A Third volume containing local history and personal sketches [of Saginaw and Lenawee counties, Michigan].
Fuller, George N. (George Newman), 1873-1957., Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society.

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Page  [unnumbered] ^ II 0I illl il lllT 11f 111f 3 1833 01715 6180 Gc 977.401 SAlSA A THIRD VOLUME CONTAINING LOCAL HISTORY AND PERSONAL

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Page  8 .)/x HIST RI MICHIGAN............. LAND OF THE GREAT LAKES Its Life, Resources, Industries, People, Politics, Government, Wars, Institutions, Achievements, the Press, Schools and Churches, Legendary and Prehistoric Lore Edited by Fuller, A.M. (Harvard), Ph.D. (Univ.. of Mich.) George N. IN TWO VOLUMES Also A Third Volume Containing Local History and Personal Sketches THREE ILLUSTRATED VOLUMES Published by National Historical Association, Inc., and dedicated to the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society in commemoration of its fiftieth anniversary

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Page  12 Fuller, George N Historic Michigan: v. 3 Saginaw and Lenawee Counties Mich Saginaw Library

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Page  14 Table of Contents SAGINAW COUNTY CHAPTER I-INDIANS AND EXPLORATIONS MOUND BUILDERS-INDIANS IN THE SAGINAW VALLEY-WARFARE BETWEEN SAUKS AND CHIPPEWAS-INDIAN TREATIES-FRENCH EXPLORERS-ENGLISH DOMINATION-COMING OF WHITE SETTLERS AFTER THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR..........................................17-23 CHAPTER II-EARLY SETTLEMENT JACOB SMITH, AN EARLY TRADER-SETTLEMENT AT SAGINAW BEGUN BY LOUIS CAMPAU-FIRST BUILDING ERECTED BY HIM IN 1816 - THE RILEYS - WILLIAM McDONALD.- OTHER EARLY C O M E R S...................................................................................................................24-27 CHAPTER III- COUNTY ORGANIZATION AND GOVERNMENT SAGINAW TOWNSHIP ERECTED IN 1830-ORGANIZED AS COUNTY IN 1835 AND INCLUDED WHAT IS NOW BAY COUNTY-DIFFICULTIES OF BAY COUNTY BECOMING RECOGNIZED AS SEPARATE COUNTY-ORGANIZATION OF THE VARIOUS TOWNSHIPS OF SAGINAW COUNTY-COUNTY SEAT LOCATED-BUILDING OF FIRST AND SECOND COURTHOUSES...........................................28-31 CHAPTER IV-EDUCATION ALBERT MILLER OPENED FIRST SCHOOL IN SAGINAW IN 1834 -SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. 1 ORGANIZED IN 1837-FREE. SCHOOL SYSTEM ESTABLISHED IN 1853-UNION SCHOOD DISTRICT FORMED IN 1865 AND HIGH SCHOOL COURSE ESTABLISHED-HIGH SCHOOL WAS ACCREI)ITEDI) TO UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN IN 1880-ARTHUR HILL TRADE SCHOOL-EAST SAGINAW SCHOOLS-EAST SAGINAW BOARD OF EDUCATION ORGANIZED IN 1859-THE HIGH SCHOOL, HAS BEEN ACCREDITED TO UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN SINCE 1879 -B U R T M A N U A L TRAINING SCHOOL-PAROCHIAL SCHOOLSL IB R A R IE S..............................................................................................................32-35 CHAPTER V-PRESS NORMAN LITTLE PUBLISHED FIRST NEWSPAPER, SAGINAW JOURNAL, IN 1836-PAPERS WHICH HAVE COME AND GONE-THE SAGINAW COURIER-HERALD NOW ONE OF FEW MORNING DAILIES IN MICHIGAN-SAGINAW EVENING NEWS-THE SAGINAW PRESS, A W EEKLY PAPER...................................................................................................36-37 CHAPTER VI-BANKS AND BANKING SAGINAW CITY BANK FIRST IN COUNTY-WAS A "WILDCAT" INSTITUTION-ITS FAILURE-YEAR 1855 WITNESSED ESTABLISHMENT OF FIRST SOUND BANK IN THE COUNTY, THE PRIVATE BANK OFI W. L. P. LITTLE & CO.-WAS MERGED WITH A NATIONAL BANK IN 1866 TO BECOME MERCHANTS NATIONAL BANK-THE

Page  15 HOME NATIONAL BANK-THREE PRIVATE BANKS-FIRST NATIONAL BANK FORCED TO CLOSE IN 1896-BANK Of', SAGINAW AND ITS BRANCHES-NOW LARGEST IN COUNTY-SECOND NATIONAL BANK OF SAGINAW ORGANIZED IN 1871 AND IS NOW OLDEST BANK IN SAGINAW-COMMERCIAL NATIONAL BANK AMERICAN STATE BANK-SAGINAW VALLEY TRUST COMPANY........................38-40 CHAPTER VII-BENCH AND BAR PRIOR TO 1859 SAGINAW WAS PART OF THE FOURTH AND LATER OF THE SEVENTH JUDICIAL DISTRICTS-JUDGES WERE JOSIAH TURNER AND THEN SANFORD M. GREEN-BECAME TENTH CIRCUIT IN 1859 WITH JAMES BIRNEY AS JUDGE-TWO JUDGES FOR SAGINAW AFTER 1888-PROMINENT ATTORNEYS.........................41-43 CHAPTER VIII-PHYSICIANS AND THE PUBLIC HEALTH BOARD OF HEALTH AND ITS MANY DUTIES-MARKET, FOOD, DAIRY AND PLUMBING INSPECTION-PUBLIC HEALTH NURSNG-SAGINAW CITY HOSPITAL-ST. MARY'S HOSPITAL............................................... 4546 CHAPTER IX- TRANSPORTATION RIVER NAVIGATION-STEAMBOATS AND LAKE SHIPPING-SHIPBUILDING IN SAGINAW-HIGHWAYS-SAGINAW TRAIL-PLANK ROADS-MODERN GOOD ROADS-RAILROADS-ELECTRIC LINES........................................................................................................................................... 47-56 CHAPTER X-INDUSTRIAL LUMBERING AND SAWMILLS-SALT INDUSTRY-COAL-BEET SUGAR-MATCHES-IRON FABRICATION —ICKES BROTHERS-AMERICAN CASH REGISTER-LUFKIN RULE CO.-U. S. GRAPHITE CO.PLATE GLASS-OTHER INDUSTRIES-SAGINAW BOARD OF TRADE -MERCHANTS AND MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION................... 57-65 LENAWEE COUNTY CHAPTER I-EARLY SETTLEMENT SETTIEMENT RETARD)ED BY ADVERSE REPORTS OF GOVERNIMEJNT SUIVEYORS-INDIAN TRAILS BROUGHT FIRST VWH-ITE SETTLERS-MUSGROVE EVANS THE FIRST OF THEM-lHE SELECTED) TOWNSITE IN 1823 AND INTERESTED FIFTEEN OTHER MEN WITH THEIR FAMILIES TO COME FROM THE EAST-SITE NOW THAT OF TECUMSEH-GENERAL J. W. BROWN WAS LEADING SPIRIT OF COLONY-BLISSF'IELD SETTLED IN 1824-ADRIAN PROJECTED BY A. J. COMSTOCK-WAS FIRST CALLED LOGAN-EARLY SETTLEMENT OF EACH TOWNSIHIP..................................... 67-68 CHAPTER II-COUNTY ORGANIZATION AND GOVERNMENT COUNTY FIRST MENTIONED IN PROCLAMATION OF GOVERNOR CASS IN 1822-TECUMSEH WAS FIRST COUNTY SEAT IN 1824-IN 1826 LENAWEE REGULARLY ORGANIZED COUNTY-ORGANIZATION OF THE TOWNSHIPS-PUBLIC BUILDINGS..........................................69-81

Page  16 CIAPTER III-EDUCATION PIONEER SCHOOLS-F-'IRST AT TECUMSEH IN 1824-25-BLISSFIELD HAD ONE IN 1827-ADRIAN IN 1828-29-HUDSON IN 1841 OTHER SCIIOOLS-ADRIAN PUBLIC SCHOOLS-THEIR GROWTH-ADRIAN COLLEGE.................................................................82-85 CHAPTER IV —TRANSPORTATION FIRST PUBLIC 1IGI1HAY LAID OUT 1827-28, FOURTEEN IN NUMBER -P L A N K R A D S-STATE HIGHWAYS-RAILROADS-ELECTRIC TRANSPORTATION............................................... 86-89 CHAPTER V-PROFESSIONS BENCH AND BAR-PROMINENT LAWYERS AND JUDGES-PHYSICIANS................................................. 90-95 CHAPTER VI-BANKS AND BANKING "WtILDCAT" BANKS AND THE PANIC OF 1837-LENAWEE COUNTY HAI) THRI-IEE OIF FOUR SUCH INSTITUTIONS-TODAY THE COUNTY BOASTS SIXTEE-N GOOD BANKS..................................................................96-99 CHAPTER VII-MILITARY BLACK HAWK WVAR-ADRIAN GUARDS-MEXICAN WAR-CIVIL WAR AND THE COUNTY'S PART IN THAT STRUGGLE-THE SPANISHe AMERICAN WAR-THE WORLD WAR, AND THE HEROIC ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE LENAWEE COUNTY MEN............................................100-108 CHAPTER VIII-THE PRESS POLITICS CAUSE OF INCEPTION AND ALSO THE FIAILURE OF MANY PIONEER NEWSPAPERS-FIRST PAPER IN COUNTY PUBLISHED IN 1834-DAILY TELEGRAM NOW PUBLISHED AT ADRIAN-OTHERS IN THE COUNTY ARE THE ADDISON COURIER, BLISSFIELD ADVANCE AND CLINTON LOCAL..............................................................................................109-110 CHAPTER IX-CITIES AND VILLAGES ADDISON - ADRIAN - BRITTON-CADMUS-CLAYTON ---CLINTONDEERFI ELD - HIOLLOWAY - IUDSON-ONSTEDI-MORENCI-BLISSFIELD- TECUMSEII........................................................................................... 111-114 CHAPTER X-INDUSTRIAL TANNING AN IEARLY IMPORTANT INDUSTRY —LEATHER GOODS NOW MANUIIFACTUREID AT ADRIAN-DIVERSIFIED AND IMPORTANT INDUSTRIES...................................................................................................... 16-117

Page  17 CHAPTER I INDIANS AND EXPLORATIONS RCHAEOLOGISTS have attributed to the state of Michigan and what was known as the Northwest Territory, inhabitants antedating the Indians found by the first white explorers to penetrate the wilds of this territory. From their custom of building burial mounds, the early inhabitants have been termed Mound Builders, and from the relics that have been taken from the mounds which they constructed, it is evident that they had developed a surprisingly high degree of civilization. The Mound Builders opened the first mines in the Upper Peninsula and the workings on Isle Royal in Lake Superior show them to have possessed a remarkable degree of skill and knowledge of the ore veins. Colpper vessels and implements of all kinds have been found as far south as the Ohio river, bearing testimony to the fact that the Mound Builders trafficked largely in the col)pler won from their prehistoric mines by primitive, yet none the less effective methods of mining. Throughout the state of Mlichigan, the traces of the Mound Builders are found, and Saginaw county was also the site of the villages of these ancient people as shown by the many mounds that- have been found here. Along shores of lakes and the margins of the rivers and creeks, they placed their villages, the sites of which are now attested by the mounds. Crow Island on the lower river was once a village site; the prairie directly across from it was another; four miles up the river on the east bank and located on a ridge that extended south from the present site of the Federal building stood a third; a ridge extending from the City hall to the ielt line tracks was once an extensive village; and a fifth extended from the site of the present East Side Water Works to the fork of the river. Withlin tihe city of Saginaw is still another ancient village site on the west bank of the river extending from the Bristol street river crossing to what is now known as Green Point. On the Cass river, the Flint and Tittabawassee and Shiawassee rivers, on Beaver and Misteguay creeks can be seen the traces of the villages of the Mound Builders. Even before the advent of the white men to this territory, the Indians had undergone changes, for those who held the land when the settlers first took up land in Saginaw county were not the ones who had claimed it before them. What tribes have lived in Michigan, what ones were expelled by the tribes found by the white men, have never been definitely ascertained. It is believed by some that the Ottawas, driven from their homes to the eastward, occupied the greater portion of the Lower Peninsula. Certain it is that niany of their numbers were adopted into the Chippewa tribes, for among the signatures of chiefs of the latter are found names of distinct Ottawa origin. HIowever long or in what numbers the Ottawas dwelt in this part of the country, they failed to leave their stamp upon this section as did the

Page  18 18 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY fierce and warlike Sacs, or Sauks, believed by some eminent archaeologists to be the first powerful tribe to establish themselves in the northern part of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. The traditions of the Chippewas left no doubt in the minds of the first white settlers that the Sauks had once ruled this part of the country by a constant reign of terror. In truth, according to the Indian legends, they were a scourge upon all the other tribes of this state. The principal home of the Sauks was in the Saginaw Valley, although the rest of the northern part of the state was regarded by them as their rightful hunting ground. However, the Chippewas gradually obtained a foothold in the extreme north part of the peninsula and against these few bands, the Sauks launched intermittent campaigns of warfare that resulted in the ultimate breaking of the Sauk power and their expulsion from Michigan. The Chippewas, goaded by the constant depredations of the fierce Sauks, made an alliance with the Indian tribes located to the south of the Sauks. Finally the Sauks made a raid against a band of Chippewas at Little Traverse bay and carried off a number of prisoners. Believing themselves secure from assault from the Chippewas, the Sauks began a leisurely journey to the Saginaw. The outraged Chippewas, however, assembled their allies at the Mackinaw and began to follow the shore of Lake Huron to Saginaw bay, travelling by canoe. Almost as soon as the Sauks reached the Saginaw river, near the later village of Portsmouth, the allies reached the lower extremity of Saginaw bay. Surprising the encamped Sauks, the allies defeated them with great slaughter in a night attack; the remnants of the band made another stand on a hill not far distant, but upon sustaining another defeat at the hands of the Chippewas, they retreated to an island near the mouth of Cheboyganing creek. A sudden freeze made ice sufficiently strong to bear the attackers, and again by a night attack, the Chippewas completed the slaughter they had begun. Other allies of the Chippewas had come overland. On the Cass, Shiawassee, Tittabawassee, and Flint rivers, bands of the Sauks were met and slaughtered, two of the greatest of these battles being fought in Genesee county on the Flint river. By these operations, the power of the dreaded Sauks was broken, and though it was long thought that the tribe had been exterminated, the remnants of the band appeared in Northern Illinois and Southern Wisconsin as allies of the Fox Indians, who waged relentless war on the French for many years after the lily banner of France had been planted in the Great Lakes region. The survivors of this once powerful and haughty tribe are today found in Iowa. With the Sauks definitely out of the way, the Chippewas moved south to occupy the territory of their enemies, and thus it was that the first white men to visit the Saginaw found the Chippewas holding the land. Even within the memory of these first white men, the cry of "Sauk, Sauk" was sufficient to throw terror into the hearts of the Chippewas and send them into the surrounding forests for days in fruitless search for some member of the vanished race. Indeed, the forests near Bay City were long regarded by the Chippewas as haunted by the ghosts of the slain Sauks, and it was many years before the

Page  19 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY 19 Chippewas hunted freely in these forests, though they afforded the finest hunting in this section of the state. The treaty concluded with the Indians in 1807 by Governor William Hull left the country of the Saginaw still in the possession of the Chippewas, the northern line of the Indian cession being just north of Lapeer and Genesee counties as they are now bounded. General Cass was commissioned by his government to secure from the Indians a deed to the land of the Saginaw Valley, and in September, 1819, he left Detroit with aids and interpreters for the Saginaw. Travelling to the Flint river on horseback, the party descended the river to the small settlement on the Saginaw, where negotiations were opened with the Chippewa chiefs assembled in council for this occasion. The chiefs, headmen and braves to the number estimated to be between 1,500 and 2,000 were not favorably inclined to entertain the proposition of the eloquent general that their land be ceded for all time to the United States. Negotiations were under way for a period of ten or twelve days, and three general councils, at which both sides presented their arguments, were necessary before the deed was finally signed by General Lewis Cass, 114 Indians, and twenty-three witnesses on September 24, 1819, the territory now comprising Saginaw county coming directly under the control of the United States Government. Numerous reservations for the Indians were made in the first treaty of Saginaw. Henry R. Schoolcraft drafted a treaty in 1836 providing for the sale of these reservations to the United States and presented it to an Indian council in the same year. They refused to consider the matter, however, unless James McCormick, who had befriended the Indians and helped them on many occasions, should be deeded the Indian land on which he was then living. In January, 1837, the Indians were called to meet at Detroit to consider the matter. Schoolcraft assured them that McCormick had been provided for as they requested, whereupon they signed the treaty, but it soon came to light that such a clause guaranteeing McCormick's title to the land which he had improved had not been inserted in the treaty, the white man being forced to abandon the lands where he had lived so long and which he had improved so well. A third treaty was concluded with the Indians of the Saginaw on January 23, 1838, concerning the prices to be asked for the lands sold to the United States by the Chippewas. The last treaty concerning the Saginaw tribes of Chippewas was concluded August 2, 1855, by which title to any land held by the Indians in the lower peninsula of Michigan as reservations was ceded to the United States. Explorations. In 1534, less than fifty years after Columbus had startled an incredulous Europe with the announcement that far to the west lay a new continent, the intrepid Frenchman, Jacques Cartier, founded the town of Montreal at the site of the Indian village of Hochelaga on the banks of the St. Lawrence river, and claimed the territory in the name of his royal master, Francis I, king of France. From then until the coming of the great Samuel de Champlain in 1603, the French made no further attempts at colonizing the new country which they claimed as their own. The presence of copper in the region

Page  20 20 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY of Lake Superior Champlain learned from the Indians and his published report aroused new interest in the New World. From May, 1604, to the summer of 1607, Champlain explored more than a thousand miles of seacoast when not a single colony existed from Newfoundland to Mexico. On July 3, 1608, he took possession of what is now Quebec and established the village that was destined to become the capital of New France. It was soon after the founding of Quebec that Champlain committed an error of judgment in dealing with the Indians that probably kept the French from making extensive explorations in this part of Michigan long before the Fleur-de-lis were seen by the Chippewa Indians of this valley. In the spring of 1609, Champlain, while engaged in exploring the Ticonderoga district of New York, aided his attendant Indians against 200 Iroquois of the Mohawk tribe with such disastrous results to the latter that the eternal hatred of the Six Nations was thereafter directed against the French, threatening the life of the village of Quebec and virtually closing Lake Ontario to the French. With the easy lake route closed to them, the French made their journeys to the west by way of the Ottawa river and Lake Nipissing to Georgian bay and thence to the Sault. What explorers might have visited the Saginaw Valley had the lake route been open to the French, is a matter of pure conjecture; perhaps Nicolet, who took the usual route to the west, or the two companions, Radisson and Groseilliers, or Father Rene Menard, who brought civilization to the Indians of the Fox river in Wisconsin, might have traversed the broad expanse of the Saginaw river. Joseph le Caron, who came to the New World with Champlain in 1610 when the latter was made lieutenant-governor of New France, was a Franciscan friar who soon after went to Georgian bay and set up a mission at the Huron town of Caragouha in 1615. He returned to Quebec the following year, and though he is known as a man with no desire to explore the country to the west, to him must go the credit of being the discoverer of Lake Huron. Etienne Brule journeyed as far as the Sault about the same time, but he, too, followed the usual route up the Ottawa river by way of Lake Nipissing and French river to Georgian bay. To the work of Jean Nicolet, however, is due the real opening of the vast territory of the region west of Lake Huron. He came to New France in 1618 when he was a young man and was soon sent to the Algonquins by Champlain as an interpreter, his first station being the Isle des Allumettes on the Ottawa river, a hundred leagues from Quebec. During the ensuing years that he spent among the Indians, Nicolet learned much from them concerning the western country. With the return of Quebec to the French by the British in 1632, he returned to the French capital. The French continued to hear more about the country beyond Lake Huron from the Indians; they learned of the Green Bay country of Wisconsin and of its inhabitants, the Winnebagoes, a tribal name meaning "Men of the Salt Water" and derived from the Algonquin word Ouinipeg meaning "bad smelling water." Indian tradition credited the Winnebagoes with having lived on a body of salt water far to the west

Page  21 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY 21 of their home on the Fox river in Wisconsin. The inflammable imagination of the French was ignited by the thought that if these Indians once lived on the shores of a salt sea perhaps the French might discover the much sought route to the Indies by way of the Great Lakes. Champlain eagerly grasped at the idea, and an expedition was accordingly fitted out and placed in command of Jean Nicolet. Proceeding by the usual route to Geargian bay, Nicolet skirted the southern shore of the Upper Peninsula after leaving the Sault and eventually found the Winnebagoes at Green Bay. He returned to Quebec in 1635, probably in July, and the following Christmas was saddened by the death of the great Champlain. The inquiries of Nicolet must have been extensive, for in Champlain's last report to the home government is incorporated much of the information gathered by Nicolet, who among other things recommended the establishment of a fort at the southern extremity of Lake lHuron at the entrance to the St. Clair river. Nicolet must have learned, too, of the Saginaw bay, for in Champlain's map of the country the bay is represented. Thile Jesuit Relations of 1856 record the advent of two nameless explorers who spent two years in the Lake Superior country and in central \Visconsin and returned to Quebec in August, 1656. Journals and letters that have been preserved show more or less conclusively that these two men mentioned in the Relations were Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Medart Chouart des Groseilliers. The memoirs of the former claim for the two men the distinction of discovering the Mississippi river and descending it almost to the gulf, as well as exploring those parts of Wisconsin visited by Nicolet and spending some time on Lake Superior above the Sault. Discrepancies found throughout the journal tend strongly to discount the veracity of the writer in many things, such as the discovery of the Mississippi, but that Ra(disson and Groseilliers were the two men mentioned in the Jesuit Relations cannot be doubted. To them is (due the honor of being the next to follow Nicolet, and it is recorded that they lived among the In(lians between the headwaters of the AMississippi river and the St. Croix river where they were visited by tlhe Sioux Indians. To offset tilhe work of Radisson and Groseilliers, who in the service of thle English at Illudson lay were drawing the trade of the Indians beyond Lake Sulperior, 1France formally took possession of the country of the (;reat Lakes in 1671, the ceremony being held at Sault Ste. Marie on June 4, Nicholas Ferrot being instrumental in bringing about the affair and inviting the Indians to attend. Present at the ceremony at the Sault was one Louis Joliet, the discoverer of the Mlississippi river and the first to undertake the lake route from MIontreal to the westernmost of the Great Lakes. In 1669 he led a party of Frenchmen to search for the copper mines of Lake Superior and to find a shorter and easier route from Montreal to that section of the country. lie traversed the length of Lake Erie, passed into Lake ()Ontario by way of the Grand river and at the head of Lake Ontario tmet another explorer, La Salle, who was accompanied by two Sulpitians, I)ollier (lde Casson and Rene (le Galinee. La Salle's party was in search

Page  22 22 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY of the Mississippi, and though Joliet urged them to follow the lake route with him, La Salle turned southward toward the Ohio and failed, while Joliet discovered the Mississippi by the same route which he recommended to La Salle. Even though Joliet passed up Lake Huron we do not know whether he ventured into Saginaw bay or made any attempt to learn more of the country of the Lower Peninsula. In the fall of 1678, La Salle, having become a rich trader under the patronage of Frontenac, returned from France with Henri Tonty and Louis Hennepin, the latter of whom was a Recollet friar. Thirty shipcarpenters and a supply of cordage, anchors and other material were brought to the mouth of Cayuga creek above Niagara Falls where the Griffon, a forty-five ton ship armed with five small cannon, was built. On August 7, 1679, the little vessel set sail, reaching Detroit on the tenth, and from there the party turned north through the Detroit river reaching Lake St. Clair, which La Salle named in honor of the saint on whose feast day the party arrived in the lake. Apparently the party of La Salle and Hennepin failed to explore Saginaw bay, for no mention of it is made in the journals of the trip. On August 27, the Griffon reached Mackinac and from there proceeded to Green Bay, where it was loaded with furs and sent back to its station at the mouth of Cayuga creek. It never reached its destination, however, and though for a time it was thought that the crew stole the furs and went to Hudson Bay, the loss of the Griffon was probably the first of the long list of naval disasters on the Great Lakes. The trip on the Griffon, however, was useful in that it impressed upon the French the desirability of protecting the lake route and it was in accordance with this plan that the fort recommended years before by Champlain was built in 1686 at the entrance of the St. Clair river by Daniel Graysolon Du Luth at the command of Governor Denonville. In 1699, the westernmost forts of the French were abandoned on the command of the king, but the French were thereafter engaged in a war with the Fox Indians of Wisconsin, who, had their numbers been in thousands instead of hundreds, would undoubtedly have expelled the French from the Great Lakes region long before the British accomplished it. After the surrender of Montcalm on the plains of Abraham and the signing of the treaty which gave Canada and the French claims to the south of the lakes to the British, Michigan passed from under French rule and the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew floated from the forts in 1760. British domination of the country south of the Great Lakes was destined to be comparatively short, however, for when the American Colonies won their independence from Great Britain, they secured nominal control of the Northwest Territory, although actual possession of the forts was retained by the British until 1796, when a second treaty turned them over to the United States. To the Indians of Michigan, the British yoke had been much lighter than the French, for the English made no attempt to open the country for extensive colonization, continuing, perhaps, the effect in their newly acquired lands the royal proclamation that closed the country west of the Alleghenies to colonists.

Page  23 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY 23 When Michigan was finally under the American flag, it was a new experience, then, for the Indians to find hundreds of sturdy white pioneers following close upon the heels of the trappers and traders to establish farms, settlements and in time villages. At the treaty negotiations with the Chippewas in 1819, one of their chiefs mentioned that the Americans asked for the Indian lands while the British did not.

Page  24 CHAPTER II EARLY SETTLEMENT T O say who were the first white men to set foot in the wilderness that is now Saginaw county is impossible. Many were the coureurs de bois and trappers who doubtless traversed the length and breadth of the county, trading with the Indians and setting forth their winter trap lines, whose names have not come down to us. Perhaps there were many of the traders who made their homes here for many months that have likewise passed into obscurity. The name of Jacob Smith is known to us as one of the first traders to frequent the country of the Saginaw. It is believed that he came to this section of the state about the year 1810, leaving his wife and children in Detroit. He made his headquarters at the settlement on the Flint in what is now Genesee county. He won the lasting friendship of the Indians and it was through his influence that the family of David Henderson, the first Indian agent for this territory at Saginaw, was saved from slaughter at the hands of Kish-kau-kou and sent to Detroit. Louis Campau, one of the early trappers in this section, was the first to break ground to start the settlement on the Saginaw. In 1816 he erected on the west bank of the river near what is now the foot of Throop street a large two-story building constructed of squared logs. This, the first building at what was later to be known as Saginaw, served the double purpose of residence for Campau and blockhouse for any family that might come to the embryo settlement with a view toward locating here. Campau used the building as a storehouse for the furs he bought from the Indians, but long after it was abandoned as a trading post, the house was occupied by J. Baptiste Desnoyers, a relative of Campau, who died in the early Sixties. Of the early traders and trappers who came to the Saginaw, the names of Henry Conner, Whitmore Knaggs, C. Godfroy, Archie Lyons, and John Harson have been preserved, for they were among the most prominent of that hardy band of men. The treaty of Saginaw set aside certain reservations for private persons, among whom were John, James and Peter Riley, sons of James V. S. Riley and a Chippewa woman named Menawcumegoqua. John Riley was given 640 acres of land within the present corporate limits of Bay City; Peter Riley received the same amount of land located on the west side of Saginaw river; and James Riley's tract of 640 acres was located on the east side of the same river and afterward formed a part of East Saginaw. Since the three half-breeds lived with the Indians whose tribal home was near the head of the St. Clair river, they never took up the lands that were granted to them, and in 1836 James and Peter sold their lands to Andrew F. McReynolds and F. H. Stevens. lProbably no white man in the vicinity was more trusted andl respected Iy the ilndians wit whomi he dealt than was William McDonald,

Page  25 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY 25 agent of the post of the American Fur company established in Saginaw in August, 1824. The log buildings of the post were built on the land now occupied by the Hotel Fordney on Court street, and in the new post McDonald was placed as agent, or "factor." McDonald continued to live in Saginaw until his death, retiring from the fur trade in the early Forties. Eleaser Jewett came to the settlement on the Saginaw in 1826, and he and Asa L. Whitney, who had preceded him, built a log house near the head of the Saginaw river. Jewett was a native of New Hampshire. The two men spent the winter of 1826-27 in the employ of the American Fur company, and Whitney was drowned the following April. In that year, Jewett succeeded McDonald as agent of the American Fur company's Iost and established his new station at the fork of the Tittabawassee river near the present city of Midland, a move that was first opposed by the Indians. Jewett married Azubah L. Miller, October 22, 1831, she being the sister of Albert Miller, a prominent citizen of Bay City. The couple made their home at Green Point but a few years later built a hotel in the village, operating it until 1859. Jewett operated a small ferry for a numler of years. He was also the first surveyor to run lines within the present limits of Saginaw county and he was elected the second probate judge of the county. The family removed to Kochville township in 1860 where Jewett died in Felruary, 1875. Mrs. Jewett died in Saginaw on June 8, 1889, at the age of eighty-four years. Doctor Charles Little, although he had practiced his profession in Avon, Livingston county, New York, for forty-two years, elected to make another change at that period in his life. Favorably impressed witl the Saginaw Valley, he made the necessary deposit to secure government lands, and in the summers of 1822 and 1823 he visited the valley and traced all the main tributaries of the river. That he was possessed of the keenest foresight and appreciation of the possibilities of the country is shown by the fact that nearly all the land he entered is now embraced by the East Side of the city of Saginaw. His entries began at Crow Island and continued with a few exceptions to Green Point, the site of the village of Salina being included in his entries..He also entered land on the west hank of the river from the little settlement already there to the Tittabawassce river. The following two decades of his life in Saginaw were years of great usefulness to the community, and when he died at his homestead in 1842, the people could truly say that one of the true founders of the city and county had passed away. Harvey Williams, who was known by the familiar term of "uncle," was a true pioneer not only of Saginaw county but of Michigan, for he it was who operated the first stationary steam engine in the Michigan territory and built the first steam engine for sawmill purposes in the territory. From 1815 to 1822, he lived at Detroit where he had come from Concord, Massachusetts, his native city. At Detroit, he was located on the triangular lot at Cass and Woodbridge streets and Jefferson avenue an(l there he conducted the blacksmithing and engine works that (levelopedl into a $100,000 business. Williams was persuaded in the fall of

Page  26 26 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY 1822 to take supplies overland from Detroit to the military garrison at Saginaw, which he did in company with John Hamilton, of Genesee county. It was during this brief visit to the Saginaw that he saw and appreciated the advantages of the county. In 1836, he bought a fifth interest in the mill of Mackie & Company, of New York, which was to be established here. The mill, when built on the east side of the river just south of what was to be Bristol street, was operated by Williams until the panic of 1837, when he lost the money that he had won from a new country by perseverance charactestistic of the pioneer. Until 1844, he continued to live at Saginaw, building the Flint-to-Saginaw road through Bridgeport center during that time. After ten years of residence in Saginaw, he and his wife removed to a new home at the mouth of the Kawkawlin river in 1844, where he lived twenty years, engaging in fishing on Lake Huron and Saginaw Bay. Prominent in the life of the community were the Williams brothers, Gardner D. and Ephraim S., both natives of Concord, Massachusetts, where the former was born September 9, 1804, and the latter February 7, 1802. Gardner D. Williams came to Saginaw in the spring of 1828 as agent for the American Fur company, his brother following him in the fall. Soon after re-establishing the post on the Tittabawassee, the brothers took over the interests of the American Fur company in this district and the following year purchased the trading post of the Campaus, Louis Campau having gone to Grand River in 1826. Both the brothers were active in public life, Gardner being appointed commissioner of the first board of internal improvements in March, 1837, elected county judge of Saginaw county for several years and senator from the Sixth District in November, 1844, and in the same year being elected circuit court commissioner. He succeeded his brother as postmaster in 1840. He died December 11, 1858, at the age of fiftyfive years. Ephraim S. Williams was appointed the first postmaster of Saginaw, being appointed to that position in 1834 and holding it until 1840, when he resigned at the time of his removal to Flint. Sherman Stevens, employed for a time by the Williams brothers, was well known in the community and known for his ability in using the Chippewa language. Archie Lyons, was located in the county before 1819 and lived at the Little Forks of the Tittabawassee where he lived until he met his death by drowning. His widow, of French and Indian blood, later marrying Antoine Peltier of Pinconning. David Stanard and Charles McLean came to the settlement in 1828, the former settling on the old Court farm where he ran a stone for grinding corn and the latter settling on the forty acres adjoining the Bacon farm and becoming the first man to sow wheat in the county. Lauren Riggs and John Brown came from Avon, New York, in 1829, settling on land a mile north of Green Point on the banks of the Tittabawassee. A son of Riggs is believed to have been the first white boy born in the county. Stephen Benson settled opposite the Bacon farm about the same time, and in August, 1830, Edward McCarty and his son Thomas settled on the banks of the Tittabawassee several miles from its mouth.

Page  27 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY 27 Grosvenor Vinton came from Avon, New York, early in 1830 and took up land. During the first summer he worked for Stanard and Riggs, but occupied his own land that fall, continuing to live there until December, 1834. Vinton was one of the fifteen voters at the first meeting of the voters of Saginaw township. Thomas Simpson came to the Michigan territory at an early (late, and in 1830 began the publication of the Oakland Chronicle at Pontiac, the first newspaper in Michigan north of Detroit. After a short time he discontinued the paper and about 1832 came to Saginaw. In 1847 he kept the lighthouse at the mouth of the river and a few years later died. Elijah N. Davenport came to Michigan in 1831 and settled first at Grand Blanc, Genesee county, removing to the village on the Saginaw in 1834. The old blockhouse at the corner of Court and Hamilton streets was refitted by Davenport as a tavern which he kept for several years. During the four years following 1836, Davenport was sheriff of the county and was later elected county clerk. He died October 10, 1863. Albert Miller was a name identified with the earliest history of the village of Saginaw. Born in Hartland, Vermont, in 1810, Miller came to Michigan in 1830. From Detroit he set out for Saginaw, but relatives whom he met at Grand Blanc persuaded him to buy a farm near that village and it was not until February, 1833, that he finally came to the village to the north. During the winter of 1834-35, he taught school in the old soldier barracks, this being the first school taught in Saginaw county. He became judge of probate and justice of the peace when the-county was organized and became a member of the legislature in 1847. He also held other public offices in the township, county, and state. He later became one of the most prominent citizens of Bay City, where he died September 19, 1893. James Fraser purchased land on the Tittabawassee in 1833 and moved his family to the new home. Not long after he was instrumental in the organization of the Lower Saginaw company that platted the village of Lower Saginaw, afterward Bay City, and thereafter he made his home in the village of which he was one of the proprietors. He became active in lumber operations in later years and became one of the most prominent men in this section of the state in that connection. His business activities carried him frequently between Bay City and Saginaw and he was a plrominent figure in the life of Saginaw county.

Page  28 CHAPTER III COUNTY ORGANIZATION AND GOVERNMENT N 1824, the unorganized counties of Saginaw, Lapeer, Sanilac, and Shiawassee were attached to Oakland county for judicial purposes. An act of the legislature was passed in 1830 erecting Saginaw township and comprising the entire county within its limits, and when the act took effect on April 4, 1831, the voters met at the old blockhouse at Saginaw and elected the following officers: Gardner D. Williams, representative of the township on the Oakland county board of supervisors; Ephraim S. Williams, clerk; A. W. Bacon, treasurer; and David Stanard, Eleazer Jewett, and Charles McLean, overseers of the three districts of Green Point, Saginaw, and Tittabawassee. In the same year, a seat of justice was established at Saginaw and the county judges appointed to serve on the bench with the presiding judge were Gardner D. Williams and David Stanard. The limits of the county as defined shortly after in an act, comprised parts of Midland, Gladwin and Tuscola counties as they are now established. The condition of a township was not long left for the people of this section, for on January 28, 1835, an act organizing the county was approved by Governor Lewis Cass. The limits of the county as defined by the act included all of what is now Bay county, and thereby hangs a tale of a struggleof several years' duration for the people of the latter county to obtain recognition as a regularly organized county. According to the provisions of the act, it stated the township board should sit as a county board until three townships had been organized in the county for the election of a board of supervisors. The county government of the state was then placed in the hands of county boards of commissioners and continued so until 1842 when the old supervisor system was reestablished to prevail to the present time. The first meeting of the county board of the newly organized Saginaw county was held the second Tuesday of October, 1835, the board adjourning to the following Friday. At the latter meeting held in the village of Saginaw, the following were present: Gardner D. Williams, supervisor; William F. Mosley and Albert Miller, justices of the peace; and E. S. Williams, township clerk, for the township officers were meeting until three townships had been organized in the county to elect a board. Albee township was organized by the board of supervisors on February 17, 1863, and at the first meeting held the first Monday of April, James Darling was elected supervisor; C. C. Sprague, clerk; and Seth Sprague, township treasurer. Birch Run township was organized by the supervisors on February 9, 1853, and the first town meeting was held at the house of Proctor Williams the first Monday in Alril, the following leing chosen officers: Josephl Matheson, supervisor; Calviln Silvernail, clerk; and lHiram M. Brown, treasurer.

Page  29 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY 29 Brady township was organized January 10, 1856, by the supervisors, the first town meeting being held the first Monday of the following April at the house of J. F. McCoy. Brant township was organized by the supervisors in January, 1858, and at the first meeting held at the house of Albert A. Aldrich on the first Monday of the following April, Thomas Berry was elected supervisor; John B. Adams, clerk; and Ezra T. Cogswell, treasurer. Blumfield township was organized at the same time as Birch Run township, and the first meeting was held April 4, 1853, at the house of J. J. Edelman, the following officers being elected:.Charles Post, supervisor; Bernard Haak, clerk; and S. P. Schenck, treasurer. Bridgeport township was organized by the supervisors in 1848. By an act of the legislature approved March 28, 1850, Buena Vista township was organized. At the first meeting held in a public meeting place on Mlay 1, following, William L. Goulding was elected supervisor; Augustus Lull, clerk; and William Wadsworth, treasurer. Carrollton township was organized by the supervisors, January 4, 1863, and on April 2, 1863, the first meeting was held in the schoolhouse, at which these officers were chosen: Charles E. Gillett, supervisor; Archibald Baird, clerk; and Martin Stoker, treasurer. Chapin township was organized by the supervisors on October 10, 1866. The first town meeting was held the first Monday of the following April at the home of Joseph Taylor, and John McChristian, Edgar W. Winter, and Morris S. Brown were chosen for the offices of supervisor, clerk, and treasurer, respectively. Chesaning township was organized as Northampton township by the supervisors in 1847, but the name was changed to the present one in 1853. William Smith, Rufus P. Mason, and L. Stevens were elected to the offices of supervisor, clerk, and treasurer, respectively, at the first town meeting. Frankenmuth township was organized by the supervisors on January 3, 1854, and when the first meeting was held on April 3, George Schmidt was elected supervisor; A. Ranzenberger, clerk; and John A. List, treasurer. Fremont township was organized March 2, 1857, by the supervisors. James township was erected by the county board October 22, 1874, and at the election held the following May in the schoolhouse, these officers were elected: Edwin S. Dunbar, supervisor; Jacob Zieroff, clerk; and Joseph Zieroff, treasurer. Jonesfield township was erected by the county board March 19, 1873, and at the meeting held the following April, John Clune, A. J. West, and Joel S. Nevins were elected to the offices of supervisor, clerk, and treasurer, respectively. Kochville township was organized by the supervisors on October 12, 1855, the first meeting being held the following April at the house of Andreas Goetz, who was elected the first treasurer, while Luke Wellington and John C. Schmidt were installed as supervisor and clerk, respectively.

