History of Ionia County, Michigan : her people, industries and institutions, with biographical sketches of representaive citizens, and genealogical records of many of the old families
Branch, Elam E., 1871-, De La Vergne, Earl W.

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Page  9 HISTORY OF IONIA COUNTY MICHIGAN HER PEOPLE, INDUSTRIES AND INSTITUTIONS REV. E. E. BRANCH Editor-in-Chief With Biographical Sketches of Representative Citizens and Genealogical Records of Many of the Old Families VOLUME I ILLUSTRATED 1916 B. F. BOWEN & COMPANY, Inc. Indianapolis, India

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Page  11 DEDICATION To the dear, departed ones, whose busy hands changed the giant forests into fertile fields; whose love of home established the hearthstones, the tender ties of which yet bind together the heartstrings of the native born; whose patriotism gave the best of their lives and substance for the defense of their country; whose graves make sacred the soil their feet so often trod.

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Page  13 PREFACE All life and achievement is evolution; present wisdom comes from past experience, and present commercial prosperity has come only from past exertion and sacrifice. The deeds and motives of the men who have gone before have been instrumental in shaping the destinies of later communities and states. The development of a new country was at once a task and a privilege. It required great courage, sacrifice and privation. Compare the present conditions of the people of Ionia county, Michigan, with what they were four score years ago. From a trackless wilderness and virgin land, it has come to be a center of prosperity and civilization, with millions of wealth, systems of railways, grand educational institutions, splendid industries and immense agricultural and dairy productions. Can any thinking person be insensible to the fascination of the study which discloses the aspirations and efforts of the early pioneers who so strongly laid the foundation upon which has been reared the magnificent prosperity of later days? To perpetuate the story of these people and to trace and record the social, political and industrial progress of the community from its first inception, is the function of the local historian. A sincere purpose to preserve facts and personal memoirs that are deserving of perpetuation, and which unite the present to the past, is the motive for the present publication. A specially valuable and interesting department is that one devoted to the sketches of representative citizens of these counties whose records deserve preservation because of their worth, effort and accomplishment. The publishers desire to extend their thanks to the gentlemen who have so faithfully labored to this end. Thanks are also due to the citizens of Ionia county for the uniform kindness with which they have regarded this undertaking, and for their many services rendered in the gaining of necessary information. In placing the "History of Ionia County, Michigan," before the citizens, the publishers can conscientiously claim that they have carried out the plan as outlined in the prospectus. Every biographical sketch in the work has been submitted to the party interested, for correction, and therefore any error of fact, if there be any, is solely due to the person for whom the sketch was prepared. Confident that our effort to please will fully meet the approbation of the public, we are, Respectfully, THE PUBLISHERS.

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Page  15 CONTENTS VOLUME I CHAPTER I-GEOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERJSTICS-..____. 33 Location-Boundaries-Mineral Deposits-Wells-Rock Formations-Glacial Drift-Moraines-Natural Drainage-Climate-Climatic Influence of the Great Lakes-Cyclonic Storms-Temperature-Precipitation-Winds-Soils -Farm Lands-Streams-Lakes-Water Power. CHAPTER II-ORGANIZATION OF IONIA COUNTY - -------— _______- 48 Legislative Acts Creating County-Ionia Township-First Elections-Establishmerit of the County Seat-The Toledo War-County-seat ContestsOfficial Roster-Judges of Probate-Sheriffs-County Clerks-County Treasurers-Registers of Deeds-Prosecuting Attorneys-Circuit Court-Commissioners-County Surveyors-Coroners-The Public Square-County Office Building-Court House-County Jails-Poor Farm and Buildings. CHAPTER III-BERLIN TOWNSHIP ---- _ —____-___ ____ — - 70 Organization-Description-Changes in Boundaries-First Officials-Settlement and Land Entries-Alonzo Sessions-Some Pioneer Experiences-Taxpayers in 1844-Voters in 1846 and 1849-Supervisors. CHAPTER IV-BOSTON TQWNSHIP__ - -______-__ _____.__-__ —__ — 81 Organization-Name-First Officials-First Permanent Settlers-Early Events-Grand River Turnpike-Settlers in the Vicinity of Waterville-Taxpayers in 1844-Supervisors-Saranac in 1849, a Reminiscence by J. F. Proctor. CHAPTER V-CAMPBELL TOWNSHIP --- —- ___- ---- 91 Legislative Act Creating the Township-Name-First Township MeetingLocation and Boundaries-Natural Features-Pioneers of the TownshipGrowth and Development-Resident Taxpayers in 1849-Voters in 1849; 1850 and 1854-Supervisors-Clarksville. CHAPTER VI-DANBY TOWNSHIP- 9- _ _ -—. ------------- 93 Organization-Name-First Officials-Description of-Natural FeaturesFirst and Subsequent Settlers-Mill-First Events-Missionary Efforts Among the Indians-Resident Taxpayers in 1845-Cornell Village-Supervisors.

Page  16 CONTENTS. CHAPTER VII-EASTON TOWNSHIP --- —--------- 103 Creation and Organization of-First Election and Officials Chosen-Settlement-Avon Postoffice-Supervisors. CHAPTER VIII-IONIA TOWNSHIP ----------------------- 107 Organization-Division of-First Township Meeting and Election-Early Official Record-Genereauxville-Early Settlement-Pioneer Saw-mill-Supervisors-Prairie Creek-Place's Mill-South Ionia. 0 CHAPTER IX-KF^NE TOWNSHIP ---------------.. —. ---- 115 Organization of, and Subsequent Changes-Name-First Township Meeting and Officials Chosen-Location and Boundaries-Early Settlement-Dickertown-First Events-Supervisors. CHAPTER X-LYONS TOWNSHIP --- —------------------ 120 Creation of the Township-Name-Changes in Boundaries-First OfficialsNatural Features-Early Settlement-First Events-First Crops-Farming According to "Scientific Principles"'-Supervisors-Indian Battles-LyonsUnrealized Hopes-Village Plats-Early Growth-Navigation of the Grand River-Early Events in the Village-Incorporation-First Officers Under the Charter-Present Condition-Muir (Montrose)-P.ewamo. CHAPTER XI-NORTH PLAINS TOWNSHIP_ --- —--- ------- 139 Name-Organization-Changes in Area-First Township Meeting and Officials Chosen-Living Pioneers-The Glass Tragedy-Early Settlers-Hubbardston-Early Religious Services-First Fourth-of-July CelebrationOther First Events-Supervisors-Matherton-Mills. CHAPTER XII-ODESSA TOWNSHIP -------------------- 154 Creation of-Name-First Township Meeting and First Officials-Odessa Village-Pioneer Settlement-Stories of Pioneer Days-Supervisors-Lake Odessa-Bonanza. CHAPTER XIII-ORANGE TOWNSHIP -----— _ ------------ 163 Organization- Name- First Officials - Settlers- Early Conditions- First Events-Supervisors. CHAPTER XIV-ORLEANS TOWNSHIP ------ ---------— __ 168 Organization of-Name-First Township Meeting and Officials ChosenPre-emptions and Land Sales-Guy Webster-Other Early Settlers-Supervisors-Shiloh. CHAPTER XV-OTISCO TOWNSHIP_ - ---—. ---_ ____..__. 175 Organization-Name-First Election-IDescription of the Township-Natural Features-Water Power-Cook's Corners-First Events-Early SettlersOtisco Postoffice-Supervisors-Kiddville-Dickinson-German Settlement -Smyrna (Mount Vernan).

Page  17 CONTENTS. CHAPTER XVI-PORTLAND TOWNSHIP_ ----_______ --- —-_ 184 Boundaries-Natural Features-Township Aid for Railroad ConstructionSoil-Organization of the Township-First Officials-Settlement-Maple Postoffice-Supervisors-Early History of Portland-Experiences with the Indians-Wild Game-Naming of the Village-Portland Postmasters-Early Township Records. CHAPTER' XVII-RONALD TOWNSHIP_____ ------------- 196 Formation of the Township-First Township Meeting and Officials Chosen -Settlement-First Events-Resident Taxpayers in 1845-Supervisors-Palo -Mills. CHAPTER XVIII-SEBEWA TOWNSHIP -------------- - 203 First White Resident of the Township-Other Early Settlers-Resident Taxpayers in 1845-Voters in 1845 and 1853-Supervisors-Sebewa Postoffice (Cornell). CHAPTER XIX-CITY OF IONIA__ -— __ __ --- - --— _ 209 Location-Surroundings-Change in Conditions-Settlement-Selection of a County Seat-Pioneer Hardships-First Things-Railroads-Traders-Taverns-The Land Office-An Era of Depression, Followed by Substantial Advancement-Survey of Ionia County Seat-Ionia Village in 1845-Its Incorporation as a Village, and, Later, as a City-First City Officers-MayorsSupervisors-Municipal Improvements-The City Hall-Soldiers and Sailors Monument-The Country Club-Ionia Gas, Light and Coke Company-Ionia Water Power Electric Company-Sorosis Garment Company-Citizens Telephone Conrrany-Hayes-Tonia Company-Ypsilanti Reed Furniture Company-Barrett Cigar Company-E. H. Stafford Manufacturing Company. CHAPTER XX-CITY OF BELDING___________ --- —---------- - __ 227 Situation-Public Utilities-Supervisors-First Settlement-Early MillsBroas Rapids (Patterson's Mill)-Belding Brothers and the Rise'of the Silk Industry-Richardson Silk Mills-Spencer Electric Light and Power Company-Grand Rapids Paper Box Company-Belding-Hall Company-Belding Basket Company-E. Chapple & Company-Belding Land and Improvement Company-First Passenger Line into Belding. CHAPTER XXI- TRANSPORTATION -- _ --- —--- --- ---— _ --- - 241 The Pere Marquette System (Detroit, Grand Rapids & Western Railroad Company)-The Grand Trunk System (Detroit, Grand Haven & Milwaukee Railroad Company)-First Railroad Charter in the State-Delay and Discouragement in the Construction of the First Railroads-Early EquipmentOakland & Ottawa Railroad Company-Detroit, Lansing & Lake Michigan Railroad Company. CHAPTER XXII-MILITARY HISTORY — _ ---. — ----- ----- 248 Loyalty of the Pepple of Ionia County During the Civil War-Roster of lonia Men Who Enlisted.

Page  18 CONTENTS. CHAPTER XXIII-FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS ----_ - ---- ------ 309 Brief History of the Banks of lonia, Saranac, Portland, Clarksville, Lake Odessa, Belding-Building and Loan Associations. CHAPTER XXIV-SECRET, FRATERNAL AND PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES__ 317 Free and Accepted Masons-Royal Arch Masons-Royal and Select Masters -Order of the Eastern Star-Independent Order of Odd Fellows-Daughters of Rebekah-Knights of Pythias-Independent Order of ForestersEquitable Fraternal Union-Loyal Order of Moose-Ancient Order of Gleaners-Knights and Ladies of Security-Daughters of the American Revolution-Grand Army of the Republic-Woman's Relief Corps-Daughters of Veterans-Sons of Veterqns. CHAPTER XXV-EDUCATION, SCHOOLS AND TEACHERS _____ --- —-- 337 The Pioneer School House-Work of the Pioneers Reflected in Present Conditions-History of Early Schools in the Townships of Berlin, Boston, Campbell, Danby, Easton, Keene, Lyons, North Plains, Odessa, Orange, Orleans, Portland, Ronald, Sebewa-Public Schools of Ionia-Schools of Saranac-Schools of Lyons-Portland Public Schools-Schools of the County at the Present Time-Recent State Laws-Teaching Hints-Standard School. CHAPTER XXVI-NEWSPAPERS OF IONIA COUNTY__ - ---— __ - 372 The First Paper in the County-Subsequent Papers at Ionia, Portland, Belding, Saranac, Lake Odessa, Clarksville, Muir-Defunct Papers of the County. CHAPTER XXVII-IONIA'S POSTAL HISTORY --- —- -------------- 384 The Postoffice, the Barometer of Local Business Conditions-The First Mail Routes and Postoffice in lonia County-The Ionia Postoffice,-Active Postoffices of the County-Defunct Postoffices. CHAPTER XXVIII-CHURCH ORGANIZATIONS- --- __ - 392 Methodist Episcopal Churches-Baptist Churches-Presbyterian ChurchesCongregational Churches-Church of Christ-United Brethren ChurchesEvangelical Church-German Evangelical Lutheran Church-Seventh-day Adventist Church-Dunkard Churches-Union Church. CHAPTER XXIX-THE MEDICAL PROFESSION -------------- 424 First Physician in the County-Physicians at Ionia-Other Early Practitioners in the Various Communities of the County-Registration-Ionia's Pioneer Doctors-Medical Necrology. CHAPTER XXX-BENCH AND BAR OF IONIA COUNTY __ --- —--- 432 Sketch of the First Term of Court in Ionia County-First Cases-Attorneys Prior to 1845-Those Up to May, 1880-Later Attorneys-Those Who Have Gained Unusual Distinction-Present Attorneys of the County. CHAPTER XXXI-HISTORY OF THE GRAND RIVER VALLEY ------- 439 Mrs. L. P. Brock-First White Visitor-Indian Occupancy-Early Explorers -Chief Pontiac-Saginaw Treaty of 1819-Chicago Treaty of 1821-Wash

Page  19 CONTENTS. ington Treaty of 1836-Story of an Old Song-"Washtenong"-Early Life Along Grand River-Sophia Bailly-Manasseh Hickey-Chief Cobmoosa"Cobmoosa's Lament"-Madame La Fromboise-Rix Robinson-Louis Campau-Father Frederick Baraga-Genealogy of the Dexter Family-Coming of White Settlers to Grand River Valley-Joel Guild's Song, "Michigania"A Pioneer Guide-Location of First Houses-Early Craftsmen-A June Frost-Samuel and Anna (Fargo) Dexter-Candace (Winsor) Dexter-Children of Samuel and Anna Dexter-Oliver Arnold-Shortage of ProvisionsErastus Yeomans-"Gratitude to God"-An Acrostic-William B. LincolnWork of a Pioneer Physician-Doctor Lincoln's Descendants-"Pioneers"Ionia's Firsts-Interesting Notes-Alonzo Sessions-White Pigeon-A Son of Black Bird, the Indian Chief-Anniversary Celebration-"The Beautiful River Grand"-The Historical Pageant-An Historical Relic. CHAPTER XXXII-SIDELIGHTS ON IONIA HISTORY_ —____ ---- - 506 The First Armory-City Armory-Michigan Reformatory-Ionia State Hospital-Rebel Prisons in Civil War Days-Dates of Incorporation of Cities and Villages of Ionia County-Population of Ionia County-Vote for Governor-Notable Citizens of Ionia County-State Senators from Ionia County -Representatives for Ionia County-Important Offices-Young Men's Christian Association-Pioneer Days.

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Page  21 HISTORICAL INDEX VOLUME I A. Algodon __ ----_________- 155, 388 Ancient Order of Gleaners _ —__ 327 Armory __- ___ _______506 Arnold, Oliver --— _ — _ --- —-- 481 Attorneys — _____ --- —-------- 432 Attorneys, Prosecuting __ --- __- _ 64 Avon _ _ --- —-------— 105, 388 B. Bailly, Sophia ____ --- —------- 454 Banks ---------------- 309 Baptist Churches --— ___,_- - 400 Baraga, Father Frederick ---— _ 464 Belding CityBanks --- ______ --- —-- _ 312 Belding Brothers __ --- - 229 Building and Loan Associations_ 315 Churches _ —_______ 395, 403, 416 Dams ---------—._-___ 228 Early Business Interests ----— _ 229 Improvements - -_____________ 227 Incorporation __________-__ 514 Industries --— ___ __ --- —-- 236 Land Company -— ___ --- — _ 239 Light and Power Plant _ ----__ 235 Lodges -— ________-318, 322, 332, 334 Newspapers _ —_-__ ----_ -— ___ 378 Paper Box Industry -— __ —_-_ — 236 Physicians -4 --- —— _ —__ ______ 430 Population --— _ --- —-_-__-_ _ 514 Public Utilities _ —_ ___ _ ---_ 227 Railroads --— ___ --- —_-_____ 240 Richardson Silk Mills ______-_ 234 Settlement ------— _ _ ___ — 228 Silk Industry -,.. --- —---— ____.. 232 Belding CitySituation -------- ------ -- 227 Supervisors -___ --- —-__ --- 227 Water Power ----— __ ---- 234 Bench and Bar -------— __- 432 Berlin TownshipChanges in Area ----— _ _ -- 70 Description of _ ---___ — __70 First Township Meeting ___ — _ 70 Lakes ---------- --— _ --. 45 Land Entries ------— _ _ ---- 71 Mills ---— ~____ --- —---- 76 Name __ — ------— ___ - 70 Officials, First -___ —___ ---- 70 Organization __. —_ — _____ - 70 Schools --- -- - 337 Settlement -___ --- —------ 72 Streams ----------------- 45 Supervisors -_ --- —----- 80 Taxpayers in 1844 __ ----_ 78 Voters in 1846 and 1849_ -------- 79 Bonanza __-_ --- —- 155, 160, 389 Boston TownshipCemeteries -_ --- —----— ___ 84 Description of ______ ----_ 81 First Events -____ --- —---- 83 First Township Meeting ----- 81 Indians -----— _-_ --- — 89 Lakes -_ --- —------------ 45 Mills ------------- 85 Name —.... ---------- - __ 81 Organization ----— _ — -,- 81 Pioneers ______ --- —------- 81 Schools - ---------------- __ 337 Settlement — ~,........ --- —----- 82 Streams ------— ___ ------- _ 45 Supervisors --— ___ --- —--- - 87 Taxpayers in 1844 --------— _ 86

Page  22 HISTORICAL INDEX. Boundaries of County -----— _ _ 33 Bricker Park _-_ ---------— _- 45 C. Campau, Louis -. ----_____ —_-___ 463 Campbell ___ --- — --------- 388 Campbell TownshipBoundaries --------------- 92 Campbell --------— _ ---- 338 Creation of -— __1 --- —-— __ 91 First Events ------------—. 95 First Township Meeting -_- 9_ 91 Indians --- -----— _ ---- -_-_ 100 Lakes -__ --- —.-..- - 45 Location. --- —-----------—.. — 92 Name ------- - --------— ___ 91 Natural Features ---------- - 92 Officials, First __-__ --- ___ --- 92 Schools ---------------- 95 Settlement -------—. ----... ---_- 92 Squatters — _ -----— _ --- 92 Supervisors ---—. --- —-----—. --- 97 Taxpayers in 1845 ---— _ --- —- 101 Taxpayers in 1849 ----— _ --- 96 Voters, Early __-_,-_- - — _ — 96 Cass -—. --- ---------- -..- 388 Cass Township — _ --- —-------- 70 Catholic Church _ --- —----------- 146 Chadwick -_ ----__ ---- - 389 Chandler ------------------ 389 Chicago Treaty of 1821 _..-___ --- — 448 Chief Cobmoosa ------------ 457 Chief Pontiac -— _ ----_ --- —-_- 444 Church of Christ ------------ 4 413 Churches -------------------- - 392 Circuit Court Commissioners —. — 64 Clarksville 97, 311, 319, 324, 382, 387, 412 Clayey Soil __ --- - _ --- — _____ 44 Clerks, County -_ --- --- -- 63 Climate — _-. --- —-. --- —------- 38 Coal Measures -— ~ ----_ -— _- 33 Cobmoosa, Chief -------—, —_- 457 Collins — ___ --- —------ 389 Commissioners, Circuit Court ---- 64 Commonwealth Dam --------- 47 Congregational Churches -------- 410 Contests for County Seat ------- 55 Cook's Corner -. ----. —_ 176, 177, 179 Cornell -.. --- —---— _ ---- 101, 208 Coroners ---- _____ County Clerks —.-. —.__.__. County House ----— ___ County Jails ------ County Office Building __,-______ County Officials -__ ----_ —_____ County Seat Established _______ County Surveyors _ ---__ _____-__ County Treasurers -----— _____ Court Commissioners --—. —_____ Court House ---------— _______ Creation of County -----— _____ Cyclonic Storms -----— _ —___ ___ 65 63 68 67 66 62 52 65 63 64 66 48 39 D. Dams — ____ --- —_ —________ 46 Danby ______ ---___ --- —— 100, 389 Danby TownshipBoundaries _ --- —---— _ ----__ 98 First Events ------— _ —__-__ 100 First Township Meeting _-. ----_ 98 Mills ----— ___ — __- _____ 100 Name -— ____- __ --- —----- _ 98 Natural Features -----— __-____ __ 98 Organizations ------— ___-___ 98 Schools --------— _ ----__ ___ 339 Settlement _ --- —---— ___ ___ 98 Streams --------—.___ __- 44, 98 Supervisors _____-__ —____ —__ 101 Daughters of Rebekah -. --- —-- 324 Daughters of the American Revolution ---------- _ --- -___ 329 Daughters of Veterans ----—.-.___ 335 Deceased Physicians --------—,- 430 Dexter, Samuel _. --- — 54, 213, 465, 475 Dickertown -...... ________ —118- 118 Doctors ____,- -------------- 424 Drainage, Natural -. —_- -. ----, —. 37 Dunkard Churches -. --- —--------- 422 E. Early Craftsmen --— _-_ --- ——. --- 473 Early Life -- _ — ----------- 451 Eastern Star, Order of. —_ —318, 320 Easton ----------- 389 Easton TownshipFirst Township Meeting __ --- —-. 103 Mills ---------------- --- - 104

Page  23 HISTORICAL INDEX. Easton Township — Officials, First -- ------- 103 Organization -— _-_ — — _ 103 Reformatory — __ --- — _ — 507 Schools -------- ------— _ - 340 Settlement -------- _ --- _ 103 Streams ----- ------- - 45 Supervisors ------------— _ - 105 Education --— ___ --- —-- --- 337 Election, First in County -------—. 49 Enlistments from Ionia County -_ 248 Equitable Fraternal Union ___- __- 325 Evangelical Church ---------------- 419 F. Farm Lands ------ _ --- —-— _ 44 Financial Institutions -------- - 309 First Armory -----— _ _ --- — 50- 506 First County Election _- __- - 49 Foresters, Independent Order of_ —_ 325 Fraternities ---- - 317 Free and Accepted Masons -— _ - 317 Frost, A June ------------- 474 G. Genereauxville ___ — ------- - 109 Geology ---— _ --- --------— _ 33 German Evan. Luth. Church --- —- 419 Glacial Drift — _ _ --- —-- -_ -- 36 Glass Tragedy --------------- 144 Gleaners, Ancient Order of.._ --- — 327 Grand Army of the Republic _ --- 331 Grand River, First Mention_ --- —-- 452 Grand River Valley --------- - 439 Grand Trunk Railway ------- --- 241 Great Lakes, Influence of ------ 38 H. Hickey, Manasseh _ --- —---- - 457 Hospital, State. -- ---- ----. 509 HubbardstonBeginning of. --- —-— _,- 146, 148 Churches ------------------ 397 Dams -. ------------- --- 150 Incorporation —... —, ---- ___ _ 515 Lumber Interests -. --- —--- 149 Mills -.-. --- —. --- —-— __ _ 148, 149 HubbardstonPopulation _____ ----____ _ 515 Stores, Early -— _ ----__ — 149 I. Incorporation of Cities and Villages 515 Independent Order of Foresters _ — 325 Independent Order of Odd Fellows 320 Indian Treaties ---— __- ------ 445 Indian Villages ---— __ _ _ --- — 453 Indians, 89, 100, 127, 144, 158, 445, 453, 471 Ionia CityArmory ---------------------- 506 Banks _____ --- —-----— _309, 493 Building and Loan Associations_ 315 Churches-__-392, 00, 408, 413, 419, 494 City Hall ---------- ---- 221 Country Club -____ —______ _ 222 County Seat --- ____ --- —— 2, 210 Early Description --- -_ ---- 216 Electric Company ---------— _ 223 First City Election __ — -— __ _ 220 First Things __ —__ —___ 212, 493 Gas Plant -__ --- —._ --- —-- 223 Historical Pageant __ —__- - 503. Improvements — _ ----______ - 221 In 1845 ---------... ---- 216 Incorporation as City _ —.___ 219; 515 Incorporation as Village — _ — 218 Industries --— _ --- —----- 223 Land Office -----— _ --- —- 214 Location -__ __ --- —---—, — 209 Lodges _ --- —-____ 317, 320, 324 Mayors ---— __ —__ --- —-__ 220 Newspapers - -----— _____ 372, 493 Pioneer Hardships ___-_ ----_____ 211 Population _ ---- - -____ --- — 514 Postoffice _ --- —---— 384, 493 Public Improvements _ —_ --- —-- 221 Railroads ------- 212, 241 Schools.... --- —---------- - 221, 3$S Selection as County Seat _ —__52, 210 Settlement -__ ---- --- 210 Soldiers' Monument ---- --------- 222 Supervisors -------------- 220 Taverns ---------—. --- —-- 21 Telephones --- -. --- —--.-.- 224

Page  24 HISTORICAL INDEX. Ionia CityTraders, Early -------- -- 212 Physicians -------------- 424, 430 Water System --------- - 221 "Ionia County Seat" —.. --- — —.53, 215 Ionia TownshipChanges in Area ----- --- 107 Creation of ------ ------ 48 Description ------ ----- 107 Election, First -------- _ 49 First Township Meeting ---- 107 Mills ------- 109, 110, 112 Officials, First --------------— 49, 108 Organization ------- --- 104 Settlement ------ ---- 109, 113 Supervisors ------------— 111 Ionia's Firsts ---- -- ------ 493 J. Jails ---- ------------ 67 Judges of Probate ------ ---- 63 K. Keene ---------------- 389 Keene TownshipBoundaries -----— _ --- — - 115 Canadian Settlement --------- 117 Dickertown ------------ 118 First Events --- ------- 119 First Township Meeting ---- 115 Location ----— _ ------- 115 Officials, First -------— __ 115 Name ---- --------- 115 Organization ---- ------ 115 Schools --- —----- 341 Settlement ---- ------- 116 Squatters ---- -------- 116 Streams --—. ---------- 45 Supervisors ------- ------- 119 Tavern ------ -------- 117 Kiddville --------- 176, 179, 389 Knights and Ladies of Security —.- 328 Knights of Pythias ------- -- 324 Kossuth ----- --------- 389 L. Lake Land --------—... _44 Lake OdessaBanks ----------------- 312 Beginning of ---------- -- 159 Churches ---------- 407, 417 First Buildings ------ ----- 161 Incorporation -- ------- 515 Lodges ------ ----- 319, 322, 324 Newspapers ---- -------- 381 Platted ---- --------- 160 Population --------— __ _ 515 Postoffice --------------------- 387 Public Utilities --- ~ --- —--- 162 Railroad Influence ------- -- 160 Summer Resort ------- --- 161 Lakes ----- ----------- 45 Lakes, Influence of ---- ---- 38 Lakeview Park ----------- 45 Lawyers ------- ------- 432 Lincoln, William B. --------- 489 Location of County ---------—... 33 Lodges ------ --------- 317 Loyal Order of Moose ---- -- 326 LyonsBeginning of __ --- —------- 129 Bridges ------------- 131 Churches ------ ----- 399, 404 Dam ------- -------- 46 Election, First ----- ---- 134 Improvements, Early ---- -- 130 Incorporation --------- -133, 515 Indian Trading ------------------ 128 Lodges ----— _ --- — 331, 335 Newspapers ------ ------ 382 Physicians _ ---------- 425, 431 Platted ---- ---------- 129 Population --------------- 515 Postoffice ------- ------ 387 Schools --------------- 359 Settlement ------------- 128 Situation ----- ------- 128 State Routes ------- ---- 132 Lyons Danr - ---------- 46 Lyons TownshipBoundaries ------ ----- 121 Cemetery, First ---------- 124 Changes in Area ---- ---- 120 Dams ----- ---------- 46 Drainage, Natural ---------- 121 First Events ------ ------ 122 La Fromboise, Madame --— _ --- 461 Lake City -------------- 155

Page  25 HISTORICAL INDEX. Lyons TownshipFirst Township Meeting ---— __- 120 Indian Battles _ --- —-------- 127 Name -_ ---.-. --- —-.. --- —- 120 Officials, First ---—.._ -— __ 121 Organization _.._ ---- __ ----.. —_ _ 120 River Navigation __ ---__ ---_ _ 131 Schools -_ --- —------------- 342 Scientific Farming _______-___ 126 Stage Routes -— _ —__ ____ --- 132 Settlements -----— ____ --- _ 121 Streams -_____ --- —----— 44, 121 Supervisors -. ----.-..______ —.._ 127 M. Maple -1_ —___ _ 1______ ----187, 389 Maple Township -. --- —— ___ ___.__ 120 Marl Deposits ---— _ --- —— _ — 33 Masonic Order ---— ___________ — 317 MathertonBeginning of ---— _____- ____- 151 Churches -. --- —. --- —--—, -..... 418 Fires — _-.. --- __ --- —--— __;152 Lumber Interests — ~....... --- —- 151 Mills ----— ~ ----_-_-_-___ --- _ 151 Physicians -— ___.- -_ ---_____425, 430 Plat --------— _- ----- --- __ 151 Postoffice __ ---_-___ ---__- 151, 387 Water Power ---—.... --- —_ —_ 153 Medical Profession -----— ___ --- 424 Methodist Episcopal Churches -- 392 Military History -____-___ ---__- 248 Mills 76, 85, 100, 104, 109, 110, 112, 132, 135, 156, 166, 182, 190, 202 Montrose -------- ------ 134, 387 Moose, Loyal Order of -___ --- —- 325 Moraines -------- -------- 36 Morse, Allen B. -_ --- —----— _ 519 Mt. Vernon -------------- 183 MuirAdditions -._ --- —-------- - __ 136. Beginning of -------------— _ 132 Churches -----------— __ 417 I-ncorporations ---------— _ 515 Mills _ --- —— _-, --- —-- 132, 135 Name -- --— _ ----__ — _______ 135 Newspapers -------- -------- 382 Physicians --......... --- —-— 426, 431 Plats ------------------- 136 MuirPopulation -------- ------ 515 Postmasters ---------— _ 136 N. Natural Drainage -------— _-__ 37 New Berlin -------—.. —___ 78, 390 Newspapers -__-___ --- —----- 372 North Plains ------— ____ ---- 389 North Plains TownshipChange in Area ---—.__ _ ---- 139 Churches ---— _ --- —------- 146 First Events ---— _ --- —--- 147 First Township Meeting ----—. 139 Glass Tragedy ---— ___ _ ---- 144 Irish Settlers --— _~_ ----_- 146 Living Pioneers ____ --- —---- 140 Name ----— _-_ --- —------ 139 Officials, First ----- ____-___-__ _ 139 Organization __ --- ___ --- —-- 139 Religious Services __ ---- _____ — 146 Schools ----- - 343 Settlement -----— _____ ___ 140, 145 Streams ----— ___ ----- 45 Notable Citizens -— _ --- -- _ 515 Notes, Interesting ------— _______ 494 0. Odd Fellows ----------------- 320 Odessa TownshipCreation of -----— ___ ____ __ 154 First Events --- - __ 156 First Township Meeting ---— _ --- 154 Indians --------- _ 158 Lakes -------— _________ _- 45 Location ---— _ _____ —____ 155 Mills ----—._ —. ----.._ ___ 156 Name ----- __ --- —----— __ 154 Officials, First --------— _-_, 154 Pioneer Stories --— _8 --- —_ 158 Physicians -__ -------— 425, 430 Schools --— __________ --- —------ 345 Settlement -, ---- _ __ --- —- 155 Supervisors ---— ___ __ ---- 159 Voters, First -.~ --- —---..-_ 154 Office Buildings, County --- ---— _ 66 Officials of County_-, ------- 62

Page  26 HISTORICAL INDEX. Orange TownshipFirst Township Meeting -------- 163 Mills ---------------------------- 166 Name ---------------- 163 Officials, First ------- ---- 163 Orchards, First --------- 165 Organization --— __ — 163 Schools ----------------- 346 Settlement ---------------------- 163 Supervisors --------------------- 167 Trails, Early ------------- 164 Orchards, Early ~ --- —------ 165 Order of Eastern Star ----------- 318 Organization of County -------- 48 Orleans TownshipChurches ------------ 396, 398 First Township Meeting ------- 168 Lakes ---------------- 45 Name --------------- 168 Officials, First ---------------—.- 168 Organization_ -- ------- 168 Physicians __- ---------- 425 Pioneer Cabin ------------------- 169 Schools --- ----------- 347 Settlement ---—. --- — 169 Supervisors ----- -------- 173 Otisco -----------.. — 390 Otisco TownshipFirst Events ---- -------- 178 First Township Meeting ---- -- 175 German Settlement ---— ___ 180 Location -- --------- 175 Officials, First ----- ----- 175 Organization ---- ----- 175 Settlement ---------------------- 177 Streams ----------- 45, 176 Supervisors ------ ------- 179 Water Power ---------- 176 P. Palo - _ ---- 201, 318, 323, 387, 396, 404 Patriotic Societies --— _ —. --- 317 Patterson's Mill ---. --- —-228, 386 Pere Marquette Railway- ---- 246 PewamoBeginning of ---- ------ 136 Churches --------- — 400, 405 Early Conditions ------ -- 137 PewamoIncorporation ---- ----- 515 Lodges -------------------------- 319 Mills ---------------- 138 Name --- ---------- 136 Physicians ---- -------- 426 Pioneer Traders ----- ----- 137 Platted ---------------------- ---- 136 Population ---------------------- 515 Postoffice ----------------------- 387 Survey ---- --------- 136 Physicians ----------------------- 424 Pioneer Days ---------------------- 521 Pioneer Doctors ----------------- - 428 Pioneer Hardships ------— 186, 211 Plains ------ ---------- 387 Pleasant Park ------------ 45 Pontiac, Chief ------------ 444 Poor Farm ------------ _ 68 Population of Cities and Villages- 515 Population of County -------- 515 PortlandBanks ---- ----------- 311 Churches ----. --- —— 392, 402, 410, 421 Early Buildings ---- ---- 193 Incorporation ------ ---- 515 Lodges --------— 317, 322, 334 Name ------------- 193 Newspapers --------------------- 376 Physicians ----------------------- 425 Population ---- ------ 515 Postoffice ------------------ 193, 388 Schools ------ -------- 360 Portland TownshipAid to Railways ---- ----- 184 Boundaries ------ ----- 184 Crossing Streams ----- --- 191 Early History ------ ---- 189 First Events ---- ------ 193 First Township Meeting --------- 185 Fish ----------------------------- 193 Indians ------- ------- 192 Mills --------------------------- 190 Officials, First ----— ~ --- —----- 185 Organization ---- ------ 184 Pioneer Hardships ------------ 186 Roads, Early ---- ----- 192 Schools -------- ----- 348 Settlement -. --- —--------- 185, 189 Soil ----------------- 184

Page  27 HISTORICAL INDEX. Portland TownshipStreams -----.-...-.-...____,- 44, 184 Supervisors __ _ ----— _ 188 Water Power --—,-___ — _ 184 Postal History -_ —__________ 384 Postoffices —....-. ---. —,.._,,_.... 384 Prairie Creek --— __ --- —______ 111 Precipitation ___ —_ --- —_ ___-___ 40 Presbyterian Churches_ — ___-_ 408 Press, the --------------- 372 Probate Judges __ —___ --- ___-___ 63 Prosecuting Attorneys -_ ---___-_ 64 Public Square. —.- ---— _-.___ 66 R. Railroads _ —__ --- —_ ______ 241 Rainfall _____ --- —---— _ -— ___ 40 Rebekah, Daughters of-___ --- —-- 324 Rebel Prisons ---—.___ —. ---- 510 Reformatory _ — — __ —___.__ -___ 507 Registers of Deeds --— __ ____ 64 Registration of Physicians --— __- 426 Reimer Park -—. ---___-..._ —__ 45 Religious Societies __ ----— ___- 392 Representatives --— __.. _ _ ---_- 517 Richardson's Corner _ —, --- —___ __ 389 Rix -— ________-___ __ 390 Robinson, Rix -----— ________ 461 Rock Formations -__ --- —-____ _ 33 Ronald ---— __ __ --- —-------- 390 Ronald Center -----— __ ----_____ 390 Ronald TownshipChurches -___-___ ________ 423 First Events --— 2-0-__0____ ---___ 200 First Township Meeting -____-_- 196 Lakes _____-__ --- —--------- 45 Mills ------— _ ----__ ___ —___ 202 Officials, First,-__ — ______ 196 Organization ---— ____ ____- — 196 Physicians ----------— _ ---__ 425 Schools ----— __-_____ ____ 348 Settlement -____ --- —-__-__ 196 Supervisors __ —__-_____ ----__ 201 Taxpayers, 1845 -,-_____ ---_-__ 201 Rosina --------- -—,_ — _-____. 389 Roster of Ionia Soldiers —.-.. —___- 248 Roster of Officials — ___ _ --- —-- 62 Royal and Select Masters_ ----_-_ — 318 Royal Arch Masons.-.. __ --- —__ 318 S. Saginaw Treaty of 1819-_____- __ 445 Sandy Soil ------ ------- 44 SaranacBanks ----- ---------- 310 Churches -----— _ --- ---- 411 First Buildings ___ --- —-— _ — 88 In 1849 _ --- —-- _ --- —--- 87 Incorporation ____ ----___- __ 515 Indians ------------ 89 Lodges ---— ______ --- 320, 324, 333 Newspapers -------— ____ _ — 380 Physicians __ —____ — ------- 431 Population ----- __ ---_ --- 515 Schools ------- ------- 357 Schools _ --- —— _ -— ___95, 221, 337 "Scientific Farming" -___ --- _ 126 Sebewa -_. ---__ ---_ ----_-207, 390 Sebewa TownshipFirst Settlers - ~ --- —-_ --- — 203 First Township Meeting -—._ —. 207 Organization -___-,-_- _ - 207 Schools ----—. —____ ----- -_ 249 Settlement -----— __ _____ — 203 Supervisors ---— _-____-____- 207 Taxpayers, 1845 __ —_- __ —_ — 206 Voters, First _-__________ — 206 Secret Societies -— _,__ --- —_ 317 Security, Knights and Ladies of _ --- 328 Senators, State — ______ --- —- 516 Sessions, Alonzo. ----_-73, 215, 495, 518 Sessions, Nathaniel-___ __ --- —-- 143 Seventh-day Adventist Church —__- 421 Sheriffs --— _ - ------— _ — 63 Shiloh -----------— __ ---- 174 Sidelights ----—. --- —----— _ 506 Smith's Crossing — __ --- —_ --- 388 SmyrnaBeginning of -—. --- —---------- 177 Change in Name --------- - 183 Early Business Interests -------- 182 Mills ---— __ --- —----- _ _ 182 Name ----— ___ -3 --- ------ 183 Physicians ---- ---------- - 425 Plat -— ___ --- —---------- 183 Postoffice — _ --- —--—. --- —__ 183, 388 Settlement ----— _ --- —-— _- 181 Stores, First ------.. --- —--- 181 Soils ------------— _ _ --- 43

Page  28 HISTORICAL INDEX. Soldiers from Ionia County -. --- — 248 Sons of Veterans ----------- 336 South Boston ----------- --- 390 South Cass ------- -. ---. ---— _-_155, 390 South Ionia. --- —-_ --- —------ 92, 116 Squatters -_ --- —-—. --- —_ —.- 92, 116 State Hospital -___ --- —------- 509 State Senators -_ --- —--- ----- 516 Standard Schools — _ --- —-— _ 369 Stony Creek -------— __ —_- 390 Storm Area ------------------ 39 Streams ------- ---— ___ --- 37, 44 Surveyors, County ---------- 65 Swamp Land __ — — _ ----- 44 T. V. Vote for Governor ------ --- 515 W. Wagar Dam — __ --- —— _ — -- 46 Washington Treaty of 1836_-____ — 448 Water Power ---- ---- 46 Waterville --------------------— 86, 391 Weather ----— _-_-_ --- —---- 38 West Campbell -— _ ---38 ---- 389 West Sebewa --------------—. -—.. 391 Wheatland -— _ --- —----- - 388 Willing Dam ------- ----- 46 Winds ------------------- _ 42 Winsor, Eugene E. -__ ---- 494 Woman's Relief Corps -—, __ --- — 334 Woods Corners --— 39 --- —---- 391 Temperature -_ --- — "Toledo War" _ --- — Tornadoes -- ---- Transportation ----- Treasurers, County ------— __ Treaties with Indians --- —----- 40 59 40 241 63 445 U. Union Church -------- ---- 423 United Brethren Churches-__ ---- 417 Yeomans, Erastus --- —-— 59, 62, 467,484 Young Men's Christian Association-_ 519 Y. M. C. A. Camp_ -45-_ --- —--- 45

Page  29 BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX VOLUME II A Adgate, Chester -- ------- 83 Albert, Joseph --------— __ 501 Aldrich, James A. - ------— _ 184 Allen, Marcellus J. - __ 302 Allen, Thomas R., M. D. ---- -- 112 Amsden, George W. --------- 201 Angell, Joseph T. -_ --- —_-___- 446 Arnold, Burt W. -__ ------ 248 Arnold, Fred -- ------ 248 Arnold, W. D. ---------- 249 Ashley, John, Jr. ------- ___-_ 346 B Barber, Thomas S. - __ --- —--- 154 Bates, Richard -_____ --- 331 Beckwith, Edwin F., M. D. ---- 276 Benedict, Arton L. _ --- —------ 162 Benedict, Ledrue R. - ------ 498 Benton, Fred _ --- —-_ ---- 348 Berry, Edgar L. --------- 425 Berry, Luther M. __ --- —----- 475 Blanchard, John C. ----- ---- 300 Bliss, Roswell E. -__ _ --- — 109 Bouck, Elliot -----— _ ---- _ 506 Boughner, T. J. ----— ______- _ 190 Braden, Cyrus F. -__ -------- 297 Bradley, Charles H. --—. --- —---- 264 Bradley, John M. _-_-_ --- --- 99 Braley, F. W., M. D. -------- _ 65 Branch, Rev. Elam E. --.. --- —-_ 208 Brickley, William F. ---- ---- 236 Brink, Charles E. ---------- 405 Brock, Loren P. - ---- 147 Brooks Family -. --- —, 197 Brown, Byron F. - __ ---- 452 Brown, Hiram M. _ ---_ ---_ 229 Browne, William J. _ --- —-- --- 160 Buck, George A. -_ 325 Bunnell, Alfred S. -------- 330 Burhans, Winslow P. - ------ 279 Burr, Albert P. _ --- —--------- 397 Burtraw, Frank A. ---------- 169 Butler, John C. - -- ---------- __- 59 C Cahoon, Fred E. -__ --- —--- 199 Campbell, Samuel L. __ --- —-___- 435 Cannon, Richard _ ----__ ___ 402 Carpenter, Lewis A. --— _-__-__- 332 Carten, Thomas A. ---— _ --- 280 Chapple, John G. - -------- 225 Chase, Major Frank R. - ------ 472 Chickering, Sylvester D. -. —___- 453 Chubb, James ----------— __- 145 Clarke, William J. ---— _ --- 441 Colwell, Eugene F. ----------- 477 Colwell, Raymond A. -_______ --- —- 493 Conkey, George -—.-.... —.__ --- 431 Cowles, Richard B. ----— _ --- 124 Crawford, Capt. David C. - 122 Crawford, Stephen M. -__ --- —-- ___ 76 Croel, William A. ---------- 439 Curry, James B. _-_- __________ 105 Curtiss, Sheldon R. --------- 72 Cusser, William L. - ------- 411 Cutler, Fred ---------.- 218 Cutler, Fred, Jr. -. --- —__ - 361 D Danner, Emery S. ---------- 370 Darnell, Henry B. - _ — --- 240

Page  30 BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. Davis, Judge Frank D. M. ______ Day, Henry H. -------- Dean, Oscar H. — _ — ___ DeGarmo, John A. ______ ---_-___ DeKwak, Abraham _,_- ___ — ___ — Dibble, H. A. ___-__ — Dimmick, Alvin S. -__ ---________ Dinsmore, Adelbert S. — _______ Dinsmore, Albert_____ ---__-____ — Dorin, Ellis W. --- Dougherty, John R. -____ — ____ Douglass, Dayton _____________ Durkee, Charles F. ___-________ Dutt, W. Andrew, M. D. _____ — 35 116 176 150 120 108 413 334 334 50 320 349 220 414 H Hall, Arthur N. -____ ---_ ---Hall, Brinton F. ---------— __ Hall, Frank W. __ --- — Hall, Henry J. ------- Hall, Joshua S. _ --- — ---- Hall, Luther E. --------------- Hamilton, John H. — __ --- —-_ Hargrave, Frank A., M. D. ______ Hartman, Marcus R. -— __ --- —-- Hathaway, Claude E., D. D. S. _ — Hawley, William C. __ ----_ Hay, John R., M. D. ---— _ — Hayes, Nathan B. _-___ --- —----— _ Hearsey, Roscoe A. — _ —_ --- —_Hendershot, William ----— ____ Hill, C. M. -- --- Hixson, Warren ------— _- -- Hoag, Isaac P. ---------- Holden, Darius ----- Hotchkiss, Charles E., ---___ _ ----_ Hotchkiss, Newell --— _____ — -— _ Howard, Frederic W. _ --- —----- Howe, Rev. Martin L. _______ --- Hudson, Eugene E. ---------- Hudson, Frank H. _ --- —-_ --- 179 457 82 73 183 118 170 138 429 229 374 75 400 244 203 102 60 319 141 182 350 408 117 418 508 E English, John H. - _ --- —--- Estep, Charles A. _______ --- —Eyster, Charles C. ___ --- —- -- 192 497 251 F Fender, Adam ____ --- —---— _ 46 Fishell, William -__ _ --- —---- 54 Fortune, John W. _ --- —----—. —_ - 221 Fowle, James L. -____ _ ---_ 242 Francis, Arthur L. ----------- 393 Freeman, Perry C. _- ___ --- —-- 395 Frost, Orson V. -----— _____ — 210 Frost, Thomas — ______ ---- - 496 J Jenkins, Frank L. — __ --- —-- 96 Johnson, E. S. ----------- _ _ 178 K G Galloway, John J. - -------- 133 Gates, Charles ------— __ --- — 266 Gates, Clinton — ___ --- —-— _ 256 Gemuend, Harry H. _ --- —-—,- 115 Gesler, Albert E., M. D. ----- 85 Gifford, F. J. ----— _ --- 364 Goodwin, Marcellus H. — __ --- —-- 98 Graft, Reuben T. ___ --- —--- 101 Grant, William A., M. D. - _ --- 343 Grant, William R., M. D. - ------- 336 Green, Elmar N. _-_-__ --- —---- 340 Greenwood, Levi M. -__ _,_ ---- - 129 Guilford, Dennis J. ---—... —.... 68 Keister, Fred D. ----- _ ---Kennedy, Duncan G. --------- Kennedy, James --— __ ____ --- —Kilborn, Edgar E. __ --- —-.. ---_ Kirby, Charles F. ____ --- —-— _ Klotz, Augustus F. _-, ----— _-. — Knapp, Clyde A. _- --— __ -- __.__ Kohn, Anthony M..__- -—....Kohn, Anton ----- 344 326 164 131 158 206 466 272 272 L Lamonte, Major T. -_____ --- —---- LaSelle, Ernest A. _ --- —-. ---Lauster, Fred G. __.. --—.___ Leach, William E. -_ --- —--- 380 211 259 455

Page  31 BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. Lee, Henry — __- ______ —_ - - 495 Lee, Hiram N. _ --- —-— _ — 358 Leik, Paul -_ — ___-___ — _ — 127 Lenhard, M. P. -____ — -_ — 381 Locke, Alfred R. __________ ---- 282 Locke Family (see Brooks) ---____ 198 Lowrey, Ebenezer N. _ —__ --- —- 416 Lowrey, Ed. N. _ --- —--------- 64 Lowrey, Prof. Harvey H. - ___- 56 Lowrey, Richard R. ___ —__ --- 436 Luscher, William _ ---_ ______- 132 Mc Parker, Edward N. ----------- 355 Peake, Clarence W. ----------- 104 Pilkinton, Silas H. _ —_ --- —-- 492 Pinkham, Joseph F., M. D. _ ---- 398 Pline, Mathias ___ —___ — -____ 172 Post, Bert __ --- ---— ~ --- —- 419 Post, Lee ____ --- —--------- 419 Potter, George W. ------ ------ 44 Powell, Rev. Henry W. ____ --- —-- - 291 Powell, Herbert E. ~ ---_- ------ 375 Probasco, Capc. Jacob O. ------ 288 Pryer, Charles'H. ---- -------- 55 Pryer, Frank W. __ --- —------- —.- 426 McCartney, William H. _ — ----- McLaren, William A. _ --- —---- McQuaid, David A. -__ —____ — 484 135 121 M Mack, A. A. -— ___ ____ — _ 333 Marshall, Levi ----— ___- ----- 144 Martin, Thomas F. _ --- —— ___- 442 Mason, Frederick A. __- ________ 503 Mattison, William H. — _______-_ 316 Maynard, Charles H. -___ —_ — 409 Meade, Albert ----- 404 Millard, Rev. David E. ___ --- —- 328 Miller, Hon. Frank C. — ____ --- 40 Miller, Louis P. ----------- 199 Milliman, Mrs. Arminda -____- 192 Minty, Alexander -___ --- — ------ 490 Morse, Hon. Allen B. -____ --- —-- 448 Morse, Joseph ---—.-_-__ ----_____ 255 Moss, Adelphin ---— ___ __ --- — 194 Moulton, George W. _- ___ ---- - 267 N Newman, Asa —. ----~ ---. ---__. — 309 Nichols, Hon. George E. -__,__ ---- 237 0 Olmsted, Louis N. -.._ _ —.-.-.-_ _ 69 Orr, Marjory M., M. D. -_ --- —-- 491 P Packard, Delmar A. _ ---- - _ 335 Page, Rufus L, -2.-. —.-.. —.__ 257 R Ralston, Charles M. __ --- -- 88 Ranger, Howard A. -_______- - 372 Reed, Maurice A. __ --- —------ 488 Reed, William B. ____ --- —---- 406 Renkes, Albert C. ____ --- —--- 469 Renwick, James ------— ____-__ ___ — 224 Rice, Charlie C. --------------- 260 Richards, Frank E. ___ --- —---- 388 Robbins, George ____ —_____-_ 486 Robertson, Alexander ----— ___ _ 351 Robinson, Jefferson ________-_ 394 Roof, Adam L. -____. --- —-— _____ 312 Roof, Hon. Albert K. ___ --- —--- 312 Ross, John E. ____-____ ___ --- —- - 470 Rudd, Clinton J. _____ --- —-- -- 226 Ruel, James H. ___- ___ --- —- - 420 S Scott, James D. -_____ --- —--- 308 Scoville, Glenn H., D. V. S. _ ---- 377 Scoville, Leroy A. _-___ --- —-- 389 Seeley, Lewis S. -- ___ --- —- -- 114 Selleck, Augustus --— ____ --- — 128 Selleck, W. F. __ --- —---— _-__ 128 Shaw, George N. -___ ----_ --- — 167 Shellhorn, Edwin — ____ --- - 296 Shepard, Warren -.-_-_-___ 424 Sherwood, Nathan B. - ------ -- 193 Slye, Elbridge E. ______ --- —- - 228 Smith, Cortland --- ------- 53 Smith, Herbert L. __ — - 444 Smith, Jesse H. ----— __ -— ____- _ 166 Smith, John C. - -------— ___ 233

Page  32 BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. Somers, William H. - ----- 365 Soule, William F. -------- 499 Sparks, Thomas -- -------- 137 Spencer, Fred L. _ -----— __ 467 Spinney, Andrew B., M. D. __ — 304 Spitzley, Joseph ------------------ 205 Spitzley, William -------— __ 213 Stebbins, Perry H. -___ --- —-- 78 Steele, William N. ---------- 479 Steere, William C. __ --- —--- 434 Stevens, Benevolent H. ----- 341 Stevenson, Major Thomas G. --- 37 Stillwell, Coral A. ---------- 271 Stone, Orin ---- ------- 253 Stout, Clyde M. ---------- 174 Strong, Emory F. -------- 305 Struble, Lambert B. _ —_ ---- 214 T Taft, Frank ------ ------- 152 Tasker, Robert N. ---------- 156 Taylor, James -----— __ 199 Tebbel, George WT -_ —. --- —---—. 189 Tebbel, John ------ ------ 189 Thurlby, George C. ----— _ --- —---- 507 Tingley, Henry G. - ------ 67 Tower, Osmond S. -________ --- —-- 504 Townsend, Ed S. ---------- 482 Townsend, Emery ----------- 384 Townsend, Lorin P. _- ---— __ 368 Townsend, Sherman M. - -—..-. --- 110 Tucker, Mrs. Samuel E. -_ _ —.-. --- 52 Turner, Harvey A. --------- 407 Tyler, Otis D. - -----— _ 462 Vohlers, Eugene L. ------ --- 62 Vosper, Benjamin ---- ---- 186 Vosper, James --- -------- 186 W Washburn, Frederick A. ------ 125 Watt,. Hon. J. Clyde ----------- 451 Watt, S. A. -___________ --- —------- 216 Webber, Herbert B. _ --- —-- 42 Webber, John A. __ --- —---- 464 Webber, Lorenzo --------- 464 Webster, Judge Montgomery --- 262 Webster, 0. F. ------—. — 438 Welch, Amos M. ---------- 274 Wellfare, Hugh J. ---------- 91 West, George L. --------- 359 Weter, Guy D. ----------- 415 White, Reuben H. --------- 382 Wilder, William A. --------- 412 Wilkins, Frank S. ---------- 339 Wilson, Charles L. --------- 459 Wilson, David E. --------- 432 Wilson, Ferman G. --------- 247 Wilson, Gilbert W. -_ --- --- 456 Wilson, Henry J. --------- 456 Wilson, William H. --------- 106 Winchell, Clarence G., D. D. S. -- 314 Winchell, George P., M. D. ---- 269 Winchell, Walter L. - ----------- 323 Winslow, Nathan ---- ------ 89 Wooldridge, Edward M. ------ 95 Wooldridge, Ernest S. ------- 87 Wooldridge, George W. -____ ---- 378 Wooldridge, Samuel ------- __ 427 U Upton, Victor F. ---------- 356 V Vanderheyden, Fred H. -.____ ---- 392 Van Vleck, Peter ___ --- —---- 353 Van Vleck, Rector H. -------- 352 Vetter, Anselm ---- ------ 386 Y Yeomans, Edwin S. --------- 93 Yeomans, Erastus T. -------- 285 Yeomans, Hon. Walter ------ - 48 Yeomans, Willard S. -.. ----—.-. 80 Young, John ------------- 33 z Zahm, Michael -------------------- 175

Page  33 HISTORICAL CHAPTER 1. GEOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS. lonia county, which lies approximately in the second tier of counties south of a line dividing the Southern Peninsula into two equal halves, north and south, is also slightly west of a line which would divide the Southern Peninsula into two equal parts, east and west. It is bounded on the north by Montcalm county, on the east by Clinton county, on the south by Eaton and Barry counties, and on the west by Kent county. Coal measures underlie the surface deposits in most of Ionia countyin fact, of all the county except the extreme southwestern part, where the Grand Rapids group underlies the surface deposits. The carboniferous formations in Ionia county, as a matter of fact, embrace both the Grand Rapids and Saginaw groups. The former is made up of limestone above, with gypsum, shales and hydraulic limestones below, while the latter is made up of coal, paving brick, clays, shales and sandstones. No wells penetrate the interior formations in Ionia county deeper than the coal measures and there is, therefore, no direct information regarding the character and thickness of the deeper-lying formations. The records of deep wells at Grand Rapids, Mt. Pleasant, Alma, St. Johns, Delta and Charlotte, however, indicate the general geologic conditions obtaining in Ionia county. It is very probable that gypsum and coal deposits exist within the limits of Ionia county. Marl or bog is known to exist in a number of places, but, under present conditions, marl deposits have no very great economic value. It is quite possible, nevertheless, that in the no distant future marl deposits will be developed for agricultural purposes. Speaking generally, the rock formations in the Southern Peninsula of Michigan present less variety of features than in the North Peninsula, and are much less open to view, because of the greater thickness of the glacial (3)

Page  34 34 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. deposits. None of the rock formations in the Southern Peninsula have been subjected to such upheaval and folding as characterize the formations in the western part of the Northern Peninsula. They all lie in nearly horizontal position, with a gentle dip toward the center of the Southern Peninsula, and pass beneath the beds which form the surface of that peninsula. The rock formations of the Southern Peninsula range in age from the upper part of the Silurian, through the Devonian, to the lower part of the Carboniferous, and consist of a series of limestone, shale and sandstone beds, with which are associated deposits of coal, gypsum and salt, each in its own particular horizon. The arrangement of the several formations has been likened to the piling up of plates or saucers, in a series of diminishing size and diminishing amount of dishing, from bottom to top. The uppermost and youngest formation, though resting on those which precede it in age, does not stand above some of their outlying parts. The highest bed-rock surface in the Southern Peninsula is found in the area of outcrop of the Marshall sandstone of early Carboniferous age, in Hillsdale and neighboring parts of Jackson and Calhoun counties, where an altitude of one thousand to one thousand one hundred feet is reached. The lowest altitude of the rock surface is on the borders of Lake Michigan, in the vicinity of Manistee and Ludington, where it falls below sea level. It is in the area where shales of late Devonian and of early Carboniferous age form the uppermost beds of rock. In the midst of Lake Michigan, immediately west from there, the rock surface, over an area of thirty miles in length and two to eight miles in width, has an altitude more than three hundred feet below sea level. There is thus a range of about one thousand four hundred feet in the altitude of the bed rock of this region.. There are in the Southern Peninsula two large areas in which the rock surface has a marked relief above bordering districts. One of these, in the southern part of the state, extends from near Kalamazoo and Coldwater northeastward to the terminus of the "thumb" of Michigan, which lies between Saginaw bay and the southern part of Lake Huron. From an altitude of one thousand one hundred feet in northern Hillsdale county, it drops off somewhat rapidly to about nine hundred feet in central Jackson county, and then more gradually to seven hundred feet or less at the end of the "thumb." There is also a rapid decrease in altitude southward in. Hillsdale county and adjacent parts of Indiana and Ohio, to an altitude of only six hundred feet, and this low altitude of the rock surface is maintained over much of the northwestern part of Ohio and the northern part of Indiana.

Page  35 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 35 The other area with relatively high rock surface is found in the northern part of the peninsula, north of latitude forty-four degrees. That region is so heavily covered with drift that few borings have reached the rock. These indicate that the rock surface may not reach an altitude of more than two hundred and fifty feet above Lakes Michigan and Huron, or but little more than eight hundred feet above the sea. In the southern Cheboygan and southwestern Presque Isle counties the rock is either exposed, or struck in borings, at an altitude of about eight hundred feet above sea level, and no borings in neighboring districts to the south have reached it at a higher altitude. From this relatively high rock area there is but little descent to the northeast and east until one reaches the immediate borders of Lake Huron. There is also comparatively little descent in passing westward to Lake Michigan over the district immediately south of Little Traverse bay. But from the vicinity of Bellaire southward, there is a very low rock surface for some distance inland from the Lake Michigan shore, portions of it being about at sea level. The altitude is also very low in a strip running westward through the center of the peninsula from the southern end of Saginaw bay to Lake Michigan, the general altitude of the rock surface being only three hundred to five hundred feet. This low area lies about midway between the two relatively high areas just noted, and there is a gradual rise from it toward these areas. In the southwestern and southeastern parts of the peninsula there are extensive areas with an altitude about five hundred to six hundred feet above sea level. The relations of the rock surface to the levels of Lakes Huron and Michigan, therefore, are such that, were the drift removed and these lakes held at their present level, there would be two large islands within the area of the present peninsula-one, one hundred to two hundred and fifty feet above the lake, lying north of latitude forty-four degrees and occupying perhaps half of the present land surface north of that parallel; the other, in the southeastern part, with an altitude one hundred to five hundred feet above the lake. The latter area would be bordered by broad stretches of very shallow water, interspersed perhaps with low islands in the district adjacent to Lakes Erie and St. Clair, and across the northern part of Indiana, northwestern Ohio and the southwestern part of Michigan. There would be relatively deep water in what is now the central part of the peninsula from Saginaw bay westward, including perhaps the northern fringe of Iouia county, and exceptionally. deep water on the western side of the northern island from the head of Grand Traverse bay to Ludington. From plani

Page  36 36 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. meter measurements already made, the average elevation of the rock surface appears to be about five hundred and fifty-four feet above the sea. Were the drift removed and the rock brought to a uniform level, its surface would stand about twenty-five feet lower than Lakes Huron and Michigan. The glacial drift which covers so deeply much of the rock surface of the Southern Peninsula consists of a more or less commingled mass of boulders and small stones in a sandy or clayey matrix, though it differs greatly in constitution and in texture,from place to place. It was brought in largely, if not wholly, by an ice sheet or continental glacier which moved southwestward from the highlands of Canada across the several Great Lakes basins, carrying in it the earthy and stony matter gathered from the loose surface material of the districts over which it was moving. The Canadian highlands were thus extensively denuded of soil and subsoil, while the district south of the Great Lakes was correspondingly enriched by the glacial action. The average thickness of the drift in the Southern Peninsula is about three hundred feet. There are places near the border of Lake Michigan where the drift is known to exceed six hundred feet. Places in the high interior of the north part of the peninsula may have over one thousand feet. There is evidence that the drift of this peninsula is not the product of a single ice invasion, but, instead, of two or more invasions, between which were long periods of warm climate such as prevails today. Between the deposits of glacial material are soils and peat beds and other indications of the presence of vegetation such as would thrive under a genial climate. Certain terms have been applied by geologists and geographers to the various deposits and the forms or topographic features of the drift, and also to deposits produced by waters issuing from the ice. Among the most prominent of the topographic features are the beds of rolling or hummockysurfaced drift termed moraines. These belts have been followed in some cases for scores and even hundreds of miles in their broad sweep around the basins of our Great Lakes and across other districts. They were formed at places where the edge of the ice held a nearly constant position for a long period, and, by a continual advance to this line, brought in the material which furnished the irregular surfaced moraines. The uneven surface of the moraines is probably due largely to differences in the dirtiness of the ice. The dirtiest parts, upon melting, would furnish the material for the ihummocks, while the cleanest parts would fall short of building up the surface and leave corresponding depressions. It is probable also that some inequality of surface is due to disturbance of material by ice movements.

Page  37 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 37 In Ionia county there is a broad moraine, about four miles wide on an average, the tip of which begins just north of the forty-third parallel and extends, southward across the county line into Barry county. Another moraine, of approximately a mile in width, begins in Montcalm county and crosses the Ionia county line half way between the east and west border, extending south as far as Ionia. Just to the west of this moraine is another, beginning about three miles south of the Montcalm-Ionia county line and extending south to the bed of the Grand river. Other moraines begin on the eighty-fifth meridian, at the line between Ionia and Montcalm counties, and extend south and southwestward into Clinton county on an almost east and west course. The wide areas between the moraines in Ionia county have boulder clay at the surface, and with scarcely any coating of sandy material such as might be left along the receding ice border. These are known as till plains, till being a technical name for boulder clay. They were formed under the ice sheet. The soil ranges from clayey to sandy loam and from first-rate to good second-rate quality. There are also several rather wide areas of outwash plains in Ionia county, one along the bed of the Lookingglass river, south of Muir, another along the Flat river, southwest of Belding, and a third beginning on the eighty-fifth meridian, six miles north of the Eaton county line and extending southwest into Barry county. These formations were caused by the water escaping from the ice sheet and which carried and spread out the sand and gravel. The soil is usually light in these places and requires intelligent cultivation. Some of these outwash plains, particularly those south of the fortythird parallel, have considerable rich loam covering the sand and gravel. - Following the beds of the Grand and Maple rivers in Ionia county, there is a strip of sand lake beds, which probably is partially of glacial decomposition. The soil is light and in places is drifted by the wind into low ridges. Northeast of Belding and extending into Montcalm county is an area of sandy drift, consisting of sandy deposits not definitely formed as outwash from the ice border and in part deposited under the ice. Here the soil is generally variable, but more often only second rate. NATURAL DRAINAGE. The drainage of the Southern Peninsula is almost equally divided between west-flowing streams, which enter Lake Michigan, and east-flowing streams, which enter the Huron and Erie basin. The Michigan basin is estimated

Page  38 38 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. to receive the drainage of twenty thousand five hundred square miles, while the basins of the east receive the drainage of twenty thousand nine hundred and fifty-two square miles. The line separating-the western from the eastern drainage departs considerably from a medium north and south line, though running the entire length of the peninsula. Near Big Rapids it is considerably west of the middle longitude. while near Howell it is considerably east of it. The great indentation made in the peninsula by Saginaw bay would cause the central line of the state to pass considerably west of its middle longitude, and there is no great departure from this central line. It passes considerably east of the highest land in the peninsula, that being all drained to Lake Michigan. All of Ionia county is drained westward by various rivers andstheir smaller tributaries into Lake Michigan. It lies in the Grand river basin, which altogether comprises about five thousand six hundred square miles and drains into Lake Michigan at Grand Haven. This basin, by the way, embraces most of the thickly inhabited portion of the western part of the peninsula. There is a great difference among the several drainage systems of the Lower Peninsula in their possibilities for water-power development. Some are concentrated in their middle and upper courses and they furnish a large flow, with heavy fall through the lower course, which in some cases is rendered steady by the presence of numerous lakes at headwaters. Others remain as independent branches nearly to their mouths and thus have little value as a combined stream. The Wagar dam, on the Grand river in Lyons township, Ionia county, furnishes abundant water-power for developing current supplied by the Ionia Water Power Electric Company. THE CLIMATE. The climate of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan is insular to a marked degree, on account of the Great Lakes. The determining factors of climate for any locality are chiefly latitude and the relative distribution of land and water. Other important factors are the topography of its land surface and the situation of the area in question, with relation to the general movement of cyclones and anti-cyclones. Large bodies of water tend to equalize the nearby land temperatures and this is especially true of lower Michigan, where the effect of the great cold waves sweeping down from the northwest is modified by the warmer water of the Great Lakes; the movement of these anti-cyclones, or cold waves, is often deflected by the great bodies of water. The effect of the Great Lakes, particularly that of Lake Michigan, in

Page  39 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 39 modifying the temperature effect of cold anti-cyclones and warm cyclonic storms makes for lower Michigan a more equable and less extreme climate than obtains in the states of similar latitude on the other side of Lake Michigan. This influence is very marked in the immediate vicinity of Lake Michigan, although apparent in all parts of the Lower Peninsula. In Wisconsin, winter temperatures have frequently continued from ten to twenty degrees lower during periods of extreme cold weather than in lower Michigan, owing to the warming influence of the great lake which intervenes between the two. In spring, the influence of Lake Michigan particularly, and all of the Great Lakes in general, is of untold value in modifying the eastward sweep of early hot waves and late cold waves. In summer the refreshing southwest to west winds are making the entire shore bordering on Lake Michigan one continuous summer resort. A feature of Michigan climate, in connection with its soil productivity, is the comparatively long days and short nights due to latitude. In lower Michigan the longest day of the year at the summer equinox is nearly fifteen an done-half hours, while at New Orleans the longest day of the year is only a little more than fourteen hours in length. These long days and short nights during the crop season are climatic factors; the daylight promotes all vegetable growth, while the short nights often prevent late frosts in spring and early frosts in autumn. On the other hand, the frosting of the soil during the late fall and early spring greatly add to its vitality and fertility. Another marked feature of Michigan climate is the fact that it is directly in the path of greatest storm frequency. A large majority of the great cyclones and anti-cyclones that cross the United States, or a part of them, move across the lake region. Some of these storms originate in the Canadian northwest and move eastward across the Lake Superior district to the St. Lawrence valley. Another class move from the Canadian northwest to the middle western portion of the United States and then northwestward across the lake region to the St. Lawrence valley. A third class either forms over the middle western portion of the United States or moves from the far southwest to that locality and then -across the lake region to the St. Lawrence valley. The cyclonic storms vary in size, their average width being about a thousand miles. Their advance is marked by comparatively higher temperatures, increasing cloudiness and precipitation. The anti-cyclonic storms, which are areas of high barometric pressure, are characterized in their advance by colder, clearing weather. The circulation of the wind in a cyclone is spirally inward t

Page  40 40 IONIA COUNTYj MICHIGAN. and in the direction opposite to the movement of the hands of the clock. The circulation of the air about an area of high barometric pressure, or an anticyclone, is outward circulatory and in the same direction as the movement of the hands of a clock. The intensity of these storms is largely dependent on the intensity of barometric gradient, which, in turn, is modified or increased by the proximity of other cyclones and anti-cyclones. Michigan is seldom visited by tornadoes. The most destructive storm of this character occurred on May 25, I896, in Oakland county, and at Omer, Arenac county, on May 24, I897. In recent years, the most destructive tornado occurred at Owosso on November II, I9II, and at the very unusual hour of about eleven P. M. The mean annual temperature of lower Michigan, as a whole, is about forty-six degrees, ranging from forty-nine degrees in the extreme southwestern part to forty-two degrees in the extreme northeasterly portion. The average maximum or day temperature ranges from about eighty-two degrees in summer to twenty-eight degrees in winter, while the average minimum of night temperature in summer is approximately fifty-seven degrees and twelve degrees in winter. Extreme temperatures of one hundred degrees or more are not of frequent occurrence, although they have been recorded on one or two days during a majority of the summers in the past twenty-five years. Zero temperatures are an invariable rule during most months in the winter in the northern half of the peninsula; in the south half of the peninsula, zero temperatures usually occur, although there have been some winters in the extreme southern counties when there has been an entire absence of zero temperature. The mean temperature for January in Ionia county, except for a small portion in the northeast portion and a small portion in the southwest portion, covering a period from I886 to I9 I, is between twenty-two and twenty-three degrees. The mean temperature for July in Ionia county, covering the same period and excepting the two portions already named, varies from seventyone to seventy-two degrees. Long heated spells in summer or abnormally protracted cold ones in winter are very unusual. Historical ones occurred in the summer of I9II and the winter of I899. The continued high temperatures prevailing during the latter part of June and the early part of July in I9II were phenomenal and had never before been equalled as far as length of time is concerned. On the other hand, the phenomenal cold weather which occurred during the second and third decades of February, I899, marked the longest period of low temperatures known. A strong factor of determining the continued cold of

Page  41 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 41 February, I899, was the freezing over or rather the covering with fields of rubble ice, of Lake Michigan, thus forming a bridge instead of a barrier for the advance of the northwestern cold wave that crossed the northern states that month. The highest known temperature in Ionia county, covering a period from I886 to 1911, was one hundred and one degrees and the lowest known temperature covering the same period in Ionia county was twenty-five degrees below zero. As a rule, destructive frosts do not occur after May 15 in the spring nor earlier than September 30 in the fall. Over a large part of the Southern Peninsula, killing frosts do not occur until October I. This gives an average of one hundred and forty-five days, or nearly five months, when, under average conditions, there will be no destructive frosts. The shortest crop period obtains over the extreme northeastern portion of the peninsula, where the average length of the season is one hundred and thirty days, while over the extreme southwest portion the average is one hundred and sixty days. The average date of the last killing frost in spring in the greater part of Ionia county is May 5, while the average date of the first killing frost in autumn is October 5. The average length of the crop growing season is about one hundred and fifty-five days. Agriculture as adapted to almost any part of the United States requires from twenty to twenty-four inches of annual precipitation properly distributed as a minimum amount to grow successful crops without irrigation. A well-distributed annual amount varying from twenty-six to thirty inches is ample for successful agriculture, while amounts exceeding thirty inches, if well distributed, are not injurious to the class of crops grown in Michigan, unless more than forty inches per year. The average annual precipitation, which includes melted snow, hail, sleet and rain, is greatest in the extreme southern part of the state and least in the northern part. The general average for the entire peninsula is approximately thirty inches. The summer precipitation is greater in the southern part of the state during the months of May, June and July than in the northerly portions. Snow has never been known to occur in July and August, rarely in June and September, but it usually occurs first during October, increasing in amount to the end of January, after which there is a decrease in amount, which practically ends in April. Light falls are quite usual during May. Nearly sixty inches of snow falls annually in all counties of the Lower Peninsula. Short and irregular periods of drought over limited portions of the state have occurred from time to time, but long periods of difficult precipitation are

Page  42 42 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. rare. An exact statement of the conditions which actually constitute a severe drought are hard to make, because much depends not only upon the length of time that there is an absence of rainfall, but also upon the condition of the soil when deficient periods of rainfall begin, the time of year when the deficiency actually occurs and, from an agricultural standpoint, the texture of the soil and other physical conditions also have a bearing. Professor Henry, in his "Climatology of the United States," notes that the greatest drought this country has ever experienced in the last one hundred years, both as to intensity and extent of territory covered, extended over the middle Mississippi and Missouri valleys, the lake region and Atlantic coast districts from early summer of I894 until about the first of August, 1895, the precipitation deficiency being about ten, inches. Since then there has been no general serious droughts in Michigan. 'Previous to 1894, moderately severe droughts had occurred in Michigan in I88I and 1887. So far as Ionia county is concerned, its annual precipitation is comparable with that of the southern section of the state, where rainfall is never less than two inches a month and where it rises to near three and one-half inches during May and June. Sunshine, in the Lower Peninsula, will average somewhat over fifty per cent. of the possible amount, the percentage being much higher than the period extending from May to the iniddle of October than during the winter months. During December, January and February it sometimes falls as low as twenty per cent. of the possible amount, while during June, July, August and September it exceeds sixty and some times seventy per cent. of the possible amount. As a rule, July is the sunniest month and December the cloudiest. The prevailing winds for the greater part of the year are from the west in Ionia county and the average hourly velocity ranges from twelve and one-half miles per hour, in March and April to a minimum of about nine miles per hour in August and September. The wind is mostly from the west and southwest during the first three months of the year and from June to December; while the prevailing direction is mostly southwesterly during the months of April and May, quite a large period, but less than a majority of the time, the surface movement of the air is from the east and northeast. Maximum velocities of short duration ranging from twenty-five to forty miles per hour occur during most months of the year and velocities of from forty to sixty miles an hour are not uncommon, but rather infrequent.

Page  43 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 43 Extreme velocities of sixty miles and over are of comparatively rare occurrence; at Grand Rapids the wind velocity has exceeded sixty miles but twice in the last nine years. Winds are more variable during the cooler half of the year. At all seasons the southerly winds are usually warm and moist, the northerly winds cold and dry. The easterly winds usually herald unsettled weather, the westerly winds fair and settled conditions. Owing to the fact that the prevailing summer winds are southwesterly, the shore of Lake Michigan is rapidly becoming a far-famed summer resort, where relief may be had during the hot months. The water breezes are refreshing, especially, at night, and insure greater comfort than can be obtained inland. While Ionia county lies inland, its numerous smaller lakes furnish refuge from the intense heat. SOILS. A complete series of glacial soils, under the classification adopted by the United States bureau of soils, embraces the following in order of grade from coarse to fine: Stony loam, gravel, gravelly loam, sand, fine sand, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loam, silt loam and clay loam., The sandy till of glacial deposits in Ionia county embraces stony loam, gravel, gravelly loam and, to some extent, sand, fine sand and sandy loam. The clayey till embraces the loam, silt loam, clay loam and, in some cases, the fine sandy loam. The classifications of soil for Ionia county, herewith presented, merely sets forth the general classes of glacial deposits, such as are evident without a close analvsis. The classification is conformable to the mapping of the surface formations given in a glacial map issued by the state geologist. Observations have seemed sufficiently complete to form the basis for estimates of the relative amounts of sandy and gravelly land given in the tables. Stony loam is ordinarily found in moraines, while the gravelly loam appears in river terraces and has been reworked by streams. The sand is found in both glacial areas and alluvial tracts. The sandy loam is in some cases glacial and more or less pebbly. The fine sand and silty loam is widely represented in the ordinary till plain, the silty phase being classed as clayey till. In the table that follows, in the column for area, sections instead of square miles have been designated for the reason that sections often overrun or fall short of the square mile:

Page  44 44 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Swamp Clayey Sandy Area and lake. till. till. Sandy. Section. sections. Secs. Secs. Sees. Secs. T. 8 N. R. 5 W —_ ---- 36 I.5 28 - 6.5 T. 8 N. R. 6 W_ --- 36 I 30 -- 5 T. 8 N. R. 7 W ----_- - 36 2 20 -- I4 T. 8. N. R. 8 W_ --- — - 36 -- 22 -- 14 T. 7 N. R. 8 W_ ----- 36 -- 2 20 4 T. 7 N. R. 7 W-___ ---- 36 28 -- 8 T. 7. N. R. 6 W --- 36 - ^6 - Io T. 7 N. R. 5 W_ --- —- 36 - 24 __ 12 T. 6 N. R. 5 W --- —--- 36 -- 28 - 8 T. 6 N. R. 6 W --- —-- 36 3 32 -- I T. 6 N. R. 7 W___ ---- 36 I 33 -- 2 T. 6 N. R. 8 W_ --- —-- 36 2 I5 13 6 T. 5 N. R. 8 W --- —__ — 36 i 33 2 __ T. 5 N. R. 7 W --- —-- 36 8 26 _- 2 T. 5 N. R. 6 W___ ---- 36 5 30 _- I T. 5 N. R. 5 W --- —--- 36 -- 34 -- 2 Total — _ --- —-- 576 24.5 42I 35 95.5 FARM LANDS. The area of Ionia county, comprising 576 sections, is 573 square miles and this includes a total of 3,602 farms, or 549.2 square miles. The average value of the land in farms, which is 94.6 per cent. of the whole, is $36.85 an acre. Of the total farm land in Ionia county, 79.I per cent. is improved and of all the land, farmed or otherwise, 75.56 per cent. is improved. The moraines in Ionia county, as well as the till plains, are largely rich clay soil. The sandy land, chiefly along lines of glacial drainage, has usually a loam admixture or cover. The principal crops in Ionia county, in order of their importance, are hay, corn, wheat, oats, beans, potatoes and rye. STREAMS. The three principal streams of Ionia county are the Grand, Maple and Flat rivers. The Grand river enters the county on the east line of Danby township and flows northwestward through the village of Portland in Port

Page  45 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 45 land township, through Lyons in Lyons township and is joined near the Ionia-Lyons township line by the Maple river; thence, it flows southwestward south of the city of Ionia and is the boundary line between Easton and Berlin townships, leaving the county through Boston township. The Looking Glass river, which enters Ionia county in section I of Danby township, empties into the Grand river at Portland. The Maple river enters the county at the north line of North Plains township and flows southward to section 25, where it extends over into' Clinton county and thence southwestward to section 9 in Lyons township where it is joined by Stony creek; thence, it flows southwestward to section I8 of Lyons township, where it empties into the Grand river. Stony creek enters Ionia county through section 24 of Lyons township. Flat river enters Ionia county at the Montcalm-Ionia line and flows through section 2, making a loop east of Belding and flowing westward through Belding and south through Otisco township, leaving the county in section 6 of Keene township and returning through section 7. Thence, it makes a sharp loop and leaves the county again through section I8 of Keene township. There are numerous smaller streams in the county, notably, Stoughton creek, which empties into Maple river in North Plains township, and Prairie creek, which empties into Grand river just east of Ionia. LAKES. Ionia county abounds with numerous lakes, some of which are of considerable size. The largest are, Long lake, in Orleans township; Woodard lake, in Ronald township; Morrison lake, in Campbell and Boston townships; Pedler lake, in Campbell township; Peck lake, in Berlin township; Tupper lake, in Odessa township, and Jourdan lake, in Odessa township and Barry county. Long lake is the largest of any in the county, being approximately a mile and three-quarters long by a mile wide. There are four platted resorts on shores of this lake, Reimer Park, on the south shore; Lakeview Park, on the southeast; Bricker Park, on the north, and Pleasant Park, on the west. The Y. M. C. A. camp is also located at the east end of the lake. The former three parks all contain cottages, but Pleasant Park is merely a paper town. Reimer Park is the larger of the three and contains about fifty cottages. The latter two each contain about eighteen cottages. In these several parks many people are accustomed to seek relief from the heat

Page  46 46 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. during the summer months. Many of the lakes and most of the streams and rivers furnish splendid sport for the fisherman at all seasons of the year. WATER POWER. The Lyons dam was first completed in I86o, but various attempts at its construction were made between 1840 and I86o, during which period -several companies failed in the enterprise. The first construction was a timber and.brush dam, but this was reconstructed into a concrete dam some ten or twelve years ago. When the dam was first completed, a flour-mill, which previously had been operated by steam, was moved to the site of the dam. H. B. Lidhart, who operated one of the early saw-mills of the county and who manufactured most of the lumber for the pioneers, was interested in the dam for a time and owned altogether eight shares. The ownership changed from time to time until I867, when J. Hale acquired twenty and one-half shares, the village of Lyons owning the remaining interest of thirteen and one-half shares. In July, I914, Mr. Hale sold his interest to the Commonwealth Power Company and since that date the mill which he owned on the site has been idle. The mill was operated with a sixty-six-inch New American wheel, generating about one hundred fiftyafive horse-power. The light plant of the village of Lyons, which is operated by one thirty-two-inch Victor turbine and one forty-five-inch Sampson turbine, has available about one hundred sixty horse-power. The Lyons dam has a head of nine feet and a maximum capacity under present conditions of from one thousand five hundred to two thousand horse-power. The smaller dams on the sites of the old foundry and casket factory have long since been abandoned. The former developed about twenty-five horse-power and the latter, thirty-five. The dam at the old village pumping station has also been abandoned, and water is now pumped by power generated on the site of the present light plant. The Wagar dam, located at what is known as Willing, in Lyons township, and above the Lyons dam, has a nine-foot head and a capacity of six hundred horse-power. This power is used for generating electric current and power by the Ionia Water Power Electric Company, of which H. R. Wagar is president, Fred J. Owens, vice-president and general manager, and E. T. Merrett, secretary. The Wagar, or Willing, dam has been constructed about sixteen years and is about nine miles, as the crow flies, from Ionia. Since the first construction, the dam has been rebuilt at least

Page  47 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 47 three different times. It is now made of concrete. The Ionia Water Power Electric Company has three fifty-six-inch wheels used in the operation of three one hundred fifty-kilowatt, three-phase electric alternating current generators. All current generated at the Willing dam is sold in Ionia, where the company has about six hundred customers. Above the Willing dam is the dam of the Commonwealth Power Company, which has a twenty-eight-foot head and a maximum capacity of perhaps four thousand horse-power.

Page  48 CHAPTER II. ORGANIZATION OF IONIA COUNTY. The first official mention of the creation of Ionia county was in an act of the Legislature approved March 2, I83I. This was the initial step in the organization of the county, as before that time it had been attached, first to Oakland county, later was connected with Lenawee county, still later with St. Joseph county and finally, the year before it was organized into a separate body, it was attached to Kalamazoo county. The final separation came by "An act to provide for laying off into separate counties the district of country adjacent to Grand River, and for other purposes." The section in this act referring to Ionia county says: "That the country included within the following limits, to-wit: west of the line between ranges 4 and 5 west of the meridian; east of the line between ranges 8 and 9 west; south of the line between townships 8 and 9 north of the base line; and north of the line between townships 4 and 5 north of the base line, containing sixteen townships-be, and the same is hereby, set off into a separate county by the name of Ionia." Thus Ionia county took on a semiindividual appearance. On the 7th of MlVarch, 1834, the second act concerning the new territory was enacted providing "that the county of lonia be a township by the name of Ionia, and the first township meeting therein shall be held at the house of Louis Genereaux, in said township." It was further provided that this act was to take effect on and after the first Monday in April, 1834. It seems that, although the people of Ionia county were anxious to organize their territory by the election of officers and the enactment of laws regulating their own immediate affairs, nevertheless they were stopped by the existing laws of the territory, and could not find enough qualified voters among their number to organize a hoard of election, much less to fill the various township offices required; consequently, no election was held. The following year, however, their disabilities were removed by the passage of an act to amend, approved March 26, 1835, which read as follows: "Section 2-It shall be and is hereby, declared to be lawful for the

Page  49 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 49 citizens bf the township of Ionia, liable to the payment of county or township tax, to meet at the dwelling house of Samuel Dexter, in said township, and elect from their number all township officers, and transact all business which townships, by law, are authorized to transact; and the proceedings of said meeting shall be valid and binding in all respects, as if the same had been held by the qualified electors of said township. "Section 3-The inhabitants of said township are hereby authorized to hold their election for members to the convention to form a constitution and state government at the house aforesaid, on Saturday, the fourth day of April." As the township thus formed comprised the entire county, we here transcribe from the records the proceedings of the first township meeting: "At the first township meeting in the town and county, as above mentioned, held at the house of Antoine Campau & Co., on Monday, the sixth day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty five, Mr. Alfred Cornell was chosen moderator and W. B. Lincoln, clerk. After the moderator and clerk were sworn by Samuel Dexter, esq., the electors proceeded to the election of township officers by ballot, which were elected as follows: For Supervisor, Erastus Yeomans; for township clerk, W. B. Lincoln; for assessors, Franklin Chubb, Gilbert Caswell, Henry V. Libhart; for commissioners of highway, Philip Bogue, John E. Morrison, Nathan Benjamin, directors of the poor, Samuel Dexter, John McKelvey; constable and collector, Asa Spencer; constable, Daniel McKelvey. A division of the electors being called for, it was decided that the next township meeting, or that of 1836, should be held at the house occupied by A. Campau & Co., in the said township of Ionia." On the application of twelve electors, a special election was held, May 1', I835, for the purpose of choosing commissioners and inspectors of common schools. As a result, Alfred Cornell, George Case and John McKelvey were chosen school commissioners, and William D. Moore, Alfred Cornell, Jr., Erastus Yeomans, Nathaniel Soules and William B. Lincoln, inspectors of schools. Thus a home civil government was fairly well established as far as the township was concerned, but it was still a part of Kalamazoo county. But the next act of the Legislature; approved March 24, I836, did not do the county a great amount of good, although it brought about a great change in the government thereof, for, by it, Kent county was organized, and various unorganized counties were attached to it, as the following (4)

Page  50 50 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. excerpt will show: "That the unorganized counties of Ottawa, Ionia and Clinton shall be attached to the county of Kent for judicial purposes." Great as had been the efforts of the settlers in the township of Ionia to form a separate and individual county, they had not succeeded to any great extent. But with the influx of immigration from the Yankee states to Ionia county in I836, it began to look as though the desires of those who had struggled so hard to have an independent county formed were going to materialize. At the close of the year the population of the county numbered one thousand souls. One thing that assisted in this increase in population was the location of a land office in the midst of the county, and there was enough business of a county nature, such as the transfer of deeds, etc., that the needs of an independent organization were felt by all. In accordance with the prevailing sentiment, a petition, signed by the majority of the citizens of the county, was presented in the winter of I836-37 to the state legislative bodies, which were then in session, praying for such an organization. That the petition was promptly and favorably considered, the following extracts from "an act to organize the counties of Ionia and Van Buren" will show: "Section i-Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the state of Michigan, That the county of Ionia be, and the same is hereby, organized, and the inhabitants thereof entitled to all the rights and privileges to which by law the inhabitants of the other counties of this state are entitled. "Section 3-All suits, prosecutions, and other matters now pending before any court or before any justice of the peace of either of the counties to which the said counties of Ionia and Van Buren are now attached for judicial purposes shall be prosecuted to final judgment and execution; and all taxes heretofore levied shall be collected in the same manner as though this act had not been passed. "Section 4-The circuit court of the county of Ionia shall be held, until public buildings shall be erected, at such places as the supervisors of said county shall provide, at the seat of justice in said county, on the last Monday of May, and in November, in each year.... "Section 6-All that part of the state lying north of the county of Ionia, and not included in any organized county, be, and the same is hereby, attached to the county of Ionia for judicial purposes. "Section 8-There shall be elected in each of the several counties of Ionia and Van Buren, on the second Monday of April next, all the several

Page  51 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 5I county officers to which by law the said counties are entitled, and whose terms of office shall severally expire at the time the same would have expired had they been elected on the first Monday and the next succeeding day of November last; and said election shall in all respects be conducted and held in the manner prescribed by law for holding elections for county and state officers. "Section 9-In each of said counties the board of county canvassers, under this act, shall consist of two of the presiding inspectors of said election from each township; and said board shall meet in their respective counties on the Thursday next after said election, at the county seat, at one o'clock P. M. of said day, and organize by the appointment of one of their number, chairman, and another, secretary of said board, and thereupon proceed to calculate and ascertain the whole number of votes given at such election for any individual for either of said offices, and shall set down the names of the several individuals so voted for, and the number of votes given to each, for either of said officers in said county, in words at full length, and certify the same to be a true canvass of the votes given at such election in said county, and that the person receiving the highest number of votes for either of said offices is duly elected to said office; which certificate shall be signed by the chairman and secretary, and delivered to the clerk of said county, to be filed and kept in said office. "Section Io-In case the election for county offices shall not be held on the second Monday of April, as provided in the eighth section of this act, the same may be held on the first Monday of May next. "Section II-This act shall be in force, and take effect, on and after the first Monday in April next. Approved March I8, I837." Another act had been previously passed by the same Legislature and approved on March I, 1837, two sections of which had to do with the districting of the county of Ionia, which at that time was not a distinct entity, but after the organization of the county this division for voting purposes was still retained. In consequence of the bearing which this act had upon the election in the newly created county, we will give it in full: "Section 12-All that portion of the county of Ionia lying west of the sectional lines running north and south through the center of townships 5, 6, 7 and 8 north, of range 6 west, be, and the same is hereby, set off and organized for temporary purposes into a separate township, by the name of Ionia, and the first township meeting therein shall be held at the house of Samuel Dexter in said township. t

Page  52 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. "Section I3-All that portion of the county of Ionia lying east of the line as described in the last section be, and the same is hereby, set off and organized into a separate township, for temporary purposes, by the name of Maple; and the first township meeting therein shall be held at the house of William Hunt, in said township." In accordance with the provisions of the foregoing act, the legal voters of the townships of Ionia and Maple assembled at their respective voting precincts on the second Monday of April, 1837, and voted for candidates for county offices. On the I3th day of the same month the board of county canvassers, composed of Isaac Thompson and Asa Bunnell, from the township of Maple, and Cyrus Lovell and Erastus Yeomans, from the township of Ionia, met at the house of Asa Spencer in Ionia, the county seat, and organized by electing Isaac Thompson, chairman, and Erastus Yeomans, clerk. The board then proceeded to examine the return of votes taken at the election for county officers, and found that for associate judges, Isaac Thompson received 292 votes; Truman H. Lyon, I87; William Babcock, I04. For judge of probate: Cyrus Lovell, II6; William D. Moore, I73. For sheriff: Elhanan W. Curtis, I9I; Henry V. Libhart, 93. For county clerk: Asa Bunnell, 183; Erastus Yeomans, IIo. For county treasurer: John E. Morrison, 185; Robert S. Parks, Io6. For district surveyor: Buel H. Mann, 220. For coroner: Thaddeus O. Warner, 293; Philo Bogue, I87. For register of deeds: Adam L. Roof, I89; Mason Hearsey, 102. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE COUNTY SEAT. The history of the choosing of the location for the county seat of the newly created territory is similar to that of a great number of the other counties of this and other states. The county seat was not eventually located without a fight. There were two or more localities in this territory which the settlers of each deemed most advantageous for the establishment of the county seat. In consequence, there were two opposing parties, and they strove long, earnestly and bitterly for the mastery. One party was composed of the original settlers of "lonia County Seat" and its vicinity, while their opponents were their neighbors at the settlement of Lyons, assisted by the early residents of Portland. The victory eventually fell to the Ionians and the county seat was permanently located. Early in the year 1833 the Indian traders and their employees, who were the only white inhabitants residing in the county, inaugurated measures

Page  53 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 53 looking towards the establishment of a county seat, and on the 5th of March of that year they drew up and signed the following petition, which, owing to the lack of mail routes in this territory, was forwarded by messenger to Governor Porter: "To His Excellency, George B. Porter, Governor of the Territory of Michigan: "We, your petitioners, residents of the county of Ionia, feeling a deep interest in the affairs of said county, and convinced of a rapid increase of population for the present year, do humbly solicit that commissioners be appointed to establish the county-seat of said county, and, as in duty bound, your petitioners will every pray. "Signed) William Hunt, "Samuel Lasley, "Mathew McGalpin, "Joseph Pyatt, ' "Louis Genereaux, Jr., "Elisha Belcher, "Louis Genereaux, "Isedore Nantais, "Francis Fraro, "Matar Parce, "Francis Bailey." Several weeks later these people caused to be posted in three of the most public places in the county the following: "Notice. "To Whom it May Concern: Notice is hereby given that application will be made to the Governor of the Territory of Michigan to appoint commissioners to establish the seat of justice of Ionia County in said Territory. "Dated April 28, '1833." At the time specified below, Elisha Belcher, who seems to have been the most active spirit in pushing this matter, proceeded to Ann Arbor and made oath before Justice Morgan as follow: "Territory of Michigan, Washtenaw County. "Elisha Belcher, of the county of Ionia, in said Territory, being duly sworn, maketh oath that between the 28th day of April and ist day of May last past, or about that time, three notices, of which the above is a substantial

Page  54 54 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. copy, were fixed up, one on the outer door of William Hlunt's dwelling place, one at Genereaux's trading-house, and the other on the liberty-pole at the village at the mouth of Maple river, being the three most public places in said county of Ionia, and this deponent often saw said notices remaining fixed up as aforesaid, and they remained so fixed up but a short time since, and further saith not. "ELISHA BELCHER. "Sworn and subscribed before me August 13, A. D., I833, at Ann Arbor in said county of Washtenaw. "E. W. MORGAN, "One of the Justices of the Peace in said County." Meanwhile, between the dates before mentioned, i. e., the posting of notices and Belcher's visit before mentioned to Ann Arbor, Samuel Dexter and his associates had arrived and located permanently on and near the site of the city of Ionia. The county seat question,at once became uppermost in their thoughts, and early in July, I833, Governor Porter was the recipient,of another petition as follows: "To the Governor and Council of the Territory of Michigan: "We, your petitioners, being citizens of the county of Ionia and destitute of those privileges and advantages which have uniformly been extended to all those counties in said Territory of Michigan which, like Ionia County, have been rapidly increasing in wealth and population by organization and determining on suitable situations for seats of justice, therefore ask that commissioners may be appointed to fix and determine upon the place suitable for the erection of a court-house and other county buildings for the county of Ionia. For which your petitioners will ever pray." This paper was dated in Grand River, Ionia county, July I2, 1833, and was signed by Erastus Yeomans, Edward Guild, Oliver Arnold, Sanford A. Yeomans, Silas D. Arnold, Abraham Decker, Warner Dexter, John Dexter, Zenas G. Winsor, W. B. Lincoln, Samuel Dexter, Darius Winsor, Alfred Cornell, Thomas Cornell and Lorenzo Dexter. On the 5th of September, I833, Governor Porter appointed James Kingsley, Stephen V. R. Trowbridge and Charles J. L. Lanman, commissioners to locate the county seats of Ionia, Clinton and Kent counties and commissions under the broad seal of the territory were issued to them on that date. Four days later the commissioners gave notice that they would meet at the "Washtenaw House," in the village of Ann Arbor, October 7, I833, for the

Page  55 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 55 purpose of taking the required oath. The oath was administered to them by Justice Morgan on the 8th of October, and from Ann Arbor they proceeded on horseback to the performance of their duties. They first visited Clinton county, then Ionia, and lastly Kent, arriving at Grand Rapids, November 8th. The news of their proceedings and determination as regarded the seat of justice of Ionia county was soon noised abroad, and very soon thereafter drew forth a letter of remonstrance from Charles D. Friend, of which the following is a copy: "County of Ionia, Territory of Michigan. "November I2, 1833. "To His Excellency the Governor: "The commissioners appointed under the commissions issued by you for the location of the seat of justice in the above-named county, having proceeded to execute their appointment and affix the location on the lands of Samuel Dexter, upon the north bank of Grand river, being situated upon the north half of section i9,jtownship 7 north, of range No. 6 west, I respectfully beg leave to remonstrate against the report of such location of the commissioners being carried into effect for the following reasons: "Because the spot selected for the seat of justice is situated upon the north bank of the Grand river instead of the south bank, and within one hundred yards, or thereabouts, of a wet prairie or swamp, of more than three hundred acres, bordering upon the Grand river, and flooded therefore occasionally, and which swamp, being hollow, cannot be effectually drained; that the seat of justice is also within two or three hundred yards of broken land lying north, of ordinary value, the hollows interspersed with swamps, and extending several miles northward when oak-openings of a poor quality terminate the county-line, and beyond which are Indian reservations. "In consequence of this wet prairie or swamp being between the location of the seat of justice and the Grand river, a most expensive highway would be required to connect the location with the country on the south bank of the river, and from the description of the lands northward of the seat of justice, that part of the county will not settle rapidly, and the part available for settlement east and west of the location is all taken up, and only by five or more farmers, for many miles, there being a frontage upon the Grand river of about one mile only in depth, including the swamp, of three-quarters of a mile, where broken lands and 'swamps and indifferent oak-openings

Page  56 56 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. terminate the county-line. The land on the south side of the river is also subject to overflow, when broken land follows, and which, for a considerable distance from the bank of the river, is not habitable; beyond which, however, southwardly and westwardly, are many miles in extent of most valuable land fast locating, and all of which borders upon the Territorial turnpike road. "That the commissioners did not view every part of the county; that they did not follow the line upon the south bank of the river to the Territorial turnpike road, embracing one-quarter of the whole extent of the county, of a level and rich character, well supplied with running streams of fine water, neither low nor swampy, is fast settling and will be soon all taken up. "This section of the county runs in a direct line from Peshimnacon along the Territorial road several miles, when it takes a northwardly course and strikes the Grand river. "That the seat of justice is located away from the Grand river, threefourths of a mile, although many very commanding situations upon the bank of the river might have been selected. "That lands in the county situated upon Maple river are also settling, and it would be very difficult for carriages to pass from thence along to the present seat of justice. "That the seat of justice as at present located, from its local disadvantages, can never become the centre of population; it is therefore not placed so as to afford facility or convenience to the inhabitants of the rich and more settled part of the county. "And that therefore, for the above reasons, the situation of the seat of justice, as at present located, is inconveniently placed in the county, being away from population, which will be residing chiefly in the southeastern quarter of the county, between the Grand river and the Territorial road, and from the mouth of the Maple river to the Territorial road striking the river at Peshimnacon. "For the above reasons I hope a revision will be permitted for the better adjudicating the county-seat. "I am, sir, Your Excellency's most obedient servant, "CHARLES D. FRIEND." After the reception of Mr. Friend's letter six months' time intervened and still no action had been taken by Governor Porter in the case of Ionia's county seat. Therefore, in May, 1834, Henry V. Libhart, Russell Libhart,

Page  57 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 57 Selal Arms, Thomas Shepherd, Jesse Wilmoth, Thomas Chamberlain, William Moore, Daniel Moore, Asa Bunnell, Obadiah J. Miles, Joseph Ledue, Stephen Demers, Abraham Kelvey, Daniel McKelvey and Nathan Benjamin signed and sent in another petition to Governor Porter, reiterating substantially what was claimed in Mr. Friend's letter and again asking for a revision, adducing, as additional reasons, "that sufficient land could not be found within miles of the proposed county seat to constitute even a very small neighborhood; that the lands (the petitioners) represented, with one exception, were not purchased when the county seat was located; that in a county situated remote from the facilities of market, and where making roads of any ordinary description must be attended by a very heavy expense to the few inhabitants already located, no unnecessary outlay should be countenanced to increase the value of lands of a few individuals, when the benefits could not be productive to people of the whole county; that the county seat, as at present located, will be extremely inconvenient to the people generally, who will chiefly settle in the southeast quarter of the county-a tract embracing a very fine country in prairies, plains, oak-openings, and heavy-timbered lands watered with fine streams, free from swamps, marshes and wet prairies, and where the central part of the county, as to population, must be at all times found." Governor Porter died on July 6, I834, without having confirmed by proclamation the report of the county-seat commissioners; neither did he order a revision of their work by the appointment of new commissioners. Hon. Stevens T. Mason, secretary of the territory, although but twentytwo years of age, then became ex-officio governor, and Mr. Friend soon after renewed the struggle, as the following copy of his letter will show: "County of Ionia, M. T., "Grand River, Aug. 15, I834. "To His Excellency, Governor Mason: "Sir: I addressed a letter, dated November i2th past, to His Excellency,, the late Governor Porter, upon the subject of the location of the county seat of this county, in which I stated my objections, which were also the objections of all the inhabitants of the same county who were residents east of the location of the county seat, a copy of which letter I inclose herewith for your information. "When I was in. Detroit, in the month of January last, I had an interview with the then Governor, who stated that he had not laid before the

Page  58 58 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Legislative Council the report of the commissioners who had located the county seat of Ionia, because he thought that if the allegations contained in my letter (above referred to) were borne out by a petition 'of the inhabitants, stating in detail the objections that I have made, that an appointment of other commissioners ought to be granted to remove such county seat and act therein, and which he stated he had the power of granting. A petition was subsequently signed, I believe, by every inhabitant and resident freeholder in the eastern section of the county, and transmitted to Governor Porter; and when I waited upon the Governor, in the early part of the month of June last, he stated to me that he saw sufficient reasons, founded upon the petition, to grant our request, and that if I would, previously to my leaving Detroit, address a letter to him expressing a desire that he should grant the prayer of the petitioners, that he would give the business proper attention. I went into the country to spend a few weeks with some friends there, previously to my return to the Grand river, and intended to take Detroit on my way back when, unhappily, I then learned of the death of the late Governor. When at Detroit last week, I took steps to see you to *have detailed this business, but, being exceedingly hurried, was obliged to leave without that pleasure. I therefore trouble you in this way, that if any measures are necessary to be taken in consequence of the demise of the late governor, beyond those already stated, that you will do me the favor to communicate the same to me, addressed in care of Mr. Adolphus Spoor, Lodi Plains, Washtenaw county, who is my partner, and will be coming to the Grand river in a few days, which will be more expeditious than to send by the circuitous postoffice route, which does not at present come near me by forty miles. "I am, sir, Your Excellency's most obedient servant, "CHARLES D. FRIEND." The continued and determined efforts on the part of Charles D. Friend and his associates to have the seat of justice removed at last aroused to further action the people at "Ionia County Seat" and its immediate vicinity and in September, I834, they placed before the governor another petition, of which the following is a copy: "Ionia County, M. T., Sept. 24, I834. "To His Excellency The Governor of the Territory of Michigan: "We, the undersigned petitioners, having been informed that a remonstrance has been got up, circulated and presented to Governor Porter by

Page  59 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 59 Charles D. Friend, bearing on its face many false representations respecting the location of the county seat in and for the county of Ionia, do make use of this opportunity for their refutation. The sum of the objections contained in the remonstrance, as we understand, were the following: That the spot designated by the commissioners for the county-buildings is surrounded by hills and swamps, which are almost if not quite impassable; that the land about it is not susceptible of cultivation to any extent; that there were but some four or five families located in its vicinity; and that the remainder of the land can never be cultivated on account of its extreme inferiority for farming purposes. "For the truth of these assertions we would refer His Excellency the Governor to Charles D. Friend's observations in the Herkimer American. "That there is a marsh in the vicinity of the county seat we are ready to admit, and that it can be effectually drained is equally true. A ditch for such purpose is nearly completed, and when done will fit it for any kind of cultivation. Considering the central position of the location and its facilities for farming and hydraulic purposes, that a saw-mill is already in operation, and that materials are collecting for the immediate erection of a grist-mill, with many other facilities, we are constrained to say that a more judicious selection could not be made. "That His Excellency the Governor will issue his proclamation confirming the proceedings of the commissioners, we, as your humble petitioners, are in duty bound to ever pray. "(Signed) Erastus Yeomans, Samuel Dexter, Charles Doty, Thomas Cornell, Sanford A. Yeomans, John C. Dexter, Gilbert Caswell, Alfred Cornell, Oliver Arnold, Darius Winsor, Zenas G. Winsor, N. G. Brown, Daniel A. Cornell, George Case, W. B. Lincoln, Asa Spencer, William Doty, Alfred Cornell, Jr., Lorenzo Dexter, Joseph Hadsall, William Dumper, Silas D. Arnold, John E. Morrison, Jacob W. Winsor, Charles Thayer, Hezekiah Francis, Benjamin G. Barber, Horace Case." Soon after assuming the duties of the office of chief executive of the territory, acting-Governor Mason became involved in a warm dispute with the authorities of the state of Ohio regarding the boundary line between the two states-an episode in the history of Michigan which has since been termed the "Toledo war." He was stoutly supported in his position by the Legislative Council, who declared it a criminal offense for any person not acting under authority from the territory, or from the government of the United States, to exercise any official functions within the asserted boun

Page  60 60 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. daries of the territory. Governor Mason also issued orders to BrigadierGeneral Brown, giving him discretionary power to order the militia into actual service and commanding them to arrest the commissioners of Ohio "the moment they stick the first stake in the soil of Michigan." Meantime, the executive was engaged in putting into the field a fqrce of "Wolverines" to defend the rights of the territory, and in issuing commissions to company, battalion, regimental and brigade officers who were to command the same. Indeed, a perusal of the state documents proves the fact that at that period His Excellency's time was almost wholly devoted to such purposes, matters pertaining to the Ionia county seat being too insignificant to attract his attention when, impelled by his young and hot Southern blood, he had decided to have a tilt with the "Buckeyes." However, the inhabitants of "Ionia County Seat," becoming restive under the long-delayed action of the governor and the non-appearance of his proclamation confirming the commissioners' report, and thinking, perhaps, that the petitions of Charles D. Friend and his friends still had some effect, sent in another communication in February, I835, of which the following is a copy: "To His Excellency, the Acting Governor of the Territory of Michigan: "The undersigned, citizens of the county of Ionia, in said territory. beg leave to represent to Your Excellency that one or more petitions have been forwarded to you praying that measures may be taken to alter the site which was established by commissioners duly appointed for the seat of justice for the county of Ionia. We boldly state and frankly declare that a petition above alluded to, which was drawn up by Charles D. Friend, and signed by himself and some others in the east part of this county, was filled with falsehoods and wilful misrepresentations respecting the present location and the lands contiguous. "We crave, sir, your indulgence whilst we shall refute these statements, and exhibit some important facts in relation to the county seat and the quality of lands in different directions from the same. "The spot selected for the court house by the commissioners was not suddenly or inadvertently fixed upon. They carefully examined the county all around for six days, and finally determined on the site upon the lands of Samuel Dexter, a few rods east of the center of the county seat and west, and about two miles north of the center north and south. For beauty and healthiness it is believed that this location is not surpassed by any place in TMichigan. A large spring of excellent water issues near the county seat,

Page  61 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. which affords a sufficient quantity for one hundred thousand inhabitants, and, with trifling expense, might be conducted to every man's door. Near to this spot are mill seats and extensive hydraulic privileges. A grist-mill is already under contract to be built immediately, one-fourth of a mile from the county seat. South of the county seat lies a prairie of some hundred acres, sloping to Grand river, which has been grossly misrepresented as a swamp, not susceptible of being drained. A part of this prairie is wet, but, there being a descent of at least twenty feet to the river, a chance is afforded for laying it dry by a drain or ditch, which for the most part is already accomplished by Mr. Dexter, and will be finished early in the ensuing spring. "Much has been said by many in the east part of this county with regard to the quality of the lands lying west of the county seat as of being an inferior quality. This is a matter which they have prejudged and guessed at without knowledge or investigation. Since such representations have been made, we have traversed the county and examined the lands south, southwest, west, north and northwest. Almost the whole of the southwest quarter of the county appears to be first-rate timbered land. A great proportion of the timber is superior fencing-timber and an abundance of sugarmaple is found. "We have commenced cutting a road from Ionia center south upon the center section line of the county, to continue through Eaton county to Marshall, the shire of Calhoun county. We have progressed eight miles with the road without meeting with any obstacles which would require a deviation from the section line. It passes through a beautiful country, which is believed will be settled at no remote period by a dense population. Not a single eighty-lot could be selected upon the road as far as we have gone but what would be excellent. The country north is generally timbered with oak, and contains some extensive burr-oak plains. The face of the surface is beautiful and the soil of good quality. West and northwest large tracts of timbered lands of the best quality are found, and along the river to the westward are extensive bottom lands, which it is believed are not surpassed in quality by any lands in the United States. A considerable portion of the last mentioned lands are already purchased and settled rapidly. In short, the west half of this county, considering the quality of the soil, the utility of the numerous springs, brooks and other wateringplaces, with which it abounds, the healthiness of the place, as far as our observations and experience has extended, is such that we believe with those that observed it, 'that no county in this territory excels it.'

