Ausable, New York, September 9, 1861, the son, Joseph Barabe, arrived in Negaunee with his parents on May 28, 1865, and here attended the public schools until he was fifteen years of age. At that time, he went to work for his father driving a team, and during the succeeding years, he worked on the railroad and as a clerk in a store. In the last named employment, he found congenial work and formed the determination to pursue a mercantile career. Accordingly, he started a grocery store of his own in 1888 and has since been engaged in that business. The period of nearly four decades subsequent to the inception of the enterprise have been marked by fairness in business dealings and close attention to the demands of the steadily growing trade which Mr. Barabe attracted to himself, so that today he is undeniably one of the leading grocers of Negaunee. He has not, however, confined himself so closely to his business as' to be unaware of the needs of his city and county, for he served on the board of supervisors for fourteen years, was a member of the board of public works three years, and in 1913 was elected county treasurer for a term of four years on the Republican ticket. Obviously, his long career in public life has been attained only through recognized ability for the positions he lfeld and because of his untiring efforts on behalf of his constituents and the people at large, for he was a staunch advocate of every bill calculated to advance the public welfare. On May 28, 1883, Mr. Barabe married Emily Goodrich, who was born in Ausable, New York, November 8, 1860, and died November 19, 1890, leaving these children: William J., born April 11, 1884; Wilford A., who died May 13, 1886; Amelia, born in 1889; Moses S., born April 28, 1890; and Sabina, born November 13, 1890. In 1893, Mr. Barabe married Mary Josephine Morrisette, who was born in Negaunee, June 22, 1874, and died April 4, 1923. The following children were born to this union: Joseph W., born November 30, 1895; Thomas M., December 5, 1896; Leo E., April 28, 1899; Clement, June 19, 1901; Mae Christina, October, 1902; Edward M., who was born August 1, 1903, and died the same year; Leonore M., April 19, 1908; Clifford U., August 17, 1910; Francis C., November 25, 1912; Mary E., who died in October, 1914, soon after her birth; and Genevieve, who died in March, 1917. Mr. Barabe is a charter member of the local lodges of the two orders of Maccabees and of the local chapters of the two orders of Woodmen. He is also a member of the Elks and the two French societies of the Chivalry of Lafayette and the Ish

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Page  215 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 215 peming Union Canadian. He and his family attend the Roman Catholic church and are interested in the affairs of the parish in which they reside. David Hogg, the oldest resident of Mackinac Island, is known as one of the prominent business men of this section of the country. A native of Kinross-shire, Scotland, he was born April 21, 1841, one of four sons in the family of five children of Robert and Elizabeth (Scott) Hogg. The father was a weaver by trade, and he and his wife spent their entire lives in that shire where they were born, the father dying at the age of eighty-seven years. All four sons of the family came to the United States, and David Hogg is the only one of them now living. He obtained his education in the parochial schools of his native place, learned the trade of painter and decorator, and followed that vocation in Scotland until 1863. In that year, he came to the United States, where for six years he followed that same trade at New York. Coming to Chicago in 1869, he continued in the same work for five years and in 1874 formed a partnership with Alexander Hannah under the firm style of Hannah & Hogg to engage in the wholesale liquor business. This arrangement was continued until the death of Mr. Hannah in 1913. The firm became one of the best known and most successful in its field in the Middle West, for no partners ever worked together more amicably than did Mr. Hogg and Mr. Hannah. They also became the proprietors of the Brevoort hotel at Chicago, and when this hostelry was destroyed by fire in 1905, they rebuilt it in 1906 at a cost of a million dollars. David Hogg was treasurer of the hotel company and gave his full attention to the building and management of the enterprise. It was in 1890 that Mr. Hogg took up his residence on the island as did Mr. Hannah, and now the former may well lay claim to being the oldest resident of Mackinac Island, in the development of which he has long been keenly interested. In 1877, Mr. Hogg married Margaret Grady, who died in 1922 leaving three children: Robert and David Raymond, both in California, and Ethel, the widow of Lawrence Adams, who has a son and two daughters. Vitally interested in the affairs of the Republican party, Mr. Hogg has served as delegate to state and national conventions. Fraternally, he is a member of the Masons, Knights of Pythias, and the Mystic Shrine. Jafet Jacob Rytkonen, well known theater man of Negaunee, Michigan, is recognized as one of the leading business men of that community, for he has attained his present position entirely through his own efforts. A son of William and Alvina Rytkonen, both natives of Finland, the former of whom was a farmer and died in 1910 at the age of sixty-six years, and the latter of whom is living at Negaunee, Jafet Rytkonen was born in Finland, May 2, 1879, and there received his early education in the public schools. Until he was twenty-one years of age, he helped his father on the farm, but when he had attained his majority, he came to the United States, and so firmly was he convinced of the opportunities here

Page  216 216 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN to be found that he immediately made application for citizenship, which he was finally granted in 1905. Coming directly to Negaunee when he landed in the United States, Mr. Rytkonen worked in the iron mines for four years. In 1904, he clerked in a grocery store, applying himself to the work with such energy that within a short time, he was able to engage in that business for himself. Selling the store in 1910, he built the Star theater at Negaunee in 1911 and managed that playhouse successfully until 1926, when he sold the theater to build another. This new theater, known as the Vista, was completed about the first of September of that year and is one of the most modern houses of its kind in this section of the state. In 1903, Mr. Rytkonen married Johanna Weeks, a native of Finland, and to them have been born these children: Fanny Maria, eighteen years old, who is attending the State Normal school at Ypsilanti; Martha Vilhelmina, aged sixteen years, a student in the Negaunee high school; Ali Dagmar, who is fourteen years old and is attending the Negaunee high school; Jafet William, twelve years old; Edna Alvina, aged ten; and Ida Eleanora, four years old. Mr. Rytkonen is a member of the Elks, Knights of Kaleva, and Finnish Benefit association, and his wife is a member of the Ladies of Kaleva. Mr. Rytkonen and his family attend the Finnish Lutheran church. Thomas Curtis, Jr., proprietor of the Negaunee Auto Body works, is a successful business man of that community, for within the span of five years he has developed a substantial enterprise in the concern which he heads. He was born at Negaunee, September 29, 1895 and is a son of Thomas and Arolean (St. Arnold) Curtis, the former of whom was born at Dover, New Jersey, and the latter at Greenwood, Michigan, both now living in Negaunee at the ages of sixty and fifty-five years, respectively. Thomas Curtis, Jr., attended the public schools of his native community, and then for a number of years, he was employed at blacksmithing in the iron mines of this region. Realizing that a good field of endeavor lay in the automobile body finishing trade, he set about to learn that work, and in 1921, he established his present business under the firm style of the Negaunee Auto Body works. His conduct of this enterprise, though he has been engaged in it but a comparatively short time, has shown him to be one of the able business men of the city. When war was declared on Germany, Mr. Curtis entered the United States army, serving as a sergeant with Company D, 337th infantry until after the cessation of hostilities, in which he was over seas in a training unit. Mr. Curtis was united in marriage in 1920 to Eliza Gundry, daughter of James and Christina (Wiggin) Gundry, both deceased, the former of whom was a native of England and the latter of Norway. Mr. Curtis is a member of the Moose, Elks, American Legion, and Forty and Eight club, while his wife is a member of the American Legion auxiliary. Attesting the regard in which he is held by his fellow townsmen, Mr. Curtis was elected alderman from his ward

Page  217 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 217 for the term from 1924 to 1928, he discharging the duties of that office in a manner that was a credit to himself and a satisfaction to his constituents. Oliver Johnson is a leading mortician of Negaunee, Michigan, where he has been engaged in that work for more than two decades. His father, John Peterson Johnson, was born in Sweden in 1825, followed the vocation ot farmer and stone mason, and died in 1896, and his mother, Mary (Olson) Johnson, was born in Sweden in 1836 and died in 1907. Oliver Johnson was born in Sweden, September 25, 1866, and there attended the graded schools and spent three years and a half in a Swedish manual training school. Coming to the United States in 1888, he found employment as a cabinet maker, a trade which he still follows. In that year, he studied at an embalming school at Cincinnati, Ohio, but it was not until 1897 that he became an undertaker for the Swanson-Warnberg company of Ishpeming. With that company, he remained until 1904, and in the following year, he came to Negaunee and established his own undertaking business. In that he has since been engaged and carries a full line of art goods in addition to the undertaking work. His native tact and sympathy and understanding of the sorrows of others have won him an enviable position in the regard of the people of this section of the county, assuring him success in the venture which he embraced. Mr. Johnson became a citizen of the United States on December 6, 1894, for as soon as he arrived in this country, he realized that he would remain here permanently. He was united in marriage to Anna C. Johnson in 1920, she being born in Negaunee on February 17, 1893, and they have two sons, Carl O. A. and Wilbert Melvin, aged six years and five years, respectively. Mr. Johnson is a member of the Swedish Home and the Modern Woodmen, and he and his wife attend the Lutheran church. Matthew Lassi is well known to people of Negaunee for his artistic work as a photographer, for the eleven years he has pursued that calling in this city have witnessed his rise to the position of the leading man in his field in this section of the county. Born in Finland, September 28, 1886, he is a son of Eric and Marie (Kallio) Lassi, both natives of that country, the former of whom, a farmer by vocation, died in 1891 and the latter of whom died in 1917. Matthew Lassi was educated in the public schools of Finland and came to the United States in 1903 and during the succeeding years traveled through the Western States. In 1912, the year in which he became a citizen of the United States, he entered the photographic business at Butte, Montana, but in 1915 surrendered his clientele at that place to come to Negaunee, Michigan, where he has since been more than moderately successful in the conduct of the same sort of business. He has gained an enviable name throughout this section of the county for the consummate artistry of the pictures he takes, and each year sees his patronage substantially larger than the preceding one. On July 15, 1907, he

Page  218 218 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN married Emma Ersson, who was born in Sweden, December 17, 1885, and they have three children, as follows: Lillie, aged nineteen years, who was born in California; Violet, fourteen years of age, who was born at Butte, Montana; and Thelma, ten years old, who was born in Negaunee. Mr. Lassi is a member of the Knights of Kaleva and the Moose, and his wife maintains membership in the Maccabees and the Ladies of Kaleva, both he and his wife attending the Finnish Lutheran church. John William Perala, well known undertaker and furniture and hardware dealer of Negaunee, Michigan, was born in that city, June 6, 1885, a son of John and Mary Elizabeth Perala, both of whom were natives of Finland. The father came to the United States in 1882, became a merchant at Negaunee, and died in 1911, and the mother was born in 1861 and died in 1925, both being communicants of the Finnish Lutheran church and John Perala being a member of the Fraternal Order of Eagles. After completing his public school education, John William Perala entered the employ of the Elliott & Dawe Hardware company, of Negaunee, remaining with that concern for a period of twelve years. In 1913, he engaged in the bottling business at Negaunee but surrendered the enterprise in 1916 to become a dealer in furniture and hardware and an undertaker, work in which he has since been engaged. He is known to his fellow townsmen as a shrewd man in commercial affairs, and as a mortician he is possessed of tact and understanding of the feelings of others that have won him the regard of the people with whom he comes in contact in this capacity. In 1903, Mr. Perala married Hilma Erickson, who was born in Finland in 1884, and to them have been born three children, as follows: William, who is twenty-two years of age and is employed by the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Mining company at Negaunee; Viola, twenty years old, who is a student of the Western State Normal school; Arthur, aged sixteen, at home. Mr. Perala is a member of the Eagles, Elks, Finnish Lodge, and the Maccabees and attends the New Era and the Lutheran churches. Angus MacLean, garage proprietor and agent for the Ford products in Calumet, Michigan, is one of the prominent motor sales executives in that city, and as such is accorded wide recognition by the people of that community. He was born in Ripley, Canada, September 16, 1871, a son of Murdock and Marguerite (MacDonald) MacLean, both natives of Scotland, the former of whom, a farmer, died in 1884 at the age of fifty-six years and the latter of whom died in 1921 at the age of ninety-one. The public schools of Ripley, Ontario, afforded Angus MacLean his early education, and in 1890, when he was but nineteen years of age, he came to Calumet, Michigan, where he was employed on the railroad until 1899. From that year until 1910, Mr. MacLean was successfully engaged in the livery business, but in the latter year he abandoned the enterprise in favor of the ice business. This connection he maintained until 1917, the year in which he went

Page  219 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 219 to Houghton, Michigan, to become manager of McClure's Modern garage. The able manner in which he discharged the duties of that position encouraged him to establish a similar concern of his own, and in 1924 he returned to Calumet, where he acquired the Ford agency. Since that time, he has directed the affairs of the service garage and the Ford sales department, winning an enviable reputation as one of the ablest men in his field of endeavor in the county. Mr. MacLean has always given his strongest support to the measures calculated to better civic conditions, and from 1903 to 1909, he was councilman of the village of Red Jacket. On January 23, 1895, he was united in marriage with Anna S. Lowe, a native of Calumet, and to them have been born three children: Marguerite, aged thirty years, who is now living at Marquette, Michigan; Lowe, twenty-five years old, who is road man for the Ford Motor company at Jacksonville, Florida; and Robert Bruce, twenty-two years of age. Mr. MacLean is a member of the Masons, the Odd Fellows, and the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen. Henry A. Kitti has been successfully engaged in the general merchandise business in Calumet, Michigan, since 1923, and having been a resident of that city for many years before he started his own enterprise, he quickly attracted a large patronage that has made him one of the influential retail store managers of the community. Born in Sweden, March 3, 1858, he is a son of Abram and Kate Kitti, both natives of Sweden, the former of whom was a farmer and died in Norway in 1864 and the latter of whom died in 1904. Henry A. Kitti received his education in the schools of his native land and came to the United States in 1877, for two years thereafter working in the mines of this secton of the state. At that time, he gave up mining work to enter the employ of Peter Ruppe & Sons, and during the forty-one years he was connected with that organization, he learned the ramifications of mercantile pursuits with a thoroughness that guaranteed him success when he eventually became the manager of his own company. This time came in 1923, when he engaged in the general merchandise business, continuing in that work to the present time. His achievement in building up a substantial concern within the space of three years has stamped Mr. Kitti as one of the able men in that field in Calumet. On December 7, 1884, he married Hannah Isaacson, and to this marriage two sons were born: Edward, who is forty-one years of age and is a grocer in Menahga, Minnesota; and Harry, thirty-eight years old, who is residing in Canada. After the death of his first wife, he married on December 7, 1894, Mary Wickstrom, who was born in Finland, January 4, 1875, and to this union were born the following children: Arthur, who is thirty-three years old and is a member of the Chicago Symphony orchestra; Alma, thirty years old, who is the wife of Dr. Harry Leake and is now living in Los Angeles, California; Florence, who is twenty-seven years of age and is employed by her father as a bookkeeper; Alfred, twenty-six, who is a musician at

Page  220 220 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Chicago; Lila Louise, twenty-four, a teacher in the Lansing schools; Carl, who is attending Northwestern university at Evanston, Illinois; Frederick, twenty-five, who has been employed in the Philippines since 1924 by the United States Government; Esther, twenty years of age, who attended the Normal school at Ypsilanti and graduated in 1926; Edith, seventeen; Robert, fifteen, who is in the Calumet high school; Paul, thirteen; Victor, ten; and Gordon, eight years old, the last three being students in the Calumet schools. Mr. Kitti is a member of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks and he and his family attend the Finnish Lutheran church. The Reverend Joseph Alderic Paquet for the last eight years has been the pastor of St. Ann's church, Calumet, Michigan. During that time, he has administered the temporal affairs of the parish in a manner that won him universal praise for his business ability, and in tending the spiritual needs of his parishioners, he has come to be loved and respected by them as one who possesses a keen insight into their sorrows and their joys. The Calumet News in an editorial published on July 24, 1925, paid him this tribute "The genial Father Paquet, by his interest in civic affairs and his ability as a public speaker has become a standing figure in the community." The record of his family is a proud one in the development of the new world. His paternal ancestor, Jacques Pasquiers served in the regiment commanded by M. de la Violette, the founder of Trois-Rivieres, in 1634. His maternal ancestor, Pierre Boucher was a noble of the time of Louis XIV and became Sieur de Boucherville. His parents are Alphonse Paquet and Celanire Boucher de Boucherville who were born in 1846 and 1845 respectively in L'Islet, Quebec, Canada, and still reside there. Born at St. Jean Port Joli, Quebec, January 25, 1886, the Reverend Joseph Alderic Paquet received his early education in the public schools of his native place and his classical education in St. Lawrence college, Montreal. He then became professor of music and literature in the same college. He is a graduate of the University of Montreal, having received the degree bachelor-eslettres in 1909, bachelor of arts and science in 1911. After a year of study at the College of Law, the same university he entered the Seminary of St. Sulpice, Montreal. He was ordained on August 2, 1914 by the Right Reverend Frederick Eis, Bishop of Marquette. Following his ordination he was made curate of the Cathedral at Marquette, remaining there four years. At the expiration of that time he was appointed to his present pastorate. He is a member of the Knights of Columbus, the Catholic Order of Foresters, and the Lions club. John J. Ellis, Jr., the popular and efficient city clerk of Calumet, Michigan, has discharged the duties of that office continuously since 1910, a fact that presents ample testimony to his ability as a city clerk and to his place in the regard of the people of the city. His father, John J. Ellis, Sr., was born in Phwelli,

Page  221 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 221 Wales, April 1, 1846, came to the United States in 1869, and has conducted a jewelry store at Calumet since 1871, and he is a member of the local chapters of the Odd Fellows and the Knights of Pythias. Katharine (Geoltz) Ellis, mother of John J., Jr., was born in Wisconsin, November 10, 1856, of Dutch parentage and is the mother, besides her son, of two daughters, Ruth, who graduated from the University of Michigan and married W. H. Hartman, of Calumet, and Katharine, who graduated from the University of Chicago and married W. H. McCormick, of Duluth, Minnesota. John J. Ellis, Jr., was born at Calumet, Michigan, April 22, 1877, and was educated in the graded and high schools of this city. After his graduation from the high school, he entered the jewelry business in the employ of his father, continuing in that work until 1910 when he was elected city clerk. So satisfactory was his conduct of that office of public trust that the voters have successively returned him to the position, for the people of the city know that he can be relied upon to give the best possible service in municipal affairs that come within his reach. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, Eastern Star, Elks, Eagles, and the Miscowaubik club and was president in 1913 of the Upper Peninsula Firemen's association. Also of the Sportsmen's association of which he is vice-president and a member of Izaak Walton League. Upon the death of Oscar Keckonen, the postmaster of Calumet, he was made acting postmaster and will without doubt secure the appointment. James Hotten Thomas, well known funeral director of Calumet, Michigan, was born in that city, August 7, 1876, the son of John and Louisa (Hotten) Thomas, the former of whom was born in Leaskard, England, followed the trade of machinist, and died January 23, 1916, in his sixty-sixth year and the latter of whom was born in England, April 25, 1854, and is now living at Laurium, Michigan, where she is a charter member of the local lodge of Rebekahs. James H. Thomas, after attending the Calumet public schools, entered the employ of the Calumet & Hecla Mining company on June 20, 1889. With this organization he continued until 1894, when he became a barber at Calumet, work in which he remained until 1904. In that year, he sold his barber shop and for two years thereafter, was located at Albuquerque, New Mexico. Returning to the Middle West, Mr. Thomas was located at Chicago two years and then came to Calumet to enter the lumber business with the Morrison Estate. By this time, he was again ready to go into business for himself and accordingly opened an undertaking establishment in 1909. Since that time, he has been engaged in that work in Calumet and is known throughout this section of the county as a mortician who possesses those innate qualities of tact and understanding so essential to one in his calling. Mr. Thomas was married in 1913 to Minnie Brohm, who was born at Hancock, Michigan, July 20, 1889, and they have a daughter, Jane, who was born December 21, 1915. Mr. Thomas is active

Page  222 222 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN in Masonry, Blue Lodge, chapter, commandery and he being a member of the Eastern Star of Calumet, Consistory, of Chicago, and the Mystic Shrine of Marquette, and he also holds membership in the Elks, Odd Fellows, and the American Sons of St. George. His wife is a member of the Rebekahs, Eastern Star, Pythian Sisters and is active in the Ladies Aid and the Missionary societies of the Methodist Episcopal church. Bert M. Obenhoff, proprietor of the Obenhoff Ice Cream company, is known as one of the leading wholesale manufacturers of that product in this section of the state. His father, Otto H. Obenhoff was born in Germany and became a merchant at Houghton, Michigan, where, after serving as village treasurer 1911-14 and township treasurer 1919-21, he died on May 20, 1922, in his seventieth year. Mary Emma (Travathan) Obenhoff, mother of Bert M., was born in Chicago, Illinois, of English parentage and now resides at Dodgeville, Michigan. Bert M. Obenhoff attended the graded and high schools of Houghton, Michigan, where he was born March 29, 1896, and after his graduation from high school in 1914, he was appointed assistant to his father in the office of the village treasurer, from 1915 to 1916 being employed as assistant agent for the Grand Trunk & Pacific railway at Wainwright, Alberta, Canada. When the United States declared war on Germany in 1917, Mr. Obenhoff enlisted in Company G. 125th infantry, and served with that organization until his honorable discharge on April 1, 1919. Upon his return to Michigan, he was elected township treasurer of Portage township for 1919-20, after which he was employed by the village of Houghton from 1920 to 1925. In that year, he came to Calumet and purchased from his brother the Obenhoff Ice Cream company. Since that time, he has manufactured ice cream in wholesale quantities, and his management of the enterprise has shown him to be a business executive of the highest qualifications. On November 11, 1921, Mr. Obenhoff was married to Jean E. Hale, who is a native of Marinette, Wisconsin. Mr. Obenhoff is a member of the Elks and the Knights of Pythias, and in political matters he gives his support to the Republican party. Thomas Shea is an undertaker and liveryman of Calumet, Michigan, who is well known in the community where he has been engaged in business for himself since 1898. A son of Bartholomew and Mary (Egan) Shea, he was born at L'Anse, Michigan, August 16, 1873. His father, a native of Ireland, was a liveryman and horse dealer at Calumet and was elected sheriff of Houghton county for three terms, his death occurring in 1917 in the seventysixth year of his age. Mary (Egan) Shea was born in Janesville, Wisconsin, and died in 1896. After attending the public schools of Calumet, Thomas Shea went to work for his father in the livery business and in 1898 assumed full charge of that business, which he has conducted successfully ever since. Subsequently, he added undertaking to his work. He operates an establishment that is

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Page  223 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 223 thoroughly equipped in the most modern manner and is thus known as one of the successful men in his field in Calumet, Michigan. In June, 1900, Mr. Shea was united in marriage with Anna Trudeau, who was born in Calumet of French parentage, and they have a daughter, Clare M., who is cashier for the Metropolitan Life Insurance company at Hancock, Michigan. Mr. Shea is a member of the Knights of Columbus and is a Republican. The Chambers Family has been one of distinctive prominence and influence at St. Ignace, judicial center of Mackinac county, Michigan, during a period of more than half a century, and the mercantile establishment here founded, in 1870, by John Chambers and his brothers, long ranked as the oldest business house of this order in the city, but was closed out in 1922. John Chambers, Sr., was born in county Mayo, Ireland, in 1810, came to the United States in 1847, and died at St. Ignace in 1890. After remaining for a time in Chicago he gained a good measure of pioneer honors in Michigan. He was long numbered among the representative business men and honored and influential citizens of the Upper Peninsula of this state, and was one of the sterling pioneer citizens of St. Ignace at the time of his death. In this city likewise occurred the death of his wife, whose maiden name was Margaret O'Malley, she likewise having been born on the fair old Emerald Isle and having come to the United States in 1849. Mr. and Mrs. Chambers were zealous communicants of the Catholic church, and in the faith of this mother church of Christendom they careful reared their children. William, eldest son in the family of eight children, was a resident of Chicago at the time of his death; Patrick was one of the leading business men of St. Ignace at the time of his death; Bridget became the wife of Stephen B. Rhoades and is now deceased; John passed the closing years of his life in Colorado Springs, Colo., and died in 1892; Michael and his brother Patrick founded the mercantile business in St. Ignace, and both were numbered among the loyal and progressive citizens and business men of this city, Michael having represented Mackinac county in the Michigan legislature in the year 1889, and having continued his residence at St. Ignace until his death; Mary became the wife of James M. Brown and is now deceased; Catherine became the wife of John Gleeson, and she is now the only surviving member of the family of eight children; Charles, youngest of the children, was a resident of St. Ignace at the time of his death. Mrs. Gleeson resides in one of the old and attractive homes of St. Ignace, and her memory runs back to the time when this city was a mere straggling village, with grass growing in the middle of the streets. In connection with the mercantile business conducted by her brothers in the early days at St. Ignace was carried on also a fishing business, besides which branch stores were maintained at Naubinway and on Mackinac Island, the concern having tugs in service carrying on the business. They were also engaged in the timber business. Patrick Chambers was elected county treasurer in 1871

Page  224 224 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN and served as such until 1883. In 1874 the brothers built the first dock at St. Ignace, also erected a number of store buildings. Catherine Chambers, the only surviving member of the family, married John Gleeson a native of Ireland. He was born in county Tipperary in 1850, came to the United States as a child, the family settling in Wisconsin, Manitowoc county, he coming to St. Ignace in 1882 in the employ of the South Shore railroad as timber cruiser. He was married in 1920 to Catherine Chambers. They now reside in the old family home in St. Ignace. Anderson Brothers, agents for the Willys-Knight and Overland automobiles and proprietors of one of the most modern garages in this section of the county, are known to residents of Calumet, Michigan, as two of the successful and able garage men engaged in that work here. Henry and Jacob Anderson established the garage that bears their name in 1921, and to the large service work which they performed, they added the handling of the WillysKnight and Overland line of motor cars. They have devoted every effort to providing expert and rapid service and to the promotion of sales in the line of cars they handle. The five years that have elapsed since they started in business for themselves have seen the brothers develop a constantly growing patronage, with the result that they are accounted two of the substantial men in their field in Calumet. Their parents, Andrew and Elsa (Usitalo) Anderson, who are now living at Lac La Belle, Michigan, were both natives of Finland and came to the United States, settling at Eagle River, Michigan, where Andrew Anderson followed his trade of commercial fisherman until his retirement from active life. Henry Anderson was born at Eagle River, January 17, 1894, and was educated in the schools of that place and of Delaware, Michigan. He then spent four years as an automobile mechanic at Detroit and in 1918 came to Calumet, continuing in the same work until 1921, the year in which he joined his brother in the establishment of the Anderson Brothers garage. The franchise for handling the WillysKnight and Overland automobiles was added to the duties of the partners. Henry Anderson married Olga Jova in 1922, she being born in Superior, Wisconsin, of Finnish parentage, and they have a daughter, Gloria I., aged two years. Jacob Anderson, the brother was born in Eagle River, Michigan, November 2, 1898, and attended the school of that city and of Delaware, Michigan. Turning to the trade of automobile mechanic, he followed that vocation in various cities until he came to Calumet in 1921 to become associated with his brother, Henry, in the conduct of the garage. The brothers are communicants of the Finnish Lutheran church, and Henry Anderson is a member of the Fraternal Order of Eagles. His brother is also a member of the Eagles lodge. William D. Calverley is perhaps one of the best known business men in this section of the state, for as vice-president of the Houghton National bank and as an officer in other commercial and industrial enterprises of importance, he holds a commanding

Page  225 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 225 position in the business life of Houghton, Michigan. Thomas Calverley, his father, came to the United States in 1855, becoming carpenter foreman and surface captain of mines at Hancock and Houghton, and Mary Etta (Dudley) Calverley, mother of William D., was, like her husband, born in England. Born in Canada, August 10, 1853, William D. Calverley was brought to Houghton in 1860 and here attended the public schools. After completing his education, he became a Great Lakes sailor for a period of eight years and was then employed on the railroad for a like length of time. Leaving railroad work, he allied himself with C. D. Sheldon in the tug business, continuing successfully in this business until 1904. In that year, he became associated with the Houghton National bank, of which he is now vice-president. He has taken no inconsiderable part in formulating the policies of that organization, and his record with this concern, coupled with that as president of the Building & Loan association for thirteen years, has made him one of the prominent figures in financial circles in this section of the state. He is also secretary and treasurer of the Iron Land company and of the Cherokee Copper company. Mr. Calverley was married on October 12, 1902, to May T. Roberts, daughter of Captain Roberts, of Negaunee, Michigan, and to them have been born three children: Harry Roberts, who is twenty years of age and a graduate of the Michigan College of Mines; William D., Jr., who entered the same college in 1926 and after whom the Pioneer Steamship company named one of their vessels; and Mary, fourteen years old, who is attending the Houghton high school. Mr. Calverley is a Mason and a Shriner and a member of the Lake Superior Mining institute, Houghton club, Yacht club, Golf club, Miscowaubik club. He and his family attend the Episcopal church. He was a member of the Constitutional convention of 1907-8. Arthur Paul Klenner, manager of the Atlas Powder company at Houghton, Michigan, where he has resided since 1905, is a native of Michigan, having been born at Ishpeming, May 30, 1884, the son of August and Pauline (Hoffman) Klenner. August Klenner was born in Germany in 1860 but when a young man of twenty years came to the United States and located at Ishpeming, where he found advancement in the mines to the position of captain. He was a member of the Ancient Order of United Workmen, one of the early expressions of laboring men toward unification. He died in 1907 at the age of sixty-seven years, survived by his widow, likewise a native of Germany, until 1919, when she passed away at the age of sixty-nine years. Arthur P. Klenner was educated in the public schools of Ishpeming. In 1901, he entered his long term of service with the Atlas Powder company, serving this corporation as a clerk in its Ishpeming office. Four years later, he was transferred to Houghton with this company, where, by dint of hard work and dependability, he was promoted to the important office of manager in 1924. He is promi