Page  30 30 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY Lakefield township was also organized by the supervisors, the prayer of the petitioners to that effect being granted at the session of October 16, 1875. The following April, the first town meeting was held at the house of Herbert C. Fessenden, who was elected supervisor, Howard Collins and William Yule being elected clerk and treasurer, respectively. Maple Grove township was organized in 1867. At the first town meeting held in April of that year at the house of James V. Judd, the officers elected were Brunson Turner, supervisor; Simon E. Trumbull, clerk; and Horatio W. Felt, treasurer. Marion township was detached from Brant and erected into a township by an act of the supervisors of January 14, 1880. The following April, the election was held at the house of Daniel Paul, who was chosen the first supervisor, while Thomas Kernohan was elected clerk and Finlay McInnis was made treasurer. On January 8, 1862, the supervisors organized Richland township, and at the election held April 7, 1862, William McBratnie, T. A. Porter, and George Brown were elected to the positions of supervisor, clerk and treasurer, respectively. Spalding township came into being December 30, 1858, and the first election was held April 5, 1859, in the schoolhouse in that district, J. H. Quackenbush being elected supervisor; Aaron K. Penny, clerk; and Horace Hubbard, treasurer. St. Charles township was organized February 9, 1853. Swan Creek township was organized August 30, 1860, and the first election held at the house of George Beaman the following April. Taymouth township was organized February 17, 1842, the election being held on April 4, 1842, at the house of A. F. Hayden. John Farquharson, James Farquharson, being elected to the positions of supervisor (the former) and clerk and treasurer, James Farquharson holding both the last named offices. Thomas township was organized October 11, 1855, and the first election was held at the district school on April 7, 1856, Octavius Thompson, Thomas Owen, and John Wiltse being elected supervisor, clerk and treasurer, respectively. Tittabawassee township, which originally included 'all of the present counties of Midland and Gratiot, was erected by the legislature by an act approved March 30, 1840. The first election was held April 1, 1841, at the house of Obadiah Crane in the village of Tittabawassee, and at that time the following officers were elected: Thomas McCarty, supervisor; James N. Gotee, clerk; and William R. Hubbard, treasurer. With the organization of the county, Thomas A. Drake, a member of the legislative council from Oakland county and a man named Frost were sent to Saginaw county as commissioners to locate the county seat. When they arrived here, they found Judge Dexter and a surveyor'by the name of Risdon engaged in platting Saginaw City. Dexter went before the commissioners with the proposition that if they selected his town as the county seat, he would donate a site for the erection of a courthouse and jail and would give each commissioner at least two lots. The third commissioner looked with favor upon the proposition of Dexter. With

Page  31 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY -31 Eleazer Jewett as guide, the commissioners traversed the county. Neither Drake and Frost were in favor of Dexter's proposition and they finally selected a suitable site for the seat of justice and accurately located the site of the courthouse. During the night, Drake slept at Green point and Frost and the third commissioner spent the night at the blockhouse in the fort. Frost became intoxicated, and while he was in that condition, the third commissioner induced him to sign a report locating the courthouse on the site offered by Dexter. It was on this site, therefore, that the courthouse of Saginaw county has since stood. After the population began increasing rapidly in 1836 and public improvements began to be made, the county officials realized that the need of a county building was becoming imperative. In January, 1838, the county board broached the subject in earnest, and Judge Riggs obtained plans of the courtlouse of Livingston county, New York, plans that were (leemed satisfactory by the board. On March 2, 1838, a resolution to lbuild the courthouse on the plans as approved. The four bids for construction that were opetled ranged from eleven thousand to twelve thousand dollars, all in excess of the amount appropriated from tile county funds for such a purpose. It was then decided to let the contract at once to the lowest viT'a voc' bidder, Asa Hill finally winning the contract on his bid of $9,925, nearly sixteen hundred dollars less than his written blid. To finance the building of the courthouse, the coutty bonded itself to the extent of $10,000 with the Saginaw City bank. The death of the contractor, Ilill, and tile failure of the bank soon after, brought building operations to a standstill for some time. To save the building material from plossible damage and waste, Eliel Barber was hired to continue the work. Hie secured carpenters at one dollar and twenty-five cents a (lay and laborers at a dollar a day, continuing work until the outside was completed as well as the lower rooms. The first courthouse served the county for more than forty-five years, when the present structure, which is now being remodeled to supply more office space, was erected (luring the years 1884-85, being occupied by the county offices in tile latter year. It occupies the site (donlated to the county for that purpose by Judge Dexter when he influencedl the commissioners to make Saginaw City a county seat.

Page  32 CHAPTER IV EDUCATION A LBERT MILLER, as already stated, opened the first school in Saginaw in 1834 in the old log barracks. After the organization of Saginaw township, School District No. 1 was organized in 1837, and a small frame school building was erected on the south side of Court street near the site of the courthouse but was later removed to the present site of the county jail. Horace S. Beach came from New York City to assume charge of this first school, retaining the position until 1840. Henry A. Campbell and Dion Birney taught the school during the following winter, and in 1841 it was kept by Miss Catherine Beach. Ira Bissel, of Grand Blanc, Daniel Woodin of St. Clair, and Edward Ferris of New York, were among the teachers at the school between 1842 and 1'845. In the latter years, Miss Harriet A. Spaulding, a missionary from Boston, took charge of the school and taught during that year and the next. From 1847 to 1850 several teachers were employed at various times, among them being Joseph A. Ripley of Tuscola, Miss Anna Dayton, Miss Eliza Booth, E. C. Erwin, Charles T. Disbrow, and Milo Woodward, of Ohio. While the school was in charge of Miss Booth, a private school was taught for several months by Miss Angeline Berry. In April, 1851, Augustine S. Gaylord took charge of the school but resigned in November to become a deputy county clerk. He was succeeded by Charles Johnson, who continued until the fall of 1853, when the rate bill system was abolished and the free school system was established, Saginaw becoming one of the first cities in the state of Michigan to adopt the free public school system as defined by the state laws. Charles R. Gaylord became the first teacher of the free school, receiving five hundred dollars for the school year of forty-four weeks. P. S. Heisrodt succeeded him in 1855 and continued in the work four years. A special enactment of the legislature in 1865 provided for the establishment of Union School Districts, and at that time Saginaw organized such a district to be under the control of a board of six school trustees. The high school course was established in that year and the first class graduated in 1870 and consisted of four boys and six girls. In June, 1880, a committee from the University of Michigan came to Saginaw and after examining the school curriculum of the high school named it an accredited preparatory school for the state university, the graduates of 1880 being admitted to the institution without examination. Thus the school system of Saginaw has gone on developing until it might be said that it is second to none in the state at the present time. One of the most unusual, and worthwhile phases of the Saginaw school system is the Arthur Hill trade school. In order that boys and girls who had no intention of continuing through a college course might gain a high school education and a knowledge of some trade as well,

Page  33 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY 33 Arthur Hill bequeathed to the city the sum of $200,000, of which amount $75,000 was to be set aside as a permanent endowment fund for the school. Early in 1911 the building was begun, and it was completed and turned over to the Union School District September 23, 1913. Fully equipped shops are maintained for the teaching of various trades, such as bricklaying, pattern-making, carpentry, machine sewing, dress making, millinery and the like. In addition to the regular classes that meet during the day, continuation school classes meeting at night are held regularly during the year. Arthur Hill, the father of the movement to establish the school, was a member of the Saginaw board of education for six years, a part of which time he was its president. He then became a regent of the University of Michigan, a position which he retained until the time of his death, December 6, 1909. The early development of the schools divides itself into two parts, East Saginaw presenting a different picture than the west part of the city. When the clearing of Hoyt's plat began in 1850, the Buena Vista township board authorized Dr. C. T. Disbrow to teach a school at his residence located at the northeast corner of Washington and Emerson streets. So in demand was the school that in March, 1851, the School District No. 1 of Buena Vista township was organized. A rough shanty was built on the site of the present Bancroft hotel and Miss Carrie Ingersoll was secured as teacher, the attendance varying from twenty to twenty-five pupils. Truman B. Fox opened a school in a small building at the corner of Water and Hoyt streets early in 1852, it being attended by some eighty children. On May 3, 1851, a plan was presented for the new school building of the new union school building. As only $2,000 had been appropriated for that purpose and the lowest bid was $2,600, Norman Little agreed to build and furnish the school. for $2,500, taking the $2,000 when it was completed and a mortgage on the building for the remaining $500, payable in five years in equal annual payments. The offer was accepted, and by the summer of 1852, the building was completed and ready for use. Thereafter it was known as the academy, and the two-story frame structure served not only as a school but also for religious services and as a town hall. Miss Mary Rice became the first teacher of the sch(K)ol at a salary of seven dollars a week. She was originally employed as assistant but when the school term opened the teacher from the East failed to putt in an appearance and Miss Rice became the principal. The first board of education of the city of East Saginaw was organized March 22, 1859, when the city was incorporated, and thereafter the school system of the city developed rapidly, extension being particularly swift between the years from 1870 to 1875. A new high school building was erected in 1880, the classes having been held previously in the old Central school built in 1866 at Park and Second streets. Five years later the free text-book system was introduced. Since 1879, a year before the west side school, the east side high school has been an accredited institution at the University of Michigan. In September, 1905, the Burt Manual Training school was opened, representing an

Page  34 34 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY investment of $250,000, most of which was donated by Wellington R. Burt. Forge and foundry work, mechanical drawing, wood working and similar trades are taught the ptlpils at the school. The Burt school, together with the Hill Trade school, makes Saginaw one of the best equipped cities in the state for vocational training of boys and girls that will not be able to attend a university or college. A number of parochial schools are maintained in the city. The Catholic churches of St. Joseph, St. Mary, Holy Family, Sacred Heart, and Holy Rosary all conduct parochial schools, and the Lutheran churches of St. John, St. Paul, and Trinity Evangelical also maintain schools. On the west side are the Catholic schools of Holy Cross and SS. Peter and Paul, the Michigan Lutheran Seminary, and St. Andrew's Academy. Libraries. In 1836, a collection of books for the school was begun, the ultimate intention being the establishment of a public library. It seems from a letter that has been preserved, that it was the custom for newcomers to the community to be asked for a donation of books for the library. Soon after, the business depression struck the village of Saginaw. Some few donations of books were made to the library from time to time, but in 1857 it was established as a public library, the books being turned over to the school board eight years later when the Union School District was formed. When the Central school building was built on Court street, the library was established there until the fire of 1895 destroyed the building. What books remained after the fire were removed to the high school building, but the dampness so injured the books that they were changed in 1900 to the kindergarten building in the same block, remaining there until November, 1915, when the ButmanFish Memorial library was occupied. This library was built by Mrs. Myron Butman and Mrs. Mary P. Fish as a memorial to Myron Butman and stands on the John Moore school grounds at the corner of Harrison and Hancock streets. Like the schools, the libraries of the east side developed independently of the west side. A committee was appointed by the school board on May 5, 1859, to consider the establishment of a library, and in September, the committee advised the raising of a tax of one hundred dollars for library purposes. The township officials of Buena Vista township were unwilling to give up the school library to the city of East Saginaw and in 1861 another hundred dollars was raised and books purchased, $191 being spent for the first books for the library. In 1872, a room was fitted out for the library in the Central school and two years later the library was re-catalogued, re-numbered, and increased in size. On October 18, 1875, the Library association turned over to the school board its books and equipment, increasing the number of books in the library to more than thirty-five hundred. The second floor of the building occupied by the Library association was leased at that time. In 1882, the second floor of the building on South Jefferson avenue was leased where the library has since remained. By the will of Jesse Hoyt, who died in New York City August 12, 1882, a library site and the sum of $100,000 was bequeathed to the city for the building of a library, purchasing books and maintaining the insti

Page  35 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY 35 tution. In 1887, $56,500 was spent in erecting the building, $25,000 for the purchase of the books, leaving about $50,000 of the original bequest. Subsequent donations have swelled the sum to considerable proportions, the interest on the money being used in support of the library. The will of Hoyt stated that the library should be for consultation and reference only, but about the first of November, 1890, it was opened for free use by the public. s

Page  36 CHAPTER V PRESS 13637 NTORMAN LITTLE, above mentioned in connection with the buildN 5 ing of the first courthouse and in connection with the first library, stands out as the first to undertake the precarious venture of newspaper publishing in the pioneer community of Saginaw City. In 1836 he had brought to the little community a printing press and small assortment of type with which he proceeded to print the first edition of the Saginaw Journal in that year. John P. Hosmer was the first editor of Little's weekly paper, but how long the sheet survived in the community has never been definitely ascertained. R. W. Jenny started the Saginaw North Star in 1842, which was discontinued within a few years. The Spirit of the Times appeared March 3, 1853, under the editorship of L. L. G. Jones, but the sheet eventually went the way of most pioneer newspapers. The Saginaw Valley Herald was started soon after by a man named Blair, who soon sold out to P. C. Andre, who in turn sold it with certain conditions to Bertram & Gardner. The conditions not being met, the paper again came under the direct management of Andre in 1858. In 1868 the paper was sold to C. V. DeLand and edited by F. A. Palmer for about six years. Late in 1872, the Herald began as a daily, the weekly edition being continued, and six months later the office was removed to East Saginaw to take the place of the Enterprise, which had just suspended. The Daily Herald was continued until November 28, 1875, when it was discontinued, the weekly edition alone carrying on the name. The Saginaw Republican, published in Saginaw City by F. A. Palmer & Company, appeared in 1870 as a weekly and later it became the Daily. Republican. A Democratic paper, the Saginawian, was published at this time by George F. Lewis, and on July 7, 1874, the Saginaw Valley News, a semi-weekly paper, was started by Charles H. Lee. The Daily News was started in 1877 and survived for some six years. The first paper to be published in East Saginaw was the Enterprise, which was established in 1853 by Williamson & Mason but who sold the paper the following year to Perry Joslin. The paper was converted into a daily in September, 1865, but discontinued publication in the spring of 1873, when its place in East Saginaw was taken by the Saginaw Valley Herald. The Saginaw Weekly Courier appeared June 16, 1859, under the editorship of George F. Lewis. Under various managements it was continued until March, 1874, when E. D. Cowles became editor of the Daily Courier, it having become a daily in 1868. In September, 1889, Cowles and Roswell G. Horr purchased the Saginaw Daily Herald and united the papers as the Saginaw Courier-Herald. The paper is today

Page  37 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY 37 one of the few morning dailies in the state of Michigan, others being published in Detroit, Grand Rapids, and Flint. While the Saginaw Evening Journal, established in 1886 by D. Z. Curtis, was the only paper in Saginaw City during the late Eighties, the East Saginaw papers were rapidly forging to the front. In 1881, the Saginaw Evening News, Democratic in political faith, was established by Joseph Seeman and Charles H. Peters. The Evening Express, one of the two morning papers then in the field, attempted to nip the project in the bud by establishing an evening paper. After considerable delay and through the efforts of C. V. DeLand, publisher of the Herald, the News was able to secure the Associated Press wire service and thus become a real newspaper in service as well as name, so that today it is one of the strongest papers in the county. The Saginaw PFess was established in 1912 by Emmet L. Beach and George W. Baxter with a capital stock of $10,000. Though it first appeared as a daily, it was deemed expedient to change the paper to a weekly in December, 1912, since when it has continued as a weekly.

Page  38 CHAPTER VI BANKS AND BANKING T HE first bank to be established in Saginaw county, the Saginaw City bank, bears the stigma of being one of the wildcat banks whose establishment throughout the state was in large measure responsible for the panic of 1837 and the resultant depression in business. Instrumental in the organization of the Saginaw City bank in 1837 were Norman Little and Nelson Smith, the latter of whom was cashier. It negotiated the ten thousand dollar bond for the county for the construction of the courthouse, but like nearly all the other wildcat banks, it went under in the crash in 1838. It was capitalized for $50,000 and according to law could issue bank notes to the amount of $125,000, but how much of this was issued has never been ascertained. The Johnson brothers, who projected the town of Zilwaukee in 1849, erected among other things a bank building. Currency was printed for issue for the bank, but the promoters failed before the doors of the bank were opened for business. November, 1855, witnessed the establishment of the first sound banking institution in the county. At that time W. L. P. Little & Company started the private bank in East Saginaw with a capital of $10,000, the first quarters being located in the Exchange Block at the corner of Water and Genesee streets, and in August, 1859, it was moved to the ground floor of the new Bancroft House Block on Genesee street. The capital of the bank was increased in 1860 to $20,000. In 1865, the organization of a national bank to take over the business of the private institution was consummated and the charter for such a bank was granted. On January 1, 1866, the W. L. P. Little & Company interests were merged with those of the new bank to form the Merchants' National bank with a capital stock of $200,000 and William L. P. Little as president and James F. Brown as cashier. The Home National bank was organized early in 1882 to take over the business of the Merchants' National bank. Wellington R. Burt being instrumental in the formation of the new bank. The Home National bank went into voluntary liquidation in 1896. The Saginaw Valley bank was established in 1863 by Bliss, Fay & Company and continued business for several years. In 1868 Thurber & Hollon opened a small private bank and two years later John Gallagher & Company started a private bank. These three private banks continued until the increase in state and national banks made their operation unprofitable. The First National bank was organized with a capitalization of $50,000 and continued operations for many years, but in the fall of 1896 it was forced to close its doors because it had become involved in some questionable lumber practices.

Page  39 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY 39 The Savings Bank of East Saginaw was established in 1872 with a state charter and a capital of $100,000, H. C. Potter being the first president, Edwin Eddy, vice-president, and A. Schupp, treasurer. The business of the bank continued to grow steadily until May, 1907, when it was absorbed by the Bank of Saginaw, the east side building since being the branch of the Bank of Saginaw. John G. Owen was the principal organizer of the East Saginaw National bank in 1884: In the early Nineties the bank liquidated its affairs, paying the stockholders in full. Another bank to be absorbed by the Bank of Saginaw was the American Commercial & Savings bank, which was organized in the fall of 1891 with a capital of $100,000 and with Isaac Bearinger as president William L. Webber as vice-president, and George W. Emerick as cashier. On January 1, 1899, the property and business of the bank was turned over to the Bank of Saginaw. h'lie first banking institution of Saginaw City was the private concern of George L. Burrows & Comlpany which was established in 1862. It is a notable fact that the company handled much of the extensive lumbIr interests, in a lanking way, of nmany of tile largest lumbermen of this section and arnedl the relutation of being one of the strongest banks in the state. It continued in business fifty-three years, and in 1915 its business was taken over by the Banik of Saginaw. Harry Miller and F. R. Braley established a private bank in 1866 whose )business was taken over in 1870 by the First National Bank of Saginaw, of which J. E. Shaw was the first president and Smith Palmer was the first cashier. Th'lis bank, too, was absorbed by the Bank of Saginaw, tile merger being effected in 1898. T''le Citizens' National bank, chartered in 1880, was the second natltoial Ilank to 1c organiizv(l in Saginaw City, l)aniel Ilardin being the first presilent. It was caplitalize.l for $100,000, but owing to diffcrcrtc:s ani(mng the directors, the 1;::nk was liquidated in October, 1887, and the Itank of Saginaw and the Commercial National bank resulting frmi tle *dsilutiin. 'The Saginaw County Savings bank, organized I):ccitdcr 1, I81q, continulcd in business for nearly twenty-five years wheni it wai alM)rl<ctl by tlhe HIank of Saginaw. The htank of Saginaw. which was formed as the result of the liquidatiun of the Citizens' National Iank, Myron Butman being the first preiideni of the new institution; lienton Ilanchett, vice-president; and ). llrigs, cashlier. It has plursued a policy that has made it the largest lank in the city and one of the largest in this section of the state, its total alsets alpr(xinating $15,.000,000 at the present time. The Second National bank was organized in December, 1871, and tolay stands as the oldest bank in Saginaw. It was an outgrowth of the private banking concern of C. K. Robinson & Company established in January, 1866. When the business of the private bank was taken over by tile Secon(l National bank, C. K. Robinson became president and Roswell (. IIorr, cashier. It was capitalized for $200,000, which has

Page  40 40 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY been subsequently increased to $500,000. It is the second largest bank in Saginaw and has been a decided asset to the community. The Commercial bank was the second one formed at the dissolution of the Citizens' National bank in 1887, and received its charter July 9, 1888, Daniel Hardin becoming the first president and M. 0. Robinson the first cashier. It is one of the substantial banks of the city today and is capitalized at $100,000. The American State bank was organized in 1911 by Emmet L. Beach with a capital stock of $100,000. It is one of the strong banks of the county at the present time, and has been run on a conservative policy. The Saginaw Valley Trust company opened its doors for business on January 3, 1917, with a capital stock of $200,000. The company does a general trust business and operates a savings department that is well patronized by the people of the city and county.

Page  41 CHAPTER VII BENCH AND BAR PRIOR to 1859, Saginaw county was a part of the Fourth and later the Seventh Judicial Circuit, the judges being Josiah Turner and then Sanford M. Green, the latter of Bay City. Both of these men were prominent in their time, Judge Green particularly being noted for his legal treatises and for his long period ot service as judge. James Birney became judge of the Tenth Judicial circuit soon after the law of 1859 became effective, his jurisdiction extending over Saginaw, Midland, Gratiot, Bay, losco, and Alpena counties. He was a son of James G. Birney, of Bay City, who was twice a candidate for election to the presidency of the United States. Birney was succeeded in January, 1864, by Jabez G. Sutherland, one of the first lawyers to establish a practice in Saginaw county. Contemporaries of his were John Moore and William L. Webber, and the three lawyers lived to see the little village on the Saginaw grow to be one of the most thriving cities in this section of the state. Moore was elevated to the bench, and was in turn succeeded in April, 1874, by William S. Tennant. Colonel DeWitt C. Gage, for many years a prominent lawyer of the county, was the next judge of the Tenth circuit, taking office after the resignation of Tennant in March, 1880. On January 1, 1882, Chauncey H. Gage, who had been prosecutor and recorder of the city of East Saginaw, became judge. The constitution of the state of Michigan was so amended in 1888 that a second judge could be installed in those circuits where the work was too heavy for one man, and under this amendment, the legislature in November of that year created a second judgeship for Saginaw county. John A. Edget was appointed to this position. He was a native of Saginaw township, this county, where he was born in 1849 of French, Dutch and English extraction. He read law in the offices of ChaunceyI1. Gage after which he attended the University of Michigan, from which he was graduated in 1872. After a year of practice alone in Saginaw, he formed a partnership with D. W. Perkins and in 1879 allied himself in practice with John M. Brooks. For three successive terms, he was prosecuting attorney of East Saginaw. Failing health alone prevented the nomination of judge Edget for election to the Supreme Court of Michigan. Until December, 1893, Judges Gage and Edget held court and were then succeeded by Eugene Wilber and Robert B. McKnight, the latter of whom resigned within a short time and died in 1895 as he was returning from Europe. William R. Kendrick was appointed in September of that year to fill the Vacancy left by the resignation of MIcKnight.

Page  42 42 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY Prominent among the early attorneys of the county are found the names of Irving P. Smith, Augustine S. Gaylord, John J. Wheeler, and William M. Miller, the last named of whom was the partner of Sutherland until Sutherland became judge. Augustine S. Gaylord was first a school teacher in Saginaw. In November, 1851, he was appointed deputy county clerk and soon after took up the study of law in the office of John Moore, with whom he was later in partnership. Irving -P. Smith was a law partner of William L. Webber, the two enjoying an extensive practice. Among the lawyers who were admitted to the bar a little later than the above mentioned attorneys, were William A. Clark, Colonel George A. Flanders, Oscar F. Wisner and C. Stuart Draper. Wisner and Draper came to Saginaw together and began a legal firm that was dissolved only by death. William J. Loveland was a native of Vermont and a graduate of Dartmouth college with the class of 1848. He was admitted to the bar three years later and after practicing for a time in Michigan settled at Saginaw in 1856. For a time thereafter he was deputy assessor and collector of internal revenue of the Saginaw district. He was slow and methodical in his methods yet he managed to build up a good practice in the county. Frederic L. Eaton was born at West Swanzy, New Hampshire, was educated at Mt. Ceasar's seminary and Tuft's college, and at the age of twenty-one years was elected to the legislature of his native state. HTe came to Lenawee county, Michigan, in 1860, where he taught school and was admitted to the bar. In 1865 he came to Saginaw City and entered upon the active practice of his profession, in which he was actively engaged until the time of his death in 1901. William H. Sweet came to Saginaw county when Sutherland, Moore, and Webber were the recognized leaders of the county bar, and during the years he practiced here he won recognition for his ability in crossexamination and all other phases of his chosen profession. Charles H. Camp was one of the prominent members of the bar during his time. His qualities as an attorney were such that in 1887 he was nominated on the Democratic ticket for election to the Supreme Court of the state but was defeated with the party. He was the partnler of (George BI. Brooks who canlc here in 1866. In 1873 Brooks was elected judge of the Recorder's Court, a position which he held six years, and later was receiver of the United States Land Office in the Saginaw district. He died in 1916 in his eighty-first year. Dan P. Foote, after leading a haphazard life of sailor, miner, farmer, and teacher, began the study of law in the office of Judge Sutherland, being admitted to the bar in September, 1863. Three years later he established a practice in Saginaw City. For many years he was city attorney and for one term served as prosecuting attorney of the county. He was also a member of the board of supervisors for many years, being one of that board during the time that Saginaw City was engaged in the long litigation with East Saginaw. James L. T. Fox came to Saginaw City when the first weekly paper was still being published, and his

Page  43 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY 43 professional card published in that small sheet stated that he would give "particular attention to the defense of innocent persons wrongfully accused of crime. None others need apply." Chauncey W. Wisner practiced for a time, but gradually engaged in business and gave up active practice. Timothy E. Tarsney was born in Michigan in 1849 and came to Saginaw in 1866, going to Detroit in 1893 after serving two terms as Congressman from this district.

Page  44 CHAPTER VIII PHYSICIANS AND THE PUBLIC HEALTH pHE care of the public health has become within the past two decades one of the most important phases of county and municipal government, and it is significant that one of the five commissioners of a commission governed town is the commissioner of public health and safety. There is nothing spectacular about the work of the health department, yet even to the smallest details, its accomplishments are of the utmost importance to the welfare of the city. The first conception of health work was the providing of a city or county physician to whom people might go who could not afford the prices charged by the pracv titioners in private practice. As knowledge of hygiene and sanitation grew, the people came to realize that such work constituted a comparatively small part of the work necessary to safeguard the public health. With this realization came the establishment of various departments in the boards of health. Within the province of the board of health comes plumbing inspection, and Thomas H. Finley inspects all plumbing jobs before they are covered to see that everything has been done to comply with the state regulations. William Hd. Donnelly and Robert F. Johnson conduct the sanitary inspections for the department and investigate the causes of all complaints and bring court proceedings whenever they may be necessary. One of the most important parts of the work of the board of health is market and food inspection and dairy inspection. John Zehnder, who carries out such inspections, makes regular visits to all stores, markets, and wholesale houses that handle food products sold within the city limits of Saginaw. Meat and green goods are inspected, and the shops and markets are required to maintain a certain standard of cleanliness. But even this rigid inspection is considered insufficient. Dairies that sell their milk within the city limits of Saginaw are also inspected periodically, to make sure that the milk sent into the city is pure. Milk samples are tested by the city chemist, as are samples of the city water, and any other medical tests or analyses that may be required by the physicians of the city are sent to the city chemist. Public health nursing has lately come to be another work of the department, public health nurses being maintained by the city to work among the poorer people of the city. Recommendations of the nurses are forwarded to the office and the city physician inquires into the cases so reported. If the patients are unable to pay for the work which is done to restore them to health, the city charges them nothing for the care that has been given them. The Saginaw City hospital has been maintained for many years. It is located at 1024 Weiss street. It is thoroughly equipped for

Page  45 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY 45 any kind of surgical cases, and a contagious ward is also maintained. The Saginaw County Tuberculosis hospital, under the direction of Ann Lynch, R. N., is a decided asset to the medical equipment of the county and city, for much good work has been done in decreasing the amount of tuberculosis in the county and preventing the spread of the white plague. Tuberculosis clinics are held regularly by the health department. The Saginaw General hospital, which has served the city for more than twenty-five years, is located at Harrison and Houghton streets. It is fully equipped to handle all kinds of cases and is under the superintendency of Mrs. Kate Jackson Hard. St. Mary's hospital, at Jefferson and Meredith streets, is maintained and operated by the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul and is patronized extensively by the people of the county and city. Next to the Saginaw General hospital, it is the largest one in the county. The Woman's hospital, for maternity cases and the treatment of children's diseases, is located at 1413 Janes street.

Page  46 CHAPTER IX TRANSPORTATION SAGINAW COUNTY, like many others of the United States, owed its early settlement and subsequent prosperity to the fact that it was favorably situated for communication with the rest of the country. The Indians, as well as the first white men to penetrate the Indian country, utilized as far as possible the rivers and lakes for their travel. Blessed with a stream navigable far from its mouth, a stream that opened on the Great Lakes, Saginaw county was destined for early settlement because of its accessibility. For this reason, then, water transportation is given first place in this record, for upon the waterways of the nation did prosperity come to Saginaw, preceding by many years land travel that would attract settlers to this section of the state. The first settlers to establish themselves along the margin of the Saginaw river owned canoes, and as far as possible their comings and goings were ordered by this respect. It was only natural that they should do this, for the narratives of the first white men show that the Saginaw country was veritably an impenetrable forest, the traversing of which was no mean task for even the strongest men. To Detroit and the East, the Saginaw river formed the only avenue of commerce for the transportation of heavy merchandise. Even the Shiawassee and the Bad rivers were navigable as far as St. Charles for small ves-. sels in the early days, and the Tittabawassee was navigable as far as Midland City, a distance of almost thirty miles above Saginaw. As early as 1837, the Owosso & Saginaw Navigation Company was formed for the purpose of operating steamboats and barges to the junction of the Flint and Shiawassee rivers. The concern was capitalized for $100,000, but after a considerable sum of money had been expended in the clearing of the rivers, it was found impracticable to continue and. the project was abandoned. Though the enterprise came to. naught, it nevertheless shows the interest taken by the early settlers in the pos — sibilities of up-river navigation. The sloop "Savage," of forty tons displacement, was sued by the American Fur company for many years after 1831 for carrying furs from the Saginaw post and for bringing supplies to the factor at that point. This little sloop was the first sailing vessel to cut the waters of the Saginaw, and thus was inaugurated the shipping interests of Saginaw that have ever played a conspicuous part in its development. In June, 1832, a boat of fifty tons ascended the river as far as Duncan McLellan's farm on the Tittabawassee river and there loaded potatoes, the first cargo of farm produce to leave the Saginaw Valley. The "North America," George Raby master, ascended the Saginaw in 1837, and the "Richmond" (first named the "Conneaut Packet") was sailed on the Saginaw for a time by Captain J. D. Smith until it was wrecked

Page  47 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY 47 on the Canadian shore of Lake Huron. The "Mary" was sailed by Captain Wilson for a year until it was wrecked in 1836. Following the destruction of the "Mary," the brother-in-law of the owner of the vessel decided to enter the shipping business for the Saginaw trade. This man, Nelson Smith, employed a French shipwright to design him a vessel suitable for lake and river navigation, and when a satisfactory design had been devised, shop carpenters were brought to Saginaw. In charge of construction was Captain Lock, of St. Clair, who became the master of the "Julia Smith," as it was named, after it was launched. The little vessel had a displacement of seventy tons, was built of oak throughout, and drew four and a half feet of water when fully loaded. For some time, the "Julia Smith" carried on a successful trade between Saginaw and Detroit. The first steamboat to enter the river was the "Governor Marcy" that came up the river to Saginaw in 1836 under the command of Captain Gorham and piloted by Captain Rhodes. The vessel had been chartered by Norman Little, and during the balance of that year, 1837, and for a part of 1838, the steamboat plied between Saginaw and Detroit. So delighted were the people of Saginaw at the arrival of a steamboat, that the sixteen-ton vessel was taken on an excursion up the Tittabawassee river to test that stream for its feasibility for steam navigation. The "Governor Marcy" was able to proceed two miles above Green Point, where it was stopped by overhanging branches. The next steamboat was the "Buena Vista," built by James Fraser and a Mr. Fitzhugh. The vessel was built for river navigation only and was propelled by a paddle wheel at the stern. The engines of the slow vessel were located at the stern but the boiler was torward, the steam being conveyed to the engine by cast iron pipes. At one time it was contemplated that a plank road from Owosso to the forks of the Bad river, where St. Charles now stands, to make connections with the Buena Vista would be a great accommodation to travelers, but when the proponents of the scheme took a trip up the river in the "Buena Vista" and spent the night hard and fast on a sand bar, the project was abandoned as impracticable. The abundance of good oak timber suitable for shipbuilding purposes brought on another industry, that of the fabrication of lake vessels at Saginaw. The second steamboat built at Saginaw was the "General Walcott," which was launched in 1850 by Captain Darius Cck an.d ustd by him for the river traffic between Saginaw and Bay City. Daniel Johnson built a small steamer, the "Snow," about the same time at Zilwaukee, and a barge, the "Ethan Allen," was launched by Curtis Emerson at his mill. The "Whitney," built by Whitney & Company of Bay City, was then fitted out with propelling machinery, the boat thus becoming the first steamboat at the lower end of the river. Captain Cole, who inaugurated the steam river line, placed the "Columbia" in service between Saginaw and Detroit in 1854, and four years later it was this same boat that inaugurated service on the Bay City-Alpena line. In 1853, the "Lathrop" was brought to the

Page  48 48 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY river for a tug, and the following year came the "Fox," commanded by Captain Wolverton, to be followed in close order by the "Ariel," "Ruby," "Magnet," and "Evening Star." Early in the Fifties, Jesse Hoyt established a shipyard on the river near the place where the railroad later crossed. The fleet of boats in the Hoyt line included the barks "Sunshine" and "Jesse Hoyt," the brig "Starlight," and the steamers "Magnet" and "Alida." The steamers "Traffic" and "Comet" and the propellers "Coaster" and "Odd Fellow," a steam ferry operated by Emerson, a steam dredge, and three scows were also in service on the river at that time. The schooner "Quickstep" was the vessel that brought to Saginaw in 1859 the furniture for the Bancroft House that opened a month after the arrival of the furnishings. Immediately after the close of the Civil war, ship-building began to increase on the river, and the yards of Jesse Hoyt and of Frank W. Wheeler, the latter located at the old Emerson mill, were working to capacity. During the year 1867, eighteen vessels of varying types were turned out, they representing a total tonnage of nearly 4,000 tons. The ever-growing lumber and salt industry at Saginaw necessitated still further increases in the number of ships of all kinds, and in 1873, six years after the year mentioned above, twenty-two vessels were built with a combined tonnage of 8,663. The activity continued unabated during the Seventies, and the improvements in the river channel made it possible for larger and larger vessels to come off the ways of the Saginaw shipyards. A more sensitive barometer of conditions than any other industry, the ship-building pointed the way to Saginaw's industrial slump, for long before the lumber industry had passed into history, the shipyards had begun to close. A. brief revival came in 1889 when a steam barge and one tow barge were built on the south side of the river near the Saginaw Power company. The steam barge "Wilhelm" and the tow "Twin Sisters," of 683 tons and 800 tons, respectively, thus became the last wooden vessels built at the upper end of the river. The traffic on the river before 1855 was so little as to be almost negligible. Certainly, the arrivals and clearances were so few as to be unworthy of recording. But within the space of twelve years, it is stated that the vessels passing the Genesee Avenue bridge numberedmore than a thousand in a month. By this time, freighters of all kinds were making Saginaw a regular port of call; regular lines to Detroit, Goderich, Toledo, Chicago, and other lake ports were following regular schedules on their trips to Saginaw. It is recorded that in 1886, 414 steamers and 1,088 vessels of other descriptions cleared the river ports, and even this year fell below the general average that was being maintained during the heyday of the lumber industry. River and shore lines formed a good part of the traffic that was carried on for a number of years on the Saginaw. The "Reindeer" appeared on the river in 1856 for the river trade but was soon taken to Detroit. '1he "Little Nell," that appeared in 1857, operated for a short time when her boiler exploded killing the captain, Andy Fraser, and three members of the crew. The "Ariel" in 1860, the "Ajax" built

Page  49 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY 49 by Captain Hubbell, the "Belle Seymour" in the Tittabawassee traffic, the "Little Eastern" that rammed the "Fox" and was sunk near Saginaw City in 1860, were all some of the well-known boats employed in the river commerce. For about fifteen years the traffic between Saginaw and Bay City was virtually controlled by Root & Midler, of East Saginaw, who operated the "Daniel Ball," the "L. G. Mason," and the "Cora Locke," the first named boat having been brought from Muskegon in 1871 to become the best boat on the river. The "Daniel Ball" took fire and sank during a run to Bay City in 1876. By 1890, however, the river traffic had almost ceased; the lumber industry had died out and with it the necessity for water transportation between the once busy mills. Coast lines, too, that had run from Saginaw and Bay City to Alpena and intermediate points had almost disappeared by 1900. The field was then left clear for the more powerful shipping lines; such as, the Detroit & Cleveland Navigation company and others whose interests were wide enough to pay them to make the stops at these places. Highways. The first routes of land travel followed by the white men were the trails that had been worn for hundreds of years by the moccasined feet of the Indian. Not only did these trails present the only means of penetrating the dense forests but they also followed the best routes between rivers and villages. It was only natural, therefore, that the first roads cut by the settlers of the Saginaw Valley should be along the trails marked out by the Indians. The main trail from Detroit to the Saginaw lay by way of Pontiac, Grand Blanc, the crossing of the Flint to the Saginaw river where the city of Saginaw now stands. This was the route followed by the fur traders, by Alexis de Tocqueville, and by incoming settlers. It was this road that was the first to be improved during the winter of 1822-23, when the United States soldiers stationed at Saginaw found it necessary to improve the communications by land with Detroit if military supplies and stores were to be brought to the isolated post in the Saginaw country. Falling trees and underbrush soon worked to obliterate the work of the soldiers and in the fall of 1831 the sum of one hundred dollars was raised by popular subscription for the purpose of improving the road from the Flint to the Cass river. Three years later, the United States Government ta:r'. wat was krown as the Saginaw turnpike. The survey wan made y) Orange Risdon, and the road was cut through the forest to within eighteen miles of Saginaw when the work was abandoned. The improvement work was taken up later and completed in 1841. As late as 1852, when Thomas W. Babcock went from St. Clair county to Saginaw, he was forced to make tlh entire journey afoot because the rads were in such condition that a horse and wagon could not get through. In May, 1834, Charles A. Lull with his father and mother, two sisters and a brother and Phintas Spaulding drove from Flint to Saginaw over the trail with an ox cart, this being the first wheeled vehicle to make the journey as far as is known. The old Saginaw trail touched the river near Green Point and ran from there to Saginaw City, but the proprietors of the village of East Saginaw saw that a more direct route from Flint to their village was

Page  50 50 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY necessary if they were to progress in civic development. Norman Little and his associates accordingly determined upon the construction of a plank road from East Saginaw to Flint, an enterprise that would involve a large amount of money. In spite of some opposition, the charter was secured from the legislature and by 1851 Flint and East Saginaw were connected by a plank road thirty-two miles long running by way of the Cass river and Birch Run. The plank road was a great stimulus to immigration; a postoffice was established; and stages made daily trips between Flint and Saginaw. The growth of the county brought on more plank road projects. The Johnson brothers built one from Zilwaukee to a point opposite East Saginaw; the East Saginaw and Vassar road was nineteen and a half miles long; the Saginaw and Watrousville road was twenty miles in length; and the Saginaw and St. Louis road was some thirty-six miles in length. Undoubtedly, in a time when lumber was so cheap and easy to get and improved methods of road construction had not been devised, the pavement of highways with planks was an excellent thing for the development of the county and aided materially in the progress of the settlement of the outlying sections. Certain it is that no better road improvements were placed in use for nearly fifty years, and it remained for the automobile to bring a revolution in the construction of highways. Even as late as 1898, the plank road on Genesee street was still in use and was kept in a good state of repair, but the business men realized that better roads were essential to the welfare of the entire county. Frankenmuth township, the pioneer in the good roads movement, then had the only good roads in the county. The merchants of the Saginaws appointed a committee composed of A. Robertson, Charles H. Peters, and James H. Davitt to appear before the supervisors and ask that a drastic and comprehensive policy of road improvement be inaugurated. At the January, 1899, session of the board of supervisors the following committee was appointed to work with the committee of the Retail Merchants' association: Reuben Beeman, Swan Creek township; John Gerber, Kochville township; Andred Stacey, Bridgeport township; William Rebec, Second ward of Saginaw, and a Mr. Gage, Twelfth ward of Saginaw. The result of the 'work of the two committees was the drawing up and the passage of the county road bill, drawn by James H. Davitt with the counsel of William L. Webber, John Moore, Henry M. Youmans. and the members of the committees. However, when the bill had been put into proper shape for the legislature to consider, it was found unconstitutional. In April, 1899, the legislature submitted an amendment to the vote of the people that would enable counties and townships to make road improvements, the constitutional amendment carrying by a majority of nearly 150,000. The necessary bill was then passed by the legislature and received the approval of the governor on May 17, 1899. Saginaw county operates under a specific act concerning stone roads subject to state awards. Some delay was now experienced in performing the experiments necessary to the selection of the right methods of construction and the