Page  62 62 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN., "The statements above made are facts which we should attest to on oath but for the want of officers in this county qualified to administer oaths. In view of these facts, can it be reasonable, just or proper that the county seat, after being located near the center of the county by three competent and judicious men, should be removed five. or six miles east,_ to the great inconvenience of all of those who have and all who will hereafter settle in the county west of the center? "Therefore, being solicitous for the welfare and prosperity of western as well as eastern Ionia, and believing that Your Excellency participates in the same solicitude, we must earnestly request that you exercise the authority vested in you by issuing your proclamation confirming and establishing the location of the county seat for this county according to the determination of the commissioners. For which we shall ever pray. "Ionia, Feb. II, I835. "(Signed) Erastus Yeomans, Jared Conner, Eli Yeomans, Zenas G. Winsor, Samuel Dexter, W. B. Lincoln, William Dumper, Lorenzo Dexter, John C. Dexter, Dexter Arnold, Asa Spencer, Lyman Webster, Sanford A. Yeomans, Oliver Arnold, Nathaniel J. Brown, Alfred Cornell, Patrick M. Fox, Nelson Beckwith, Thomas Cornell, Daniel Cornell, Alfred Cornell, Jr., Gilbert Caswell, Benjamin B. Barber, George W. Case, William Doty, Eleazer Murray, James Crofford, Thomas H. Conner, Elisha Doty, Charles Doty, Silas D. Arnold, Joseph Hadsall, Charles Thayer, John E. Morrison." The last petition seems to have settled the county-seat matter with the executive-at least to have proved a clinching argument; for, although we have been unable to ascertain the precise issue of his proclamation confirming the commissioners' report, it is conclusive that it was issued some time during the year I835 or I836 and the seat of justice of Ionia county still remains where it was first located in the autumn of I833. OFFICIAL ROSTER. The following lists embrace all the judicial and civil officers who have have served in Ionia county from its organization to the present time, together with the dates of their election:

Page  63 IONIA COUNTY,~ MICHIGAN. 6 63 JUDGES OF PROBATE. William D. Moore, April, 1837; Henry Barstow, 1840; Washington Z. Blanchard, 1844; John L. Morse, 1848; Gilbert H. King, 1850; Adam L. Roof, 1852; John L. M~orse, I856-6o; Willard B. Wells, 1864-68; William H. Woodworth, I872-76-80; Myron Balcom, 1884; A. Milan Willett, i888 -92; Charles A. Wilson, 1896; William 0. Webster, I9oo-o4; Montgomery Webster, 190o8-1i2. SHERIFFS. Elhanan WV. Curtis, April, 1837; John P. Place, November, 1838; Alonzo Sessions, 1840; William Cramer, 1842; Cyprian S. Hooker, 1843; Hiram Brown, i844; Volney Eaton, 1846; Peter Coon, 1848; Asaph C. Smith, 1850; Ami Chipman, 1852; Charles A. Holmes, 1854-56; Abraham Alderman, I858-6o; James L. Jennings, i862-64; Abraham Alderman, i866-68; Edson P. Gifford, i870-72; William Reynolds, 1874; William H. Mattison, I876-78; William Toan, i880-82; Hiram N. Lee, i884-86; Hamilton R. Walker, 18_88-90; Alexander T. Montgomery, 1892 -94; Henry H. Jordan, 1896; Frank L. Moon, i898-i900; Elmer E. Fales, 1902-06; Elmer F. Cilley, 1906-08; William R. Taylor, I910-I2; Ad. N. Lowrey, 1914. COUNTY CLERKS. Asa Bunnell, April, 1837; Lawson S. Warner', November, 1838; Osmond To~wer, 1840; David Irish, 1842; Hampton Rich, 1844-46; Abram V. Berry, 1848; Alvin C. Davis, I850-52; Willard B. Wells, 1854; Alfred Cornell, Jr., 1856; Clark A. Preston, i858-6o; John S. Bennett, i862-64; Edgar M. Marble, 1866-68; Henry C. Sessions, I870-72; Levi Noble, 1874; Samuel 0. Hosford, 1876; Henry P. Taylor, I878-80; Ralph D. Sessions, 1882; Alonzo E. Sunderlin, 1884-86; William D. Place, 1888-90; L. Delos Burch, I892-94; John J. Green, i896; Glenn J. Lawless, i898-i900; Harry J. Holbrook, I902-04-06; Fred M. Cook, i908-I2; George W. Moulton, 19I4. COUNTY TREASURERS. John E. Morrison, April, 1837; Thomas Corn~ell, November, 1838; Asaph Mather, 1840-42; Isaiah G. Frost, 1944-46; John C. Dexter, 1848; Charles M. Moseman, i850-52; Albert Williams, i854-56; Ethan S. Johnson,

Page  64 64 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I858-60; George Ellsworth, 1862; Clark A. Preston, 1864; Silas Sprague, I866-68; John Morton, I870-72; Amon Otis, 1874; John L. Mosser, I876 -78; Josiah E. Just, I880-82; J. Warren Peake, 1884-86; Charles Brown, I888-90; George W\. Snyder, 1892-94; Lee B. Spaulding, I896; Edwin F. Cook, 1898-900; Ethel Allen, I902-04; Thomas Sparks, I906-08; Albert L. Spencer, I910; Thomas Sparkes, 1912-I4. REGISTERS OF DEEDS. Adam L. Roof, April, 1837; William Dallas, November, I838; John C. Dexter, 1840; William Dallas, I842; Frederick Hall, 1843-1844; Archibald F. Carr, 1846; Ethan S. Johnson, I848-50; Thomas Cornell, 1852; Herman Hunt, 1854; C. Oscar Thompson, I856; Julius Jennings, I858-60; Joseph Rickley, I862-64; Vernon H. Smith, i866-68; Alfred H. Heath, 1870-72; Albert K. Roof, 1874; James A. Sage, I876-78; James W. Loomis, I880; James W. Loomis, I882; Phil Brock, I884-86; Charles L. Halladay, I888 -90; Loren C. Fales, I892-94; Emory F. Strong, I896; Charles I. Goodwin, I898-I900; Palmer T. Williams,, 902-04; William A. Wilder, I906-08; John C. Beattie, I912; George H. Dye, I914. PROSECUTING ATTORNEYS. John C. Blanchard, November, 1850-52; Harvey Bartow, 1854; Willard B. Wells, I856-58; Albert Williams, i86o; William W. Mitchell, 1862-64; Allen B. Morse, 1866-68; Edgar M. Marble, 1870-72; Charles L. Wilson, 1874; Willard B. Wells, I876-78; Frank D. M. Davis, I880-82; Adolphus A. Ellis, I886-88; Frank D. M. Davis, I888-90; Royal A. Hawley, I892-94; John B. Chaddock, I896-98; William K. Clute, I900-02; Frank M. Burbank, 1904-06; Dwight C. Sheldon, I908-IO; Alfred R. Locke, I912; Herbert C. Hall, I914. CIRCUIT COURT COMMISSIONERS. L. E. Jones, November, I852; Louis S. Lovell, 1854; John Toan, 1865; Morris B. Wells, i860; John A. Bander, I862; B. Franklin Spencer, 1866 -68; Edward Cahill, 1870; Harvey Bartow, 1870; William 0. Webster, 1872; William L. Strickland, I872; Vernon H. Smith, 1874; William B. Thomas, I874; Frank D. M. Davis, I876; William L. Strickland, 1876; Donald McPherson, I878; Clarence B. Wardle, r880; George A. Hawley, I880;

Page  65 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 65 Clarence B. Wardle, I882; Royal A. Hawley, 1882; Fred H. Stone, 1884-86; John H. Mitchell, 1884-86; Palmer T. Williams, 1888-90; Bingley R. Fales, I888; John H. Mitchell, 1890; Henry J. Harrigan, 1892-94; John B. Chaddock, 1892-94; Charles P. Locke, 1896; Edward C. Spaulding, 1896; Hal H. Smith, I898; J. Clyde Watt, I898-I900; Elvert M. Davis, 1900-02; George Bennett, I902; Edwin A. Murphy, I904-06-08-IO; Raymond A. Colwell, 1904-06; William H. Howard, I908-IO-12-14; Foss 0. Eldred, 1912; Edward A. Murphy, I914. COUNTY SURVEYORS. Buel H. Mann, April, 1837; Alexander F. Bell, November, 1837; Thomas Cornell, 1838; James M. Marsh, I840; John E. Morrison, April, 1841-42; Alexander F. Bell, I844; Jedediah Brown, 1846; Royal Howell, I848; William Jennings, I850; Asaph C. Smith, 1852; Jireh Baker, I854; Samuel C. Alderman, I856-62; William H. Freeman, 1864; Hiram W. Nicholson, I866-68; Thomas Cornell, 1870-72; Asaph C. Smith, I874; Thomas Cornell, I874-80; Daniel E. Hoover, 1882; David Cotton, 1884; David C. Crawford, I888-94; George 0. Bignell, I896; David C. Crawford, I898-14. CORONERS. Philo Bogue, April, 1837; Thaddeus 0. Warner, I837; Levi Taylor, November, I838;Thaddeus 0. Warner, I838; Franklin Chubb, 1840; Charles Broas, 1840; Lucius Babcock, April, 1841; Reuben W. Phillips, November, I842; Edson English, 1842; John L. Covert, 1844; Levi Taylor, I844-46; Gilbert H. King, 1846; George D. Kellogg, 1848; Levi Taylor, I848-50; Willard R. Brooks, I8jo; James White, 1852; Levi Taylor, 1852-54; Ebenezer F. Smith, I854.; Levi Taylor, 1856; Philander Danley, I856; John E. Morrison, I858; Peter Clark, I858; John E. Morrison, I860; Peter Clark, I86o; David Crapo, 1862; Shiverick Kellogg, I862; Arba Chubb, 1864; Abraham Alderman, 1864; Benjamin Shelton, I866; Peter Clark, I866; Arba Chubb, I868; Peter Clark, I868; Oscar Talcott, I870; C. Oscar Thompson, I870; Ethan S. Johnson, 1872; John H. Welch, I872; Charles Mathews, 1874; Milo Dibble, 1874; Ethan S. Johnson, 1876; Frederick Pitt, 1876; Ethan S. Johnson, I878; Albert F. Morehouse, I878; Ethan S. Johnson, I88o; Daniel Hoyt, I880; Ethan S. Johnson, I882; John McKelvey, 1882; James Curry, I884-86; Henry Weiser, 1884-86; Plyn Williams, I888 -(5)

Page  66 66 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 90-92-94; Levi Shotwell, I888; Lyman T. Sessions, i890; Leroy A. Schoville, 1892-94; Lester Joslin, I896; Emory A. Richards, I896; Julius S. Tibbetts, 1898-1900-02-04; Charles S. Cook, I898-I900-p2-04; Fred T. Wortman, I906; Henry C. Clark, I9o6-o8-IO-I2-I4; Fred Brickley, 1908; Benjamin J. Boynton, 1910-12-14. THlE PUBLIC SQUARE. Concerning the public buildings and the real estate owned by Ionia county, the story is easily and quickly told. The west half of the public square was set aside and donated to the county for the purpose of erecting public buildings thereon by Judge Samuel Dexter at the time of making his original plat of the village of "lonia County Seat." On the 3rd of June, 1850, the east half of the square (one hundred and twenty-eight square rods) was granted to the county by J. M. Kidd, of Tonia county, and Edwin C. Hart, of Oswego, New York, in consideration of the sum of ten dollars. Thus, the plat known as the "public square" embraces an area of two hundred and fifty-six square rods, or sixteen rods square. COUNTY OFFICE BUILDING. The proposition to build the -structure where were located the first county offices was submitted to the people in April, I842, and, by a vote of one hundred and fifty-two for, to one hundred and seventeen against, it was decided to erect the building. The returns from Lyons township, however, were thrown out by reason of not having been signed or certified to by the township inspectors of election. The building was completed in 1843. In I874 eleven hundred dollars were expended for repairs and in building an addition. At numerous times agitations were launched for the erection of a court house which should do credit to the county, but these attempts did not meet with success. COURT HOUSE. The first move toward getting a court house for the county of Ionia was made by J. S. Gage, at the October session, 1882, of the county supervisors. Supervisor Gage had a committee appointed to investigate the advisability of building a court house, and to report at the January session. The following were elected to investigate: J. S. Gage, E. P. Gifford and

Page  67 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 67 C. Waterbury. The committee reported at the January session, 1883, and it was decided to procure plans for a structure which should house all of the county officials. This was done and it was resolved to place a proposition before the voters to raise forty-five thousand dollars for the erection of a court house. This proposition was voted on in the spring of I883, and was carried. Plans were immediately drawn and the contract let. Clare Allen received the contract and began work upon the structure, but he had not proceeded to any great extent when, in July, I885, he failed. As a consequence, the building committee took charge and proceeded with the work. This committee was composed of C. Waterbury, Levi Shotwell and E. P. Gifford. The court house was completed in the spring of I886 and, although the contract price had been only forty-two thousand three hundred and eighty dollars, the total cost of the building ran up to over fifty-seven thousand dollars. It was furnished complete with the best furniture at a cost of five thousand three hundred dollars. On July 3, I886, the dedicatory services were held and Ionia county then ranked among the foremost of the state as to the beauty and efficiency of its temple of justice. COUNTY JAILS. The construction of a jail was authorized in October, I849. The plans submitted by H. Borden were adopted in January, 185o, and during the same year the building was completed under contract by H. Borden and Osmond Tower. In January, I85I, it was accepted by the board of supervisors and doubtless was soon afterward occupied by some luckless wight. Up to that time malefactors condemned to durance vile had generally been incarcerated in the Kent county jail. Rooms suitable for dwelling purposes were arranged in the structure in I864. But in the course of time the old jail became insufferable and utterly unfit for purposes required for a jail-building, and in April, I880, the question was submitted to the people of the county whether ten thousand dollars should be appropriated for the construction of a new jail. By a vote of two thousand eight hundred and thirty-eight to two thousand two hundred and six, the proposition to build a new structure was carried. J. V. Consaul soon after entered into a contract to perform the work, and the process of construction began about July I, I880, being completed on January I, I88I. The building is constructed of Ionia sandstone and brick. It is commodious and substantial in appearance, and adds to the appearance of the "public square."

Page  68 68 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. POOR FARM AND BUILDINGS. Prior to December, 1856, the indigent of the county received assistance from the authorities of the various townships in which they resided, from a fund annually appropriated by the board of supervisors. These appropriations were small, comparatively, during early years and as late as I849, but four hundred dollars being appropriated for the support of the county poor for the latter year. At their annual session, held in October, I855, the supervisors voted that "the county superintendents of the poor be authorized and instructed to examine lands with some improvements, with a view of purchasing eighty acres for a poor farm." The superintendents were also instructed to report at the next (January) session of the board of supervisors what buildings would be necessary for county poor farm purposes. Two thousand dollars were then appropriated for the purchase of a poor farm, etc., of which one-half was to be "raised the present year." In January, I856, Alonzo Sessions and Osmond Tower were appointed a committee with power to purchase a farm and to erect suitable buildings thereon, to the amount of the appropriation (one thousand dollars), which amount was ordered spread upon the tax rolls by the board sitting in October, I855. Erastus Yeomans and John E. Morrison were added to the committee in June, I856, and in October of that year the supervisors voted (in addition to the one thousand dollars already raised) the further sum of six hundred and forty-four dollars and thirty-three cents, with which to pay for the premises, in Ronald township already bargained for by the committee. The buildings were immediately placed in order for their occupation by the county poor, and were so occupied during the winter of I856-57. During the subsequent ten years from fifteen hundred to two thousand dollars were annually appropriated for the maintenance of the indigent and insane of the county. Plans for the construction of a new county house were submitted to the board of supervisors by Ora Waterbury in I870, and on the 7th of February he contracted to build the county house for the sum of nine thousand seven hundred and ninety-one dollars and fifty-seven cents. The structure, which was of brick, was completed during the same year, costing, with heating apparatus, ten thousand seven hundred and twenty-two dollars and seven cents. In 1875 one thousand dollars were expended in finishing the interior of the upper story. Under the able management of different supervisors, the conditions of the farm were improved from year to year.

Page  [unnumbered] vO! (()'NTY HOUSE. STATE ARltMOltY. AT IONIA.

Page  [unnumbered] I

Page  69 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 69 On Wednesday, March 6, I907, the county farm was destroyed by fire, with total loss, less the insurance, which amounted to ten thousand five hundred dollars. A special session of the supervisors was immediately called to make plans fur new county buildings. On April 27, I907, a special election was held to vote bonds to the amount of thirty-five thousand dollars for the erection of new county buildings. The result of this vote was two thousand nine hundred and sixty-eight for and nine hundred and eighty-eight against the issuance of such bonds. At the next session of the board of supervisors the question came up whether it would be advisable to sell the old farm and buy a new site which would be much better adapted to the public use. A committee was appointed to investigate several different farms about the county. As a result of this, the supervisors purchased, on September 5, the Chester Adgate farm of three hundred and twenty-six acres in Berlin township for sixteen thousand three hundred dollars. Plans were immediately drawn by Edwin A. Bowd, architect, for the new county buildings. The plans which were finally adopted represented approximately seven thousand five hundred feet of floor space and were up-to-date in all respects. The contract for the new buildings was awarded to Right & Prawl for twenty-six thousand four hundred and twenty-two dollars, the structure to be built of Ionia red brick. The old county farm was sold for ten thousand dollars to Frank P. Normington.

Page  70 CHAPTER III. BERLIN TOWNSHIP. The present township of Berlin was organized. March 6, I838, as the township of Cass, and included townships 5 and 6 north, in range 7 west, the west halves of townships 5 and 6 north, in range 6 west, and all that portion of the west halves of township 7 north, in range 6 west, and township 7 north, in range 7 west, lying south of Grand river. Cass township was christened by Alonzo Sessions as a mark of honor for Lewis Cass, then a conspicuous statesman, and in recognition, moreover, of the Democratic tendency of the age. On February 16, I842, the name of the township was changed from Cass to Berlin. On March 19, 1845, the west halves of townships 5 and 6 north, in range 6 west, was apportioned respectively to the townships of Sebewa and Orange. On March 25, 1846, township 5 north, in range 7 west, was organized as Odessa, and on March 22, 1848, that portion of township 7 north, in range 6 west, lying south of the Grand river was apportioned to Ionia. These changes left to Berlin the six miles square of township 6 north, in range 7 west, and all that portion of township 7 north, in range 7 west, lying south of the Grand river, that being the territory now included in the township At the first township meeting in Cass township, held in the house of William Babcock, April 2, I838, John E. Morrison was chosen moderator and William S. Babcock, clerk. The officials chosen were, Alonzo Sessions, supervisor; John E. Morrison, clerk; W. B. Lincoln, Levi Taylor and C. R. Bickford, assessors; Lucius Babcock, R. W. Stephens and William Reed, commissioners of highways; John Taft, collector and constable; John Taft, James Hurlbut, Silas D. Arnold and Amos B. Bliss, constables; John E. Morrison, Job S. Sessions and William S. Babcock, school inspectors; Reuben W\. Stephens and William Babcock, directors of the poor; Alonzo Sessions, John E. Morrison, Philo Bates and W. B. Lincoln, justices of the peace. Overseers of highways do not appear to have been chosen until the annual meeting in 1839, when Oliver Arnold was elected for district No. I,

Page  71 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 71 Alonzo Sessions for No. 2, E. K. Bigford for No. 3, John Taft for No. 4, Lucius Babcock for No. 5 andc Nathaniel Pierce for No. 6. That portion of Berlin township lying nearest the river, and included within township 7 north, range 7 west, engaged the attention of land-lookers as early as 1833, and, because of the general desire of the first-comers to keep within hailing distance of the Grand river, then a highway of traffic, coupled, perhaps, with the opinion that land thereabout was a little better than land in the more remote interior, the river district was in a fair state of development by the time the central and southern portions of the township heard the first notes of the woodman's axe. The region lying upon both sides of the Bellevue road, which divide Ionia and Berlin, was likewise a favored locality, and, beginning to grow in population almost as soon as the township took its first step forward, advanced materially in that respect when the Bellevue road was pushed through and offered the luxury of a thoroughfare worthy of such a name. The first land entry in the present township of Berlin was probably made in July, 1833, by John E. Morrison, who was likewise the first person to make a settlement in the township. The land he entered occupies the northeast corner of the township, upon section 25, in township 7, and lies upon the river. Mr. Morrison penetrated into Oakland county, Michigan, in I824, and after nine years experience as a pioneer in that locality was dissatisfied with the progress he had made. Conceiving that better land could be found farther westward, he determined to investigate the matter and endeavored to impress some of his neighbors with similar sentiments. His efforts in that direction were, however, unavailing. They declared themselves suited with what they had, and intimated to Morrison that he had better remain content or it might be worse for him. Young Morrison was, however, not to be dissuaded, and, in July, 1833, set out alone on horseback over tre old Indian trail from Pontiac, bound west. In narrating that porfion of his Michigan experience, Mr. Morrison remarked that he was more determined than ever to push his project since others opposed it. He added, with a glow of satisfaction, that he never "backed out" of any enterprise into which he entered, although he would have backed out in I849, when, on a tour across the plains to California, he was taken sick and felt sure that he would die. He had to stick, however, because there was no help for it. As he expected, he did find better land farther west, and in section 25, as earlier noticed, he chose a farm to his liking. He hastened back to Oak

Page  72 72 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. land county for his family and, returning in the fall with his wife and little ones, found that he had already got a neighbor in Oliver Arnold, a blacksmith, who was living on the south bank of the Grand river, in what is now Ionia township, having come out with the Dexter colony. Morrison lodged his family with Mr. Arnold until he could prepare a habitation of his own, and when they began life in their own cabin they felt, no doubt, a deal of comfort and satisfaction at first, although, to recollect afterwards, Mr. Morrison thought there must have been precious little to be thankful for. However, he set himself sturdily to work, and pushed aside with vigorous arm the jagged edges and tough knots that faced him in his pioneer's progress until he began directly to reap the reward of his toil in improved property, comfort and conveniences. Although Mr. Morrison was for nearly two years the only settler in Berlin township, and lived upon the fringe of an unbroken wilderness, he was not entirely out of the world of civilization, for there was his neighbor Arnold close by, and just over the river was the little community at Samuel Dexter's village of Ionia, the county seat, so that he was not quite so lonesome or isolated as he might have been. In I835, he put out a half-bushel of apple seed that came from Ohio, and from the orchard that followed he supplied many customers with trees. He therefore not only planted the first orchard, but raised, likewise, the first crop of wheat, in the town. For his first wheat he got two dollars a bushel, and for his first potatoes a similar price, although these figures were exceptional and must have been realized as the result of an emergency. George Hosford, who later lived on section 25, in township 7, was among the early comners to Ionia county and at a very early day worked for Mr. Morrison in Berlin, so that he may be strictly regarded as having been a pioneer of the front rank, although not an actual settler in Berlin township until the township was pretty well populated. Mr. Morrison resided later in Ionia township, on the south side of the river, but not far from the place of his first settlement in Berlin. He was prominent in county history, not only as the first county treasurer, first clerk of Ionia township and first clerk of Cass, but as a surveyor of many of the county's earliest highways. He was something of a wanderer, too. He joined the, army of California gold-seekers in I849, lingered awhile in Texas, and lived two years in Tennessee, but Michigan proved his best love, and to Michigan he returned to find rest for the soles of his feet and a home that would remain his as long as he needed one on earth.

Page  73 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 73 Alonzo Sessions, for many years a prominent citizen not only of Berlin township, but of Michigan, entered the forests of the township as a permanent settler, in company with his brother Job, with whom he had, in October, 1833, traveled from western New York to Ionia county on a land-looking expedition, and on foot made the tour from Detroit to Ionia. Raw pork and dry bread comprised their diet, and the forest their lodging-place, when night happened to overtake them. Being suited with the land lying in the northern portion of what was later known as the township of Berlin, they made selections, and at once pushed on to the White Pigeon land office, where they made their entries. iuch however, as the brothers desired to begin the actual experience of a settler's life, they were compelled to await a more favorable opportunity, for to buy land would have taken all their money, and without some spare cash to sustain them until their land might yield its products, they cared not to undertake the roles of pioneers. So to earn money, Alonzo taught school in Ohio, while Job worked as a farm hand in Michigan. Their pay was meager, and it was not until after the lapse of two years that they found themselves with a sufficient wealth to make even a beginning. They were, however, ambitious to make a start, and that start, it may be well to observe, they followed with such effective efforts that fame and fortune were not slow in being overtaken by them upon the journey. Alonzo Sessions traveled from Dayton, Ohio, with two horses, one of which carried him, while the other carried two trunks. His own account of the trip thus tells the story: "Traveling northward along the Miami river, and frequently fording it, I soon entered a dense and nearly unbroken wilderness where there was only here and there a settler. In places there were no roads and scarcely a trail. It was raining daily, and every river, creek or bavou was full to overflowing. Many of the latter were more difficult to cross than the rivers, being more swollen and muddy. In places, canoes were found at crossings, but more frequently I crossed on the back of one horse while leading the other. In this way I progressed to Defiance, several times swimming rivers. At Defiance my troubles and dangers were not ended. The only one way to get into Michigan then was to go down the river from Defiance, by way of Perrysburg, and there were swollen creeks, without bridges, in abundance. From Perrysburg I rode to Ypsilanti, where I met my brother and left my trunks. From that point we proceeded in company on horseback to lonia, where we arrived on June i I. Without delay, the two brothers began work upon their Berlin lands,

Page  74 74 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. near which they found that John E. Morrison had already established himself. They got along so briskly that in September of that year they sowed ten acres with wheat. In November, '835, Alonzo Sessions built a log cabin, the second in the township, and in 1837 he married the daughter of Samuel Dexter, the Ionia pioneer. During that year he built the first frame barn known in Berlin township, although a frame house had been put up by Elisha Doty before that time. Alonzo Sessions, still a dweller upon the land he cleared in 1835, was long in public life. He commenced his services in I836, when he was chosen justice of the peace. In I838, he was elected supervisor of Cass township and in that office served nineteen terms, besides occupying other local trusts, while for eight terms he was chairman of the board of supervisors. In 1840 he was elected sheriff, and, entering the state Legislature in I856, remained there until I862. From I86o to I864 he was internal revenue assessor, having been president of the First National Bank of Ionia from I866 to the eighties. He was presidential elector in 1872, and in 1876 was called to be lieutenant-governor of Michigan. Mr. Session's trifling bit of wild land of 1833 had materially expanded in breadth and length, and, although he had taken from it several farms for the benefit of purchasers, there still remained in the later years of his life a tract of about a thousand acres. Job Sessions, less conspicuous in Ionia county history than his brother Alonzo, performed most excellent pioneer work in Berlin township. He cleared two farms and, having done that much, changed his residence to Spring LUke. The Sessions brothers and John E. Morrison were the only ones in the township for fully a year. In I836 there was an important influx of settlers, among whom were William Babcock, Amasa Sessions, Zophar Alderman, William Elvert, William Reed, Elisha Doty and his three sons. William Babcock and Philo Bates made large purchases on lands on the Bellevue road, in the townships later called Ionia, Berlin and Orange. In the division of their purchases, the Berlin land was taken by Babcock, and, although he had a small regiment of sons, he bought land enough to give a farm to each of the boys. Bates and Babcock brought out two hired men, Moses Narsh and Benjamin B. Brand, each of whom became a settler in short order. These men, with Babcock's sons, gave great assistance to Bates and Babcock in pushing matters forward, and as a consequence there were soon nice-looking farms on either side of the Bellevue roads. William Babcock

Page  75 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 75 died in Ionia in 187I, at the age of eighty-eight. Amasa Sessions made his home on section 3 and, after a hardy campaign as a subduer of the forest, collected his bountiful substance and retired to Ionia. William Reed lived on section 3 and, save for the fact that he was exceedingly poor, was not conspicuous. Late in life he was killed in an altercation with a farm tenant. Reed put up his log cabin on a Sunday and went over into, Easton to get some lumber to cover it. The lumber he found at Mason Hearsey's mill, but he had to assist Hearsey in sawing it, and afterwards paddled it across the river in a canoe a few boards at a time. On October 4, 1836, Reed and Alonzo Sessions set out with ox-teams for a trip eastward in search of provisions, and for a good share of the way to Lyons had to cut out the road. Elisha Doty, who built the first frame house in Berlin, lived on the river road. Zophar Alderman, like a majority of Michigan pioneers, was poor. He bought eighty acres of land on section 36 and, besides a wife and eight children, could boast only a yoke of oxen and two cows among his possessions. The older boys and the old man improved every shining moment by working early and late in the woods. When a few dollars had to be raised for taxes, they worked for anybody willing to pay money; for money of their own they had none, and had no means of acquiring it except by labor for others. Alderman is remembered as the man who wore a pair of shirts two years and so patched them from the time to time that at the end of two years it was found quite difficult to trace the presence of any of the original material. Alderman was always eager to get road contracts, for they meant cash, and cash was one of the hardest things to get; indeed, there was scarcely any plan that would bring cash except the business of working out non-resident taxes. So desperate was the competition among the settlers to get road contracts that by dint of hardest labor they would yield, as a return for the work of a man and yoke of cattle, twenty-five cents a day. Twenty-five cents in actual money meant something however, something more, indeed, than a wagon-load of wheat; for there were times when a wagon-load of wheat even could not command twehty-five cents in cash. It was store-pay or no pay at all. Alderman was the first settler upon section 36, and William Elvert, the second. The next comer to that section was Edward Butler, in 1840. Thomas Butler, son of Edward, related, as below, his recollections of pioneering. Thomas Butler moved into this county from the township of Henrietta, Monroe county, New York, with his father, Edward Butler, who

Page  76 76 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. settled in Berlin township, then called Cass, and Thomas was at the time, November, I840, nearly fourteen years of age. He helped clear up his father's farm until 1871, when the elder Butler was killed by a runaway team. He was then seventy-one years of age. Thomas later resided on section I4. He wrote thus: "We came up the Erie canal, thence by steamboat on Lake Erie to Detroit; there we bought a yoke of oxen, and came by the road through the woods and mud. We were nine days coming from Detroit. We traveled two nights, there being no place to stay, the people being all sick on the way with fever and ague. We came in by what was then called the White Lake road, by Pontiac, Shiawasee, Portland and Lyons, to our place of destination, where the people seemed overjoyed to see a new settler. We went right to work, built a log house and moved into it, chopped ten acres the next spring, cleared it all off, and got it into crops with our own labor. I think we enjoyed ourselves very well then, since we occasionally had a good deer-hunt and several other amusements, such as fighting mosquitoes and rattlesnakes and hunting cattle, hardly ever coming in without them, although they sometimes traveled far. We would be belated into the night, so that the neighbors would have to resort to the blowing of horns and the firing of guns that we might find our way out of the woods. Edward Butler located his land in the fall of i836. He came to Kalamazoo and, the office there being closed, had to travel on foot through by the way of Yankee Springs and a place called Marsac's to Ionia, often having to ford or swim the streams, there being no bridges then. He stayed at Ionia and helped build the old land office, boarding with Oliver Arnold." Nelson Beckwith, Robert F. Hall, Abraham Eddy, Reuben Stevens, John W. Young, Nathan and William Pierce, Lyman Simmons, Luke Howard and Julius Babcock came to the township in i837. Nelson Beckwith was burned to death in i862. Robert F. Hall, who lived alone in a shanty on section 6, was drowned while attempting to cross the Grand river. How the calamity came upon him was never known. His dead body was found floating down the stream and that was all the story told. Abraham Eddy lived an uneventful life, and died in i875, aged eighty-eight. Dr. W. B. Lincoln, the first physician to practice in Jonia county, was an early settler in Berlin township, to which place he moved from Ionia village. In i838 the town enjoyed for the first time the luxury of a saw-mill within its borders. E. K. Pickford built it on the small stream that passes through section 3, the millwright being Daniel S. Brownell. Fire destroyed

Page  77 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 77 the structure, and the site, being purchased by William Reed of Doctor Lincoln for six sheep, was directly afterwards occupied by a second mill. In 1839 George Mitchell made his home on a forty-acre tract in section 13. He died in 1841 and, the place falling to the control of Curtis B., his son, the latter exchanged it in I842 for a place on section 23, owned by William- Pierce. Pierce himself had done no work there, but had hired Van Rensselaer Randall to clear five acres. The year 1839 also witnessed the coming of George H. Coe,' David Woodruff and, a little later, Solomon Tanner. Francis Humphreys, an Irishman, was one of the men of I839, but in getting to the town gained more than his share of hazardous adventure. He got as far as Bellevue and, there being forced to seek assistance in the matter of pushing himself, family and goods through the wilderness to Berlin, found help in one Peter Kinney, living north of Vermontville. Humphreys had to make a nightjourney in search of Kinney, and en route was treed by wolves. The beasts kept him upon his elevated perch until the next morning, when, benumbed with cold and half famished, he descended and made off for Kinney's. Kinney undertook the job of getting Humphrey's family and goods to Bellevue for forty dollars and, with two pairs of oxen, tried it. He was five days getting from Bellevue to Vermontville, but at the latter point only commenced the real troubles of the situation. In the language of an early historian, "the hardships of that journey were almost incredible-tugging through swamps, cutting out trees, getting across streams, in some instances being obliged to take the wagon apart and carry that and the load piecemeal across the swamp, often not making half a mile a day. Snow fell during the time, and the cold, sleety storms caused suffering in addition to their exhausting labor. Serenaded at night by wolves, tired, cold and wet, for five weeks they struggled on-and got through. It cost Kinney his life, for he was so used up he never recovered." Joshua Clark and his son, Edward, made settlements in 1842; Joseph Howard, in 1843; Henry P. Yates, William Letts, James M. Crane, Eleazur Murray and Nathan J. Crane, in 1845. The Cranes were stonemasons, and, purchasing their lands of Alonzo Sessions, paid him part by laying stone walls, upon his farm. In 1848, B. W. Backus came to Berlin township and bought some land on section I2. He chopped a year and then went back to New York, where he remained three years. In 1852 he returned to Berlin and traded farms with Asa Houghton, south of him. He lived on the Houghton place until

Page  78 78 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I879, when he got his old farm back. When Mr. Backus came to the township, in 1848, he found already on the ground his neighbors, Lyman Simmons, William Pierce, William Letts and Gibbs McKnown. In 1852, Elias Lillie, R. J. Curtiss, J. W. Loomis and Delos Walker came in a body as settlers, and in 1855 D. P. Aldric bought land on section 17, to which he moved in I856. Alanson Youngs had been on section 17 since 1854, and B. F. Hines since I853. He also found James Udell on section i8, and David Peck on the place later occupied by David Peck on the place later occupied by George Youngs, the latter having come to it in 1858. South of Peck lake, settlements were slow. Stephen Aldrich was on the northeast corner of section 30, and Lemuel H. Potter on section 29. Isaac Austin and Elias Lillie were on section I6, to which came also William 0. Sible in I857, and R. J. Curtiss and Rufus Aldrich, on section 21. Berlin township had no postoffice until, perhaps, 1850, when the New Berlin postoffice was established and Alonzo Sessions appointed postmaster. William Jones, his successor, retained possession until 1857, when the office was discontinued. The resident taxpayers in Berlin in 1844 were: Silas Adgate, section 29, 40 acres; John Adgate, sections 29, 32, 120 acres; Oliver Arnold, section I9, 30, I90 acres; George C. Overhiser, sections 31, 30, I80 acres; Alonzo Sessions, administrator of estate of Philo Bates, sections, 5, 17, 28, 30, 32, 33, 1,253 acres; Eric Le Valley, section 32, 80 acres; Caspar Steigel, section 32, 80 acres; William Babcock, agent for Silas Wood, sections 33, 32, 50 acres; Samuel Babcock, personal; Levi Taylor, sections I, 6, 31, 245 acres; John Hull, section 19, 89 acres; Horace I. Hull, personal; Amos B. Bliss, section I9, 89 acres; John Housman, Sr., section 20, 200 acres; John Housman, Jr., section 20, 80 acres; Gideon C. Holcomb, section 20, 80 acres; Addison Bowman, section 20, 40 acres; Patrick Hackett, section 31, 80 acres; Peter Hackett, section 31, oo00 acres; Lucius Babcock, sections I, 17, I60 acres; Palmer H. Taylor, personal; William Winslow, section 35, IO acres; John North, section 35, 40 acres; Joseph Howard, section 35, 80 acres; Joseph Babcock, section 36, I20 acres; Herman Babcock, sections 32, 36, I20 acres; John Woodruff, section 4, 80 acres; Benjamin Sage, section 4, I60 acres; Alexander Dalziel, section 5, I20 acres; Thomas I. Marsh, section 5, 200 acres; Reuben W. Stevens, section 36, I60 acres; B. D. Brand, sections 8, I7, I60 acres; William Babcock, sections 6, I, 32, 555 acres; John K. Kneeland, section 2, 80 acres; Abram Eddy, section 2. 40 acres; Gardner Eddy, section 2, 40 acres; George H. Coe, section 3, 74

Page  79 IONIA COUNTY. MICHIGAN. 79 acres; David Woodruff, section 3, 40 acres; Alva Hill, section 3, 40 acres; Amasa Sessions, sections 3, 4, 2I, 312 acres; David Hull, section 3, 8o acres; David Hull, mill-site; William Reed, section 3, 155 acres; Robert F. Hall, section 6, 460 acres; Joshua Wells, section 7, 85 acres; Nelson Beckwith, section 7, I60 acres; James Hunchlin, section Io, 60o acres; James Lincoln, section I, 80 acres; Nathan S. Nichols, section 30, 80 acres; Alvinus Nichols, section 12, 80 acres; William Pierce, sections 13, 14, 23, 200 acres; Luke Harwood, sections 13, 14, 24, 120 acres; Winslow Eddy, section 14, 40 acres; John Foster, section 14, 8o acres; David Peck, sections 17, I9, 20, 243 acres; B. D. Weld, sections 32, 33, 320 acres; Asa Houghton, section 22, 80 acres; Eastman Russell, section 26, 40 acres; Emory Russell, section 27, I60 acres; Myron Tupper, section 27, 136 acres; H. H. Kibbey, section 27, 80 acres; Benjamin Tupper, sections 27, 28, I20 acres, Hiram S. Lee, section 33, 80 acres; John M. Evans, section 33, 80 acres; Reuben Haight, section 35, I05 acres; J. D. Hight, section 35, 80 acres. In 1846 the votes cast numbered eighty-five. The question of "license" being before the people, there was a vote of thirty-two against license and eleven for license. The names of the eighty-five voters are: Palmer H. Taylor, Nathan J. Crane, John L. Taylor, Simeon Welch, James Fitch, C. T. Andrews, John W. Crane, Louden Andrews, Robert Barton, John Taft, Luke Harwood, Daniel Austin, Joseph M. Babcock, Ira Carpenter, Amasa Sessions, Samuel Randall, Henry Howlich, Eleazer Murray, Joseph H. Lincoln, S. Tanner, William D. Davis, Eric Le Valley, Nathan Hannah, Charles T. Babcock, Alva Hill, Alvin W. Nicholls, George Townsend, William Reed, John Doty, Job S. Sessions, George H. Coe, Chauncey Lincoln, William Doty, William Elvert, Joel Roberts, David Woodruff, Joshua Clark, Edward 0. Clark, William Babcock, George D. Overhiser, Stephen M. Aldrich, Rufus W. Aldrich, E. M. Ware, Nelson Beckwith, Gordon Eddy, William R. Alderman, William Winslow, Oliver Beers, Joseph Cross, Abram Eddy, Jacob Bullman, Nathaniel Pierce, Rufus Smith, Francis Humphreys, Levi Taylor, William Barton, Chauncey F. Arnold, Almond Tefft, Joel Dean, Charles W. Fullington, Gilbert Crane, Oliver Arnold, C. B. Mitchell, Samuel M. Crane, John E. Morrison, James B. Cook, Javan Hall, Silas Adgate, Winslow Eddy, Alonzo Sessions, Robert Hannah, Henry Stiles, C. C. H. Huggins, Philo Stevens, David Branson, Herman Babcock, Edward Butler, David Peck, James Barton, Jesse Taft, John Adgate, William B. Lincoln, Austin P. Ware, Nathan Nichols, Lucius Babcock.

Page  80 80 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. The votes cast in I849 numbered sixty-one. The names of the voters were: N. J. Crane, Abram Eddy, Peleg Eddy, William Reed, Stephen M. Aldrich, Thomas Butler, Lucius Babcock, J. M. Babcock, Francis Humphreys, George Townsend, Luke Harwood, C. L. Babcock, D. Mitchell, Joshua Clark, Alonzo Sessions, William Babcock, H. P. Gates, Hiram Benjamin, Gilbert Crane, Alva Hill, James D. Tarbell, Samuel Randall, Sylvester Stevens, O. Hall, Siloam Stevens, W. Eddy, Joel Dean, Herman Babcock, Morris Woodruff, David Branson, William Elvert, Edward Butler, J. E. Morrison, Chauncey Lincoln, Solomon Tanner, James Fitch, R. W. Aldrich, J. M. Ware, A. P. Ware, George Phillips, J. W. Crane, C. B. Mitchell, William Doty, W. Phillips, D. Woodruff, G. H. Coe, Nelson Austin, Daniel Austin, J. S. Sessions, William Letts, Hathaway Randall, Nathan Pierce, N. S. Nichols, Gardner Eddy, Nelson Beckwith, C. W. Fullington, Asa Houghton, Anson Young, D. W. Lincoln, Samuel Alderman, Harvey Eldredge. SUPERVISORS. 1839-40, A. Sessions; 1841-42, J. E. Morrison; 1843, C. W. Fullington; I844-45, A. Sessions; 1846, James Barton; 1847-49, L. Harwood; 1850-52, A. Sessions; 1853, M. Balcom; 1854, A. P. Ware; I855-56, A. Sessions; I857, L. Harwood; 1858-62, A. Sessions; 1863-64, Amasa Sessions; 1865-66, M. Balcom; 1867, A. Sessions; I868, M. Balcom; 1869-70, A. H. Heath; 1871-73, A. Otis; 1874, A. Sessions; 1875, W. P. Mitchell; 1876, A. Sessions; 1877-80, D. P. Aldrich; I881, Myron Balcom; I882-85, D. P. Aldrich; I886-87-88-89-90-91-92-93-94, David Gates; 1895-96, Edward Patrick; I897-98-99-I900, Homer Adgate; I90I-02, Millard Mitchell; I903-04-05-06 -07, Chester Adgate; I908-09-IO-II-I2, William D. Bennett; I913-I4-15-I6, John Waltman.

Page  81 CHAPTER IV. BOSTON TOWNSHIP. All that portion of the county of Ionia included in townships 5 and 6 north, in range 8 west, was, by act approved December 30, I837, organized as the township of Boston, and the first meeting therein ordered to be held at the house of Worcester English. The township included the two towns until the act approved March I5, 1849, set off township 5 as Campbell. That portion of township 6 north of the Grand river was annexed to Keene, February 29, I844, and on March 17, I849, it was restored to Boston. At a meeting of the citizens, in I837, to fix upon a name for the township, Whitesboro and Whitestown, in honor of Timothy White, Waterford and Worcester, the last by way of compliment to Worcester English, were suggested, but none seemed to strike the popular fancy until Becket Chapman called out, "Let's name it Boston." About all at the meeting were New Englanders, and Boston was so well and affectionately remembered that with one accord the suggestion was adopted, and so the name stood. The first township meeting was held, as ordered, at Worcester English's house, April 5, I838, and township officials chosen as follow: Supervisor, C. S. Hooker; clerk, Jesse Williams; highway commissioners, C. S. Hooker, Worcester English, Jeremiah Stannard; overseers of the poor, Ormand Hunt and James M. Tallant; collector, David Whitney; justices of the peace, C. S. Hooker, Worcester English, Moses M. Gould and Timothy White; inspectors of the common schools, C. S. Hooker, Jesse Williams and Albert Clement; pathmaster and fence-viewer, Worcester English. It was voted by the electors that "the fences be five feet high in this town, and holes not to exceed four inches, two and a half feet from the ground." A Frenchman named Jacob Francisco and his son-in-law, Ira A. Dane, were the first to break ground in Boston, and, although they did not remain long enough to be classed as permanent settlers, yet they were settlers while they remained and made not only the first improvement in the town, but put in the first crop of wheat, which was harvested by others, who came (6)

Page  82 82 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. afterwards. It was in the spring of I836 that Francisco and Dane came to the town, in pursuance of an engagement with Robert Hilton, of Grand Rapids, who owned considerable land in the Grand River valley and who hired Francisco to work some of his land in township 6. The latter and Dane, accompanied by their families, made a location on section 17, their home being destitute of either window, door or fireplace. Francisco and Dane sowed two acres of wheat later owned by J. H. Allen in section 22. They also cleared three sections on section 17, where they later lived. Early in the next year they bought land near Lowell, and in March, 1837, moved away with their families to better lands. The first permanent settlement in the township was effected in that portion known as South Boston township. It was in the spring of I836 that Timothy White, James B. Tallant, Worcester English and Jesse Williams came west from Vermont with their families and stopped at Kalamazoo. They settled in Boston township and Worcester English, being earliest prepared to migrate, set out for his new home in January, I837. He settled on section 21, where his son-in-law later lived. White, Tallant and Williams had come from Kalamazoo the previous summer and rolled up a log cabin on the place where he went to housekeeping. The next after English as a settler was Timothy White, whose advent was made in March, I837. He settled on section 20, where he lived until his death in 1878. Tallent and Williams followed in May. Tallent located on section 29 and Williams next to him on the east. All of the five early settlers were married the following year. Becket Chapman, of Tunbridge, Vermont, came to Kalamazoo in the fall of I836 to join English, Tallent, White and Williams, who were from the same town, and, learning that they had already secured land in Boston, he concluded to make a purchase there himself. He walked over with Alber Clement to prospect, and as a result of their explorations Chapman secured one hundred and sixty acres on section 28 and Clement eighty acres on section 22. Both Chapman and Clement were unmarried men and, camping out with some settler, chopped on their lands during the summer of I837. Clement was a surveyor and divided his time between surveying and land-clearing, as it happened. On June 3, 1837, Jeremiah Stannard, his wife and three children, accompanied by Moses M. Gould, his wife and one child, settled in Boston township to make their future homes. Stannard had bought, before he came on to settle, two hundred and eighty acres of land on sections 29 and 32.

Page  83 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 83 Stannard and Gould each brought a pair of horses upon their arrival, in 1837, and turned them out with bells on their necks. Stannard's horse was not found until in the fall, and he then exchanged it for horned cattle. The cattle were not satisfied with their new home on account of August flies and finally fled to their old home in Detroit. After a week's searching they were returned to their owners. When the Stannards and Goulds came to the town they found, besides the dwellers in the English settlement, Albert Clement, on section 22; Becket Chapman, on the southeast quarter of section 28, and David Whitney, on the southwest quarter of section 27, all of whom were bachelors. Ormand Hunt, who bought his land at the time Jeremiah Stannard bought his, settled in 1838 upon section 32, where C. C. Winegar later lived, and on May 30 of that year Riley and Diocletian Hess moved into a shanty that had served David Whitney as a residence, while Riley settled next east of Ormand Hunt. Diocletian located upon the southwest quarter of section 28. Shortly after their coming, Oliver Hess settled on section 33, previously occupied by Levi Nelson, and soon afterward James Norris located upon section 34. Some time during 1837, James Hutchinson came to Boston township and settled in the English settlement. After a brief stay he returned to search for a carpenter, and returned with Marvil Church, who built for Hutchinson the first frame dwelling put up in Bostqn. Hutchinson could not persuade his family to undertake the rigors of pioneering, and, abandoning his place, sold it in I840 to Edson English and Sylvester Train, who in that year joined the settlement. The first birth in Boston was that of Betsey Ann, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Moses M. Gould; she was born on October 29, I837, being later known as Mrs. J. A. Aldrich, of Boston township. The second birth and the first of a male child, was that of Henry, son of Diocletian and Lydia Hess. Mr. and Mrs. Hess were living temporarily in a tent made of quilts, and in that the child was born in September, 1838. The first marriage was that of Sarah Alden, the first school teacher in Boston, to a Mr. Morton, of Lyons, in 1838, at Timothy White's house, Miss Alden being Mrs. White's sister. The second wedding was that of E. G. Williams and Susan Ann Church, who were married in the spring of 1841, on the day that Jeremiah Stannard set out ths twelve handsome maples that later embellished the front of his son Abiel's residence. The first death was that of Timothy, the four-year-old son of Riley

Page  84 84 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Hess, in July, 1838. The father, a Baptist preacher, although overwhelmed with grief at the loss of his son, preached the funeral sermon. Jesse Williams, who bore the coffin to the grave, was the next person to die, his death occurring on August 5, I838. Their remains were laid away in family lots, and, later, transferred to the South Boston township cemetery. The laying out and clearing of the South Boston township buryingground and the ground at Saranac were let on June i, I844, to Henry B. Alden for twenty-nine dollars each. In the autumn of I836 Joseph H. Allen, of New York, bought of the government a tract of one hundred and sixty acres of land on section 26 in Boston. For nine years he spent the winters working upon the place and the summers in farm-work at his home in New York. Occasionally he brought a stock of clocks west with him, and these he peddled to the neighbors, taking his pay in chopping; and in that way he managed to get considerable land cleared by I845, when, having married, he brought his wife, commencing as a settler in earnest. With them were Enoch Hinman and wife, coming by ox-teams from Detroit. Hinman rented of Jedediah Brown, a bachelor, the place later owned and occupied by J. H. Allen, and there the Allens and Hinmans were entertained by Brown the first night after their arrival in town. At first but two horse teams were in the town, and one of them was owned by Worcester English, to whom almost universal application was made when a horse was needed for a hasty journey to Ionia for Doctor Lincoln on behalf of a sick settler. The third horse team was brought in by David Gilbert, who came shortly after the Allens and who settled on section i8. Whenever there was a funeral the teams of English and Gilbert were always wanted. In I845 the Allens' nearest neighbor on the west was Stephen Nute, one mile distant; northeast, the nearest was James Hoag, at Waterville; east was a Mr. Peck, on the township line; and on the south the Olinmsteads, on the bank of Morrison lake. The banks of Morrison were frequented by wandering Indians as places of resort, and from time to time they gathered there in considerable numbers to camp, fish and hunt, but made no attempt to establish villages there. In i846 Levi H. Nelson came to Boston from New York and settled on land in sections 28 and 33, on which Oliver Hess had girdled about twelve acres. Hess moved to a place near by, when Nelson came, and lived later in Campbell township. West of Nelson were Reverend Riley Hess and Diocletian, his brother, and Ormand Hunt beyond the latter. Becket Chap

Page  85 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 8,5 man and Arba Benson were on the east. North, there was an unbroken forest to the English settlement, and south, the only structure north of the township line was a log house owned by the father of Oliver Hess. At a later date there came to that neighborhood C. C. Winegar, William Post, William Rogers, William Dunn and George Walter. Cyrus Peasley, George Ellsworth and Benjamin Ellsworth entered the town as settlers in I847. Benjamin Ellsworth, who located near Saranac, was one of the early postmasters there and died in i859. Cyrus Peasley's home was made on section I5, and George Ellsworth's, on section I5. Before Ellsworth's arrival, Nathaniel Tallant had dug a well and put up a shanty on the place, but beyond these the improvements were nothing. Mrs. Ellsworth said that for six months after she came she saw no one but Indians except when she went home. Their neighbors were Thomas Mosher, on section 22, where Mr. Mosher had quite a clearing; Edward Carvath, Elijah Pratt, at Saranac, and a man named McCausland, two and a half miles westward. Stephen Nute, already mentioned, settled on section 27 in May, I840, and in that year Richard Vosper, Edson English, Sylvester Train and Edward Carvath came. Two years before that, Moses Gould, James M. Tallant, Timothy White and Jeremiah Stannard harvested their first crops of wheat, and that summer, Moses Gould carried to Dexter's mill at Ionia with his ox-team the first grist taken from Boston. There were fourteen bushels in the grist-ten belonging to Gould and four to Stannard. The first wheat Gould sold in Ionia he disposed of for three shillings per bushel, and for his pay had to take store-trade and blacksmithing. Money for produce was then out of the question. J. F. Gilley and G. WV. Tucker, on section 28, were among the moderately early settlers, as were David Lewis, George Story and T. F. Woodbridge. Reverend Elbridge Gilley, brother to J. F. Gilley, was for many years a Baptist preacher of most excellent repute in Boston and neighboring townships: He settled in Boston on a place improved by Ara Benson. Robert Hilton, of Grand Rapids, made large land purchases in the Grand River valley in i836, and in his possessions was included a mill-site in section 24, on Lake creek, in Boston township. The mill-site was, moreover, on the line of the highway, known as the Grand River turnpike, at that time nothing more than a path through Boston. Hilton was convinced that the turnpike must of necessity become a highway of popular travel, and he proceeded to lay out a town at his mill-site,

Page  86 86 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. and christened it, appropriately, Waterville. Having laid out his town, he must, of course, give it some sort of a start, and in pursuance of the project he donated the mill-site and some adjoining land to one J. J. Hoag, of Oakland county, conditioned upon Hoag's erecting a saw-mill at that point. Like Hilton, Hoag thought the Grand river turnpike would be a great affair, and, promising for Waterville an important place in the history of events, gladly availed himself of Hilton's offer. In 1837 he put up the mill, which he set in motion the following year. In 1838 he followed up his mill enterprise with the opening of a store, and calmly, but confidently, awaited the surging tide of travel which he knew would flow over the pike and as a natural consequence push Waterville forward into a valley of prosperity. Fate was against Waterville, for, although the surging tide did flow to some extent over the turnpike, it did not get as far west as Waterville, and, beyond the store and mill, that once promising town never boasted the possession of industrial or mercantile enterprises, while its population could at any time be counted upon the fingers of one's hands. Being there, Hoag remained there, despite the failure of his hopes, and eked out an uncertain existence with his mill, although he was a man of considerable energy and an industrious worker. He lived at Waterville until his death, in 1851, when he was killed by a falling tree. Among the earliest settlers in the vicinity of Waterville were Richard Vosper and Edward Carvath, on sections 24 and 25; Lyman Smith, Jonah E. Turner, the latter a stepbrother to Hoag; Isaac Leary and Thomas Barber, who, in 1847, set up a blacksmith shop on the line of the pike, half a mile or so west of Waterville. About I854, Peck & Page built a second saw-mill on Lake creek, in section 14. In 1864 the property passed into the possession of A. J. Moffett, and had in connection a small machine-shop. He sawed hard and soft wood, and also did planing-work. In that neighborhood, besides the Pecks and Pages, the early-comers included the Bargers, Transals and A. J. Smith. The resident tax-payers of Boston in I844 were: Albert Clement, section 22, 26, I6o acres; Stephen Nute, sections 26, 27, i6o acres; Alfred Austin, sections 24, 25, I15 acres; Edward Carvath, Jeremiah Peck, house lot on section 24; Hiram Benjamin, sections 15, 23, 24, 120 acres; George Miner, section 22, 66 acres; N. A. Tallant, section 15, 80 acres; Nason Brant, section i, i60 acres; Daniel G. Abbott, section I, 80 acres; Jares Stocking, saw-mill; William R. Rose, section I8, 80 acres; Cyprian S. Hooker, section

Page  87 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 87 II, 30 acres; Richard Vosper, sections 12, 25, 200 acres; William Rossiter, personal; Jacob Pratt, sections II, 12, 160 acres; Jedeliah and Rufus Brown, section 22, 80 acres; D. Hess, section 28, I60 acres; H. H. English, section zI, I60 acres; D. E. English, personal; Edson English, sections 8, 21, 20, 238 acres; Timothy White, section 20, 140 acres; Harley B. Church, section 30, 77 acres; Harvey Hatch, section 20, Ioo acres; E. G. Williams, section 23, 40 acres; Clarissa Williams, James M. Tallent, section 23, 120 acres; Oel Train, personal; Sylvester Train, section 30, 347 acres; Marvil Church, section 20, 80 acres; Norman Kimball, section o1, 80 acres; Jeremiah Stannard, sections 23, 32, 280 acres; Ormand Hunt, section 32, I60 acres; Riley J. Hess, section 32, 80 acres; Arba Benson, section 3, 40 acres; 0. J. Patterson, section 33, 80 acres; Becket Chapman, section 28, i60 acres; James Norris, section 34, 40 acres; Moses M. Gould, section 21, 22, 154 acres; Oliver Hess, section 33, 80 acres; Lemuel Train, section 34, I60 acres; Martin Campbell, section 2, 40 acres; Jeremiah Campbell, personal; Patrick Campbell, personal; P. D. Sneathen, personal. SUPERVISORS. 1839, W. English; 1840, J. J. Hoag; 1841, M. Church; 1842, Edson English; 1844, M. M. Gould; 1845, Edson English; 1846, Timothy White; 1847, L. H. Nelson; 1848, R. Vosper; 1849, H. H. English; 1850, A. Clement; 1851, T. White; 1852, A. N. Stannard; 1853-54, L. H. Nelson; 1855, G. Ellsworth; i856, L. H. Nelson; 1857-59, G. Ellsworth; I860, W. S. Story; 1861, Stephen Nute; 1862, G. Ellsworth; I863-64, C. H. Warren; 1865-67, A. S. Stannard; 1868-1871, E. Spencer; 1872-74, 0. A. Page; I875, A. B. Pardee; i88i, Edson P. Gifford; I882-83, A. B. Pardee; I884-85, Nathan F. Gould; 1886-87-88-89-90-91-92-93, Henry Frace; 1894, Cha'rles E. Huhn; 1895-96, Henry Frace; 1897, Charles E. Huhn; 1898-99, Henry Frace; I900-01-02-03, George Gould; I90o-05-o6-07-08-09-IO-11-12, Louis C. David. SARANAC IN I849. The following article was taken from the Saranac Advertiser of April I6-23, I914, and was contributed by J. F. Proctor, one of the early settlers of Boston township: My father bought and moved onto what is now known as the Stevens place, two and one-half miles north of Saranac, in the fall of 1849. I was then a boy of fifteen years old.

Page  88 88 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Some time in November of that year my cousin, Joe Monks, son of James Monks, and I visited Saranac. We had to cross the river in a canoe, as there was no bridge there at that time. There were only a few buildings there then. Ammon Wilson kept a few goods and Indian trinkets in a little wooden shack, about fifty rods down the river from what is now known as Bridge street, and Sam Wilson kept a tavern in a wood-colored building on the northeast corner of Bridge and Main streets. There were only a few buildings east of these, one of which was occupied by the Chipman family. The first bridge across Grand river at that place was built in 1850. It was a wooden bridge, and the road from the north came down the hill on the place now occupied by old Mr. Green and his son-in-law, Bence Kimble, and then followed the bank of the river to the bridge. At times when the water was high it was impossible to get to the bridge. Footmen could get over by climbing logs, and sometimes that was risky business. At the time the bridge was built, the bridge crew would sometimes make things lively, for by that time one or two saloons had got started besides the bar in Wilson's tavern. I remember on the Fourth of July they had a big time and "pAinted the town red."' They would go from one drinking place to another and make every man in the room sing a song or tell a story; they were a happy lot. About this time Barnum & Armstrong put in a large stock of goods into a new building on the southwest corner of Bridge and Main streets. This was the first trading place of any importance in Saranac and was appreciated by all who lived in that part of the country: Ammon Wilson built a fine hotel on the northwest corner of Bridge and Main streets in 1853 or I854. It was a great place for the young people to gather, 'for he had the best room for dancing in that part of Ionia county; he put in a spring floor in the dance hall, which was noted for its easy movement.. I, being something of a fiddler in those days, will be remembered by a few of the old gray heads left as giving them music at those dances. There are but few left of my companions of that time, nearly all having gone. Many were left on the battlefields of the Civil War. I was there and saw the Saranac boys under command of M. B. H6ughton, take the cars for the South and heard the parting address given by Richard Vosper while they stood in line beside the railroad track. At the time I left the town of Keene in I855 there were but few frame buildings, nearly all being built of logs. Nearly the first frame house in Keene was built by John Butterfield on the Aaron Pratt farm, two and onehalf miles north of Saranac. What happy gatherings we used to have at

Page  89 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 89 his home and in his sugar bush in the spring, going there to eat sugar and hear him sing songs. His father was the first settler in Keene. I remember being at Sam Wilson's tavern one time when Post Place, of Ionia, and a companion, both riding Indian ponies, came and rode right into the bar room and called for drinks without getting off their horses. After getting their drinks, they continued on their way to Lowell, called Flat River at that time. I was married in the fall of i855 to the eldest daughter of A. C. Smith, a well-known farmer of Keene, and moved that winter to Crystal Lake in the eastern part of Montcalm county, where my brother and I took up some state land, where the village of Crystal now is located. We had to cut a road to our land, and suffered all the trials of new settlers. Our trading place was Ionia and our only team, oxen. It took us four days to make a round trip. We went to my wife's father's place, eight miles west of lonia, and stayed over night. I remember one time when driving to father Smith's place, when about a mile west of Ionia (it was all woods there and covered with oak grubs), I heard someone singing at the top of his voice, making the woods ring: "Wait for the wagon, the old lumber 'wagon, the squeaking lumber wagon, and we'll all take a ride." On looking up, the singer I found to be my old friend, Ben Covert, who was picking up a load of wood, poles, limbs, etc., and to think this was the one-time-to-be mayor of the city of Ionia. Yes, it was good, genial old Ben, always happy. We had a good chat and I drove on. The place where I found Ben was very near where the state house of correction now stands. It was a wild looking spot then. It would be hardly proper to close this account of early life without some references to the Indians, who were numerous at that time. It was customary for them to leave their reservation at Lowell to make sugar in different localities One of their favorite sugar places was on the river bottoms where the little creek empties into Grand river near what is now known as Cucumber Bend, a fine forest of maple trees covering the flats here. This was the favorite sugar camp for old Col-mo-sa, chief of the Flat River Indians. Every spring he and his family would come here to make sugar. One Sunday several of us concluded we wanted some warm sugar to eat, so we started for the Indian camps. One of the camps was occupied by Bad Manitou, better known as "Col-mo-sa's devil." When in sight of the boiling place back of the wigwams, we saw three or four little papooses bathing in the big trough where the sap was stored. It was a warm day near the closing the season, and they were having a big time. We didn't want any warm sugar then. Another time when my cousin, Phil Monks, and I, visited them

Page  90 9o IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. in one of their wigwams,' a young squaw came to get help to cut down a 'coon tree. Our young Indian friends asked us to go with them, knowing we were good choppers. It was not far to go and we soon had the tree down. It was a big elm and hollow. Four 'coons sprang from the top. The young Indian and I followed one, the old Indian another, and the dog another. Phil and the young squaw got a good start on the fourth, the squaw in the lead. She had not gone far when her foot caught in a limb and down she went, Phil on top of her. She was the first up and soon had the 'coon treed, but the young Indian and I lost ours, for we had to stop and laugh at Phil and the squaw. The old Indian shot his and the dog treed his, so they got three of the four. This was the kind of pastime we youngsters had in those days, but it was as good as attending a theater. Speaking of "Col-mo-sa's devil," put me in mind of an incident that happened a year or two before we came to Keene. My uncle, Jim Monks, lived on the place where Albert Wells lived when I last visited Keen, in a log house near the center of the forty which he owned at that time. It was quite a camping ground for the Indians then. One day a lot of them were camped there and old "Col's devil" was among them, full of whisky. He was always ugly when in liquor. He came to the house and asked my Aunt Mariah to give him some bread. She told him she had none but would let him have some when it was baked; he asked again and when she refused again he walked up and kicked her. Old Grandfather Monks, Uncle Jim's father, was there. He was over seventy-five years old and lame, but when the Indian kicked her he jumped and grabbed him and, the door being open, threw him out, but as they passed through the door the Indian struck at him with his knife, but missed him, the point going into the door jamb.

Page  91 CHAPTER V. CAMPBELL TOWNSHIP. Campbell was a portion of Boston township until March I5, I849, when it was detached by act of Legislature and called by its present name in response to a general desire that such honor be paid to Martin and Jeremiah Campbell, the town's first settlers. At the meeting in Marvil Church's house for the purpose of fixing upon a name for the proposed township, Mr. Church put forward the name of Winnifred, in remembrance of Martin Campbell's wife, Winnifred, the first white woman to make her home in the township. Mr. Church, reconsidering the suggestion, replaced it with a proposition to call the town Wanford, as less likely to intrude upon Mrs. Campbell's distaste for notoriety, and yet enough like her name to preserve its recollection; for, said he, "Wanford is the next thing to Winnifred." To this, William Mercer replied, "Oh, no, the next thing to Winnifred is Campbell," and it was thereupon generally supported as the name. Some person had previously urged "Nashville" as a means of extending a tribute to Amasa Nash, but the influence of Campbell was too strong to be overcome. Pending the first township meeting, Amasa Nash, who was looking after the supervisorship, called on Joseph Whitney, who he found with William Mercer, building fences. "Friend Whitney," remarked Nash, "you are just the man for a justice of the peace, and I guess we'll have to put you in." "Well," replied Whitney, "I don't want to be either justice of the peace, or a holder of any other office." "That's a pity," was Nash's response, "for you ought to be willing to serve your town. Now, I'm not like you, for I do want an office; I want to be supervisor." William Mercer, then but a young man, assured Nash they would do all they could for him, but, unknown to Mercer himself, the townsfolk had decided to make him their supervisor, and, as will be seen, elected him. The first township meeting was directed to be held at the house of Marvil,Church, and was so held on the first Monday in April, I849. Amasa Nash was chosen moderator, Alexander H. Bushnell, clerk, and William Mercer and Marcus R. Nash, inspectors. It was voted that a bounty of four dollars should be paid for the killing of a wolf, that fifty dollars should be raised

Page  92 92 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. for highway purposes, seventy-five dollars for township expenses, and one dollar on each pupil for the support of the schools. The whole number of votes for township officers was fourteen, and the officers elected were as follow: Supervisor, William Mercer; clerk, A. H. Bushnell; treasurer, Amasa Nash; justices of the peace, Alvin Briggs, Amasa Nash and Jeremiah Campbell; school inspectors, William Mercer and Marcus R. Nash; highway commissioners, Joseph S. Whitney, Calvin Nash and Martin Campbell; overseers of the poor, Marvil Church and Joseph S. Whitney; constables, Thomas Q. Frost and Henry Briggs; overseer of highways, Edwin Nash. Campbell township lying in the southwestern corner of Ionia county, is township 5 north, of range 8 west. It is bounded by Boston township on the north, Barry county on the south, Odessa township on the east, and Kent county on the west. Campbell township comprises good farming country, although there are many mills and some swamps. There are several small streams, but no waterpower worthy the name. Morrison lake reaches over from Boston and takes up a portion of section 2. Peddler lake, in the western part of the township, is said to have taken its name from the circumstance of a peddler having been drowned therein at some time in the early days. The town boasts three postoffices and two hamlets, known respectively as Clarksville and Campbell. It has no railroad facilities within its borders, but finds market towns and railway stations within easy distances at Hastings, Lowell and Saranac. From I840 to 1847, Campbell township contained but one family of settlers, and they were for some years what are commonly known as "squatters." Previous to 1840 no white man had penetrated the present six miles square called Campbell for the purpose of making a settlement therein. One reason for the delay in opening up that portion of the country may have been because settlers preferred to keep near the river, which, in the absence of roads, was the only fairly convenient method of communication with the outer world; and another reason may have been found in the fact that Campbell was somewhat rought and swampy. At all events, it is certain that the township was not occupied to any extent until the adjacent river townships were pretty well dotted with inhabitants. The pioneers in Campbell's settlement appear to have been two brothers, Jeremiah and Martin Campbell, who came over from Ireland and set out late in I840 for Michigan, where they proposed to become husbandmen. Martin had a wife and family, but Jeremiah was a bachelor. Between them,

Page  93 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 93 they had fourteen head of cattle, a few pigs, and a comfortable sum of money, the larger share of the possessions belonging to Jeremiah. Driving their stock before them, they came presently to the Clinton trail, which they followed until, on Christmas day, they reached section 2 in township 5 north, of range 8 west, where, concluding to "squat," they came to-a permanent halt with their goods and chattels. They may have stopped there because they were tired, or they may have seen something about the lay of the land that, oft: desirable place of settlement. But the fact that they squattd upon the land and failed to make a purchase of it until some years afterward indicates that they chose the locality because of the distance from human habitations, as well as for the promise apparent that they were not likely to be disturbed very soon. As to the general circumstances of the coming of the Campbells, their settlement, and their experiences after they did settle, the historian can give but vague information at best, since there is now in the town not one of their descendants. Martin moved to California in the days of the gold-hunting era, and Jeremiah, after living in Campbell a bachelor's life all his days, died in I878, a very old man. The Campbells were by no means energetic pioneers, but were rather content to maintain an easy existence, satisfied to gain a meager living without worrying themselves to clear land or weary themselves with arduous labors. They lived in a shanty, raised a few swine, tilled the soil sufficiently to supply their own wants, and for the rest deferred the exercise of more emphatic industry until the country should become populated and furnished with better conveniences for transporting agricultural products. For seven years they lived an isolated existence, far from civilization, and probably not at all solicitous to be any nearer. The only road they had, besides the Clinton trail, was a straggling, rough path to Saranac, whither they went once in a while to buy such necessaries as were absolutely imperative. In 1847, or seven years after the advent of the Campbells, the town received its first healthful push forward in the way of pioneer development, for it was not until that year that it gained settlers who took hold with a will, as if they intended to do something towards conquering the forest wilds. Oliver Hess had come over from Boston in I846 and put up a shanty on section 8, but he did not stop long enough or do enough to be regarded as a permanent settler then. He came back in after years and moved to the place he first improved. The settlers of I847 were Amasa Nash and Marvil Church. Church was a carpenter and came from New York state to Boston township in 1839,

Page  94 94 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. to build for James Hutchinson the first frame house put up in Boston. He lived in Boston and other localities until May, I847, when he moved to section io in Campbell, where he had bought land. When he came to take possession, he found on section IO the body of a log house that had been put up by Amasa Nash, who was then gone for his family. Two weeks after Church had moved, Nash came back with his family and moved into the roofless, doorless and windowless cabin. As soon as Nash and Church got fairly domiciled they took measures for the construction of a decent road, that would let them out to some base of supplies. After the road matter was arranged, they turned towards the task of clearing the land. Mr. Nash, who had been pioneering in the state since i836, had the assistance of his four sons, Calvin, Marcus, Charles and Edwin, each of whom became himself a settler in a short time. Next in order after the Campbell, Nash and Church families, the settlement was increased during i847 by Joseph Whitney, with whom came William Mercer, his nephew. Mr. Mercer spent a year, i842 to i843, in Boston township, in the employ of James J. Hoag, at Waterville. In I843 he returned to New York state, and did not come to Michigan again until he accompanied Mr. Whitney to Campbell in i847. A. H. Bushnell, who came from Oakland county in i848 to section 2 in Campbell, found in the township the Campbells, Marvil Church, Amasa Nash, Alvin Briggs, Joseph Whitney and Mr. Nash's sons, Calvin, Marcus, Edwin and Charles. These settlers lived upon sections 2, 3, IO and I5. South of section I5 there had been no attempt at settlement, and no commencement in the township except upon the four sections named. In June, i8-53, Maxwell Ludlow and his son, Horace, located upon sections 20, and Mr. Fish found them there when he arrived. Upon section i8, Darius Freeman settled in October, i853. He came with his family by the way of Bowne, and on account of having to cut a road to his place from a point a half mile west of the county line, was a week in finishing the job, although liberally assisted by neighboring settlers. He was engaged six weeks in putting up a shanty. His family meanwhile stopped in Bowne, and when they did move into their cabin old blankets had to be hung in doors and windows, and it was surely a lonesome dreary and albtout half-finished human habitation. Freeman's nearest neighbor at the period of his settlement was Mathew Hammond, one mile and a half eastward. Directly north and south there was not an inhabitant in the town. The only road in his vicinity was the one he cut out to get to his land. There had been, a half-mile to the westward, a road running off toward Hastings, but at that time it was

Page  95 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 95 washed out and choked up, and consequently was impassable. They had a pretty hard and lonesome time and the wolves used to howl about their shanty at night until it seemed as if living in the woods, away from human beings surrounded by wild beasts, and compelled to work like beavers for the simplest necessaries of life, was too much for flesh and blood to endure. They stood it, however, and when affairs began to brighten and the country began to fill up they were prepared to appreciate the more pleasant condition of things. About the fall of 1854 the neighborhood grew more populous and saw the coming of W. G. Forman, followed by Leander Hooper, Mr. Hoover, D. C. Hooper, the Coons, Osborns, C. H. Curtiss, Edward Minard, Isaac Gibson and others. Mr. Freeman died in 1872, upon the first place he occupied. Over in the Fish neighborhood, the settlers in 1853 included Orrin Burleigh, in section 20, and, on Duck creek, Lyman Stillwell and Edward Hayes. In 1854, Nathan Todd came to section I6 for a settlement, and, finding no road leading to his place, made one as fast as he could. Over on the east township line, in section 24, John Ryder settled in I859 upon the place occupied by Wallace Lovewell, whose father ranked among the earliest settlers in Woodland, Barry county. In 1853, Stephen White, with his three sons, William H., Amasa and Sanford, made settlements upon sections I and 2. Leroy A. Scoville located in I854 upon land in section 3, first improved by Thomas Q. Frost. In the spring of I854, Alva McCormick moved to the place in section Io first settled by Marvil Church, who in that year made a change to section 5. In November, 1854, Elijah Trowbridge came to section 4 and, previous to Elijah's coming by a few months, his brother, Elisha, settled upon section 5, in which neighborhood also James Trowbridge, William Trowbridge, Jesse Drew and Jacob Baumgardner made settlements about the same time. The first school in Campbell township was taught by Sarah Platt, in a log building erected by the Nash brothers and occupying a site on -Marvil Church's land in section Io. The first child born in Campbell township was John, son of Martin Campbell, whose birth was in 1843. The first death was that of John Calvin Church, son of Marvil Church. He died in I85I and was buried upon his father's farm, whence his remains were subsequently removed to the Boston burying ground. The first mill was a saw-mill erected on Duck creek, on the site now known as Gifford's. The water-power never was of much value, and in dry seasons failed utterly. Campbell's first physician resident in the town was one Doctor Lyon,

Page  96 96 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. who came before I860 and departed after a brief residence. Nelson Wixon, living at Campbell postoffice, was an early settler in Boston, and in 1861 began to practice medicine in Campbell. In I868, Chauncey Townsend, living on the eastern township line, committed suicide to escape what he was pleased to term, "a world of care." Domestic trouble was supposed to be at the bottom of the affair. While at Saranac one day he bought a dose of poison, and en route towards his home swallowed the fatal draught. By the time he reached his residence he was dying, and breathed his last shortly after. The resident taxpayers in Campbell township in I849 were: Amasa Nash, section Io, 80 acres; Calvin Nash, section 10, I20 acres; Marcus R. Nash, section 15, 80 acres; Marvil Church, section, 80 acres; Jeremiah Campbell, section 3, 80 acres; Martin Campbell, section 2, 40 acres; A. H. Bushnell, section 2, 80 acres; C. M. Bushnell, section I I, 80 acres; Thomas Q. Frost, section 9, 40 acres; Henry Briggs, section 9, 40 acres; William Mercer, section I5, 8o acres; Joseph S. Whitney, section I5, I2o acres. At the general election of November 6, I849, the votes cast numbered nine, as follows: Amasa Nash, A. H. Bushnell, Jeremiah Campbell, William Mercer, Calvin Nash, Marcus R. Nash, Edwin Nash, Martin Campbell and Orson Hatch. At the general election in I850 the voters numbered sixteen. They were as follow: Alvin Briggs, Thomas Q. Frost, Calvin Nash, Edwin Nash, Charles Nash, Joseph S. Whitney, Jacob Brotherton, Judson Hilton, Morris J. Hammond, A. H. Bushnell, James G. Bushnell, Marvil Church, William Mercer, Jeremiah Campbell, Amasa Nash and Martin Campbell. In 1854 there were forty-two voters, whose names were: James Dakin. R. D. Hudson, Chauncey Townsend, Hiram Kirby, John Niles, James G. Bushnell, David Demera, Abram Ketcham, A. S. White, O. W. Stover, George W. Groves, M. J. Hammond, Seth Whitney, M. R. Nash, D. S. Curdy, Charles Darby, Stephen White, Henry Groves, Robert Church, John V. Coon, Marvil Church, Orson Hatch, Edwin Doty, Joseph S. Whitney, T. W. Noyes, Maxwell Ludlow, C. C. Vantassel, A. H. Bushnell, James F. Chambers, C. M. Bushnell, Alvin McCormick, Trumen Darby, Martin Campbell, Jeremiah Campbell, James Bushnell, Alvin Briggs, Hiram K. Noyes, N. K. Noyes, Jesse Drew, Amasa Nash, H. L. Brown and David Stover

Page  97 IONIA COUNTYj MICHIGAN. 97 SUPERVISORS. 1850-5I, William Mercer; I852, 0. Hatch; I853, W. Mercer; I854, M. Ludlow; I855, J. Dakin; I856, A. H. Bushnell; I857, C. C. Vantassel; I8,58, A. A. Merrill; I859, M. T. Merrill; I860, H. R. Brown; I86I, E. D. Jenmings; I862, J. Sinclair; 1863-64, E. H. Whitney; I865-66, W. Scott; I867, N. Wixon; I868-69, J. B. Post; I870-72, E. H. Whitney; I873-74, L. P. Townsend; I875-76, J. M. Lawson; I877, J. B. Post; I878, C. Sullivan; I879, C. L. Howard; I881-85, John Mick; I886-87, Christian Walters; I888, John Mick; I889, Thomas Parks; I890, John Mick; I891-93, Thomas Sparks; 1894-95-96, John Mick; i897, Isaiah Long, to the present time. CLARKSVILLE. In I875, C. L. Howard built a store at the corners between sections 3 and Io, where there was already a wagon shop, grange hall, etc., and, without delay, secured a postoffice for the place, and was christened "Clarksville" after Howard's christian name of Clark. Mr. Howard was store-keeper and postmaster at Clarksville, which contained also a second store, owned by Otis S. Richards. There were also two physicians in that locality and in the second story of Mr. Howard's store building a Wesleyan Methodist class met regularly once in two weeks for public worship. There was a daily mail to and from Clarksville postoffice, which lay on the route between Hastings and Lowell. It was in the neighborhood of Clarksville that the Campbells located in I840, and near there also the Nash and Church families settled seven years later. (7)

Page  98 CHAPTER VI. DANBY TOWNSHIP On May I9, 1845, township 5 north, in range 5 west, was detached from Portland and organized by Danby township. The name was bestowed by Charles G. Brooks in remembrance of Connecticut, whence he came. There was a desire to christen the township Brookstown, but there being another place in the state of that name, the idea was abandoned. The first township meeting was held at the house of Chancellor Barringer on the 7th of April, 1845. Abijah F. Scoff; Willard L. Brooks, William Cronkrite and Lorenzo Sears were chosen inspectors, and John Compton, clerk. Twenty-six votes were cast, and the following officials chosen: Treasurer, Charles G. Brooks; justices of the peace, Mathew Davenport, William Cronkrite, Henry Jones and Lorenzo Sears; highway commissioners, Oscar P. Schoff, Elkanah Drake; school inspectors, William Cronkrite and Oscar P. Schoff; overseers of the poor, Alpha David, W. L. Brooks; constables, Elkanah Drake, Alpha David; assistant assessor, Willard L. Brooks; overseers of highways, George S. David, John D. Brown, Willard L. Brooks, Alpha David, John Newsome, Mathew Davenport and George A. Kilburn. Danby is bounded on the east by Clinton county, on the south by Eaton county, on the west by Sebewa township and on the north by Portland township., The Grand river meanders through this township in very eccentric course. It divides the township into two nearly equal parts and touches seventeen of the thirty-six sections in the township, as follow: 24, 25, 26, 23, 27, 22, 15, i6, 2I, 28, 20, 17, i8, 8, 9, 4 and 5. The Looking Glass river cuts across the northeast corner, and Sebewa creek runs through sections 30 and 31, to re-enter on section 19 and empty into the Grand river. Thus the township has an abundance of water and these streams afford excellent facilities not only for mill power, hut also provide excellent means of drainage for the farms. The first settler in Datinby township was probably Chancellor Barringer, who is said to have located as early as 1835 in section 5, upon a piece of land owned by A. S. Wadsworth. In 1836 Asher Kilburn located in the bend of the Grand river on sec

Page  99 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 99 tion 8, and worked a piece of land belonging to a Mr. Jones, of Detroit, In the same year the first settlement was made on the south side of the Grand river by William and John Cronkrite, who made purchases of considerable land along the river and in the summer of 1836 put up a cabin on section 21. In the fall the brothers Cronkrite returned eastward, and in the spring of 1837 William came back to Danby with his family for a permanent settlement. while John, his brother, concluding that he did not want to become a Michigan pioneer after all, went to. Texas, where he was killed. With William Cronkrite, besides his own family, came Chester Gleason, whom he brought as a farm-hand, with his family, and John Compton, Cronkrite's brother-in-law. Gleason became afterwards a settler himself, but in Portland township. Compton was out on a land-looking expedition and, while making a selection, lived in a rude shanty of Gleason's. Compton selected land on section 33 and hired Benjamin Silsbee to convey his family and goods to Michigan. Daniel Hull, Compton's father-in-law, came with him and brought a bushel of apple seeds, which he planted and produced the first orchard in the township. Compton claims to have built the first frame barn in the township in I839. Mr. Compton grew to be a man of considerable consequence in the settlement, and, besides being the moving spirit in the pioneer religious organization, the first postmaster and a preacher and teacher among the Indians in Danby, was recognized among the whites as possessing considerable medical skill. During the fever and ague seasons he was besieged by night and by day with calls for medical help. In the spring of 1837 the northern portion of the township received also further additions to its settlement in the families of Charles G. and Willard L. Brooks, who settled on section 3. Isaiah G. Frost came to the town with his family on the I4th of July, 1837, and located a home on section I. Mr. Frost found in that part of the township Abijah Schoff on section I, Willard and Charles G. Brooks on section 3, and Asher Kilburn on section 8. Schoff came in 1837, the place he occupied later including the farm of R. G. Abbey, on the southeast quarter of section i. Among Mr. Schoff's farm hands was A. C. Davis, a farmer on section 3, and one of the early comers to Portland, where he took a hand in the pioneer saw-mill business. In the Frost neighborhood the early settlers included Horace Peake and his brother, Chester Davenport, John Storm, A. J. Potter and the Barnards. For about ten years after the arrival of Mr. Frost there were but few addi

Page  100 I00 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. tions to the settlement where he lived, except from I844 to 1848, when he was county treasurer. Among the early settlers south of the river were John D. Brown, Nathan H. Wyman, James D. Norris, Elias Bailey, Benjamin Horner, Joshua Bailey, James Burns, J. R. David, P. R. Comfort, E. O. Miner, H. H. Allman, Loren Sears, Patrick Murtaugh and Isaac DeWitt. Caleb Fulkerson, who came with John Compton as a farm hand in 1837, settled in a little while on section 32. Portland was the milling place for all of Danby's early settlers. Those living in the north were especially fortunate in being able to get to mill without much trouble and, what made matters more agreeable in that direction, Willard Brooks and A. F. Bell laid a road about 1838 from Portland up by the Brooks settlement. The first birth in Danby was that of Jane E., daughter of John Compton. She was born on April 30, 1838, and lived later in Eaton county. The second birth was that of Charles Brooks, August 28, 1838. It is alleged by some that the first death was that of the wife of Abijah Schoff, who died some time in 1838 and was buried on her husband's farm on section I. It is, however, strongly probable that the first death was that of Martha, laughter of William Cronkrite. She was five years old and was burned to death in a flaming brush heap. William Cummings was the first man buried who was lowered into the grave by means of a halter. The first postoffice established in Danby township was Danby postoffice, in I844. John Compton was appointed the first postmaster and remained in charge for about twenty years thereafter, except for the space of two years, when John T. Cahoon was the incumbent. Among Compton's other successors were Redding Sargent, J. R. David, John Hovey and Samuel F. David. When the whites began to settle on the south side of the river in Danby they found on the river, in section 22, an Indian village of a hundred and fifty Ottawas and Chippewas. These Indians seemed to have chosen the place as a permanent habitation, or at all events as a locality where they remained steadily for some months each year. The Indians cultivated quite a patch of land on the river side in section 22 and got along until about i846, when Manasseh Hickey, a Methodist missionary, ventured among them in the hope that he might do something towards converting them to Christianity. He returned, leaving with them the interpreters he brought with him. They empowered Hickey to buy land

Page  101 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. IOI for them, and he made at once a purchase, of Mr. Fitch, of Portland, of one hundred and eight acres in the bend of the river in section 21. The village took the name of Mishshiminecon, in remembrance of the old village on section 22. Shortly after locating in their new village, Hickey obtained some financial assistance from a benevolent lady in New York for the purpose of erecting a mission house. The house was divided into two apart-. ments, one f6r school and church services, and the other the residence of the teacher. The Indians remained in Mishshiminecon and prospered until about 1856, when, under act of Congress, they were removed, along with other bands, to the reservations of northern Michigan. The resident taxpayers of Danby in I845 were: William L. Brooks. section 3, I60 acres; Charles G. Brooks, sections 2, 3, I60 acres; John B. Brown, section 32, 80 acres; Chancellor Barringer, section 22, 97 acres; Elias Bailey, section 25, 80 acres; Henry Cummings, section 35, IOO acres; William Conkrite, section 28; 200 acres; John Compton, sections 33, 34, 240 acres; George S. David, section 35, 60 acres; Alpha David, section 28, 80 acres; Elkanah Drake, section 30, 40 acres; Mathew Davenport, section II, 320 acres; George Davenport, section 12, I20 acres; Chester Davenport, section 12, 120 acres; John Evens, Personal, Reuben Hopkins, section 6, 40 acres; Benjamin Horner, section 26, I6o acres; James N. Abrey, section 6, 80 acres; Henry Jones, section 31, 40 acres; Asher Kilburn, sections 8, 9, 17, 936 acres; Erastus P. Miner, section 29, 80 acres; James Nicholson, sections I, 12, e9, 360 acres; A. F. Schoff, sections I, 12, 240 acres; Lorenzo Sears, sections 30, 31, 200 acres; Charles Sutherland, section 12, 8o acres; Nathan Wyman, section 30, 80 acres; James Burns, section 29, 40 acre. Danby has only had one village within its limits. This was known as Cornell and was laid out in section 19 by Pierce G. Cook, an agent for Elizabeth Cornell, of New Jersey. It was platted. April. II, 1867, and contained ninety-six lots. Although Cornell village never attained any size itself and soon ceased to exist as an individual town, it gave rise in a short time to the creation of the village of Sebewa in the township of the same name. Sebewa has alsd been platted in Danby township. SUPERVISORS. I846, no record; I847, William Cronkrite; 1848, no record; 1849-57, William Cronkrite; I858-6o, J. C. Smith; I86I, M. Baker; 1862-64, J. C. Smith; i865, D. Taylor; I866, T. Pryer; 1867, J. Storm; 1868-69, C. W.

Page  102 102 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Ingalls; i870-7I, WV. T. Triphagen; 1872, J. K. Barnard; I873-75, W. Hixson; i876, J. L. Fishell; 1877, G. WV. Peake; i878-80, WV. Hixson; i88i, J. Warren Peake; I882-84, Roland G. Abbey; J885, Thomas Boughner; 1886-87-88, Fred WV. Erdman; f889-90-gI, George Culver; 1892-93-94-95, Thomas J. Boughner; i896, Roland G. Abbey; 1897-98, William H. Pryor; 1899, R. G. Abbey; 1900, William H. Pryor; 1901-02-03-04-05, D. G. Guilford; 9go6-07-09-10-I-I-2-13, C. WV. Peake.

Page  103 CHAPTER VII. EASTON TOWNSHIP. All of that portion of township 7 north, in range 7 west, lying north of the Grand river, was detached from the township of lonia by legislative act approved March 9, I843, and organized as a township named Easton. The first meeting therein was ordered to be held at the house of Joseph Richardson, and on the 3rd of April the electors met and chose Erastus Yeomans, moderator; Daniel S. Brownell, Stephen Dexter, Isaac Finch and Malcolm McLaughlin, inspectors, and B. F. Pew, clerk. On motion, Thomas Cornell was chosen clerk of the proceedings of this meeting. Twenty-eight votes appear to have been cast at this first election for town officers, and as there was but one ticket in the field, there was probably no difficulty in ascertaining the will of the majority. The persons chosen as officials were as follow: Supervisor, Thomas Cornell; clerk. Sanford A. Yeomans; treasurer, Erastus Yeomans; justices of the peace, Malcolm McLaughlin, Thomas Cornell, David S. Brownell, William Fleming; school inspectors, Erastus Yeomans, George Fleming; commissioners or highways, Granville Madison, Calvin M. Rice, Ben. G. Barber; constables, Joseph H. Richardson, Thomas H. Conner; pathmasters, Daniel S. Brownell in district No. I, Thomas H. Conner in the district that Stephen Dexter served the previous year, and Joseph H. Richardson in the district that William Dumper served the previous year. Some of the officials chosen above failed to qualify and on June 15, I833, a special election was held, at which Daniel S. Brownell, George W. Dexter and Malcomb McLaughlin were chosen justices of the peace; Sereno Rood, commissioner of highways, and Thomas H. Conner, constable. Soon after the settlement of Ionia by the Dexter colony, Easton township received a handful of pioneers. These were the Cornells, who, on November 9, I893, landed in the Dexter colony, upon section 24, in Easton. In the Cornell family were Alfred- Cornell, Sr., his wife, Thomas Cornell (a son), with wife and two.children, and two grown sons, Alfred, Jr., and Daniel A. Thomas Cornell, living in Madison county, New York, had decided to accompany the Dexter colony, but remained until the following

Page  104 104 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. spring. Alfred Cornell, Sr., and his son, Thomas, went out to Ionia in July, 1833, on a tour, but were not impressed with the land and returned to New York in the fall. But in November they again set out for the Dexter settlement. Erastus Yeomans, who had come in May, 1833, had some knowledge of surveying and, after the colony got settled, Mr. Yeomans was importuned to get a compass and run roads for the people. He sold to Mr. Cornell, who became surveyor and made his first practical effort in 1836. Following close upon the Cornells, came George W. Case in the winter of 1833-34, who made the second settlement in Easton. Case effected a location upon the bank of the Grand river, in section 26. His brother, Horace, a cooper and a bachelor, came in the summer of 1835 and'built a cooper's shop. In February, 1834, Jared Conner and Thomas Harrison Conner, brothers, came to Ionia, accompanied by James Crawford. The Conners bought the Case place on section 26 in Easton and joined the small army of settlers. James Crawford, who came with the Conners, stopped in Ionia awhile, ferried across the Grand river and in 1840 settled upon section i8. George W. set out the first fruit trees planted in that part of the Grand River valley. In the spring of 1835 William Winslow entered lonia, and in 1836 settled on section I4. In 1837 he was joined by his father, Ezra, who settled upon the same section, and died in 1842. In 1836 the settlement received numerous accessions. Richard Dye and Simon Welch were among the comers that year. They located on section 19, whence Dye soon removed to Ionia. It was on Mill creek that Samuel Dexter built a saw-mill in 1833, and to it added a small run of stone in 1834. The first saw-mill was a great boon, but the grist-mill was a greater one. A coffee-mill at Dexter's house had, however, been the grist-mill for the Dexter colony previously. Among those who came to the town in 1836 were also Elisha Doty, Dexter Arnold, B. G. Barber, Calvin M. Rice and Chauncey M. Stebbins. Richard M. Bishop, who came in 1841, lived on section 8, and miet his death in 1857, when he was taken for a deer by a hunter and accidentally shot. In i837 the settlement was augmented by the coming of William Musselman, Joseph Barker, William Kitson and George W. Dexter. Mr. Musselman tried to make his home on section 7, near the township' line, buit his attempt was a lamentable failure. George W. Dexter had a family of eight children and located on sec

Page  105 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Io5 tion 20. He died in the township in 1848. Within the short period of three years he lost six children by death, two of them being drowned. George W. Dexter's brother, Stephen, settled upon section 20 in September, 1838. About that same time William Fleming came, with whose family, as a boy, lived William Currie. Isaac Finch appeared in the autumn of 1839, and upon section 28 made a vigorous commencement. He succeeded in acquiring a handsome property and abided on the place of his first settlement until his death, thirty-five years afterwards, at the ripe age of eighty-two. In I84I Granville Madison came to Ionia county, he settling in Easton, on section 7. Among his neighbors were Malcom and Joseph McLaughlin, the latter being a blacksmith, on sections 17 and 18, where they had Deen since I839, and on section 17 also John Delancy. Subsequent settlers in the neighborhood were James Bradford, George W. Guernsey, S. T. Snell, Shiverick Kellogg, Charles Kellogg, his father, George Corking, J. G. Bush and a Mr. Shute. In I843 William Dildine and his brother-in-law, Charles W. Reynolds, came to section io. They were from Elmira, New York, and occupied thirteen days in completing the journey to Easton township. Dilding bought his place of Erastus Yeomans, who had effected a clearing of a few acres thereon. The year of the arrival of the Dildings a school was established near them in the just-formed district No. 3, and in the shanty that served as the temple of learning Betsy Webster was the first teacher; Margaret Foote, the second, and Mrs. Dildine the third. In 184I Sanford A. Yeomans settled in this township. He had previously been associated with the Dexter settlement in Ionia township. Among other early settlers in that part of the town were the Halls, Jacksons, Holcombs, McPhersons, Marquettes and Haynors. Easton's first postoffice was called Avon and was located at the home of Silas Sprague. The office was discontinued after a time and home mail accommodations were not restored there after until I86I, when Easton postoffice was established and William Dildine given charge. In T866 Mr. Dildine was succeeded by A. C. Sprague, who was, in turn, succeeded by George Corkins, the last incumbent. The office was discontinued in 1872. SUPERVISORS. I844, George W. Dexter; 1845, Thomas Cornell; 1.846, D. S. Brownell; 1847, E. Yeomans; 1848, J. York; 1849, A. V. Berry; I850, J. York; I85I, D. S. Brownell; 1852, S. Kellogg; I853-54, A. Cornell, Jr.; I855, S. Kel

Page  106 io6 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. logg; 1856, C. 0. Thompson; i857-60, S. Kellogg; 186i, A. Cornell; 1862, S. Sprague; 1863, S. Kellogg; 1864-65, S. M. Stebbins; 1866-69, L. H. Colton; 1870-75, W. D. Arnold; 1876-77, 0. 5. Cook; 1878, A. C. Smith; 1879, 0. S. Cook; 1880-83, Thomas Thomas; 188&-87, Emory F. Strong; i888-89-90, James B. Drake; 189 1-92-93-94-95-96, Steven T. Minard; 1897 -98-99-9goo-oi, Thomas Thomas; 1902-03-04, Walter Yeomans; 1905-o6 -07-08-og, Eugene L. Vohlers; 19IO-II-12-13, Ervin C. Stebbins; 19 14-16, Bert Arnold.

Page  107 CHAPTER VIII. IONIA TOWNSHIP. lonia township's political existence dates from I835, when the entire county, as lonia township, was attached to Kalamazoo county for judicial purposes. The county was organized in I837 and on March ii, of that year, was divided into two townships, Ionia and Maple. Ionia township embraced all that portion of the county of Ionia lying west of the sectional lines running north and south through the center of townships 5, 6, 7 and 8 north, of range 6 west. The first election under the organization was ordered to be held at the house of Samuel Dexter. On December o30, I837, townships 5 and 6 north, range 8 west, were detached from lonia and organized as Boston. On March 6, I838, townships 7 and 8 north, range 8 west, were set off and organized as Otisco. At the same time townships 5 and 6 north, range 7 west, the west halves of townships 5 and 6 north, range 6 west, and all of the west halves of township, 7 north, range 6 west, and township 7 north, range 7 west, lying south of the Grand river, were organized as the township of Cass. On March 25, I840, the township of Orleans was formed of township 8 north, range 7 west. On March 9, 184-3, all of township 7 north, range 7 west, lying north of the Grand river, was organized as Easton. On March 19, I845, the township of Ronald was organized and took in the west half of township 8 north, range 6 west. On March 22, 1848, sections 22, 27 and 34, in township 7 north, range 6 west, and also so much of that township as lay north of the center of the Grand river, then belonging to the township of Lyons, was attached to the township of Ionia, as was so much of township 7 north, range 6 west, as was then attached to Berlin. On March 13, I867, so much of the territory of township 7 north, range 6 west, as was then a portion of Lyons, was set off to Ionia. The result of these additions and subtractions left to Ionia the territory of six square miles. The first township meeting and election is thus recorded: "Record of the township of Ionia, of Kalamazoo County, M. T. At the first township meeting of the towh and county, as above mentioned held at the house of Antoine Campau & Co., on Monday the 6th day of April in

Page  108 io8 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. the Year of our Lord 1835, Mr. Alfred Cornell was chosen moderator and W. B. Lincoln, clerk. After the moderator and clerk were sworn by Samuel Dexter, Esquire, the electors present proceeded to the election of township officers by ballot, which were elected as follows: For Supervisor, Erastus Yeomans; for township clerk, W. B. Lincoln; for assessors, Franklin Chubb, Gilbert Caswell, Henry W. Libhard; for commissioners of highways, Philo Bogue, J. E. Morrison; Nathan Benjamin; directors of the poor, Samuel Dexter, John McKelvey; constable and collector, Asa Spencer; constable. Daniel McKelvey. "A division of the electors being called for, it was decided that the next township meeting or that of I836, should be held at the house later occupied by A. Campau & Co., in the said township of Ionia and county of Kalamazoo, M. T." A special township meeting was held, May 12, 1835, at the house of A. Campau & Company, on the application of twelve electors, for the purpose of electing commissioners and inspectors of common schools. Alfred Cornell, George Case and John McKelvey were chosen school commissioners; William D. Moore, Alfred Cornell, Jr., Erastus Yeomans, Nathaniel Soules and William B. Lincoln, inspectors of common schools. At the second meeting, April 4, I836, Joshua Boyer was chosen moderator. Officials were elected as follow: Supervisor, J. C. Abell; clerk, J. E. Morrison; assessors, Joshua Boyer, Asa Bunnell and Erastus Yeomans; highway commissioners, Franklin Chubb, Lyman Webster and Daniel C. Moore; justices of the peace, Joshua Boyer, William D. Moore, Samuel Dexter and Thomas Cornell; constable and collector, Nathaniel Soules; constables, Warren S. Bogue and Lorenzo Dexter; overseers of the poor, Samuel Dexter and John McKelvey. It was voted, by the unlifted hand, to raise one hundred dollars for the support of the poor and, by the uplifted hand, the following officers were chosen: School inspectors, W. B. Lincoln, Joshua Boyer, Erastus Yeomans, Asa Bunnell and Thomas Shepard; pathmasters, district No. I, Asa Spencer; district No. 2, Chancellor Barringer; district No. 3, Philo Bogue; district No. 4, Daniel Brown; district No. 5, I. Thompson; district No. 6, Nathan Benjamin. Upon the organization of Kent county, in 1836, Ionia county was attached thereto as a township. In 1837 Ionia county was given a separate political organization and divided into two townships. The first township meeting of Ionia under the new organization was held at the house of Sam

Page  109 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Io9 uel Dexter, April 3, I837. Cyrus Lovell was chosen moderator, and Samuel Dexter, Thomas Cornell and John E. Morrison, inspectors of election. After organizing, the electors adjourned to the school house in Ionia village. Mason Hearsey, Cyrus Lovell, A. H. Barney and Calvin Rice were elected school inspectors by the uplifted hand; Samuel Dexter and Alonzo Sessions, overseers of the.highways for districts No. I and 7, respectively, by viva voce vote, and, similarly, Warren- S. Boyge, Gilbert Caswell and Samuel Dexter were chosen fence viewers. Officials were chosen by ballot as follow: Supervisor, Cyrus Lovell; clerk, Erastus Yeomans; justices of the peace, Philo Bates, W. S. Bogue and John Lloyd; school commissioners, Stephen Dexter and A. IH. Barney; directors of the poor, Erastus Yeomans and William Babcock; assessors, Mason Hearsey, Lawson S. Warner and Alonzo Sessions; collector, John B. Welch; constables, John B. Welch, Amos B. Bliss and James B. Ryan. GENEREAUXVILLE. As early, perhaps, as 1830, or before, Louis Genereaux, assisted by his son, Iouis, Jr., established an Indian trading post in Ionia township, on the Grand river, about one mile west of the present village of Lyons. The place was commonly spoken of as Genereauxville, and was well known far and near. Louis, the son, got himself into the state prison through roasting an Indian to death, and left the old man to carry on the business, which did not, however, last very long after that. There was a bridge over the Grand river at Genereauxville at an early day, as a connecting link on the stage route between Detroit and Ionia via Lansing, and an attempt was likewise made by the Campaus (who came into possession after the departure of the Genereaux), who found there the village of Genereauxville, but the scheme came to nothing. EARLY SETTLEMENT —PIONEER SAW-MILL. It is pretty certain that'the first saw-mill built in the county was the one erected by H. V. Libhart, on Libhart creek, about two miles west of Lyons village, in 1833. Mr. Libhart visited the, country in the spring of 1833, in company with William and Russell Libhart and William Delap, and selected the mill site, besides 'a -considerable tract of land in the same vicinity. He returned at once to New York state and, shipping appliances for the erection of a mill, started with his wife and child for the scene of his

Page  110 IIO IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. future operations. At Detroit he hired seven teams to carry his supplies westward, and accompanying them as far as where Leingsburg is now, where he left the party and, with his wife and child, pushed on through the woods for the mouth of the Maple. following Indian trails and fording streams. They reached the present site of the village of Lyons at sunset on the 4th of July, 1833, and so exhausted was Mrs. Libhart by the toils of her trip that she had to be carriedl across the river by Indians to the trading post of Hunt & Belcher. The arrival of the Libharts was attended by demonstrations of eager welcome on the part of the Indians there, as well as of Hunt and Belcher. Libhart and his wife enjoyed the hospitality of Hunt's cabin a few days while awaiting the coming of the teams, and when these reached the place, after a tedious twenty days' passage from Detroit, all hands moved out to the mill site. The first work was the construction of a log cabin, and the second, the building of a saw-mill. History appears to have insisted that Libhart was the first settler in Ly'ons, when the fact is that he did not locate in Lyons until Lyons had received a score or more of inhabitants. He carried on the saw-mill until 1837, when he sold the property to Judge Isaac Thompson and removed to Lyons village. Mr. Libhart was a man of considerable local importaince, and enjoyed the distinction of having dlelivered one of the first Independence Day orations heard west of P-'ontiac. The year was I834, and the locale of the pioneer Fourth of July demonstration, the hill on which later stood the residence of Henry Hitchcock, of Lyons. The infant child brought by Mr. and Mrs. Libhart to the Michigan wilderness in 1833 lived to womanhood, and became Mrs. E. B. Armstrong, of Saranac. The first birth in what is now the township of Tonia, outside of the city of Ionia, was a son of Mr. Libhart, and, as the child lived but a few days, his was also the first death. John McKelvey came from Oakland county, Michigan, in May, 1834, and located on Lihhart creek, in section 24, where he had a tract of three hundred acres, in which was the mill site now occupied by a grist-mill. Libhart was then carrying on a saw-mill on the same creek, but westward to Tonia village there was no settler. A Mr. Soules, who came in with McKelvey as a farm hand, bought a place a mile west of McKelvey's in 1835, and that year began to clear it. He cleared two farms in lonia in the course of time and removed subsequently to Oregon, where he died. John McKelvey died on his farm in section 24 in 1847. The mill site he himself did not improve, but sol(1 it to,\aron Pratt, who erected a grist-mill there in 1844.

Page  111 IONIA COUNTY,~ MICHIGAN.II I I I James, son of John M\ctl~elvey, was born on Junie 28, 185'oubtless the first birth in the township outside the village of Ioni a, except Mlrs. Libhiart's child. In 1835 W~illiamn Moore, Jr., son of Willhai M'\oore, of MN/oore's Island. in Lyons towvnship,, lived in Ionia, one mile west of Lyons -village, b)ut movedl from there in 1837 to P~ortland. WVilliami Moore, Jr., was a justice of the peace, and married several couples at his house, including the first couple m-rarried in the township b~eyond the limits of the village; but who the couple were cannot Ibe remembered. Gad Buinell came to Ionia township with Libhart, but in 1835 settled in Lyons township. Eliza lBunnell, a sister, came to the settlement in January, 1836. Cynthia, a second sister, was a school teacher, and in 1835 or 1836 taught school in John M'vcKelvey's house. John McKelvey put in a crop) of wheat Iin I835, andl when he harvested it people camie from far and near to get seed wheat of himl. In the 'McKelvey neighborhood settlements were slow, and for some ycars that part of the town, rough and unT'inviting, was an,almost trackless f orest. S1 UlE RV1I5O0R S. 1838, Asa Spniecer; 1839, C. L-ovell; 1840, E. Yeomians; 1841, G. W. iDexter; 1842, M. Hearsev; 1843-44, H. Rich; 1845, M. Hearsey; 1846, J. P). P~lace; I847-48, C. M. M~osemani; 1840, A. F. Bell; 1850, B. Harter; i85I, W. C. Clark; 185~2, J. B. Welch; 1853, H. Borden; 1854, C. Lovell; 1855, D. [rish; i8,56, T. Merritt; 1857-58, F. Hall; 1859-60, J. C. Dexter; i86i, L. Kelsey; 1862, 0. Tower; i863-64, W/illiam Kitts; i865-6E.S Johnson; i867, P). D. Cutler; i868, 13. R. Covert; 18S69, E. S. Johnson; 18 70-72, R. R. Covert; 1873, F. P. Kelsey; 1874, T. F. Smith; 1875-76, William Kitts; 187 7-78, Tr. F,. Smith; 187q, J. B. Welch; 1 88o, William Kitts; 88,Gog Wrsr;88-83, Alonzo Rice; 1884-85, William D. Place; i886-87-88, Arthur 'N. Hall; 1889-90, Alb~ert F. Jackson; I891-92, 93-94-95, Frank Taft; T1896-97-98-99-1900-01-02, james M. Chase; 1903, Lee P. Spaulding; T1904-05-06-07, Dick K. Taylor; i908-09-io-1I1-12-13, A. N. Hall; 1914, E. Vohlers; 1915-i6. PRAIRIE CREEK. The neighborhood known as Prairie Creek, ly-ing on the stream of the same name, was purchased in 1835 by Nathaniel Brown, whose idea was

Page  112 I 12 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. that the water power at that point would found a village. Indeed, he went so far as to say that his town at Prairie Creek would outstrip Dexter's village, farther west, and that he would have the county seat fixed there. At all events, he platted a village, which he called Ionia, set about the construction of a saw-mill, and hired J. C. Abell, a Grand Rapids lawyer, to look after affairs, Brown himself not remaining permanently on the ground. Abell got tired after a while of looking after village lots and a saw-mill and notified Brown to get somebody else. Brown was in Chicago, and some time in 1836 encountered John P. Place, who was then looking for a chance to invest in Michigan and grow up with the country. Place purchased a half interest in Brown's Michigan village, and left at once to take charge of the enterprise. When Place reached the scene of operations he found that Abell had.got the saw-mill frame up and was living in a log house. As soon as Place appeared, Abell put off and took no further part in local history. Place went on to finish the mill, and engaged a tailor by the name of Perry to occupy the log house and board the saw-mill hands. In the fall of I836 the mill was finished and began to saw lumber, and in that year,Place built a store (the first in the township) and stocked it with goods brought up the river, from Grand Haven by pole boats. Inhabitants were scarce and trade was chiefly bestowed upon Place's store by Indians. Although Brown and Place sold a few village lots, settlers fought shy of the place. A man by the name of Bogue, whose wife had received from Brown the gift of a lot, built a log shanty on the village site and lived in it a little while, but beyond that faint indication of progress the new town never gave any vigorous signs. By the close of the year I837 Place made up his mind that the village enterprise was a failure and, selling the stock of goods to Judge Brown, of "Ionia County Seat," closed his store, which was the first and only temple of trade vouchsafed to Nathaniel Brown's embryo city. By that time Bogue and Perry had moved away, and William Lyon was boarding Place and the mill people. Place eventually purchased Brown's interest in the land and devoted himself to farming and milling. He was a man of some mark and occupied the office of sheriff with considerable credit. After a few years the saw-mill was burned and from that time forward Place confined himself to farming. He died in I869. The nearest approach the village ever made to having a tavern was when the Perrys built a large framed house in which they proposed keeping

Page  113 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. II3 tavern; but the undertaking was too much for them, and financial collapse precipitated their departure for other scenes. After the burning of Place's mill, the mill site was not occupied until Blanchard & Beatty built upon it, in I86I, the fine grist-mill carried on by Hoag & Mansfield. In 1872 Laura Place platted Prairie Creek as an addition to the village of Ionia, but it did not reach a very wide-spreading dignity. William D. Place, son of John P. Place, managed the old farm and carried on a large dairy business, the place being stocked with forty cows. SOUTH IONIA. Opposite the city of Ionia, on the south side of the Grand river, there is a small hamlet which G. W. Arnold surveyed and mapped in 1876 and designated as South Ionia. In that locality Oliver Arnold (a comer to Ionia with Samuel Dexter and others in 1833) set up the first blacksmith shop in the county the same year, and there he worked as a blacksmith more or less regularly until his death, in 1856. The Arnolds occupied the place until his death, and then G. W. Arnold carried on an agricultural implement factory there. Near at hand E. A. Chubb had a foundry that Jenks & Arnold started in I866. South of the river, along the western line, no settlers followed Oliver Arnold, the blacksmith, until March, 1836, when Philo Bates and William Babcock came on with laborers to commence the improvement of a large tract of land they had purchased in I835. This tract, which Bates and Babcock bought in common, comprised fully four thousand acres, and lay in the townships of Ionia, Berlin and Orange. When they came, in March, I836, they brought the families of Moses Marsh and Benjamin Brand to assist them, and by the fall of 1836 Bates and Babcock, having got up their cabins and made a fair start, brought out their own families. Moses Marsh became a settler in Ionia, and Benjamin Brand in Orange. In 1836 the state road, called the Bellevue road, extending from Marshall to Ionia, was opened along the township line between Berlin and Ionia, and it was on both sides of that road that Bates' and Babcock's lands lay. Philo Bates, who was son-in-law to Babcock, died at an early day, and in 1840 his widow's later husband, G. C. Overhiser, came to the neighborhood. Mr. Overhiser located in Ionia village in 1839, and from that period for many years onward he rendered valuable and untiring service as a Pres(8) 9

Page  114 114 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. byterian preacher. He traveled to many points and preached in many places, as circumstances arose to call for his efforts. Previous to making his home in Ionia he had passed through a somewhat extended experience as a licentiate preacher of the Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. and Mrs. Overhiser later went to live with A. H. Tibbetts (their son-in-law), on section 30. E. LeValley was a settler in that neighborhood in 1838, on the J. Benedict place, and in the month of January, of that year, Levi Taylor moved from eastern Michigan to section 3I, where his son, W. B., later lived. In the northeast quarter of the township there were but few settlements as early as 1846. In the fall of that year Darius Stone, his brother, John R. Stone, and brother-in-law, Daniel R. Calkins, brought their families in (having bought their lands in June of that year) and began to improve the wilderness. Darius Stone had 'three lots on section 11 and one on section 13, Calkins, land on section 2, and John R. Stone, on section I. In June, 1846, a man by the name of Dalrymple was working a place on section 13 for Samuel Hayden, who was then living in Lyons, but who soon afterwards came out himself to occupy his land. On section I, in the extreme northeastern corner of the township, Gardner Chidester was keeping tavern on the township line road between Ionia and Lyons. tle had a hundred acres of cleared land and, what was something out of the common, a framed house and two framed barns. On the Chidester place Perry Spaulding, a later occupant, hung himself in his barn in 1876 because of financial reverses. Major Olmstead, of North Plains, owned on section I a lot then occupied by one Mabie as tenant, and on section 12, where lived later, there was a settler named Buskirk. On section 4 a Mr. Anderson had a grist-mill on Prairie creek, in section 9, about a mile below Anderson's. Both these mills were burned, Going's in I863 and Anderson's in I878, when the property was owned lby J. 13. Welch, himself a settler in that neighborhood before T846, having married the widow of Mr. Roberts, who came to that locality not far from i840. Moving northward again, we find that Nathan Chidester was on section I in I846. In 1848 he sold out to L. F. Burdick and moved away. Thomas McKenzie and Henry Searing, his brother-in-law, had farms on section 2, but vacated them in the spring of 1847. William Kitts, then living on section 12, had been an active figure in the butsiness of AIichigoan pioneering and as far back as I837 or earlier assisted in making surveys in various portions of the county. Timothy Vorce came to the neighborhood in I849, and about that time also came J. B. Chase, W. Wi. Weed, C. G. Wheelock, N. G. Cornell and others.