Page  226 226 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN nent in the fraternal and social life of Houghton, as a member of the Masons, the Houghton club, Portage Lake Golf club, Miscowaubik club, the Rotary club, and the Chamber of Commerce. He was married in 1916 to Frances Marie Pfeiffer, who was born in Houghton, February 1, 1885, and to this marriage, three sons have been born, Robert Paul, aged nine, Arthur John, aged seven, and Carl Frederick, aged six years. Mr. and Mrs. Klenner are always found on the right side of every movement pertaining to the advancement of their city. Ray L. Eggleston, who is engaged in the heating and plumbing business on Sheldon street in the city of Houghton, Michigan, is a native of the Badger State, having been born at Appleton, Wisconsin, April 27, 1880. His early life was passed on the home farm of his parents, George and Rosanna (Watson) Eggleston, the former of whom was born in Vermont and the latter in Canada, both now deceased. George Eggleston died in 1882 at the age of forty-two years, and his wife lived to the age of seventy-two years, her life coming to its close in the year 1919. Ray L. Eggleston attended the schools of Marinette, Wisconsin, and Houghton, Michigan, and upon completing his scholastic studies, learned the sheet metal trade. He followed this trade twenty-three years, in the meantime saving sufficient capital to set himself up in a plumbing, heating, and sheet metal business in the year 1919, which he has since successfully conducted. When the United States no longer brooked Spanish tyranny in Cuba and came to the rescue of the island republic, Mr. Eggleston heard the call to arms and bravely volunteered for military service. He is a Mason, an Odd Fellow, an Elk, and is giving a characteristically loyal service to his city as chief of the Fire department. In 1902, he was married to Laura Edith Knox, who was born at Sault Ste. Marie, and to them three sons have been born: Gilbert, aged twenty-three years, a mechanical engineer located at Detroit; George Curtis, aged seventeen, attending the high school at Houghton; and William Watson, aged six years. Mrs. Eggleston is interested in social activities and is an enthusiastic member of the Eastern Star, the Rebekahs, and is a communicant of the Episcopal church. Benjamin A. Wenberg. In the city of Hancock, a city of progressive men, there is one who is known to all his associates as a leader in business methods and business thought, Benjamin A. Wenberg. Mr. Wenberg is the Studebaker agent in this city and is also interested in aviation, being the prime mover in the municipal flying field of Tampa, Florida. Mr. Wenberg was born at Calumet, this state, November 7, 1888, the son of Edward and Minnie Wenberg, natives of Sweden and Minnesota, respectively, the latter, however, being of German descent. The father came to America in 1881, settled at Calumet, where he worked as a blacksmith, and is now living retired. Benjamin A. Wenberg, the son of this couple, attended the Calumet schools, and thereafter, until 1919, worked as an automobile mechanic. In that year, he engaged

Page  227 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 227 in business for himself as a dealer for the Studebaker corporation at Houghton, where he has won an enviable reputation as a man of integrity and a salesman of note. Typical of his forward-looking personality, he has long been keenly interested in commercial aviation, and in 1923, seeing a good opening for such an enterprise, established a commercial flying field at Tampa, as noted above. As one of the pioneers in this branch of transportation, he is doing much to further the cause of aerial navigation. He married Anna King, of Hubbell, Michigan, in 1911, and they have two children, Carl, aged fourteen, and Walter, aged twelve, both attending the Houghton schools. Mr. and Mrs. Wenberg are members of the Congregational church and are socially prominent in their adopted city, Mr. Wenberg being a Thirty-second Degree Mason, a Noble of the Mystic Shrine, and a member of the Elks. William Moffat, proprietor of the Houghton bakery, of Houghton, Michigan, is a native of Scotland, having been born in that country, June 7, 1884, the son of John and Jane (Russell) Moffat, both of whom lived their entire lives in Scotland as farming people, the father dying in 1916 at the age of seventy-one years and the mother in 1906 at the age of fifty-seven. William Moffat, reared under the invigorating influences of Scotch rural life and inured to hard work, sought to better his condition in life by coming to the United States in 1905. He was at that time twenty-one years of age, and he settled first at Laurium, Michigan, where he remained for a number of years employed in the baking business. He then went to Lake Linden, following the same calling, and in this latter community, he resided until 1924. By that time, he had saved a sufficient capital to enable himself to establish a business, and seeing that Houghton was a fertile field for a bakery, if properly conducted, he promptly inaugurated the Houghton Bakery. His plant is modern in every way, and his long years of experience make him a valued addition to the community. He was married to Anna Wier, who is also a native of Scotland, and they have three children, Anna, aged fifteen, Jean, aged thirteen, John, aged ten years, all of whom are attending the local schools. Mr. Moffat is a member of the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and the family religious affiliation is with the Congregational church. August L. Krellwitz, undertaker, embalmer, and art goods dealer, of Houghton, Michigan, is one of the old residents of this city, he having been born here, November 25, 1860, the son of Louis and Helena (Trilling) Krellwitz, natives of Germany, who early came to the United States. The father, who became a naturalized citizen of this country, immigrated prior to the Civil war and served in the Sheboygan Rifle Company No. 1, 28th Regiment, from April 1, 1853, until he was honorably discharged October 24, 1860. He was a carpenter and wheelwright all his active life and died September 28, 1885, and his widow survived him until February 16, 1900. August L. Krellwitz attended the Houghton

Page  228 228 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN schools and during his youth was variously employed. Learning the cabinet maker's trade under a Mr. Lang and Mr. Ed Siller he worked at this calling for a number of years. In 1901, desiring to better himself, he established his present business, which for thirty-five years hag been continued by its entrepeneur. On December 16, 1891, the year in which he began business for himself, Mr. Krellwitz was married to Emma Davis, who was born at Central Mine, Keweenaw county, Michigan, August 22, 1864, the daughter of Edwin and Nancy (Wallace) Davis, natives of New York State and Quebec, Canada, respectively. Mr. and Mrs. Krellwitz are both members of the Maccabees, and he is also active in the Modern Woodmen. Mr. Krellwitz was one of a family of eleven children of whom five sons and five daughters are living, three of the sons and three daughters reside in Houghton. Arthur L. Rodd, general agent for the Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance company, with offices on Sheldon street, Houghton, Michigan, was born at Stevens Point, Wisconsin, February 6, 1892, and though still a young man, has already met with unqualified success in his chosen field of business endeavor. His father, George S. Rodd, was a native of England and came to the United States in 1885, was later in the insurance field at Houghton, and is now living retired at Los Angeles, California. His wife, Grace P. (Jones) Rodd, was born at Madison, Wisconsin. Arthur L. Rodd received his education in the Ashland, Wisconsin, schools, came to Houghton as office boy with the Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance company at this place, which his father represented and January 1, 1920, entered into a partnership with his father. Two years later to the day, he assumed complete charge of the enterprise, and since that time, has demonstrated that he is one of the leading insurance agents of the great company which he represents. He was married July 15, 1915, to Margaret M. Savage, who was born at Ontonagon, Michigan. Mrs. Rodd is a member of the Civic club, while her husband maintains membership in the Masons, the Houghton club, in which he is on the board of governors, and the Golf club. They have two daughters, Mary Katherine and Nancy Grace. Clyde Stewart Mackenzie. No man is better known to the people of Houghton county than is Mr. Mackenzie, abstractor and insurance agent of Houghton, Michigan, for he served as register of deeds for twenty years. He was born at Hancock, this state, June 15, 1868, the son of Frederick Mackenzie, Jr., who was born in London, England, in 1832 and came to America in 1865, locating at Rantoul, Illinois. After about a year's residence at that place, he came to the Lake Superior region, was in Eagle Harbor, Michigan, for a short time, and then went to Hancock and later to Calumet, where he was supply clerk for the Calumet & Hecla Mining company twenty years, at the same time acting as correspondent for the Detroit Free Press and Portage Lake Mining Gazette. He later became owner of the Pioneer Lumber company,

Page  229 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 229 but, still retaining his love for printers' ink, he continued his association with newspaper work by buying out the Calumet Evening News. He took interest in local political matters and was clerk of his township a number of years. His long and useful career was brought to its close January 17, 1902. He had married Anna Banks, likewise a native of London, England, who became the mother of Clyde Stewart Mackenzie. The son attended the Calumet schools until he reached the age of thirteen, when he began working for the Calumet News as an apprentice, remaining with that sheet a few years. Wishing to improve his education along commercial lines, he left the News to go to Buffalo, where he took a course in the Bryant Stratton college, at the completion of which he returned to Calumet as accountant for the News and manager of the Pioneer Lumber company, which was owned by his father, continuing in these capacities until 1899. In that year, he took Horace Greeley's advice and went West for a period of three years, gaining much valuable experience. He then returned once more to Calumet to become manager of the Calumet News, a position which he held until coming to Houghton in 1905, where he was elected to the office of register of deeds in the following year. He gave an excellent business administration to this office until 1925, when he returned to private life as an abstractor and as representative for the Copper Country of the Sun Life Assurance company, of Canada. He is secretary and treasurer of the National Farm and Loan association, secretary and manager of the Houghton County Agricultural society, is a member of the Masons, Elks, Sons of St. George, Knights of Pythias, and in 1926, qualified for membership in the Macaulay club. He was married to Helen Keith, February 13, 1893, she being a native of Aberdeen, Scotland, who came to the United States when she was seventeen years old. There are four children in the Mackenzie family, as follows: Muriel Keith, a graduate of the University of Michigan and now the wife of Melvin Francis Kelly, who is connected with the International Harvester company at Chicago; Dorothy Earle, a graduate of Russell Sage college, Troy, New York, who is now teaching at Negaunee, Michigan; Clyde Keith, a senior in the Houghton high school; and Frederick, a junior in the Houghton high school. James H. Dale, prominent florist of Houghton, Michigan, was born in England, March 26, 1873, the son of James and Mary Jane (Lawry) Dale, both of whom were born in England and are now living at the age of eighty-one years. Having attained his majority, Mr. Dale elected to follow the business of florist and in 1900 came to Calumet, Michigan, where he entered the employ of the Lutey greenhouses. During the four years he was so connected, he applied himself diligently to learning the various phases of the work, and in 1905, he became a member of the organization of the A. M. York Estate, florists, at Hancock, Michigan. Continuing here until 1917, he perfected his knowledge of floriculture and acquired sufficient capital to allow him to buy out the business in

Page  230 230 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN that year. Changing the name to the James H. Dale company, he has expanded the business so that branches are now maintained at Houghton, Hancock and Calumet. His connection with the floral business, his achievement in increasing an organization already large, has brought Mr. Dale recognition as one of the leading florists of this section of the state, and he is known among nurserymen as an expert in the growing of flowers. Mr. Dale married Sarah Stevens, of England, in 1896, who died October 15, 1915, at the age of thirty-four years leaving these children: Sidney J., aged twenty-seven, who was born in England, served with the 32nd Division in the World war, and is now working with his father; and Elsie Stevens, who was born in Calumet and is now working with her father as a bookkeeper. Mr. Dale is a member of the Masons, Elks, Knights of Pythias, Sons of St. George, Rotary club, Chamber of Commerce, Society of American Florists, Michigan Nursery association, Florists Telegraph and Delivery association, and his son is a member of the Elks, Sons of St. George, and the American Legion. Carl Albert Silfven, photographer of Hancock, Michigan, is favorably known in that section of the county for the high quality of the work performed in his studio. A native of Finland, he was born January 18, 1876, a son of John Jacob and Elizabeth (Seppamen) Silfven. The elder Silfven brought his family to the United States in 1877 and located at Hancock, where he became a merchant, but after the death of his wife in 1923 at the age of seventyseven years, he sold his business in 1924 to go to South Dakota, dying there in 1925. Carl Albert Silfven obtained his early education in the public schools of Hancock, after which he attended the State Normal school at Spearfish, South Dakota. Completing his studies there, he taught school in Meade county, South Dakota, and then came to Hancock, Michigan, where he was employed as a clerk for several years. By 1904, he had acquired sufficient capital to allow him to go into business for himself, and in that year he purchased the studio of F. C. Haefer, photographer, and has since continued in that work. The artistry displayed in his work has made Mr. Silfven a popular and successful man in that field of endeavor, so that he stands today as one of the leading men in that business in this section of Houghton county. In 1904, Mr. Silfven married Lydia Filpus, a native of Finland, and they have three children, as follows: Albert, who is twenty-one years of age and is now at Wakefield, Michigan; Elizabeth, nineteen years of age, who is a graduate of the Northern State Normal school, of Marquette, Michigan; and Ethel, thirteen, a student in the Hancock high school. Mr. Silfven is a member of the Elks and the Maccabees, having been secretary and treasurer of the local chapter of the latter order for a period of eight years, and Mrs. Silfven is a member of the Ladies of the Maccabees and the Ladies of Kaleva.

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Page  231 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 231 Benoni Lachance, one of the most prominent residents of Mackinac Island and one of the early settlers at that place, had for many years a leading real estate and abstract office on the historic island that reaches back historically into the Seventeenth Century. He was born at St. Berthelemi, Berthier county, Quebec, Canada, in June, 1841, and was a son of Joseph and Lucy (Jacques) Lachance. Reared on the home farm until he was thirteen years of age, he went to Montreal at that time to learn the trade of shoemaker, but within a short time, he left in 1853 to join an older brother, Joseph, who was engaged in fishing at Mackinac Island. Strange as it may seem, Benoni Lachance worked in a shoe shop while he attended school on the island, and though it was the business which he had deserted to come to the Straits, he subsequently opened a shoe shop of his own. When the Civil war broke out, he enlisted in Company F, Seventh Michigan Infantry, with which he served three years under General Hancock, participating in the battles of Gettysburg, Bull Run, Antietam, Fair Oaks, Seven Oaks, and the campaigns before the Confederate capital, Richmond. He had attained the rank of regimental sergeant-major before his discharge from the army. Upon his return to Mackinac Island in 1863 at the conclusion of his three years' service, he married Mary P. Metivier, a daughter of a pioneer cooper of the island. The building in which the father conducted his cooperage business still stands as it did in those days. Immediately following his army service Benoni Lachance served as a lighthouse keeper, and after a year so spent he opened another shop on the island, continuing in that enterprise for about thirty years. An influential member of the Republican party in local affairs, he served for many years as justice of the peace and was also elected to the office of county probate judge. He was the founder of the local lodge of the Good Templars and took a leading part in the work of that order in this section of the state. He and his wife became the parents of thirteen children, ten of whom are still living. He died in January, 1919, and his widow in 1923. In the development of Mackinac Island, his home for more than sixty-five years, he played a part that established his name firmly in the history of that beautiful isle and in the regard of his fellow citizens, for he was as uncompromisingly upright and fair in his business dealings as he was in the discharge of his duties as justice and probate judge. Eugere J. Lachance, the oldest son of Benoni Lachance and president of the Grand Hotel company, of Mackinac Island, was born in 1865 while his father was keeper of the lighthouse at Detour, Michigan. Here, he grew to manhood and obtained his education in the public schools, and when he laid aside his books as a student, he became a school teacher, a work in which he gained such success as to win him the office of county school commissioner. In 1911, he accepted a position as bookkeeper and auditor for the Grand Hotel company, and so unremittingly tireless were his labors in this work that in 1921 he was elected president and treasurer of the company. In 1925, Mr. Lachance secured

Page  232 232 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN control of the stock of the enterprise, and since that time has been the true manager of the company. Within the short time that has elapsed since his elevation to the presidency of the concern, the name of the Grand Hotel has become more widely known throughout the country than anytime theretofore, and that Mackinac Island is yearly acquiring greater fame as a summer resort is in large measure due to the policies placed in effect and carried out by Mr. Lachance in his work as president of the Grand Hotel company. In 1896, Mr. Lachance married Rose A. Chambers, a daughter of Thomas Chambers, who was a pioneer of the island and probate judge of Mackinac county, and to Mr. and Mrs. Lachance have been born two children, Eugene M., secretary of the Grand Hotel company, and Noella, the wife of Henry Schenck, of Brooklyn, New York. Mr. Lachance is a Republican in politics. He is a member of the Roman Catholic church and a member of the Knights of Columbus and the Holy Name society. Barney H. T. Burritt has been a leading attorney of Hancock, Michigan, for more than two decades, winning an enviable reputation as an advocate. Two terms has he served as city attorney of Hancock, two terms that came to him for his recognized ability as a lawyer. William A. Burritt, his father, was born in South Riley, Michigan, in 1853 and was admitted to practice at the Michigan bar in February, 1884, and began practicing law in Clinton county, Michigan. He located subsequently at Harrison, Clare county, Michigan, was at Saginaw from 1893 to 1896, spent two years at Hammond, Indiana, and in 1898 came to Hancock, Michigan, where he later took his son into partnership with him, the arrangement existing until the death of William A. Burritt on August 16, 1916, in his sixty-third year. In 1873, William A. Burritt married Ella J. Jones, a native of Riley, Michigan, who is now living at Hancock. Barney H. T. Burritt, their son, was born at South Riley, Michigan, August 26, 1877 and attended the public schools of Saginaw, Michigan. Wishing to follow the profession of law, he began the study of that science in the office of his father, being admitted to practice in 1905. At that time, he formed the partnership of Burritt & Burritt as noted above, and during the next decade, the combination of father and son was known as one of the formidable legal combines of this section of the state. Since the death of his father, Mr. Burritt has practiced alone, perpetuating the ideals and practices as laid down by his parent. That he is a successful attorney, need not be mentioned here, for the fact that he was sought as city attorney of Hancock is testimony enough of his prominence in his city. On January 9, 1919, Mr. Burritt married Isabelle M. McAskill, a native of Hancock, and they have two children, Barney H. T., Jr., and Dorothy Jean, aged six years and three years, respectively. Mr. Burritt is a member of the Masons, Elks, and the Houghton club, while his wife is active in the affairs of the Eastern Star and the Congregational church.

Page  233 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 233 David Spencer Coon has been a leading figure in the drug business in Hancock, Michigan, for nearly ten years, for having purchased an established retail drug enterprise, he has so increased and improved the business of the venture that he is accounted one of the able retail store managers of that city. His father, Charles M. Coon, now employed by the road commission of Houghton county, was born at Fort Ann, New York, December 14, 1862, and his mother, Katharine (Rentenbach) Coon, was born at Houghton, Michigan, September 1, 1862. Born at Hancock, June 4, 1888, David S. Coon attended the Hancock public schools and then pursued a course of study in the School of Pharmacy at Big Rapids, Michigan. Returning to Hancock in 1904, he entered the First National bank and was there employed in various capacities during the ensuing twelve years. During this time, he saved his money and was enabled to buy out the drug business conducted by his father-in law, William H. Mason, on January 1, 1917. Since that time, Mr. Coon has given his entire attention to the management and development of that enterprise, and the success with which he has met in meeting the constantly growing demands of the trade has stamped him as one of the able business men of Hancock. Mr. Coon married Florence E. Mason, a native of Hancock, on June 25, 1913. Her father, William H. Mason, was a pioneer of Wisconsin, served three years in the Civil war with Company C, Fourth Wisconsin Cavalry, and after his discharge from the army at Brownsville, Texas, in 1866 came to Hancock. Mr. and Mrs. Coon have one son, William Charles, who is nine years of age. Mr. Coon is a member of the Elks, chairman of the committee on Boy Welfare of the Rotary club, and chairman of the district committee of the Boy Scouts of America. William J. Hoffenbacher, city clerk of Hancock, Michigan, is known to the people of that city as a public official in whom they can place the highest trust and confidence, indicative of which is the fact that he has been successively returned to the office of clerk since his first election in 1913. He was born in London, England, July 23, 1863, a son of John and Hannah (Branch) Hoffenbacher, the former of whom was born in Germany, came to Hancock to engage in the bakery business in 1869, and died in August 1886, and the latter of whom was born in Bath, England, and died February 27, 1921, at the age of eighty-three years. William J. Hoffenbacher attended the Hancock public schools and then worked in the stamping mills until 1886. In that year his father died and the bakery business devolved upon William J. Hoffenbacher, but after continuing the management of the enterprise for a time, he sold out and became clerk in the old Douglass House, of Houghton, Michigan. His next employment was with the street railway, after which he worked with the Copper Range railroad in a clerical capacity from 1911 to 1913. It was in the latter year that he was the successful candidate for election to office of city clerk of Hancock, Michigan, and his conduct of that posi

Page  234 234 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN tion has been of such a nature as to influence the voters to return him to that office at each succeeding election. In 1887, Mr. Hoffenbacher married Clara V. Prideaux, of Mineral Point, Wisconsin, and to them have been born four children, as follows: J. Dean, who is thirty-three years of age and is chief clerk and assistant manager of the Bronswick-Ewen Lumber company, of Ewen, Michigan; Rev. W. Edward, rector of St. John's church at Sparta, Wisconsin, who is a graduate of the Kalamazoo Normal school and the Nashotah Seminary, Nashotah, Wisconsin; Alice E., a teacher of physical training at Thomas Jefferson, Jr., College, Cleveland, Ohio; and Harold B., a graduate of the Western State Normal school. Charles Nikula, proprietor of the Houghton Bottling works, brought to that business here an experience and native ability in business affairs that have assured the success that has come to him in the four years he has headed the enterprise. Born in Finland, December 13, 1874, he is a son of August and Sofija (Toura) Nikula, both natives of that country, the former of whom, a farmer, died in 1920 at the age of eighty-five years and the latter of whom is still living in Finland at the age of seventy-eight years. Receiving his early education in the schools of his native land, Charles Nikula came to the United States when he was eighteen years of age, locating for a short time at Oscoda, Michigan. He then spent a short time in the lumber camps of Louisiana, after which he became a miner at Negaunee, Michigan, continuing in that work some four years. It was at this juncture that he first engaged in the bottling business, a venture that he sold in three years to acquire a similar business at Hurley, Wisconsin, in the conduct of which he remained six years. He then purchased a bottling works at Ironwood, Michigan, in 1909, operating it successfully until 1921, when he sold out to other interests. In 1922, having inspected various cities for their possibilities for the bottling business he came to Houghton and bought the Houghton Bottling works, which he has since managed. As proprietor of a highly successful company, Mr. Nikula is regarded as one of the ablest business executives of Houghton. In 1901, Mr. Nikula married Ida Urpila, a native of Finland, and they have seven children, as follows: Linda S., a graduate of the Northern State Normal school and a teacher in the Ironwood schools; Karl K., twenty-two years of age, who is working for his father; Ellen I., aged twenty years, who is a graduate of the Northern State Normal school and is a teacher in the schools of Ironwood; Russell T., eighteen years old, a student at the Chicago Art Institute; Waino T., seventeen years old, at home; George R., fourteen; and Helen E., nine years old. Mr. Nikula is a member of the Knights of Kaleva, while his wife is a member of the Ladies of Kaleva and the Ladies of the Maccabees. Alfred W. Langdon is known as one of the leading florists of the Upper Peninsula and as proprietor of the Woodside green

Page  235 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 235 houses, he is recognized as one of the able nurserymen and business men of Hancock, Michigan. Beverly Langdon, his father, was born in Detroit, June 12, 1848, and conducted the Tavern on Jefferson avenue in that city. Since his retirement from active life, he has made his residence at Hancock. Edith (Finnigan) Langdon, mother of Alfred W., was born in Pennsylvania and died in 1886. Alfred W. Langdon was born at Newaygo, Michigan, August 9, 1885, and obtained his early education in the public schools of Bellaire, this state. After completing his education, he became connected with the lumber business and continued in that work until 1907. In that year, he entered the greenhouse business at Chassell, Michigan, continuing there until 1913, work which he followed by two years in greenhouses at Pequaming, Michigan. These years were ones of hard preparation for a career in that field, and when he started the Woodside greenhouses at Dollar Bay, Michigan, he was well equipped to handle all the details of floriculture. From its inception, his enterprise was an unqualified success, and by December, 1925, his venture had grown to such proportions that he was obliged to establish a branch at Hancock, Michigan, at that time. Mr. Langdon is thus accounted one of the able nurserymen and business executives in this section of the state. In 1907, Mr. Langdon was united in marriage to Ethel Nobles, a native of Sand Lake, Michigan, and to them have been born two children, Beverley and Edith, aged fifteen and thirteen years, respectively. Mr. Langdon is a member of the Odd Fellows and the Red Men, while his wife holds membership in the Rebekah Lodge. The family attends the Congregational church. Robert King. Perhaps no man in this section of the state is more thoroughly conversant with the many details of iron mining than is Robert King, superintendent of the Hayes Mining company, of Ironwood, Michigan, for he has engaged in that work since 1884 and has been associated with the Hayes company for a period of forty-one years. A son of Robert and Mary (Welch) King, he was born in Scotland in 1860, but due to the death of his father and mother when he was but a small boy, he was reared by grandparents in his native land. Having attained his majority, however, he felt that opportunity for the ambitious man lay in the United States, and in 1884, he came to the United States, spending his first winter here at Tower, Minnesota. In 1885, he came to Hurley, Wisconsin, as shift boss and mine captain, remaining there until 1899. After spending two years at Ironwood, Michigan, Mr. King was returned to Hurley where he remained for a period of eleven years. Sometime during that period he reached the position of superintendent of the Hayes Mining company toward which he had been steadily advancing and in 1912, he returned to Ironwood, being located here since that year. His career with the Hayes concern has been an exemplary one, both from the standpoints of efficiency and ability and from that of loyalty to the organization with which he is connected. Among

Page  236 236 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN mining men, Mr. King is widely known, for he bears an enviable reputation for his proficiency and knowledge of mining methods. His wife, Mgagaret (Shines) King, who was born of Irish parents at Ontonagon, Michigan, and whom he married in 1893, was president of the Woman's club in 1924 and was elected to the board of education for a term of six years in 1920 and was re-elected to that office at the close of her first term. Mr. and Mrs. King are the parents of these four children: Loretta, who died at the age of four years; Mary Louisa, who graduated from the University of Wisconsin, performed research work for the government for five years at Washington, D. C., and is now teaching American history in the Ironwood schools; Loy, who is married and is a mining clerk; and Orlo A., who is in the employ of the Hayes Mining company. Helmer M. Wick has not only developed one of the fine jewelry stores of Ironwood, Michigan, but has also rendered signal service to the city in various public offices to which he has been elected. Born in Norway, January 7, 1884, he is a son of Morton and Emily (Jacobson) Wick, both natives of that country, the former of whom died in 1924 at the age of seventy years and the latter of whom still resides there. After receiving his education in the schools of Norway, Mr. Wick, in 1903, came to the United States, and so firmly convinced was he that here lay excellent opportunities for the ambitious man, he immediately declared his intention of becoming a citizen and secured his full American citizenship in 1911. In the meantime, he had spent two years at Superior, Wisconsin, and then worked at Duluth, Minnesota, as a watchmaker until 1909. In that year, he returned to Superior to become manager of a jewelry store at that place, continuing in the work until September, 1911. He then decided to locate at Ironwood, Michigan, and until 1916 was employed in a jewelry house of this city. By this time, he had accumulated sufficient capital and experience to allow him to establish a business of his own, and in 1916, he opened the jewelry store which he has since successfully conducted, winning the name of being one of the aggressive and shrewd retail store managers in the city and county. No less significant have been his efforts in behalf of the community in which he resides, for he was elected alderman in 1918 and again was elected a member of the commission that drew up the charter giving the city a commission form of government in April, 1925, was elected one of the first city commissioners under the revised system of government, and is a member of the county board of supervisors. In each of these positions, he has borne himself in a manner that is a credit to himself as a public servant. Mr. Wick married Martha J. Mutch, of Hillsboro, Wisconsin, on August 8, 1920, and to this union have been born two children, Jessie M. and Alicia R., aged five years and one year, respectively. Mr. Wick is a member of the various Masonic bodies and the Commercial club, while his wife maintains membership in the Eastern Star and the Woman's club.