Page  51 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY 51 use of the best materials for the purpose. Finally, all was in readiness for the beginning of the work. On June 14, 1902, national guard companies, citizens of the county, Governor Aaron T. Bliss, C. K. Dodge of the Department of Agriculture of Washington, D. C., assembled in Buena Vista township where, amid appropriate ceremonies, the governor turned the first furrow in the beginning of the good road construction. From that time forward, the county has worked steadily in the improvement of its highways, constantly building new roads and maintaining those already laid. As father of the good roads movement, Saginaw county may be proud of her record, both in spirit and in effect. Railroads. The far-sighted and resourceful pioneers of Saginaw realized that the ultimate development of the city and county would demand the building of a railroad to this section. In 1835 a project was launched to connect Saginaw with Mt. Clemens by way of Lapeer, a distance of about ninety miles. Though all the necessary stock was sold, the enterprise came to nothing because of the panic of 1837. In 1837 it was proposed to build a railroad from Saginaw to connect with the proposed Northern railroad of the state's internal improvement program. The road was to form a junction with the state railroad in Genesee county, but this project, too, died a-borning. Twenty years after the second attempt to build a railroad south from Saginaw came the first determined effort to establish rail connections with other parts of the state. On January 21, 1857, was organized the Flint & Pere Marquette railroad. On February 24, the company agreed to the terms imposed upon it by the state and was to be allowed one section in every thirty-six of public lands through which the road ran provided that it complied with the terms regarding the time allowed for the construction. The survey was started at once from Midland and carried through to Muskegon and to Ludington, the latter point being reached on June 20, that year, with William B. Sears in charge of the work. A line was also started from Flint to Saginaw by way of Birch Run, but the survey had to be abandoned due to the financial difficulties of the company attendant upon the many bank failures of that fall of 1857. In May, 1858, the survey was resumed and completed to Saginaw by Sears in July of that year. Sears remained with the railroad until 1860 but went to Missouri in that year. He returned to Saginaw in the spring of 1862 and in the fall of that year was engaged to locate the line of the road between Flint and Mt. Morris and soon after the line between Midland and Averill. In 1866, Sears was appointed chief engineer of the road and retained that position until 1900 when he became consulting engineer. In 1867 he revised the location as far as Midland and subsequently changed the location of the line of the Holly, Wayne & Monroe railroad when it became a unit of.the Pere Marquette. Fifty years later, when the location of the Pere Marquette was reviewed by the University of Michigan, Sears' work was declared faultless, in recognition of which the institution conferred upon him the degree of Master of Engineering. The line of the road originally intended to enter East Saginaw and cross the river near Bristol street, but the opposition of the men of

Page  52 52 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY Saginaw City caused the railroad to give up the idea of entering Saginaw City at all. Land for yards and terminal facilities were accordingly purchased on the north side of East Saginaw and in the fall of 1858, grading began at several points on the line in this county by F. W. Paul, who had secured the contracts for that work for that part of the line from Flint to Ludington through Saginaw. About $10,000 was expended on the work during the first year, and during 1859 twenty miles of line were graded and about eight miles of trackage completed, the first rail being laid on the river on August 19, 1859. The first engine, named the "Pollywog," was a second-hand machine purchased in Schenectady, New York, and brought to Saginaw on the schooner "Quickstep," from which it was unloaded on September 2, 1859. During that fall, the engine was used in the hauling of ties and supplies for the laying of the tracks. The formal opening of service on the road occurred on January 20, 1862, when an excursion was run from Saginaw to Mt. Morris. The traffic on the road was light at first but as the people became accustomed to the advantages of the road, the business began to pick up. When the Flint & Holly railroad was built in 1864, through rail connections with Detroit were secured. The first schedule of trains between Detroit and East Saginaw showed that seventeen and a half hours were required to make the run. After 1873, the traffic of the road began to decline, and the officials, attributing the cause to the relatively circumscribed service of the line, decided upon a period of expansion either by building or by the acquisition of other roads already built. Into what is now the Pere Marquette system went a number of smaller roads throughout the state, three of them having been promoted and financed entirely in Saginaw. The first of these was the Saginaw Valley & St. Louis railroad, a company that was organized on April 28, 1871, with these officers: David H. Jerome, president; George F. Villiams, vice-president; Ezra Rust, secretary; and Ammi W. Wright, treasurer. In June, of that year, Frank Eastman surveyed the line of the road, and the grading and clearing of the right-of-way was commenced in September. A year after the grading started the first spike was driven and on December 31, 1872, the thirty-four mile line from Saginaw to St. Louis was formally. opened. Although it was one of the shortest roads in the state, the equipment of the railroad was of the best. So large were the returns on the investment during the first year of operation that a large number of bonds were retired in addition to the payment of the interest charges. In the Eighties the line passed into the control of the Detroit, Lansing & Northern after the Saginaw Valley & St. Louis had been extended through Ithaca, Alma, Edmore, and Howard City. The Detroit, Lansing & Northern and the Chicago & West Michigan were consolidated with the Flint & Pere Marquette as the Grand Rapids division of the Pere Marquette system. The Saginaw, Tuscola & Huron was promoted by Jesse Hoyt, the veteran shipbuilder of East Saginaw. A narrow gauge. road, the line was built as far as Sebewaing by 1882. Hoyt died after, construction

Page  53 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY 53 had reached this point, and it was left for William L. Webber to continue the road into the Thumb territory to Bay Port and Bad Axe, where it connected with the Port Huron & Northwestern railroad. The Saginaw, Tuscola & Huron was purchased by the Pere Marquette in 1890. The Cincinnati, Saginaw & Mackinaw was the' third railroad promoted by Saginaw men. In 1886 the company was incorporated under the name of the Toledo, Saginaw & Mackinaw with authority to build to Mackinaw. The first points to be reached by the road, according to the plan were Wenona on the bay and Durand in Shiawassee county to the south. The survey was completed, and the first section of track laid in 1887 and opened to traffic the following year, the line passing north through Flushing and Montrose. In 1893 the road was leased to the Grand Trunk and has since been operated by that road as the Mackinaw division of its system. The Port Huron & Northwestern was a railroad that was fostered by St. Clair county men for the most part. For some-years it had been pushing steadily toward the Saginaw Valley and the first train entered the Union station over this line on February 22, 1882. Although passenger traffic to the East and to Canadian points was facilitated by the building of this road, but because of discriminatory rates in favor of St. Clair county men, the commercial possibilities of the line to Saginaw business men was rather disappointing. The service of the Port Huron & Northwestern was exceptionally good for those days, drawing room cars being operated between Saginaw and Port Huron and the run being made in little more than three hours for the trip of ninety-one miles. In 1888, the entire line of the road, including that part that tapped the Thumb district, was absorbed by the Flint & Pere Marquette. Hitherto the road had been a narrow gauge affair, but the Pere Marquette changed it to a standard gauge road as soon as it had gained control. With this link added to the Pere Marquette system, the route from the Northwest to Port Huron was finally arranged, so that by arrangement with the Grand Trunk, the Pere Marquette was prepared to offer the shortest route to the Eastern coast. One of the most recent additions to the Pere Marquette system was the Detroit River & Lake Erie railroad in the province of Ontario, Canada. The Jackson, Lansing & Saginaw was the first railroad to enter Saginaw City. The road was organized in 1856 after Congress had empowered the state legislature to make grants of public lands to railroads to aid in their construction. On January 23, 1857, the Amboy, Lansing & Traverse Bay Railroad company was incorporated with a capital of $5,000,000 for the building of a line from Amboy in Hillsdale county to the Traverse Bay region. Saginaw was interested in this concern for among the directors of the corporation were Hiram L. Miller, of Saginaw City; Morgan L. Gage, of East Saginaw; and George W. Bullock and Colonel W. L. P. Little, the last two being placed on the board of directors at the first meeting. The financial depression of 1857 delayed matters, but in 1859 the line from Albion to Owosso was laid out to join the Michigan Central and the Detroit & Milwaukee roads.

Page  54 64 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY On December 28, 1860, the line, built south from Owosso, was accepted by the governor, and on September 17, 1863, the road was completed to Lansing. Although grading had been done for some distance south of Lansing, the iron for the road could not be bought and no further work was carried on by the company. Soon after this, the Lansing & Jackson railroad was incorporated to build a road between those cities, a distance of thirty-nine miles. Articles of incorporation were then amended to allow the construction of the road to Saginaw, and the name of the new company became the Jackson, Lansing & Saginaw. The work of extending the line northward went rapidly forward so that by November, 1867, the line of the road reached Saginaw and was built on to Wenona, which it reached on January 7, 1868. The Michigan Central purchased the road in 1871, and by it was extended on to Mackinaw, the line between Saginaw and Mackinaw being designated as the Saginaw division of the Michigan Central. Another unit of the road was the Detroit & Bay City running between those points by way of Rochester, Lapeer, and Vassar. The Detroit & Bay City built a branch to Saginaw and in 1879, the line was purchased by the Michigan Central. Despite the large system being built up by the Michigan Central, the road was getting all too small a share of the freight traffic of the Saginaw Valley. The Pere Marquette, in which were bound up so many interests of Saginaw, remained an overwhelming favorite of the shippers. The Pere Marquette was not slow to see its advantage and followed it up by issuing passes to shippers and granting rebates. In 1884 Spencer Goseline was sent by the Michigan Central to handle the freight work in Saginaw. He was a man of rare tact and business acumen and under his careful handling of the situation, the Michigan Central steadily built up its freight business to the point it has reached today. Electric Lines. To Isaac Bearinger is due the honor of establishing the first electric interurban line. In 1894, he largely financed the building of the electric line from Bay City to Saginaw, the line following a winding course between the two cities through Carrollton and Zilwaukee. The line grew steadily in the favor of the communities it served and was sold in 1898 to the Saginaw Valley Traction company. A few years later another electric road was built from Saginaw to Bridgeport and Frankenmuth which eventually was placed in the hands of a receiver and was sold to A. J. Groesbeck, of Detroit. Groesbeck in turn sold the line to the Saginaw Valley Traction company which rebuilt the line and extended it to Birch Run, Clio, Mt. Morris, and Flint to connect with the Detroit & Flint railroad in that place. The company subsequently built a new line to Bay City and the company became a unit of the Michigan Railways. The first street railway in the Saginaws was established in 1863 when some men of Saginaw City organized the Saginaw City Street Railway company with a capital of $30,000. The officers of the company at the time it was incorporated were David I-I. Jerome, president; George L. Burrows, secretary and treasurer; and S. S. Perkins, super

Page  55 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY 55 intendent. The line of the street railway started at Hamilton and Mackinaw streets, proceeded down Hamilton to Madison, thence to Washington, and from there to (Gnesee street. The track was built on a trestle across the marsh and bayou to reach the opposite side of the river by way of the bridge. On December 8, 1863, the line was opened to traffic, five cars and thirty horses forming the equipment. The total length of the line was a little less than two and a half miles. Once the initiative had been taken, East Saginaw was not slow to follow suit, and within a short time came the organization of the East Saginaw Street Railway company on November 10, 1864, with a capital of $60,000. William J. Bartow became president and superintendent of the company; Moses B. Hess was treasurer; and T. E. Morris was secretary. The company built a line from the Flint & Pere Marquette railroad station on Washington street along that street for a distance of three miles to South Saginaw with a short line on Brewster street as far as Jefferson. On April 4, 1865, the'line was placed in operation. Seven cars were used by the company and twenty-six horses furnished the motive power. The lapse of two decades brought a change in the two horse car lines that served the city. Jacob Seligman was responsible for the change and named the new corporation the Union Street Railway company. To facilitate the river crossing, he also organized the Central Bridge company to purchase the Bristol Street bridge, and when this was accomplished the superstructure of the bridge was rebuilt to make it more suitable for the purposes of the street railway company. Following that, the line was extended from Washington and Bristol streets by way of Fayette, Washington, Court and Mackinaw streets to join the end of the old line in South Saginaw. When the Saginaw City Street Railway company saw that the one line was going to make a bid for the traffic on both sides of the river, it anticipated a rate war by reducing its own fares from seven cents to five cents and then to three cents. However, it so developed that the Union Street Railway company, the successor to the East Saginaw Street Railway and the beginner of the trans-river traffic, was the favorite of the people because of its long line and large territory covered, while the old line was favored because of its line through the business section of the city. Although the tram or electrically propelled car was still in the experimental stage, the proprietors of the new company applied for a franchise to operate electric cars in 1889. The city fathers accordingly drew up an ordinance to that effect, and the electrification of the Union Street Railway began. The only change in the trackage was the bonding of the rails, but the erection of poles and trolley wires and the installation of the motors and other appliances in the cars required more time. Consequently, it was not until the fall of 1890 that the,electric cars began operating in the Saginaws, the power being furnished under contract by the Bartlett Illuminating company. So successful were the cars on the east side that the company set about to electrify the line on the west side of the river. The old Saginaw City

Page  56 56 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY Street Railway continued to employ.the horse cars as first introduced, but the march of time spelled ultimate failure for the company and in 1895, the tracks and other property of the concern were purchased by the Union Street Railway. During that summer, the purchasing company electrified the line and in December, 1895, began running the cars over the shorter line of the old Saginaw City Railway. Rapid strides were soon made in the development of electric transportation and within a few years it was possible to replace the old electrically propelled horse cars by street cars built especially for the use to which they were put. The first electric cars to cross the river traveled over the Genesee avenue bridge. The last piece of the old line to be converted was that running on West Genesee avenue to Union Park whence an extension went to the city limits.

Page  57 CHAPTER X INDUSTRIAL T HE industrial history of Saginaw county strictly begins with the chronicle of the development of the natural resources with which the county was so blest. First attention was given to the lumber industry. It was believed that the mill of Rufus Stevens on Thread river,, near Flint, was the first sawmill on waters tributary to the Saginaw, and several other mills were established in that same district. The first lumber was cut in Saginaw county proper, however, by Albert Miller and Joseph Busby or Charles A. Lull, the work being done by hand. The first mill was that of the Williams brothers, Gardner D. and Ephraim S., which was built in 1834 and was operated for some time by Uncle Harvey Williams, wh o had built most of the steam engine used in operating the mill. This mill began operations in 1835 and was located on the west side of the river, but the following year, Harvey Williams built a muley mill on the east side of the river on high ground just south of the present Bristol street bridge. It was first engaged in cutting lumber for the Michigan Central railroad, but after a more or less successful career, it was closed down after eight years. In 1846, Curtis Emerson and Charles XV. Grant purchased the mill, reequipped it, and the following year shipped a load of lumber to C. P. William & Company, of Albany, New York, the first sawed lumber to leave Saginaw. A second mill was built in 1850 by Charles W. Grant and Jesse Hoyt at the foot of German street on the east side of the river. It was destroyed by fire in March, 1854. In 1855, Sears & Holland built a mill near the foot of Atwater street and by 1857 fourteen mills had been built on the Saginaw and tributary streams, the annual cuttings then amounting to sixty million feet. From that time forward, the lumbering operations in this county and the country tributary to the Saginaw increased rapidly until the high point was reached in 1882. From that year, the lumber operation showed a marked and steady decrease, and all that remains to show the glory that was Saginaw's in the lumbering world are the statistics that show in cold-blooded fashion the enormous output of the mills. Salt. One of the industries that has made Saginaw famous is the salt manufacturing which got its start through the lumbering industry, the waste material from the mills being used for fuel at the salt blocks. For this reason, then, nearly every mill operated its salt block, but with the decline of the lumbering and the reduction in mills, salt blocks decreased correspondingly. The possibility that this section of the state was underlaid with salt was first seen in 1837 when the report of Dr. Douglas Houghton, state geologist, stated that salt springs were numerous throughout the. areas of the Flint, Cass and Tittabawassee rivers. Little was done, however,

Page  58 58 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY after that time by the state. True, a certain paltry sum was appropriated for the investigation of the salt areas of the state but it was insufficient to obtain extensive knowledge of the matter. Houghton had sunk a short shaft in the Tittabawassee region and found a spring sufficiently saline in character as to cause him to reiterate his belief that large salt deposits underlay the Saginaw Valley. On January 26, 1859, some prominent men of East Saginaw met at the office of Charles B. Mott and appointed a committee consisting of Norman Little, Morgan L. Gage, Dr. George A. Lothrop, and William L. Webber to petition the state legislature for aid in the projected development of salt wells in this section of the state. James Birney, then representing this district in the legislature, introduced a bill asking for a bounty of ten cents a barrel. The bill passed without difficulty, for -" thelegislators failed to see that the state would ever be called upon to pay out much in the way of salt bounties, and so great was the joke considered that the bounty was raised to ten cents a bushel, approximately fifty cents a barrel, and property used for salt manufacture was exempted from taxation. On February 15, 1859, the bill was approved. With this incentive, the men interested in the matter met on April 16, 1859, and signed the articles of incorporation for the East Saginaw Salt Manufacturing company, the capital stock of $50,000 being subscribed within two days. Jesse Hoyt gave the company the use of ten acres of land on the river for the boring of the experimental well with an option in case of success to purchase the property at an agreed price. George W. Merrill and Stephen R. Kirby visited the Onandaga salt wells in New York to study methods and machinery used in salt manufacture. They then purchased the necessary equipment at Syracuse. New York, and shilpped it to Saginaw, where it was set up and put into operation by Sanford Keeler. After much delay in boring due to the lack of knowledge and experience of the men in charge, the well was finally completed February 7, 1860, and at that time the directors of the company announced in the Courier that "Saginaw possesses salt water second in strength and purity, and we believe in quantity, to none in the United States." The company immediately began the erection of a plant, and late in June, 1860, the manufacture of salt began in earnest. The first year's production amounted to 10,722 barrels of salt, each barrel containing five bushels. By the end of the next fiscal year, July 1, 1861, the output had trebled; by the end of five years the annual output had reached more than a half million barrels; and by 1880, the annual yield had grown to more than 2,600,000 barrels. As has been stated, the salt and lumber industries went hand in hand, the sawdust and slabs from the mills being used for fuel in the salt plants. The price of salt in 1870 was $1.32 per barrel but had dropped to seventy-five cents a barrel by 1880. Such reduction made it impossible for the manufacturers to operate except at a loss. Coupled with that, the legislature had seen the error of its way and repealed the law granting a bounty on salt. The Onandaga Salt association, to cripple the Saginaw salt industry, had reduced the price of salt at the lake ports to one dollar a barrel, their retail price at Onandaga being $2.35 per

Page  59 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY 69 barrel. The salt industry then went into decline, due to the unprofitable nature of the business and to the dying out of the lumber milling. The year 1916 showed that only six companies still manufactured salt, five of which were engaged in wood-working, and one in the manufacture of plate glass. The Saginaw Plate Glass company placed its salt manufacturing plant in operation in 1906, and it stands today as one of the most complete and modern factories of its kind in Michigan. It is, too, the largest salt producer in the county and is a great factor in making Saginaw county one of the three big salt districts of the state. Coal. When boring began for the salt wells in 1859, coal was discovered. So intense was the interest in salt at the time, that people made no effort to develop the industry which they has discovered in boring for salt. A flurry of interest was aroused in 1875 when a vein of good grade bituminous coal was found, but it was left until the Nineties to begin the mining of coal on a commercial scale. The first coal was mined in Saginaw county in the early Nineties, and in May, 1896, operations on a commercial scale were, begun on the property developed by William T. Chappell located on the Genesee plank road. Development in the county was then rapid in coal mining. More than a million tons of coal was mined in 1903, after which production fell off until 1907, when the largest production was reached of all time. But the large production of coal in that year, coupled with the low prices of Ohio coal which was appearing in Michigan due to the slump in the steel industry in 1908, proved almost disastrous, and the quantity of Saginaw coal again began to decrease, reaching the low point in 1912 but increasing slightly to about half a million tons, a level where it has since remained. The progress of coal mining in the county has not been entirely peaceful but the last two decades have shown a marked tendency toward consolidation of the mining companies to secure greater efficiency in operation on a large scale. Beet-Sugar. A slightly different phase of industrial life and one that includes agriculture for its maintenance is the beet-sugar industry that has grown to considerable proportions in the county. Credit is dlue to Joseph Seeman perhaps more than to any other man for arousing interest in the growing of sugar beets and their manufacture into sugar. During a trip through Europe in 1884, he visited the immense beet fields of Bohemia. So imbued did he become with the advantages to be found in the industry that he brought to Saginaw with him a good knowledge of the work and also brought a large number of German pamphlets treating with the growing of the beets and the manufacture of beet-sugar. Early in 1897, practical experimentation was begun in Saginaw county on a large scale, a fund being created for this purpose largely through the efforts of Harry T. Wicks, Thomas A. Harvey, and George B. Morley. A chemist by name of Lenders was brought here to work with Samuel G. Higgins in the matter, and in October of that year, specimens of sugar beets grown in the county were exhibited. In the same year, the legislature passed a law giving a bounty of one cent a

Page  60 60 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY pound on all beet sugar manufactured in the state. Bay City capitalists were the first to avail themselves of the opportunity and organized the Michigan Sugar company, which is now the biggest organization of its kind in the state, having plants located at Bay City, Carrollton, Sebewing, Caro, Alma, and Croswell. Saginaw was backward about going into the new field, for the people were under the impression that the saline characteristics of the Saginaw water would inhibit the production of satisfactory sugar. On this point, they were set right by Dr. H. W. Wiley, chief of the division of chemistry at Washington, who stated that the small amount of salt would have little, if any, effect in the crystallization of the sugar. Accordingly, the Saginaw Sugar company was organized in 1899 by W. V. Penoyer with a capital stock of $500,000. The factory was completed and ready for operation in October, 1900. The project was unsuccessful, however, and continued in operation only four years. The Saginaw Sugar company was re-organized and a consolidation was made with the Valley Sugar company, whose plant had been two years previously at Carrollton and for several years the company operated as the Saginaw Valley Sugar company. In 1905, the old plant of the Saginaw Sugar company was dismantled and sold to manufacturers of Sterling, Colorado, the sale price being but a third of the original investment. Later the plant of the Saginaw Valley Sugar company, which had been built in 1901, was purchased by the Michigan Sugar company, by whom it is still operated, the only one of its kind in the county, yet it requires about six thousand acres of beets to supply it. With the passing of the lumber and salt industries, the business men of the county began to turn their attention to other industries. Naturally the first plants were wood-working establishments, using hard woods and making all kinds of woodenware. However, another period of depression came to the county as the new century began, but by 1906 industrial Saginaw took a new lease on life, and today Saginaw has industries of all kinds. Among them are the Sommers Bros. Match company, organized in 1903; the Erd Motor company, manufacturers of marine, truck and tractor motors; the Saginaw Manufacturing company, an outgrowth of the Saginaw Barrel company and manufacturing wood products such as pulleys, washboards; the Saginaw Ladder company, organized in 1903 for the manufacture of high grade ladders of all kinds; the Saginaw Sheet Metal Works, organized in 1903 for the manufacture of metal cornices, sky-lights, ventilators, etc.; Wickes Brothers Iron Works, manufacturing punch presses, mill equipment, etc.; Jackson & Church company, manufacturing machine and foundry products and organized in 1880; Jackson-Church-Wilcox company, manufacturing gears; Valley Grey Iron Foundry company, grey iron castings; National Engineering company, organized in 1895 for the manufacture of windmills and later for tank and gas engine manufacture; Warner & Pfleiderer company, manufacturers of baking machinery and equipment of all kinds; Saginaw Plate Glass company, the largest plate glass company in Michigan; United States Graphite company, manufacturing graphite; Herzog Art Furniture company;

Page  61 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY 61 Germain Manufacturing company, wood products; Brand & Hardin, the oldest milling company in the Saginaw Valley; Saginaw Creamery company; the Parker Dairy company; Koehler Bros. Iron Works, forge and machine shop; Wolverine Glove company; and the Valley Printing company. From this list of companies operating in the county and the products that they manufacture, it can be seen that the diversification of industry in the county will protect the business men generally against depression periods that may occur in one industry, and the men who have established the manufacturing enterprises in the county may well feel proud of their achievements. The Sommers Brothers Match company is said to be the largest match factory in the United States. It had its inception in 1903, when Charles, Sylvester A., and Frank A. Sommers started the Saginaw Match company in the old plant of a brick-making company on South Jefferson street. The brothers found it necessary to make their own machinery with which to equip their little plant, for they had devised the "Saginaw Tip" for matches, the like of which had never been made before. The invention of the brothers virtually revolutionized the industry, and in such demand did their product become that it was not long before expansion and better organization became necessary. In 1909, therefore, the Sommers Brothers Match company was incorporated with a capital stock of $280,000. A five-story factory building was erected at that time, and as the business of the company has increased, additions and improvements have been made. In order to secure the right kind of wood for the match sticks at all times, the company established a mill at Sandpoint, Idaho, for cutting into blocks the straight grain Idaho white pine that was used by the concern. From this western mill, the best blocks are shipped to the Saginaw plant, the imperfect ones being sold at the plant for fuel. The match company has now risen to the first rank of concerns of its kind in the country and is the largest match factory in the United States. Another concern that has added much to the commercial prestige of Saginaw is the American Cash Register company. The basic patents on the machines now built by this concern were secured by H. S. Ilallwood, of Columbus, Ohio, who was the inventor of the registers and who manufactured! them in a small shop in that city for several years. I lowever, Ilallwood sold his patent rights to the American Cash Register company, a concern organized at Columbus for the manufacture of the Hallwood cash registers. The rights of this concern were transferred to a new corporation, also the American Cash Register company, in 1912. Disastrous floods the following spring destroyed the plant of the new corporation, and because of this fact and because it was engaged in expensive litigation concerning its patent rights, the officials of the company determined to seek a new location for the plant. The Saginaw Board of Trade learned that the company was looking for another place to locate and at once got into communication with the officials of the company. So attractive was the proposition held out to the cash register concern that the American Cash Register company decided to locate its plant in this city. Ac

Page  62 62 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY cordingly, in August, 1913, the erection of a factory building was begun at Saginaw, and by Decemler of that year, the machinery had been installed and the plant ready to begin operations. Though the company got away to an excellent start, the opening of the war in Europe in August, 1914, brought financial troubles to the concern that nearly bid fair to close it down. Unwilling to see the demise of a concern for whose location there they had been directly responsible, the Board of Trade members appointed a committee to consider the matter and see what could be done to aid the company. As a result of thie report of the committee, enough money for stock was subscribed in the city to give the company a new lease on life. Today, the American Cash Register company carries the name of Saginaw into every civilized country of the globe, and the faith and wisdom of the people of Saginaw is rewarded in the strong industrial machine that is the company. The Lufkin Rule company, a division of the General Motors Cor-. poration, is the largest manufacturer of steel tapes in the world. The United States Graphite company is another concern that brings the name of Saginaw before the entire world, for the company is the largest manufacturer of graphite and graphite products in the world. For a period of approximately sixty years prior to 1890, manufacture and sale of graphite had been practically monopolized by one company. At that time, however, it was proposed principally through the agency of the Wickes brothers that a company be formed in Saginaw for the manufacture of graphite. The entrepeneurs of the concern believed that the Mexican graphite was superior to any in the world and purchased graphite mines in Sonora, Mexico. On April 29, 1891, the United States Graphite company was incorporated at Saginaw and a small frame building was secured in north Saginaw for the plant of the little company. That the products of the company were well received is attested by the fact that in spite of the competition and obstacles that impeded the progress of the concern, the United States Graphite company built a large plant in December, 1904, on an eightacre tract of land which is the present location of the factory. The products of the company are everything in which graphite is used with the exception of crucibles and lead pencils, although it produces more graphite for lead pencils than all the other companies in the world combined. In 1899, the Saginaw Plate Glass company, now the largest glass plant in Michigan, was started with the following officers directing the affairs of the company: Frederick W. Carlisle, president; William J. Wickes, vice-president; Samuel G. Higgins, secretary; E. F. Achard, treasurer; and Thomas L. Kerr, general manager. Kerr was brought from Pittsburgh to superintend the erection of the plant and to assume the active management after it had been completed. Subsequently, one of the most modern salt plants in Michigan was established in connection with the glass plant, and here, again, was given birth a second subsidiary organization, for the Saginaw Chemical company was organized in 1912 to manufacture various chemicals from the bittern left over

Page  63 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY 63 from the salt process. The rapid growth of the automobile industry and the desire of the company's officials to secure as much of the plate glass trade of that industry, resulted in large extensions to the plant in 1913 and 1914, and since that time the name has been changed to the present one of the National Plate Glass company. The concern is capitalized for more than a million dollars. On April 21, 1906, John L. Jackson, Edgar D. Church, and Melvin L. Wilcox secured the incorporation of the Jackson-Church-Wilcox company for the manufacture of gears and primarily for the manufacture of a patented steering gear for automobiles, the patents for which were held by the company. The steering gears were well received by the automotive industry, and because such a large proportion of the company's product was sold to the Buick Motor Car company, it was proposed by the latter organization that the Buick company purchase the Jackson-Church-Wilcox organization. The transfer was accordingly effected, and on January 20, 1910, the first meeting of the new board of directors was held. With the formation of the General Motors Corporation, the Saginaw plant became a subsidiary of that great organization, and it is one of five General Motors plants located at Saginaw. Occupying an honored place in the industrial life of Saginaw are the plants of the Wickes Brothers. In 1855, H. W. Wood and Henry D. and Edward N. Wickes started the Genesee Iron Works at Flint. A considerable part of their work was the manufacture of mill machinery for the Saginaw mills, but realizing that it was a useless waste of time and money to maintain the iron works at Flint when most of the work was at Saginaw, the proprietors determined to move their business to this city. Accordingly, in 1860 the partners brought their iron works to East -Saginaw and four years later the Wickes brothers bought out H. W. Wood, continuing the business under the name by which it is known today, Wickes Brothers.' At that time, the sole work of the iron works was the making of machinery for use in the sawmills, but as the decline of the lumber industry began at Saginaw, the brothers realized that a change must be made. Mill machinery for all kinds of mills began to appear among the list of products of the company, and finally boiler making and ship building tools were added to the impressive list. The Wickes Boiler company was started in Dlecember, 1907, as an offshoot of the parent plant, and from it are sent forth the boilers of all kinds that have made Saginaw a well known name among boiler manufacturers. The Wickes plants in Saginaw are, needless to say, one of the largest industries in the county. Saginaw Board of Trade. When it was learned in Saginaw in the spring of 1863 that the convention of the National Board of Trade would be held in Detroit that year, prominent business and manufacturing men of the city decided that it would be good for the city if it were to be represented at that convention. On April 9, 1863, therefore, was organized the Board of Trade for the Saginaw Valley, there being thirty-one charter members, prominent among whom were Col. W. L. P. Little, Ezra Rust, A. W. Brockway, L. B. Curtis, Castle

Page  64 64 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY Sutherland, William S. Diggs, William F. Glasby, H. Hobbs, Charles F. Disbrow, James L. Ketcham, D. L. C. Eaton, George L. Burrows, H. C. Potter, Newell Bernard, William L. Webber, V. A and A. B. Paine, William Binder, Charles and Egbert TenEyck, W. D. Leavonworth, and John S. Estabrook. Two years later the board was reorganized under the name of the Board of Trade of East Saginaw, twelve of the fifty-two original members being members of the earlier organization. Not long after this, however, began the rapid change in the industrial aspect of the city due to the advent of the railroads, and that the city might better cope with the situation, a second re-organization of the board was made in 1876, the present name of the Saginaw Board of Trade being adopted at that time. Only three of the members at this time were former members of the first Board of Trade for the Saginaw Valley in 1863. The board has continued under that name to the present time and has been a vital factor in promoting the industrial and commercial welfare of the county and city. The work of the Board of Trade has been augmented by the efforts of the Merchants and Manufacturers' Association which was formed in 1906. Saginaw had for some years shown a marked tendency toward industrial stagnation, and the business men of the city realized that active measures must be taken to induce manufacturers to locate there. Instrumental in the organization of the association were Harry T. Wickes, Theodore Huss, John L. Jackson, A. H. Melze, Benton Hanchett, Max Heavenrich, Arthur D. Eddy, Delbert E. Prall, James S. Smart, M. W. Tanner, and Ralph C. Morley. After the association had been incorporated, a campaign was inaugurated which raised $212,000 for the work of the association in securing favorable factory sites and for aiding new industries to establish plants in the city. That the ideas of the founders of the association have more than been carried out can be seen in the list of companies that have located in Saginaw through the efforts of the association, they being: Brooks Boat Manufacturing Co., Ranier Motor Co., Saginaw Sandstone Brick Co., Valley Sweets Co., Saginaw Concrete Stone Co., Valley Grey Iron Co., Brueck Sectional Book Case Co., Saginaw Heading & Veneer Co., Saginaw Pure Ice Co., Clare Knitting Mills, Erd Motor Co., Wilcox Engineering Co., Saginaw Silk Garment Co., Saginaw Show Case Co., Cooney & Smith, Valley Boat & Engine Co., Jackson-Chutrch-Wilcox Co., Argo Electric Vehicle Co., Wessbord Manufacturing Co., Michigan Creamery Co., Saginaw Saddler Co., Opportunity Manufacturing Co., Saginaw Sheet Metal Works, Stark Motor Co, Modart Corset Co, Kerry & Wale, Strable Manufacturing Co., Nelson Brothers Co., Saginaw Enameling Co., and the American Cash Register Co. On January 1, 1911, Joseph P. Tracy took over the positions of secretary of the Merchants and Manufacturers' Association and of the Board of Trade as well. Though he was an organizer of recognized ability, Tracy apparently lacked the keen business judgment necessary in a secretary of two such organizations. Not long after he had accepted the posts and began work, he made a violent attack

Page  65 HISTORY OF SAGINAW COUNTY 65 upon the Pere Marquette railroad, which had been one of the strongest factors in the development of the city and county and which was then having financial troubles: It was unfortunate that he made his attack upon the railroad in the name of the Board of Trade, and his actions had the effect of bringing dissension into the ranks of the board and association members. Unfavorable attention was drawn to Saginaw from the entire state because of Tracy's actions. The result of it was that the affairs of the two organizations became considerably tangled and Tracy himself was asked to resign on May 6, 1913. The affair nearly brought the disruption and end of the Board of Trade and the Merchants and Manufacturers' Association, but in time the trouble was smoothed over, and Saginaw is again prospering under the efficient and praiseworthy work of these two bodies.

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Page  69 CHAPTER I EARLY SETTLEMENT T HE settlement of the interior parts of Michigan was considerably retarded by the unfavorable reports of the government surveyors that had been sent into the newly created Territory of Michigan. Their reports to Washington pictured the territory as practically unfit for human habitation, and the free circulation of these reports diverted the stream of westward immigration past Michigan. It was Governor Cass, who had become well acquainted with many parts of the state during his journeys, who conceived the idea of promoting a system of roads through the territory in or(ler that the land might be made accessible to the immigrants and so that these prospective settlers might be encouraged to come and judge for themselves whether or not the country was good agriculturally. The efforts of the governor were successful, and though the tide was slow in setting into the new territory, it swelled rapidly and was bringing into the interior counties of Michigan hundreds of homesteaders. Lenawee county, situated as it is in the southern tier of counties, was on a direct northwestern route from Toledo, was crossed by the famous Dearborn trail that became the Chicago road from the Illinois city to Detroit, and was traversed by several other important trails of the Indians, and thus it was that the first influx of settlers to the Michigan country brought the first white settlers to what is now Lenawee county. The land now embraced by the county was originally the hunting grounds of the Potawatomi Indians, one of the most powerful tribes in the Middle West. By the Indian cession treaties of 1807, Governor Hull secured the deed of that land for the United States, and within less than two decades, the white men had begun to pour into the territory that had witnessed so many of the tribal councils and gatherings of both peaceful and warlike nature. During the year 1823, there came to the unorganized county of Lenawee one Musgrove Evans, a Pennsylvanian and a member of the Society of Frien(Is. le quartered the unbroken wilderness over a large part of thle county, selected what he believed to be a good place for a settlement, and returned East to interest other men in locating in the new country. Evans had chosen well, and he was equally successful in convincing a number of men of the wisdom of his choice of location for the pioneer community. Early the following spring a party of fifteen men made preparations for the journey to their new home, they being Musgrove Evans, with his wife and six children; General Joseph W. Brown, brother-in-law of Evans, with his wife and five children; Peter Benson and wife; John Borland, Peter Lowe, James Young, George Spofford, Curtis Page, Levi Baxter, John Fulsom, Captain Peter Ingals, Nathan Rathblurn, Simon Sloate and Ezra F. Blood. At Detroit the party was augmented by the addition of Turner

Page  70 70 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY Stetson and his wife, who came from Boston to join the colony of homesteaders. Pushing on from Detroit, the party eventually arrived at their destination, land now occupied by the village of Tecumseh, and there, on May 21, 1824, was established the first settlement in Lenawee county. There, twenty-five miles from a road and the nearest white settlement, the hardy pioneers erected a log house twenty feet square, a building that served to house the members of the colony during the lonely winter of 1824-25. George Evans, son of the projector of the village, was the first white child to be born in the county. Brown and Evans built a small sawmill that same summer in order that all might be ready for the erection of the houses contemplated by the first settlers. Though to Evans is due all credit for the founding of the village, to (en. J. W. 1Brown must go the crelit for being the leading spirit of the community during the long and arduous years of development that followed. A farmer and a miller, he pushed with great energy the upbuilding of the little village of which he was one of the first settlers. Brown was a farmer of Brownville, Jefferson county, New York, when he was asked by Evans to take the active management of the contemplated village. His characteristic resourcefulness and energy at once became evident in the growth of the sturdy little community. Born of Quaker parentage, Brown had marked military inclinations, with the result that he became adjutant of a cavalry regiment in 1817, was commissioned captain of a rifle company the following year, was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the One Hundred and Eighth Infantry in 1819 by Governor Dewitt Clinton of New York. After he established the village of Tecumseh, Brown built a sawmill and grist mill; he plowed the first ground in the county and sowed the first wheat; he carried the first mail from Monroe to Tecumseh and established the first mail stage route between Detroit and Chicago. In 1826, Brown was appointed chief justice of the Lenawee county courts, and in 1829 he was appointed by Cass to the rank of colonel of the Eighth Michigan regiment. Two years later, Brown was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general. In this capacity he was in command of the Michigan militia during the time of the Toledo war in 1835. In 1836, Brown was appointed Register of the United States Land Office by President Jackson. General Brown ranks as a leader among the prominent pioneers in the development of the interior part of the state, and Lenawee county owes much to his ability as an organizer and resourcefulness as a community leader. Brown died on December 9, 1880, just thirteen days after he celebrated his eighty-seventh birthday. His birthplace had been in Falls township, Bucks county, Pennsylvania. Though the founders of Tecumseh can claim to be the first settlers of the county, their claim of priority is little better than that of the founders of the village of Blissfield. On June 19, 1824, less than a month after the founding of Tecumseh, Hervey Bliss entered land on sections 29 and 30 and in December of that year brought his family to their new home. This land became the site of the present village of Blissfield. On June 28, 1824, Gideon West entered land in the same

Page  71 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY 71 township as Bliss, taking up a homestead in section 29, but the second settler of the township did not bring his family to the new home until the following year. In 1825 George Giles, Almond Harrison, and Samuel Buck entered land in the township, Giles bringing his family to the place in the spring of 1826. Samuel Buck was the bridegroom in the first wedding held in the township, for on November 23, 1826, he married the stepdaughter of Gideon West, by name Margaret Frary. When it became necessary to send to Monroe for a justice of the peace to perform the ceremony, George Stout decided to take advantage of the opportunity and forthwith married Delight Bliss, the daughter of the first settler of the township. The third year after the arrival of Bliss marked an important step forward for the community. In that year was held the first township election; then came the first minister, Rev. J. A. Baughman, of the Methodist Episcopal persuasion; on March 27, 1827, occurred the birth of George Lane, the first white child to be born in the township; and in that year was established the first school in that township. Addison J. Comstock was the projector of the third settlement of the county, and the one that eventually became the county seat and the largest community. In the fall of 1825, he and his father, Darius Comstock, left their home at Lockport, New York, to investigate the possibilities of establishing a good homestead in Michigan. At Detroit the Comstocks fell in with one Walter Whipple, who had just entered a tract of land located south of Tecumseh. To the Comstocks, father and son, he so extolled the virtues of that section of the state, that Addison Comstock on September 7, 1825, entered 480 acres of government land which is now occupied by the city of Adrian. Returning at once to New York, Addison Comstock began preparations for the journey to his new home in the West. In February, 1826, he was married and not long after began his westward journey. Comstock hired John Gifford to come with him to Michigan. The first work of the two men was the erection of two houses, one for Gifford and his wife, the latter of whom was the first white woman to locate within what is now the city of Adrian, and the second for Comstock and his wife, the latter of whom came to her new home a few days after the arrival of Mrs. Gifford. Gifford was the second man to locate land within what is now the city limits of Adrian. Elias Dennis located land there on December 26, 1826, to become the third settler of that region. On March 31, 1826, Addison J. Comstock platted the village of Logan, but subsequently a new name was chosen for the village, that of Adrian being chosen by Mrs. Comstock after the Roman emperor of that name. Settlers poured into the new village rapidly, and from November 26, 1827, to December 11, 1828, the highway commissioners, Noah Norton and Warren Aylesworth, laid out fourteen roads. Isaac Dean, the father of Mrs. Comstock, came to Adrian in the summer of 1828, and erected the first hotel that went under the name of Exchange hotel and was located at the corner of Maumee and Winter streets until 1859. Since the mill nearest to the village was that at Tecumseh, Dean and Comstock erected a mill in 1829 at Adrian, and