Page  115 CHAPTER IX. KEENE TOWNSHIP. Township 7 north, in range 8 west, was a part of Otisco until February I6, 1842, when that portion of the town lyi'ng on the east side of the Flat river was organized as the township of Keene. Subsequently the fraction was attached to Keene. On February 29, I844, that portion of Boston lying north of the Grand river was set off to Keene, and on March 17, I849, was again restored to Boston. When John Covert and Simon Heath agitated the project of applying for township organization, there was difficulty in obtaining the suggestion of a township name. In the dilemma someone moved that Edward Butterfield, the oldest man in the township, be allowed to supply the name. Butterfield, being called upon, promptly replied that he would bestow the name of his native town in New Hampshire, and Keene it stood. The first meeting in Keene township was held at the house of Nathaniel Beattie, April 4, 1842. John L. Covert was chosen moderator, Edward Butterfield, Nathaniel Beattie, Ephraim Abbott and Aaron Hardenburgh, inspectors, and Simon Heath, clerk. After organizing and choosing pathmasters the meeting adjourned to Allen Day's house, where the election was held. Thirty-nine votes were cast and the following officials chosen: Supervisor, Asaph C. Smith; clerk, Cyrenus Day; treasurer, Samuel Wells; justices of the peace, John L. Covert, Joseph W. Sprague, Aaron Hardenburg and Z. H. Brower; highway commissioners, Henry V. N. Covert, George W. White and Asa K. Phipps; school inspectors, Simon Heath, James Chrysler, Asaph C. Smith and James Baird; overseers of the poor, Granson L. Hall and John L. Covert; associate assessor, Elijah Sprague; constables, Prindle Hubbell, Loren Sprague and George W. White; highway overseers, John Covert, W. Sprague, E. Butterfield, H. V. N. Covert, E. Abbott, E. Sprague and John Devine. Keene township, which is designated on the United States survey as township 7 north, range 8 west, is one of the western townships of Tonia county. It is bounded on the north by. Otisco township, on the west by Kent county, on the south by Boston township and one the east by Easton town

Page  116 I i6 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. ship. Flat river, which is a sluggish water course, without mill-power, is the only stream of any consequence in the township. The lands in township 7 north, range 8 west, were not offered for sale by the general government until August 5, 1839. Prior to this, however, settlers had come on, pre-empted and occupied certain tracts in this territory. These settlers, who had set forward at once to clear and improve the lands so occupied, were simply "squatters," although, as a matter of fact, they had come to stay and were settlers just as much as if they had owned the lands. They had no more legal rights than others had, as concerned the ultimate purchase of the lands, and were liable to be thrown off at any time by persons who wished to buy the land. But the pioneers of Keene township knew their moral rights and proposed to maintain them in this matter alone. They formed an association for mutual protection, and chose Asa L. Spencer, of Otisco, to represent them. Such a move was necessary, since there were always hordes of land speculators about the land offices ready and eager to pounce upon and buy lands improved by squatters or pre-empor at the earliest opportunity. The early settlers in Keene township knew how matters were liable to work in that respect, and not only took concerted action to protect themselves, but announced it freely that the health of any designing speculator who wished to turn his energies towards depriving the actual possessors of the land they already selected and began to improve, might be impaired. The consequence of such positive action was that when the land sale took place at Ionia, in August, I839, there was no attempt made to disturb the Keene settlers. The first settlement made in Keene township was on section 25 and was made in the fall of I837 by two young unmarried men, Orrin Owen and Charles Hickox, of Monroe county, New York, who erected a shanty and cleared a small section of ground. But they evidently became tired of the rough backwoods life, as they left for parts unknown and cannot be linked with the permanent settlement of Keene. The honor of being the first permanent settler in the township can rightfully be bestowed upon one man, Edward Butterfield. Mr. Butterfield, with Cyrus Rose, cleared some land in 1837, and, on February 2, 1838, settled with his family on section 25. In December of the same year Mr. Rose settled with his family on section 36. In i838 James Monk came in from Canada and in March of that year located on section 26, founding what was known as the Canadian settlement. Morton Reynolds, also a Canadian,

Page  117 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. II7 came to section 27 in April and was followed soon afterward by John Follett, who made his home on section 35. In the same year John Conner, from Oakland county, pitched his tent on section 35. Other settlers of this period were James Crysler, from Canada, on section 26; Samuel Wells, from St. Lawrence county, New York, on section 23; Dexter Cutler, in June, near Flat river, on section 6, and Charles Higgins, who settled on section 6. In I838 or 1839 William Lott came to section 30 and there opened what he pleased to call a tavern. It was a mean little place, intended for the dispensing of poor whiskey, but was the occasion of the opening of a stage route between Grand Rapids and Ionia. The stage route was a popular highway before the opening of the Detroit & Milwaukee railroad, and for a time two four-horse coaches passed over it daily. In addition to the distinction which Lott won as a dispenser of "fire-water," he was the perhaps better one of being the first person to erect a frame house in Keene township, his lumber coming from Fallasburg mill, in Kent county. His home was erected in 1842 and, the year following, Samuel Wells built on section 23 the first frame barn in the township, the lumber of which came from Bellamy mill, in Easton township. Elijah Sprague was a prominent member of the Canadian settlement in Keene. He came in the summer of I839 with his family and was followed closely by Philip Monk and James Baird. Thomas Beattie and his son, Nathaniel, purchased a tract of land in Keene in 1839. Other settlers of I839 were John L. Covert, Jennison Henry, Samuel Heath and Nathaniel Davenport. Zelotus B. Frost, William Sparks and Ephraim Abbott, all of Courtland county, New York, came to this township in June, I840, and settled on section 15. After they had brought their families, the entire company of twelve people lived for two weeks in an abandoned shanty on section 24. In the spring of I846, Ephraim Abbott. Jr., set up a shop on section 15 and began the manufacture of barrels, tubs and sap buckets. In I848 he changed his business location to section 22 and also manufactured chairs, rakes and grain cradles. This was the only factory the township 'of Keene ever had. James Day, a settler in Oakland county in 1825, moved to Keene in June, I84I, accompanied by his sons, Cyrenus and Allen. The father took out a tract in section 28 and the sons in section 27. James Baird and Prindle Hubbell lived on section 26. Zaccheus H. Bower came to the township in -840 from New York and made a settlement on an eighty-acre lot in section 13. Joseph Brown was also a settler

Page  118 II8 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. in section 13, having come a few years before Brower. The next settler in this locality was Widow Electa Ann Lee and her two sons, Alasa and Archelaus. Delos Gibson settled in Eaton county in I837, but in 184I he purchased a forty-acre tract of land in this township and settled on the same. In that neighborhood there had been no other attempt to settle, and from Potter's Corners, Mr. Gibson had to hew his road through the timber a distance of two miles. George W. White came to the town in the spring of I841. In the same year A. C. Smith settled on section 25. Ira Pinckney, a settler in Oakland county in I826, joined the settlers of Keene in the fall of 1842. In the same year J. W. Sprague'and his brother, Harlow, came to section 29. J. W. Sprague decided that there was need of a postoffice in the community, consequently he circulated a petition for that purpose. It was given the name Rix, after Rix Robinson, an Indian trader. Sprague was made the first postmaster. Shortly before that, in 1845, Avon postoffice was established, near the eastern line of the town, and given in charge of Asaph C. Smith. The office was later removed to Easton. Silas Sprague, father of the Sprague named above, came into this townshiy in the year 1844 and settled on the northwest quarter of section 29. Other settlers in Keene at that early date were Joseph Gardner, C. C. Sayles, Elias Sayles, Charles Sayles, George Denton, Harvey H. Vinton, Philip Marble, G. N. Jackson and the Carrs, including the father and his sons, James, John and George. The Canadian settlement has already been covered and there is another settlement which deserves a place along- with the early settlements. The neighborhood in lwhich the Mlonks, IRobert Taylor, James (rysler, John Follett and Cyrus Rose lived, w\as given the name of Dickertown —this l)y reason of the fact that the settlers there out-Yankeed the veriest Yankee that ever lived in their extraordinary passion for trading or "dickering." It is truly asserted that so strong was the lpassion for dickering upon the innocent Canadians, that cases were known where members of the little comnunitv were fre(quently aroused from mi(lnight sluimbers to opeii, discuss or close a trade. Dickertown is now simply a rememblrance, but many! of the stories of the trades made are still fresh in the minds of the early settlers. In 1844 Gilbert Avers came to this neighl)orhood, and, in I845 Vine Welch, Roland( lull, Israel Bowen, Oliver Bowen, Janes Boen anld Alpheus Bowen also settled in Keene. The next year C. G. Hullnter came from Oakland county and settled on section 34. \illiam H. Pearsall had already settled in section 33 two) yea rs previous. Other early settlers who caine

Page  119 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. II9 after the territory had taken on a more civilized air were D. W. Woodman, Matthew Brown, William Clark, William N. Higgins, W. Campbell, William Cannon, Pierce Jenkins, Joseph Long, R. Russ, Harvey Batson and Aaron Ptatt, which closes the list of early settlers. The first birth in the township was that of Berilla, daughter of Morton and Alvira Reynolds, born on May 17, 1838. The first death was that of Mary, wife of Robert Rose. The first wedding was solemnized in January, 1840, when Alvin Butterfield and Ilena Phipps were married by Squire George Dexter, of Easton. SUPERVISORS. 1843, A. C. Smith; I844, S. Heath; 1845, A. C. Smith; I846, no record; I847, S. Heath; I848, A. C. Smith; 1849, S. Ileath; I850, Z. B. Frost; I851, S. Heath; I852, G. R. Sayles; 1853, A. C. Smith; 1854, T. Jacques; 1855, A. C. Smith; I856, S. WVells; I857, G. R. Sayles; I858-59, J. Sprague; I86o, S. Wells; I861-62, J. B. Sprague; I863-64, 0. Bowen; I865, J. Sprague; I866-67, C. Cowles; 1868-76, A. F. Lee; I877-78, R. Hardy; I879-80, V. Welch; 188I-83, H. N. Lee; 1884-85. Austin Lamberton; 1886-88, Willard Hawley; I889, Austin Lamberton; I890-91-92-93-94-95 -96-97-98-99-1900-01-02, Judson Lee; 1903-o4-o5-o6-07. Anthony M. Kohn; I908-09, G. P. Hawley; I9IO to the present time, Menton K. Jepson.

Page  120 CHAPTER X. LYONS TOWNSHIP. An act of the Legislature, approved March I, I837, provided that all that portion of Ionia county lying east of the lines running north and south through the centers of townships 5, 6, 7 and 8 north, in range 6 west, should be set off and organized for temporary purposes as a township, with the name of Maple. Who named the township does not appear, but naturally the source of the name was that of the Maple river, so called long before that. On March 6,.1838, townships 5 and 6 north, in range 5 west, and the east half of townships 5 and 6 north, in range 6 west, were set off to Portland. On March 30, I840, the name of the township of Maple was changed to Lyons, the change in name being effected at the instigation of Lucius Lyon, who desired, doubtless, the additional honor of being remembered in the township designation as well as in the name of the village. On February 29, 1844, the township numbered 8 north, in range 5 west, was set off to the township of North Plains, excepting that portion southeast of the Maple river. The tract named was set off from Lyons to North Plains, January 9, I867. On March 22, 184.8, sections 22, 27 and 34, in township 7 north, range 6 west, together with sections I, 2, 3, 10, II and 12, and so much of sections I3, 14 and I5, as lay north of Grand river, in the same township. were attached to Ionia. These various eliminations left to the township of Lyons, township 7 north, range 5 west, and sections 35, 36, 25, 26, 23 and 24 and that portion of section 13 lying south of Grand river, all in township 7 north, range 6 west. The territory named as lying in township 7 north, range 6 west, south of Grand river, was detached from Lyons, March 13, I867, leaving the township with six miles square. The first township meeting in Maple was held April 3, I837, and Asa Bunnell was chosen moderator. There was an adjournment to the house of E. Lyon & Company, and the election which followed town officials were

Page  [unnumbered] JUN('TION OFr MlAPIE ANI) GRIAN) RIIVAERIS. NIAR MITIR. COMMONWEALTH DAM, ON GRAND RIVER, IN LYONS TOWNSHIP.

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  121 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN.e I21 chosen as follow: Supervisor, Isaac Thompson; clerk, David Irish, assessors, Hiram Brown, Asa Bunnell and Almeron Newman. Lyons is known as township 7, in range 5 west, and is bounded on the north by North Plains, on the south by Portland, on the east by Clinton county and on the west by lonia township. There are three streams flowing through this township, namely, Grand and Maple rivers and Stony creek. The Grand river enters the township at the southwest corner of section 33 and flows north and east in a meandering course through sections 33, 28, 29, 20, I9 and i8, upon the latter of which it receives the waters of Maple river and then passes out of the township. The Grand river is rather a picturesque stream as it flows through this township. It is dotted here and there with islands and fringed with high banks, while its graceful curves are pretty features in the landscape. It is a rapidly-flowing stream and furnishes a natural drainage for this section. The Maple river is a sluggish stream and possesses no mill power. It was of great service to the lumbermen in the early days, but at present has very little value except for furnishing a natural drainage for the farms. It flows south and west from section 2, is joined by Stony creek on section 9, and itself joins the Grand in section I8. Stony creek is the last stream of Lyons township. It enters the township at section 2I and joins with the Maple in section 9. The settlement of Lyons can be divided into two separate parts, namely, that of the township and that of the village. Thaddeus 0. Warner and John Gee were among the first settlers in the township outside of the village. They came together to this county, and after a difficult journey through the then unsettled country, eventually, in 1834, reached the cabin of Philo Bogue, on the present site of Portland. They then pushed on to the village of Lyons and engaged William Hunt, who was then keeping a trading station in the village, to act as their guide in selecting a suitable location for a home. Gee selected a tract on section 36, in what is now North Plains, and Warner a similar tract on section i of Lyons. In the six miles square now called Lyons township, between Stony creek and Maple river, there were just two settlers. One was Frank Chubb, who had settled in the spring of I834 on the northeast quarter of section ii, and the other was Nathan Benjamin, on the northeast quarter of section i. In April, 1835, Warner married, and in May, with his wife, set out for his new possessions in the west. Their journey was a perilous and tiresome undertaking and must have sorely tried the heart and nerve of the newly married couple.

Page  122 I22 2ONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. John Gee did not return to his land until 1836, and after a year in North Plains sold out to Mloses Dean and moved to a mill-site on Stony creek, in section 14. In 1837 he erected a mill, the first in the township. William Merrill, who came out with Gee as a farm hand, settled ill I84 on a tract in section II, Lyons township. In I837 Sebastian Beckwith came to the township and claimed the place on section I occupied by Nathan Benjamin. Benjamin was a squatter, but he was given an ample recompense for his work on the tract. Beckwith was soon after joined by his two bachelor brothers, Norton and Hiram. Alexander Chubb, a New Yorker, came to Lyons in 1837 and purchased land in section ii. In October, I838, he returned and the following year he built the first frame barn erected in the township. The first child born in the township was Franklin Chublb's daughter, Antoinette, who saw the light first on the 28th day of June, I835. The first death is said to have been that of Harrv, an infant son of Franklin Chubb. The first adult person to die is believed to have been Miss Palmer, sister to Silas Crippen's wife, with whom she was living at the time of her death. She was buried in the Lebanon celnetery, which for some time thereafter was used by the people in that portion of Lyons for burial purposes. The first crop of wheat raised in the township was sown by Franklin Chubb, in the fall of I834. There were eight acres in the piece and, to the surprise of everybody, it threshed thirty-six bushels to the acre. Chubb made so poor a guess about it that he offered to sell Thaddeus Warner one acre of the standing wheat, reckoned at twenty-five bushels to the acre, but Warner would not even have it at that. Until 1839 the wheat was threshed in Lyons by causing oxen to tread it out. Tn that year a Mr. Castle, of Owosso, came in with a Burrill thresher and straightway effected a welcome revolution in harvest methods. Under a strong pressure. the old Burrill thresher could dispose of from one hundred to two hundred and fifty bushels daily. Thaddeus Warner bought the machine of Castle and for twenty-five years after that pursued continuously the business of wheat threshing. Daniel Hunt came to Ohio from New York, and from there came on to Detroit. At Lyons he bought a forty-acre tract on Stony creek and sent for his family. Settlements in that portion of the township south of Stony creek were made as early as 1837, the earliest comers being Zina Lloyd and Henry Bartow. In T838, when Nathaniel Searing visited Lyons in search of a land

Page  123 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 123 location, he found but three settlers between Portland and Lyons on the road between the two points following the river on the east. These three were Webster and Haskins, in Portland township; Lloyd was building a saw-mill there on Goose creek and was keeping a postoffice, called "Maple." The mail was kept in an old cupboard, but there was so little of it that it did not make much difference where he kept it. In 1838 came Richard Farman to land on section 34 that he had located in 1836, Asa Bunnell and Joseph Letandre to section 21, and Asahel Hopkins on the south township line, upon the western bank of the river, where George Dutton had made the first clearing. When Farman settled there was no house between his and Lyons. There was a "pepper" mill at Portland, kept by Newman, but it was not much better than the primitive pestle and pan used by many a settler to grind his corn. In 1838 Henry Bartow was living on the south township line, on section 35. Zina Lloyd, who is spoken of as a man of considerable capacity, moved into Portland and carried the postoffice with him. In 1838 there was a decent road along the river between Lyons and Portland, following essentially the course pursued by the road later used. When Nathaniel Searing came, in I838, he found a number of people who had come into the neighborhood meanwhile, namely, Robert Toan, Zina Lloyd, Berrick Cooley, Richard L)arsons, Hopkins Roe, Levi Ferguson, Henry and Harvey Bartow, Patrick Lawless, George Lloyd and George Marcy. Mr. Searing bought his land of Elder Hicox. Taxes cost him five dollars, leaving him just two dollars and a half. The force and use of philosophy are illustrated in the following incident as related by Mr. Searing. In the summer of 1843 Elder Chauncey Reynolds went to Northville for a load of supplies and, among other things, brought back a ease of shoes, which, he gave out, he would exchange for hides. Now, it so happened, that Searing, his wife and the children had been going barefooted for some time, simply because they were too poor to buy shoes. It also happened that a steer belonging to Searing had mired and died the day before Reynolds got back with his case of shoes. Philosophy taught Searing that he was in great luck after all in having the steer mire when he did, for the hide was just what he wanted to trade for shoes. In I837 Lewis Willey, then a young man, came west with Cole and Wadsworth, who settled in Portland, and he recollects that getting through the woods was such slow work that they were all of one day floundering through three miles of mud. In 1837 he found Henry Bartow on section

Page  124 I24 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 35 and farther north Allen and Chauncey Reynolds and William Bartow, Sr., on section 23 and Stephen Willett on section 24. Lewis Willey worked about in the Reynolds neighborhood until I839, when he settled upon section I in Portland, and in 1845 located on the northeast quarter of section 35, where George W. Farman and Archibald Wilcox had made clearings of nineteen and twenty acres respectively. Shortly after \Villey came to the town, in 1837, Isaac Canfield, a brother-in-law to Henry Bartow, made a settlement upon section 36, and at a later date came a Mr. Preston, Hiram Stevens and Levi Ferguson. There was an occasional chance of selling wheat at Lyons and getting half cash and half store pay, but journeys to Detroit were often in order and then the man who went would usually undertake to bring out supplies for the entire neighborhood. The first cemetery laid out in the eastern part of the township was the one on section 25, and the first person buried therein was the wife of Dr. W. Z. Blanchard, in I839. Charles Millard first located in the wilds of the West in 1840 and for three years after that period lived in the townships of Lebanon and North Plains. In I844 he moved to section 14 in Lyons, and made a beginning upon an eighty-acre lot of wild land. The Beckwiths were then living on section I and, with Moses Dean, owned the only two-horse-teams boasted in the region between Stony creek and the Maple. There was at that time a traveled road between Lyons and the region known as the East Plains, and a road from the south that intersected the angling Lyons road on section II. Millard and his wife had accompanied Moses Dean and wife westward at Dean's suggestion, the latter, for some time a settler in North Plains, being in western New York for a visit. In the summer of 1841, Millard concluded he would go to mill, and, as a preliminary to that perfornance, walked through the woods to Maple Rapids to engage an Indian and canoe, for the trip to mill was to be made via river to Ionia, after which they returned home. In September, 1841, Millard came down with chills and fever and lay almost helpless until June, his wife having to do all the labor. Like their neighbors, the Millards had to go hungry once in a while. Good wholesome flour was a highly-prized luxury, hard to get and exceedingly satisfying when at hand, even if there was not much else available. When Charles Millard settled upon section 14 in Lyons in I844, he found his neighbors to be Alexander Chubb, on section 11; Nehemiah Hunt,

Page  125 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I25 just west; Abram Ely, directly north of Hunt; Franklin Chubb, on section i i; T. 0. Warner, on section II, and John Gee, at the mill-site on Stony creek. "Doctor" Millard, father of Charles Millard, bought Alexander Chubb's place in I846 and moved upon it. Although his name was Joshua, * he in some way gained, early in life, the appellation of "Doctor," despite the fact that he never was a man of medicine. The first settlements west of the Grand river and among the first made in the township were those of William Moore, and his sons, Daniel and William. They made their advent early in the summer of I834 and, after tarrying at Hunt's trading-house long enough to permit the men folks to get up a cabin on the Moore tract, in section 28, the family moved up there. Their land lay on the river, opposite Moore's island, so named from the family. The Moores did not remain more than four years, when they moved to Portland. Meanwhile, in 1837, Isaac Thompson, known far and wide as "Judge" Thompson, purchased in that vicinity a very large tract of land and brought out a large force of men to do the clearing. For a time Thompson was allowed to remain the only settler in that locality. Asahel Hopkins was perhaps the earliest comer thereabouts after Thompson, but Hopkins happened to locate on the eastern bank of the river in section 33. William Hunt, the Indian trader, made a location on the western shore of the river. William Way came along presently and in 1847 A. A. Crane made his clearing. A man by the name of Lamb was among the early comers in that region and, in I853, B. F. Faxon and his son, E. M. Faxon, made settlements, followed, in I854, by Rufus Kelley, who bought the old Thompson tract of land on section 29 and 32, on which Judge Thompson had cleared about thirty acres. Jacob improved the place on section 32. Among other early settlers on the west side of the Grand river may also be named John Rock, Edward Doran, D. C. Bennett, W. Johnson, Simon Town, Bernard Thomas and Frank McQuillin, Patrick Fitch and C. W. Staley. In I840, James Root concluded to come to Lyons and join Mr. Jason, one of, his' relatives, then living west of the river, upon land formerly embraced within the Judge Thompson tract. Root remained there about two years, and in I842 removed to the eastern side of the river, where, in section 26, he bought a place of Hervey Bartow, and where, in I845, he died. Alvin Sutton, settled in 1842 in Portland township on the north township line. He came from western New York, where he had been a Methodist Episcopal circuit-preacher, and upon his arrival in Michigan resumed

Page  126 I26 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. his ministerial labors. He preached in Portland, Lyons and other places over a wide circuit and died in Lyons in I864. His son, Lorenzo, settled there in 1849, and made his home in the midst of a dense forest. Later settlers in that neighborhood were M. R. Fisk and E. O. Smith, the latter a settler in Eaton county in I838. William Brown settled in Michigan in 1833, and in 1843 bought of Allen Reynolds a place in Lyons, on section 23, where Joseph Reynolds had made a clearing of twenty acres. The north and south road, later passing their home, was then but a mere path. About that time, 0. S. and S. H. Kimball made beginnings on new land just south of Stony Creek and Howard Wright located on section 23, coming with 0. S. Kimball. Among other settlers in the neighborhood of Stony creek were W. R. Slade, N. P. Hopkins, W. Steels, Francis Gee, Isaac Balch and Joseph Townsend. North of Stony creek and east of the Maple was the settlement, in I842, of Isaac Shoemaker, who bought of Nathan Benjamin, on section I, forty acres of land partially inlproved. He was accompanied to the town by his brother-in-law, William H. Pratt, who soon afterwards made a location on section I. Near Shoemaker, at a later period, settlements were named by Dr. Alonzo Sunderlin (a practicing physician in those parts for many years) and William T. Bissell. With them came Nicholas G. Bissell, who settled farther south. Joseph Randolph was among the later settlers in that vicinity. West of these, David Fifield and Abram Ely were early comers, and in 1845 Richard Carberrv and Thomas Welch took possession of a quarter of section io and gave out that they proposed to farm accordingly to purely scientific principles. They brought in a flock of about three hundred sheep and, in support of their scientific determination, brought also an invoice of books on agriculture, according to whose precepts they proposed to conduct their operations as husbandmen, for their practical knowledge of farming was literally nothing. Of course they made a disastrous failure of the whole affair and a laughing stock of themselves. They had no sooner got their sheep into the town than they discovered that they had nothing to feed them, and so they sold them off as fast as they could. At the end of less than a year, they came to the conclusion that they had made a woeful mistake in undertaking farming and, like sensille men. retired to some other and mnore congenial pursuit. The place was subsequently occupied l)y Eugene Beckwith and, in I853, by M. R. Vance. Carberry boarded with Nehemiah Hunt awhile, but by and by came to the conclusion that he could not pay the price of board, one dollar and a

Page  127 ION1A COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 127 half a week, and accordingly set up a bachelor's hall. At that time sturgeon were very plentiful in Stony creek, and Carberry was naturally fed on them freely. He probably grew tired of a steady fish diet, for Hunt overheard him holding an imaginary conversation with some of the old folks at home, in the course of which he remarked, "Oh, if you old folks could only know how we're living out here in Michigan. Just think of it. Stinking fish and johnnv-cake! Henry Loomis moved with his family in 1849 to a place on section I, where Alexander Chubb had improved ten acres. South of him the Seavers (early settlers in Dallas) settled later, and A. Bahlke, on the north, where William Merril had made the first improvement. Lyons has been the most prolific of any township in relation to the villages within her limits. There are at present three growing towns in Lyons township, namely, Pewalno, Iyons and Muir. SUPERVISORS. 1867-7I, WV. H. Woodworth; I872, D. C. Spaulding; 1873, Louis Willis; I874, W. H. Freemah: I875-76, A. W. Sherwood; 1877-79, A. K. Roof; I880, A. H. Jacob; I881-83, Dustine C. Oakes; I884, Abram H. Jacob; I885, nopreport; [886-87, A. K. Roff; I888-89-90, Henry H. Hitchcock; I89I, Julian S. ilbbitts; 1892-93, Henry Hitchcock; I894-95, Julius S. Tibbitts; I896, John Hale; 1807, Clarence Hodgman; I898-oo90-01, John McQuillian; I902 to the present time, George D. Faxon. INDIAN BATTLES. In section 20, Lyons township, where Grand river makes a big bend from a north to a southwest direction, was fought a big Indian battle, probably about 1785. A tribe of Pottawatomie Indians on the Arthurburg hill just west of Muir, built earthworks for defense, on which trees are now growing eighteen inches thick. Chippewa Indians, thirty miles up Maple river, planned to attack those at Arthurburg hill in conjunction with the Menominee Indians on Grand river, near Lansing, purposing to take the stronghold and also the fields of cleared land in the valleys at the junction of Grand and Maple rivers, on which good crops were then growing. The fast-flowing current of Grand river brought the Menominees a day ahead of the others. The Pottawatomies, who had been fully informed by runners, of the proposed attack, met them at the bend of the river east of Lyons,

Page  128 I28 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. where the Le Tandre farm is now, and defeated the invaders. The next day they met the other attackers up the Maple river and likewise defeated them. Hundreds of skulls and skeletons have been dug up where they fought. On the south side of the bend was a plat of ground reserved by the Indians for their annual "green corn dance" and they had about four acres of corn growing there. At the time of their dance, all arms and ammunition were deposited with the chief, in order to prevent their killing each other when full of liquor. They kept up these dances for ten or fifteen years after the white settlers came to this locality. LYONS. The village of Lyons, charmingly situated in a fertile valley upon both sides of the Grand river, invited the attention of the pioneer at an early date, both by reason of its picturesque location and the presence of the fine water-power. The river flows from the south through the center of the village, margined by high, abrupt bluffs and thickly-wooded banks. South of the town one may gain from the hill overlooking the river a magnificent view. At his feet, and stretching away upon either hand, lies a broadreaching valley, upon whose bosom, in picturesque beauty, repose the villages of Lyons and Muir.,1 Until i830 no white man ventured to penetrate into the Grand river valley near the village of Lyons. In that year, however, William Hunt, learning that the point was a most favorable one for the purpose, set up a trading-post on the west bank of the river and began to traffic with the Indians for furs, skins and such other commodities as they chose to bring to him in exchange for whisky, blankets, guns, etc. Hunt had as partners in the enterprise at various times men named Belcher and Burgess, of whom Belcher remained until 1834, when he removed to Kalamazoo. He was by profession a lawyer, but while here he appeared to be given to the notion that he could do better as an Indian trader in the wilds of Michigan than as a lawyer in the haunts of men. Whether his practice proved the truth of that theory, has never yet been disclosed. Belcher's wife was undoubtedly the first white woman resident on the site now occupied by the village of Lyons, while her child, born in 1834, was likewise the first white child born in that territory. The business of trading with the Indians as carried oH by Hunt, Belcher and Burgess, was the only white man's effort in mercantile lines in that neighborhood until the year I836, when Lucius Lyon founded the village of

Page  129 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 129 Lyons. Lyon, who was concerned with the surveying of the government lands in Michigan, entered the land upon which Lyons now stands, and in I836 proceeded to carry out his originally-formed project of creating a village there. The first settler upon that ground was Giles S. Isham, who made a location upon the west side of the river, put up a log cabin and began to clear his land. The impression that H. V. Libhart was an early settler in Lyons was a mistaken one. He settled, it is true, in 1833, but in what was then in Lyons township and now in Ionia township. Isham had gotten fairly settled in the summer of 1836, when along came Edward Lyon, Henry A. Leonard and Andrew Hanse, attended by a company of sixteen carpenters and builders sent out by Lucius Lyon to build a bridge, stores, dwellings, etc., and to give the new village a proper architectural start. Among the sixteen carpenters allu(led to, were Ashley Cooper, David Pressy and N. J. Allport, who, with Leonard and Lyon, became permanent settlers. Isham's was the only house on the spot except Hunt's and the only one at all capable of containing the company of carpenters, though it was a close fit. However, all hands took shelter in it until they could arrange accommodations of their own, which they were not long in doing. They established a camp on the bank of the river, N. J. Allport being "chief cook and bottle-washer," and, as the first work in hand, began at the erection of a store, in which Edward Lvon was to be the storekeeper. That building was a pretty good one even for this day and was the first framed structure built in the.village. The next improvement was the building of a dwelling-house for Edward Lyon, likewise on the west bank of the river. Lyon obtained the brilliant idea that Lyons would become a first-class city in less than no time and, to meet what he conceived would soon be the popular demand, he stocked his store with choice goods, including even silks, champagne, etc. When he gave the champagne away to get rid of it and saw the silks severely neglected, he concluded that there was such a thing as being too smart. The lumber for the village improvements was easily obtainable at H. V. Libhart's saw-mill, about two miles westward, and in the business of hauling the lumber from mill to village David Baldwin, famous as the owner of a great breaking-up team, was the chief factor. The first recorded plat of the village of Lyons is dated November 26, I836, signed by Lucius Lyon, and designated as "occupying land on sections I8 and 19, in town 7 north, range 5 west." The plat further sets forth that "this town is situated at the head of steamboat navigation on Grand (9)

Page  130 i30 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. river, one hundred miles from the river's mouth, and sixty miles from Grand Rapids." The second plat was made by Walter Halstead, on section 19, March I8, 1857, as Halstead's addition. The third was made by Daniel Ball and R. E. Butterworth in September, I857, as Ball's addition, and the fourth by H. and E. A. Hawley, D. B. Lyon and B. F. Rockafellow. The latter addition is described as "commencing at a point in the south line of Isham street, four rods south of the southeast corner of block 84, of the original plat of the village, in a magnetic course south three degrees east; thence along the south line of Isham street south eighty-seven degrees west two thousand eight hundred feet to the bank of the Grand river." In the fall of I836, the village being platted and the village site fast emerging from the embrace of the forest, as the woodmen plied their busy axes, the population began to increase and the signs of the times pointed to a healthful growth of the enterprise. In October, 1836, Simeon Mortimer came to the town and, on December 7 of that year opened the pioneer blacksmith shop. To that time the village improvements had been confined vwolly to the west side of the river, but now James WV. Tabor, who was in charge of Lucius Lyon's landed interests in that region, erected a fine residence on the east bank. Meanwhile, Joel Burgess had opened a house of entertainment on the west side of the river, and A. L. Roof and A. F. Bell were living in a shanty. Bell and Roof made the journey together down the river from Jackson to Lyons in a poleboat, in which they conveyed all their worldly possessions, which, as may be imagined, were not very extensive. These young men were law graduates and surveyors and, coming to the new village with a few law books as their chief stock in trade, established themselves there as lawyers and surveyors. In I837, Henry A. Leonard and Andrew Hanse began the erection, for Lucius Lyon, of a bridge over the Grand river at Lyons. It was the first bridge thrown across the stream between Grand Haven and Jackson. Early in the year 1837, Peter Coon and T. H. Dewey, then sturdy young men, joined the diminutive band in the little village. They were friends and neighbors in Genesee county, New York, and, hearing from Marshall Smead, just returned from a prospecting tour, that there was a fine country and good land at the mouth of the Maple river, they determined to go out there and grow tip with the country. They went to a country dance the night of Felruary 22, and on the morning of the 23d left the ball

Page  131 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 13I room for the far West. Each, with a twenty-eight-pound pack on his back, footed it merrily to the mouth of the Maple, which, without experiencing any remarkable vicissitude, they reached on March 13, 1837, each with an English six-pence in his pocket as the sum total of his worldly possession. Mr. Dewey relates that, when they got to Lyons, they found Edward Lyons and Giles S. Isham keeping stores on the west bank of the river; Joel Burgess kept what he called a tavern; Simeon Mortimer was carrying on a blacksmith shop; and there were living also on the west side of the river, David Irish (clerk for Edward), James W. Tabor (Lucius Lyon's agent), William Hunt (then having exchanged the business of Indian trader for land-hunter and guide), David Pressy and Henry A. Leonard, carpenters, and A. L. Roof and A. F. Bell, who were keeping house and studying law in a board shanty. On December i, 1837, the good people of Lyons were treated to the sensational spectacle of a steamboat plowing the waters of the Grand river to the very doors of the town. The vessel was the "Governor Mason," a side-wheeler employed in navigating the lakes,' and the river being risen to an extraordinary height, the owners of the craft ascended the rapids and river as far as Lyons simply to gratify a sudden fancy. Ordinarily the boat, which was a capacious one, could not have accomplished the undertaking, but the flood had laid the country under water and supplied an ample depth in the river. Until 1838 the waters of the stream were not again vexed by a steamboat's paddle, although navigation was regularly pursued by means of pole boats. In this way supplies for the settlement and produce for market were transported via Grand Haven, although there was also similar traffic overland to and from Detroit. Ten years afterwards, in I847, the Legislature made an appropriation for the improvement of navigation on the Grand riyer and navigation was so improved that in 1848 small steamboats were put into service by Daniel Ball and others between Lyons and Grand Rapids for the purpose of towing flatboats. These boats did considerable business in the way of carrying produce out of the valley, and by their agency all wheat shipments were made until railway construction pushed them aside. Burgess Hall, as agent for Beach & Company, had a wheat warehouse at the west end of the bridge, from which the flatboats took their wheat cargoes and through which a vast amount of grain was forwarded, from first to last. Steamboats and flatboats plied with more or less regularity between Grand Rapids and Lyons until the completion of the Detroit & Milwaukee railroad, in 1837, when the business was abandoned.

Page  132 132 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Up to the time of the construction of the first bridge across the river at Lyons, in I837, the village proper was confined exclusively to the western side of the stream, but, with established communication between the shores came a spread of the population and business to the eastern shore. The first improvement there after Tabor's house was Truman Lyon's tavern, at the eastern end of the bridge. Lyon called the tavern the "Lyons House" and there, as postmaster, he opened Lyons' first postoffice in 1836. The first business establishment, aside from the tavern on the eastern bank, was started by N. J. Allport, the shoemaker, and the first store, in 1841 by Dorus M. Fox. Lucius Lyon was anxious to push the architectural adornments of the town, and engaged a man to burn a kiln of brick, with a view to the erection of a brick hotel, but the brick-kiln turned out a total failure and the hotel project was abandoned. On the eastern shore, in 1837, were Stevenson, a shoemaker; David Burnett and one Atwater, carpenters; Horace Catlin, John Montrael, Abram Hause and other mechanics; William W. Fitch, a surveyor; Peter Coon, Mount Vernon Olmstead, Thomas Dewey and Joseph Ietandre, the four latter being employed by James W. Tabor; David Irish, earlier a clerk for Edward Lyon, himself became a storekeeper, and had for a clerk Fred Hall. There was a popular stage route from Detroit to Grand Rapids, via Lansing, Lyons and Ionia, in the days of 1846 and after, and there was much travel on it. The road touched Lyons on the western shore of the river, where Giles Isham kept a stage house, and passed on down a stream to Generaux's landing, where there was a good bridge and so on towards Ionia. Those were the good old coaching days when every few miles each passenger was called upon to carry a rail with which to life the coach out of the mud. Lyons' first wedding was solemnized in I835 by Franklin Chubb, at the house of William Hint, the Indian trader. The contracting parties were Loisa, daughter of William Hunt, and Stephen Bunker, a young man in the employ of William Hunt. The young woman was apparently anxious to have the performance well attended, with proper embellishment, even if it were to be simply a blackwoods wedding, so she took a six-mile walk through the woods one fine morning to the house of T. O. Warner, of whose -wife she borrowed a pair of wedding-gloves, and then went back to be married in style. The child of Belcher, the Indian trader, is supposed to have been the first white child born upon the village site. The first child born to a settler in the village was Martha, daughter of James W. Tabor, the year of her birth being 1836.

Page  133 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I33 Lyons came within one vote of being chosen by the Legislature in 1846 as the capital of the state and they do say that if it had not been for,the obstinacy of somebody the project would have succeeded. Lyons village was incorporated by the board of county supervisors under the general law, January 6, I859. The corporate limits of the village were described as follows: "Beginning at the southwest corner of section 19, in the township of Lyons; running thence east on the south line of said section to the south quarter-post of said section; thence north to the north bank of the Grand river; thence east along the north bank of said river to a point eighty rods east of the east line of section I9; thence north eighty rods; thence west to the south bank of the Grand river; thence west along the south bank of the Grand river to the west line of H. Degarmo, and continuing on the same line to a point eighty rods south of the section line between sections I8 and 19; thence over a due west course to a point eighty rods west to the township line; thence south to a point that shall be eighty rods south of the quarter-line of section 24, township 7 north, range 6 west; thence due east to the west line of section 19, township of Lyons; thence south to the place of beginning." Truman Fox, Curtis Hawley and Peter Coon were appointed to be inspectors of the election, which was ordered to be held in the town hall in the village of Lyons. The village records, dating from the incorporation in 1859 to the reincorporation in I867, have disappeared, and nothing can therefore be presented to show who served as village officials during that period. In I867 a legislative charter was obtained, and under that act the village has since then continued to have its legal existence. The act of I867 described the limits of the corporation to be as follows: "Beginning at a point, sixty rods north of the southwest corner of section I9, township 7 north, range 5 west, running thence east one hundred and sixty rods; thence north to the north bank of Grand river; thence east along the north bank of Grand river to a point eighty rods east of the east line of section I9; thence north to a point eighty rods north of the section line between sections 17 and 20, township 7 north, range 5 west; thence.west to the south bank of the Grand river, to the west line of land owned by George W. Van Auken; thence south along said west line of Van Auken land to the section line between sections I8 and I9, township 7 north, range 5 west; thence west to a point forty rods west to the township line between townships 7 north. range 5 west, and township 7 north, range 6 west; thence south to a point

Page  134 134 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. sixty rods north of the south line of section 24, township 7 north, range 6 west; thence east to the place of beginning." The first village election under the new charter was held at the town hall the first Monday in March, 1867. William Merrill and Edward L. Perkins were chosen inspectors of election, and Samuel J. Scott, clerk. The whole number of votes cast reached seventy-four, and the officers chosen were as follows: President, James W. Burns; clerk, J. W. Hagadorn; treasurer, Henry Hitchcock; trustees, D. C. Spaulding, Jonathan J. Littlefield, Peter Coon, John Toan, Walter Halstead and Charles Staley; assessor, William Z. Blanchard; marshal, David Kelly. The village of Lyons bears 'the distinction of being the largest of the three towns in Lyons township. It is a very flourishing village and has the services of the two railroads of lonia county. The business men in Lyons are progressive and are not only interested in their own interests, but also the interests of the town. There are several business blocks and also some private residences which would do credit to towns with a much greater population. MUIR. The village now known as Muir covers a tract of land first improved by W. Z. and J. C. Blanchard, who there cleared a farm, built a farmhouse and barn, and installed a farmer as a tenant. In I856, when the Detroit & Milwaukee railroad was building westward, A. L. Soule, R. H. Robinson, A. B. Robinson and Isaac Everett, extensive owners of Michigan pine lands, bought the Blanchard farm, proposing, first, to establish a steam saw-mill at that point of the river, and, secondly, to secure the construction of the railway through that neighborhood and the location of a station upon their property. Lyons village had counted upon the coming of the line that way, and, indeed, had considered the fixing of a station there as a foregone conclusion, but there was some delay in the furnishing of the promised ten thousand dollars bonus demanded by the railway company from the village, and while the project lagged, A. L. Soule, one of the owners of the Blanchard farm,,hurried away to Detroit and offered to subscribe the ten thousand dollars aid at once, conditional upon the railway traversing his property. The company, out of patience with the Lyons people for their lack of energy, accepted Soule's proposition and thus Lyons was left out in the cold. This important matter settled, Soule & Company built a steam saw-mill, capable of cutting about twenty thousand feet of lumber daily, and platted

Page  135 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 'i35 a village on sections 17 and I8, which they called Montrose. The first business improvement was a hotel, put up in June, I856, by George French, on the site of the Denison House. The hotel was opened by Smith & Barnard in the fall of I856, and at the same time French & Chamberlain built and opened a store on the corner. That autumn, two small grocery stores were started by Marvin Geenwood and William Smith, and Vincent Palmer opened a blacksmith shop. Darwin Lyons was appointed railway agent at Montrose, and for a while the depot was in the old Blanchard barn, improved for that purpose. In the spring of I857 Montrose began to look up and, the milling interest developing, the population multiplied at a good sharp pace. A. B. Robinson built a store across the way from French & Chamberlain and leased it to Dr. W. Z. Blanchard, who retained it one season and sold out to Staley Brothers. The second saw-mill was built by Armstrong, Fox & Dibble, and carried on by Aaron, Abby & Son. After that the saw-mill interest expanded into important proportions and pushed the town rapidly along. Between the years 1870 and I873, that interest was at its best in Muir. Then the amount of lumber cut aggregated fifteen million feet annually. The mills were those of the Wagar Lumber Company, started by Wagar, Fox, Armstrong & Company, cutting about sixty thousapd daily; Marvin & Smith, twentyfive thousand; J. & J. Begole & Company, thirty-five thousand, and Abbey, French & Company, thirty-five thousand. There were also W. P. Hewitt's shingle-mill and James Smith's sash, blind and door manufactory, where a heavy business was done. In I863, when H. R. Wagar opened a drug store, there were but two other stores, J. Soule's and Staley, Robinson & Company's. The next store was that of Wagar & French, in I866. In I86o the name of the village, postoffice and station was changed from Montrose to Muir. The existence in the state of another postoffice called Montrose occasioned some confusion in the transmission of the mails, and, as H. K. Muir, the then superintendent of the Detroit & Milwaukee railroad, had favored the town, it was decided to honor him by naming it after him. On January 15, I869, Benjamin Soule, A. B. Robinson and others, executors, of the estates of A. L. Soule and R. L. Robinson, platted addition No. i to the village of Muir, on the west fractional half of the northwest fractional quarter of section 17, commencing at a point on the north side of the Detroit & Milwaukee railroad where the east line of Blanchard street crossed the railroad; thence running along the east line of said street

Page  136 136 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. to the south line of land owned by Patrick Sullivan; thence east along the south line of said Sullivan's land to the west eight line, running north and south of section 17; thence south along said line to the railroad; thence west along the railroad to the place of beginning. On May 28, I869, Jay Olmstead platted an addition, commencing at the section post at the southeast corner of section 7; running thence north along the east line of section 7 a distance of twenty rods to a point in said section line; thence due west at right angles with said section line ninetytwo rods and one and a quarter feet; thence due south twenty rods and one and a quarter feet; thence due south twenty rods to the south line of said section; thence east along said section line ninety-two rods and one and a quarter feet to the place of beginning. George French was appointed the first postmaster and served from I856 to I86I. C. W. Stanley succeeded French and continued in the office from I86I to 1869, when A. B. Robinson came in and remained until I877. PEWAMO. The gradual progress of the line of the Detroit & Milwaukee railroad westward in I857 called villages into existence along its course wherever the chief engineer of the road chose to locate stations. Higham, having fixed a site for a depot where the village of Pewamo now stands, purchased, with Dr. W. C. Blanchard, J. C. Blanchard, A. F. Bell and Amos Gould, a village site of J. C. Blanchard, who had himself bought it of Cuyler Deitz, Ben Mosher and Mrs. Bissell in contemplation of the location of a station there. The village tract included the south half of section 12 and north half of section I3. Upon the completion of their purchase. the proprietors proceeded to found a village, which, at the suggestion of J. C. Blanchard, they called Pewamo. Mr. Blanchard remembered an Indian chief of that name with whom he used to hunt and fish a good deal in the lioneer clays and thus chose to honor him. Mr. Blanchard met Pewamo while traveling through Canada in 1877, and the chief, learning then for the first time that his name had been given to a Michigan village, was excessive in his demonstrations of delight over the fact that his memory would be perpetuated in his muchloved native home of the Grand river valley. The village was surveyed by A. F. Bell in I857, but the plat was not recorded until July 25, I859. Tt was described as being situated on sections

Page  137 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I37 12 and 13, and commencing at the quarter-post on the north line of section 13, the streets being platted sixty-six feet in width. The recorded village proprietors were J. C. Blanchard and \V. Z. Blanchard. On July 20, 1874, Sherwood and Loomis platted an addition which embraced the western fifty acres of the south half of the northeast quarter of section 13. It commenced at the center of section 13, ran thence north twenty chains east twenty-five chains, and west to the place of beginning. The pioneer trader of the place was Hiram Blanchard, who came from Canada in the spring of 1857 and erected a store and dwelling on the corner later occupied by William Triphagen's store. At that time Daniel Shepard was living in a log house that stood upon the site of Mr. Taft's house, Ben Mosher was in a log house upon the American House lot, Daniel Shepard died in I857, his being the first death in the village. The second trader was E. L. Morse, who, having tried unsuccessfully to start a village of his own, called Woodville, two miles to the eastward on the line of the railway, carried his stock of goods to l'ewamo in the spring of I857. Then Ira Fisher bought Benjamin Marsh's log house and converted it into a house of entertainment, although he ne er entertained many people therein, chiefly because the house was too small. Later, the widow Stokes added a frame structure to the log cabin, and gradually there was evolved out of the affair the American Hotel. In the fall of I857, E. L. Morse built a blacksmith shop in the village and hired Hugh Robertson, a Canadian, to carry it on for him. When Robertson came to the town, late in 1857, he found six families, all told. Fisher was keeping a tavern and Morse and Blanchard were keeping stores. There were also in the town Robinson, a carpenter, Franklin Gilbert, of the same trade, and Cuyler Deitz, a farmer. The spot selected for the village was an exceedingly unsuitable one, for it was in the midst of a low tract, and for the greater part of the year the roads were so bad that it was almost impossible for people to get to town. This condition of things kept trade away and the village thrived but feebly, with a fair promise that it would ultimately die of inanition. For a timne, however, there was considerable done there in the way of supplying wood to the railway company and thus the storekeepers managed to eke out a thin existence. When Hiram Blanchard came to the town he was led to remark that it looked as if it had ought to be given over to the control of the frogs, which had wellnigh absolute possession. Even up to the year I870 Pewamo was a desolate-looking place and was

Page  138 I38 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. pretty closely hemmed in by woods. It had, however, began to move forward as a consequence of the improved conditions of the roads leading to it, the township having bestirred itself actively in the premises. Morse, having failed in his mercantile enterprise, was succeeded by Snell & Hungerford, and in i866, when John Pennington came in and built a store. Lewis Hugerford and Hiram Blanchard were the only traders in the place. In 1867 the village received its first resident physician and in I868 Helm & Mattern established a wagon and carriage manufactory which they carried on with more or less success until I875, when the business was discontinued. Up to 1870 there had been neither saw-mill nor grist-mill at Pewamo. In that year Rice & Jilliker built the grist-mill. Previous to 1870 lumber was obtained at Gee's saw-mill, on Stony creek, and grists were carried to Matherton, Hubbardston or Lyons. After passing through various proprietorship, the mill fell to the possession of Hugh Robertson, of Otisco, in I879. In I869, 0. W. Holley established a stave-factory at Pewamno and did a large business for several years. The first physician resident in Pewamno, already referred to, was Dr. Lafayette Jones. who came in I867 and remained until I876. Neither Muir nor Pewamo has ever reached the heights which the founders of the town had anticipated. Muir is somewhat larger than Pewamo, but both are still in the class of villages. The chief business interest of the village of'Pewamo is the elevator, while the village of Muir has a larger country trade.

Page  139 CHAPTER XI. NORTH PLAINS TOWNSHIP. North Plains was given its name by reason of its territory occupying a broad stretch of level country north of the Maple river. The township was organized under an act approved February 29, I844, and included townships 8, 9 and 10 north, in range 5 west, except that portion of township 8 lying southeast of Maple river. Townships 9 and to remained as a portion of North Plains until the organization of Montcalm county, to which they belonged. That portion of the town lying southeast of the Maple river was included within the limits of Lyons until January 9, I867, when it was apportioned to North Plains, which contained then, for the first time, an area of six square miles. The township name was suggested from the designation given years before to that part of the township lying in the southwestern corner, where the earliest settlements were effected. Nathaniel Sessions put forward the name of Ashland as appropriate because of the presence in his portion of the town of considerable ash-timber. That name was rejected because it was said that one Ashland, already existed in the state. Some one wanted the town called Cocoosh, but an inquiry into the meaning of that Indian word developing the information that it was synonymous with "Old Hog," the suggestion was promptly smothered. At'this juncture H. V. Libhart said North Plains would be a good name, and everybody seemed suited. The first township meeting was held at the house of Bartley Dunn, April I, 1844. Nathaniel Sessions was chosen moderator, Hector Hayes, George D. Kellogg, Chauncey Conkey and Hiram Brown, inspectors, and George D. Kellogg, clerk. It was resolved that town officers should be allowed six shillings per day, "no more, no less"; that ninety dollars should be raised for the ensuing year's contingent expenses, and ten dollars for the support of the poor. At the election of officers, thirty-seven votes were polled, and, except for the office of supervisor (for which Nathaniel Sessions and Hiram Brown were candidates), there was no contest. The result of the canvass was reported by the inspectors as follows: Supervisor, Nathaniel Sessions;

Page  140 140 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. clerk, George W. Germain; treasurer, Silas Crippen; highway commissioners, Major D. Mills, William Sessions and John Jennings; school inspectors, John Jennings and Hector Haves; directors of the poor, Hiram Brown and Nathaniel Sessions; constables, Samuel E. Stoughton and Bartley Dunn; justices of the peace, Chauncey Conkey, Henry L. Libhart and William E. Edminister; overseers of highways, Caleb Bundy, Samuel E. Stoughton, Silas Crippen and Lyman Williams. During the year Nathaniel Sessions resigned the office of supervisor, because of illness, and his son, William, was chosen to fill the vacancy. The township of North Plains enjoyed the distinction of containing within its borders, residing upon the places of their early settlement until their deaths, two pioneers who were the first to invade the then wilderness of township 8 north, in range 5 west. They were known as Hector Hayes and Hiram Brown. In 1836 they set up their backwoods cabins upon section 31, where white men had never tarried before, and upon that section they later lived. They first knew the country when it was an unbroken waste, grew and prospered as it grew and prospered, and today it is a handsome, fruitful region, dotted with attractive homes and rich farms and thickly populated with a prosperous people. As a matter of fact, Brown reached North Plains four days in advance of Hayes (although both started from New York state in company) and was the actual first settler. Tn May, T836, Brown and Hayes, living in Bristol, New York, concluded to visit Michigan in search of land locations, and together journeyed to Lyons where, encountering H. V. Libhart, they were piloted by him over to what was then known as the North Plain, in township 8 north, range 5 west, where, although they did not over much fancy the lay of the land, each selected a tract of land without much delay, for Michigan lands were much in demand just then, and they feared that by waiting to be better suited they.might not get even as desirable places. Haves took two hundred and eighty acres on sections 3I and 32 (buying the following winter a sugar-bush on section 22), and Browil, three hundred and twenty acres on section 31 in Nofth Plains and across the line in what is now Ronald township. Their purchases completed, they returned to Lyons, where they made provisions for the future by planting a patch of potatoes on Libhart's land, and engaging Dean Delap, of Lyons, to put up a log house on Brown's place and cut some marih-hay for their live stock. Having thus made satisfactory arrangements against their coming out for permanent settlement, Brown and Hayes returned to New York state to

Page  141 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I4I gather their families and goods, and in early autumn started for their Michigan location. They traveled by water to Detroit and from that point journeyed by teams, Hayes having two yoke of cattle and two wagons and Brown, two yoke of cattle and a wagon. En route, Hayes's cattle gave out under the pressure of extraordinarily hot weather and, he himself falling sick, the party made progress so slowly that Brown grew impatient and, at Hayes's suggestion, pushed on alone. Brown reached Lyons on October 3 and there hired one Burgess to get his goods and family across the Grand river on a raft. On the same day Hayes arrived at Captain Scott's, at DeWitt, and that night there came on a snow storm that covered the ground to the depth of nearly a foot. By morning, when Hayes found himself ready to continue his journey, he found also that the snow had obliterated traces of the path over which Brown had preceded him. He hired a man named Proctor to, assist him in clearing a road and so laborious and tedious was the progress that the first day out from DeWitt they covered but six miles. The trip to Lyons was a painful one and during its continuance the party camped two nights in the woods. Mrs. Hayes had two children, George, then five years old, and a nursing babe, now known as N. B. Hayes, of North Plains. Hunger troubled them likewise on that trip and the sorest trial Mrs. Hayes was called upon to endure was when her little boy George said to her one night, "Ma, why didn't you leave me at grandpa's, where I could get something to eat?" At Muir (or where Muir now is) Hayes engaged H. V. Libhart to assist him over. and as the stream was so risen that fording was out of the question, their goods, and even their wagons had to be conveyed across the river piecemeal in canoes. On the I2th of October, I836, they reached their destination and they were heartily greeted by Brown, who had got there on the 8th. Delap had not got the cabin done and both families temporarily occupied the tent in which Delap had been living. Shortly after their arrival, Hayes and Brown, accompanied by their two hired men, went over to Libhart's to gather the crop of potatoes the two pioneers had provided for during the previous spring, but, although they got there all right, they capsized their canoe while crossing the Maple on the return trip and into the water everybody, including the potatoes, went. Luckily, they hung onto the precious potatoes and got them and themselves ashore in safety, but, as neither man possessed a change of clothing, the subsequent hours of night passed in dripping wet garments, in a chilly atmos

Page  142 I42 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. phere, were not particularly delightful, although by morning they felt but little worse for their adventure. When Hayes and Brown got in, thev found they had a neighbor in Abner Soule, who had just made a commencement on section 6 in Lyons. In a little while they greeted many more new-comers in their own settlement, Mr. Brown related how he brought with him an ample supply of things eatable, except flour, and would have brought that, only he was told that he would be able to buy plenty of wheat in the neighborhood of his proposed settlement and that he would, moreover, find a mill at Ionia. That he had good cause to regret having followed that advice the sequel will show. True, he brought two barrels of flour and some wheat, but the flour was almost worthless, and, as there was no mill in which to get his wheat ground. he fed nearly the whole of it to the cattle. Then he went to Lyons to buy flour, but, on being asked sixteen dollars a barrel, concluded to wait until it got cheaper. Instead of cheaper, it grew dearer and when Brown concluded to pay twenty dollars a barrel he could not buy a pound either in Lyons or in Ionia. Meanwhile, he and his family made shift to live on the two barrels of spoiled flour until Samuel Dexter set his red mill in motion at Ionia, Mr. Brown says he was luckier than some of his neighbors, many of whom did not see a mouthful of bread for three months at a time. Hector Hayes is said to have the honor of providing the citizens of Grand Rapids with the first fat beef known to the good people of that town. He owned an ox so large and ungainly that he could not be matched and, despairing of doing anything else with him, he fatted him and took him to Grand Rapids. The fatted ox was a sensation there and awakened popular enthusiasm and desire. Hayes did not find the speculation a very profitable one, but he got rid of unpleasant property and made lots of folks happy, a consolation doubtless quite sufficient to satisfy him. In February, 1837, Jay Olmstead, a bachelor, came to the North Plains with a string of six pairs of breaking cattle, wagons loaded with provisions and two hired hands, Joel C. Green and Alvin Smith. Olmstead had bought land on section 3i and proposed to pitch right in with his breaking-team and hired men and do some big work. They did accomplish considerable by the next summer, and then Olmstead concluded to go back to New York after a wife. He sold his cattle and provisions, went to New York and. got married, came out as soon as he could with fresh supplies and remained as a permanent settler. Green, one of his hands, himself became a settler on section 7 in 1838, but Smith remained in Olmstead's employ several years.

Page  143 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I43 Major D. Mlills, said to have effected the first land entry in the township, settled upon a quarter section in section 19 in May, 1837, and about the same time Silas Crippen moved to a place on section 30. Crippen had been on the East Plain since the spring of 1837, but he did not get over the line until early in the summer. Major Mills was the hero of an adventure in which he made a midnight sally upon a bear which he discovered playing havoc with the family pigpen. Mr. Mills attacked him with an axe, which, being thrown at the beast with fruitless results, was followed with a bombardment of bowlders. The hogs, thus emboldened by assistance, also showed a belligerent front, and between hogs and bowlders the bear found the fight growing so hot that 'he took leg-bail despite Mills's heroitc efforts to capture him. The settlement of Nathaniel Sessions in the eastern portion of the township, in May, 1837, was the pioneer undertaking thereabout, for until that time new.comers had gathered about the Hayes and Brown settlement. Sessions came to Michigan in the fall of I836 and, visiting Alonzo and Amasa Sessions in Berlin township, found there a man named Lodi, who, upon learning that Nathaniel was in search of land, agreed to pilot him to a choice tract. He pointed out wxhat he called a desirable piece of property. Sessions must have agreed with him, for he lost no time in making purchase of the northern half of the section, and, returning eastward, came to North Plains in May. 1837, with three of his sons. With them, he put up a cabin and otherwise prepared for the reception of the rest of the family, who came in the fall. Nathaniel Sessions was a man of mark in his day and generation and in matters secular and religious was a churchman and a revered Methodist class-leader. He was not without a humorous appreciation of the ridiculous. Apropos of that feature in his character, there runs a story that, being much in need of an ox-sled, he essayed to make one himself. The result of his labors must have been an extraordinary spectacle, for, in alluding to it to a neighbor, he observed that, orthodox as he was, he felt bound to confess that there could be no sin in worshipping that sled, sinde it was like nothing upon earth, in the heavens above or in the waters under the earth. In 1837 Moses Dean and William Vance settled on section 36 and the same year the first settlement in the northwestern portion of the town was effected by Ansel B. Glass, a New Yorker, who, in the fall, made a commencement on section 5. He lived in a pretty lonesome place, for his cabin

Page  144 144 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. was four miles from the nearest habitation. He was conspicuous in current history, not for that, but for the occurrence of a tragic episode in which his family and his home were destroyed by a fire in the spring of 1838 and which not only made a commotion in lonia county, but caused fear and consternation to prevail in all the neighboring newly-populated communities. About the middle of March, Major Mills and his wife went over to Glass's house upon hearing that Glass had'hurt himself badly, and remained there during the night, doing what they could by way of help and care. Glass was neither seen nor heard of by the settlers thereabout after that night until, on the 28th day of March, Hiram Brown, straying into the Glass neighborhood on a bee-hunting expedition, came upon the burned ruins of that person's house, and among the embers discovered the burned bodies of three persons. He lost no time in giving the alarm and from miles and miles around people flocked to the place. A strict investigation showed the human remains to be those of the wife and two children of Glass, but as to Glass himself, he was not to be found, despite an organized and protracted search. The verdict of the jury called to make an inquest was that the three unfortunates had come to their deaths at the hands of a person or persons unknown, but popular belief pointed to Indians as the authors of the crime. This belief gained ground rapidly, and in a brief space of time settlements in Ionia and Clinton counties were terrorized to that extent that many people, abandoning their homes, fled to Ionia, while others took vigorous measures in protecting their houses from prospective savage attacks; that there was a wide-spread feeling of uneasiness and dlrea(l may be easily imagined. The prospect of an uprising of the Indians, as indicated by the Glass tragedy, was an unhappy one to contemplate, for it conjured a sad picture of spoilation and massacre, and that settlers were sorely distressed is not to be wondered at. The Indians of the Grand River valley, through their chiefs, denied the imputation that the work had been clone by any of their people, although they admitted that there was savage deviltry at the bottom of it, and, to their credit, be it said they sought, through evidences of renewed kindness and friendly assurances, to restors popular confidence. However, their efforts were scarcely available, for it was argued that the Indians hlad killed the family, burned the house and carried Glass away a captive. After a bit came the story that Glass had been unearthed in Wisconsin, and with this disclosure came a sudden return of confidence and security, for then the belief became a conviction that Glass had committed the crime and fled. At

Page  145 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I45 all events, the theory that Glass was the murderer relieved the public mind of the Indian bugbear that had aftfrighted it, and in a little while matters resumed their normal condition. The story of the finding of Glass is said to have been coined by a person who saw in such an invention the only medium for a restoration of public peace and contentment. No one will gainsay that the end justified the means. That the murder was the result of Indian work has never been doubted by many of those who were central figures in the incidents of that time, but they ever believed that the cause was simply traceable to the drunken frenzy of loafing savages, who, being opposed by Glass in their attempts to help themselves from his larder, killed him and then destroyed the rest of the family so that there might be no living evidences of their crime. In May, I838, Mrs. Elizabeth Palmer, a widow, with her sons, settled on section 14, and in the fall of 1838, Samuel E. Stoughton, of Oakland county, located on section io. In that portion of the township Mr. Stoughton was the first. His nearest neighbor was Nathaniel Sessions, who, with his sons, assisted Stoughton in cutting a road from the Session settlement to section io. In January, 1839, William Edminister brought his family to a place on section'T5, where, the June previous, he had rolled up a cabin. The same year, I839, Amos Conkey, a bachelor, came along to occupy some land on section 15 and got the Sessions boys and Samuel Stoughton to give him a raise in making a road to his place and in building a house. Amos Conkey tarried but a year and then, selling out to his brother, Chauncey, moved farther westward. In I839, G. D. Kellogg, a New Yorker, came with his family to section I4. He had to make his own road from the Hayes settlement and found Calvin Crippen ready to locate upon section I4. To the same neighborhood, in I840, came Caleb Bundy, Mr. Kellogg's father-in-law, and, later, E. C. Reed. In April, I843, Harvey Waterman moved from Clinton county and made a commencement on section 20. His widow says they got in by cutting their road at a painfully slow rate, and that for years they saw no chimney, smoke except their own and Major Mills.. A man by the name of Smith moved to a place a mile north of them in a little while, but he soon died and his family moved away. Besides Major Mills, Waterman had no near neighbor for twelve years, when a Mr. Pennington settled just west of them. (io)

Page  146 I46 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Lyons was their first postoffice and their milling place was Ionia. For a trip to the mill it was not uncommon to use up the better part of two days. John McKelvey came to Michigan in I834 with his father, who located near Lyons in that year and put in what is said to have been the first wheat sown in Ionia county. John, the son, made a settlement in North Plains in 1842, and for many years has divided his time between farming and lawpractice. Mr. McKelvey enjoys the double distinction of having brought the first threshing-machine into the Grand River valley, in the year I838 (a special journey having been made for it to Rochester, New York), and the first lot of "civilized" hogs as well. Jefferson Thomas located on a forty-acre tract in section I9 in I848 and worked it three years for the use of it (clearing in that time all but four acres). Elder B. B. Brigham was also a settler there about 1848, as was Alvin Smith, who sold out some years afterwards to Edwin Moore, who came on with Thomas and settled on section i8. About that time Joel Hiscock made a start on section 7. There was a considerable Irish settlement in the township, mainly west of Hubbardston, which was founded in 1849 by John Cowman. Thomas Welch was among the earliest to follow him, in I851, and after that accessions were rapid and numerous. They were mainly Catholics, and worshipped in a fine church edifice at Hubbardston. As to other early settlers and some later ones, mention may be briefly made of Bartley Dunn, a blacksmith, George W. Germain, Baker Borden. Loren Jenks, J. A. Williams, J. Dalzell, S. Vamdosem, the Merrihews, D. W. Myers, A. C. Strachan, the Scotts, Henry Evans, LeRoy Pullman, A. M. Willett, Archibald Morris, C. Wright and W. McVeigh. Religious services were first held in the township at Hiram Brown's house by Methodist Episcopal preachers, among whom were Nathan Mount, Orin Mitchell and Larmon Chatfield. Services were held in various houses from time to time as convenience suggested, and eventually a Methodist Episcopal class was organized. Abner Soule, a fervent disciple of the Lord was leader as well as exhorter and, although gifted with a vigorous and resonant voice, he was sadly lacking in common education. Despite that draw-back, he affected to a liberal extent the use of big words, with a strong sound, and as he did not always seem to get a clear idea of the meaning thereof and strung them along in his talks promiscuously without much regard to their fitness for place, he created a good ideal of amusement at not only prayer-meetings, but at debate, for which he appeared to show an especial fondness.

Page  147 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I47 A famous Fourth-of-July celebration, the first held in the township, took place in 1841 on the William Vance place in section 36. The Stars and Stripes which were run up on that occasion had been provided by the hands of Mrs. Charles Millard, the soul-stirring speech was delivered by H. V. Libhart, and the music discoursed by John C. Millard, a great drummer in those days, who, by reason of his drum-beating skill, was called by the Indians, Ha-wa-gun. There was a large gathering of patriotic citizens at the celebration and there were also at hand a good many Indians in full paint and feather toggery, quite as jubilant as anybody and quite as active as their white brethren in making a grand success of the occasion. The first child born in North Plains is supposed to have been a daughter of Silas Crippen. She lived but nine months and was doubtless the first person to die in North Plains. The first marriage was that of Calvin Crippen to Sarah Parks, a domestic in Jay Olmstead's family.. They were married at Olmstead's house in 1839, but by whom, cannot be said. The first burial place used by the public was laid out on Silas Crippen's place, in section 30, the northeast corner of the south half-which Crippen donated for public burial places. The first burial there was that of Olive Palmer (sister of Silas Crippen's wife) in I837, her death having occurred on the East Plain. In January, 1848, a township burying ground was established on section 31, and after that the Crippen cemetery was used no more. The first crops of wheat were gathered simultaneously by Jay Olmstead, Major MIills, Hector Hayes, Hiram Brown and Silas Crippen. The first orchards were set out in the spring of 1838 by Brown, Hayes and Olmstead, their trees having been purchased of Thomas Cornell, of Ionia. The first public highway laid out was a road on the western township line, running from the southwest corner of the township northward a mile or so. Directly afterwards a road of a mile or more in length was laid from the northwest corner of section 3I eastward. The first postoffice in the township, called North Plains, was established in 1844 and given in charge of Hiram Brown, who remained the postmaster until January I, 1870. John Ransom and Jane Ransom were his successors. In I878 the office was discontinued. In I838 a man by the name of Barker, of Lebanon, while attempting to cross the Maple with a pair of oxen was swamped and drowned. In 1876 one Yarner killed a man named Brown in a bar-room fight. Conviction followed his first trial, but. upon a second trial he was acquitted. In 1878, near the center of the town, two men, named Kilduff and Wilbur, between

Page  148 I48 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. whom there had previously been some hard feeling were out hunting, when Kilduff, watching his opportunity came up behind Wilbur and shot him dead. SUPERVISORS. 1845-47, Silas Crippen; I848-49, A. Mather; I850-5I, G. W. Germain; 1852-53, H. Brown; I854, A. Mather; 1855, H. Brown, I856; G. W. Germain; I857-62, W. Sessions; I863-64, G. W. Germain; I857-62, W. Sessions; I863-64, G. W. Germain; I865-69, W. Sessions; I870, L. J. Lemert; I871-74, W. Reynolds; I875-76, A. M. Willett; I877, W. Patrick; 1878-80, W. Reynolds; I881-82-83, William Patrick; I884, A. A. Sunderlin; I885-9I, John W. Cowman; I892-94, Herbert A. Sessions; 1895-96-97-98-99-I9oo01, John W. Cowman; I902-03-04, Peter T. McKenna; Igo5, S. Page Borden; I906-07-08, John W. Cowman; 1909-JO, Peter T. McKenna; I9II-I6, James Burns. HUBBARDSTON. As early as 1836, J. R. Langdon, a wealthy capitalist of Montpelier, Vermont, visited Michigan for the purpose of speculating in lands, but more especially in lands embracing water-mill sites. Fish creek struck him as a good stream for mill power and he accordingly walked from the mouth to the source of the stream, picking out all the mill sites on its banks. Subsequently he located lands embracing them all, his aggregate purchases in the premises covering something like two thousand acres. Langdon's purchases included the major portion of the site of the village of Hubbardston, which, until 1852, remained upon his lands as idle an(t unproductive property. In that year, however, he sold to Joseph Brown, of Kalamazoo, two hundred and forty acres that included the Hubbardston water power, and Brown proceeded at once to construct a dam and erect a saw-mill at that point. Brown's saw-mill was a small affair, but, small as it was, the building of it and the dam had used up his means, and brought his progress to a temporary halt. At this juncture a company of Eastern capitalists, already the owners of about seven hundred acres of pine land in Montcalm county, bought Brown's mill property and his two hundred and forty acres, much to Brown's satisfaction, no doubt. The company, known under the firm name of Hubbard, Taylor & Company, and consisting of Thomas Hubbard, Wilson Homner, Newton, W. Taylor, Asa Patrick and J. F. Collister, took possession of the property in January, I853, improved the dnam, eilarged the mill, put on a

Page  149 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I49 force of about twenty men, and began at once to launch into the lumbering and milling business at a brisk rate. In October, 1855, J. F. Holbrook and D. F. Hunter, Massachusetts men, built the first store at Hubbardston, the village containing at that time the saw-mill, the mill boarding house, in charge of Calvin Crippen, the dwelling house, in charge of Calvin Crippen, and the dwelling house of Albert Collister, the manager of the mill and representative of Hubbard, Taylor & Company. The store built and occupied by Holbrook & Hunter was later used by H. C Whipple, hardware store. In the summer of I856 J..C. Howard, who had been keeping the mill boarding house, built a tavern on the site of the present Chatteron block, and called it the Howard House. In 1856, also, Hubbard, Taylor & Company, finding the water power to be failing, attached to their mill a hundredhorse-power steam engine, and maintained a cutting capacity.of about twentyfive thousand feet daily. In I857 Patrick & Sabin started the erection of the grist-mill and almost directly joined with the saw-mill company of Hubbard & Company in,completing it, the mill being fitted with three runs of stone. In I863 the saw-mill firm of Hubbard, Hitchcock & Company and the mercantile firm of Holbrook & Hunter consolidated their interests under the firm title of Homer, Holbrook & Company, and carried on saw-mill, gristmill and store, besides dealing also largely in pine lands. By this time, of course, Hubbardston had taken on the shape of a tangible village. Doctor Wilson, the first resident physician in the place, had opened, in I858, a drug store in a two-story building put up by Warren A. Sherwood on the site of the Sunderlin block. In a few months Frank Bailey joined him and to the drug store was added a department for general goods. In 1858 William Crossett opened a third store, and about the same time a Doctor Buchanan came in and became a village practitioner, while in the same year the first village school was built. In November, I864, the death of Holbrook caused a general dissolution of the mill firm and an immediate reorganization as Wilson, Homer & Company, in which firm were included four of the members of Homer, Holbrook & Company and N. F. Rogers. The new firm assumed the grist-mill and saw-mill business and in i868, disposing of the grist-mill to D. F. & C. H. Hunter, devoted themselves to the prosecution of their lumber inter-' ests. In I850 the firm became incorporated as The Hubbardston Lumber Company, with a chartered capital of seventy-five thousand dollars. Five years previously, on December i8, I865, Thomas Hubbard, Noah Hitch

Page  150 I50 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. cock, Newton W. Taylor, Wilson Homer and N. F. Rogers laid out and platted the village of Hubbardston, which was designated on the record plat simply as being on section I, in range 5 west, township 8 north. In I872 the lumber company, looking forward to the passage through Hubbardston of the proposed Marshall & Coldwater railroad and anticipating largely increased business therefrom, erected a large steam saw-mill at Hubbardston upon the site of the later mill, and expended on its construction upwards of thirty-one thousand dollars. It had a daily cutting capacity of forty thousand feet and employed something like forty hands. The railway failed to come and, as a consequence, the company found themselves with an expensive mill on their hands, without adequate means of transporting the product to market. Despite the drawback, they managed to push the business, but the game was a losing one and resulted, in July, 1876, in the collapse of the corporation. The failure was a disastrous one, not only to individuals, but to the village, for the company had largely sustained the village's material interests, and when the check came it was naturally a serious one. The recovery came in due time and, although the village did not make the bustling business show it did in the palmy days of the lumber company, its growth and substance were more healthful. The prosperity of the adjacent agricultural region will always make the village a place of some consequence, while the manufacturing interests bound to prevail there to a greater or less extent will add no small element to the general aggregate. The company's mill property was bought by Cuddeback & Corey, who operated it in a small way until the spring of 1879, when it was destroyed by fire. In I874 the Hubbardston Water-power Company built what was known as the upper dam and expended thereon from twelve thousand to fifteen thousand dollars. Their purpose was to induce manufacturing interests to locate there, but the scheme miscarried and bad management wrecked it before it had got fairly under way. Hubbardston is the largest village in North Plains township and to a certain extent is not as closely attached to Ionia county as some of the other villages. The reason for this is that it lies in the extreme northeastern corner of the county and as there is no railroad passing through the village the inhabitants do not have ready access to the county seat. The people of Hubbardston are supplied with a stage from Ionia, which makes regular trips. This is a very prosperous little village and being situated in an excellent farming district the merchants do a thriving business.

Page  151 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I5I MATHERTON. In 1842 or 1843 Asaph Mather bought of Dr. Morton Beckwith a half interest in the land on which the village of Matherton now stands. Mr. Mather was a practical millwright and, when he made the Beckwith purchase, had in view the building of a mill on Fish creek, but it appeared that James R. Langdon, a somewhat noted Michigan land speculator, owned the water power at that place. Mather and Beckwith accordingly bargained with him for forty acres that included the required mill-site. Langdon, who owned about all the water power on IFish creek, including twenty-four eightacre lots, agreed to dispose of the forty acres, provided Mather & Beckwith would buy one-half of the twenty-four eighties on the creek and become equal partners with him. The proposition was accepted, and Langdon, Mather and Beckwith, under the firm name of Beckwith & Company, began improvements at Matherton. They cleared ten acres on section 24. They threw a dam across the creek and built a saw-mill which, completed in 1843, was the first mill erected either in North Plains or on Fish creek. At this time Matherton was in the midst of a wilderness, with no human habitations in the township nearer than the Sessions settlement. In the same year, however, Peter Briggs settled between Matherton and the Sessions neighborhood. The product of the saw-mill was pine lumber, which found its chief market in Chicago, whither it was transported in rafts via the Grand river and Lake Michigan. The only additional improvements at Matherton up to I845 were a few shanties for mill hands. In the latter year Mr. Mather brought his family to the place and became a permanent resident. In I846 Mr. Mather had become the sole owner of the village site and mill property. He continued the business as before and in 1849 made an effort to expand it by the erection of a grist-mill, fitted with two runs of stone. In that yeat Dr. W. E. Blanchard set up a trading'post in a shanty near the grist-mill, and sent his son, Hiram, over to look after it, and now the place began to assume the aspect of a village. In I850 Matherton postoffice was established and Asaph Mather was appointed postmaster. He received mail once a week from Lyons, his young son carrying it on horseback, and the postoffice was conveniently kept by Mr. Mather in the grist-mill. The successive postmasters at Matherton were Hiram F. Blanchard, L. J. 'Lemert and N. P. Johnson. On May 22, I85I, Asaph Mather platted the village of Matherton, which, on the record, is described as lying upon section 24, "commencing

Page  152 I52 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. at a point where the highway intersects the county line on the east side of the county; running east from Fish Creek bridge, near Mather's grist-mill, on section 24; thence along the said county line north three degrees west seven chains and fifty links; thence south eighty-seven degrees west thirteen chains eight and seven-tenths links; thence south thirty degrees forty minutes east eight chains forty-six and eight-tenths links; thence north eightyseven degrees and nine chains fifteen and one-half links to the place of beginning." In I85I the lumbering interests at Matherton were considerable and, Eastern capitalists taking hold with Mr. Mather, business was quite lively for a time. The grist-mill was likewise pushed to its utmost capacity to supply demands flowing in from the then newly-peopled northern country, and Matherton, being the base of supplies, bustled and grew big with promised greatness. Mathers prospered and expanded until about 1854, when Hubbardston, two and a half miles farther up the creek, was called into existence and, in cutting off the northern trade from Matherton, administered a serious blow to the latter's welfare. Still, there was a good show for business and the prospect was fair for better times. About 1853 Joseph Brown put up the store building later occupied by Wood Brothers, and into it W. Z. Blanchard removed his goods. Meanwhile, Eli Morse had opened a second store, and not long after Morse's advent a Mr. Brinkerhoff started a third traveling post. In i865 Asaph Mather, Isaac Smith and one Fremont built a woolenmill at Matherton. They used steam-power, gave employment to about a dozen people, and manufactured woolen cloths, yarns, etc. The enterprise gave excellent promise of beneficial results, but it failed to pay and, after an. existence of four years, was discontinued. J. T. Irish started a foundry and sash and blind factory, but lost the property by fire in 1872. Fire had invaded Matherton on frequent occasions, and invariably with deplorable results. Besides the foundry, the grist-mill and the saw-mill were burned in the fall of I880. The mill, which Asaph Mather erected and carried on uninterruptedly from 1849 to 1867, was owned by Irish, Tooker & Company at the time of its destruction. The disaster was an especially unfortunate one, since upon the mill the town depended largely for its support. In 1872 A\saph and Vernam Mather, anticipating speedy railway advantages at Matherton, erected a fine steam saw-mill, but the railway never came and the mill was not as valuable property as it might have been. It was

Page  153 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 153 carried on more or less until the summer of I88o, and then transported northward. At its best, Matherton was a thriving country village, and supported three stores, two mills and minor other industries. Untoward circumstances have operated against it sorely and later it has boasted of but one store. The fall at Matherton on Fish creek gave excellent power, being ten feet at the saw-mill and twelve feet at the grist-mill site. c

Page  154 CHAPTER XII. ODESSA TOWNSHIP. Odessa was set off from Berlin township March 25, I846, and given the territory of six miles square. A meeting was held for the purpose of providing a name for the town at Esteven Russell's house, and upon declaration of opinions, it appeared that some wanted the name to be "Melissa," in honor of Myron Tupper's wife, others "Wellington," in remembrance of Wellington Russell, and others by some other name. The result of the discussion was the appointment of a committee, with Elder Tupper as chairman, to fix upon a name and report forthwith to the meeting. The report was presently made in favor of the name Odessa, and, by way of explanation, it was stated that the desire for a name likely to be somewhat exclusive led to the honoring of one of Russia's cities. The suggestion doubtless came from Myron Tupper, who was a great reader of history and rather admired Russian nomenclature. The first township meeting took place at the house of Myron Tupper, April 6, 1846, and, there being but one mind as to who should fill the several offices, there was no trouble or delay in arriving at the result. There were but thirteen voters, of whom all but Emory Russell and J. A. Russell received offices, and that they did not was simply because they did not want them. The thirteen voters mentioned were Myron Tupper, Esteven Russell, Asa Houghton, George E. Kibbey, Benjamin R. Tupper, John D. IHight, Hiram S. Lee, Reuben Haight, James A. Galloway, Wellington Russell, Daniel Heeter, Emory Russell and J. A. Russell. The full list of officials chosen is given as follows: Supervisor, Myron Tupper; clerk, Esteven Russell; treasurer, John D. Hight; justices of the peace, Hiram S. Lee, Reuben Haight, Benjamin R. Tupper and George E. Kibbey; school inspectors. James A. Galloway and Reuben Haight; highway commissioners, Asa Houghton, James A. Galloway and Wellington Russell; overseers of the poor, Esteven Russell and George Kibbey; constables, Myron Tupper, Asa Houghton and James A. Galloway; overseers of the highways, John D. Hight, Esteven Russell and Hiram S. Lee. Myron Tupper was moderator of the meetil1g, Esteven Russell, clerk, and Asa

Page  155 IONTA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I55 Houghton, George E. Kibbey and Benjamin R. Tupper, inspectors of election. At the same meeting thirty dollars were voted for township purposes and there was also a resolution passed to hold the next town meeting at "the school house in this town." Odessa, named after a city in Russia, is one of the southern border townships of Ionia county, lying on the Barry county line, and in the United States survey is known as township 5 north, range 7 west, having Berlin township on the north, Barry county on the south, Sebewa township on the east and Campbell township on the west. Agriculture has always been its main interest, since there is within the township neither railway, village nor water power. There are, however, postoffices to the number of four, named, respectively, Algodon, South Cass, Lake City and Bonanza, at the latter only of which is there even a semblance of a village. There is some waste land in the township, but, generally considered, Odessa is a good farming region and its inhabitants are a thrifty, industrious and comfortably-circumstanced people. In. June, I839, Myron Tupper, of Monroe county, New York, was in Michigan looking for land. At Jackson he learned from Kirthemthal, the mail-carrier over the Clinton trail between Jackson and Grand Rapids, that there was government land to be had in the locality now included in Odessa, Tupper proceeded at once to enter the southeast quarter of section 27, through which flowed a small stream and upon which rested the waters of a small lake. He returned eastward at once and, securing the companionship of Harvey Kibbey, moved westward once more, and made no halt until the Odessa land was reached. As soon as he could, Tupper gathered his household goods and, with his family and Wellington Russell, an unmarried young man, started at once for Michigan. This, then, was the pioneer settlement in Odessa. The Tuppers and Russell moved into the hovel previously occupied by Tupper and Kibbey and happily found their potatoes and corn crops in shape to give them a good start for a larder. Without delay, Tupper and Russell rolled up a cabin, and upon the heels of that event along came Kibbey for the purpose of permanently occupying the land on section 27. He was unmarried and subsequent to his arrival divided his time between working on his own place and upon those of others, as he happened to feel the need of earning a few dollars. During one of his excursions south of Odessa, in I84o, he died. Wellington Russell was without landed possessions when he came with Mr. Tupper, but, boy as he was, he saw no reason why he should not be a

Page  156 I56 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. settler, and consequently bought the east half of the northwest quarter of section 27. Hiram S. Lee was a settler in the spring of 1840 upon section 33, where he built the first frame barn in the township. Benjamin R. Tupper, brother of Myron Tupper, located in the fall of 1840 on section 27, where his brother had entered land for him. Emory Russell, who had come with Myron Tupper and Wellington Russell, in 1839, to lend his assistance in their undertakings, returned after a brief sojourn, but soon came back 'as a settler. As the Russells were, first and last, quite numerous as pioneers in Odessa and gave to the place of their location the designation of "Russell Settlement," it will be of interest to note that settling members of the family (all brothers) were Wellington, Emory, Esteven, Sumner and H. A. The order of their coming was that above given. Esteven Russell married Rosetta, daughter of Myron Tupper, and theirs was the first child born to Odessa parents, although, as a matter of fact, she was born in Woodland, Barry county, in I840, whither her mother went on that occasion to obtain the necessary aid, not easily obtainable in her own home. Mrs. Russell died in 1870. The first death in the town is said to have been that of "Granny Hall,'' mother-in-law to John Hight, with whom she lived. She was buried in the woods, but afterwards taken to the Woodland cemetery. Early burials were made wherever convenience served. The first burial in the Lake cemetery, in section 34, was that of Mr. Boynton, whose death occurred in I854. The first marriage was probably that of B. R. Tupper and Harriet Ayers, stepdaughter of George Kibbey. The first saw-mill in the town was put up on Tupper creek, near Tupper lake, in I848, by Joseph and Daniel Hector, who came to the town shortly after 1842. Before the erection of the Heeter saw-mill there was no frame house in Odessa and after that the first one was built by Emory Russell. About I855 William Kibbey placed a small run of stone in the mill and provided what proved to be the first and last grist-mill Odessa ever had. An early settler in section 26 was a Mr. Cady, after whom the small lake on that section was called. He remained but a short time, and but little is remembered concerning him. Other early settlers in and near the Russell neighborhood were Nelson Merrill, Emanuel Cramer, S. B. Chapman, A. A. Haskins, A. J. Clark, P. S. Lapham, David Crapo, Johh D. Hight, Reuben Haught, George E. Kelly, James N. Galloway and Asa Houghton. Concerning David Crapo comes a story which will be found worthy of

Page  157 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I57 preservation. In I868 he went over into Montcalm county with Samuel F. Alderman, on a land-looking expedition. They were on foot and, succumbing to the rigors of the journey, Crapo gave out when they were a score or more miles from any human habitation. Seeing that his companion was utterly exhausted and badly lamed in the bargain, Alderman started for help towards a lumber camp supposed to be about twenty miles distant to the southward. Alderman lost his way and for six days and nights wandered about in a hopeless maze. He suffered terribly from cold, hunger and fatigue, and more than once felt himself upon the verge of making up his mind that he had got to die. Pluck carried him through, however, and eventually, more dead than alive, he reached the lumber camp, told his story and fainted on the spot. Looking after Alderman and straightway getting him into good shape, a delegation from the camp lost no time in putting off to the rescue of Crapo, who they found just alive. He had concluded that Alderman's failure to return meant that he had perished, and so, unable to move and out of provisions, he looked upon the period of his dissolution as a question of only a brief space of time. So hopeless was he that, while strength still lasted, he carved his name upon the stock of his gun that he might be sure of identification when his dead body should be found. As it proved, however, he was not destined to die that way. His rescuers recalled him to life and never before did he behold so welcome a sight as the troop of strongarmed lumbermen who had come to carry him to a place of comfort and safety. For some vear the settlements in Odessa concentrated about the Russell neighborhood. In the year 1852 there were but four settlers in the western half of the township. These four were Solomon Foght, S. B. Chapman, Joseph Houseman and Eber Rush. The northern half of the township was then untenanted, although directly afterwards James McLaughlin moved to section 3. Settlements in the northern portion were slow, because the swamps thereabouts made road-making an expensive and difficult business, into which the hardiest of the pioneers hesitated to enter except under the most favorable circumstances. Simeon Buxton came to the Foght neighborhood in I853 and, following him, Aaron Shellenbarger, Richard Baker, Thomas H. Cooley and John Swarthout. In I855 Isaac Mower located on section I9, near where were already Elisha Rush and Henry Short, a short distance to the eastward. At the center of the township George Sickles made a settlement in I85I, and then came Horace L. Miner, Stephen, Henry and Charles Sexton, Jasper Wright, G. H. Shepard and Charles and James Wright. The Anways set

Page  158 158 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. tied in I854 on section 17, and about the same time Daniel Unger made a commencement near at hand. The pioneer stories dealing with early life in Odessa are like all pioneer stories in which the struggles, hardships and denials of those who launched themselves into the wilderness and experienced the customary vicissitudes of such an existence are recorded. Still, the first comers to Odessa were a little more fortunate, perhaps, than the pioneers of older towns, for when they came upon the scene the country was pretty well along in the matter of settlement. Half a (lay's travel at the most would carry them to points where the elements of civilization were to be found; where they could find a mill, buy and sell, and supply themselves with necessities without much trouble. The first wheat marketed brought only fifty cents per bushel and, at that, would fetch only store pay. Nothing but furs would sell for money, and many a man falling short on the money earned in working out nonresident taxes, was forced to trap furs so that he might raise money enough to pay his own taxes. Wellington Russell said: "To look back upon the early times is to wonder we didn't get discouraged at what we were called upon to endure; but, although we had some tough experiences, we had some good times, after all. We were sociable, because we had to be, and we often enjoyed many sociable reunions, albeit some of us did have to travel many mile,, and ride on an ox-sle(l at that. Wre were ambitious, and our ambition, more than anything else, kept us up; for we looked forward to better and easier times and knew they would come if we stuck to our tasks faithfully." Hugh L. Hunt was the first blacksmith, as well as the first storekeeper in the town, his shop an(l store being at the locality known as Bonanza. The first span of horses in the town were owned by Wellington Rus — sell, and were brought in, it is said, in 1850. Deer hunters were as numerotis as the settlers while the town was l)ut an infant. There were some who were successful and won considerable local reputation as deer slayers. Ashley Russell, Sumner Russell and }Eber Rush were considered great deer hunters and would average, ler man, something like thirty (leer during the season. Eber Rush was, lmoreover, noted as a busy hunter, and in his time bagged great qualtities of all kinds of game. Indians abloutndel in the vicinities of Tupper and Jourdan lakes and along Tupper creek, for there were capital fishing and hunting grounds in those parts, and, of course, the savages gravitated towards them with consideralle eagerness and in great numbers. The whites got along peacefully with the redskins, but there were tithes

Page  159 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I59 when the Indians waxed indignant at fancied injuries and became threatening, although nothing very serious ever resulted. A case in point, was a charge brought by the Indians against one John Nead, a settler, to the effect that he had stolen some of their coons. Nead became incensed at what he called on unrighteous accusation and, in a fit of rage, shot at an Indian, without injuring him. Alarmed at the consequences of his action when he found the savages in an uproar about the attempt to kill one of their number, he secreted himself. Meanwhile, the Indians met in council, with warpaint on, and, after a dance on the banks of Tupper lake, discussed, with many threatening mutterings, the advisability of inflicting summary vengeance upon Nead. Fortunately for the latter, he kept out of the way, or it might have gone hard for him. SUPERVISORS. 1847, Joseph Heeter; 1848-49, E. Russell; I850, M. Tupper; 1851, J. Myers; 1852, Samuel B. Chapman; I853, John Myers; 1854, D. Crapo; 1855, S. Russell; I856-57, S. B. Chapman; 1858, E. Russell. I859, D. Crapo; I86o, S. Russell; i86r, D. Crapo; I862-64, E. Russell; I865, J. T. Cahoon; 1866, S. Russell; T867, D. Crapo; I868-73, S. Russell; 1874, D. Crapo; t875-78, V. Bretz; I879, S. Snyder; I88o, V. Bretz; 188I-83, Sumner Russell; I884, K. K. Olmstead; 1885, Sumner Russell; I886-87-88, Marcus L. Foght; 1889, Samuel Blair; 1890-91-92-93-94-95, Marcus L. Foght; I896. Henry E. Curtiss; I897, John Seybold; 1898-99-oo100, Marcus L. Foght; 1901, Henry J. Shilton; I902-03-04-10, George W. Schneider; 1911-I2, Harley H. Lyon; 1913-14., John Seybold; 19I5-16, J. E. Peacock. LAKE ODESSA. Before the Detroit, Lansing & Northern railroad pushed its line west from Grand Ledge to Grand Rapids, what now is the prosperous village of Lake Odessa was a broad expanse of fertile farm land and the typical country "cross-roads," about a mile north of the village, was for that period, a bustling industrial center. Before the advent of the railway no one had dreamed of Lake Odessa. Bonanza then was the big settlement of this district. It is one of the queer vagaries of jfate and broadening civilization that in the space of a few years practically a whole village should move, creating a corporate village in the midst of meadow lands, leaving the original settlement to revert to corn fields.

Page  160 i6o IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. qk Railways have and will make many corporate changes in the map of a new country, but there are few parallels in Michigan for the condition existing at Lake Odessa. One-time bustling, successful villages have been left to decay, while new settlements sprang up on the line of new railways. But here is an instance where a village actually moved. Even the buildings were moved. The principal merchants of the old village simply moved buildings, stock and all to the new location. The old hotel was moved to the new village site. Only one or two of the old guard remain and they are left as isolated as if they had settled in the wilderness instead of having chosen a home in the very center of a promising and growing industrial center. Lake Odessa was not platted until 1887, but its beginning really dates back to the early seventies, when the village of Bonanza, at the cross-roads, came into being. None of the old settlers can explain why they called it Bonanza. It is the general impression that the optimistic pioneers saw great promises for the place and gave it a title in keeping with its then glowing prospects. It was a place typical of all small villages of that period. There was a hotel, a general store, a blacksmith shop and quite a cluster of residences. Until a railway came through it registered a normal growth from year to year and its increasing prosperity, due to a surrounding agricultural district of unexcelled fertility, for a time seemed to have warranted the early settlers in calling it Bonanza. It was the railway that made the title a misnomer. Perhaps behind this was the secret juggling by real estate financiers of that period. At any rate, H. R. Wagar, of Ionia, suddenly appeared at what is now Lake Odessa and negotiated with Samuel Chapman for the purchase of his farm on the banks of Jourdan lake. There was no reason why Chapman should hold his land at a price so much above any of the other productive agricultural lands of the district. Wagar got it cheap, considering its rapid value increase. Next it became general knowledge that the new railway was going to overlook Bonanza. Wagar platted the farm in I867 and named it Iake Odessa, after Jour(lan lake and Odessa township. He gave yard facilities and a depot site to the railway and, by using his influence, brought the steel through his new village. For a time Blonanza stood off the competition of the new village. But the rail shipping and transportation facilities offered too serious a handicap. Gradually, Bonanza citizens began moving to the new setletment and soon the movement became a stampede. Horace F. Miner, who had the general store at Bonanza and was its leading citizen and merchant, hung on until he

Page  [unnumbered] AN ORIGINAL INHABITANT.

Page  [unnumbered] p I

Page  161 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. recognized that to stay meant financial ruin. When he left, the industrial backbone of Bonanza was broken. F-rom the beginning Mr. Miner had been the chief merchant. His store was the gathering point for the countryside. Before its big cast-iron heater, governmental and international questions were fought out and solved. Some idea of the popularity of the place may be gained from a little passage-at-arms between an old settler and a prospective farm-buyer. The settler was asked to name a price on his acreage. The prospective purchaser allowed it was pretty high. "Well," said the owner of the farm, "there's a seat down at Miner's goes with it at that price." Late in the year 1887 Mr. Miner built the brick building which was later the Hotel Burke, in Lake Odessa, and moved his general merchandise business to that place. By that time they were not only moving business and stock, but buildings were being towed along over the mile of highway, to be set up on new foundations in the new village. The old Inn, so-called, was the biggest of these and the only one of the structures which was moved from Bonanza to Lake Odessa that stood in active service. It stood just north of the depot and was known later as Hotel Odessa. Horace Miner assumed the same position in the new village that he had held in the old and his modern store building is conspicuous as one of the best in the village. Mr. Miner left this business to his son, Otis, who was Lake Odessa's postmaster, in addition to being one of its public-spirited citizens. Many of Lake Odessa's other residents and business men had been identified with Bonanza, which is now part of the corporation, being spoken of as a sectional part of the village. The foundation was laid for the present town of Lake Odessa in i886, when it was first ascertained that a railroad was to be built from Grand Ledge to Lansing. That railroad, now the Detroit, Grand Rapids & Milwsukee branch oc the Pere Marquette system, was built the following year and a quickly-constructed village had sprung up to greet it. Two years later, in i889, the village was incorporated. It is built nearly on the shores of two beautiful small lakes, Jourdan and Tupper. It is just eighteen miles south of lonia, seventeen miles north of Hastings and only one-half mile from the Barry county line. lWithin the corporate limits of the village is maintained a popular, summqr resort, which is visited annually by a large number of people who have become attached to the beauty and picturesqueness of the town and lake in sumtner. It has a splendid system of waterworks, under the direct pressure (II )

Page  162 I62 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. system, the water being pumped directly from large flowing wells. Electricity for the town is furnished by the Thornapple Electric Light Company, which has a power dam on the Thornapple river, twenty-two miles away. Lake Odessa has also a well-equipped fire department, including fire house and apparatus. The town has continued to grow since its founding and bids fair to be of considerable consequence within a few years.

Page  163 CHAPTER XIII. ORANGE TOWNSHIP. Until March I9, 1845, the east half of township 6 north, range 6 west, was a portion of Portland, and the west half a portion of Berlin township. At the date mentioned, the entire township was given an organization of its own, and called Orange. The name was bestowed by Dean M. Tyler, but why cannot be ascertained. It was not in remembrance of any place in which he had ever lived, but in all likelihood suggested itself merely because it was a name of pleasant sound, without especial local application. The first township meeting was held at the house of Dean M. Tyler, April 7, I845, where Dean M. Tyler was chosen moderator. Alexander Dalziel, Adam A. Lewis, Myron J. King and Henry Bush, Jr., inspectors of election, and John Brown, clerk. Thirty votes were cast, and in each case they were given for every candidate presented. The returns of the inspectors of election certified that the officials chosen were as follows: Supervisor, Alexander K. Hall; clerk, John Brown; treasurer, Myron J. King; justices of the peace, Adam A. Lewis, Peter Hacket, Dean M. Tyler and Alexander Dalziel; highway commissioners, Arza H. King, Benjamin D. Brand and Alexander K. Hall; school inspectors, Alexander K. Hall and Alexander Dalziel; overseers of the poor, Dean M. Tyler and Thomas J. Marsh; constables, Henry Bush, Jr., George Lewis, George Jourdan and Morris Woodruff; highway overseers, Henry Bush, Jr., Samuel Utter, Thomas J. Marsh, Nathan Nichols, Gideon 0. Holcomb, Isaac E. Tyler, Adam A. Lewis, James Humphreys, Z. G. Grinnells and Charles Matthews. Twenty dollars was raised for the support of the poor, seventy-five dollars for contingent expenses, and five dollars allowed as bounty for each wolf killed. The first white settler in Orange township was Selah Arms, though some think Benjamin D. Brand should be given that distinction. As a matter of fact, however, Arms settled on section 25 late in I835, while Brand, who came to Berlin as a farm hand for Philo Bates and William Babcock, did not reach Michigan until late in 1835 or early in 1836, and certainly worked for Bates and Babcock in Berlin awhile before he became a settler

Page  164 I64 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. in Orange. He was, therefore, the second settler, but the first to build a house in Orange township. Arms was a bachelor and camped out awhile before effecting any building improvement, although he did build the first frame barn. Brand's house was constructed entirely out of wood and bark and was put together without the use of nails. At that time the township contained no road, save, perhaps, an Indian trail; was densely timbered in every part, and was, in short, a wilderness, inhabited by wild beasts and resounding with the cries of wolves by night and by day. This was by no means an inviting prospect to the hardy settler who counted upon making a home there, but it was a common prospect in Michigan at that period, and, what was more, it had to be faced as one of the features of the situation, and subdued, too, before the conquering advance-guard of the army of civilization could proclaim a victory over the forces of Nature and plant homes of plenty and comfort where forests stood before. In 1837 there came a bevy of settlers, including Dean M. Tyler, from Oakland county, Michigan, Thomas J. Marsh, from eastern Michigan, and Peter and Barnard Hackett. Mr. Tyler was accompanied by his son, Dean M. Tyler, Jr., and with him made a settlement on section 24. He found a decent road from Portland to Wadsworth's sugar-bush, only three-quarters of a mile from his destination, and esteemed himself especially fortunate in having to cut a road only three-quarters of a mile. Thomas J. Marsh came from Marshall, in February, 1837, with an oxteam, a sled and a few farm tools as the sum total of his worldly possessions, aside from his land. However, he was young and ambitious and, although he had to make his way through a forest stretch of forty miles, in which he saw but one human, habitation, he; felt, doubtless, quite eager and ready for the pioneer fight when he landed upon the patch of woods he had purchased and of which he proposed to make a fruitful farm. He cleared, unaided, four acres, and, sowing it to wheat, awaited the harvest with fervent expectation. Sad enough for him, however, was the realization, for his crop was a failure and yielded him just one bag of wheat, from which he got fifty-two pounds of flour. It was not much, to be sure, as the fruit of a year's labor, and likely enough he thought he had reason to feel discouraged, but he stuck to his faith and energy, and in due season Dame Fortune smiled upon him with gladsome encouragement. The Hacketts located in the southwest corner of the town. In 1838 Isaac E. Tyler, son of Dean M. Tyler, and John Brown came to the Tyler settlement and directly afterwards Mr. Whittaker came to the same neigh

Page  165 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I65 borhood. Brown, the Whittakers and the Tylers, numbering, all told, sixteen persons, lived for two weeks in the cabin of Dean M. Tyler, Sr., and occupied in common the cabin's only room, measuring sixteen feet square. While they struggled to exist in these close quarters, all hands were hard at work cutting out roads to the places where Brown and Whittaker had proposed to settle. Whittaker did not fancy the country very much, or perhaps found the job of pioneering more than he bargained for. At all events, he remained only a year, and then sold out to Adam Lewis and Alexander Hall. John Brown, to whom reference has been made, was married in I838 to Betsy A., daughter of Dean M. Tyler. The ceremony was performed at Mr. Tyler's house by Squire Northam, a justice of the peace at Portland, and that was undoubtedly the first wedding in the township. The first orchards are said to have been set out by John Brown, Dean M. Tyler, Dean M. Tyler,' Jr., and Isaac E. Tyler, in 1840, and the first field of wheat was grown by Dean M. Tyler. Mr. Arms, their neighbor, although earlier on the ground, was at first more particularly given to coopering than to farming, and on his place made a good many barrels and pails, which he sold to his neighbors. With the money thus obtained he got a start by which he was enabled to go ahead with his farming operations. kw The Tylers sold their first wheat at Ionia for forty cents a bushel, and had to pay five dolllars a barrel for salt. Fanning-mills were not to be had and, as the best substitute, fanning was done by hand. Fever and ague prevailed generally and troubled the settlers sorely in those parts. During the first ten years of his residence in Orange, Isaac Tyler spent most of his money paying doctor's bills and taxes, and for medicines and the simplest of life's necessaries.,The first birth in the town is said to have occurred in Isaac E. Tyler's family. The child was his daughter, Amelia, born in I839, who married J. E. Smith and settled in Nebraska. In I838 Ira F. LeValley came to section 5, having walked all the way from Detroit. He found in the neighborhood Thomas J. Marsh, Alexander Dalziel, Benjamin Brand, Paul Steel, John Houseman, Jared F. Long, Jacob Houseman and John Long. In I839 George Jourdan joined the settlement and, locating in section 13, was soon in the thickest of the pioneer fight. He was desperately poor and saw the time when he lived on a diet of two pancakes a day, while he had to go once or twice to mill as far as Pontiac or Jackson. Alexander K. Hall made a location in 1840 on section 22 and, in 1842

Page  166 I66 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. William H. Allen, of Oakland county, came to section I5, having to underbrush for the distance of a mile or more from the east. The nearest house west of him was John Houseman's, two miles and a half away; the nearest neighbor on the south was Samuel Grinnells, on section 27; eastward, the nearest was John Brown, a mile distant, and the same distance to the northward was Myron King. Adam Lewis settled north of Hall's in 1844, Theodore R. Darling, on section 26, and E. F. Smith in the Tyler neighborhood the same year. Becket Coleman came to section 26 in I845, and occupied wild land that he had purchased of the government. His near neighbors were Theodore R. Darling, Adam Lewis and A. K. Hall. Two years before Coleman's coming, or in 1843, there were but three horses in the town. Of these, Dean M. Tyler owned two and Esquire Barnard one, the latter an Indian pony. The settlers of I845 told some merry stories of the good old times they used to enjoy in the form of social calls among the neighbors, and of evening trips of half a dozen miles or more by means of an ox-sled, with a nice jolly visit at the end of it. Afterwards, a midnight ride homeward made a pleasant break in the otherwise toilsome existence and helped to cheer up all hands amazingly. I South of Coleman's there were already on the ground Charles Matthews, on section 35, and Samuel Grinnells, on section 27. The latter settler was the first to make a beginning in that corner of the town. Later, Charles Covey came to section 36. Among the other prominent early settlers were Elliott,Martin, Dolphin "Kinney, the Smiths and Rikers, A. Hunt, Mount Vernon Olmstead, and the Kings, David and his sons, Arzah, Myron and Burton. The first saw-mill in Orange township was erected in 1848 by Samuel W. Badger and Robert Kimball, on the north line of section I5. The second was the Keefer mill, built on the north township line in I853. The Bellevue road, passing between Orange and Berlin townships, was at a very early day a much-patronized highway of travel, as well as a mail route. A great deal of traffic in the way of lumber, hauled southward by teams, passed over the thoroughfare and gave occasion for the establishment of numerous roadside inns. In Orange township the first tavern on that road was opened by William Snyder. I. M. Wolverton opened a house of entertainment at his place, and so did Ira LeVallev at his, but these hostelries passed out of existence a long time ago. Orange postoffice, the only mail station ever established in the town

Page  167 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 6 i67 ship, was created in i855, and the office given to Lewis Priest. His successor was John Mosser, and after him Doctor Tremayne. SUPERVISORS. 1846, A. K. Hall; 1847-48, M. J. King; I849-50, Paul Steel; 185I-53, A. K. Hall; I854-56, J. Brown; i85 7-58, Paul Steel; 1859, Seely Arms; i86o, Paul Steel; i86i-62, C. Mathews; 1863, M. V. Olmstead; 1864, no record; i856-66, M. V. Olmstead; i867-70, Paul Steel; 187I, M. V. Olinstead; I872, P. Steel; i873-74, J. L. Mosser; 1875, William Keefer; 1876, B. athws;187-78, William Keefer; I879-80, M- V.-lsed 8i William Keefer; i882-86, M. V. Olmstead; 1887 -89-90, Barnard Hackett; 91, Charles I. Goodwin; 92, Bernard Hackett; 93-94, C. I. Goodwin; i895 -96, Henry H. jourden; 1897-98-99-I900-01I, Louis Olmstead; 1902-03, Frank Linebaugh; I904-05, George L. Jourdan; i906, John W. Adgate; 1908, C. J. Jourdan; 1909, WV. F. Brickley; 1910, C. I. Goodwin; I911-I2, A. Fred Klotz; 1912-I3, J. C. Linebaugh; I914-i6, Clyde Stout.