Page  237 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 237 Charles Nyberg, coroner of Gogebic county, is one of the prominent and well liked undertakers of the city of Ironwood, Michigan. A native of Sweden, he was born March 15, 1869, the son of John and Anna (Nystrom) Nyberg, both of whom were born in Sweden. After the death of his wife on February 19, 1889, at the age of fifty-four years, John Nyberg came to the United States and located at Ironwood, where he died October 29, 1909. Charles Nyberg received his early education in the schools of his native country and came to the United States in June, 1887, coming directly to Ironwood. Subsequently he attended embalming schools in Wisconsin and Minnesota, and when he had satisfied the requirements as a licensed embalmer, he opened a furniture and undertaking establishment of his own in 1909 at Ironwood, as Nyberg & Oksa. This continued seven years, then he sold to Mr. Anderson and went to Duluth and remained one year. He opened his present place in August, 1922. His establishment is as modern as he can make it, and attesting his place in his calling is the fact that he was elected coroner of Gogebic county in 1924 and was re-elected in 1926 for two years. Mr. Nyberg married Charlotte Larson on May 16, 1891, she having been born in Sweden and coming to the United States in 1889, and to this union have been born these children: Werner E., who is working on the Soo Line railroad; Agda, who married L. F. Miller, a coal and lumber dealer of Bessemer, Michigan; Clarence, who is in the employ of the Youngstown Steel & Tube company, of Chicago; and Roy, who is an engineer in the employ of the McKinney Steel company at Bessemer, Michigan. Mr. Nyberg is active in the affairs of the Masonic order, and in politics he supports the principles of the Republican party. Edward W. Hopkins, general superintendent of the Oglebay, Norton company at Ironwood, Michigan, is recognized in the iron mining industry as one of the commanding figures in the field, for his long years of experience in the work, have made him thoroughly conversant with the many details surrounding mining operations. He was born at Binghamton, Outagamie county, Wisconsin, October 10, 1866, a son of Charles W. and Helen (Taylor) Hopkins, the former of whom was a native of New Brunswick, Canada, and died at Appleton, Wisconsin, in 1910 in his eightyseventh year and the latter of whom was born in England and died in 1911 at the age of seventy-four years. After attending the graded and high schools of Appleton, Wisconsin, Mr. Hopkins became a bookkeeper in the employ of the Oglebay-Norton company, a position in which he continued for several years. In this work, his evident ability and capacity for hard work attracted to him the favorable attention of his superiors, so that he was promoted to the position of assistant superintendent. But here he demonstrated more conclusively his worth to the company, and in 1901, he was made general superintendent of all the mining properties of the company, a position that he has since

Page  238 238 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN filled. In 1917, in order that he might be more centrally located with reference to the various mines, he was transferred to Ironwood, Michigan, where he has since maintained his residence and his office. Mr. Hopkins has under his direction these mines, the Montreal, Ottawa, Eureka, Asteroid, Castle, Bristol, Berkshire, and Fortune Lake. In 1890, Mr. Hopkins married Lillie Appleton, who was born in South Dakota of English parentage, and to them have been born two children: Vera Isabelle, who married R. A. Bowen, superintendent of the Montreal mine, and has two children, Edward and Eloise; and Helen, who married Carl A. Rudauist, president of the First National bank, of Ashland, Wisconsin. Mr. Hopkins is a member of the Elks, is president of the Rotary club, and has been president of the Gogebic Country & Golf club since 1919, and Mrs. Hopkins has been active in the affairs of the Woman's club, being president of that organization in 1920. Albert Nelson, architect and engineer of Ironwood, Michigan, has to his credit some of the important buildings of this city and the surrounding sections of the county, and though he has been engaged in business alone since 1923, he has already come to be regarded by the people of Ironwood as one of the able men in his field. Born in Sweden, May 11, 1893, he is a son of Lars and Mary (Gustafson) Nelson, both of whom were born in that country and still reside there, and attended the schools of Halmstad, Sweden, and from 1909 to 1910 attended a technology school in that country. Coming to the United States in 1911, Mr. Nelson located at Ironwood, Michigan, where until 1915 he was employed as a draughtsman and estimator with a local concern. Wishing to continue his education, he entered Augustine college, Rock Island, Illinois, where he completed the technical studies begun in Sweden. Returning to Ironwood in 1917, he became general manager for the General Construction company. In August, 1918, however, he entered the army and served in the Engineer corps until March, 1919, at which time he returned to Ironwood and resumed his interrupted duties as manager of the General Construction company. Until 1921, he continued in that work, but being a registered civil engineer in Michigan and wishing to be working for himself, he entered partnership with Derrick Hubert to carry on a general engineering and architectural practice. This arrangement existed until 1923, since which time, Mr. Nelson has been practicing alone. That he has made a success of the venture is witnessed by the fact that he is the designer of the Masonic Temple and the Seaman building at Ironwood and the high school at Wakefield among other buildings of every character. Not only gifted in design, Mr. Nelson possesses the practical viewpoint of the engineer, so that the buildings designed by him combine the best features of architectural beauty and practical layout. On July 22, 1919, Mr. Nelson married Agnes Erickson, daughter of Gustafson A. and Barothea Erickson, of Ironwood, Michigan, and to this union have been born two sons, Roderick A., aged four years, and Ber

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Page  239 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 239 tram G., two years old. Mr. Nelson is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, is a member of the various Masonic bodies and of the Elks, and is a communicant of the Lutheran church. Marshall Burns Lloyd. In the death of Marshall B. Lloyd on August 10, 1927, the city of Menominee, Michigan, suffered a loss from which it can never fully recover because some of his plans for the improvement of this community in which he lived were not completed at the time of his death, and it is feared that no other person will be able to carry on where Mr. Lloyd left off. As a practical altruist he had no peer in Upper Michigan, and the city of Menominee owes him a debt of gratitude beyond the power of mortal man ito estimate. Born at St. Paul, Minnesota, on March 10, 1858, he was the son of John and Margaret (Conmee) Lloyd, Jr. His father was of English descent, having come to Canada from England in 1832, and soon after the birth of Marshall, the family returned to Canada from St. Paul, settling on a farm near Meaford, Ontario, on Georgian Bay. After gaining an intermittent and sketchy common school education, Marshall B. Lloyd turned his active mind toward laying the foundation of a fortune, and by the time he was eighteen he had engaged successively as a clerk in the village store, a fisherman and fish peddler, a maker of clothes reels and spring beds, clerk in a Toronto grocery, a soap salesman, jewelry salesman, and a vender of merchandise to farmers. At the age of eighteen he took the position of mail carrier between Port Arthur and Pigeon river, a distance of sixty-five miles, the trip being made in two days with a team of six dogs. About this time the real estate boom at Winnipeg began, and Mr. Lloyd joined the rush to that city, engaged in the real estate business and accumulated several thousand dollars. With this money he bought a farm in North Dakota, near Grafton, where he established his parents and brothers and sisters. However, farm life did not appeal to him, and, turning the farm over to his father, he went to St. Thomas, Ontario, to engage in the insurance business. It was now that his inventive genius began to hold sway over his faculties, and he invented a combination scale and bag holder to be used in filling grain sacks, and which reduced the labor in this operation by one half. He manufactured these articles and seemed on the high road to success when fire destroyed his factory and left him again without capital. Failing to interest capital for a new venture at Minneapolis, he was forced to work as a shoe clerk, meanwhile perfecting an invention for weaving wire door and table mats. This invention enabled him to secure a partnership in the C. O. White company, and a later invention for weaving wire spring mattresses enabled him to buy out his partner. He then organized the Lloyd Manufacturing company at Minneapolis and engaged in the manufacture of the machinery for weaving these wire bed springs. This enterprise met with instant success, and Mr. Lloyd became one of the prominent citizens of Minneapolis, serving on the City Council

Page  240 240 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN from, 1902 to 1906 and also on the Citizens League appointed to clean up the vice conditions of that city. He became interested in the manufacture of wire wheels for children's vehicles, and this business, combined with the other soon forced him to consider a new factory site where he could get more favorable freight rates. His search ended at Menominee, and hither he moved his factory, and it was indeed a happy day for this city when Mr. Lloyd became one of its citizens. His next great invention was a machine for the economical manufacture of thin small gauged steel tubing, which was at that time extremely expensive. After years of effort and the expenditure of a quarter million of dollars he achieved his aim, the method being known as the Lloyd-Oxyacetylene mode of welding tubing from steel ribbon. This invention, with his other interests, soon made him independently wealthy, but instead of resting upon his laurels, he worked long and earnestly on a method of weaving wicker by machinery, his aim being to weave swiftly and also in such a way that the product could be shaped in any way. This necessitated the abandonment of the old frame method of weaving, and when his invention was finally successful he had revolutionized an age-old industry, with the result that better work can be done on one of his machines in one-thirtieth of the time required for hand weaving of wicker. Manufacturing rights were sold to various large companies in this and foreign countries and Mr. Lloyd's personal fortune was soon running into millions. A desire to benefit working men led him to the invention of a sectional house, insulated against cold and embodying a heating plant which he said would be decidedly economical. He then bought the old fair grounds as a site for his model city, but his desire to "do something for Menominee" was never satisfied because ill health incapacitated him. While wintering in Florida in 1924, the only department store in Menominee was razed by fire and owing to the local business depression caused by the dying out of the lumbering industry, was not rebuilt. The result was that payrolls were being spent out of the city and an already serious depression became critically bad. At this juncture the business people of the city appealed to Mr. Lloyd, who, upon his return from the south, organized the Community Building Corporation, to which more than $500,000 of stock was subscribed. A building with a frontage of 333 feet on Sheridan road and a depth of about 150 feet, four stories in height and including an 850 seat theater, was erected, but when completed no person could be found to lease the store building on account of the depression in local business. The result was that Mr. Lloyd again stepped into the breach, operated the store himself, and stocked it out of his own funds complete in every detail. He now began gradually to withdraw from active managerial duties in connection with the Lloyd company. He was now at the zenith of his career, with ample means and a great ambition to better Menominee, and that death should have overtaken him before he had an opportunity to execute his philanthropic plans was a particularly sad and unfortunate blow. When the newspapers carried

Page  241 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 241 the announcement of his passing, the community of Menominee and other cities as well were shocked inexpressibly, and throngs of sorrowing people visited the family home on Sheridan road for a final glimpse of the face they loved so well. Mr. Lloyd is survived by his widow, the former Henrietta Pollen Hammer, of Orange, New Jersey, with whom he was united in matrimony in 1922. John A. Minkin, prominent heating and plumbing contractor of Ironwood, Michigan, was born in Finland, July 4, 1887, the son of John K. and Mary (Antinoja) Minkin, both of whom are natives of that country. John K. Minkin brought his family to the United States in 1888, settling first in the Copper country and then at Ironwood, where he and his wife now reside at the ages of seventy-four years and sixty-five years, respectively. John A. Minkin, after attending the graded schools of Ironwood, became a miner on the Gogebic iron range, work which he followed for a period of eleven years. Leaving this section of the country, he worked in the silver mines of New Mexico for two years, and the succeeding five years found him working in various ranges throughout the country. At the expiration of that time, Mr. Minkin returned to Ironwood and proceeded to learn the trade of plumber, and at this work he continued until 1924, when he invested his capital in a heating and plumbing establishment of his own. The ensuing two years have been sufficient to demonstrate conclusively the fact that he is one of the aggressive business men of Ironwood, for already he has developed a business that is among the leaders in its field in this section of the county. Keenly alive to the civic problems that confront his community, Mr. Minkin was elected supervisor of the Seventh ward, serving in that capacity for a term of two years with great credit to himself and with benefit to that part of the city. On September 30, 1911, Mr. Minkin was united in marriage with Henna Ruutila, daughter of Gust and Wilhelmina Ruutila, of Ironwood, and to Mr. and Mrs. Minkin have been born six children, Frances, Leo, Earl, Lloyd, June, and Robert. Mr. Minkin is a member of the Knights of 'Kaleva and the Odd Fellows, while his wife maintains membership in the Ladies of Kaleva and the Woman's club. John J. Gorrilla is the proprietor of the oldest retail drug establishment now doing business in Ironwood, Michigan, and that he has been identified with the commercial interests of the city as store owner for nearly a quarter of a century, Mr. Gorrilla is recognized as one of the successful and influential men in his field in the city and county. Born in Austria, February 2, 1877, he is a son of John and Susan (Mras) Gorrilla, both natives of that country, the former of whom brought his family to the United States in 1880 and is now living a retired life at Ironwood, his wife having died here in 1923 in her sixty-seventh year. After attending the graded and high schools of Ironwood, John J. Gorrilla became a pharmacist's apprentice and then worked in the

Page  242 242 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN drug store of George D. Hough for a period of fifteen years. On May 1, 1903, Mr. Gorrilla, feeling that his experience and capital were sufficient to warrant the move, purchased the drug business from Mr. Hough and has since been the proprietor of the enterprise, which is the oldest retail drug concern in Ironwood. Mr. Gorrilla is also a director of the Gogebic National bank and is regarded as one of the shrewd business men of this community, for he has succeeded in developing his venture into the most substantial business of its kind in Gogebic county. In 1900, Mr. Gorrilla married Margaret Weber, born of French parentage at Arcadia, Wisconsin, and they have these children: Lawrence Vincent, twenty-five years old, who is studying medicine at Little Rock, Arkansas; Allen Cyril, twenty-three years of age, who is also studying medicine at the same school; Veronica Claire, twenty-one years old, a student at St. Mary-of-the-Woods, Terre Haute, Indiana; and John Edward and George Peter, twins, who are thirteen years old. Mr. Gorrilla is a member of the Knights of Columbus, Catholic Order of Foresters, Elks, Commercial club, Gogebic Country & Golf club. Theodore S. Crosby, M. D., is accounted one of the most skillful physicians and surgeons of Ironwood, Michigan, for by training and experience, he is admirably equipped to handle any case that might be placed in his care. He was born at Corry, Pennsylvania, October 24, 1877, the son of Manley and Frances ('Clarke) Crosby, both of whom were natives of Cattaraugus county, New York. Manley Crosby was a banker and attorney, was a member of the Elks, Masons, Knights of Pythias, and died in 1910 at the age of sixty-seven years, his wife having died in 1900 at the age of forty-seven. After receiving a graded and high school education at Corry, Pennsylvania, Theodore S. Crosby studied medicine at Baltimore, Maryland, receiving the degree of doctor of medicine in 1905. Post-graduate work in Europe occupied the ensuing year, and then, for a period of two years, Doctor Crosby engaged in private practice at Mt. Clemens, Michigan. At the expiration of that time, he became surgeon for a large American circus company and with that organization traveled throughout the United States, Canada, and Mexico, spending some six years in this work. Upon leaving the circus, he studied a year at New York City and in 1911 located at Wakefield, Michigan, where he again engaged in private practice. He was subsequently made city health officer and while the World war was in progress, he was a major in the Reserve Corps at Wakefield, Michigan, and was examiner for the applicants for military service. Doctor Crosby continued in practice at Wakefield until May 3, 1926, when he felt that the growing demands of his practice necessitated his removal to Ironwood. Since that date he has maintained his offices in this city and has taken his rightful place among the leaders of the medical profession here. On September 22, 1904, Doctor Crosby married Adele Nelson, born in England, and to this union

Page  243 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 243 were born two sons, Theodore, aged twenty-one years, and Robert, nineteen years old, who are attending the University of Detroit. Having separated from his first wife, Doctor Crosby married Stella Basikorki, of Chicago, on March 11, 1913, and to them have been born three sons, Alvin, Thomas, and Archibald. His second wife died April 27, 1926, at the age of thirty-seven years. Doctor Crosby is a member of the Elks, American Legion, Forty and Eight club, Forest & Streams, Gogebic Country & Golf club, and the Episcopal church. George Forrest Coons, D. D. S., practicing in Ironwood, Michigan, since 1915, has acquired a reputation as one of the leading dentists of this section of the county. His parents, John and Rhoda Ann (Cross) Coons, were natives of Iroquois, Canada, the former, a retired farmer, now residing at Detroit and the latter dying in 1922 at the age of sixty-eight years. Born at Caro, Michigan, in 1887, George F. Coons received a public school education in Canada, after which he attended Ohio Wesleyan University and later the Ohio College of Dental Surgery, Cincinnati, Ohio, completing his studies at the Chicago College of Dental Surgery whence he graduated in 1913. He entered upon the practice of his profession at Wakefield, Michigan, but with the lapse of a year, he removed his offices to Ironwood, where he has since remained. Doctor Coons has built up a large and lucrative practice, and is recognized by the people as one of the capable and successful men in his field in this section of the county. On August 16, 1916, Doctor Coons married Bertha T. Lofberg, who was born at Three Lakes, Michigan, and to this union have been born three children, Elizabeth Marian, George Douglas, and Jack Donald, aged nine, seven, and five years, respectively. On April 7, 1925, Doctor Coons was elected city commissioner for a term of four years and is serving as mayor pro tempore. He is a member of the Masons, Elks, Gogebic Country club, and the Kiwanis club, and in political matters he supports the cause of the Republican party. Francis Arthur Healy, as secretary and treasurer of the Agricultural Association of Gogebic county, has succeeded in developing the largest county agricultural fair in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and this he has been able to do during an incumbency that so far has covered but seven years. His father, Joseph Walter Healy, was born in England, came to the United States in 1838, and as a millwright architect, built a number of mills in Indiana, Ohio, and Wisconsin, his death occurring January 18, 1884. Sarah Amelia (Downes) Healy, mother of Francis A., was born at Honeoye, New York, of Connecticut Yankee and French parentage and died in 1914 at the age of seventy-nine years. FArancis Arthur Healy was born at Green Lake, Wisconsin, August 11, 1851, and after graduating from the high school at Portage, Wisconsin, matriculated at Ripon college, Ripon, Wisconsin. In 1871, he entered the employ of a lumber concern of Green Bay and Medford, Wisconsin, acting as superintendent of saw mills for a

Page  244 244 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN period of five years. In 1878, he engaged in business for himself conducting a lumber and general store business, and it was during this time that he served on the board of education of the community in which he resided, his term lasting from 1876 to 1880, and was also appointed the first county treasurer of Taylor county, Wisconsin, by Governor Taylor. In 1886, Mr. Healy came to Ironwood, Michigan, to assume the management of a lumber yard owned by Hoxie & Mellor. After two years spent in this way, he became assistant cashier of the Bank of Ironwood from 1889 to 1892, he becoming auditor and accountant in the latter year. In 1893 he was appointed postmaster by President Cleveland and served until 1895. In that position he continued for a period of twenty-six years, surrendering that work in 1919 to assume the duties of secretary and treasurer of the Agricultural Association of Gogebic County. He has since been engaged in that undertaking, and principally through his efforts, the Gogebic county fair has grown to be the largest exposition of its kind in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. His interest in the welfare of his county and city influenced the voters to elect him county supervisor, an office that he retained from 1889 to 1898, and his efforts in behalf of the county as a member of the county board have won him the respect of the citizens of this section of the state. On October 20, 1875, Sarah Jane Williams of Springvale, Columbia county, Wisconsin, became his wife, and her death occurred December 31, 1898. Mr. and Mrs. Healy became the parents of these children: Maud Edith, who married W. A. Cole, chief master mechanic of the United States Steel corporation on the Gogebic Iron range, Marion Ada, who married Fred S. Larson, an accountant of Ironwood; Frances Phoebe, who married R. C. Williams of the Wrigley Chewing Gum company, of Chicago; Angeline Mary, who is the wife of James O. Wanzer, office manager for the Metropolitan Life Insurance company at Duluth, Minnesota; and a son, who died in infancy. Mr. Healy is a member of the Odd Fellows, the Lansing Lodge of Elks, and the Commercial club. In religious matters, he professes the tenets of the Christian Science creed, and in politics he lends his support to the Democratic party. Joseph Gentile, probation officer for the Thirty-second Judicial Circuit, is a leading exponent in the real estate, insurance, and loan business at Ironwood, Michigan. He was born in Italy, September 24, 1886, the son of Antone and Frances (Faranda) Gentile, both natives of Italy, the former of whom died in 1924 at the age of eighty-five years and the latter of whom died in 1926 at the age of seventy-six. After attending the graded schools in his home community, Joseph Gentile studied for a period of three years at the Gennasio school in Italy and then worked for his father for two years. In 1904, he came to the United States, where he became a solicitor and news writer for various Italian newspapers published in this country. He was next associated with the Erie railroad in a capacity that took him to various sections of the country, but

Page  245 UPPER PENINSULA OF. MICHIGAN 245 after two years spent in this way, he located at Chicago and was made foreman of the Republic Iron & Steel company there. He continued in that capacity until 1910, when he came to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to resume his newspaper career. Thus he continued until 1915, the year in which he engaged in the insurance, real estate, and loan business in which he still continues. He has been signally successful in the conduct of this enterprise and has built up a large business in the fields which he works. As noted above, Mr. Gentile is chief probation officer for the Thirtysecond Judicial circuit and is first friend of paroled prisoners of Gogebic county. Mr. Gentile is a member of the Knights of Columbus, the Elks, and the Italian society. On June 15, 1915, Mr. Gentile was united in marriage to Mary Chicolino, who was born in Montreal, Wisconsin, and to this union have been born four children, Mamie, Frances, Joseph, and James, all of whom are attending the local schools. Clifford A. Trethewey, municipal judge of Ironwood, Michigan, established his law practice here more than two years ago, and during that time he quickly acquired a large clientele and won the name of being one of the astute lawyers of the county. He was born at Ironwood, April 9, 1900, the son of Benjamin C. and Polly (Brooks) Trethewey, both natives of England, the former of whom was a pioneer of this city and died August 31, 1913. After graduating from the Ironwood high school, Clifford A. Trethewey attended the University of Michigan in 1918-19 and then went to the Detroit College of Law from which he graduated with the degree of bachelor of laws in 1923. In September, that year, he was admitted to practice at the Michigan Bar and until April, 1924, was engaged in the practice of law at Detroit, when he surrendered his work in that city to open offices at Ironwood, Michigan. Here, he threw himself into his work with such energy and ability that he soon attracted the favorable attention of the people of the city, with the result that he was elected municipal judge and took office for a term of four years on July 1, 1925. His work on the bench of that court has more than justified the decision of the voters, for his decisions have been marked by their strict impartiality and clarity. Mr. Trethewey married Grace Robinson, who was born in Washburn, Wisconsin, of English parentage, graduated from the Washburn high school, and then graduated from the nursing school of the St. Joseph hospital. Judge Trethewey is post commander of the American Legion, having served in the United States Navy in the World war, and is a member of Sigma Delta Kappa, college law fraternity. He and his wife attend the Presbyterian church, and in political allegiance he is a Republican. Thomas J. Landers, prosecuting attorney of Gogebic county, is a successful lawyer of Ironwood, Michigan, where he has been engaged in practice since 1922. He was born in that city, August 8, 1897, the son of John C. and Hannah (O'Leary) Landers, the

Page  246 246 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN former of whom was born at Eagle Harbor and engaged in mining until his death in 1918 at the age of fifty-two years and the latter of whom was born in Ireland and is now living in Ironwood at the age of sixty-three years, she being active in the Women's Catholic Order of Foresters. After attending the Ironwood graded schools and the St. Ambrose high school, Thomas J. Landers matriculated at Marquette university, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in 1917, taking courses in arts and sciences and law during the four years he spent at that institution. He then went to the University of Detroit to complete his law studies, graduating therefrom in 1922 with the degree of bachelor of laws. Returning to Ironwood, Mr. Landers entered practice and was appointed assistant prosecuting attorney under Harold J. Waples, and at the succeeding election, he was the successful candidate for the office of prosecuting attorney. Hq began a two-year term on January 1, 1925, and was re-elected in November, 1926. He has shown himself to be an able prosecutor, for he is not only painstaking in the preparation of his cases but is clear and forceful in argument. Mr. Landers is a member of the Knights of Columbus and the Kiwanis club, and in politics he supports the principles of the Republican party. John B. Patrick, mayor of Ironwood, Michigan, and prominent in business circles there as a member of the firm of McKevitt, Chappell, Patrick Furniture company, is one of the influential and widely known citizens of that community. His father, Henry E. Patrick, was born at Binghamton, New York, and after coming to Illinois, became vice-president of the C. M. Moderwell Coal company, of Chicago, where he was a charter member of the Union League club. He died at Oak Park, Illinois, in 1923 at the age of seventy-one years, and his wife, who was Jennie B. Babcock and was born in Marengo, Illinois, a daughter of a captain of the 95th Illinois Volunteer Infantry in the Civil war, died in 1924 in her seventieth year. Born at Marengo, Illinois, April 28, 1879, John B. Patrick graduated from the Oak Park, Illinois high school in 1898 and then took a course of study in college, graduating from the University of Wisconsin in 1902. In the fall of the same year, Mr. Patrick came to Ironwood to become principal of the high school here, a work in which he continued some three years. Relinquishing his teaching work, he became associated with the Oliver Iron Mining company in 1907, an organization with which he still remains. In 1919 he organized the McKevitt, Chappell, Patrick Furniture company. He has since been identified with this company and has thus become known as one of the able business men of Ironwood. When the city of Ironwood adopted the city manager form of government on March 2, 1925, Mr. Patrick was elected a city commissioner on March 7, taking the oath of office on April 13, that year. Due to the fact that he had been elected by the largest plurality of any of the members of the city commission, he was chosen mayor by that body for a term of two years, a position which he still holds. He has shown himself to

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Page  247 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 247 be an exceedingly able commissioner and has at all times bent his every effort to promoting the welfare of the community which he serves. Mr. Patrick was married on April 25, 1906, to Prances L. Hartigan, a native of Wisconsin, and to this union have been born four children: Frances D., a student at the University of Michigan; Henry Eugene, fourteen years old; John D., thirteen years of age; and Margaret Mary, aged eleven. Mr. Patrick is a member of the Elks, Knights of Columbus, Rotary club, Gogebic Country club, Gogebic Oliver club, and Beta Theta Pi college fraternity, while his wife is a member of the Woman's club and is active in music circles of Ironwood. George W. McCormick was born on a farm near Napanee in Lennox county, Ontario, Canada, on September 12, 1871. He is a son of James and Margaret (Sexsmith) McCormick, residents of Lennox county, Ontario. His father was born near Belfast in Antrim county, Ireland, and his mother was born in Lennox county, Ontario. They raised a family of five daughters and four sons all but one of whom are still living, George, the subject of this sketch being the eighth member. James McCormick gained his early education before leaving Ireland and was about fifteen years of age when, in 1837, he embarked with his parents, Hugh and Nancy (Wilson) McCormick, on a sailing vessel destined for America. They landed in the city of Quebec, Canada, and thence removed to Lennox county, Ontario, where he secured a tract of land and turned his attention to agricultural pursuits. Here both Hugh and Nancy (Wilson) McCormick passed their long and useful lives and here their son James was reared to maturity. He never severed his allegiance to the great basic industry of agriculture and continued to reside on the homestead farm secured by his father until the time of his death. The property is still held by the family and James McCormick, brother of the subject of this sketch, now resides upon a portion of the same. The parents were devout communicants of the Church of England. George W. McCormick, whose name initiates this article, passed his boyhood and early youth on the old homestead farm mentioned, and after availing himself of the advantages of the public schools he pursued his higher academic studies in the Collegiate institute at Napanee, Canada. Thereafter he was for two years engaged in teaching in the public schools and in 1890 he came to Michigan and established his home in Kalamazoo, where he entered the employ of a publishing and stationery house, as a salesman until 1894. He then became a representative of the Traveler's Insurance company, of Hartford, Connecticut, of which he was district agent until 1901, with headquarters in Bay City, Michigan. In the year last mentioned he became associated with a number of prominent Michigan capitalists in the organization of a company for the manufacture of beet sugar at Wallaceburg, Ontario, Canada. He was made secretary and assistant manager of that company, and also a member of the board of directors, and continued to be actively identi

Page  248 248 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN fied with the management of its affairs until January, 1903, when he removed to Menominee, Michigan, and assumed the position'of general manager of the Menominee River Sugar company, and is now president and general manager and a director of the same. Michigan has gained no little priority as a center for the manufacture of beet-sugar, and the plant of the company mentioned is one of the best equipped in the state. For eight years Mr. McCormick was president of the Eastern Beet Sugar Manufacturers association, and a director of the United States Beet Sugar Manufacturers association. For the past twenty years Mr. McCormick has rendered signal service for the domestic beet sugar industry of the United States in his continuous advocacy before congressional committees for the necessary tariff to protect this great agricultural industry against the cheaply produced sugar of foreign tropical countries. Mr. McCormick and Mr. A. W. Blom of Menominee were the organizers and directors of a movement to develop the agricultural and industrial resources of the Upper Peninsula. And due to their enthusiasm and untiring energy a very successful meeting was held at the County building in Menominee in March, 1911, which resulted in the organization of the Upper Peninsula Development Bureau. This meeting was attended by three hundred to four hundred representative men from all sections of the Upper Peninsula as well as the railroad and other large interests, and without question it was the most enthusiastic meeting ever held in Upper Michigan. And during the past sixteen years of its functioning this Bureau has accomplished much to encourage and advance agricultural manufacturing and industrial interests in the Upper Peninsula. Mr. McCormick was a director for six years and for one term president of this Bureau. In April, 1917, on the day after America declared war, Mr. McCormick telegraphed Governor Sleeper that a determined effort should immediately be made to increase planting and growing in Michigan of foods consumed by man. Two days later he received a telegram requesting his presence at a meeting called at Lansing and was appointed by the governor as one of seven members comprising the Food Preparedness committee, which was the first war committee appointed by Governor Sleeper. Also during the war he was Assistant State Food administrator for Michigan and had entire charge of Food Administration work for the Upper Peninsula. Mr. McCormick is also president of the Flint Lumber company at Flint, Michigan, a director of the Federal Reserve bank at Minneapolis, Minnesota; and vice-president of the Menominee Box & Lumber company, Menominee, Michigan. A thorough business man who maintains a broad view of commercial and industrial conditions, Mr. McCormick is essentially progressive and loyal as a citizen and is ever ready to lend his aid and influence in support of measures tending to advance the general welfare. He has shown particular interest in agricultural affairs since coming to Menominee and he was one of the founders of the Agricultural School of Menominee county, which has grown in influence and importance until now it is known