Page  72 72 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY for many years thereafter the structure was known to the inhabitants of the surrounding territory as the Red Mill. In that same year, the postoffice of Adrian was established with A. J. Comstock as the first postmaster. First to locate in what is now Cambridge township, Lenawee county, was Rev. Henry Tripp, an Englishman by birth, who had served before the mast in the English merchant marine and in the United States navy with Commodore Decatur before Tripoli. In 1831, he came to Michigan to make his home and in that year located land in section 13 on the shores of Sand Lake in this county. His life in the navy had given him an uncouthness of manner, but he had also acquired a sturdy uprightness that showed itself in a decidedly religious turn of mind, a trait that won for him the title of Reverend or Elder among the first settlers of that section of the county. The beauties of Sand Lake also attracted Rev. William N. Lyster, an Irishman and a minister of the Episcopal faith. He was highly educated and trained for the ministry, and though his accomplishments might have brought him an Episcopal pulpit in the United States, he was content to live out his life in his impractical way on the beautiful shores of Sand Lake, although for a time he had been rector of Christ church in Detroit and had preached a little in Tecumseh. Reverend Lyster had been wealthy and had purchased nearly all the land around the lake. Upon the west bank of the lake he built his house in such a place as to make it almost inaccessible for teams at that time. And this fact, together with his rope and log fences and other schemes for the improvement, showed him to be a man of little knowledge of farming. James King was a third of the first settlers in the township. He was a graduate of an English university, the country in which he was born, and in 1835 purchased land on the shores of Sand Lake. He, like Lyster, was a poor farmer, and his wife was equally unsuited to the ardors of farm life in a comparative wilderness, so when King failed miserably in his attempt to support his wife and children by farming, he secured an appointment as professor in a Canadian college, subsequently became wealthy and founded the place of Kingsville, Ontario. Benjamin Workman, an Irishman, also settled on the shores of Sand Lake, and he, too, was well educated in letters but not sufficiently well in farming to be successful in the work. He was subsequently selected as editor for the Constitutionalist and after a time taught school at Tecumseh and Springville. He then removed to Canada, entered the study of medicine, and in business pursuits became wealthy. For many years he was head of the insane asylum at Toronto. John Gilbert, of Monroe county, New York, was the first to enter land in the township of Cambridge as it is known today, for Gilbert took up 160 acres of section 4 in 1825. Isaac Powers, of Washtenaw county, made the second entry of land four years later, and in 1831, Charles Blackmar made the third entry of land. Blackmar, however, was the first actual settler in spite of the fact that he was only the third to take up government land. He built his house fifteen miles

Page  73 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY 73 from the nearest human habitation in 1830 and entered his land the following year. The military road that was surveyed by the United States Government in 1825 ran through the northern part of Cambridge township, and one of the locating commissioners was this same John Gilbert who located the first land in the township. After the Detroit-Chicago military road, the next public improvement in the township was the La Plaisance Bay military road to intersect the Chicago road. This road was laid out in 1832. The years of 1835 and 1836 witnessed an influx of settlers and the forests began to melt rapidly away before the busy axes of the homesteaders. The first schoolhouse was erected at Springville in 1835, and a sawmill appeared on Wolf creek in 1836. Cornelius Millspaw was the first white man to settle on the Chicago road within what is now Woodstock township. Hte remained there but two years, when he sold his land and went to Hillsdale county. During his residence in this county, however, his daughter Mary and Thomas Jolls were married, the first wedding to be celebrated in that township. Jesse Osborn, who had helped erect the first house built in Lenawee county and who had grown the first wheat in the county, then came west to Woodstock township, where he located on the Chicago road at Silver Creek, thus becoming one of the first settlers of Woodstock township. An Englishman, who had been a soldier under General William Henry Harrison, and his wife were located for a time about a mile east of Silver Creek, where they sold beer and cake for the cheer and solace of the travelers who accasionally traversed the Chicago road at that time. Benjamin Laur settled on section 12 in April, 1834, and in November of that year came Oramus Lamb with his father and Willard Joslin from New York to settle on land immediately east of the establishment maintained by the Englishman and his wife. William Western located on section 8; Thomas MlcCourtie settled first on section 11 and then on section 9; Isaac Smith took land in'section 10; C. M. McKlenzie established his home on the west shore of Devil's Lake; Joseph Younglove and Richard Osborn settled on section 36; and Susanna Sanford brought her family of seven sons and two daughters to settle on section 15. The month of September, 1825, had scarcely begun when John Terrill, looking for land on which to locate, came to what is now Clinton ILenawee county. At that place he decided to locate, but though he entered his land, it was five years before he came back from the East with Thaddeus Clark to begin the task of carving his farm out of the deep forests. The two men arrived on January 24, 1830, Clark bringing his wife and three-year-old daughter, Louisa. Nearly a year before the arrival of the homesteaders, George Lazell had viewed the land at Clinton on March 17, 1829, and decided to establish his farm there. Colonel Hixon had already built a log cabin about four miles from what is now Clinton and Alpheus Kies had preceded Lazell to the place by a short time. Lazell was the bridegroom at the first wedding that was held in the township, he having married Deborah Gillett on April 22, 1832, and when at the end of ten months, Mrs. Lazell died,

Page  74 74 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY the event marked the first death in the county. Edwin and John Smith, brothers, took up their residence at Clinton soon after the arrival of the above mentioned settlers. Benjamin B. Fisk brought his family from Livingston county, New York, in May, 1830. In 1831, there came to Hudson township, Lenawee county, Hiram Kidder, who settled in the valley of the River Raisin. On February 6, 1833, he entered parts of sections 6 and 7 in the names of Daniel Hudson, Nathan B. Kidder and William Young. In August of that year, he brought men from the Raisin district and built a log house, and in October brought his family to their new home. Soon after the first of November, the Kidder household in Lenawee county was visited by Charles Ames and Thomas Pennock, of Massachusetts, who had been sent to this part of the state to look for suitable farm sites the preceding spring. These two men brought their families to their new homes in the Bean Creek section of the township in November as above stated. At the time of the arrival of the Ames and Pennock families, the Kidder house was unfinished. A few days after this event, Jesse Smith arrived, located land, and returned East. Samuel Purchase and Samuel Van Gander located land and entered it at Monroe on November 6, 1833. For some time after the completion of the Kidder house, it remained a sort of communal dwelling place for the nearby settlers until such time as -the new arrivals could secure the erection of their own homes. Henry Ames and Alpheus Pratt entered land in the township on December 6, 1833, and Simeon Van Aken had entered land in Hudson township in November of that year. Surely, few townships in the county could boast of a more rapid growth after the arrival of the first settlers than could the present Hudson township, and the years that followed the advent of the Kidders witnessed an almost phenomenal settlement of the public lands of the township. Francis Hagaman located near Seneca township in the winter of 1833-34, and Samuel Gregg influenced William Cavender to enter land in section 6, Town 8 south, of Range 2 east, and in section l'of Township 8 south, of Range 1 east. Hiram Kidder began the construction of a mill race in 1834 and early in June of that year platted the village of Lenawee on the land of the mill company, for which he completed the mill early in October at a cost of nearly $1,500. Beriah H. and Erastus Lowe arrived in May of that same year and located on land south of the village of Hudson, but almost at once they traded their holdings for a clearing owned by Davis and began the erection of a sawmill that they completed in December of the same year. Although Adrian township had received several families of settlers, practically nothing was known of the county that lay immediately to the west of this township before 1830. On June 4, 1831, Ira Alma, of Seneca county, New York, entered land in section 20 of what is now Rollin township, this entry of the west half of the northwest one quarter of that section representing.the first purchase of government land in that township. To the founder of the village of Adrian went the honor of making the second purchase of government land in the township, for A. J. Comstock bought a tract of land on which the vil I

Page  75 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY 75 lage of Rollin now stands, on May 10, 1833. In the spring of the year in which Comstock made his purchase, the township had been thoroughly explored by a party of people proceeding southwest from Adrian to the vicinity of the present village of Morenci. Joseph Beal and his son, William, were the leaders of the party, and the former with Orson Green soon after went to the Bean Creek country of the township to take up lands for their homes. On June 1, 1833, David Stear, of Belmont county, Ohio, took up the northwest quarter of section 4, this being the first land pre-empted for farm purposes. In that same month, the first family came to take up their residence on land that had been entered by Stephen Lapham, these persons being Levi Thompson and family, who settled on the east one-half of the southwest one-half of section 4. Stephen Lapham also settled on this land that he had entered, but the tide of immigration had been started to the Rollin township district and neighbors began to establish themselves round about. Erastus Aldrich brought his family to section 9 in August, and Joseph Beal with his son, Porter, came to section 10 in October, where they erected a small log cabin that would house but two. William Beal, who had accompanied his father on the first trip of exploration into the country in the spring of 1833, came to section 8 in January, 1834. David Stear moved onto his land in the same year; John T. Comstock came to section 5; Warner Aylesworth took land in section 28; John Upton also located on section 28; Matthew Bennett came to section 24; Salem Vosburg pre-empted land in section 22; James Macon came to section 27; Roswell Lamb located on section 29; Joseph Allen took land in section 27; John R. Hawkins moved to his land in section 20; James Sloan settled on section 7; Nathaniel Ball and Ephraim Sloan moved into the town with William Beal; and Orson Green also took up his residence in the county in 1834. The first death occurred in June, 1834, when the wife of John Upton, who had just settled in his new home, died. On August 27, that year, Salem and Lydia Vosburg became the parents of a daughter, Mary, the first white child to be born in the township. Hiram Aldrich and Eliza Titus were married in 1834 at the house of William Beal, this constituting the first wedding in the township. The most accurate figures available seem to indicate that there were some twenty-three settlers in the township in 1834, a number that had increased to thirty-five or forty by the end of the following year. In November, 1835, a sawmill was erected, and during that winter it was very busy supplying the sawed lumber so badly needed by the settlers for the completion of their houses and other buildings on the embryo farms. By this time, too, the number of farms had increased to such a point that a grist mill became a vital need of the community, so that during the winter of 1836-37 such a mill was erected at Rollin. In the spring of 1836, the first church body was organized by those of the Baptist persuasion, the meeting being held at the home of Matthew Bennett. Azel Hooker started the first store in the village of Rollin and placed it under the management of a man named Allen. Ephraim Sloan took the contract for the carrying of the mail in that year.

Page  76 76 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY The township of Raisin received its first settler in the person of Noah Norton, who in 1825 built a cabin in the western part of the township and made some improvements in the land. Four years later, Darius Comstock took up land in the township, and at about the same time, a settlement was started near Tecumseh by William Tilton, Thomas Sisson, Joseph Grey, Aaron Comfort, John Lovett and others. It was believed that the River Raisin that wound its way through the center of the township offered a good source of mill power, and in the spring of 1830, a party started from Tecumseh to look at the land in the vicinity of the river. Among these men were Robert Boyd, Fulton Jack, Reuben Satterthwaite, and Thomas Tate, with General Joseph Brown as their guide. The first two of these men, Boyd and Jack, soon after located land near Champlain Brook that was subsequently occul)ied by the settlement of East Raisin. The settlers nearest to them were at Blissfield. Deacon 0. Rogers and a man named Fish came to that section in the summer of 1830, bought land, and spent the summer in clearing the land and building a shack, after which they returned to Massachusetts for their families. Rogers returned but Fish never returned to the land he had located in the wilds of Michigan. Reuben Satterthwaite also settled in the township in the summer of 1830; a Mr. Vanasdell, a man named Blanden, Daniel Warring, Jasper Howard, and a Mr. McNorton came in the same year. Thus was started the settlement of East Raisin. John Cleveland, Gabriel Wells, Bingham Pattison, Isaiah Colvin, Reuben Hall, and Richard Horton settled in the township in 1831. It was in this year, too, that Deacon Obediah Rogers returned from the East with his family to make his home in the little house he and Fish had built on their land. Frederick Wickwire, of Connecticut, came to the township in 1832, to be followed by Hugh Grey, a Mr. Bancroft, Lucius Judson, Sylvanus Westgate, William Ash, and Dr. William Holloway and his sons, Edwin, William, Silas and Butler. The year 1832 also witnessed the erection of the first schoolhouse in that district. In 1833 came Daniel Raymond, Samuel G. Conkling, Archibald and John Richard, Deacon Josiah Chatfield, James Boyd, Samuel Murdock, Amos Hoag, Morrison Sackett, and the families of Westgate, Haviland and Bowerman started the settlement in the southwestern part of the township in the salle year. Amos I loag ald others erected a sawmill in 1833, the first to be built in that section of the county, and it proved to be a great convenience to the settlers in building their homes. The following year witnessed the erection of the township, so large had the number of inhabitants grown, and the settlement went rapidly forward. What is now the township of Ridgeway received its first settler in the spring of 1826. Coonrod Lamberson left his home in Camilus, Onondaga county, New York, on November 1, 1825. Riding one horse and leading a second, he arrived at Tecumseh in December, where he remained until the winter began to break. In February, 1826, he, in the company of Peter Lowe, started out to look at land. They crossed the River Raisin and in section 8, Lamblerson found the land that suited him. -He returned to T'ecumsel and entered his land

Page  77 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY 77 as soon as possible at the land office, but it was not until 1829 that he returned to his holdings to erect a log house thereon. Giles Hubbard located about a mile west of the present village of Ridgeway in 1828, and there he built the first house to be erected in Ridgeway township. A Mr. Martin built a house on the prairie in July of the same year, but occupied it only about two months, after which he went to Monroe. The house built by Martin was destroyed by fire in the same year. 4

Page  78 CHAPTER II COUNTY ORGANIZATION AND GOVERNMENT THE County of Lenawee was first mentioned as such when a proclamation issued by Governor Lewis Cass on September 10, 1822, defined the boundaries of the county which was to be attached to Monroe county until such a time as organization of the county should be deemed advisable. The boundaries of the county of Lenawee were described in the act as follows: "All the country included within the following boundaries: beginning on the principal meridian, where the line between townships numbered four and five, south of the base line, intersects the same; thence south to the boundary line between the Territory of Michigan and the State of Ohio; thence with the same east to the line between the fifth and sixth ranges east of the principal meridian; thence north to the line between townships numbered four and five, south of the base line; thence west to the place of beginning, shall form a county to be called the County of Lenawee." With the limits of the county defined, the first settlers of the county took immediate steps to secure the nomination of the county seat, and since Tecumseh was then virtually the only community that might be considered a village, it was only to be expected that the legislative council, on June 30, 1824, should pass an act locating the seat of justice, an act that read in part as follows: "Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the Governor and Legislative Council of the Territory of Michigan: That the seat of justice in the county of Lenawee be, and the same is hereby established, on the northwest quarter of section numbered thirty-four, in township five south, range four east, in the said county of Lenawee, on lands owned by Messrs. Wing, Evans and Brown, agreeably to the plan of a town or village situated on the said northwest quarter section, and recorded in the Register's office in the county of Monroe, the twenty-sixth day of June, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-four." The settlement of the county was rapid from the first, and within two years after the first white man had established their homes in the unbroken wilderness of Lenawee county, the county was ready for organization. Accordingly, a bill to that end was drawn up and submitted to the legislative council, which on December 22, 1826, passed it, the act reading in part as follows: "Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the Legislative Council of the Territory of Michigan: That the county of Lenawee shall be organized from and after the taking effect of this act, and the inhabitants thereof entitled to all the rights and privileges to which by law the inhabitants of the other counties of the Territory are entitled. "Sec. 2. That the county court of the county of Lenawee shall be held on the first Monday in June, and the first Monday of January in each year.

Page  79 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY 79 "Sec. 3. That all suits, prosecutions, and other matters now pending before the county court of Monroe county, or before any justice of the peace of said county of Monroe, shall be prosecuted to final judgment and execution, and all taxes heretofore levied and now due, shall be collected in the same manner as though the said county of Lenawee had not been organized. "Sec. 4. That all the country within this Territory to which the Indian title was extinguished at the treaty of Chicago, shall be attached to and compose a part of the county of Lenawee. "Sec 5. This act shall take effect and be in force from and after the 31st day of December, 1826." The burning of the old courthouse destroyed a considerable portion of the first records of the county, and for this reason the material regarding the first years of the county's life as a separate political unit are necessarily meager. The first election was held in the spring of 1827, as provided in the legislative act. Township Organizations. By the first section of an act approved April 12, 1827, Lenawee county was divided into three townships, as follows: Tecumseh to include township 5 and the north half of township 6 in ranges 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 east; Logan to include the south half of township 6, of ranges 1, 2 3, 4 and 5 east, and township 7, of ranges 1, 2 and 3 east; and Blissfield to include township 7, of ranges 4 and 5 east, and townships 8 and 9, of ranges 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 east; and St. Joseph township to include all the territory attached to Lenawee county for civil and judicial purposes. The election in Tecumseh township was ordered to be held at the house of General Joseph W. Brown, the Logan election at the house of Darius Comstock, father of Addison J. Comstock, and the Blissfield election at the house of Harvey Bliss. The town meeting for St. Joseph township was to be held at the house of Timothy S. Smith. The town meeting in Logan resulted in the election of the following officers: Elias Dennis, moderator; Addison J. Comstock, township clerk; Darius Comstock, supervisor; Noah Norton, Warner Aylesworth and Cornelius A. Stout, highway commissioners; Patrick Hamilton, Milo Comstock and Abram West, assessors; and Patrick Hamilton and Abram West, overseers of the poor. The Blissfield election resulted in the selection of the following men for the various offices: William Kedzie, supervisor; Ezra W. Goff, town clerk; A. McKey, Jacob Lane and Moses Valentine, assessors; Almond Harrison, John Lane and A. McKey, commissioners of highways; Samuel Randall, constable and collector; Gideon West and George Giles, overseers of the poor; William Kedzie, Isaac Randall and Samuel Randall, fence viewers; Hervey Bliss, George Giles, poundmasters; and William Kedzie, Hervey Bliss, George Giles and Benjamin Clark, path masters. The character of the county itself remained the same during the ensuing nine years, although the counties of St. Joseph, Berrien, Branch, Cass and Hillsdale, the last of which was organized March 17, 1835, were taken away from Lenawee during that period.

Page  80 80 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY The fourth township to be erected was Franklin, which was formed in 1833 from township 5 south, of ranges 1, 2 and 3 east of Tecumseh township, and the first town meeting was ordered to be held at the home of Hiram Reynolds. the organization of five new townships for Lenawee county was provided by anll act of March 7, 1834, which read in part as follows: "Sec 1. Be it enacted by the Legislative Council of the Territory of Michigan, That all that part of the county of Lenawee, comprised i in surveyed townships eight, nine, and fractional township ten south, in ranges one, two and three, east, be a township by the name of Fairfield, and the first township meeting be held at the now dwelling house of John H. Carpenter, in said township; and all that part comprised in surveyed township seven south, in ranges one, two and three east, be a township by the name of Lenawee, and the first township meeting be held at the schoolhouse one mile east of William Edmonds', in said j township; and all that part comprised in surveyed township six south, in range four east, be a township by the name of Raisin, and first township meeting be held at the now dwelling house of Amos Hoag, in said township; and all that part comprised in surveyed townships seven, eight and nine, and fractional township ten south, in range four east, be a township by the name of Palmyra, and the first township meeting be held at the now dwelling house of Casius G. Robinson, in said township; and all that part comprised in surveyed townships five and six south, in range five east, be a township by the name of Macon, and the first township meeting to be held at the now dwelling house of Henry Graves, in said township; and all that of the township of Tecumseh, comprised in township six south, in ranges one, two and three east, be attached to, and constitute a part of the township of Logan." On March 17, 1835, Rollin township was erected from township 6 south, of range 1 east, the meeting to be held at the home of Joseph Beal, and by the same act Rome township was erected to include township 6 south, of range 2 east, the meeting to be held at the house of John B. Schureman. An act of the legislature, approved March 23, 1836, provided for the organization of the townships of Woodstock, Cambridge, Hudson an(l Dover in their present size and for the erection of the township of Seneca, including in addition to its present area the township of Medina. By this same act, the township of Channing was created, but since most of it lay in the strip of land ceded to Ohio, the organization of the township never came to full fruition, what was left of it being placed in the township of Medina. In 1837 came the organization of Medina and Ogden townships, and the following year witnessed the change of the name of Logan to that of Adrian and the change of Lenawee township to Madison township. That part of the township of Macon in Congressional township 6 south and the southern tier of sections in township 5 south was erected into the township of Ridgeway. Pottsdam township, the name of which was changed to the present one of Riga in 1844, was erected in 1841 from township 8 and

Page  81 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY 81 fractional township 9 south, of range 5 east. Deerfield township, which took its name from the village located in its center, was erected from parts of Ridgeway and Blissfield townships in 1867. Tecumseh township, which by that time had been reduced to one Congressional township, was still further decreased in size in 1869, when the north half of the township was erected into the township of Clinton. The founding of the village of Adrian was also the birth of rivalry between that village and Tecumseh for the ultimate location of the seat of justice of Lenawee. True, the founders of the first settlement in the county had secured legislative sanction of Tecumseh as the county seat, but the people of Adrian were never satisfied that the matter was final. Odds were all in favor of Tecumseh, for it remained larger in population, was about two years older, and had been, as already stated, the county seat by virtue of the action of the legislative council. In spite of the odds, Adrian eventually won because of its geographical position, for located as it was nearer the center of the county, it fell on the line of the Erie & Kalamazoo railroad that was financed in good part by Adrian capital. That Adrian secured rail transportation, swung the balance in favor of Adrian, and on March 21, 1836, was approved an act of the state legislature authorizing the removal of the seat of justice of Lenawee county from Tecumseh to Adrian, to be effective on and after the first Monday of November, 1838. In March, 1828, Addison J. Comstock, when he had platted the village of Adrian, had set aside lots for public uses, such as the erection of a courthouse and jail and city hall. This land was accordingly conveyed to the supervisors and accepted by them after the re-location of the county seat. Public Buildings. When the founders of Tecumseh asked that the village be named as the county seat of Lenawee county, the commissioners sent to report on the matter told the town proprietors that they must set aside a square for the courthouse and jail if the legislature were to consider their plea that Tecumseh be made the seat of justice. This the proprietors of the company did, and the legislature made Tecumseh the county seat. A square at the northeast corner of Maumee and Chicago streets was appropriated by the town fathers for the erection of a courthouse and jail. Following the removal of the county seat to Adrian, the supervisors were authorized to accept the lands of Comstock or any other that they might deem more suitable and to negotiate a loan of no more than $10,000 for the erection of the courthouse required by law. Thus came into being the small structure that served until 1852, when the county offices burned, with an almost total loss of the records of some of the departments. This first courthouse was replaced by a brick and stone building, designed along colonial lines in architecture, which was used until it became too small to accommodate the large offices that became necessary to the county business as the county grew. The site of the present courthouse is the same as the original one selected by the board when the removal was made from Tecumseh to Adrian.

Page  82 CHAPTER III EDUCATION IT has been a characteristic of Americans since the earliest Colonial times that they have been ardent in the pursuit of education and in supplying their children with every educational advantage possible to them. The settlers, a great portion of them from New York, who came to settle in Lenawee county, brought with them this same desire to promote the tuition of their children, and as soon as houses had been built and small tracts of land cleared, the people gathered together and erected a schoolhouse so that the education of their children might not be neglected even in the wilderness of Michigan. Schoolhouses as erected by the pioneers were much of a type. As a rule they were log cabins with puncheon floors and slab doors and roofs. They rarely had more than a window or two, and because of the poor light thus afforded, the only desk in the room was liable to be a slab of wood laid across two large pegs driven in the log wall beneath the window. Rude, hewn benches were the only furniture in these crude schoolhouses, and at first even a means of heating the building was consl)icuous by its absence. That these first schools could not be heated, frequently meant that the ter'ms of school were held in the summer and in the more clement months of the spring and fall. Later, when stoves began to make their appearance, it was the duty of some pupil to see that the fire was kept going and the wood box filled. But even here, the imperfect heating was apt to retard the progress of the little schools. Not only in physical facilities but also in the curricula have the present-day schools advanced far beyond those of the pioneers, for in the early days, the teaching of any subject other than those of arithmetic, reading and writing, was the exception rather than the rule. The first schools were frequently kept by a volunteer teacher in his or her own home. When the community felt able to hire a teacher, the salaries seldom were more than a few dollars per week, and the teacher lived with the parents of the pupils who attended the school. The salaries, too, were paid only by the parents of the pupils. Such a system of school support was known as the rate bill and prevailed for many years until the general education law of Michigan provided for the present method of financing the schools by universal taxation. The little colony of settlers that established the village of Tecumseh were not backward in providing a school for their children, for during the winter of 1824-25 Mrs. Mary Spofford conducted the first school to be taught within Lenawee county. The first schoolhouse in Blissfield township was opened at the village of that name in the summer of 1827 under the direction of Chester Stuart, who came from Monroe to preside over the little log building where the children of the township gathered.

Page  83 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY 83 Miss Dorcas Dean opened the first school in Adrian during the winter of 1828-29, and in 1829 a frame schoolhouse was built at South Main and Winter streets on the west side of Main, it having been kept in the house of Noah Norton during the first winter. In 1841 a schoolhouse was built in Hudson at the west side of the village, the building being used for church services by several religious organizations there. J. J. Adams taught the first school held in the township of Clinton. In 1832 the first school was built in the Raisin territory, and Reuben Hall taught the first term of school held in this building. A log schoolhouse was built at Holloway's Corners in the spring of 1835, and Mary Ann Simonds took charge of the school work during the first term. The building was of the conventional pioneer design, having a fireplace at one end and being furnished with rude benches and a few desks along the walls constructed in the manner described above. The first school in the village Morenci was taught by Miss Louisa Dellman in a log building erected for school purposes. Adrian Public Schools. From the time Miss Dorcas Dean opened the first school in the house of Noah Norton, when but seven families were living in Adrian, the schools of the community have enjoyed a steady growth and have always kept pace with the most modern developments in educational methods and curricula. In 1828 a school committee was formed which provided for the construction of a building to be used for school purposes and as a meeting place for the townspeople. This structure, as stated earlier in the chapter, was located at the intersection of South Main and Winter streets, and David Buck was placed in charge as the first teacher. Buck's sojourn was short, for he soon left for the West, where he met death by drowning in 1830. Aaron Jackson then took up the duties of schoolmaster, serving in that capacity for many years. Of the teachers who served in this pioneer school, the names of Powers, Dixon, Brewster, Inglis, Ramsdell and Hance survive, while of the women, two of the more prominent teachers were Miss Emma L. Keeney and Miss Laura E. Casey. As the village developed, school districts were formed so that prior to 1849, four school districts were in operation. By that time, however, the general education law, providing for the establishment of Union school districts, had been passed, and to take advantage of the benefits of this act, the school trustees of Adrian and Madison townships, in which the four districts were located, united to form an Adrian Union School District Number One. On April 12, 1849, pursuant to a call of the clerk of the board of school inspectors, the inhabitants of the new district met and elected the first board of trustees of the Union School District, which was composed of the following men: Richard II. Whitney, moderator; Warner M. Comstock, director; and Abel Whitney, assessor. It was resolved at the meeting that a committee of eight, two from each of the four districts, be appointed to report on the matter of locating the Union school building. Those appointed were John Barber, J. V. Watson, George Kennedy,

Page  84 84 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY Stephen Whitehorne, E. Vandegrift, James Field, William L. Greenly, James J. Newell and Titus HI. Treat. Due to the opposition of many influential citizens of the town, the committee failed to come to an agreement about the site of the building, and Dr. John Cadman, who had become thoroughly acquainted with the school system in New York, offered a resolution calling for the construction of a school building three stories high and 66 feet by 70 feet in dimensions. Opposition was not quelled by this move, and when Cadman proposed another resolution calling for a first installment of $2,000 to pay for the construction of the building, the matter carried, although it was later rescinded. Finally, a town meeting was held at which the matter was placed in the hands of the people, and when the vote of approximately three to one carried the decision to erect the Union school building, the opposition ended then and there. In September, 1850, the board was instructed to proceed with the erection of the building, which was accordingly comrpleted and occupied on September 13, 1852. It was located between Church and Maumee streets, the lot extending from one street to another. The total cost was $11,375.13, and the building could accommodate 312 pupils. This first school building served until it was destroyed by fire on August 10, 1866. The growth of the village was great between 1857 and 1861, so that the duty of building new schools devolved upon the school board. Accordingly, East Branch school was erected in 1857 at a cost of $5,000; South Branch school was built at a cost of $3,500 in 1859; West Branch school, which was enlarged in 1867, was erected in 1860 at a cost of $13,000; and North Branch school was put up in 1861 at a cost of $13,000. Adrian schools were placed on the free school basis following the adoption of a resolution by the board of trustees on September 26, 1859. As soon as old Central school building burned in August, 1866, a meeting was held at once to consider the replacement of the structure. On August 22, therefore, the board-was authorized to secure plans for a school building to cost at least $50,000. This was done, and the plan of A. Barrows, calling for a building 117 by 95 feet and containing twenty classrooms, was accepted. It was completed in due course, the total cost being approximately $68,000. Adrian College, a Methodist Episcopal school, was organized March 22, 1859, under an act of the legislature providing for the incorporation of such institutions of learning. It had its inception in a movement started by Asa Mahan, a former president of Oberlin college from 1835-50, who came to Leoni, near Jackson, Michigan, and started a college in 1850. In 1857 he went to Adrian and interested people there in the establishment of Adrian college, and Mahan moved the Leoni school to Adrian after the incorporation of the Adrian institution. The school has a total endowment fund of $315,000 and has one of the most beautiful campuses in the state. North Hall, Science Hall, Downs Hall, South Hall and Metcalf Hall, are the buildings of

Page  85 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY 85 the college. The curriculum is the usual one of a college of liberal arts, and the library contains 7,000 volumes. The present head of the institution is Harlan L. Feeman, while the government of the school is in the hands of thirty trustees, twenty-four of whom are elected by the church and six by the Alumni Association. Until 1868 the college was controlled by the Wesleyan church but in that year it was transferred to the Methodist Protestant church, which manages it today. Twenty instructors compose the faculty of the school, and a fine rating scholastically is maintained by the school. The Adrian Public Library, with a total of 28,000 volumes, is a decided asset to the city in an educational way. The service of the library is a distinct aid to the educational work of the schools, and at the present time, the institution is under the direction of Margaret F. Jewell. The building is located at the southeast corner of Church and Dennis streets. With the adoption of the commission form of government in Adrian, it was provided that the board of education should be a body entirely distinct from the political interference so common in some cities, and the result was the formation of a school government organization which is allowed to pursue its course independent of the political squabbles and wire-pulling with which it might possibly be involved under a less enlightened policy. The results obtained have more than justified the proponents of such a policy. The 6-3-3 plan of education is being worked out in Adrian with considerable success, the high school and the junior high school being recognized parts of the school system. Modern buildings increase the efficiency of such a system, and the Adrian school system, though not numbering the largest number of pupils, nevertheless is equal to any in the state, without exception, regarding the excellence of teaching personnel, equipment and curriculum. In addition to the city school, two Lutheran parochial schools, St. Joseph's parochial school, and St. Joseph's College and Academy, a Roman Catholic institution, are flourishing in Adrian and working hand in hand with the school authorities of the city as regards courses of study.

Page  86 CHAPTER IV TRANSPORTATION T RANSPORTATION was a matter to which the pioneers of Lenawee county gave early attention. Before white settlers came to take up homesteads in this county, those fur traders, coureurs de bois, and Indians who traversed this wilderness went afoot. The Raisin river, of course, saw a certain amount of canoe travel, but for the most part foot trails carried the few travelers of those days. Perhaps the most important Indian trail in the county was the one that was later made the military road from Detroit to Chicago and was named the Chicago road, whose terminii are now Michigan avenue, Chicago, and Michigan avenue, Detroit. Next in importance to the Dearborn trail, as the Chicago road was first known, was that trail which intersected the Dearborn trail near the present city of Adrian and ran roughly southwest to cross the Maumee river near the rapids on that stream. It was this route which later was chosen for the La Plaisance Bay military road to connect with the Chicago road. Other minor trails led through the county, and it was along these Indian trails that the white men, engaged in the fur trade, occasionally passed with their large packs. But for the incoming settlers from the CIast bringing large wagons and often driving stock, the narrow trails of the Indians were impractical for travel, and the pioneer homeseekers were compelled to cut their way through the underbrush to make room for the wagons. Under such conditions, then, travel was necessarily slow and arduous, and mindful of their own difficulties in reaching their new homes, the first settlers at once began the work of cutting passable roads through the forests that then clothed the surface of Lenawee county. Within three years, the actual location of main highways had begun, for Noah Norton and Warner Aylesworth, road commissioners, located fourteen public highways between November 26, 1827, and December 11, 1828. The construction of the two military roads about this time was a great impetus to the settlement of the county, and along the route of this famous road homesteads sprang up rapidly. These first attempts at road building by the pioneers resulted in little better than cleared pathways through the forest which became almost impassable at some seasons of the year. As settlements increased, various methods of road improvement began to appear. The corduroy road, made of logs overlaid by a mixture of sand and gravel, was used to carry the traffic across the marshy places. The sawmills paved the way for perhaps the best methods of road improvement devised by the pioneers-the plank road. It became the practice throughout the state.for plank road companies to incorporate for the building of such highways and then to charge toll for travel over these roads. Stage travel was greatly expedited by this means, and the plank road concerns prospered until the advent of the

Page  87 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY 87 railroads worked to their detriment and ultimate extinction. The Adrian & Bean Creek Plank Road company was organized May 4, 1848, with a capital stock of $75,000. The survey for the road was made during the year and the right-of-way purchased. Contracts for the planks were let at once and in 1849 the first planks were laid in Adrian, commencing on Franot street, opposite the present courthouse, thence up Main street to Maumee street, and west on Maumee street to the village of Addison. Although the original charter of the company only granted it the right to construct its road from Adrian to Bean Creek, an extension was secured that allowed the company to build its road to intersect the Chicago turnpike at Gambleville, Hillsdale county. The first officers of this company were Addison J. Comstock, president; Henry Jones, secretary; and E. L. Clark, treasurer. Following the abandonment of the plank roads, highway construction languished, and not until the introduction of the automobile rendered it necessary, was any appreciable progress made in this direction. The fast moving automobile and automobile trucks soon reduced the old roads to a state of impassability. State highway departments turned their attention to remedial measures, and the results were the introduction of the various forms of macadam, concrete, asphalt and brick highways that are the pride of the country today. In this direction, Lenawee county has kept pace with the other counties of the state, and the present mileage in this county of the various types of roads is as follows: Railroads. In the matter of railroad construction, Lenawee county has a record of which it may well be proud, for in the pioneering spirit of some of the men of the county is found her early advantages derived from rail transportation. Considerable Adrian capital was invested in the Erie & Kalamazoo railroad, the first railroad built west of Schenectady, New York. It was incorporated in April, 1833, for the construction of a railroad from Port Lawrence, on Lake Erie, to the headwaters of the Kalamazoo, Port Lawrence now being the city of Toledo, Ohio. The readjustment of the Michigan-Ohio boundary placed about eleven miles of the road in the state of Ohio, it having been incorporated only by the Territory of Michigan. However, the construction of the road went forward without delay and was completed by 1836, the trackage consisting of oak stringers sheathed with strap iron. Until August of the opening year, the motive power was furnished by horses, but on January 20, 1837, the officials of the road announced in the columns of the Toledo Blade that the first locomotive had arrived and would be in operation within a few days. Trains were run daily from Toledo to Adrian, where the trains connected with stages for Chicago and the Wisconsin territory. The equipment for passengers was a single "Pleasure Car," a topheavy, two-story affair that was frequently jumping the track, for riding in which from Toledo to Adrian a fare of twelve shillings was charged, the passenger being allowed to carry fifty pounds of freight free. Four shillings a hundred weight was charged for freight between Toledo and

Page  88 88 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY Adrian. During the first ten years, the Erie & Kalamazoo railroad had a stormy existence, its management first being in the hands of a commissioner acting for the board of directors, then by trustees,- and then by a receiver at the Toledo end and a commissioner at the Adrian end of the line. In 1848, the road was sold to Washington Hunt, of Lockport, New York, and George Bliss, of Massachusetts, who, on August 1, 1849, gave a perpetual lease of the road to the Michigan Southern, then in operation between Monroe and Hillsdale, and the Erie & Kalamazoo eventually became a unit of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railroad, a subsidiary of the New York Central Lines. The Michigan Southern, which is now a part of the New York Central Lines, was built as a unit of the internal improvement measures pushed through the state legislature in 1837 by Governor Stevens T. Mason. It was Mason's theory that three railroads, a southern, central and northern, should be built across Michigan in addition to a canal from Mt. Clemens to Kalamazoo and one from Saginaw to the Flint rivers. He believed that the roads would not only become self-supporting but would eventually pay a large proportion of the governmental expenses of the state. The plan provided for the Southern road to run from Monroe to New Buffalo, on Lake Michigan. In 1839 it was built from Monroe to Petersburg, to Adrian in 1840, to Hudson in 1843, and to Hillsdale in the same year. There the road stopped, for the people saw an inordinate expenditure of their money with no appreciable returns in sight for many years. The Erie & Kalamazoo railroad had projected the Palmyra & Jacksonburg as far as Tecumseh, to which it was opened on August 9, 1838, but for the next twenty years this branch ended there. The Palmyra & Jacksonburg was sold to the Michigan Southern for $22,000, the amount of the state's loan to the company in 1844. In 1846, the state was only too glad to sell the Michigan Southern to a company headed by Edwin C. Litchfield for $500,000, payable in ten annual installments of equal size. In March, 1852, the road was completed to Chicago by the new company as the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, now a part of the New York Central system. It was stipulated in the sale of the Michigan Southern that the Tecumseh branch be completed to Jackson, and this line is now the Jackson branch of that road. The second railroad to be built to Adrian was the Wabash railroad, the line from Detroit to Butler, Indiana, being projected by James F. Joy and other prominent Detroiters under the name of the Detroit, Butler & St. Louis railroad. The road was completed in 1881, little more than a year after the first survey was made, and on May 12, 1881, the first train entered Adrian from Detroit. On June 10, that year, Jay Gould, president of the road, made the trip over the entire line from Butler, Indiana, to Detroit. The amount of stock subscribed by Adrian citizens to secure this road was $36,199, E. L. Clark taking $10,000 worth. Upon the completion of the Detroit, Butler & St. Louis, the road was purchased by the Wabash system and Adrian now has direct service with St. Louis over this line.

Page  89 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY 89 The third railroad to be built through Adrian was the Detroit, Toledo & Ironton, first known as the Lima Northern. The road was finally completed from Detroit to Lima, Ohio, and then to Ironton, Ohio, where the rich coalfields of that district were tapped. Until a few years ago, the line was never a paying proposition and was constantly on the verge of bankruptcy. However, Henry Ford purchased the road and it is now paying dividends mounting into millions of dollars under his efficient management. The equipment is now of the best, and from Flat Rock into Detroit, the line is electrified. The electric line of the Toledo & Western was completed to Adrian late in 1901, the first car entering the city on December 7.