Page  168 CHAPTER XIV. ORLEANS TOWNSHIP. Township 8 north, in range 7 west, was included within Ionia township until March 25, 1846, when it was organized by the Legislature as the township of Orleans and the first meeting ordered to be held at the house of Ira Wheeler. The meeting called for the purpose of naming the town was held at the house of E. B. Post, and among the names proposed those of Wheatland and Dover appeared to meet with the most favor, the former especially. It would have been adopted, but the discovery that there was another Wheatland in the state caused it to be set aside by the legislative representative of the district, and the substitution by him or somebody else of Orleans, doubtless from Orleans, New York. It seems that some of the folks in the western portion of the town thought Wheatland ought to be the name because they raised buckwheat, and indeed did call it Wheatland before the town was organized. When they gave their reasons for wanting that name adopted, Daniel Hoyt, always keenly alive to a sense of the ridiculous, exclaimed "What not call it Buckwheatland?" At the first town meeting, held at the house of Ira Wheeler, April 6, ~846, Gilbert H. King and Jessie Wood, justices of the peace, were present as inspectors of election, and they with Milo 1K. Cody, David Courter and Garrett Snediker constituted the board of inspectors. Jesse XVood was chosen moderator and Albert Dorr, clerk, whereupon the J)olls were opened. Forty-one votes were cast and officials were chosen as follows: Supervisor, Gilbert H. King; clerk, Seneca H. King; treasurer, Ira Wheeler; justices of the peace, Guy Webster and Garrett Snediker; highway commissioners, Chester Goss and Joel C. Green; constables, Samuel T. Kidd 'and Isaac Harwood; overseers of the poor, Joel C. Green and [esse \Vood; pathmaster, Milo K. Cody, Garrett Snediker, John Highbee and Gilbert H. King. Upon the license question, the vote against the license was twenty-six to thirteen; at the next annual township meeting, the vote was in favor by twenty-eight to fifteen. In common with the lands of Keen and Otisco townships, those in Orleans were not put upon' the market until August, 1839, but lands were pre-empted and settlements effected more than a year before that date. What

Page  169 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I69 ever distinction can attach to the first settler in the town is due now, by the way of remembrance, to Guy Webster, of Ohio, who, then living on a farm in Lorain county, came out to Ionia county in the winter of I837-38 on a tour of inspection, and fancying the lay of the land upon section 36 in Orleans township pre-empted a tract, returned to Ohio and at once began preparations for the removal of his family and goods to Michigan. He hired a young man by the name of William Henry Harrison Sutliffe to help him over the journey, and all hands set out with two pairs of oxen, one horse and a lumber wagon packed with goods. At Ionia, Webster left his family at McCausland's tavern and with Sutliffe went to his Orleans place for the purpose of making a clearing and building a cabin. After he and Sutliffe had been at work just one day they concluded that they must have a female to look after the cooking, and since their efforts in that direction had been attended with lamentable and disastrous failure Sutliffe went over to Ionia after Lucretia, the thirteenyear-old daughter of Mr. Webster, later Mrs. Loren Sprague of Ronald. At the little fellow's request they brought back also Master Guy Webster, Jr., a bright little lad of six years; but young as he was he was just as ready to rough it as any of them, and eager too to do what he could to lend a hand in pioneering. Sutliffe and the children came along on the road Webster and he had previously cut out by the way of Yeoman's place. When Mr. Webster raised his log cabin he had besides that of Sutliffe the assistance of Joshua S. Hall and Stephen Starks, two young men then just making a start in the woods in Ionia township near the northern township line. The floor of that cabin was not what in this latter day would be called a stylish affair. It was in short a "split" floor, and when Mr. Webster got enough of it laid to put a bedstead on he sent for his wife, who had thus far remained in Ionia in attendance upon her sick daughter, to come and help them keep house. With its split floor and its otherwise primitive appointments, Webster's log house was nevertheless a sort of house of entertainment for a time after its construction, and lodged numbers of people journeying that way in search of land or upon other business. Wren Webster came to Orleans he brought a barrel of appleseed and planted the first orchard in the town, from which he was ultimately enabled to supply his neighbors with the stock for the foundation of other orchards. Guy Webster died in 1854, and his widow who lived with her daughter, Mrs. Loren Sprague, during the latter years of her life, died in 1874 at the age of eighty-four. As to Sutliffe, who worked for Mr. Webster, he preempted eighty acres on section 36 soon after coming in and did some work

Page  170 I70 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. on the place while he boarded at Webster's, but not until 1843, when he married, did he make a settlement upon it. After a stay of ten years he left the community. Joseph Collins, the second settler in Orleans township, settled on the northwest quarter of section I8 in May, 1838, but did not appear to make much of an effort towards improving the place. The very good reason for such lack of effort was that Collins was too poor to buy any land, and he knew that what improvements he might make he would have to give up just as soon as the land was sold. So he lived in a log shanty, raised barely enough to live on and made up his mind to live there until the purchaser of the land should put him off. He did not have to wait very long for that performance to take place, and then, like a philosopher, he went somewhere else. By some good fortune he got somebody to help him to a small tract of land in Otisco and there he lived until his death in I850. Although Mr. Collins was not especially distinguished for his pioneer performances in Orleans, his log shanty in that town became the locale of two interesting historic events-the first wedding and the first death known in that town. The wedding was a double marriage in which the brides were Lois and Sallie, daughters of Joseph Collins, and the bridegrooms William G. Bradish and Hiram Baxter, of Otisco. Squire Thomas Cornell, of Ionia, tied the knots, and of course there was a generally happy time although the Collins mansion was not precisely of the kind -adapted to a very brilliant display in the way of marriage festivities. The weddings took place in the summer of I839, and late that year Joseph Collins, Jr., a lad of nineteen, died at his father's house after a lingering illness, of consumption. He was buried at Otisco. Early in 1838 Erastus Higbee came to Michigan from New York and stopped in Oakland county to visit Charles Broas, formerly a neighbor of Higbee's in New York. From Oakland county Broas and Higbee came to Ionia county in search of land, and following Guy Webster's tracks to Orleans reached his place on June 26, 1838. Broas pushed on and eventually located at the place now called Belding in Otisco. Higbee decided tp locate in Orleans and pre-empted four lots of eighty acres each in section 36, where his son John later lived. The next arrival in that neighborhood was the Rev. Archibald Sangster, an alleged Baptist clerygman. He had but recently come to America from England, preached a year at Ionia and in 1839, finding that his preaching did not pay as a financial venture, made a settlement upon section 35 in Orleans. After assuming the role of pioneer he preached occasionally here

Page  171 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I7I1 and there, but as a minister of the gospel did not cut much of a figure. His religious belief was a little shaky at times, and for that reason possibly his influence was not quite so powerful as it might or should have been. John Higbee said he called on him one day and found the parson apparently disturbed in his mind; touching which condition, he presently remarked to Higbee that if he could by some exchange satisfy himself he would give the quarter section he owned for positive knowledge as to where he would go after death. Later, Mr. Higbee happened at a meeting where Sangster preached, and after service asked him whether he had satisfied himself as to the future. "Oh, yes," returned the preacher, "I think I've got it reasoned out all right." As he did not indicate whether he felt sure of going to heaven or to the other place, his conclusions were simply matter of conjecture. After he left Orleans he returned to California. To him is ascribed the honor of having built, in I839, the first frame house in Orleans, the lumber having been obtained at the Dickinson mill in Otisco. The first frame barn in the town was built shortly afterwards by Guy Webster. Speaking about John Higbee it may be remarked that in his day he was a famous hunter. Hundreds of deer had fallen beneath his unerring aim, and when he could not kill four a day he concluded the day was a bad one for deer hunting. He was likewise a sharp one after wolves, for the bounty, which at one time was as high as eighty dollars, was a big inducement. It was said that while Higbee was in the wolf-catching business he made money faster than any man in the town. In 1838 Daniel Hoyt came to Michigan from New York state, and settling upon section 21 in Otisco, made a clearing and put in a crop of wheat. He made no attempt at a settlement there however, living meanwhile at the house of Philo Bates near Ionia. As he journeyed from time to time between his Otisco clearing and Ionia he passed by the land on which he later lived, and despite the fact that there seemed to be ageneral desire on the part of everybody coming out that way to settle near the Flat river, he made up his mind to buy some land in the town of Belding. He selected eighty acres on section 21, and at the land sale August 5, I839, he bought the tract,.that being the first land in Orleans sold at that sale. When Mr. Hoyt bought his land and announced his intention to occupy it at once those at the land sale already living in that part of Orleans fairly shouted with joy at the prospect of getting a new neighbor. The persons referred to as already living in that vicinity were Asa Palmer, Lorenzo D. Bates and Joseph Collins. Palmer had been working at Dickinson's mill in Otisco since I837, and in December, 1838, moved to a piece of land on

Page  172 I72 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. section 19, in Orleans township. In 1842 Mr. Palmer moved to section 21i, and there resided until his death. In i85i he joined with his brother Charles in the erection of the first saw-mill in the town, on Long Lake creek, in section 5, and before completing the enterprise added also as partners, Hiram Hall and Robert Howe. Later, Jude R. Spencer bought the property and added a grist-mill. Among the settlers of 1839 was Chester Scofield, who, coming from Ohio near where Guy Webster had lived, bought some land of Webster in Orleans township, as did also John Frost, who came about the same time. The identity of the first person born in Orleans is not easily defined, for there appear to be claims to that distinction on behalf of three children, of whom one was Abbey, daughter of Chester Scofield, born in i84I; in that year were born George Palmer, son of Asa Palmer, and Calista, daughter of Calvin Woodard, who married Mary Smith, sister of Chester Scofield's wife. Nathan Redington and Deacon Pierce came from Lorain county, Ohio, in 1844, with a pair of horses and a yoke of oxen and settled in Ionia county-Redington on section 24 in Orleans and Pierce on section 30 in Ronald. Before that John Ditmars, son-in-law of Erastus Higbee, located on section 25, where he lived about twenty years and then removed to Kansas, where he died. On section 25 Joseph Carey also located in 1844, and about a year after Marvil Haight occupied some land in section 36 that belonged to his son-in-law, Joshua Hall. Jesse Wood came from New York state about 1844, and after living a brief period with his son William, in Ronald, settled on a farm in Orleans, on section 24. Adam Buzzard moved from New York to Washtenaw county, Michigan, in 1837, and in 1840 was in lonia for a brief stay. In 1845 he came back to Ionia county with D. C. Hurd and the two made land purchases on section 15 in Orleans. Buzzard worked for Hurd a year and then occupied his own land. Mr. Buzzard had a narrow escape from death in I850o, as did his companion on that occasion, E. B. Post, both of them having gone out on Long lake on a fishing excursion, Long lake being at that time a famous place for fish. While they were out a storm of violent fury came upon them, and before they fairly knew what had happened their canoe capsized and they were thrown into the water. Although the wind blew almost a hurricane and the waves clashed about madly, the unfortunate fishermen managed by heroic and desperate efforts to cling to the bottom of their upturned craft, and half dead with cold and exertion reached shore at

Page  173 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 173 last in safety. It was a terrible experience, however, and one that neither forgot to his dying day. In I843 James Kidd located four hundred and forty acres of land in Orleans township for his father, William R., who in the spring of 1844 came out with his two sons, S. T. and Robert W., and occupied the land. In 1842 the Orleans settlers included Edmund B. Post, Alexander Howe and Angus McPherson. In 1843 Martin Eckert and his son Jeremiah came from Washtenaw county to section I8; Joel C. Green, to section I7; Richard Hill, to section 35; Isaac Harwood, to section i8; Milo J. Cody, to the Face farm, on section 23; David Courter, to section 17, and Richard Hale, to section I9. Those of 1844 included Albert Dorr, section 8; Ira Wheeler, section I5; Warner Wheeler, section 8; of 1845-Thomas Neep, William Bradley, Samuel Raby and Chester Goss; of 1846 —James W. Gould, section I6; James C. Beach, section 28; Seneca H. King, section 20; Lewis J. Holcomb, section I9; Charles Chadwick, section 8, and Hiram Hall, section 17. Elder Robert Howe, Frank Olmstead and Erastus Sherwood were likewise among the comers of I846, the last selling out in two years to Joseph Baldwin and returning to Oakland county. In 1847 there were Lewis and Myron Smith, on section 14; James Baird, on sections I6 and 17, and Hiel Preston, south of Daniel Hoyt's. In the northwestern corner of the town there was a community of English or Canadian settlers among whom were the Bradleys, Neeps, Chadwicks and Autcliffs. Near Long lake, where Hiram Hall and T. W. Heald built a saw-mill in I860, the early settlers were Theodore Leach, J. W. Drake, the Morses, Kings, Freeman Decker and Oliver Decker. Among other early settlers in the southwestern corner of the town were Samuel Woolridge, E. D. Lambertson, T. W. Heald, R. P. Johnson, L. A. Benedict, Gilbert King, A. D. Johnson, L. M. Berry, John and Patrick Kelly, Fergus Flanagan, G. W. Basom, A. W. Smith and Abraham Alderman. The last mentioned settled in North Plains in I853. SUPERVISORS. 1847-48, G. H. King; 1849, S. H. King; 1850, L. D. Smith; 1851, Guy Webster; 1852, S. H. King; 1853, J. Jennings; 1954, W. S. Lazelle; 1855, S. H. King; I856, D. Hitchcock; 1857-69, M. Lazelle, I860, G. H. King; 1861-64, A. Dorr;. I865-66, D. C. Spaulding; I867-7I, J. Collins; 1872, F. Flanagan; I873-78, F. Pitt; 1879-80, E. D. Lambertson; 1881-83, Loren C.

Page  174 I74 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Falls, 1884-87-88-89-90-91-92; Luther E. Hall, I893-94-95; Alfred A. Palmer, i896-97-98-99-00; Fred Pitt, 1901 to the present time. SHILOH. The village of Shiloh, located on section I, is a station on the Ionia and Stanton branch railroad, and, although the youngest of the villages in Orleans, is one of the smartest. Wilmer Bishop was the leading merchant, and with Charles Leach carried on a saw-mill and planing-mill not far from the village.

Page  175 CHAPTER XV. OTISCO TOWNSHIP. On March 6, 1838, all that portion of lonia county known as townships 7 and 8 north, in range 8 west, was organized as a township, to which was given the name of Otisco (probably from Otisco, New York), and the first meeting was ordered to be held at the house of Robert W. Davis. On February I6, I842, township 7 was set off and named Keene. The electors of the township convened, according to law, on the 2d of April, 1838, and organized by choosing John L. Morse as moderator, Nathanile E. Horton, clerk, and Robert W. Davis, Ambrose Spencer and Rufus B. Cook, inspectors. The result of the election was as follows: Supervisor, John L. Morse; clerk, R. W. Davis; assessors, George W. Dickinson, Amos H. Russell and Ambrose Spencer; highway commissioners, George W. Dickinson, Ambrose Spencer and Rufus R. Cook; directors of the poor, William M. Springer and Volney Belding; justices of the peace, Robert W. Davis, George W. Dickinson, Rufus R. Cook and Nathaniel E. Horton; school inspectors, Robert W. Davis, George W. Dickinson and Nathaniel E. Horton; constable and collector, Ambrose Spencer. The justices of the peace, one assessor, one highway commissioner, one director of the poor and one school inspector not qualifying, a special election to fill the vacancies was held on May 15, I838, when the following men were chosen: Highway commissioner, George W. Dickinson; assessor, George W. Dickinson; justices of the peace, Nathaniel E. Horton, Rufus R. Cook, Amos H. Russell and Alonzo Vaughn; school inspector, John L. Morse; director of the poor, Paul P. Hewitt. At the first meeting of the township board, September 25, I838, the following accounts were audited: Thomas Cornell, two days' service in laying roads, four dollars; N. E. Horton, fees to county clerk, twelve and a half cents. At the same meeting three dollars were voted for the contingent expenses of the town. Township 8 north, of rang 8 west, known as Otisco, lies in the northwestern corner of Ionia county, having Montcalm county on the north, Keene township on the south, Orleans township on the east and Kent county

Page  176 176 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. on the west. Otisco occupies the central point of one of the finest wheatproducing regions in the state and is itself especially favored in respect to wheat-growing soil, which, upon the plains, is remarkably fertile. The "plains of Otisco" passed, in the days of lonia county pioneering, into a proverb, and not only captivated the first comers into the section, but speedily attracted a large population by reason of their reported richness as an agricultural field. The Flat river, a logging and mill stream of some importance, enters the town on section 2, and, flowing in an eccentric course southward, passes through no less than thirteen sections, covers a course fully ten miles in length, and emerges finally at section 32. At Belding and Smyrna the water power of the river is utilized to valuable purpose. There is likewise a water power at Kiddville on Dickinson creek, and still another on Seelv creek, at Smvrna. Otisco is a prosperous and growing township. with not only valuable agricultural interests, lbut manufacturing industries of considerable consequence, especially at the village of Belding. The latter place is the largest of the four villages in the township, the other three being Cook's Corner, Smyrna and Kiddville. Kiddville, on the Detroit, Lansing & Northern railroad, is connected by a branch railway with Belding, two miles distant. The other villages have no railway facilities. Before the eye of the hardy pioneer had rested upon the plains of Otisco, the value of a water power on Dickinson creek, near its confluence with the Flat river, engaged the attention of George W. Dickinson, a New York man, who, in the year I836, in copllany with Thomas Cornell, then of Ionia, built a saw-mill on the mill-site mentioned. Dickinson was the working and resident lartner at the nill, and with him, as mill hands, came others, among them Patrick Kelly, who in a little while pre-enmpted some land near the mill and became a permanent settler. Tn later life he resided at his son's place in Orleans. \mong Dickinson's mill hands in 1836 and 1837 were \sa I)almer, William G. Bradish, Hiram Baxter and Thomas Palmer. Tn July, r837, Asa Palmer and Rosa McDonald (a servant in Dickinson's family) were married at Dickinson's house b) Squire Horton, then a resident of Otisco. That was the pioneer wedding in the township, although residents of the township (Amblrose Spencer and lelitila Melvin) were marrield efore that at Ionia, whither they had to go for the l)erformance of the ceremony, since there was nol)oly ini Otisco plrel)ared to dlo this. Not long after their mar

Page  177 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I77 riage Palmer and his wife moved to Orleans, where Palmer lived until his death. Pretty soon after Dickinson and his men made their appearance in Otisco there came to the southern portion of the township Daniel Horton, Nathaniel Horton and Munson Seely. The Hortons located on section 32 and, after tarrying about ten years, moved to Iowa, where they died. Seely pitched his tent upon section 21, near where Smyrna now is. He grew tired of staying there, however, and in a few years passed on to Muskegon county. The little hamlet known as Cook's Corners was the center of the first important settlement in Otisco and it soon became a place of considerable local repute, chiefly because of its famous tavern. The country thereabouts was a handsome burr-oak plain and when, in the fall of I837, Amos Russell, John L. Morse and Abel Adgate, of Oakland county, journeyed out to Otisco to look at the country, they were captivated at once, and Morse and Russell straightway made land pre-emptions. Adgate fancied the land as much as did his companions, but his taste of trouble experienced in the tough time had in getting from Ionia to Otisco dulled the edge of his ambition and so he concluded he did not want any land. In November, 1837, Russell and Moore, accompanied by R. R. Cook, started once more from Oakland, intending to make some improvement on their Otisco lands (Cook having also made a pre-emption), but the inclement season setting in earlier than they expected, they were forced to aban(lon their undertaking and return to Oakland for the winter, after having completed one shanty and partly finished another. Upon their return journey to Ionia they undertook to effect a shorter cut than the way by which they had come (via the mouth of the Flat river) and, as a consequence, they were swamped in the river, lost in the wilderness and mired in swamps; but they stuck to it like heroes, and got through alive. although the business was discouraging and tough enough to make them feel more than once like giving up. At the time of the appearance of Russell, Morse and Cook, there were already before them (besides the mill people at Dickinson's) Nathaniel and Daniel Horton, on section 32; Ambrose Spencer and Munson Seely, in same locality; Volney Belding and R. W. Davis, keeping bachelor's hall in a shanty. In February, I838, Amos Russell, Rufus R. Cook and J. L. Morse gathered their families and effects for another start towards Ionia county. With them also started William Russell, Calvin Gage and Charles F. Morse, (12)

Page  178 I78 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. three young men who went on as hired men. The party navigated the Looking Glass and Grand rivers in flat boats as far as the mouth of the Flat river and thence traveled by Indian trail. The first births in Otisco occurred in the Cook's Corners settlement, the first being Eliza, daughter of Amos Russell, and the second, A. B. Morse. The first death was that of Clarissa Fisk, in June, I84I. The first cemetery was surveyed by Thomas Cornell on section 2I, December 6, I842. The settlers were afraid of losing the land, which was only pre-empted, for the Otisco lands were not put on the market until that date. The settlers joined for protection and proposed to visit punishment upon the head of any who should attempt to buy the land over the heads of the settlers. One rash individual made a counter-bid and was given fifteen minutes to leave the country. Among the early comers to the neighborhood of Cook's Corners, in I839, were Joseph Fisk, John Shaw, Tiberias Belding, Nathaniel Fisk and Loren Benedict, who built on section 9 the first frame house in Otisco. * In 1840 R. R. Cook built the first frame barn. In 1840 came Samuel Demorest and, in 1841, Silas Kimberly, Frederick Kimberly and Horace Liscombe. in the fall of 1841 E. S. Jenks, Elder Slade and William Alexander, of Rensselaer county, New York, came west in search of land, which they expected to find in the Flat River country. Jenks and his companions went out from Ionia to Otisco afoot and had a wretched experience with mosquitoes. Slade and Alexander concluded that in such a country they did not want to live. Accordingly, in the spring of 1842, Jenks, Ellis, Gibbs and Stokes, with their families and effects, set out for Michigan, accompanied also by John Gibbs. The company proceeded via lake to Detroit, and to Otisco, and stayed at section 9. Richard Ellis settled on section 3, Charles Gibbs located in Boston township, and Stokes settled on section IO, in Otisco. whence he subsequently moved to Montcalm county. When Jenks made his home upon section 6, his nearest neighbor was Sheldon Ashley, in Kent county, about a mile to the westward. Presently he had a nearer neighbor named E. B. Tuttle, who moved to section 6, upon the Enoch Brown place, Tuttle selling the farm to Brown in I850. Elder WVilson Mosher, a famous pioneer preacher, was an early comer to the neighborhood. Early settlers near Cook's, not before mentioned, were J. M. Brown, Mr. Boynton, C. F. Morse, George Cooley and N. R. Weter. Weter bought his farm of Mr. Penney, who made the first improvement on it. Later came Hiram H-Tovev and William Slawson.

Page  179 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I79 To return to Cook, of Cook's Corners, history recites that in the fall of r846, upon the opening of the Grand Rapids and Lyons road via Cook's, Mr. Cook built a tavern, which became in due time a place of popular resort. There was a good deal of travel over the road and the tavern did a flourishing business. When the stage-line between Ionia and Greenville was started, Cook's was made a stage-house. Tn T839 the Otisco postoffice, which was established at Dickinson in 1838. with George W. Dickinson as postmaster, was transferred to Cook's Corners, and given in charge of Rufus R. Cook, Dickinson not fancying the trouble of carrying mail to and from Ionia. In I850 Mr. Cook opened a store at the "Corners" and after awhile took in as a partner J. L. Morse, with whom he carried it on many years. On May I, 1856, Mr. Cook platted the village of Cook's Comers and recorded it as occupying the northeast quarter of the northwest quarter of section I6. James S. Patterson and Joseph Weeks were the earliest blacksmiths at the "Corners." SUPERVISORS. I839, Asa Spencer; I840, John L. Morse; 1841, C. Broas; 1842, J. L. Morse; 1843-44, A. Moe; 1845, L. Patterson; I846-47, J. Boynton; 1848, A. Williams; I849, A. Moe; J850, E. F. Root; 1851-53, R. R. Cook; I854-.55, A. W. Wales; 1856, R. Ellis; 1857-58, R. R. Cook; 1859, B. Fish; I86o-6I, W. Russell; 1862-63, I. Brink; I864-65, R. R. Cook; I866, J. Avery; I867-69, C. D. Ellis; I870-71, A. C. Davis; I872, R. R. Cook; I873-76, J. A. Sage; I877-80, J. S. Gage; I881-84, Charles Brown; J885-87 -88, Frank L. Moon; I889-90-91-92-93-94-95-96-97-98, George Hoppough; I899-1900, Leopold Krupp; 1902-02, Charles Brink; 1903 to the present time. KIDDVILLE. The beginning made on Dickinson creek in I836 by George W. Dickinson, with a saw-mill, resulted soon in the development of a settlement known as Dickinson. A postoffice was established there in I838 and named Otisco. Dickinson was appointed postmaster, but he tired of the office within a year and then transfer was made to Cook's Corners. Dickinson carried on the mill until 1845, when he sold out to J. M. Kidd, of Ionia, who surveyed the place as a village and named it Kiddville and, putting a few goods into the mill building hired a clerk to sell them for him. In 1846 he started both mill and store. He first built a shanty'store, but in I850 erected a more~

Page  180 i8o IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. substantial structure. He caused the creation of a postoffice, of which he was appointed postmaster. His mill business was considerable. During 1856 and 1857 he employed from sixty to seventy men, cut during his mill ownership there upwards of thirty-five million feet of lumber, and owned at one time in that vicinity two thousand five hundred acres of land. He carried on store and mill until I862, when the latter was burned. The same year he rebuilt it and in I863 sold out to Elam Murray and Samuel H. Baird. Joseph Collins came over about that time from Orleans and settled near the west township line. Near Kiddville, Lewis Ellis, Abner Wright, Allen Thompson, James Tallman, John Riker and John Murray were early comers. Thomas Stocking was an energetic pioneer. In the southern portion of the township the early settlers included Ambrose Spencer, Asa Spencer, Munson Seely, the Hortons, Alvin Moe, Ezra Spencer, G. C. Spencer, William Gardner (who purchased of William Kitts), James and Judson Buttolph, Alvin Davis, E. R. Berry, W. R. Douglass, E. G. Peterson, J. Moon and C. S. Cowles. East of the river, Edward Ingalls settled on section 27 in I844, and in the same year Amos M. Benton, who married Willett's daughter, came from Washtenaw county. Freeman Kilborn came to section 26 in 1846, and Peter Cooper in I848; the latter's widow taught the first school in the Brink district. James Dust made a permanent location there on May 15, I847, having bought his land in I844, in which latter year Augustus Northway and Gilbert Caswell were in that vicinity on the bank of the river. Daniel Philbrick came a few years later, as did W. W. Johnson, a Methodist Episcopal preacher from Adrian, who, after farming a year, took to circuit-riding again. When Dust came on, there was no road in his neighborhood, except one from the eastern township line to the Brink school house, which he and others at once pushed on to the river. GERMAN SETTLEMENT. Along the south tier of sections in Otisco there was somewhat of a German settlement, of which the members were a thriving and prosperous people. They had a church (their religious faith being Roman Catholic), a school, a store, etc., and composed, in short, a little community to themselves. The pioneer of founder of the settlement was John Albert, of Baden, Germany, who, in the fall of I841, passing through that region on a clockpeddling tour, was struck with the notion that he might do worse than

Page  181 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I8I locate there as a settler. He purchased.the whole of section 33 and began work at once, assisted by Peter Kemp and Henry Kroop, both of whom soon became settlers themselves in that locality. The German settlement did not expand very rapidly after Albert's arrival, and for the first six years was confined to the three settlers named. In I847 "Big" Henry Kroop settled on section 33 and in 1849 came Charles Kroop. After that Germans came to the settlement rapidly, and in a little while made it a populous and active neighborhood. Among the earlier comers may be named Nicholas Valentine and Michael Jacobee, Peter Shindorf, John Loucks, Charles Schlitz, Joseph Warner, Michael Hansen and Nicholas Manny. Soon after the advent of the Germans efforts were made to introduce public religious worship, and priests were had from Westphalia and Grand Rapids. In I850 a house of worship was built, and in that year Rev. Father Bolte was engaged as pastor. His term of service was continuous from I85o to I862. In I872 the old church building was replaced by the present edifice, a handsome structure measuring forty by fifty-six feet. SMYRNA. The village commonly known as Smyrna, but properly considered as Mount Vernon, was, in 1843, a wilderness. Its first settler was Calvin Smith, who, during the year 1853, came to those parts and, taking possession of his land-purchase, put up a log cabin and set about pioneering. Pretty soon after that G. D. Dickinson, then engaged in the saw-mill business at Kiddville, determined to put a grist-mill at the mouth of Seely creek, where it emptied into the Flat river, he having previously bought considerable land in that neighborhood. Dickinson's proposed enterprise came to the knowledge of N. G. Chase, who was just then looking for a location, and it struck him forcibly that the result of the utilization of the water-power would be a village; whereupon he bought a bit of land just west of the village and built a small frame structure, for which he obtained the lumber at Dickinson's Kiddville mill, in which he proposed to not only set up a store, but to make a home for the family. Mr. Chase opened his store, the pioneer trading mart of Otisco, in October, 1844, at which time the village of Smyrna contained the houses of Messrs. Smith and Chase, although there were many settlers in the neighborhood. Mr. Chase bore in mind that among these early, comers was Westbrook Divine, of Montcalm county, who, directly after his marriage, in

Page  182 1i82 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. January, 1845, went over to Chase's to purchase an outfit for housekeeping. He bought supplies of tea, sugar, spices, etc., but that his purchases were not very heavy may be understood from the fact that he was able to carry all of them in his pocket handkerchief. Doubtless he bought all that he could afford at that time-a time when superfluous wealth never impeded the pioneer's progress. Although Dickinson entered upon his Smyrna mill-building operations with a show of much vigor, he soon lapsed into sluggishness of purpose and delayed its completion until 1849. That year, in company with Avery Going, a practical miller, he set the concern in motion. The mill, which was fitted with one run of stone, was carried on with more or less success until the year 1854, when a violent flood destroyed the dam and swept the mill clear off its foundations into the river. As it happened, however, the mill building was not occupied at the time, for just before that, William and Joseph Woods, its owners, had completed a second mill close by, and had transferred to the latter the old mill machinery. The old mill was subsequently destroyed by fire and in its place arose, in I864, a mill, furnished with two runs of stone, built by Dorr & Osgood. About I855 Duane and John Roslyn threw a dam across the Flat river at Smyrna, and erected a sawmill at the place, known as Stern's mill. In 1848 the mercantile interests of the place, were helped forward upon the arrival of Marvin Babco.ck, of Albion, who purchased an interest in the grist-mill and put up a store building. Hie made a big show and undertook to show how magnificiently he could do business, but his high-flying ways got him into financial difficulty and in a brief time he collapsed. About I85o George W. Witt, a very worthy man, opened the first blacksmith shop and Alonzo Vaughn set up in business as a shoemaker. About the same time Noah Rich built a tavern and two young men, Ecker and Ford, came on with a set of tinners' tools and opened a small tinshop. They were ambitious youths and worked with a will. By and by they added a few dry goods, etc., to their tinshop business and succeeded so well that they abandoned the tin business and branched out as country merchants. Ford concluded to embrace the medical profession, but Ecker stuck to his store and, becoming rich in course of time, moved to Greenville. Dr. WVilbur Fisher, the pioneer physician in Smyrna, made his appearance in I848, and directly upon his coming bestirred himself in the matter of providing a postoffice for the village. According to postal regulations, the village was too near Cook's Corners, where there was a postoffice, to admit of there being one here also, but Fisher provided in the petition for

Page  183 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I83 the location of the office on section 32, just beyond the legally established limits. The name of Smyrna was bestowed upon the office at the suggestion of Doctor Fisher, who was doubtless desirous of securing a name not likely to be similar to that of any other postoffice within his knowledge, although as to the true reason for his selection, no one knows. Fisher was appointed postmaster, and before long he sent in a petition to permit the mail to be opened at the village as a measure simply of convenience, and, the privilege being granted, the village became ever after to all intents and purposes the postoffice. The incumbents of the postoffice, after Doctor Fisher, were N. G. Chase, Ezra Spencer, J. B. Purdy, Charles Randall, A. J. Esker and George Hoppough. On September 14, 1853, G. W. Dickinson recorded the plat of the village of Mount Vernon, but just why he chose the name cannot now be said; maybe, however, because he wished to pay a tribute to the memory of the "Father of His Country.' The record of the plat runs that the village of Mount Vernon lies on the west half of the southeast quarter of section 21 and upon fractional lot number 5 of section 28. It is further set forth that the survey commenced at a stake two rods north of a point two rods east of the quarter section post-corner between sections 21 and 28, and running east fifty-nine rods to the east line of the school lot. The width of the survey between the north and south was set down as thirty-three rods three feet and six inches. Additions to the village plat were made by N. G. Chase and Calvin Smith.

Page  184 CHAPTER XVI. PORTLAND TOWNSHIP. Township 6 north, range 5 west, in the government survey, is now known as Portland township, having, as boundaries, Lyons township on the north, Danby on the south, Clinton county on the east, and Orange township on the west. Besides being a rich agricultural region, Portland derives from the Looking Glass and Grand rivers, at Portland village, valuable manufacturing power, and in these substantial and enduring elements of prosperity the township is rightly to be considered as fortunate beyond many of its neighbors. The Grand, river flows from south to north in a sinuous course, entering the town at section 33, and leaving it at the line between sections 4 and 5. On section 33, or more on the line between sections 28 and 33, it receives the waters of the Looking Glass, which comes from section 36 in a northwesterly course. Toward the construction of the Detroit, Lansing & Northern railway, which traverses the township and has stations at Portland and Collins villages, Portland township contributed in a. substantial way. On October 6. I866, the township voted 1y two hundred and fifty-four to twenty-four, to grant aid to the enterprise to the extent of fourteen thousand seven hundred dollars. and it is said that almost as much more was received by way of individual subscriptions. On November 2o, i86Q, the township voted, by two hundred and seventy-four to fourteen, to extend fifteen thousand five hundred dollars as an aid to the construction of the Jonesville, Marshall & Grand River railway, but the road was not finished and that aid was not made use of. The soil of Portland township is especially adapted to the cultivation of wheat, of which it returns large amounts. On the openings it is a gravellv loam, and on the timber-lands, heavier liut still highly productive. TOWNSHIP ORGANIZATION. The legislative act organizing Portland as a township was approved IMarch 6, I838, and read as follow: "Be is enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the state of Michigan, that all that portion of the

Page  185 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. county of lonia designated in the United States survey as townships 5 and 6 north, in range 5 west, and also the east halves of townships 5 and 6 north, in range 6 west, be, and the same is hereby set off and organized into a separate township by the name of Portland; and the first township meeting therein shall be held at the house of Joshua Boyer, in said township." The town is suplosed to have been named by the Newmans, hut why Portland. nobody knows. The first meeting was held according to order at the house of Joshua Boyer, on Monday, April 2, I838. Asher Kilburn was chosen moderator. Joshua Boyer and William D. Moore were present as presiding officers, and William R. Churchill and Almeron Newman were appointed clerks of the meeting. As the result 'of the election, the following were chosen to the respective offices: Ira Webster, supervisor; Samuel Northam and Almeron Newman, justices of the peace; Almeron Newman, clerk; Elijah F. Shoff, Almeron Newman and Charles Gott, assessors; William D. Moore, Chancellor Barringer and James Newman, highway commissioners; Samuel Freeman, collector; A. S. Wadlsworth, William R. Churchill and Phineas Coe, inspectors of schools; Samuel Freeman, William H. Turner and John Milne, Jr., constables; John Milne, Sr., and Samuel Northam, overseers of the poor. Outside the limits of the village of Portland the first land entry and first permanent settlement by white man was made in December, 1833, by Joshua Milne, an Englishman, who had come to America only a short time before. Although M/r. Milne was the second settler in the town, Philo Bogue having been the first; he was the first to build a house. Mr. Milne made his first home on section 20 and remained a resident thereon until his death. Thomas Shepard, a bachelor, bought some land on the west bank of the Grand river and came to the town when Milne did, but he did not stop long enough to take a place as a settler. Ezra I. Perrin and John Friend joined the settlement in July, I834. Friend went over to a place on Friend brook, just northwest of Portland village and began to get out the timbers for a saw-mill. He lived in a tent and pretty soon spent the most of his time in imagining he was either being attacked by a combination of robbers, bears and wolves, or that he was about to be thus descended upon and utterly annihilated. This fear developed into a mania and, finding that he could neither shake it off nor attend to the business upon which he had entered, he abandoned his undertakings and left the country.

Page  186 186 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Settlements were made in the Friend neighborhood in I836 by Lambert B. Barnum, his brother, T. G. Barnum, J. J. Miner and Daniel Brown. Of some of these, further mention will be made presently. This was also the year in which William Dinsmore, a New Yorker, came to Portland and bought a tract of land of seventy-six acres on the south bank of the Looking Glass, in section 34. Dinsmore was by trade a shoemaker and shortly after he came to the town he set up a little shop in Portland village, under the hill in front of the site of A. F. Morehouse's office. Later he carried on the Newman grist-mill. John Knox and his two sons, Harvey and Alanson, were likewise among the settlers of 1836 near Portland village and near there, also, Abraham Hunt located. The year 1836 was a hard season for the settlers, for it was the period when the first real start was made in Portland township. It was then that the pioneer's path was most grievously beset with difficulties and hardships quite sufficient to appal the stoutest hearts, but, as it turned out, not severe enough to turn from their purposes the sturdy spirits who had come to clear the land and establish permanent homes. For the first year of two a lack of supplies and the difficulty attendant upon obtaining them were among the sorest troubles. By wagon from Detroit, or by water from Grand Haven, were the only methods of transportation for goods and provisions from the East, and each route was not only tedious and uncertain, but expensive. Salt was one of the luxuries and it was inordinately prized, for to get it the pioneer had to go even to Detroit. Of Mrs. Knox it is said that the teacupful of salt she had in her house was at one time the only salt in the neighborhood and the demands for trifling loans therefrom by her near-athand friends were so many that she divided it into thimbleful doses. The northern portion of Portland township, along the south line of Lyons, was first occupied in the spring of I837, when Robert Toan, with his sons, Robert, Jr., William and Thomas, made clearings in the vicinity of the locality later known as Maple postoffice. Tn 1837 the Toans received new neighbors on the south side of the line in the family of Ira Webster, who hailed from Monroe county, New York. He had bought twelve hundred and eighty acres on sections TO, TI and 15 and came with the intention of engaging in agricultural enterprises upon a liberal scale. With him were Patrick Lawless and William Hamilton, two farm hands, who themselves became settlers and landowners, Lawless locating in Portland township and Hamilton in Otisco. Ira Webster had to carve his way through the woods over the last eight miles of his journey and ended his travels at the house

Page  187 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I87 of Robert Toan. His family lived a little while at Henry Bartow's in Lyons, while a cabin was being put up on the Webster place. Ira Webster soon died. Henry March was a settler late in I836 or early in I837, locating in section 2. Nellis Van Alstvne, who came with March, made a settlement soon afterward. Henry March's child was the first to be buried in the cemetery. George Marcy was one of the early comers to that region, stopping on section i, where D. L. Burgess settled in 184I. In the Webster neighborhood there was no district school until about 1847, the children going to school on section 35 in Lyons. J. M. Webster built the school house, which was a log affair and in it a Miss Terrill was the first teacher. A good share of the provisions was sent around by water to DeWitt and from there poled down the Looking Glass. Reference to DeWitt suggests that when the Websters started from that place they struck a miry, swampy country and had as much as they could do to get from DeWitt to Welch's tavern. Maple postoffice was established in Lyons township about I837. when Zina Lloyd was appointed postmaster. When Lloyd removed his residence to Portland he carried the office with him. The successive postmasters after Lloyd have been Hopkins Roe, Fayette Shook, Robert Toan, Mr. Wooster and B. M. Goodwin. On section 12 and I3 moderately early settlements were made by Germans from Clinton county. West of there the early settlers included Gardner Maynard, Josiah Dilley, John Adams, H. E. Safford, James White, a chairmaker, 0. F. Hamlin and, in I849, in the Maple neighborhood, S. K. Welch. Early comers also to the vicinity were the Gilletts, Lloyds, Canfields, Smith and others. Upon sections 8, 17 and 20, the Grand river makes a great bend and there one Barnaby made perhaps the first clearing, his location being on section 20, east of the river. Barnaby had cleared but a few acres when the land passed into the possession of Stephen Pilkinton in I844. Mr. Pilkinton bought land in Sebewa in 1839, while still a bachelor, and, although he lived on the Sebewa place more or less and did some work on it, he did not make a permanent settlement until I842, when he married. In I844 he bought the Barnaby farm. Rowley Reid was in that neighborhood in I844 and in 1847 William Martin moved to that place. He did considerable clearing on it but did not bring his family to it until I850. Alvah Hopkins, who made his first appearance in Portland township in 1837, made a settlement in Lyons in 1847 and in April, I850, made his home

Page  188 I88 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. in section 17. Upon his coming he found his brother, W. B., and his father, Alvah, living on farms west of him. West of the village of Portland a man by the name of Bates was remembered as an early settler on section 29 and northwest of there Benjamin Brown. Stephen Lindley, an early settler in Sebewa, lived in section 30, upon a place owned at an early day by Stephen Bunker who was an early settler in both Lyons and Portland. Albert Thompson, on section 31, was a pioneer in Danby and in the early days was known far and near as a Universalist preacher of much energy. On the Scofield place, about I839, Ezekiel Green plied his axe and remained some years. John P. and Warren Miner were settlers in 1836 on section I8 and in 1837 John Probart located on section 19. Likely enough they were the first to make improvements in that locality. East of Portland village, Napoleon Bonaparte Barnes lived on a place in section 26 where his father made a settlement in I841. East of Barnes was one Darius Fox, whose son, Samuel J., married Matilda Gardner in 1838 and figured afterwards as one of the principals in an Indian story. A. F. Morehouse came to the township in 1843 and locating a place on section 27, divided his time between clearing his land and working in the village at his trade as carpenter. Like other pioneers, he saw some tough times, in 1846, when the fever and ague raged through the neighborhood. The doctors were few and were kept busy day and night and Sundays. Doctor Beers was about the only physician to be had and he was driven well-nigh to distraction without even being able to look after all the cases he was called upon for. J. L. W/hitelock settled in section 25 in 1846, near neighbor to John Terril, Darius Fox and others already mentioned. SUPERVISORS. i838, Ira Webster; I839, Charles Gott; I840-41, T. G. Frqst; 1842-43, D. C. Moore; I844, L. B. Barnum; 1845-49, William Dinsmore; I85o, A. Newman; I85I-52, H. Bartow; I853-54, A. F. Morehouse; I855, H. Bartow; I856-58, W. Dinsmore; I859-60, M. B. Beers; I841, J. E. Smith; I862-64, B. D. Weld; 1865, William Dinsmore: T866, H. Bartow; I867, no record; 1868-69, M. B. Beers; 1870, S. K. Gates; 187I, S. K. Welch; 1872, S. K. Gates; 1873-74. J. M. Benedict; I875-78, L. A. Smith; 1879-85, L. Shotwell; I886-87, William F. Selleck; I888-89-94, George Dinsmore; 1895-96, Jason D. Woodbury; I897-00, William Hixson; I901-02, Charles

Page  189 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I89 C. Rice; I903, Oscar N. Jenkins; I904, Bert B. Badgley; 1905-07, Hozial Horner; i908-I3, Henry Probert; 19I4-I6, Del Packard. EARLY HISTORY OF PORTLAND. By Mrs. N. B. Rice. The first land taken up from the government in what is now Portland was secured by Elisha Newman, in June, 1833. It was at the mouth of the Looking Glass river. About that time he was visiting some friends in Ann Arbor where the subject of unlocated lands lying west of Ann Arbor became the subject of conversation. One of the company told of having been with the engineers when they surveyed Ionia county and of having encamped for several days at the mouth of the Looking Glass. He remembered one of the engineers having remarked: "Here is a good water power and there will be a village here sometime." Elisha Newman proposed that they get up a company and go out and see the point. The same night, Elisha Newman, my grandfather, Joseph Wood, and James Newman, my father, agreed upon a plan and started without delay on the enterprise, with pony, blankets and provisions. The route lay past Whitmore lake, through an unbroken wilderness, except as cut up by lndian trails, to the place of their destination. Finding the place met their expectations, the party went to Portage lake, twelve miles north of Jackson, where they hired an Indian to pilot Elisha Newman to Jackson. From there he went to White Pigeon by stage, located his land, and returned to Ann Arbor. Philo Bogue located here with his family in November, 1833. He commenced trading with the Indians on a small scale and followed this occupation until his death, which was on July 25, I839. John Milne came in December, 1833, directly from England. Thomas Shepherd, also an Englishman, and a bachelor, located here at the same time but did not tarry long. Ezra I. Perrin came in July, 1834. A man named John Friend located at Friend brook and commenced getting out timber for a saw-mill. He lived in a tent and was so badly frightened by bears and wolves that he pulled out for Lyons and eventually left the county, but the brook still bears his name. John Knox, wife and two sons, Alanson and Harvey, came in i834. The first settlement in the north part of the township was by Robert Toan, Sr., and family in 1837, and Gardner Maynard and family in the same year. On the 24th of May, i836, the Newmans arrived to take possession of

Page  190 I90o IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. the lands purchased in I833. In the party were Elisha Newman, Samuel B. Smith, Lyman Bennett, Almeron and James Newman. The latter two were accompanied by their families, as was also Mr. Bennett. Mr. Bennett brought two yokes of oxen and a wagon and James Newman brought a span of horses and a wagon. A few supplies had been brought in at the same time, but most of their household goods were sent by way of the lakes to Grand Haven, thence up the river to Lyons on a pole boat called the "Napoleon." When the Newmans arrived they found the coast clear. The Indians, a small tribe in charge of Squagen, their chief, had their home at the point where the Looking Glass enters the Grand, but the tribe had gone down the river to Bogue's flats and the wigwam at the point afforded a very comfortable shelter for the women until a house could be built. This was of logs, with bark roof. Split logs furnished the floor in one half of the house, while the bare ground served as a floor in the other half, until timber could be brought from Libhart mill, on Libhart creek near Lyons. A hole in the roof let out the smoke until a mud and stick chimney could be built, while blankets served for a time as doors and windows. It was in this house that Mary E. Newman (the writer) was born, October 23, 1837, the first white child born on the east side of Grand river in Portland. Time passed and provisions grew less. Nothing had been heard from the goods which had been shipped via lake and river, so a square-toed, white man's build of canoe was secured and Almeron Newman and Lyman Bennett started down stream with a Chicago merchant, who had been to New York after goods. In due course of time they arrived at Grand Haven. There they found a man who was running a boat on Lake Michigan and he told them that goods answering the description of those belonging to Mr. Newman were in Chicago and likely to stay there for some time unless sent for. They instructed this man to get the goods and forward them by boat to Lyons, then hired their passage and that of their canoe on the "Napoleon" as far as Grand Rapids, where they purchased a barrel of flour, a barrel of pork, a small piece of iron, a cow bell, and other necessities. Then they bought a piece of bedcord, fastening it to the canoe, canal boat fashion, Bennett pulling the boat, while Newman poled it. By the time they reached Ionia they were so exhausted that they tied it there, footed it home and sent a new recruit for it. The next task was the dlamming of the Looking Glass and digging a race. It was an expensive job, but it was put through without a halt, as was also the building of a saw-mill. The latter was started in December, 1836, and in January, 1837, a small run of stone, with a bolt attached, was put in.

Page  191 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I9g The first flour made in that mill is supposed to have been the first bolted flour made west of Pontiac. The mill did all the grinding for this section of the county until 1842, when James Newman and Peter M. Kent built the mill which was burned on February 9, 1893. Peter M. Kent was a millwright and came to the settlement in June, 1836, for the purpose of building Newman's saw-mill. The first glorious Fourth of July celebration was held in Portland in 1836 by a patriotic band of about one dozen pioneers. Mrs. Bogue, seeing the display on the east bank of the Grand, caught the spirit, and, not to be outdone, procufred a pole and attached a white cloth to it, placing it in a hollow stump on the west bank, in front of her house. This was before the day of matches and it was a common occurrence to see people going to the neighbor's after a shovel of coals, for great care had to be taken lest the fire go out. A flint stone, a jacknife and a bunch of tow were kept on hand by some for fear the fire would fail them entirely. This was also a day of crude cooking utensils. The iron bake kettle, tin oven, iron kettles suitable for hanging on the crane in the great fireplace, and then the brick oven, which would hold a week's baking for a good sized fanmily, were all in evidence those days. The manner of crossing the rivers before the advent of bridges was varied and at some times dangerous. In times of low water fording the river was the usual method. The ford on the Grand was where the lower bridge is now located. Here a foot-bridge was built later. It was on benches, covered with planks and was all right until the river got on a rampage. Then there was great hustling to save the plank and benches. The ferry was a flat boat, capable of carrying some four or five men and a span of horses, one man to hold the horses and two or three to; do the ferrying. The wagon had to go in the second load and when that was taken over the team was hitched to the wagon and proceeded on its way. Canoes were abundant, but not very safe, except in the hands of an expert, especially in times of high water. The first bridge was built in I837 or I838, where the upper bridge now stands. When Mr. Shepherd left the county his land passed into the hands of A. S. Wadsworth, who, in 1838, divided his land into village lots and commenced building a dam on Grand river, as well as the erection of a gristmill, where the factory now stands. He also undertook to build a saw-mill on the Grand. His mills he never finished and his dam was twice carried away by floods. Becoming discouraged, he sold his mill machinery to the Newmans and departed to other fields. A. Newman put this machinery into

Page  192 I92 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. a carding machine on the Looking Glass. Newman had been by occupation a clothier and his little factory at Portland was the first establishment of.the kind put into operation west of Pontiac. The Indians, when sober, were of great service in the early days in Portland. They furnished the early settlers with venison, fish, berries, sugar and baskets, all of the best quality, exchanging them for pork, flour or money. Occasionally one would get drunk and become quarrelsome. At one time some five or six came to father's house when he was away and wanted something to eat. Mother set lunch on the table for them. While they were eating two of the party got to quarrelling and drew knives." Mother spoke sharply to them, commanding them to go out doors to do their fighting, as they scared her papooses. They went as directed, and the door was bolted against them. Their food was then passed out of the window to them, which they took and departed. One day an Indian got pretty drunk and wanted more whisky, which was refused him. He then attempted to stab the trader, but the knife was knocked out of his hand. The trader complained to the chief, who had the offending Indian severely whipped. When he recovered from the whipping he returned and demanded more whisky, saying that he had been whipped "'two quarts too much." Another incident which Mrs. Maynard used to tefl was that one day she saw some squaws dipping some Indians in the river and then hauling them out again. She went home and told her mother that the squaws were drowning the Indians. Mrs. Churchill went to see what they were doing and chided them for their treatment of their spouses, but when one of the squaws told her "White man make my man drunk, me make him sober," she left them to complete the work so well begun. The Indian cemetery was located on the point at the confluence' of the Looking Glass and Grand rivers. Elisha Newman had the point fenced in so that the cattle and hogs could not injure the graves. When the Indians discovered what had been done they went up to Mr. Newman and kissed his hand in token of their appreciation of the kindness shown. The early roads wandered here and there, according to the make-up of the ground. For example, the road from Bogue's and Milne's flats used to wind around the hill, passing between the barn and the house on the farm now owned by Charles Culver, and when the road over the hill was established some of the buildings on the flats were left in the midst of the fields. Wild game abounded. Wild pigeons were so thick that the wheat fields suffered from their depredations and it was customary to catch them with

Page  193 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 193 nets. Elisha Newman was an expert at that game and I have witnessed the springing of many a net in my girlhood days. Fish were abundant and of first quality. Sturgeon of immense size were often caught, to the delight of the small boy who wanted a piece of sturgeon's nose for the center of his ball, to bake it bound. At such times the village shoemaker, William Dinsmore, who always delighted to please the boys, was kept busy cutting ball covers from old boot tops and mothers were instructed how to stitch them on. In the fall of i836 my maternal grandfather, Abner Hixson, came to the settlement, bringing his wife and eight of his twelve children, they occupying a part of the double log house with father's family. Shortly after their arrival the settlers were called together for the purpose of -naming the village, so that letters might reach them more readily. My father asked my uncle, Abram Hixson, to go with him to the meeting, which he did. When it came to handing in the. names there were so many that it staggered the assembly. The names suggested were Johnstown, Jamestown, Boguetown, Boyerville and Newmanville. During the silence which followed Abram Hixson said to father: "Why not call it Portland? I think that a nice name." "Suggest it," said father, but he declined. Father then said the name of "Portland" had been suggested to him and he thought it very appropriate, as there certainly was a fine landing, where all the passing boats stopped. All present were pleased with the name and so Portland it was named. My uncle always felt proud that he had suggested the name and kept a warm place in his heart for our village. In the spring of 1837 W. R. Churchill came to the village. He bought the land where Mr. Crane's drug store now stands and put up a building to be used as a tavern or store as circumstances should direct. At this juncture came one David Sturgis, a Canadian, looking for an opening. He bought a half interest with Mr. Churchill in the building then being erected, with the agreement that when it was finished they should as partners open it as a store. When it was completed they were besought by Joshua Boyer to rent it to him for a tavern. Agreeing to let him have it, Churchill & Sturgis opened their store near where A. F. Morehouse's old office building stands, and for some time they carried on a flourishing business. Boyer opened the tavern and called it the "Mansion House." Portland became a postoffice in 1837, with Joshua Boyer as postmaster. The office was on the route between Detroit and Grand Rapids, and mail ('3)

Page  194 I94 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. was received once a week by horseback mail carriers. About 1846 stage coaches took the place of the horseback riders and then there was daily mail. In the early days of the postoffice, when the mail receipts were little more than nothing, the opening of the mail bag was a ceremony upon which all of the villagers felt morally obliged to attend. At such times Mr. Churchill, who was Mr. Bogue's deputy after he succeeded to the office, would call out the addresses on the letters as fast as he would run them over and the eager expectants would step forward and take what was for them, provided the required twenty-five cents was handy, which was not always the case. At one time one William H. Turner, living three miles from the village, was informed that there was a letter for him at the postoffice..Turner cast about him for the necessary two shillings, but neither having it himself nor being able to borrow it from others, he threw a bushel of wheat over his shoulder and trudged away to town for his letter. Much to his surprise, the postmaster could not think of taking anything but two shillings in coin, for, said he: "As much as I would like to accommodate you, I couldn't get anybody to give me money for the wheat, and it is money I must have when I settle with the postoffice department." Nor could Mr. Turner find anybody willing to give him anything but store pay for his wheat, so he left his letter at the office and carried his wheat home again, there to bide the time when he might be able to raise the two shillings in cash. This reminds me of a similar incident at the little mill. One day Willard Brooks came to my father and said: "Mr. Newman, we are out of flour and have no money with which to buy more. Can you loan me some until harvest." Father went to the mill and found he had just two bushels of wheat that he had taken in as toll. He ground the wheat, divided it in two equal portions, letting Mr. Brooks have half, while he took the other half home for his own family use. These are but samples of the many deprivations of early pioneer life. Mr. Boyer was postmaster until 1842; C. W. Ingalls, until I849; Hezekiah Smith, until I850; W. W. Bogue, until 1852; Dr. F. G. Lee, until I861. Others have followed in the order printed, up to the present day: Doctor Root, F. M. Cutcheon, W. W. Bogue, Frank E. Doremus, Fred J. Mauren, Grant M. Morse, Arthur L. Francis. The first wedding in Portland was that of Susan Moore to Joshua Boyer, September 4, 1836, 'Squire Dexter, of lonia, performing the ceremony. One of the first entries upon the township records is that in which the

Page  195 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I95 clerk, Alemeron Newman, set forth the issuance, August I6, 1838, of a marriage license to Samuel Fox and Matilda Gardner, who came to the town in I836 with the Newmans. The marriage ceremony was performed by 'Squire A. Newman, at his house. The first brick building erected in Portland was that now occupied by Barton Brothers as a meat market. This was built by W. R. Churchill about I85o. During the year I88o eleven brick blocks were erected at an aggregate cost of seventy-five thousand dollars. In an early day the method of obtaining goods by the merchants was to have them brought in wagons from Detroit, which took from seven to eight days at first or until the plank road was built from Lansing to Detroit.

Page  196 CHAPTER XVII. RONALD TOWNSHIP. Lyons and Ionia townships possessed each one-half of the territory occupied- by township 8 north, range 6 west, until March I9, 1845, when the township was given a separate organization and named Ronald. A. L. Roof was a representative in the Legislature at that time, and when the petition for organization came to him he observed that the name of Northport, as suggested for the township, was already owned by one other town in the state and being therefore himself called upon to name it, hit upon "Ronald" from the fact that he was just then engaged in reading a novel whose hero was named Ronald; and it happened, too, that Mr. Roof admired the character so heartily that he conceived the idea of thus honoring him. The first township meeting was held at the house of William J. Clark, April 7, I845, when Parley Eaton was chosen moderator, Royal Howell, William Jennings, William J. Clark and Chauncey E. Shepard, inspectors of election, and W. J. Clark, clerk. The meeting then adjourned to Chauncey Goodwin's house and proceeded to the election of township officials. Thirty-two votes were cast and officials were chosen as follows: Supervisor, William Jennings; clerk, William J. Clark; treasurer, Royal Howell; justices of the peace, John Ransom, Parley Eaton, Chauncey Goodwin and Joseph L. Freeman; highway commissioners, Phineas C. Hutchins, Stephen F. Page and Alanson Snow; directors of the poor, Parley Eaton and Mathew Van Vleck; school inspectors, William Jennings and John Van Vleck; constables, Julius Jennings, Ambrose Frederick, S. C. Barnes and Joel Smith; poundmaster, William Wood. On motion, it was voted that officers doing town business receive seventy-five cents per day for services in town and when on business out of town they were to be paid according to law. In the spring of I837 on section 33, the first settlement was made in Ronald township. The pioneers were George Younger and Joshua Shepard, who came together, and together entered upon the mission of opening the tangled forest to the light of day and the influences of civilization. Shepard wore himself out and died soon after reaching the woods, but his widow

Page  197 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 197 and sons, Chauncey, William and Norman, carried on the work the father had begun and made a handsome farm of the property, which became subsequently the county poor farm. There are now, in Ronald township, no descendants of Younger or Shepard, and, although they won a distinction of some importance in the pioneer history of the township, the heritage they left in that respect remains as an honor equally with every citizen of the township. Before Younger and Shepard happened along, there was a bit of a farm location in Ronald, two years or more old, on section 34, but as it was simply a portion of a farm lying in Ionia, where the settler, Samuel Yates, lived and made his improvements, it can scarcely be assigned a place in Ronald township history. It was not until the fall of I837 that the tide of incoming settlers set toward Ronald with anything like healthful vigor. It was then that Joseph and \Villiam Wood settled on section 19 and then, too, that John Van V'leck came on and founded the Van Vleck settlement, in the northeastern corner of the township, a settlement that pushed the township's interest forward with constantly-hastening steps, and created a local influence which from the beginning has been felt in a very marked degree, and always in a beneficial way. Mr. Van Vleck came from his home in Delaware county, New York, to Michigan in I836 for the purpose of prospecting for land locations on behalf of his father, Mathew, as well as for himself. His uncle, John T. Van Vleck, was then living at White Pigeon, employed as an agent for a company of New York land speculators, for whom he had purchased and had on sale several thousands of acres of Michigan lands. To White Pigeon, therefore, John Van Vleck bent his steps and, with his uncle, went over into Ionia county, where some of the latter's lands lay. In section 2 of what is now Ronald township John Van Vleck saw a tract of land that pleased him, and so he wrote at once to his father, Mathew. While waiting to hear from his father he went over to Samuel Yates's in Ionia and engaged to work for him. In the winter of I837 and I838, Mathew Van Vleck came out and, fancying the prospect, bought three hundred and twenty acres on sections i and 2 in Ronald township. After assisting his son John to start the construction of a cabin, he departed for the East to bring on his family, having meanwhile engaged men to break one hundred acres for him, and, in charge of these men and their work, John was left behind. Mathew Van Vleck lost no time in transporting his family and effects

Page  198 I98 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. from New York to Michigan. He reached Detroit without much trouble, but thenceforth his path was beset with difficulties and vexations, just as were the paths of many who went before him and many who came after him. He traveled with three pairs of oxen and a lumber-wagon and, passing via Lainsburg and De Witt, reached his destination in July, 1838, after having been two weeks en route from Detroit. The family he brought with him included his wife and four children, Peter, Albert, Catharine and Sarah. Mathew Van Vleck died in April, I880, aged eighty-six, and late in the summer of the same year his son John died. John T. Van Vleck, the land-agent, himself bought land on section 2 in 1838, and, although his business called him abroad frequently, he made Ronald his place of residence more or less from 1838 until his death in I844. In 1838 he hired John James Foote to work the place and in 1839 Melvin B. Allen took charge of it. Allen remained on it about three years, when he bought some land on Long Plain. In the fall of 1838, Alanson Snow located on section 21. Mr. Snow, as well as his wife, belonged to a historic family. His mother was slain in Ohio by the Indians, her death being conspicuously chronicled as an illustration of Indian atrocities. His father-in-law, Mr. Pangborn, who came to Ronald township with him, was a survivor of the Revolutionary War and lived to be near one hundred years old. In 1838, Lafayette Church became a settler, but soon passed to Gratiot county, and in the same year Calvin Woodard, a bachelor, located on section i8, at the foot of the lake that bears his name, and to which land Chauncey Conkey succeeded not long afterward. In I839 the additions included Stephen and Wellington Page, George D. Tasker, James Jennings and his brother's widow, Minerca Jennings, with whom also came her two sons, Julius and William, and daughter, Mary. Mrs. Jennings settled on section 24 and south of her, James Jennings made his home. The Crossetts settled in 1840 upon section 23 and Eli Soule, the same year on section 26. Neither the Crossets nor the Soules have any representatives in Ronald township now. H. F. Hull, on section I5, was among the early comers, and in r843 Joseph L. Freeman and David Dodge came. Loren Sprague moved with his father, Elijah Sprague, to Keene township in I839, but directly afterward devoted his time to the pursuit of his trade, which was carpentering, chiefly at Tonia. In I84I he married the daughter of Guy Webster, of

Page  199 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I99 Orleans, and moved to a place he had bought of Guy Webster some time before that. He worked on it from time to time and by I845 had effected a considerable clearing. His neighbors in Ronald township were Deacon Price, just north; Alonzo Hubbell, on section 31, and Henry Hubbell, on the east. At this time Calvin Woodard was eking out a lonely existence on section I8 and having his washing and baking done at Guy Webster's. In May, 1846, William Brooks settled on section 32, upon the town-' ship line, and the same year Alpheus C. Hawley, a famous hunter, trapper and fur-trader, made a beginning on section 9. In i848 L. J. Mosher pitched his tent upon section I4. His father, William Mosher, had settled in Watertown, Clinton county, in i836, but, meeting with misfortunes, lost his property, and thereupon L. J. Mosher, the eldest son, assuming the charge and maintenance of the family, became, as stated, a pioneer in Ronald in I848. He took great pride in the reflection that he had owned and cleared in Michigan five farms, and that upon the two hundred and fifty acres cleared he did nearly all the work himself. He was, moreover, a noted hunter in his day, and, first and last, killed eight bears and more than a hundred deer. For some reason, a mystery even to the children, William Mosher bestowed upon each of his eight children a given name commencing with the letter L. The names of the eight were Lucy, Laura, Loisa, Loren J., Lanson B., Lyman D., Lock V. and Lawrence. At the time of Mosher's settlement on section 14, he found Joseph Freeman living on Long Plain east of him; south of Freeman, the Jennings families, Alexander Runyon and Melvin Allen; west, his neighbor was Alanson Snow, two miles and a half distant. Long Plain occupied a tract on the eastern side of the township, measuring two miles in length and one in width. Indeed, that side of the township is pretty much all a plain or prairie, from the north line southward to the center of section 24. George Sessions, Phineas Hutchins and Leander Millard became settlers in Ronald in I845, and later there were Benjamin Pew, Stephen Ackles, Mr. Laverty, Daniel G. Smith, to the old Wood place; David Wilder, M. C. Wilder, W. Hall, who bought out Mr. Veeder; Americus Smith, William M. Steere, J. L. Fowle, J. P. Powell, William Penny, Doctor George Pray, one of the earliest physicians resident in the township; Samuel Loomis, the Mattisons, Cobbs, and so on. As to going to the mill, the pioneers of Ronald township were not as badly off as they might have been. When the advance-guard penetrated

Page  200 200 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. the township there was already a grist-mill at Ionia, and, as a trip there and back from the Van Vleck settlement was usually made in twenty-four hours, the hardship in that particular was not very great, although some of the early ones did find a hardship in not being able to procure at all times material for a grist. The road to Ionia from Van Vleck's was the one Van Vleck had cut out when he came in with his family, via the Yates and Shepard places. The first road laid in the Van Vleck settlement was the one through Palo. north and south. It was opened in I839. Matthew Van Vleck brought a horse with him when he came to the town and kept him about a year. For his first crop of wheat he got fortyfour cents a bushel at Ionia, and had to take half of the purchase money in store-pay. John T. Van Vleck built a saw-mill in 184I on Prairie creek in Ionia township, just over the Ronald line, and in that year George D. Tasker got his lumber there and built on section 2 the first frame house put up in the settlement, which was later occupied as a residence by James Dennis. John Van Vleck put out an apple orchard in I839 and, in I840 or I84I, what he claimed to be the second peach orchard in the county, E. Le Valley of Ionia having been given credit for planting the first. The first marriage in the town was that of George D. Tasker and Catharine Van Vleck at Mathew Van Vleck's house on December 3I, I840. The officiating minister was the Reverend Mr. Staples, a Methodist Episcopal preacher, who came up from Lyons in company with a party of fifteen or more wedding guests, among whom were Doctor W. Z. Blanchard, his son, John C., and Ann Eager, later Mrs. Frederick Hall, of lonia, after whom Peter Van Vleck went on a special mission. There were not notably demonstrative festivities, but there was, of course, a wedding dinner, of which the feature was an immense wild turkey, shot by Peter Van Vleck especially for the occasion. On the following day the wedding party, including the bride and groom went down to Lyons and at Doctor Blanchard's house, after another jolly dinner, supplemented that performance in the evening with a glorious dance. As to the first birth and death in Ronald township nothing definite can now be spoken. The first death was probably that of Joshua Shepard. The first death in the Van Vleck settlement is said to have been that of an infant daughter of Jeremiah Mabie. She was the first one buried in the originally selected burial place at Palo, and when the location was abandoned, her remains were transferred to a village cemetery.

Page  201 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 20I The resident taxpayers of Ronald township in 1845 were M. B. Allen, sections 13, 14, I33 acres; James Bentley, section 27, 200 acres; Sanford Buskirk, personal; William A. Clark, section 28, 320 acres, David Dodge, sections 13, 14, 266 acres; Volney Eaton, section 32, I60 acres; James L. Freeman, section 32, 266 acres; Freedom Gates, Sr., section 19, 4I acres; Freedom Gates, Jr., section 19, 8I acres; Chauncey Goodwin, sections 33, 34, 280 acres; Royal Howell, section 35, 123 acres; P. C. Hutchins, section 22, 80 acres; James L. Jennings, section 24, I60 acres; William Jennings, sections 13, I4, 24, 373 acres; Stephen and Wellington Page, section 30, 83 acres; Lawrence Pierce, section 30, 83 acres; Benjamin F. Pew, section I, 40 acres; John Ransom, section 20, I60 acres; Alanson Snow, sections 20 2I, 400 acres; John Snow, section 20, I20 acres; William Snow, section 21, I20 acres; Joel Smith, section J9, 40 acres; Chauncey E. Shepard, section 33, 120 acres; Eli I. Soule, sections 26. 27, 240 acres; George D. Tasker, sections I, 2, 70 acres; Mathew Van Vleck and M. Van Vleck, agent, sections t, 2, II, 35, 635 acres; John Van Vleck, section 2, 70 acres; Lamber Van Valkenberg, sections 4, 24, 205 acres; William Wood, section I9, 80 acres; Joseph Wood, section I9, 80 acres; Calvin Woodard, section T8, I04 acres, and George Younger, section 33, 80 acres. SUPERVISORS. 1846, R. Howell; 1847, S. F. Page; 1848-50, MI. Van Vleck; 1851, E. Kellogg; 1852, M. Van Vleck; 1853-54, B. H. Preston; I855-56, W. Jennings; 1857, D. G. Smith; 1858, William Jennings; 1859-63, George Pray; I864, B. H. Preston; I856-66, W. H. Freeman; I867-68, W. M. Steere; I869-70, George Pray; 1871, William H. Freeman; 1872, William Jennings; I873-78, George Pray; 1879-80, J. L. Fowle; 1881-87, Charles F. Kellogg; I888-95, William H. Mattison; I896-99, William P. Smith; I9oo-o2, William H. Mattison; I903-07, Byron Yeomans; 1908-12, Rector Van Vleck; I913-I6, H. L. Smith. PALO. The village of Palo, which occupies land originally owned by Mathew and John Van Vleck, was first established as a trading-post about I849, by John Van Vleck, who sold goods in his house. Before that a little while, there had been a slight move toward concentrating a population at that locality, and when, in 1846, John Van Vleck suggested that the place be

Page  202 202 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. called Palo, in honor of General Taylor's victory at Palo Alto, in that year, the common voice acquiesced, and the name passed into popular acceptation. John Van Vleck carried on business in a small way a few years, and then gave it up. His brother, Albert, succeeded him as the village merchant, and by and by John Van Vleck and Charles C. Randall built a store on the site of Mathew Millard's present fine brick block, and pushed local trading interests forward upon a more liberal scale than had previously been reached. Meanwhile people had come in and erected additional residences upon the spot. Leander Millard opened a tavern and Curtis Brooks set up a smithy, a blacksmith shop having previously been started in I850 by a Mr. Rogers, about two miles south of Palo, on the Ionia road. Van Vleck and Randall sold out to Albert Van Vleck, after continuing in business about a year, and he sold to Leander Millard in I866. - On March 12, I867, the village was platted by William H. Freeman, commencing at a point fifty-two and one-half rods west of the center of section 2, running east one hundred and five rods. On December 15, I870, Van Vleck, Swarthout and Freeman platted an addition. In 1867 Ross Starkweather built a steam saw-mill at the village, and in I868 a Toledo firm put up a steam grist-mill, consequent upon a donation to them of two thousand dollars from the residents of the village and vicinity. The Toledo men did not, however, do what was esteemed the fair thing in the premises, for they provided old and worn-out machinery, which failed to do satisfactory work and fell far short of fulfilling the expectations awakened at the beginning. About I868, too, R. & H. Miller added to the list of local industries a foundry, to which they added later on a planing-mill. In i875 Albert Van Vleck built a grist- and saw-mill. The village has striven earnestly for supremacy and recognition, but its efforts have failed in a great measure. Palo of today is only a small village, which is maintained by the country trade for the several stores which exist there.

Page  203 CHAPTER XVIII. SEBEWA TOWNSHIP. It is vaguely asserted that the first white settler resident in the present township of Sebewa bore the name of Jones, but whether John, James, Thomas or Peter, cannot be clearly ascertained, nor is it, perhaps, especially important as an inquiry, since Jones tarried but a short time before striking his tent. It is known that he and his wife came to town some time during the year 1836, carrying on their backs the few traps they owned, and settled on section I. They were poor, and thought that by some hook or crook they might earn a living in the woods, and shortly raise a crop, for which they could get something before being called upon to vacate the premises. However that might have been, they did not apparently recognize the full force of the undertaking upon which they had entered, for it seems that they sickened of the work in a little while, packed up, and were off to more congenial climes. It must have been pretty lonesome for them, deep in the woods, the solitary settlers in a dreary stretch of country, hemmed in on all sides by howling wolves, and, to cap the climax, so poor that they had to make a meal on herbs and roots or starve. No wonder, therefore, that they did not care to stay very long. They may not have done much better by making a change, but it seems to have been agreed on all sides that they could not have done much worse. Jones may be dismissed early in the history as no -very important factor therein, except as relates to the circumstances of his having been the pioneer of -his race in the settlement of Sebewa. The first attempt at a permanent settlement, and the one from which the history of the town properly dates, concerns the coming, in 1838, of John F. Terrill, Charles W. Ingalls and John Brown. Terrill located on section 25, and Brown and Ingalls on section 36, not far away. All three were pushing Vermont Yankees and laid hold with a will to the heavy task before them. Slowly, but surely, the forest-wild gave way before the sturdy blows of their ringing axes, and where formerly stretched a wilderness soon spread a pleasant prospect of comfortable, if not elegant, homes and fruitful farms. In due time, John F. Terrill concluded to utilize the handsome water

Page  204 204 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. power of Sebewa creek, and so, in 1843, in conjunction with Anson W. Halbert, he built a saw-mill just west of where "The Corners" engaged the notice of the traveler. Halbert came to the town in 184i and in that year he married one of Terrill's daughters. In the log house he had built at the Corners, he ventured into mercantile trade with a few goods, but, few as they were, they evidently sufficed, and more too, for Halbert did not feel encouraged to pursue the subject of trade beyond of disposing of his first stock. Strictly speaking, he was perhaps the first merchant at the Corners, but his effort was so fruitless that it has not been mentioned in the history of trade at the Corners. Jacob Showerman and Eleazer Brown, with their families, joined the Sebewa settlement in 1839. Showerman had come into the town three years before (in I836) on a land-hunting expedition, and found then but one settler in the town-Jones, on section i, of whom mention has already been made. Showerman selected one hundred and sixty acres on section 22 and, after a fortnight's waiting at the Ionia land office for his "turn," entered his land and returned at once to New York. When the Brown and Showerman families came, some time in the fall of 1839, they found that there were already on the ground, John Terrill, William Hogle, his son-in-law, John Brown; John Maxim, Joseph Munn and Charles W. Ingalls. Brown and Showerman arranged to lodge their families at John Terrill's until such a time as they could cut out a road in section 22 and put up habitable quarters there. To accomplish these undertakings required the labors of four weeks, and meanwhile the families of Terrill, Hogle, Showerman and Brown lodged and lived in Terrill's little log cabin of but one room. There were twenty persons in the four families and if those accustomed to plenty of space and modern conveniences can begin to imagine the worrying and wearying those twenty people endured during the four weeks they passed in that one room, they will be doing some pretty good work in the way of mind-pictures. Mr. Showerman settled in section 22, upon the purchase he made in I836, and Brown, on section 26. As to the first birth in the town, Mrs. Brown said it was that of her daughter, Luriette, who was born in I841. In the fall of 1837, Rufus Goddard, coming westward from Livingston county, New York, tarried a while in Lenawee county, Michigan, and then, leaving his family there, pushed on alone in search of a location. He found one in Sebewa that suited him, and back he went to Lenawee county for his family. Benjamin D. Weld was to come out with Goddard to settle and

Page  205 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 205 to give Goddard some assistance toward paying for his land, but Weld was not ready just then, and so all hands decided to stop in Lenawee a while longer. In 1843 Mr. Weld came out with his family and settled in the southwestern part of the town. Goddard followed in 1844 and, settling on a government forty in section 23, went to work for Mr. Weld, from whom he had previously borrowed money, and in the way of labor proposed to repay him. It took him a year and a half to earn money enough to pay Mr. Weld and to buy a piece of land for himself, but he got around it at last and, buying an eighty on section 32, made a permanent settlement. On that place his son Daniel W., later lived. Daniel W. Goddard was quite a character in the settlement, even when but a lad of fifteen or thereabouts. It was upon him the neighborhood depended for mill-service, that is to say, Daniel went to the mill for everybody, although the condition of the roads was so horrible that it was as much as he could do to haul ten bushels to Newman's mill, at Portland, and back again in two days. In one sense Daniel was a public benefactor, for the want of flour was sometimes a sore one and the procuring of it was most assuredly a trouble. Young Goddard would usually set out early in the morning with his ten-lbushel load, drawn by a pair of oxen, and, by dint of much urging of his beasts, he would manage to reach the mill by ten o'clock that night. While his grist was being ground he would bunk in his wagon. wrapped in his blanket, and by daylight the next morning was off again for home. The time of his arrival at home was always pretty well along in the night, and to help and cheer him on the last few miles of his journey some member of the settlement would go out and meet him, bearing a lantern to show the way and himself abounding in social pleasantry to cheer the tired Daniel until he reached his destination. Among the settlers of 1843 or thereabouts were also John F. Olry, Elkanah Carpenter, Andrew. Estes, William Reeder, Major Brown (the widow of the latter marrying Weston Briggs), John Waddell, John Estep, Thomas Waddell, Stephen Pilkinton, Moses Hogle, John C. Smith and Anson W. Halbert. In the northwestern corner of the town the attraction for the early settler was less positive than appeared to be the case elsewhere, for there was some marsh over there. Nevertheless, ventures were made in that direction about 1850, or perhaps before. Among the earliest settlers in that region were Pierce G. Cook, Nathan Stewart, Frank Brown and Solomon

Page  206 206 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Hess, all of whom A. M. Ralston found there when, in 1852, he made a settlement on sections 8 and 17. Later there came, among others, J. C. Clark, George Snyder, John Waring and John Johnson. In 1852 there was a road on the line between Odessa and Sebewa townships, known as the State road, but, state road as it was, it was nevertheless a poor apology for a highway. To the names of the settlers already mentioned, may be added likewise those of such later ones as Orrin Merchant, Edward Sanborn, Peter Mapes, David Griffin, William Estep, Chauncey Lott, Jacob Greene, I. Bretz, E. Probasco, T. J. Allen, A. Garlock, O. Stebbins and P. Griner. The resident taxpayers of Sebewa in 1845 were: John Waddell, section 14, 80 acres; Edward Sanborn, section I, 38 acres; Orrin Merchant, sections I, 6, 60 acres; John Maxim, section I, 38 acres; Peter Mapes, section 2, 8o acres; Joseph Munn, section 1, 38 acres; George W. Dickinson, sections 13, 24, 320 acres; A. W. Halbert, sections 24, 25, 240 acres; John F. Terrill, section 25, 70 acres; William Hogle, section 25, 50 acres; Richard Fleetham, section 25, 80 acres; Moses Hogle, section 36, I60 acres; Charles W. Ingalls, personal; John Terrill, personal; Eleazer Brown, sections 26, 27, 120 acres; Jacob Showerman, section 22, 160 acres; B. D. Weld, sections 5, 32, 33, 400 acres. Although no record of the transactions at the first township meeting, in I845, is in existence, the names of the nineteen persons who voted at that election may be here given, as follow: Joseph Munn, Paul Steel, Benjamin D. Weld, Edward Sanborn, A. W. Halbert, John C. Smith, William Hogle, John M. Terrill, Jacob Showerman, Orrin Merchant, Richard Fleetham, Moses Hogle, Walter Harmon, Eleazer Brown, John Maxim, George W. Dickinson, Elkanah Drake, Rufus Goddard and John Waddell. Elkanah Carpenter, Richard 0. McWorter, Cyril Carpenter, John Maxim, Oliver Brailey, John Waddell, Jr., Daniel W. Goddard, William Reeder, Moses Hogle, B. D. Weld, John Waddell, William Dunn, Orrin Merchant, John Cooper, David Griffin, Stephen Rider, Peter Mapes, William Waters, Major Brown, Apollos Halladay, Francis Brown, Albert Thompson, Perry Trim, Lucius Showerman, William Estep, Elihu Halladay, J. A. Whelpley, Daniel Halladay, Jacob C. High, Charles Derby, Jacob Green, Richard Fleetham, John Estep, Charles W. Ingalls, Charles Hammond, John F. Olry, Hiram Trim, P. G. Cook, Jacob Collingham, D. W. Rose, Jacob Showerman and Chauncey Lott were voters at the elections held in Sebewa township in I853.

Page  207 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 207 Township 5 north, range 6 west, now called Sebewa, was divided between Berlin and Portland townships until March I9, I845, when, by act of Legislature, it was created a township with exclusive organization. The names first proposed for it were Charlestown, in honor of Charles W. Ingalls, and Liberia, but, Rufus Goddard suggesting Sebewa, after Sebewa creek, and meaning, "little river," public fancy was suited and "Sebewa" met with popular approval. The first township meeting was held at the house of Jacob Showerman, but no record of the meeting is in existence. The following have served as supervisors of Sebewa township: I847-48, B. D. Weld; 1849-50. R. Goddard; 1851, William Packard; 1852, H. Trim; I853-54, B. D. Weld; 1855-56, C. W. Ingalls; 1857, C. C. Carpenter; I858, A. Howland; I859-63, L. Bretz; I864-66, D. W. Goddard; I867-69, I. Bretz; I870, G. W. Goddard; 187I-72, L. E. Showerman; 1873, J. Waring; 1874-75, L. E. Showerman; I876-77, A. M. Ralston; I878-79, L. E. Showerman; I880, D. W. Goddard; 188T-89, Watson Merchant; I890, Riley N. Wilson; I891-92, Watson Merchant; 1893, 0. V. Showerman; I894, C. L. Halladay; I896, J. M. Bradley; 1897-I6, Adam Fender. SEBEWA. The village commonly known as Sebewa Corner lies on both sides of the line between Sebewa and Danby townships and takes in the platted village of Cornell in Danby. Properly speaking, the name "Cornell" belongs now to the entire village, although it is of such recent bestowal, consequent upon the similar change of the postoffice name from Sebewa, that the average villager has not yet become sufficiently familiar with it to give it ready voice. The first attempt at establishing a trading point at that locality was made in 185I, by a Mr. Hulse, who brought a few goods in a trunk and sold them out to Aretas Howland. There were a grist-mill and saw-mill in that locality when Hulse set up his store, and because they were there he thought, of course, a store was likely to meet with some support. These mills were on Sebewa creek, just west of the township-line road. The sawmill, the first in the town, had been built by John Terrill and A. W. Halbert; the grist-mill, by Chauncey Lott and Jacob Green, in '849, or thereabouts. In 1852 Elihu Halladay settled near the Corners, and in 1853 came John Friend, who bought Jacob Green's log house and, after occupying it a year, built a house and in one part thereof put a stock of goods, becoming a trader. From that time to I879 he kept store at the Corners almost con

Page  208 208 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. tinuously. The first tavern at the Corners was opened in I854 by William Barber, and stood next south of Friend's house. P. G. Cook succeeded Barber as landlord, and after him Hiram Trim took the helm. The postoffice at the Corners was called Cornell, although up to the spring of i880 it bore the name of Sebewa. Cornell had since 1867 been the name of that portion of the village lying in Danby, the plat having been recorded in that year, and, in deference to request, the postoffice name was changed to accord with the name of the legalized portibn of the village. Sebewa postoffice was established along about I846 or I847, and B. D. Weld was appointed postmaster: In I853 the office was removed from the Weld neighborhood, in the southwest corner, and transferred to the Showerman settlement, when I.. E. Showerman received the appointment. In I857 the office was moved to the Corners. John Friend was the first postmaster at the Corners, being succeeded bv 0. W. Kibbey and R. WV. Wilson.

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Page  [unnumbered] HALL-FOWLER MEMORIAL I,IBRARY, IONIA. CITY HATLL, IONTA.

Page  209 CHAPTER XIX. CITY OF IONIA. Ionia is a city of from six thousand to seven thousand people, located in the central portion of Ionia county, on the Detroit, Grand Haven & Milwaukee division of the Grand Trunk railway system, and on the Lansing, Ionia & Big Rapids division of the Pere Marquette railway, one hundred and twenty-five miles northwest of Detroit, thirty-six miles northwest of Lansing and thirty-three miles east of Grand Rapids. Ionia city is the county seat of Ionia county, and situated in the midst of one of the finest farming sections of the state. The spirit of progress which is pushing this city to the front is best shown by the large number of manufacturing establishments located here, the handsome business blocks and elegant residences which stand as monuments to the thrift and enterprise of her business men. With the two great railway systems mentioned above, whose branches reach every section of the state, Ionia has superior inducements to offer desirable manufacturing establishments. In this age of spirited competition, shipping facilities play a very important part in determining the cost of placing any article upon the market, and with these two great railway systems competing for the business, Ionia manufacturers are assured of receiving any and all accommodations possible in the transportation of raw materials and the finished products. Prior to I833 this immediate section of the state had not been penetrated except by an occasional trapper, hunter or some missionary with an Indian guide bound for the north. With these exceptions, nature held full sway; bears, wolves, deer and other smaller wild animals were abundant, and the Grand river, unobstructed by dams, wended its way through the valley and on to Lake Michigan. I Though a little more than three-fourths of a century has passed since the first white settler located in this region, it has been converted from a dense wilderness into a cultivated and productive country, affording all the conveniences and comforts of advanced civilization. The spring of I833 (14)

Page  210 210 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. witnessed the arrival of Samuel Dexter and his associates, Erastus Yeomans, Oliver Arnold, Darius Winsor, Edward and Joel Guild and Doctor W. B. Lincoln, who sought homes in the Grand River valley. It is asserted, and doubtless is a fact, that the Grand river (which then and for many years after was considered a navigable stream) was the inducement which led the members of Judge Dexter's party of colonists to fix their homes so far away from settlements already established. Be that as it may, it is certain that quite a number of other settlers followed the course of the "Dexter trail" and located in this county later in the same year. Following the settlement of the Dexter colony, in May, 1833, came Henry V. Libhart, to the southeast corner of what is now Ionia township: the Cornells, to Easton; John E. Morrison, to Berlin, and Philo Bogue and John Milne, to Portland, all of whom became settlers within the county before the close of the year I833. Among those who came in 1834 were Franklin Chubb and Nathan Benjamin, who located in what is now Lyons township; George W. Case, Horace Case and the Connor brothers, in Easton; John McKelvey and Gadd Bunnell, in Ionia township. In the year I835 the population of the county was still further increased by the settlement of Alonzo Sessions and brother, Job, in Berlin township; Chancellor Barringer, in Danby, and Selah Arms, the first settler in Orange. The great influx of immigrants from New York to Michigan in I836 and the establishment of a United States land office in the village of Ionia were causes which greatly increased the number of inhabitants over the entire county, and, in fact, in this section of the state. SELECTION OF A COUNTY SEAT. Early in 1833 the Indian traders and their employees, then the only white people residing in the county, inaugurated measures looking toward the establishment of a county seat, they sending a petition to Governor Porter, in March of that year, asking that commissioners be appointed for that purpose. Before any action was taken, Samuel Dexter and his associates arrived and settled permanently on and near the present site of the city of Ionia. The county seat question at once became tfppermost in their minds, and in July of the same year they also forwarded a petition to Governor Porter, asking that commissioners be apl)ointed to determine upon a place suitable for the erection of a court house and other county buildings. Unfortunately the new county of Tonia possessed two localities deemed advantageous for the establishment of a county seat, according to the loca

Page  211 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 211 tion of the settler. One party was composed of the original settlers of Ionia city and that vicinity, while their opponents were their neighbors up the river at Lyons, assisted by the early residents of the township of Portland. As a consequence there were two opposing parties, each striving for mastery. In September, 1833, Governor Porter appointed a commission to locate the county seat, they visiting this city in the latter part of October. After due deliberation, the commissioners made choice of lands owned by Samuel Dexter, situated in the north half of section 19, township 7 north, range 6 west, that being the present site of the county buildings. The news of their determination and proceedings was soon noised abroad, and remonstrances were forwarded to the Governor by those opposing the selection of that location. Governor Porter died, July 6, 1834, without having confirmed by proclamation the finding of this commission; neither did he order a revision of their work by the appointment of another commission. Hon. Stevens T. Mason then became governor, and the fight was renewed before him. However, soon after assuming the duties of the office he became involved in a warm dispute with the authorities of the state of Ohio regarding the boundary line between these two states. His Excellency devoted nearly his entire time to this controversy, and matters pertaining to the Ionia county struggle were considered too insignificant for attention at that time. However, the inhabitants of this locality became restive under the long delay and the non-appearance of a proclamation confirming the report of the commissioners. Then petitions were again circulated and forwarded to the Governor, which seem to have settled the matter. Although there seems to be'no record of the precise date of the proclamation confirming the report of the commission, it is certain that it was issued during the latter part of 1835 or early in 1836, and the seat of justice in Ionia county still remains where it was first located in the fall of I833. PIONEER HARDSHIPS. People of this generation, reared among the conveniences of the twentieth century, know absolutely nothing of the hardships and pleasures attendant upon pioneer life. The attractiveness of our beautiful farms and picturesque landscapes, dotted here and there with neat and substantial residences and modern farm buildings, present a very pleasing picture as well as a strong contrast to the humble log cabin of the thirties, whose walls sheltered a few articles of rude furniture, while the stumps in the dooryards were the repositories for the cross-cut saw, the beetle and the ax. Many

Page  212 212 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. of the men who were very largely instrumental in the development of this immediate locality were born beneath these humble roofs, their infantile cries being hushed by a mother's soft lullaby as she rocked them to sleep in a cradle improvised from a basswood sugar trough. The early settlers coming into the new country found themselves subject to the pressing demands of nature. Away from civilization, yet they must live. After the first meager stock of supplies was exhausted, they. were obliged to go out after more, the nearest reliable points then being Pontiac and Grand Haven, several days' journey distant and through dense forests and over roads almost impassable for travel, even on foot. From these points must come all provisions, flour, etc., as well as all mail. How great is the contrast between the conditions of the thirties and the present, when the farmer can sit in his comfortable home and telephone the merchant, miller or doctor for the necessities of the occasion, and, while waiting their delivery, read his daily paper, delivered at his door by the carriers of the rural free delivery service. The younger people who know none of the privations of pioneer life cannot fully apprciate the conveniences of the modern homes and times. FIRST THINGS. The first frame house built in the city of Ionia was that of Doctor Lincoln, erected in I834. The first white child born was Eugene, son of Darius Winsor, and whose birth occurred August I2, I833. The first death in the new settlement was also in the family of Darius Winsor, being their six-year-old daughter, in the fall of I833. The first wedding in the settlement was that of Doctor W. B. Lincoln to Anthy P., daughter of Oliver Arnold, the marriage taking place on Sunday, July 5, 1835, Squire Dexter performing the ceremony. The first railroad to enter either the city or county of Ionia was what is now known as the Detroit, Grand Haven & Milwaukee division of the Grand Trunk system. That section of this road between Detroit and Pontiac was commenced as early as 1834, but it was not until 1838 that even that section was operated. Then the rails were of wood, the cars of a most inferior class and propelled by horse-power. By degrees this road was improved, developed, extended and consolidated with other projects until it reached this city in the fall of 1857, and in November, 1858, was completed through to Grand Haven.

Page  213 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 2I3 TRADERS AND TAVERNS. In the fall of i836 old Coon Ten Eyck, of Northville, Michigan, concluded that Ionia offered a good opening for a merchant, and so he arranged to send his son William up there, in company with John Lloyd, for the purpose of opening a store. Lloyd and Ten Eyck rented Samuel Dexter's barn, and engaged Ezekiel Welch, then captain of the pole-boat "Davy Crockett," to bring up a load of goods from Grand Haven. Welch set sail from Ionia on September 28, having on board twenty-eight passengers for Grand Rapids, at one dollar a head. Those who were in a hurry lent a hand in poling the boat; those who had leisure took matters lazily. Welch got the goods and brought them up as far as Utica landing, now in Easton, whence they were hauled by teams to Ionia, for the river above was then too low for a boat. Lloyd and Ten Eyck used Dexter's barn until they could put up a store-building, which was simply a hastily-constructed blockhouse. It occupied the corner of Main and Third streets, known as the " grab-store," because of the high prices charged by Lloyd for goods. Lloyd used to say, in explanation, that it cost a heap to get goods down the river, and he was bound to make Ionians pay for them. In December, i837, they received a load of goods, by the steamer "Governor Mason," and it may be that they were enabled after that to put prices down to a decent figure. The second store was opened by M. J. Youngs, his being a hardware store. He afterward occupied the corner of Main and Kidd streets, where he was doing business in I837, and where he eventually failed. There was no village tavern until early in 1838, although there were boarding-houses before that, Asa Spencer, in 1836, opening the first one. The frame for the structure, which was called the Eagle Tavern, was, however, raised in July, i837, but the enterprise was left uncompleted, until i843, when Abel Avery bought and finished it, christening it the "Grand River Eagle." Samuel Dexter wanted a tavern for the town and, with J. W. Brown, register of the land office; Cyrus Lovell and others, formed what was known as the Ionia House Company, for the purposes of building a tavern to be called the Ionia House. A site was chosen on the corner now occupied by the Bailey House, and Jeremiah Eaton, a house-builder of Herkimer county, New York, was induced, by the promise of a liberal interest in the company, to come out and build the tavern. As before observed, the frame was raised in July, i837, and a kitchen finished, but by that time the affair had gone in expenditure so far beyond the expectations of the

Page  214 214 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. projectors that they got disheartened and refused to push it any farther. So it was left in an unfinished state, and the Ionia House Company became a thing of the past. The failure stimulated Ezekiel Welch to try his hand at tavern-keeping and, as was seen, he made success of it. Welch had come to the town in 1836, was captain of a poleboat on the river that year, and the following year and early in the year I838 opened the first tavern known to the history of Ionia. The second tavern was opened by William McCausland on April I8, i838. The building was called the Cottage Inn, and was afterward kept by Ezekiel Welch. In I843 Abel Avery having bought the unfinished Ionia House of Samuel Dexter, for a stock of Yankee notions and leather, opened it. The year I836 was a year fraught with importance to the village, for it was during that period that the United States located a land office at that point. On September 20o, of that year, the office was opened, on Main street, and there set in at once a steady and voluminous flow of land-seekers and speculators to that center, which in a trice seemed to have awakened from the quiet features of a backwoods settlement to the bustling, stirring and well-nigh distracting elements of a county village in fair time. The rush for lands was something quite remarkable, and applicants were frequently compelled to wait for weeks before they could get a chance to make an entry. The crowd was hungry and must be fed and lodged. The citizens were, of course, not averse to entertaining them, provided pay was forthcoming, and, as money was plentiful, customers did not haggle about the prices charged. The inroad upon the stock of provisions compelled new supplies to be brought from Detroit or Pontiac and, although it was a struggle between supply and demand, supply managed, through heroic exertions, to meet the requirements of the occasion, albeit it was tough business hauling goods from Detroit, especially when the ground was frozen. Thirty days to Detroit and back was not considered a long trip. President Jackson's war upon the United States bank brought oceans of worthless western bank-notes into circulation, and money was almost as plentiful as water. Speculation ran rampant and fortunes were made rapidly. The turn in the tide came with the issue of Jackson's specie circular and Ionia suffered some under the blow. The check was a sudden one and gave the little settlement a set-back, but the blight was but temporary. The reaction came in due season and then set in the era of substantial advancement which strengthened and expanded with the march of time.

Page  215 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 2I5 A writer of that time thus deals with the situation: "The location of the land office at Ionia was the occasion of public rejoicing, but it proved a very unfortunate thing for the county. At the very beginning when the mania for speculating in wild lands was raging and the fever at its extreme height, the land office was opened-in the midst of an extensive tract of the most valuable lands just thrown upon the market-by officers so devoid of all sense of honor as to practice daily in open daylight the most barefaced frauds upon poor men, who desired small tracts to live upon, and criminal favoritism in the interest of those who had money to bribe them and to secure great numbers of acres to hold wild and waste. "Just at that time President Jackson's specie circular came in force, and that enabled greedy officials to swindle honest purchasers in detail and in bulk. "The result is soon told. Those who came to buy land to make themselves homes, soon became disgusted and left. It may be wondered why they did not tear down the land office and the office of the broker." The first Fourth of July celebration in Ionia took place in I836 and was a great event. Alonzo Sessions delivered the oration and Thomas Cornell provided the feast of solids. In the month of July, 1841, Thomas Cornell and Alexander F. Bell, surveyors, laid out for Samuel Dexter the village of Ionia County Seat, on the north half of section I9, in township 7 north, range 6 west. The line of survey commenced at a stone set south nine degrees and thirty minutes east, distance one hundred and fifty links from a stump known as the countystake of Ionia county. Said stone lay north forty degrees thirty minutes, west two hundred and twenty-five links, from the northwestern corner of the upright part of the house built by Joseph W. Brown. On August 25, 1841, the plat of Warner's addition to Ionia County Seat was recorded as having been surveyed by A. F. Bell, and beginning at a point on the northeast quarter of section 19 aforesaid, fifty links westerly on the north line of the Main street. On November 9, I854, James M. Kidd and Hampton Rich platted an addition, and on November 29, I855, Merritt and York's addition to the village of Ionia County Seat was recorded. In June, 1857, Samuel A. Alderman surveyed Titus Merritt's addition. One may very naturally say, these pioneers must have endured great privations and sufferings. There are none of the pioneer settlers now living who do not look back with pleasure to the days when an untrodden wilderness surrounded them and when the nearest settlement was a hundred miles

Page  216 2i6 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. away. The memories of those days are full of sweetness of real life-a life characterized by virtuous and noble aspirations. Never before did husband and wife so realize their oneness; never was the family union so complete and perfect, or neighbors live in such peace and joyful fellowship. Not that they were different from other men, but their circumstances and surroundings were favorable for the development of the noblest qualities, the stirring up of the gentler impulses and awakening of the kindlier feelings that insure mutual sympathy and help. Helping others, they helped themselves; seeking to make others happy, they increased their own happiness. They were delighted with their new location. Everything was yet to be done, and they rejoiced in doing it. Every new acre of improvement produced a thrill of joy in the household. Every fruit-tree planted was watched over with an increasing interest as the family estimated the time when it would yield them its ripened fruit. Every new building erected by themselves or others marked the advancing tide of civilization and all were jubilant over it. No man who has come into the possession of a patrimony, with the lands all cultivated, buildings completed, fruit trees in bearing condition, the surrounding villages grown to a stand-still, can have a just appreciation of the vitalizing power and life-giving energy embodied in pioneer life, or the abiding pleasure with which the early pioneer looks back to the days when the wilderness was made to blossom as the rose. IONIA VILLAGE IN 1845. "Squire" A. B. Clark, a justice of the peace in Ionia City, came to the town with his father in the summer of 1845, the latter having come from Oakland county for the purpose of continuing in Pontiac for several years. A. B. Clark was then a lad of fifteen and the impressions of time, place, and circumstance made upon him at that period have remained with him to this day, with such keenness of recollection that he calls to mind vividly and in elaborate detail the condition of Ionia in the summer of I845. From First street dlown to and beyond Dexter's red mill, he names, on Main street, residents, storekeepers, and all others abiding thereon with such minute exactness that one is forced to compliment the performance as a remarkable feat of memory. Following his chain of description, the north side of Main street, in the summer of I845, may be pictured as follows: At the corner of First and Main streets was the Baptist church and just north of it the Episcopal

Page  217 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 217 church. West on Main street was the residence of Osmond Tower and next to it Mr. Tower's fanning-mill factory. Still farther along was S. B. Worden's cabinet-shop and residence, and on which later was the Sherman House, stood the residence of John Tompkins, the blacksmith. Tompkins enlarged his residence in 1848 and opened it as a tavern called The Exchange. When The Exchange was burned, Tompkins built the Sherman House and kept it until his death. On the corner where the Second National Bank stood was Tompkins' blacksmith shop. Where M. J. Young's hardware store stood was the Cottage Inn, then vacant. That tavern was built by William McCausland, and by him opened in 1838 as one of the pioneer institutions of the kind in the village. West was the residence of Steptoe Brown, a carpenter; beyond him, A. F. Carr's house; next west, the Parks lot, into the house which W. C. (Clark moved when he came to town, and on which also Cornelius Elvert, a tailor, lived. Then there was the house of Benjamin Harter (a clerk for James M. Kidd) and on the corner of Main and Third streets to the opposite corner, the exploration reached the "grabstore," built by John Lloyd, and then kept by Charles M. Moseman. Moseman's "grab-store" (so called while John Lloyd owned it, and thus designated ever afterward) was a place of popular resort, or, more appropriately speaking, "the general loafing-place of the town." George M. Mills had succeeded John Lloyd in its possession and to Mills succeeded Charles M. Moseman, a sometime Mormon preacher of Nauvoo, Illinois. Next west of the "grab-store" was E. S. Johnson, tailor and postmaster, and next west of him was Doctor W. B. Lincoln. Then there was the residence of the widow of WVillianm Dallas (who had served as register of deeds and died in 1842), the house and the shop of Elijah Kirkham, carpenter and joiner and local "character"; the office of the Ionia Journal (whose editor, I. W. Robinson, lived on Washington street just north of his office), and the house of Samuel Dexter, whose place extended to the corner of Dexter and Main streets. Westward of Dexter's, in lonely solitude, stood the residences of Samuel Smith, Ethan S. Johnson and Erastus Yeomans, between which latter residences was the village school house. On the south side of Main street, beginning at the eastern end, was the Eagle hotel, on the Bailey House site. Abel Avery completed the Eagle hotel in 1843, but in 1845 it was kept by Ben Welch. Abel Avery lived just west of the Eagle hotel, and west of his house was Ezekiel Welch's tavern. Beyond was Daniel Baxter's wagon and repair-shop (south of which lived Doctor Norton Beckwith), and west of the corner of Second street the residence of B. Preston, an employee of Ethan S. Johnson. West

Page  218 218 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. of Preston's was the United States land office and Doctor Alanson Cornell's drug store, in one corner of which Judge L S. Lowell had his law-office. Back of the drug store was Doctor Cornell's residence. Merritt Fisher lived in the next house and next to him was the building first used as the Ionia land office, but then occupied by Ira Porter, a lawyer Westward were Daniel Clapsaddle, shoemaker, and Jonathan Tibbitts, harness-maker. The southeast corner of Main and Third streets was occupied by a vacant store, into which, in the fall of I835, James M. Kidd moved a stock of goods and began trading. On the southwest corner of Main and Third streets A. F. Carr was carrying on a store for Daniel Ball, of Grand Rapids, and west of him was the residence of Mason Hearsey, the blacksmith shop of Philander Hinds, the wagon-shop of John Miller (in the log house built by Samuel Dexter when he reached Ionia), Samuel Dexter's barn, Daniel Fargo's meatmarket (Fargo was Samuel Dexter's father-in-law), and then Dexter's red grist-mill, where the Novelty mill stood. West of that, on the south side, Main street was a waste. At the corner of Main and Kiss streets was a vacant store, originally occupie(l by Parks & Warner. It was the second store built in Ionia, but happened to be too far out of the way for business and did not have a very long lease of life. When Parks & Warner built it they though perhaps that Brown's village at Prairie Creek might become the county seat, and thought, perhaps, that Dexter's town might be chosen. At all events, the supposition was that they wished to strike a happy mean, and therefore got pretty well out of the way of either place. Hampton Rich, justice of the peace, lived nearby, also Lorenzo Dexter, and Lawson S. Warner lived on eastward towards Prairie Creek. THE VILLAGE INCORPORATED. Under the general law the village of Ionia was incorporated by the board of supervisors, October 13, 1857. The corporate limits were described as "all that tract of country situated in the township of lonia, in the county of Ionia, and being the whole of section I9, north of the Grand river, and the west half of section 20, lying north of the banks of the Grand river, all in town 7 north, range 6 west." The villagers never took very kindly to the charter, as it was generally undertsood that it was not what was needed. Nevertheless, there was a show of organization, and until 186o elections were held. A. F. Bell was chosen village president in t857; A,. B. Clark, village clerk, and Francis B. Minier, village marshal. So little interest was taken in the progress of the corporation history after 1857 that the village

Page  219 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 219 records were cast aside as worthless and lost, and, as memory fails to supply the record, no data can be given touching what the village (lid as a corporation between I857 and I860. When the period for holding the election of I86o loomed up, it was discovered that the village clerk, A. B. Clark, had resigned, and as under the law the village clerk was the party ordained to call the election, the outlook for an election appeared to be dubious. In this condition of things public sentiment seemed to incline towards doing nothing about it; and nothing being done about it, the corporation collapsed, and the village resumed its former position as a ward of the township. INCORPORATED BY THE LEGISLATURE. After maintaining an inactive existence until T865, the village was reincorporated by legislative act approved February 17, 1865. The limits incorporated are described in the act as follow: "All the tract of county situated in the county of lonia, being in township 7 north, range 6 west, commencing on the south bank of the Grand river where the same is intersected by the west line of the township of lonia; thence easterly along the south bank of the Grand river to the point where the north and south quarter line of section 20 intersects the south bank of the Grand river; thence north on the quarter line to the north quarter post of section 20; thence west along the north section line of section 20 to the northwest corner thereof; thence north on the section line between the sections T7 and I8 to the southeast corner of the northeast quarter of section I8; thence west along the center line running east and west in section 18, to the township line between the townships of lonia and Easton; thence south on the township line to the south bank of the Grand river." The first election was ordered to be held at Amphlett's hall on the first Monday in March ensuing, and it was further provided that the officers to be annually elected should be a president, trustees and marshal. INCORPORATED AS A CITY. The act incorporating Ionia as a city was approved on March 21, I873. The territory set off to the city is described as "all that tract of land in Ionia county located within the following limits, to-wit: Commencing at a point eighty rods north of the north quarter post of section 20, in town 7 north, rang 6 west; thence running due west to a point eighty rods west of the west township line of Ionia; thence due south to the center of the Grand

Page  220 220 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. river; thence along the center of the said river easterly to a point where the north and south quarter line of section 20, if extended across said river, would intersect the center of the river; thence due north to the place of beginning." The first election in the new city of lonia was held on April 8, I873, and resulted in the election of the following gentlemen as the first corps of city officials: Mayor, FIretlerick Hall; city clerk, Hiram A. Chapman:l treasurer, Joseph IL. Hudson; collector, Charles W. Stone; justices of the peace, John M. Stacy, Sylvester Taylor, William B. Thomas, Henry Mitchell; constables, Daniel P. Chapman, Henry Ramlow, Andrew J. Welch, Oscar Dean. Aldermen: First ward, G. F. D. Wilson, A. B. M\orse; second ward, George McMullen, John H. Tubbs; third ward, Osmond Tower. John L. Taylor; fourth ward. F. H. Hutchinson, William WV. Mitchell; supervisors, Mason Hearsey, Chauncey Waterbury. MAYORS. The mayors chosen from I874 to the present time are as follow: George W. Webber, I874-75; James M. Kidd, 1876-78; E. H. Stanton, 1879-80; James M. Kidd. i88i; A. B. Morse, I882; A. J. Webber, 1883; George S. Cooper, 1884; Colley B. Wisner, 1885; John Doyle, I886; Thomas F. McGarry, 1887; Humphrev R. Wagcar, 1888; Michael I,. Steele, 1889; Adolphus A. Illis, 1890-91; F. M\. Davis, T892; George Gundrum, 1893; John B. Chaddock, 1894; Gregg Williams, 1895-96; A. A. Ellis, I897-99; James Scully, I9o00-OI John F. Bible, I902-03; F. C. Miller, 1904; E. F. Gallagher, 1905; Robert Baerd, I906; J. F. Bible, 1907; George P. Winchell, I908; R. A. Redemsky. 1909; Harvey E. Kidder, I91o-II; Fred F. Workman, 1912: Fred V. Green, T913-I6. SUPERVISORS. The supervisor for the first and second ward has been: Sylvester Taylor, 1874-76; E. R. Chubb, 1877; Sylvester Taylor, 1878 -80; John B. Hutchins. 188i-84 Al\fred H. Geck, 1885-99; Henry Voelker, I900-04.' In 1905 there was a supelrvisor elected from both the first and second wards and they have continued to be represented by a separate supervisor since that time. Henry V\oelker represented the second ward from 1905-09; J. C. Taylor, 9IO0-13; James H. Laden, IqI4-I6. The first ward has been represented since T905 by the following: Alfred HI. Geck, 90o5;

Page  221 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 221 Henry G. Wright, I906-07; William L. Amphlett, I908; Fred R. Caine, I909-I6. Beginning with 1874 the supervisor for the third and fourth wards has been: Chauncey Waterbury, 1874-83; Charles K. Calkins, I886-87; James L. Jennings, 1888; Gregg Williams, I889-92; David C. Crawford, I893-95; John I. Taylor, T895-I90I: James A. Sage, I902; Benjamin R. Covert, I903; William W. Tnman, I904. In I905 William W. Inman was chosen to represent the fourth ward, which had been given a separate supervisor just as the first and second. Mr. Inman is still serving this ward in the same capacity. Since 1905 the following have been elected from the third ward: Benjamin R. Covert, 1905-14; A. T. Montgomery, I915-16. MUNICIPAL IMPROVEMENTS. In the forty-four years since Ionia became a city great advancement has been made in the way of municipal improvements, and the feeling is that the city in a general way has been well governed; the expenditure of public money has been carefully and consistently looked after to the end that the city has received as good value as possible for all moneys paid for public necessities and improvements. In municipal improvements the city of lonia is fully up with other cities of her size, and to a considerable number of them sets an example of what may be accomplished by thrift, enterprise and plenty of public spirit. The public schools of the city are unexcelled in any place of equal size in the state of Michigan, and this excellent educational system has won much praise from the outside world. The city has a very complete water system for domestic purposes and fire protection; a strong and thoroughly equipped fire department furnishes excellent protection and makes insurance rates as low as can be found in any city of like size in Michigan. Main street has been paved with brick for a distance of over one mile. The city has gas and electric light companies. engaged in the business of public and commercial lighting. The Western Union and postal telegraph companies reach Ionia, while the Citizens' and Michigan Bell telephone companies maintain exchanges here. TITHE CITY HALL. The Ionia city hall, which is located just across from the federal building, was the first public structure erected in the county of Ionia. In April,

Page  222 222 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 1907, the bonds of the city for $20,000 were voted for the erection of the city hall. This election was carried and plans were immediately begun for the erection of building which would house all of the city officials. Just at this time, however, the armory cquestion came up and it was decided to, use half of the money to bring the armory to Ionia. In consequence, the plans for the city hall had to be revised. The plans which were approved provided for a building seventy by fifty feet, which would cost in the neighborhood of $12,000. Several of the officers' rooms were to be on the first floor, while the second floor was to contain the council room and board of education. The contract was let to Banhagel Brothers for approximately $12,ooo. The corner stone was set on September II, I908. On September 30, I909, the dedicatory services for the city hall were held. THE SOLDIERS AND SAILORS MONUMENT. The following is taken from the report of the October session, I886, of the board of supervisors: "To the board of supervisors of Ionia county, we, the undersigned members of the Grand Army of the Republic, ask of your honorable body the privilege of the erection of a soldiers and sailors monument, in honor of those killed in the Civil War, in the court house grounds. Said monument to be fifty feet square and cost not less than $3,000. Signed, H. Miller, Plyn William, A. H. Heath, C. A. Cornell, D. A. Jewell, \Villiam 13. Thomas." This petition was granted and the monument erected. COUNTRY CLUB. The Country Club of lonia was organized in I915 by Fred WV. Green, Tliad B. Preston, H. B. Webber, George W. Webber, Fred A. Chapman, (eorge E. Nichols, Thane Benedict and Wi. B. Heath. These men, realizing the need of recreation for the business men, such as provided by the game of golf decided to form a club for the purpose of providing grounds suitable for this sport. l:lthough the organization is not yet complete it has reached a point where the success of the undertaking is assurel. At present the menmers have purchase(l ninety-four acres of ground which are ready for seeding in the spring of 91i6 and a substantial cliu house has been erected..\ nine-hole golf course has been laid out an(l this work was carried on undler the supervision of Donald Rose, the great Scotch golf architect, and it is pronounced by him to be one of the best courses in the country. It is hoped that the course will be ready for use by the fall of

Page  223 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 223 I916. It is not only the desire of the members of this club to furnish suitable amusement for themselves hut they also hope to make the club as democratic as possible andl the people of Ionia county are welcome to membership. IONIA GAS, LIGHT AND COKE COMPANY. The Ionia Gas, Light and Coke Company was first organized in 1882, a thirty-year franchise being obtained from the city at that time, and a plant erected at the foot of Depot street, with a capacity of o50,000 cubic feet per day. The business prospered from its inception and in 1902 it was found necessary to build a new and modern plant, as the business had outgrown their facilities. In that year the present plant was erected, with a capacity of 125,000 cubic feet per day, and with modern and up-to-date buildings of sufficient size that the present capacity may be doubled without the erection of other buildings. The machinery installed in the new plant, and now in use, is of the very latest pattern, and the service given the people of this city is of the very best, a fact that is shown by the consumption of gas, it being admitted that more gas is used in the city of lonia than in any other city of its size within the state. Under the terms of its charter the company was allowed to charge $2.50 per thousand feet for gas, but entirely of their own free will the price has been reduced bly the company from time to time until today they are selling at $1.25. The company maintains up-town offices and salestoom, in which will be found a complete stock of all nmodern appliances for lighting and heating with gas, and which are furnished the consumer at the lowest prices. The officers of the company are: President, H. B. Webber; vice-president and manager, E. F. Gallagher; secretary and treasurer, J. H. Smith. IONIA WATER POWER ELECTRIC COMPANY. Electric lighting in Ionia dates from I888, the Ionia Water Power Electric Company being organized in March, of that year, and commencing business that fall. The original stockholders of the company were H. R. Wager, L. B. Townsend, J. E. Just, of this city, and C. J. Ramsey, of Muir. The original officers of the company were L. B. Townsend, president, and J. E. Just, secretary and treasurer. Originally the business was conducted from a 'steam plant, located on Third street, where the gas works now stand. In I898 the company pur

Page  224 224 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. chased flowage rights near Lyons and constructed a dam across Grand river, and in the spring of 1899 abandoned the steam plant and commenced supplying electricity from the water power plant. In I904 the dam and power house were reconstructed and enlarged, being equipped with all modern and up-to-date appliances for commercial lighting. Since I895 the affairs of this company have been in the hands of H. R. Wager as president. 0. S. Wood was secretary and treasurer until his death, in 1915. Fred J. Owens is manager at the present time, and E. T. Merritt, secretary and treasurer. This company is today equipped for furnishing electric power and lighting according to modern methods, and few cities of the size of lonia can boast as good service at as moderate figures. SOROSIS GARMENT COMPANY. The Sorosis Garment Company was organized on December 15, I888, under the name of the Michigan Overall Manufacturing Company. The first officers were: William Steele, president; F. A. Sessions, vice-president; F. E. Kelsey, secretary and treasurer. Its business was the manufacturing of overalls, pants, shirts and jackets. On November 30, 1891, the name of the firm was changed to the Michigan Clothing Company, which company continued the manufacturing of the same lines of merchandise, and added duck coats, mackinaws and sheep-lined coats. During the year I9go this company took up in a limited way the manufacturing of women's garments, and a small force of operators were started at work making up women's petticoats. Those were the pioneer days of the ready-to-wear women's garment business. The business soon grew to such an extent, however, that it was decided to gradually discontinue the manufacturing of men's garments and confine the activities of the firm to the manufacturing of women's garments exclusively. About this time the name Sorosis Garments Company was adopted as the name of the firm, and its products were trade-marked "Sorosis." Under that name they are known from coast to coast. During the past two years the firm has added aprons and house dresses to the line of products it manufactures. The capital stock of the company is $50,00oo. The present officers are: Thane Benedict, president; C. B. Wardle, vice-president; Thad P. Preston, secretary and treasurer. Q(ITL7ENS TELIEPIONE C(MPANY. The Citizens Teele)hone Company, the general offices of which are located at Grand Rapids, has exchanges in Ionia county at Ionia, Portland,

Page  [unnumbered] 11 I I 0, I,I ki I SOLDIER'S -MONUTMENT, IONIA.