Page  249 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 249 as the Upper Peninsula School of Agriculture and is substantially supported and maintained by the State of Michigan. In politics he is a staunch Republican, and was elected a delegate to the National Republican Convention in 1916, though he has never had any desire for the honors of public office. He is a communicant of the Protestant Episcopal church and in the Masonic fraternity he has attained to the degree of Knight Templar. On the twenty-eighth day of June, 1899, Mr. McCormick was married to Miss Anna Morrison, who was born and reared at LaPorte, Indiana. She was the daughter of Henry D. and Mary (Ridgeway) Morrison, whose families were among the earliest settlers of LaPorte county, Indiana. Mr. Morrison was an extensive landholder and substantial capitalist of Indiana and was much interested in banking enterprises. Mr. and Mrs. McCormick have two sons, Morrison Ridgeway and George Wellesley, Jr. The elder son is in his senior year at Harvard university, and the younger son is taking an engineering course at Cornell university. Robert A. Douglas, vice-president and managing director of the Gogebic National bank, of Ironwood, Michigan, holds a commanding position in the county for the part he has displayed in the development of the county not only in financial circles but in newspaper work and in public life. He was born at Woodstock, Canada, December 5, 1865, a son of Robert and Sarah (Burgess) Douglas, the former of whom was born in Canada of Scotch parentage and died as the result of an accident received in a baseball game when his son, Robert A., was a young boy and the latter of whom was born at Hillsdale, Michigan, of Dutch and Scotch descent. After attending the Woodstock public schools until he was thirteen years of age, Robert A. Douglas became an apprenticed printer, and for a number of years thereafter, he followed that trade in Woodstock; Madison, Wisconsin; Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota, and Ashland, Wisconsin. In 1890, he came to Ironwood, Michigan, where he in partnership with George W. R. Peaslee, established the Ironwood News, a newspaper that was subsequently consolidated with the Record under the name of the Ironwood News-Record. After directing the affairs of this newspaper over a period of ten years, Mr. Douglas bought the News-Record, continuing as publisher until he sold out to the Ironwood Daily Globe in 1921, at which time he retired from the newspaper field to become vice-president and managing director of the Gogebic National bank, an office that he still holds. Mr. Douglas has been largely instrumental in shaping the policies of the bank since he became associated with it, and that the institution is considered one of the substantial financial concerns in this section of the state is largely due to his ability in such matters. No less conspicuous have been his activities as a public official in the service of the county and city. He was appointed probate judge to succeed the late Judge Curtis Buck, subsequently being elected to the office, resigning at the time he took up the bank

Page  250 250 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN position. For thirteen years he has been chairman of the Gogebic County Board of Supervisors of which he has been a member for twenty-four years. He has served on the board of the Ironwood Public Library since its organization; he was chairman of the charter commission for Ironwood which framed the new city manager charter that was adopted by the voters and placed in effect on April 1, 1925; and he served for sixteen consecutive years prior to 1922 as a member of the Republican State Central Committee of the 12th Congress of Michigan. In August, 1895, Mr. Douglas married Agnes M. Marshall, who was born in Woodstock, Canada. In Masonry, Mr. Douglas is past master of Ironwood Lodge No. 389, F. & A. M., is a Knight Templar, and is affiliated 'with the Mystic Shrine, and having been elected the first exalted ruler of the local lodge of Elks, he held that office three years. He is also a member of the Ironwood Commercial association, the Gogebic Country & Golf club, and the Rotary club, of which he is past president. Mr. and Mrs. Douglas are members of the Presbyterian church and take an active interest in its affairs. Clarence W. Holt, a partner with his brother in the well known sporting goods establishment of the Holt company, is recognized as one of the leading business men of Ironwood, Michigan. A native of that city, he was born May 17, 1890, a son of Swan and Anna M. (Olsen) Holt, both natives of Sweden, the former of whom came to the United States in 1885, settled first at Ishpeming, Michigan, and at Ironwood in 1886, and one year previous to his death in 1924 was chief of police of this city. Mrs. Anna M. (Olsen) Holt resides at Ironwood with her son and her daughter, Clifford and Mildred. Clarence W. Holt attended the graded and high schools of Ironwood, graduating from the latter institution in 1908, after which he entered the employ of the Oliver Iron Mining company. In this work, he continued until 1921, when he engaged in business with his brother, Harold E. Holt, the company adopting as its advertising slogan the House of Quality Goods. 'The enterprise is unexcelled in its field in Gogebic county, and Mr. Holt is regarded as one of the successful business men of this city for his achievement in helping in the development of a concern of such proportions. Having taken an active interest in the county politics, Mr. Holt served as a member of the county board of supervisors from 1918 to 1924, serving as chairman of that body in 1923. His work in this connection was signalized by his championing of those measures calculated to benefit the majority of the people of the county. On September 15, 1915, Mr. Holt was united in marriage to Amy M. Erickson, a native of Ironwood, and they have two children, John E. and Helen Louise, aged eight years and five years, respectively. Mr. Holt is a member of the Masonic fraternity, the Commercial club, and the Rotary club at Ironwood, and in political matters, he is an adherent to the Republican party. Elmer Johnson is giving an effective administration as county treasurer of Dickinson county and has been a resident of Iron

Page  251 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 251 Mountain, the county seat, since his early childhood. Mr. Johnson was born in Sweden, March 7, 1880, and about two years later the family left their native land and came to the United States. Solomon Samuel Johnson, father of the subject of this review, first established residence at Florence, Wisconsin, in 1882, but in the following year he came with his family to Iron Mountain, and found employment as a miner. He continued for many years to be identified with operations in the mines of this district and is now living retired, in Iron Mountain, at the age of seventy-seven years (1926). His wife, Elizabeth, died in 1924, at the age of seventy years, she having been an earnest member of the Swedish Mission church at Iron Mountain, as is also Mr. Johnson. The present popular treasurer of Dickinson county received in the Iron Mountain public schools his early education, which was supplemented by one year of study in North Park college in the city of Chicago. In the period of 1901-15 he was in the service of the Chicago & North Western railroad, and in 1915, in a railroad accident, he received physical injuries that incapacitated him for further activity during a period of about three years. In 1918 he was chosen deputy county treasurer of Dickinson county, and this position he retained until 1922, when he was elected county treasurer, the responsible fiscal office of which he has since continued the efficient and loyal incumbent. Mr. Johnson is a staunch supporter of the cause of the Republican party, and is affiliated with the Knights of Pythias, the Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks, the Swedish Society of America and the Brotherhood of Railway Trainmen. His wife has membership in the Pythian Sisters and is a communicant of the Lutheran church, she having been born in Wisconsin, of German ancestry. In June, 1908, occurred the marriage of Mr. Johnson to Miss Emma Weidenmeier, and the two children of this union are Cecil and William, the former being fifteen and the latter six years of age at the time of this writing, in the winter of 1926-27. Henry H. Laing has been a resident of Iron Mountain, judicial center of Dickinson county, for more than forty years and is now one of the veteran and substantial representatives of the lumber business in this city. Mr. Laing was born at Cumberland, province of Ontario, Canada, in the year 1861, and is a son of the late James and Margaret (Adams) Laing, both of whom were born in Scotland. James Laing became a prosperous farmer in Canada, and both he and his wife passed the closing years of their lives in Ontario, Canada, he having given virtually his entire active life to farm industry. James Laing was sixty-four years of age at the time of his death, in 1881, and his widow passed away in 1898, she likewise having attained to the age of sixty-four years and both having been zealous members of the Presbyterian church. Henry H. Laing gained his early education by attending the schools of his native province, and he was twenty years of age when, in 1882, he came to Iron Mountain, Michigan. Here he was bookkeeper

Page  252 252 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN one year in the office of one of his brothers, and from 1883 to 1890 he was actively employed in connection with saw-mill operations in this section of the Upper Peninsula, so that he gained practical and authoritative knowledge of all phases of the lumber industry. Since 1890 he has been successfully established in the lumber business at Iron Mountain, and the effective service he has given during the intervening years has enabled him to build up a substantial and prosperous business. Mr. Laing has taken loyal interest in community affairs, is a Republican in political adherency, is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity, and he and his wife are earnest members of the Presbyterian church in their home city, where also he is a director of the First National bank. In 1886 was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Laing to Miss Rubena Donaldson, who likewise was born at Buckingham, Canada, and who, like her husband, is of sterling Scotch ancestry. Gertrude, first born of the children of Mr. and Mrs. Laing, is the wife of Foster Wright, who is now established in mercantile business in Los Angeles, California; Miss Lulu M. is a popular teacher in the public schools of St. Paul, Minnesota; Grant was graduated in the celebrated Rush Medical College, Chicago, and thereafter did post-graduate work one year in Vienna, Austria, and six months in London, England, he being now successfully established in practice as a physician and surgeon in the city of Chicago; Roy, who has been associated with his father in business since 1920, represented Michigan in loyal overseas service in the World war, he having been a member of Company C, One Hundred and Third Signal Battalion, Twenty-eighth Division of the American Expeditionary Forces, and being now actively affiliated with the American Legion; Donald R. was graduated in the University of Michigan as a member of the class of 1926 and is now engaged in the advertising business in the city of Detroit, this state. George M. Belhumeur, M. D., known for his excellent professional attainments, is one of the representative physicians and surgeons of Dickinson county, where he is established in successful general practice at Iron Mountain, the county seat, with Doctors Crowell and Coffin as his professional coadjutors. On the paternal side Doctor Belhumeur is of staunch French lineage, and he is able to claim the Upper Peninsula of Michigan as the place of his nativity, he having been born at Champion, Marquette county, August 18, 1883, and being a son of Mitchell C. and Margaret (Mullen) Belhumeur, the former of whom was born at Au Sable Forks, New York, January 8, 1851, and the latter of whom was born and reared in Marquette county, Michigan, she being now a resident of Iron Mountain and being sixty-six years of age at the time of this writing, in the winter of 1926-27. Mitchell C. Belhumeur established himself in the general merchandise business at Ishpeming, Michigan, in 1870, and in 1882 he engaged in the same line of enterprise at Champion this state, where he passed the remainder of his life and where he gave a long period of service

Page  253 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 253 as postmaster. He was a Democrat in political alignment, was affiliated with the Knights of the Maccabees, and was a communicant of the Catholic church, as is also his widow, he having been fifty-five years of age at the time of his death, in 1906. After completing his studies in the high school at Champion, Doctor Belhumeur followed the course of his ambition by entering the medical department of the University of Michigan, and in this institution he was graduated as a member of the class of 1908. After thus receiving his degree of doctor of medicine he was for a short time engaged in practice at Gwinn, Marquette county, and he then became a member of the surgical staff of the hospital maintained by the University of Michigan. After having been thus engaged at Ann Arbor one year he became, in October, 1908, a member of the staff of the hospital at Negaunee, Michigan, where he remained until 1917, and where his clinical experience was such as greatly to advance his skill in surgery, to which branch of his profession he has given major attention. From 1917 until 1921 the Doctor was engaged in practice at Niagara, Wisconsin, and since the latter year he has been engaged in practice at Iron Mountain, where he and his associates control a large and representative professional business. Doctor Belhumeur is a member of the Dickinson County Medical society, the Michigan State Medical society and the American Medical association and is a Democrat in political alignment. In 1908 was solemnized the marriage of Doctor Belhumeur to Miss Louise Werner, who was born at Lake Linden, Houghton county, Michigan, and who received excellent educational advantages. Mrs. Belhumeur is a member of the Woman's club, of Iron Mountain, and is a zealous communicant of St. Mary's Catholic church in her home city. Doctor and Mrs. Belhumeur have three children: George, Stuart and William (Billy), and at the present time all of the sons are attending the public schools of Iron Mountain. Leslie E. Coffin, M. D., has been engaged in the practice of his profession at Iron Mountain, Dickinson county, during a period of nearly twenty years, and has given major attention to industrial surgery, as he is here retained as surgeon for the Oliver Iron Mining company and is also surgeon for the local branch of the Chicago & North Western railroad. Doctor Coffin is able to revert to the old Pine Tree State as the place of his nativity, as he was born at Fryeburg, Maine, December 10, 1882. He is a son of John M. and Frances E. Coffin, both likewise natives of that state, where the former was born at Lovell and the latter at Sweden. John M. Coffin was born February 7, 1844, and his death occurred in 1921, his wife having passed away in 1889, at the age of forty years, and both having been earnest members of the Methodist Episcopal church. The earlier education of Doctor Coffin was acquired principally in the public schools of Lawrence, Massachusetts, and in 1904 he was graduated in the medical department of historic old Harvard university, from which he received his degree

Page  254 254 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN of doctor of medicine. Since the year 1908 he has been established in practice at Iron Mountain, where he has won standing as one of the skilled and representative surgeons of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. In addition to his individual practice he has been a member of the surgical staff of the Iron Mountain General hospital since 1923, and in the World war period he served as a member of the medical advisory board of Dickinson county. Doctor Coffin is a member of the Dickinson County Medical society, and has membership also in the Michigan State Medical society and the American Medical association. His political allegiance is given to the Republican party, and while he has had no desire for public office, his civic loyalty has been shown in his effective service as a member of the Iron Mountain board of education since 1918. He is a member of the local Rotary club and the Pine Grove Golf club, Michigan chapter, Sons of American Revolution, and is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity. The year 1910 was marked by the marriage of Doctor Coffin to Miss Emily Beeson, who was born at Marshalltown, Iowa, graduated from Cornell university, Ithaca, New York, and was a teacher of history at Iron Mountain prior to her marriage. Mrs. Coffin has continued prominent and influential in cultural circles, and in 1925 she had the distinction of serving as president of the American Association of University Women. She is an influential and popular member of the Woman's club of Iron Mountain. Doctor and Mrs. Coffin have three children, Dorothy, Frances, and Leslie E., Jr., all of whom are attending the Iron Mountain public schools, where (in the winter of 1926-27) the two daughters are students in the high school. John B. Erickson is engaged in business as an undertaker and funeral director at Iron Mountain, county seat of Dickinson county, and his mortuary establishment is known for its metropolitan facilities and service. Mr. Erickson was born in Sweden, August 13, 1884, and the death of his father, Erick J. Erickson, occurred in the following year, the widowed mother, whose maiden name was Anna Lagerlund, having later come to the United States, in 1892 and is now a resident of Norway, Dickinson county. She married Barnard Rehn, who has since died. She is an attendant of the Swedish Methodist Episcopal church. The schools of his native land afforded John B. Erickson his youthful education and he was fifteen years of age when, in 1899, he came to the United States and established his residence at Norway, Michigan, where for three years he was in the employ of the Oliver Iron Mining company. During the ensuing four and one-half years he was there employed in the hospital conducted by Dr. E. P. Lockhart, and in 1907 he took a position in the undertaking establishment of L. G. Zackrel, at Fond du Lac, Wisconsin. In 1909 he took a course in the Barnes School of Embalming, in the city of Chicago, and in 1910 he returned to Norway, Michigan, and engaged independently in business as an undertaker and funeral director. In 1913 he removed his business to Iron Mountain, the county seat,

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Page  255 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 255 and he has continued as one of the leading morticians in this city during the intervening years. He has served as county coroner since 1918, is now a member of the board of cemetery trustees in his home city, and is a Republican in politics, he having become a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1904. Mr. Erickson is a member of the Wisconsin Funeral Directors association, and is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity, the Knights of Pythias, the Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks, and the Order of Vasa. His wife has membership in the Order of the Eastern Star, the Pythian Sisters and the Woman's club, of Iron Mountain. September 21, 1912, Mr. Erickson was united in marriage to Miss Bertha Bredesen, who was born at Florence, Wisconsin, of Norwegian parentage. Mr. and Mrs. Erickson have one child, Everett, who is attending the public schools of his home city. Artemas C. Wells, president of the J. W. Wells company, one of the largest lumber companies in the state of Michigan, is a conspicuous figure in the lumber field in this section of the country, particularly in the manufacture of hardwood and hemlock lumber and maple flooring. John W. Wells, his father, was born in Iowa in 1848, and was of English extraction, the Wells family having founded the English city of that name. He was engaged in the lumber business at Oconto, Wisconsin, until 1875, when he moved his mills to Menominee, Michigan. In 1878, he became vice-president and general manager of the Girard Lumber company, of this city, and was also president of the Bird, Wells Lumber company, of Wausaukee, Wisconsin, and president of the Wisconsin & Northern Railroad company. He was one of the foremost lumbermen of this region during his life, his death occurring August 17, 1921. He was a member of the various Masonic bodies and the Presbyterian church. In 1873 he married Isabel Crawford, born in New Brunswick of Scotch parentage, and her death occurred July 23, 1910. They were the parents of Artemas C. Wells, who was born at Menominee, Michigan, in 1877, acquired his early education in the schools of this city, and attended Hamilton college, from which he graduated in 1899. Returning to Menominee upon the completion of his college career, Mr. Wells went to work for his father, starting as a common laborer in the mills in order that he might learn every detail of the business from the ground up. In 1903, he became secretary of the Girard Lumber company, and in the same year, when the J. W. Wells company was organized, he became vice-president and general manager of that concern. A fire destroyed the plant of the Girard Lumber company in 1910 and a new modern establishment was erected, at which time the business of the company was included under the name of the J. W. Wells company. Since the death of his father in 1921, Mr. Wells has been president of the company, although he was the virtual manager of the enterprise for some time prior to that year. The company is engaged in the manufacture of hardwood and hemlock lumber and maple flooring, and in its field, it stands as one of

Page  256 256 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN the largest in the state of Michigan and one of the best known in this section of the country. Large timber holdings in the Iron river district are controlled by the company and offer a great supply of hardwood for many years to come. Mr. Wells is president of the Maple Flooring association, Menominee Box & Lumber Co. attesting the prominence he has attained in that industry and he is also a director of the Menominee River Sugar company. The brother of Mr. Wells, R. W. Wells, is treasurer and superintendent of the J. W. Wells company. On January 14, 1903, Mr. Wells married Hattie Stephenson, the daughter of Hon. Samuel and Jane (Harris) Stephenson and the niece of ex-Senator Isaac Stephenson. They have two sons, John, who is a student at Hamilton college, Clinton, New York, and Samuel, who is attending high school. Mr. Wells is a member of the Masonic order, the Chamber of Commerce, Riverside Country club, Union League club, of Chicago, and the Chicago Yacht club. In religious faith, he is a Presbyterian, and in political matters, he supports the Republican party. Sam Cudlip is one of the progressive business men and influential citizens of Iron Mountain, of which city he became a resident in his boyhood days. Here he is now engaged in the drug business, as owner of one of the modern and well equipped drug stores of the city. He was alderman and supervisor, besides which he formerly held for two years the office of city treasurer, and has been for four years president of the municipal board of water commissioners, these various official preferments standing as evidence of the high estimate placed upon him in his home community. Mr. Cudlip was born at Calumet, Houghton county, Michigan, January 22, 1873, and in the years that have since passed he has never severed his allegiance to the Upper Peninsula of his native state. He is a son of James and Ann (Luxmore) Cudlip, both natives of Cornwall, England, where the former was born in 1848 and the latter in 1850, their marriage having been solemnized in their native country. James Cudlip gained his early mining experience as a workman in the Cornish mines of England, and he was twenty-three years of age when he came to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and found employment in the coppermining district. Later he established the family home at Iron Mountain, and here he met his death in an accident in the Chapin iron mine, in 1882, when he was but thirty-four years of age, his widow having passed away in 1892, at the age of forty-two years and both having been members of the Methodist church. Sam Cudlip was a lad of nine years at the time of his father's death, but for him his devoted mother made the best possible provision, he having been enabled to attend the public schools of Iron Mountain until he was thirteen years of age, and his broader education having been gained in the school of practical experience. At the age noted Mr. Cudlip found employment in the drug store of E. J. Ingram, with whom he remained eight years and made good use of the opportunities afforded him for acquiring accurate in

Page  257 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 257 formation in all details of pharmacy. He was next employed one year in a drug store at Marquette, and he then returned to Iron Mountain and took a position in the drug store of G. F. Seibert, by whom he was admitted to partnership in 1906, he having purchased the interest of Mr. Seibert July 22, 1921, and having since conducted the business in an individual way and with marked success. Mr. Cudlip has proved notably loyal in his civic attitude and is now representing the Third ward, besides being supervisor of that ward. Of other official positions that he has held in connection with the municipal government, mention has already been made. Mr. Cudlip is a Republican in political adherency, he and his wife have membership in the Presbyterian church, he is affiliated with the Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks and the Modern Woodmen of America, and his name appears on the membership rolls of the local Rotary club and Pine Grove Golf club. His wife is an active member of the Woman's club of Iron Mountain and is a popular figure in the social circles of the community. In 1896 Mr. Cudlip wedded Miss Bertha Irene Cruse, who likewise was born at Calumet, Houghton county, and the children of this union are three in number: Phyllis remains at the parental home; Merlin is secretary of the Packard Motor company, Detroit, Michigan; and Genevieve is the youngest member of the parental home circle. Ray E. MacAllister has definite precedence as one of the representative younger members of the bar of Dickinson county, as is evident when it is recorded that at the time of this writing he is serving as prosecuting attorney of this county, with official headquarters at Iron Mountain, the county seat. Mr. MacAllister was born in the city of Oconto, Wisconsin, October 13, 1892, and is a son of Angus and Rachel (Durgen) MacAllister, the former a native of the Dominion of Canada, and the latter born in Bangor, Maine. Angus MacAllister, a scion of sterling Scotch ancestry, was born at New Mills, New Brunswick, Canada, in the year 1845, was reared and educated in his native province and was a youth of twenty years when he came to the United States and established his residence in Wisconsin. In that state he was concerned in pioneer lumbering operations, and eventually he developed a substantial real-estate business at Oconto, besides which he gave twelve years of loyal and effective service as treasurer of Oconto county. He was one of the venerable and honored citizens of Oconto, at the time of his death, in 1923, was a Republican in politics, was affiliated with the Elks, the Knights of Pythias and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and both he and his wife were earnest members of the Presbyterian church, the death of Mrs. MacAllister having occurred in 1920. In the public schools of his native city Ray E. MacAllister continued his studies until his graduation in the high school, as a member of the class of 1911. In 1915 he was graduated from Lake Forest college, Lake Forest, Illinois, with the degree of bachelor of arts, and in preparation for

Page  258 258 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN his chosen profession he entered the law school of historic old Harvard university, in which he was graduated as a member of the class of 1921 and with the degree of bachelor of laws. He forthwith established himself in the practice of his professipn at Iron Mountain, Michigan, and in February of the year, 1924, he was appointed acting prosecuting attorney of Dickinson county, and was elected November, 1924, prosecuting attorney, the office of which he has since continued the vital and resourceful incumbent. Mr. MacAllister made a record of loyal service in the United States army in the World war period, he having enlisted in 1917, in the first officers training camp, Fort Sheridan, Illinois, and was commissioned first lieutenant. His overseas service was mainly in Russia. He is affiliated with the American Legion, the 40 & 8, Exalted Ruler of the Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks, No. 700 and the Masonic fraternity, in which last he has received the Thirty-second degree of the Scottish Rite and is also a noble of the Mystic Shrine, and in his home city he is a director of the Chamber of Commerce and a member of the Lions club and the Pine Grove Golf club. His political allegiance is given to the Republican party, and he has membership in the Dickinson County Bar association and the Michigan State Bar association. In June 1921, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. MacAllister to Miss Edna Northstrum, who was born at Marinette, Wisconsin, of staunch Swedish ancestry. Mrs. MacAllister is affiliated with the Order of the Eastern Star, is a member of the Woman's club of Iron Mountain, and both she and her husband are members of the Presbyterian church. Mr. and Mrs. MacAllister have a fine little son, Ray James, born in 1922. Urgel F. Asselin was born in the province of Ontario, Canada, February 4, 1887, and was a child of four years at the time of the family removal to Dickinson county, Michigan, in which fine industrial county of the Upper Peninsula he has maintained his home during the years that have since passed and that have brought to him success and prominence in his varied business operations. He still has the management of the fine dairy farm that was conducted by his father until the latter's death, is prominently identified with the creamery business, with plants at Norway and Iron Mountain, and in the latter city, the county seat, he is the owner of the business conducted under the title of the Asselin Motor company. Mr. Asselin is a son of Noah and Rachel (Countre) Asselin, both of whom were born and reared in Canada and the latter of whom is of French ancestry. Noah Asselin came with his family to Dickinson county, Michigan, in 1891, and for seven years thereafter he was employed in the meat market of Patrick Flannigan, at Norway. In 1902 he purchased a dairy farm near Norway, and to the management of this well improved farm he continued to give his supervision until his death, in 1908, at the age of forty-four years, he having been killed in an accident that occurred while he was blasting out tree stumps on his farm. He

Page  259 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 259 was a Republican in politics and was a communicant of the Catholic church, as is also his widow, who, at the age of sixty-two years, now maintains her residence in the city of Valparaiso, Indiana. In the public schools of Norway, Dickinson county, Urgel F. Asselin acquired his youthful education, and is a graduate of Valparaiso with class of 1908. After his school days he gave effective service in connection with the operations of his father's dairy farm, of which he has had the active management since the death of his father, in 1908. In 1918 Mr. Asselin assumed control of the plant of the Norway Creamery company, and has since operated the same successfully in the manufacturing of butter and ice cream. In 1922 he established a creamery branch at Iron Mountain, and in this city he is also a progressive and successful representative of the automobile business, he having taken in 1926 the sales and service agency for the Hudson and Essex automobiles and having since conducted the business under the title of Asselin Motor company. Mr. Asselin has been not only a resourceful and successful business man but has been also loyal and public-spirited as a citizen. He is a member of the Norway Board of Public works, is president of the Dickinson County Fair association, is a director of the Welfare club at Norway, and he served two terms as a member of the board of aldermen of that city, in the period of 1910 -14. His political alignment is with the Republican party, he and his wife are communicants of the Catholic church, and he is affiliated with the Knights of Columbus, Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks, Loyal Order of Moose, and Independent Order of Foresters, the while his wife is a member of the Woman's club, of Norway. In the year 1919 was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Asselin to Miss Myda Corcoran, who was born at Escanaba, Michigan, of Irish ancestry on both paternal and maternal sides. Mr. and Mrs. Asselin still maintain their home at Norway, and that home is brightened by the presence of their two children, Elaine and Urgel F., Jr. Benjamin S. Gutelius, M. D., is president, in 1926-27, of the Dickinson & Iron County Medical society, and is established in the practice of his profession in the thriving industrial city of Norway, Dickinson county, where he is the executive physician and surgeon of the modern hospital maintained by the Bethlehem Steel company, the major industrial corporation in this immediate district of the Upper Peninsula. Doctor Gutelius was born at Leicester, New York, in the year 1885, and is a son of Rev. Fisher Gutelius and Frances (Barnum) Gutelius, the former of whom was born in Pennsylvania, July 17, 1844, and the latter of whom was born in the state of New York, in 1861, she being now a resident of Morristown, New Jersey. Rev. Fisher Gutelius was a member of Company D., 150th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry and a gallant soldier of the Union in the Civil war, his early education having been gained in the public schools of the old Keystone State, where he later continued his studies in Lafayette college, in which he was