Page  90 CHAPTER V THE PROFESSIONS THE men who have practiced before the bar of Lenawee county have been lawyers of exceptional ability as jurists and counsels, and the ten pioneer attorneys mentioned below set the standard for those who followed. The material on these ten lawyers was obtained from the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections and was cormpiled by Judge C. A. Stacy, himself a prominent member of the Lenawee county bar. Isaac Stettson came to Lenawee county in 1827 and first settled at Adrian. Ihe returned to Detroit for a short stay and then came to Tecumseh, where he remained until about 1832. At that time he went to the Illinois country, where he is believed to have died about 1834. A native of New York, he was well educated in the law, but his love of frontier life carried him westward with the tide of homesteaders. Nathan Willis came from his native state of Connecticut to settle in Tecumseh, where he lived until 1833, the year in which he removed to Wisconsin. He died in that state in 1839. Willis was known for the extreme carefulness with which he tended to his business affairs and to the preparation and conduct of the cases that were placed in his hands. He was a cousin of Nathaniel P. Willis, the poet, who then lived in New York City but subsequently came to Tecumseh. Peter R. Adams arrived in Tecumseh with his family on July 26, 1830, and with the exception of a short time spent in Kansas, he passed his entire life in the county. He was a native of Tioga county, Pennsylvania, and studied law at Danville, New York, and then in the office of Ellis Lewis, an eminent judge of Pennsylvania. Being admitted to the bar in 1825 in Tioga county, he entered practice there until he brought his young wife to Michigan in 1830. The route he followed was by way of Pittsburgh and Erie, along the lake shore to Cleveland, Toledo and Detroit, and thence to Tecumseh. He entered practice at his new home immediately but in 1842 he was compelled to retire from the active practice of his profession due to ill health. Thereafter, he devoted his attention to scientific farming. He held several positions of public trust, among them being representative of the district, county offices, and a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1850. Adams died at Tecumseh in 1883. Ezra St. John settled at Clinton in 1834, where he practiced until the time of his death in 1839. Alexander R. Tiffany stood as one of the most prominent members of the Lenawee county bar during his time. He was a native of New York and was admitted to the bar in that state about 1819. In 1832, he and his family joined a party of settlers starting from Palmyra, Wayne county, New York, where Tiffany had been first judge of the

Page  91 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY 91 county court since 1823. After his removal to Lenawee county, he took a leading part in his profession. During the territorial government he was a prosecuting attorney, held the position of probate judge for eight years under the state government, served as a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1850, and was elected to the state legislature. He was the author of Tiffany's Justices' Guide and Tiffany's Criminal Law, standard works for more than fifty years. He was one of the ablest of the common lawyers, was a zealous student, and an able advocate. Andrew Backus settled at Tecumseh about the time that Tiffany located here. He was a native of Connecticut, and was perhaps the best versed of any of the early lawyers in elementary law. He held the office of register of the land office at Marquette in the Upper Peninsula for four years, and in 1855 he removed to Detroit. He was admired by the younger lawyers for the able way in which he advised and instructed them, instruction that was exceptionally valuable at a time when books were so scarce. Orange Butler was admitted to the bar in New York and came to Michigan in 1833. He practiced law for a short time and attended court in 1836 and in April, 1837, but becoming a contractor on the railroad, he gave up the practice of law, went to Lansing after the removal of the capital to that place. There he was elected justice of the peace and served in that capacity for several years. He died there in 1855. Peter Morey was born in Cazenovia, Madison county, New York, received his elementary education in the'academy at Hamilton, and then studied law with the firm of Slomer & Gridley in that place. In 1831 he was admitted to the bar and returned to his home the following year. Soon after he took up his residence in the village of Eaton, where he remained until 1835, the year in which he settled at Tecumseh, Michigan. Two years later, however, he went to Detroit and was appointed attorney general of the state by Governor Stevens T. Mason, a position which he held four years. He returned to Adrian soon after the expiration of his term, but within a few months he went to Adrian, which had become the county seat during his absence. He practiced there until he was no longer strong enough to continue the work, when he removed to Marion, Ohio, to live with his daughter until his death in 1881 at the age of eighty-three years. There can be no doubt that Peter Morey was an able lawyer, for his work as attorney general of his adopted state proved him to be a barrister of the finest caliber. His work in that office came at the time of the period of readjustment from territorial to state government, and his work in this connection was exceptionally valuable for that reason. Allen Hutchins came from Orleans county, New York, to settle at Adrian in 1833 and practiced here until he was appointed receiver of the Land Office at Ionia in 1836. He returned to Adrian after the conclusion of his term in that office and practiced law until his death a few years later. He was one of the leading politicians of the county during his residence here and was an able lawyer and business man.

Page  92 92 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY Ahira G. Eastman came to Lenawee county in 1835, was admitted to the bar in that same year, and practiced law until 1858. In that year, he removed to Van Buren county, where he resided until his death in 1881. He was known to his clients and confreres as a careful, prudent man who performed well the duties entrusted to him. A. L. Millard, writing in the Pioneer and Historical Collections, gave the following list of attorneys who were practicing in Lenawee county when he arrived there in 1841: A. R. Tiffany, M. N. Halsey, William L. Greenly, Lorenzo Tabor, Josiah Ward, E. B. Fairfield, A. M. Baker, A. C. Harris and A. G. Eastman, at Adrian; Peter R. Adams and C. A. Stacy, at Tecumseh; F. C. Beeman, who later removed to Tecumseh and then to Adrian, at Clinton. Soon after the organization of Lenawee county, the legislative council made a revision of the statutes concerning the structure of the courts, and in 1827 the circuit of Lenawee county was organized, two associate justices to be elected by the people to sit with a justice of the supreme court who was the circuit judge. For a short time before this, circuit courts had been held in the county by a justice of the supreme court but without the assistance of associate justices. A county court, of which General Joseph W. Brown was the chief justice, was held along with the circuit court conducted by the supreme court justice. The county courts were abolished in 1827 when the circuit court was modified. In 1833 the circuit court was again modified, a circuit judge for all Michigan being appointed to sit in the various counties with two associate justices elected by the people. It was at that time that Lenawee county became a part of the Second circuit with the counties of Monroe, Livingston, Jackson, Hillsdale and Washtenaw. By the constitution of 1850, Lenawee county became a part of the First Judicial circuit with Monroe and Hillsdale counties. The next revision of the circuits dropped Monroe from the First circuit, and Lenawee and Hillsdale counties formed the First Judicial circuit until 1907, when Lenawee county was placed in a circuit by itself under the number Thirty-nine, which it retains today. Physicians. The records of the early physicians in Lenawee county are indeed meager, yet too much honor cannot be given to these dauntless men who braved every hardship that they might bring comfort and relief to the sick and dying. Their lot was a hard one, compared with that of the present-day physicians and surgeons. The country was sparsely settled; roads were very poor; and remuneration itself was often not forthcoming, for the pioneers were poor. Yet the doctors were ready at all times, in all kinds of weather, to answer the call of the sick. The first physician to settle in the county was Dr. Caleb N. Ormsby, who first located at Tecumseh and then removed to Adrian in 1827. Dr. M. A. Patterson was the first physician to make Tecumseh his permanent home, and he came to that village soon after the departure of Doctor Ormsby. A Dr. Beebe settled at Adrian in 1831, but contracted smallpox the following year while attending the family of Jacob Brown and died.

Page  93 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY 93 He was the second physician to settle in Adrian, the first being Dr. Ormsby. On November 22, 1833, Dr. Parley J. Spalding came to Adrian and purchased a lot from Addison J. Comstock fronting five rods on Maumee street, where he made his home for the rest of his life. He was the third doctor to settle at Adrian and he won the respect and admiration of his fellow citizens. He was prominent in public affairs and was elected to the offices of mayor of Adrian and register of deeds. When he ran for Congress he was defeated only because there was a split in the ranks of his own party. Dr. Benjamin Workman; an Irishman, located lands on the shore of Sand Lake as early as 1835 in Cambridge township. He was not a successful farmer, and as there were but few settlers beside himself, he went to Canada, where he eventually became the head of an insane asylum at Toronto after he had studied medicine. Dr. A. N. Moulton was the first regularly practicing physician to settle in the township of Cambridge, he having taken land in the western part of the township in 1834. Dr. James Geddes settled in the township soon after and was elected the first constable and collector after the township was organized. Dr. A. Cressey was one of the first settlers of the township of Clinton, and Doctors Pierce and Christie located in the township about the same time. A Doctor Hall settled in the township of Rollin in 1835 and lived for some time with Daniel Rhoades. Soon after he married and settled on the farm that was owned by the Cook brothers and subsequently removed to the village of Rollin, where he opened a good drug store. Dr. James Powers settled in the village in 1843. Dr. William Holloway settled in Raisin township in 1832. It is not definitely known whether or not Dr. Saxon or Dr. Norton was the first physician to settle in the township of Ridgeway, but in any event, neither doctor remained long, and a Doctor DeMott was the first one to make a permanent settlement in the township. At Palmyra, the first permanent settler to practice medicine was a Doctor Loomis, while a good portion of the medical work done in the county was performed by a Doctor Barnard, the partner of Doctor Spalding, of Adrian. A Doctor Robinson was also one of the first physicians to come to Palmyra township. Dr. Thomas F. Dodge, born in Andover, Vermont, in 1806, lived with his uncle after the death of his father when he was eleven years of age. On October 18, 1830, he arrived in Blissfield, Michigan, and on that date bought a small farm of Isaac Randall. By farming and teaching school he was able to earn a living, and after six years sold his farm and purchased property in Adrian. From 1859 to 1863 he lived in Reading, Hillsdale county, but returned to this county after that time. All in all, he practiced medicine in this county for some forty years and was much beloved by the people of the county, who were his steadfast friends. Dr. Robert Stephenson was a native of Ireland and after graduating from the Anderson Medical college of Glasgow, Scotland, came to

Page  94 94 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY this country and settled in Adrian about 1847. Subsequently he took another course at the Buffalo Medical college, and during a trip abroad, he died in Vienna, Austria, on August 9, 1890. Dr. Alexander W. Seger graduated from medical college at Worcester, Massachusetts, and settled in this county about 1847, taking land in section 22 in Rome township. The following year he removed to Rome Center and in the spring of 1870 came to Adrian. For the first decade of his life in Adrian, he carried on a drug business in addition to his practice, but after 1880 gave his entire attention to the practice of his chosen profession. Dr. Edwin P. Andrews, a native of Plymouth, Michigan, began the study of medicine with Graham & Decker, Adrian doctors, when he was { twenty-one years of age. Then he went to Starling Medical college and I graduated therefrom in the spring of 1850. In 1861 he was appointed J examining physician for the candidates for enlistment in Lenawee county and for a number of years after the war he was examining surgeon for pension applicants. Dr. Nelson H. Kimball, a native of Martinsburg, New York, was adopted into the family of Arba Jones and came with the family to Seneca township, Lenawee county, in 1837. After working and studying in that section of the county, he went to Tecumseh to learn the carpenter's trade and in 1847 began the study of medicine in the offices of Barnard & Spalding in Adrian. He then attended Cleveland Medical college, from which he was graduated in 1850, and returned to Adrian to enter practice. He was successful front the first and was chosen by the people to fill many public offices. He was also surgeon for the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railroad( for many years at Adrian. Dr. Joseph)l Howell was the first physician to settle in the township of Macon. He was a native of New York and in 1831 came with his family to locate in Macon township, Lenawee county, Michigan. For many years he practiced among the people of that section of the county. He was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1835 that drew up the Michigan state constitution. Dr. William Holloway was the first doctor to locate to Raisin township. Born in Massachusetts in 1781, he went to York, Livingston county, New York, in 1816, where he practiced until 1833, the year in which he came to Lenawee county. He practiced there until the time of his death on August 10, 1852. Dr. Daniel Todd was born at Petersborough, New Hampshire, in 1827, and studied medicine at the medical college of the University of Buffalo, from which he was graduated in 1851. He then settled at Canandaigua and remained there until 1854, when he removed to Madison township, this state, and in 1870 came to Adrian where he became actively identified with his profession not only in the city but the surrounding part of the county as well. Dr. Increase S. Hamilton was born in Massachusetts in January, 1809. When he was about twenty-one he decided to study medicine and at that time entered the offices of Dr. James Willard, of Geauga

Page  95 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY 95 county, Ohio, after which he entered Western Branch of the University of New York at Fairfield, Ohio, graduating therefrom in 1835. He then came to Lenawee county and for the first nine years practiced at Canandaigua on Bean Creek. In 1844 he went to Tecumseh, where he continued to practice until failing health forced him to give up his active life. Dr. James H. Sweeney was the first physician to settle in the vicinity of Morenci. He came from New York about 1835 and practiced in that part of Lenawee county for many years.

Page  96 CHAPTER VI BANKS AND BANKING THE entrance of Michigan to the league of states was marred by her colossal blunder in the passage of the general banking law that resulted in the panic of 1837 in this state. The act passed by the legislature allowed any group of persons banded together as a corporation to start a bank, provided that a majority of the stockholders of the bank lived in the county where it was established and provided, further, that at least one-third of the stipulated capital of the bank be paid in. The inhabitants of the young state promptly contracted a banking fever that resulted most disastrously for them. Following the passage of the act, banks sprang up throughout the state, some, such as the Bank of Brest in Monroe county, was founded where there was neither settlement or cause for its being. Founded as they were on shoestrings, so to speak, the banks themselves made financial matters immeasurably worse by taking upon themselves the issuance of bank notes. This money was issued with no thought as to the amount thus placed in circulation nor to the ultimate redemption of the notes that might be demanded by the bearers. This flood of wildcat money was worthless outside of the state and enjoyed, as time went on, a slightly better reputation within the state. Merchants were frequently forced to buy goods from Eastern distributors with produce, for the- East refused to honor the worthless paper of the Michigan wildcat banks. The law required that the banks keep on hand a certain amount of specie, and here again the banks defeated their own ends by resorting to deception of the bank examiner. It was not uncommon for a circle of banks to have on hand enough specie to satisfy the requirements of any one of the ring and to send this to each bank as the examiner made his rounds, so that the bank examiner inspected in each bank the same specie as he had in all the other banks of his circuit. Qther banks were wont to fill kegs with old iron or other heavy material and cover the top with currency in order to pass the inspection of the examiner. But by such unscrupulous methods, the bankers were riding to a fall, and when on July 11, 1836, President Jackson issued his famous specie circular directing public officials to take in and pay out only specie in public transactions, the crash came. Since the passage of the general banking law, forty-nine wildcat banks had been established prior to April 3, 1838, with a nominal aggregate capitalization of $4,000,000. The fifteen chartered banks of the state had a capital of $7,000,000. At a time when the population of the state was but 100,000, it was obvious that a bank capitalization of $1 1,000.000 was ridiculous and was bound to result as it did. From the stigma of wildcat banking, Lenawee county was not free. The muster roll of the wildcat banks as contained in the Michigan Pio- -

Page  97 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY 97 neer and Historical Collections, includes the names of the following in this county: Lenawee County bank, at Palmyra, capital $100,000; the Commonwealth bank, Tecumseh, capital $50,000; and the Bank of Adrian, capital $150,000. A speech of F. R. Stebbins, reprinted in Whitney & Bonner's History of Lenawee county, mentions a fourth wildcat bank that was established at Palmyra under the name of the Palmyra & Jacksonburg bank, whose cashier was "Doc. Alford." Further reference to this bank, apparently an enterprise fostered by the promulgators of the Palmyra & Jacksonburg railroad, could be found in no histories of Michigan banking nor at any other source. However. whether three or four wildcat banks enjoyed a mushroom existence in the county, they nevertheless went under in the general crash and panic that followed the issuance of the famous specie circular of Jackson. The first bank in the county, according to the county history of Knapp & Boner, was the Erie & Kalamazoo Railroad bank of Adrian, established by Phil C. Fuller, of Genesee, New York, and sold by him to John B. and F. W. Macey, of New York. This. too, constitutes the only reference to this bank, which may have been connected in some way with the Palmyra & Jacksonburg bank at Palmyra. The bitter lesson learned in the panic of 1837 made the people of Michigan rightfully cautious in their enactment of another general banking law. The establishment of banks, therefore, remained for more settled times and increased population to justify their existence and prosperity. The interim between the wildcat banking era and the passage of the general banking law of 1871, which amended the law of 1857 to make it practical for the establishment of savings banks, saw banking matters in the hands of private institutions. Several such private banks were established in the county, but the records of nearly all of them have passed from the memory of few but the oldest residents. Today Lenawee county boasts of sixteen state banks and three national banks doing a thriving business within her limits with a total capitalization of $1,175,000 and resources nearly reaching $20.000,000. These banks are as follows: Addison State Savings bank was organized November 11, 1905, and has a capitalization of $20,000. The present officers are: Wade Millis, president; F. B. Cleveland, vice-president and cashier. The Adrian State Savings bank is the outgrowth of Whitney's Commercial Exchange bank established in June, 1877, by Channing Whitney, of Adrian. The bank, during the first year of its existence was not widely patronized, but when William H. Stone, another proprietor of a hank, died in September, 1878, the business of that bank was diverted to Whitney's company. On May 24, 1893, the institution was chartered as the Adrian State Savings bank, Whitney retiring from the active management of the bank the following year. The bank is capitalized for $150,000 and has these officers: B. E. Tobias, president; R. H. Watts, vice-president; and Charles S. Whitney, vice-president and cashier. The Commercial Savings bank, at Adrian, was organized on April 10, 1888, and its corporate existence was extended April 10, 1918.

Page  98 98 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY The bank has a paid-up capital of $110,000, and the present officers are E. N. Smith, president; P. J. Dunn, vice-president and cashier; and Charles G. Hart, chairman of the board. The Lenawee County Savings bank, at Adrian, is the oldest bank in the county and was organized February 1, 1872, in accordance with the provisions of the general banking law of 1871. It has a capital of $150,000, and its officers are: Ladd J. Lewis, Jr., president; C. D. Hardy and D. B. Morgan, vice-presidents; and J. C. Murphy, vicepresident and cashier. The Blissfield State bank was organized April 25, 1893, and received an extension of its corporate existence on April 24, 1923. The capital of the bank is $50,000 and the officers are: William Rothfuss, president; George F. Ford and E. A. Beamer, vice-presidents; and K. B. Glaser, cashier. The Jipson-Carter State bank, of Blissfield, was organized October 5, 1900, as the outgrowth of a private bank operated by the men whose names the bank now bears. Like the other Blissfield bank, it is capitalized for $50,000, and the present officers are: Cora A. Jipson, president; Jacob G. Bauer and John J. Walper, vice-presidents; and Harold A. Crane, cashier. The People's State Savings Bank of Britton was organized April 26, 1919, to succeed the Bank of Britton, a private institution that had a capital of $4,000. Capitalized for $25,000, the bank has the following officers; Frank J. Temple, president; H. S. and H. F. Temple, vice-presidents; and D. J. Exelby, cashier. The Exchange bank, a private institution with a capital of $100,000, has been discontinued some years ago, and the Clayton section has no bank of its own at the present time. The State Savings bank, of Clinton, was organized June 26, 1918, to succeed the private bank that operated there with a capital of $60,000 and under the name of the Exchange bank. The institution is capitalized for $50,000, and has for its present officers these men: L. W. Kimball, president; W. B. Richmond and Frank W. Hogan, vice-presidents; and William P. Van Tuyle, cashier. The Deerfield State bank was organized March 10, 1906, to succeed the private concern that had served that community under the name of the Bank of Deerfield. It is capitalized for $20,000, and the officers are: William F. Weisinger, president; William T. Atkin, vice-president; and Arthur J. Cannon, cashier. The Thompson Savings bank, of Hudson, was the first one established in that community, it having been incorporated October 14, 1892. Its corporate existence was extended by the state on October 13, 1922. The present capital of the bank is $100,000, and the officers are: G. I. Thompson, president; W. R. Thompson, vice-president; and L. P. Beal, cashier. The Hudson State Savings bank was organized on March 20, 1917, supplanting the Boies' State bank of that village. It is capitalized for $50,000, and the present officers are: Byron J. Foster, president; Wil

Page  99 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY 99 liam N. Berbyshire and Albert V. Foster, vice-presidents; and Valentine W. Fisher, cashier. The Wakefield State bank, of Morenci, was organized December 23, 1898, and it has a present capitalization of $50,000. The officers of the bank are: Charles F. Buck, president; C. E. Wakefield, vicepresident; and Arthur Turner, vice-president and cashier. The original capital of the bank was $30,000 but was recently increased to the present figure. The Onsted State bank was organized September 20, 1907, to succeed a private bank that had been established there for some years. Its present capital is $25,000, and the officers are: Leonard S. Mann, president; W. G. Shepherd, vice-president; and W. J. Redfield, cashier. The Lilley State bank, of Tecumseh, was organized January 26, 1893, and received an extension of its charter on January 26, 1923. The bank is capitalized for $40,000, and its officers are: R. A. Heesen, president; Frank J. and Herbert S. Temple, vice-presidents; and Frank S. Turner, cashier. The Tecumseh State Savings bank was organized March 15, 1893, and received a renewal of its charter in 1923. It has a capital stock of $50,000, and the following men direct its affairs at the present time: J. H. Smith, president; Edward W. Frensdorf, vice-president; and Guy E. Nemire, cashier. The Bank of Weston has passed out of existence. In addition to the state banks that have been mentioned above, three national banks swell the banking circle in Lenawee county. The National Bank of Commerce, of Adrian, capital $100,000, has the following officers: Rolland C. Rothfuss, president; William H. Shierson and A. E. Illenden, vice-presidents; and C. H. Lewis, cashier. The First National bank, of Blissfield, is capitalized for $60,000 and has the following officers: J. D. Henner, president; Otto Tagsold, vicepresident; and 0. H. Johnson, cashier. The First National bank, of Morenci, has a capital of $50,000. The following men direct the affairs of the institution: George H. Rorick, president; C. M. Rorick, vice-president; and A. A. Thompson, cashier. This imposing list of state and national banks of which the county can boast today, and these nineteen banks, operating under state and Federal supervision, are the substantial institutions which make it hard to realize that at one time in our history, wildcat banks sprang up for a day to bring financial disaster to the majority of the people of the state.

Page  100 CHAPTER VII MILITARY THE military history ot Lenawee county begins rightfully with the Black Hawk war, when in 1832 the Sac and Fox Indians of the Illinois and Wisconsin territories were said to be on the warpath. At that time, General Joseph W. Brown, of this county, was commanding the Third Brigade of Michigan militia. Sensible to the dangers that threatened this part of the new country as well as Illinois and Wisconsin, Brown, without orders from the governor, ordered his brigades to rendezvous at Niles, Michigan. The Eighth regiment of the brigade, under the command of Colonel William McNair, was composed of Lenawee county men, two companies hailing from Tecumseh, one from Adrian, and a fourth from Clinton. With all possible despatch, the brigade gathered at the designated point, but before the Michigan men were ready to move to the battle scene, the Fox and Sac Indians had been defeated and Black Hawk himself captured in Wisconsin, whence he had fled with the remnants of his band. The Lenawee county men returned to their homes and warlike thoughts were driven from their minds by the grim realities of the hardships attendant upon frontier life. It was this same General Brown who had been in command of the Michigan militia during the Toledo war and whose handling of the situation probably prevented the bloodshed that impended following the action of the Ohio governor in ordering troops to the disputed area. Following the alarm of the Black Hawk war, the men of the county had no militia organization, but on May 10, 1842, was organized the Adrian Guards, the first unit of its kind to be organized and equipped by the state in this county. Daniel Hicks was elected the first captain of this company and served in that capacity until 1847, when he went to Mexico at the head of a company of Michigan soldiers. F. J. King was first lieutenant of the company, Edwin Comstock was second lieutenant, and William Aldrich was orderly sergeant. Charles M. Croswell was elected captain to succeed Hicks for one year, and with the exception of one year, 1855, when Justus H. Bodwell was the commanding officer, Frederick Hart was captain until April, 1861. With the call for volunteers on May 19, 1846, to go to Mexico, Michigan was asked to furnish thirteen companies, but the Brady Guards of Detroit were then the only company to be called to the colors. A second call was issued, and in October, 1847, the First Michigan Volunteers was raised, Company G of that organization being raised in Hillsdale and Lenawee counties under the command of Captain Daniel Hicks. This company served out its service in Vera Cruz, Mexico, and was finally mustered out at Detroit on July 23, 1848, after having been stationed at the Island of Mackinac for a time.

Page  101 HISTORY OF LENAW'EE COUNTY 101 I A number of men of Lenawee county were enrolled in Company G, Fifteenth United States Infantry, recruited in this state in May, 1847. Company G, of this regiment, did not leave Vera Cruz until August 6, but on the tenth of that month it was engaged in the battle of Paso Ovejas, was engaged in the battle of National Bridge on the twelfth of the month, and arrived at Jalapa on the twentieth of the month. This and the other two companies that were recruited in Michigan for the regiment were mustered out of the service on August 21, 1848. Company K, Third United States Dragoons, including a number of Lenawee county men, left for the theater of war in April, 1847, under the command of Captain Andrew T. McReynolds, of Detroit. Of the 104 men who left Detroit with the comuany at that time, only seventeen returned to their families, battle and disease having claimed the others for the Grim Reaper. From this company and from Company F, of the same regiment, was chosen the bodyguard of General Winfield Scott. Ten men of the bodyguard were the personal escort of the general, and James N. A. L. Simonds, of Raisin township, this county, was a member of this escort. Carlisle Soper, of this county, was also a member of the regiment and was a comrade of Simonds during the course of their service in Mexico. Civil War. As the news of the firing upon Fort Sumter was spread over the country, to be followed within a few days by Lincoln's call for 75,000 volunteers, Lenawee county took immediate steps to see that her part in the suppression of the rebellion should be filled to the utmost. Almost at once, a meeting was held at Bidwell's hall on the evening of April 15, and this meeting proved to be the largest public gathering that had ever been held in Adrian up to that time. So large was the number of people that sought entrance to the meeting that it was adjourned to the street in front of the Brackett House. Two days later, Colonel D. A. Woodbury opened a recruiting office for three months' service, and that same afternoon, sixteen men of the county enlisted for military service. The honor roll of the county contained fifty-one names by 4 o'clock of the following afternoon. On April 18, a paper was circulated among the people of the town of Adrian for subscriptions of money to assist the state of Michigan in getting off the state's quota of troops without delay. Elihu Clark, of Adrian, headed the list with his subscription of $1,000. The First Infantry, for three months' service, was organized at Detroit, Company K being from Lenawee county. Adrian men officered the company, and they were Captain William H. Graves, First Lieutenant John W. Horner, and Second Lieutenant William House. The regiment left May 13 for Washington, took Alexandria on May 24, and as a part of Heintzelman's brigade took part in the battle of Bull Run. It returned to Michigan in three months and was mustered out on August 7, 1861. The Second Michigan Infantry was first recruited as a three months' regiment but was re-organized on a three year basis. The Hudson Artillery, which became Company B, and the Adrian Guards,

Page  102 102 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY Company D, were the two companies from Lenawee county. The officers of the former were Captain Reuben A. Beach, First Lieutenant Cyrus E. Bigelow and Second Lieutenant Tilson C. Barden. The officers of Company D were Captain William Humphrey, First Lieutenant Frank M. Wood, and Second Lieutenant William L. Burlingame. The regiment was mustered in at Detroit on May 25, 1861, thus becoming the first regiment recruited for three years' service in the state of Michigan. Captain Humphrey. won steady promotion until he became colonel of the regiment. On June 5 it reported at Washington, was then engaged at Blackburn's Ford, and covered the retreat of the Union army from the battle of Bull Run. The regiment served during the Peninsular campaign and won undying glory in the battle of Fair Oaks during that campaign. In June, 1863, it joined Grant in Mississippi for the siege of Vicksburg, after which it took part in many engagements throughout Tennessee and Kentucky. It was then transferred to the Army of the Potomac and fought with that army until the close of the war; enduring the vicious battles of the Wilderness and the bloody siege of Petersburg. It was mustered out. at Washington on July 28, 1865. The Fourth Michigan Infantry was recruited in the southern tier of Michigan counties, the Hudson Volunteers, Adrian Volunteers and Tecumseh Volunteers entering the regiment as Companies F, B, and G, respectively. The officers of the regiment from this county were Colonel Dwight A. Woodbury, of Adrian; David P. Chamberlain, of Hudson, assistant surgeon; Henry A. Grannis, of Adrian, quartermaster; Henry N. Strong, of Adrian, chaplain; Captain James H. Cole, First Lieutenant Jeremiah D. Slocum, and Second Lieutenant James E. Avery, Company B; Captain Samuel DeGolyer, First Lieutenant Simon B. Preston, and Second Lieutenant Joseph L. Smith, Company F; Captain David D. Marshall, First Lieutenant George Montieth, and Second Lieutenant Jeptha W. Beers, Company G. The regiment was mustered into the service in June, 1920, and five days later left for Washington. Until it was re-organized in the summer of 1864, the regiment was a part of the army in the East, engaging in the fiercest battles during that time, including the battle of Gettysburg. Following its re-organization, the Fourth Michigan Infantry was sent to Alabama and Tennessee. At the close of the war, the regiment was sent to San Antonio, Texas, to do partol duty, and on May 26, 1866, it was mustered out at Hudson, Michigan. The Eleventh Infantry was raised in response to Lincoln's call for 300,000 additional troops to reinforce the armies that were then in the field. On September 24, 1861, the organization of the regiment had been completed. Companies F and K were from Lenawee county, the officers of the former being Captain Sylvester B. Smith, First Lieutenant Joseph Wilson and Second Lieutenant Abraham Harper, and the officers of Company G were Captain William W. Phillips, First Lieutenant Patrick H. Keegan and Second Lieutenant Ephraim L. French. On December 9, that year, the regiment was sent to Bardstown, Kentucky, and in the spring of the year engaged in railroad

Page  103 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY 1. 03 duty and then engaged in the pursuit of Morgan's raiders through Indiana and Ohio. After a few other engagements, it joined the advance into Georgia. After Chickamauga and Chattanooga, the regiment was put into the Atlanta campaign with Sherman. In September, 1864, the regiment was mustered out but was at once re-organized at Jackson, and it was then sent to Chattanooga. It was mustered out at Nashville, September 16, 1865. The Twelfth Michigan Infantry included the names of twenty-eight men from this county, among whom were Second Lieutenant Samuel Graves of Company F, and Lieutenant-Colonel William Graves, who eventually became colonel of the regiment. In the Fifteenth Michigan Infantry were seventy-six men from this county, most of them being in Companies 11 and K. Horace P. Woodward, of Blissfield, was assistant surgeon of the regiment; Isaac N. Stout, of Deerfield, was second lieutenant of Company H; and George R. S. Baker, of Blissfield, was first lieutenant of Company K. Organized at Monroe, the regiment was mustered into the service on March 20, 1862. Company A, Seventeenth Michigan Infantry, was recruited in Lenawee county with Lorin L. Comstock as captain, John S. Vreeland as first lieutenant, and Richard A. Watts as second lieutenant, all residents of Adrian. It was mustered in on August 21, 1862, and six clays later left for Washington. At the battles of Antietam, Fredericksburg, Falmouth, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Bethseda Church, the Wilderness, and Spottsylvania, the Seventeenth Michigan was a prominent figure in the hard fighting that marked these memorable battles of the war. After the cessation of hostilities, the regiment was on guard duty and then participated in the Grand Review at Washington, being mustered out at Tenallytown, June 3, 1865. ' Five companies of the Eighteenth Michigan Infantry were raised in Lenawee county. The commissioned officers from this county serving with the regiment were: Colonel John W. Horner; Lieutenant-Colonel Edwin M. Hubbard; Major James D. Hinckley; Captain Edwin M. Hubbard, First Lieutenant Myron W. Reed and Second Lieutenant James S. Riddle, Company A; Captain James D. Iinckley, First Lieutenant John Shelt and Second Lieutenant George H. Wells, Company B; Captain John W. Horner, First Lieutenant Charles R. Miller and Second Lieutenant Stephen A. Denison, Company C; Captain Charles D. Stevens, First Lieutenant William A. Weatherhead, and Second Lieutenant Edwin H. Hoag, Company E; and Captain David A. Dodge, First Lieutenant William C. Moore and Second Lieutenant Isaac O. Savage, Company I. The recruiting of the Eighteenth began on July 15, 1862, and on August 26 the regiment was mustered into the service. The regiment was first sent to Cincinnati and then to Danville, Kentucky, for guard duty. During most of its service it was engaged in guard duty throughout that section, engaging in some skirmishes and in the pursuit of Wheeler's forces. On June 26, 1865, the regiment was mustered out at Nashville, Tennessee. Company F, Twenty-sixth Michigan Infantry, that was organized

Page  104 104 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY at Jackson, was composed almost entirely of Lenawee county nien, and the regimental quartermaster, Charles E. Crane, was from Adrian. Captain Lemuel Saviers, First Lieutenant Edmond Richardson and Second Lieutenant Morris Roberts were the officers of the company raised in this county. Leaving Michigan in December, 1863, the regiment reported at Washington and was assigned to provost guard duty at Alexandria until the following April. During the summer it was engaged in quelling the draft riots in New York City and in October was attached to the Army of the Potomac, becoming recognized as the.skirmish regiment of its division. Thereafter it was in the front of the battle until the surrender of Lee at Appomattox courthouse. It was then in the Grand Review at Washington and was mustered out at Bailey's Crossroads on June 4, 1865. The Thirtieth Michigan Infantry was recruited on January 9, 1865. Company D was composed almost entirely of Lenawee county men, of which Captain David D. Marshall and First Lieatenant Simeon M. Babcock were of this county. Major Samuel E. Graves was from Adrian and Lyman H. Dean, the chaplain, was from Morenci. The regiment was stationed at St. Clair, Michigan, until June 30, when it was mustered out. Battery H, of the Michigan Artillery, was commanded by Captain Samuel DeGolyer, of Hudson, and about twelve more Lenawee county men were members of that organization. The battery was mustered in on October 29, 1861, and mustered out at Jackson, September 22, 1865. Battery I was composed alniost entirely of men from this county, Jabez J. Daniels being captain and Addison A. Kidder being first lieutenant of the battery. The unit was mustered in at Detroit on August 20, 1862, was with the Army of the Potomac until after the battle of Gettysburg, when it was sent to the West and joined Sherman on his march to the sea. It was mustered out at Jackson on July 14, 1865. The First Michigan Cavalry contained about twenty men from Lenawee county, Jabez J. Daniels entering the service as second lieutenant of Company E. It was mustered into the service in September, 1861, and after the surrender of Lee was sent to the Indian country until it was mustered out at Salt Lake City, Utah, in March, 1866. Almost an entire company of the Third Michigan Cavalry hailed from Lenawee county, Capt. Collins Davis commanding Company K and Amos M. Adams serving with that unit as second-lieutenant. The regiment was mustered in in November, 1861, and after being sent to St. Louis, Missouri, joined Pope's army. It was then sent to Mississippi and then was attached to Grant's command for the action in Mississippi, where it performed signal service. The regiment was eventually mustered out at San Antonio on February 15, 1866. Company F, Fourth Michigan Cavalry, was raised in this county. Captain Richard B. Robbins, First Lieutenant Walter B. Anderson and Second Lieutenant Tunis W. Henion were the officers of the company. The regiment was mustered in on August 29, 1862. It was sent to the Army of the West and throughout its service it was in that section of

Page  105 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY 105 j the country, having a great number of hard fought battles to its credit. It was mustered out at Nashville, July 1, 1865. Stephen B. Mann was second lieutenant of Company G, Fifth Michigan Cavalry, and about fourteen other men from this county were members of the regiment which was mustered in on August 30, 1862, and after the close of the war was sent to Utah until it was mustered out. Company B, Ninth Michigan Cavalry, was raised almost entirely in this county and had the following officers: Captain Samuel Morey, First Lieutenant James R. Cairns. William Benson was chaplain of the regiment and the first lieutenant of Company F was Cyrus D. Roys. The regiment was mustered in on May 19, 1863, and was then engaged in the action in Tennessee and Kentucky and upper Mississippi. It was then a part of the Union forces before Atlanta and went with Sherman to the sea. The regiment was mustered out of the service July 9, 1865. Many men from Lenawee county were members of the Eleventh Michigan Cavalry, among them being the following officers: Second Lieutenant William L. M. Osborn, Company B; First Lieutenant John Edwards and Second Lieutenant W. Baker Thompson, Company D; Captain James E. Merritt, Company G; and Captain Henry Bowen, First Lieutenant Willard Stearns and Second Lieutenant Clark W. Decker, Company H. The regiment was organized at Kalamazoo and was mustered into the service December 10, 1863. It left for Covington, Kentucky, the same day and thereafter throughout the course of the war was engaged in that section of the country and in Tennessee and Mississippi. Every other regiment organized in southern Michigan and northern Ohio contained men from this county, either by enlistment and by transfer, but space does not permit the naming of all those who served under the Stars and Stripes during tlie four years of bloody conflict. Spanish-American War. Company B, Thirty-first Michigan Infantry, represented this county during the war with Spain. Receiving its orders to report for duty, the unit joined its regiment, but after a few months of duty, it returned home and received a great ovation from the people who had seen them march away. That they saw no actual fighting was not due to their unwillingness nor inability to do so, but rather to the short duration of the war for which they offered their arms. Officers of this company were Captain James M. Holloway, First Lieutenant Edwin A. Wells and Second Lieutenant Myron C. Bond. Laverne Wilcox, of Adrian, and George Fletcher, of Jasper, who died of disease while in the army, were the only Lenawee county men who failed to return to their homes. Other Lenawee county men were in other organizations and saw some hard fighting in the Philippines. World War. When the war clouds gathered over the United States in 1917, the men of Lenawee county were again as ready to go to the defense of their country as they had been in the previous wars. When war was declared, the Michigan National Guard company at Adrian, Company B, received mobilization orders, and after recruits had filled out the organization, it entrained for Camp Grayling on August 16,

Page  106 106 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY 1917. There the Michigan National Guard units were concentrated and there training was begun. The Michigan men were ordered to Camp McArthur, Waco, Texas, and Company B arrived there September 23 with the regiment. Soon after came the order of the War Department forming the Michigan and Wisconsin National Guards into the Thirtysecond Division. Regimental and company organization was changed at that time, the companies being nearly doubled in size. To accomplish this, one regiment of the Michigan Infantry was split up among the units of the other two regiments, but Company B from Adrian retained its identity and designation. The officers who took the unit away from Adrian were Captain John Benner, First Lieutenant Arthur A. Davis, and Second Lieutenant Albert C. Howe. Soon after New Year's Day came the order for the division to start for France, and on January 16, 1918, the One Hundred Twenty-sixth Infantry, of which Company B was a part, entrained for Camp Merritt, New York, the embarkation point. On February 17, the regiment went aboard ship and two days later began the perilous voyage under convoy. The troops were landed at Brest, France, to be greeted by the unwelcome information that the Thirty-second division was to be a replacement division, for the existing order was that every sixth division to land in France was to be used for that purpose, and the Thirty-second was the sixth to reach France of the American Divisions. Thereafter until April 5, the division was in the vicinity of St. Nazaire, France, being employed in the capacity of labor battalions. By that time, however, the commanding officer of the division had persuaded his superriors to rescind the order making the division a replacement outfit, and though one entire regiment had been thrown into the ranks of the First Division as replacements, the remainder of the division was intact and was ordered to the Tenth Training Area, Company B being located at Champlitte, Haute Saone. On May 15, the Thirty-second was sent to one of the so-called quiet sectors in Alsace. During the time in Alsace the company was stationed at the following places between the dates given: Rougegoutte, May 16-17, Ettueffont, May 18-30, Guevenatten, Alsace, May 31-June 2; Hecken, Alsace, June 3-6; Soppe le Bas, Alsace, June 6-8; Dieffnatton, June 8-12; La Chapelle, June 20-30; Gildwilder, June 30-July 16; Hecken, July 16-19; and St. Cosmi, July 19-23. After July 5, the company was in the vicinity of Chateau Thierry, where it got its first taste of the hard fighting that was the lot of the division until the signing of the armistice. The company was at Villeneuve from July 25 to July 28, was in Chateau Thierry from July 28 to July 29, the time in Chateau Thierry representing the beginning of the Second Battle of the Marne in which the Thirty-second Division played so important a part. From July 28 to August 24, the company was fighting steadily forward, and by August 25 had reached Croutoy, where the company was located during that and the following day. The fierce fighting at Juvigny between August 28 and September 6 found the company from Lenawee county in the thick of the battle, characterized as one of the most stubborn battles of the war after the advent

Page  107 l HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY 107 of the American troops. The company was again at Croutoy on September 6, 7 and 8, and from September 8 to 10 was at Mortefontaine. From September 11 to September 22, the company was at Osne le Val, and from September 23-26 it was at Froidos. | On September 26, the Battle of the Argonne Forest opened, the largest action carried through by American troops only, up to this time. On the opening day of the battle, the Thirty-second division was relieved and sent back for a five days' rest at Camp Marre, Avocourt, and was then rushed to the Argonne. The terrible fighting of that battle is common knowledge, and the part played by the Red Arrow division, Les Terribles, as the French called them, is a glorious page in the military annals of our country. On November 11 was signed the armistice, and Company B had then advanced to Montfaucon and Bantheville when the fighting ceased. After a few days' rest, the march into Germany began. Company B took its part in the occupation of the territory along the Rhine, and at last orders came to send the men home. Sailing from Brest, the troops landed at Boston on May 14, 1919, whence they were sent to Camp Devins, Massachusetts. The Michigan men were then ordered to Camp Custer to be discharged, and enroute they paraded at Detroit, Grand Rapids and Kalamazoo, arriving at Custer on May 21. When the company left Adrian it numbered 135 officers and men. At Waco, it was increased in size to 225 enlisted men and six officers. Of this number who left Waco as members of the company, there returned to Boston only 94 enlisted men and no officers, the others having been killed, wounded, or taken from their unit on detached duty or special assignments. Captain John Benner, as senior captain in the regiment, was promoted to major in September, 1918, and returned to the United States as an instructor of new troops at Camp Pike, Arkansas, where he remained until he was discharged. Deeply interested in the conduct of the company that he had trained and lead through the first engagements of the war, Major Benner made it a point to collect all available material concerning the movements of the company during the war. He made it a point to be at Camp Custer when the men were discharged and to secure as much of the records of the company as it was possible for him to do. He has collected a wealth of material of all kinds concerning the company, and it was from his material that the above facts were obtained. He is in possession of much more interesting and valuable information about the company of which space does not permit the setting down here. The men who were killed or died of wounds or disease from the original company were as follows: Lieutenant William C. Starke, killed in action August 4, 1918; Claude T. Ennis, killed in action August 8, 1918; Ward B. Baughey, killed in action August 29, 1918; Wildred A. Orr, killed in action August 29, 1918; David H. Underwood, killed in action August 29, 1918; Arthur A. Marks, killed in action October 4, 1918; Albert M. Kidder, killed in action October 5, 1918; Ross E.