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  225 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 225 Lake Odessa, Saranac, Belding and Clarksville. At Ionia there are 463 local subscribers and 277 farm subscribers; at Portland, 367 local, I91 farm and 6 switching subscribers; at Lake Odessa, 97 local and I25 farm subscribers; at Saranac. I25 local, 178 farm and 9 switching subscribers; at Belding, 396 local and 169 farm subscribers; at Clarksville, 56 local and I i farm subscribers. The company, therefore, has a total of 2,560 subscribers of all classes in Ionia county. The Saranac exchange is the only one which has been purchased from a local company. This exchange was bought in I906, and previously had been operated locally under the name of the Saranac Telephone Company. ItAYES-IONIA COMPANY. The Hayes-Ionia Company, of Ionia, manufacturers of automobile bodies, was incorporated in T910, with H. Jay Hayes, president; H. H. Smith, vice-president, and W. J. Loomis, secretary-treasurer and general manager. Since the organization of the company, H. B. Webber has succeeded W. J. Loomis as secretary-treasurer and general manager. The HayesIonia Company, which employs 350 men, owns a plant valued at $300,000. The company is capitalized at $I5o,ooo and has an output annually amounting to $I,OOO,OOO. YPSILANTI REED FURNITURE COMPANY. Another one of the thriving industries of Ionia is the Ypsilanti Reed Furniture Company, which was incorporated in April, I900, and which now has a capitalization of $300,000, of which $200,000 is common and $Ioo,ooo is preferred stock. The Ypsilanti Reed Furniture Company makes a specialty of manufacturing reed furniture and has an extensive trade extending throughout the United States and into several countries of South America. At this time the company employs 376 persons. BARRETT CIGAR COMPANY. The Barrett Cigar Company, of Ionia, which was organized first as a co-partnership in April, I901, with Patrick Barrett and Anthony Scully as partners, as a matter of fact still continues under the well-known name of Barrett & Scully. Irl January, i9II, William H. Barrett succeeded to the interest of his father, Patrick Barrett, and on October I5, I915, Mr. Barrett ('5)

Page  226 226 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. bought out the interest of Mr. Scully. The company employs forty-eight persons and has an output annually amounting to $65,000. The product of the factory is sold in nine different states, but mostly in Michigan. The value of the plant and equipment is estimated to be worth $7,500. E. H. STAFFORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY. The E. H. Stafford Manufacturing Company was first organized in 1890 as the E. H. Stafford Company, with a plant at Muskegon, Michigan. The original capital stock was placed at $75,000, but in 1904, when the company was reincorporated under the laws of Illinois as the E. H. Stafford Manufacturing Company, the capital stock was raised to $200,000. This company makes a specialty of the manufacture of school, church, opera and office furniture and has gained quite a reputation along that line. There are at present three plants controlled by this company and are located at Ionia, Michigan, Sandy Bay, Michigan, and Paxton, Illinois. The present officers are E. H. Stafford, president; E. G. Bentley, vice-president, and E. M. Stafford, secretary. The factory at lonia employs from 250 to 30C persons.

Page  227 CHAPTER XX. CITY OF BELDING. The city of Belding is beautifully situated on the Flat river, in the heart of one of the richest agricultural districts in Michigan. The city has a population of 5,200, broad, well-kept and shaded streets. In the residence district, with its handsome homes, fine old trees and beautiful yards, it recalls the picturesque old towns that nestle among the hills of New England and New York state. In its business districts, Belding has all the aspects of a modern, up-to-date city, with attractive and well-stocked stores, representing all lines of trade, a first-class hotel, three good banks, streets well paved and well lighted and the evidences of enterprise and activity everywhere in sight. The city has all the modern, present-day conveniences. It has gas, electricity, pure water with an excellent waterworks, both telephone systems and is situated on the main line of the Pere Marquette railroad, with ten trains daily. It is likely that the city will soon see the erection of a handsome new depot, which will be in keeping with the other beautiful structures of the city. The city has beautiful parks, and the Flat river, with its winding course, overhung with fine old trees, is delight for canoeing, which here is a favorite summer recreation. BELDING SUPERVISORS. In 1893 the city of Belding was divided into three wards and given a supervisor for each. The first ward has been represented by the following: Frederick L. Spencer, 1893; Charles Eddy, 1894-98; William M. Foote, 1899-1905; Fred L. Spencer, 1906-16. The second ward has been served by the following: Louis L. Holmes, 1893-94; Joseph T. Angell, 1895 -1907; B. C. Curtiss, 1908-14; William B. Travis, 1915-16. The third ward has been represented by the following: George W. Moulton, 1893-94; William A. Wilder, 1895; Lewivis H. Stone, 1896; William A. Wilder, 1897 -1916.

Page  228 228 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. FIRST SETTLEMENT. The history of Belding rightfully is divided into two parts, the period of early settlement and the period after the erection of the silk mills. Charles Broas, originally of Broome county, New York, seems to have the claim on the first settlement where the city of Belding now stands. Broas came to this county and picked out four lots of eighty acres each in Otisco township, in sections IO and I, in the year 1838. He was piloted to the place by Thomas Stockington, who was at that time making ready to occupy a tract of land south of Broas' tract. In February, I839, Mr. Broas settled his family in the eleven-by-fourteen cabin which he had just completed with the aid of his son, Levi..n 1840 Broas, assisted by a few other settlers, built a bridge across the Flat river at the present site of Belding. In 1842 Broas constructed a wing-dam and race and erected a saw-mill where the Luther & Wilson mill was later located. About the year 1842 Lucius Patterson came to this locality with his father-in-law, Alexis Loonis, and, buying an interest in the Broas mill, joined the latter in throwing a dam across the river. The mill enterprise did not flourish and after a time it was abandoned. Charles Broas thereafter devoted himself exclusively to farming, and in I855 died upon the place he had cleared in 1838. Meanwhile, the mill property was suffered to lie neglected, but, in I856, Lucius Patterson renewed possession. He then engaged Volney Belding to build a new dam and materially improve the mill, after which he set it once more in motion. In I855 Hiram Belding came in and purchased a tract of land of Levi Broas. In the year 1857 a postoffice was established and given the name of Patterson's Mill. Previous to this it had been known as Broas Rapids. E. M. Stevens became the first postmaster. The mail was brought over from Cook's Corners for a year and at the expiration of that time the office at Patterson's Mill was discontinued. In 1858 S.S. Brown, a carpenter, came to Patterson's Mill and found there only three houses, which were occupied by Daniel T. Fargo, Lucius Patterson and Elam Murray. In the same year Brown built a house for Hiram Belding, who was living on the hill nearby, on the present village site, and Belding moved into it in I859. In I862 the postoffice at Patterson's Mill was re-established with a stage mail, and S. S. Brown was appointed postmaster. In the same year Patterson disposed of his mill interests to James Cochrane. In the following year Cochrane sold an interest to William A. Knott, and a little later Knott

Page  229 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 229 became sole owner. In I864 Hiram Belding opened a small store on the main street and after retaining it for a short time sold to J. B. Vincent, who kept it in its former location until I869, when he erected a better and more commodious store building. In I870 S. S. Brown built a tavern and opened it as Brown's hotel. Three years previous, however, William A. Knott had erected a grist-mill. The second store-keeper in the village was Alnert E. Weter, and the first village physician was Doctor Roming. In 1871 there were in Belding only thirteen families and but seventeen school children were drawing public money for the schools. In that year the firm of Wilson, Luther & Wilson, of New York, purchased of William A. Knott a mill site at Belding and erected a saw-mill on the newly-acquired site. This mill was forty by one hundred and twenty-five feet and had a capacity of from fifty to sixty thousand feet of lumber a day. The introduction of such an important enterprise, which naturally gave employment to a number of persons and also involved a great amount of capital, gave the little village a decided "boom" and it began to develop at a rapid stride. In 1872 a branch railway connecting Belding with Kiddville was completed and added another impulse to the many others which Belding had received at this time. This completes the first step in the history of the city of Belding. The next step will be the taking up the silk industries and the history of the Belding and Richardson mills. Belding is rightfully called the "Silk City." and in accordance with this occupation with this cognomen the industry will be treated in its fullest extent. BELDING BROTHERS AND THE RISE OF THE SILK INDUSTRY. The story of the rise of the immense silk industry which bears the name of Belding Brothers is in reality a part of the history of the growth and advancement of the city of Belding. The founders of every great enterprise contribute directly or indirectly to the comforts of thousands of their fellow men. A study of the lives and careers of such men is invaluable to the young, inculcating in them the paramount value of labor and stimulating them to that earnest and sustained effort, without which no permanent success can be obtained. Thus it is in keeping at this point to give the history of the lives of these four brothers who were responsible for the organization and growth of this gigantic company. It is no exaggeration to say that America in all its varied record of commercial success cannot furnish a more remarkable or interesting story than the rise and progress of these four penniless Yankee boys to business triumph.

Page  230 230 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. The first members of the Belding family settled at Wethersfield, Connecticut in 1836. The family followed the line of immigration up the Connecticut valley, where Samuel Belding, the father of John Belding, bought the homestead in the village of Ashfield, Massachusetts. John Belding received a land grant from the state of Massachusetts for valiant service as first lieutenant in the volunteer army of the Revolution. Hiram Belding was the son of John Belding and engaged in farming and the retail mercantile trade in his native state until I840, at which time he sold his store and devoted his attention entirely to farming. Mary Wilson, the wife of Hiram Belding, was a descendant of the famous Wilson family which arrived in this country in I630. The four Belding brothers, David WV., Milo M., Hiram H. and Alvah N., sons of Hiram Belding and Mary Wilson, were born in the famous old hill town of Ashfield, Massachusetts, in a cottage farm house built in I800 by their grandfather. John Belding. The father was a man of splendid character and attainments, liberally educated, possessed of a high degree of intelligence, and of the sturdy pioneer stock. The mother was of that sturdy Puritan stock, persevering, energetic, well poised and tenacious, with extremely vigorous physical constitution. She possessed an indomitable will, a never-faltering courage, and the greatest nobility of character. From the one the sons inherited an active mentality and a talent for business, from the other, a strong character and a perseverance of the most uncompromising kind. The early life of these brothers was undoubtedly similar to that of other boys born in a rural community, of parents in moderate circumstances. Their home was small and consisted of a large living room, bedroom, kitchen and attic. There was a difference of only a few years between the eldest and the youngest of these boys. One can easily imagine the tasks of a mother who had not only to look after them, but to attend as well the manifold duties of a farmwife. She often related with much amusement an incident of the early days when, in order to perform her household duties unmolested, she drew a chalk line across the room, within which the boys were required to remain until given permission to leave. Undoubtedly within the narrow confines of this chalk line was cultivated that character for harmony, and perhaps for pugnacity as well, which afterwards demonstrate(d itself in their business career. They received such education as could be obtained in the country schools and, for a brief time, in the academy of the village of Ashfield. After working on the farm with their father for awhile, it became

Page  231 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 23I necessary, as their wants increased, to secure other employment. They first engaged in farming, taking service with neighboring farmers, receiving their board and a small pittance of money which was hardly enough to provide for their wants. This New England country was rugged, the roads were bad, there was little communication between the towns and villages, and facilities for purchasing supplies were poor. This naturally led to the development of what was known as the "peddler system" of trading. It is not surprising, therefore, that the boys early decided to earn a little extra money by buying small wares and selling them from.house to house. Among the articles which made up their pack was that of silk, put up in skeins, which they carried in an old-fashioned bag. Events apparently unimportant in the present, are pregnant with untold influence upon the future. In this small beginning was laid the foundation of a great industry. The village of Ashfield lies in an little upland valley in the midst of one of the most mountainous districts of Massachusetts. The country round about it is so unproductive that the greatest industry, shrewdness, good management and economy are necessary. Several of the relatives and friends of Hiram Belding were attracted to the more fertile soil of the West, and he followed them in 1855, settling at Patterson's Mills, Michigan. He bought the farm where the city of Belding now stands. Until recently the little frame cottage which he built was one of the historic sights of this thriving little city, occupying a prominent place on Main street. Unfortunately, a few years ago this interesting landmark was destroyed by fire. The real foundation of the company was laid when Hiram and Alvah, who were working on the farm with their father at Patterson's Mills, Michigan, sent to their brother, Milo, then living in Massachusetts, for a stock of silk. They received merchandise amounting altogether to $I45.60, which they divided evenly among themselves, making $72.80 each. They were compelled to delay starting out because they had no money with which to make change. They had to wait until a wealthy man, William Shaw, of Otisco, could pay them $3.15 which he owed them. They traveled from house to house and village to village on foot. Hiram succeeded in selling a considerable bill to a merchant, while Alvah had sold to housewives only. Alvah objected to Hiram's having all of the merchants, and to settle the controversy they agreed then and there to form a partnership known as Belding Brothers. This was in August, I857. It may be said, therefore, that the partnership of Belding Brothers started out with a cash capital of $3.15; liabilities, $I45.60. This partnership was quite successful. They

Page  232 232 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. continued to send east to Milo,' and their business grew until they were able to buy a horse apiece and they conducted a business with merchants as well as with housewives. Subsequently they carried their merchandise in large trunks which they took on cars, delivering the goods from the trunks to the merchants. In I863 their business became so extensive that they wrote to their brother, Milo, and asked him if he did not want to join them and form a partnership. Belding Brothers & Company was then organized as a partnership in I863, by Milo M., Hiram H. and, Alvah N. They were shortly afterward joined by their eldest brother, David W. Belding, and the firm which was to later use one-twentieth of the silk imported into the United States came into existence. They continued to prosper and grow, but did not attempt the manufacture of silk until January I, I864, at which time they went into partnership with E. K. Rose, who had a small mill in Rockville, Connecticut, where he employed about twenty-five men. In I866 this partnership was dissolved and Belding Brothers & Company began the manufacture of silk alone. The business increased with such rapid strides that the output of this factory was inadequate to meet the demand, and in consequence of this rapid increase they began to consider another factory. Accordingly, in the year I876, they established a factory at Northampton, Massachusetts. The increased business through the eastern and central portion of the country became so great that it again overtaxed the productive capacity of the mills at Rockville and Northampton. It became necessary to establish additional mills. Naturally, their minds turned towards the thriving little village of Belding, Michigan, named after them and located on the homestead bought by their father in 1855. They felt an ambition to build here an enduring monument in their name. Accordingly, a factory was built in in I886. This mill was originally 150 feet long and four stories high. An addition was built in 1892 and made the building 250 feet long and four stories high. In carrying out their ambitious' plans for this city, they built another mill in i8()o, 200 feet long, o5 feet wide and three stories high, and built an addition to it in 1892, making the mill 325 feet long. The third mill was built in I9OI, being 450 feet long and four stories high. In 1909 a mill in Belding, T60 feet long, originally built for the manufacture of caskets, was bought and converted into a silk factory, and is equipped throughout with electrically driven machinery, making four large silk factories in this prosperous city. All of the Belding factories are equipped with the Sturtevant system

Page  233 IONIA COUNTY. MICHIGAN. 233 of heating. This insures absolutely fresh air during the months when artificial heat must be provided. They are also equipped with modern electrical machinery for lighting, so that the work is done under the most approved conditions. Mill No. 2, in which fabrics are manufactured, is equipped with an apparatus for the automatic regulation of the temperature and humidity. This has a most agreeable and healthful effect upon the enlployees. The mills at Rockville are used exclusively for the manufacture of sewing silks. That at Northampton is used for the manufacture of, embroidery silks and silk fabrics. One mill at Belding manufactures sewing silks exclusively, one mill manufactures sewing silks and embroidery silks. and the other two manufacture fabrics only, having one thousand looms in operation. In addition to the factory buildings, an opera house, a hotel equipped with the most modern conveniences, and many business houses, have been erected at Belding. To secure families sufficient to operate their varied interests at this point, many houses had to be built, which were either rented or sold on small monthly lpayments. From a farm in 1860, through the operations of Belding Brothers, Belding has grown to be one of the most prosperous, thriving cities in the state. This calm and orderly scene of industry and contentment which bears their honorable name. speaks most eloquently of their career of struggle and triumph which began so humbly and is here commemorated so grandly. In the conduct of their business in Belding it became necessary to seek help from surrounding towns and so many people were required that there were not a sufficient number of homes to take care of them. This required the building of boarding houses which are, in fact, beautifully equipped hotels. They are named the "Ashfield" and the "Belrockton." This last name was derived from the words Belding, Rockville and Northampton. They are equal to any of the dormitories of the leading colleges, furnished comfortably, provided with hot and cold water, and an excellent table for $2.50 per week. They have handsome parlors furnished with pianos, and libraries supplied with the daily papers and magazines. In connection with these boarding houses there are also well equipped tennis and croquet grounds and a gymnasium. The houses are presided over by matrons who look after the welfare of the young women. This excellent care given by the firm and the interest which is manifested in the comfort of the woman employees, has resulted in securing a much better class of help. On the other hand, the firm has been amply repaid by superior workmanship and consequently more perfect products.

Page  234 234 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. RICHARDSON SILK MILLS. The Richardson Silk Company is the pioneer manufacturer of silk in the city of Belding and has been one of the factors in giving to this city its present cognomen of the "Silk City." The great factor which influenced the locating of the silk mills in Belding was the great supply of water power, the utilization of which goes back to an earlier date than the silk mills. In 1842 William Broas constructed a wing-dam and race on the site of the Richardson danm. A saw-mill was erected which was run by the power, from the stream. Several years later Lucius Patterson purchased an interest in the Broas mill property and joined the latter in throwing a clam across the river. This venture proved a failure and nothing more was attempted with this dam. In 1856 Lucius Patterson renewed his possessions and engaged Volney Belding to construct a new dam acioss the river. This was accomplished and a mill erected. This mill did quite an extensive business and continued under the management of Mr. Patterson for a number of years. In I871 Wilson, Luther & Wilson obtained possession of the Patterson interests and erected a much larger mill. This was destroyed in 1878 but immediately rebuilt. After the passing of the lumber industry the property was taken over by the Belding Brothers which is the first step in the history of the present Richardson Silk Company. In I886 the first silk mill was erected in the village of Belding. This mill was i6o feet by 40 feet and three stories high. The Richardson Silk Company was organized in the spring of 1887 and took over this new factory building for the manufacture of silk thread. The first spool of silk manufactured in Belding was turned out by the Richardson Silk Company in April, I887. The business had increased to such an extent that it was found necessary, in 1890, to add another story making it a four-story building. Two years later more room was needed and an extra hundred feet was added to the length which conformed to the rest of the building in height and width. Since that time there have been annexes built to the dyeing plant and to the power plant. Up to 1904 the water power was owned jointly with the Knott, Ruthan Company. The latter had a large flouring- or grist-mill close to the dam. But after the passing of this plant the water rights were taken over entirely by the Richardson Silk Company, which today is sole owner of this power. In i904 the old wooden dam was carried away and the company immediately began to replace it with a modern, concrete dam. This dam has steel hea(l

Page  235 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 235 gates which are operated by electricity and in general it is the most complete structure of its kind in the state. In 1913 the company had the misfortune to lose their power plant. The course of the river was then slightly changed and a new power plant was erected. This plant has all modem electrical power devices and through their electrical generators they are not only able to operate their own plant but also the fabric plant of the Belding Brothers & Company. While it can truthfully be said that there are other plants with a larger unit, still none have a more modern up-to-date power system in the state than this mill. They also have a unique arrangement with the steam power of the Belding Brothers & Company's plant whereby if anything happens to the power of the Richardson Company's plant the load can be shifted to the former company's power and proceed without a moment's delay. As was previously mentioned the Richardson Silk Company was the pioneer in the manufacture of silk thread in Michigan. Fromn a very small beginning it has built up a business which has passed the million-dollar point several years back. In the year I915 a cotton department was added whereby it places in the market various art.cottons which are considered by the trade equal to any on the market of either a foreign or home make. The business of the company is managed along conservative lines and its products are such that they are able to compete with any brands on the market at the present. The same officers who started with the company are still in charge. George P. Richardson, president; T. S. Noyes, secretary and treasurer, who came with the company the second year after its organization; H. J. Soria, vice-president and manager of the New York office, who entered the employment in the early stages as a salesman; F. A. Washhurn, under whose supervision the management of the manufacturing has been since the beginning. Mr. Washburn was formerly connected with Belding Brothers in their Rockville, Connecticut, plant but came to Belding and had charge of the construction of the plant before the organization of the company. He has been in charge of the manufacturing end constantly since T886. SPENCER ELECTRIC LIGHT AND POWER COMPANY. The water power and rights which are at the present time the property of the Spencer Electric Light and Power Company have passed through quite a number of hands since the beginning of the utilization of the streams in this vicinity for electrical power. The dam was originally constructed by Joslyn Brothers who had a small woolen-mill and later a saw-mill which was

Page  236 236 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. run by the water power. This was a six-foot dam but was raised to an eight-foot dam at a cost of $3,000, by a MIr. Stearns who owned it at one time. Walter Hill and F. L. Spencer owned one-half interest in the water power. The former parties bought out Osgood's interest in the power and used it for lumbering. Osgood had been running a planing-mill which was sold along with the interest in the water power. Mr. Spencer became a onehalf owner in the year I88I. Mr. Hill purchased his interest in i884 or I885. Spencer & Hill utilized the power to run a saw-mill. In I888 they became sole owners of the power. In 1893 the Spencer Electric Light and Power Company was organized with a capital stock of $50,000. Spencer & Hill turned their interest in the water power for $20,000 of stock in the company. Belding Brothers turned over their power plant for $20,000 and the other $1o,ooo of stock was sold to the public. An electric light plant was immediately installed and at that time the transmission line was the longest in the state. After the organization of the company generators were immediately put in and a line run to Belding. On November 28, 1893, the first current was put over the line to Belding. The company at first utilized the old water wheel which had been erected for the saw-mill, but with the increase in the number of lights installed in the city the company built a new flume and added another wheel. Later on a third wheel was installed. In I914 this company tore out all of the old flumes, buildings and water wheels and erected a new concrete flume and draft tubes for the water wheels. They also erected a brick generator house for the generator, which is a three-hundred kilowatt, and is connected direct to two fifty-six-inch Sampson water wheels and a new American forty-four inch. There have been only a few changes in the administration of the company since the organization. F. L. Spencer has served as president; 0. F. WVebster, vice-president; WN. P. Hetherington, secretary; J. Frank Ireland was the first treasurer, which office is filled by J. E. Stanton, who is also superintendent of the plant at the present time; R. F. Barry was superintendent of the plant until 1914; James Barret was the first electrician. GRAND RAPIDS PAPER BOX COMPANY. The Belding paper box factory was established about May I, 1899, by W. W. Huelster, who was at that time operating a paper box factory in Grand Rapids, Michigan. The Richardson Silk Company, up to this time, were receiving their supply of boxes from the Grand Rapids factory, but the

Page  237 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 237 demand for boxes increased so rapidly that Mr. Huelster came to the conclusion that a branch factory in Belding would enable him to give the silk company better and quicker service, and in time would prove a paying investment for himself as well. That the move proved a wise one is evidenced by the fact that several years later another large silk mill was located in Belding by Belding Brothers & Company. who also became large users of paper boxes. Mr. Huelster's business in Belding and Grand Rapids increased so rapidly that it became necessary to interest more capital; consequently, April 13, 1893, the Grand Rapids Paper Box Company was organized with a paidup capital stock of $2o,ooo, the officers being Lester J. Rindge, president; J. G. Kalmbach, vice-president, and W. W. Huelster, secretary-treasurer and general manager. The paper box business increased from year to year in both cities and new and improved machinery were being invented and adopted by nearly all box factories in the country, demanding still more new capital, and on April 26, I899, the capital of the company was increased from $20,000 to $36,00o. On April 19, 1911, it became necessary to increase the capital stock from $36,000 to $1oo,ooo. The present officers are G. N. Snyder, president; H. C. Rindge, vice-president, and W. XV. Huelster, secretarytreasurer and general manager. The branch factory in Belding was started with one boy and five girls, on the second floor of a small frame building on Main street, the Belding Banner, published by Cowdin & Lapham, occupying the first floor. Belding had two large fires since I890 and the box factory suffered two total losses, being located in both cases in the path of the conflagration. Fortunately, the losses were fairly well covered by insurance, and as each move meant better and larger quarters, the fires proved blessings in disguise. From I893 to January i, i916, the factory was located in what is now known as the Underwood block on Pleasant street. In T915 the Richardson Silk Company began the manufacture of a new line of goods known as "R. M. C.," cotton embroidery yarns, which before the European war broke out was almost entirely imported from Germany. This line of goods requires larger boxes, and the sales have increased so rapidly that larger quarters for the box factory became necessary. A ten-year lease was secured from the Belding Basket Company for their two-story brick building, sixty-five by one hundred feet, just east of the basket factory, and the box factory is now located there and doing business, having nearly three times the floor space they had in the Underwood block. New machinery has been installed and everything done to make the Belding box factory one of the most up-to-date in the country. The working crew consists of Elwood Rockefeller, superin

Page  238 238 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. tendent, two men and twenty women and girls, and the prospects are good for quite an increase in the future. Nearly 25,000 boxes are being turned out daily, amounting to about $25,000oo yearly business. BELDING- H ALL COMPANY. The Belding-Hall Conpany, manufacturers of refrigerators at Belding, is one of the very large industries of lonia county. The original company, which was known as the Belding Manufacturing Company, was organized in September, 1884. It was succeeded by the Belding-Hall Company in January, I908. The new company has a total capitalization of $345,500, of which $200,000 is common stock and $145,500 in preferred stock. The plant of the Belding-Hall Company is valued at $400oo,ooo and the output of the factory, which is sold all over the United States and abroad, amounts to approximately $6oo,ooo annually. The officers of the Belding-Hall Company are as follow: Brinton F. Hall, president; R. Howard Hall, vice-president; G. D. Weter, secretary, and F. A. Washburn, treasurer. The directors include the following: H. B. Webber and George E. Nichols, Ionia; H. J. Dudley, Grand Rapids; E. E. Chapple, F. A. Washburn, R, Howard Hall and Brinton F. Hall, Belding. The Belding-Hall Company employs at present from 300 to 350 persons. The original officers of the Belding Manufacturing Company, which was capitalized at $5,ooo00, included H. H. Belding, Chicago, president; J. I.. Woodward, vice-president, and W. A. Stanton, secretary-treasurer. BELDING BASKET COMPANY. The Belding Basket Company, of Belding, organized in I894 as the Ballou Basket Works and re-incorporated, January I, 19oo, as the Belding Basket Company, has a capital at present of $5o,ooo. The original officers of the company were: AW. D. Ballou, president; W..W. Hanchett, vicepresident; E. E. Chapple, treasurer, and D. M. Gerber, secretary. The officers of the company have not clanged since its original incorporation. The company has a plant valued at $35,000 and an annual output reaching nearly $9o,ooo. The product of the factory is sold all over the United States. The company employs at present fifty men and six boys. E. CHAPPLE & COMPANY. The firm of E. Chapple & Company, of Belding, which does both a local and wholesale trade in flour and a trade in coal, coke, wood, sewer pipe and

Page  239 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 239 fittings, drain tile, wood fiber. plaster, lime, cement, etc., is a co-partnership organized on June I, 1907. The partners are E. Chapple and M. Osterhout. The sales annually vary from $70,000 to $9o,ooo, and the plant is valued at $1 1,ooo. Five men and sixteen girls and women are employed. BELDING LANDI) NI IMPROVEMENT COMPANY. The Belding Land and Improvement (.omlpany was organized and incorporated on December 17, 1889, by Belding Brothers. The first officers of the company were: Alvah N. Belding, president; M. M. Belding, Sr., treasurer; M. M. Belding, Jr., secretary; H. H. Belding, vice-president. The real purpose for the establishment of this company was to promote the growth and welfare of the city of Belding. At this point it might be well to give the history of the Belding hotel, for although it was built the year prior to the orglaization of the lelding Land and Improvement Company, it became part of the holdings of that company after its organization. In 1888 Belding Brothers began negotiations for the erection of a hotel, and Claire Allen, architect, of Jackson, was secured to draw the plans. Work was pushed forward aend in a short time the building was completed. At the time of the completion of this hotel, there were only three hotels in the city of C{hicago equipped with steam heat, electric lights, hot and cold water. But Belding Brothers equipped this hotel with all of these modern conveniences and yet there were only about five hundred people in the village. \. P. Hletherington was secured by H. H. Belding to manage the hotel. Mr. Hetherington came fronm Last Hampton, Massachusetts, where he had been connected with a chain of hotels with his uncle, William Hill, who was a veteran hotel man of fifty years experience. Mr. Hetherington brought with him Thomas Bracken and the two have been together in the Hotel Belding for twenty-eight years. In 1915 Mr. Hetherington severed his connection as active manager of the liotel and now devotes his entire time to the management of the Belding Land and Improvement Company in its management of farms and real estate. Mr. Bracken still remains in the employ of the hotel as clerk, and E. W. Dunham, a young man from Massachusetts, became manager. With Mr. Bracken's stay of twenty-nine years at the hotel he has become one of the best-known hotel clerks in the state of Michigan. In addition to the Hotel Belding, the Belding Land and Improvement Company has erected a basket mill, has given to the city a fine park along the river and has been instrumental in pushing Belding to the front in every possible way Every movement for the betterment of the town has been

Page  240 240 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN, backed by this company both with their influence and also financially. With the pride which Belding Brothers take in the city which stands as a monument to their name this company does everything possible to promote the growth and well-being of the town and the happiness and comfort of its citizens. This company has not only done its share in the erection of substantial buildings in the city but they have built three large blocks on the main street of the city. The Belding Land and Improvement Company also built a fine opera house with a seating capacity of six hundred and fifty and is fully equipped with all modern devices known to the stage, also steam heat and electric lights. After the death of H. H. Belding, E. C. Young, of Chicago, became vice-president of the Belding Land and Improvement Company. Fred N. Belding, son of A. W. Belding, of Rockville, has become secretary of the company. The present officers are: A. AV. Belding, president; E. C. Young, vice-president; M. M. Belding, Jr., treasurer; Fred W. Belding, secretary, and W. P. Hetherington, assistant secretary. The above constitute the board of directors, with the addition of M. M. Belding, Sr. WV. P. Hetherington, in addition to acting as manager of the hotel for twenty-seven years, has also been the active manager of the Belding Land and Improvement Company for the same length of time. FIRST PASSENGER LINE INTO BELDING. Prior to the opening of the Hotel Belding there were no passenger trains running into the city. The town was supplied with freight service, but that only run every two days. H. H. Belding and George Ellis organized a street railway company which was to operate between Belding and Kiddville. The equipment consisted of an old horse car and one horse, and the company planked between the rails for the horse to walk on. This car met all the trains coming into Kiddville and the capacity of the car was twenty people. In case of a gala cay or any important happening in Belding which caused added patronage, the operator would attach two hand cars to his horse car as trailers and in this way was able to take care of the crowds. The fare was ten cents each way. The first passenger train to run into Belding came on August I I, 1888, on the opening of the Hotel Belding.

Page  241 CHAPTER XXI. TRANSPORTATION. The chapter on transportation in Tonia county does not take up the great amount of space which some of the other chapters do. However, the history of the railroads in any county is one of the important factors in the growth of that county. There are only two main roads in this county, namely: the Pere Marquette, which is officially known as the Detroit, Grand Rapids & Western Railroad Company, and the Grand Trunk system, which was also known as the Detroit, Grand Haven & Milwaukee. The line, which was for many years known as the Detroit, Grand Haven & Milwaukee railroad and is at present known as the Grand Trunk system, was the first line of railway built and completed to any point within the boundaries of Ionia county. It was over the eastern link of this road, which was at that early date the old Detroit & Pontiac road and was in operation many years before the locomotive reached the waters of the Grand river, that the inhabitants of Western Michigan enjoyed their earliest railway facilities. This was by means of the stage-lines which ran from Lyons, via De Witt, Lansingburg and other points in Shiawassee, Genesee and Oakland counties, eastward to the successive termini of the railroad, which was first only as far as Roval Oak, later it extended to Birmingham and eventually to Pontiac. This extremely early history does not deal directly with the history of lonia county except through the medium of the stage coach, for it was purely an Oakland county enterprise and yet it was one in which the Ionia county people were interested and also benefited and for that reason it seems proper to give a short sketch of the building and opening of the Pontiac road. This line was of special interest to people of this county first, because its connecting stage lines gave them communication over it and at a later period through its extension it became a part of the through line between Grand Haven and Milwaukee which traverses this county through its entire breadth, from east to west. FIRST STATE CHARTER. The Detroit & Pontiac railroad project was agitated in Oakland as early as the spring of 1830. By an act which was passed by the legislative (16)

Page  242 242 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. council of the territory and approved by Governor Cass, on the 31st of July, I830, the Pontiac & Detroit Railroad Company was duly incorporated. This was the first railroad company to be chartered in the state of Michigan. The original incorporators of this company were John P. Helfenstein, Gideon 0. Whittemore, William F. Mosely, William Thompson, Hervey Parke, and "such other persons as shall associate for the purpose of making a good and sufficient railroad from Pontiac to the city of Detroit." The stock of this company was to consist of one thousand shares at the par value of one hundred dollars each. This company soon found that the project was entirely too heavy for the means which they could command and in consequence their charter became void by reason of their failure to comply with its conditions. Although the first endeavor to organize and build a railroad in the state had met with failure it did not discourage other promoters, as shown by the fact that a second company was formed. The act granting a new charter was passed by the territorial legislature, and approved by the governor, March 7, I834. The amount of stock was placed at $50,000, and the following were appointed commissioners to receive subscriptions to the stock: William Draper, Daniel LeRoy, David Stanard, Johnson Niles, Seneca Newberry, Elisha Beach, Benjamin Phelps, Joseph Niles, Jr., and Augustus C. Stevens. This roa'd was to be known as the Detroit & Pontiac Railroad Company, the work was to be commenced within two years from the passage of the act and completed within six years, the charter to be forfeited by failure to comply with these conditions. The principal stockholders were Alfred Williams and Sherman Stevens, of Pontiac, who were also managers of the affairs of the company. Operations were soon commenced, but very slow progress was made in the construction of the road, and it was not until the fall of 1838 that a track (which even then was composed of wooden rails for a part of the way) was completed as far as Royal Oak and trains made up of cars of the most inferior description were run from Detroit to that point by horse-power. In the fall of I839 the road was extended so that the trains ran to Birmingham, and steam was introduced as a motive power for their propulsion. At that time (September, I839), the Pontiac papers contained the advertisement of Henry J. Buckley, agent and conductor, informing the public that the trains were running two trips a day between Detroit and Birmingham and making connections at the latter place with a daily line of "post-coaches" for Pontiac and Flint, and a semi-weekly line for Lyons, on the Grand river, by way of Byron, De Witt and other points.

Page  243 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 243 In I840, the company being heavily in debt and without means of payment, the road was sold at sheriff's sale to capitalists of the state of New York. Then followed another period of delay and discouragement, but finally, in September, in I844, the road was opened to Pontiac, which for more than ten years continued to be the western terminus and the point of connection with the stage-lines running to Flint, Saginaw and the Grand river. EARLY EQUIPMENT. In the earlier years of its operation this road was made the subject of unmeasured ridicule on account of the poverty of the company, the rough and superficial manner'in which the line was constructed, the poor quality of as carriages and machinery, and the exceedingly slow and irregular time made by the train between Pontiac and Detroit. From an article which appeared in the Detroit Post a few years since containing some reminiscences of pioneer railway travel, the following, having reference to the Pontiac line, is extracted: "The trains would frequently stop between way-stations by a signal of some farmer who wished to ask questions or take passage. An old lady denizen of a farm-house, with spectaclcs of a primitive manufacture placed high upon her. forehead, came running out to the train waving her bandanna. Her signal being heeded, the train was brought to a stop and her inquiry of the conductor was, if a certain lawyer named Drake, was on board. After receiving a negative answer a short conversation was kept up before the train started on its journey. It was no uncommon occurrence for the engineer, who kept his shot-gun with him, to bring down game from his engine, shult off steam and send his fireman after the fruit of his markmanship. The road being laid with strap-rail, one of the duties of the conductor was to keep a hammer for the purpose of spiking down 'snake-heads' whenever they were seen from the cab of the engineer." After a few years of operation with the primitive and unsafe "straprail" the line was leased for ten years to Gurdon Williams, but the lease was purchased or relinquished before its expiration and the road came into the possession of a company of which H. N. Walker was made the president. Under his administration a sufficient amount of money was raised on the bonds of the road to re-lay the track with solid T rails and to make other improvements necessary to lput the road in condition for business.

Page  244 244 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. OAKLAND & OTTAWA RAILROAD COMPANY. Immediately after the completion of the road from Detroit to'Pontiac a project was formed to build a railroad from that village westward through Shiawasse, Clinton, Ionia, Kent and Ottawa counties, to the mouth of Grand river, to connect at that point with steamers for Milwaukee and other lake ports. This resulted in the formation of the Oakland & Ottawa Railroad Company, and its incorporation by an act of the state Legislature, approved April 3, I848. The persons appointed as commissioners. to receive subscriptions to the capital stock (which was fixed at $2,500,000) were Gurdon Williams, Edward A. Brush, H. C. Thurber, Alfred Williams, Bowman W. Dennis, John Hamilton, C. P. Bush, WV. A. Richmond and Charles Shepard. The company was empowered by the act "to construct a railroad with a double or single track from the village of Pontiac, in the county of Oakland, to Lake Michigan, in the county of Ottawa," passing it through the most desirable and eligible route, by the way of Fentonville, and was required to begin its construction within five years and to complete it within fifteen years from the passage of the act. In 1850 an act was passed (approved, March 20) providing "that the Detroit & Pontiac Railroad Company be, and they are hereby authorized to extend said railroad so as to connect with the Oakland & Ottawa railroad when constructed, thus forming a continuous line of railroad through the village of Pontiac." The construction of the Oakland & Ottawa road was commenced in I852, and in the following year H. N. Walker (who was a leading spirit in this as well as in the Pontiac road) purchased in England twenty-six hundred tons of iron which was estimated to be sufficient to lay the track through to Fentonville. On the I3th of February, I855, the governor approved "an act to authorize the consolidation of the Detroit & Pontiac and the Oakland & Ottawa Railroad Companies, so as to form a continuous line from Detroit to Lake Michigan, under the name of the Detroit & Milwaukee Railroad Company." By the same act the name of the Detroit & Pontiac was changed to that of "The Detroit & Milwaukee Railroad Company," which was empowered to increase its capital stock to an amount not exceeding $To,ooo,ooo; and it was further provided that "the said company is hereby authorized, for the purpose of forming a continuous line, to purchase all the property rights and franchises of the Oakland & Ottawa company upon such *

Page  245 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 245 terms as shall be mutually agreed upon; and the stockholders of the said Oakland & Ottawa Railroad Company shall, in case of sale, become stockholders of the said Detroit & Milwaukee Railroad Company, in such proportions as may be agreed upon in the terms of sale; and the said Oakland & Ottawa Railroad Company shall thereupon become merged in the said Detroit & Milwaukee Railway Company." FOREIGN CAPITAL SECURED. Under the authority so conferred the two companies were consolidated and the Oakland & Ottawa became the Detroit & Milwaukee line. The work of construction west of Pontiac had proceeded but slowly during the three years succeeding its commencement, but as the new company had negotiated a loan in Europe to the amount of $1,250,000, it was now vigorously pushed; so that in October, I855, the road was opened to Fentonville, where stage connections were made for points on the Grand river and for Flint and Saginaw. In the following spring the locomotive entered Shiawasse county for the first time and on July T, I856, the road was formally opened to Owosso, where the arrival of the pioneer train was hailed with demonstrations of almost unbounded delight and exultation. The same enthusiasm greeted the opening of the road to St. John's, Clinton county, on the I6th of January following. Between St. John's and Ionia the work was prosecuted with vigor and the road was completed to the county seat of lonia county in September, 1857. Finally, on the 22d of November, 1858, the line was opened to its terminus at Grand Haven, and the locomotive traversed the entire peninsula from the Detroit river to Lake Michigan. Well might the people along its route congratulate themselves as they saw the first trains speeding along, for their coming was an event which lifted the ban of isolation from these counties and more than doubled the value of their domain. This road, although of great benefit to the country through which its course leads, proved a bad investment for its original stockholders. The foreclosure of the bondholders' mortgages in 1860 placed it in the hands of a receiver, and it remained in this condition until October 19, 1878, when it became the Detroit, Grand Haven & Milwaukee railroad by passing into the possession of a company of that name, organized in the interest of the Great Western Railway of Canada. It is now the property of the Grand Trunk system.

Page  246 246 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. PERE MARQUETTE SYSTEM. As was previously stated, the only other railroad in Ionia county is the Pere Marquette system. But there have been seven separate and individual lines built in this county which are at present owned by this system and trains are run over all of these routes; however, it is true that they connect at present in such a way as to form only three lines, yet they were built at seven different times. The Detroit, Grand Rapids & Western Railroad Company, which is at present controlled by the receivers of the Pere Marquette system, comprises what was formerly the following companies: Detroit, Lansing & Lake Michigan Railroad Company, Ionia & Lansing Railroad Company, Ionia, Stanton & Northern Railroad Company, and Detroit, Lansing & Northern Railroad, which was later changed to the Detroit, Grand Rapids & Western. The Detroit & Howell Railroad Company and the Howell & Lansing Railroad Company were consolidated, forming the Detroit, Howell & Lansing Railroad Company. The above named companies were organized by local interests on the line between Detroit and Lansing, to construct a line connecting the above points. Iocal aid was readily secured and a large part of the road-bed between Plymouth and Howell was graded but no track was laid. Entrance to the city of Detroit, with right of way down Fourth street and Grand River avenue, for the location of terminals, was secured. Afterward the stock of the Detroit, Howell & Lansing road was purchased by the Hon. James F. Joy, then president of the Michigan Central railroad, and his associates, and the main line was deflected to connect with that line at West Detroit. After this change the right of way down Fourth street was abandoned and the property near the corner of Fourth and Grand River was sold. The Ionia & LIansing Railroad Company was organized by Lansing. Ionia and Portland residents and other interests along the proposed route. The active operation on the line from Lansing to Ionia was pushed through and in December, i869, the first train was run over this line. It was extended to Greenville in September, I870. This road was sold to James F. Joy and his associates in 1870 and consolidated with the Detroit, Howell & Lansing road in the latter year, forming what was known as the Detroit, Lansing & Lake Michigan Railroad Company. That part of the latter road from Detroit to Howard City, except the portion from Lansing to Greenville, was constructed in i87I, and opened for traffic in the month of August. The Ionia, Stanton & Northern Railroad Company, of which the line

Page  247 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 247 from Ionia to Big Rapids is the only portion which can be dealt with in this history, was organized in I872 by parties in the interest of the Detroit, Lansing & Lake Michigan Railroad Company and was subsequently consolidated with that company. This road was opened for business from Stanton Junction, locally known as Haynor Depot, to Stanton, in February, T873, and was later extended from time to time until I880, in which year it was completed to Big Rapids. The Belding branch, or better known as the.Kiddville to Belding line, was built by local interests and acquired by the Lake Michigan road in 1876. In 1875 the Detroit, Lansing & Lake Michigan Railroad Company defaulted in the payment of interest on its mortgage bonds. The trustees named in the mortgage took possession of the property under the terms of the mortgages and, pending the re-organization, the property was operated by Hon. James F. Joy, as agent for the trustees. On December 26, I876, the purchasers of the road, under judicial sale, filed articles of association with the secretary of state at Lansing, Michigan, of the Detroit, Lansing & Northern Railroad Company. The above named company took over all the property, rights and franchises of the Detroit, Lansing & Lake Michigan Railroad Company. The next line to be constructed in this county was that portion from Freeport to Lowell. This road lies almost on the county line between Ionia and Kent counties although, owing to the necessary crooks, it is almost wholly in the latter county. This road originally had its southern terminus at Freeport, while it connected at Lowell with the main line of the Grand Trunk system. After its construction several years and at the time the Pere Marquette purchased the holdings of the different smaller companies in this part of the state, this line was extended to Belding. From Lowell to Belding and Greenville it now forms the main line of the Pere Marquette from Grand Rapids'to Saginaw. The last road to be constructed in this county and the one that almost proved the undoing of Tonia was the line from Grand Ledge to Grand Rapids. This passes through the southern part of the county, crossing Campbell and Odessa townships and having stations at Elmdale, Clarksville and Lake Odessa. This is the main line from Detroit to Grand Rapids at present and has given the village of Lake Odessa its present size and activity.

Page  248 CHAPTER XXII. MILITARY HISTORY. At the outbreak of the Civil War the people of Ionia county were strongly in favor of maintaining the Union at whatever cost, and were quick to respond to the call for volunteers to suppress the rebellion. The following roster is taken from the official records and gives the names of all who enlisted from Ionia county: SECOND INFANTRY. Assistant Surgeon Jerome Robbing, Matherton; commissioned March 11i 1865; resigned March 12, 1866. (Compaity A. Porter Foreman S.. mustered out June 2, 1865. Rider, D., died of disease in Michigan, June, 1864. Robbins, Martin, died of disease in Michigan, 1864. Company B. Argersinger, Daniel, discharged at end of service May 25, 1864. Church, Peter C., discharged at end of service July 12, 1864. Green, William G., died of wounds July 18, 1864. Yaner, George W., mustered out at expiration of service June 6, 1864. Converse, Daniel B., 'mustered out July 28, 1865. Phillips, Andrew S., mustered out June 12, 1865. Company C. First Lieutenant Benjamin Vosper, Saranae; enlisted as sergeant in Company I, April, 1864; discharged for disability May 31 1864. Benedict, Lafayette, mustered out July 28, 1865. Cornell, Lorenzo L., mustered out July 28, 1865. Casey, T'homas, mustered out July 28, 1865. Davids. Philander, mustered out July 15, 1865. Green. William D., mustered out July 28, 1865. Peck, Russell S., mustered out August 5, 1865. Rider, Stephen V., mustered out August 5. 1865. Company E. Baldwin, Abner A., discharged for disability May 15, 1865. Baldwin. George W., mustered out May 11. 1865.

Page  249 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 249 Travis, Charles, mustered out July 2,8, 1865. Vospler, Mailson. died of wounds received near Petersburg, Virginia, August 19, 1864. Company F. Jones, leulben, mustered out June 12. 1865. Lampman, Peter. died of disease in New York, December 14, 1864. Petrie, John It., mustered out June 15, 1865. Steers, Samuel, discharged for disability April 12. 1865. Company G. Second Lieutenant James I. Mainning, Lyons; enlisted April 1, 1864. as private in Sixth Cavalry; resigned October 14. 1864. Hinds, Charles, died of wounds June 22, 1864. Hilton, Levi N., died in action near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864. Iarimalee, Truman, missing in action June 17, 1864. Robinson, ('orydon, died of disease at Washington, D. C. Company H. First Lieutenant John P. Anderson, Saranac; commissioned April 1, 1864; mustered out July 28, 1865. Hulse, Clear, die(l in action near Petersburg, Virginia, June 17, 1864. Osborn, William H., mustered out May 15, 1865. Ranger, Nathaniel W., mustered out July 28, 1865. Wheeler. Emmett J.. mustered out July 28, 1865. Company K. (Coffin, John, died of wounds August 22, 1864. Fislh, Alexander, discharged for disability September 26, 1864. Merchant. Willard, mustered out July 28, 1865. Mapes, Peter. (lied of woundls June 18, 1864. Owen, Warren M.. died of disease at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 4, 1865. Smith, Devine B.. dischlarged for disability May 6, 1865. Showerman, Jacob, discharged for disability December 25, 1864. Isham, Alfred R., discharged by order May 3, 1865. THIRD INFANTRY-FIRST TERM. Colonel Moses B. Houghton, Saranac; commissioned July 29, 1864; appointed colonel new Third Infantry, October 15, 1864. Lieutenant-Colonel Ambrose A. Stevens. Saranac; commissioned May 13, 1861; promoted colonel Twenty-First Infantry, July 25, 1862. Lieutenlant-Colonel Edwin S. Pierce, Lyons; commissioned January 1, 1863; wounded in action at Chancellorsville, Virginia; discharged January 20, 1864. Lieutenant-Colonel Moses B. Houghton. Saranac; commissioned January 20, 1864; promoted major September 1, 1862; promoted to colonel.

Page  250 0. 250 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Surgeon Zenas E. Bliss, Ionia; commissioned October 15, 1861; assistant surgeon June 1, 1861; appointed surgeon regular army September 24, 1862. Sergeant-Major Daniel G. Converse, Saranac; promoted first lieutenant Company H March 15, 1864. Hospital Steward George P. Taylor, discharged at end of service June 20, 1864. Company A. Lyons, Ira W.. discharged for disability Maly 8, 1863. Company B. Estes, William C., died in action at Fair Oaks, Virginia, May 31, 1863. Turner, Ira G, died of disease November 28, 1861. Company C. Second Lieutenant Theodore Hetz, commissioned June 10, 1861. Hawley, Clare, discharged for disability November 22, 1862. Fehely, Josephine, mustered out July 5, 1865. Ferris, Squire H., enlisted February 14, 1862. Mason, Burdett, mustered out July 5, 1865. Moe, Elam, discharged for disability June 17, 1862. Moe, Daniel, discharged for disability August 3, 1863. Osborn, William H., discharged for disability March 13, 1863. Olds, Willard, mustered out June 24, 1865. Snell, Sylvannus, discharged for disability July 27, 1861. Schmidt, August, died of disease at VWashington, December 1, 1862. Wilson, Daniel, enlisted February 22, 1862. Wright, John, enlisted February 22, 1862. Company D. Captain Moses B. Houghton, SarLanac; (Commissioned June 10, 1861; promoted major September 1, 1862. Captain Daniel G. Converse, Saranac; commissioned June 13, 1864; mustered out July 5, 1865. First Lieutenant Peter Z. Granger, Saranac; commissioned June 10, 1861; resigned September 20, 1862. First Lieutenant Byron E. Hess, Saranac; commissioned January 1, 1863; second lieutenant August 1, 1861; wounded and prisoner August 29, 1862; paroled; discharged May 30, 1863. Second Lieutenant George W. Phillips, Saranac; commisssioned May 13, 1861: resigned July 29, 1861. Sergeant Byron E. Hess, promoted to second lieutenant. Sergeant Zera L. Cotton. discharged to enlist in regular army, December 6, 1861. Sergeant Henry S. Mather, mustered out July 5, 1865. Sergeant Oscar Woodmansee, discharged for disability January 15, 1865. Sergeant Hial P. Clark, died in action at Chancellorsville, Virginia, May 3, 1863. Sergeant John Benson, promoted March, 1863. Corporal Sylvanus Staring, discharged for disability June 7, 1862.

Page  251 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 25I Corporal Richard E. Arthur. Corporal William Hunt, discharged for disability November 30, 1862. Wagoner, Thomas Thompson, discharged at end of service June 20, 1864. Arthur, Edmond R. Alspaugh, Benjamin F., discharged for disability December 21, 1861. Alderson, ---, mustered out July 5, 1865. Barber, Samuel II., mustered out July 5, 1865. Barber, Martin, discharged for disability April 4, 1863. Benton, Daniel, discharged for disability December 19, 1861. Baker, Philetus, discharged for disability December 24, 1861. Briggs, Solomon D., discharged for disability January 5, 1863. Barber, Andrew. Burton, Rufus. Clyse, Martin F., died of disease at Alexandria, Virginia. Cole, Benjamin F., discharged for disability February 11, 1863. Corby, Squire G., veteranized February 26, 1864. Dickerman, Edward H., discharged for disability October 14, 1861. Dillenbeck, Charles H., discharged for disability July 29, 1862. Disbrow, Newton, discharged at end of service June 20, 1864. Ellison, Hiram G. Fish, William H., discharged for disability March 1, 1862. Frisbie, Henry M., discharged for disability December 20, 1861. Foulks, John, discharged at end of service February 14, 1865. Fargo, George F., died in Virginia, March 15, 1864. Grummond, Nelson G., killed by accident January 7, 1863. Grooms, Price, discharged for disability January 12, 1863. Gardner, John, mustered out July 5, 1865. Griffith, William H. Granger, Munson, died of disease. Hines, Willis G., discharged for disability September 30, 1861. Harrington, Oscar L. Keeler, George H. Locke, Dennis, discharged for disability December 20, 1862. Lewis, Royal P., discharged to enlist in regular army. Lennington, John, mustered out May 20, 1865. Lennington, Hiram, mustered out May 30, 1865. Moore, Alonzo E. McLean, Robert, veteranized February 18, 1864. Marlett, William H., discharged for disability August 19, 1861. Moreton, Alexander. Mange, Henry, discharged at end of service June 20, 1864. Nietz, Philip, discharged for disability November 16, 1861. Nicholas, John, missing at Bull Run, July 21, 1862. Newland, James F., discharged to enlist in regular army January 18, 1863. Olmsted, King R., at end of service March 8, 1856. Post, George C., discharged for disability October 5, 1862. Petit, Louis, mustered out July 5, 1865. Robins, Moses M., died at Philadelphia of wounds April 2, 1863. Renwick, James, discharged for disability April 1, 1863. Renwick, William, discharged for disability February 14, 1865.

Page  252 252 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Slocum, George, discharged for disability April 1, 1863. Smith, Harding, discharged for disability July 26, 1861. Smith, Jonathan R., discharged for disability February 24, 1863. Story, Urias. Travis, Leonard, discharged for disability February 5, 1863. Thompson, Sylvester, discharged for disability December 20, 1862. Tuttle, Andrew P., discharged to enlist in regular army December 6, 1861. Thompkins, John N., died in prison. West, Charles H., died in New York, September 23, 1862. Weaver, Jacob B., mustered out July 5, 1865. Woodruff, William E., discharged for disability October 5, 1862. Woodruff, Charles, enlisted March 16, 1863. Wright, William, enlisted January 6, 1863. Wade, Imri D., died at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 3, 1863. Wilsey, Calvin. West, John. Woodruff, Charles. Company E. Captain Edwin S. Pierce, Lyons; commissioned May 13, 1861; promoted lieutenantcolonel. First Lieutenant Solomon P. Turney, Muir; commissioned May 13, 1861, resigned August 5, 1862. First Lieutenant David C. Crawford, Lyons; commissioned September 22, 1862; promoted captain, Company G. Second Lieutenant David C. Crawford, Lyons; commissioned June 10, 1861; promoted second lieutenant. Sergeant David C. Crawford, Lyons; commissioned June 10, 1861; promoted second lieutenant. Sergeant James F. Ferris, veteranized December 23, 1863; transferred to Fifth Infantry, June 10, 1864. Sergeant Alfred M. Burns. discharged for disability July 29, 1861. Sergeant Charles M. Finch, veteranized December 23, 1863; transferred to Fifth Infantry. Sergeant James M. Lewis, enlisted May 13, 1861. Sergeant Earnest Synold, veteranized December 23, 1863; sergeant; transferred to lifth Infantry June 10, 1864. Corporal Robert R. Swart, discharged for disability December 5, 1862. Corporal Herbert S. Taft, discharged for disability February 7, 1863. Corporal Duane Tousley, discharged for disability September 15, 1862. Corporal Eli W. Brown, veteranized March 19, 1864; transferred to Fifth Infantry June 10, 1864. Corporal Royal S. Dunham. Musician Amos Stockwell, veteranized December 23, 1864; transferred to Fifth Infantry June 10, 1864. Musician Alfred A. Carlock. discharged for disability January 13, 1863. Wagoner, Samuel Jason, veteranized December 23, 1863; mustered out July 5. 1865. Austin, Byron G., discharged for disability July 28, 1861. Ames, George, veteranized June 10, 1864; mustered out July 5, 1865. Burns, Alfred M., discharged for disability July 18, 1861.

Page  253 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 253 Barnum, Andrew PI., discharged for disability August 29, 1862. Bennett, William, mustered out July 5, 1865. Collins, Burnett C., discharged for disability September 30, 1862. Crapo, Jesse I., died at Fair Oaks. Call, John M., enlisted May 13, 1861. Densmore, Andrew F., discharged for disability April 4, 1863. Dennis, John, veteranized February 18, 1864; mustered out July 5, 1865. Drake, James F., died at Washington, D. C., of wounds, September 13, 1862. Dalrymple, Sylvester, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps November 26, 1863. Ferguson, James, discharged for minority. Foreman, Horace, discharged for disability September 5, 1862. Ferris, James M., mustered out July 5, 1865. Finch, Charles M., mustered out July 5, 1865. Foreman, Francis M., mustered out July 5, 1865. Fritts, Franklin B., enlisted May 13, 1861. Greely, Elmon, died in action at Fredericksburg May 31, 1862. Guernsey, Ezra, discharged for disability January 27, 1863. Guernsey, Dennis, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps January 15, 1864. Gallup, William S., transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps November 26, 1863. Graham, William, discharged for disability November 17, 1863. Howe, Charles, died of disease at Yorktown. Horton, Daniel M., died of disease July 15, 1862. Hemstead, Robert, discharged for disability. Heth, L., discharged for disability. Howe, Ransom, veteranized December 23, 1863; mustered out July 5, 1865. Houseman, Daniel, veteranized December 23, 1863; mustered out July 5, 1865. Houseman, George, veteranized December 23, 1863; mustered out July 5, 1865. Hoard, Edwin, mustered out July 5, 1865. Loverin, Charles B., discharged for disability November 2, 1862. Lamb, Almon F., discharged for disability April 23, 1863. Lewis, Oliver, veteranized December 23, 1863. Lewis, Edwin, discharged at end of service June 20, 1864. Lindsay, Arad E., discharged for promotion December 8, 1863. Mosher, Joseph, discharged for disability. Maltby, Delvin, discharged for disability December 27, 1862. Moore, William H. H., discharged for disability January 22, 1863. Merritt, Nathan D., discharged for disability March 14, 1863. Mills, George W., veteranized December 23, 1863; mustered out July 5. 1865. Mann, Chester L., veteranized December 23, 1864; discharged for disability March 12, 1865. Munson, Homer, mustered out July 5, 1865. Musgrove, Robert. Moe, Robert, discharged for disability July 29, 1861. March, George H., died in action at Groveton August 29, 1862. Owen, Isaac A., died in action at Fair Oaks May 31, 1862. Osborn, Sylvester, discharged at end of service November 10, 1863. Pierce, Nathan, Jr., discharged for disability.,Perkins, Lewis, discharged for disability March 4, 1863. Rhodes, Charles H., died in action at Fredericksburg, Virginia, May 31, 1862. Sickles, Anson, enlisted March 13, 1862.

Page  254 254 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Swartman, Charles W. Sinkey, Othaniel, enlisted May 13, 1861. Salter, James W., discharged for disability November 8, 1862. Scott, Job, discharged to enlist in regular army February 16, 1863. Tulley, Lewis M., discharged for disability July 10, 1862. Tabor, James A., veteranized December 23, 1863. Ward, Lemuel, discharged for disability September 24, 1862. Wiselogle, George H., discharged at end of service July 1, 1864. Wales, Prescott. veteranized December 23, 1863; mustered out July 5, 1865. Company F. Wilson, Daniel, missing at Spottsylvania, May 6, 1864. Bryant, George S., enlisted February 20, 1862. Company G. Captain Abraham T. Whiting, commissioned June 10, 1861; resigned September 26, 1862. Captain David G. Crawford, Lyons; commissioned November 1, 1863; mustered out at end of service June 20, 1864. Gardner, Oliver, died in action June 16, 1864. Ketchum, Abraham, mustered out May 31, 1865. Morrison. George, discharged for disability June 18, 1862. Regling, Christopher, discharged for disability September 16, 1864. Tyler, Charles S., mustered out June 5, 1865. Sayles. John, enlllisted May 13, 1861. Company H. Purtle, Austin, discharged for disability February 9, 1863. Sayles, Lyman A., discharged for disability June 28, 1863. Smolk, Judson A., discharged for disability November 5, 1862. Company I. Clay, Henry, mustered out July 5, 1865. Horton, Daniel M., died of disease June 15, 1862. Sparks, James H. Company K. Second Lieutenant Daniel S. Root; commissioned June 10, 1861. Anderson, Charles B., mustered out July 5, 1865. Fish, Sanford, discharged for disability August 13, 1861. Herrington, George, discharged for disability May 20, 1862. Monroe. William, died of disease at Washington, May 8, 1863. Tower, Reuben, died at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863. Haywood, George.

Page  255 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 255 THIRD INFANIRY. Colonel Moses B. Houghton, Saranac; commissioned October 15, 1864; brevet brigadier-general United States Volunteers March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services during the war; mustered out May 25, 1865. First Lieutenant and Adjutant Edgar M. Marble, Ionia; commissioned July 29, 1864; resigned June 16, 1865. Surgeon Harrison H. Powers. Saranac: commissioned July 29, 1864; resigned May 22, 1865. Assistant Surgeon Ira Winegar, Saranac; commissioned July 29. 1864; resigned March 6, 186(5. Chaplain Ingersoll M. Smith, Saranac; commissioned July 30, 1864; resigned June 16, 1865. Company A. Second Lieutenant Emery P. Moon, Otisco; commissioned July 29, 1864; promoted first lieutenant. Company B. Company B. Captain Seth. M. Moon, Otisco; commissioned July 29, 1864. First Lieutenant Emery P. Moon, Otisco; commissioned November 15, 1864; promroted captain. Company (G. Second Lieutenant Erastus T. Yeomans, lonia; commissioned November 16, 1864, sergeant-m,jor; resigned March 19, 1865. Musician August Bentley, Boston. Company C. Captain Carlos B. King, Otisco; commissioned July 29, 1864; resigned March 12, 1866. First Lieutenant Elijah Fuller, Tonia; commissioned July 291, 1864; promoted captain Company D. Second Lieutenant William J. Just, lonia; commissioned January 1, 1865; resigned July 7, 1865. Sergeant Levi M. Tully, Lyons; enlisted August 4, 1864; discharged by order June 30, 1865. Corporal Edward Mallory, Orleans; enlisted August 27, 1864; died of disease December 28, 1864. Corporal Luther J. Bisbee, Lyons; died of wounds July 24, 1865. Wagoner John C. Chamberlain, Ionia; mustered out May 17, 1865. Brooks, Morris, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, January 2, 1865. Briggs, Morris M., mustered out May 25, 1865. Brown, Hiram P., discharged by orders March 28, 1865. Church, Robert 0., discharged by order May 18, 1865. Elliott, Jason A., died of disease at San Antonio December 13, 1865. Griswold, Emory S., mustered out August 3, 1865. Hicks, William Henry, mustered out May 25, 1866. Hall, Charles, mustered out May 25, 1866. Morrison, George, died of disease at Nashville, March 30, 1866. Moore, Hiram, mustered out May 26, 1865.

Page  256 256 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Purcell, John C., died of disease at Huntsville, Ala., February 28, 1865. Reed, Nelson, mustered out June 3, 1865. Roberts, Samuel C., mustered out May 25, 1866. Soper, Edward F., mustered out February 27, 1866. Smith, Alfred M., mustered out Maly 25, 1866. Teed, James, mustered out May 25, 1866. Trowbridge, James, mustered out September 2, 1865. Turrell. John, mustered out May 25, 1866. Wheeler, Isaac. mustered out August' 9, 1865. Worden, George J., mustered out July 17, 1866. Company D. Captain Elijah Fuller, lonia; commissioned March 12, 1685; mustered out May 25, 1865. First Lieutenant Gerrit Smith, Ionia; commissioned March 12, 1865; mustered out June 11, 1865. Burt, Nathaniel, died of disease at Nashville, Tennessee, February 8, 1865. Bigelow, Cornelius J., mustered out May 25, 1866. Curtis, Joseph. mustered out February 12, 1866. Eckert, Martin, died of disease at Murfreesboro, January 4, 1866. Sergeant James A. Knickerbocker, mustered out March 1, 1866. Ryan. William J., mustered out September 8, 1865. Van Dusen, George D., mustered out September 26, 1865. Company E. Second Lieutenant William Boyden. Muir; commissioned July 29, 1864; resigned January 8, 1865. Drently, Sylvenius R., died of disease at Murfreesboro, March 10, 1865. Mills, James P., mustered out May 5, 1865. Orser, William J., mustered out February 28, 1866. Yeomans, Erastus T., promoted to sergeant-major October 15, 1864. First Lieutenant Chlarles Wickham, Muir; commissioned July 29, 1864; resigned January 8, 1865. Second Lieutenant Gerrit Smith, lonia; commissioned July 29, 1864; mustered out June 11, 1866. Second Lieutenant James W. Bigelow, Ionia, commissioned March 12, 1865; resigned December 18, 1865. Sergeant James W. Bigelow, Ionia; enlisted September 22, 1864; promoted to second lieutenant. Goff, Edward L., mustered out from Veteran Reserve Corps. November 12, 1865. Mason, Easel C., mustered out July 26, 1865. Wickham, William H., mustered out May 25, 1866. Conpany G. Captain Emery P. Moon, Otisco; commissioned January 1, 1865; brevet major March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services during the war; mustered out May 25, 1865.

Page  257 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 257 - EIGHTHI INFANTRY. Company A. Beach, James D., mustered out July 30, 1865. Duff, Nathan, mustered out July 30, 1865. Hewitt, John, sent to hospital, wounded. Company B. Cooper, Martin, discharged by order August 8, 1865. Carter, Irwin, mustered out July 30, 1865. Chase, Wilson, died in action at Petersburg, Virginia, July 4, 1864. Dougherty, John, veteranized; promoted first lieutenant Company H, April 25, 1865. Gee, William, died in action at Petersburg, Virginia, April 2, 1865. Green, Munson P., died in battle at Spottyslvania, Virginia, May 12, 1864. Griffith, Robert B., veteranized; discharged for disability July 19, 1864. Hunt, Charles A., discharged for disability September 4, 1864. Hosford, Edgar H., discharged for disability March 27, 1863. Holmes, Eugene, discharged by order May 5, 1856. Halstead, Wallace, corporal, veteranized discharged by order June 1, 1865. Houghtaling, Hiram, veteranized, absent, wounded. Maxstead, John, discharged by order May 3, 1865. Mosier, Daniel, discharged for disability February 2, 1865. McBride, Thomas, corporal; died of disease at Milldale, Mississippi, July 29, 1863. Raymond, Hiram, died of disease at Grand Rapids, Michigan, September 21, 1861. Robertson, Alexander, died of wounds at Petersburg, Va., July 5, 1864. Russell, William, discharged by order July 27, 1863. Russell, Albert M., discharged by order June 3, 1865. Sears, Jacob, discharged for disability December 27, 1862. Tramer, Lawson C., sergeant, veteranized, mustered out July 30, 1865. Cramer, Ezekiel, discharged for disability October 3, 1862. Company C. Cramer, Ezekiel, discharged for disability October 3, 1862. Company D. Bellows, Thomas, died of disease at Falmouth December 9, 1862. Conley, John, died in action at James Island, South Carolina, June 16, 1862. Peek, Franklin D., discharged for disability October 10, 1862. Company E. Case, Ephraim, discharged for disability January 6, 1863. Hill, Alvah, discharged for disability January 2, 1863. (17)

Page  258 258 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Company G. Faulkner, Henry, coirporal; mustered out July 30, 1865. Company H. First Lieutenant John Dougherty, Lyons; mustered out July 30, 1865. NINTH INFANTRY. Major Dorus M. Fox, Lyons; commissioned September 10, 1861; promoted colonel Twenty-seventh Infantry. Chaplain, Rev. James G. Portman, Lyons; commissioned October 12, 186i; resigned February 17, 1862. Commissary-Sergeant Alfred S. Bunnell, Lyons; l)romoted second lieutenant Company C. Commissary Sergeant Alexander Godell, Ionia; promoted second lieutenant Company G. Commissary-Sergeant Alonzo Barrett, Portland; promoted second lieutenant Company G. Company A. Bentley, Green S., mustered out September 15, 1865. Company B. Bennett, Jerome P., mustered out September 15, 1865. Converse, William H., discharged by order September 19, 1865. Company C. Second Lieutenant Alfred S. Bunnell, Lyons; commissioned November 16, 1864; promoted first lieutenant Company E. Second Lieutenant Alonzo Barrett, Portland; commissioned March 14, 1865; mustered out September 15, 1865. Company D. Captain John E. Smith, Lyons; commissioned September 5, 1861; resigned July 12, 1862. Captain Daniel C. Moore, Lyons; commissioned September 22, 1862; resigned May 14, 1863. First Lieutenant I)antel C. Moore, Lyons: commissioned October 12, 1861; promoted caltain Company D. Second Lieutenant James N. Wallace, Lyons; commissioned October 12. 1S63; promoted first lieutenant Company K. Sergeant Reynolds H. Scofield, Lyons; promoted second lieutenant Company F. Sergeant Thomas J. Hitchcock, discharged for disability October 3, 1862. Sergeant B. A. Stevens, veteranized Declember 7, 1863; promoted second lieutenant Company F. Sergeant Horace C. Glines, sent to hospital. Sergeant Monroe D. Halladay.

Page  259 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 259 Sergeant Alonzo H. Fowle, sent to hospital. Corporal Kesse Bachelor, dicharged at end of service October 14, 1864. Corporal Henry G. Cooley, veteranized December 7, 1863. Corporal Joseph E. Morrison, discharged for disability December 15, 1863. Corporal William P. Shay, discharged for disability April 9, 1863. Corporal Thomas D. Scofield, sent to hospital. Corporal Alfred S. Bunnell, veteranized December 7, 1863; promoted commissary-sergeant October 28, 1864. Corporal Alonzo Barrett, veteranized December 7, 1863; promoted commissary sergeant February 5, 1865. Musician William Wilson, died of disease at West Point, Kentucky, February 17, 1862. Musician Josiah C. Clark, discharged at end of service October 14, 1864. Wagoner, Caleb T. Smith, veteranized December 7, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865. Abbott, William, enlisted September 5, 1861. Ames, James, discharged for disability December 11, 1862. Ames, William. Aldgate, George, veteranized December 7, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865. Bingham, Samuel, veteranized December 7, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865. Boyden, Daniel, veteranized December 7, 1863; mustered out September 28, 1865. Bramian, Ransom, veteranized December 7, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865. Bunker, William, veteranized December 7, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865. Bacon, Joseph H. Bailey, Milton D. Barrett, Ebenezer, discharged for disability. Boyden, Daniel. Borden J., discharged for disability. Barnard, William W.. discharged at end of service October 14, 1864. Bogard, Richard, discharged at end of service October 14, 1864. Bunker, Alexander M., discharged for disability December 11, 1862. Bunker, Zement, discharged for disability December 10, 1862. Covey, Charles, discharged for disability. Caton, Welcome, enlisted September 5, 1861. Carpenter, Elkanah, discharged for disability March 3, 1863. Carpenter, Jonah D., veteranized December 7, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865. Dean, Fayette M., mustered out September 15, 1865., A Dalzell, John A., discharged for disability April 28, 1863. Darling, Cyrus, discharged at end of service October 14, 1864. Davidson, Martin D., died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, April 9, 1862. Evans, Christopher, discharged by order July 1, 1863. Faxon, Albert S., died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, January 20, 1863. Griffin, Willis R., died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, July 2, 1862. Gibbs, George R., discharged at end of service October 14, 1864. Goodenough, Edwin W., veteranized December 7, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865. Goodenough, Selah A., mustered out September 15, 1865. Hanchett, Joseph, veteranized December 7, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865. Hassett, William, veteranized December 7, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865.

Page  260 260 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Howell, Michael S., veteranized December 7. 1863. mustered out September 15, 1865. Iouston, Atchibald, veteranized December 7, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865. Hodge, John, discharged for disability March 3, 1863. Hammond, Charles H., discharged for disability March 3, 1863. Husted, Hiram, discharged for disability January 26, 1863. Horner, Hezial, discharged for disability. Hunt, Abraham. Houseman, Jacob 1I., died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., June 4, 1862. Hensker, George, died of disease at West Point, Ky., November 16, 1862. Irish, Welcome M., discharged at end of service October 14, 1864. Jourdan, James, discharged at end of service October 14, 1864. Kinney, Amos, discharged at end of service October 14, 1864. Klotz, John W.. veteranized December 7, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865. Lasher, Randolph, veteranized December 7, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865. Lyons, Ressega, discharged for disability. Miner, William G., veteranized December 7, 1862; mustered out September 15, 1865. Maynard, James E., mustered out September 15, 1865. Mapes, Burton, discharged for disability October 13, 1862. Mills, William H., discharged for disability. McCansey, David, discharged for disability. McCoy, Daniel, discharged for disability December 10, 1862. Morrow, Joseph E., discharged for disability December 10, 1862. Miner, Anderson A., discharged for disability December 10, 1862. Manning, Perry, discharged for disability April 9, 1863. Mills, John, enlisted September 5, 1861. Mills, Jason, died of disease at West Point, Ky., December 9, 1861. Newman, Ergar, enlisted September 5, 1861. Olmstead, Geo., veteranized December 7, 1863; mustered out September 17, 1865. Petit, Ethna, discharged for disability. Page, William B., enlisted September 5, 1861. Postel, George, discharged for disability December 10, 1862. Peck, Russell S., enlisted September 5, 1861. Powell, Jonathan, discharged for disability July 17, 1862. Plant, Wm. L., died of disease at West Point, Ky., November 23, 1861. Rice, Henry C., died of disease at Elizabethtown, Ky., February 27, 1862. Sutton, Johnson, died of disease at Elizabethtown, Ky., February 27, 1862. Southwick, Albert, enlisted September 5, 1861. Stains, Nelson R., discharged for disability I)ecember 10, 1862. Spicer, John W., discharged for disability December 10, 1862. Saxton, Daniel F., discharged for disability December 23, 1863. Smith, Garrett, discharged by order October, 1864. Smith, Alvin T., enlisted September 5, 18;1. Smith, Ebenezer F., Jr., died of disease at Portland, Michigan, September 29, 1862. Smith, Asahael K., veteranized )ecember 7. 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865. Stimson, Theron H., enlisted September 5, 1861. Sessions, Nathan C., died of disease at Chattanooga, Tennessee, February 12, 1864. Utter, Jackson, discharged at end of service October 14, 1862. Van Horn, John, discharged for disability January 17, 1863. Varnum, Phineas T., vetcranized December 7, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865.

Page  261 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 26i Varnum, George, died of disease at Elizabethtown, Kentucky, March 17, 1862. Winters, James, died of disease at West Point, Kentucky, November 13, 1861. Wilson, William, died of disease at West Point, Kentucky, February 17, 1862. Woodruff, Morris, enlisted September 5, 1861. Welley, Orville, B., discharged for disability. Wooden, Amos, discharged for disability December 11, 1862. Wallace, Harmon N., discharged for disability December 25, 1862. Youngs, Jefferson, enlisted September 5, 1861. Yager, Christian J., veteranized December 7, 1863: mustered out September 15, 1865. Company E. Arris, Jonathan, discharged for disability December 10, 1862. Bush, Geo. W., discharged by order June 20, 1865. Corey, Francis, veteranized December 10, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865. Gregg, George veteranized November 11, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865. Gregg, Charles, veteranized December 10, 1862. Jones, Lorenzo, discharged for disability December 10, 1862. Wooden, Byron, enlisted August 20, 1861. Company F. Second Lieutenant Reynolds H. Scofield, Lyons; commissioned April 21, 1862; promoted first lieutenant Company H January 17, 1863. Second Lieutenant Benevolent Stevens, Ionia; commissioned April 25, 1863; promoted first lieutenant Co. B, August 1, 1864. Krigger, Parley S., mustered out September 15, 1865. Rodgers, David, veteranized December 7, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865. Colenian, Hiram I., enlisted March 14. 1862. Company G. Second Lieutenant Alex Goodell, Ionia; commissioned November 25, 1864; mustered out September 15, 1865. Reilly James, mustered out September 15, 1865. Company BI. First Lieutenant Reynolds H. Scofield, Lyons; commissioned October 12, 1861; promoted first lieutenant Co. I April 4, 1862. Ackley, Jonas, veteranized December 7, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865. Buxton, James, mustered out September 15, 1865. Brokaw, William, discharged. Byres, John 1;., died of disease at West Point, Kentucky. Dean, Josiah, died of disease at Chattanooga, March 6, 1864. Dean, Joseph, died of disease at Chattanooga, March 6, 1864. Davis, Lafayette, veteranized December 7, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865. Douglass, Nathan, veteranized December 17, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865. Erwin, James H., veteranized March 26, 1864; mustered out September 15, 1865. Erwin, William H., veteranized March 26, 1864; mustered out September 15, 1865. Faxon, Marcellus, enlisted August 14, 1861.

Page  262 262 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Goodall, Alexander, veteranized December 7, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865. Hunt, Jiram S., veteranized December, 1863; died of disease at Chattanooga March 6, 1864. Heller, Christian, discharged by order September 28, 1865. Haskins, Freeman, discharged by order September 28, 1865. Haskine William V., enlisted August 14, 1861. Hedden, Luther C., discharged by order September 26, 1865. Leet, Ashley, died of disease at West Point, Kentucky. McNeil, Samuel, discharged for disability September 1, 1862. Packer, Charles, discharged by order August 1, 1863. Perry, James A., discharged by order May 18, 1865. Pinckney, L:, enlisted August 16, 1861. Peck, Norman, discharged for disability August 6, 1865. Russell, Joseph A., enlisted August 16, 1861. Sweet, John, died of disease at West Point, Kentucky. Sweet, Charles, died of disease at West Point, Kentucky. Sexton, Charles, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Stimpson, John, discharged for disability, December 11, 1863. Smith, Joseph, veteranized December 7, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865. Sickles, Charles, mustered' out September 15, 1865. Tracy, William W., veteranized December 7, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865. Tracy, Nathan, veteranized December 7, 1863; mustered out September 15, 1865. Tupper, Charles, mustered out September 15, 1865. White, Philo, discharged for disability June 5, 1865. Wright, Charles, died of disease at West Point, Kentucky. Wheeler, Ira died of disease at West Point, Kentucky. Waterhouse, William, enlisted March 3, 1862. Company 1. Capt. Benevolent Stevens, Ionia; commissioned March 14, 1865, mustered out September 15, 1865. First Lieutenant Charles T. Fox, Lyons; commissioned April 4, 1862, killed in action at Munfordsville, Ky., September 22, 1862. Company K. First Lieutenant James N. Wallace, Lyons; commissioned July 28, 1862; promoted October 26, 1863. Banner, Zeron D., mustered out September 15, 1865. Smith, Ozano M., mustered out September 15, 1865. FIFTEENTH INFANTRY. Colonel Fred S. Hutchins, Lyons; commissioned January 14, 1865; lieutenant-colonel June 7, 1864; major May 31, 1863; commissioned first lieutenant and adjutant May 1, 1862; brevet brigadier-general May 24, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services during the war; mustered out August 13, 1865. Sergeant-Major Edward A. Hawley, died June 23, 1865. Commissary-Sergeant Cyrus M. Smith, Lyons; promoted first lieutenant Company F.

Page  263 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 263 Company A. Borden, George D., mustered out August 13, 1865. Beckwith, Leroy, mustered out August 13, 1865. Brown, Leonard, died of disease at Little Rock, Arkansas, August 15, 1865. Evans, Alonzo, enlisted January 12, 1862. Mattis, Thomas, enlisted December 8, 1861. Sanburn, Peter, enlisted December 12, 1861. Company B. Anderson, James, mustered out August 13, 1865. Company C. Shepard, Andrew, mustered out August 13, 1865. Comqpany D. Burgess, William C, discharged for disability January 12, 1863. Gifford, Henry, discharged for disability, February 10, 1863. Hoffman, T. J., died in battle at Shiloh, April 6, 1862. Kellogg, John W., died of disease at Corinth, January 7, 1862. Simmons, Amos, discharged by order January 7, 1865. Company E. English, William, died of disease at Corinth June 17, 1862. Knowles, William, mustered out August 13, 1865. Newland, Daniel M., discharged by order May 30, 1865. Company -F. First Lieutenant Melvin W. Dresser, Lyons; commissioned January 1, 1862; killed In action at Shiloh, April 6, 1862. First Lieutenant Cyrus M. Smith, Lyons; commissioned June 6, 1855; mustered out August 13, 1865. Sergeant Frederick K. Hutchinson, enlisted November 12, 1861. Sergeant George Leonard, discharged from Veteran Reserve Corps at end of service January 30, 1865., Corporal Rufus Wright, died of disease at St. Louis May 15, 1862. Musician, Hiram D. Parker, veteranized January 25, 1864. Burch, Eli, discharged for disability July 12, 1862. Bradley Henry, discharged for disability December 6, 1862. Bowen, Isaac, died of disease at Corinth, October 3, 1862. Oummins, Williams, died of disease June 18, 1862. Mathews, Thomas, discharged for disability, January 9, 1863. Stimson, George, discharged for disability July 28, 1862. Snyder, Harrison, died of disease April 18, 1862. West, Peter died of disease at St. Louis June 11, 1862. Trowbridge, -, enlisted December 11, 1861.

Page  264 264 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Company H. Kroutz, Edmund C., mustered out August 13, 1865. Company I. Brownell, Hiram, died of disease at Cincinnati, Ohio, May 18, 1862. Sherman, Jesse, enlisted January 30, 1862. SIXTEENTH INFANTRY. Company A. Cornell, Albert, mustered out July 8, 1865. Company B. Captain Henry H. Sibley, Ionia; commissioned August 9, 1861; resigned September 27, 1862. Captain Guy W. Fuller, lonia; commissioned September 28, 1862; discharged at end of service September 17, 1864. First Lieutenant Guy W. Fuller, lonia; commissioned July 30, 1861; promoted captain. Second Lieutenant Morris B. Wells, Ionia; commissioned August 9, 1861; promoted first lieutenant and adjutant Twenty.first Infantry, July 26, 1862. Second Lieutenant John W. Ward, Ionia; promoted first lieutenant Company G. Sergeant Allen B. Morse, Ionia; discharged for disability October 26, 1862. Sergeant Henry H. Tiff, Ionia: transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. Sergeant William H. Borden, Ionia; promoted second lieutenant Company F. Sergeant Charles B. King, veteranized December 22, 1863; promoted captain Company C. Sergeant Hubbard H. Barrett. killed in action at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 2, 1863. Sergeant Augustus C. Savage, veleranized I)ecember 22, 18.63; promoted hospital steward. Corporal Adelbert I). Williams, veteranized Iecember 22, 1863; mustered out July 8, 1865. Corporal James W. Bigelow, discharged for end of services September 7, 1864. Corporal Adonir.m J. Cole, dilcharged for disability January 27, 1863. Corporal Myron B. Evans, enlisted August 7, 1861. Corporal Edward P. Strong, enlisted August 6. 1861. Corporal Doctor B. Bradley, died in action at Bull Run, August 30, 1862. Musician Vine E. Welch, discharged for disability September 1, 1862. Wagoner John Ward, veteranized December 22, 1<803; promoted second lieutenant Company B. Belding, Edward E., died of disease in Virginia, July 18, 1862. Bradford, James M., veteranized Decembl)er 22, 1,63; dlied of wounds in Maryland, February 17, 1865. Brown, William D., discharged for disability. Bigelow, Jonathlan, discharged for disability. Febrlruary 24, 1863. Bishop, Richard, discharged for disability, April 16, 1864. Barrett, Oliver, veteranized December 22, 1865; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Page  265 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 265 Benton, Eli, veteranized December 22, 1863; missing in action at Weldon Railroad, August 24, 1864. Carpenter, George, veteranized December 22, 1863; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. Corkins, Daniel A., veteranized December 22, 1863; mustered out July 8, 1865. Cranson, Asa F., veteranized December 22, 1863; mustered out July 8, 1865. Comstock, Rowland S., transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, March 16, 1864. Comstock, Benjamin, discharged by order, January 20, 1863. Cross, Joseph B., discharged for disability, July 28, 1862. Cross,' Joseph, discharged for disability, December 19, 1861. Clark, Peter, discharged by order, January 12, 1863. Clark, Charles, died of disease at Detroit, January 12, 1862. Cooper, William W., died in action at Gaines Mill, June 27, 1862. Chillson, Gilbert. enlisted August 5, 1861. I)avis, Miles, discharged at end of service, September 7, 1864. Doran, Dennis M., veteranized December 22, 1863: mustered out July 8, 1865. Eitelbus, George, veteranized l)ecember 22, 1863; mustered out July 8, 1865. Everest, Stephen E.. discharged for disability May 1, 1862. Evans, Joseph M., discharged at end of service September 7, 1864. Fish, George B., discharged by order December 27, 1862. Freehouse, Samuel. died of disease October 18, 1862. Goddard, Rufus, discharged for disability. Gordon, James S., discharged for disability November 20, 1862. Green, Andrew, discharged by order December 3, 1862. Greenhoe, Mathew, discllarged at end of service September 7, 1864. Glick, Martin F., transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, August 1, 1863. Greenhoe, Andrew, veteranized D)ecember 22. 1863; mustered out July 8, 1865. Green, Stephen J., veteranized I)ecember 22, 1863; mustered out July 8, 1865. Ileyduluff, Gotlieb J., veteranized December 22, 1863; mustered out July 8, 1865. Huckleberry. John, discharged by order January 12, 1863. Hatters, William, discharged by order August 22, 1864. IHeald, Warren E., discharged for disability November 17, 1862. Hodge, John M., discharged for disability July 26, 1862. King, Carlos R., veteranized Derember 22, 1863; mustered out July 8, 1865. Kellogg, Rodney, veteranized December 22, 1863; mustered out July 8, 1865. Kennett, Edw;ardl, died of disease in Halls Hill, Virginia, November 5, 1864. Luscomb, Lyman W., discharged at end of services September 7, 1864. Lowrey, Ebenezer, veteranized December 22, 1863; mustered out July 8, 1865. Mills, Alson M., missing in action December 26, 1862. McGann, James, discharged for disability September 16, 1862. Pond, Darius A., discharged for disability January 31, 1863. Rider, Stephen V., discharged for disability April, 1862. Rathbone, Oscar, discharged for disability, November 29, 1862. Rowley, George, discharged'by order, November 14, 1862. Ranger, William R. H., veteranized December 22, 1863; mustered out July 8, 1865. Ranger, M. S.. veteranized December 22, 1863; died at North Anna, Va., May 26, 1864. Sayles, Cyrus C., veteranized December 22, 1863; mustered out July 8, 1865. Streaver or Streeter, William H., veteranized December 22, 1863; mustered out July 8, 1865. Savage, Augustus C., veteranized December 22, 1863; mustered out July 8, 1865.

Page  266 266 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Strong, Edward, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, August 5, 1863. Synold, Charles F., discharged for disability August 1862. Sloan, William, discharged for disability December 2, 1862. Streeter, Lloyd G., mustered out July 8, 1865. Steele, Osmer G., mustered out July 8, 1865. Tanner, Marshall, discharged for disability October 21, 1862. Turner, Joseph N., discharged for disability March 3, 1862. Tuttle, Enmery, died at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863. Thompson, Eugene, veteranized I)ecember 22, 1863; died at Wilderness, May 6, 1864. Town, Richard 2I., died of disease at Fortsess Monroe, Va., September 13, 1862. Vincent, Robert E., transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. Whitfield, Charles, discharged for disability April, 1862. Whitfield, Nathaniel, discharged for disability December 18, 1862. Waterman, Solomon H., veteranized December 22, 1863; mustered out July 8, 1865. Wickman, William, veteranized December 22, L863; mustered out July 8, 1865. Whitebeck, Clark, veteranized December 22, 18<63; mustered out July 8, 1865. Williams, Albert D., enlisted August 8, 1861. Wilson, Frank, veteranized December 22, 1863; mustered out July 8, 1865. Wright, William, died in action at Gaines Mill, June 27, 1862. Young, Peter, discharged at end of service, September 7, 1864. Company C. Bradish, William L., died of disease at Beverly Ford, Va., September 16, 1862. Northwood, John, discharged for disability September 16, 1862. Wait, B. F., died of disease at City Point, Va., September 16, 1865. Bradish, Reuben, enlisted December 11, 1861. Company D. Bretz, Charles E., mustered out July 8, 1865. Haskins, Francis, mustered out July 8, 1865. Postle, George, discharged by order November 18, 1865. Shellbarger, Nichols. mustered out July 8, 1865. Company E. Van Wyck, John, discharged by order June 16, 1865. Company F. Second Lieutenant William H. Borden, Ionia; commissioned November 8, 1862; killed in action at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863. Colsher, William, enlisted December 20, 1861. Van Duser, James, dischalrged by order June 26, 1865. Compansy H. Hosford, Edgar, discharged for disability June 13, 1862. Messer, Samuel E., died in action at Gaines Mill, June 27, 1862. Norwood, W. R., discharged at end of service September 7. 1864.

Page  267 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 267 Owen, John A., veteranized December 24, 1863; died in action near Petersburg, June 20, 1864. Sinkey Henry, died of disease at Harrison's Landing, July 28, 1862. Terrill, Reuben, enlisted August 18, 1861. Young, Allen A.. veteranized December 24. 1863; mustered out July 8, 1865. Company K. Bird, John W., died in the field June 11, 1865. Boice, Andrew J., veteranized December 22, 1863; mustered out July 8, 1865. Haynes, James B., discharged by order June 15, 1865. TWENTY-FIRST INFANTRY. Colonel Ambrose A. Stevens, Boston; commnlissioned July 25, 1862; resigned for disability February 3, 1863. Lieutenant-Colonel Morris B. Wells, lonia; commnissioned February 3, 1863; killed at Chickamauga, September 20, 1863. Adjutant Morris B. Wells, Ionia; commissioned July 26, 1862; promoted lieutenantcolonel. Adjutant Allen B. Morse, lonia; commissioned Iecember 16, 1862; resigned September 1, 1864. Quarter-Master John W. Dye, Ionia; commissioned March 1, 1864: mustered out June 18, 1865. Surgeon William B. Thomas, Ionia; commissioned July 26, 1862; resigned December 15, 1862. Surgeon Francis G. Lee, Portland; commissioned December 15, 1862; resigned January 2, 1863. Surgeon John Avery, Otisco; commissioned January 2, 1863; mustered out June 8, 1865. Sergeant-Major Andrew Heydlauff, Ionia: enlisted October 29, 1864. Commander Sergeant John W. Dye, Ionia; enlisted August 9, 1862; promoted first lieutenant and regimental quartermaster March 1, 1864. Company A. Captain Francis P. Minier, Ionia; commissioned August 12, 1862; resigned April 6, 1863. Captain John Morton, lonia; commissioned January 15, 1863; resigned September 24, 1863. First Lieutenant Allyn W. Kimball, Ionia; commissioned August 12, 1862; resigned December 17, 1862. First Lieutenant John Morton, Ionia; commissioned December 17, 1862; promoted captain. Second Lieutenant John Morton, Ionia; commissioned August 12, 1862; promoted first lieutenant. Second Lieutenant Thomas G. Stevenson, Ionia; commissioned January 15, 1863; promoted first lieutenant Company D.

Page  268 268 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Second Lieutenant Judson Clark, Ionia; commissioned September 24, 1863; mustered out June 8, 1865. Sergeant William T. Anniba, lonia; enlisted August 1, 1862; discharged for disability December 23, 1863. Sergeant Thomas Rhead, Ionia; enlisted August 4, 1862; discharged for disability 1862. Sergeant Benjamin F. Barlett, Orange; enlisted August 6, 1862; died at Louisville, Ky., February 2, 1863. Sergeant D. Loring, Fairplain; enlisted August 5, 1862; mustered out June 8, 1865. Corporal Judson Clark, Ionia; enlisted August 7, 1862; promoted second lieutenant. Corporal Willian Kibbey, Odessa; enlisted July 19, 1862; died of disease at Murfreesboro, April 16, 1863. Corporal John L. Wood, Odessa; enlisted August 4, 1862; died at Bowling Green, Ky., November 26, 1862. Corporal Franklin Maranville, Ionia; enlisted August 4, 1862; mustered out June 28, 1865. Corporal James W. Swigart, Odessa; enlisted August 6, 1862; died at Murfreesboro, of wounds, February 13, 1863. Corporal Charles J. Everest, North Plains; enlisted August 5, 1862; died at Louisville of disease, February 4, 1863. Corporal Elias H. Minier, Ronald; enlisted August 12, 1862; mustered out June 14, 1865. Corporal John Moors, Danby; enlisted August 8, 1862; died at Nashville, January 3, 1863. Musician Friend W. Cogswell, lonia; enlisted August 10, 1862; discharged for disability, February 1, 1863. Musician Nelson Ferguson. Ronald; enlisted August 12, 1862; discharged for disability, December 24, 1862. Wagoner Frank Burgess, Easton; enlisted August 4, 1862; mustered out June 8, 1865. Abel, John. died of disease at Nashville, Tenn. Alnniba, William HI., dischatrged for disability January 25, 1863. Alger, Cyrus H. Atherton, J. F., mustered out June 8, 1865. Buck, Hiram C., dischargedl for disability March 8, 1863. Bennett. Jefferson, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, April 10, 1864. Bond, Edgar E., transferred to Fourteenth Michigan Infantry, June 8, 1865. Bond, William T., discharged for disability March 15, 1864. Bishop, Richard J., died of disease at Mill Creek, Tenn., December 7, 1862. Barnes, L., enlisted August 7, 1862. Bartlett, Hazard D., mustered out June 8, 1865. Berry, John S., mustered out June 8, 1865. Bretz, Valentine, mustered out June 8, 1865. Bliss, Albert J. L., mustered out July 18, 1865. Bartlett, James H., mustered out July 18, 1865. Cnte, George W., mustered out July 8, 1865. Clark, Cyrus W., mustered out July 8, 1865. Cramer, Emmanuel, mustered out June 8, 1865. Clark, Lauren, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., January 31, 1863. Chllamplin, George W., enlisted August 11, 1862. Chase, Ebenezer, died of disease at Murfreesboro, November 8, 1863.

Page  269 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 269 Chapman, John W., killed in action at Chapel Hill, October 8, 1863. Cheney, Alphonso, killed in action at Chickamauga, September 20, 1863. Dillenbeck, Albert W., mustered out June 8, 1865. Doty, Nelson, died at Perryville of wounds, October 14, 1862. Downer, Ephraim. died at Louisville, October 20, 1862. Eddy, Orrin, died of disease at Murfreesboro, May 10, 1863. Fricke, Isaac, died at Louisville, Ky., November 27, 1862. Gunn, Jacob. mustered out June 8, 1862. Gunn, David H., discharged by order. Godfrey, Charles H., died October 20, 1863. Hubbs, Warren P., discharged for disability March 5, 1864. Hubbs, Henry C., died of disease at Murfreesboro, February 4, 1863. Hogle, Josiah, musteerd out June 24, 1865. Haight, Harvey A., died at Louisville, November 27, 1862. Hill, William, enlisted August 12, 1862. House, George W., absent on sick furlough from September, 1864. Hodges, William, discharged for disability March 5, 1864. Holcomb, James B., transferred to Fourteenth Infantry June 8, 1865. Inman, Dorus H., died at Nashville, January 3, 1863. Kremer, Mitchell, discharged for disability March 30, 1864. King, Alex H., accidentally shot at Cowan, Tenn., July 21, 1863. Little, John, Jr., mustered out June 8, 1865. Lee, Solomon, discharged for disability April 15, 1863. Minier, James W., transferred to Invalid Corps, January 15, 1864. Minier, Hiram, mustered out May 29, 1865. Merrill, Nelson G., killed in action at Stone's River, December 31, 1862. Munn, William, discharged for disability April 15, 1863. ' Morse, Myron, discharged for promotion in U. S. T. C. Martin, Henry L., discharged for disability May 4, 1863. Miller, Lennis, died at Louisville, November 21, 1862. Mauman, James, discharged by order. Munger, Merritt A., transferred to Fourteenth Infantry, June 8, 1865. Parmenter, Russell B., died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., January 2, 1863. Parsons, Cyrus, died at Louisville, Ky., January 6, 1863. Pike, Murray L., discharged for disability I)ecember 12, 1863. Plant, Samuel W., discharged by order. Patrick, John, enlisted August 9, 1862. Ransom, Melvin H., mustered out June 8, 1865. Sprague, Austin, mustered out June 8, 1865. Shafer, John, mustered out June 8, 1865. Smith, David H., absent on detached service. Smith, Richard M. discharged for disability February 22, 1863. Stocum, Hiram, mustred out June 8, 1865. Sabine, Melvin P., discharged for disability January 8, 1863. Steel, Thomas L., killed in action at Bentonville, North Carolina, March 19, 1865. Standen, William, transferred to Fourteenth Infantry, June 8, 1865. Snow, Montraville, enlisted August 11, 1862. Snow, Simon P., enlisted August 12, 1862. Snow, Edward P., enlisted August 12, 1862. Tefft, Enoch, mustered out June 8, 1865. Towner, William, discharged by order July 2, 1865.

Page  270 270 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Tuttle, Almon, discharged for disability April 21, 1863. Taber, Andrew J., absent on detached service. Van Dyke, Erastus E., died of disease at Louisville, Kentucky, December 22, 1862. Wade, Alexander, discharged for disability October 21, 1862. Wimple, Andrew, discharged for disability July 27, 1863. Westbrook, John W., discharged by order July 5, 1865. Wade, Cornelius M., (lied at Louisxille, Kentucky, November 21, 1862. White, John, mustered out June 8. 1865. Company B. Converse, James, enlisted August 11, 1862. Cook, Samuel, enlisted August 11, 1862. Hopkins, George W., enlisted August 11, 1862. Hopkins, Joseph L., enlisted August 11, 1862. Jackson, Albert, enlisted August 6, 1862. Sayles, Sidney, enlisted August 9, 1862. Wooley, William J., enlisted August 11, 1862. Whitefield, Henry A., enlisted August 6, 1862. Company lD. Captain Jacob Ferris, lonia; commissioned July 26, 1862; resigned January 15, 1863. Captain Thomas G. Stevenison, Ionia; commissioned January 13, 1863; mustered out June 8, 1865; brevet major United States Volunteers March 13, 1865. First Lieutenant James B. Roberts, Ionia; commissioned July 30, 1862; resigned April 6, 1863. First Lieutenant Thomas G. Stevenson, Ionia; commissioned January 15, 1863; promoted captain. First Lieutenant Oliver C. Townsend, North Plains; mustered out June 8, 1865. Second Lieutenant Horace Perkins, Muir; commissioned February, 1863; mustered out June 8, 1865. Sergeant Robert Courter. Ionia; died of disease at Nashville June 10, 1863. Sergeant George F. Cooper, Ionia; discharged for disability June 20, 1863. Sergeant Fred H. Isham, Lyons. Sergeant George Shaffer. Sergeant Horace Perkins, Ionia. Corporal A. Barton Carter, Pewamo. Corporal William S. Rice. Corporal Truman D. Brown, North Plains. Corporal Joseph B. Cross, Ionia. Corporal George Kingston, lonia. Corporal Joseph Barber, Orleans. Corporal William Starkey, Ionia. Corporal James Henderson, Easton. Musician James W. ddminister, lonia. Musician John York, Jr., Ionia. Wagoner, Peter S. Van Dusen, Ionia. Avery, Frederick K., enlisted August 9, 1862. Ashley, John, Jr., mustered out June 8, 1865.

Page  271 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 271 Aulls. Joseph. mustered out June 8, 1865. Bennett, William H., mustered out June 8, 1865. Ball, George N., mustered out June 8, 1865. Bennett. Noah E., mustered out June 8, 1865. Bewk, Edward, mustered out June 8, 1865. Brown, Truman, mustered out June 12, 1865. Bebbins. Milo P., mustered out June 8, 1865. Bailey, Frank, mustered out June 19, 18_65. Blodgett, Alonzo, (ie(l of disease at Lookout Mountain. Tennessee, August 25, 1864. Barber, Jose)li, died of disease at Louisville. Kentucky, November 28, 1862. Badder, Abram, died of disease at Louisville. Kentucky, March 10, 1863. Chub)b, IHector, diel of disease at Louisville, Kentucky, January 21, 1863. Courter, Robert W., died of disease at Nashville, Tennessee, June 10, 1863. Crawford, Walter, enlisted August 11, 1862. Carter, Barton A., discharged for disability March 16, 1863. Cooper, George F'.. d(ischarged for disability July 20, 1863. Cross, Joselhl I., died ill action at Chick maluga, Tennessee, September 20, 1863. Cross, John, nmustered out July 8, 1865. Clifford. James, mustered out June 20, 1865. Clifford, Walter, mustered out June 8, 1865. Clay, Wilson S., mustered out June 5, 1865. Cripl)en, Albert, enlisted August 15, 1862. Cross, John H., enlisted August 4, 1862. Cross, Samlluel 11., died of disease at Bowling Green. Ky., November 25, 1862. D)ivis. William V.,. (ied in Nashville l)eeember 27, 1862. Dietz, Amos H., enlisted August 6, 1862. Errett, James R., mustered out June 8, 1865. Emery, Abram, sergeant; mustered out June 8, 1865. Evans, Harrison, transferred to Fourteenth Infantry, June 8, 1865. Frost, Francis D., transferred to Invalid Corps September 1, 1863. Fitch, Osceola B., mustered out June 8, 1865. Frost, Lyman A., killed in action at Stone's River, December 31, 1862. Gibbs, Albert, died at Nashville, December 15, 1862. Greenough, Christopher, died at Murfreesboro, March 27, 1863. Greenough, George, mustered out June 8, 1865. Greenough, Henry, died of disease at Murfreesboro, June 5, 1863. Guernsey, Alvin, mustered out June 5, 1865. Guernsey, Marvin, mustered out June 28, 1865. Galloup, Austin P., mustered out June 8, 1865. Gould, John M., died of wounds at Newborn, North Carolina, April 6, 1865. Hall, Sylvanus, died at Nashville, December 15, 1862. Hall, Frank, died at Nashville, November 30, 1862. Hall, Major, died of disease at New Albany, Indiana, August 10, 1863. Henderson, Robert, died of disease at Nashville, November 15, 1862. Hoyt, John R., taken prisoner at Chickamauga, September 20, 1863. Heaton, Lucien J., mustered out June 26, 1865. Hall, William J., mustered out June 26, 1865. Harrington, Clark, mustered out June 5, 1865. Howe, Elmer J., mustered out May 20, 1865. Holcomb, Jesse, mustered out June 8, 1865.