Page  260 260 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN duly graduated. He gave thirty-two years of earnest and able service as a clergyman of the Presbyterian church and his death occurred in 1907, when he was sixty-two years of age. Doctor Benjamin S. Gutelius attended the public schools of various places in which his father had pastoral charges, and his higher literary education was acquired in old Williams college, Williamstown, Massachusetts, in which he was graduated with the degree of bachelor of arts. In the medical department of the University of Michigan he was graduated in 1914, with the degree of doctor of medicine, and since 1918 he has served as physician and surgeon of the Bethlehem Steel company's hospital at Norway, Michigan. In this connection he has gained specially high reputation in the surgical branch of his profession. In addition to being at the time of this writing, in the winter of 1926-27, the president of the medical society of Dickinson and Iron counties, Doctor Gutelius likewise has membership in the Michigan State Medical society and the American Medical association. He is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity, is a Republican in politics and in his home community is a member of the Pine Grove Country club. His wife is a member of the Woman's club, of Norway and also of the Unitarian church in this city. August 31, 1915, recorded the marriage of Doctor Gutelius to Miss Edith Jewell, who was born and reared at Dunkirk, New York, and the one child of this union is a son, Robert, now six years of age. Edward J. Dundon one of the representative younger members of the bar of Dickinson county, has been established in the practice of his profession at Iron Mountain, the county seat, since 1922, and is now circuit-court commissioner of Dickinson county. Mr. Dundon was born, at Ishpeming, Marquette county, Michigan, in the year 1896, and is a son of Thomas J. and Margaret (Stack) Dundon, the former of whom was born in Ireland, May 16, 1853, and the latter of whom was born at Delaware, Ohio. Thomas J. Dundon was not yet one year old when, in 1854, his parents came from the fair old Emerald Isle and established their residence at Marquette, Michigan, where he was reared to adult age and acquired his early education. Later he was graduated in the law department of the University of Michigan, besides which, in 1873, he was graduated in the science department of Notre Dame university, South Bend, Indiana, from which likewise he received the degree of master of accounts, besides having twice won the medal of honor. He taught school a few years at Clarksburg, Michigan, and after leaving the University of Michigan he engaged in the practice of law at Ishpeming, where he gained rank as one of the leading members of the bar of Marquette county. He served eight years as postmaster of Ishpeming, was supervisor of Champion township a number of years, and for thirty years was chairman of the Marquette county Democratic committee. He and his wife still reside at Ishpeming, where he is now retired from the active practice of his profession, and both are zealous communicants of

Page  261 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 261 the Catholic church, the while he is affiliated with the Knights of Columbus and the Ancient Order of Hibernians. Of the other children of the family brief record may here be offered: Doctor John R. is a successful physician and surgeon in the city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin; George A. was graduated in Marquette university, Milwaukee, in 1924, and is now associated with the Milwaukee Journal, a leading daily paper of the Wisconsin metropolis; Thomas S. is a mechanical and mining engineer in the state of Arizona; Mary is the wife of Gait Stockly, of Cleveland, Ohio; Margaret, who was graduated in Rosary college at River Forest, Illinois, remains at the parental home. Edward J. Dundon acquired his early education by attending the parochial and public schools of his native city of Ishpeming, and prior to preparing himself for his chosen profession he had given loyal overseas service in the World war. He volunteered in 1917, shortly after the nation, entered the war, and at Indianapolis, Indiana, he received his commission as a second lieutenant in Battery A, United States Artillery, his service in the army having covered a period of two years, at the expiration of which he received his honorable discharge. In 1922 Mr. Dundon was graduated in his father's alma mater, the law department of Notre Dame university, South Bend, Indiana, and after thus receiving his degree of bachelor of laws and bachelor of philosophy, he was, in that year, admitted to the bar in both Michigan and Wisconsin. He forthwith opened an office at Iron Mountain, and his ability and personality have enabled him here to build up a substantial and representative law practice. He is a popular member of the Dickinson County Bar association, and likewise has membership in the Michigan State Bar association. He is a member of the National Association Against the Prohibition Amendment to the United States constitution, is a Republican in politics, his religious faith is that of the Catholic church, he is affiliated with the American Legion, and in his home city he is a member of the Kiwanis club. His name is still enrolled on the roster of eligible bachelors in Dickinson county. Medio J. Bacco has made in his chosen field of business a distinct record of success, and he has built up a substantial and prosperous enterprise as a contractor in road construction, with residence and business headquarters in the city of Iron Mountain, Dickinson county. Mr. Bacco was born in Italy, January 1, 1889, and in the following year his parents, Angelo and Victoria (Campese) Bacco, came to the United States and established their home at Iron Mountain, Michigan, where the father found employment as a miner in the mines of the Oliver Iron Mining company. He here continued his residence until his death, in 1913, at the age of fifty-six years, and his widow passed away in 1925, at the age of fifty-six years. The schools of Iron Mountain gave to Medio J. Bacco his youthful education, and his discipline included that of the high school. From 1909 to 1915 he was employed in the en

Page  262 262 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN gineers department of the Dickinson County Road commission, and since the latter year he has been independently engaged in business as an efficient and successful contractor in highway construction work. He is also vice-president of the Champion Gravel company, of Marquette, and vice president of the Surface & Supply company, of Iron Mountain, besides which he is a director of the Commercial bank of Iron Mountain, the Iron Mountain Gas company and the Iron Mountain Real Estate company. He is one of the progressive business men and loyal and appreciative citizens of the land in which he was reared, and in his home community his circle of friends is limited only by that of his acquaintances. His political support is given to the Republican party, he is an active member of the local Rotary club, is a member of the Pine Grove Country club, and is a past exalted ruler of Iron Mountain lodge, Benevolent & Protective Order of Elks. July 15, 1920, Mr. Bacco was united in marriage to Miss Violet McLeod, who was born in the Dominion of Canada, of Scotch ancestry, she being a member of the Presbyterian church and of the Woman's club in her home city. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Bacco are two daughters, Catherine Jane, and Betty Violet. Oscar Kraus has built up in his native city of Escanaba, judicial center of Delta county, a substantial investment, bond, real estate, and insurance business, and maintains his office headquarters in the Escanaba National Bank building. Mr. Kraus was born in Escanaba, September 20, 1889, and is a son of Frank J. and Louise (Loeffler) Kraus, the former of whom was born in Germany and the latter at Watertown, Wisconsin. Frank J. Kraus was born in 1849 and was a child of about four years when, in 1853, his parents came to the United States and became pioneer settlers at Watertown, Wisconsin, where he was reared and educated and where his marriage was solemnized. In 1880 he removed with his family to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and engaged in the real estate and insurance business at Escanaba, where he continued his successful activities along these lines until his death, in May, 1915, when he was sixty-six years of age. Mr. Kraus was one of the influential and highly esteemed citizens of Escanaba, and served three years as city assessor, and for a number of years he gave characteristically loyal service as a member of the board of education and also as a member of the county board of supervisors. He was a supporter of the cause of the Republican party, was affiliated with the Knights of Columbus, and was a communicant of the Catholic church, as was also his widow, who died in January, 1927. The early educational discipline of Oscar Kraus was obtained in the parochial school of St. Joseph's Catholic church in Escanaba, and thereafter he was a student in St. Francis college in the city of Cincinnati, Ohio. After his return to Escanaba he entered the employ of the Chicago & North Western railroad, and in this connection he continued his service until February 1, 1921, when he engaged in the bond and investment

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Page  263 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 263 business, his operations having since been expanded to include also the real estate and insurance business. Mr. Kraus is aligned loyally in the local ranks of the Republican party, he and his wife are communicants of St. Joseph's Catholic church, he is an active member of the local Chamber of Commerce and the Escanaba Golf club, and is affiliated with the Knights of Columbus and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, his wife being a member of the Woman's club of Escanaba. September 15, 1914, was the date of the marriage of Mr. Kraus to Miss Anna M. Schemmel, who likewise was born and reared in Escanaba, a daughter of Louis N. and Mary Schemmel, and she is a graduate of the high school in her native city. Mr. and Mrs. Kraus have two children: James J. and Elizabeth Jane. Marshall N. Hunt has been a resident of Sault Ste. Marie during a period of more than thirty years and has been actively and prominently concerned with the development and progress of this city, especially through his operations as a contractor and builder. He is president of the Lock City Manufacturing company and also of the company that here conducts the Cowan-Hunt department store, besides which he is vice-president of the Central Savings bank. Mr. Hunt was born in the province of Ontario, Canada, April 10, 1861, and is a son of Joseph and Catherine (Curts) Hunt, the former of whom was born in Lincolnshire, England, and the latter in the state of Pennsylvania. Joseph Hunt was a child of three years when his parents came to America and established residence in Ontario, Canada, where he was reared and educated and where eventually he became a substantial and prosperous farmer and where he continued to reside until his death in 1917, at the venerable age of eighty-seven years, his wife having died in that same year, at the age of eighty-one years. Marshall N. Hunt passed the period of his childhood and early youth on the old home farm that was the place of his birth, and in the meanwhile he duly profited by the advantages of the schools of his native province. Eventually he went to the city of Chicago, where he followed the carpenter's trade and gained his initial experience as a contractor and builder. He there remained until 1886, from which year until 1890 he was similarly engaged in Toronto, Canada. He then returned to Chicago, where he continued his activities until 1893, in July of which year he came to Sault Ste. Marie and engaged in business as a contractor and builder-a line of enterprise with which he has continued his association during the intervening years, within which he has made large contribution to the substantial development and upbuilding of the city. Besides being president of the Lock City Manufacturing company, which is one of the important industrial concerns of this part of the Upper Peninsula, he owns half interest in the large and well ordered Cowan-Hunt department store, he and Mr. Cowan having purchased this store and business, the oldest of the kind on the Upper Peninsula. In 1927 Mr. Hunt erected the Manual Arts building costing $100,000 and is now engaged in

Page  264 264 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN building the Ojibway Park hotel costing $250,000 and the best in the Upper Peninsula. Mr. Hunt is affiliated with both York and Scottish Rite bodies of the Masonic fraternity, as well as the Mystic Shrine, and he and his wife have membership in the Methodist Episcopal church. He is vice-president of the local Chamber of Commerce, and has served as a member of the municipal board of public works in his home city. His wife, whose maiden name was Gertrude Eckardt, likewise was born in Ontario, Canada, she being a daughter of the late William C. and Elizabeth Eckardt and her father having been a farmer by vocation. Mrs. Pearl Westcott, eldest of the children of Mr. and Mrs. Hunt, now resides in Los Angeles, California, she having been born in Chicago; Elmer M., likewise a native of Chicago, is now engaged in the contracting and building business at Sault Ste. Marie; Miss Gladys, who was born in Toronto, Canada, remains at the parental home; Wilda, who was born at Sault Ste. Marie, is the wife of Stewart Blaine, of this city; Maurice, born and reared in his present home city, is here connected with the Cowan-Hunt department store; and Gertrude is now absent from her native city, as a student in Ferry Hall, Lake Forest, Illinois. Wells E. Hallenbeck has been long and prominently identified with the lumber industry and is now concerned with extensive logging and general lumbering operations on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, as vice-president of the J. W. Wells Lumber company and with residence and executive headquarters in the city of Iron Mountain, judicial center of Dickinson county. Mr. Hallenback, whose advancement in connection with business affairs has been won entirely through his own ability and well ordered efforts, is able to revert to the Hawkeye State as the place of his nativity, as he was born at Davenport, Iowa, March 1, 1868. He is a son of William J. and Mary (Wells) Hallenbeck, the former of whom was born in Albany, New York, August 6, 1833, and the latter of whom was born at Davenport, Iowa, a representative of one of the early pioneer families of that city, where her marriage to Mr. Hallenbeck was solemnized in 1865. William J. Hallenbeck was reared and educated in the old Empire State and served in Company C 20th Regiment Iowa Volunteers during virtually the entire period of the Civil war, he having enlisted early in the year 1861 and having continued in service until the close of the war, the while he took part in many engagements, including a number of major battles. It was in the year that marked the close of the war that his marriage occurred, at Davenport, Iowa, as previously noted, and in 1868 he removed from that state to Kansas and entered a homestead claim on the newly opened Osage Indian reservation, he having assisted in transferring the Indians of that district to their new reservation in Indian Territory. He was thereafter prominently identified with the organizing of Osage county, in which his homestead claim was situated, and was elected the first sheriff of that county. He reclaimed and developed his farm

Page  265 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 265 and there continued his residence until 1891, when he came with his family to Dunbar, Marinette county, Wisconsin, but two years later he and his wife returned to their old home farm in Kansas, in which state they passed the remainder of their lives, he having died February 20, 1907, aged seventy-four years and his widow having passed away January 1, 1926, at the venerable age of eightythree years. Wells E. Hallenbeck was an infant at the time of the family removal to Kansas, in the year of his birth, and in the pioneer district of Osage county he had as fellow pupils in the rural school of the period a number of Indian boys. His broader education was that gained in the school of practical experience. As a mere boy he found employment in driving a team for his father and otherwise assisting in the work of the pioneer farm. He was twenty-four years of age when he came to Dunbar, Wisconsin, in 1892, and there he was actively identified with the wholesale and retail meat business. He then went to Wausaukee, Wisconsin, in 1904, and purchased an interest in the Bird & Wells Lumber company, buying the interest of Senator Bird who retired, with which he continued his alliance seventeen years. He was made superintendent of the company's operations in the lumber woods and also became treasurer of the company, of which J. W. Wells was the executive head. When the business of the company was merged with that of the J. W. Wells Lumber company, of Menominee, Michigan, he became vice-president of the latter corporation, the office of which he has since continued the incumbent. In 1920 he established his residence at Iron Mountain, Michigan, in order to be in a place accessible to the company's principal lumber camps, which are established near Ontonagon, Ontonagon county, Iron River, Iron county, Michigan, the operations of the company in these two counties of the Upper Peninsula being conducted on a large scale and the logs from the camps being transported to the saw mills at Menominee, Michigan. While he was a resident of Dunbar Mr. Hallenbeck served two years as chairman of J. W. P. Board and also on county board. While a resident of Dunbar, Wisconsin, he organized the first Methodist Episcopal Sunday school and assisted in organizing the first Methodist Episcopal church and was superintendent of that Sunday school twelve years. He was superintendent of Sunday school at Wausaukee, Wisconsin, seventeen years. He has ever given loyal allegiance to the Republican party, and he and his wife are members of the First Presbyterian church of Iron Mountain, of which he is an elder. He is president of the local Rotary club at the time of this writing, in the winter of 1926-27, is a member of the Pine Grove Country club, and is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity. He is one of the influential citizens and business men of Iron Mountain, and is here a member of the board of directors of the First National bank. December 26, 1886, when he was eighteen years of age, Mr. Hallenbeck was united in marriage to Miss Mary Isabelle Solomon, who was born at Sullivan, Illinois, of English ancestry. The one child of this union is Ella May, who

Page  266 266 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN is the wife of John M. Erickson, a merchant at Channing, Dickinson county. They have one daughter, Verna Mae. Mrs. Hallenbeck is a member of the Woman's club, of Iron Mountain, and also of the local chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star. Gereon Fredrickson, M. D. The effective and loyal service that Doctor Fredrickson is giving in the work of his exacting profession marks him as one of the representative physicians and surgeons of the younger generation on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, where he is established in successful general practice at Iron Mountain, county seat of Dickinson county. His local prestige is the more gratifying to record by reason of the fact that he was born in the city in which he stages his professional activities, his birth having here occurred October 10, 1894. The doctor is a son of Theodore and Amanda (Aronson) Fredrickson, both of whom were born in Sweden, in the same year, 1858, they having been reared and educated in their native land, where their marriage was solemnized and whence they came to the United States in 1889. The parents forthwith established their home at Iron Mountain, and here they still reside, the father being retired, after many years of active service as a miner in the iron mines of this locality. Theodore Fredrickson is a communicant of the Lutheran church, is affiliated with the Scandinavian Fraternity of America, and his wife has membership in the Swedish Baptist church and the local Woman's Relief Corps. The public schools of Iron Mountain, including the high school, afforded Doctor Fredrickson his early education, and in preparation for his chosen profession he entered the Chicago College of Medicine, in which institution he was graduated as a member of the class of 1917 and with the degree of doctor of medicine. It was in that year that the nation entered the World war, and in May, 1918, Doctor Fredrickson was commissioned a first lieutenant in the medical corps of the United States army, in which he was assigned to duty on the permanent staff at Camp Greenleaf, Georgia, where he remained until the close of the war and where he received his honorable discharge in December, 1918. During the ensuing eighteen months he was engaged in professional work in the city of Chicago, and he then returned to Iron Mountain, where he has since continued in successful practice and where he served as city health officer from 1922 to 1926. He is secretary of the Dickinson and Iron County Medical society, a position which he has held since 1922, and has membership also in the Michigan State Medical society. He is affiliated with the American Legion. He is a Mason and holds membership in the Mystic Shrine. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias, and of the Dramatic Order of the (Knights of Khorassan. He is a member also of the Scandinavian Fraternity of America, and the Kiwanis club of his home city counts him as a loyal member. The doctor is a stalwart Republican and was a delegate from Dickinson county to the Michigan State Republican convention of 1926, in Detroit. July 12, 1918,

Page  267 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 267 was marked by the marriage of Doctor Fredrickson to Miss Marguerite Morgan, who was born at Shawano, Wisconsin, of English ancestry, and who was graduated, in 1917, in the Illinois Training School for Nurses in the city of Chicago. She is affiliated with the Order of the Eastern Star, as is also her husband, is a member of the local organization of Pythian Sisters, and is a popular member of the Woman's club in her home city. Doctor and Mrs. Fredrickson have two children: Gereon, Jr., and Marvin. Nicholas A. Bink has been a resident of the city of Escanaba, Delta county, since he was a youth of nineteen years, and has been actively associated with the business interests of this vital community during a period of more than forty years, so that, as proprietor of the City Bottling works, he now ranks as one of the veteran business men of the city. Mr. Bink was born at Fredonia, Wisconsin, September 7, 1866, and is a son of Michael and Mary K. Bink, the former of whom was born in Germany and the latter in Belgium. Michael Bink was a youth of fourteen years when he came to the United States, and after having been for a number of years actively identified with farm industry in Wisconsin he engaged in the hotel business at Belgium, Wisconsin, Ozaukee county, where also he conducted a general store and served a number of years as justice of the peace. He finally retired from active business and he passed the closing period of his life at West Bend, Wisconsin, where he died in 1922, at the venerable age of eighty-four years. He was a staunch supporter of the cause of the Democratic party and was a communicant of the Catholic church, as was also his wife, who died in 1921, at the age of seventy-five years. The early education of Nicholas A. Bink was obtained mainly in the district schools of Wisconsin, and at the age of nineteen years he came to Escanaba, Michigan, and entered the employ of the Escanaba Brewing company, with which he continued his association three and one-half years. During the ensuing ten years he was here engaged in the retail liquor business, and thereafter he conducted a substantial wholesale liquor business, under the title of Bink Wholesale Liquor and Supply company, until the national prohibition laws came into effect. Since 1922 he has been the proprietor of the City Bottling works, and has developed a prosperous business in the bottling of aerated beverages and other "soft drinks." Mr. Bink has been an upright and reliable citizen and business man and has a host of friends in this section of the Upper Peninsula. He gives his political allegiance to the Republican party, he and his family are communicants of the Catholic church, and he is affiliated with the local lodge of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. On the eighth of September, 1891, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Bink to Miss Anna Groos, who was born and reared in Escanaba and who is a daughter of the late Peter and Anna (Huffman) Groos, of whom more specific mention is made in the personal sketch of their son Dr. John O. Groos, elsewhere in this volume.

Page  268 268 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Mrs. Bink is a member of the Altar society of St. Joseph's Catholic church and is affiliated with the woman's organization of the Catholic Order of Foresters. In conclusion is given brief record concerning the children of Mr. and Mrs. Bink: Miss Mary K. resides in the city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Michael T., who is engaged in the retail drug business at Escanaba, married Miss Aurelia Labelle of this city; Jacob A., who married Miss Lillian Peller, of Escanaba, is successfully established in the mercantile business in his native city; Theresa is the wife of John C. Schrannel, superintendent of Phoenix Products company and they reside in Oakland, California. Frank is in the employ of the Chicago & North Western Railroad company; William is a resident of Escanaba; Rose, who remains at the parental home, is a talented pianist and as such is a member of the Collegian Orchestra of Escanaba; Winnie, and Nicholas, Jr., at home with their father. Torval E. Strom. The city of Escanaba, judicial center of Delta county, claims Mr. Strom as one of the able and representative members of its bar. He has here been engaged in the practice of his profession since 1908 and has given effective service as prosecuting attorney of the county and also as circuit court commissioner. Mr. Strom was born at Neenah, Wisconsin, April 1, 1885, and is a son of Louis J. and Karen B. (Salthammer) Strom, both of whom were born in Norway, their marriage having been solemnized in the- old Tilden hotel at Escanaba, Michigan, August 31, 1873, and they have maintained their home in this city during the intervening years, so that they now have rank among the sterling pioneer citizens of Delta county. Louis J. Strom was reared and educated in his native land and thence came to the United States in 1872, his marriage having occurred at Escanaba in the following year. He was for many years in the service of the Chicago & North Western railroad, and by this corporation he was retired and pensioned in 1919, he now having attained to the venerable age of eighty-seven years. He is a Republican in politics and is a communicant of the Norwegian Lutheran church, his wife, who died January 15, 1927, was during her life a member of the Christian Science church. In the Escanaba high school, Torval E. Strom was graduated as a member of the class of 1903, and thereafter he completed the prescribed course in the law department of the University of Michigan, in which he was graduated in 1908, his admission to the Michigan bar having been virtually coincident with his recepton of the degree of bachelor of laws and his initiating of the practice of his profession in his native city of Escanaba. Here he served as circuit court commissioner in 1909 -10, and from this office he retired at the time of his election to the office of prosecuting attorney of Delta county, a position which he held during the period of 1911-14, and to which he was again elected in 1917, his second term having expired in 1922. He made a record as one of the vigorous and resourceful prosecuting attorneys of the Upper Peninsula, and since his retirement from

Page  269 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 269 office he has given his close attention to his large and representative private law practice, he having been admitted to practice in the Federal courts of Michigan in October, 1910, and having also presented a number of cases before the supreme court of the state. Mr. Strom has membership in the Delta County Bar association and the Michigan State Bar association, as well as the American Bar association, and the Michigan Honorary Fraternity of Barristers. His political allegiance is given to the Republican party, and he has been influential in its councils and campaign activities in his home county. He is a director of the Escanaba Chamber of Commerce, was president and secretary of the Delta County Fair association in the period of 1909-15, is a life member of the Michigan Union, is a popular member of the Escanaba Golf club, in the Masonic fraternity he has received the thirty-second degree of the Scottish Rite, and he is affiliated also with the Knights of Pythias, the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and the Scandinavian Fraternity of America. Mrs. Strom is a member of the Woman's club and the local chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star. November 11, 1912, was marked by the marriage of Mr. Strom to Miss Clara W. Wheaton, who was born at Marinette, Wisconsin, a daughter of Peter and Seena Wheaton. Mrs. Strom was, graduated in the high school at Menominee, Michigan, and also in a business college in that city. Wheaton Strom, only child of Mr. and Mrs. Strom, is, in the winter of 1926-27, still a student in the Escanaba public schools. Peter Olson is one of the veteran and honored merchants and citizens of Escanaba, county seat of Delta county, where he established his residence when he was a youth and where he has been continuously engaged in the clothing and merchant tailoring business during the long period of forty-five years. His well equipped establishment is situated at No. 1109 Ludington street, and effective service and fair and honorable dealings have constituted the basis on which he has developed his substantial and representative business enterprise. Mr. Olson was born in Sweden, April 13, 1862, and is a son of Olaf Swanson and Ingeborg (Hanson) Swanson, his surname being derived from his father's. personal name, in accordance with an ancient Scandinavian custom that is now obsolete. Mr. Olson was a lad of five years at the time of the death of his father, in 1868, the father having been a farmer in Sweden until the close of his life and his widow having survived by more than a quarter of a century, she having been eighty-two years of age at the time of her death, in 1896, and both having been zealous communicants of the Swedish Lutheran church. The schools of his native land afforded Peter Olson his youthful education, and there also he learned the trade of tailor. In 1882, at the age of nineteen years, he came to the United States, and after passing a short time in the city of Chicago he came to, Escanaba, where he has been engaged in his present line of business during the past forty-five years. He is a director of the State

Page  270 270 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Savings bank of Escanaba, is a Republican in politics, is a communicant of the Lutheran church, and is affiliated with the Knights of Pythias, the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and the Order of the North Star, the last named being a Scandinavian fraternity. Mr. Olson has been distinctly loyal and appreciative as a citizen of his adopted land and has taken deep interest in all matters touching the welfare of his home city, he having served several terms as a member of its board of aldermen and having been for seven years a member of the board of education. At Escanaba, on the 27th of November, 1882, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Olson to Miss Mary Peterson, who likewise was born in Sweden and who came to the United States when she was twenty-three years of age. The supreme loss and bereavement came to Mr. Olson when his loved and devoted wife was summoned to the life eternal, her death having occurred April 30, 1926, when she was sixty-seven years of age. Mrs. Olson was a zealous communicant in the Lutheran church of her home city, and was loved by all who came within the sphere of her gracious and kindly influence. Of the children of Mr. and Mrs. Olson, Roland G. and John E. are deceased; Ida V. is the wife of Walter J. Dalton, of New York City; Dr. Clarence W. is a representative physician and surgeon in his native city of Escanaba and his wife, whose name was Lorraine Matthews, was a resident of Ashland, Wisconsin, prior to their marriage; Dr. Roy H. is a successful chiropractor in New York City; and Chester L. is a resident of the city of Akron, Ohio. John James O'Hara of Menominee, Michigan, is one of the prominent attorneys of this section of Michigan, where he has been engaged in the practice of his profession, not only for himself but also in the service of the people as city attorney for four years and as county prosecutor for one term. He was born at Stiles, Oconto county, Wisconsin, August 11, 1885, the son of Daniel and Elizabeth (Murphy) O'Hara, the former of whom was born in Brown county, Wisconsin, was a dealer in lands, and died December 25, 1917, at the age of fifty-nine years, and the latter of whom was born at Stevens Point, Wisconsin, and is now living at Milwaukee at the age of sixty-four years. One of a family of five sons, all of whom are attorneys, John James O'Hara received a public school education and then entered the Detroit College of Law, whence he graduated in 1908 with the degree of bachelor of laws. In January, 1909, he entered upon the active practice of his profession in Menominee and has since carried on a general practice. He has served four years as attorney for the city and was elected prosecuting attorney of Menominee county, an office which he filled one term. Mr. O'Hara is known as one of the able and successful attorneys in this section of the state and has built up a large and lucrative practice during the years he has been located in Menominee. In professional lines, he maintains membership in the Michigan and America Bar associations. He is now a

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Page  271 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 271 member of the Menominee school board and takes a deep interest in furthering the development of the school system of the city. In January, 1910, Mr. O'Hara married Helen Doyle, who was born in Canada, the daughter of Michael J. and Marie Doyle, both of whom now live in Menominee where the former is a prominent attorney. To Mr. and Mrs. O'Hara have been born four children, Michael, Jack, Helen Nancy, and Mary Eileen. Mr. O'Hara is a member of the Riverside Country club, president of the Rotary club, and a member of the Knights of Columbus, of which he was state deputy for four years. As a member of the Chamber of Commerce, he takes an active interest in the deliberations of that body, and in political matters, he supports the Republican party. The Kemp Family has been one of major prominence and influence in connection with the civic and material development and progress of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, with the history of which region of the Wolverine state the family name has been worthily linked during a period of more than eighty years, and with the history of America the name has been associated since the early colonial era. The three brothers who are now the principals of the Kemp Brothers Coal company, one of the important business concerns in the city of Sault Ste. Marie, are all able to claim this Lock City as the place of their nativity and they are numbered among the representative citizens and business men of Chippewa county and the city that is its judicial center. Joseph Kemp, founder of the family on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, was born at Shelburne, Massachusetts, August 30, 1813, and the common schools of the locality and period gave him his early education. As a young man he went to Ohio, where he lived in the home of his sister, who had married and removed with her husband to the Buckeye state. There Joseph Kemp was associated with farm industry until 1845, when he voyaged to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, which was then a veritable wilderness, he having made the voyage on the brig Ramsey Crooks, operated by a leading fur company. He was most favorably impressed with this region and established his residence at the falls of the St. Mary's river, the present site of Sault Ste. Marie. Here he gave his attention to fishing and fur-trading enterprise until his removal to Lime Island, which is included in the present Chippewa county. On this island he carried forward reclamation and development work after he had purchased the island, and there he instituted the propagation of hay, wheat and potatoes-undoubtedly the first undertaking of this kind on the entire Upper Peninsula. In 1853 Mr. Kemp again established his residence at Sault Ste. Marie, where he was employed to locate land granted by the state of Michigan to the company that was to construct the original ship canal at this point. In the period of 1862-65 he was keeper of the lighthouse at Whitefish Point, and thereafter he served as deputy customs inspector at Pigeon River and Sault Ste. Marie until 1875. He then returned to Lime Island, and it is to be recalled that he laughingly desig

Page  272 272 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN nated himself as the "governor of Lime Island." Joseph Kemp had a large part in the march of development and progress in this section of the Upper Peninsula, was a man of sterling character and commanded unqualified popular confidence and good will. His wife, whose maiden name was Harriet Bell, was a daughter of Captain Elias Bell, farmer and patriot soldier, and their marriage was solemnized June 10, 1840, Mrs. Kemp having thus shared with her husband in the experiences of the pioneer days on the Upper Peninsula, where both continued to reside until their death. They became the parents of five children: Christine (widow of Guy H. Carleton), Lewis, Joanna, Joseph B., and George. Joseph B. served with distinction as captain of his company in a Michigan regiment in the Civil war. Joseph Kemp was a son of Captain Lawrence Kemp, who was a patriot soldier of the Continental Line in the War of the Revolution, gained the rank of captain, and was one of the minute men in service at the historic battle of Lexington. He was a farmer by vocation and continued his residence in Massachusetts until his death, as did also his wife, whose maiden name was Mehitable Ellis. Summer, eldest of their children, died at sea; Lawrence, Jr., was a resident of Massachusetts at the time of his death; Abner became a successful livestock man in Indiana and died in that state; John and Benjamin died in Massachusetts; Lucinda became the wife of Orrin Dole and died in Ohio; Joseph, whose career has already been given, was the next in order of birth; and Noah was the youngest of the children. George Kemp, son of Joseph the pioneer, was born at Sault Ste. Marie, August 2, 1847, and after attending school at Ypsilanti, he was employed for a time as brakeman on the Michigan Central railroad between Detroit and Dexter. Thereafter he was for two years a student in the high school at Ann Arbor, and after returning to Sault Ste. Marie he became a clerk in the mercantile establishment of Thomas Ryan. Later he was similarly employed by L. P. Trempe, with whom he remained until he was appointed toll receiver at Sault Ste. Marie, under Guy H. Carleton. He retained this position two years, and during the ensuing five years he was bookkeeper for the firm of Barker, Williams & Bangs, contractors. He then engaged independently in the forwarding and shipping business, in connection with which enterprise he became the owner of the Union docks at Sault Ste. Marie. Mr. Kemp was a recognized leader in business and civic affairs in his native city, where he served as president of the Sault Ste. Marie Savings bank and a director of the First National bank, and where he established and developed the large and important wholesale and retail coal business that he turned over to his three sons, in 1917, the enterprise being now conducted under the title of Kemp Brothers Coal company. Mr. Kemp was a stalwart and well fortified advocate of the principles of the Republican party, and he was called upon to serve in various public offices of local trust, including those of county clerk, county treasurer, township supervisor and village clerk of Sault Ste. Marie before the place gained its city charter.