Page  108 108 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY Bowerman, killed in action October 6 1918; Maurice J. Bush, killed in action October 5, 1918; Frank P. Durkee, killed in action October 18, 1918; and Rexford Gaddy, died of disease at Waco, Texas, October 1917.

Page  109 CHAPTER VIII THE PRESS THE field of journalism has been in Lenawee county, as in most others, a checkered one, with many newspapers appearing for a time and then entering the limbo of defunct publications. In this day it is hard to realize the difficulties with which the pioneer newspaper men were forced to contend, for the past fifteen years has witnessed a period of consolidation that has worked for fewer but stronger papers whose existence seems to be perpetual. Thus, it is well to consider the underlying causes of newspaper establishments in the early days to more fully appreciate the conditions that brought their rise and fall. The causes of the founding of papers were generally three in number, namely: to support the candidacy of some office-seeker; to become the organ for a political party; and to be the support of some man who was attracted to the business because the mechanical equipment could be purchased at a relatively insignificant figure. It was not infrequent for some wealthy candidate for political office to establish a newspaper for the sole purpose of supporting him during the campaign, and if he won, the paper continued; if he lost the election, the newspaper usually passed out of existence. Members of a political party often decided that they either needed a party organ, or, if they had one, that the party needed another that was more forceful and aggressive in promoting the interests of the party. The third cause, that of the small investment required to start in the newspaper business, attracted many men to the work who oftentimes were entirely unfamiliar 'with the editorial and business ends of newspaper work. Then, too, some printer whose ability as an editor might be almost negligible, might invest his savings in a printing plant and start a newspaper. The first and third of these causes were those directly responsible for the great number of newspapers that failed during the period we mention. But the failureof a newspaper might not be attributed to any of the above mentioned causes. The paper might be started in good faith by a man well versed in the ramifications of the business; he might be an exceptionally able editor and business manager, yet withal circumstances over which he had no control might bring the ruin of his sheet. Party lines were strictly drawn in those days, that it was not unusual for merchants to withhold their advertising and commercial printing from that paper that supported the political party other than their own. The larger part of a newspaper's revenue in those days was derived from this source, and any curtailment of the limited amount to be secured in the community spelled ruin for the paper. Again, party patronage, the public printing, was withheld from those papers that supported the party then out of power in the county affairs, and since this source of revenue bulked large in the small paper's income, here lay another cause of failure.

Page  110 110 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY In 1834 was established the Adrian Gazette and Lenawee County Republican by Rensselaer W. Ingalls, who first issued the paper on October 22, 1834. At first the paper was neutral in politics, but soon after its inception, the Jacksonian principles of democracy were espoused by the paper, and its name was changed to the shorter one of The Watch Tower. Ingalls sold the paper in 1864 to the firm of Champion, Applegate & Larwill, who in turn sold it to General William Humphrey on September 11, 1865. It was Humphrey who changed the name of the paper to that of the Adrian Daily and Weekly Times, the Times part of the name being still perpetuated in the paper known as the Times and Expositor now published in Adrian. Rensselaer W. Ingalls, the pioneer journalist of Lenawee county, was born at Middlefield, Otsego county, New York, in 1809. He received his education in that place, and he then entered the printing offices of H. and E. Phinney, book publishers of Coopersville, New York. In April, 1830, he entered the employ of William Hewes, a newspaper publisher of Potsdam, St. Lawrence county, New York. In the fall of the following year, Ingalls purchased an interest in the St. Lawrence Republican, which was printed at Canton. Soon after he sold out to Preston King, of Ogdensburgh, and in the spring of 1832 allied himself with William Williams, a book publisher of Utica, New York. On September 2, 1832, he married Asenath, the daughter of Silas Coburn, of Utica, and in June, 1834, embarked at Buffalo for the journey to Detroit on board the steamer "New York." After an exceptionally stormy pasage, he and his wife arrived at Detroit, proceeded to Ypsilanti on horseback, and thence to Adrian, where they were well received by the inhabitants. It was then that he decided to start a newspaper, the management of which he continued until January 1, 1850, when he went to Lansing to serve four years as state printer. At the end of that time he returned to Adrian and managed the paper until he sold it in 1864 to the firm of Champion, Applegate & Larwill. He then retired to his farm near Dover, Lenawee county, where he remained until 1874. In that year he returned to Adrian and entered the crockery business, which he continued until the time of his death. T. D. Montgomery began the publication of the' Hudson Sentinel on July 9, 1853, this being the first newspaper to appear in this village. At Adrian, the Daily Telegram is the leading paper of the city and is edited by Stuart H. Perry. Lindley B. Oberlin is the business manager of the sheet. The Addison Courier, which serves the interests of the people in the western part of the county, is published by Walter J. Lewis. The Blissfield Advance claims to be printed on home paper for home people, and that it serves the people in most of the homes in the southwestern part of the county cannot be doubted, for the paper has a good circulation for a small town newspaper. The Clinton Local has been printed regularly in that village for more than a quarter of a century and is published by Frank R. Green.

Page  111 CHAPTER IX CITIES AND VILLAGES ADDISON, with a population of some 550 inhabitants, is located in Rollin and Woodstock townships on the Dundee branch of the New York Central railroad. First settled in 1836, the village had attained a size to warrant incorporation by 1893, the year in which the village charter was secured from the legislature. Addison remains the trading center of the northwestern part of the county, and its proximity to Devil's Lake makes the village valuable to the restorters who reside at the lake during the summer months. Banking facilities are supplied by the Addison State Savings bank, and the Addison Courier, a weekly newspaper, is widely circulated throughout that section of the county. A Congregational and a Methodist Episcopal church are located in the village. Industrially, the village has never attained a great degree of prominence, but for a number of years the Addison Flour Mill company has been one'of the chief industries of the village. The officers of the milling company are Azariel Smith, president; H. Edwin Branch, vicepresident; and N. B. Smith, secretary and treasurer. Adrian was incorporated as a village in March, 1828, and after the county seat had been removed to this place, the community grew so rapidly that incorporation as a city was secured in January, 1853. James Sword, who had been elected village president in the spring of 1852, served as acting mayor of the City of Adrian until the first regular election in April, 1853, when Addison J. Comstock, the founder of the city, was given the honor of being the first mayor of the community that owed its existence and welfare to his initiative and ability as an organizer. In a country where much timber surrounded the villages, the matter of fire protection came before the people at an early date, an(l on June 19, 1841, Alert Fire Company No. I was officially organized. A fire engine costing $813 was purchased from Lewis Selye, of Rochester, New York, and the roster of the fire company included the following names: D. K. Underwood, Joseph HI. Wood, Milo Weins, S. V. R. Smart, M. Merrick, W. S. Wilcox, S. W. Van Vosburg, J. J. Newell, Isaac Paulding, R. Smart, A. Barnard, Thomas S. Baker, Samuel Smith, C. R. Watson, Philip Tabor, T. D. Ramsdell, Charles Ingersoll, R. W. Ingals, James Mills, J. IH. Woodbury, E. H. Rice, W. M. Comstock, John Harkness and Charles W. Hunt. On June 19, of the same year, a hook and ladder company was organized, the truck being built by William Hunt. The personnel of the company was as follows: A. W. Budlong, A. S. Berry, L. G. Berry, J. H. Chittenden, Joel Carpenter, Washington Harwood, Henry Hart, Horace Mason, N. L. P. Pierce, Charles Philbrook, Clement Smith and Randall W. Smith. The truck, built by William Smith, was purchased for the company-on March 11, 1842, and about the same time a resolution was offered to the town trustees

Page  112 112 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY calling for an appropriation for the purchase of three axes for the company. Protection Fire Company No. 2, which was organized in October, 1845, boasted an engine that cost $990 and was delivered to the village in December of that year. Perry B. Truax was the first foreman of the company; W. Huntington Smith was assistant foreman; and F. C. Beaman was the secretary. As improved methods of fire fighting and control were introduced, Adrian was not slow in adopting the improved apparatus, and on Friday, October 11, 1867, the steam fire department was organized with R. J. Bradley as chief engineer and James Redmond as assistant engineer. This forerunner of the modern fire department was equipped with two steamers and attendant hose carts and with a hook and ladder outfit. From this start, the fire department of Adrian has at all times offered the maximum of protection, so that today, with a completely motorized department, no city can boast a more efficient organization than that which serves the people of Adrian. The Adrian fire department has the reputation of being one of the most efficient and thoroughly trained fire organizations in the state of Michigan. Gas for light and fuel was introduced to Adrian soon after the community assumed tIhe status of a city. On June 18, 1855, the city granted a charter to the Adrian Gas Light company, of which the chief promoters were lenljah Baker, -I. I'. Platt, George I-. Wyman, and L. C. Thayer. That the city received its light and fuel at such an early date is indicative of the type of men who then directed the affairs of the community, for the members of the council had the foresight to see the advantages that would accrue to the city from the introduction of modern lighting, and the men who organized the company had faith that the people would give them the support necessary to its success. The place of the old Adrian Gas Light company is now occupied by the Citizens' Light & Power company, of which Clyde Morse is secretary and treasurer and Dean E. Byerley is the general manager. Nor has Adrian neglected to improve her city streets, for with approximately fifty-five miles of streets, nearly fifteen miles have been paved and twelve more have been improved by the application of road oils. Britton is located on the Wabash and the New York Central railroads in Ridgeway township. It was settled in 1881 and now has a population estimated to be nearly 500. It is the trading center for the northeastern part of the county and has a bank, the Peoples State Savings bank. The Britton Pressed Brick company is one of the principal industries of the village and has done much to promote the welfare of the community. The village received its first settlements in 1881 and was known for some time as the village of Balch, but for more than a quarter of a century it has been known by the present name. Cadmus is a hamlet located in Dover township, eight miles west of Adrian. Clayton was settled in 1836 and was incorporated as a village in 1870 and now has a population of about 400. It is situated in Hudson

Page  113 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY 113 and Dover townships, twelve miles west of Adrian. It has a bank, the Exchange bank, and has a good graded school and library. Clinton, with a population of more than 1,000, has been incorporated as a village since 1838, eight years after the first settlements were made there. The village has electric light, and the graded schools are all that could be asked of a community of that size. The Clinton Local, a weekly newspaper, serves the community, and the electric light plant is a municipally owned institution. The village is an important shipping point for fruit, livestock, and grain for that part of the county, and the State Savings bank has been established to aid the business men of the village and surrounding country. Deerfield, first settled in 1828, was incorporated as a village in 1873 and re-incorporated in 1893. The village is located fourteen miles directly east of Adrian on the New York Central railroad, and has a bank and a weekly newspaper. Churches of the Catholic, Methodist and Presbyterian creeds are established in Deerfield. The principal industries of the village are milling and grain elevator work, the Deerfield Milling company and the Deerfield Co-operative company, grain elevator, being the leaders in this field. Holloway is a hamlet located eight miles from Adrian and has a population of something more than 125. Hudson, with a population of 2,600, was incorporated as a village in 1853 and as a city in 1893. The city has three miles of paved streets, is lighted by electricity, and has an excellent water system. A public school building costing $200,000 was recently erected by the city and makes the educational 'facilities of the city on a par with the best. A public library contains 12,000 volumes, and among the people of the city and the inhabitants of the surrounding territory a good circulation is maintained. Mamie Havens is the librarian. In addition to being the shipping point for a rich farming section, Hudson has many manufactures, some of which are as follows: Hardie Manufacturing Co, makers of sprayers; Hazen Manufacturing Co., pump manufacturers; Hudson Bottling Works, soft drink makers; Pet Milk company, manufacturers of condensed milk; and harness and flour are. other important products. Onsted, formerly known as Cambridge, has a population of about 400 and is located in Cambridge township, on the New York Central railroad. It is a trading point for the township and has a bank and a weekly newspaper, The Outline,-which is building up a good circulation in that part of the county. Morenci has a population of nearly 2,000 and until it was incorporated as a village in 1871 was known as Brighton. It is important as the trading point of the extreme southwestern part of the county and is served by the New York Central railroad and the electric line of the Toledo & Western railway. The city has electric lights, a modern fire department and water system, and has erected two modern school buildings. Industrially, the village has a cement machine factory, a roller process flour mill, a condensed milk factory, a sawmill, a planing mill, two brick and tile works, a sorgum factory and cider plant, and a

Page  114 114 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY grain elevator. With such a varied industrial and commercial life, the city is due to progress steadily, for with diversified industries a community can look for prosperity even when one of them is hit hard by a slump in the market. Blissfield, whose early settlement has been described in a previous chapter, has a population of 2,000 and was chartered in 1878. Good schools have been developed in the village, and the fact that three banks are established there is proof enough of the general prosperity that the village and the surrounding region is enjoying. Several industries of considerable magnitude are established at Blissfield, the National Bundle Tyer company being one of the leading manufacturing enterprises of the community. The village has long been noted for the large amount of livestock shipped to eastern markets, and this still constitutes an important item in the shipping figures of the village. Tecumseh, the first settlement in Lenawee county, is tied with Hudson in point of size, having a population of 2,600 inhabitants. The village was incorporated in 1837 and since its inception, it has been the trading center for one of the richest agricultural sections of Michigan. The municipally owned electric light plant and waterworks are sources of pride to the inhabitants of the village. Since the organization of the Union School District in 1854, the schools of Tecumseh have kept pace with the most modern improvements in educational facilities and methods, and at the present time, a high school and three ward school buildings attest the high state of efficiency of the Tecumseh schools. The village is noted for its wide paved streets arched by tall trees. A good fire department, motorized, is maintained, and a sewerage system has been constructed. Celery is one of the chief products of the farms in the vicinity of Tecumseh, and authorities say that the product of the north Lenawee county farms is on a par with the best products of the famous Kalamazoo celery. Industries have played an important part in the business life of Tecumseh for some time, the important products turned out by factories here being cigars, foundry products, wire fence, building material, brick and tile making machinery, flour and similar products, and planing mill products.

Page  115 CHIAPTER X INDUSTRIAL THE first attention of the settlers of the county was, of course, to the establishment of sawmills and grist mills. The industrial beginnings of the county were the natural result of the immediate needs of the settlers themselves. It was obviously impossible to truck into the wilderness over the very poor roads the sawed lumber that the people needed for the erection of their homes, stables, and other buildings. It was equally difficult to transport the grain by wagon to some other county for milling, and thus it was that sawmills and grist mills represented for some time the sole industries, besides farming, in Lenawee county. It has already been told that the founders of Tecumseh set about the erection of a mill almost as soon as the colony had established homes in the wilderness. Joseph W. Brown was the chief entrepeneur in the construction of this grist mill. After the building of the mill had been erected, he cast about for material from which to make the stones, and a little distance up the river he discovered a huge boulder of a peculiar sort of granite. From this boulder were carved out the two large stones that were installed in the mill and which had a capacity of ten bushels per hour. Needless to say, the presence of a grist mill in the county stimulated agriculture in that a greater variety of crops could be grown by the incoming settlers. One field of wheat was sown the first year and was ground in the mill by Joseph Brown when it was harvested. The'history of Tecumseh was not different in this respect from that of the other communities of the county, for at Adrian and then at Palmyra, mills were erected almost as soon as the settlements had been started. The mill at Adrian, or Logan as it was then known, was excel)tionally large for a pioneer affair and for many years it was a landmark of that place and was known to all the people of the county as the Big Red Mill. In the development of industries, natural resources proved the decidling factors in the early days, for transportation facilities were so poor, and were so uncertain when they had been established, that the people of the county were forced to make use of what they had close at hand to develop industrially. For this reason, tanning became one of the principal industries of southern Michigan for several decades, owing to the large quantities of tanbark that were easily available. In this work, Adrian and the rest of the county took its share. Like all industries, however, that depend upon natural products for their life, the tanning industry began to die out as the supply of tanbark became exhausted. But today, the leather tanning industry has a memorial in the Gibford-Weiffenbach Company, manufacturers of leather goods at Adrian. This concern, which has been incorporated since 1900, has a capital stock of $75,000 and is one of the most substantial manufactur

Page  116 116 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY ing enterprises of which Adrian and the county can boast. The officers of the company are C. G. Hart, president; Byron L. Shaw, vice-president; and Paul J. Miller, secretary-treasurer. The products of this company have long been held in high favor by the leather dealers, and the sales of the company, though they have never gone through any meteoric rise, have mounted steadily, bringing prosperity to the proprietors and employment to many Adrian workmen. The diversification of Adrian industries has been an important factor in the commercial stability of the city. Although it has endured no booms, it has always progressed steadily, and the firms of all kinds that are engaged in manufacturing here are solid institutions that have been pleasingly free of the troubles and worries that beset the manufacturers in cities of less industrial equilibrium. The Acme Preserve company is one of the largest concerns of its kind in southern Michigan. Fruits and vegetables are canned by this company, whose products are sold over the entire United States. The company was incorporated in April, 1904, and has a capitalization of $150,000. The officers are: Eugene P. Lake, president; W. H. Matthes, secretary; and Earl G. Kinney, treasurer. Knitted goods of all kinds form no inconsiderable item in Adrian's annual export of manufactured products, and in this field are two concerns, the Adrian Knitted Products company and the Adrian Knitting company. The former and also the younger of the two concerns has the following officers: L. J. Lewis, Jr., president; William J. Harris, vice-president; and A. G. Storer, secretary-treasurer. The Adrian Knitting company was incorporated in June, 1901, and has a capital of $200,000. Its officers are Ladd J. Lewis, president; Ladd J. Lewis, Jr., vice-president; Owen Coogan, of New York, vice-president; William J. Harris, treasurer; and F. M. Murphy, secretary. One of the newer corporations in the metal working industry is the Adrian Casting company, incorporated in February, 1918, and capitalized for $40,000. Its officers are: Isaac Z. Bassett, president; William H. Burnham, vice-president; and Joseph H. Clark, secretary and treasurer. The Adrian Wire Fence company is the largest mhanufacturing enterprise in the county. It has grown steadily through the years, constantly adding to its mechanical equipment and increasing its annual output until today it is a national figure in the manufacture of wire fencing of all kinds. It is capitalized for $600,000 and is officered by W. W. Cooke, president and manager; D. B. Hayes, of Detroit, vice-president; William H. Childs, secretary; and Harry S. Hawkins, treasurer. The Michigan Wire Fence company, another company engaged in a similar line of work, was incorporated in 1905 and has a capital of $250,000. Charles G. Wesley is president and Ernest E. Tobias is the secretary and treasurer of the firm. The Andrix Lock Nut company is a concern that is first and last an Adrian enterprise. It was incorporated October 6, 1919, with a capital of $250,000. Its products have become nationally known and have a wide sale among the manufacturers of the country. The officers are:

Page  117 HISTORY OF LENAWEE COUNTY 117 H. Andrix, president and manager; Samuel L. Rice, vice-president; and Hart H. Treadway, of Metamora, Ohio, secretary-treasurer. The Bond Steel Post company is one of Adrian's oldest manufacturing enterprises and has been one of the factors contributing to the prosperity of the city and the county. It was incorporated in 1895, and though it had a small beginning it has grown to its present proportions through the sheer excellence of its products. It has a capital of $125,000, and has the following officers: Walter Clement, president; G. 0. Wright, vice-president; and M. H. Hoisington, secretary-treasurer. Fireside Industries, Incorporated, represents an entirely different field of manufacturing endeavor, yet one that has worked to establish that stability that has characterized the industrial life of Adrian from the first. Art novelties are the products of this company and have found a wide sale throughout the country. It was incorporated October 6, 1924, with a capital of $100,000, and has the present officers: H. W. Lamb, president; W. H. Burnham, vice-president; E. A. Peterson, secretary; and H. Hurlbut, treasurer. Furniture manufacturing, for which Michigan is noted, finds its representatives in Adrian in the Mott Manufacturing company and A. E. Palmer & Son, Incorporated. The former concern was incorporated in 1919 with a capital of $53,000 and has the following officers: Ollie E. Mott, president; Judson C. Mott, vice-president and treasurer; and Leon E. Pierce, secretary. The latter company was incorporated in May, 1925, for $25,000, to manufacture tables and chairs. Its officers are: A. E. Palmer, president; H. W. Lamb, vice-president; and E. L. Orndlorff, secretary-treasurer. The Raymond Garage Equipment company is one of Adrian's largest manufacturing enterprises. Raymond self-measuring pumps and apparatus are manufactured by this company in addition to several sorts of automobile accessories. Capitalized for $500,000, the company was incorporated in 1919 and has for the present officers: A. D. Billings, president; and M. L. Billings, secretary and treasurer. The Simplex Paper Corporation was established in 1919 with a capital of $200,000 and is the only paper concern doing business in the county. Its success during the years it has been in Adrian have been a source of gratification to the people of that community, and the annual volume of business of the company is steadily mounting. The present officers of the corporation are: Fred P. Wood, president; John A. Benjamin, vice-president; and Charles G. Wood, secretary and treasurer. Automobile horns and other electrical goods are the products of the United Electrical Manufacturing company, which was incorporated in 1916 for $50,000. D. B. Hayes, of Detroit, is president; James Guire, vice-president; and W. T. Haley, secretary and treasurer. The Wilbee-Morse Concrete company specializes in the manufacture of concrete burial vaults. The concern was incorporated August 28, 1912, for $15,000, and the present officers are: F. E. Wilbee, president; John J. Morse, treasurer; and Oscar D. Morse, secretary.

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Page  119 I I I i I I i I t i SID A 'Fl k Or S AGINlAWV COUNTYT

Page  120

Page  121 Personal Sketches F. Clark Ardern, president and general manager of the Ardern Floral Co., of Saginaw, was born in Spring Valley, Saginaw county, March 6, 1898, the son or Frank and Maude (Clements) Ardern. His father, a florist and engineer, is now retired from business, and resides at 600 Sherman street, Saginaw. F. Clark Ardern, after completing his education in the public schools of Saginaw, spent eight years as teller in the Second National bank of that city. In 1921 he withdrew from the bank to purchase his father's interest in the Ardern Floral Co., which had been established by them as a corporation in 1920. At this time the Ardern Floral Co. has thirtyfive thousand square feet under glass in its greenhouses, and has five acres of land devoted to the growing of shrubs, plants and flowers. Eight persons are employed throughout the year in the greenhouses and in operation of the two delivery trucks which the company maintains in constant service. The Ardern Floral Co. owns its plant and equipment, and is one of the most substantial of Saginaw's business enterprises. The company is affiliated with the Florists' Telegraph Delivery association, the Michigan State Florists' association and the Saginaw Valley Florists' association. F. Clark Ardern was married in 1921 to Martha Kiekbusch, of Saginaw, Michigan, the daughter of William and Ida (Remer) Kiekbusch. Mr.'and Mrs. Ardern have a son, Clark Junior, who was born June 27, 1924, in Saginaw. Mr. Ardern is a member of the Masons, the Odd Fellows, the Moose, the Exchange club and the Fordney club. Mrs. Ardern is a member of the Eastern Star, and spends much of her time helping her husband in his business. Both attend the Methodist Episcopal church. Auto-Kamp Trailer Co. This copyrighted name accurately describes the manufacturing enterprise founded in Saginaw in 1916 by Walter 0. Sustins and Allen Jackson. Mr. Sustins, who is now vice-president of the Auto-Kamp Trailer Co., was later joined by James A. Dean, who is now president of the company, and Mrs. Daisy Dean, wife of. Mr. Dean, who is secretary and treasurer of the concern. The entire capital stock of the Auto-Kamp Trailer Co. is owned by these four persons. This concern was a pioneer in the manufacture of camping trailers for automobilists. Beginning with a very small "box" trailer, the company expanded its operations until today its "de luxe" equipment is the acme of perfection in its field. The factory, which is situated at the corner of Sheridan and Hess avenue, has a frontage of five hundred and fifty

Page  122 122 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY feet and employs throughout the year twelve men in its machine and assembling shops. All Auto-Kamp Trailers are complete and ready for use when they leave the factory; and are purchased by customers from all parts of the world. The company recently finished six outfits for the Italian Government. These particular trailers will be used in a scientific expedition around the world sponsored by the Italian Government and commanded by an Italian army officer, Attillio Gratti. Missionaries in Africa, Asia, China and other foreign countries also find the Auto-Kamp Trailer of inestimable value in their travels. In fact, these equipments are considered by many persons to be the equivalent of a dwelling on wheels, so complete and ample is the supply and arrangement of the many comforts and conveniences. A special draw-pole and hitch is provided with the trailers, making it possible to use them with any type of automobile. But among American automobilists, especially, have the Auto-Kamp Trailers become immensely popular. Persons of varying means and requirements find the "AutoKamp" trailer meets both their purse and taste; and tourists in all parts of the United States and Canada add to the enjoyment of their motor cars with a Saginaw-made camping equipment. Truly, Mr. Sustins and his associates rendered a great service to the lovers of the outdoor life when they placed the Auto-Kamp Trailer on the market. James A. Dean, president of the company, was born in Jackson, Michigan, January 24, 1870, the son of William W. Dean and Maria B. (Anderson) Dean, the former of whom was a native of Vermont and came to Michigan in 1832, settling at Parma, in Jackson county. James A. Dean attended the rural schools and graduated from high school. After graduating from the commercial department of Albion College, he was associated with the M. W. Tanner Company for a number of years. He then spent some time in the hotel business at Higgins Lake, Roscommon county; and later sold his interests there to engage in farming on a large scale, which he followed ten years. He then engaged in the lumber, coal and elevator business in Parma, but returned to Saginaw in 1923. Mr. Dean volunteered his service and was enlisted in Company A, Reserve Officers Training Camp, Fort Sheridan, in 1917. Afterwards, he was honorably discharged because of an injury received while he was stationed at the Officers' Training Camp during the World War. Later he became a stockholder and officer in the Auto-Kamp Trailer Company. Mr. Dean was married April 15, 1896, to Miss Daisy G. Tanner, who was born December 20, 1873, in Jackson county, Michigan, the daughter of Harvey C. and Alice J. (Russell) Tanner. Mr. Dean is a Mason and a Shriner and a member of the Auto club and the Saginaw Board of Commerce. Mrs. Dean is, as mentioned above, secretary and treasurer of the company headed by her husband. Mr. and Mrs. Dean are much interested in outdoor sports and have written several articles for magazines, devoted to the interests of the touring public. The popularity of the Auto-Kamp Trailer has increased during recent

Page  123 I I 123 i I PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY years and indications are that these "homes on wheels" will bring great glory to the city in which they are made. The Baker Perkins Company, Incorporated, of Saginaw. Since the days when hand methods in bakeries were first supplanted by the better methods of machinery-the days of the first externally heated oven-since the year 1817, the Baker Perkins Company of Saginaw and its associate company, Baker Perkins, Limited, of Willesden and Peterborough, England, have been highly instrumental in the creation and development of the world's most efficient machinery for the economical production of quality foods, especially bread. The great international reputation enjoyed by these companies today is due to the sincere and consistent efforts of their research and engineering departments in discovering new and inventing better and improving existing food manufacturing methods during the last century. The bakers who have had the foresight and confidence to completely equip their plants with Baker Perkins machinery find their plants to be all for which they had hoped. Only a hundred years of deep and broad experience can possibly compete with all that the Baker Perkins machinery is in design, construction and performance, or approach its time and labor-saving possibilities. That is why the largest and most successful bakeries in the world are Baker Perkins equipped. This machinery comprises equipment for all operations from the blending and sifting of flour, the mixing of dough, to the baking of the finished product. Complete automatic bread-making plants in many parts of the world and especially in America, where some factories bake as many as one million loaves a week, are fitted with Baker Perkins machines. Cake, biscuit, macaroni, candy and chemical machines are also included in the complete Baker Perkins line. In 1920 what is now the Baker Perkins Company, Incorporated, acquired title to and absorbed the Werner & Pfleiderer Company, which was founded in 1878 in Cannstatt, Germany, to market a dough-mixing machine, the principle of which was entirely novel and which was designed primarily for use in the manufacture of bread, macaroni and similar food-stuffs. Due to the excellent restilts derived from the use of this machine it was later used in the manufacture of various products, such as artificial silk, carbon, celluloid, chewing gum, chocolate, explosives, insulating materials, paper, rubber, chemicals of all kinds and powders of every description. In 1897 a branch of the Werner & Pfleiderer Company was started on the west side in Sagifiaw, and in due time a pattern shop, foundry and an assembling building were built on the south side of the city. In 1923 the Baker Perkins Company built a new factory adjacent to the other buildings on the south side; these new buildings being not only complete in every respect and equipped with the best and most modern machinery, but having every convenience and comfort for the employes. Medical attention and a cafeteria service is provided in the plant for all workers. A recent addition to the office building now provides sufficient space for the iI

Page  124 124 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY company's main office, which has been established in Saginaw. Here all types of food and chemical machinery are designed and built, including the huge Baker Perkins patented gas, steam or electrically-heated, brick-enclosed traveling plate ovens, which range in size from four feet to nine feet in width and from thirty feet to one hundred and thirty feet in length, with corresponding capacities of from five hundred to six thousand five hundred pounds of bread per hour. The personnel of the company is approximately six hundred, only six per cent of whom are female. From fifty to sixty engineers and draftsmen are steadily employed in the worksengineering and sales-engineering departments. Sales offices are maintaind in eight principal cities to afford prospective customers valuable co-operation and assistance in planning new bakeries or adding to present equipments, and in replacing existing machines with Baker Perkins machines. A highly skilled field force is maintained solely for the satisfactory erection of the company's machines; and the expert workmanship used in the manufacture of the company's products is manifested in hundreds of modern bakeries through all parts of the United States and Canada. The Baker Perkins Company has won many prizes in industrial exhibitions in the United States and Europe, and although the company is very proud of its past achievements, it feels that the future offers many opportunities for the rendering of even greater service to the public. Visitors are always welcome at the Baker Perkins factory, and an acquaintance with the men who design, manufacture and sell the vast array of machines is indeed inspiring. The Bank of Saginaw. Among the largest of Michigan's financial institutions is the Bank of Saginaw, which, until the consolidation of two big banks in another city, enjoyed the distinction of being the biggest banking house in the state outside of Detroit. The Bank of Saginaw was founded in 1888 as a successor to the Citizens National Bank, which was established in 1880. Myron BIuckman was the first president of the bank and at his death Ammi W. Wright became president. The latter was succeeded by Benton JIanchett, who was president of the bank until July, 1920, when he was made chairman of the board of directors. He in turn was succeeded by Otto Schupl)l, plresent incumbent of that office, who formerly was cashier. Daniel W. Briggs was the Bank of Saginaw's first cashier. Julius Holland MIoritz was made cashier in 1920, after he had risen from bookkeeper to teller. This bank has been identified with almost all of the important developments among Saginaw's mercantile and industrial enterprises. In particular the bank has supported building and construction projects and other enterprises intended to promote the growth of the city. Today the bank maintains branches in the east, north, south and west parts of the city, and has a total of more than forty thousand depositors. In 1907 the Bank of Saginaw absorbed the Savings Bank of East Saginaw, of which Dr. H. C. Potter was then president and Otto Schupp vice-president. From the sum of four hun

Page  125 I'ESONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 125 X ' i dred thousand dollars the bank has increased its assets to over twenty millions of dollars, a truly huge sum. Having outgrown its present quarters, the bank is now seeking a site for a new home, which, when completed, will be one of the most substantial buildings in the state, according to its officers. The Bank of Saginaw is affiliated with the Michigan Banking association, the National Banking association, and the Federal Reserve system. Julius Holland Moritz, cashier, has been for many years regarded as a leading financier. He is a stockholder in the Bancroft Hotel Company, a director of the Noble Oil & Gas Company, of Tulsa, Okla., and secretary of the board of directors of the Bank of Saginaw. Harvey Anderson Barnett, county road engineer of Saginaw county, was born in Toronto, Canada, in 1887. His father, John Barnett, a native of England, was in the contracting business in Toronto until about five years before his death, which occurred in 1911. He was also interested in the coal business and in politics. He was a thirty-second degree Mason, being the third oldest member of that order in Canada at the time of his death. Harvey A. Barnett was educated in the Toronto public schools and in the University of Canada. After taking a post-graduate course in civil and hydraulic engineering in 1911, one year after he finished college, he came to the United States as an engineer for the Grand Trunk & Western railroad. Leaving the employ of this railway, he was associated with the Canadian Pacific lines until 1916, spending most of his time in eastern Canada. In 1916 he again accepted a new position, which was with the valuation department for the Grand Trunk western lines, in which capacity he served until' 1920, when he was appointed to his present responsible office, that of county road engineer of Saginaw county. He now has the supervision of construction and repair work on approximately five hundred miles of public highways in Saginaw county. He also has under his jurisdiction all bridge repair work on these roads. He was married, October 18, 1913, to Irene Mabel Holtorf, of Orangeville, Canada. They have four children: Jack Anderson, Mary Irene, Phyllis Alice and Florence Lyzette. Mr. Barnett is a registered engineer whose ability is widely recognized. He is a member of practically all leading societies of civil engineers and is also a Shriner and a member of the Grotto club. Mrs. Barnett is prominent socially, and is affiliated with the Eastern Star. The Barnett family attends the St. John's Episcopal church. Emmet Lewis Beach, of Saginaw, who was candidate for lieutenant-governor of Michigan in 1924, has been circuit judge of Saginaw county and has held other and equally important offices. Judge Beach is a native of Saginaw county, having been born in Bridgeport, March 31, 1857. His father, Noah S. Beach, who was born October 16, 1824, in Lewiston, Niagara county, New York, died in August, 1908, at the remarkable age of eighty-four years. Judge Beach's mother, Mrs. Mary (Hodgeman) Beach, who was born October 23, 1827, in Vermont, died June 14, 1881, at the age of

Page  126 126 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY fifty-three years. Mr. and Mrs. Noah S. Beach came to Michigan and settled at Bridgeport in 1838. At that time Saginaw county as a whole was a wild, sparsely populated district. Bending themselves resolutely to the task in hand, the Beaches cleared a tract of land and began farming, and, in time, became quite well-to-do. Mr. and Mrs. Noah S. Beach were the parents of three children, of whom Emmet L., the subject of this sketch, was the second. He received his early education in the district schools and obtained two years of academic instruction in a seminary conducted by the Congregational church at Fox Lake, Wisconsin. In August, 1880, he began studying law in the office of D. W. Perkins, East Saginaw; and he was admitted to the bar, May 4, 1882, after having passed the state examinations held a short while before. He at once assumed an important place in the politics of his community, and in the fall of that year he was elected commissioner of the circuit court. At the end of his two-year term he was re-elected for a like period, and in this office he demonstrated his ability and learning to such a degree that he was elected to the office of city attorney of Saginaw in 1896. After three years as city attorney Judge Beach assumed his duties as circuit judge of Saginaw county; and during his six years on the bench he tried many important cases, and rendered decisions which established worthy precedents for other jurists. When he retired from the bench he resumed his private practice, which has at all times been extensive and has included litigation in practically all courts. He also gave his attention to business affairs, and in 1912 he helped found the German-American State bank. This institution, which originally had a capital of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars and had offices in the business centers of the two Saginaws, has enjoyed a tremendous growth. Judge Beach has served the bank as president since it was organized. The Gladwin Light & Power Company, a substantial public utility corporation, is another of the companies in which Judge Beach is a stockholder. Indeed, he is financially interested in almost all of the leading mercantile, industrial and financial institutions of the city. He is also a power in the councils of the Democratic party and during political campaigns and at other times he is in great demand as a public speaker. He was married July 18, 1888, to Leah Dudgeon, of Saginaw, who was a teacher in the schools of her native city. Judge and Mrs. Beach have two sons: Emmet L. Beach, Jr., who is now thirty years old and a graduate of Harvard University and holds the degree of Master of Arts, and is a successful playwright and the author of "When the Goose Hangs High"; and Robert Stanley, who was born July 22, 1895, and is a graduate of the law school of Harvard University. During the World War he served as an ensign in the United States Navy and he is now associated with his father in the law firm of Beach & Beach. Robert S. Beach married Anna S. Roby, a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Shedon S. Roby. Judge Beach resides at 1618 South Riverview, and his offices are in the Bearinger building. He is be

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Page  127 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 127 yond question one of the most able and most sought-after lawyers in the state, and his uprightness and fairness have never been questioned. Isaac Bearinger, deceased, was one of Michigan's leading lumber men and one of Saginaw's most representative citizens. Mr. Bearinger did a great deal for his city and state and his death robbed Saginaw county of a great man. Mr. Bearinger was born in Hamilton, Ontario, January 4, 1847. His parents were William and Margaret Bearinger, who were of Pennsylvania-Dutch descent. Isaac Bearinger came to the Saginaw Valley when he was sixteen years old and when the lumbering operations, which were destined to make that section of the state wealthy and populous, were just beginning. In fact, he arrived there just at the time a raft of cork pine logs came from up the Flint river. It is said that Mr. Bearinger came down the stream on this raft, not as a passenger but as what was known as the "cookee" or, in the vernacular of the river, as the "cook's devil." At this early age Mr. Bearinger began making his own way in the world. Though he was faced with the necessity of earning his own living or starving to death, he willingly accepted work because of his desire to become a worthy citizen. He was not long in visioning the opportunities which lay before him, and by the expenditure of much energy and by the employment of good judgment he was able, as the years went by, to accumulate a large competence. It is said that he was entirely honest in all of his transactions and it is known that he enjoyed the confidence and the respect of all his business associates. Following the lumber industry, which was then the chief source of employment in the Saginaw Valley, he became a sawmill worker. Because of his fitness to hold any position assigned, he was made a saw filer and was placed in charge of the Sanborn mill. He was very careful to save his money, and as his ability was recognized by other mill men, he was admitted to a partnership in the firm of Bearinger, Bliss & Sanborn. This firm leased the sawmill owned by George Sanhorn, and began the cutting of white pine logs for lumbermen in the valley. When the firm was finally dissolved, Mr. Bearinger leased a mill at Crow Island from Hiram Sibley. Mr. Bearinger Inade of this venture a great success, and he was able, one year later, to organize the firm of Sibley & Bearinger. This firm bought the first tract of timber cut and sawed on the Cedar river. Sibley & Bearinger operated in this section two years and then sold their tract to the Saginaw Lumber & Saw company. Mr. Bearinger's next business venture was the purchase of a large tract of pine land on the Au Gres river, and he later bought on the Spanish river, in the Georgian Bay district. Logs to supply this mill were towed across the lake until 1890; and it is said that one of the largest rafts, which contained nine million feet, established a record for a raft on the Great Lakes. Sibley & Bearinger in 1893 began cutting large yellow poplar and oak timber on property owned by them at Panther, West Virginia. On this property they built a