Page  272 272 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Johnson, Edward, mustered out June 8, 1865. Johnson, William W., died of wounds at Chattanooga, October 12, 1863. Joslin, William, died of disease at Clear Lake, Michigan, February 22, 1865. Jason, Daniel, left sick at Nashville. Jewell, Nathaniel, mustered out May 20, 1865. Kuhn, Philetus, mustered out June 8, 1865. Long, Ensign, mustered out June 8, 1865. Long, Samuel, transferred to Fourteenth Infantry, June 8, 1865. Lomax, John A., mustered out June 26, 1865. Macy, Andrew D., mustered out June 8, 1865. Niedhart, Fred, died of disease at Chattanooga, April 16, 1864. Olmsted. Ervin, discharged for disability, May 12, 1863. Osman, Morris, mustered out June 8, 1865. Pattengill, James, died of disease at Edgefield, Tennessee, November 16, 1862. Preston, George F., died at Bowling Green, November 15, 1862. Padden, Daniel E.. discharged by order October 9, 1863. Phillips, George W., mustered out June 8, 1865. Powell, William J., killed in action at Chickamauga, September 20, 1863. Ransom, Ives, died at Nashville, December 3, 1862. Randall, Ives. mustered out June 8, 1865. Sweet, William H., mustered out June 8, 1865. Sanborn, Columbus, mustered out June 8, 1865. Stinson, J., died of disease in Ohio, December 29, 1864. Sprague, Williaxn G., died at Nashville, November 16, 1863. Sprague, William H. H., transferred to Invalid Corps, December 15, 1863. Smith. William H., mustered out June 8. 1865. Spicer, Thomas, discharged for disability February 26. 1863. Tanner, Lewis, transferred to Invalid Corps, January 24, 1864. Vanderhough, Peter S., died at Nashville, December 26, 1862. Wright, William J., sergeant, mustered out June 8. 1865. Whipple, William, transferred to Invalid Corps, February 19, 1864. West, Daniel J., sergeant; mustered out June 18, 1865. York. Oliver, died of disease at Bowling Green, November 15, 1862. Company F. Shepard, James H., enlisted August 15, 1862. Company I. Captain John A. Ellsworth, Saranac; commissioned July 30, 1862; resigned November 20, 1862. Captain James H. Truax, Saranac; commissioned December 16, 1862; resigned August 24, 1863. Captain George Wiemer, Saranac; commissioned August 24, 1863; mustered out June 8, 1865. First Lieutenant Herman Hunt, Saranac; died of disease at Nashville, Tennessee, December 16, 1862. First Lieutenant Allen B. Morse, Otisco; commissioned December 13, 1862; promoted first lieutenant and adjutant, February 3, 1863; wounded in action at Missionary Ridge,

Page  273 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 273 November 25, 1863, while on duty as acting assistant adjutant-general; resigned September 1, 1864. First Lieutenant George Wiemer, Saranac; commissioned February 3, 1863; promoted captain August 23, 1863. Second Lieutenant James H. Traux, Saranac; commissioned August 19, 1862; promoted captain December 16, 1862. Second Lieutenant George Wiemer, Saranac; commissioned December 16, 1862; promoted first lieutenant February 3, 1863. Second Lieutenant David B. English, Saranac; commissioned September 1, 1864; mustered out June 8, 1865. Sergeant Sherburne H. Tidd, Saranac; died at Gallatin, Tennessee, June 17, 1863. Sergeant Abijah A. Alcott, Saranac; promoted to second lieutenant Company A. Sergeant C. Ball, Saranac; discharged by order February 16, 1863. Sergeant David B. English, Saranac; promoted to second lieutenant September 1, 1864. Sergeant Benjamin Vosper, Saranac, discharged by order, March 30, 1864. Corporal Samuel Woolridge, Easton; transferred to Invalid Corps, January 15, 1864. Corporal George Wiemer, Saranac, promoted to second lieutenant December 16, 1862. Corporal James M. Rogers, Saranac; transferred to Fourteenth Infantry. Corporal John D. Bradford, Easton; discharged November 29, 1862. Corporal S. W. Mathews, Saranac; absent, sick, at muster out. Corporal Charles A. Mooney, Saranac; died of disease at Lebanon, Kentucky, October 26,. 1862. Musician James H. Kellogg, Saranac; died of disease at Lebanon, Kentucky, October 26, 1862. Musician Rufus W., died of disease at Lebanon, Kentucky, October 15, 1862. Anway, Edwin, died of disease at Nashville, Tennessee, January 9, 1863. Adams, Charles D., died of disease at Nashville, Tennessee, December 30, 1862. Allen, Robert J., discharged for disability January 1, 1863. Adams, Silas W., died of disease at Bowling Green, December 29, 1862. Aldrich, James E.. died of disease at Bowling Green, Kentucky, November 29, 1862. Henry P. Bement, mustered out May 8, 1865. Bishop, Hiram H., mustered out August 8, 1865. Burns, Malachi, enlisted August 11, 1862. Brockway, Abner, died of disease at Savannah, Georgia, December 23, 1864. Case, John B., discharged for disability January 10, 1863. Concklin, Charles S., discharged for disability May 11, 1863. Chappel, John G., mustered out June 8, 1865. Crane, Marion, discharged for disability February 21, 1863. Curtis, Charles H., mustered out Veteran Reserve Corps, June 30, 1865. Childs, Darius, died of disease at Nashville, Tennessee, December 17, 1862. Elsworth, Daniel H., died of disease at Bowling Green, Kentucky, 1863. Fisher, James, discharged to enter marine service. German, William, died of wounds at Nashville, February 11, 1863. Humphreys, James, enlisted August 22, 1863. Hines, Benjamin F., discharged October 15, 1862. Henry, John L., transferred to Invalid Corps, July 1, 1863. Hinderleider, William, mustered out June 9, 1865. Hinderleider, Henry, absent, sick. King, George F., discharged for wounds May 13, 1865. (T8)

Page  274 274 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Lowry, Archibald, died at Nashville, May 21, 1865. Lowry, Tracy, mustered out June 8, 1865. Lewis, Edgar S., died at Nashville, December 20, 1862. Latta, Hector H., discharged for disability March 1, 1863. Lillie, Elias, enlisted August 14, 1862. McLaughin, Joseph, absent, sick. McWhitney, Bates, died of disease November 14, 1862. Matther, Francis M., died of disease at Detroit, October 17, 1862. Mowry, Oliver, died of disease in Kentucky, November 3, 1862. Morse, Robert, killed in action at Stone's River, Tennessee, December 21, 1862. McOmber, Alfred, discharged by order May 25, 1865. Miller, John F., enlisted August 11, 1862. Parker, Luther, discharged for disability. Patrick, John R., mustered out June 8, 1865. Perkins, Richard, discharged for disability January 12, 1863. Rhodes, Cornelius C., discharged for disability April 22, 1863. Rogers, Joseph, mustered out June 8, 1865. Roger, John H., mustered out June 8, 1865. Smith, Oliver, mustered out June 8, 1865. Simmons, Leonard F., mustered out June 8, 1865. Sinclair, Duncan, sergeant, mustered out June 8, 1865. Scarr, William T., killed in action at Stone's River, Tennessee, December 31, 1862. Shute, MaIjor, died of disease at Nashville, Tennessee, Decmeber 2, 1862. Smith, Thomas R., mustered out June 8, 1856. Sanborn, William, transferred to Fourteenth Infantry, June 8, 1865. Train, Edison H., discharged for disability February 10, 1863. Taylor, Philip, discharged for disability May 23, 1863. Van Orman, Harrison, mustered out June 8, 1865. Wheelock, Alfred E., mustered out June 8, 1865. White, Sanford, transferred to Invalid Corps; mustered out July 8, 1865. Winters, George W., died of disease at Louisville, October 4, 1863. York, Orrin W., discharged for disability December 28, 1862. Company K. Captain Herman Baroth, Ionia; commissioned July 26, 1862; resigned January 13, 1863. Captain John C. Taylor, lonia, commissioned October 16, 1863; mustered out June 8, 1865. First Lieutenant Albert G. Russell, Hubbardston; commissioned August 16, 1862; resigned January 13, 1863. First Lieutenant Eli E. Burritt, Ionia; January 13, 1863: resigned October 15, 1865. First Lieutenant Oliver C. Townsend, North Plains; mustered out June 8, 1865. First Lieutenant Eli E. Burritt. Ionia; commissioned August 16, 1862; promoted first lieutenant. Second Lieutenant John C. Taylor, Ionia; commissioned January 13, 1863; promoted captain. Second Lieutenant Daniel O. Cuff, North Plains; commissioned November 20, 1863; mustered out June 8, 1865. Sergeant John C. Taylor, lonia; promoted second lieutenant.

Page  275 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 275 Sergeant Amd. Heydlauff, Muir; promoted to sergeant-mayor May 1, 1864. Sergeant Samuel B. Buck, Easton; discharged for disability August 13, 1862. Sergeant Daniel C. Cuff, promoted second lienteuant. Sergeant Erastus B. Potter, Ionia; discharged for disability May 12, 1865. Corporal Charles IR. Dickenson, North Plains; sergeant, mustered out June 8, 1865. Corporal Oliver C. Towsend, North Plains; promoted first lieutenant Company 1). Corporal Oliver C. Reed, North Plains; mustered out July 8, 1865. Corporal Charles L. Stuck, North Plains; discharged for disability April 18, 1863. Corporal Fletcher Ransom, Easton; sergeant, mustered out June 8, 1865. Corporal John W. Brown, lonia; discharged for disability February.28, 1863. Corporal William Mattison, North Plains, discharged for disability April 18, 1863. Musician Porter N. Carver, North Plains; died of disease. Musician John Dick, Easton; discharged for disability March 8, 1863. Wagoner, John W., Ionia; promoted commissary sergeant December 16, 1862. Bowser, William R., enlisted August 12, 1862. Babcock, Jerome, died of disease at Danville, Kentucky, November 28, 1862. Babcock, Albert, died of disease at Nashville, Tennessee, July 20, 1863. Bowerman, DeForest A., died of disease at Nashville, December 28, 1863. Barry, Thomas L., died of disease at Nashville, December 2, 1862. Burt, William, died of disease at Murfreesboro, May 16, 1863. Bellows, John, wounded and taken prisoner at Chickamauga, September 20, 1863. Carpenter, Jason, mustered out June 8, 1865. Conner, Virgil G., mustered out June 8, 1865. Callahan, John S., mustered out June 8, 1865. Colby, Jabez, mustered out June 8, 1865. Case, William, mustered out, absent on detached service, June 8, 1865. Colby, Wilson C., discharged for disability January 23, 1863. Clark, David, died of disease at Louisville, November 24, 1863. Crane, Daniel H., transferred to Fourteenth Infantry, June 8, 1865. Entrican, George W., discharged for disability March 1, 1865. Fish, Alexander, discharged for disability September 26, 1863. Glassbrook, George W., enlisted August 15, 1862. Guernsey, Seth W., died of disease at Nashville, Tennessee, February 17, 1863. Govethrite, Philander E., mustered out June 8, 1865. Huckleberry, Thomas, mustered out June 8, 1865. Hess, Chauncey, enlisted August 9, 1862. Hines, Artemas, died of disease at Murfreesboro, November 16, 1862. Howell, James R., died of disease at Horse Cave, Kentucky, November 16, 1862. Hoxie, Clark, died of disease at Detroit, April 15, 1865. Hayes, Edward, mustered out June 30, 1865. Holbrook, Henry E., discharged for appointment in United States Army, July 21, 1863. Howell, Erastus M., enlisted August 15, 1862. James, Chester, enlisted August 8, 1862. Lewis, Elmer, mustered out June 8, 1865. Lowe, John, mustered out June 8, 1865. Lamereaux, John, died of disease at Nashville, Tennessee, January 25, 1863. Pfuster, John U., mustered out of Invalid Corps, June 30, 1863. Porter, Seymour, absent, sick, at muster out. Rider, David G., died of disease. Reed, Orrin H., died of disease at Murfreesboro, January 31, 1863.

Page  276 276 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Rihem, John, died of disease at Rolling Fork, Kentucky, October 24, 1862. Rock, Charles, died of disease at Nashville, February 28, 1863. Ryan, Richard, enlisted August 11, 1862. Reinhardt, Nicholas, sergeant; mustered out June 8, 1865. Shearer, Henry, mustered out June 8, 1865. Smith, Wheeler J., died of disease at Nashville, Tennessee, November 18, 1862. Sayler, John V., mustered out June 8, 1865. Stuck, Albert H., wounded in action; discharged January 2, 1863. Sanborn, Columbus, enlisted August 11, 1862. Tiernan, Patrick, corporal; mustered out June 8, 1865. Town, Elisha M., transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, March 18, 1865. Town, Andrew J., transferred to Invalid Corps, January 18, 1865. Tilloston, Charles H., discharged for disability August 15, 1863. Van Netter, Isaiah, discharged for disability January 9, 1863. Van Alstine, Holland P., killed in action at Chickamauga, September 20, 1863. Ward, Lucien H., mustered out June 8, 1865. Williams, Hiram S., discharged for disability January 8, 1863. Wright, James R., died of disease at New York, February 1, 1865. TWENTY-FIFTH INFANTRY. Captain Samuel L. Demarest, Otisco; commissioned August 10, 1862; mustered out August 15, 1865. First Lieutenant Frank R. Chase, Otisco; commissioned August 10, 1862; resigned November 13, 1863. First Lieutenant James A. Sage, Otisco; commissioned April 7, 1864; discharged for wounds November 30, 1864. First Lieutenant Henry Hill, Otisco; commissioned March 21, 1865; commissioned second lieutenant January 1, 1865; mustered out June 24, 1865. Sergeant James A. Sage, Otisco; promoted first lieutenant April 7, 1864. Sergeant Henry Hill, Otisco; promoted second lieutenant January 1, 1865. Sergeant Hallock G. Bentley, Otisco; transferred to Invalid Corps, February 15, 1864. Sergeant Seth M. Morse, Otisco; transferred to Invalid Corps, January 15, 1864. Sergeant Warren F. Houghton, Keene; discharged for disability May 14, 1863. Sergeant Thomas Murray, Otisco; mustered out June 24, 1865. Sergeant Frank C. Antcliff, Otisco; mustered out June 24, 1865. Corporal Charles W. Haight, Ionia; transferred to Invalid Corps, July 19, 1863. Corporal Mortimer L. Green, Otisco; died of disease at Bowling Green, May 15, 1863. Corporal Albert C. Moore, Otisco; mustered out May 13, 1865. Corporal Jonathan C. Baker, Otisco; mustered out June 24, 1865. Corporal William T. Just, Otisco; discharged for disability January 16, 1863. Musician Zadock S. Howe. Otisco; mustered out June 19, 1865. Musician George Hart, Otisco; mustered out June 30, 1865. Antcliff, Joseph, died October 15, 1865, of wounds received July 1, 1865. Benton, Charles M., died of disease at Louisville, Kentucky, December 1, 1862. Benton, George, mustered out June 24, 1865. Berry, Edgar, mustered out June 24, 1865. Berry, Edwin R., mustered out June 24, 1865. Berry, Leander, mustered out June 24, 1865. Bennett, George C., mustered out June 24, 1865.

Page  277 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 277 Blanchard, Edwin W., mustered out June 24, 1865. Bentley, Judson C., transferred to Invalid Corps, February 15, 1864. Blatt, Joseph, discharged for disability July 9, 1864. Currier, William H., discharged for disability January 15, 1863. Capen, William L., died of disease at Munfordsville, Kentucky, January 30, 1863. Choate, David, mustered out June 24, 1865. Demoran, William, mustered out June 24, 1865. Day, Oscar A., mustered out June 24, 1865. Damon, Frank, discharged by order June 7, 1865. David, James R., discharged for disability March 24, 1863. Dibble, Arga, died of disease at Evansville, Indiana, April 13, 1863. Eldridge, Myron A., mustered out of Invalid Corps November 15, 1865. Fish, Sanford, mustered out June 30, 1865. Fish, L. M., mustered out June 24, 1865. Heart, Charles, mustered out May 30, 1865. Hanks, George A., mustered out June 24, 1865. Haight, Frederick G., transferred to Invalid Corps, July 19, 1863. Hauser, George, drowned at Loudon, Tennessee, October 27, 1863. Ingalls, John P., accidentally shot at Bowling Green, Kentucky, March 19, 1863. Joslin, Americ, died of disease at Louisville, Kentucky, November 14, 1862. Joles, Hiram H., mustered out June 24, 1865. King, Marshall, died of disease at Nashville, Tennessee, May 30, 1864. Knee, Wesley H., mustered out of Invalid Corps July 8, 1865. Lowndes, Frederick, mustered out June 24, 1865. Lovell, Isaac, killed in action at Atlanta, Georgia, August 6, 1864. McLean, Edward, died of disease in Georgia, May 6, 1864. Moore, Harmon W., died of disease in Georgia, August 1, 1864. Moe, Irving W., discharged for disability March 9, 1863. Murray, William J., mustered out May 3, 1865. Northway, Aaron H., mustered out May 31, 1865. Northway, Daura, mustered out June 24, 1865. Pond, Warren, mustered out June 24, 1865. Porter, Alvin D., mustered out June 24, 1865. Purdey, George W., mustered out June 24, 1865. Randall, David F., mustered out June 24, 1865. Ring, Armon, mustered out June 24, 1865. Smith, Newton N., sergeant, mustered out June 24, 1865. Thornton, George D., transferred to Invalid Corps January 15, 1864. Van Houghton, Thomas, mustered out June 24, 1865. Winchell, Galvin, mustered out May 13, 1865. Williams, George E., transferred to Invalid Corps January 15, 1864. Wright, John A., died of disease at Bowling Green, Kentucky, March 4, 1863. Richard, William H., enlisted August 12, 1862. Company B. Sergeant Aaron W. Jenkins, Boston; mustered out June 24, 1865. Button, Aaron, discharged for disability April 20, 1863. Dupee, Samuel, died of disease at Louisville, January 20, 1863. Sible, William 0., mustered out July 12, '1865. Strong, Hudson, mustered out July 24, 1865.

Page  278 278 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Young, Alanson, mustered out July 5, 1865. Hood, William S., enlisted August 11, 1862. TWENTY-SEVENTH INFANTRY. Colonel Dorus M. Fox, Lyons; commissioned October 13, 1862; wounded in action near Petersburg, June 17, 1864; resigned October 3, 1864. Assistant Surgeon Harvey H. Powers, promoted surgeon Third Infantry, August 22, 1864. Quarter Master John Benson, Portland; commissioned April 20, 1864; mustered out July 26, 1865. Sergeant Major John Benson, Portland, January 15, 1863; promoted second lieutenant Company E, April 30, 1863. Quarter Master Sergeant Norman T. Sanborn, Portland, January 4, 1864; mustered out July 26, 1865. Principal Musician Milton Sawyer, Portland, November 20, 1862; discharged for disability July 4, 1863. J. F. Isham, Portland, December 29, 1863; mustered out July 26, 1865. Company A. Second Lieutenant William A. Pratt, Boston; commissioned April 20, 1864; discharged December 1, 1864. Dwyer, Antony, discharged for disability December 20, 1864. Heath, Milton A., mustered out July 26, 1865. Brown, Charles, died of wounds at Petersburg, Virginia, June 18, 1864. Company B. Musician Emory C. Fox, Lyons; enlisted December 3, 1862; discharged by order September 27, 1863. Company C. Bennett, Charles W., corporal; mustered out July 26, 1865. Crothers, William H., died of wounds at Spottsylvania, Virginia, May 13, 1864. Doremys, Jacob, died of disease at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 16, 1864. Davis, Charles, absent, sick at Washington. Morton, Hurdon, mustered out July 26, 1865. Smith, Allen W., musician; mustered out July 26, 1865. Train, Rufus E., mustered out July 26, 1865. Taylor, Henry M., transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps February 2, 1865. Carey, Franklin J., died of wounds received at Bethesda Church, Virginia, June 3, 1864. Company D. Gladding, Oscar F., transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps May 4, 1865. Compazny E. Second Lieutenant John Benson, Portland; commissioned April 30, 1863; promoted first lieutenant Company I, March 1, 1864.

Page  279 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 279 Second Lieutenant Mason Vosper, Boston; commissioned April 20, 1864; killed in action near Weldon Railroad, August 19, 1864. Sergeant Alfred Towne, Portland; mustered out July 26, 1865. Corporal Charles Hinman, Danby; mustered out July 26, 1865. Burhans, Frederick R., mustered out July 27, 1865. Chamberlain, Franklin R., killed in battle at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864. Clark, Solomon D., died of disease at Portland, Michigan, June 12, 1865. Durkee, Morgan, killed in battle at Spottsylvania, May 2, 1864. Dinsmore, William, Jr., died of wounds in New York Harbor, David's Island, September 14, 1864. Green, Henry F., mustered out July 26, 1865. Gladding, William H., absent, sick, at muster out. Heaton, Joseph, killed in action at North Anna River, Virginia, May 24, 1864. Heath, Milton A., killed in action at North Anna River, Virginia, May 24, 1864. Jenkins, Loren F., mustered out July 26, 186t5. Kinney, Sylvester, died at City Point Hospital of wounds, July 30, 1864. Lunges, John, discharged for disability February 5, 1865. Murtaugh, Michael, died at Annapolis, Maryland, October 13, 1864. Mapes, Jesse, mustered out of Veteran Reserve Corps, August 24, 1865. Madison, George D., mustered out July 26, 1865. Mabie, William O., wounded, absent at muster out July 26, 1865. Morgan. Mark, mustered out July 26, 1865. Rich, Daniel K., killed in battle of Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864. Smith, Thomas, died in hospital near Petersburg of disease February 2, 1865. Schenk, William C., killed in action near Petersburg, July 7, 1864. Tubbs, Parley, mustered out July 26, 1865. Company G. First Lieutenant Oscar F. Fox, Lyons; commissioned October 10, 1862; died of disease on steamer "Sallie List" on Mississippi River, June 17, 1863. Cramer, Silas, mustered out May 18, 1865. Hines, Willis G., mustered out May 18, 1865. Sherman, James A., discharged for disability February 16, 1865. Company H. Bisbee, James A., transferred,to Veteran Reserve Corps November 12, 1864. Bolton, Wallace, mustered out July 26, 1865. Cronkhite, Francis, absent, wounded. Erwin, Charles, mustered out July 26, 1865. Fox, Emory C., mustered out July 26, 1865. Hubbard, Nathan, mustered out July 26, 1865. Hicks, Charles H., absent, sick. Horton, Hiram A., transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, October 11, 1864. Lockwood, Edgar, discharged for disability January 10, 1865. Lambert, William D., mustered out July 26, 1865. Lambert, James C., mustered out July 17, 1865. Marks, George L., mustered out July 26, 1865.

Page  280 280 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. McCarty, Nelson, mustered out July 26, 1865. Mott, Adelbert, absent, sick. Post, Thomas, absent, sick. Pinckney, William H., mustered out July 26, 1865. Smith, Wallace, killed in action at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864. Stewart, George A., killed in action at Petersburg, June 18, 1864. Train, Albert, mustered out July 11, 1865. Westbrook, Franklin, mustered out July 26, 1865. Comrpany I. Captain Reynolds H. Scofield, Portland; commissioned April 1, 1864; wounded in action near Petersburg, July 30, 1864; discharged for disability October 17, 1864. First Lieutenant Thomas D. Scofield, Portland; commissioned February 27, 1864; taken prisoner near Petersburg, Virginia, June 30, 1864; paroled March, 1865; honorably discharged May 15, 1865. First Lieutenant John Benson, Portland; appointed regimental quartermaster April 20, 1864. Second Lieutenant Charles W. Ingalls, Danby; commissioned February 27, 1864; promoted captain Company K, Second Infantry, April 1, 1864. Second Lieutenant Harvey D. Mason, Portland; commissioned April 1, 1864; resigned October 8, 1864. Sergeant George F. Anderson, Boston; killed in action near Petersburg, Virginia, July 30, 1864. Sergeant William A. Pratt, Boston; promoted second lieutenant Company A, Twentyseventh Infantry, April 20, 1864. Sergeant John P. Anderson, Boston; promoted first lieutenant Company H, Second Infantry, April 1, 1864. Sergeant Jasper Davis, Portland; died of disease at Washington, June 10, 1864. Sergeant John S. Megarll, Portland; died of wounds near Petersburg, June 19, 1864. Belden, Daniel W., mustered out June 26, 1865. Collingham, Jacob, mustered out June 26, 1865. Carpenter, Elkanah, mustered out June 26, 1865. Colby, James S., died June 26, 1864, of wounds received at tpottsylvania, May 12, 1864. Derby, Rollin D.. mustered out of Vetera;n Reserve Corps August 1, 1865. Duras, Frank, mustered out June 26, 1865. Dickson, George T., mustered out June 26, 1865. Decker, James S., mustered out June 26, 1865. Ellis, William B., absent, sick. Ford, Charles, mustered out June 26, 1865. Gates, Samuel J., absent, sick. Goff, Erastus S., died of disease at Washington, D. C., July 22, 1864. Howland, Henry H., died of disease at Petersburg, Virginia, September 24, 1864. Howland, Frank R., mustered out June 26, 1865. Huley, Hiram, mustered out June 26, 1865. Lowry. Emory W., mustered out June 26, 1865. Lewis, Hiram, mustered out June 26, 1865. Lindley, Hiram, mustered out June 26, 1865.

Page  281 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 281 Mosl-y Charles R., killed in battle of Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864. Marcy, Newcomb, died of disease at Washington, June 13, 1864. Mann, William, died of wounds, October 4, 1864, received May 12. 1864. Nichols, Charles A., mustered out July 26, 1865. Sanborn, Edward, discharged for disability January 21, 1865. Thornbee, John, died of disease at David's Island, New York, July 18, 1864. Whitney, George, mustered out May 23, 1865. Way, Nathan C., mustered out June 9, 1865. Briggs, Solomonl D., died of disease at Washington, March 3, 1865. Brown, Francis M.. died of disease at Hillsboro, May 12, 1864. Benedict, Ledru R., mustered out July 26, 1865. Cooper, Charles, missing in action at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864. Davis, Virgil F., missing in action near Petersburg; taken prisoner July 30, 1864. Davis, Ozial, killed in action before Petersburg, June 17, 1864. Davis, James lt., died of disease at Annalolis, Maryland, November 3, 1864. Davis, Samuel, mustered out July 26, 1865. Fish, George B., mustered out July 26, 1865. Hines, William, mustered out July 26, 1865. Houglston, Eli K., absent, in hospital sick. Kidd, William L., mustered out July 26, 18(65. Lane, George, mustered out July 26, 1865. Lane, Andrew, discharged for disability May 17, 1865. McaIlughi,.Jalles, t:. ken pris(oner before PIetersburg, July 30, 1864. Pike, Murry L., discharged for disability October 16, 1864. Ryder, Benjamin, died of disease at Annapolis, September 9, 1864. Shavely, Peter, absent, wounded. Shavely, Daniel, absent, sick. Shaw, George W., died of disease at Annapolis, April 21, 1864. Sprague, William, mustered out July 26, 1865. Vandacan, William, died of wounds received at Petersburg, January 22, 1865. Wiers, Marshall A., absent, wounded. Williams, Isaac, died of disease at Danville, Virginia, December 21, 1864. FIRST ENGINEERS. Colonel John B. Yates. Ionia; commissioned November 3, 1864; mustered out September 22 1865. Company A. Captain John B. Yates, lonia; commissioned September 12, 1861; promoted major May 28, 1863. Sergeant Rodney Mann, Ionia; enlisted September 17, 1861; promoted second lieutenant Company E, September 12, 1862. Burnett, Martin J., enlisted August 20. 1864; discharged by order June 6, 1865. Company B. Cahoon, George H., discharged by order June 24, 1865. Ingalls, Edward B., mustered out September 22, 1865. Shekils, Joseph B., mustered out September 22, 1865.

Page  282 282 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Company C. First Lieutenant William Titus, Ionia; commissioned January 1, 1864; mustered out at end of service October 26, 1864. First Lieutenant Elias A. York, Ionia; commissioned August 27, 1864; mustered out September 22, 1865. Brown, Daniel, mustered out September 22, 1865. Brown, George F., mustered out September 22, 1865. Belgrave, Sylvester, mustered out September 22, 1865. Cushing, Wallace H., mustered out September 22, 1865. Church, Eustace, mustered out September 22, 1865. Coats, Minor B., mustered out September 22, 1865. Drake, Abram, mustered out September 22, 1865. Fisk, Charles R., mustered out September 22, 1865. Gould, John, mustered out September 22, 1865. Gage, Jasper S., mustered out September 22, 1865. Gage, Charles 0., died of disease at Chattanooga, March 15, 1864. Hurlburt, Thaddeus W., discharged by order June 6, 1865. Jenks, Albert, mustered out September 22, 1865. Luce, James H., mustered out September 22. 1865. Luscomb, Charles E., veteranized January 1, 1864; mustered out September 22, 1865. Merritt, Mathew F., mustered out September 22, 1865. Minor, Hiram W., mustered out September 22, 1865. Morse, Joseph B., mustered out September 22, 1865. Sherman, John D., discharged by order June 24, 1865. Tower, Benjamin, mustered out September 22, 1865. Tower, Benedict, mustered out September 22, 1865. Williams, Charles H., mustered out September 22, 1865. Waldron, William W., mustered out September 22, 1865. Company D. First Lieutenant Benjamin A. Cotton, Saranac; commissioned January 1, 1864; mustered out September 22, 1865. Abbott, Isaac, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Bedell, Pierce, mustered out September 22, 1865. Benson, Arba J., mustered out September 22, 1865. Godfrey, James H., mustered out September 22, 1865. Loudon, Thomas L., mustered out September 22, 1865. Morrison, James L., mustered out September 22, 1865. Stirling, Daniel L., mustered out September 22, 1865. Company E. Captain Silas E. Canfield, lonia; commissioned September 12, 1861; resigned July 14, 1862. Captain Lucius F. Mills, Ionia; commissioned July 14, 1862; mustered out at end of service October 26, 1864. First Lieutenant Lucius F. Mills. Ionia; commissioned September 12, 1861; promoted captain.

Page  283 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 283 First Lieutenant Albert B. Culver, lonia; commissioned July 14, 1862; resigned January 8, 1864. Second Lieutenant Rodney Mann, Ionia; conmmissioned January 1, 1864; discharged at end of service October 26, 1864. Second Lieutenant Albert B. Culver, Ionia; commissioned January 1, 1864; resigned January 8, 1864. Sergeant Theodore S. Currier, Saranac; enlisted September 9, 1861; dischllarged at end of service. Sergeant Benjamin A. Cotton, Saranac; enlisted September 16, 1861; promoted first lieutenant Company D. Sergeant William Titus, Ionia; enlisted September 17, 1861; promoted first lieutenant Company C. Sergeant David A. Jewell, Ionia; enlisted September 16, 1861; promoted first lieutenant Company M. Corporal Byron Borden, Ionia; veteranized January 1, 1864; promoted first lieutenant Company K. Corporal Martin Canfield, Ionia; veteranized January 1, 1864; promoted first lieutenant Company H. Corporal Charles Granger, Ionia; enlisted September 17, 1861; discharged at end of service October 31, 1864. Corporal William F. Johnson, lonia; enlisted September 23, 1861; discharged at end of service October 31, 1861. Corporal Ansel G. Smith, Ionia; enlisted September 6, 1861; discharged at end of service October 31, 1864. Musician Frederick Tuttle, Ionia; enlisted September 6, 1861; discharged by order May 18, 1863. Musician Marcus Jones, enlisted September 26, 1861. Wagoner Noah Bishop, Ionia; enlisted September 9, 1861; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps January 15, 1864. Aniba. Charles E., mustered out September 22, 1865. Aniba, James N.. mustered out September 22, 1865. Aniba, William E., discharged by order June 6, 1865. Armbuster, Jacob, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Anderson, David K., mustered out September 22, 1865. Brink, Eli, died of disease March 3, 1861. Barr, Willard L., discharged for disease March 3, 1865. Bellamy, Henry, died of disease June 4, 1862. Brink, Gerald S., discharged at end of service October 31, 1864. Brink, Chauncey E., discharged at end of service October 31, 1864. Bishop, Devile, mustered out September 22, 1865. Brown, John M., mustered out September 22, 1865. Brown, William M., mustered out September 22, 1865. Baxter, Osgar M., mustered out September 22, 1865. Bigelow, George, mustered out September 22, 1865. Brodbeck, Augustus, mustered out September 22, 1865. Bostwick, Alfred H., discharged by order June 6, 1865. Benton, Daniel, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Backus, Samuel W., discharged by order June 26, 1865. William H. Conner, discharged by order June 26, 1865. Conner, George W., discharged by order June 4, 1865.

Page  284 284 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Caine, James C., discharged by order June 6, 1865. Cobb, George H., discharged by order June 6, 1865. Cott, William, discharged at end of service October 31, 1865. Currier, Myron M., discharged at end of service October 31, 1865. Currier, Theodore S., enlisted September 9, '1861. Cushman, Milo, enlisted September 16, 1861. Converse, Josiah, died of disease at New Albany, Indiana, November 7, 1862. Cornmell, Thod. L., died of disease at Bridgeport, Alabama, June 4, 1864. Coe, Samuel H., died of disease at Bridgeport, Alabama, June 11, 1864. Cuykendall, Henry G., discharged for disability. Cooper, Ashley, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Covert, Benjamin R., discharged by order June 6, 1865. Chipman, George W., mustered out September 22, 1865. Compton, Eber, mustered out September 22, 1865. Dye, Bloomfield, mustered out September 22, 1865. Dick, John, mustered out September 22, 1864. Dolphin, Louis, died of disease January 25, 1864. Dunham, Eldin W., died of disease January 25, 1864. Dunham, Edwin R., discharged by order June 6, 1865. Daniels, Irving, discharged at end of service October 31, 1864. Frye, William, discharged at end of service November 7, 1864. Granger, Charles, discharged at end of service October 31, 1864. Guernsey, Aaron. discharged ait end of service October 31. 1864. Goodwin, Jarvis, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Gardner, Hiram, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Griffin, Hiram, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Graves, Joseph S., mustered out September 22, 1865. Gates, Erastus M., mustered out September 22, 1865. Henderlider. (eorge, died of disease at Nashville. Tennessee, January 10, 1864. Hall, Ransom, discharged for disability June 21, 1862. Hall, Andrew J., discharged at end of service October 31, 1864. Hines, J., discharged at end of service November 7, 1864. Hines, Herbert. mustered out September 22, 1865. Hitchcock. John Ii.. discharged at end of service October 31, 1865. Holcomb, George W., mustered out September 22, 1865. Honig, William G., mustered out September 22. 1865. Howard, Joseph S., discharged by order June 6. 1865. Houseman, Henry, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Karmsen, William, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Kanouse, Francis, mustered out September 22, 1865. Loverin, Charles B., mustered out September 22, 1865. Lumbard, Orrin W., mustered out September 22, 1865. Ladow, Jacob, discharged for disability May 26, 1865. Mays. Walter A.. discharged for disability May 22. 1865. Mann, Calvin L., discharged by order June 12, 1865. Mills, Samuel J., discharged by order June 6. 1865. Milligan, William, discharged by order June 6, 1865. McClintock. John S.. mustered out Seltembler 22. 1,865. Norris, Albert F., mustered out September 22, 1805. North, Orville. mustered out September 22. 1865.

Page  285 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 285 Neal, William, mustered out September 22, 1865. North, Elisha, died of disease in Alabama, July 21, 1864. Norris, Oliver, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Norris, James, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Porter, Aaron R., discharged by order June 6, 1865. Porter, Chauncey C., discharged by order June 6, 1865. Phillips, Walter S., discharged by order October 12, 1865. Powlinson. John V., mustered out September 22, 1865. Pennington, George E., mustered out September 22, 1865. Pattengill, George, mustered out September 22, 1865. Prankard, George, discharged at end of service October 31, 1864. Rhodes, Lewis D., discharged for disability June 10, 1863. Roth, Paul, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Rector, George, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Rector, Simeon, mustered out September 22, 1865. Rogers, Charles W., mustered out September 22, 1865. Royal, Austin W., mustered out September 22, 1865. Risley, James E., discharged by order June 6, 1865. Sawyer, Milton, discharged for disability February 10, 1862. Sisson, George A., discharged by order July 3, 1865. Stewart, Edgar, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Schneider, George, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Schnaffle, George, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Sheldon, William E., discharged by order June 6, 1865. Smith, Homer J., discharged at end of service October 31, 1864. Sumner, Asa F., discharged at end of service October 31, 1865. Stanboro, Ransom, mustered out September 22, 1865. Shaw, Franklin, mustered out September 22, 1865. Tower, George W., mustered out September 22. 1865. Thomas, Samuel, discharged for disability March 26, 1862. Tolbert, Julius, discharged by order June 12, 1865. Vincent, Charles D., discharged for disability November 2, 1864. Van Dorenn, Edmond, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Williston, Scott, enlisted September 14, 1861. Wilson, William H., discharged for disability May 9, 1862. Wilcox, Lemuel, discharged for disability December 4, 1862. Wiers, John M., discharged March 6, 1863. Williams, Pliny, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Wiser, Levi, discharged at end of service October 31, 1864. Company F. Burleigh, Anson S., mustered out September 22, 1865. Call, Leander T., discharged by order July 10, 1865. Currie, George, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Freeman, Horace S., discharged by order June 6, 1865. Martin, Andrew M., discharged by order June 6, 1865. Miller, Nelson J., discharged at end of service August 24, 1864. Miles, James M., discharged for promotion in navy September 17, 1864. Mott, John, died of disease at Detroit, June 11, 1864.

Page  286 286 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. McPherson, Frank, mustered out September 22, 1865. Priest, Joshua R., mustered out September 22, 1865. Russell, Alfred W., mustered out September 22, 1865. Rexford, Benjamin, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Rexford, Cornelius, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Rexford, Nathaniel, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Sweegles, Henry, mustered out September 22, 1865. Whitefield, Alfred J., discharged by order June 6, 1865. Whitefield, Henry A., discharged by order June 6, 1865. Yarrington, Marvin, mustered out September 22, 1865. Company G. Blakely, Andrew, discharged for disability July 25, 1865. Canol, John P., discharged for disability May 12, 1865. Hall, James H., died of disease at Ringgold, Georgia, July 7, 1864. Company H. First Lieutenant Martin Canfield, lonia; commissioned November 3, 1864; mustered out September 22, 1865. McCarthy, Charles, discharged by order July 13, 1865. Company I. Carver, Justice M., died of disease in New York, March 15, 1865. Dunsmore, John W., discharged by order June 6, 1865. Jones, Lemuel P., discharged by order June 6, 1865. Russell, Clinton, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Youngs, Willilam M., mustered out Seltember 22, 1865. Company K. First Lieutenant Lorenzo D. Mason. Boston; commissioned September 12, 1861; resigned July 30, 1862. First Lieutenant Byron J. Borden, lonita; commissioned Novemlber 3, 1864; mustered out September 22, 1865. Sergeant Mark D. Mason, lonia; enlisted November 1, 1861; discharged by order January 21, 1863. Sergeant Jesse Newsom, lonia; enlisted O()tober 23, 1861; discharged for disability August 21, 1863. Sergeant Azel Carpenter, lonia; enlisted November 21., 1861; discharged by order June 3, 1862. Blodget, Henry, discharged at end of service October 31, 1864. Cahoon, John T., discharged for disability. Coon, Samuel, died of disease;t Chattaologa, Tennessee, April 20, 1864. Coleman, Elia A., mustered out September 22, 1865. Frederick, John, died of disease at Ringgold, Georgia, July 16, 1864. Green, Charles K., died of disease at Chattanooga, June 13, 1864. Gallup, Joseph, discharged by order May 20, 1865. WIiar. Royal J., discharged for disability JIanuary 18, 1863.

Page  287 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 287 Hiar, George W., veteranized l)ecember 31, 1863. Hall, William, died of disease at Alexandria. May 20, 1865. Hall, John, mustered out September 22, 1865. Johnson, Samuel W., mustered out September 22, 1865. Monroe, James, discharged March 8. 1863. Pierce, Joseph, discharged, date unknown. Peck, Austin W.. discharged by order June 10. 1865. Reed, William H., discharged August 2, 1862. Rodegib, Henry, discharged at end of service October 31, 1864. Robertson, Duncan. discharged by order July 13, 1865. Smith, Hiel W., discharged at end of service October 31, 1864. Smith, Garrett J. F., mustered out September 22, 1865. Van Doren, Isaac, mustered out September 22, 1865. White, John A., mustered out September 22, 1865. Wandel, John, mustered out September 22, 1865. Whiting, James R., mustered out September 22, 1865. Wade, Alexander, (ischlrged by order June 6, 1865. Company M. Second Lieutenant Elias A. York, Ionia; commissioned January 1, 1864; mustered out September 22. Second Lieutenant David A. Jewell, lonia; commissioned March 11, 1864; mustered out at end of service October 26, 1864. Second Lieutenant Isaac Sigler, Berlin; commissioned November 3, 1864; mustered out September 22, 1865. Aniadan, Aaron, mustered out September 22, 1865. McLaren, Alfred P., mustered out September 22, 1865. Stilwell, Nelson G., discharged by order May 18, 1865. Slaght, Spencer G., discharged by order June 6, 1865. Whaling, John, discharged by order June 6, 1865. Company I. Captain A. Milan Willett, commissioned October 12, 1861; mustered in March 4, 1862; resigned November 8, 1862. First Lieutenant James F. Covel, enlisted October 28, 1861; commissioned March 5, 1862; promoted captain, vice Willett, resigned, and soon after honorably discharged, but no dates are given. Second Lieutenant Jonathan A. Sprague, commissioned December 10, 1861; mustered in with company; resigned November 18, 1862. Atwell, Abijah, enlisted December 30, 1861. Atwell, Levi, enlisted December 1, 1861. Albro, Jonathan, enlisted December 1, 1861. Bemis, Erastus, enlisted December 30, 1861. Barnes, Erastus, enlisted December 30, 1861. Brandon, Jeremiah, enlisted February 19, 1862; discharged for disability April 2, 1864. Bratt, Sanford C., enlisted February 20, 1862. Burns, Sanford C., enlisted February 20, 1862. Clark, John W., enlisted December 6, 1861. Clark, Charles, enlisted February 13, 1862.

Page  288 288 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Cramer, James, enlisted December 6, 1861. Coleman, Nelson, enlisted November 21), 1861. Cornell, Charles, enlisted December 25, 1861. Danner, Simon, enlisted December 30, 1861. Dalin, Daniel L., enlisted December 30, 1861. Edlin, William, enlisted February 22, 1862. Fox, George W., enlisted November 18, 1861. Finch, Albert N., enlisted November 10, 1861; died of wounds received in the Wilderness, May 5, 1864. Fifield, Jasper, enlisted February 20, 1862. Fisher, William H., enlisted January 25, 1862. Galloway, Barney D., enlisted December 20, 1861. Gallway, Jerome, enlisted 20. 1861. Gardner, William, enlisted December 30, 1861. Gray, Webster S., enlisted November 20. 1861; died of disease at Falllouth, January 27, 1863. Hayes, Demetrius J., enlisted November 9, 1861. Hinman, Delos, enlisted February 17, 1862. Kouts, Israel J., enlisted December 26, 1861. Mann, Calvin C., enlisted January 1, 1861. Palmer, David, enlisted December 8, 1861. Pruden, George W., enlisted December 9, 1861. Sutton, Lorenzo A., enlisted October 22, 1861. Sessions, Nathaniel, enlisted November 24, 1861. Stone, Allen, enlisted November 21, 1861. Simpson, John F., enlisted December 17, 1861. Scott, James, enlisted November 23, 1861. Talcott, Chauncey, enlisted December 17, 1861. Warren, Daniel C., enlisted December 25, 1861; discharged for disability December 25, 1862. Willett, Janus W., enlisted November 20, 1861. Yerrington, William, enlisted November 30, 1861. Yeomans, George, enlisted February 20, 1862. Cotmpany C. Norwood, Edwin M., missing at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 3, 1863. Company D. Mapes, David, veteranized December 21, 1863; discharged by order June 28, 1865. Company E. Millard, Hendryx, mustered out July 6, 1866. Conpatny F. First Lieutenant William H. Freeman, commissioned August 20, 1861; discharged for disability September 11, 1862. Butler, Abner K., died at Middleville, Virginia, March 22, 1862.

Page  289 IONIA COUN'IY, MICHIIGAN. 289 Bower, Abner K., died of disease at Washington, D. C., August 26, 1862. Bird, Samuel S., enlisted August 20, 1861. Brown, Edward. discharged by order August 22. 1864. Cook, Charles, discharged for disability. Brown, James W., mustered out June 30, 1866. Jessup, Andrew S., transferred to First Cavalry. Rugby, Thomas S., enlisted November 26, 1862. Company E. Captain James I. Kidd. lonia; joined August 28, 1862; promoted major May 9, 1863. Captain Edward L. Craw. Lyons: commissioned May 9, 1863; first lieutenant October 13, 1862; honorably discharged for disability November 12, 1863. Captain Angloe E. Tower, Ionia commissioned November 12, 1863; first lieutenant May 9, 1863; second lieutenant October 13, 1862; resigned August 15, 1864. Captain Esmond S. Tower, Ionia; August 1i, 1864; honorably discharged August 15, 1865. First Lieutenant Jacob O. Probasco, Lyons; commissioned November 12, 1863; promoted first lieutenant. Second Lieutenant Solon H. Finney, Lyons; commissioned May 19, 1864; killed in action at Beaver Mills, Virginia, April 4, 1865. Second Lieutenant Ambrose L. Soule, enlisted September 17, 1862; commissioned October 13, 1863. First Sergeant Angelo E. Tower, Ionia; enlisted August 30, 1862; promoted second lieutenant. Quarter Master Sergeant James L. Manning, North Plains; promoted second lieutenant Second Infantry. Sergeant William H. Robinson, Lyons; died at Washington March 4, 1863. Sergeant William Willett, Lyons; mustered out July 10, 1865. Sergeant Schuyler C. Triphagen, Danby; discharged by order August 10, 1865. Sergeant Solon H. Finney, Lyons; promoted second lieutenant. Corporal Jacob O. Probasco, Lyons; promoted second lieutenant. Corporal Isaac R. Hart, Orleans; reported died in Andersonville Prison, May 2, 1864. Corporal David Welch, Ionia; mustered out. Corporal Marvin A. Filkins, Ionia; mustered out. Corporal James W. Brown, killed in action at Haw's Shop, Virginia, May 28, 1864. Farrier George W. Osborn, lonia; transferred to Invalid Corps, August 1, 1865. Wagoner David Bowerman, enlisted September 8, 1862. fAllen, Simon E., enlisted September 6, 1862. Belden, Shuman, died of disease at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, March 22, 1865. Briggs, John, died in Andersonville Prison, June 25, 1864. Brown, George, mustered out November 24, 1865. Brown, Heman S., mustered out November 24, 1865. Berry, Lester A., mustered out November 24, 1865. Bott, Clarence S., mustered out March 27, 1866. 'Bass, Nathan R., missing in action October 16,1864. Croff, William W., discharged for disability. Compton, Randall S., discharged for disability. Cook, Edward W., died in Andersonville Prison, October 18, 1864. (I9)

Page  290 290 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Carey, Seth, killed in action at Haw's Shop, May 23, 1864. Corwin, James H., mustered out November 24, 1865. Compton, William H., mustered out November 24, 1865. Compton, Randall S., discharged for disability April 1, 1863. Conkrite, Manly, mustered out November 24, 1865. Decker, A., enlisted September 12, 1862. Dyckman, Reinhart, mustered out May 23, 1865. Daniels, Owen W., mustered out November 24, 1865. Edwards, Seth, died in Andersonville Prison, September 5, 1864. Finney, Charles, discharged for disability January 15, 1864. Friend, Erancis N., mustered out November 24, 1865. Gray, James, died in Andersonville Prison, October 23, 1864. Grinnell, John, mustered out August 30, 1865. Halliday, Eli, mustered out November 24, 1865. Hogle, Elias, mustered out November 24, 1865. Hart, Isaac, died in Andersonville Prison, May 7, 1864. Hopkins, Warren, died in Andersonville Prison, July 12, 1864. Hopkins, Nathaniel, died in Andersonville Prison. Hempstead, Robert, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, March 31, 1864. Hutchinson, Miles E., missing in action at Haw's Shop, Virginia, May 28, 1864. Kepfort, Lewis, missing in action at Grove Church, Virginia, April 5, 1864. Koutz, Searight C., mustered out November 24, 1865. Mangus, Solomon, mustered out November 24, 1865. Merchant, George W., died of disease at Fredericksburg, May 28, 1864. Manning, Hiram. mustered out February 28, 1864. Osborn, George W., transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, August 1, 1863. Pratt, Walter E., mustered out November 24, 1865. Parker, Albert M., mustered out November 24, 1865. Rail, George W., mustered out May 22, 1865. Randall, Solomon, mustered out June 12, 1865. Robinson, William H., died of disease at Washington, March 4, 1863. Smith, Samuel J., mustered out November 24, 1865. Smith, Fred, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, February 15, 1864. Showerman, Orlando, mustered out November 24. 1865. Sliter, James 0., died of disease at Fort TLarllle. September 1, 1865. Stewart, Francis, died in Andersonville Prison, September 21, 1864. Stewart, Jesse, discharged for disability March 21, 1864. Starks, David S., discharged for distbility August 10, 1863. Crossett. Reuben G., discharged at end of service August 20, 1864. Caslet, Francis N., veteranized December 21, 1861. Everset, Charles H., veteranized December 21. 1863. Elliott, George, veteranized December 21, 1863. Flower, Consider E., veteranized December 21, 1863. Gallinger, Henry, discharged at end of service August 22. 1864. Jenks, Horatio N., discharged at end of service September 27, 1861. Jennings, James C., discharged at end of service August 22, 1864. James, Morgan, enlisted August 19, 1861. Jenks, Luther J., discharged for disability. Lamb, Lyman, mustered out May 6, 1865. Mills. Salmuel, discharged at end of service August 22. 1864.

Page  291 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 29T. Orcutt. George, died of disease at Frederick City, January 30, 1862. Pool, George S., discharged at end of service August 22, 1864. Phillips, Hiram W., enlisted August 21, 1861. Richardson, Pennel, discharged for disability October 1, 1862. Rice, Milton. enlisted August 19, 1861. Thomas, Darwin, discharged for disability April 8, 1863. Trumbell, Edgar B., musician; enlisted August 19, 1861. Whitney, George C.. commissary sergeant; enlisted August 9, 1863. Company G. Smith. Edward, mustered out February 27, 1866. Company 1. Burk, Aaron S., discharged by order. Company K. Haysmaker, Stephen, mustered out March 25, 1866. Johnson, George, mustered out March 25, 1866. Company L. Fuller, Richard, discharged for disability January 4, 1866. Hawley, George A., mustered out March 6, 1866. Hull. Ezra, mustered out July 10, 1865. Steers, David, mustered out April 7, 1866. Compainy A. Andrews, Lewis, mustered out August 17, 1865. Brown, William J., mustered out August 31, 1865. Blake, Theodore A., transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. Cahoon, Washington, veteranized January 5, 1864; mustered out August 17, 1865. Company C. Fredenberg, Moses W., mustered out May 18, 1865. McNeil, John, mustered out August 17, 1865. McNeil, James, died of disease at Nashville, Tennessee, July 15, 1864. Company D. Clifford, William M. B., mustered out June 12, 1865. Sprague, Sewitt C., transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, February yl, 1865. Company F. Bradford, Jacob A., discharged at end of service October 22, 1864. Caswell, John, died of disease at Commerce, Maryland, March, 1862. Demoret, Lorenzo A., died of disease in Tennessee, August 5, 1863.

Page  292 292 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. McCaslin, William, died of disease at Nashville, Tennessee, September 10, 1864. Root, William E., corporal; vteranized January 5, 1864; mustered out August 17, 1865. Race, George B., discharged at end of service October 22, 1864. Race, Hiram S., discharged at end of service October 22, 1864. Osborn, William H., enlisted September 12, 1861. Scott, Douglass, missing in action July 1, 1862. Weaver, Caleb F., died of disease in Tennessee, October 6, 1863. Company I. Manning, Perry, mustered out July 6, 1865. Company M. Gaines, Sullivan, enlisted September 20, 1861. Sayles, William, enlisted September 5, 1861. Sayles, Lyman, enlisted September 5, 1861. THIRD CAVALRY. Company B. Corporal Thomas B. Wallace, enlisted September 9, 1861. Hale, Charles W., discharged for disability November 4, 1864. Sinclair, Elijah, enlisted November 11, 1861. Company D. Second Lieutenant Philo D. Cutler, enlisted August 26, 1861; commissioned September 7, 1862; promoted first lieutenant October 1, 1862; promoted major Third Infantry, July 29, 1864. Quarter Master Sergeant Gardner C. Freeman, died of disease at Iuka, Mississippi, September 7, 1862. Sergeant William A. Jones, enlisted September 1, 1861. Sergeant Charles H. Morse, enlisted September 14, 1861. Sergeant Guy Webster, enlisted September 1, 1861. Corporal John W. Hudson, enlisted September 3. 1861; mustered out February 12, 1866. Corporal Daniel S. Hill, enlisted September 6, 1861; mustered out February 12, 1866. Corporal Henry J. Phillips, enlisted September 3, 1861. Bugler C. E. Brooks, enlisted September 10, 1861. Bugler William HI. Whidders, enlisted September 8, 1861. Wagoner Henry H. Steel, enlisted September 10, 1861. Farrier Washington R. Phillips, enlisted October 5, 1861; discharged for disability February 20, 1862. Saddler Richard S. Hinds, enlisted Septemnler 10, 1861. Farrier Nelson Hinds, enlisted Septenmber 10, 1861; mustered out February 12, 1866. Blauvelt, Sylvester, enlisted October 5, 1861: mustered out February 12, 1861. Bremen, Michael, enlisted November 28, 1861. Brooks, Stephen A., enlisted September. 1861: discharged by order September 14, 1865. Cronkite, Byron, enlisted September 9, 1861; died of disease in St. Louis, Missouri, January 11, 1862.

Page  293 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 293 Davis. John E., enlisted October 4. 1861; mustered out February 12, 1866. Duel, James P., enlisted September 25, 1861; mustered out February 12, 1866. Duel, John, enlisted September 25, 1861; mustered out February 12, 1865. Dexter, Albert, enlisted September 25, 1861; died at Ripley, Mississippi, Decem!er 1, 1863. Ellsworth, Alfred E., enlisted September 25, 1861. Ehrman, Joseph, saddler, enlisted September 10, 1861; mustered out February 12, 1861. Frost, Charles L., enlisted September 10, 1861; discharged for disability September, 1862. Franklin, Aaron B., enlisted September 15. 1861; discharged for disability May 25, 1866. Fuller, Bermont, enlisted September 9, 1861; died at St. Louis, Missouri, March 23, 1862. Gardner, John S., enlisted September 9, 1861; mustered out February 12, 1866. Green, James W., enlisted September 28, 1861; died in Keene, Michigan, December 1, 1861. Hubbs, Milo A., enlisted September 25, 1861; died at St. Louis, Missouri, January 4, 1862. Hubbs, Jared F., enlisted September 25, 1861. Houghton, Charles L., enlisted September 10, 1861; mustered out February 12, 1866. Houghson, Fred, enlisted September 10, 1861. Hinman, Henry M., enlisted September 15, 1861. Hawley, Adam B., enlisted September 15, 1861; died of disease at Devall's Bluff, Arkansas, July 14, 1864. Harrington, John, enlisted September 15, 1861; mustered out May 22, 1865. Locke, Wilber H., enlisted September 10, 1861; veteranized January 19, 1864; mustered out October 12, 1865. Miles, Charles A., enlisted October 10, 1861; died on hospital boat "Lancaster," May 11, 1861. Mitcbell, William, mustered out February 12, 1866. Mann, Alonzo, enlisted September 1, 1861; mustered out February 12, 1866. Robins, Russell, enlisted September 1, 1861; discharged for disability March 29, 1864. Whipple, William H., enlisted September 10, 1861. Stearns; Chandler W., died of disease in Arkansas, October 8, 1864. Wilmouth, M. V. B., enlisted September 10, 1861; died of disease at Rienzi, Mississippi, August, 1862. Winslow, Nathan, mustered out February 12, 1866..Younger, William E., mustered out February 12, 1866. Younger, George, died of disease in Arkansas, September 11, 1864. Company E. Hagaman, William E., mustered out February 12, 1866. Company F. Briggs, Henry, mustered out February 12, 1866. CompanrZ I. Bennett, Wilshire, veteranized January 19, 1864; mustered out February 12, 1866. Converse, J. H., veteranized January 19, 1864; sick, absent at muster out.

Page  294 294 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Eckert, David S., died of disease at Memphis, Tennessee, April 18, 1863. Goodenow, Edward, died of disease in Tennessee, May 26, 1862. Goff, James A., discharged for disability September 18, 1862. Kent, Alfred, corporal; veteranized January 19, 1864. Messecar, Alfred, discharged for disability February 14, 1862. Goodenow, Asa, farrier; enlisted Ocotber 10, 1861. SIXTH CAVALRY. Colonel James H. Kidd, Ionia; commissioned May 19, 1864; major, May 0, 1863; captain, October 13, 1862; wounded in action at Falling Waters, Virginia, July 14, 1863; wounded in action at Winchester, Virginia, September 19, 1864; brevet brigadier-general United States Volunteers, for gallant and meritorious services during the war, June 15, 1865; mustered out November 7, 1865. Assistant Surgeon David C. Spaulding, Lyons; commissioned October 15, 1862; resigned October 1, 1863. Company A. Denton, George W., mustered out June 21, 1865. Stark, James, mustered out June 21, 1863. Sayles, W. H., mustered out July 21, 1865. Sayles, Lyman A., mustered out August 4, 1865. Company C. Hayes, William 0., died of disease in Dakota, September 13, 1865. Scott, John H., transferred to First Cavalry. Company D. Stowell, David, mustered out June 19, 1865. Trephagen, SChuyler C., mustered out August 10, 1865. Thompson, Josiah, mustered out November 24, 1865. Toynton, William, discharged for disability August 29, 1864. Trim, Mortimer, mustered out Noveiiiber 24, 1865. Trim, Homer, died of disease at Alexandria, Virginia, August 12, 1864. Traux, Albert, died of disease at Washington, February 12, 1864. Wilder, Harvey C., died of disease August 5, 1863. Wyman, Solon H., discharged by order August 31, 1864. Willett, William, mustered out July 10, 1865. Welch, David, mustered out June 23, 1865. Company F. Winksworth, Robert, died in Andersonville Prison, February 5, 1865. Company G. Stewart, John R., died of disease at Washington, June 17, 1863. Whitefield, Charles W., mustered out February 8, 1866.

Page  295 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 295 Com4pany H. Brown, Irving A., mustered out March 31. 1866. Fish, Emory, mustered out June 3, 1865. Jennings, Lewis, mustered out June 3, 1865. Company I. Captain Benjamin F. Rockafellow. Lyons; commissioned March 17, 1864; mustered out March 10, 1866. Briggs, John, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, December 1, 1863. Fifield; Ira A., mustered out July 1, 1865. Lambert, Frank, mustered out February 27, 1866. Porter, Jesse, mustered out June 6, 1865. Rawlins, George L., mustered out February 27, 1866. Smith, Stowell J., mustered out February 27, 1866. Company K. Captain Jacob 0. Probasco, Lyons; commissioned December 10, 1864; mustered out March 25, 1866. Company L. Austin, Hiram D., died of disease at Fredericksburg, Virginia, March 21, 1864. Barnard, George W., died in Andersonville Prison, October 1, 1864. Hopkins, Asahel, died at Winchester, Virginia, September 10, 1864. Hopkins, Sherlman, died of disease at Winchester, Virginia, October 1, 1864. Lamb, Lyman T., transferred to First Cavalry. Millard, Hendrick D., transferred to First Cavalry. Shaw, Thomas J., transferred to First Cavalry. Strong, Henry F., mustered out March 2. 1865. Sayles, John, mustered out August 8, 1865. Sayles, Sidney, mustered out March 2, 1865. Sayles, William R., mustered out August 8, 1865. Company M. Captain John M. Pratt, Saranac; commissioned October 13, 1862; resigned February 7, 1863. First Lieutenant Benjamin F. Rockafellow, Lyons; commissioned second lieutenant October 13, 1862; first lieutenant March 16, 1863; captain Company I March 17, 1864. Corporal Cornelius E. Densmore, enlisted September 20, 1862; discharged June 30, 1865. Corporal George W. Barnard, enlisted September 20, 1862. Corporal William H. Wilson, enlisted September 3, 1862. Corporal Erastus Hull, enlisted September 3, 1862. Corporal Harvey R. Hawley, enlisted September 15, 1862. Corporal Franklin P. Groman, enlisted September 5, 1862. Teamster Samuel Hart, enlisted September 3, 1862; mustered out June 26, 1865. Teamster Bradford S. Cook, enlisted September 20, 1862; mustered out November 24, 1865. Farrier Fred Lockman, enlisted September 1, 1862.

Page  296 296 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Saddler William S. Brown, enlisted September 1, 1862; discharged for disability November 5, 1863. Austin, Hiram D., enlisted September 3, 1862. Aldrich, Stephen A., enlisted September 29, 1862. Aldrich, Joel P., enlisted September 19, 1862; discharged June 6, 1865. Abbott, Amos H., enlisted September 13. 1862; mustered out November 25, 1865. Brown, Harmonus, enlisted September 3, 1862; mustered out November 24, 1865. Barnard, Levi J., enlisted September 20, 1862; mustered out October 20, 1865. Curtis, Sheldon R., enlisted September 19, 1862; mustered out October 10, 1865. Dexter, Dallas, enlisted September 22, 1862; transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, August, 1862. Foster, William, enlisted September 3, 1862; discharged for disability September 25, 1863. Farrell, Thomas, enlisted September 2, 1862; died at Harper's Ferry of wounds August 17, 1864. Gibson, William, enlisted September 3, 1862; mustered out July 6, 1865. Gross, Charles W., enlisted September 12, 1862; killed in action at Haw's Shop, May 28, 1864. Hudson, Furman 0., enlisted September 23. 1862; mustered out November 24, 1865. Hubbard, John C., enlisted September 12, 1862. Mead, M. B., enlisted September 8. 1862; mustered out November 24, 1865. Mead, William H., enlisted September 3, 1862; mustered out November 24, 1865. Miles, Lafayette, enlisted November 6, 1862; mustered out November 24, 1865. McCagg. Thomas M., enlisted September 16, 1862. North, Charles, enlisted September 15, 1862. North, Ezra, enlisted September 15, 1862. Potter, Edmond, enlisted September 20, 1862: mustered out November 24, 1865. Sprague. Alexander. enlisted September 22, 1862; mustered out November 24, 1865. Sayles, Alexanider, enlisted September 22. 1862; mustered out November 24. 1865. Starks, Henry, enlisted September 10, 1862: mustered out July 6, 1865. Tower, Solomon, enlisted September 3, 1862. Wilson, Abner J., enlisted September 25, 1862. Wilson, William H., Jr., enlisted December 2, 1862. TENTH CAVALRY. Surgeon David C. Spaulding, Lyons; commissioned September 28, 1863; mustered out November 23, 1865. First Lieutenant and Adjutant Charles E. Sofile, Lyons: lomlimssioned July 6, 1863; transferred to Company K, April 1. 1864; resigned for disability December 21, 1864. Sergeant Major Jamnes B. Soule, Lyons: enlisted August 28. 1S62; transferred to Company G, Jalnuary 8, 1864. Sergeant.lMajor Edwin R. Hull. Lyons; elnlisted O(ctober 13. 1,863; trlansferred to Company G, July 29, 1864. HFospital Steward MNarcus E. Brown, Lyons: enlisted Septemiber 15, 1S633; discharged to be hospital steward in regular army October 28, 1864. Saddler Sargeant Isaac W. Kendrick, Lyons: enlisted November 17, 1863; mustered out November 1, 1865.

Page  297 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 297 Company A. Betts, Fred G., mustered out November 11, 1865. Betts, John C.. mustered out November 11, 1865. Campbell, Finley, mustered out November 11, 1865. Robinson, Joseph, died of disease at Somerset, Kentucky, February, 1864. Company B. Sergeant Charles Watson, Lyons; enlisted August 21. 1863; promoted second lieutenant Company H, September 2, 1865. Allen, William W., mustered out November 11,1865. Bradley, Henry, mustered out November 11, 1865. Burch, Eli, mustered out June 20, 1865. Burnham, Charles, drowned in Holston River, Tennessee, July 31, 1864. Clark, Michael, discharged by order September 13, 1865. Cornell, Leonard, mustered out November 11, 1865. Dalrymple, W. H., (lied in rebel prison January, 1865. Foote, L. H., discharged by order November 13, 1865. Gladding, Willis A., corporal; mustered out November 11, 1865. Howell, John, died of disease in Michigan. Hirey, Fred, died of disease in Kentucky, February 24, 1864. McDonald, Patrick, mustered out November 11, 1865. Neitz, Philip, mustered out November 11, 1865. Pratt, Alexander, mustered out November 11, 1865. Rexford, Horace A., mustered out November 11, 1865. Spoon, William mustered out November 11, 1865. Simons, James H., mustered out November 11, 1865. Terhune, Henry, corporal; mustered out November 11, 1865. Van Wort, John. mustered out March 10. 1865. Whiting, Joseph R., mustered out November 11, 1865. Wheeler, Ray, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, May 1, 1864. Company C. First Lieutenant George W. French, Lyons; enlisted April 1, 1864; mustered out 'November 11, 1865. Backston, Charles A., mustered out November 11, 1865. Cony, Joseph J., mustered out November 11, 1865. Hickcock, Loren L., mustered out November 11, 1865. Lilly, George, mustered out November 11, 1865. Tanner, Samuel S., mustered out November 11, 1865. Triphagen, John, mustered out June 30, 1865. Compaony D. Auteliff, Henry F., mustered out November 11, 1865. Fletcher, Joseph, mustered out November 11, 1865.

Page  298 298 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Company E. Van Meer, Edwin, mustered out November 11, 1865. Wilcox, Edgar A., mustered out November 11, 1865. Walruff, Charles, mustered out October 2, 1865. Company F. Day, Samuel, mustered out November 11, 1865. Dodge, Carlton M., mustered out November 11, 1865. Kimberly, George E., mustered out November 11, 1865. Company G. Captain James B. Roberts, Ionia; commissioned August 1, 1863; resigned August 10, 1865. Captain Ambrose L. Soule, Lyons; commissioned September 2, 1865; commissioned first lieutenant July 25, 1863; mustered out November 11, 1865. First Lieutenant Alfred A. Garlock, Lyons; commissioned August 10, 1865; mustered out November 11, 1865.Second Lieutenant George W. French, Lyons; commissioned July 25, 1863; promoted first lieutenant Company C, April 1, 1864; promoted first lieutenant United States Army. First Sergeant Edwin R. Hall, Lyons; enlisted October 13, 1863; promoted sergeantmajor; transferred back to company October 1, 1864. Quartermaster Sergeant William H. Gardner, Lyons; enlisted October 28, 1863; mustered out November 11, 1865. Sergeant Benjamin A. Miller, Lyons; enlisted August 19, 1863; mustered out November '23, 1865. Sergeant Alfred A. Garlock, Lyons; enlisted October 12, 1863; promoted second lieutenant Company L. Sergeant Edwin F. Morehouse, Portland; enlisted August 22, 1863; mustered out November 11, 1865. Sergeant Don A. Hubbell, Ionia; enlisted September 26, 1863; died of disease at Camp Nelson, Kentucky, March 16, 1864. Corporal Hiram M. Mapes, Portland; enlisted August 27, 1863; mustered out Novenm. ber 11, 1865. Corporal James Arms, Portland; enlisted September 11, 1863; mustered out November 11, 1865. Corporal John M. Nichols, Lyons; enlisted August 29. 1863; mustered out November 11, 1865. Corporal William B. Williston, Lyons; enlisted September 5, 1863; mustered out November 11, 1865. Corporal Ebenezer Bennett, Jr., Orange; enlisted September 10, 1863: mustered out November 11, 1865. Corporal John R. Wilcox, Lyons; enlisted September 29, 1863; mustered out November 23, 1865. Farrier, Williaml Griffith, North Plains; enlisted September 27, 1863; mustered out November 29, 1865. Musician William R. Sergeant, Portland; enlisted August 31, 1863; mustered out June 19, 1865.

Page  299 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 299 Saddler Charles Darin, Lyons; enlisted August 18, 1863; mustered out November 11, 1865. Wagoner Philip Kist, of Portland; enlisted August 18, 1863; mustered out November 11, 1865. Armstrong, John, died of disease at Nashville, Tennessee, May 10, 1865. Brown, Sidney A., mustered out May 22, 1865. Briggs, Charles, mustered out October 23, 1865. Bailey, Milton I)., mustered out November 11, 1865. Baldwin, Algernon, mustered out November 11, 1865. Borden, Valentine, killed by guard at Knoxville, Tennessee. Colby, Albert D., died of disease at Camp-Nelson, Kentucky, March 23, 1865. Clark, Albert, mustered out November 11, 1865. Cook, William, mustered out November 11, 1865. Clifford, Jefferson, mustered out November 11, 1865. Converse, Thomas S., mustered out November 11, 1865. Craff, Cyrus A., mustered out November 11, 1865. Carter, Alonzo J., mustered out November 11, 1865. J)ewall, Edwin, mustered out October 21. 18S65. Dodge, Joshua, discharged by order June 29, 1865. Emery, Elijah, mustered out November 11, 1865. Frazer, William, mustered out November 11, 1865. Friend, George E., mustered out November 11, 1865. Griswold F., discharged by order August 3, 1865. Groger, William H., mustered out November 11, 1865. Groger, Charles, discharged for disability August 5, 1865. Hall, Hiram, mustered out November 11, 1865. Holcomb, Perry W., mustered out November 11, 1865. Hay, Hiram N., mustered out November 23, 1865. Joslyn, Emery, mustered out November 11, 1865. Jotley, Lewis C., mustered out June 3, 1865. Miller, Lymon F., mustered out November 11, 1865. Mead, Lyman F., mustered out Novebmer 11, 1865. McIntyre, Thomas, mustered out November 11, 1865. Moore, William H. H., died of disease at Somerset, Kentucky. Meaking, Henry, discharged by order June 19, 1865. Patterson, John, mustered out November 11, 1865. Pickett, Lafayette, mustered out November 11, 1865. Reynolds, Reuben, mustered out October 6, 1865. Rands, Geo., mustered out November 11, 1865. Reed, Rufus D., mustered out November 11, 1865. Reed, James F., discharged for disability October 25, 1865. Snyder, Benjamin, mustered out June 7, 1865. Soule, James B., mustered out November 11, 1865. Soper, Charles G., mustered out November 11, 1865. Smith, Silas H., mustered out November 11, 1865. Sykes, George, mustered out November 11, 1865. Smith, Alvin J., mustered out November 11, 1865. Tousley, Oren, mustered out November 11, 1865. Van Buren, Augustus, mustered out November 11, 1865. Van Buren, Gustavus, mustered out November 11, 1865.

Page  300 300 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Van Buren. Ebenezer, mustered out November 11, 1865. Williams, Earl WV., mustered out November 11, 1865. Williams, George H., mustered out Novelmber 11, 1865. Whalen, Dennis, mustered out November 11, 1865. Wurstur, John, mustered out November 11, 1865. Waite, William, mustered out November 11, 1865. White, Albert 1)., mustered out November 11, 1865. White, William H., discharged by order September 25, 1865. Woodward, John H., discharged for disability July 27, 1865. Company H1. Second Lieutenant Charles Watson, Lyons: commissioned September 2, 1865; mustered out November 11, 1865. Benedict, Thomas, dlied of disease at Nashville, July 4, 1865. Brown, Oliver, mustered out January 27, 1865. Beach, John, discharged by order September 4, 1865. Crosse, Ira. mustered out November 11. 1865. Eastman, Lyman C., died of disease at Nashville, July 4, 1865. Hall, Amasa 11., mustered out November 11, 1865. Hall. Rowland, mustered out November 11, 1865. Hall, Zachary, discharged by order August 31, 1865. Holcomb, Milton J., discharged by order June 17, 1865. Henry, Delos. mustered out November 11. 1865. Ingham, Philo B.. mustered out ()October 26, 1865. Jenks, Henry, mustered out November 11, 1865. Jenks, Hiram, mustered out Novembl)er 11. 1865., Joslyn, Duane, mustered out November 11. 1865. Kimberly, George, mustered out November 9, 1865. Moon. Henry, mustered out Novenmber 11. 1865. Morgan, Homer. discharged by order July 15, 1865. Phillips, Wilson M., mustered out November 11. 1865. Rich. Abija.h, (lischarged by lorder Selptenlmber 22, 1865. Ring, Jacob. by order June 17, 1865. Shillunger, Samuel, disbarged by order November 4, 1865. Spencer, George A., mustered out November 11, 1865. WVeeks. Henry It., dischalrged ly order Selptember 5, 1865. Cotrnpatny 1. Brink, Olin, mustered out Novemlber 11, 1 865. Brown, Howard H. mustered out Noveimber 11, 1865. Day, Loren, mustered out November 11, 1865. Dunn, John W.. (lischargedl for plromotion. Grove, Henry, mustered out Noveilmber 11, 1865. H-larris. George W.. mustered out November 11, 1865. Holconmb, Andrew J., miustered out November 1I, 1865. Helmore, Delos. mustered out November 11, 1865. Ilubb)s, Watrren P., mustered out November 11, 1865. Hupp, Abe C., discharged by order Selptember 19, 1,865. Howell, Uriah C.. d(lisharged b)y order September 19, 1865. IoJ)kills, A.lbert, (died of i1sease at L,eniolr, 1tennessee, June 2S, 1865.

Page  301 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 301 Mosier, Frank, died of disease at Knoxville, Tennessee, June 28, 1865. Spicer, Allen J., mustered out November 11, 1865. Tallant, Joseph B., mustered out September 30, 1865. Waldron, Hanley A., mustered out November 11, 1865. Company K. First Lieutenant Charles E. Soule, Lyons; commissioned January 8, 1864; resigned December 21, 1864. Andrews, John M., mustered out November 11. 1865. Cheeny, Uz H., mustered out November 11, 1865. Gardner, Ira S., mustered out June 19, 1865. Godard, Rufus, mustered out November 25, 1865. Hubbs, Warren D., corporal; mustered out November 24, 1865. Hauks, Eli, mustered out November 11, 1865. Prestle, Hiram, mustered out November 11, 1865. Sabens, Nelson P., mustered out November 11, 1865. Windsor, John J., mustered out November 11, 1865. Cormpanq L. Second Lieutenant Alfred A. Garlock, Lyons; commissioned January 7, 1865; mustered out November 11, 1865. Casper, Lafayette, died of disease at Grand Rapids, November 8, 1863. Cameron, Andrew, discharged by order July 20, 1865. Dow, David, discharged by order September 20, 1865. Gloster, Henry, discharged by order September 22, 1865. Walker, Samuel A., discharged by order July 1, 1865. Westbrook, M., mustered out November 11, 1865. Williams, Elvin, mustered out November 11, 1865. Company M. Grow, Darius H., mustered out November 11, 1865. Heydlauff, Jacob, musician; mustered out November 11, 1865. Hall, Bancroft J., mustered out November 11, 1865. Homer, John, discharged by order July 13, 1865. Leary, George, mustered out May 22,1865. McMurphey, Moses, mustered out November 11, 1865. Washburn, Charles G., mustered out November 11, 1865. FIFTH INFANTRY. Sergeant Emery P. Moon, Otisco; veteranized December 24, 1863; transferred to new Third Infantry. Crane, Gilbert J., discharged for disability June 7, 1865. Kitchen, Elijah, mustered out July 10, 1865. Company B. First Lieutenant Orange W. Van Duyne, Lyons; commissioned December 21, 1864; promoted second lieutenant October 12, 1864; mustered out July 5, 1865.

Page  302 302 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Company D. Race, Charles N., mustered out July 5, 1865. Race, Delos M., mustered out July 5, 1865. Comtpany E. Sergeant Ernest Synold, Lyons; veteranized December 23, 1863; promoted second lieutenant Company I. Mandell, Walter I., mustered out July 5, 1865. Company F. Hammond, Benjamin F., died in laction June 16, 1864. Company I. Second Lieutenant Ernest Synold, Lyons; commissioned September 1, 1864; promoted first lieutenant May 8, 1865; mustered out July 5, 1865. SEVENTH INFANTRY. White, Philo T.. discharged for disability December 17, 1862. TENTH INFANTRY. Beck, Jacob, mustered out July 19, 1865. Company E. Stilwell. Austin A., mustered out July 19, 1865. ELEVENTH INFANTRY. Company A. Chalpman, William H., mustered out September 16, 1865. Company C. Shay, Michael, mustered out September 16, 1865. Company D. Freeman, George, mustered out August 28, 1865. Presley, Charles, mustered out May 8, 1865. Company Q. Jorsan, Chauncey, mustered out September 16, 1865. King, Israel M., mustered out August 28, 1865. Kingsley, William S., mustered out September 16, 1865.

Page  303 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 3(3 Company IH. Ball. George H., mustered out Sel)tember 16, 1865. Ryan, Edward, mustered out September 16, 1865. Company F. Dillinghalm, Sa;muel, disclhrged 1y order May 12. 1865. THIRTEENTH INFANTRY. Baker, Melvin, discharged for disability June 3, 1865. Hunter, Robert, discharged for disability May 16, 1862. Potruff, John, died of disease at Louisville, March 8, 1862. Potruff, Daniel, died in rebel prison. Story. Oliver i'., discharged for disablility Malrch 8, 1863. Wilder, Hiram, died of disease at I)lvid's Island, N. Y., May 16, 1865. Conmpany D). Finn, G(arrett, (lied of disease at Ringgold, Ga., February 28, 1865. Company E. Capt. V. W. Kunderlon, conmmissioned October 4, 1861; resigned November 12, 1862. Alger, Martin M., died of disease. Brown, Joseph M., died of disease at home. Brown, William, enlisted December 23, 1861. Bovee, Sylvester A., discharged for disability June 29, 1863. Barberm, Charles W., discharged for order, July 11, 1865. 1)Dunn, James l., for disability March 4, 1863. I)unn, Reuben C., discharged at end of service, January 16, 1865. Everst, John D., (lied of disease at Nashville, January 21, 1865. Principal Musician Jeremiah E. Glines, veteranized January 18, 1864; transferred to Conmpany F1, transferred back to plrincipal musician;; promoted second lieutenant. Gillett, Amos, discharged at end of service January 16, 1865. Hathaway, Norton B.. died of disease at home. Hathaway, York C., died of disease at Chattanooga, October 7, 1863. Jennings, William, sergeant; discharged for disability. Little, Andrev. sergeant, veteranized Jilnuary 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865. Pratt, William H., sergeant, discharged. Sprague, De Witt C., discharged for disability May 2, 1862. Stevens, Royal F., discharged for disability August 7, 1865. Shoemaker, Thomas, veteranized Januairy 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865. Snow, Richard C., mustered out July 25. 1865. Todd, Samuel' W., discharged for disability September 16, 1865. Wiser, Augustus, discharged by order August 1, 1865. * White, John L., corporal; discharged at end of service, January 16, 1865. Warner, Lucius C., veteranized January 18, 1864; mustered out July 25, 1865.

Page  304 304 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Company G. Jenks, Lord C., mustered out February 25, 1865. FOURTEENTH INFANTRY. Company A. Lampman, Peter, discharged at end of service, March 14, 1865. Wimple, Enoch, mustered out July 18, 1865. Hempstead, Robert, discharged for disability at Ypsilanti, Michigan, April 15, 1862. Company B. Sanborn, William, mustered out July 18, 1865. Thompson, Francis, died of disease at Jefferson, Ind., February 5, 1865. Company D. Barnard, Charles W., mustered out July 18, 1865. Thuma, David, discharged by order June 13, 1865. Company E. Breetz, Fred, mustered out July 18, 1865. Davis, George, discharged by order June 7, 1865. Lockwood, George W., mustered out July 18, 1865. Company F. Dawson, Richard, mustered out. Sergeant George, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., March 4, 1863. Sergeant Timothy, veteranized January 4, 1864. Company H. Marlett, William H., mustered out'July 18, 1865. McCreary, Robert, mustered out July 18, 1865. Company I. Negley, Adelbert, mustered out July 18, 1865. Rosser, James, (lied of disease at Ypsilanti, Michigan, Malrch 24, 1862. SEVENTEENTH INFANTRY. Sergeant-Major Charles D. Todd, Ionia;, l)romoted second lieutenant Company D. Company I). Second Lieutenant Charles D. T'odd, lonia, commissioned July 4, 1863; promoted first lieutenant Company E.

Page  305 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 305 Coempany E. First Lieutenant Charles D. Todd, Ionia, commissioned October 19, 1863; wounded in action near Petersburg, July 23, 1864; brevet captain United States Veterans July 23, 1864, for gallant and meritorious services in the campaign before Richmond, Virginia; honorably discharged December 30, 1864. TWENTY-FOURTH INFANTRY. McGowan, John, mustered out June 30, 1865. Reeves, B. J., mustered out June 30, 1865. TWENTY-SIXTH INFANTRY. Adjutant Charles D. Fox, Lyons; appointed October 13, 1862; resigned April 13, 1863. Quarter-Master Sergeant E. V. W. Brokaw, Odessa; enlisted February 16, 1865; honorably discharged June 4, 1865. Company A. First Lieutenant Charles D. Fox, Lyons; commissioned September 5, 1862; appointed adjutant. Campbell, John, enlisted August 7, 1862. Company I. Musician E. V. W. Brokaw, Odessa; enlisted August 12, 1862; appointed quartermaster-sergeant February 16, 1865. Beam, Ansel H., mustered out June 4, 1865. Church, Horace E., died of disease in Virginia, February 1, 1864. Davenport, Nathaniel, died of disease in Virginia, April 30, 1863. Godfrey, Augustus C., killed in battle at Spottsylvania, Virginia, May 12, 1864. Hatch, John F., discharged by order February 15, 1863. Hiller, William, mustered out June 4, 1865. THIRTEENTH INFANTRY. Corporal John Renick, mustered out June 30, 1865. Cole, Moses, mustered out June 30, 1865. Hare, John, mustered out June 30, 1865. Company E. Wolverton, Amos, mustered out June 30, 1865. Company F. Vandecar, Spencer A., mustered out June 30, 1865. (20)

Page  306 306 IONJA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Company G. Westfall, Benjamin, mustered out June 30, 1865. Company I. Vescelius, Arthur, mustered out June 30, 1865. Company K. Captain Fayette Smith, Ionia; commissioned January 9, 1865, mustered out June 30, 1865. First Lieutenant Laselle C. Brewer, Ionia; commissioned January 9, 1865; mustered out June 30, 1865. Second Lieutenant John H. Barnes, commissioned January 9, 1865; mustered out June 30, 1865. Corporal George M. Vanatta, mustered out June 30, 1865. Clark, Robert, mustered out June 30, 1865. Groass, John, mustered out June 30, 1865. McVeigh, Henry H., mustered out June 30, 1865. Smith, James W., mustered out June 30, 1865. Wilkenbach, Henry, mustered out June 30, 1865. SHARPSHOOTERS. Gilbert, John H., enlisted January 7, 1862. Race,- Sidney J., enlisted December 31, 1861. Race, Charles N., enlisted January 23, 1862..Company A. Bailey, Isaac, mustered out September 30, 1865. Spriggins, Thomas, mustered out September 30, 1865. Company C. Watson, John, mustered out September 30, 1865. Company r. Taylor, Jesse, mustered out September 30, 1865. Company H. Ingham, David, mustered out September 30, 1865. Lett, Samuel, mustered out September 30, 1865. Comrpany I. Jefferson, George W., mustered out September 30, 1865.

Page  307 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 307 Battery B. Ashley, James A., mustered out June 14, 1865. Choate, Alonzo, mustered out June 14, 1865. Hopkins, Robert, mustered out June 14, 1865. Battery C. Tifft, Levi R., discharged for disability, July 19, 1862. Warren, John, veteranized December 28, 1863. Battery E. Chute, Elias, mustered out August 30, 1865. Doty, Elwood F., mustered out August 30, 1862. Fessenden, Elias, enlisted January 16, 1862. Kimball, William R., enlisted January 16, 1862. Segar, Lewis, enlisted January 20, 1862. Battery G. Morse, Davis, mustered out August 6, 1865. Morse, Martin, mustered out August 6, 1865. Battery H. Tubbs, Adelbert, mustered out July 14, 1865. Isham, William 0., mustered out July 14, 1865. Battery M. Bradford, George W., mustered out August 1, 1865. FIFTH CAVALRY. Company C. Duff, Norman, mustered out January 4, 1866. Sprague, Robert J., transferred to Seventh and later to First Cavalry. Company D. Second Lieutenant Henry H. Hitchcock, lonia; commissioned March 31, 1863; resigned May 28, 1863. Canfield, Wilber H., discharged for disability. Smith, Harding, discharged by order. Sanborn, Justus, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps. Sanborn, Enoch, mustered out June 22, 1865. Sperry, Albert T., transferred to First Cavalry. White, John L., mustered out June 22, 1865. Pennington, William D., enlisted August 18, 1862.

Page  308 308 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. SEVENTH CAVALRY. Major John S. Huston, Lyons; commissioned October 14, 1862; discharged by order February 14, 1864. Company A. Second Lieutenant Franklin P. Nicholas, Ionia; commissioned October 15, 1862; resigned July 13, 1864. Company F. Second Lieutenant Joseph Duell, mustered out March 10, 1866. Second Lieutenant Winchester T. Dodge; commissioned October 15, 1862; resigned for disability February 22, 1864. Company H. McDonald, Roderick, transferred to First Cavalry, November 17, 1865. Company I. Cornell, Samuel, died of disease at Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas, June 22, 1865. Fish, Austin O., died of disease at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, April 18, 1865. Lamb, Almon F., mustered out December 15, 1865. McCumsey, George H., mustered out December 15, 1865. Sprague, Robert J., transferred to First Cavalry, November 17, 1865. Vaughin, Joseph W., mustered out December 15, 1865. Company M. Simpson, John F., transferred to First Cavalry, November 17, 1865. EIGHTH CAVALRY. Company 0. White, Alonzo L., died of disease March 15, 1862. Company L. Cramer, William L., discharged for disability March 1, 1865. NINTH CAVALRY. First Lieutenant Matthew B. Bruger, Odessa; commissioned June 30, 1865; commissioned second lieutenant October 3, 1863; mustered out August 10, 1865. Hogle, Charles, died of, disease at Lexington, Ky. Kinney, Chandler, mustered out May 13, 1865. Lincoln, Fletcher, mustered out September 22, 1865. Monks, Joseph P., mustered out May 13, 1865. Major Augustus, mustered out September 22, 1865. Sayles, Merritt, corporal; discharged by order August 10, 1865. Taylor, John, mustered out September 22, 1865. White, William H., sergeant, mustered out September 22, 1865.

Page  309 CHAPTER XXIII. FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS. STATE SAVINGS BANK OF IONIA. ' The State Savings Bank of Ionia, Michigan, was organized December 8, I896, by V. H. Smith, T. B. Preston, O. S. Tower, Dr. O. R. Long, George Gundrum, G. H. McMullen, F. A. Sessions and S. M. Stebbins. The list of stockholders, however, included many other names, but these shares were in smaller lots. The original capital stock was placed at $50,000 and at the start the surplus amounted to $Io,ooo. The first officers of the bank were V. H. Smith, president; 0. S. Tower, vice-president; F. A. Sessions, cashier. In 1904 the State Savings Bank absorbed the Ionia County Savings Bank, and in 1907 the capital was increased to $Ioo,ooo, all capital in excess of $50,000 being earned. This bank is the strongest financial institution in the county, as shown by the statements for the past year. The original State Savings Bank is located at 326 West Main street, the Branch Bank, which was originally the Ionia County Savings Bank, is located at the corner of Main and Second streets. The present officers of the bank are: T. B. Preston, president; K. R. Smith, vice-president; W. B. Heath, cashier; A. J. Hemingway, assistant cashier; W. Y. Templeton, assistant cashier. The present directors are T. B. Preston, A. M. Welch, J. E. Morrison, K. R. Smith, Thane Benedict, F. W. Green, George Gundrum and W. B. Heath. The last statement of 'the bank shows deposits amounting to over $I,050,000 and surplus and undivided profits of over $85,ooo. THE NATIONAL BANK OF IONIA. The National Bank of Ionia, Michigan, was organized on May i, I9OI, with a capital stock of $50,000. The organizers and first stockholders of this bank were H. B. Webber, Joseph P. Powell, R. A. Burhans, George E. Nichols, B. F. Hall, R. H. Van Vleck, R. T. Rohler, T. A. Carten,

Page  310 3IO IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. George Liverton, Fred Cutler, Jr., S. W. Webber, Jr., J. 0. Probasco, L. M. Greenwood, F. L. Moon, Dr. C. P. Lathrop, A. N. Morse, F. A. Fletcher, E. L. Somers, M. F. Hatch, C. D. Ransom, H. G. Thornton, Wr. H. Matti'son, B. B. Hall, M. J. Allen, H. E. Powell, S. E. Phelps, and Rev. W. J. Fierle. The first officers were: H. B. Webber, president; W. H. Mattison, vice-president; C. D. Ransom, cashier. The National Bank of lonia is a very strong institution and receives the support of the citizens of Ionia. The management is conservative in its methods and very courteous in the treatment of its patrons, and although younger than many of the other banks in the county, few have had a more prosperous existence. A new banking house was erected in I9I3 and bears the distinction of being the most beautiful bank building in the county and in fact in this part of the state. It is located at 308 West Main street (corer of Main and Second) and was constructed of terra cotta. The interior of the bank is finished in marble with fixtures of mahogany. The present officers of the bank are H. B. Webber, president; W. H. Mattison, vice-president; H. E. Powell, vice-president, and J. H. Smith, cashier. The last statement of the bank shows deposits of $550,0oo and a surplus of $I5,ooo. SARANAC STATE BANK. The Saranac State Bank was incorporated under the state laws of Michigan, October 25, 9goo, with the following persons comprising the list of organizers and first stockholders: Stephen M. Crawford, Lewis C. David, Hiram N. Lee, Winfield S. Allen, Joseph L. Granger, George Liverton, Samuel S. Tucker, Aaron L. Flleming, Francis S. Brower, William Mercer (estate), Abner F. Noyes, Tracy B. Lowery and Hamilton Walton. The first officers were Stephen M. Crawford, president; Lewis C. David, vice-president; Abner F. Noyes, cashier. The original capital stock of this bank was placed at $20o,ooo000. This is at present a very strong financial institution as evidenced by the last statement of the bank which shows deposits amounting to $250,ooo. The capital stock of the bank was increased in July, 1913, to $3o,ooo. The management of the bank has had no change with the exception of the office of cashier, in which William H. Hunt superseded Abner F. Noyes in July, I904. Roy T. Weber at present holds the office of assistant cashier. The present stockholders are Stephen M. Crawford, Lewis C. David, Hiram N. Lee, Joseph L. Granger, George Liverton. Hamilton Walter, Millard F. Sargent, Abigail Tucker, Mattie Fleming, Charles E. Huhn, Milton A.

Page  311 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 3II Benson, Harvey H. Lowery, Chester Adgate, Burt W. Arnold, Charles L. Wilson, Ellis W. Durkee, Amon Otis, Chadrick A. Lee, Gilbert Curtiss, Frank Sherwood, George WV. and Esther Potter, Frank Weber, Thomas S. Barber, X\Vinfield S. and Minnie Allen, Herbert I. and Lucinda Courter and Tracy B. Iowery. The building which the bank now occupies was constructed in 1875 of brick, but was remodeled in I906 and affords a very commodious place of business. It is located on Bridge street and with the fixtures, which are of oak and metal, it is valued at $4,000. The surplus and undivided profits of the bank according to the last statement was $19,000. Since its organization fifteen years ago this bank has paid out in dividends, both regular and special, $54, 20. MAYNARD, ALLIEN STATE BANK OF PORTLAND. The Maynard, Allen State Bank of Portland, Michigan, was organized on May i, I874, by C. H. Maynard, E. M. Allen and J. B. Rol as a private institution, and was known as the Maynard, Allen Comapny. The capital stock of this bank was originally $Io,ooo and the first officers were C. H. Maynard, president, and E. M. Allen, cashier. In I906 this bank was incorporated under the laws of Michigan as a state bank and was known as the Mavnard, Allen State Bank and the capital stock was raised to $5o0ooo. This bank does a general banking and loan business and is a strong financial institution, as evidenced by the last statement which shows deposits amounting to $325,000 and a surplus of $20,000. The present officers of the bank are C. H. Maynard, president; U. J. Maynard, vice-president; F. H. Krist, vice-president; Richard Bates, cashier; Carl 0. Derby, assistant cashier. The directors are C. H. Maynard, Fred H. Knox, U. J. Maynard, J. A. McClelland, George W. Allen, W. H. McBride and Richard Bates.' The bank has a building in the process of construction which will be ready for occupancy in a short time. It is situated on the east side of Kent street and is being constructed of granite and stone at a cost of $9,5oo. The interior will be of marble and will furnish very beautiful quarters for this bank. EDWIN NASH STATE BANK OF CLARKSVILLE. The Edwin Nash State Bank of Clarksville, Michigan, Was established in 1893 by Edwin Nash & Son. It was incorporated in I9II with the fol

Page  312 312 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. lowing members as the first stockholders: Fred Robbins, John Whitby, Elmer Winey, E. F. Cool, John Cool, L. A. Scoville, G. S. 'Mick, Claud Scoville, John Nickerson, W. J. Shanks, F. E. Lane, Jacob Lenhard, G. E. Marvin, I. H. Brower, J. A. Clark, G. Wieland, Ernest Nash, E. E. Church, D. F. Walter, C. E. Marvin, A. C. Nash and F. A. O'Harra. This bank was capitalized at $20,000 and the capital stock has never been changed. The first officers were Fred Robbins, president; L. A. Scoville, vice-president; Ernest Nash, cashier; Roy Blough, assistant cashier. The building in which the bank is located at present was erected in I893 and has served the bank in its twenty-two years of existence. The present officers are L. A. Scoville, president; G. E. Marvin, vicepresident; Ernest Nash, cashier. The last statement of the bank showed deposits of $I6I,ooo and a surplus of $600. FARMERS AND MERCHANTS BANK OF LAKE ODESSA. The Farmers and Merchants Bank of Lake Odessa, Michigan, was organized on December I, I903. The capital stock of this bank was placed at $25,000 and the stockholders and organizers consisted of about sixty members who resided in Lake Odessa and vicinity. The first officers were J. J. Eckhardt, president; George A. Weed, vice-president; Samuel Velte, cashier. This bank, although only twelve years old has become a strong financial institution in Lake Odessa and has received good support from the farmers and merchants in this section. The management of this bank is the same as in the beginning. The last statement of the bank shows deposits amounting to over $36T,000, with a surplus of $1o,ooo and undivided profits of over $8,000. This bank does a general loan and banking business and also has a very strong savings department which is strongly supported by the customers of the bank as the last statement shows savings deposits of $220,000. PEOPLES SAVINGS BANK OF. BELDING. The Peoples Savings Bank of Belding. Michigan, was organized on May II, I893, with the following members comprising the list of stockholders: E. R. Spencer, Frank R. Chase, M. A. Reed, Brinton F. Hall, David E. Wilson, John Greenop, L. L. Holmes, L. C. Fales and A. A. Palmer. The first officers were Edwin F. Spencer, president; Frank R. Chase, vicepresident, and M. A. Reed, cashier. The original capital stock was placed at $35,000oo. The bank building was erected in i893 at a cost of $8,ooo and

Page  313 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 3I3 has furnished ample quarters for the transaction of the business of the bank. There have been no decided changes in the business of the bank with the exception of the increase in the capital stock in I902 to $4o,ooo. This bank caters to savings accounts, although the general banking business of the bank such as loans, etc., is well taken care of. The last statement of the bank shows deposits amounting to $339,000 and a surplus of $IO,OOO. The present officers of the bank are Brinton F. Hall, president; Frank R. Chase, vice-president; W. L. Custer, cashier; Ambrose Spencer, assistant cashier. The directors are: Brinton F. Hall, Frank R. Chase, Frank L. Moon, Charles Eddy, George W. Moulton, Fred E. Underwood, George Hoppough, John G. Hessler, H. L. Page and W. L. Cusser. \\TEBBER S'TATE SAVINGS BANK. John A. Webber arrived in Portland on May I0, 1870, with his wife and ten-months-old baby, to start the bank of L. Webber & Son. The first office was in the back room of the David Simmons' building and continued there for five years. In 1875 a building was purchased where the new bank now stands. I" 1884 the father, Lorenzo Webber, of Elmira, New York, (lied, and the business was continued as John A. Webber, banker. In I89I, one-half of the business was given to Lorenzo Webber, son of John A. Webber, and the firm name became John A. Webber & Son. On March 26, I905, John L. Webber died, but the business continued under the same firm name until the Webber State Savings Bank was organized under the state laws of Michigan and charter of January 2, I908. The stockholders at the organization were Edwin A. Buck, Elon A. Richards, George W\. Allen, David McClurg, Charles F. Powers, M. McNamara, William G. Gibbs and the Webber heirs-Mary E. Webber, Lorenzo Webber and Christine (Webber) Latta. In I9I5 the bank bought the present site of the Webber heirs and erected a new bank building. It is constructed of Bedford limestone columns and walls and is furnished with mahogany fixtures. Just the year prior to this they had installed a burglarproof door on the money vault which is the best in the county. The bank has a capital of $25,000 and a surplus of $25,ooo. The deposits at present amount to $325,000. Most o-f the loans are in first mortgages on farms in the vicinity of Portland. The officers of the bank are Mary E. Webber, president; Edwin A. Buck, vice-president; Lorenzo Webber, cashier; Frank J. Badgley, assistant cashier. The directors are Edwin A. Buck, Elon A.

Page  314 3I4 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Richards, Jed H. Briggs, Mary E. Webber, Lorenzo Webber and Christina Latta. BELDING SAVINGS BANK. The Belding Savings Bank was organized in 1889 by D. E. Wilson, F. R. Chase, R. M. WA/ilson, H. J. Leonard, J. M. Earle and H. H. Belding. The capital stock at the time of the organization of the bank was $25,000 and the first officers were D. E. W\ilson, president; F. R. Chase, vice-president; C. E. Hill, cashier. The present home of the bank was erected in 1889 and stands at the corner of Main and Pleasant streets and is valued at $8,000. The capital stock of this bank was increased on April 2, 1910, to $50,000. The Belding Savings Bank has catered to savings accounts and has had a large patronage in the city. The present officers are H. J. Leonard, president; A. N. Belding, vice-president; W. C. Spicer, second vice-president; W. S. Lambertson, cashier. According to the last statement of the bank it has deposits amounting to $326,820, and a surplus of $i5,000. The directors are: A. N. Belding, H. J. Leonard, F. C. Lloyd. W. C. Spicer, M. M. Belding, Jr.,, W. P. Hetherington. E. E. Chapple and \V. S. Lambertson. LAKE ODESSA STATE SAVINGS BANK. The Lake Odessa State Savings Bank was organized in t888. It was originally established as the Lake Odessa Savings Bank with a capital of $25,000 as a state bank. The first stockholders were all in the Wager family and consisted of H. R. Wager and his wife and Fred Ernest and Nellie Wager. Mr. Wager brought W. J. Percival, the first cashier of the bank, here from Ionia, May 21, 1888, and the bank was opened the next day. Samuel O. Hosford drew the books and supplies from Ionia in a lumber wagon. All currency and coin had to be brought from Ionia with horse and buggy until the railroad was in operation, which was about August I, of the same year. Mr. Wager's interest was later purchased by local parties, following which the name was changed to the Lake Odessa State Savings Bank. The bank was originally on the corner where McCartney's store stands, but this building burned in December, I894. The bank then was moved to the old wooden building next to the Hotel Burke and was there until October, 1895, when it was moved to its present location. H. R. Wager was president of the bank as long as he held an interest in it. He was succeeded by Judge V. H. Smith; later the office was held lby George Y. Fletcher and he was followed by George Liverton. The town was platted in June, 1887, so it

Page  315 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 3I5 was about eleven months old when the bank opened; thus the bank has always been directly connected with the history of the village. The bank has a capital stock at present of $25,000 with a surplus of $6,ooo. According to the last statement the deposits amounted to $200,000. The present building is located on Fourth avenue and is valued at $4,000. It is comfortably furnished with fixtures valued at $2,500. The present officers are George Liverton, president; William H. McCartney, vice-president; Howard C. Lawrence, cashier. The directors are: George Liverton, Louis Krieger, William McCartney, Wallace Lovewell, Otis Miner, 0. C. Russ and Howard C. Lawrence. IONIA BUILDING AND LOAN ASSOCIATION. The lonia Building and Loan Association was organized in the spring of 1912 to help to meet the need for more houses, which then existed. A business men's banquet was held in the Odd Fellows hall, at which the need and organization for such an institution was presented, and stock subscriptions called for. The result was so gratifying that a committee was appointed to draft articles of incorporation. The association was perfected at a meeting held in the city hall, May 13, 1912, at which time the articles of incorporation were adopted and the first directors elected, namely: F. WV. Green, K. R. Smith, Levi Marshall, C. A. Ireland, E. F. Galagher and E. E. Branch. R. A. Hawley was subsequently added to the board, which has remained the same to the present date. The board elected the following officers who have also filled the same position to date: President, C. A. Ireland; vice-president, K. R. Smith; secretary, E. E. Branch; treasurer, Levi Marshall, and attorney, R. A. Hawley. The association began business in August, 1912, and in the interval since that time has enjoyed a splendid growth. It is now recognized as one of the permanent institutions of the city and county, having at this time $33,000 assets and having assisted in the purchase or erection of about forty homes. The present membership is one hundred and forty-six. BELDING BUILDING AND LOAN ASSOCIATION. The Belding Building and Loan Association, which is the oldest of the two loan associations in Ionia county, was organized and incorporated in I889. The first directors of this association were C. E. Hills, H. J. Leonard, F. A. Washburn, O. F. Webster, J. M. Earle, T. F. Ireland, C. T. Ranney,

Page  316 316 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. E. R. Spencer and G. Begole. The first officers of the newly-created company were J. M. Earle, president; F. A. Washburn, vice-president; T. Frank Ireland, treasurer; C. E. Hills, secretary. This building and loan association was capitalized at $I,OOO,OOO and the capital stock has remained the same up to the present time. This association does a general loan business and likewise has a savings department. It has become an established factor in the growth and advancement of the city of Belding and has helped many a laboring man to own a comfortable home who otherwise would have spent his money for rent. The present officers of this association are F. A. Washburn, president; W. P. Hetherington, vice-president; W. L. Cusser, treasurer; G. E. Wagner, secretary and attorney. The total receipts for the year ending June 30, 1915, were $63,468.5I. The total amount of loans on mortgage security was $I05,322.88, and the total assets were $120,202.52. There was an undivided profit of $25,329.09 and the dues on installment stock amounted to $86,341. 18.

Page  317 CH APTER XXIV. SECRET, FRATERNAL AND PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS. The initial meeting of lonia I.odge No. 36, Free and Accepted Masons, was held at the Eagle hotel, May 23, 1848. On this occasion there were present: Levi Taylor, worshipful master; C. S. Hooker, senior warden; J. L. Freeman, junior warden; B. Sherman, secretary; William) Thomas, treasurer; George Townsend, senior deacon; Brown, junior deacon; Chapman, tvler. The first petition for membership was received on that occasion from John C. Ball, and at the second lodge meeting, which was held on June 19, I849, petitions were received from Peter Hackett, Richard Dye, W. C. Clark, John L. Taylor and Charles M. Moseman. The lodge worked under a dispensation until January TO, I850, when a charter was granted and from that time forward the lodge has enjoyed an unbroken period of prosperity. The present membership numbers about two hundred and fifty. This lodge has the following advanced degrees: Ionia Chapter No. 14, Royal Arch Masons; lonia Council No. II, Royal and Select Masters; Ionia Commandery No. II, Knights Templar. The present officers are: W. K. McSween, worshipful master; Jay A. Van Sickle, senior warden; G. A. Krause, junior warden; B. L. Berry, treasurer; G. F. Brown, secretary; H. H. Robb, senior deacon; E. R. Ashby, junior deacon; E. E. Branch, chaplain; J. D. Story, tyler. PORTLAND LODGE NO. 31. Portland Lodge No. 31, Free and Accepted Masons, was chartered on January IO, I849. The first officers were: George W. Wilson, worshipful master; George Hill, senior warden; Hezekiah Smith, junior warden; P. Vamum, senior deacon; H. M. Starks, junior deacon; L. B. Barnum, secretary; Hezekiah Smith, treasurer; William Moore, tyler. The following is a partial list of the worshipful masters who have served this lodge: George Wilson, George Hill, Samuel Sutliff, M. B. Beers, C. A. Peters, F.

Page  318 318 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. G. Iee and George Hill. This lodge has at the present time a membership of one hundred and sixty-two. The Portland lodge has the following advanced degrees and auxiliary chapter: Portland Chapter No. 37, Royal Arch Masons; Portland Council No. 23, Royal and Select Masters; Chapter No. 258, Order of the Eastern Star. The present officers are: A.A. Mark, worshipful master; John B. Hecox, senior warden; E. N. Green, junior warden; L. Webber, treasurer; Asa Newman, secretary; F. D. Lockwood, senior deacon; Albert Hartwig, junior deacon; W. H. Balderson, tyler. PALO LODGE NO. 203. Palo Lodge No. 203, Free and Accepted Masons, was organized on January I5, I867, with the following charter members: E. D. Young, William H. Freeman, Vine Ilallet, B. Stone, J. Winegar, C. Anner, Peter B. Howk, H. P. Miller, John Dunn and J. R. Hollywood. The first officers of this lodge were: E.. Young, worshipful master; William H. Freeman, senior warden; Vine Hallet, junior warden; B. Stone, treasurer; J. Winegar, secretary; C. Anner, senior deacon; Peter B. Howk, junior deacon; H. P. Miller, tyler; John Dunn and T. R. Hollywood, stewards. This lodge now has a membership of sixty and is in a prosperous condition. The present officers are: I. S. Jeffers, worshipful master; F. Gaylord, senior warden; R. Safford, junior warden; H. D. Pugh, treasurer; W. F. Petteys, secretary; H. F. Kellogg, senior deacon; C. C. Luce, junior deacon; Henry Hull, tyler. BELDING LODGE NO. 355. Belding Lodge No. 355, Free and Accepted Masons, was organized on January 26, I88I. The following is the list of charter members: Elisha Mudge, J. Milton Earle, Robert M. Wilson, Thomas Crebben, Albert D. Jenks, Henry A. Jersey, George Light, Abraham C. Haugh, Elvon Murry, Fred Deitz, John G. Snyder, Charles E. Drake, Frank R. Chase, William M. Evarts, Levi Broas, Bradley C. Stone, Jacob King, Charles M. Wise, Edward F. Sayles and George Hoppough. The members of this lodge have been untiring in their efforts to boost the chapter and make it one of the strongest in the county. The present membership totals three hundred and four active members. The present officers are: J. Byron Cook, worshipful master; Arthur B.