Page  273 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 273 He was affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and the Knights of Pythias, and was one of the venerable and honored native sons of Sault Ste. Marie at the time of his death. He married Miss Viola F. Heichhold, and her death occurred at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, August 3, 1924, when she was seventy years of age. These sterling pioneers are survived by three sons: Harry B., Guy C., and J. Brenton, who are the constituent principals in the Kemp Brothers Coal company in their native city of Sault Ste. Marie. Two sons Alexander P., and Dayton Glenn, died in November, 1918, and April 1914, respectively. Harry Bell Kemp, eldest of the three living sons, received his early education in the public schools of Sault Ste. Marie, as did also his two brothers, and after his school days he forthwith became associated with the coal business that was conducted by his honored father, the latter having turned the business over to the three sons in 1917, as previously noted in this review. Harry B. Kemp wedded Miss Pauline Jane Howden, who was born at Copemish, Michigan, a daughter of William and Ella Howden, the former of whom is deceased and the latter of whom resides at Sault Ste. Marie. Mr. Howden having been long and successfully engaged in the hay and grain business. The one child of Mr. and Mrs. Harry B. Kemp is a daughter, Viola June, born in 1924. Guy C. Kemp, the second son, married Miss Gertrude Keliher, who likewise was born at Sault Ste. Marie and who is a daughter of Peter C. and Mary Keliher, her father having here been engaged in the wholesale grocery business at the time of his death and her widowed mother being now a resident of Detroit. Mr. and Mrs. Kemp have one child, Betty Ann, who was born at Lansing, this state, in 1917, and who is now a resident in the Loretto academy of Sault Ste. Marie. J. Brenton Kemp, youngest of the three brothers constituting the Kemp Brothers Coal company, married Miss Peggy Matson, daughter of Andrew and Mary Matson of Sault Ste. Marie, where her father is associated with the Union Carbide company. Mr. and Mrs. Kemp likewise have a winsome daughter, Gloria, who was born in the year 1923. The Kemp brothers are numbered among the progressive business men and liberal and public-spirited citizens of their native city, and all render loyal allegiance to the Republican party, though they have manifested no desire for the honors or emoluments of political office. John Otto Groos, M. D., who is established in the successful general practice of his profession in the city of Escanaba, county seat of Delta county, was born and reared in this county, where his parents established their residence more than half a century ago and gained in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan a goodly measure of pioneer distinction. Doctor Groos was born in the little village of Flat Rock, Delta county, April 18, 1869, and is a son of Peter and Anna (Huffman) Groos, both natives of Germany, where the former was born in 1843 and the latter in 1842. Peter Groos came with his parents to the United States in 1853, when he was a lad of ten years, and the family home was established in Illinois.

Page  274 274 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN It was from Peoria, that state, that Peter Groos came to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and established his residence at Flat Rock, Delta county, where he operated a stone quarry until 1870, when he took charge of the brick kilns at Tromby, this county. In 1872 he established the family home at Escanaba, and here he continued in the service of the Chicago & North Western railroad until 1880, when he returned to the farm that he had developed and improved near Flat Rock. There he continued his productive activities as an agriculturist and stock-grower more than twenty years and there he remained until his death, October 3, 1903. Mr. Groos was one of the highly esteemed pioneer citizens of Delta county, did well his part in advancing civic and industrial progress, was a Democrat in politics, and he and his wife were communicants of the Catholic church. Mrs. Groos was reared and educated in Germany, was a young woman when she came to the United States, in 1865, and it was in that year that her marriage to Mr. Groosv was solemnized. She survived her husband by fifteen years and was seventy-six years of age at the time of her death, in 1918. As a youth Doctor John O. Groos profited by the advantages of the Escanaba public schools, and thereafter he took a commercial course in a business college at Green Bay, Wisconsin, in 1888. In the following year he was a student in the Pharmacentical Department, of Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, and it was in the year 1890 that he was graduated in the medical department of the University of Illinois. In the year that he thus received his well earned degree of doctor of medicine he engaged in the general practice of his profession at Escanaba, and here he has continued his loyal and efficient professional activities during the intervening years, standing as one of the representative physicians and surgeons of his native county. He served as city health officer of Escanaba in 1903-04. The Doctor is an active member of the medical society of Delta county and has membership also in the Michigan State Medical society. His political allegiance is given to the Republican party, is affiliated wth the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and he and his wife are communicants of the Catholic church, Mrs. Groos being a member of the Catholic Woman's club of Escanaba and a prominent figure in the social life of her home city. Doctor Groos is the owner of his attractive home property in Escanaba, and is a director of the Escanaba National bank. In the year 1892 was solemnized the marriage of Doctor Groos to Miss Julia Kellner, who was born at Kellnersville, Wisconsin, and who is a daughter of the late Michael and Mary Kellner, who were numbered among the first settlers of that section of the Badger State, Mr. Kellner having been founder of the village that there perpetuates his name and memory. Doctor and Mrs. Groos have three children: Doctor Louis Groos, eldest of the children, was graduated in his father's alma mater, the medical school of the University of Illinois, as a member of the class of 1912, and he is now associated with his father in practice at Escanaba; Doctor Harold Groos, the second son, was graduated in

Page  275 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 275 the medical department of the University of Illinois in 1921, and in the city of Chicago he is now engaged in the practice of his profession, as specialist in industrial surgery; Marion, youngest of the children, is (winter of 1926-27) a student in Lawrence college, Appleton, Wisconsin. Glen Irwin Beal is widely known to the people of Escanaba, Michigan, and the surrounding country as the proprietor of the Beal Motor Service company, which is one of the leaders in its field here. He was born at Elrod, Pennsylvania, January 1, 1887, the son of Thomas J. and Flora (Deffibaugh) Beal, both natives of Pennsylvania, the former of whom was a locomotive engineer operating out of Brownsville, Pennsylvania. The mother died in 1890. Glen I. Beal attended the public schools of Brazil, Indiana, until he attained his sixteenth year, when he went to work in a clay plant at that city. Subsequently, he went to Urbana, Illinois, where he became a locomotive fireman for the Big Four railroad, continuing in that employment two years and a half. The succeeding year he spent as station agent at Sullivan, Indiana, and for a short time thereafter was connected with the Terre Haute Electric company. In these various jobs, he acquired enough money to study electrical engineering at the University of Illinois for, two years, after which he was employed as an electrician by the American Steel & Tin Plate company, of Gary, Indiana. He then became associated with the Bell Telephone company at Marquette, Michigan, and in 1914, he came to Escanaba, Michigan, where he was employed three years in the garage of L. K. Edwards as a mechanic. In 1917, Mr. Beal set himself up in the garage business, but in 1918, he went to Camp Custer as an automobile mechanic for the Government, so continuing until 1919. Returning to Escanaba at that time, he was associated with the Escanaba Motor company until 1921, when he established the Beal Motor Service, that has since become one of the leading service and storage garages in Escanaba. Mr. Beal is regarded as one of the able and successful men in his field and has made the name of his concern synonymous with the highest quality of workmanship in automobile work. On June 23, 1915, he married Kathryn M. MacGreggor, who was born at Whitedale, Michigan, of Scotch descent. She is a member of the Escanaba Woman's club and the Order of the Eastern Star. They are the parents of one son, John M., aged one year and a half. Active in Masonry, Mr. Beal is past master of the Blue Lodge, and in religious matters, he attends the Presbyterian church. Edwin P. Smith is a leader in various fields of endeavor at Menominee, Michigan, for during the twenty-two years he has been located in this city, he has become the chief entrepeneur of some of the important and successful commercial enterprises of this community. Born at Azalia, Monroe county, Michigan, January 4, 1883, he acquired his early education in the schools of that place and began his career in the employ of the Ann Arbor railroad at

Page  276 276 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Toledo, Ohio, and in 1905, he made his advent to Menominee to represent that company here. Two years later, he relinquished his position with the railroad to organize the Central West Coal company, which he has since operated and which he has developed into the leading fuel company in this city. Not content to confine his activities to one field, he organized in 1922 the Limestone Products company. In the operation of this company, he has been as successful as in his conduct of the coal venture, thus adding another substantial commercial enterprise to Menominee's industrial fabric. Mr. Smith is also president of the Menominee Brick company and has been largely instrumental in the development and advancement of this company. To add still further luster to his name as a business man, Mr. Smith is vicepresident of the Lumberman's National bank, of Menominee. Since his arrival in Menominee, Mr. Smith has interested himself actively in the affairs of his community, and his unselfsh efforts in this direction, brought him election to the school board, of which he served as president for a part of the time of his membership on that body. He was, therefore, a contributing factor to the advancement of the public schools, which rank second to none in cities of the size of Menominee. In 1922-23, he was mayor of the city, his election to that office coming from a grateful citizenry as a fitting tribute to his public-spirited advocacy of those measures best calculated to benefit the municipality and the people therein. Mr. Smith married May Stephenson, the daughter of Andrew C. Stephenson, of Menominee, and to this union were born three children, Mary E., William Kent, and Stephenson. Mr. Smith is a member of the Chamber of Commerce and the Rotary club, and fraternally, he holds membership in the Masonic bodies, including the Knights Templar, and of the Knights of Pythias. Alexander Maitland, the subject of this sketch was long a prominent and influential figure in connection with financial business affairs in the Upper Peninsula, and served as president of the First National bank of Negaunee from the time of its organization until his death in June, 1925. He was one of the leading and most honored citizens of this section of the state and the high esteem in which he was held was indicated by the fact that he served two terms as lieutenant governor of the state. He was prominently identified with the iron industry in which his holdings were large and prominent. Mr. Maitland was one of the pioneer citizens of the Upper Peninsula, having maintained his home here since the 1st of July, 1864, and here he found opportunity to achieve large and definite success through his own efforts, being well deserving of the title of a self-made man. Alexander Maitland was born in Kilmarnock, Scotland, in 1844 and was about eleven years of age at the time of the family removal to America. At the age of fourteen years he began to work upon the home farm, and in the meanwhile he completed his studies during such hours as were at his disposal. Through his self-discipline he made satisfactory advance

Page  277 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 277 ment and he thus continued until the age of about eighteen years. In the winter of 1862 he secured employment in a carriage factory at Galt, Ontario, where he remained about ten months. In July, 1864, he came to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and located at Negaunee, where he secured a position as rodman of the Mineral branch of the Chicago & Northwestern railroad. Two months later he assumed the position of explorer for the Iron Cliffs Mining company, and he was thus employed until 1868, when this corporation gave him the position of surveyor and engineer, which he held for nine years. In 1879 he was appointed assistant general manager and in July, 1881, he succeeded to the office of general manager, in which he served with ability until the 1st of January, 1891. In 1881 he also became general manager of the Cambra & Lillie Mining company, and this office he retained until 1906. He was president of the Black River Mining company, operating on the Gogebic range, and also of the North Lake Mineral Land company, whose properties are on the north shore of Lake Superior. Mr. Maitland made judicious investments in mining stock and real estate and he was president of the First National bank, of Negaunee, from the time of its organization. This is one of the strongest and most popular of the financial institutions of the Upper Peninsula, and besides his identification with the same, Mr. Maitland was a stockholder in the Miners National bank of Ishpeming, the First National bank of Escanaba, and the State bank of Negaunee. Mr. Maitland wielded much influence in connection with the development of the mining industry of the Northern Peninsula, as well as other sections in the union. In 1904 he started development of the "Scott Hill" Iron mine a body of high grade ore, and in 1908 the property was leased to the Volunteer Ore company who operated it until 1916. In that year he started development of "Scott Hill" which is now known as the Maitland Mine and which he made one of the leading silicous ore properties of the Lake Superior district. He was also the owner and operator of the North Home Stake Gold mine located in the Black Hills, South Dakota, and he opened up this property in 1902, besides which he had large mining interests in the state of Minnesota. As a man of great business capacity and broad mental ken, Mr. Maitland naturally showed a loyal and public-spirited interest in public affairs, and he was an uncompromising supporter of the principles and politics for which the Republican party stands sponsor. He served three terms as mayor of Negaunee and was incumbent of the office of county surveyor of Marquette county for two terms. 'In 1896 he was elected to represent his district in the state senate, in which he served two consecutive terms, and in 1902 he was elected lieutenant governor of the state, in which office he served during the administrations of Governors Bliss and Warner, proving a most able and loyal official. He had attained to the thirty-second degree in the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite of the Masonic fraternity. On the 10th of June, 1874, Mr. Maitland was united in marriage to Miss Caroline V. Sterling

Page  278 278 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN who was born at Utica, New York, a daughter of the late Adam J. Sterling. Five children were born to this union: Alexander F., Katherine, Leslie M., Harvey K. and Rena. Roberts P. Hudson is one of the representative members of the bar of the Upper Peninsula of his native state and is established in the practice of his profession in the city of Sault Ste. Marie, with office headquarters in the Adams building. Mr. Hudson was born at Howell, judicial center of Livingston county, Michigan, September 9, 1872, and is a son of Edwin and Frances Martha (Griswold Hudson, the former of whom was born at Farmington, Oakland county, this state, and the latter in the city of Detroit, both families having been founded in Michigan in the pioneer days and the Griswold family having been one of exceptional prominence and influence in Detroit. Honorable George C. Griswold, maternal grandfather of the subject of this review, was acting lieutenant governor of Michigan in 1853-54, and in the former year served also as president pro tem. of the state senate. He was influential in civic and business affairs in Detroit. Edwin Hudson gave the greater part of his active career to mercantile enterprise and he was a resident of Flint, this state, at the time of his death, in 1898, his widow having died there several years before. Roberts P. Hudson was a boy at the time of the family removal to Flint, this state, and after there completing his course in the high school he prepared himself for his chosen profession by attending the law department of the University of Michigan. He passed the state bar examination and was admitted to the Michigan bar in 1900, and since 1901 he has been successfully engaged in general practice in Sault Ste. Marie, where he now controls a large and representative law business. He was appointed to the bench of the circuit court of this circuit in 1912, by Governor Chase S. Osborn, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Judge H. M. Oren, and after serving out the unexpired term he declined to become a candidate for regular election to this office. His political allegiance is given to the Republican party, he is a director of the Michigan State Bar association, and is also a member of the Michigan committee of the American Bar association. Judge Hudson is affiliated with both York and Scottish Rite bodies of the Masonic fraternity, and besides being a noble of the Mystic Shrine, he is a past commander of the local commandery of Knights Templar. He has membership in the Soo club, the local Country club, and in the city of Detroit he is a member of the old and representative Detroit club, as well as an honorary member of the Noontide club. His wife, whose maiden name was Ella Bowen, was born at Coldwater, Michigan, a daughter of O. A. and Ella (Porter) Bowen, both now deceased, her father having been a prominent figure in lumbering operations and influential in political affairs, particularly after his removal to the state of Washington, where he served as state treasurer in the decade of the nineties. Mrs. Hudson is a popular factor in the rep

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Page  279 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 279 resentative social and cultural circles of her home city, and, like her husband, takes deep interest in all that concerns the communal welfare. William Chandler was one of the most influential figures in connection with the upbuilding of the city of Sault Ste. Marie, in advancing navigation interests on the Great Lakes system and in developing the admirable hydraulic-power of St. Marys river. He was a representative of a family that was founded in Michigan in the territorial era, and in this state he passed virtually his entire life, and he made that life count in large, varied and worthy achievement. He was one of the honored and influential pioneer citizens of Sault Ste. Marie at the time of his death, December 10, 1914, and this history of his native state consistently accords within its pages a tribute to his work and his memory. William Chandler was born in the historic valley of the River Raisin, Lenawee county, Michigan, April 27, 1846, and was a scion of a family that was early founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and that had membership in the Society of Friends. He passed the period of his childhood and early youth on the old home farm of the pioneer days, and his youthful education was acquired largely in the Raisin Valley seminary, a pioneer Michigan institution maintained under the auspices of the Society of Friends. In 1862 he went to Indianapolis, Indiana, for the purpose of learning the textile trade, but before he had completed his apprenticeship he became interested in a wholesale paper business in that state. At the age of twenty-four years he became editor and publisher of a newspaper at Muncie, Indiana, and upon his return to Michigan, in 1872, he became editor of the Adrian Press, at the judicial center of Lenawee county. When this paper became an exponent of the principles of the Democratic party, he, as a Republican, transferred his allegiance to the Adrian Times. He remained at Adrian until 1875, when he came to the northern part of the state and founded the Cheboygan Tribune, at the county seat of Cheboygan county. In the same year he turned his attention to the improvement of navigation on the beautiful chain of inland rivers and lakes between Cheboygan and Petosky, and in 1877 Governor Croswell appointed him collector of tolls at the ship canal of St. Marys river. Mr. Chandler was aggressive in securing the necessary Congressional action to take over the ship canals and when in 1881, this important canal passed to the control of the United States government and the work of constructing the present great canal locks was initiated, Mr. Chandler was retained as superintendent of the canal, a position which he held until 1885, when he resigned, in order to give his attention more fully to the large and important enterprise with which he had become identified. His official duties had caused him to establish his residence at Sault Ste. Marie and incidentally to gain here a large measure of pioneer precedence. In 1878 he had established the Sault Ste. Marie News, but he sold the plant and business within a short time thereafter.

Page  280 280 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN In 1886 he became one of the organizers of the present First National bank of this city. At the same time he effected the organization of the Sault Savings Loan and Trust company of which he became cashier and general executive manager. The name twas lated changed to Sault Savings bank. Mr. Chandler early realized the possibilities for local water-power development, and this prescience caused him to purchase the strip of land on which is now established the fine plant of the Edison Sault Electric company, of which he was vice-president and general manager at the time of his death. As a member of the House of Representatives of the Michigan legislature in the period of 1899-1901, Mr. Chandler proved a characteristically zealous exponent of constructive legislation, and was the sponsor and vigorous advocate of two bills of major importance: the Chandler medical bill, which was bitterly opposed by clandestine medical practitioners but which was carried to enactment; and the state tax-commission law that has proved of inestimable value in connection with the governmental functions of Michigan. At the time of his death Mr. Chandler was vice-president and general manager of the Edison Sault Electric company, vice-president of the Chippewa Edison company, vice-president of the Munising Veneer company, president of the Prenzlauer Brothers company, president of the Dunbar Agricultural School board of directors, a director of the Sault Savings bank and of the Sault Ste. Marie general hospital, and a representative of other important business and civic interests. No other one citizen exercised larger or more benignant influence in the general communal interests of Sault Ste. Marie; than did the late William Chandler, and his was an inviolable place in popular confidence and esteem. He was the leader in the agressive movement that gave free text books to the public schools of his home city, and in the movement that gave to the city its first city hospital. His was large influence in connection with the establishing and developing of the Dunbar Agricultural school, and, regardless of opposition and criticism, he was ever ready to follow the course of his convictions and support measures and enterprises that he believed best for the general good of his home city, county and state. Mr. Chandler was widely recognized as one of the really big men of his native state, and distinct evidence of this was given at the time of his funeral, when the following representative citizens served as honorary pallbearers: Hon. Joseph H. Steere, Alex Dow, Moses Hooper, George Kemp, W. L. Murdock, Otto Towle, E. H. Mead, M. N. Hunt, L. C. Sabin, S. T. Handy, Doctor G. P. Ritchie, F. R. Warner, W. R. Cowan and M. J. Magee. The active pallbearers were S. G. Carleton, Edward Horry, George W. Baldwin, Robert C. Cummings, C. A. Van Dusen, and George A. Knowles. Mr. Chandler never wavered in his loyal allegiance to the Republican party, and he was long identified with the Masonic fraternity, in which he was affiliated with both York and Scottish Rite bodies. He was survived by one brother, Merritt Chandler, who was a res

Page  281 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 281 ident of Onaway, this state. His wife, whose maiden name was Cata Oren, was born in Clinton county, Ohio, in 1861, and died June 3, 1922. Paulina, the younger of the two children, died in 1909, and the son, Thomas, is given personal mention in the paragraph that follows, he having succeeded in a limited degree to a few of the varied business and civic interests of his honored father. Thomas Chandler was born at Sault Ste. Marie, August 31, 1887, and in 1906 he completed his studies in the Jacob Tome Institute, at Port Deposit, Maryland. In 1910 he was graduated in the University of Michigan, with the degree of bachelor of civil engineering. In July, 1910, he became superintendent of the Edison Sault Electric company, in January, 1915, he was made vice-president, while still retaining the position of superintendent, and since February, 1920, he has been president of this important corporation. In 1919 he was president of the Michigan section of the National Electric Light association, and he is now vice-president of the Chippewa Edison company, and a director of the Sault Savings bank. He is an associate member of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, is a registered electrical engineer in Michigan, and is a member of the American Military Engineers. Shortly after the nation became involved in the World war Mr. Chandler volunteered for service in the United States Army, and in the same he served as captain in the Engineer Corps from September 2, 1917, to May 1, 1919, when he received his honorable discharge, he having served overseas with the Fifty-sixth Engineers, and now having the rank of major in the Engineer Officers Reserve Corps of the United States Army. In 1926-27 he served as commander of Ira D. MacLachlan Post, No. 3, American Legion, in his home city He is a Republican in politics. June 22, 1915, Mr. Chandler was united in marriage to Miss Ethol Anderson, and they have two children: William, born July 3, 1916, and Mary Ruth, born September 15, 1921. Alfred D. Kinsey is the efficient manager of the Western Union Telegraph & Cable company in the city of Sault Ste. Marie, and the great volume of marine traffic through the celebrated canal at this point makes, as may readily be understood, the commercial and general business of the Western Union office here one of broad scope and major importance. Mr. Kinsey was born at Port Elgin, Ontario, Canada, April 29, 1879, and is a son of Solomon G. and Barbara (Rotharmel) Kinsey, the former of whom likewise was born at Port Elgin and the latter of whom was born at Kitchener, Ontario, her death having occurred in 1900. Solomon G. Kinsey, who is now living retired at Chatham, Ontario, gained in his active business career high standing as an architect, and he designed many public, business, and residential buildings of high class, including a large number of the modern school buildings in Bruce county, Ontario. Alfred D. Kinsey attended the public schools of his native place, Port Elgin and also those of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, the Canadian twin sister of the Michigan

Page  282 282 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN city of the same name. In 1896 after learning telegraphy in his uncle's drug store at Port Elgin, he apprenticed himself as a drug clerk in the employ of G. A. Hunter in the Canadian Soo. In 1902 he was graduated in the Ontario School of Pharmacy, at Toronto, Ontario, but he elected to give his attention to telegraphic service rather than the drug business. He served eighteen months as cashier in the Western Union Telegraph company's office at Duluth, Minnesota, and he then returned to Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, and became an employe of the Canadian Pacific Railway Telegraph company. In 1904 he was appointed to his present responsible office of Western Union manager at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, and he has here handled the large business of the company with marked loyalty and efficiency. He is affiliated with the Knights of Pythias, the Royal Arcanum, and the Independent Order of Foresters, and is a popular member of the Sault Ste. Marie club. His wife, whose maiden name was Luella Eavens, died in 1910, and is survived by two daughters, Dorothy, who is a successful and popular teacher in the public schools of Rudyard, Chippewa county, Michigan, that village being in the county of which Sault Ste. Marie is the judicial center, and Barbara, the younger daughter, who is a student in the public schools of the latter city. Arthur E. Redford is one of the representative business men of the city of Sault Ste. Marie, judicial center of Chippewa county, and as manager of the local branch of the Holland Furnace company, he has developed for this corporation a large business in this section of the Upper Peninsula of his native state. Mr. Redford was born in the popular summer-resort city of Pentwater, Oceana county, Michigan, October 13, 1871, and is a son of Spencer T. Redford and Katherine (Remeeus) Redford, who now maintain their home at Belding, this state, where the father is living retired. S. T. Redford was born in Wisconsin, December 23, 1848, but the greater part of his life has been passed in Michigan,, he having been for twenty-five years engaged in the farming business in the city of Grand Rapids, this state. His wife was born in Holland, December 29, 1850. In the public schools of Grand Rapids, Arthur E. Redford continued his studies until he was sixteen years of age, and after leaving high school he there served an apprenticeship to the trade of tinsmith, besides gaining general knowledge of the hardware business. At the age of twenty years he went to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and after having there been associated with the retail hardware business eight years he engaged independently in the same line of enterprise at Waukesha, that state. Seven years later he sold his stock and business, and for a short period thereafter he was employed at the Case Motor Works, Racine, Wisconsin. He then, in 1918, was appointed to his present executive position, that of manager of the Sault Ste. Marie branch of the Holland Furnace company, the factory and general offices of this corporation being established at Holland, Michigan, and its furnaces being of the highest grade, as adapted to the efficient heating of buildings. Mr. Redford gives his political allegiance to

Page  283 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 283 the Republican party, and he is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity, his wife having membership in the Order of the Eastern Star. At Waukesha, Wisconsin, Mr. Redford was united in marriage to Miss Alice Crossman, who was born in the year 1878, and whose death occurred March 21, 1918, and who is survived by four children. The second marriage of Mr. Redford was with Mrs. Ena Heller, of New Buffalo, Michigan, and her two children by her first marriage are now residents of Gary, Indiana, where the son, Louis, is engaged in the meat business, and where the daughter, Miss Alice Heller, is employed in the offices of the Tittle Brothers Packing company. Joseph MacLachlan is one of the veteran business men and honored citizens of Sault Ste. Marie, judicial center of Chippewa county, where he is senior member of the firm of MacLachlan Brothers, which controls a substantial business in the handling of flour, feed and building materials, with headquarters at No. 140 West Spruce street. Mr. MacLachlan is a scion of a staunch Scottish family that was early founded in Ontario, Canada, and it was on the parental home farm in Bruce county, Ontario, that he was born, January 26, 1860, a member of a family of nine children, only two of whom are deceased. His parents, Archibald and Janet MacLachlan, likewise were born in Ontario, and the father was long one of the representative exponents of farm industry in Bruce county, that province, where he was born and reared. After the death of his wife Archibald MacLachlan passed the closing period of his long and useful life in the home of his daughter, at Sault Ste. Marie. Joseph MacLachlan was reared to the sturdy discipline of the old home farm on which he was born, and his youthful education was acquired in the schools of his native county. He was a young man of twenty-four years when he came to Michigan, in 1884, and he has been a resident of Sault Ste. Marie during the past forty-three years. He followed the trade of carpenter a number of years, then engaged in the flour and feed business on a small scale. The enterprise, in which he is associated with his brother William L. MacLachlan, was made successful and was eventually amplified in scope by including the handling of building materials. The firm has long controlled a substantial and prosperous business, and Joseph MacLachlan has ranked not only as a reliable and progressive business man but also as a loyal and public-spirited citizen. He is a director of the First National bank in his home city, is a member of the local Rotary club, is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity, his political alignment is with the Republican party, and he and his wife are members of the Baptist church. Mrs. MacLachlan, whose maiden name was Margaret Munn, likewise was born and reared in Bruce county, Ontario, of Scotch lineage. Mr. and Mrs. MacLachlan were married February 16, 1886, and became the parents of five children, three dying when very young. Ira D., the elder son, made the supreme sacrifice on the altar of patriotism, his death having occurred October 28, 1918, as the re