Page  128 128 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY modern double-band sawmill, with a complete equipment of dry kilns and a planing mill. In addition they maintained there a firstclass logging equipment. It was in 1894 that Mr. Bearinger became interested in the possibility of electric railway transportation. His efforts and his money helped to build the first fifteen miles of the interurban line connecting Saginaw with Bay City. The building of this road and the purchase of cars and equipment for it consumed more than a half million dollars. The road earned large profits and was sold at a profit in 1898 to the Saginaw Traction company. During 1891-1892 Mr. Bearinger erected, on the east side, what was the first fireproof business building in that section of Saginaw. This building was a handsome, six-story brick and steel structure, the first floor of which is given over to retail stores, with the upper floors occupied by offices. On the one side of this building was the American Commercial & Savings bank, which Mr. Bearinger founded and of which he was president many years, yielding his position only when the bank was merged with the Bank of Saginaw, in 1899. The firm of Bearinger & Chapin was organized in 1903. This concern purchased a sawmill and sixtyseven and one-half square miles of spruce timber at Dalhousie, in the Bay Chaleur district of New Brunswick. This firm has for many years been managed by F. B. Chapin and Frederick Bearinger, who succeeded to his father's place in the firm and who has inherited his father's excellent judgment in mercantile and industrial affairs. Mr. Bearinger, Sr., was, at the time of his death, November 3, 1904, vice-president of the Saginaw Paving Brick company and the owner of Union Park, a Saginaw race track in whicl lie became interested lbecause of a love for fine driving horses. Union Park gave Mr. Bearinger much pleasure as a recreational center for him and his friends. Many of the leading horsemen of the United States gathered there during the spring and fall race meets. His love for fine horses constituted practically his only hobby. Mr. Bearinger possessed great force of personality and uncanny judgment, he was very pleasant in his manner and was regarded as a man of warm sympathy and ready charity. Such donations as he gave came freely and without ostentation. He was married in Saginaw to Adelaide McCormick. To this union was born, July 12, 1900, a son, James I. Mr. Bearinger died in 1904, and in 1910 his widow married Edwin P. Stone. Frederick Bearinger, who is mentioned above, was the son of Mr. Bearinger, Sr., by a previous marriage. Frederick Bearinger is now engaged in the storage business in Saginaw. His wife was Blanch Barie of that city. Lyman W. Bliss, M.D., deceased, whose memory is revered by thousands of Saginaw county's residents, was born July 12, 1835, in Peterboro, Madison county, New York. He was the sixth child of the nine children of Lyman Bliss and wife, and his ancestry could be traced directly to the Puritans who came to America on the Mayflower. Though the opportunities to obtain an education were few at the time Dr. Bliss was a young man, he spared no effort in pre

Page  129 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 129 paring himself for a professional career. He graduated from Hobart College, Geneva, New York, when he was twenty-two years old, and received degrees from both the medical and literary departments. Dr. Bliss began the practice of his profession with the late Dr. James H. Jerome, in Trumansburg, New York. He was not long in establishing himself on a sound basis as a physician, and in 1861 he was one of the professors in the medical department of his Alma Mater. However, because of the demand for surgeons in the Union army in the Civil war, he gave up his practice and duties with the college and enlisted as an assistant surgeon of the Tenth New York Volunteer Cavalry. His brother, Aaront T. Bliss, was a captain in that regiment. Later Dr. Bliss was transferred to duty with the Fifty-first New York Volunteer Infantry with the rank of brigade surgeon and made acting medical director. In 1864 he suffered a severe attack of typhoid fever, and after his return to health he was assigned to service in the Field Hospital department. When the long war ended he was in charge of a field hospital at Alexandria, Virginia, and he was honorably discharged from the army with the rank of major, August 18, 1865. Late in that year he came to Saginaw and again began the practice of his profession. There his remarkable abilities and broad experience placed him among the foremost of the medical men in his section of the state. In addition to caring for his extensive practice, he was associated with various mercantile and industrial concerns, and was for more than twenty years a member of the firm of Aaron T. Bliss & Brother. This partnership was formed to deal in lumber and timber. The doctor was also connected with the James Stewart Company. He continued in business with his brother until both were nearing the age of seventy years, and the esteem in which they held each other was considered remarkable. Dr. Bliss was the first president of the Michigan State Medical society, and he was later re-elected to that office. He also served the society at various times in the capacity of trustee. He was the first president of the Saginaw Valley Medical college; and he is revered as having been of inestimable value to that institution and also the founder of the Bliss hospital. Graduates of the college and physicians associated with him in the hospital in speaking of him say that he was not only foremost in his profession in Saginaw, but that he was undoubtedly among the leading medical men in the state of Michigan. Having begun practice when he was yet a young man and having served as a surgeon throughout the Civil war, the years of active service he rendered to humanity are indeed unusual in their number. Dr. Bliss was married three times. His first wife, who was a daughter of Dr. and Mrs. James H. Jerome, died in Saginaw, April 26, 1872. She was the mother of a daughter, Anna M., who married Joseph M. Bittman, of Saginaw, and is now deceased. The second child was James W., a physician, who now resides in West Saginaw and is a graduate of the Saginaw Valley Medical college and who spent two years in Detroit Medical college. The

Page  130 130 JIERSONAL Ktmall.' tPr', At\> \ A s^ X thjir(l c*hil forn to Dr. and Mrs. Bliss was a daughter, who mIarricdl,dwar(ld. Stanton. The fourth and last child, Elwood, died in infancy. Dr. Bliss' second marriage was to Mrs. Harriet (Granger) Miller, and occurred September 18, 1877. She died October 3, 1887; and the doctor, on November 2, 1892, married May Cumminsky. Dr. Bliss passed away February 19, 1907, in a hospital at San Antonio, Texas, where he had gone in an effort to regain his health. His life was spent largely in the service of others; and it is said of him that, had he so chosen, he could have been immensely wealthy. Instead of centering his efforts on the accumulation of money and property he placed the welfare of his fellowmen first in his plans. Though he was often offered high political office, he declined such honors and devoted himself to the practice of his profession and to his private business ventures. He left a myriad of warm friends, who, as the years go by, feel his loss even more keenly. Brooks Boat Company. This Saginaw industrial plant ships its products to customers in all parts of the world. Boats of every description, from the smallest rowboat or skiff to the largest highpowered racer, are included in the eighty different models manufactured by the Brooks Boat company. Most of these boats are shipped complete in every detail, though many customers stipulate, for various reasons, that their purchases are to be left unfinished in certain respects. Thirty men are employed in the Brooks factory throughout the year, with additional workmen being hired during rush seasons. The plant, which is situated in West South Saginaw, has direct spur connections leading to the Michigan Central and Pere Marquette railroads. The factory is electrified throughout, individual motors being used to operate almost all machines. Officers of the company are J. C. Pilon, president; W. J. Pilon, vice-president; and C. W. Forsythe, secretary and treasurer. J. C. Pilon, whose business judgment and manufacturing ability have been largely responsible for his company's success, was born in Bay City, March 18, 1874, the son of Clifford and Flora (Dalorge) Pilon. Having followed the boat building business all his life, he came to Saginaw in 1907 to continue in that occupation. In 1923 he assumed control of the company of which he is now head and incorporated the same under the laws of Michigan. Mr. Pilon married, October 2, 1899, Miss Melnia Shiltz, of Three Rivers, Canada, and to this union were born two children: Wilfred J., who is associated with his father in business, and Rose B., who recently graduated from the commercial department of the Bliss-Alger college. Both children are graduates of the Saginaw high school. Mr. Pilon is a member of the Royal Neighbors and the Saginaw Auto club. Clarence M. Browne, judge of the Tenth Judicial Court of Michigan, has received many honors from an admiring public. On January 1, 1901, not long after he began the practice of law, he was appointed assistant prosecuting attorney of Saginaw county, holding that office under the Hon. John F. O'Keefe four years. 'When

Page  131 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 131 Mr. O'Keefe retired to make way for Frank N. Rockwith, the next county prosecutor, Mr. Browne was again honored by selection for the office of assistant prosecuting attorney; and two years later, at the expiration of Mr. Rockwith's term of office, he was successful in being elected to that position. He was re-elected in 1907 and in 1909 he resumed private practice, after having held the office four years. In recognition of his splendid record as a private citizen and as a public servant, he was elected judge of the Tenth Judicial Court in April, 1917; and was re-elected to that office in 1924. Clarence M. Browne was born March 26, 1876, in Saginaw, the son of William H. and Mary Elizabeth (Wiswell) Browne. His father, who died April 27, 1922, at the age of eighty-two years, was a pioneer resident and lumber superintendent of Saginaw county; and his mother, who died April 24, 1920, at the age of eighty-three, was born and reared at Portland, Maine. Judge Browne, after completing his studies in the public schools of Saginaw, studied law under the supervision of Benton Hanchett, dean of the Saginaw County and Michigan Bar; and on October 13, 1899, he was admitted to practice in the Michigan courts. He opened an office in Saginaw on January 1, 1900, and a year later began his career as a county official. Judge Browne has always been regarded as a man of great ability and knowledge and his fairness and justness have never been questioned. He is a dominant factor in the councils of the Republican party and is a leader in various civic welfare movements. On August 19, 1903, he married Rosamond F. Savage, of Saginaw, the daughter of George W. and Alice S. Savage. Judge and Mrs. Brown have a daughter, Dorothy, who was born October 18, 1904, and is a graduate of the Saginaw high school and the Ely Cort School for Girls. Judge Browne is a member of the Masons, the Elks and the Odd Fellows, as well as the Saginaw County, the Michigan State and the American Bar associations. Charles E. Brownell, sheriff of Saginaw county, was born in St. Charles, Michigan, in 1890. His father, Joseph E. Brownell, a merchant at St. Charles, Michigan, was born in Indiana, and his mother, Mrs. Nellie (Hitchings) Brownell, was born in St. Charles, Michigan. Joseph E. Brownell, who was always interested in civic affairs and in the politics of his community, held at various times the offices of village president, treasurer, and clerk. He is now engaged in business at St. Charles. Charles E. Brownell is one of a family of three children; one of whom, Harry, is now dead. The other member of the family, Stanley J., is employed in the extension department of the Pennsylvania State College. Charles E. Brownell received his education in the school of St. Charles, graduating from high school in 1907. Until he was made deputy registrar of deeds, he worked with his father in the store, holding the office mentioned four years, from 1917 until 1920. In 1920 he was elected registrar of deeds and held that office four years. On January 1, 1925, he was elected sheriff, which office he still retains. He has held other public offices during his brief career, having been

Page  132 132 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY treasurer of St. Charles two terms. On assuming his present office he appointed Glenn R. Wilson under-sheriff, and made Dale Austin, Arthur Hauffe, Charles Lee, Burt S. Shuller and Ray Geddes, deputy sheriffs. In the upholding of his oath of office and in the keeping of his pledges to the voting public of Saginaw county, Sheriff Brownell has made many arrests of persons alleged to have violated the prohibition laws. The county jail building, with the sheriff's residence adjoining, is a modern, handsome structure to be completed at a great cost in 1926. Cell accommodations for approximately one hundred prisoners are provided, together with every facility for the caring of this number of persons. Sheriff Brownell was married in 1911 to Ilah Albright, who was born in, Baldwin, Michigan, in 1890. The Brownells have two children: Emmett, who was born in 1913, and Imogene, who was born in 1916. Sheriff Brownell is a member of the Masons, the Eastern Star and the Antlers' club. Mrs. Brownell, who is a member of the Eastern Star, is quite prominent in the social and civic affairs of her community. Wellington R. Burt, deceased, who was born in 1831 in Perry county, New York, lived to become a foremost figure in the lumber industry and a leading citizen of Michigan. He died March 2, 1919. Mr. Burt remained on the farm until he became twenty-two years old. Then, following a desire to travel, he spent three years in the placer mines in Australia and in visiting South American countries. All his savings but two thousand dollars were stolen while he was in Australia, and he brought that remaining sum with him to Michigan when he returned, and with it erected a home for his parents. He assumed the management of a store and hotel near St. Johns, in Clinton county, and in 1857, after he had visited the Saginaw Valley, he began working in a lumber camp on the Pine river (Tittabawassee) at thirteen dollars a month. Tittabawassee was the first camp above Indian Town. Mr. Burt there began cutting fine pine timber which later made the Pine river district famous. Despite the fact that wages were low and averaged but about eleven dollars a month and the quality ot the timber was excellent, the firm for which he worked failed in business and was unable to pay its employes. As a result Mr. Burt lost a total of five months' wages. Having decided to work for himself, Mr. Burt in the winter following located a camp on Pine river and began jobbing. In the year 1860 he married Sarah Torrence and to this union were born three children, two of whom are living, Mrs. L. C. Hay, of New York, and Mrs. Willard Hutchings, of Detroit. Mr. Burt and his wife settled in the Saginaw Valley, where he was for many years decidingly active in the lumber industry. Beginning his operations with the purchasing of small tracts of timber land and logging off these tracts, he gradually expanded his business to include several mills. About three million feet, which were sold in the log at $4.12% per one thousand feet, were included in his first winter's cuttings. Mr. Burt guaranteed that these logs

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Page  133 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 133 I would average forty per cent uppers when sawed, manufacturing the l)alance p)rincil)ally in three-inch deal, the net average resulting in fifty per cent being uppers, and Mr. Burt's reserve portion being sold at eleven dollars per thousand feet. He purchased the Hill mill at Carrollton in 1862 and operated that plant one year, selling it to Hollister & Gilbert, of Rochester, New York. In 1864 he erected a mill on the Saginaw river between Zilwaukee and Portsmouth and gave the name of Milbourne to the neighborhood. One circular, one mulay and two gang saws were included in the equipment of this mill, which was at the time the largest on the Saginaw river. The capacity of the mill was twenty million feet of lumber and twenty million shingles. It was operated continuously until destroyed by fire in 1878. Not long after Mr. Burt bought from the New York Lumber and Salt Company a large parcel of land situated a little north of Zilwvaukee. The plant there being remodeled at an expense of one hundred thousand dollars. He had as associates in this venture, Mitchel and Rowland, of Cincinnati, the firm being known at the time as W. R. Burt & Co. This property was sold in 1880 to Mitchel & McClure. Mr. Burt then formed a partnership with Charles Lewis, of Bay City, and purchased a half interest in the Moultroup & Lewis Company at Bangor. Mr. Burt in 1880 engaged in the wholesale and retail lumber business and established a huge planing mill at Buffalo, New York, where hlie continued until 1887. He then began buying logs and manufacturing themn into lumber and also was associated with the Burt & Brabb Lumber Company, of Ford, Kentucky, in the manufacture of poplar lumber. He helped found the Home National Bank of Saginaw in 1882 and was president of that institution until 1895, when it was dissolved. He was also a director in several other banks and mercantile and individual corporations. With A. W. Wright, William McClure and Wells & Stone, Mr. Burt in 1888 obtained a charter for and began the building of ninety miles of the Cincinnati, Saginaw & Mackinaw railroad, extending from Durand in Shiawassee county, to the Bay shore, near Bay City. This railroad became highly profitable because of the fact that it served an excellent farming region. Mr. Burt, because of his position in the business world and his natural ability as leader, was prevailed on by his party to become the Democratic nominee for governor in 1888. He served as a member of the Michigan senate in 1892 and in 1893 he was appointed receiver of the Toledo, Ann Arbor & Northern Michigan railway. When this road was re-organized as the Ann Arbor railroad in 1896, he was elected president and he held that office until 1903. He was elected mayor of East Saginaw and was a delegate on the non-partisan ticket to the Constitutional Convention in 1907-08. Mr. Burt was greatly interested in the manufacture of salt and he helped found the Michigan Salt Association, of which he was president for four years. He was a director until 1892 of the Tittabawassee Boom Company, and president of that company, which he helped found. Mr.

Page  134 134 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY Burt in 1869 married Amine Richardson and to this second union were born four children. The first, Gertrude, died in infancy; Charles W. died in 1917, George R., Marion Amine, who is now Mrs. Walter Beck, survive. Mrs. Amine Burt departed this life April 11, 1904. George R. Burt married Nell Zinn, of Lafayette, Indiana, and now resides in Battle Creek, Michigan. He has a son, Wellington R. Burt. Wellington R. Burt gave liberally to all things which promised to aid Saginaw. He presented to the public schools a manual training building which cost two hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars. Later he added a trade school to it, and for three years furnished the money for the maintenance and support of that school, which is non-sectarian and now issues diplomas to its graduates. Mr. Burt also founded the Home for the Aged, and Mrs. Burt was deeply interested in the Woman's Hospital. She virtually supported that institution eight years and to her untiring efforts its great success is due. Mr. Burt gave the first twenty-five thousand dollars toward the founding of the Y. M. C. A. and he later added ten thousand dollars to that sum. In addition he donated one hundred thousand dollars for the auditorium, and all churches received liveral gifts from him. 'How many privately made donations to needy persons and worthy individuals were made by him will never be known, but it is true that he was a man of ready sympathy and was at all times charitably inclined. His parents, Luther and Florinda (Horton) Burt, came from Perry county, New York, to Jackson county, Michigan, in 1838, where they settled on a farm. They were of English descent, their ancestors having come to America in 1636. Some of these ancestors went to Vermont and New York and eventually settled in Michigan. The family is indeed an old one. Edward A. Caldwell, O.P., pastor of St. Mary's Catholic church, Saginaw, has given a life of service to mankind and to the extension of the beneficent activities and influences of his church. He first attended school in Saginaw, in the parochial school of the church of which he is now pastor. It was in this church that he received his first communion. Father Caldwell'was born April 7, 1861, in Detroit. His parents, Thomas and Margaret (McDonald) Caldwell, were natives of Ireland. His father was born at Kells, County of Methe, and his mother was born in Borris, County of Carlow. Their marriage occurred in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, and they came to Michigan in 1853. After a lapse of ten years they came to Saginaw, where Mr. Caldwell, a carpenter and stairbuilder, found employment. Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Caldwell are now dead and are buried in Calvary cemetery, Saginaw. After he finished the course of study provided by St. Mary's parochial school, Edward A. Caldwell took a course in the Saginaw high school and then entered Assumption College, Sandwich, Ontario. There he prepared himself for a theological course. He completed his religious education at Louvain, Belgium, where his spiritual path was moulded and made clear. He returned to his native land filled

Page  135 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 135 with enthusiasm for his life work. He was ordained to the priesthood at St. Patrick's Catholic church, Grand Haven. He was pastor of that church three years and at the end of that period was sent to St. Mary's church, Big Rapids. He was pastor of St. Mary's church at Cheboygan five years, and he next served a long pastorate at St. Mary's church in Bay City. In his thirteen years there he divided, with the venerable Father Rafter, pastor of St. James church, the power and influence exerted in that community by the Roman Catholic church. After the death of Father Michael Dalton, pastor of St. Mary's church of Saginaw, October 9, 1913, Father Caldwell was assigned to succeed him. At that time the congregation numbered approximately twenty-five hundred persons and in its various programs of religious and charitable works it had the inspiration and example of this consecrated priest. In addition to his many duties as pastor, Father Caldwell took a keen interest in the general welfare of his community; and under his direction the parish has grown and prospered greatly. He was appointed dean of Saginaw in 1914, and he now has under his supervision Saginaw, Midland, Isabella and Gratiot counties. Because it has the largest congregation in the city, and for other reasons, St. Mary's church has always been regarded as the mother church of Catholicism on the east side. The church building, with its beautiful and costly memorials and its classic architecture, is indeed lovely to behold. It is situated at Hoyt avenue and Owen street, and the parochial school and the Sisters' Home adjoin the pastor's residence at 610 Thompson street. Frederick W. Carlisle, deceased, was one of the Saginaw Valley's most successful tanners. l-le was devoted to the interests of his community and he became a leader in civic affairs. The following words, which were printed in the Saginaw News-Courier shortly after his death, November 24, 1918, are an indication of the loss felt by his business associates, friends and neighbors: "He levoted himself energetically and intelligently to his business, and brought it to the developed point where it became one of the most successful and most important of its kind in the state. But he was never so keenly enwrapped in his own affairs that he failed to stand ready with his means, his counsel and his aggressive powers in behalf of the advancement of the city he loved so well, and to which in his own way he gave such admirable service. To his fellow citizens he was always helpful to the extent of his means, and his private benevolences were many though quietly bestowed." Mr. Carlisle was born June 21, 1837, in Ashtabula, Ohio. His parents, Frederick and Emmaline (Livingston) Carlisle, were natives of Walpole, New Hampshire. Frederick Carlisle was a tanner, and he brought his wife to Ohio about 1832. They spent the remainder of their lives in that state. As a young man, Frederick Carlisle helped build railroads in his native state, and in 1862 he came to Saginaw. He then started in the tanning business, which he had learned under his father's direction. He assumed the management

Page  136 136 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY of a small tannery and thus identified himself with Saginaw when the city was yet young. However, he did not establish a permanent residence in Saginaw until 1866. From that year until his death he gave the city the very best of his efforts. On his trip from Ashtabula to Detroit, Mr. Carlisle said he was a passenger on a lake vessel from Detroit. Arriving in Saginaw in 1866, he rebuilt the tannery which he had taken over in 1862 and which had burned in 1866. He never forgot having tramped to and from the tannery over the plank walks laid to make it possible for persons to travel over that section of the city, which was then much like a swamp. On his way to work in the mornings before daylight he carried a lantern. Later he was able, because of improved highway conditions, to use a horse and buggy in traveling from his home to the shop. His indefatigable spirit, his close attention to his business and to the varying demands of the tanning industry, coupled with his keen intelligence and shrewd knowledge of human nature, made it possible for him to expand his business rapidly. In speaking of the progress of his establishment he said: '.'The tannery? Oh, it was a fifty-hides-a-week building, and folks thought I was launching out too big. It was in 1862 I started here, and I was burned out in 1866, the year I decided to permanently locate here. Of course we re-built, we kept pushing along, and we had our obstacles to overcome, our difficulties to meet. But we kept on going, and here we are. We have been building ever since 1866, adding to and improving. About two thousand five hundred hides a week is our present output, and we have from 125 to 150 men working all the time, that is all the time we can get them, for they are not so plentiful these days." Mr. Carlisle was married in 1863 to Josephine Watrous, of Port Washington, Wisconsin. To this union were born three children: Frederick Carlisle, Mrs. E. B. Church and Miss Kate Carlisle. Mr. Carlisle served at president of the Police Board and as a member of the Board of Water Commissioners. During the World war he gave freely of his money for patriotic purposes. He attended St. Paul's Episcopal church. Robert Mercer Carter, physician and surgeon, of Saginaw, was born October 18, 1875, in Elora, Canada, the son of Robert and Carolyn (Diggin) Carter. His father, who was for years a leading grain merchant, died in 1885; and his mother, Mrs. Carter, still survives and resides in Saginaw. Dr. Carter received his education in Canada, graduating from Trinity College, Toronto, in 1899, with the degree.of M. D., C. M., F. T. M. C. He at once came to Saginaw to begin general practice, in which he has been very successful. In 1917 he was a member of the board which examined Saginaw county men for the army; and he has at other times given freely of his time and money for the public good. All programs for the betterment of the health of the community have received his whole-hearted support. He has a large and lucrative practice and does general surgical work. He was married in 1902 to Etta Marie Chamberlain, of Rochester, New York. They have two children:

Page  137 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 137 Robert Mercer, Jr., and Francis Chamberlain. Dr. Carter is a member of the Saginaw County Medical association, the Michigan State Medical association and the American Medical association, as well as the Board of Commerce, the Elks, of which he is past exalted ruler, and the Canoe club. He is also a Knight Templar. Cook & Cook. The firm of Cook & Cook, attorneys-at-law, 1102 Second National Bank building, Saginaw, is composed of Robert H. Cook and Arthur O. Cook, brothers, who have associated with them Herbert J. Dwan. They do a general law business, handling all branches of practice with the exception of criminal and divorce matters. Robert H. Cook and Arthur O. Cook are sons of the late Webster Cook and Clara S. (Taylor) Cook. Their father, who died in 1908, was one of the leading educators of the state. He was a graduate of the University of Michigan and held the degree of Doctor of Philosophy from that institution. At the time of his death he was principal of the Saginaw high school. He was editor of "The Michigan Schoolmaster," was the author of many articles published in various educational magazines, and a text book written by him, "The Government of Michigan," stands as the leading authority on that subject. Robert H. Cook, the senior member of the firm of Cook & Cook, was born in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1880. Following graduation from Detroit Central high school, he spent some time in the literary department of the University of Michigan, leaving, however, before graduation, to enter the law offices of Weadock & Purcell in Saginaw. Subsequently he returned to the University of Michigan, entering the law department, from which he graduated in 1906. Immediately thereafter he entered upon the active practice of law in partnership with Melville D. Brooks, one of the most promising of the younger lawyers of the state. Following the death of Mr. Brooks, in 1913, he continued in practice by himself until the association with his brother, some six years later. Arthur O. Cook was born in Manistee, Michigan, in 1883. H-e graduated from the Saginaw high school in 1901 and from the literary department of the University of Michigan in 1905. He immediately entered the field of journalism, securing a position as reporter and editorial writer with the Saginaw CourierI erald. About a year later lie became city editor of that paper and soon afterward managing editor, a position which he held for many years. He had for some time been interested in the law, however, and in 1918 he left the journalistic field to give his full time to the study of the law. In 1919 he was admitted to practice in Michigan and he immediately associated himself with his brother under the firm name of Cook & Cook. Both Robert H. Cook and Arthur O. Cook have been admitted to practice in the supreme court of the United States, both are members of the American Bar association, the Michigan Bar association, the Saginaw County Bar association, the Saginaw Chamber of Commerce, the Saginaw Rotary club, the Saginaw club, and the Saginaw Canoe club. Robert H. Cook has been president of the Saginaw County

Page  138 138 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY Bar association and of the Saginaw Canoe club. Arthur 0. Cook is a member of the board of trustees of the Hoyt Public Library and of the public library commission for the city of Saginaw, and was for several years a member of the board of education of Saginaw, east side. Both are also directors of Valley Sweets Company, of which Robert H. Cook is president. Herbert J. Dwan is a son of James E. and Matilda Dwan. He was born in Saginaw in 1898 and graduated from St. Joseph's high school, Saginaw, in 1914. After some experience as public and court stenographer, he entered the office of Robert H. Cook and gave serious attention to the study of law. He was admitted to practice in Michigan in 1925. He is a member of the Junior Board of Commerce of Saginaw, the K. of C., and is secretary of the Saginaw Canoe club and of the Saginaw County Bar association. Clarence L. Cowles, of Saginaw, has become known throughout the United States as an architect of unusual ability. Since he came to Saginaw in 1894 to open an office for the practice of his profession, he has designed many important and beautiful buildings in various states. He has supervised the drawing of plans and specifications for many large buildings in Saginaw and other Michigan cities. The Saginaw Junior high school, the annex of the Bancroft hotel and the Cornwall building are testimonials to his knowledge and ability. Mr. Cowles was born in Flint, Michigan, October 20, 1869, the son of Edwin D. and Lucy (Randall) Cowles. He graduated from high school in his native city, and while yet in his teens went to Detroit to study architecture, spending seven years in the offices of E. E. Myers, a noted architect of that city. Mr. Cowles married Myrtle Ames, of Warren, Michigan, and they have two children: Clarence A., who is associated with his father in business, and Ruth W., who graduated with the class of 1925 of the Saginaw Central high school. Mr. Cowles is a past president of the Michigan Society of Architects and a member of the Masons, the Shrine, the Grotto club, the Elks, the Saginaw club, and the Kiwanis club. Mrs. Cowles is a member of the Order of the Eastern Star. Mr. George Mutscheller, business associate of Mr. Cowles, is also an accomplllished architect. -IHe was born in Sturgis, Michigan, January 13, 1881, the son of Michael and Margaret (Grandjean) Mutscheller, who brought him to Saginaw when he was seven years old. After he graduated from high school he served an apprenticeship under William H. Boodie, an able architect of Saginaw, and later studied under the direction of A. E. Munger, of Bay City. In 1907, after he had worked for Mr. Cowles eight years, he was admitted to a partnership in the firm of Cowles & Mutscheller. Among the large buildings which Mr. Mutscheller has designed are the high school at Ludington, Michigan, the Franklin theater, the Simmons' wholesale house, and the Swift & Co. branch warehouse at Saginaw. Mr. Mutscheller was married in 1922 to Genevieve Brangwin, of Caro, the daughter of Isaac A. and Mary Brangwin.

Page  139 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 139 Mr. Mutscheller is a member of the Board of Commerce, the Elks, the Masons and the Shrine. Lloyd T. Crane, A.B., LL.B., of Saginaw, is one of the foremost corporation and tax law specialists in the state of Michigan. He was born in Saginaw in 1886, the son of William E. and Ada B. (Tremper) Crane. William E. Crane, who was associated with his son, Lloyd, in the practice of law, died August 18, 1920, at the age of sixty-two years. He graduated from the University of Michigan with the class of 1882, and several years afterward came to Saginaw to follow his profession. He established what eventually became one of the largest legal businesses in Saginaw county, devoting much of his attention to probate work and to real estate transactions. He was a staunch Republican and an ardent worker in the church. He was a member of the Knights of Pythias, the Michigan State Bar association and the American Bar association. His widow, Mrs. Ada B. Crane, still resides at the old homestead at 802 Cass street, Saginaw. They were the parents of four children: Lloyd T., of Saginaw; Mrs. Gladys R. Wells, of Pontiac; Mrs. Lois Carrington; and William E. Crane, Jr., of Saginaw. William E. Crane, Jr., who graduated from the law department of the University of Michigan in 1924, is now associated with his brother, Lloyd T., in the law firm of Crane & Crane. Lloyd T. Crane graduated from the literary department of the University of Michigan in 1908, spending some time as an assistant instructor under Professor Brewster in the law department of the University of Michigan. He then completed a post-graduate course in law at his Alma Mater and in 1909 joined his father in the practice of law. He rapidly became recognized as a man of usual abilities, with the result that his time has largely been spent in corporation law and tax work. He has for years represented the General Motors Corporation and a number of banks in a legal capacity and in addition has enjoyed a large general practice. He helped acquire the various sites for the General Motors plants in Saginaw, and for several years has appl)eared for that corporation in legal matters. His good judgment and varied abilities have resutilted in his being made a director in several mercantile and industrial corporations, though his clief interest naturally lies in his legal work. As a tax expert his services are in such demand that he had been admitted to practice that branch of law in Washington, D. C. Mr. Crane has appearedin courts in almost every part of Michigan in behalf of his many clients. He is a member of various branches of the Masons, holding the thirty-second degree of that order; and is also a member of the Board of Commerce, the Saginaw club and the Country club. He married, in 1914, Flora Gage, who was born in Hillsdale, Michigan, in 1890. They have one daughter, Virginia, who was born in 1916. Mr. and Mrs. Crane have a lovely summer home at Bay Port, Michigan. They are members of the Congregational church and are popular socially. They reside at 516 South Warren avenue and the offices of Crane

Page  140 140 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY & Crane have been removed to the new Second National Bank building, being suite 902-903. Riley L. Crane, lawyer, of Saginaw, has received many honors during his busy career. He was elected prosecuting attorney of Saginaw county in 1894. He withdrew from that office at the expiration of his term in 1896 and returned to private practice. In 1910 he was elected judge of the probate court and served in that capacity three terms. From 1916 until 1920 he was prosecuting attorney of Saginaw county and has, since 1920, continuously served as assistant prosecuting attorney. Mr. Crane was born October 26, 1860, in Saginaw county, the son of William A. and Sarah Elizabeth (Burchase) Crane. His father, who died in 1919, at the age of eighty-three years, was the first white male child born in Saginaw county. He engaged in farming and teaching school for many years, and was a power in the Republican party. His mother, Sarah Elizabeth (Burchase) Crane, survived until May, 1925, when she passed away at the age of eighty-three years. William A. and Sarah Elizabeth Crane were the parents of five sons: Riley L., William E. deceased, Hiram A., Milo, a physician, and B. F. A. Crane. Riley L. Crane obtained his early education in the public schools, graduating from high school in 1880. Later he entered the law department of the University of Michigan, where he graduated in 1891 with the degree of Bachelor of Laws. He passed the state bar examinations and was admitted to practice in that year, and has since been a potent factor in the legal profession of Saginaw county. Besides his professional work, he has at all times taken an active part in the social and civic affairs of his community. In 1882 he married Clara I)upraw, daughter of Jaque and Electa (Niles) Du1)raw, and to this union were born three children: Mabel, Laura and Cora, all of whom are married. Mr. Crane is a member of the County, State and National Bar associations, the Board of Commerce, the Masons, the Odd Fellows, and the Methodist Episcopal church. He owns considerable real estate and is greatly interested in operations on his Saginaw county farm. William Franklin English, M.D. Few physicians in Saginaw coutty have as many warm friends and admirers as Dr. William Franklin lEnglish!, of Saginaw. leC is a veteran officer of the United States Army Medical Corps, having resigned an executive position with the state board of health of Michigan to offer his services to his country in 1917. Doctor English was born August 14, 1867, in Jeddo, Michigan, the descendant of honored pioneer residents. His father, William English, who was born in Canada, died in 1916, at the age of eighty-two years, and his mother, Mrs. Mary Ann (Mills) English, who was born in England in 1833, died in 1903. William and Mary Ann (Mills) English were the parents of three sons: Doctor English, the subject of this sketch; John, who is a farmer at Croswell, Michigan; and George, who is the owner and publisher of the Huron County Tribune at Bad Axe. After completing the course of study provided in the schools at Deckerville,

Page  141 PERSONAL SKETCIIES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 141 Dr. English taught in the rural and village schools for seven years. Later he took a college course at the Ohio Northern University at Ada, Ohio. After receiving the degree of Doctor of Medicine he accepted a position as instructor in anatomy, which he resigned after one year to enter general practice. He has, since he began the practice of his profession, been an active supporter of all civic and social projects which in his opinion were for the best interests of the community. In 1917, while he was holding a responsible position on the state board of health, he resigned to serve with the Army Medical Corps, during the World war, and spent twenty-two months in army service as a major. While in Germany with the Army of Occupation, he was associated with the First Division, and on his return from Germany in August, 1919, he was for a time stationed at Jardon, Minnesota, in sanitation work. Prior to his going overseas he did much organization work in the training camps at Battle Creek, Michigan, at Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, and other places. Dr. English married, in 1894, Kate V. Hager, who was born in Marlette, Michigan, in 1871. Dr. and Mrs. English have a daughter, Mildred, who is a student at Alma College, having graduated from high school in Saginaw. Dr. English has spared no expense or effort in keeping abreast of the latest developments in medicine and surgery. He is a member of the Saginaw County, the Michigan State and the American Medical associations and the American Radio-Physio-Therapeutic association. He is also a member of various branches of the Masons and the Grotto and Saginaw Country clubs. The Federal Gravel Company, with its general offices located at Saginaw, Michigan, is a corporation owning extensive tracts of land located in various parts of Michigan. This land is largely composed of deposits of sand and pebbles or small stones. The purpose of the company is to mine or remove this stone and sand and prepare it for all kinds of commercial purposes. The company owns a large plant at Greenbush, Alcona county, and one at Emerson, Alpena county, both located on the Detroit & Mackinac railroad; also one at Stinson, Alpena county, on the Boyne City, Gaylord & Alpen'a railroad, and onle near Roscommon, in Crawford county, on the Michigan Central railroad. These railroad connections make it possible to furnish the entire northeastern part of Michigan with a high quality of sand and gravel especially prepared for all purposes 6f road building and construction work on a reasonable freight rate. The Greenbush plant is a large gravel washing plant, operated by electricity. Here the gravel and sand is run through machinery and equipment especially designed for the purpose, and is washed, screened and graded and each commercial size of gravel is deposited in separate bins and all oversized stone or stone over one and one-half inch in diameter, is crushed and rescreened. This material is used for all kinds of concrete work from the finest concrete block to concrete roads and heavy bridge abutments. It is especially prepared for concrete work, as all clay and

Page  142 142 PERSONAL SKETCIHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY sediment is washed out of it. The plant is so arranged that any one size of gravel or the sand can be furnished the customer separately or the sand and gravel can be scientifically mixed to meet the requirements of the purchaser. The Greenbush deposit is located very near Lake Huron and is made up of very coarse, sharp sand and very hard, gray pebbles. The land is apparently flat and the material is raised from a pit with a large excavator and a clam shell bucket. As the gravel is mined, lakes are formed by the water which seeps in to replace the gravel. These artificial lakes are stocked by the company with fish. All employes are allowed to fish in these lakes and the resultant sport is indeed gratifying. The Emerson, Stinson and Roscommon plants are known as road gravel plants. At these places the gravel is mined or removed from great hills by large cranes and loaded on standard railroad equipment and transported to the plants, where it is screened and the larger pebbles are crushed to a size not over one inch in diameter or to meet commercial requirements. The material is used for the building of gravel roads, foundation work and many other purposes. These plants are especially designed to produce material that meets the specifications of the Michigan State Highway Department. In preparing the sand and gravel for commercial purposes, it is necessary to use the heaviest kind of machinery and equipment. Great crushers that grind the hardest kind of stone to small bits, large conveyor belts and screens that can withstand the wear and tear of pebbles and sand constantly pouring on them, and power that can move this heavy product. The officers of this company are: J. R. Sensibar, president; John K. Swanson, vice-president; Peter C. Pardee, treasurer; Olive Owens, secretary; and Fred Wilcox, plant superintendent. Alexander Ferguson, deceased, was one of East Saginaw's first business men. He was born August 29, 1829, at Scottsville, New York. His parents, James and Ann (Hall) Ferguson, who were of Scotch-Irish descent, came to Michigan in 1840. They settled at Grand Blanc but later removed to Flint. In that city James Ferguson died, February 2, 1852. Mrs. Ferguson passed away March 25, 1881. Alexander Ferguson attended the district school of Scottsville, New York, and Flint, Michigan. While quite young he was thrown on his resources and he as a result obtained a thorough training in the school of hard knocks. After he had finished with the district schoof he was employed as a bell boy in the Northern Hotel, which was owned by the Hon. Townsend North, in Flint. After two years as a bell boy he entered the William Crandelle jewelry store, Flint, where he remained six years and learned all details of the trade. When he was twenty years old, on March 29, 1849, he came to Saginaw City. At that time the east side was beginning to show signs of great progress, and he decided to establish himself there. He opened a jewelry, book and stationery store on Genesee avenue, between Washington and Wiler streets, May 20, 1852. He remained in charge of this business several years

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Page  143 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 143 and later removed his store to the Bliss Block at Washington street and Genesee avenue. Telegraphy, which was then a new science, claimed his attention during his leisure hours, and when a private telegraph line, called the Snow Line, was extended to Detroit in 1853, he was made operator at East Saginaw. He sold his jewelry store in 1860 to T. E. Doughty, and when the Western Union Telegraph office was established in Saginaw, he was given the position of manager. He continued in the latter capacity until 1877, conducting during that time a general insurance agency. He took an active interest in politics, and was a leader in social, educational and civic welfare programs. He served as clerk of Buena Vista township during 1852-1853 and in 1859, when the city was incorporated, he was elected a member of the council from the Second ward. In 1872-73 he was a member of the council from the Fourth ward. And he also served several years as collector of customs, resigning that office in 1880 to become treasurer of the county for the ensuing three years. Mr. Ferguson spent much of his time in advancing the welfare of his community, especially along educational lines. He was an active member of the I. 0. 0. F., having been initiated into Saginaw Lodge No. 42, November 2, 1849, holding the offices of District Deputy Grand Marshal for Michigan, Grand Patriarch of Patriarchal Branch of the Order, and Grand Representative of the Grand Lodge of the United States. He was a charter member of O-Saw-Wa-Bon Lodge No. 74, holding high offices at the original installation. He was also a charter member of Valley Encampment No. 20, organized May 10, 1866. He was First Lieutenant of the East Saginaw Light Artillery, organized September, 1859, and an honorary member of the East Saginaw Rifles. He was a member of the old Pioneer Fire Department in 1861. He was married in June, 1851, to Harriette P. Stimpson, of Oswego, New York. To this union were born two sons, Curtis Emerson, who died in infancy, and Frank A. Ferguson who, together with his father, established an insurance business which now operates under the name of Ferguson & Wallace Agency. Alexander Ferguson died February 27, 1883. During his entire life he had been noted for his happy disposition which seemed to be daunted by nothing, no matter how severe the trial might have been. He was upright and honorable in all of his dealings and upon his death the Board of Insurance Underwriters passed the following resolution: "That in the death of our esteemed friend and fellow-worker the community lost a citizen of the highest integrity, possessed of those personal qualifications of honor, kindness of heart and amiability which attached him to many and true friends. His manly discharge of the duty of those thousand qualities made him 'a man among men'." Hon. Joseph Warren Fordney, of Saginaw, is known to millions of citizens of the United States as the Congressman chiefly. responsible for the Fordney-McCumber tariff bill. Mr. Fordney's life has