Page  319 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 319 Foss, senior warden; Fred A. Rogers, junior warden; W. A. Wilder, treasurer; L. B. Moore, secretary; James Langston. senior deacon; Edney Webster, junior deacon; Fred Clancey, tyler; C. M. Wise, marshal; H. J. Leonard, chaplain. LAKE ODESSA LODGE NO. 395. Lake Odessa Lodge No. 305, Free and Accepted Masons, was organized on December I9, I888, with the following charter members: William S. Hart, Robert C. Blair, Adnah I.. Jones, Wallace Lovewell, Martin Cox, George Prichard, Robert Musgrove and Milton J. Jacques. Of the eight charter members who were instrumental in the organization of the lodge all are active members at the present except Milton J. Jacques who is deceased. This lodge has been very active and the members have always striven to increase the work of the lodge. The present membership totals one hundred and eleven. The present officers are: Ralph WV. Corey, worshipful master; Jay Merrill, senior warden; Gottlieb Kussinaul, junior warden; Howard C. Lawrence, senior deacon; Robert Shaw, junior deacon; Samuel Velte, treasurer; Thomas Johnson, secretary; Hugh J. Potts, tyler. PEWAMO LODGE NO. 405. Pewamo Lodge No. 405, Free and Accepted Masons, was organized on June I, 1892, with the following charter members: M. A. Britton, Frederick Dunn, Sr., Emerson Vance, James Tosh, James Ruel, Fremont Hathaway, Charles Somers, Joseph Packer, John Pennington, Sr., E. D. Hammond, A. W. Sherwood, Thomas H. Dewey, William Triphagen, William Warfield and David Strahan. This lodge now has a membership of sixtynine and is very active. The present officers are: Arthur Stow, worshipful master; Harry Knowlton, senior warden; William Bissell, junior warden; Andrew Vance, senior deacon; Ney Spaulding, junior deacon; George Amsden, treasurer; Ora J. Blackmer, secretary; William Blackmer, senior steward; Nicholas Blowwiekel, junior steward; D. W. Bissell, tyler. CLARKSVILLE LODGE NO. 451. Clarksville Lodge No. 45I, Free and Accepted Masons, was organized on April I6, I908, with the following charter members: Jesse Rogers, Eustace Church, Major T. Lamont, Harry Simpkins, William Gibbons,

Page  320 320 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Chauncey McCormic, John Kloosterman, Leroy Scoville, Robert Goodfellow, MIarsden Bishop, Ferman Hudson, Roderick Kenerdy, William Shanks and David Dickson. This lodge has a membership at present of sixty-three. It is one of the recent lodges in the county but has had a very active existence. The present officers are: M. T. Lamont, worshipful master; Bert Hanson, senior warden; M. A. Harvey, junior warden; Eustace Church, treasurer; Clarence Marvin, secretary; J. A. Warner, senior deacon; James Miller, junior deacon; Glen Scoville, senior steward; Albert C. Renkes, junior steward; William Gibbons, tyler. ORDER OF THE EASTERN STAR. Queen Esther Chapter No. 35, Order of the Eastern Star, was organized in Ionia on March 17, I885. The charter members were: Mr. and Mrs. Nelson Burt. Mr. and Mrs. Henry G. Wright, Mr. and Mrs. John Flater, Mr. and Mrs. David Aelick, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Bailey, Sr., Mr. and Mrs. Henry Bailey, Jr., Mrs. Chauncey Waterbury, Wesley Worden, Mr. and Mrs. A. Ryerson, Mrs. John Parker, Amelia Bailey, Mrs. Shirts, Palmer Taylor, Minnie Taylor, Grace Taylor and Mr. Dimmick. The present officers of this chapter, which has a membership of two hundred and twenty, are: Mrs. Emma Wilson, worshipful matron; Warner K. McSween, worshipful patron; Mrs. Georgia Reasoner, assistant matron; Mrs. Cora Perham, secretary; Mrs. Eliza Storey, treasurer. INDEPENDENT ORDER OF ODD FELIOWS. Saranac Lodge No. I68, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was organized on August 17, I871, in the Anderson building and chartered in March, 1872. The charter members were: James T. Brown, J. H. Russell, Henry Trace, F. M. McDonald, A. R. Hicks and Dennis Donovan. Since the organization the following were elected to the office of the noble grand: James T. Brown, J. H. Russell, Dennis Donovan, William M. Dreskell, William L. Strickland, Harvey W. Dunn, H. A. O'Conner, J. B. Chase, Elisha Prosser, George B. Wilson, G. W. Lee, H. M. Cronkite, D. B. Kelley, W. S. Allen and Charles Numa. The officers of Saranac lodge for the present year are: James Fisher, noble grand; Frank Fisher, vice-grand; Gilbert Curtis, recording secretary; Fred Dillenbeck, financial secretary; Audrey Bronson, treasurer. This organization has a nice lodge building which is located at the corner of

Page  321 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 321 Center and Church streets. The present membership numbers one hundred and thirty. One charter member is still living and active. IONIA LODGE NO. I75. lonia Lodge No. 175, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was instituted on November 22, 1871, by Grand Master Isaac Slides at a meeting held at Bayard's hall. The officers appointed at the organization were: T. A. Willett, noble grand; C. L. Smith, vice-grand; J. H. Horton, treasurer; W. T. Kimsey, secretary. On that occasion petitions for membership were received from J. H. Welch, A. Udell, W. H. Dunn, R. J. Humphreys, Henry Brown, A. D. levine and David M. Kerstetter. The lodge was chartered on January r8, 1872, and at that time had fifty-three members. The first few meetings were held in the Good Templars hall but early in December a lease was made for the Smith hall where the lodge met each week for more than thirty-eight years. This lodge has a record of social relief which can hardly be excelled by any lodge. It has also proven itself in the care of sick and sorrowing brothers. The lodge owns at present a lot on the corner of Main and Dexter streets where it is their intention of locating their hall in the near future. The present membership numbers three hundred and forty-one. The present officers are: Lloyd Wieres, noble grand; D. O. McVeigh, vice-grand; 0. C. Wright, secretary; F. D. Curtis, treasurer; E. E. Cutler, financial secretary; H. A. Jennings, Fred Higbee and John Utess, trustees. RELIEF ENCAMPMENT NO. 53. Relief Encampment No. 53, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was instituted at Ionia on February 9, I872, and chartered on February 19, I873. The charter members were: Alfred Udell, Allen B. Morse, H. C. Sessions, James H. Horton, Charles H. Axtell, Joseph Rounds, James Brown, B. McCarthy, J. I-. Welch, O. W. Babcock, W. T. Kinsey, William W. Hall, William M. Driskell, Frederick Hall, C. L. Smith, William T. Anaba, D. M. Kerstetter, William W. Mitchael, E. P. Worden and Thomas A. Willett. Regular assemblies were held in Smith's hall. The present membership numbers seventy-five. The present officers are: Harry Morgan, chief patriarch; Earl Wright, high priest; Glen Barker, senior warden; Oden Wood, junior warden; Harry Jennings, scribe; Willianm Huggins, treasurer. (21)

Page  322 322 IONJA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. PORTLAND LODGE NO. I99. Portland Lodge No. I99, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was organized on October 31. 1872. There were just five charter members: J. Bushong, Iawrence Sandborn, Philetus Jenkins, John W. Richmond and James M. Barnard. This lodge has experienced a great amount of prosperity and has grown steadily since the installation. It has at present a membership of one hundred and forty-three with equipment and paraphernalia valued at $I,ooo. The present officers are: John Barton, noble grand; Glenn Ellis, vicegrand; Harley Rogers, recording secretary; Dan Watson, financial secretary; Floyd Todd, treasurer; Dale Pierson, right supporter of noble grand; George Stiffer, left supporter of noble grand; Arthur Williams, right supporter of vice-grand; James Dickson, left supporter of vice-grand; H. W. Holcombe, chaplain. PORTLAND ENCAMPMENT NO. 105. Portland Encampment No. I05, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was organized on January 4, I910, with the following charter members: Miles Whitney, HI. W. Holcombe, Charles Hogmire, Clyde Moore, Lon Ellis and others. At present there are forty-three members enrolled under the banners of the encampment. The present officers are: Frank E. Rema!ia, chief patriarch; Howard Lowery, high priest; John Barton, senior warden; Cheater Hair, junior warden; Arthur Williams, scribe; C. E. Ward. treasurer. The encampment is in a flourishing condition. LAKE ODESSA LODGE NO. 429. Lake Odessa Lodge No. 429, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was organized on May 17, I892, with nine charter members. This lodge has had an exceptionally strong support from the citizens of Lake Odessa and now ranks as one of the strongest lodges in this part of the county. The membership at present totals one hundred and sixty-six. SILK CITY IODGE NO. 447. Silk City Lodge No. 447, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was instituted in Belding on January 15, 1895. This lodge has been very active

Page  323 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 323 since its organization and has a membership at present of one hundred and fifty-eight. Although one of the later lodges organized in Ionia county it has experienced no reverses and at present owns property valued at $I,01O. The present officers are: Harvey Curry, noble grand; Serigt Collier, vicegrand; Mark Leetch, secretary; 7W. H. Price, treasurer. ARCADIAN ENCAMPMENT NO. 157. Arcadian Encampment No. 157, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was organized in Belding on July 26, I906, with the following charter meml)ers: D. F. Moon, Charles Knappe, R. Swift, A. E. Tuinstra, George Cottrell, F. Glosser and W. H. Price. The present membership of this encampment numbers forty-five. The. present officers are: John Scott, chief patriarch; E. 0. Hildebrand, high priest; George Vickery, senior warden; Pearl Jenks, junior warden; V. H. Price, scribe; W. J. Black, treasurer. PALO LO)GE NO. 341. Palo Lodge No. 341 Independent Order of Odd Fellows was organized at Palo, November I1, I915, with thirty-eight charter members as follow.: S. P. Minier, C. A. Knapp, William Easterly, Marvin Greenwalt, H. D. Pew, John Scott, G. L. Dickerson, R. H. VanVleck, C. F. Filder, N. Eitelbuss, Ray North, Clark Reimer, A. D. Hyde, William A. Conner, H. R. Compton, W\illard Knaggs, L. J. Hargrave, Frank VanVleck, William H. Wilder, G. C. Mason, Harry Compton, H. F. Kellogg, Edward S. Buckley, L. R. VanVleck, B. D. McKimball, W. H. Carpenter, C. Wilder, C. B. Gauss, J. L. Briggs, C. B. Johnson, C. A. Graham, A. L. Reeder, William Howe, C. R. Evans. E. Reimer, D. J. Heath, H. L. Allen and Herbert Edwards. The first officers of the lodge were as follow: Noble grand, S. P. Minier; vice-grand, C. A. Knapp; recording secretary, William Easterly; financial secretary, Marvin Greenwalt; treasurer, H. D. Pew; and John Scott, district deputy. The present officers of the lodge are the same as the original officers. The lodge owns regalia valued at $300. The Palo lodge was instituted by R. E. Newville, grand master; Myles F. Gray, past grand master, acting as grand secretary; Fred Cutler, Jr., grand treasurer; Jerome Walker, as deputy grand master; Henry Witzel as grand marshal; Charles Taylor, of Bannister, as grand guardian, and G. E. Chadwick, of Mt. Pleasant, as grand warden.

Page  324 324 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. DAUGHTERS OF REBEKAH. Refuge Lodge No. 285, Daughter of Rebekah, was installed at Lake Odessa on June I8, i896, with the following charter members: Ella Kart, Clara Spires, Catherine Blough, Sarah Darby and Charles Kart. The membership at present numbers one hundred and twenty, which in itself shows the strength of this lodge. The present officers are: Nellie Urtel, noble grand; Frances Henderleider, vice-grand; Cora DeMaranville, recording secretary; Nellie Culp, financial secretary; Alice Gilliland, treasurer; Edna: Blakely, past grand. WHITE ROSE LODGE NO. 327. White Rose Lodge No. 327, Daughters of Rebekah, was organized at Clarksville, Michigan, January 5, I899. The charter members were: Celestia Prosser, Isabella Heaven, Carrie Marvin. Jennie Hazen, Helina Brandle, Edith Decker, Alta Lenhard, Bessie Todd, Alta French, Mary Haskins, Selina Schroch, Edna Cool, Hyla Clark, Ida Ackerson, Carlie Ackerson and Susanna Gibbons. This lodge was re-instated in February 8, I912, after a short period of inactivity. The lodge is in a flourishing condition at the present time with a membership of seventy-six. The present officers are: Tina Oliver, noble grand; Ethel Renkes, vice-grand; Lottie Jackson, secretary, and Nellie Horner. treasurer. SARANAC LODGE NO. I10. Saranac Lodge No. i io, Daughters of Rebekah, was organized on October 15, 1903, with the following charter members: Letitia Tompson, Emma Reynolds, Myrtle Renwick, Clarissa Wallington and Julia Lee. In the short space of twelve years this lodge has grown from a chapter of five to that of ninety-three at the present time. The present officers are: Nettie Paul, noble grand; Lucy Dawson, vice-grand; Susie Raymond, secretary; Julia Lee, treasurer, and Alwilda Race, financial secretary. KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS. Lucullus L[odge No. 76, Knights of Pythias, of Ionia, was organized on January 27, 1887. For many years this lodge was recognized as one of the very best and most successful Pythian lodges in the state, having in its earlier years furnished the grand lodge with two grand chancellors, Fred A{. Doug

Page  325 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 325 lass and W. D. Clizbe. The personnel of the lodge is of the very highest character and for many years it has been recognized as one of the most prominent social factors in the life of Ionia. During the past year this well-known lodge has taken on new life and is now initiating scores of the best men in the city. Lucullus lodge again has taken its place in the front rank of M-ichigan's Pythian lodges. Of the thirty-five charter members, only three, Robert Baerd. Fred Cutler, Jr., and Judge F. D. M. Davis, remain. The present membership numbers ninety, with sufficient applications now on hand to exceed one hundred. Furniture and regalia owned by the lodge is valued at $500. Hermione Temple No. 4. Pythian Sisters, is an auxiliary of Lucullus lodge. A uniform ranks company is now in process of formation. The present officers of TLucullus ILodge No. 76, Knights of Pythias, are as follow: Chancellor commander, Fred Cutler, Jr.; vicechancellor, Frank Giddings; prelate. S. A. Mulhauser; keeper of the records and seal, Fred J. Whitney; master of the exchequer, Dan J. Campau; master of work, Herbert Hall; master of arms, Clarence Eddy; installing officer, Bert Lampkin; representative to the grand lodge, Fred Cutler, Jr.; trustees, James I. \Williston, P. T. Williams and H. E. Spencer. INDEPENDENT ORDER OF FORESTERS. Court Cass No. 689, Independent Order of Foresters, was organized at Ionia on November 25, I890. There were thirty-one charter members of this order, as follow: Doctor Logan, E. T. Yeomans, J. H. Kidd, J. T. Webber, W. O. Webster, E. R. Bailey, R. H. Brown, E. D. Vorhees, F. E. Ward, H. F. Voelker, E. T. Montgomery, R. L. Page, J. A. Latta, T. A. Carton, G. A. Younghans, W. B. Heath, O. S. Cass, Bert Lampkin, W. E. Kelsey, James Vesper, T. R. Allen. F. D. M. Davis, F. M. Drake, W. M. Phelps, G. H. Muner, C. W. Parsons, L. P. Brock, R. D. Sessions, A. E. Tower, D. G. Lindsey and F. C. Thompson. The activity of this lodge is not as great as it was in past years and the membership only totals eleven active members at present. The present officers are: E. T. Yeomans, chief ranger; James Vesper, vice-ranger; H. F. Voelker, recording secretary; W. B. Heath, financial secretary and treasurer. EQUITABLE FRATERNAL UNION. The Equitable Fraternal Union was organized in Ionia in I904. There were twenty charter members of this order and although it has not had a

Page  326 326 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. great growth it has prospered. The membership has increased steadily since the organization and now has a total of fifty-two. The present officers are: D. Z. Brook, president; WV. L. Winchell, secretary, and A. Z. Burnett, treasurer. The Equitable Fraternal Union No. 304, of Belding, was organized on December 31, I903, with thirty charter members. This chapter was installed only a short time before the one at Ionia and has received a greater support than the latter named chapter. The lodge at Belding has a total membership at present of one hundred and fifty. The officers for the present year are: Percy Hanks, president; Clara Barlow, vice-president; Ernest Grinnell, secretary; Ralph Wheeler, treasurer; Alice Grinnell, advisor; Alma Huntley, warden; Harry Wilson, inner guard; Dr. E. W. Little, Edward Belding and Charles Howard, trustees. These are the only chapters of this order in Ionia county. LOYAL ORDER OF MOOSE. Ionia Lodge No. 998, Loyal Order of Moose, was organized in May, I9I2, with seventy charter members. The first officers of this lodge were: Anthony Scully, dictator; C. A. Snyder, past dictator; Clarence Koerer, vicedictator; Herbert Ross, prelate; Harry Callow, treasurer; M. G. Bradley, secretary; Fred Howard, sergeant-at-arms; Harry Bull, inner guard; Thomas Duffy, outer guard; Donald M. Steele, Guy Cone and Frank R. Laurie, trustees. The officers of this lodge secured accommodations at I I7-12I South Second street to be used for their place of meeting and also fitted up the club rooms with furnishings valued at $2,000. Although this lodge has only been established a little over three years, it has grown' to be the largest chapter of any lodge in Ionia county, with a membership of seven hundred. A remarkable fact is that it is still growing and the present officers are striving to reach a total of one thousand members. More than forty of Ionia's business and professional men are numbered among the members of this lodge. It is also the desire of the members to erect a club house and lodge rooms of their own where the business, professional and laboring man may meet to their mutual benefit. Thi s lodge has always been true to its aim of paying sick and accident benefits and extending help and relief where needed. The benefits paid to members since the organization of this lodge have amounted to over $5,Ioo. The cash on hand at the present time amounts to over $3,000. The present officers are: Anthony Scully, past dictator;

Page  327 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 327 R. A. Redemsky, dictator; C. J. Eckmeter. vice-dictator; Herman Schlosser, treasurer; M. XV. Roche, prelate; Samuel Bosch, sergeant-at-arms; Henry Wells, inside guard; Charles Boughey, outer guard; A. M. Burnett, Edmund Marshall and R. M. Cheney, trustees. Anthony Scully is deputy supreme dictator. ANCIENT ORDER OF GLEANERS. The Ancient Order of Gleaners was organized in September, I894; receiving its charter from the state of Michigan one month later. The founder of the order was Grant H. Slocum, the present supreme secretary. Of the original incorporators five took an active interest in the work of building the organization: Grant H. Slocum, John M. Ealy, Joseph J. England, B. F. Ayres and Sherman F. Chase. Of the original incorporators all are still members of the supreme arbor with the exception of B. F. Ayres, who was called by death in I904. The first six hundred members of the organization required by the laws of the state of Michigan were secured among the farmers residing in the townships adjacent to Caro, Michigan, the birthplace of the order. The funds for forming the organization were furnished by Messrs. Slocum, Ealy, England and Chase, and amounted to more than $1,200. This anlount was carried on a note by these gentlemen for seven years and finally donated to the organization, as it was found that the money could not be returned without handicapping the work of the organization. The Gleaner organization has been a leader along co-operative lines and it is generally considered to have come nearer solving the marketing problems than has any other organization. The Gleaner Clearing House Association was established in the spring of i907 and has since been doing business. During the year 19T5 more than $500,000 worth of farm products was handled through the association direct from the members of the order. The Gleaner Clearing House Association is not in any way connected with the Ancient Order of Gleaners with the exception that only members of the Gleaner organization can hold stock in the association. Not one dollar owned by the Gleaner organization has ever been or can ever be, used in conducting the affairs of the Gleaner Clearing House Association. Plans are already under way for bringing co-operation closer home to the individual arbors and members. Along educational and social lines the Gleaner organization has been among the leaders and through the federation of the local arbors in county and state organizations the order is in a position to wield a great influence in the interest of the agriculturist.

Page  328 328 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. The first arbor organized in Ionia county was the Plains Arbor No. 242. This is located in North Plains township, one-fourth mile west of the famous N. B. Hayes farm and orchard c;ad three miles north of Muir. It was organized on September 2, 1897, with charter members and officers as follow: H. M. Brown, chief gleaner; John DeGarmo, vice-chief gleaner; A. M. Knapp, secretary and treasurer; C. F. Kirby, chaplain; L. E. Mook, conductor; Floy Brown, conductress; Clarence Cobb, inner guard; William Johnson, outer guard. This lodge has flourished since its institution and at the present time its membership has reached over one hundred and sixty-five. This lodge not only enjoys the distinction of being the pioneer arbor of the county but it furnished the first all-Gleaner orchestra of seven pieces which furnished the music for the National Gleaner Convention held in Toledo, in 1914. The present officers of Plains arbor are: M. C. Strachan, chief gleaner; Emma Charles, vice-chief gleaner; Asenath Chase, chaplain; Ernest F. Chase, secretary and treasurer; Charles Townsend, conductor; Ida Townsend, conductress; J. AM. Chase, lecturer; Ford Naight, inner guard, and Herbert Young, outer guard. The other arbors of Ionia county are as follow: West Sebewa arbor, in Sebewa township, 14 members; Portland arbor. in Danby township, 54 members, organized on January 21, I909; Palo arbor, in Ronald township, Io9 members, organized on February I, I900; Woodard Lake arbor, in Ronald township, 25 members, organized on June 28, 1904; Leader arbor, in Orleans township, 51 members, organized on March 6, 19oo; Orleans arbor, in Orleans township, 46 members; Shafter arbor, in Otisco township, 70 members, organized on ufily 27, I899; Olympia arbor, in Otisco township, 77 members, organized on March I8, 1899; Keene arbor, in Keene township, 53 hmembers, organized on September 23, 1898; Boston arbor, in Boston township, 9 members; Live arbor, in Easton township, 128 members, organized on March 3I, 1899; Collins arbor, in Portland township, 21 mnembers, organized on April T8, 19I3; Orange arbor, in Orange township, 89 members, organized on July 1, T899; Berlin arbor, in Orange township, 77 members, organized on November 8, 1901. KNIGHTS AND LADIES OF SECURITY. The Knights and Ladies of Security was first organized in this county in I899, when Ionia Council No. 660 was instituted. This organization has had a very rapid growth and at present numbers one hundred and twelve

Page  329 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 329 among its active members. The present officers are: Loyd Wieiss, president; Mrs. Dollie Randall, first vice-president; Mrs. Gertrude Avery, second vice-president; Mrs. Ida Young, secretary; Mrs. Jenny Avery, financier; Mrs. Mae Aispaugh, chaplain; Mrs. Anna Clark, conductor; Mrs. Anna Wood, warden; Fred Cramer, sentinel. DAUGH rERS OF THlE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. The Stevens Thomson Mlason Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, was organized in lonia on February 13, I909. The charter nembers were as follow: Mrs. Eva M. Barnes, Mrs. Mary L. Canfield, Mrs. Marion Miorse Davis, Mrs. Marcoa A. Hamilton, Mary J. Smith, Carrie S. Loomis, Mrs. Huey C. Morse Yates, Evangeline MacKinnon, Mrs. Ona M. Hocke, Mlrs. Iouise Morrison Waterbury, Susan T. Canfield, Elizabeth M. Benedict, Cornelia A. Benedict, Jessie H. Benedict, Maryeth L. Barnes, Jennie L. Wells, Oliva Yeomans Just, Equna Arnold, Mary O. Arnold, Marion Ethel Arnold, Lulu C. Comey, Grace C. Yate, Harriet McMullen, Mary Warner, Kate Benedict, Ferneuce Yeomans, Marion Yeomans, Margaret Steer, Lucy Babcock. The present membership, with the name of ancestor and ancestor's native state, is given below: Name Name Ancestor's of Member of Ancestor Native State Mrs. Frank Anderson (Louise W.) --— John Handy ___- Pennsylvania Miss Marion E. Arnold -------— j ----Job Arnold _ _ ----Rhode Island Miss Helen Baerd -----------------— Uriah Roundy — ______Vermont Mrs. W. L. Barnes (Eva M. W.) ----— Taverner Beale -----— Virginia Mrs. H. B. Barnes (Marietta L.) —___J-ob Arnold _ --- —Rhode Island Miss Lucy Babcock -----------------— George Babcock — __Connecticut Mrs. B. L. Berry (Lulu C.)_ --- —-----— Gideon Cornell -----— Vermont Mrs. Gordon Benedict (Carrie) _ --- —-— Luther Trowbridge Massachusetts Miss Elizabeth Benedict _ --- —----— John Handy — ____Pennsylvania Miss Cornelia Benedict --------------— John Handy ___ --- Pennsylvania Miss Kate Benedict -----------------— Samuel Gordon ------— Ireland Miss Jessie Benedict -----------------— John Handy ----— Pennsylvania Mrs. O. A. IBierce (Carrie H.) -------— Uriah Roundy _ --- —-Vermont Mrs. A. G. Bedford (Grace L.) -______John Goffe --— New Hampshire Mrs. J. H. Canfield (Mary L.) ----- John Handy ---— _Pennsylvania

Page  330 330 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Name Name Ancestor's of Member of Ancestor Native State Miss Sue Canfield -------— ________John Handy ---— _Pennsylvania Mrs. H. R. Chamberlain (Mary Abbey)__Simeon North ---— Connecticut Miss Lu Coney ___ __ --- —----— __ — Isaac Xran Vorheis Mrs. E. M. Davis (Marion M.) —_____ John Morse _ ---— Connecticut Miss Elva R. Davis -----------------— Isaac Strong ______ — -Vermont Miss Marian E. Daniells _ --- —-------— Nathaniel Daniels_ Massachusetts Miss Mary Elnily Fish --------------— Asa Gurney __ ---Massachusetts Mrs. J. L. Flater (Wealthy Ann) ---- Conradt Wilhelmer___New York Miss Inez A. Francisco ________-__ _Lamberton Cooper Massachusetts Mrs. J. J. Green (Genevra W.) ________William Armstrong -— _Ireland Mrs. J. H. Hamilton (Marcia W.) ---____-George Palmer ---— Connecticut Miss Ella- Hutchins --------— ___ Uriah Roundv — _____Vermont Miss Jessie M. Hutchins ------------ Uriah Roundy -----— Vermont Miss Winifred Hearsey — __________ Gideon Cornell -----— Vermont Miss Mary B. Jefferds --------------— Jonathan Brown -_Massachusetts Mrs. W. S. Lister (Sarah S.) —_______ Benjamin Whitney __Connecticut Mrs. Wm. Laurie (Daisy C.) --- —-_ Gideon Cornell -.__ ---- Vermont Mrs. Arthur Loomis (Carrie) --— _____-Samuel Dexter ---— Connecticut Mrs. A. R. Locke (Ona M.) --- _____- John Morse -----— Connecticut Miss Evangeline McKinnon ___ —______Taverner Beale _ --- —— Virginia Miss Harriet McMullen ------— _J.Tob Arnold _ ---Rhode Island Mrs. Thomas McGannon (Olive K.)____- Justus Bellamy __ ---Connecticut Mrs. Levi Marshall (Addie) ----— _Asa Heald -— ~ Massachusetts Mrs. A. T. Montgomery (Almerene) _ —Ichahod Brown ---— Connecticut Mrs. J. H. Mitchell (Jessie I.) ______-Peter Anspach ___ ---- Germany Mrs. Jennie L. Nelles ____- _ _____ --- —-- ob Arnold ____ — Rhode Island Mrs. Mary A. Prince ________..._ - Job Arnold __-___Rhode Island Mrs. W. T. Remington (Jane R.) ----— Lemuel Hubbell --— Connecticut Miss Margaret Steere -----—.________.Jonah Steere ___ —Rhode Island Miss Marjorie Streeter -------- — J____onah Steere ____-Rhode Island MTrs. K. R. Smith (Mary J.) —_______- George Palmer _ ---Connecticut Mrs. K. R. Smith, Jr. (Alice Geer) — __ Jonathan Cressy -__-Connecticut Mrs. H. C. Taggart (Nora M.) _ ---_____ David Morse __ — Connecticut Mrs. Frank Taylor (Carrie C.) --— __Severinus Koch __ —New York MArs. Benjamin Vosper (Lucia) — ______hilip Kinig -____New York Mrs. Harriet N. Willett ---— __ ____ Philip Gilman _ ---Pennsylvania Mrs. George P. Winchell (Martha) — _ -Henry Norton ---— Connecticut

Page  331 IONIA COUNTY, MICIIGAN. 331 Name Name Ancestor's of Member of Ancestor Native State Mrs. L. W. Yates (Grace C.)I --- —-saac Van Vorheis Mrs. G. Lee Yates (Lucy M.) -----— _John Morse — _ ---_Connecticut Miss Margery Yeomans ------— ___- --- Job Arnold ----— Rhode Island Mrs. E. T. Yeomans (Abigail N.)-__ ----Richard Blake ---— Connecticut The present officers are: Regent, A. T. Montgomery, vice-regent, Mrs. Florence McGannon, recording secretary, Mrs. H. R. Chamberlain; corresponding secretary, Kate Benedict; treasurer, Mrs. Levi Marshall; registrar, Mrs. G. Lee Gates; chaplain, Mrs. J. H. Flater; first director, Mrs. J. H. Hamilton; second director, Marjorie Streeter; third director, Mrs. A. R. Locke. GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC. William H. Borden Post No. 211, Grand Army of the Republic, was organized in the city of Ionia and the charter was issued on December 26, 1883. The quarters of this post are located on the second floor of 348 West Main street, where they have been since the organization. It is a lamentable fact that the charter of this post has so faded that the names of the charter members are undecipherable. The membership totals fiftytwo of those loyal veterans who fought so nobly in the Civil War. The present officers of the post are: W. E. Normington, commander; James H. Laden, senior vice-commander; Asa Randall, junior vice-commander; I. Buck, chaplain; J. L. Fowle, quartermaster; J. FI. Laden, patriotic instructor; W. A. Woods, adjutant; L. G. Barnard, quartermaster sergeant; E. S. Shattuck, officer of the day; A. Willard, officer of the guard. M. W. DRESSER POST NO. 100. At a meeting held in the Masonic hall in the village of Lyons on January II, I883, a post of the Grand Army of the Republic was organized. General B. R. Pierce, department. commander of Michigan, assisted by Captain Rove, of Company B, Second Regiment, Michigan State Militia, had charge of the organization and forty-eight soldiers responded to the roll call and were mustered into the ranks of this post. It was moved and carried at this initial meeting that the name of the post be M. W. Dresser. The following officers were then duly elected and served as the first officers of the post: D. C. Crawford, commander; John R. Dougherty, senior vice

Page  332 332 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. commander; P. C. Cutler, junior vice-commander; F. T. Gleason, quartermaster; D. C. Spaulding, sergeant; J. O. Probasco, officer of the day; Henry Hitchcock, officer of the guard; J. S. Preston, chaplain; A. E. Barr was appointed by the commander as adjutant; John Ashley was appointed sergeant-major by. the adjutant, and Thomas Ranger was appointed quartermaster sergeant by the quartermaster. A committee was then appointed to make arrangements for a hall in which to hold the meetings of the post and H. Hitchcock, D. C. Spaulding and J. R. Dougherty composed this committee. A motion was made and carried that the second meeting of the post should be held in the Masonic hall on the fourth Wednesday in January, 1883. There being no further business the post was closed in due form and the initial meeting was brought to a close. This post flourished and it is safe to say that at one time had the largest membership of any post in the county. At the greatest prosperity this post numbered one hundred and fifty-four members, but death and pecuniary reasons have reduced the ranks so that at the present time it numbers only eighteen. The present officers are: C. W. Lung, post commander; Michael Couty, senior vice-commander; John Ashley, junior vice-commander; B. H. Stevens, chaplain; F. T. Gleason, quartermaster; William Croel, officer of the day; John A. Dalzell, officer of the guard; Ransom Howe, sergeant; A. S. Brunnell, adjutant; Simon Newhouse, sergeant major; J. O. Probasco, quartermaster sergeant. DAN S. ROOT POST NO. 126. Dan S. Root Post No. 126, Grand Army of the Republic, was organized at Belding on April I4, I883, with the following charter members: Z. W. Gooding, E. S. Moulton, Clark W. Wakeman, Hawley M. Cotton, Jasper S. Gage, Andrew Curtis, John W. Cooper, S. Z. Dunkca, Milton J. Holcomb, Wilbur H. Lacke, Fred Lounds, Frank R. Chase, W. R. Olds, George A. Hanks, Michael Zahn,.George B. Fish, A. H. Moore, Oscar A. Day and Charles Brown. Frank R. Chase was the first commander. The present officers of the post are: Frank R. Chase, commander; Jeff C. Godfrey, senior vice-commander; Matthew Kahn, junior vice-commander; George A. Hanks, surgeon; Edgar L. Bernz, quartermaster; I-T. A. \Valdron, chaplain; John W. Cooper, officer of the day; Eli Hanks, officer of the guard; M. I. Howe, patriotic instructor; W. R. Olds, adjutant; B.

Page  333 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 333 F. Bowen, sergeant-major and quartermaster sergeant. The post now has real and personal property worth $1,o6o0. IIIAT P. CLARK POST NO. 153. Hiat P. Clark Post No. 153, Grand Army of the Republic, was organized on January 26, 1885, at Saranac. There were twenty-one charter members, as follow: E. P. Gifford, B. A. Cotton, G. B. Wilson, William Remdick, H. A. Hatan, W. R. Sayles, W. E. Wandruff, N. T. Hubbell, R. E. Arthur, E. Peller, H. Case, A. D. McConnell, R. S. Hines, S. Hines, G. Phillips, John Morehouse, G. E. Wherlock, F. T. Haskins, Devila Bishop, Isaac Chatfield and H. B. Savensteve. Of whom the following are now living: G. B. Wilson, W. R. Sayles, N. T. Hubbell, R. S. Hines, F. T. Haskins, Isaac Chatfield and H. B. Savensteve. The roll-call officers for the first year were as follow: Commander, E. P. Gifford; senior, vice-commander, B. A. Cotton; junior vice-commander, G. B. Wilson; surgeon, WV. E. Woodruff; officer of the day, William Rimillick; officer of the guard, W. R. Sayles; chaplain, H. A. Harlen; instructor, C. G. Hubbell; adjutant, R. E. Arthur; sergeant major, A. E. Wheelack; quartermaster sergeant, F. P. Haskins. Names of comrades since the organization of the post: James Pernlick, E. H. Warden, W. M. Cant, J. A. Quant, B. E. Hess, H. Gluster, J. Woodruff, John Greaves, A. Pirham, J. C. King, William Fitzleans, F. P. Thompson, G. W. Chipman, Alex Sprague, E. Paunsand, A. Wellman, Z. Hull, J. Converse, K. R. Olmstead, C. H. Phillips, G. A. Paltz, E. Hull, P. Taylor, S. W. H. Morrison, G. Leary, R. Vasper, J. Patrick, S. W. Smith, H. H. Power, A. F. Summer, M. Fitzgibbons, C. Smith, C. Herrington, J. Dunberry, J. Faulks, W. 0. Sible, S. Sible, A. Youngs, E. M. Guernsey, J. Green, D. G. Shummey, J. Taylor, J. Steele, C. E. Mason, J. P. Anderson, J. Waller, S. Hart, J. T. Livermore, A. Dunn, P. Mullen, W. Z. Bull, J. A. Lacher, P. Abbott, F. J. Spencer, J. H. Mills, A. J. Raymer, D. Walen, O. H. Brunder, J. Buxton, J. Leish, J. T. Canright, G. W. Leart, A. C. Cruff, F. E. Hart, W. Hinderliter, M. Tanner, C. C. Radis, A. A. Walter, VT. C. Watkins, G. Houseman, Peter Oversan, E. Walkins, W. H. Davenport, W. Gates, J. A. Weynant, J. A. Aldrich, S. S. Wheeler, G. Dinsmore, J. M. Diber, A. S. Quent, S. Hart, H. C. Crothers, S. L. Halliburker, G. Dinsmore, J.. Diber,. P. Gould, A. F. Tucker, P. W. Martin, L. E. Church, John Miller, A. Sisca, S. E. Bevier, E. Landery, W. Gibean, H. English, E. D. Sargeant, J. Bolster, J. Sines, D. K. Pruin. William Hines,

Page  334 334 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. S. Day, S. Seer, R. Trans, M. M. Johnson, McArthur, S. L. Pickins, A. Ketchum, A. Abbitt, A. W. Knee, P. Pinkey, H. C. Meyvers, C. W. Hall, E. Lewis, Percy Leavey, John J. Capple, William Case and S. S. Linamore. The officers at the present time are as follow: Commander, James Reindicke; senior vice-commander, S. E. Pickens; junior vice-commander, T. XV. Wilson; quartermaster, N. P. Hubbell; officer of the day, C. T. Tanner; officer of the guard, C. G. Lawrey; chaplain, S. R. Curtis; patriotic instructor, A. F. Hart; adjutant, C. H. Brudes; quartermaster-sergeant, M. Lawrey. JOHN MEGARRAH POST NO. 132. John Megarrah Post No. 132. Grand Army of the Republic, of Portland, was organized on April 24, 1883, with Jonas Ackley, Milton Sawyer, Joseph Warren, Franklin Roe. J. C. Clark, Henry Rinebolt, Henry Rumball, \Villiam P. Shay, \\. H. Howard, Hozial Horner, Benjamin Balderson, Lorin Jenkins, Villiam Budd, Janmes Sayers, Stephen Drum, A. 0. Stone, Charles Hastings, M. E. Kenyon, James Frazee, Francis Coy, John WV. Klotz and C. W. Shelby as charter members. The post has forty-three members at the present time and( owns property valued at $98.17. It also has two auxiliary bodies, the Woman's Relief Corps and the Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic. The present officers of the post are as follow: John XV. Klotz, commander; Henry Losey, senior vice-commander; George Friend, junior vicecommander; H. W. Holcombe, adjutant; Jason D. Woodbury, quartermaster; Seth Munger, surgeon; W. G. Miner, chaplain; John Van Horn, officer of the dav; Emory C. Fox, patriotic instructor; Samuel S. Sleight, outer guard; Vinson Taylor, quartermaster-sergeant. John Megarrah post meets on the first and third Saturdays of each month at Blanchard's hall. WOMAN S RELIEF CORPS. Dan S. Root Woman's Relief Corps No. 175, auxiliary to Dan S. Root Post No. 126, of Belding, was organized on April 22, 1889. The following are the charter members and first officers: Betsy Filkins, president; Harriet L. Laske, secretary; F. L. Berry, treasurer; Lizzie Milland, conductor; Martha M. Glooding, Hattie E. Chase, Eva Bowen, Emerette Bradish, Ella M. Granger, Gertrude E. Olds, Martha Skellengen, Wate A. Kohn, Laura Autliff and Sarah Slayton. The present officers are: Ettie A. Chase, president; Zada Case, senior

Page  335 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 335 vice-president; Elvira \Waldron, junior vice-president; Mary E. H. Coville, secretary; May Little, treasurer; Leona Howe, chaplain; MVary Skellenger, conductor; Latecia Currie, guard; Marie Johnson, patriotic instructor. M. W. DRESSER W\OMAN'S RELIEF CORPS. M. W. Dresser VWoman's Relief Corps No. 70 was instituted in Lyons, Michigan, May 20, I89T, by LTois J. Dunn, deputy junior vice-president. There were thirty-two charter members and the first officers were as follow: Ruth Lung, president; Belle Manning, senior vice-president; Ella Cook. junior vice-president; Melissa I)ougherty, secretary; Mary Marsh, treasurer; ll11a King, conductor; Myra McQuillen, assistant conductor; Lizzie Gleason, g-uard; 1Elisa Edwards, assistant guard; Addie Crittenden, chaplain. The present officers of the corps are: Marian Billings, president; Emeline Crowell, senior vice-president; T'hursa Howe, junior vice-president; Mary \elch, chaplain; Susie Lung, secretary; Mary Duhig-, treasurer; Vera Sleadman, conductor; Pearl Powell, assistant conductor; Mary Marsh, guard; Marietta Spencer, assistant guard; Grace Sage, first color bearer; Kate Smith. second color learer; Myrtle Burch, third color hearer; Jennie Earl. fourth color bearer; Mary Faxon, patriotic instructor; Lillian Grant, press co respondent; Pearl Upton, musician. DAUGTI'IERS OF VETERANS. (lara Barton I'ost No. 7, Daughters of Veterans, was organized on April 5, T915, with the following charter members and first officers: Hattie Currie, lpresident; Blanche Eckles, senior vice-president; Melissa Cobb, guide; Bessie Shepard, first color bearer; Marina Conkell, chaplain; Ada Fowler, patriotic instructor; Helen Randal, treasurer; Ellen Everhart, junior vicepresident; Dora Everhart, second color bearer; Anna Cole,, third member council; Anna Parent: Nora Wise, secretary: Ida Cobb, assistant guard; Leah McTntosh, guard; May Choate, third color bearer; Wealtha Sparks; Jennie Whitney, fourth color bearer; Minnie Gettings; Cora Greene, first member council; Hattie W\arner. The present officers are: Nora Wise, president; Ellen Everhart, senior vice-president; Leah McIntosh, junior vice-president; Mavina Conkell, chaplain: H-elen Randall, treasurer; Hattie Currie, first member. council; Anna Cole, second member council; ITattie Warner, third member council; Ada Fowler, patriotic instructor; Anna Parent, secretary; Ida Cobb, guide; Melissa Cobb, guard.

Page  336 336 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. SONS OF VETERANS. Frank R. Chase Camp No. 25, Sons of Veterans, was organized with the following charter members and first officers: Commander, Harvey H. Currie; senior vice-commander, Roy Ring; junior vice-commander, Alex Kelly; patriotic instructor, William H. Malone; camp council, A. V. Batchelor, chairman; Elmer C. Wise, E. O. Hildebrand; chaplain, Leo Foreman; color bearer, 0. J. Collier: guide, E. O. Hildebrand; musician, Frank H. Davis; inner guard, Bert Hough; outer guard, Ralph Johnson; treasurer, A. Merton Eaves; secretary, J. M. Langston. The present officers are: Commander, William H. Malone; senior vicecommander, S. A. Collier; junior vice-commaiider, Vern Davis; patriotic instructor. Roy Ring; camp council, Elmer C. Wise, Clyde Cooper, 0. J. Collier; chaplain, Elmer C. Wise; color bearer, Charles R. Case; guide, Ralph Johnson; musician, Frank H. Davis; inner guard, Bert Hough; outer guard, John Mehny; treasurer, A. Merton Eaves; secretary, Frank E. Collier. 6

Page  337 CHAPTER XXV. EDUCATION, SCHOOLS AND TEACHERS. The educational chapter of lonia county deals with one of the most important factors in the development of this county. The forefathers cut the trails and made the initial steps in the settlement of the county and the citizens of the present day with good roads, advanced modes of travel and machinery, reap the benefits of their untiring efforts. All of this effort on their part has reflected itself in the present day many times, but these noble forefathers did a far greater work in providing the one-room log school house which was the foundation of the modern school system. The present schools, which are equipped with every modern convenience and include in the curriculum every subject possible to make the student broader and equip him so that he may step out in this world able to deal with the problems and questions of the day, have been built up through many years of patient labor on the foundation of the educational system which was laid in the oneroom log school house. The history of some of these early schools is here presented: BERLIN. The annual school report of Berlin township for 1848 testified that there were twenty-nine scholars in district No. 2, forty-two in No. 3, and thirty-four in No. 4. The apportionment of primary school fund was seventeen dollars. Of that amount No. I received $2.92; No. 2, $3.45; No. 3, $6.37; No. 4, $3.85. The distribution of military money gave $6.41 to No. 2; to No. 3, $6.66; to No. 4, $7.50. The number of school children in the township for I849 was as follow: District No. I, 23; No. 2, 28; No. 3, 56; No. 4, 33; total, 140. The annual report for I856 gave two hundred and eighty-four as the total number of scholars, seven as the number of districts, and $I49.04 as the amount of money divided. BOSTON. The first school in Boston township was taught in Timothy White's house in the summer of 1838 by Sarah Alden, sister to Timothy White's (22)

Page  338 338 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. wife. MArs. Becket Chapman says she went to school to Miss Alden at J. B. Tallant's ix the winter of 1838-39, but that after her father found wolf tracks following her path home he concluded that she had better not go to school any more. The scholars in that school included the Cushman children, daughters of Mrs. James M. Tallant, whose first husband was a Cushman. The first school house was built in November, 1838, on section 20. It occupied land owned by Jaines Hutchinson, then an absentee, and in it the first school was taught by Susan Ann Church, who later became Mrs. Elbridge Williams. School was held in that structure until I840, when Edson English, then a newcomer to Boston, bought the Hutchinson place, and no title to the school house site having been issued to the town, Mr. English naturally claimed possession of it. He moved his family into the school house, occupying it as his first residence in Boston. After he took possession, however, he built at his own expense, an addition, in which school and meetings were. held for some time. While it was used by the town the old log school house was also the temple wherein the people gathered for worship on the Sabbath. Methodists and Baptists met there whenever they could secure preaching. CAMPBELL. School (listrict No. T, in Campbell township, included originally sections 2, II, 14, 3, 10 and 15. On October 24, 1849, sections 9, 22 and 13 were added. On November 6, 1852, section I3 was detached and section 12 substituted. School district No. 2 was formed on March I4, 1854, of sections 19, 20, 21, 28, and the north halves of 29 and 30. On March 20, I855, No. 2 was changed to No. 3. A new No. I was organized on March 20, I855, and consisted of sections 1, I2, 13, I4, IT and 2, excepting the west half of the southeast quarter of section II. There was also added the northeast quarter of the southeast quarter and the southeast quarter of the northeast quarter of section 3. On the same day a new No. 2 was formed of sections 3, 1o, T5, 22, 4. 9, i6. and the west half of the southwest quarter of section I (except the northeast quarter of the southeast quarter of the latter) and the southeast quarter of the northeast quarter of section 3. District No. 4 was formed on May 13, i856, of sections 5, 6, 7, 8, 17, i8, the west half of section 4, the west half of the northwest quarter of section 9, the southwest quarter of section 9, the northwest quarter of section I6, the southwest quarter of the northeast quarter of section I6, and the

Page  339 IONTA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 339 south half of section I6, except the south half of the southeast quarter of said section I6. District No. 5 was formed on August 20, 1856, of the south half of section 22, and the south half of section 23, the south half of section 24, and all of sections 27, 26, 25, 24, 34, 35, 36. District No. 6. of Campbell and Odessa, was formed on May 4, I858, containing sections 24, 25, 36, of Campbell, and sections 19, 30, 31 and the west halves of sections 20, 29 and 32, in Odessa. DANBY. The first school taught in Danby township was held in a rickety board shanty on section 28, about 184I or 1842. The building was put up for a church as much as for a school, and although a pretty poor affair, did very well for religious and educational purposes until a better one could be provided. The first school teacher was Hester Ann David, daughter of Alpha David. She married David Soules and later lived in Portland. School district No. i in Danby was erected on November i, I845, out of the district formerly known as No. 7, of Portland, and was described as commencing at the north quarter post of section 29; running thence south two miles; thence east three miles to the south quarter post of section 35; thence north to the Grand river, and thence down said river to the place of beginning. District No. 7, as aforesaid, was formed on February 24, I844, and the first district meeting ordered to be held at the house of John Compton. District No. 2 was organized on June 6, I846. Its limits began at the west corner of section I9; ran thence south three miles; thence east two miles; thence north to the Grand river; thence along the Grand river to the north line of section I9; thence west to the place of beginning. District No. 3 was formed on November 3, T849, to commence at the northeast corner of the southeast quarter of section i, on the Clinton county line, and to run thence westward two miles to the northwest corner of the south quarter post of section 2; thence south to the Grand river, thence following the Grand river to the county line east, and thence north to the place of beginning. ~ In I849 the apportionment of the primary school interest fund gave to district No. i, with thirty-six scholars, $II.87; and to district No. 2, with thirteen children, $4.29. School district No. 4, was formed on September 2, I854.. The limits began at the Grand river where the section line crosses the northeast quarter of section 9, and extended east to the northeast corner of

Page  340 340 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. section IO; thence south to the east quarter post of section 15; thence west to the center of section 15; thence south to the south quarer post of section I5; thence west to the Grand river; thence along down the said river to the quarter line of section 21; thence west on the quarter line to the Grand river, and thence down said river to the place of beginning. EASTON. Thomas Chamberlain, perhaps the first school teacher in Easton township, taught in a log house at what is known as Strong's Corners. He was a small man, but a strict disciplinarian, and in the language of one who knew him, "could thrown any man of his weight in the town." His rigorous way of dealing with refractory pupils brought him into disfavor with parents who had boys of that character. Dexter Arnold, in particular, was opposed to the discipline exercised over his boys, and at his instigation a school meeting was called to pass upon charges of severity to pupils brought against Chamberlain. At the meting Arnold grew somewhat excited and charged Chamberlain with being a bull-dog, only to bite and hang on, to which Chamberlain publicly answered him: "Yes, I am; and you can't shake me off either." The majority of the persons at the meeting strongly sustained Chamberlain and indorsing him as a capable and correct teacher, dismissed the charges, much to Arnold's chagrin and the corresponding triumph of the pedagogue. On September 22, I843, the school inspectors divided the township into school districts as follow: District No. 2, composed of sections I7, i8, 19, 20, 29, 30 and the south halves of sections 7 and 8 and so much of sections 31 and 32 as lay north of the Grand river; No. 3, composed of sections 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, Io, the west halves of sections 2 and I I and the north halves of sections 7 and 8. Although nothing is said in the records about the formation of district No. I, the presumption is that No. i embraced the portions of the township unnamed in the foregoing. On July 8, I844, a new school district, called district No. I, was formed, and was composed of sections I3, 14, 24, 23, the south half of section I2, the southeast quarter of section I I and so much of sections 25 and 26 as lay north of Grand river. On June 3, 1846, the inspector's report set forth that the number of scholars in district No. I was 40; in No. 2, the number was 34, and 28 in No. 3.

Page  341 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 341 KEENE. The first school taught in Keene township was held in a sixty-dollar school house on section 23, by Ruth Hunt, a daughter of William Hunt, of Lyons. Just when the school opened does not seem to be remembered by living pioneers, but it was probably not until 1842, for according to the recollection of Ephraim Abbott there was no need of a school before that time since there were no children in that town. In 1845 the people of the town concluded to use for other purposes the usual annual appropriation on behalf of public education, for an entry in the town records under date of April 6, 1845, reads: "Voted to raise no money for the support of public schools." The first meeting of the school inspectors was held on April 12, 1842, at the house of Allen Day, when, after appointing Simon Heath chairman, the board adjourned. At the next meeting the west half of section 27 was taken from school district No. 3 and annexed to district No. 5. On June 13, 1842, the inspectors detached section 25 from district No. 3 and attached it to district No. 4. Under the same date notice is made of the fact that the school districts in the town were district No. 3, including sections 25, 26, 27, 34, 35, 36; district No. 4, including sections i3, I14, 15, 22, 23 and 24; district No. 5 including sections 28, 29 and 30. On April ii, 1844, the inspectors formed district No. i, and described it as beginning at the southwest corner of section 30; running south to the south line of the town; thence east with the line of the town to the east line of section 31; thence north to the southeast corner of section 29, and thence to the place of beginning. The annual report of the school inspectors dated on October II, 1845, gave the following: District No. 4, fifty-eight children; district No. 5, forty children. In district No. 4, Samuel Case was the teacher and received $10.94 for one month's teaching. Thomas Congdon taught six months in district No. 5 and received $50. I a District No. 6, formed on January 21, 1846, included the west half of section 36, the whole of section 35, the east half of section 34, the southwest quarter of section 34, the south half of section 33, the south half of section 26 and the southeast quarter of section 27, in town 7, and the north half of section 4 and the northwest quarter of section 3, in town 6. On May 2, 1846, the school inspectors recorded district No. i as containing sections 13, 14, 15, 22, 23, 24 and 25, the northeast quarter of section 26, the northwest quarter of the southeast quarter of section 26; No. 2, as containing the territory ascribed to No. I, formed on April i i, 1844, and No. 4,

Page  342 342 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. the west half of section 36, the whole of section 35, the east half of section 34, the southwest quarter of section 34, the south half of section 33, and the east half of the east half of section 26. LYONS. District No. i, in Lyons township-commencing at the northeast quarter of section 8, in town 7 north, range 5 west; running thence south to the southeast corner of section 29; thence west on the section line to the southwest corner of section 26; thence north to the northwest corner of section II (the last two boundaries begin in town 7 north, range 6 west); thence east to the place of beginning in town 7 north, range 5 west. District No. 2-commencing at the northeast corner of section 28; thence south to the south quarter post of section 26; thence east to the county line; thence south to the southeast corner of section I3, in town 6 north, range 5 west; thence west to the south quarter post of section 17; thence north to the north quarter post of section 32, in town 7 north, range 5 west; thence east to the northeast corner of section 32, and thence to the place of beginning. District No. 3-commencing on the south line of section 4, on the east side of Grand river, in town 5 north, range 5 west; thence east to the southeast quarter of section 22, in town 6 north, range 5 west; thence west to the Grand river; thence following said river southerly to the place of beginning. District No. 4-commencing at the northwest corner of section 22, in town 7 north, range 5 west; thence east on section line to the county line; thence south on section line to the east corner post on section 36; thence west on quarter line so as to include the east half of the northeast quarter of section 35; thence west so as to include the west half of the southeast quarter of section 27; thence west to the northwest corner of section 27; thence north to the place of beginning. District No. 5 commencing on the east line of Ionia county, where the Maple river crosses the same; thence south on said line to the southeast corner of section 13, in town 7 north, range 5 west; thence west on section line to Stony creek; thence down said creek to the junction of the same with the Maple river; thence up said Maple river to the place of beginning. The annual school report dated October, 1839, presented but partially complete statistics from three districts and nothing satisfactory can be quoted. The books then in use in the schools were Daboll's, Adams', Smith's and Colburn's arithmetics; Woodbury's, Olney's and Smith's geographies; "Ele

Page  343 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 343 mentary Spelling Book," Smith's and Kirkham's grammars, and "English" and "National" readers. June 9, 1838, district No. 6 was organized and was thus bounded: Commencing where the east line of section 15 crosses Stony creek; thence south to the east quarter post of section 27; thence west to the Grand river; thence down said river to the quarter post line of section 2o; thence north to the Maple river; thence up Maple river to Stony creek to the place of beginning. On October 23, 1839, district No. 7 was set off with boundaries as follow: Commencing at the center of section 27; thence south on the quarterline to the south quarter post of section 34; thence west on section line to the Grand river; thence down said river to the quarter line running east and west through sections 27 and 28; thence east to the place of beginning, town 7 north, range 5 west. The township includes now eight full and two fractional districts. The total enumeration is 805, the average attendance 645, the value of school property $11,050, and the wages paid to teachers $3,801. There is a graded school at Lyons containing four rooms, capable of seating 300 scholars. The average attendance is 2IO. Muir has likewise a graded school, with an average attendance of upwards of 200. NORTH PLAINS. The first school house erected in North Plains township was a shanty which Hector Hayes built on his place for his hired man, Valentine Lewis, and the first school teacher was Sarah, daughter of Rev. Mr. Sangster, a Baptist preacher of Orleans. In that same shanty school was taught after Miss Sangster's time by Mary Lovell, Amos Foster and Jane Backer. At a meeting of the school inspectors on May 4, 1844, the several school districts and parts of districts previously districts in Lyons, but included in town 8 north, range 5 west, were rearranged and renumbered as districts in North Plains as follow: District No. 12 to be district No. I, commencing at the center of section I6; thence running south to the north quarter post of.section 33; thence west to the south quarter post of section 33; thence west to the south quarter post of section 29; thence north to the center of said section 29;.thence west to the west quarter post of section 30; thence north to the west quarter post of section 18; thence east to the place of beginning. District No. 9 to be district No. 2, commencing at the east quarter post of section 14; thence south to the corner of said section; thence east to the north quarter post on section 24; thence south to the quarter post on the south

Page  344 344 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. line of section 25; thence west to the south quarter post on section 28; thence north to the north quarter post of section 21; thence east to the northeast,corer of said section 2I; thence north to the west quarter post of section 15; thence east to the place of beginning. Fractional district No. 7, to be district No. 3, commencing at the northeast corner of section 32; thence south to the southeast comer of section 32; thence west to the southwest corner of section 3I; thence north to the quarter post; thence east to the center of section 31; thence south to the south quarter post; thence east to the southeast comer of said section 3I; thence north to the quarter post; thence east to the center of section 32; thence north to the north quarter post; thence east to the place of beginning., Fractional district No. 8, to be district No. 4, commencing at the center of section 29; thence south on the quarter post; thence south to the southwest corner of section 32; thence west to the quarter post; thence north to the center of section 31; thence west to the quarter post; thence north to the west quarter post of section 30; thence to the place of beginning. District No. 5, fractional, to be district No. 5, comprising the south half of section 34, and all of section 35 west of the Maple river. District No. II, to be district No. 6, commencing at the west quarter post of section 6; thence east to the center of section 6; thence south to the center of section I8; thence west to the west quarter post of said section I8; thence north to the place of beginning. The first annual report of the school inspectors, dated November i8, 1844, certified that in districts Nos. i and 2 there were fdrty-two school children; that forty-eight children attended school and that three-months school had been taught in that district. The books in use were "Elementary Spelling Book," Collins', Adams' and Daboll's arithmetic; "American Manual," Olney's geography, "English" reader, Smith's arithmetic and "His'torical" reader. At a meeting of the board of school inspectors at the town clerk's office. September 25, 1838, it was ordered that school district No. I be laid out to include all of sections 4, 9, 14, 15, 2I, 22, 28, 32 and 33; No. 2 to embrace sections I, 2, 3, IO, II, 12; No. 3 to include sections 13, 24, 25, 35, 36, 26, of town 7. District No. 4 was formed on February 13, I84I, to include sections 3, 4, 5, 8, 9,, io, 5, 6 and 17, except such portions of sections io and 15 as lay east of Flat river. On August 29, I846, district No. 5 was formed to contain section 13,

Page  345 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 345 'the east half of section I4, all that part of section 22 lying east of Flat river, together with the whole of sections 23. 24, 25 and 26. District No. 7 was formedl on January 23, 1847, commencing at the northwest corner of section 27; thence extending east to the quarter post on the north line of section 26; thence south on the quarter line through sections 26 and 35 to the south town line; thence west on said line to the quarter post of section 33; thence west to the river; thence up the river to the place of beginning. The annual report for T848 gave the following as the number of scholars: District No. 1, 75; district No. 2, 62; district No. 3, 67; district No. 4, 57; district No. 7, 24;'distrit No. 7, 24; district No., fractional, 7. District No. 6 was formed on October IO, 1846, to include sections 9, i8 and 19, of Otisco, and sections 12, 13 and 24, of Grattan. District No. 8 was formed on February 21, T849, to commence at the southwest corner of section 21, and to extend thence north to the northwest corner of section 21; thence east to the north quarter post of section 22; thence south on the quarter line to the south line of said section: then west to the southwest corner of section 22; thence south to the southwest corner of section 27; thence west to Flat river; thence down Flat river to the section line between sections 32 and 33: thence north to the quarter post.between sections 28 and 29; thence west to the west quarter post of section 29; thence north to the northwest corner of section 29; thence east to the place of beginning. On March 7, T849, district No. 9 was formed, to commence at the (Iqulrter post standing on the west line of section 31; thence north to the northwest quarter post of section 19; thence south to the section line of section 19; thence east to the southeast corner of section I9; thence south to the quarter post between sections 31 and 32; thence west to the place of beginning. In 1849 the amount of primary school fund apportioned to the town was $85.47. The scholars reported in the various districts numbered as follows: No. i, 75; No. 2, 62; No. 3, 67; No. 4, 57; No. 5, 24; No. 7, 24; No. 8, 40. ODESSA. Not much of a definite character can be gleaned as to the early history of Odessa's school, since the early records concerning town schools are not to be found. It may be said, however, that there was no school in the town

Page  346 346 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. until I846, when the town was organized, and that the first school house was built that year at Russell's corners. It appears that in 1847 and I848 orders were issued to the school inspectors to the amount of thirty-five dollars, and to school officers of district No. i in the sum of thirty dollars, also the school inspectors reported they had expended thirty-five dollars for books, and in i849 the town voted to raise fifty cents a scholar for the benefit of the schools. The records indicate that in 1859 there were in the town four full districts and one fractional district, and that the amount raised by the school districts in J86o was sixty-four dollars. On December 28, 1872, the board of school inspectors, "believing it to be for the present and future benefit of the inhabitants of the township," divided the township into nine square school districts, each composed of four sections. ORANGE. Copy of the record of school districts formed in whole or part from the east half of town 6 north, range 6 west, previous to the organizing the township of Orange, as recorded in the township clerk's office in Portland: Fractional district No. 4, commencing at Grand river, on the west side, on the north line of section 17, town 6 north, range 5 west, thence west on section line to the northwest corner of section i3, in town 6 north, range 6 west; thence south to the southwest corner of section 24, town 6 north, range 6 west; thence east on section line to the southeast corner o-f section 19, town 6 north, range 5 west; thence north to quarter post between sections 19 and 20; thence east to Grand river; thence following the course of Grand river northerly to the place of beginning. At a meeting of the board of school inspectors of the township of Portland, held on November 3, I841, district No. 6, in the town of Portland, was formed to commence at the northeast corner of section 2, town 6 north, range 6 west, and rtun south on section line to the southeast corner of section 23; thence west to the southwest corner of section 22; thence north on section line to the north line of said town; thence east on the town line to the place of beginning. (At a meeting of the school inspectors of Orange, November 22, 184.5, the above district was called district No. i, in Orange.) Fractional district No. 3 was formed on August 15, 1843. It commenced at the southeast corner of section 3I, town 6 north, range 6 west, and continued northward to the quarter post on the east line of section 18; thence west to the center of section I4, to town 6 north, range 7 west;

Page  347 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 347 thence south to the south line of section 35, in said town; thence east to the place of beginning. ORLEANS. The pioneer school teacher in Orleans township was Arabella Hewitt, of Otisco, who, in 1843, taught a subscription school in the upper part of Daniel Hoyt's log house. Her pay was one dollar a week, and her scholars -six or eight in number-included the children of E. B. Post, Daniel Hoyt and Alexander Howe. In the eastern portion of the township was a school taught in 1843 in a shanty on Guy Webster's land, by Sarah Haight, later the wife of Joshua S. Hall. In that same shanty school was afterwards taught by a Miss Hathaway and Miss Lucy Chapman. The first district school house in that district was built not long afterward by Loren Sprague. Previous to the organization of Orleans township the school districts of Ionia included in the present township of Orleans sections 4, 5, 6, 7, I4, 15, 23, 25, 36, I3, 24, the west half of section 9, northwest quarter of 22 and the east halves of 26 and 35. The first meeting of the board of school inspectors of Orleans was held in Ira Wheeler's house, April 4, 1846, but nothing was done except to adjourn until May 2, ensuing. At the meeting of May 2, Joel C. Green was chosen school visitant for the ensuing year and two school districts formed, as follow: No. I to embrace section 20, the east half of section 19, and the north half of section 29, the first meeting of the district to be held at the house of Lorenza D. Bates; No. 2 to include sections T6, 17 and I8, the first meeting of the district to be held at the house of David Courter. District No. 3 was formed on October 19, 1846, to contain section 2I and 28, the west half of section 27 and the southwest quarter of section 22. On November 30, 1848, districts T and 3 were consolidated and called No. I, embracing sections 19, 20, 21, 28, 30, the southwest quarter of 22, the west half of 27 and the north half of 29. In I850 district No. i had fifty-one scholars; No. 2 had forty-seven, and No. 3 had sixteen. District No. 4 was formed on February 7, 1857, and included sections 33 and 34, the east half of 32 and the southeast quarter of 29 and south halves of 27 and 28. District No. 5, formed on March 4, 1857, included sections 26, 35, the east half of 34, and the southeast quarter of section 27.

Page  348 348 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. On May I6, I857, district No. 6 was formed, and included sections 25 and 26 and the southwest quarter of section 24. District No. 7, formed on September 17, 1857, embraced sections 17 and I8, the west half of section i6, and the east half of the northwest quarter and the northwest quarter of the northeast quarter of section 21. PORTLAND. The first school taught in Portland was in the small log house near where the depot now stands. This was burned in an early day and it was the first fire in Portland. A vacant house near the "Looking-Glass" was then secured for the school. The school district was organized on June 6, I837, with H. Bartow and Zina Lloyd as school inspectors. It was known as district No. 3, of the town of Maple, taking in Maple at the north and extending through Danby on the south. At a special meeting of the taxable inhabitants of said district of the township of Maple, September 20, 1837, Almeron Newman was elected moderator, W. R. Churchill, director, and James Newman, assessor. It was resolved that there be six months school during the year and that $90 be raised for the support of the school and that patrons should furnish fuel for same. The wood was furnished sled length and the larger boys were expected to chop it as fast as wanted. The same year $Io was appropriated for a district library. October II, I839, it was voted to raise $300 to build a school house. The following March this vote was rescinded. At the annual meeting in I840 it was voted unanimously to raise $300 to build a school house the following year. This vote was never acted upon. Again, at the annual meeting of 1842 it was voted to raise $300 for a school building and its appendages. It was subsequently proposed to locate the school house on the west side, but the proposition was withdrawn. The old red school house was then built on the hill, where Mrs. Hattie Williams' house now stands. Lodiwiski Baker taught the first summer school for $2 per week, and Charles C. Fullington the winter school at $I8 per month. There were 52 children of school age in the district, but 70 pupils attended the school. RONALD. The first school district known to have included any portion of Ronald township was fractional district No. 4, of Ionia. It was formed on April 22, 1841, and embraced within its limits the whole of sections 30 and 3I and

Page  349 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 349 the west halves of sections 29 and 32 in Ronald. In this school district Sarah Haight, of Ionia, taught probably the first school in 1841, in a school house that stood upon the town line in section 31 in Ronald. On November T, I84I. Lyons and lonia formed fractional district No. I, which included the whole of sections 33, 34 and 35, and portions of sections 26, 27, 28, 29 and 32, in Ronald. Districts were all formed previous to the organization of Ronald township. In the Van Vleck settlement, where Nancy Palmer taught the first school-a subscription school in one of the rooms of George D. Tasker's house-there appears to have been no district school until after the town was organized. At the first meeting of the school inspectors of Ronald, held at the house of William J. Clark, \4May 3, 1845, school district No. I of Lyons, was changed to district No. I of Ronald, and bounded as follows: Commencing at the northeast corner of section I3; thence running due south on the section line to the southeast corner of section 25; thence due west on the section line to the south quarter post of section 27; thence due north on the quarter line through the center of sections 27, 22 and 15, to the north quarter post of section 15; thence due east on the section line to the place of beginning. On April 24, 1847, district No. I was changed to district No. 2, and a new district No. I was formed, on the petition of Matthew Van Vleck and John Van Vleck. The new district commenced at the northeast corner of section I; extended thence west to the northwest corner of section 3; thence south to the southwest corner of section io; thence east to the southeast corner of section 12; thence north to the place of beginning. District No. 3, formed likewise on April 24, 1847, commenced at the quarter post on the north line of section 14; extended thence south on the quarter line to the center of section 26; thence west on the quarter line to the center of section 28; thence north on the quarter line to. the north quarter post of section I6; thence east to the place of beginning. District No. 4, formed on April 17, I848, embraced sections 17 and 20. the north half of section 29, the northwest quarter of section 28, the west half of section 2I and the west half of section I6. District No. 5, formed on May 15, I848, embraced sections 4, 5, 8 and 9. SEBEWA. The first matter recorded in the town books of Sebewa touching schools refers to the formation under date of January I2, I846, of fractional school

Page  350 350 IONLA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. district No. 3, of Sebewa and Sunfield. The portion of the district lying in Sebewa included sections?29, 30, 3 and 32, and the west halves of sections 28 and 33. District No. 2 commenced at the center of section 21 and extended thence on the quarter line to the west quarter post of section 19; thence south on the township line to the southwest corner of section 31; thence east on the county line to the southeast corner of section 33; thence north on the section line to the east quarter post of section 28; thence north on the quarter line to the place of beginning. District No. I was organized on February I, i846, commencing eighty rods east of the northwest corner of section 13; thence west to the north quarter stake of section I6; thence south to the south quarter stake of section 16; thence south to the south quarter stake of section 28; thence east to the south quarter stake of section 26; thence north to the south quarter stake of section 14; thence east three-fourths of a mile; thence north to the place of beginning. The first meeting of said district was ordered to be held at the house of Jacob Showerman. District No. 4 was formed on September T8, 1847. The limits are described as the same as old district No. I. District No. 6 was formed on April 13, 1852, and commenced eighty rods south of the northeast corner of section 25; passing thence south to the southeast corner of section 36; thence west three miles; thence north one mile; thence east one and a half miles to the south quarter post of section 26; thence north one mile; thence east one mile to the north quarter post of section 26; thence south eighty rods; thence a half mile east to the place of beginning. PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF IONIA. Ionia was founded at a time when the idea of free public schools was struggling for general acceptance. Up to a time even later than 1833 the conceptions which determined the prevalent facilities for education was that education was a luxury, not a necessity. However, as democracy came into her own with the successive decades of the nineteenth century, education was recognized, first as a legitimate function of government, and later as a necessity for the mere maintenance of free institutions. At first the province of free schools was limited to the teaching of the rudiments only, but as years went by this function was broadened to take in, first a complete elementary education, then in addition a college preparatory education (the high school absorl)ing the work of earlier private academies), until today

Page  351 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 35I the function of public education has been widened to a range undreamed of a century ago. lonia's schools have passed through all stages of this development. \Vithin two years after the first colony settled at Ionia, arrangements were made to provide a measure of education for the children of the community. In the winter of 183,4-1835 Doctor Lincoln maintained a school in his office. "After Doctor Lincoln's effort the cause of education was encouraged and fostered b)y Mason Hearsey, who, in the autumn of I835, taught the first public school. Amanda Yeomans, aftreward the wife of Rev. Alfred Cornell, taught in I836, the first summer school in Ionia."-(History of Ionia and Montcalm Counties.) From facts which are stated below it would appear that these early educational efforts were not supported by general taxation as legally organized schools. It is quite probable that the expense was borne by those who were directly benefited. Indeed this idea that education should be paid for by the recipient persisted long and tenaciously. In partial deference to it, provision was made on October 4, I84I, some three years after the origination of school district No. I, that each pupil attending the district school should furnish one-quarter of a cord of wood by the first of December ensuing. "The oldest record of the proceedings in school district No. i (afterward Ionia) certifies that anterior to 1843 the school records were kept on loose papers, and that, in i8S3, Ira I'orter transcribed to a book such records as could be found. From this transcript it is learned that at a regular meeting of the inhabitants of district No. T at the district school house (on Main street, west of Dexter) November I6, 1837, Asa Spencer was appointed moderator and Erastus Yeomans, clerk of the meeting. The election of officers for the current year resulted in the choice of Thomas Cornell as moderator; Cyrus i ovell, director, and Robert S. Parks, assessor. It was voted at that meeting that each of the district officers should receive five dollars for his services for the ensuing year, that the summer school should las,t four months, and that a tax of ninety dollars should be levied and raised in the district for the year to pay teachers' wages. December 27, I838, pursuant of the provisions of the Revised Statutes that no school district should contain more than nine sections, district No. i, was re-organized and set off as follow: 'To, commence on the north bank of the Grand river at a point where the section line between sections 26 and 27, in town 7 north, range 7 west, intersects Grand river; running thence easterly along the north bank of the Grand river to the point where the north-and-south line running

Page  352 352 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. through the center of sections 16 and 21, in town 7 north, range 6 west, intersects the Grand river; thence north to the quarter post on the north line of section 16; thence on the section line to the northwest corner of section, 14; thence south to the Grand river and place of beginning.' "-(History of Ionia and Montcalm Counties.) "The first public school building in Ionia was located on Main street, some distance west of Dexter street, between the homes of Ethan S. Johnson and Erastus Yeomans. It was a log structure, perhaps twenty-four by thirty feet, and in an early day served also as a meeting house for religious services."-(Ionia Daily Sentinel, February 17, I88o.) A NEW SCHOOL BUILDING. In I843 a sentiment prevailed that the community needed a new building for school purposes. Accordingly, an October 2, of that year, it was voted to build a new school house at all expense of three hundred dollars, and that it should be completed by May I, 1844. Later it was agreed to expend five hundred dollars for the purpose. But difficulties encountered in securing a suitable site led to the rescinding of the proposition. The old school house was repaired and continued in service until I849. At a meeting on September 26, I848, the erection of a new building was authorized at a cost of three hundred dollars. The site chosen was the present location of the city hall. "The contractor was Alanson Cornell, who was to put up a one-story structure. On January 6, I849, Louis S. Lovell, Hampton Rich, Osmond Tower and C. M. Moseman, on behalf of themselves and others, proposed to add a second story to the building for the use of the Ionia Division of the Sons of Temperance, for religious meetings, and for the renting thereof to the county of Ionia for a court room, in case terms could be made. The proposition was accepted, but there was some public opposition to the matter, and on January 20, I849, there was a meeting to reconsider the resolution, the request for the meeting being signed by John Tompkins, Hampton Rich, William Lyon, J. C. Ball, Abel Avery, Jesse Holcomb, Henry Hatch, Frederick Hall and Peter Hackett. The plan was confirmed and the building was completed according to the original design. The house was, however, no more than finished, when it was destroyed by fire; but no time was lost in erecting a similar house on the same spot, the district this time doing the entire work." —(History of Ionia and Montcalm Counties.) While this building was in process of construction, school was held in a building located where Dean & Eyster's store now stands.

Page  353 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 353 It is not possible to present a complete list of teachers during these early years. From i844 to I852 the records mention only the names of Simon Hunt, E. W. Cornell, Betsy Webster and H. C. Finch. There has been furnished from another source the name of a Mr. Wheaton who taught in the first building erected on the present site of the city hall; and also the names of a Mr. Hodges and Mary Lovell who taught xwhile the new building was being erected. The records for i853 give the following list of teachers as employed during the year: J. B. Powell, B. H. Preston, Catherine Stevenson and J. B. Wells. The teachers in 1854 were Miss L. H. Tower, Catherine Stevenson, Ann Avery, Miss Wells, and Miss Clapsaddle; in i855 Miss Elwood, Miss Mason, C. 0. Thompson, L. H. Town, NMiss Nash and Miss Stevenson. There should also be added to the list of teachers for this period the names of W. W. Mitchell and Edgar M. Marble. The small amount of money required to run the schools during these early days is worthy of note. In I837-38 the amount raised for teachers was ninety dollars. In i841-2 the expense of the school was partially met by requiring each pupil to furnish one-fourth of a cord of wood. Durtng the year preceding the annual meeting of January 26, i853, the following expenses were incurred: For contingent purposes, $40.36; for payment of teachers, $31i.67. For i855 the tax voted was ninety-nine cents per child on two hundred and eleven children. Buildings too, were less expensive than now. An expenditure of five hundred dollars was considered adequate for housing the school in the fifties. But it should be kept in mind that these were days when "select schools," supported by private fees, performed a large part of the service of education. Then, too, the range of private expenditure was much narrower than at present. In i86o the standard works in use by the school consisted of Davis' "Practical Arithmetic," Stoddard's "Mental Series," Emerson's "Numbers," Welch's and Sill's grammars, Willard's history, Sanders' readers and spellers, Monteith's geography, and Davis' algebra. The year i863 marks a milestone in the development of Ionia's school system. On the 26th of July in that year it was resolved to organize the school under section 23 of the school law, according to the "union-school" system. September ii, i863, the district voted to raise ten thousand dollars for a building, the number of scholars in the district that year being four hundred and twenty-two. A site having been purchased for one thousand dollars, the annual meeting in September. i864, voted to increase the appro(23)

Page  354 354 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. priation for the building to fifteen thousand dollars. Before the project was brought to satisfactory completion nine thousand five hundred and ten dollars additional was voted on two different occasions. According to the annual report, dated September 3, I866, the total estimated cost of the school-house, furniture, grounds, janitor's house, etc., aggregated thirty thousand dollars. Since the completion of the Central school, Ionia school district has been employed in several other building projects. In 1873 a lot for the State street school was purchased and four thousand five hundred dollars appropriated for the building. The Jefferson street school was provided for two years later, the contractor's price being three thousand two hundred dollars. The high school followed in i885. In 1907 the various buildings were found to be in need of general repair and a large amount of money was spent to put them in thoroughly up-to-date condition. The central heating plant was provided at that time; it represents a substantial addition to the safety provisions of the Central and high schools. No increase in the amount of school room has been made during the past thirty years except the addition of two small recitation rooms. At this time (I916) a movement is being launched looking'to the erection of a new high school building to relieve the crowded conditions which are found all along the line. COURSES OF STUDY. September, 1866, when the Central building was occupied for school purposes, marks the organization of the Ionia high school. At that time there were about twenty union high schools in the state. The Ionia high school at once assumed high rank among these institutions and it has always been recognized as a splendid school: The superintendent for the first four years, 1866-I870, was Charles Hutchins. The "General Course" of studies for that time is found in a circular of information, published in I870. This course required three years for completion, as did the "English Course" and also the "Classical Course." It was as follows: First Year. First Term-Algebra; English grammar; history; Latin or German. Second Term-Algebra; analysis and parsing; botany; Latin or German. Third Term-Arithmetic: botany; Latin or German. Second Year. First Term-Natural philosophy; Latin, French or German. Second Term-Rhetoric; geometry; Latin, French or German. Third Term-Rhetoric; geometry; Latin, French or German. Third Year. First Term-Mental philosophy; geology; Latin or

Page  355 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 355 French. Second Term-Mental philosophy; astronomy; Latin or French. Third Term-Moral philosophy; social science, Latin or French. The work below the high school was not then graded as it is now; it was divided into first, second and third primary, intermediate, and grammar departments. Information is not at hand as to the year when the present arrangement of grades was introduced. The first class was graduated from the high school in June, 1871. Oral and written examinations to which the public was invited were the regular order of the day. The following is from the Standard of June 29, 1871: "The school year of the Ionia public school closes tomorrow. The last week of school has been devoted to the examination of classes and rhetorical exercises. The examination of the primary department occupied the first of the week and the examination of the high school the latter part. For the first time since the establishment of the school a class will graduate at the end of the year. The examinations that have not taken place will come off today or tomorrow forenoon. The rhetorical exercises of the graduating class will take place in the evening at the school building in connection with a vocal concert. All that have an interest in the school should attend the concert if they are not able to attend during the examination." The number of graduates from Ionia high school by years follows: T87I, 5; 1873, 2; 1874, 3; 1875, 7; 1876, i8; I877, I2; 1878, I3; 1879, I4; I88o, I4; I88I, Io; 1882, 3; 1I883, 8; 1884, IO; I885, I5; i886, 20; 1887, I7; i888, 20; 1889, I9; 1890, I4; I891, TI; 1892, 25; I893, 2I; 1894, IT; I895, 2I; I896, 2I; I897, I8, 1I898, 22; 1899, 2I; 1900, 2I; 1901, IO; I902, 26; I903, 20; 1904, 2I; I905, 2I; 1906, I9; 1907, 2I; I908, 24; I909, II; I9IO; I8, I9II, 14; 1912, I8; I913, 33; I914, 23; 1915, 33; I916, (probable) 35. It is seen from the above table that the total number of graduates for the past four years, including the present, equals the total for the seven years previous. This indicates clearly the recent growth of the high school. Another significant evidence of this growth for the lower grades as well as the high school is found in the table below. The figures represent the "average number belonging" at intervals of about ten years. As the records for I866, I876, and I886 are not available the figures for I87I, I878 and i887 have been given. The figures for I916 represent the actual number on the rolls on the date of compilation.

Page  356 356 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. TABLE OF NUMBER BELONGING. High Grammar Primary Year. School. Dept. Dept. Total. 1871 — _ __ __ 550 1878 103 238 399 740 1887 130 201 455 786 1896 137 297 494 928 1906 121 172 437 730 1916 190 356 496 1042 Following is a list of the superintendents of the Ionia schools since the organization of the "union district" in i866, with the period of service of each: Charles Hutchins, 1866-70; R. N. Fearon, I870-71; J. W. Ewing, 1871-76; A. L. Todd, 1876-78; J. W. Ewing, 1878-1887; W. D. Clizbe, 1887 -1891; C. L. Bemis, 1891-1907; H. C. Daley, 1907-1908; W. S. Lister, 1908 -1912; L. L. Forsythe, 1912, to the present. At the time this history is written (1916) lonia has a system of schools which is justly recognized as among the best in the state. It consists of a kindergarten (located in the city hall); four primary grades in each of the Second ward, Fourth ward and Central schools; four grammar grades, located in the Central school; and a high school in a separate building. There is also connected with the system the Ionia County Normal, which occupies a room in the Central school. Grades five to eight are organized on the departmental plan, which has been a feature of the system for many years. The course of study for grades and high school is up-to-date in all respects, including drawing, music, manual training and household arts. The equipment of the schools is excellent so far as space will permit, but great embarassment is felt on account of lack of room. The departments of manual training and household arts are in very close quarters, while no play-room or gymnasium facilities whatever are afforded. However, provision has been made for play grounds-especially in connection with the high school and central buildings. As a result of recent purchases about three acres are available immediately adjoining the school grounds. It is in the process of being graded for use in playing all kinds of school games. INSTRUCTORS. Thirty-seven teachers besides the superintendent are required for the work of the schools. The list" for the current year is as follows:

Page  357 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 357 High School-L. L. Forsythe, superintendent; Clara Martiny, principal, German; Lela A. Duff, assistant principal, English; John P. Wiegman, science; John P. Jones, English, mathematics; Mary H. Curtiss, Latin, mathematics; Margaret E. Steere, English, biology; Dwight B. Harwood, history, Esther V. Arverson, commercial branches. Central School-Margery C. Streeter, principal, English; succeeded by Mrs. E. W. Briggs, the second semester; Ella Hutchins, reading; Edna M. Waterbury, arithmetic; Hassie Preston Thornton, history; Martha Knight, geography, seventh grade; Isa M. Nesbitt, assistant in reading; Margaret Seymour, assistant in English, sixth grade; Louise Call, assistant in sixth and seventh grades; Flora Reynolds, assistant arithmetic, A-Fifth grade; Stella Bloomer, assistant in geography, B-Fifth grade; Murryne McCrossen, fifth grade assistant; Mrs. E. W. Briggs, training room, fourth grade; succeeded by Anna Manderfield, the second semester;; Rose M. Sweeney, third grade; Melba E. Brewster, second grade; Lucy A. Cull, first grade. Jefferson Street School-Grace D. Billings, principal, second grade; Ella V. Funk, first grade; Sadie E. Taylor, third grade; Marguerite Evans, fourth grade. State Street School-Minnie L. Coon, principal, first grade; Mary M. Steele, second grade; Margaret Schmolz, third grade; Sarah Peck, fourth grade. Special Teachers-Edith Williamson, principal of County Normal; succeeded by Mabel Conklin the second semester; Fmma A. Rice, music, drawing; Katherine Wardle, domestic science and art; Lionel H. Dunlap, manual training and mechanical drawing. SCHOOLS OF SARANAC. By L. P. Ettinger. It is a lamentable fact that the early history of the schools of Saranac has not been preserved. Saranac became a part of school district No. 3 with the organization of the several districts in this township which was officially organized in 1838 or 1839. The one-room log school house served as the first house of knowledge for the children of this section. A steady advance was made in the educational systems of this village and soon was reached what might be called the era'of the school systems of the twentieth century. The present brick school house was built in I871 or 1872. It is a threestory building with grades 2, 3, 4, and 5 on the lower floor; grades 6, 7, and

Page  358 358 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 8 on the second floor; the high school including grades 9, IO, II and 12 on the third floor. The kindergarten and the first grade are a block west of the main building in Shaw's hall, which formerly was used as a school house. The high school also uses as a class room a room at the north end of the second floor of the main building. The school was made a graded school in I886, when it was made a tengrade school. The eleventh grade was added in I896, and the twelfth grade in I904. It was placed on the accredited list of the state normal schools and the denominational colleges of Michigan and the Michigan Agricultural College in 1904. On the University of Michigan list in I913. The number of graduates from the highest grade by years so far back as the records are available are as follows: 1887, 8; i888, 5; I889, 3; I890, 2; 1891, 2; 1892, 9; 1893, 23; 1894, 6; 1895, 9; I896, no graduates, eleventh grade added; I897, 5; I898, 7; I899, 6; I900, I7; 190I, I4; I902, 5; I905, Io; I904, II; I905, 4 (first class after twelfth grade was added); 90o6, 7; I907, 3; I908, 8; I909, 8; 190o, 8; I9II, IO; I912, 8; I9I3, I5; I914, I5; I9I5, I3 -The superintendents by years are as follow: F. E. Converse,' 1888-90; E. L. Griffith, I890-92; F. W. Braley, I892-94; Reuben S. Campbell, I895-96; Clay Tallman, I896-98; J. B. Travis, I898-I900; G. E. Garbutt, I9OO-OI; M. F. Scott, 1901-03; T. S. Greene, I903-04; L. P. Ettinger, I904-08; G. I. Levengood, I908-IO; L. P. Ettinger, I9IO-I6. The principals were: C. W. Hart, four years, 1896-1900; H. H. Lowrey, three years, I900-03; F. Haughout, one year, '903-64; Miss Nora Leiter, five years, I904-09; Miss Hattie Hungerford, one year, I909-IO; Miss Lora B. Evans, four years, I9IO-I4; F. W. Dalton, I914-I6. During the year 1915-16 the following teachers are engaged in the Saranac schools: Louise Wallington, kindergarten and first grade; Addie David, second and third grades; Jennie Parmalee, fourth and fifth grades, Cora I. Adams, sixth and part of seventh grades; Bertha Hagerman, part of seventh and eighth grades; Ruth Y. Johnston, high school assistant, history, English and Latin; F. W. Dalton, high school principal, science and mathematics; L. P. Ettinger, superintendent, English, American history and solid geometry. The school has a good equipment of globes, maps, charts, etc. The physical and chemical laboratories are equipped with modern apparatus, as to do the laboratory work required by the modern methods of teaching physical sciences. This includes such apparatus as the air pump, guinea and

Page  359 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 359 feather tube, Magdeburg hemispheres, inclined plane, sonometer, pumps, hydraulic ram, photometer, centrifugal force apparatus, mercury barometer, calorimeter, d'Arsonval galvanometers, tangent galvanometer, astatic galvanometer, Wheatstone bridge, slide wire bridge, ammeter, voultmeter, electric machine, wireless telegraph apparatus, induction coil, Geissler tubes, resistance boxes, Leyden jars, gold leaf electroscopes, rotating machine, organ pipe, sets of lenses, tuning forks, balances and scales, etc. Each room in the building has a small library suitable for the pupils in the room. The high school reference library contains about six hundred and twenty-five volumes covering literature, science, mathematics, history, philosophy, etc. This includes several sets of works such as the "International Encyclopedia," "The University of Literature," "History for Ready Reference" by Lamed; the "Standard Encyclopedia," and others. There is a circulating library of about a thousand volumes in the kindergarten and first grade room, where books may be drawn by the public and kept for two weeks with the privilege of renewal for another two weeks. The school has been a memler of the Ionia County Athletic Association ever since it was first organized and has always taken part in the field and track events at the annual field meet which is held in June. Nearly every year sees a combined literary and musical society organized in the high school, which organization usually holds monthly meetings. Drawing and some manual training are offered in the grades. The drawing and manual training exhibit at the Michigan state fair at Detroit drew nearly twenty-five dollars in 1914 and about forty-five dollars in I9T5, in premiums. A majority of the Saranac high school graduates attended some higher institution of learning soon after completing the high school course. SCHOOLS OF LYONS. The first school is said to have been taught by Susan Moore, in 1835, in a log cabin erected by H. V. Libhart in the village, but just over the town line in Ionia. A school was taught in 1837 in a shanty that stood on Henry Leonards lot. Leonard bought the building of Libhart for sixty dollars and sold it to the town. Naomi Irish taught the first school there, and Eliza Ann Bunnell, the second. Richard Parsons and William Jennings were early teacherrs in the village but they did not come until about I842. The Lyons school was organized as a graded school in I857, the building having been erected the previous year. It was organized as a rate-paying

Page  360 360 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. institution, tuition being computed on the basis of the number of days each pupil attended school during the year. At first, and for many years, four teachers were employed, a Miss Chapen acting as the first principal. During the Civil War period the Lyons schools were larger, in point of number of pupils, than at any other time in the history of the village. At that time the principal received about sixty dollars per month, and the grade teachers about twenty-five dollars. They were required to teach six hours daily, and were on duty each alternate Saturday. About 1870 the building was remodeled within, a furnace being installed, and other improvements made. The furnace proved unsatisfactory and in the course of a few years was abandoned. This led to other changes on the interior of the building, and stoves were again installed. In I896 a fifth teacher was added to the corps of instructors. Again in I915 it became necessary to add an instructor, bringing the teaching force up to six members. The present building was erected in 1912, on the site of the old building, at a cost of $17,000. It is a thoroughly comfortable, commodious, up-to-date building, with ample room for years to come, and with the best of facilities for laboratory courses in the natural sciences. A pleasant library and reading room provides for research work along the lines of English and history, while a large dining room in the basement provides for those pupils who are obliged to remain in the building throughout the noon hour. PORTLAND PUBLIC SCHOOIS. The school district as first organized in 1837 also included the townships of Maple on the north and Danby on the south. The officers were: Almeron Newman, moderator: WV. R. Churchill, director; James Newman. assessor. Six months of school dluring the year was agreed upon and $90 voted to be raised among the patrons for teacher's salary. Fuel was also furnished by the patrons and hauled to the school house in sled length and the larger boys were expected to chop it as fast as needed. The first school was taught in a log building near the present site of the Pere Marquette dlepot. This log' building burned to the ground a few years later and was the first "fire" in the village. A vacant house near the river was then utilized. In 1842 $300 was voted for a new school building, which was subsequently erected on the brow of the hill at the north end of Smith street. This became known in later years as the "old red school house" and con

Page  361 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 36I tained lbut one roomn. When more space was required this building was moved over to Bridge street, becoming the Methodist Episcopal church and later vet was moved across Elm street and made into a double tenement, where it still remains. Could the wvalls of the building speak, what a varied tale might they unfold of childish woes and grown-up aspirations. Miss Lodiwiska Baker taught the first summer in the red school house for two dollars per week, and Charles C. Fullington the following winter at eighteen dollars per month. There were only fifty-two children of school age in the listrict, buit seventy atten(led school. When the red school house became too small to accommodate all the students there was a school for the older boys and girls in the basement of the Universalist church, taught hy the pastor, Reverend Gordon, with Miss Almeda Hixson as assistant. This continued two or three years. A twostory luilding replaced the red school house somewhere near I858 and four teachers were sublseqllently p1rovide(l for the upper and lower departments. During the early years, school fund(s were raised by means of the "rate bill," the expense being divided by the numbler of children. Hence, the larger the family the higher the tax. There was, however, a fund for poor children, and as late as I865 there was voted by the school board "$3.00 for indigent children." In 1865 the board includle(l: Dr. M. B. Beers, moderator; Dr. William Root, director; A. V. Morehouse, assessor. The teachers: Mr. Boggs, principal; Miss Phebe Beers, assistant; Mrs. Ellen Newman, lower department; Miss iEmmons, assistant. In 1869 a fifth teacher was added and the "intermediate department" occupied the basement of the Universalist church during the erection of the high school building at the upper end of Smith street, which was ready for occupancy in January, 187c, with J. W. Carus, principal; Miss Scribner, assistant. The first attempt at grading the school was made by Mr. Carus in I870, anl the following year the board voted to grant diplomas to graduates who satisfactorily passed all examinations, but there were no graduates until twelve years later. W. H. Stone did much for the school in the selection of improved text books and was a man greatly loved and respected. To C. L. Bemis belongs the honor of the first graduating class in 1882. The graduates were Kittie Scribner and Mary White. Nowadays, superintendents are apt to think themselves overworked. Mr. Stone and Mr. Bemis taught the entire high school course without assistants, including history, science, and higher mathematics. Mr. Bemis also

Page  362 362 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. started a live debating club for Friday evenings, wherein the students learned parliamentary usage and public speaking. In these debates Frank E. Doremus, who is now a congressman, distinguished himself for his able arguments. After four years of such strenuous work, Mr. Bemis was given an assistant, Miss Alice Warren. When Miss Blanche Vaughn became superintendent, in I90I, she aspired to place the school on the university list. r'his she accomplished in 1902. Miss Vaughn possessed rare talent and untiring energy, and she left the schools in I913 in a splendidly organized condition. The early records of the school board make interesting reading at this distance. At one time an important meeting was delayed because the majority of the members had tickets for the circus. Non-resident tuition was four dollars per term for higher branches, two dollars and fifty cents for primary, and one dollar extra for Greek and Latin, and they voted that Latin be taught in the third grade. It was voted that in cases of persistent disobedience, a committee of the board visit parents and suggest the need of improvement, else they must be excluded from the school. It was voted that all teachers be allowed one day to visit Ionia Union school with view to "benefit the school." In I869 the director was instructed to call a public meeting of citizens to make arrangement for the State Teachers' Institute to be held here. In 1871 there were in the school district 380 between the ages of five and twenty. The departments were: High school, grammar school, intermediate, second primary and first primary. In 1873 it became necessary to add another building, two rooms for the first and second primary on the West Side. The brick high school building was erected in i88I and has since been enlarged to accommodate all grades. At present (I916), the corps of teachers numbers fifteeen, and the various departments are regularly equipped for first-class work. There is a school library of more than one thousand volumes. The chemistry and physical laboratory is well equipped with up-to-date apparatus. Three pianos assist in the teaching of vocal music, and much attention is given to nature study in the grades. Dramatization, debate and oratory are emphasized in the high school. Athletics receive considerable attention, and the foot-ball and base-ball teams have several times won the county championship. The school has been on the university list since I902. excepting the lapse of one year, T909, and graduates are admitted without examination to all colleges and universities under the North Central Association. The various school boards through all the years have been composed

Page  363 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 363 of representative townsmen, who have given much time and thought for the improvement of the schools. Among these were: The Newmans, N. B. Rice, A. F. Morehouse, William H. White, Doctor Dellenbaugh, Dr. G. D. Allen, Doctor Martin, Lorenzo Webber and Dr. S. A. Horning. The teachers in I916 are: High School ---J. G. Gourley. A. B., M. A., superintendent, agriculture and botany; V/iola H-owe, A. B., principal, English; J. N. Kantner, A. B., science and athletics; Helen Bissinger, A. B., languages; Mary Maude Brown, A. B., mathematics and history. Grammar School-Opal Bigelow, A. B., mathematics and German; Rhea Pew, English; Grace Wright, geography, history and nature study; Elizabeth Floyd, music and drawing. Primary-Mabel Laurens. fifth grade; Iucille Iawler, third and fourth grades; Nettie Nickel, first and second grades; Frances Mulder, kinderoarten. West Side Schzool-Beulah Briggs, third and fourth grades; Lulu Packard, first and second grades. The school board in I916 consists of: Dr. S. A. Horning, moderator; E. B. Harwood, treasurer; C. L. Crane, director; J. A. Scaddin, trustee; H. Holloway. trustee. With the class of 1916, including thirteen young ladies and seven young men, the graduates will number 436; many of whom are already filling positions of honor and responsibility. There are doctors, lawyers, teachers, preachers, and many in the noblest profession of all-home-making. SCHOOLS OF THE COUNTY AT THE PRESENT TIME. By Harvey H. Lowrey. In Ionia county there are eleven city and village schools, one hundred thirty primary districts and five parochial schools, employing two hundred seventy-five teachers. Ionia and Belding are cities each having an independent school system rather than a part of the county system, because they have special charters and come under the provision of the statutes of cities having more than three thousand population. The villages of Portland, Lake Odessa, Saranac, Lyons, Muir, Pewamo, Hubbardston, Palo and Clarksville, each maintain a twelve-grade school. These graded districts endeavor to equip their schools and employ a grade of

Page  364 364 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. teachers, which efforts tend to place the educational advantages on a par with any town of their size in the state. The greatest progress in the last ten years has been made in the rural schools of the county under the leadership of the present commissioner of schools. There is no county in Michigan which has made more progress in unifying the course of study and increasing the efficiency of work done than this county. It is in the very forefront. A student with an eighth-grade diploma signed by the commissioner of schools can enter any high school in the state without examination. Each year two hundred or more graduates from the rural school course are ready for high school. But the most remarkable thing is the fact that nearly all these rural graduates do go on to high school. In the last five or six years, less than ten each year have failed to go on to higher institutions of learning. In consequence of this fact, the eleven graded schools of the county have more than half of their high school pupils non-residents. The schools have been most ably supervised by Commissioner Lowrey, who has been untiring in his visits to the rural schools which he has made helpful by suggestions, counsel and even doing actual teaching when necessary in order to have matters go right. He has been free to offer suggestions in rearrangment of programs or curriculum of study. His visits have been a benefit to the officers in keeping up the school property and in many other ways where oversight was essential. This county, as most all counties in the lower peninsula of Michigan, is under the old district system where three officers, the director, the moderator and the treasurer form the board of education for the primary districts. T'his board, so far as the power which they possess is concerned, is as aristocratic as any governing body in America. They can, vote four items of taxes: All that is necessary for the actual running of school, including teachers' wages; hire the number of teachers necessary and fix their wages, and adopt text books and have a general charge of all matters pertaining to the well-being of the school. The graded schools are governed by a board of five members whose officers are a president, secretary and treasurer. They have practically the same power in their district as the board in primary districts, with a few specially added powers or duties. The annual meeting of the district, which is held the second Monday in July, is of great importance to the welfare of the school, because at this time board members are elected, length of the school year is fixed and various

Page  365 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 365 items of taxes voted, sites and buildings, if any, are purchased and decided, etc. RECENT STATE LAWS. Some of the more recent laws affecting directly the schools are the following: No. ii, Public Acts of i911 concerning legal holidays. "Section I. The following days, namely, the first day of January, commonly called New Year's Day; the thirtieth day of May, commonly called Memorial Day; the Fourth of July; the first Monday of September, commonly called Labor Day; and the twenty-fifth day of December, commonly called Christmas Day; all Saturdays and all days appointed or recommended by the Governor of this State or the President of the United States as (lays of fasting and prayer or thanksgiving shall, in all the public schools of this State, be treated and considered as public holidays and on such above specified holidays there shall be no school sessions in any of such public schools of this state: Provided, That the salary of school officers and teachers shall be in no way affected by reason of the dismissal of school on any of the above mentioned days; Provided, further, That on the following days, namely, the twelfth day of February, commonly called Lincoln's birthday, the twenty-second (lay of February, commonly called Washington's birthday, and the twelfth day of October, commonly called Columbus day, it shall be the duty of all school officers and teachers to have the schools under their respective charge observe such mentioned days, namely the twelfth of February, the twenty-second of February, and the twelfth day of October by proper and appropriate commemorative exercises and such days shall not be considered as legal holidays for schools. "Plans for all new school buildings and for additions costing over $300 must be approved by the Superintendent of Public Instruction. He also has authority to condemn school buildings under certain conditions. "Hereafter no person, who has not taught prior to July i, I916, can receive a certificate who shall not have completed a term of at least six weeks' work of professional training in a state or county normal or some school approved by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. "Act No. 223 amends section, of Act No. II of the Public Acts of I9II by providing that it shall be the duty of every teacher in the public schools of this state to cause the Declaration of Independence to be read to his or her pupils above the fifth grade on the twelfth day of February, the twenty-second day of February and the twelfth day of October. Failure to comply with this law may lead to the revocation of the teacher's certificate. Section 2 provides that all applicants for eighth-grade diplomas shall be re

Page  366 366 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. quired as a part of the eighth grade examination to write from memory the first verse of the 'Star Spangled Banner' and the words of 'America.' " The county board of school examiners is composed of the commissioner of schools and two examiners chosen alternately, for a term of two years, by the board. Their principal duty is to license teachers with county certificates. The office of commissioner of schools is the most important educational office in the county. Beside the supervisory and other duties before mentioned the office of recent years has been sending out much written matter to the teachers and officers. The following is a fair sample of some of the matter sent out: Suggestions to Officers. I. It is not advisable to close school because a teacher is ill. Better get a qualified substitute. 2. It is advisable for officers to visit the school occasionally. 3. Officers should hold a regular board meeting the last Thursday of each school month and invite the teacher to be present. The object of this meeting being to promote the welfare of the school, to settle all difficulties with parents, teachers or pupils and to transact all business necessary to be done. At this meeting the teacher's order should be drawn and signed and the teacher paid her money. To Parents. i. It is advisable for parents to visit the school occasionally to witness the regular school work. 2. Parents should see that pupils are at school regularly. 3. Do not allow your children to be late. 4. Co-operate with the teacher in every way possible. In union there is strength. 5. If any misunderstandings arise between pupils and teachers or between parents and teachers it is wise for parents to visit the teacher and calmly and good-naturedly, yet earnestly, talk the matter over. If all concerned use good judlgmnent on such occasions difficulties can almost always be amicably settled and the school will be the better for it. To Teachers. I. Fundamentals: Loyalty, thoroughness, accuracy, speed. 2. Make and keep in a l>ook provided for that purpose an outline of what you expect to accomplish in each of your classes each day.

Page  367 IONIA COUNTY. MICHIGAN. 367 3. Prepare a program, hang it in a conspicuous place and follow it. 4. Hear your recitations regularly. This is important. 5. Carefully correct and supervise all written work. 6. Insist upon absolute, prompt and unquestioning obedience. 7. Do not "baby" pupils. Teach them to be self-reliant and selfhelpful. 8. Insist that all pupils shall speak distinctly and loudly enough to be heard. 9. Guard against talking too much. Talking teachers are usually unskilled teachers. io. Do not allow loafing and dawdling about anything. Make things move. Ii. Be definite in the assignment of lessons. 12. As a rule teachers should not sit during recitation periods. The teacher who does so is not likely to be either interested or interesting. 13. Familiarize yourself with the State Course of Study and the County Directory. I4. Cultivate in pupils a regard for school and public property. I5. Teachers should assist in maintaining a spirit of unity, loyalty and service among the members of the profession. r6. Do not find fault to anyone about what your predecessor has done or about the conditions of your present school. If things are not right have patience until you make them right. I7. Notice what is said about written work and seat work in the State Course of Study. Also, what is said about play. I8. If teachers build fires they should be at the school house at eight o'clock in the morning, otherwise at eight-thirty. 19. Call school at nine o'clock, a. m. (Not 9:05.) 20. Give pupils one hour for dinner and recreation. They need it. (If officers or parents want schools to close at 3:30 p. m., they should give you the time.) 21. See to'it that you have order during the recess periods and in the hallways or entries. 22. Teachers should not be compelled to run around after their pay orders and should not be asked to accept bank checks as pay. 23. Be on time with your reports and Reading Circle work. Reading Circle manuscript will not be accepted after expiration dates given in calendar. Get books early.

Page  368 368 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 24. Plan for summer school work for I9i6. 25. Inform the commissioner of your difficulties before others do so. This will enable the commissioner to help you in many cases. TEACHING HINTS. 1. How much time would be saved if teachers did not repeat the answers of the pupils. Not once in a hundred times is it necessary or wise to repeat the answers, yet this is the most common of teachers' errors. Count the number of times you do this today. 2. Every pupil should be called on in every recitation. This is the ideal. If it cannot be attained, at least do not call on the same pupil over and over. Is this your practice? 3. "Do you all understand?" "Is there any one who does not understand?" These are two foolish questions for teachers to ask for these reasons: (a) Only one pupil in fifty will ever acknowledge that he does not understand; (b) the proper way to find out whether a pupil understands or not is to ask him to explain. Do you ask these questions? 4. Stand straight. This should be insisted on by all teachers from the first grade through the high school. A pupil should either stand or sit, not slouch half way between. To stand straight is a valuable element in character. One is more of a man when he stands straight than when he slouches. 5. It is bad housekeeping to fill up vacant desks with waste paper, etc. Waste baskets are provided. Books in desks should be piled neatly, not thrown in carelessly. These suggestions apply from the first grade through the high school. 6. Teachers talk too much in the school room, the pupils too little. In the stenographic reports of high school classes made by Miss Romiett Stevens, of Teachers College, it was found that sixty-four per cent of the talking in the class was done by the teachers. What proportion of the time do you use in talking? 7. Co-operation is a magic word for peace 'and happiness in the business world, in the home or in the school. We should assume that every other person is reasonable in his demands and then co-operate with him until thoroughly convinced that he is unreasonable. And in nine cases out of ten what seems unreasonable will prove to be misunderstanding. Co-operation is the key to the smooth working of any school. 8. Pupils should be taught to keep their desks in good order and to

Page  369 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 369 take out material carefully and quietly. These practices should become habits and should not require constant reminders. 9. Questions which can be answered by "yes" or "no" require little or no thought. It is a good rule, which may now and then have an exception, never to ask such questions. IO. When a question is asked of a class, it should be assumed that every pupil knows the answer. It is unwise to ask for a show of hands in the ordinary routine of class instruction, for this implies that only a few know the answer to the question. Teachers of the county do the State Reading Circle work each year, and much attention is paid to getting good juvenile books in the various school libraries. No county in the state excels this one in this respect. There are eight "Standard Schools" in the county which have earned the coveted metal plate from the state. The first to receive this honor was district No. i, Easton township, known as the "Prison School"; then followed the "Steel," "Case," "Spaulding," "Stone," "Loomis," "Badder" and the "Abbey." The "Standard School" is described in the following communication from the state superintendent of public instruction: STANDARD SCHOOL. To the School Boards of Rural School Districts: The State of Michigan has a compulsory attendance law which requires every child between the ages of seven and sixteen to attend school every day during the time that school is taught in the district. Most of the country school buildings are very faulty in matters of heat, light, ventilation and sanitation. It would seem only fair that inasmuch as the state compels every child to go to school that he should have reasonably decent quarters. The purpose of this note is to tell you of a plan to create a standard school. If any school board of Michigan will so arrange its plan that they will conform to the specifications hereinafter described, the superintendent of.public instruction will designate the school as a standard school. He will, with the county commissioner, inspect the plant and if the plant fulfils requirements he will put on the front of the building a metal tablet that can be seen by all who pass. This tablet will bear the words, "Standard School." He will also give to the school a framed diploma to be hung inside the building which states that this particular school has been awarded the distin(24)

Page  370 370 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. guished honor of being put in the standard school class, this distinction to be taken away if the school falls below the requirements. The requirements for the standard school are as follow: Yard and Outbuildings. I. Ample grounds of at least one-half acre. 2. Some trees and shrubs tastefully arranged. 3. Good approaches to the house. 4. Two well-kept, widely separated outhouses. 5. Suitable room or place for fuel. The School House. I. House well built, in good repair and painted. 2. Good foundation. 3. Well lighted with some attention to proper lighting. 4. Attractive interior decorations. 5. Good blackboards, some suitable for small children. 6. Heated with room heater and ventilator in corner, or basement furnace which brings clean air in through the furnace and removes foul air from room. 7. Hardwood floor and interior clean and tidy. Furnishings and Supplies. I. Desks suitable for children of all ages, properly placed. 2. Good teacher's desk. 3. Good bookcases. 4. A good collection of juvenile books suitable as aids to school work as well as for general reading. 5. Set of good maps, a globe, dictionary, sanitary drinking facilities. The Organization. I. School well organized, especially as to grades. 2. Classification and daily register well kept. 3. Definite program of recitation and study. 4. Attendance regular. 5. At least eight months of school. 6. Discipline good.

Page  371 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 371 The Teacher. I. Education: The equivalent of a county normal course or of a fouryear high school course. z. Must receive a suitable salary. 3. Ranked by the county commissioner as a good or superior teacher. 4. Must attend institutes and teachers' meetings. These requirements are by no means severe and most of them are vitally necessary as far as the health and efficiency of the children are concerned. A child spends from four to six hours each school day inside the school room, more waking hours than he spends in any one room in his home. Unless the room is thoroughly warmed, unless it is supplied constantly with fresh, pure air, unless it is well lighted, unless comfortable seats and desks of the proper size for the individual are provided, unless the pupils can drink without a risk of contamination, the health of the children in that school is being menaced. A good teacher is vital, but she must have proper equipment in order to do effective work and a well-selected school library is one of the most important essentials. Trusting that you will co-operate with the county commissioner and this department for more satisfactory school conditions, I am, Yours sincerely, FRED L. KEELER, Superintendent of Public Instruction. This county has an eighth grade graduation and field day that is unequaled in any county so far as can be learned. The time for this event has usually been the first Saturday in June of each year. At the eighth grade exercises which are held in the forenoon at ten o'clock, some speaker of note gives a short address which, with music, forms the principal part of the exercise. Such crowds attend these exercises that no room has been obtained large enough to accommodate all who wish to attend. In the forenoon also are held tennis contests and preliminaries to the afternoon track events. In the afternoon from 5,000 to Io,ooo people gather on the fair grounds at Ionia to witness the contests. Special trains have been chartered to bring the people, and the various high schools bring vast crowds to cheer their own track team or baseball team on to victory. Corn clubs and potato clubs have been formed with a great deal of success. Homer Fletcher, one of the school boys, holds the record of being one of the best corn growers in Michigan.