Page  284 284 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN suit of wounds that he received while at the front in the World war, he having entered overseas service as a member of the 125th United States Infantry and eventually being promoted to major of the same regiment. The daughter, Mabel, is now employed at the State hospital at Ann Arbor as a dietitian. Don M. Hecox has no lack of personal popularity in his native city of Sault Ste. Marie, where he has served as city clerk since 1923 and proved by the loyalty and efficiency of his administration in this municipal office that his is a deep and constructive interest in the general welfare and progress of the vital Lock City that is the judicial center of Chippewa county. Mr. Hecox was born at Sault Ste. Marie, May 17, 1885, and is a son of Clyde Willis and Ella (Ashmun) Hecox, the former of whom was born at Lowell, Kent county, Michigan, and the latter of whom was born and reared in Sault Ste. Marie, where her father, Charles H. Ashmun, was an early settler and long a citizen of marked prominence and influence, Ashmun street, the leading business thoroughfare of this city, having been named in his honor. Clyde W. Hecox has been for a long period one of the leading exponents of the newspaper business on the Upper Peninsula. He was associated for some time with the old News-Record of Sault Ste. Marie, was connected likewise with the Sault Ste. Marie Record, was for some years editor and publisher of the Sault Ste. Marie Times, and he is now editor and publisher of the St. Ignace Enterprise. Mr. Hecox has wielded potent influence in advancing the civic and material progress of the Lock City, is a staunch advocate of the principles of the Republican party, and he held for a number of terms the office of city recorder. His wife has been for many years past a popular figure in the representative social and cultural circles of her native city. After having completed his studies in the public schools of Sault Ste. Marie, Don M. Hecox was for thirteen years an employe in the dining and sleeping car service of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic railroad, with headquarters in Sault Ste. Marie. Thereafter, he was associated with the Wynn Auto Sales company of this city until 1923, when he assumed the office of which he is now the efficient incumbent, that of city clerk. He is affiliated with the local organizations of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks and the Knights of Pythias. His wife, whose maiden name was Ethel Howell, was born at Bayonne, New Jersey, and her parents are now deceased, her father, Richard Howell, having been long and prominently associated with the great copper mining industry of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Mr. and Mrs. Hecox have three children, Clyde, John Howell, and Donna, aged respectively (winter of 1926-27) thirteen, twelve, and two years. John J. Sims. On East Portage street in the city of Sault Ste. Marie is to be found the modern and well equipped garage and sales and service station owned and operated by John J. Sims,

Page  285 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 285 under the title of Sims Auto company, he being the president and general manager of the company. Mr. Sims was born at Massey, province of Ontario, Canada, January 7, 1894, and is a son of Henry and Mary Jane Sims, the former of whom was born in England and the latter at Walkerville, Ontario, Canada. Henry Sims was reared and educated in his native land and was eighteen years of age when he came to Ontario, Canada, where he passed the remainder of his life and where he became a successful farmer and merchant and where he held for seven years the office of dominion constable. His death occurred in 1903, and his widow passed away January 13, 1921. John J. Sims is indebted to the schools of his native place for his youthful education, and he came from Ontario to Michigan in 1916. When the nation became involved in the World war he enlisted for service in the United Stated army, was assigned to the motor transport corps, gained the rank of first class sergeant, and was with his unit in overseas service during a period of one year. After receiving his honorable discharge he was employed in the Sault Ste. Marie service station of the Dodge Brothers Motor company four years, and he then, in 1923, established his present independent business in the automobile trade, he having the sales and service agency for the Star, Durant, and Flint automobiles, and being known as one of the enterprising and popular young business men of the Lock City of Michigan. He is affiliated with the American Legion, the Masonic fraternity and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. Fred Taylor is one of the substantial and enterprising business men of Chippewa county, where he conducts in the village of Pickford a well equipped general hardware store, and in the city of Sault Ste. Marie, the county seat, maintains a modern automobile garage, with well fitted repair and accessory departments, and where he has the sales and service agency for the popular Chrysler automobiles. He maintains his residence in Pickford and operates the garage which is located at No. 128 West Spruce street, Sault Ste. Marie. In his independent career Mr. Taylor has shown from the beginning a distinct resourcefulness and self-reliance, his cash capital when he initiated business having been fifty dollars, and this having been augmented by ninety-seven dollars of borrowed money. His substantial success testified to the careful, honorable and progressive policies that have marked his business career. Mr. Taylor was born in the province of Ontario, Canada, in 1872, a son of Patrick and Jane Taylor, the former of whom was born in Ireland and the latter in England. Patrick Taylor was eight years of age when he accompanied his parents from Ireland to the Dominion of Canada, where in the course of time he became a successful millwright and farmer and where his death occurred in 1883, his widow, who came with her parents to Canada when she was a child, having long survived him and having passed away in 1917. Fred Taylor was reared on a farm in Chippewa county, Michigan, attended school at Pickford, and as a youth gained experience as a workman in lumber camps of this section of the state. Thirty

Page  286 286 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN years ago he made his initial business venture with a most limited capital, as previously noted. He opened a small general store at Pickford, and later he there turned his attention to the hardware business, in which he has there continued during the intervening years. In connection with this business he maintained an undertaking department and a department devoted to farm implements and machinery, but of these two departments he eventually disposed to advantage. In addition to his substantial hardware business at Pickford he has conducted his garage and automobile business in Sault Ste. Marie since 1921. His wife, whose maiden name was Etta Irene Best, was born at Pickford, this county, a daughter of William and Mary Best, who still reside on their home farm near that village. To Mr. and Mrs. Taylor were born two children: Frederick, who was born in 1907 and was fourteen years of age at the time of his death, and Aldren, who is thirteen years of age (1927) and is a student in the public schools of Pickford. Fred R. Fleming has the distinction of being the efficient and popular superintendent of the Memorial hospital in his native city of Sault Ste. Marie, judicial center of Chippewa county, this modern institution having been established as a memorial to Upper Peninsula young men who sacrificed their lives in the great World war. Mr. Fleming was born at Sault Ste. Marie September 15, 1888, and is a son of John and Elizabeth Fleming, the former of whom was born in Ireland, in 1856, and the latter of whom was born in Ontario, Canada, in 1858. John Fleming came to Chippewa county, Michigan, when he was twenty-one years of age, and here he was a successful and representative exponent of farm industry during a term of years. He is now lockmaster foreman of the great locks of the Sault Ste. Marie canal, through which passes a greater annual tonnage of marine traffic than through any similar canal in the world. John Fleming is affiliated with the Knights of Pythias, and his wife has passed the various official chairs in the local organization of the Pythian Sisters. The public schools of Sault Ste. Marie afforded Fred R. Fleming his early education, and in 1901 he was graduated in the well ordered school of pharmacy at Grand Rapids, this state. Thereafter he was for a short period actively, identified with the retail drug business in his native city, and he next gave effective service as an agent in Ontario, Canada, for the Metropolitan Life Insurance company. After this experience he was for two years engaged in the drug business at Brimley, Chippewa county, and he then returned to Sault Ste. Marie, the county seat, where he was appointed to the office of which he has since continued the incumbent, that of superintendent of the Memorial hospital. His political allegiance is given to the Republican party, and in the Masonic fraternity his affiliations are as here noted: Bethel Lodge, No. 358, A. F. & A. M.; Sault Ste. Marie Chapter, No. 126, R. A. M; Sault Ste. Marie Council, No. 69, R. & S. M.; and Sault Ste. Marie Commandery, No. 45, Knights Templars. His wife, whose maiden name was Louise Kanze, was

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Page  287 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 287 born in Wisconsin, their one child being a son, Raymond, who is ten years old and attending the public schools of his home city at the time of this writing, in the winter of 1926-27. John F. Finnigan, deceased, mining man of Ironwood, Michigan, came of pioneer stock of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, for his father, Jeremiah Finnigan, who was born in Ireland in 1815, first arrived in this section of the state on July 20, 1845, when he and his brother, Michael, landed at Copper Harbor to explore Isle Royale for copper. The brothers were accompanied by James Downey, Captain Vale, and Mert and Kim Galavan, and when the party landed on Isle Royale, the promised provisions were not sent them. The party took up their abode with a Frenchman who had married an Indian woman, and as the winter wore on, the only food was the flesh of caribou, rabbits, and fish, which they were forced to eat without seasoning of any kind. Unable to exist on the little food obtainable, the Frenchman died for want of salt and was buried in his wigwam. In the spring of 1846, a cask containing twenty gallons of whiskey floated ashore, Jeremiah Finnigan ever maintaining in later years that the liquor aided in keeping the party alive, and in May, that year, they were taken off the island by Captain McKay and by him landed at Eagle River, the squaw taking her dead husband to Sault Ste. Marie for final burial. From Eagle River, the party made its way to Ontonagon, but in the autumn of 1848, the men decided to return to that place with their families and accordingly set sail. A few hours out, a heavy storm arose, the women and some of the men turning back for Ontonagon. Six of the men, including Jeremiah Finnigan, having decided to continue afoot, were landed and began the arduous journey by land, but by the time they had walked along the lake shore four days, four of the men turned about to return to Ontonagon, leaving Jeremiah Finnigan and Jim Grierson to continue alone. Finnigan and Greirson ran out of food, and though they chased a porcupine into a hollow log, they were unable to get it because they had neither gun nor ax. Finally, at the point where the present Portage canal touches the lake, the two men discovered a log cabin in which was a box of corned beef and a box half-full of tallow candles. The beef, however, was spoiled, so that after eating five candles, they set out on the remaining forty miles of the journey to Eagle River, eating the remaining candles on the trip. Arriving at Eagle River, they were taken in by John Carey who sent back two Indians to bring in the other men who had failed to come with them. The men remained at Carey's house until the host's eight barrels of ale had been consumed. Jeremiah Finnigan married Ellen Elliott, who had been born in Ireland and came to the United States in 1851, the journey occupying seventeen weeks. The Finnigan family remained in Keweenaw county until 1855, when Jeremiah and Ellen Finnigan started out to walk to Lake Linden, with two young children the father carrying his son and the mother the daughter, all the family possessions having been left

Page  288 288 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN behind. Arriving at Lake Linden, they took up their residence with a half-breed and there remained until Mrs. Finnigan, whose eyes were swollen shut for two weeks from fly bites, had recovered and was able to travel again. The family then completed the journey to Houghton by sailboat and there made their home in a shanty covered with cedar bark, the cabin being located on the site of the present Douglas House. Jeremiah Finnigan died June 22, 1878, and his wife died in 1872, at the age of fifty years. John F. Finnigan was born at Cliff Mine, Keweenaw county, Michigan, August 28, 1852, and attended the schools of Huron township, that county. For a period of two years after completing his education he worked at the trade of butcher, which he learned from Joe Winters, Sr., and was then employed in the mines of Houghton county until 1868, when he went to the Cleveland mine in Marquette county. Returning to Houghton in 1870, he entered the employ of the Marquette & Ontonagon railroad and in 1871 was engaged in railroad work on a line connecting the Republic and Humboldt mines. In 1872-73, he was a miner in the Smith mine near Negaunee, Michigan, after which he went west to work for a short time in the mining regions of Colorado and Montana, and while in the west he had charge of the famous Moffett tunnel on the Denver & Rio Grande R. R. Upon his return to Marquette county, he engaged in mine work until 1892 and was placed in charge of the Mikado mine on the Gogebic range. In 1893, he went to Butte, Montana, where he was employed for some time at the Hi Ore mine. His return to the Gogebic range came as the result of an offer to resume charge of the Mikado mine, a position that he retained until 1901. In that year, he went to Ontonagon county as superintendent for the properties of the St. Louis Copper Crown Mining company; where he remained until operations were suspended during the panic of 1907. At that time, Mr. Finnigan returned to Gogebic county and contracted to build concrete bridges between Ironwood and Watersmeet, Michigan. In 1913, when ore was discovered in an open pit at Wakefield, Michigan, further explorations were made in that vicinity, during the course of which a body of ore was found underlying the Finnigan property. Mr. Finnigan thereupon leased the property to Pecans Mather & company and retired from active business life until his death on November 3, 1926. On April 1, 1880, Mr. Finnigan married Margaret Mulligan, who was born in Ontonagon county in 1858, and died September 15, 1902, leaving these children: Jeremiah, who married Nora Devine and resides at Presque Isle Lake, Wisconsin; Miles, who married Miss Phyllis Simms and resides at Wakefield; John, who married Dora Kohler and is a mine policeman for the Oliver Iron Mining company at Bessemer, Michigan; and Margaret, who married Neil Ferguson, a contractor of Burgland, Wisconsin. Mr. Finnigan has twenty grandchildren. On October 8, 1908, Mr. Finnigan married Mary Allen the widow of Pryor Foley, who was born in Canada in 1864, and was brought to the United States when a child of five years by her parents, Richard and Sarah

Page  289 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 289 Allen, who settled at Negaunee, Michigan, in 1869. She has one sister living, Mrs. John Ryan, of Ironwood, Michigan. Mr. Finnigan was a member of the Knights of Columbus and the Elks, while his widow maintains membership in the auxiliary of the Ancient Order of Hibernians, the Woman's club, the Ironwood Chapter of the American Red Cross and the auxiliary to the American Legion Post No. 5. Mr. Finnigan always took an active interest in the politics of his community, and in 1892 he was elected supervisor of Bessemer township, holding that office until 1901, and in 1921, running on the Democratic ticket, he was elected supervisor of the Third ward of Ironwood. His public record was one of devotion to the best interests of the people, and for this reason he was known and respected by the voters of this section of the county. In 1918 Mr. Finnigan and John Homesack took a hunting trip into the Casa district of British Columbia, returning after forty-one days with a moose, two caribou, two goats, two sheep, and an eagle which are now preserved in the courthouse at Ironwood, and can be seen by the public. Jerry L. Lynch is one of the prominent business men of Sault Ste. Marie, where he is secretary and treasurer of the Lynch Timber company, a well ordered corporation whose operations in connection with the lumber industry are carried on extensively, in both the United States and Canada. Mr. Lynch was born in the city of Niles, Berrien county, Michigan, March 26, 1876, and is a son of John C. and Anna Lynch, both natives of Ireland, where the 'former was born in 1839 and the latter in 1851. John C. Lynch was a loyal and gallant soldier of the Union in the Civil war and he and his wife were residents of Michigan many years. Mr. Lynch died in 1926, at Cheboygan, Michigan, his wife having passed away in the preceding year and both having been lifelong communicants of the Catholic church. Of the other children of the family the following brief record is available: Edward died in the year 1923; Stephen resides in Detroit, Michigan, and is engaged in the lumber business; Daniel is a resident of Buffalo, New York; and the two surviving sisters are Mrs. Wentz, residing in the state of Oregon, and Mrs. McKay, of Detroit, Michigan. The early education of Jerry L. Lynch was obtained principally in the schools of Bay City and Cheboygan, Michigan, and when he was a lad of sixteen years, in 1893, he became a lumber shipper for the firm of Martin & Silliman, of Cheboygan. He has been continuously associated with the lumber industry during the intervening period of more than thirty years, and has maintained his residence and business headquarters at Sault Ste. Marie since the year 1905. In 1923 he engaged in real estate operations in Florida, where he still has important interests along this line. He and his wife retain the ancestral religious faith, that of the Catholic church, he is a member of the Soo club in his home city, and is affiliated with the Knights of Columbus and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. His wife, whose maiden name was Albertha M. Brisette,

Page  290 290 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN was born in Ontario, Canada, and was a child of one year at the time of the family removal to Chippewa county, Michigan, of which Sault Ste. Marie is the county seat, her father having been a railroad agent. Mr. and Mrs. Lynch have a fine family of seven children: Francis J., Jerry W., Constance L., Duane J., Fremont E., Reuel P., and Albertina M. Francis J. is engaged in the real estate business in the city of Detroit; Jerry W. has been a student in Georgetown university, District of Columbia; and Constance L. was graduated in a leading school of music in the city of Chicago. Charles L. McEvoy is a popular young man who is giving a careful and loyal administration of the fiscal affairs of his native city of Sault Ste. Marie, county seat of Chippewa county, his appointment to the office of city treasurer having occurred December 1, 1925. Mr. McEvoy was born in his present home city on the 18th of November, 1891, and is a son of Patrick and Bridget McEvoy, both of whom were born in the province of Ontario, Canada. Patrick McEvoy was long numbered among the substantial business men of Sault Ste. Marie, where his activities included both the conducting of a grocery store and a hotel. He was a member of the city council several years, was affiliated with the Knights of Columbus, the Ancient Order of Hibernians, and the Catholic Order of Foresters, his religious faith having been that of the Catholic church, of whichi his widow, who is still a resident of Sault Ste. Marie, likewise is a devout communicant. The death of Patrick McEvoy here occurred July 5, 1918, and he is survived by two sons and three daughters, the subject of this review being the younger of the two sons, and the elder J. F., being now a resident of Detroit, Michigan. The eldest daughter is Mrs. Esther Sparing, and the other two, Misses Eva and Elizabeth, remain with their widowed mother at Sault Ste. Marie. The youthful education of Charles L. McEvoy was obtained in the parochial and public schools of Sault Ste. Marie and in the Detroit Business college. As a lad of fifteen years he initiated his business experience by becoming associated with his father's grocery enterprise in this city, and this connection continued a number of years. He represented Michigan in loyal service in the World war period, having been mess sergeant of Company C, One Hundred and Seventh Engineers, and having served with the Thirty-second Division of the American Expeditionary Forces, until he was physically disabled, receiving his honorable discharge October 10, 1918, and having then returned to the parental home in Sault Ste. Marie, where, as previously stated, he assumed the office of city treasurer in 1925. He is affiliated with the American Legion and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, gives his political allegiance to the Democratic party, and his name still appears on the roster of eligible young bachelors in his native city. J. Arthur Minnear, who is successfully engaged in the real estate and investment bond business in the city of Iron Mountain, judicial center of Dickinson county, claims the Upper Peninsula of

Page  291 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 291 Michigan as the place of his birth, which occurred, at Ripley, Houghton county, in the year 1883. He is a son of the late Joseph H. and Mary A. (Burgess) Minnear. Joseph H. Minnear was born in England, in 1849, and was about twelve years of age when he came to the United States, in 1861. He became a pioneer in the copper mining region of Michigan's upper peninsula, having located in Houghton county previous to the entry of railroads and was for twenty-five years connected with the Portage Lake foundry. He was fifty-seven years of age at the time of his death, in 1906. He was affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and both he and his wife were communicants of the Protestant Episcopal church, Mrs. Minnear having been specially zealous in church work. She was born in London, England, and was fifty-five years of age at the time of her death, in 1905. The public schools of his native town of Ripley afforded J. Arthur Minnear his youthful education, and his initial business experience was gained by his service as a messenger boy for the Postal Telegraph & Cable company, at Hancock, Houghton county, where he finally entered the employ of the brokerage firm of Fuller & Company, with which he continued his alliance until 1900, when he engaged independently in the same line of business, at Laurium, that county. In that city he continued bis activities along this line until 1918, when he opened an office in the city of Ishpeming; whence, in July, 1920, he removed to Iron Mountain, where he has since been associated with his brother in the conducting of a substantial and representative investment bond and real estate business, he having closed his Laurium and Ishpeming offices in 1922 and his business interests having since been centered at Iron Mountain. In 1923, Mr. Minnear became prominently concerned in the organizing and founding of the village of Kingsford, a virtual suburb of Iron Mountain. He drafted the charter of the village, as a member of the charter commission, and when this charter was adopted by the people of the community, December 29, 1923, Mr. Minnear had the distinction of being chosen the first president of the village, an office that he retained until his resignation, in 1926. Mr. Minnear is a loyal and progressive member of the Iron Mountain Chamber of Commerce, is a Republican in political alignment, is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and in his home community he has membership in the Lions club and the Pine Grove Golf club. He and his family still reside in the village of Kingsford. August 8, 1903, was marked by the marriage of Mr. Minnear to Miss Pearl G. Berryman, who was born and reared at Iron Mountain, and who is an earnest communicant of the Protestant Episcopal church. Robert A., elder of the two children of Mr. and Mrs. Minnear, is, in the winter of 1926-27, a student in the University of Michigan, where he is taking a course in mechanical engineering and a business administration course, he being twenty years of age. Paul, the younger son, twelve years of age, is attending the public schools of Kingsford.

Page  292 292 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN James Chester Knight, whose character and ability give him assured standing as one of the representative members of the bar of Dickinson county, is engaged in the successful practice of his profession at Iron Mountain, the county seat, where he had served as prosecuting attorney of the county during the period of 1918-25. Mr. Knight is a native son of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, his birth having here occurred at Republic, Marquette county, May 27, 1877. He is a son of James B. and Mary E. (Buddle) Knight, the former of whom was born at Mineral Point, Wisconsin, March 19, 1850, and the latter of whom was born in Marquette county, Michigan, she having been but twenty-three years of age at the time of her death, in 1882. James B. Knight was for more than forty years the editor and publisher of the Norway Current News, at Norway, Dickinson county, and was one of the honored and influential citizens of that thriving industrial city. He represented Dickinson county in the Michigan legislature, during the sessions of 1903, 1905 and 1909, his political allegiance being given to the Republican party and his religious faith being that of the Protestant Episcopal church. He passed away November 8, 1926. In the public schools at Norway, James C. Knight continued his studies until he had duly profited by the curriculum of the high school and thereafter he was employed in his father's newspaper office at that place until he answered the call of patriotism and enlisted for service in the Spanish-American war, he having become a corporal in Company E, Thirty-fourth Michigan Volunteer Infantry and having served with this command until he received his honorable discharge, he being now affiliated with the United SpanishAmerican War Veterans. It was after his completion of this military service that Mr. Knight followed the trend of his ambition, by entering the law department of the University of Michigan. In this institution he was graduated as a member of the class of 1902, and after thus receiving his degree of bachelor of laws he was established in the practice of his profession in his old home city of Norway until 1919, when he removed to Iron Mountain, the county seat, to assume the office of prosecuting attorney of the county, a position to which he had been elected in November, 1918, and in which his vigorous and resourceful administration was continued until 1925, since which year he has here continued in the active general practice of law, with a large and representative clientage. While engaged in practice at Norway he there served as city attorney during the period of 1910-16. Mr. Knight is an influential member of the Dickinson County Bar association and has membership also in the Michigan State Bar association. He is a stalwart in the local ranks of the Republican party, is a director of the United States National bank of Iron Mountain, is affiliated with both York and Scottish Rite bodies of the Masonic fraternity, as well as the Mystic Shrine, and in his home community he has membership in the Pine Grove Golf club. In August, 1908, Mr. Knight was united in marriage to Miss Marian E. Vaughn,

Page  293 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 293 who was born at Escanaba, this state, and whose death occurred March 20, 1918, she being survived by no children. Gust E. Anderson is one of the successful business men and substantial citizens of Iron Mountain, judicial center of Dickinson county, where he established his home in 1912, upon coming to the United States from his native Sweden. Here he is now one of the two owners of the business conducted under the title of John Franklin company, a concern that controls a large and representative business in interior and exterior decorating of buildings and in the handling of complete lines of paints, oils, glass, wall papers, and window shades. Mr. Anderson was born in Eskilstuna, Sweden, February 8; 1893, and is a son of Axel and Brita (Johnson) Anderson, who still reside in their native land, the former being seventy years of age and now retired from active business, and the latter having attained to the age of seventy-four years (1926). Gust E. Anderson is indebted to the excellent schools of Sweden for his early educational discipline, and there also he gained his initial experience as a painter and decorator. He was nineteen years of age when he severed the home ties, came to the United States, and made Iron Mountain, Michigan, his destination. Here he forthwith entered the employ of the John Franklin company, in the capacity of painter and decorator, and he continued as an employe of this concern during the ensuing thirteen years, or until April, 1925, when he became associated with John Lindstrom in the purchasing of the stock and business, they having since continued the prosperous enterprise under the original title of The Franklin Decorating company. Mr. Anderson set no limitations on his loyalty to the land of his adoption, as was shown by his enlistment for service in the World war. He became a member of Company H, Three Hundred and Fortieth United States Infantry, and accompanied the command overseas, as a member of the Eighty-fifth Division of the American Expeditionary Forces. He was in active overseas service nine months and after the signing of the armistice he eventually returned to the United States, where he received his honorable discharge, April 23, 1919, his interest in his comrades being shown in his affiliation with the local post of the American Legion. Mr. Anderson is a Republican in political alignment, is affiliated with the Modern Woodmen of America and local Scandinavian societies, and he and his wife hold membership in the Baptist church. He takes deep interest in all that concerns the communal welfare and at the time of this writing is serving as supervisor of the Fourth ward of Iron Mountain. April 6, 1918, was marked by the marriage of Mr. Anderson to Miss Malveina Sjogren, who was born and reared at Iron Mountain and who is a daughter of the late Emil and Ingea Sjogren. Mr. and Mrs. Anderson have two children, Herbert and Robert. Archibald P. Farrell. In the vital industrial city of Iron Mountain, judicial center of Dickinson county, Mr. Farrell is senior member of the progressive real estate firm of Farrell & Suther

Page  294 294 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN land, in which his coadjutor is Albert E. Sutherland. Mr. Farrell was born in the province of New Brunswick, Canada, November 17, 1865, and is a son of Patrick and Mary (Archibald) Farrell, both natives of Dublin, Ireland. From Canada, Patrick Farrell removed with his family to Wisconsin in the year 1883, and at Oconto, that state, he became actively associated with lumbering operations, his death having there occurred in 1890, when he was seventy-eight years of age, and his wife having passed away in the preceding year, at the age of sixty-nine years; both were earnest communicants of the Catholic church, and after establishing his residence in the United States Mr. Farrell gained franchise privileges as a member of the Democratic party. The public schools of his native Canadian province were the medium through which Archibald P. Farrell gained his early education, and thereafter he was employed two years in a stone quarry in New Brunswick. He then passed a year as a workmen in the lumber woods near Oconto, Wisconsin, and he then came to Foster City, Dickinson county, Michigan, where he continued his active alliance with the lumbering industry and business during the long period of thirty-two years, or until his election to the office of county sheriff, which involved his removal, in 1918, to Iron Mountain, the county seat. He retained this office four years and gave a characteristically loyal and efficient administration. Since 1922 he has here been associated with Albert E. Sutherland in general real estate operations of representative order, and under the firm name of Farrell & Sutherland. Mr. Farrell was one of the first to be appointed county road commissioner in Dickinson county, besides which he served as supervisor of Breen township, was county poor commissioner five years, and was a school official in Breen township during a period of twenty years. He is a Republican in political allegiance, he and his wife are communicants of the Catholic church, and he is affiliated with the Knights of Columbus, the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and the Modern Woodmen of America. Mrs. Farrell has membership in the Ladies of Foresters, the Royal Neighbors, the American Brotherhood, and the Daughters of Isabel. In the year 1891 was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Farrell to Miss Charlotte Bagley, who was born in the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, and to this union were born four children: Ruth, eldest of the children, died in 1913; Charles is engaged in the taxicab business at Iron Mountain; Louelyn is at the time of this writing, in the winter of 1926-27, a student in the law department of the University of Michigan; and Marion is a student in the Michigan State Normal college at Ypsilanti. Arvid E. Asp owns and conducts the leading general merchandise or department store in the thriving city of Norway, Dickinson county, where also he is president of the First National bank of Norway and a member of the municipal board of public works -connections that nrark him as one of the progressive and influential citizens of the community that has represented his home

Page  295 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 295 the greater part of his life. Mr. Asp was born in Sweden, in 1878, and is a son of Andrew P. and Ida Asp, who came to the United States in 1881 and established residence at Norway, Michigan, the father having been employed in the mines of this district until his retirement, his death occurring July 5, 1927. Andrew P. Asp was a Republican in politics and was a member of the Swedish Mission church at Norway, as was also his wife, who died in 1923. Arvid E. Asp, was a child of about three years at the time when the family home was established at Norway, Michigan, and to the public schools of this city he is indebted for his early education. Here he was employed in the John Perkin & Son store a number of years, and thereafter he was several years manager and partner of the store of Samuel Perkins & Co. at Loretto, Dickinson county. There he remained until 1905, when he returned to Norway and engaged in the general merchandise business, fair and honorable policies and effective service having enabled him to develop this enterprise to one of broad scope, his establishment being now the largest department store in the city and having a representative supporting patronage. Mr. Asp is a stalwart in the local ranks of the Republican party, he and his wife are zealous members of the Swedish Mission church in their home city. In 1903 was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Asp to Miss Wilhelmina Gustafson, who likewise was born in Sweden, and the one child of this union is a son, Leslie, who is now associated with his father's mercantile business in Norway, Michigan. Irving G. Moe, D.C., PH.C., is one of the skilled and successful exponents of the benignant system and science of chiropractic in Dickinson county, and is established in the successful practice of his profession in the city of Norway, an important industrial center of the Northern Peninsula of Michigan. Doctor Moe was born at Racine, Wisconsin, February 4, 1899, and is a son of John and Angeline (Peil) Moe, both of whom were born in the city of Milwaukee, that state, the Moe family being of Norwegian origin. John Moe, who died at Racine, in 1921, at the age of fifty-one years, was there a foreman in the factory of the Racine Paper Goods company, served as secretary and treasurer of the local Machinists union, and was a member of the Racine board of aldermen in 1918-19. He was a Republican in politics, was affiliated with the Loyal Order of Moose, and was a communicant of the Catholic church, as is also his widow, who still maintains her home at Racine, she being there a member of the Woman's club, Ladies of Foresters, and the War Mothers' Auxiliary of the Loyal Order of Moose. In the public schools of his native city of Racine, Doctor Moe continued his studies until he had duly profited by the curriculum of the high school, and thereafter he attended the Tanner-Gilman schools, Chicago. He next entered the celebrated Palmer School of Chiropractic, Davenport, Iowa, and in this institution he was graduated as a member of the class of 1921. He then engaged in practice at Waterford, Wisconsin, but about a