Page  372 CHAPTER XXVI. NEWSPAPERS OF IONIA COUNTY. The first newspaper published in Ionia county was the Ionia Journal. It was established by Ira W. Robinson in February, i843, and the size of this paper was a five-column folio, each page being twelve inches by sixteen in dimensions. A copy of this relic of early journalism in Ionia county is available for examination and although rather tattered by age it showed good workmanship. This copy bears the date and heading "Jonia, Michigan, December 27, 1843," and is volume I, number 45. The motto of the paper is one which immediately attracts the eye: "Freedom of Inquiry and the Power of the People-Bound to No Party-To No Sect Enslaven." The price of the paper was $2.00 per annum in advance, to those village subscribers who had their papers left at their dwellings. Office and mail subscribers, $I.50 per annum in advance. A fee of twenty-five cents was to be added to the above prices when payment was delayed six months, and fifty cents if left until the end of the year. The business notice in the upper left hand corner of the paper declares that the Journal will be published every Wednesday bv Ira W. Robinson. The terms of advertising were as follow: "One square of twelve lines or less inserted three weeks for $i.oo. Each additional insertion twenty-five cents. A liberal discount made to those who advertise by the year. Advertisements not accompanied by directions will be published until ordered out, and charged accordingly. When a postponement is attached to an advertisement, the whole will be charged, as if for the first publication. Payment for all advertising from abroad, and all legal advertisements, will be required in advance. Letters on business must be postpaid, to receive attention." This issue of the fonia Journal contained not a single item of local news. It was made up of a story on "Life in New York," by Jonathan Slick, Esq., an item on "The Culture of Wheat," an editorial on "Post Office Reform," a few items of general news and some news from Europe via the steamship "Acadia" and was marked "fifteen days later," a business directory of lonia and eight columns of advertisements. Mr. Robinson continued as editor of the Joitrnal for three or four

Page  373 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 373 years, when, in consequence of having become involved in some difficult business relations, he abandoned this field altogether and the Journal ceased its existence. The next venture in the newspaper field was attempted by Mr. E. R Powell and the paper was a success both financially and otherwise. This was the Ionia Gazette and the initial number of this paper was issued on the first Tuesday in January, 1849. Mr. Powell was a native of Howell, Michigan, and purchased considerable of the material formerly used in the Journal office. The size of the paper at first was a five-column folio and was printed on a Ramage wooden press. In I853, owing to the increase in business, the paper was enlarged to a six-column folio, and again, in September, I857, just after the completion of the Detroit & Milwaukee railroad to Ionia, business took another boost and 'the paper was enlarged to a seven-column folio, which size it retained. Politically, the Gazette began as an independent paper, but after two or three years' existence it began to advocate Democratic principles, continuing thus until the organization of the Republican party, in I856, when it joined that party, and thereafter was a stalwart Republican sheet. The last number of the Gazette was issued in August, I867, and the greater part of the office equipment was sold to the Sentinel and the editor removed to Stanton, where he had taken charge of the Montcalm Herald. IONIA SENTINEL. The Ionia Sentinel, the oldest paper in Ionia county, was established in I866, the first issue being May I in that year. The first publishers were T. G. Stevenson and J. C. Taylor. In I870 Gen. James H. Kidd purchased a third interest and in I887 became sole owner of the property. In that year a daily edition of the Sentinel was established called the Daily Mail. Ths was later changed to the Daily Sentinel. Both weekly and daily editions were published from that time on. General Kidd remained the editor and publisher until his death in I9I3. The Sentinel has always been a Republican paper in politics and is a widely-read county newspaper occupying first rank. With the largest circulation in the county it is a well-patronized advertising medium. The present staff is composed of Frederick McC. Kidd, editor; Harry E. Spencer, business manager; Josephine Lehman, reporter; Frank T. Stevenson, foreman; Earl Wright, linotype operator; 0. C. Wright, job printer; Earl Seely, Lewis Arbor, Leon Mileski, Jessie Seymour; Bert Underwood, pressman; Claude Kieft. The office has a complete and up-to-date job plant as

Page  374 374 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. well as a newspaper plant and one of the most thoroughly equipped offices in this section of the state. Gen. James H. Kidd, for seventy-three years a resident of Ionia, was born here on February I4, I840, and died on March 19, I913. During his boyhood days he attended the public schools and clerked in the store of his father, James M. Kidd, at Kiddville, near the present city of Belding. In i86o he graduated from the State Normal School at Ypsilanti and entered the University of Michigan. In I862 he was second lieutenant of the Tapipan Guards, a company of university students. In the same year he refused a commission in the Twenty-first Regiment, Michigan Volunteer Infantry, to enter the cavalry and in August was authorized by Col. F. W. Kellogg to organize a company of cavalry-Company E, Sixth Michigan —and was commissioned captain. On May 9, I863, he was commissioned major and May I9 was made colonel. He was wounded at the battle of Falling Waters. He participated in Kilpatrick's raid, the Wilderness campaign, the Shenandoah valley operations and succeeded Gen. George A. Custer to the command of the Michigan cavalry brigade which he commanded at Cedar creek. At the close of the war he was ordered west and commanded the left wing of the Powder river expedition against the Indians, establishing a post and building Ft. Reno on the Powder river in Wyoming. At the close of the campaign he was brevetted brigadier general of volunteers. General Kidd entered the manufacturing business in Ionia and in I867 was appointed register of the land office at Ionia. In 1876 he became the first captain of the lonia Light Guards. In 1879 he was made colonel and brigade quartermaster of the Michigan National Guard, when the brigade was first organized. In 1882 and 1883 he was brigade inspector and in 1885 was made inspector general by Gov. R. A. Alger. In I895 he was appointed quartermaster general on the staff of Gov. John T. Rich, in 19oI and 1903 he occupied the same position on the staff of Gov. A. T. Bliss and served in the same capacity from I905 to I9II on the staff of Gov. Fred M. Warner. In I897 he was made secretary of the deep waterways commission at Detroit for three years. General Kidd was at one time eminent commander of the Masonic order in Ionia and junior warden of the grand commandery. He served as commander of the Department of Michigan Grand Army of the Republic. a member of the Loyal Legion, Michigan Cavalry, of which he was the head at one time, and president of the Sixth Michigan Cavalry Association. He was a member of the commission having in charge the fiftieth anniversary

Page  375 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 375 celebration of the battle of Gettysburg. He was a member of the committee which arranged for and unveiled the equestrian statue of General Custer at Monroe, and was also connected with the unveiling of the Michigan statue at Andersonville prison, and the Michigan statue on the battlefield of Gettysburg. General Kidd was signally honored in I910 when the University of Michigan conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Literature, in recognition of the public services and his literary work. HIe wrote and published the "Personal Recollections of a Cavalryman with Custer's Michigan Brigade in the Civil War," an authoritative work. He was a stanch Republican and a delegate to the national Republican convention in I892. Loyalty to country. love of home and family and a strict adherence to principles of thorough honesty in his political and business life characterized the life of General Kidd. Throughout the period of his living years he was faithful to every trust that was placed in his keeping. IONIA STANDARD. The Jonia Standard, with daily and weekly editions, is published by Robert Baerd. The weekly edition was established in I868, while the daily edition was first published in I891, both being Democratic in politics and having gained a very enviable position among the Democratic papers of the state. Up to May I, 1914, the Standard had been published by a company, but at this time Robert Baerd, always an active publisher in the company, bought out his partner, J. C. Taylor, and since that time has continued the publication of the papers, keeping them on the same high plane on which they have always been held. By reason of a liberal advertising patronage, the daily has been enlarged from time to time, while both editions at all times keep full pace with the spirit of progress of the present age, and are well recognized factors in the upbuilding of Ionia city. The Standard also has a well-equipped plant for general commercial printing. Robert Baerd. owner and publisher of the Standard, was born in Terre Haute, Indiana, April 27, I857, remaining there until fifteen years of age, when he went to Grand Rapids, Michigan, as a journeyman printer. In I88I he came to Ionia, and in MIay, 1883, purchased an interest in the Standard, having been one of its active publishers from that time and now is sole owner. Mr. Baerd has always been prominently identified with the prosperity of lonia, and has served the city as mayor, treasurer and clerk, and many years as alderman.

Page  376 376 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. IONTA NATIONAL. The Ionia National was established in August, I878, by L. P. Brock, and soon became the leading organ of the Greenback party in western Michigan. Soon after it began publication, it unearthed a series of corrupt practices on the part of the first warden of the Ionia state reformatory which brought it into state-wide notice, and also brought to it the notoriety of a criminal libel suit instituted by the warden. The case never came to trial, for the reason that the state Legislature took the matter up and after a thorough investigation-in which all the charges made by the National were fully proven-the warden was deposed of his office. This, together with its strenuous and able advocacy of the Greenback doctrines, increased its circulation until it rivalled that of any paper ever published in the county. In the campaign of I884 the editor, Mr. Brock was nominated and elected county register of deeds, on a Greenback and Democratic fusion ticket; to which office he was re-elected in 1886. In I887 Mr. Brock sold the paper to Dan C. Wachs, who soon after changed its name to the lonia Express. Later Mr. Orin Wright became its owner and editor and it finally became merged with the Ionia Standard. During the campaign of I880, I882, I884 and I886, the National enjoyed a state-wide reputation and its editorial utterances were largely quoted by the state press and by many papers with a nation-wide circulation, like the Philadelphia American and the Chicaqo Express. Previous to the campaigns of 1884 and I886, Ionia county had been one of the strongholds of the Republican party in the state, but since that time it has been more or less vacillating in its politics. PORTLAND OBSERVER. The Observer (or rather Advertiser as it was then called) was established in Portland in the summer of I867 by the late J. H. Wickwire, who sold the plant after issuing seven numbers of the paper to Joseph W. Bailey, now of Lansing. Shortly after Mr. Bailey took charge of the business he changed the name of the paper to the Observer, by which name it is still known. Mr. Wickwire went from Portland to Dexter, where he established the Dexter Leader. In 1876 Mr. Bailey erected a two-story brick building on Kent street, the upper floor of which was occupied by the plant through all of the different changes in ownership until January, I916, when the paper took up more modern quarters on the ground floor in a two-story

Page  377 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 377 brick building on south Kent street recently completed for Mrs. Adah J. Blanchard. It was in 1882 that Mr. Bailey sold the Obscerver to Hartman & Belknap, two young printers from Ohio, and they, about a year later, sold it to Lew F. McCutcheon, who had learned his trade in the office and who was editor and proprietor of the paper until selling it to C. D. Tomy, of Portland, an experience( city newspaper man, in the summer of 1907. Mr. McCutcheon is now engaged in the real estate business in Detroit and, Mr. Tonm in the clothing business in this village. In September, 9rIo, the Observer was sold to Messrs. Arthur L. Francis and Floyd C. Rice, both Portland boys and sons of well-known citizens here. Mr. Francis took the editorial responsibilities of the business and Mr. Rice looked after the mechanical end until the fall of 1912, two years later, when Mr. Francis took over Mr. Rice's interest. Mr. Francis is still in charge and has built up the subscription list from alpproximately 9oo copies weekly to approximately 2,000. The job work and advertising patronage have also increased proportionately. As to equipment, the Observer placed itself in a class with the best equipped country offices in the state by installing a new $2,100 model No. I5 M\ergenthaler linotype upon taking up its new quarters in the Blanchard block. The politics of the Observer was Republican through all of the different managements until C. D. Tomy assumed charge in the summer of I907. He male the paper independent and it is still so. PORTLAND REVIEW. The Review, a weekly newspaper lul)lished at Portland, was established on June 3, r885, by Frank E. Doremuts, now representative in Congress from the first congressional district of Michigan. Mr. Doremus' equipment consisted of a Washington hand press and a few cases of type which he bought second hand. He was a native of Portland, but had gone over to Pewamo to conduct the Plain Dealer, having picked up the printer's trade in his home town. The Review was started when he gave up the Pewamo venture. He had been publishing the Review about five years when Fred, J. Mauren, a young printer, born and brought up in Portland, entered his employ. Mr. Doremus went to the Legislature the next winter, as representative from the Ionia county district and left Mauren in charge of the paper. Upon his return from Lansing he took his young employee as a partner and the two made many improvements in the office, enlarging the

Page  378 378 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. paper, buying a new press and modern equipment. Mr. Doremus served one term as postmaster, under Cleveland's administration, and on his retirement moved to Detroit to study. law, still retaining his interest in the Review, but sold it to Mr. Mauren in April, 1900o. Mr. Mauren succeeded Mr. Doremus as postmaster, being a Republican, while his partner was a Democrat, and held the office two terms. When his successor was appointed he gave his entire time to the newspaper, which he has built up to a circulation of 2,000 copies weekly. The Rezicw was the first country newspaper in this part of Michigan to feature its news stories with heads and to give to the first page a make-up similar to that of the metropolitan dailies. This practice has now become quite general. The paper has, a large and growing advertising patronage, maintaining- an excellent job printing department in connection, and ranks well with the best country journals of the state. The paper is independent in politics. The support it gave Fred Cook, Democrat nominee for county clerk, is generally credited with having had much to do with that gentleman's success in the first campaign and in two subsequent campaigns when he was re-elected. At the same time it supported the Republican candidates for governor and in 1912 it gave support to Roosevelt for president. He made a strong showing in the county. BELDING BANNER. The Belding Banner was established in Belding the first week in June, I889, by Embrie B. Lapham and Charles [L. Cowdin, who came to Belding from Rockford, Michig'an, putting in a complete new plant, with a Prouty cylinder press and one job press. Six months later fire destroyed all the plant except the job press. The proprietors bought a new cylinder press and continued business. In 1904 Mr. Lapham purchased Mr. Cowdin's interest in the plant and continued as editor and proprietor until February, 1913, when he sold out to Jesse K. Coates and James M. Langston of Hastings. A few months later Mr. Ford Hicks, also of Hastings, took an interest in the new firm, which continued to run the paper until May, 19I5, at which time Mr. Lapham took over the Hicks and Coates interest and together with Mr. Langston continues the business under the name of the Banner Publishing Company. The Banner has always adhered to the Republican side in politics. Its present circulation is 2,000.

Page  379 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 379 BELDING NEWS. The Belding VNews wxas established in April, I896, by Frank J. Luick, one of the present publishers, who continued as owner, editor and proprietor of the same up to July 19, 1915, when he sold a one-half interest in the plant and good will to Edward D. Engemann, Sr., since which time the News has been published under the firm name of Luick & Engenann. In I886 Mr. Luick established the Echo at Tustin, Osceola county, Michigan, which he published seven years. In I893, he sold his plant in Tustin and established the Times at Dorr, Allegan county, Michigan, which he published until August, I895, when he sold the same and entered into a partnership with a firm in Grand Rapids, establishing the Freecoinage Independent. selling his interest in the same in January, I896. During all these years Mr. Luick has affiliated with the Democratic party, devoting a large amount of his time, labor and space in an effort to convince his readers that his political beliefs and opinions were sound. There has never been any financial incumbrance on the Belding News plant. Edward D. Engemann, Sr., who is the junior partner in the firm of Luick & Egemann, took up the management of the Belding Ncews in July, I915, and has worked tip from a practically uneducated boy to his present position as business manager of the paper. He was taught the case by Mr. Luick a number of years ago, and by putting in his spare time evenings and Saturday afternoons, working in the New^s office, he soon got an insight into the business. His next step was the purchase of a job printing plant in Detroit, which he later moved to Belding, selling a one-half interest in the same to his brother, George H. Engemann, running under the firm name of Engemann Brothers. Neither being practical printers it was deemed unwise to do any printing for local people, and so the use of the United States mail was resorted to, and a splendid mail order cash business was soon established. He closed this plant at the time he purchased the job printing department of the Belding Banner, in company with Embree B. Lapham, running the same under the name of The Belding Printing Company. In September, 1914, he disposed of his interest in this company to his partner. and secured a position as traveling salesman for a basket factory, resigning this in July, I9I5, to take the management and a one-half interest in the Belding Newrs. He has had valuable experience on some of the best country papers in the land, working for editor A. T. Cowan, of the Polo, Illinois, Tri-County

Page  380 380 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Press, and similar papers. Immediately upon assuming the management of the Belding News, Mr. Engemann took steps to secure larger and more suitable quarters for the publication of the paper, and began to secure new equipment for the plant, among the latter was a fine newspaper press. As a result of his efforts in behalf of the Newvs, the circulation and patronage which the paper enjoyed have increased wonderfully, as many as twenty-six bona-fide subscribers being placed on the subscription list with no extra effort being used to secure them within sixteen hours. The Belding News is now, and has been for some time, the official organ of the city of Belding. SARANAC ADVERTISER. The Saranac Advertiser was established in April, I893, by H-iram T. Johnson, who has had complete charge and direction since. It started with a small equipment and a WNashington hand press, a four-page paper. It was soon mnade an eight-page paper. The paper started without a single subscription or advertising contract, but was given a hearty support by the people from the first, and has the distinction of having one advertiser who has had an ad. in every issue, in the same position, for over twenty-two years. S. A. Watt is the man. In I9II the Saranac Local was consolidated with the Advertiser. The equipment is now up-to-date, having installed a fine new cylinder press the first of last year and has its own fine brick building. The present year has been the best in its history in every department. The Advertiser is a Republican paper and has taken an active part in the upbuilding of the village and community. It has fought for waterworks for years and had the satisfaction of seeing it accomplished last year. Hiram T. Johnson had about one year's experience in a printing office before he started the Advertiser, but he gave the new enterprise his best thought and energy, working almost night and day, working at the desk, the case, or doing press work or anything that was needed. He has been rewarded by seeing the business grow from a small beginning to one of the most prosperous papers in lonia county. His son, Norton S. Johnson, assumed an interest in the paper January I, I916, relieving his father of some of the detail work.

Page  381 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 381 LAKE ODESSA WAVE-TIMES. The Lake Odessa 1Wave-Times was organized on March I, i888, and at that early period it was called the Lake Odessa News. It continued as the News for about a year when it was changed to the Lake Odessa 1I7ave. On October 12, I909, on the consolidation of the Wave and the Times the name was again changed to the Wave-Times. The Times was first published in 1902 and was purchased by the editors of the Wave. The first owner and publisher of the Lake Odessa Wave-Times was Harry Walker who started the paper and continued with it for about three years when he sold out to Clyde Francis. The latter served as owner and editor for about five years when it passed into the ownership of Charles W. Slosson. The latter purchased the paper about the year I890 and retained until I902 when he sold it to Albert Weber. Mr. Weber continued to run the paper until.ugust, 1905, when the present owner, A. J. Dann, assumed control. The first editors of the Lake Odessa Times were Benjamin and George McMillan. After these came Hancock and Prestidge who got out the paper two years before it became the property of the Wave. The politics of the Wave-Tivies has always been independent. It has stood for the best in all parties and has always been a booster to the town and a champion of clean-politics. The size of the paper at present is a seven-column eight-page, and it has a circulation at present of 1,350. The Lake Odessa Wave-Times is printed by the Dann Newspaper Syndicate. This syndicate, which is managed by A. J. Dann & Son, Stanley W. Dann, has three circuits in which it prints papers. One paper in each of these circuits is made up entirely by the Dann Printing and Publishing Company, while the other papers in each of the circuits that are under this syndicate are partly printed by this company and the rest printed in the local fields. This company is exceptionally housed in a brick building forty-two by sixty-six.. The equipment of the plant consists of a two revolution fourroller, quarto size, cylinder press, with electric power and fixtures, a twelve by eighteen Chandler & Price jobber, a seven by eleven Gordon jobber, a new improved twenty-four page Mentges folder, a new model No..15 Mergenthaler linotype machine, a new improved sterotyping outfit, a homemade Miller saw and trimmer. This paper also boasts of having the largest stone space of any paper in this section of the country except the city papers.

Page  382 382 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Besides the regular printing of the different papers and job work this syndicate has become quite extensively known as a mail order house and its volume of business in this line is gradually increasing. CLARKSV1LLE RECORD. The Clarksville Record was organized on July I, 1895. This paper was started by C. W. Compton, who was sole owner and editor for about three years, when it passed into the hands of V. H. Church. The latter kept the paper for some two years and sold to A. E. Winchester. Mr. Winchester continued in possession of the paper until in August, 1914, when it became the property of the Dann Newspaper Syndicate and was published by them until January, I916, when it became the property of Ray 0. Spence. This paper has also been independent in politics. The Clarksville Record is a six-column quarto and has a circulation at present of 350. The present owner is making arrangements towards establishing a plant for the publishing of the paper. MUIR TRIBUNE. The M/fuir Tribume the only paper in the village of Muir, was founded in the year I880. Although the history of this paper extends over a period of thirty-six years it is impossible to ascertain any great amount of facts concerning its early life. The list of editors who have served this paper are as follow: T. E. Jackson, V. C. Monroe, H. C. Smith and the present editor, W. S. Wiggins. The paper is published weekly and has always been independent in politics. The plant has the equipment for newspaper printing and also job work. The present editor took charge of the work in January, 1907. He was born in Muir in the year 1884 and has been actively associated with newspaper work all his life. DEFUNCT NEWSPAPERS OF IONIA COUNTY. The first newspaper published at Lyons was the Lyons Herald. It was started in I855 by Gideon Hendrick and was continued until the year I856, when by the burning of Dorus M. Fox's store, the material composing the Herald was also destroyed. Not being able to rise, phoenix-like, from its ashes, the publication of the Herald was thus brought t, an untimely end. The Herald was Democratic in principles.

Page  383 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 383 The next paper established in Lyons was started by Dorus M. Fox in i868. It was styled the Present Age, but not proving to be an eminently successful business venture, its publication also ceased, after a continuance of about one year. The Grand River Herald was another of the short-lived papers of this county. It was stated in I873 by Benton Rement and discontinued three years later. The Reportcr was commenced at Saranac, by C. H. Smith, of Ionia, in 1874. It was neutral politically until I876, when it supported Republican principles and the candidates of that party to the close of the campaign, when it was discontinued. The Belding Telegram, with William F. Slawson as publisher, was started in the village of Belding in December, I877. After the issue of forty-six numbers it was removel to Greenville, Montcalm county.

Page  384 CHAPTER XXVII. IONIA'S POSTAL HISTORY. The postoffice might rightly be called the barometer of the business conditions of a community, for no better indication of the prosperity of any community or city can be found than the increase in the receipts of the postoffice. Just eighty-one years ago the first postoffice was established in the village of Ionia. This was in the year I835 and Erastus Yeomans was appointed to the charge thereof. He kept the mail in his log house, at the western end of the village; but, that location being inconvenient to the general public, he soon erected a building nearer the center of the town. The first regular mail brought into Ionia was by carrier and the route ran from Jackson to Grand Rapids. The settlers along this route received mail once in two weeks, as the carrier traveled on horseback and it took that time to make the trip. When the stage,route was opened between Detroit and Grand Rapids, via Ionia, mail came in daily. Mr. Yeomans was succeeded in I84I by Jacob Windsor. Even at that early date the political cunning which is rather characteristic of Ionians was displayed by Windsor. He (so it is related) secured his appointment by procuring the signatures of the entire community to a petition for the improvement of Grand river. As soon as the necessary signatures had been secured he removed the petition and in its place substituted one for his own appointment as postmaster. He secured the appointment and kept the office in the tailor shop of Ethan S. Johnson, who was appointed 'deputy, but as soon as the facts concerning the petition became known the demand became universal for his removal and in a short time Mr. Windsor's resignation was accepted. Ethan S. Johnson became postmaster in 1842 and served until I845, when Richard Dye was appointed. An incidental view of Ionia at that early day may be acquired by taking a glimpse at the primitive boxes of postmaster Dye's office. The successive postmasters since Mr. Dye and their tenure of service were as follow: Jonathan Tibbitts, I849-53; William Yerrington, I853-57; David Irish, I857-6I; Edward Stevenson, I86I-65; Lewis D. Smith, I865-73; M. L. Smith, 1873-77; Alfred H. Heath, I877-86;

Page  385 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 385 Angelo Tower, 1886-90; General James H. Kidd, 1890-93; Thad B. Preston, 1893-97; K. R. Smith, 1897-II; Henry J. Horrigan, April I, I9IIMay I, 1914; Harvey E. Kidder, who is the present incumbent, May I, I9I4. In I880 the business of the Ionia office had reached approximately $8,000, and in 1889 it had reached the sum that warranted the application for the free delivery system, the amount of receipts at that time being slightly over $Io,ooo. On petition of the common council, accompanied by the recommendation of Postmaster Tower, the department ordered the system installed. The buildings of the city were re-numbered under the Philadelphia system and free delivery for the city was inaugurated on January I, 1890, with four carriers. J. R. Benedict became the carrier on route No. i and Harry Sunderlin the carrier of route No. 2, positions which these men have held to the present time. The present carriers for the other city routes are Frank H. Judevine, route No. 3; C. J. Haight, route No. 4, and Charles M. Morse, route No. 5. There are two full deliveries made each day in the city and in the business section it requires four deliveries. The business of the office continued to increase from 1890 at a rather rapid rate and soon the old quarters proved inadequate for this growth. Through the influence of the citizens of the city, assisted by Congressman Diekema, a new federal building was finally assured. Long had the citizens looked forward to the occupancy of a new federal building and when at last it was in view their desires were satisfied. The site chosen was on the corner of Washington and First streets and a quarter block was purchased for the new structure. Work was begun in May, 1911, and the corner stone was laid with fitting ceremony on July 4, 1911. The building was completed and occupied on July I, 1912, at a cost of $70,000. It was a revelation to the citizens generally when they entered the building for the first time and saw the beautiful interior which rivalled the exterior appearance for attractiveness and simplicity. Also the wealth of equipment and accommodations which the government had provided. The furnishings and interior finishings were in oak; it is conceded to be the most- substantial building in the city and by many is considered the most beautiful. The business for the year of 1915 by quarters is as follow: First, $6,405.03; second, $6,021.24; third, $6,207.01;' fourth, $7,204.I3. Making a total for the year of $25,837.4I, which shows an increase of two and one-half times in the last twenty-five years. The rural delivery system was established with route No. I. Guy Connor served this route for about nine months when Bernie G. Humphreys (25)

Page  386 386 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. became the carrier and bears the distinction of being the oldest carrier in period of service. There are now seven rural routes which accommodate the urban settlers in a radius of ten miles from the city. There is also one star route which runs from Ionia to Palo. Routes No. 2, 3, 4 and 5 were established on May i5, 1901. Samuel S. Kelley and George E. Wedge have served as the carriers of routes No. 2 and 5, respectively, since their establishment, a term of almost fifteen years. The other carriers for the rural routes at present are: No. 3, George J. Comstock; No. 6, Clarence A. Cobb, and No. 7, which was established on January I, 1904, Nelson S. Tuttle. The star route carrier is Bert E. Stedman. The present postoffice force includes the following: Otto M. Ulrich, assistant postmaster; Pearl W. Hall, general utility clerk; John G. Malone, mailing clerk; Otto S. Taylor, letter distributer; Fred W. Cook, general delivery clerk, and Victor M. Wheaton, stamper. This office is now secondclass and the salary is fixed at $2,700 per annum. ACTIVE POSTOFFICES OF IONIA COUNTY. There are at present fifteen active postoffices of Ionia county ranging from the second-class office in the county seat to the fourth-class offices in some of the villages. The list with the postmasters who have served the different charges, including their tenure of office wherever possible is here given: Boston postoffice was established on December 30, 1840, with Timothy White serving as the first postmaster. On June 24, of the following year, Worcester English was appointed. The postmasters who have served are as follow: Cyprian S. Hooker, May i8, 1843; Jacob Pratt, July 2, I846; Benjamin Ellsworth, October 24, 1849; Ammon-Wilson, May 3, I853; Carlton B. Pratt, January 29, I858; Carlton B. Pratt, February 12, I859; (at this time the name of the office was changed to Saranac) Gilbert A. Cotton, April 12, I86I; Jonathan Sprague, November II, 1871; Gilbert A. Cotton, November 8,' I875; Mrs. Lucy M. Cotton, March 26, I877. Patterson's Mills postoffice was established on July I4, I857. Andrew C. Reynolds was the first postmaster, appointed on February 23, I857; Erastus M. Stevens, January 25, 1858; Solomon S. Brown, October 17, I862; (name changed to Belding) William A. Luther, April 21, I873; Albert Spencer, W. F. Bricker, A. L. Spencer, H. J. Cornell; D. Wilson, June II, I898, to April I5, I9Io; George W. Mounton, April 13, 19IO, to April, 1914; W. F. Bricker, April, 1914, to present date.

Page  387 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 387 The first postmaster in Lake Odessa was Mrs. Doctor Crane, who was postmaster at Bonanza and still continued in office when it was removed to Lake Odessa, in I889. In I890 Charles Jameson became postmaster and was relieved in 1892. Then followed Peter Fellows, who served for only thirty days; E. R. Teeple, who begun April I, I892, and served until May 30, I893; Milton Jaques, June I, I893, to June 30, 1897; Frank Clark, July I, I897, to October 30, 1905; Otis Miner, November I, I905, to January 3I, 19I4; Edwin Shellhorn, March i, 1914, to the present. Clarksville, established on June 22, 1875. Clark L. Howard, May 12, 1875, to 1885; Doctor Byron E. Hess, 1885-89; Leroy A. Scoville, I889-93; Frank E. Richards, I897, reappointed in I915. Montrose Station, established on September 12, 1857. Andrew B. Robinson, September 12, 1857; George W. French, September 24, 1858; George W. French, February I5, 1859; (name changed to Muir) Charles W. Staley, April 12, I861; A. Byron Robinson, January 21, I869; Henry V. Staley, September 24, I877. Matherton, established on March 2, I848. William Mather, March 2, I848; Asaph Mather, September Io, I850; Hiram F. Blanchard, July 5, 1856; Silas C. Smith, August 13, I860; Laban J. Lemert, July 3, 1862; Asaph Mather, March i, i863; Laban J. Iemert, March 14, 1864; Nelson D. Johnson, November 3, 1871; George H. Delsworth, September 30, I897; Frederick B. Ludwick, November 6, 1915. Lyons, established on December 31, 1836. Truman,H. Lyon, December 31, 1836; Giles S. Ishatn, June 7, 1840; Adam L. Roof, May II, 1843; Williamn Hanley, Marvin M. Baker, Silas Smith, Wallace Halstead, J. Halstead, L. E. Morse. Palo, established on July 14, I857. 0. H. Tyler, July I4, 1857; Barnabas D. Galloway, August 3I, I860; Leander Millard, January 30, I865; Ira Winegear, February 8, 1867; Asa C. H. Halbert, April 28, i868. Plains, established on September 13, 1858. Linus Van Alstine, September 13, 1858; (name changed to Hubbardston on December 27, 1859) Linus Van Alstine, December 27, 1859; James T. Hoolbrook, July 29, I861; William Wilson, June 4, 1862; Jacob C. Howard, February i i, I864; Albert G. Russell, February I8, 1864; Edward Cahill, Decembei 8, i868; John R. Abbott, November 17, I87o; A. V. Phister, B. Needham, Walter Tabir, M. H. Cahulum, J. A. Tabor, Mrs. J. A. Tabor; Anna McGinn, 1916. Pewamo, established on July 14, I857. Hiram W. Blanchard, July I4, 1857; John Betts, April I8, 1870; John Pennington, February I5, 1871;

Page  388 388 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Amos W. Sherwood, 1884-88; James H. Robertson, I888-92; Edgar E. Rogers, I892-96; John W. Swindt, I896-1901; Eugene Randolph, I9go-63; Fred D. Keister, 1903-06; Benjamin A. Ludwick, I906-I6. Portland, established on March II, I837. Joshua Boyer, March II, 1837; Charles W. Ingalls, December 3, I845; Hezekiah Smith, August 22, 1849; William W. Bogue, June 21, I85o; Francis G. Lee, May 2, 1853; William Root, August 12, i86i. Smyrna, established on March I6, 1848. Wilber Fisher, March I6, 1848; Orson Nichorson, August I9, I850; Norman G. Chase, August 6, I85I; Ezra Spencer, June 6, I854; Erastus Spencer, June 6, I854; Erastus Spencer, August 19, I859; Ambrose J. Ecker, June 8, i86i; James B. Purdy, August 5, I865; Charles H. Randall, November Io, I868; Ambrose J. Ecker, February 8, I869; George P. Hoppough, September 27, 1872; Edward Insley, February 24, I9I5. Smith's Crossing, established on January 15, I879. Charles Hoyt, January 15, 1879; (name changed to Shiloh December 31, I879) Charles Hoyt, December 31, I879. Wheatland, established on September 7, 1844. Joel C. Green, September 7, I844; Daniel Hoyt, May IO, 1852; James W. Gould, December 12, 1856; Daniel Hoyt, January I6, I868; (name changed to Orleans, June 22, I868) Daniel Hoyt, June 22, 1868; John Greenop, February 7, I86I; Anson Ostrom, February 26, 1878; Elmore 0. Smith, March i8, 1878; Elizabeth Palmer, October 27, 1879; Elmore 0. Smith, November 12, I879. DEFUNCT POSTOFFICES. Algodon, established on March IO, 1864. Edmund Vandecar, March IO, I864; Chauncey Towsend, July 28, I868; Caleb C. Vantasel, April I, I871; George Strother, February II, 1880. Alvon, established on July I, I844. Asaph C. Smith, July I, 1844; Simon Heath, May 23, I850; Stephen Dexter, April I5, 1852; Harvey Vinton, June 8, 1854; Harlow S. Vinton, July 14, I858; Silas Sprague, December 4, I858. Discontinued on July 1o, 1862. Cass, established on February 8, 1840. Levi Taylor, February 8, 1840. Changed to Berlin, April I3, 1842; discontinued on September 28, 1842. Campbell, established on August i, I854. Richard D. Hudson, August i, I854; Daniel S. Curdy, November 5, I857; Alva McCormick, January 5, i86I; Alvah J. McCormick, January 2, I865; William Hewitt, January 27, i868.

Page  389 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 389 Kiddville, established on August 20, 1855. James M. Kidd, August 20, I855; Simon J. Cromwell, May 20, I875; William E. Kidd, October 30, I878. Kossuth, established on December 6, I855. George W. Dickinson, December 6, I855; Mark J. Taylor, September I8, I865. Discontinued on December 10, i868. Richardson's Corner, established in July 14, 1857. Samuel Bretz; (name changed to Lake City, July 14, I857) Rufus K. Barlow, August I8, I858. Discontinued on January 6, I86o. Re-established on February 27, I87I. Washburn Wight, February 27, I87I; Mark D. Morick, January 25, I877. Changed to Rosina. Danby, established on September I6, I850. John Compton, September I6, I85o; John T. Cahoon, April I5, 1857; John Compton, September 20, I86I; Henry C. Wright, April 8, I869; Reading Sargent, November II, I869; Vorhies J. Warner, January I8, I872; John R. Davids, January 13, 1873; Thomas H. Wilcox, August I9, I875; Samuel F. Davis, July 3, I879. Easton, established on May 21, I862. William Dildine, May 2I, i862; Augustus C. Savage, December I n, 866; George Corkins, January 30, I872. Discontinued on September 4, I872. Collins, established on April ii, I871. William A. Staley, April II, I87I. Chadwick, established on April IO, I872. Charles Chadwick, April 10, I872. Keene, established on June 22, I868. Wallace Davenport, June 22, I868; Edwin Abbey, June i, 1874; George Hart, January 9, 1879; James D. Loucks, April I8, I879. Chandler, established on September 22, I879. Dayton M. Church, September 22, 1I879; Eustace E. Church, December 29, I879. Bonanza, established on May 17, I880. Horace F. Miner, May 17, i88o. West Campbell, established on December I6, T867. Isaac Gibson, December I6, I867. North Plains, established on March 3I, I846. Hiram Brown. March, 31, 1846; Tobias Perrine, August 21, I856; Hiram Brown, May 22, 1858; John Ransom, December 23, 1869; Miss L. Jane Ransom, May 24, I877. Discontinued after November II, I878. Maple, established on July I, 1838. Zinai Lloyd, July II, 1838; Joseph H. Rowe, May 22, 1852; John H. Canfield, May 30, I866; Robert

Page  390 390 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Toan, Jr., September 28, i868; Amos Worcester, January 16, 1872; Burnett M. Goodwin, February I, I878. New Berlin, established on March 17, I855. Alonzo Sessions, March 17, 1855; William Jones, December 12, I856. Discontinued on March 5, I858. Otisco, established on June 20, I838. George W. Dickinson, June 20, I838; Rufus R. Cook, December 8, 1838; Lemuel P. Davis, January 7, I857; William R. Hubbard, December 22, I860; Edwin F. Root, December 3, I86I; Salmon Pangborn, February 3, I862; Volney Belding, June 2, I863; William J. Shaw, November 5, I864; John S. Hunt, July 3, 1865; John C. Stockholm, July 21, 1865. Rix, established on May I, I85I. Joseph W. Sprague, May I, 1851; Ira Pickney, December I2, 1856; Benjamin Covert, March 22, 1858; Archelaus C. Lee, January 7, i86i; Ephraim Abbott, Jr., December 31, I86I. Discontinued on April 24, i868. Ronald Center, established on February I6, I851. Ralph Eli, February I6, 1851; Samuel Stone, January 5, 1857; Volney Belding, July 2, i86i; George Pray, December 12, 1862; Francis P. Minier, June 29, 1863; William Brown, February 23, 1869; Nelson Steadman, September 20, I869. Discontinued on March 17, I870. Ronald, established on February 21, I85o. Freedom Gates, February 21, I850. Discontinued on April I9, I853. Sebewa, established on January 24. I85I. Benjamin D. Weld, January 24, I851; Hiran Trim, August 22, I853; Lucius Showerman, April 14, I854; Pierce G. Cook, November 7, I857; John Freind, November I6, i86I; Oscar W.. Kibbey, September I, 1873; Riley W. Wilson, Novembetr 12, I878; Riley W. Wilson, July 8, I88o. South Boston, established on August I6, I849. R. J. Hess, August I6, I849; George Wickham, May 26, I852; Simeon Hunt, February 3, I853; Eldbridge G. Williams, May 13, I854; Curtis Clarke, December I6, 1862; Harley B. Church, January 20, 1865; Alfred Stearns, December 2, I867; Elbridge G. Williams, July 19, 1872. Discontinued on November 9g, I856. Stony Creek, established on August 2, 1852. Archibald Wilcox, August 2, 1852. Discontinued on November 19, I856. South Cass, established on December 30, I840. Myron Tupper, December 28, 1840; George Sickles, June 24, 1854; Esteven Russell, December i8, I860; Gordon H. Shepard, February 23, T869; Martin Cox, December 6, 1871; Frank W. Clark, May I3, 1873; Samuel 0. Hosford,' January 5,

Page  391 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 39I 1874; Eber Sickles, July 7. I875; Charles M. Runyan, March 4, 1878; Charles Sickles, April 25, 1879; Qordon II. Shepard, April 5, I88o. West Sebewa, established on April I4, 187I. Nathan Steward, April I4, 1871; Andrew C. Steward, November I4, 1871; Charles M. Caldwell, January 24, 1876; Luke Cook, March 20, 1877; George W. Adams, June 7, I88o. Waterville, established on April 5, 1838. James H. Hoag, April 5, I838; Cyprian S. Hooker, March I3, I869. Discontinued on March 14, I84I. Woods Corners, established on April 15, I869. Jefferson E. Bennett, April 15, I869; Jefferson E. Bennett, April 15, I869; Joseph Dehen, December 9, I870; Daniel T. Hoyt, April 5, I876; Joseph Dehen, April 17, I877.

Page  392 CHAPTER XXVIII. CHURCH ORGANIZATION. THE METHODIST CHURCH IN IONIA. The history of Methodism in lonia began in 1854, when Rev. R. W. Monet organized the first class at the home of Oliver Arnold in what is now South Ionia. That first class consisted of Silas Arnold, Antha and Authilda, his children, and Silas Arnold, class leader. These were the only representatives of Methodism in Ionia for two years. The pioneer Methodists held their services from house to house until J846, when a lot was purchased on Washington street and the erection of a church begun; but lack of funds delayed its completion. Until 1853 Ionia was a part of the Lyons circuit; but in that year it appears in the Michigan conference as the Ionia charge, with Rev. George Bignell appointed pastor. During this pastorate a great revival was held. Some of the present members of the church were converted in that meeting. The Michigan conference met in lonia for the first time in the fall of I86o. Bishop Matthew Simpson was the presiding bishop, and seventy-seven members of the conference were present. The old church had been enlarged but was entirely inadequate for the needs of the rapidly growing congregation, and in I869 the lot on the corner of Depot and East Main street was purchased for $4,ooo, and in the fall of that year the stone foundation of the present church edifice was laid. The basement was completed and dedicated on May 30, I871. The church as planned was to be one of the largest and finest in Michigan at the time. Some of the men who stood back of the movement to build such a splendid church were J. L. Hudson, James M. Kidd, J. C. Blanchard. N. M. Iewis and H. C. Sessions. The church was completed and dedicated on hMay 4, 1873, the total cost being $63,000. Rev. T. F. Hildreth was pastor of the church (luring this important period and is remembered by the older residents as a powerful preacher, and during his pastorate a great revival was held. In the fall of I879 Rev. Washington Gardener was appointed pastor and during his term the debt which had embarrassed the church for years was paid. The Methodist saints of this trying period of the church history, whose piety and devo 4~

Page  393 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 393 tion blessed the city and pushed forward the Kingdom of God, were Jesse Stevenson and wife, George Rosecrans, Abner W\right, Jesse Holcomb, Brother McPherson, Brother and Sister Howard. Richard Hudson, Hampton Rich and wife, A. S. Wright, Sister Blanchard, W. C. Page and wife, John Stevenson, and last but not least Brother Abraham DeKwak, who far forty-four years and more was a shining light and a constant benediction to the city. The list of Methodist pastors in lonia since the citv became the head of a charge in I853 is as follow: Revs. George Bignell, Isaac Bennett, Thomas Lyon, R. Sapp, R. C. Crawford, I. Earl, J. S. Child, George S. Barnes, H. Worthington, T. F. Hildreth, R. M. Joy, A. J. Eldred, E. Cooley, Jr.. Washington Gardener, G. S. Hickey, Levi Master, A. M. Gould, L. E. Lennox, D. F. Barnes, W. P. Urch, W. I. Fox, WV. I. Cogshall, E. G. Lewis, M. M. Callen. At present, under the pastorate of Clarence E. Hoag, the church is having- a large measure of prosperity. The nmembership is four hundred and sixty-five. The Sunday school in three distinct departments is doing the best work in its history under the suplerintendencv of R. A. Hawley, more room being needed to accommodate the rapidly growing classes, and the question of building a church house is being considered. PORTLAND METHODIST EPISCOIAL CIURCH. In 1836 the Michigan conference sent Reverend Mitchell upon the work known as the. Grand River circuit, in which Portland was included. He preached when he could or as he found anybody to preach to, and after a two-years service was succeeded by RJev. Larmon Chatfield and a Mr. Blowers. They divided the labor of the circuit and during the first year, 1838, Mr. Blowvers organized the first Methodist Episcopal class at Portland. The members of the class numbered five: Mrs. Miner, Mrs. Stanton, Mrs. Fox, Mrs. Hull's son and Mrs. T-THll, the former of whom was chosen class leader. Mrs. Sally Knox was soon afterward admitted as a privileged member, her faith being that of a Congregationalist. About this time worship which had been held at Philo Bogue's house was transferred to a log school house on the west side of the Grand river. In I839 the Grand River circuit was changed to Lyons Mission and included De Witt, Lyons, Ionia and Portland, all in charge of Rev. Larmon Chatfield. They were in the Grand River district which embraced a great tract of country and over which Larmon Chatfield was appointed presiding

Page  394 394 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. elder in I843. In 1839 the pastors in charge of the circuit were Z. C. Brown and Levi Warner; in I840, Allen Staples and Samuel Lapham, and in 1841, William E. Bigelow and Larmon Chatfield. In that year two Sunday schools were organized on the circuit. The church had struggled bravely for existence up to that time, but now began to take on the elements of prosperity, and five years later, when Revs. William C. Comfort and F. A. Blades were on the circuit the membership of the class was reported as forty-five and that of the charge two hundred and thirty-one. Ministers did not at that period receive luxurious salaries and what they did get came in a painfully uncertain way. Mr. Blades received three hundred and forty dollars yearly and in illustration of his sometimes impoverished condition it is said that he was once compelled to allow a letter to lie in the postoffice two weeks because he could not get the necessary two shillings to pay the postage. In I851 the Portland Methodists built a parsonage and in I854 Lyons circuit became Portland circuit. In I86o the old red school house was purchased and fitted up as a place of worship, and the same year the church membership made a material advance in strength. In I865 there was a still more important step forward, and before the close of the year the erection of the church edifice was begun. It cost $7,500, was finished in I866 and was dedicated in that year, Revs. A. J. Eldred and F. A. Blades, officiating. In I867 Portland was made a station and from that time on the church increased steadily in strength. The pastors and presiding elders who have served this congregation up to the present are as follow: Presiding eldersI838, Elijah H. Pitcher; 1842, George Smith; I843, L.armion Chatfield; I847, James Shaw; 1848, George Bradley; I85o, David Burns; 1854, Henry Penfield; 860o, G. Bradley; 1862, H. Hall; i866, J. Jennings; 1867, C. C. Olds; 1869, D. F. Barnes; I873, J. I. Buell; I879, Rev. Barnhart; 1885, A. P. Moors; I891, J. I. Buell; I897, W. W\. Puffer; 1901, L. DeLamarter; 1907, W. P. French; I013, Arba Martin. Pastors-1838, Larmon Chatfield; I839, Z. C. Brown, Levi Warner; 1840. Allen Staples, Samuel Lapham; I84I, Larmon Chatfield, William E. Biglow; I842, Nathan Mount; I843, R. B. Young; I844, W. F. Cowles, Eli Westlake; I845, William C. Comfort, F. A. Blades; 1847, D. A. Curtis, William Fox; 1848, S. C. Woodard, G. N. Belknap; 1849, S. C. Woodard; I850, J. S. Sutton, G. W. Hoag; I85I, J. S. Sutton, J. S. Harder; I85;2, Orin Whitmore, A. R. Bartlett; I853, Orin Whitmore, William McKnight; 1854, A. I.. Crittenden, G. D. Palmer; I855, A. A. Dunton. M. L. Carpenter; I856, W. W. Johnson; i858, T. Clark; I859,

Page  395 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 395 N. L. Otis, J. Sprague; 186o, N. L Otis, J. Mr. Pratt; I86I, E. Westlake; I863, Frederick Glass; 1864, H. C. Peck; I865, B. W. Blanchard; 1866, William M. Coplin; I868, David Engle; 1871, A. P. Moors; 1874, J. W. Reid; 1877, George L. Haight; 1879, A. P. Morrison; T88I, Levi Tfarr; I882, M. M. Gallen; 1885. J. W. Miller; I886, J. W. Hallenbeck; T889, E. T. Lumber; I89o, Robert H. Bready; I892, S. L. Davis; I893, W. P. French; I895, N. L. Bray; I899, J. W. H. Carlisle; I902, G. A. Buell; 1905, G. S. Robinson; I908, Arthur Trott; I9IO, W. W. Slee; 1915, C. E. Pollock. In 1879 a new parsonage was built and in I893 it was rebuilt, having been partially destroyed by fire. In I897 the Tonia and Iansing districts were consolidated. On August I8, I912, the church building was struck by lightning and totally destroyed. But by this time the congregation was not the weak society it had been forty years before as evinced by the fact that July 17, I913, the corner-stone was laid for a new $25,000 edifice. It was dedicated on March 29, 1914, by Bishop David H. Moore. The church is in a very prosperous condition and has enrolled two hundred and twenty-five members, which is one of the largest congregations in the county. An active Sunday school, Epworth League, Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, Woman's Home Missionary Society and Ladies' Aid Society are auxiliaries of this congregation. BELDING CENTRAL METHODIST CHURCH. The Central Methodist Episcopal church of Belding was organized in 1884 with the following charter members: Myron A. Barlow, Albert Jenks, Mrs. Jacob King, Mrs. LTaura Rickerd, Elizabeth Weeks, Mrs. Deitz and Mrs. Asher Williams. The first building for the accommodation of this congregation was located on section II, in the township of Otisco and was erected of wood. The congregation at Belding became an active factor in the church life of the town from the start and the membership increased with the population. About the year I910 a fine new parsonage was erected at a cost of $5,000 on the lot next to the church. Six years previous to that, time, in IQ04, the present church building was erected. It was constructed of cement blocks at a cost of $3I,000. The ministers who have served the Central church are as follow: Rev. Clark Seymour was the first pastor and to him a great amount of praise is due in the organization of the Methodist class in the village. Rev. Seymour was followed by L. B. Kenyon, R. M. Young, N. E. Gibbs, William Judd,

Page  396 396 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. C. A. Varnum, O. J. Golden, A. O. Carman, John Sheean, G. F. Craig. G. W. Maxwell and W. E. Doty. This congregation has a membership at present of three hundred and twenty-five. An active Sunday school with an enrollment of about five hundred, an Epworth League with a membership of one hundred, Junior League, a Ladies' Aid Society, Woman's Foreign Missionary and Standard Bearers are strong auxiliaries of the church. GREEN'S METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. The Methodist Episcopal church which is locally known as the Green's church was organized about the year I845 with the following charter members: Edwin Russell and wife, William Smith and wife, Lydia Smith, Edward Post, Thomas Murry and wife and Sarah Howe., The first building was erected of wood, on section 17, Orleans township. In 1872 a second building wvas erected at a cost of $2,500 and still serves this congregation. Green's church was at first supplied from Orleans in the days when the services were held in the school house. Later it became part of the circuit with Smyrna. ' About 1898 it was supplied from Belding, Rev. A. O. Carman being the first regular pastor. This society has a membership at present of about thirty-five with an active Sunday school and Iadies' Aid Society. PALO METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. The first Methodist Episcopal class organized in Ronald township is said to have been the one at South Ronald, which was formed at the Long Plain school house by Rev. F. A. Blades, of the lonia circuit. The Ronald class was formed in I852 by Rev. Mr. House with six members, Stephen Ackles and wife, Robert Evans and wife, Jeremiah Mabie and wife. At the outset the Ionia circuit included the classes in Ronald, but on September 20, 1854, a transfer was made when the Matherton circuit was established. On the 14th of December, I854, the first quarterly meeting of the Matherton circuit assembled, Henry Penfield was presiding elder and Clark Sutton, preacher in charge. In 1856 Ronald class was changed to Palo class, and in 1862 the charge had expanded to the strength of ten classes. In that year Palo circuit was formed. In I869 a commencement was made on the house of worship and in August, 1870, the edifice was dedicated, Rev. J. M. Fuller, of Lowell,

Page  397 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 397 preached the dedicatory sermon. The church measures thirty-six by sixty feet and cost $4,500, fully furnished. The parsonage had been built in I858. The ministers who have served this church and their tenure of service is given as follows: Clark Sutton, J854; Moses Carpenter, N. L. Otis. I858; John Braggins, i859; John Sprague, W. F. Jenkins, I856-66; E. D. Young, I866; C. H. Fisher, I867-70; G. C. Draper, 1870-72; WV. M. Colby, 1872-73; J. R. Cadwell, 1873-74; B. S. Mills, I874-76; M. D. Carrell, 1876-79; James Roberts. I879-8I; WV. W. Rork, 1881-82; D. C. Riehl, I882-84; T. H. Jacokes, 1884-86; F. N. Janes, 1886-89; 0. J. Golden, I889-94; John Dobson, I894-99; William A. Elner, 1899-1901; J. C. Dietrich, I90I-O4; J. W. Buell, 1904-08; F. A. VanI)ewalker, I908-Io; C. H. Wirth, I9IO-II; J. B. McGinness; 19TI-13; H. A. Crumb, I913-15; and the present incumbent, D. C. Crawford. This congregation has experienced a steady growth and at present has a meimbership of one hundred and forty. The auxiliaries of the church consist of an active Sunday school, Ladies' Aid Society, Queen Esther Society. Woman's Foreign Missionary Society and various minor societies. HUBBARDSTON METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. The Methodist Episcopal church of Hubbardston was organized in I856 by the Rev. Moses Carpenter. It was then placed on the Matherton circuit and Rev. N. L. Otis was appointed to that field in I858. The first class was very small and its members either died or moved away. Rev. John Braygins filled this charge after Reverend Otis. The first meetings were held by the organization in a school building which is now used by the Roman Catholic church for a parochial school building. At some period shortly after 1858 services were discontinued and Hubbardston Methodism was inactive for a short period. In 1866 Rev. N. L. Otis was again appointed to that circuit, and the congregation at Hubbardston was revived. The church building which is still used by the congregation was begun in 1867 and completed in 1869. It is a wooden structure and was erected at a cost of $3,500. Praise is due N. E. Rogers for the completion of this edifice. A list of the members of the Hubbardston class from 1856 to I866 is given below and although this may not constitute the charter members, yet these are the names of the persons who contributed to the success of the class: Harrison Colby, Mariah Colby, Margaret Cunningham, Harriett Cronkite, Peter Edwards, Margaret Edwards, Lawrence Ellis, Fannie Ellis, William

Page  398 398 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Fralick, Sarah Fralick, Oscar Goolthrite, Levi Johnson, Irene Johnson, Isaac Mershon, Peninnah Mershon. Mary Mershon, Julia Morse, D. W. Porter, Mary Porter, Amasa Sessions, Mary Sessions, Nathaniel Sessions, Chloe Sessions, S. E. Stoughton, Elmma Stephens, William Vredenburg, Calvin Woodward, Mary Woodward and Mary Wolverton. There has been no great change in the church building except the addition of a small chapel. Rev. N... Otis served the congregation until I868; A. R. Boggs, 8I69; Albert Smith, 1887-89; L. M. Garlick, 188)9-92; S. I. Horr I1892-94; H. R. Hawley, T894-96; N. M. Barnes, I896-1901; D. M. Ward, I901-04; A'. L. Mann, I004-06o; Charles Hayward, 1906-08; Charles Baughman, I908-o0; J. S. Valentine, 1910-12; WA. M. Chatfield, 1912-14; E. B. Dixon, 1914-15; and the present incumbent, W. S. Phillips. There is a membership at present of sixty-seven. This society also has a strong Sunday school of one hundred members. ORLEANS METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. A Methodist Episcopal class was organized in Orleans at a moderately early date, but just when or who were the organizing members cannot be clearly ascertained, for there are no records to enlighten the chronicler, and none of the early members within reach. In the steward's book appears the information that "the Otisco circuit was formerly a part of the old Flat River circuit from which it was separated in i86I, and then constituted a circuit by itself." Rev. Mr. Frieze, who was a famous and a zealous preacher on the Flat River circuit, preached the first Methodist sermon in Orleans. Among the ministers who served on that and the Otisco circuit, with Orleans as a field of their work, were the Revs. T. B. Granger, Seth Reed, J. N. Thomas, Isaac Bennett, T. S. Finch, William McKnight, E. Bush, Alfred Allen, J. W. Cawthorne, C. H. Fisher, E. Marble, A. P. Moors, E. D. Young, William T. Williams, T. J. Spencer, Alonzo Rogers, M. D. Carrel, N. L. Bray, W. A. Brownson, D. O. Ball, J. M. Aiken and W. H. Ware. There were in Orleans two Methodist Episcopal classes on the Otisco circuit which had five appointments, Rev. WV. H. Wvare being the preacher in charge in November, I880. The Orleans classes worshipped at the town hall and Green's Methodist Episcopal church, in section 17, erected in 1872. About the year T893, during the pastorate of W. E. Ogden, the class purchased a Grange hall, moved it to the lot which had been secured in the village, and remodeled it for a church. This continued to be the church home of the class until the need for a more modern edifice became so press-,m

Page  399 IONIA COUNTY, MICIIIGAN. 399 ing that in I915, under the leadership of Rev. F. WT. Nickel, a new site was purchased. This was more centrally located in the village and the church buildingo was again moved and remodeled. It was dedicated on September 5, T915, by District Superintededent illiam HI. Phelps, and is one of the most attractive village churches found in the county. The parsonage was formerly west of the old town hall but in 1914 Rev. F. \\. Nickel led in a movement which resulted in a more modern home for the pastor and located only three doors from the church. The following is the list of pastors who have served this church in the past twentyfive years: J. Marzolf, D. C. Woodard, S. C. Woodard. F. A. V an DeWNalker, F. J. Freeman, G. W. Riggs, F. J. Spencer, Bramfit, VT. E. Ogden, A. K. Stewart, N. F. Gibbs, A. F. Simmons, J W. Buell, N. S. Tuttle, L. B. Kenvon. W.. M. P. Jerrett, F. W\. Nickel and E. WN. Morse. The present membership is fifty-six. LYONS METTODIST' EPISCOPAL CT-IURC H. No records remain of the beginnings of the church at Lyons, but it probably was first organized between T855 and 1859. Methodist meetings were first held in a school house, then in a town hall. Some of those, whose memories go back the farthest, speak of a Mr. Pratt, a Mr. Otis, and a Mr. Sprague as among the earliest Methodist preachers of the place. Rev. Horace Hall, who was appointed to Lyons in i860 is the first of whom any written record remains. About T858 or I859, the society purchased a church building which had been built by the Episcopalians a few vears before. Tt stood on the bank of the river on TEast Water street, and as "The old brown church" it continued to be used by the Methodists until T882, when the present brick edifice on East Main street was built utnder the pastorate of Rev. D. W. Parsons. The pastors since I86o were as follow: Horace Hall, r86o-6I; Josiah Fowler, T86r-63; E. D. Youngs, 1863-65; William M. Colby, I865-67; Charles Chick. 1867-69; J. S. Harder, I869-7; F. I. Bell, I871-73; G. L. Gilbert, T873-74; S. P. Warner, T874-75; G. F. Hollister, 1875-78; D. S. Haviland. 1878-80; D. W. Parsons, T880-83; M. W. Knapp, 1883-84; J. Gulick, 1884-86; T. H. Jacokes, T886-8q; F. J. Freeman, 1889-91; William Judd, 189I-95: A. R. Keillor, T895-96; W. E. Ogden, 1896-99; M. F. Loomis, I899-900o; J. C. Jewell, 1900-02; N. R. Woods, 1902-03; H. E. Wylie, 1903-1908; W. W. Hurd, 1908-15; George A. Brown, the present pastor.

Page  400 400 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. The present membership is nearly two hundred. The church sustains a good Sunday school, an Epiworth League, a Ladies' Aid Society, a Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, with its auxiliary Standard Bearers among the young ladies and King's Heralds among the children. The church building was improved and redecorated in 19T5. PEWVAM O METIODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. The Pewamo Methodist church was organized some time in the sixties. The detailed records have not been preserved. There is record of the following resident pastors: S. Snyder, I871; L. C. Austin, I873: J. A. Sprague, I874; J- W. HIallenbeck, 1875; U. Glass, I876; D. W. Parsons, T879; D. M. Ward, I88o; L. P. Fergusson, 188. From that time on Pewamo was attached to other charges. Most of the time it has been a part of Lyons charge and served by the pastor from Lyons. In IqII the church building, which had long served as a place of worship, was destroyed by fire. Under the leadership of Rev. W. W. Hurd, of Lyons, a new edifice was built and dedicated, June 29, 1913, which is one of the most beautiful and conveniently arranged country churches to be found in the state. Its cost was $4,000. A Sunday school, a Ladies' Aid Society, and a Woman's Foreign Missionary Society are maintained. There was formerly a Methodist Episcopal church at Muir. For some years it had a resident pastor, but after 1878 it was attached to Lyons charge and served by the pastor of that charge. It ultimately disbanded, niany of its members joining the Lyons church. FIRST B.APTIST CHURCH OF IONIA. The initiatory step in the formation of the First Baptist church of lonia was taken on June 24, I834, at which time Rev. E. Loomis, agent of the American Baptist Home Mission Society, and Rev. S. Slater, of the Thomas mission station were present. After sermon and religious services, Samuel Dexter, Erastus Yeomans and Alfred Cornell, and their wives, formed themselves into a conference. On the 23rd of the following August, Reverend LJoomis being present, the subject of church organization was discussed; it was thereupon decilded to organize as the First Baptist church of lonia. W. B. Lincoln was the first candidate for baptism. The following day, August 24, I834, Reverend Loomis preached at the home of Erastus Yeo

Page  401 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 401 mans. After this service Reverend Loomis extended the right hand of fellowship to Brother Cornell in behalf of the church, also to \". B. Lincoln, who was to be the first church clerk. On the I8th of February, I837, the church met at the school house in school district No. I, according to previous adjournment, and adopted the articles of faith and covenant presented by the following committee, appointed for that purpose, namely: J. Eaton, R. S. Park, W. B. Lincoln and Erastus Yeomans. The following were also members of the church at this time, all received by letter: George Dexter and wife, Stephen Dexter and wife, William Wood and wife, Jeremiah Eaton, Candis Dexter, Justus Barber, Mercy Smith and Delilah' Clapsaddle. In August, i837, Rev. A. C. Sangster, became pastor of the church and so continued until I840, when he was succeeded by Rev. TH. D. Buttolph, who remained in this relation until I844. The church at this time numbered forty-five members. In I845, Rev. Alfred Cornell became pastor and remained with the church until 1862, a period of seventeen years-years of faithful, untiring, consecrated service, not only to his own church people, but to all the surrounding country. During the early part of Reverend Cornell's ministration, a house of worship was erected; this building was occupied as a church until the completion of the new building in 1872. This first structure erected and dedicated as a church was the first and only church edifice in this section of the then wilderness, and for several years continued to be used for all large gatherings and wedding celebrations. During Rev. Alfred Cornell's pastorate, many were added to the church membership by baptism or by letter, many were granted letters of dismission as they moved to adjoining places when new churches were formed. At the close of Reverend Cornell's first pastorate he was succeeded by Rev. E. H. Morrison, who remained with the church two years. Upon his resignation, Rev. Alfred Cornell was recalled and served the church for another two years, nineteen in all. Faithful in season and out of season; often preaching three times on Siunday, frequently riding forty miles to meet all these appointments, many times reaching Ionia late at night, faint and weary, not having stopped to taste food after an early breakfast. It can be said of him that he presented hiinself a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God. In August, 8.58. Rev. Levi Parmely accepted the call to the pastorate and remained four years. 'During his term of office, the present brick building was erected just west of the old church; and was dedicated on January 7, I872. Since I872 the following pastors have ministered faithfully and (26)

Page  402 402 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. devotedly: Rev. John Rowley one year; Rev. E. 0. Taylor, two years; Rev. John Donnelley, five years; Rev. D. Van Alstine, D. D., three years; Rev. T. S. McCall, two years. In December, 1886, Rev. T. S. McCall was ordained in the lonia Baptist church. Rev. P. S. Henson, of Chicago, preached the ordination sermon, and Rev. Kerr B. Tupper, of Grand Rapids, gave the charge to the candidate. Then followed Rev. J. J. Phelps, three years; Rev. F. 0. Dickey. three years; Rev. E. M. Jeffers, three years; Rev. D. L. Martin, five years. Rev. F. E. Branch, the present pastor (I9T6) came to the church in 1905, and is still its devoted and loyal minister. During these eighty-two years, the church has grown in strength and number; the building has been remodeled, the lighting system changed, the pipe organ installed, the church work broadened and strengthened. Two veteran ministers, Rev. John Van Vleck, and Rev. John Coe, lent their wisdom and spiritual aid to the growing church in its earlier struggles. Two members of the church have entered the work of the ministry, Henry W. Powell and HIerman J. Powell. So far as can be ascertained, this church was not only the first one organized in Ionia county, but the first of any denomination to be organized in this section of the state; antedating the first church in Grand Rapids by a year or more. FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH OF PORTLAND. In accordance with previous notice a few Baptists met at the Portland school house, May 2, I840, for the purpose of organizing a Baptist church. Joseph Munn was appointed moderator and John Brown, clerk. It was then voted that Dean M. Tyler, Sr., W. Z. Blanchard, Isaac E. Tyler and John Brown be a committee to prepare a codle of articles. At the following meeting,' held on June 6, the committee presented articles which were subhnitted to eleven persons who presented letters of recommen(lation from the Baptist church of Walled Lake, Oakland county. The eleven persons were Dean M. Tyler, Joseph Munn, Matilda Munn, Phoebe Tyler, Isaac E. Tyler, Betsey A. Brown, Elizabeth Tyler, Sarah Tyler, John Brown, Laura R. Tyler and Caroline Tyler. These formed the Baptist church of Portland, and on February 6, 1841, engaged Rev. Moses Clark, of De Witt to preach for them one-fourth of his time. On April 2, 1842. Dean M. Tyler was chosen deacon and May 28 it was resolved to unite with the Shiawassee association. On November 12, I842, it was voted that "in view of our destitute circumstances, we request the state convention to send us fifty dollars to aid in supplying the ministry among us."

Page  403 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 403 On September 4, 1843, the First Baptist Society of Portland was organized and in the fall of I843 Elder Sangster was engaged as pastor. Rev. Alfred Cornell, his successor, preached once a month for about three years and thereafter followed Revs. Caleb Rice and S. P. Town, after whom came Revs. J. G. Portman (a few months), David Osborn (three years), Harvey Petit (six years), Alfred Cornell (six years), and A. E. Mather, T. N. Carman, A. ET. Jessup, S. G. Anderson, Ieslie Bower. J. H. Stewart, H. Z. Davis, F. C. Fistler and C. F. Vreeland. The first house of worship was completed in I859 meetings having previously been held in the village school house and the Methodist church. The corner stone of the brick edifice was laid on June I6, 1876, and the structure was dedicated in October, I877. It cost approximately $I8,ooo, measures one hundred by forty-eight feet, has a seating capacity for five hundredand is lighted by gas This is one of the active congregations of the Baptist faith in this county and at present has a membership of two hundred and two. Active auxiliaries of this society are the Sundav school, Baptist Young People's Union, Ladies' Aid Society, Ladies Foreign and Home Missionary Society. BELDING FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH. The First Baptist church of Belding was organized in I875 with the following charter members: D. Newcomb and wife, Joel Cook and wife, Freeman Cook, Luther Savery and wife, George Hutchins and wife, George Keeler and wife, Ansel Smith and wife, Mrs. H. Purdy and Mrs. Unger. This congregation began with only fifteen members, but the prosperity of the society was assured from the start. Rev. Robert Shafton was the first pastor to serve this charge. He has been followed by the following: Revs. Willianl Buell, U. P. Barlow, 0. F. A. Spinning, R. A. McConnell, -W. L. Munger, G. Quick. H. Spear, C. E. Maxfield, F. B. Irving, and the present incumbent, W. A. Biss. Shortly after the society was organized a church lot was secured at the corner of Washington and Alderman streets and a building erected. In I890 the present brick edifice was completed and is located on the same lot as the first building. This congregation has prospered equally with the town and at present has a membership of two hundred and ten. Active auxiliaries of the church are the Sunday school, Baptist Young People's Union, Ladies' Missionary Circle and Ladies' Aid Society.

Page  404 404 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I LYONS BAPTIST CHURCH. The Baptist church of Lyons was organized on June 19, I852, "by mutual association in church relation" of Russell Hervey, Joseph Rickey, Marvin F. Baker, Joshua P. Manning, Joseph Rickey, Jr., Smith Pruden, Eunice Rickley, Alice B. Baker, Lydia R. Hugg, Angeline Coolidge, Sarah Jane Todd, Eunice Bennett and Jane Pruden. The First Baptist Society was organized on May 7, 1855, and trustees chosen as follow: J. P. Manning, J. R. Stone, T. L. Gilmore, G. Rockafellow and W. Z. Blanchard. In I856 a church edifice was built. Russell Hervey, the first pastor, was succeeded by Revs. Hiram Cornell, 0. B. Call, James G. Portman, Doctor Smith, S. E. Fason, A. R. Hicks, J. H. Roscoe, N. P. Barlow, Thomas Robinson, A. P. McDonald, Osborn, W. T. Woodhouse, A. F. Niles, W. W. Beardslee. W. R. Waters, W. P. Tompkins, D. L. Martin, Jacob Henn, W. H. Powell, Garrison Moore and D. B. Davidson. The church building was remodeled in I888 and the church society was re-organized and incorporated under the acts of the state Legislature passed in I879. The present membership of the church numbers seventy-six active workers. The church supports an active Bible school, both junior and senior; Baptist Young Peoples' Union, Ladies' Aid Society and Woman's Missionary Society. PALO BAPTIST CHURCH. The first religious organization formed in Palo and the first, perhaps in the township, was the First Baptist church of Palo, organized on March I8, 1846, as the Prairie Creek Baptist church. The Long Plain school house was the scene of the event, and Rev. B. B. Brigham, of North Plains, the moving spirit in it. The organizing members numbered twelve and were named as follow: Matthew Van Vleck, Deborah Van Vleck, John Van Vleck, George D. Tasker, Catharini Tasker, Alvin B. Smith, B. B. Brigham, James S. Sweeney and Patience Norton. On the 8th of April a church council, representing Lyons, Otisco and Ionia, assembled in the Long Plain school house and formally recognized the church, on which occasion Elder John Van Vleck preached the sermon, and Sarah and Jane Van Vleck, J. J. Cronkite, Silas Norton, George W. Germain and Lucy Cronkite were received into membership. On the i2th of April George WV. Germain and Silas Norton were publicly baptized in Prairie creek. School houses and private houses were used as places of worship until

Page  405 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 405 the fall of I859 when a church building was occupied. Elder Brigham preached for the church every Sunday for a year or two and was succeeded by Rev. John Van Vleck, a resident of the town. Matthew Van Vleck, who was chosen the first deacon, continued to hold his office from I846 uninterruptedly to the time of his death in April, I880. He had at that time reached the good old age of eighty-six. The ministers who have served this church since Rev. Van Vleck are D. P. Munger, L. Parmerley, H. A. Rose, W. L. Munger, A. Cornell, D. B. Munger, W. W. Beardsley, J. J. Bailey, George Lockhart, F. C. Fistler, E. Rushbrook, H. A. Essex, F. Wright, I. Buffum, and the present incumbent, Reverend Gould. This is one of the real old congregations in Ionia county and has had a very prosperous career. The membership at present numbers one hundred and twelve. The church also supports an active Ladies' Aid Society, Baptist Young Peoples' Union, and both Home and Foreign Missionary Societies. PEWAMO BAPTIST CHURCH. The first entry in the Pewamo Baptist church records appears under (late of April 17, 1847, and recites that "covenant meeting was more fully attended than for a long time, and there seems to be a growing interest in religion. Brethren felt to confess their faults one to another, each had more charity for other than themselves." Upon that occasion Edward Henderson was received into fellowship of the church. At a meeting at the house of Doctor Millard, January I4, I85I, there were present Doctor Millard, Charles Millard, Hiram Hunt, Nathan Benjamin, Edward Henderson, John A. Millard, Sylvester Benjamin, Alvira Millard, Catherine Millard, Charity Millard and Amanda Hunt, with Elder F. S. Batcheldor, of the Indian Creek church, in the chair. It was resolved that "As the Baptist church of Lyons has for nearly two years had no meeting as a church and whereas God in His mercy has revived us, therefore resolved, That the church now recommence, and that those of the former members of the church who are in fellowship one with another, and who desire to renew their covenant and henceforth to walk in church relation, shall be considered members of the church. That we endeavor to obtain preaching one-fourth of the time, and appoint brothers D. Millard, N. Benjamin and Hiram Hunt a committee for this purpose." The records are not very clear as to the engagement of pastors, but it appears therefrom that Elders Cornell and 'Batcheldor preached in I85I, A.' Cornell 1851-57, Charles Clute 1857-59. Others joined the church and were

Page  406 406 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. baptized in what was known as the Hathaway creek. On May 26, 1859, the church met in covenant. By the vote of the church appointments were changed from the Plains to the Red school house, north of Pewamo, near the Joseph Randolph farm, where they held Sunday morning service and had covenant meetings the last Saturday of each month. Preaching in the White school house on John A. Millard's farm, three and one-half miles northeast of Pewamo was held on Sundays, at two o'clock in the afternoon. One of the old members is living today, Mrs. John Millard, who, on the Ioth of September, I915, was one hundred years old and was one of the early settlers. Rev. J. J. Portman was pastor in I860, Rev. D. Osborn supplied the church in I862, and was also pastor of the Portland church. On August 13, 1864, "The first Baptist church of Lyons met and the majority of its members were present, and by a unanimous vote changed the name of the Baptist church of Lyons to the Baptist church of Pewamo and elected William Upton and Josia Green, deacons to assist Deacon Gourdan Millard and Doctor Millard." By order of the church John A. Millard was elected church clerk. Rev. A. McLain was pastor from July, I865, to June, 1867. From I869 there is a blank in the minutes but not in the work of the church, for in 1866 the work was started for the present building, and in I868 it was dedicated -as the Pewamo Baptist church. From I866 to I868 they held the church services in an old house of Doctor Millard, just east of where Mrs. Wedlas Green now lives in Pewamo village. In 1869 the church bought a piece of property owned now by Mrs. H. Haskins Roes and Reverend Baker supplied the church. In I870, beginning with the week of peace, Rev. D. B. Munger, of Palo, and C. C. Miller, of Oakfield, conducted the services of meetings to the glory of God, in the congregation of which twenty-one united with this church. George Wesselious came and preached in I870 and was ordained on Aug1ust 24, I870. Rev. H. Petit was pastor from September 30, I87I, to March, 1873. 'On September 24, I870, B. F. Hunt was appointed deacon, which office he filled until removed by death, April 30, I901. Rev. D. D. Walken was pastor in 1874 for six nonths. Rev. A. R. Hicks was pastor from I875 to 1876, and in T877 the pastors were C. W. Parmer and Evans. On April 7, 1877, J. Blackmar was appointed deacon, which office he filled until removed by leath, June I4, 1913. Rev. J. H. Morrison was pastor from August, I877, to I880, Rev. W. B. Northrop from October 2, I880, to September 2, I882, after which the church had no pastor until 1884. Rev. R. Monroe was pastor until April i8, 1885. Rev. D. Osburn became pastor from June, 1885 until September 6, 1885, after which the churchl had supplies until

Page  407 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 407 November 28, I886, when Rev. D. B. Daveran became pastor until October 7, 1889. At this time the church sheds were built and the house of worship was remodeled, free from debt, and at a cost of eight hundred dollars. On December 31, I89T, J. E. Gregory became pastor and remained until 1893. Rev. J. Marlk was pastor until September i, 1894. Rev. \V. B. Waters was pastor from September 17, I900, to May 31, I903. On June 18, 1903, Rev. D. B. David came as a supply and the house of worship was improved and reopened at a cost of $500. On December 4, T904, W. B. \Vaters returned and remained until July 25, I908, when he was called to his eternal home. On January 9, I909, R. H. McConnell came as pastor for an indefinite time, on October 8, I909. In June, 1912, Rev. Ben Wregers came and was here one year and nine months. In January, I914, W. P. Powell came and finished out Reverend Wregers' last year. Rev. J. H. Thedson came over from district No. 9, in July. 1914. Mr. Chatman was pastor until September I, T9T4. On October i, 1914, Rev. J. A. Shape supplied the pulpit until April, 1915. On May T, 1915, Rev. B. T. Johnson came as a supply from Kalamazoo College and is still here on Sundays, covenant meetings and prayer meetings. Death and removals have reduced the membership of the Pewamo church but the present members are enthusiastic workers. The church clerks from J845 to I9I5 have been: John A. Millard, Henry Loomis, John Penington, Luther Welcos, A. B. Blackmer and A. Somers. FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH OF LAKE ODESSA. The First Baptist church of Lake Odessa was organized on July 20, I89o, with the following charter members: Z. W. Carter, Adelia Carter, J. Leon Carter, Ruby M. Carter, Grace P. Carter, Grace Lapo, Ruth Nickles, Orlando J. Kenion, Alida Kenion and J. Wesley Reeder. In the summer of 1895 work on the present building was begun and this structure was dedicated on August 25, 1895. The members of this church have been untiring in their efforts. The membership at present numbers foturteen. Rev. Charles Sherwood was the first pastor to serve the Lake Odessa congregation. Later ministers are F. Carpenter, A. Niles, H. Renshaw, Charles Kendall, Tilley, Dono'van and J. H. Davis. BAPTIST CHURCH OF RUSSELL. Rev. Elbridge Cilley formed a Baptist church at the Russell school house. The members were but few in number, yet they were earnest and

Page  408 408 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. zealous, and until the outbreak of the Civil War in I86I, meetings were regularly held and matters prospered. The first deacon chosen was David Disinger, a worthy man, and Rev. Riley Hess was the first pastor. Myron Tupper was a preacher, but for years he pursued the labors of an evangelist. preaching here and there wherever there appeared to be need of his services. He was an energetic and ambitious servant of the Lord, and preached freely without price. He is said to have ridden thirty and forty miles of a Sunday and preached two and sometimes three sermons. After awhile he gave up evangelical work and preached steadily to the church at his home. During his term of service in I855 there was a three-weeks revival season in the church and through the efforts of Reverend Barker, an eloquent revivalist of that day, fifty-five converts were' received into the church and baptized one Sunday in Duck creek by Elder Tupper. That occasion was a notable one in the history of the Baptist church in lonia county and drew together from far and near a great crowd of people. In I86 'the church lost many of its members and in a short time thereafter passed out of existence. IONIA FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. The organization now known as the First Presbyterian church of Ionia was formed on September 30, 1842, in Lyons, by Rev. Lemoyne S. Smith, a missionary of the American Home Missionary Society. Rev. Calvin Clark had organized a Presbyterian church in Cass township in 1839, but its existence was brief. The organization of the Ionia county church was effected in the building used as a court house, and the membership was composed of William Babcock, Julia Babcock, Araminta Dye, Rebecca Dye, Lucretia Webster, Mary S. I.ovell, Mary Lovell and Abbey J. Lovell. On October 9, Dolly B. Overhiser and Harriet A. Bates were received by letter and on October 29, Samuel P. Hodges, Rufus Dinsmore, Robert W. Stevens, Martha Stevens, George C. Overhiser and Olivia S. Babcock were received. On the meeting of October 29. it was resolved to call the organization the "First Congregation Church of Ionia," and on the 3oth the members met in S. P. Hodge's school room for worship, when Rev. L. M. S., Smith preached. Mr. Smith was engaged as pastor and remained in charge upwards of a year. William Babcock was chosen the first deacon of the church, but how long he servel does not appear. Before Mr. Smith's departure the place of worship was changed to a building near where Pickhaver & Miller's store stood, and later to where Ethan S. Johnson formerly lived, west of the Bailey House. From there they moved to the Episcopal church, which

Page  409 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 409 they used until the occupation of the First Presbyterian church edifice, in I857. Although the church was organized as a Congregational church, application was made in 1845 for admission to the care of the presbytery of Ionia. In 1848 a release was asked from this presbytery and a union effected with the Grand River Valley Congregational Association. In I856, connection with the latter body was severed and in I857, the Presbyterian form of government being adopted, the church became a member of the Presbytery of Grand River Valley. On January 31, I857, David Irish, N. W/illiams and Gilbert Powlinson were chosen elders, and Nelson E. Smith and John Butler, deacons. Reverend Smith's successors in the pastorate were Rev. Winthrop Wheeler, to 1844; Rev. George C. Overhiser, to I847; Rev. Norman Ackley, to 1849; and after a season of stated supplies to I854, Rev. Louis Mills, to I855. In May, 1856, Rev. R. W. Lan(lis became the pastor, and during his term the erection o-f a house of worship was commenced in 1856. The structure was first occul)ied on July 26, r857, and dedicated on August 12, 1857, on which clay also the Presbytery of Grand River Valley was organized. Rev. Courtney Smith preached the dedicatory sermon and Rev. William F. Ferry offered the prayer. Reverend Landis remained the pastor until 1859, and after that Revs. L. I. Root and E. D. Newberry were the successive pastors to April, i868, Mr. Root from the spring of I86o to July, I86I, and Mr. Newberry from the autumn of I86I to April. I868. At that time there was some dissension in the church, and the result was the withdrawal of a considerable number of members, who straightway assisted in the organization of a Congregational church. Rev. Job Pierson was called to the charge of the Presbyterian church and, although he found matters far from prosperous, succeeded, only by energetic and zealous labor, in not only right speedily restoring a brighter and happier condition of affairs, but pushed the church interests to a greater success than they ever before had met with. Mr. Pierson labored as the church's pastor for ten years, and in July, 1878, was dismissed at his own request. Rev. Charles Foote, Mr. Pierson's successor, was a man of more than ordinary ability as runs the average of suburban pulpit teachers and in the little time he was spared to serve the church gave abundant promise of fruitful efforts. In the full flush of his usefulness, however, he was stricken with a fatal illness and died in the spring of 1879. Rev. James Lamb became the pastor, but not until May 31, I88I, thus leaving an interim of almost two years without a minister. Reverend Lamb

Page  410 4IO IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. remained until August 31, I883. William S. Potter then became actively connected with the church on October I, 1884, and remained until August i, i888. He was followed by George D. Lindsay, May 9, 1889, who served until July I9, I89I. Rev. John T. Oxtoby, D. D., served from October 27, I89I, to September I, 1900. W. H. McPherson, April I, 190o, to April I. I904; W. K. Spencer, D. D., November I, [904, to April 12, 1914, followed by Mark IL. Marshall. On June 28, I9O8, the church building was destroyed by fire. Plans were immediately launched for the erection of a new edifice which should be worthy of the town and congregation. Through the untiring efforts of Reverend Spencer, with the able assistance of the members of the congregation, the work was rapidly pushed forward. The building committee consisted of William Beals, chairman; Fred Cutler, Jr., secretary; Thane Benedict, assistant secretary; Milton McGeary, treasurer; George F. Phelps, Frank L. Taylor, Terrance Dolan, Sherman Townsend and W. K. Spencer. The architects were Clark & Munger, of Bay City. The building was completed at a cost of $30,000 and was made'ready for the dedicatory services which were held on March 13; 1910. This church cannot be surpassed in beauty and simplicity in this part of the state. This church, although starting out under adverse circumstances and encountering several storms in its voyage which for the time threatened it greatly, yet it has come through all of these unscathed and at the present time has a membership of two hundred and fifty-four. PORTLAND FIRST CONGREGATIONAl7 CHURCH. On Felbruary 4, I843, Rev. L. S. Smith organized the Portland Congregational church with ten charter members, namely: Mrs. John Knox, B. G. Cooley and wife, Stephen Pilkinton and wife, Mrs Willard Brooks, Mrs. E. T. Bates, M'rs. Nancy N. Sullivan, Mrs. Rebecca Kilborne, and D. S. Soles. In I867 there was a dismissal of thirty-five members, who proceeded to organize a Presbyterian church under the care of Rev. Augustus Marsh. This organization existed until April, 1876 (Mr. Marsh being continuously the pastor), when it dissolved and its members thereupon reunited with the Congregational church. B. G. Cooley was the first deacon of the Congregational church which continued to prosper from the outset, and became within a few years a religious power. The first house' of worship was built in 1853, and in the summer of 1877 it was removed to the present site and materially enlarged and improved at

Page  411 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 4II an aggregate expense of $6,ooo. The pastors who have served the church are: I. S. Smith, Henry Root, Lewis Mills, Samuel Sessions, David \Virt, A. Marsh, L. P. Spelman, Robert G. Baird, A. H. Flecher, G. L. Maile, G. W. Bothwell, D. P. Breed, R. M. Keyes, C. W. Bird, Isaac Terborgh. \Vilmont E. Stevens, James C. Hageman. Charles I. Taylor and W\illiam H. Skentelbury. In 1914 an aldition was built to the church which gives a parlor, Sunday-school rooms, social rooms, dining room and kitchen. The architecture is of the New England style and cost approximately $8,ooo. The present membership totals ninety-seven. In addition to the regular services the church also supports a Sunday school, Christian Endeavor, Ladies' Missionary Society and Guild and the latest activities to be added to the church are the Boy Scouts. SARANAC FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. The Congregational church of Saranac was organized in the autulmn of 187I, in the edifice owned by the Baptist society, by Rev. D. L. Eaton, of Lowell. The organizing members included E. J. Turner and wife, Nelson Pratt and wife, J. N. Barbour and wife, Mrs. A. Houghton, Mrs. Mary E. Young, Mrs. Los E. Jones, Mrs. A. 0. Wadsworth, Mrs. S. Smith, J. W. Lindsay and wife, E. A. Richards and wife and Mrs.-D. M. Huntley. Membership was at once sought with the Grand River association and Mr. Eaton engaged as pastor. He preached two years and was succeeded by Rev. S. E. Busser, who remained two years and was succeeded by Rev. S. E. Shaw, who was in charge nearly three years. Then came Rev. James A. McKay. The Sunday school was organized in 1872, in which year a house of worship was built, services having been held up to that time in the Baptist church. The school was in charge of E. A. Richards, who was assisted by a corps of seven teachers. The church passed through a varied experience and in the course thereof has been called upon to struggle against adverse circumstances that sorely weakened it and threatened dissolution. The difficulties, however, were bravely met and surmounted and latterly there has been a steady and prosperous growth. The ministers who have served the church since Reverend McKay are: J. A. W\atts, J. 0. S. Worden, William Lindsey, William, DePug, G. A. Wain, W. A. Flint, T. G. Baxter, A. Choates, H. C. Snyder, J. E. Teilford, H. J. Barnes, F. P. Sprague, J. A. Bushnell, R. N. Pool,

Page  412 412 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. R. L. Wutz and E. Wooley. The church has a membership at present of thirty-five, with an active Sunday school. CLARKSVILLE COUGREGATIONAL CHURCH. The Congregational church of Clarksville was organized on January 7, 1894, with sixty-six charter members. The time had become ripe for the organization of a Congregational church in this village and it became strong from the start. The first services were held in Stoville hall, but it was only a short time until plans were on foot for a new building. This was soon rushed through and on December 23, 1894, it was dedicated to the worship of God. Rev. J. W. Arney was the first pastor and was instrumental in placing the church on a firm basis. The list of pastors who have served the church up to the present time is as follow: D. S. Arnold, J. B. Lully, William H. Flint, C. J. Taylor, J. WV. Stacey, R. 7W. Bush, C. WV. Clemo, Charles Carrick, W. Parker, Reverend Baker, Reverend Adler and E. Woolley. This congregation has exlerienced both prosperity and reverses, and at present is in a fairly good condition. The membership at present numbers thirty-five persons. BELDING FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. The First Congregational church of Belding was organized on December 27, I892. There were forty-three members in the class which organized this society and which made up the charter members. The first officers of the church were: Walter J. Hills, clerk; William E. Fisher, treasurer; Charles W. Putney and C. G. Loase, deacons; Robert M. Wilson, D. E. Wilson, H. L. VanBenschoten, W. J. Hills and C. W. Crosby, trustees; Nancy J. McLaughlin, superintendent of Sunday school; W. J. Hills, assistant superintendent. The church building was erected at the corner of Washington and Pearl streets. This was a frame structure thirty-six by seventyeight feet ard although this building is still serving the church it has been greatly improved by the installation of a $3,500 pipe organ and the interior of the church has been remodeled and redecorated. The congregation has also erected a beautiful parsonage. The entire church property is no-w valued at $12,000. This church and society was formerly the Christian church and established in I879. The first pastor of the latter church was Rev. E.' Mudge, who was followed by Rev. D. E. Millard. This became the Congregational

Page  413 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 413 church in I892, and all of the members of the Christian body voted to make the change. Among the first deacons of the Christian church were George A. Phillips, Richard Ellis and E. S. Jenkins, and it numbered among its early pastors Rev. William Buell and Rev. W. D. Clark. The first pastor to serve this congregation as the Congregational society was Charles I. Deyo, who served from 1892 to 1895. The pastors who have followed Reverend Deyo are as follow: B. V. Childs, I895-98; John J. Staley, I898-1902; J. E. Butler, 1902-04; Albert Seerd, I904-07; N. J. Myers, 1907-09; Edrie Collins, 10o9-I3, and the present incumbent, Allan J. Blair, who took charge of the congregation'in 1913. This congregation is in a flourishing condition and has at present a membership of one hundred and seven. Tt also supports a well-organized Sunday school and active societies, as follow: Christian Endeavor, Iadies' Social Circle, Missionary Society and Brotherhood. IONIA CHURCH OF CHRIST. During the summer of 1858 Elder Isaac Erret, who was at that time pastor of the Church of Christ at Muir, exchanged pulpits with Elder Landis, the Presbyterian pastor. In the fall of 1858 Elder Erret held a protracted meeting in the Presbyterian church. He preached the gospel as he understood it, and from the old Jerusalem standpoint. The leaders of the Presbyterian church became alarmed at what they considered the heresy of his doctrine, and the manifest disposition in some of their best members to accept his conclusions. From that church came as charter members the Powlisons, the Hosfords and Mrs. Marion Bliss. Elder Erret preached the gospel in its sinplicity and purity, 'with freedom from mysticism and confusion, so that a wayfaring man could understand the way of salvation. The meeting was continued in Merritt's hall, on the ground now occupied by Dean & Eyster's grocery store; and on the 24th of January, I859, the Ionia Church of Christ was organized with fortythree members. Soon after the, organization of the church in Merritt's hall, they occupied the old Episcopal church, now used for a chapel. Brother Erret held Sunday service here in the afternoon. During the first year, in Erret's absence, Elder Eli Regal, a very able and eloquent man, occupied the pulpit most of the time. Benjamin Preston was one of the first elders, and did noble work in the care of the church. The next move was to the Baptist

Page  414 414 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN., church, in the summer of 1859 —the old one which was moved away to give place to the present building. During the years of Elder Erret's pastorate the attendance never flagged; houses usually filled to overflowing. Besides preaching here, he held meetings.in Easton, in the Dildine, Goodwin and Welch school houses, as well as in Orleans, with very many additions. Late in I859 the congregation again moved, this time to Smith's hall, in the third story above the store now occupied by Bert Lampkin. During the winter of I859-60 Brother Erret held a series of meetings in this hall, remarkable for the attendance and results. In I86o they moved into Dye's hall, the room now occupied by Beattie's shoe store. In the winter of i86o-6I the pastor held a protracted meeting in this hall, which was largely attended and fully as deep in interest as in former years, as was the meeting the following year, I86I-62. It was in this hall that James A. Garfield and Harrison Jones were heard. In the early part of 1863 Elder Erret's labors were such that he could not remain longer as a pastor, and while he was often with this congregation for a longer or a shorter time he gave up the charge of the church to Brother J. B. Crane (deceased), who remained a year and was succeeded in 1864 by W. B. Hendrix (deceased), who remained two years. In I864 they occupied Amphlett's hall, over the present Beattie shoe store. It was in this hall that Professor Hinsdale, of Hiram College, held a series of meetings. In I866 Bayard's hall was used for meetings and later the old Methodist church. Elder W. R. Spindler assumed the pastorate of the church in June, 1866, and remained two and one-half years. In the year 1867 and part of j868 the church occupied Union hall, over the Stevenson store. As early as 1864, through the activity of Sister Marion Bliss (now Mrs. Grimshaw) and Brother Benjamin Harter, the lots were purchased on which the church now stands. In the continual removals the members were hoping and planning for a resting place. They had used every hall and church in the town. After a great deal of personal sacrifice and labor the society was able to so. far complete the present building as to occupy the basement in 1868. Elder O. Ebberts commenced his labors in September, I869, and remained one year. He held a very successful meeting, with over one hundred additions. Brother L. R. Gault (deceased) came to Ionia as a pastor in September, I870, and remained seven years; he was a man of ability and had the good wvill and esteem of the entire community. It was during his administration and on the i9th of January, I873, that the church building was dedicated. Brother Isaac Erret was present and preached the sermon on this occasion. Elder A. S. Hale (deceased) succeeded L. R. Gault

Page  415 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 415 in 1877, and remained two and one-half years. Hte was followed by Elder Kemp (now (lead), who remained until September, I882. In December, I882, Elder Enos Campbell was settled here. He was the ripest Bible scholar that ever came to this church, having been in early life a student under Thomas and Alexander Campbell, and their contemporaries. He removed to Minneapolis, where he died. In September, 1883, Elder R. S. Groves (deceased) took his place and remained until December, i886. During this period of fourteen years ending with i887 the church lost some of its valued members 'by death, with some important" additions from other places, among them J. H. Tubbs and family, from New York; the Henry Hulbbell, Henry Cheeney and Ambrose L. Smith families, from Woodard Lake; Duncan Robertson and G. A. W\rillet having come earlier. During the early part of I887 the congregation was without a pastor. During this period 1. N. Early, of Kentucky, preached for the church for some two months, followed bvr Martin, the evangelist, and Moore, of New Castle, Indiana. In the spring of 1887 W. H. Scott was engaged as a permanent pastor and remained about ten years. The church was prosperous during those years. Brother Scott was very popular with the people at large, and had the reputation of officiating at more funerals and weddings than any other minister in the county. During this period two very important revival meetings were held. The first with Evangelist Parsons in T888-89, and the second in 1895, held by J. V. Updyke, with Brother Easton as singer. The result of the' Upldyke meeting was the addition of two hundred and fifteen to the church. In I892, largely through the effort of Mrs. Eugene Smith, the pipe organ was placed in the church, at a cost of $I,8oo. After the Updyke meeting the church building seemed too small for the congregation and an addition was placed on the west side, at an expense of $2,565, of which the Ladies' Aid Society contributed $8oo. Arthur Hall superintended the erection of this annex. After the resignation of Brother Scott, in the spring of I897, the church was without a pastor for some months. During the interim the following preachers occupied the pulpit: H. B. Taylor, of New York, now of Denver; A. M. Atkinson, of Wabash, Indiana, father of the Ministerial Relief Society; Doctor Clark, of Mt. Sterling, Kentucky; J. H. Garrison, Christian evangelist, of St. Louis, Missoturi; Brother Growden, of Clarksville, Tennessee; E. B. Bagby, of the city of Washington, and F. F. Cook, of Nebraska. In November, i897, G. W. Berry was placed in charge of the church and remained until October, I9OO. In January, i899, D. R. Lucas, of Indiana

Page  416 416 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. polis, then national chaplain of the Grand Army of the Republic, held a three-weeks meeting. In 900o, after G. K. Berry left, the pulpit was filled, in October, by Brother Orcutt, of Indianapolis; Brown, of Milwaukee, and lMcNeal, of Ohio. A. B. Griffith was installed as pastor in November, I900, and remained until March. I902. In December, 1901, the Wilson and Huston meeting was held. In the interim between pastorates in 1002, Brothers Rose, of Indiana; Renshaw and Crossfield, of Kentucky, and Muckley, of Missouri, filled the pulpit. In September, I9So, \'V. B. Taylor, of Chicago, tanle and remained until the last of August, 1905. resigning to take a professorship in Bethanv College, West Virginia. [n the fall of 1905 the congregation was accorded the pleasure of hearing Frank Taylor, as well as Brother Jordan, of Rockford, Illinois; Reed, of Spencer, Indiana; Kindred, of Chicago, and Purdy, of Coates Grove, Michigan. Rev. G. W. Moore took control in January, I906, and served until October 15, I9I1. George A. Reinhart came the second Lord's day in May, 1912, and remained until December 31, of the same year. R. B. Chapman accepted this charge the last Sunday in August, I913, and is still laboring in the interests of this congregation. BELDING CHURCH OF CHRIST. The Church of Christ Society at Belding was organized on August 15, I903, and incorporated on December 19, of the same year. There were twenty-six members in the class which organized this church and are responsible for the building which was erected at the corner of Bridge and Center streets. This was a frame structure which was begun October I, I903, and opened for services on April I, of the following year, although it was not dedicated until April 24. The first pastor was W. H. Kindred, who served from July 12, 1903, to June I, 1904. The pastors who have served the congregation since that time are: F. J. Porter, June 26, I904, to July, I905; J. C. Meese, July i, 1905, to September, I907; 0. W. Winter, October 6, I907, to January 3, I9IO;.. L. Bussing, January 24, 1910, to October 13, IgI1; Mrs. A. L. Benedict, October 27, i1QI, to December 7, 1913, and the present pastor, Charles M. Pease, who began his pastorate on March I, 19I4. In the summer of 1914 the church building was remodeled and redecorated and an addition was also built to the rear of the church, which was converted into a kitchen. The church is growing and it can truly be said that it has always been a flourishing congregation with a membership at present of one hundred and twenty. An active Sunday school of over one

Page  417 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 4I7 hundred and sixty members, a growing Christian Endeavor Society, and a Ladies' Aid Society are auxiliaries of the church. MUIR CHURCH OF CHRIST. The Muir Church of Christ, or Disciples of Christ, was organized on September 7, 1856. The following were the charter members of this congregation: A. L. Soule, Sophia M. Soule, Isaac Errett, Harriet Errett, R. L. Robinson, Hannah M. Robinson, A. B. Robinson, Annette Soule, Julia L. Soule, A. L. Soule, Jr., Julius M. Soule, Clara M. Everestt (now Mrs. Spaulding), Frederick Everestt, Jay Baker, Sarah Baker, Sarah Jane McKelvey, Ephraim Hatfield, Mary Hatfield, Solomon Slanker, Hannah Slanker, John Little, Lorna Little, Catharine Little and Isaac Moore. The church building is located on Garden street, in Muir, and was erected in 186I and I862, at a cost of $3,215.06. Rev. Isaac Erret was the first pastor, and he was succeeded by Isaac A. Wilcox, O. Ebert, J. Lagrange, M. P. Hayden, G. J. Ellis, H. A. Palister, D. C. Hanselman, R. M. Amsworth, John A. Brenenduhl, William Ward, N. L. Sims, A. N. Cooper, H. N. Stephenson, Sterling G. Rothermel, F A. Shape, and C. M. Keene, who is the present pastor. In I916 this church has a membership of eighty-five. They have a Ladies' Aid Society, a live Sunday school and a Bible study class for teachers. LAKE ODESSA UNITED BRETHREN CHURCH. In I866 Rev. Michael Morthland organized a United Brethren class in the school house on section 29, Odessa township, and received the following members: Ephraim Bretz, Philip Wachs and wife, Thomas Cooley and wife, Isaac Mower and wife. The class leader was Isaac Mower, and the first preacher was Mr. Morthland, who held services once a fortnight. Besides Mr. Morthland, the pastors of the church have been Revs. S. Ferguson, G. W. Fast, G. S. Lake, W. T. Baldwin, James Carter, P. H. Mower, D. H. Shelley, W. Duryea and W. N. Breidenstein. The class-leaders have been Isaac Mower, Henry Bever, Richard Baker and Solomon Foght. In I873 the society built a neat church edifice on section 29, at a cost of $2,400. The Lake Odessa United Brethren church was organized in I892 with the following charter members: P. A. Wachs and wife, Lulu Wachs, Mr. and Mrs. Abel Byrester, Julia Bvrester, Christopher M. Ermstberger, Henry (27)

Page  418 418 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Root and wife, Henry Curtis, Mr. and Mrs. John Bowers, Mr. and Mrs James Bell, Mr. and Mrs. Orris Cooley, Henry Bowers, Pauline Shurnway Rosa Watkins, Jacob Beard, Hannah Rush. Dora Baxton and E. M. Roberts. This church is the outgrowth 'of two societies known as the Myers Meeting House of the United Brethren in Christ, which was organized in I851. This congregation built a frame building and dedicated the same on November 12, I854, with Jacob Garber officiating. The other society was the West Odessa, the history of which was given in the opening paragraph. James Nixon was the first minister at the Myers meeting house, while J. W. Myers officiated first at the Lake Odessa church. The ministers who have served the Lake Odessa congregation since its organization are B. H. Mowers, J. L. Lakes, L. A. Durber, M. F. Scanten, W. D. Statton, H. J. Green, I. I. Bicknell, Eli Good, 0, L. Mease, E. B. Yost, J. A. Davis and J. E. Edwards, the present pastor. The church building is located at the corner of Main and Fourth streets, Lake Odessa, and was constructed in I895 at a cost of $3,200. The past year has been one of the best since its organization. There were sixty-six conversions, which raised the total membership to one hundred and thirty-two. Active auxiliaries of the church are the Sunday school, Junior Society, and Young Peoples Christian Endeavor. MATHERTON UNITED BRETHREN CH RRCI. The Matherton class of the United Brethren church was organized first on January 8, 1857, as a point in the Gratiot mission. At this early organization H. W. Marsh was leader; W. H. Stone, pastor, and C. B. Patterson, steward. The organizing members were H. W. Marsh, C. B. Patterson, Susan Stone, W. H. Stone, Garry C. Fox, Cynthia Fox, Sophia A. Parmelee, Chester Warner, Laura P. Marsh, Amanda Satterlee and Susan Johnson. In I879 this society was reorganized as a separate charge and the following were among the organizers: N. P. Johnson, S. Sefsion, P. Dommy, S. Dommy, N. Whitman, Mary Jessup, A. Jessup, J. Bennett, Ed Jessup, Jane E. Haight, William Stewart, E. Stewart, H. Fob, Mary Hopkins, P. Mills, M. A. Millis, L. Loomis, O. Loomis, J. B. Coons, W. Baldwin, R. Baldwin, L. Leonard, William Camphell, William Leonard, C. Clark and M. Clark. P. M. Crips was the first pastor to serve this congregation. He was followed by Revs. Watson, Bowles. Babbitt, Eymers, G. A. Bowles, D. C.

Page  419 IONIA COUNTY, VMICHIGAN. 419 Fleming, Miller, L. A. Kendall, L. Spalding, F. Lanning, G. A. Bowles, J. S. Beers, L. Stevens, A. J. Shultz, B. I. Kinnv and E. W. Dettweiler. The present building was erected at the time the second society was organized, in T879. It is a frame structure and was completed at a cost of $T,ooo. This congregation is in a prosperous condition at the present time and has an active membership of sixty-four. IONIA EVANGELICAL CHURCH. The Ionia Evangelical church was formed in I859 by Rev. Mr. Krieger, with twenty members, and a church was built on Washington street in I866, in the city of lonia. It is a lamentable fact that the early records concerning the organization of this church have been lost, and it is impossible to gather a great amount of the early history. In' 869 L. Herme took charge of this congregation. The church was originally exclusively German, but it has automatically become English, and the sermons are now preached in the English language. The ministers who have served this congregation since Reverend Herme, are W. Riemke, F. Sweitzer, J. G. Haller, C. Ude, F. Mueller, B. Bittner, F. Klump, H. Schneider, C. C. Webber, C. C. Staffeld, George Koehler, E. G. Frye, W. B. Currier, J. R. Niergarth, D. C. Ostroth, C. N. Lymun, and the present incumbent, C. F. Giese. This congregation is the only one of the Evangelical denomination in lonia county. It has received excellent support from the members in this county and has experienced a prosperous growth. The present church building was erected in I885, at a cost of $8,000. It is constructed of brick and is located on Washington street, between Third and Denter streets. The membership numbers one hundred and fifty at the present time. This congregation also supports a strong Sunday school, Young Peoples' Alliance, Junior Alliance, Ladies' Aid Society and Evangelical Brotherhood. IONIA GERMAN EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH. St. John's German Evangelical Lutheran church of Ionia was organized late in the sixties of the last century. Its early history is not unlike many congregations of those times. Faithful perseverance in a devoted cause overcame seemingly insurmountable obstacles and finally was crowned with wellearned success. F. Niethammer, J. Her, M. Moll, H. Bauer and J. Bundenthal are names of Lutheran church pioneers that the records show to have been.

Page  420 420 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. active in looking to the welfare of the small band in those early days of toil and struggle when divine services were held subject to short notice in dwellings or any available assembly place. Though their names occupy but small space in the records, they are written large in the hearts of grateful parishioners; though now passed to their eternal reward they are not forgotten but often mentioned when the early days of joys and sorrows are reviewed in fond remembrance. For a time the congregation worshipped in Firemen's hall, that old landmark which formerly occupied the site of the present city hall. The congregation erected its own church building on North Jefferson street and dedicated it on the 7th of November, I885. Mr. and Mrs. Fred Hass, Sr., Mr. and Mrs. Karl Holtz, Mrs. C. Giermann, Mr. and Mrs. William Wodrich and Karl Krueger still take an active interest in the church that they helped build. Rev. Herman Speckhard was the first resident pastor, taking charge in I885. In compliance with one of the plain commands of God to parents to bring up their children in the nurture and admonition of the Lord, a parochial school was organized with that object in view at the earliest opportunity. The Lutheran church lays particular stress upon the education of its children, even to the extent of obligating its pastors to take charge of the instruction of children in a Christian school in case the congregation be unable to fully equip the school. A suitable parish school house was provided in I885, and since I889 the school has been in charge of graduates of the Lutheran Teachers' Seminary. of Addison, Illinois, able men who make teaching their life vocation. Leonard Appold, 0. Ulrich, Hugo Meyer, 0. L. Wissbeck, R. A. Siegel and A. C. F. Winges have successively conducted the school, which is in a flourishing condition. Rev. B. Henry Succop, the present pastor, was installed in October, I894. His parish numbers one hundred and fifty families, three hundred communicants, the school has an enrollment of over fifty pupils. Ladies', young people's societies and other auxiliaries are actively engaged in their respective fields. The congregation is closely affiliated with the Missouri Synod of the Lutheran church. which was founded in Chicago in I847, when sixteen congregations and twenty-two pastors effected an organization in strict conformity with God's word, as explained in the Lutheran Confessions; all articles of faith to be 'decided bv the Bible alone, all other matters to be decided in Christian liberty and charity. It was the intention of the founders to lay down these rules for their own guidance. In spite of predicted

Page  421 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 42I early failure the Missouri Synod has experienced a remarkable increase, standing today as the largest of the numerous Lutheran church bodies in territory as well as in numbers of congregations, communicants and pastors. The Missouri Synod attributes its wonderful success solely to the grace of God, by virtue of which it was able to maintain unswerving fidelity to sound Lutheran doctrine and practice so plainly enunciated in the Lutheran Confessions, foremost among which stands the Augsburg Confession of I530, the first public document on record to formulate that tenet, so highly important in the United States: "A free church in a free land." PORTLAND SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTIST CHURCH. The Seventh-Day Adventist church at Portland is the outgrowth of the old Seventh-Day Adventist church in Orange. The Orange church was organized by Elder Joseph Bates on June 21, T862, at the residence of Franklin House, in school district No. I, in the township of Orange. There were twelve charter members, as follow: Franklin House, Rhoda House, Elsie House, Clarinda House, Adaline House, Joseph Kellogg, Elizabeth Kellogg, Justus Moushunt, Catharine (Moushunt) Wilkinson, Evan M. Davis, William A. Spencer and Harriet E. Spencer. The members met together the next day, June 22, in the Pierce school house for the election of officers. Franklin House was elected and ordained elder. Evan M. Davis was elected clerk. By the end of the first year the membership was twentytwo. The meetings were held for about thirty-five years in the Pierce school house. The members became widely scattered, so in a few years they were divided into several companies, which met separately for the weekly meetings. These companies held meetings at Lake Odessa, at the Traverse school house in Sebewa, in Portland, and in Orange. Once in three months the companies all met together for quarterly meeting. In the year I898, as the majority of the members lived in and near Portland, the advisability of changing the name of the church from Orange to Portland was discussed. At this time the membership was over fifty. At the West Michigan conference held at Otsego in January, I906, the necessary steps for the change in name were taken and the name became Portland Seventh-Day Adventist church. It retains the same name today. For a few years the meetings were held in the Universalist church building at Portland. This building was torn down in the summer of 1915. A church school, consisting of the first eight grades, was conducted by the

Page  422 422 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. organization for two years, I906 to I908. In the last few years a large number of the members have moved to other localities and have joined churches near them. The present membership is fourteen. The meetings are held in a room in the Vebber bank building. A Sabbath school has been conducted weekly ever since the date of organization. For a number of years a Young People's Society was also held. The elders up to the present time are: Franklin House, Nicholas Outwater, Adolph Schaupp, W. D. Lakin, Otis Palmiter and Hugh Peake. DUNKARD CHURCHES IN IONIA COUNTY. The First Brethren, or Dunkard, church was organized at Swartzenan, Germany, in the year 17o8, with eight charter members. Soon after their organization persecution became so severe that in 17I9 a greater part of them emigrated to Germantown, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and in this free country they flourished and improved and spread fast and in a short time they had churches in many parts. In order to be comprehensive it is necessary to state that the Brethren church (like many others) had their troubles, and in I882, at their annual conference at Ashland, Ohio, came the uncalled for inimical division and since that time there are three Brethren churches, named as follow: Old Brethren, Conservative Brethren and Progressive Brethren, but at the time of the first organization here all were Brethren. The first organization in Ionia county was in the year I867, first charter members, eighteen, first minister, Darvin M. Wood; first church built about 1870, which is still standing, made of cherry plank; the structure is worth $400. From this organization two more churches sprung up-one is called Thorn Apple, the other Elndale. The original church, located in section 34, has a membership of one hundred eleven and church property valued at $400, in the name Old Brethren. They have no Sunday school. The Conservative Brethren have two church houses, both frame buildings, valued at about $2,000 each, the present elder of the Thorn Apple district is Peter B. Mesner, membership of about thirty-seven. The Conservative Brethren church at Elmdale is a frame structure, value about $2,000; Mr. Deardorf is the elder, with a membership of some fifty. They haVe a Sunday school. The Progressive Brethren church is just eighty rods west of the Old Brethren church on the other side of the road in Barry county, but a good majority of the members live in Ionia county. They have about one hun

Page  423 IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 423 dred members and have an average attendance at Sunday school of about fifty. The church property is valued at about $I,6OO. C. C. Grisso is the present pastor and elder. UNION CHURCH OF NORTH PLAINS AND RONALD TOWNSHIPS. This organization supports a church in which any evangelical denomination may hold services at any time it is not in actual use by another-funerals being given precedence. It is controlled by five trustees, who must be not all of one denomination. They have an excellent building on the east side of Ronald township, with ample sheds for shelter of conveyances around three sides of the grounds. It was organized in 1877. Judge Brown gave the ground and tHiram M. Brown headed a subscription list for a fund to build and equip the church, and he and James F. Dalzell circulated the list. A very large number contributed generously, some at considerable sacrifice, many of them not professed Christians, either. The church has been used by various denominations, now chiefly by the Methodists and the Disciples, and has never suffered any serious clashes nor divisions.

Page  424 CHAPTER XXIX. THE MEDICAL PROFESSION. Dr. W. B. Lincoln came to the Ionia settlement with the Dexter colony in 1833 and was the first physician known to Ionia county. Remaining the only one for several years he came to be known far and wide, for he was called to almost every portion of the country, and rode over a circuit so broad that his time was mainly passed'in the saddle and the demands for his services were so continuous and urgent that day and night saw him almost constantly upon the go. The next physician to occupy the local field was Dr. Alanson Cornell, who came to the town in I838, and in connection with his medical practice carried on a drug store. He remained in continuous practice from the date of his arrival, in I838, to the date of his death, in T873. Next after Doctor Cornell came Dr. Norton Beckwith (first a settler in Lyons township), who joined with Doctor Richardson in practicing medicine in Ionia. Doctors came in pretty rapidly after that, and many of those who came did not remain long enough to call for a place in current history. Mention may be made of Doctors Williams, D. W. Bliss, Avery, Zenas Bliss, Typer, H. B. Barnes, W. B. Thomas, S. M. Bayard, T. B. Benedict, Frederick Gundrum, Albert Corey, Thomas R. Ganney, 0. R. Long, Allen Lodge and Little. The physicians later in practice in Ionia (August, t88o), were Thomas & Logan, (. H. Hammond, Fuller, Bailey, VW. B. Barnes, S. V. Romig, and Best, all of the allopathic school: Allen, Long and Ford, homeopaths; Tremayne, Bayard and Joslin, eclectics. Those longest in practice in Ionia were W. B. Barnes and S. M. Bayard, both of whom came in I86I. About the year 1842 a Doctor Rose, known as a Thompsonian, made a location at Saranac, and practicing upon the neighboring inhabitants with feeble success until I845. withdrew to more promising fields. Upon the heels of his departure came Doctor Taylor, an eclectic, who remained three or four years. After him there was a blank in local medical history until I849, when Drs. John Brandt and Cyr