Page  296 296 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN year later, in 1922, he transferred his residence to Norway, Michigan, where he has built up a substantial and representative practice and gained place as one of the leading chiropractors of the Upper Peninsula. He is a member of the Michigan State Alumni association of the Palmer School of Chiropractic, and has membership in the Michigan State Chiropractic association and the Upper Peninsula Chiropractic association. The Doctor is a Republican in political alignment, he and his wife are communicants of the Catholic church, and he is affiliated with the Knights of Columbus, the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and the Delta Sigma Chi college fraternity. In his home city Doctor Moe has membership in the Kiwanis club and the One Hundred Per Cent club. He has marked talent as a band and orchestra musician, and he not only organized and is director of the Knights of Columbus Orchestra at Norway, but is also conductor of the Knights of Columbus band at Iron Mountain, the county seat of Dickinson county. On the 9th of August, 1921, was solemnized the marriage of Doctor Moe to Miss Rose M. Logic who was born at Caledonia, Wisconsin, of Bohemian and German ancestry, and who was graduated in the Wisconsin State Teachers college at Racine, she having thereafter been a popular teacher in that institution. At Norway, Michigan, Mrs. Moe is a member of the Woman's club, Ladies of Foresters and Daughters of Isabel. Doctor and Mrs. Moe have four children: Irving George, Jr., Carol Alice, Donald David, and John Francis. Edward M. Martinek is the proprietor of one of the extensive real estate, insurance, and loan concerns in this part of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, for the concern which he now heads was established in Menominee by his father nearly thirty years ago. Jacob J. Martinek, the father, was born in Bohemia, the town of Radonic, July 25, 1864, and graduated from the gymnasium at Taus, that country. In 1882, he came to the United States, locating at Manitowoc, Wisconsin, where he attended high school a year to learn English. In 1886, he came to Menominee, Michigan, where he spent eight years as a clerk in a grocery store and as bookkeeper in the employ of George Horvath. He gave up this position to spend two years as a salesman for the Kirby & Carpenter company. In January, 1898, he became the representative of two fire insurance companies and by 1911, he was the local representative of twenty-four leading insurance companies in the several fields of fire, accident, and life insurance. In addition to that work, he handled city real estate and improved and unimproved farm properties, maintaining sub-agencies in Wisconsin. He also added a department for steamship agency work. He died in 1923 at the age of fifty-nine years, one of the successful and honored citizens of Menominee. He was a member of the Knights of Columbus, the Foresters, Turnverein, and the Modern Brotherhood of America. He married Agnes Doubek, the daughter of Anton and Anna Doubek and a native of Taus, Bohemia, their marriage occurring June

Page  297 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 297 25, 1894, and to this union were born two children, Helen M., who graduated from the Milwaukee-Downer college in 1922 and is now teaching in the high school at Antigo, Wisconsin, and Edward M., whose name heads this review. Edward M. Martinek was born at Menominee, October 13, 1895, and acquired his early education in the elementary and high schools of this city, after which he matriculated at the University of Michigan to study law. He was graduated from that institution in 1921 with the degree of bachelor of laws and during the ensuing year was associated with the law firm of Fairchild, North, Parker & Bie at Green Bay, Wisconsin. In 1922, he returned to Menominee and opened law offices here, at the same time, allying himself with his father in the conduct of the real estate and insurance business. Following the death of his father in 1923, Mr. Martinek took over the business left by his parent and has since been the manager of that enterprise. His conduct of the concern since that time shows him to be a capable business man who is carrying on with great success the company established by the elder Martinek. When the United States entered the World war, Mr. Martinek entered the army, serving in France for a year and half with the famous Rainbow (42nd) Division, which was composed of the pick of national guard units from every state of the union. Mr. Martinek has interested himself in the affairs of the city and county and is now serving in the office of circuit court commissioner of Menominee county. He is a life member of the Michigan Union, secretary of the University of Michigan club, and a member of the American Legion. He is a communicant of the Roman Catholic church, and in political matters, he is a member of the Democratic party. Henry T. Sethney, M.D., is one of the prominent physicians and surgeons of this section of the state, and in addition to his professional activities, he is well known in Menominee for his efforts as president of the school board and as a director of the Lumberman's National bank. His parents, Andrew T. and Ellen (Wollum) Sethney, were both natives of Norway, the former having been born in that country August 15, 1853, and the latter October 19, 1861, the latter coming to Norway, Michigan, in 1880 from her native land. After coming to the United States, Andrew T. Sethney, the father, located in Wisconsin two years, and in 1876, he went to Norway, Michigan, where he worked as a miner and as a clerk in a store until 1900, when he went into business for himself. He passed away January 9, 1927. The mother still resides in Norway, Michigan. He was a Mason and a member of the Norwegian Lutheran church. Henry T. Sethney was born at Norway, Michigan, May 31, 1882, and obtained his early education in the schools of that place. Having elected to follow the medical profession, he entered the University of Michigan, and after studying there three years, he went to the University of Illinois, whence he was graduated in 1905 with the degree of doctor of medicine.

Page  298 298 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN He served his interneship at the Deaconess hospital, Chicago, Illinois, after which he was associated in practice with Doctor Darling, of Crystal Falls, Michigan, until 1908. In that year, Doctor Sethney opened offices in Menominee, where he has since been engaged in the practice of medicine and surgery, building up a practice that stamps him as one of the most successful and prominent men in his profession in this section of the Upper Peninsula. When the United States entered the World war in 1917, Doctor Sethney offered his services to his country, and from that year until 1919, he was regimental surgeon with the Thirty-seventh Division, winning the commission of major. He returned to Menominee upon the conclusion of his military service and resumed practice here. Doctor Sethney is president of the staff of St. Joseph's hospital, has been president of the school board three years, and is a director of the Lumberman's National bank. In 1910, Doctor Sethney married Jean Fraser, who was born at Ishpeming, Michigan, the daughter of William H. and Esther Fraser, of Scotch extraction, and to this union have been born two children, Walter H. and Esther, aged fourteen years and eleven years, respectively. Mrs. Sethney is a member of the Order of the Eastern Star and the Woman's club. Doctor Sethney is a member of the Chamber of Commerce and the Rotary club, and in religious matters, he attends the Presbyterian church. Politically, he supports the Republican party. Edwin Hedlund, as partner in the men's clothing establishment at Ironwood, Michigan, a store that is known as the Hub, is one of the successful and influential merchants of this community, and to his present position in the commercial interests of the city and county, he has climbed entirely through his own efforts. Born in Sweden, October 4, 1880, he is a son of Casper and Marie Hedlund, both of whom were natives of Sweden and came to the United States in 1886. Casper Hedlund, a watchmaker by trade, is now living at Jessieville, Michigan, but his wife died at Ironwood in 1913 at the age of fifty-six years. Edwin Hedlund attended the schools of Ironwood and Jessieville until he was thirteen years of age, and when he went to work in the Pabst mine at that time, he was the youngest underground mine employe in the Gogebic iron range. For a period of four years he was so employed, and he then secured a position in the department store of Davis & Fehr, remaining there some three years. He then spent a year at Hancock, Michigan, followed by a period at Houghton, Michigan, and in 1903, Mr. Hedlund returned to Ironwood to become manager for the John P. Beckola Fashion store. This position he retained until 1916, when he became a partner of A. Haapoja in the operation of the Hub Clothing store. This establishment has become one of the leaders in its field in this section of the county, for handling as it does a complete line of clothing, haberdashery, and shoes, the store attracts a large patronage that increases steadily each year. Mr. Hedlund is thus recognized as one of the aggressive and

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Page  [unnumbered] UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 299 resourceful business men of the community in which he resides for his achievement in building up with his partner an enterprise of such proportions. Mr. Hedlund was married in 1903 to Jennie Anderson, a native of Sweden, and they have five children, as follows: Frances, who married J. Cvengros, assistant cashier of the Merchants and Miners bank of Ironwood; Louise, who is a student of Rockford college, Rockford, Illinois; Eleanor and Betty, who attend the Ironwood high school; and Roderick. Mr. Hedlund is a Mason, a Shriner, and an Elk and is a member of the Izaak Walton League, Ironwood Commercial club, Rotary club, Gogebic County & Golf club, and the local chapter of the Red Cross, while his wife is a member of the Woman's club, the Eastern Star, and the S. H. & E. F. of Women. George Thomas Arnold. Though death terminated his career, September 16, 1921, George Thomas Arnold will be long remembered for the part he played in the development of Mackinac Island, for he was one of the first to appreciate the latent possibilities of the island as a summer resort. Upon that idea, he staked his life work and lived to see material prosperity come to him and nation-wide fame to the beautiful isle of the straits. Born on a farm near Plainwell, Allegan county, Michigan, he was the son of Dan and Betsy (Foster) Arnold, both of whom were natives of Vermont, whence they journeyed to this state by ox team. The parents entered government land near Plainwell and there reared their family. George T. Arnold obtained his education in the public schools of Plainwell and lived on the home farm until he was fifteen years of age, when he secured a position in the store of Stockbridge & Johnson at Saugatuck, Michigan. After six years so spent, Mr. Arnold was appointed postmaster of Saugatuck, an office which he retained five years. In 1879, he came to Mackinac Island and established the firm of Coates & Arnold to engage in the fishing business, which at that time comprised one of the important Michigan industries. The ten years that he spent in this work paved the way for his interest in shipping circles, and he eventually became the owner and operator of the two vessels, Chippewa and Iroquois. Appreciative of the advantages of the island, he bent every effort to promoting its development as a summer resort. He erected docks at the island suitable for large lake vessels, became heavily interested in merchandising enterprises at St. Ignace and Kalamazoo, and was also an influential figure in the banking circles of the county. Every project tending to increase the prestige of the island and straits region received his heartiest endorsement and support, so that it is without cavil that the people of this section of the state name him as the chief entrepeneur of Mackinac Island. His efforts in this direction caused him to be selected a member of the original state board when Mackinac Island was set aside as a state park, and in this work he was closely associated with Peter White, of Marquette, who was equally earnest in his espousal of the cause of state parks as Mr.

Page  300 300 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Arnold. In 1887, Mr. Arnold married Susan Breuckmann, the daughter of Henry and Mary (Beffel) Breuckmann, of Saugatuck. In politics, Mr. Arnold was an unswerving Republican, and in religious matters he was a member of the Protestant Episcopal church. His death occurred at the Island, his burial being at Saugatuck where, years before, he had initiated the career that was destined to place him among the leading men of Northern Michigan. Edward Erickson, of Escanaba, Michigan, is the proprietor of one of the largest dry goods establishments in the Upper Peninsula and has achieved this prominence in the commercial life of that section of the state only through conscientious effort, executive ability, and fair dealing. He was born at Manitowoc, Wisconsin, September 26, 1853, the son of Holbar and Sophia (Berg) Erickson, both of whom were born in Norway and were married in that country. In 1852, Holbar Erickson, who was born in 1806, brought his wife to the United States and located in Wisconsin, where he was employed in the saw mills throughout his active career. He died in 1888 at the age of eighty-two years and his wife died at the age of eighty-four years. They were both members of the Lutheran church and were actively interested in the affairs of that organization. Edward Erickson attended the public schools of his native city, and when he had completed his studies, he worked in the saw mills of that place for two years, after which he went to Sparta, Wisconsin, where he gained his first experience in a retail store as a clerk. He remained in Sparta until 1874, when he came to Escanaba, Michigan, to enter the employ of L. Schram and later Greenhood Brothers, work that occupied his time until 1877. In that year he formed a partnership with P. N. Cardogo, and in 1879, he went into business for himself. Starting on a small scale, Mr. Erickson has applied himself to the conduct of his business with unremitting energy, and under his skilled hand, the enterprise has developed into one of the largest dry goods concerns in the Upper Peninsula. The present business block occupied by the company was erected in 1904 and stands as a monument to the ability and aggressiveness of the builder, who holds a high place among the commercial leaders of Escanaba. He has ever taken an active interest in the civic affairs of his community and served as a member of the Board of Public Works in 1911. In addition to his dry goods business, Mr. Erickson is a director of the Escanaba National bank. On October 2, 1878, Mr. Erickson married Belle Anthony, a native of St. Louis, Missouri, who died in 1898. To this union were born three children: Fred, who graduated from the University of Michigan in 1901 and has been organist at the Episcopal church of Baltimore, Maryland, for fourteen years; Belle, who died at the age of seventeen years; and Edward, who married Elizabeth Sparks, of Escanaba, and is now associated with his father in business. In 1901, Mr. Erickson married Bess Livesay, a native of Adrian, Michigan. Mrs. Erick

Page  301 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 301 son is president of the Escanaba Woman's club and is a member of the Presbyterian church, taking a prominent part in the affairs of these organizations. Mr. Erickson is a member of the Masonic fraternity, the Chamber of Commerce, and attends the Presbyterian church. Hans M. Erickson has engaged in the insurance, real estate, and loan business at Ironwood, Michigan, since 1906 and is accounted one of the influential business men of that city in his particular field of endeavor. He was born at Denmark, Wisconsin and is a son of Nels Erickson, who like his wife, was born in the country of Denmark in 1833, came to the United States in 1868, and settled on a farm in Wisconsin, where he died in 1908, his wife having died in 1898. Hans M. Erickson attended the public schools of Denmark, Wisconsin, until he was thirteen years of age, when he spent two years in a Danish school. For the ensuing five years after he had completed his education, he worked on the home farm with his father, and when he was twenty years of age, he came to Ironwood, Michigan, the trip giving him his first ride on a steam railroad. Arriving in this city, Mr. Erickson entered the employ of the Ironwood Electrical company, an organization with which he remained until 1893. He then returned to the farm for a year and, in 1904-05, attended the Green Bay' Business college in order that he might fit himself for a business career. In 1906, he returned to Ironwood to resume his work with the Ironwood Electrical company, continuing so until 1909. In that year, Mr. Erickson purchased a half interest in the insurance, real estate, and loan business of George H. Schobert. Following the death of Mr. Schobert, Mr. Erickson became the sole proprietor of the concern and has since continued successfully in its operation. He is accounted one of the aggressive and resourceful business men of Ironwood by those with whom he comes in contact in a business way, and that he has attained such a reputation is due directly to his own efforts and energy. On June 29, 1919, Mr. Erickson married Genevieve Davies, a native of Negaunee, Michigan, and they have one son, William David, who is six years of age. Mr. Erickson is a member of the various Masonic bodies, the Elks, Kiwanis club, and the Commercial club, while his wife is active in the affairs of the Woman's club and the Eastern Star. Alexander Hill, proprietor of the Negaunee Bottling works, is a successful business man of that city where he has been engaged in the operation of that concern since 1914. He was born in Finland, April 25, 1867, a son of Alexander and Mary Ojaniemi, both natives of Finland, the former of whom, a farmer, died in 1911 at the age of ninety years and the latter of whom died in 1914 at the age of eighty-five years. The family name has been Anglicized to that of Hill. After attending the public schools of Finland, Alexander Hill came to the United States in 1889, when he was twenty-two years of age, and for twelve years thereafter, he worked as a miner. By 1914, he found himself in a position to

Page  302 302 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN go into business for himself and in that year organized the Negaunee Bottling works, of which he is still the proprietor. His achievement in thus building up a substantial enterprise entirely through his own efforts, has stamped Mr. Hill as a shrewd business man and able executive, a reputation which is universally accorded by the people of Negaunee. He married Ida Granrose, who was born in Finland, and to them have been born these children: Viano, who is at Negaunee; Unno, who is attending Kalamazoo college; and Tyyne, who is a graduate of Ferris Institute and is now employed at the training school at Lapeer, Michigan. Mr. Hill is a member of the Finnish National society, and he and his family are members of the Finnish Lutheran church. In politics, Mr. Hill supports the principles of the Republican party. Joseph A. Crowell, M.D., is one of the honored and veteran physicians and surgeons of Dickinson county, where he has been established in the practice of his profession at Iron Mountain, the county seat, during the long period of more than fifty-five years. He has specialized in the surgical branch of his profession, and his status therein is indicated when it is noted that he has a fellowship in the American College of Surgeons, the great national organization of representative American surgeons. Doctor Crowell was born at Rahway, Union county, New Jersey, September 28, 1853, and is a son of the late Joseph and Etta (Branderhoven) Crowell, the former of whom likewise was born at Rahway, New Jersey, and the latter of whom was born in Albany, New York, a representative of one of the fine old Holland-Dutch families early founded in that state. Joseph Crowell was a publisher by occupation during the greater part of his active career, was a Democrat in politics, and died in 1911, when he was seventy-six years of age, his wife having passed away in 1906, aged sixty-three years, and both having been communicants of the Protestant Episcopal church. In the public schools of his native town Doctor Crowell continued his studies until he had duly availed himself of the curriculum of the high school, and in preparation for the profession of his choice he entered the medical department of the University of New York. In this institution he was graduated as a member of the class of 1880, and in the year that thus marked his reception of the degree of doctor of medicine he came to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and opened an office at Stephenson, Menominee county, but in the following year he removed to Iron Mountain, which important industrial center has been the stage of his professional activities during the long intervening years. He has specialized in surgery, as previously noted, and his service in this connection has touched closely the great mining and other industries of this part of Michigan, besides which he has served as local surgeon for the Chicago & North Western railroad. In addition to being a fellow of the American College of Surgeons, Doctor Crowell has membership also in the American Medical association, the Michigan State Medical society and the Dickinson County Medical society,

Page  303 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 303 as well as the American Association of Railway Surgeons. He is affiliated with the local lodge of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, is a Republican in political alignment, and has membership in the Pine Grove Golf club. In the year 1882, Doctor Crowell was united in marriage to Miss Leonora A. Schumacher, who was born at Brookfield, New York, of German ancestry, she being a birthright member of the Society of Friends, the gracious faith of which she has ever retained. Gertrude E., firstborn of the children of Doctor and Mrs. Crowell, became the wife of Edward W. Jones, and her death occurred in the city of Marquette, Michigan, when she was forty years of age; Leonora is the widow of George B. Carpenter, who enlisted for service in the World war and who was in service when he was killed, on the steamship Carolina; Ruth is the wife of William A. Werner and they now reside in the state of Texas; Joseph A., Jr., resides in Florida, where he has an orange grove, the maiden name of his wife having been Frances Collins; Miss Jeanette, youngest of the children, remains at the parental home. Frank O. Logic, D.C., PH.C., has gained distinct prestige as one of the leaders of the chiropractic profession in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, is established in successful practice in the city of Iron Mountain, judicial center of Dickinson county, and none has been more loyal and self-sacrificing in gaining to the science of chiropractic its due recognition in Michigan, as is evident when it is stated that when ten local physicians and surgeons of Iron Mountain entered complaint against him for his practicing of his profession in this city, he made a definite sacrifice in behalf of his chosen vocation by serving ninety days at hard labor in the county jail of Dickinson county after being convicted on the charge of practicing chiropractic. This indignity had great bearing on gaining to his profession justified official recognition by the state of Michigan. Doctor Logic was born on the parental home farm in Racine county, Wisconsin, October 7, 1893, and is a son of Joseph and Margaret (Gobel) Logic, the former of whom was born in Bohemia, Austria, and the latter at Caledonia, Wisconsin, where they now maintain their home, the father being retired from his long association with farm industry and being now (1926) seventythree years of age, while his wife, who is of German lineage, is seventy years of age, both being earnest communicants of the Catholic church and he being a Democrat in politics. Joseph Logic was a child of four years when his parents came to the United States and established their home in Wisconsin. After his graduation in the parochial school of St. Mary's Catholic church at Caledonia, Wisconsin, in 1908, Doctor Logic continued his studies in the high school at Oakwood, that state, in which he was graduated in 1912. In 1912-13 he taught in a rural district school near Florence, Wisconsin, and he thereafter advanced his education by attending the Wisconsin State Normal school in Milwaukee, in which he was graduated as a member of the class of 1916. He was principal of

Page  304 304 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN the high school at Florence, Wisconsin, in 1916-17, and thereafter he was county superintendent of schools in the same county until, in 1918, he responded to the call of higher duty and enlisted for service in the World war. He was in active overseas service in 1918-19, as a member of Special Division G 2, intelligence section. After his return to his native land he duly received his honorable discharge, and thereafter he prepared himself for his chosen profession by completing the prescribed course in the Palmer School of Chiropractic, Davenport, Iowa, in which he was graduated as a member of the class of 1921. In the same year he established his residence at Iron Mountain, and here he has since made a record of unqualified success in the practice of his profession, the while he has incidentally proved to physicians of the so-called regular school that his system of practice is not to be subordinated to any other, besides which he has gained secure place as one of the honored and influential citizens of Dickinson county. He is vice-president of the Michigan State Chiropractic association, and is a director of the Universal Spineographic society. The doctor is a director of the Iron Mountain Chamber of Commerce and of the Iron Range Aerial Scout Council, is president of the Kiwanis club in his home city, and lieutenant governor of the Upper Peninsula Division of Michigan Kiwanis clubs. He is a fourth-degree member of Baraga Council, Knights of Columbus, and has membership in the local post of the American Legion, as well as the celebrated Forty and Eight club of World war veterans. He is affiliated with Iron Mountain lodge, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and in politics he pronounces himself a progressive. The Doctor served as a member of the municipal charter commission of Iron Mountain in 1925. He and his wife are zealous communicants of the Catholic church. In 1921 was solemnized the marriage of Doctor Logic to Miss Alice Adolph, who was born at Marinette, Wisconsin, and who was graduated in the Wisconsin State Normal school at Oshkosh. Doctor and Mrs. Logic have two children: Marion and Frank James. George C. Bartley, M.D., is a native son of Escanaba, judicial center of Delta county, is a representative of a family that has here been established nearly half a century, and he now has secure vantage-place as one of the leading physicians and surgeons in his native city and county, where his office is established at No. 1212 Ludington street. Doctor Bartley was born in Escanaba on the 22d of September, 1884, and is a son of Caspar and Nellie (Burke) Bartley, who still maintain their home in this city, both having been born in Wisconsin-the former at Manitowoc and the latter in the capital city of Madison. In his earlier career Casper Bartley was closely associated with the lumber industry in northern Wisconsin and Michigan, and thereafter was for a term of years in the service of the Chicago & North Western railroad. He is now living virtually retired, and is one of the well known and highly honored citizens of Escanaba, where he has served as a member of the board

Page  305 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 305 of aldermen and also as a member of the board of education. He is affiliated with the Knights of Columbus and he and his wife are zealous communicants of St. Patrick's Catholic church, and Mrs. Bartley is a member of the Woman's club, the Daughters of Isabella, and is a popular figure in the social circles of the city that has long represented her home. After his graduation in the Escanaba high school Doctor Bartley entered the medical department of Marquette university, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and in this institution he was graduated as a member of the class of 1910. After thus receiving his degree of doctor of medicine he engaged in the general practice of his profession at Escanaba, and his success has been on a parity with his recognized professional ability and his unequivocal personal popularity in his native city. Here he has been retained since the close of the World war as physician for the United States Public Health service; he is division surgeon for the Chicago & North Western railroad; and he has served continuously as coroner of Delta county since 1914. He has membership in the American Medical association, the Michigan State Medical society and the Delta County Medical society, his political allegiance is given to the Republican party, he and his wife are communicants of St. Patrick's Catholic church, and he is affiliated with the Knights of Columbus. In the year 1919 was solemnized the marriage of Doctor Bartley to Miss Julia Him, who was born at Port Washington, Wisconsin, a daughter of Peter and Annie Him. Doctor and Mrs. Bartley have no children. Mrs. Bartley is affiliated with the Daughters of Isabella and is a popular member of the Woman's club of Escanaba. John Jones. Perhaps none is more exemplary of all that is commendable in an attorney than is John Jones, of Ironwood, Michigan. James H. Jones, his father, was born in Crawford county, Pennsylvania, in 1849 and died in January, 1924, probably the best loved man in his community, and Evelyn (James) Jones, mother of John Jones, was born in Rockland, Michigan, a daughter of John and Mary Ann James, pioneers of the Copper country who located there in the Fifties, and is now living at Rockland. Born at Rockland, Michigan, July 29, 1881, John Jones graduated from the Rockland high school in 1898 and entered the law college of the University of Michigan in 1900. In due course, he received the degree of bachelor of laws and was admitted to practice at the bar in June, 1903, after which he took post graduate work in law. In March, 1904, he began practice in Ontonagon county, Michigan, continuing alone until 1906, when he formed a partnership with W. R. Adams, an arrangement that existed until the death of Mr. Adams in 1911. Since Adams was prosecuting attorney at the time of his death, Mr. Jones was appointed to fill his unexpired term, upon the conclusion of which, Mr. Jones was elected prosecuting attorney of Ontonagon county, an office to which he was successively returned until hr had served the full period of five elective terms, retiring from county politics in 1922. In May, that year,

Page  306 306 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN Mr. Jones, was appointed assistant United States District Attorney of the Western District of Michigan. In 1923, he established at Ironwood the law firm of Jones & Patek and in February, 1924, formed the law firm of Jones & Donnelly at Ontonagon, retaining the Ironwood office. Unquestionably, then, Mr. Jones is one of the leading lawyers in this section of the state, for he is forceful and clear in his argument and painstakingly careful in the preparation of his cases. During the World war, Mr. Jones was chairman of the County Chapter of the American Red Cross and of the County War Board and was a lieutenant in the American Protective League. In 1908, Mr. Jones married Agnes L. McCanna, who was born at Manistique, Michigan, and is a graduate of St. Joseph's academy at Green Bay, Wisconsin, and to them have been born three children, Kathleen and Margaret, who are students in Rosary College, River Forest, Ill., and James M., who is attending Junior high school. Mr. Jones has been District Deputy of the Twelfth District of the Knights of Columbus for six years and is a member of the Elks, the Hamilton club, of Chicago, and the Michigan Union, he being a life member of the last named organization. Peter Paveglio, president and director of the Peninsula Granite & Marble company and manager of the Marquette division of that concern, is rightfully designated as one of the influential business men of this city, for it was he, one of the organizers of the company which he heads, who is directly responsible for the substantial position occupied by the enterprise in the commercial life of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. His parents, Louis and Josephine Paveglio, were both natives of Italy, the former having been born at Meduno, and they are now living in Marquette at the ages of sixty-nine and sixty-one, respectively. They are the parents of thirteen children, the six children living are: Peter, August, Leno, Guido, Edward and Irma. Peter Paveglio, was born at Meduno, (Province of Udine) Italy, December 29, 1889, and the first years of his education were spent in the schools of his native city. He then attended college two years at Venice, Italy, and completed his education by four years and two months spent at an Austrian college, receiving his diploma as a stone carver in 1906. Coming to the United States in December, 1906. Mr. Paveglio, was engaged in railroad work for two years, after which he worked for a like period at Iron Mountain, Michigan, as a miner. It was in 1911 that he and his brother August, first became identified with the granite and marble business in this country, building the private family memorial of Sonaglia at Iron Mountain, Michigan, then coming to Marquette, Michigan, to build the chapel at Holy Cross cemetery, and starting in business here under the name of Marquette Granite & Marble works, Paveglio Bros. Proprietors, purchasing the equipment of the monument business of Herman Stensrud, which was located at Negaunee, Michigan. Later the firm purchased the Superior Granite & Marble works, of Superior, Wisconsin, moving the equipment and merchandise to Iron Moun

Page  307 UPPER PENINSULA OF MICHIGAN 307 tamn, and Marquette, Michigan, and has since steadily progressed to a position of importance in that field. The concern was organized in 1920 as The Peninsula Granite & Marble company, incorporated under the laws of the state of Michigan, of which he has since been president and director and manager of the Marquette branch. With the incorporation of the concern, business grew more rapidly than ever before, so that at the present time, branches are maintained at' Iron Mountain and Ironwood, Michigan, in addition to the plant at Marquette, Michigan. Undeniably, Mr. Payeglio, is entirely responsible for the secure position held by the company in the commercial and manufacturing circles of Upper Peninsula, and he has been one of the factors contributing to the success of the Peninsula Granite & Marble company. Mr. Paveglio is recognized as one of the ablest executives in the city and county. He was united in marriage to Mae Welch, a native of Marquette, Michigan, and they have these children: Peter Harold, aged eleven years; Elaine Marie, aged nine years; Leo Earl, aged seven; David Wesley, five years of age; Clinton Joseph, three years old; and Paul Roy, who is one month old. Mr. Paveglio, is a member of the Knights of Columbus, the Elks, the United Commercial Travelers, and the Italian-American Citizen league.

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