Page  144 144 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY been a busy one, and he has been honored by re-election as Congressman from the Eighth district of Michigan twelve titnes. His first term in office began in 1898. Joseph W. Fordney was born November 5, 1853, on a farm in Blackford county, Indiana. His parents, John and Achsah Fordney, were born and reared in Pennsylvania, his father being born in Lancaster county and his mother in Green county. They were pioneer settlers of Indiana, from where they came to Michigan in June, 1869. Mrs. Achsah Fordney died in 1870 and her husband departed this life in 1875. They reared a family of ten children on their Indiana farm. Joseph W., when fifteen years old, began working in the lumber camps. As he grew in years and stature he amassed a broad knowledge of timber and its products and became able to estimate the quality and quantity of the timber on any given area after he had once inspected it. From the laborious work of "logger" he was promoted to be a "timber cruiser" and assigned to the task of estimating the value of pine lands. His shrewd judgment, carefulness and devotion made him unusually successful in this work and enabled him to lay the foundations of what has been a brilliant career in business and in politics. Few men in the lumber industry in Michigan or, indeed, in the United States, have an equal knowledge of timber and its products. As he grew more prominent he was elected to the post of vice-president of the Saginaw Board of Trade. In 1895 he was made a councilman, and his record as a member of the Saginaw council eventually brought to him the nomination, on the Republican ticket, as a candidate for Congress. He is said to have been the most influential man to represent his district in Congress, despite the fact that among those who preceded him in that office were Roswell G. Horr, Timothy E. Tarsney, Aaron T. Bliss and a number of other brilliant figures. While acting as a member of the Ways and Means committee of Congress, Mr. Fordney obtained, in 1910, an appropriation of six hundred and eighty-six thousand dollars for the deepening of the Saginaw river, and two years later he was able to force the passage of another bill increasing this sum by one hundred thousand dollars. In 1914, when the completion of the dredging operations in the river showed the wisdom and necessity of this improvement, Mr. Fordney received the gratitude of all residents of the valley. The protective tariff, long adhered to by his party, received a new and earnest champion when he took his place on the floor of the House of Representatives at Washington. His rigid defense of the duty on sugar, which protected the interests of the beet sugar farmers and manufacturers of Michigan and in the United States, could not be broken down by his opponents, though the tariff on that commodity was changed by the Democrats at the time they were in control of Congress. Mr. Fordney's many brilliant efforts in behalf of the protective tariff have placed him in an enviable position in the history of Michigan's statesmen. He served as a member of the committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries four years; was on the Public Lands commit

Page  145 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 145 tee five years; and served fourteen years, from 1908 until 1923, on the Ways and Means committee. Mr. Fordney and family reside at 1423 Gratiot avenue, which is a very beautiful site and is near the delightful park donated to his city by Mr. Fordney. He was married in 1873 to Cathern Harren, who was born in Canada, April 2, 1855. Of the thirteen children born to Mr. and Mrs. Fordney, nine have reached maturity. Their names are: Bregetta R., Josephine, Ernest W., Agnes C., Joseph J., Chester L., Mary C., Grace C., and Achsah Theodota. The six daughters, in the order named, respectively, married Robert B. Tatham, Walter L. Stout, Thomas M. Jackson, Francis J. McDonald, John G. Guerin and Paul H. Hackstadt. The Hon. Joseph W. Fordney is still active in business and in public affairs, and is still a mighty power in the councils of his party.. Michigan has many reasons to be proud of this indomitable fighter for the interests of the farmer and mechanic. His name will ever be an inspiration to the young man of ambition. From an humble beginning the Hon Joseph W. Fordney rose to great heights in the realms of finance and government. Honors have not spoiled his genial, sympathetic nature, and he is still the kind friend, the generous neighbor and the patriotic citizen. Herbert S. Gay, postmaster of the city of Saginaw, was born there January 30, 1880, the son of George T. and Carrie F. (Beeman) Gay. George T. Gay, who was born in Quincy, Massachusetts, in 1840, died January 30, 1908. He was employed for years as a locomotive engineer, having followed that occupation on the Old Colony railroad while he was yet a resident of Massachusetts. He came to Michigan in 1871, and was employed as an engineer by the Pere Marquette lines from that year until his death. He was one of the oldest locomotive engineers in the state, and had a wide reputation as a careful, conscientious railroad man. His widow, Mrs. Carrie Gay, who is now sixty-eight years old, makes her home with her daughter, Mrs. Maud Lesperance, in Grand Forks, North Dakota. John E. Gay, brother of Herbert S. Gay, is now a resident of Detroit, where he is employed by the Dodge Brothers Motor Co. as a toolmaker. Herbert S. Gay received his education in the Saginaw )public schools. He then began his career as a clerk in the offices of the Flint & Pere Marquette railroad in January, 1897, wlhere he remained until 1899. From that year until 1914 he was employed as switchman and yard conductor in the local Pere Marquette and Michigan Central railroad yards. On January 1, 1914, he was appointed city clerk of Saginaw, a position he held until March 1, 1924, when he was appointed postmaster. However, he served his ward as alderman from 1909 until 1914, and was at all times active in politics and civic movements. In 1902 he married Laura H. Johnson, of Saginaw, the daughter of Andrew and Minnie Johnson. Mr. and Mrs. Gay have two children, Helen and Lorraine. Both were educated in the public schools, and Lorraine is a graduate of Central State Normal school. Postmaster Gay is a member of the Masons, Grotto and Shrine, the Board of Commerce

Page  146 146 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY and the Elks, of which he is at present Exalted Ruler. Mrs. Gay is a member of the White Shrine of Jerusalem and is prominent socially. Frederick 0. Guider, manager of the Standard Plate Glass company, 520 South Hamilton street, was born in Saginaw, December 31, 1897, the son of the founder of the company, William M. Guider, and Mrs. Caroline (Schaper) Guider. In 1904 the Saginaw Mirror Works was founded by William M. Guider on a small scale. This j enterprise was later purchased by the Standard Plate Glass company, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Since the death of William M. Guider, in May, 1919, his son, Frederick 0. Guider, has been manager of the plant, which is the most complete of its kind in the state of Michigan. At this time the company employes a large force of salesmen, who dispose of its art glass, frame mirrors and plate glass to the trade in Michigan and surrounding states. Adam Guider, grandfather of F. 0. Guider, the subject of this sketch, was the first blacksmith to start a shop in Saginaw, which was the first shop north of the city of Detroit. F. 0. Guider was married in 1921 to Olive Irene Moffitt, of Saginaw, and to this union has been born one daughter, Jean Mary. Mr. Guider is a member of the Board of Commerce, the Michigan Manufacturers' association, the Saginaw club, the Kiwanis club and the Canoe club. He is also a thirty-second degree Mason and a Shriner. Benton Hanchett, of Saginaw. In the words of Justice Joseph B. Moore, of the supreme court of Michigan, the Hon. Benton Hanchett has for many years been the "leader of the bar of Michigan." Ten years ago, after many years spent in the practice of his profession and in the service of his fellowmen, Mr. Hanchett retired to enjoy a well-earned rest. But he still takes an active interest in the happenings of the day and he is in full possession of all his mental powers, though he has now reached the age of ninety-one years. Benton Hanchett was born at Marshall, Oneida county, New York, April 6, 1835. He was the son of Silas H. Hanchett and Eliza (Dyer) Hanchett, who removed, when he was five years old, to Palermo, Oswego county, New York. There Benton Hanchett remained until he was eighteen years old, attending the district schools and working on his father's farm. Later he attended Falley Seminary at Fulton, New York, and Cazenovia Seminary, at Cazenovia, in the same state. He was graduated from the State and National Law School at Poughkeepsie in 1858 and in the autumn of that year he came to Michigan and began the practice of law in the office of Amos and Ebenezer Gould, of Owosso. He was admitted to the bar in the circuit court of Saginaw in January, 1859. July 1, 1861, he became a member of the law firm of Goulds & Hanchett, and in November, 1865, he removed to Saginaw and became a partner of Augustine S. Gaylord in the firm of Gaylord & Hanchett, which was continued until June, 1877, when Mr. Gaylord died. Mr. Hanchett formed a partnership with Gilbert M. Stark

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Page  147 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 147 in 1881, and in 1887, when Mr. Hanchett's son, Leslie Benton Hanchett, was admitted to partnership, the firm became Hanchett, Stark & Hanchett. Mr. Stark retired from the firm January 1, 1894, and the firm became Hanchett & Hanchett. Leslie Benton Hanchett died in June, 1902. Benton Hanchett in 1862 was elected prosecuting attorney of Shiawassee county, and in 1872 and 1873 he served as mayor of the city of Saginaw. From 1867 until 1876 he was a member of the board of trustees of the Union School District of that city. Later he declined an appointment as justice of the supreme court of Michigan, tendered him by the late Governor Cyrus G. Luce. In February, 1893, in the last days of the administration of President Harrison, the Hon. Benton Hanchett was named by the president as justice of the United States circuit court of appeals. When the appointment was referred to the judiciary committee of the Senate for confirmation it was too late for action to be taken before the adjournment of Congress, In addition to caring for a law practice of great volume and importance, Mr. Hanchett has played an important part in the development of various industrial and mercantile corporations. In banking he has been unusually active. He has been a director of the Bradley-Ramsey Lumber Co., which he helped organize, the Saginaw Plate Glass Co., the Bank of Saginaw, the Detroit Trust Co., the Frankenmuth State Bank and the Michigan Sugar Co. He has served the Bank of Saginaw and the Frankenmuth State Bank as president, and is now chairman of the board of directors of these institutions. Mr. Hanchett was married November 18, 1861, to Ann Broadwell, of Oswego Falls (now Fulton), New York. To this union was born one son, Leslie Benton Hanchett, mentioned above, in 1863. Mrs. Ann Hanchett passed away June 11, 1879, and in 1881 Mr. Hanchett married Mrs. Susan Kimberly, who died July 25, 1915, leaving a daughter, Mrs. Elise Benton Grant, of Cleveland, Ohio. In recounting the many honors received by Mr. Hanchett during his long career and in chronicling the interesting events of his life, the fact that Mr. Hanchett's first vote was cast for the immortal Lincoln should not be overlooked. Since that time, Mr. Hanchett has been a consistent Republican. He is known as a man of great ability, unquestioned integrity and vast learning. Arthur Hill was born March 15, 1847, in St. Clair, Michigan, and died December 6, 1909, at his home in Saginaw, Michigan. His father was James H. Hill, a sketch of whose life appears elsewhere in this volume, and a descendant of Daniel Hill, who fought in the War of 1812. He received his early education in the public schools of Saginaw and completed it in the University of Michigan, graduating as a civil engineer. 'He was married twice. His first wife was Aroline Briggs, by whom he had two children: Harold B. Hill, of San Francisco, now deceased, and Calla Hill Wilhoit, who resides in San Mateo, California. His second wife was Louise Grout, of Saginaw, who survives him and is now living in Chicago, Illinois. Arthur Hill was primarily a lumberman, passing through the vari

Page  148 148 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY ous stages of surveyor and lumber estimator, to the presidency of large operating companies. Born as he was in Michigan, the home of that wonderful forest of white pine, a wood now well-nigh extinct, he followed the path of the timber to Minnesota, Ontario, and finally to its last stand, the Pacific coast. During this period he formed the partnership first of Hill Bros., then later, Arthur Hill & Co., Limited, whose holdings and interests in timber included the St. Antony Lumber Company, of Ottawa, the Madera Sugar Pine: Company, of California, the Booth-Kelly Lumber Company, of Eugene, Oregon. He was not alone interested in the manufacture of the timber, but also in its preservation and growth, and to this end he was a member of the State Forestry Board, and gave to the University of Michigan a small tract of land called the Saginaw Forestry Farm. Mr. Hill was president of the Midland Navigation Company, which owned a fleet of carriers on the Great Lakes, and of the Saginaw Steamship Company, which owned and operated a fleet of colliers and oil tankers on the Pacific Ocean. In politics he was a Republican, but he maintained a thorough independence in his political action. He was three times elected mayor of Saginaw and for five years he was president of its Board of Education. His interest in education remained with him all through his life. For two terms he was regent of the University of Michigan and gave to his Alma Mater unstintedly of his time and of his attention. Among the many philanthropic deeds of his life, perhaps the one that brought to him the greatest pleasure, was the establishment of four university scholarships, named in honor of his friends:. The Wells-Stone scholarship, the Otto WV. Roeser scholarship, the Alonzo T. Bingham scholarship, and the John Moore scholarship. In his letter of dedication, bearing the date of December 25, 1893, he says: "And so it is that, year by year, when the mellow October days shall come, I have the hope that some bright-faced young man or sweet, clear-eyed young woman, will have found in this modest provision an inspiration and a purpose, and will enter the college portals to their great and lasting gain. If this shall be, then, in their persons I shall tread the old halls again and, garbed in perpetual yotuth, shall realize my present dream of immortality." At his death he further added to his educational gifts, by the Arthur Hill Tra(le School of Saginaw, Michigan, and the Hill Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Clarence M. Hill, who died in Saginaw in 1901, was born at St. Clair, Michigan, in 1855, the son of Mr. and Mrs. James H. Hill. He received the greater portion of his education in Worcester, Massachusetts, in Highland Military Academy, and the law department of the University of Michigan. When he had arrived at the age of twenty years his father, a capable business man, urged him to engage in business for himself. Clarence M. Hill at once accepted his father's advice and entered the lumber industry. During 1875-76 he conducted lumbering operations along the Kawkawlin river, cutting approximately four million feet annually for eight

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Page  149 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 149 years, and sending the logs to Bay City to be sawed into lumber. In the winter of 1882-83, after about thirty-two million feet of timber had been felled in the region mentioned above, Mr. Hill began cutting trees in Gladwin county, along the Cedar river. He spent three years in that district and then slowly extended his operations to include the buying and selling of pine land and the disposal of ten million feet of lumber and logs annually. He owned and operated a mill at Carrollton four years, and did much of his lumber manufacturing there. His next venture was to cut the timber on a tract owned by Arthur Hill & Co., Ltd., onWaiska Bay, Lake Superior. This timber supplied twenty-five million feet of logs, which were sawed at Sault Ste. Marie and were finished to suit markets in Chicago and in eastern cities. Having accumulated much reserve capital through the ventures outlined above, Mr. Hill in 1887 bought a 45,000,000 tract in Minnesota. He commenced lumbering operations in Duluth in 1892, that city having then become the center of the lumber industry in that section of the country. He purchased extensive acreage in St. Louis county and other counties near Duluth and bought the buildings and equipment of the Mesaba Lumber Company, at Mesaba, Minnesota. The Mesaba Lumber Company owned a sawmill which boasted a capacity of seventy-five thousand feet daily and a large planing mill also. There Mr. Hill established a store for the convenience of his employes and residents of that neighborhood. In addition he owned a mill at Merritt, St. Louis county, and he suffered a severe loss when this mill burned in 1894. It was never rebuilt. It was on his land in the Mesaba range that the first iron ore was found in that district, and this discovery added greatly to his wealth. Each year he cut from ten million to fifteen million feet of timber, this vast quantity of timber having to be hauled to the lake by rail. He was also interested in other business enterprises outside the lumber industry. He was a member of Arthur Hill & Co., It(l., and the Hotel Vincent, East Saginaw, was built. by him. Though he was by preference a Republican, he did not let his party feeling control his choice, but instead supported the man who seemed best suited to render service in the office sought. He married Susie M. Ricllardson, and to them.were born three children. 'T'lle eldest is Roger R., of Palm Beach, Florida. Helen, the second child, married Edward B. Wickes, of Saginaw. Walter C. Hill, who is in charge of the estate left by his father, was born in Saginaw in 1891. He graduated from the literary department of the University of Michigan in 1913 and married Edith Symans, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John W. Symans. They have one child, Barbara. Clarence M. Hill departed this life in 1901, in Saginaw. His widow still resides in that city. James H. Hill, deceased, was born at Put-In-Bay Island, Ohio, in 1816, the son of Daniel Hill, a native of Massachusetts. Daniel Hill, a resident of Detroit at the beginning of the War of 1812414, was taken prisoner at the surrender of that city with a number

Page  150 150 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY of fellow-prisoners, whom, because of their strong spirit, the British desired to free from captivity. Accordingly they were taken to the Canadian shore across the river, and given passes to the American lines at Niagara. From that point Daniel Hill was able to return to his former home in Massachusetts. Not long after he had arrived in his native state he decided to return to the frontier and, after he reached Erie, Pennsylvania, he helped complete.the fleet of Commodore Perry and enlisted in the crew of one of the vessels. After the battle in which Perry bested the English vessels, Daniel Hill settled on Put-In-Bay Island, Lake Erie, where Perry's fleet had stopped for repairs after the battle on the lake. Mr. Hill died there in 1825. After his death his widow, the mother of James H. Hill, the subject of this sketch, obtained a warrant for the one hundred and sixty acres granted soldiers' widows, and settled in St. Clair county, Michigan. There she remained, while her son, James, helped on the farm. When he became twenty-one years old his mother gave him an uncleared farm on which he worked in the summer, spending his winters in logging operations on the Pine river. Later he traded his farm for what his friends described as "an old rotten vessel" and engaged in lake freighting during the summer months. In the winter he continued his work in the woods and, as his prosperity increased, he was able to purchase several small ships. These vessels were chiefly employed in transporting lumber from the St. Clair river to ports in Ohio and New York. In 1854 he engaged in the lumber business for himself, and two years afterward he sold his ships and went to Saginaw. He commenced operations on Sturgeon creek, and after one year he purchased the Whitney sawmill, which was situated near the west end of the Johnson street bridge and was later called the Patterson mill. He built a new mill, with latest improvements, in 1864, on the Saginaw river, near the village of Carrollton. As his sons grew to maturity, Mr. Hill admitted them to association with him in the business, and on their shoulders fell the burden of managing his big estate when his years forced him to retire from active participation in the affairs of his companies. Mr. Hill died in Saginaw in 1887. Elizabeth B. Hesse. A Saginaw county woman who has amply demonstrated her fitness for public office is Miss Elizabeth B. Hesse, registrar of deeds. Miss Hesse has dispensed entirely with male help in her office, her three assistants being young women who have aided her in winning the approval of the voting public. She has been associated with the registrar's office more than twenty-one years, having begun as a clerk and advanced herself to the position of chief clerk, and finally winning election to the office of deputy registrar. She served four years as deputy registrar and was elected registrar in the election in 1924, assuming office on January 1, 1925. Miss Hesse appointed as her deputy Miss Grace Borland. William G, Hesse, her father, who is now retired from business, was born in 1844, and her mother, Mrs. Bertha Hesse, was

Page  151 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 151 born in 1846. She has four sisters: Mrs. C. J. Boergert, Mrs. G. G. Stifter, Mrs. W. F. Trakat and Mrs. T. C. Will. William C. Hesse, a brother, who was in the jewelry business, died in 1923. He was a Knight Templar and stood high in Masonry. Another brother, George W. Hesse, a manufacturer and member of the Masons, died in 1924. Miss Hesse is a member of the Saginaw Business Women's association, the White Shrine of Jerusalem and the Christian Science church. She resides in Saginaw, where she received her education. Fred F. Henige, of the firm of Burnett-Henige Construction Company, contractors, Saginaw, was born in Saginaw county, September 24, 1886, the son of Anthony and Elizabeth (Constine) Henige. After graduating from high school, he went to Lansing, where he served an apprenticeship in architecture under S. E. Butterworth and later with other well-known builders. In 1916 he founded the contracting firm of which he is now a member and engaged in business for himself. HIe has, since that time, supervised the erection of many large structures, among which are the Board of Commerce building, the Holy Family church and the St. Mary's school. His abilities as a builder have been widely recognized, and his company accepts contracts in all parts of the state. Owing to the fact that six years of his apprenticeship were spent under the direction of an architect and engineer, he is qualified to cope with the most technical and theoretical of specifications and requirements, which enables him to keep his firm abreast of the latest developments in the building industry. Several large schools are at this time being completed by his company. Mr. Henige married, in 1922, Margaret M. Schrems, who was born in Saginaw in 1896. To this union was born a son, Frederick Victor, on March 23, 1925. Mr. Henige and family are members of Sacred Heart church, while he is a member of the Knights of Columbus, the Knights of St. John and the Board of Commerce. John Hopkins, LL.B., a leading member of the Saginaw county bar, was born in Richland township, Saginaw county, Michigan, on January 28, 1883, the son of Patrick and Ellen (Foy) Hopkins. His father, who was born in the state of New York, (lied in 1910, at the age of seventy-two years. lie was one of the pioneer settlers of Saginaw county and was for years engaged in the logging and lumbler industry. Since his death, Frank and Thomas Hopkins, sons of the deceased, reside on the family homestead with their mother, who is now sixty-nine years old. The children of Patrick and Ellen Hopkins are: John, the subject of this sketch; William, who is in the elevator business at Hemlock, Michigan; Mrs. Mary Cauley, of Chisholm, Minnesota; and Mrs. Nora Dungey, of Hemlock, Michigan. John Hopkins remained on his parents' farm until he was eighteen years old. He obtained his early education in the public schools, and afterward took a teacher's course at the Ferris Institute. Thus prepared, he taught various schools in Saginaw county from 1900 until 1910, and with the money he had saved

Page  152 152 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY from his earnings he entered the law department of the University of Michigan in the latter year, graduating with the degree of Bachelor of Laws in 1913. He was at once admitted to the bar, and soon after he returned to Saginaw to begin the practice of his profession. He was later appointed to the office of deputy county clerk and, after remaining in that office two and one-half years, he established himself in the practice of his profession in 1916, in the Bearinger building. He has, since that year, enjoyed a very profitable general practice and has taken an active part in civic affairs. He is affiliated with various fraternal, civic, social and professional organizations, among which are the Saginaw County Bar association, the Michigan State Bar association, the American Bar association and the Knights of Columbus. He is a member of St. Andrew's church and in politics is known as an independent voter. He is regarded as an able and learned lawyer and an upright citizen, and has thousands of warm friends in Saginaw and vicinity. Hoyt Public Library. This beautiful building was made possible by the generosity of Jesse Hoyt, the philanthropist after whom it is named. Mr. Hoyt on January 26, 1883, donated to the city of Saginaw the four valuable lots covered by the library and its adjacent grounds, together with the sum of one hundred thousand dollars. Careful selection of a type of edifice and strict husbanding of the library's resources followed this princely donation, and in 1887, 1888 and 1889 the contracting firm of Van Brunt & Howe, of Boston, Massachusetts, erected the building. The stone used was quarried at Bay Port, Michigan, with the Lake Superior red sandstone being used in trimming. On or about November 1, 1890, the Hoyt Public Library was thrown open to use by the persons for whom it was intended, with Miss Harriet H. Ames acting as chief librarian. Miss Ames remained in this position two years, resigning at the end of that period to return to Boston. The Hoyt Public Library now is filled almost to capacity, forty thousand books and a vast array of periodicals and magazines being contained on its shelves, which have a normal capacity of fifty thousand books. A chief librarian and two assistants are employed throughout the year, and the library is open every day, including Sundays, with the exception of one month during the summer. The library has an average income of six thousand four hundred dollars, four thousand five hundred dollars of which are usually used in paying salaries and meeting repair and other expenses, leaving approximately one thousand nine hundred dollars to be expended each year for new books and periodicals. The Hoyt Library is solely for reference and study purposes, no books being provided for circulation. The grounds surrounding the library are remarkably beautiful, and add greatly to the attractiveness of the city. Jesse Hoyt, deceased. A sketch of the career of Jesse Hoyt includes, to a large extent, the history of East Saginaw, for no other pioneer did so much toward its creation and growth. With Norman Little as his agent, in 1849, was purchased the site which now

Page  153 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 153 constitutes a considerable portion of the east side, and they, with Alfred M. Hoyt, a brother of Jesse, may be regarded as the founders of the city. As early as 1850, by his direction, that portion now bounded by Washington and Federal avenues, Tuscola street, and the river was cleared of timber. And in the following year the plank road to Flint, a very ambitious project for the time, was projected and completed through the wilderness in 1852, mainly with funds furnished by the Hoyts. The Irving House, a three-story wood hotel, was built on the site of the Buena Vista Block, and the general store of W. L. P. Little & Company (Jesse Hoyt being the company) was situated on the dock opposite the hotel. The Mayflower Mills (the old original building) was erected in 1851, and is shown at the left of the old picture in Vol. 1, page 602. Jesse Hoyt was born in New York on March 12, 1815. His father, James M. Hoyt, a wealthy merchant of the metropolis, after giving his four sons a liberal education, trained them in mercantile and financial pursuits, fitting them for useful and honorable careers. It was Norman Little who first interested the father in the investment of land in the wilderness of Michigan, and to Alfred M. Hoyt, his son, was intrusted the task of carving out a settlement from the almost impenetrable forest. He was the first postmaster of East Saginaw. Jesse Hoyt soon followed his brother to the Saginaw Valley, and thereafter to the time of his death directed the large interests of the family in Michigan. In the winter of 1854 James M. Hoyt died and shortly after the firm of Jesse Hoyt & Company was formed. These interests in 1857-59 built the Bancroft House, a structure then considered far in advance of the needs of the locality. The Buena Vista Block had replaced the old Irving House, destroyed by fire, and the Exchange Block and other buildings were evidences of the enterprising spirit of Jesse Hoyt. His large investments at this formative period of the valley proved his foresight and his faith, and the results justified amply the correctness of his judgment. For several years under his direction and the management of Captain Stephen Kirby and Captain Martin Smith, a shipyard wvas operated at the lower part of the town, where the Pere Man.iruettc railroad crosses the river. This was largely with a view of furnishiiig empI)loyment to labor and to induce workmen with families to locate here. It was Mr. Hoyt's earnest belief-and he always acted on the plan-that men should be helped to help himself, and that it was his duty, as well as privilege, to furnish the means by which men could earn a good living and become self-supporting and independent. His great success in accumulating wealth proved that he had the capacity to foresee the result of the enterprises in which he was engaged, and that he had the courage to act upon his convictions.. He was kind-hearted and generous, and always ready to help anyone who was disposed to help himself. With this in mind and to forward the settlement of the county, as well as of the village, and to set an example to others, he gave directions that the land in the neighborhood should be

Page  154 154 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY cleared of stumps and brush and converted into farms. In this practical way the value of the soil for agricultural purposes was demonstrated, and farmers were encouraged to take other timbered land and make farms. At an early date in the history of East Saginaw, Mr. Hoyt was connected with the promotion and building of the old Flint & Pere Marquette railroad, and he always took a deep interest in its welfare. Upon the death of Captain Eber Ward, president of the road, he assumed the presidency, and upon its reorganization a few years after, he was elected its president, a position he held until the time of his death. In 1879, when the road was forced into a receivership, owing to the struggles it had undergone after the panic of 1873, Jesse Hoyt came to the rescue with his private fortune. Doctor Potter had been made receiver, and seeing the need of steel rail to replace the large amount of old and battered iron rail then in use, he asked Judge Brown, of the United States court, for an order permitting the purchase of ten thousand tons. The judge would issue an order only upon the consent of the trustees for the bondholders, and this consent Doctor Potter could not secure. Meanwhile an excellent bargain in steel rails had presented itself-five thousand tons from one company at forty-four dollars and fifty cents a ton and five thousand tons from another at forty-five dollars a ton. It seemed that the future of the road depended on taking advantage of these offers, and appeal was again made to the court without avail. It was then that Jesse Hoyt came to the rescue and obligated himself by personal contract for the ten thousand tons of rail, entailing an outlay of nearly four hundred and fifty thousand dollars. The first delivery began at once, but before three months had gone by a very peculiar condition arose: In the markets steel rail had advanced to seventy-two dollars a ton, and the old iron rail in use on the road was worth more than new steel at the advanced price. The trustees of the bondholders were glad enough to make the exchange and fell in with the plan. As Mr. Hoyt had the ten thousand ton contract in his own name, the railroad in no way being obligated, he could easily and rightly have turned in the contract at the advanced cost of rails, namely, seventy-two dollars a ton, and made a profit of over a quarter of a million dollars. But he did not. He turned his contract over to the receiver of the road for just what it cost him, and there again demonstrated the liberality which had ever marked his attitude toward the Saginaw Valley. To him credit was due for the construction of the East Saginaw & Mt. Pleasant railroad, and the Saginaw, Tuscola & Huron railroad, which opened up new and extensive territory to the growing trade of Saginaw. His faith in the success of these enterprises was unwavering, but he did not live to witness the full fruition of his plans for the development of this section of Michigan. He was also interested as principal owner of the East Saginaw Street Railway, which operated horse cars from the Union depot on Potter street to Salina, afterward called South Saginaw. Even at this day, one can scarcely turn in any

Page  155 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 155 direction in this city without meeting with evidences of Jesse Hoyt's enterprise or public benefaction. The old Bancroft House, Irving Hall, Buena Vista Block, Exchange Block, Power Block, Hoyt building (now Eddy building), the Mayflower Mills and other edifices are substantial evidences of his faith in the future of the city he founded. Mr. Hoyt's last visit to East Saginaw was in the summer of 1878; and only failing health prevented his coming again. Although making his home in New York City, he always expressed fondness for the tall timber of the Michigan forests, and really enjoyed his periodical visits to the scene of his business activities here. After a prolonged illness, he died in New York on August 12, 1882. His immediate family consisted of a wife and one child-an invalid daughter. To East Saginaw his death was a loss almost irreparable. The city and valley had then reached the zenith of lumber production, and for ten years following the manufacture of lumber and other forests products fell off rapidly. During the reconstruction period which followed, the enterprise and wise counsels of Jesse Hoyt would have been of the greatest value and would have hastened the development of new industries and rehabilitation of the valley as a manufacturing center. In financial affairs his judgment would have proved as valuable as it was to the Savings Bank of East Saginaw, which he was largely instrumental in founding, and to the Merchants National Bank of East Saginaw, of which he was a large stockholder. Others of his extensive interests were the Ontonagon & Brule River railroad, the Milwaukee & Northern railroad, the Angus Smith & Company, of Milwaukee, engaged in the elevator and grain business, and a large flouring mill at Oswego, New York. His pine timber interests in Michigan were large at the time of his death, although. tracts to the value of more than half a million dollars were sold a short time before his death. The estate of Jesse Hoyt in Michigan was valued at about two million dollars, the management of which, by the terms of his will, was vested in William L. Webber, his long-time friend and advisor. The benefactions of Jesse Hoyt to the city which he founded and whose growth he promoted are noteworthy. His generosity was clearly manifest in his giving to the city the valuable property comprising Hoyt Park, one of the show places of the city. He foresaw the advantage and value of free breathing and recreation places in the Saginaw of the future, and his providing the land so accessibly situated for a beautiful park proves his deep interest in the welfare of the community. Of even greater value for the ethical growth of the people was his bequest of one hundred thousand dollars for the establishment of a free reference library known as Hoyt Library. Mr. Webber was the trustee of this fund and to his direction and care was due the erection of the splendid building and the collection by Miss Harriet Ames of the first books which comprised the library. No greater testimonial of the generosity and heartfelt interest in the community by Mr. Hoyt could be realized than these benefactions, which forever en

Page  156 156 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY gross his name upon the history of Saginaw. The tributes of his closest business associates and personal friends in Saginaw cast interesting sidelights upon his character and attributes. Henry C. Potter, general manager of the Flint & Pere Marquette railroad, a friend of many years, said: "From the various admirable traits of Jesse Hoyt's character, we may select one eminently worthy of our imitation, his uniform courage and cheerfulness. He looked forward and upward, and was in advance of his associates in foresight and liberality. We are all witnesses that his generosity was indicative of his wisdom. To the interests we represent (the F. & P. M. R. R.) he gave particular attention and unwavering support, and to each of us he was a wise counselor and a kind friend." Fully concurring the above, William L. Webber said: "'None knew him but to love him, none named him but to praise.' He was cheerful and pleasant in all his business relations, and was modest and retiring almost to a fault. He never sought prominence for himself; neither rash nor timid, he was wise in counsel, prompt in action, and in his official relations always unselfishly mindful of the trust reposed il him." Jackson & Church Company. John L. Jackson and Edgar D. Church, of the Jackson & Church Company, 321-23 North Hamilton street, Saginaw, have for years been leaders in the industrial life of their city. They built the original steering gear plant now occupied by the General Motors Company in Saginaw, and have brought to a successful conclusion other industrial projects. The factory which they now own has a floor space of over one hundred thousand feet and includes departments for every phase of manufacturing operations, such as a grey iron foundry, blacksmith shop, pattern shop, boiler shop and machine shops. Two hundred men are employed in the making of an extensive line of beet sugar machinery, equipment for brick made from sand and lime, hoisting engines, boilers, tanks and fabricated steel. The Jackson & Church Company maintains, in New York, a sales office from which a large portion of its products are distributed. Their factory at this time consumes about fifteen hundred tons of scrap iron, and a thousand tons of pig iron each year, in addition to vast quantities of other materials. The concern was established in 1893 and incorporated in 1898. The present officers are: John L. Jackson, president; Adolph G. Roeser, vice-president; Edgar D. Church, treasurer and general manager; and J. Henry Schmidt, secretary. Paul Jackson is manager of the Thomas Jackson Company, manufacturers of lumber and millwork, a concern which was founded by his grandfather in 1894 and which is now headed by his father, Harker W. Jackson. Thomas Jackson, founder of the company which bears his name, was a native of England. In 1894, after several years of successful operations in the lumber industry, he founded the Thomas Jackson Company and engaged in the manufacture of a high-grade line of sash, doors, interior finish and other millwork. In 1922, because of the steady growth of the com

Page  157 I PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 157 pany and the expansion of its activities, it was found necessary to incorporate the business. Thomas Jackson died in 1910, an honored and respected resident of Saginaw. His son, Harker W. Jackson, who was born in Canada, is now president of the company. He married Marion E. Cleves, of Binghamton, New York, and to this union were born four children, of whom Paul Jackson, who was born in Saginaw, May 27, 1901, is now assisting his father in the conduct of the business. All sales of the company's products are handled from its offices in Saginaw under his supervision. He is a graduate of the class of 1923 of the NavalAcademy at Annapolis. After one year's service, he resigned from the navy and returned to Saginaw, where he has since been actively identified with the business affairs of the city. He is recognized as an able business man, and stands as an exponent of the best type of civic loyalty and progressiveness. Alvin E. Johnson, of the Federal Construction Company, Saginaw, was born in Chicago, Illinois, August 27, 1887, the son of Gustaf Johnson, who was connected with the Wilce Lumber Company for a period of forty years, and Mrs. Wilhelmina Johnson. Both his parents are now dead, though a brother, Alfred R. Johnson, sales manager for a large automobile company, still resides in Chicago, as do Mr. Johnson's two sisters, Ellen and Hulda. Alvin E. Johnson was married in January, 1912, to Elizabeth Weisbarth, of Cleveland, Ohio, the daughter of Charles and Catherine Weisbarth, and to this union have been born two sons: Alvin Edward, Junior, and Edward Thomas. Mr. Johnson came to Saginaw in 1924 and with H. W. Allen and L. N. Dine founded the Federal Construction Company on May 1, of that year. This concern does a large general contracting business, owning its own equipment, valued at thousands of dollars. The company has completed contracts for the Standard Oil Company in Michigan which total well over a half million dollars. Several banks, schools, churches and other large buildings, as well as a number of dwellings, have been erected by the Federal Construction Company in its brief span of existence. The company is now completing several large contracts in Saginaw and vicinity, thereby earning the reputation of being thle busiest as well as the youngest contracting firm in Saginaw. liromn twenty to fifty men are employed by the company at all times. Mr. Johnson is a member of various social, fraternal and civic organizations, among which are the Blue Lodge, Chapter, Shrine and Mizpah Temple, Fort Wayne, Indiana, of the Masons. The Federal Construction Company, though recently organized, is one of the most notable enterprises of its kind in Saginaw and its station is one of prominence in connection with the representative industrial activities of the city. Its founders are all practical business men, and are numbered among the best citizens of the community. Milton M. Ketcik, D.D.S., is one of the most popular of Saginaw's younger dentists. He was born October 16, 1901, in Chi

Page  158 158 PERSONAL SKETCHIES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY cago, where he received his elementary and high school education, the son of Ferdinand and Theresa (Metushak) Ketcik. In 1923 he graduated from the dental department of the University of Michigan with the degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery, and soon afterward came to Saginaw as a dentist for the board of health under the direction of Dr. Decline. He continued in public health dental work until March, 1925, when he purchased the office equipment and business of the late Dr. P. R. Glass, a prominent Saginaw dentist, who met his death in an automobile accident near Detroit early in 1925. Dr. Ketcik has since enjoyed a thriving practice and has become one of the most popular professional men in the city. He is a member of various professional and social organizations; among which are the Saginaw Canoe club, the Saginaw County and the Michigan State Dental associations. He was married, August 16, 1925, to Miss Maxine Richards, of Calumet, Michigan, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Richards. Charles S. Kressler, president of the Saginaw Transit Company, was born in Rochester, Michigan, in 1884. He received his education in the public schools of his native city and early in life began working in the electric light and power plant in that city. Possessing great ambition and a remarkably keen mind he began, at night and in his idle hours, to study engineering under the direction of the International Correspondence Schools of Scranton, Pennsylvania. In 1910 he completed the course in electrical engineering provided by this school. In 1912 he received a diploma as a mechanical engineer, and in 1914 he finished a course in chemical engineering. With this splendid training he found it an easy matter to win several promotions while he was employed by the Detroit United Railways, and he finally became head of the engineering department of those lines. He also, at various times, was the managing head of other public service plants, and in 1923, when the Saginaw Transit Company was organized, he was made president of the new concern. Other officers of the company are: L. F. Swartout, secretary; H. W. Cushman, superintendent of transportation; E. A. Krueger, chief engineer; L. S. Girard, superintendent of equipment; F. W. Bender, claim and personnel agent; F. J. Warne, superintendlent of lines; and L. D. Sh1addeau, purchasing agent. Directors of the company are: A. A. Alderton, C. G. Christensen, F. J. Fox, H. T. Robinson, Otto Schupp, E. W. Secord, John Troy and William C. Weichmann, all of whom are representative business men of the community. The Saginaw Transit Company at this time operates an enormous fleet of cars, busses and trucks, and employs approximately two hundred and fifty persons who are ready at all times to serve the public in the best possible manner. The vehicles of the company in their daily runs cover a total of seven thousand miles and the service rendered is of the very best, due largely to the fact that the completely equipped shops purchased from the Saginaw Bay City Railway Company make it possible to keep all rolling stock in excellent condition, and the total mileage

Page  159 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 159 for the year of all vehicles reaches two million, five hundred thousand miles. The twenty-eight motor trucks now operated by the company use fifteen thousand gallons of gasoline each month. By use of care and regular inspections and repair, tires on these trucks are said to render thirty thousand miles of service before they are discarded. The Saginaw Transit Company is a very successful and progressive business institution, which owes much of its present popularity and efficiency to Mr. Kressler, president of the company. Mr. Kressler was married, in 1905, to Lenna A. Bartram, a native of Canada, and to this union were born two sons: Charles Bartram, who will graduate from high school in 1926, and Ross Stanton. Mr. Kressler is a popular member of the Masons, the Shrine, the Board of Commerce, the Saginaw club, the Canoe club and the Exchange club. William H. Kurtz, chief of police of Saginaw, worked his way upward to that position step by step. He was appointed patrolman when he was twenty-nine years old and, by close attention to duty and faithfulness to the trust imposed in him, he won promotion to the rank of sergeant. Later he was again promoted, receiving the rank of lieutenant. Advancement to a captaincy followed and finally, in February, 1924, he was made chief. Chief Kurtz was born in Frankenmuth, Michigan, January 28, 1861, the son of Henry Kurtz, a native of Germany, and Mrs. Margaret (Schultz) Kurtz. His father died September 20, 1899, at the age of seventy-three years, and his mother passed away July 24, 1915, when she was seventy-eight years old. William H. Kurtz, after finishing his studies in the schools at Frankenmuth, learned the cooperage business, which he followed until 1890. He is a modest, unassuming man, whose chief concern is with the duties of his responsible position. Mr. Kurtz was married, April 24, 1888, to Miss Bertha M. Berlin, of Saginaw, the daughter of Carl and Caroline (Kregenbrink) Berlin, and to this union were born five children: Myra, Walter W., Alvin C., Charlotte and Wilbur W. Mr. Kurtz is a member of the Masonic fraternity, being affiliated with Ancient Landmarks Lodge No. 303, Bay City Consistory, Elf Khurafeh Shrine and Merlin Grotto. He is also a member of the Carablan club, the International Association of Chiefs of Police, and the Michigan State Chiefs of Police, and is prominent in both social and business circles. Oliver W. Lohr, M.D., one of Saginaw county's popular and successful younger physicians, was born January 11, 1894, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the son of Thomas H. and Arthelia Lohr. He received his elementary and high school education in the public schools of Pittsburgh and Berrien Springs, Michigan, and, after he had graduated from high school, he took a lengthy course in medicine and surgery in Washington University, where he specialized in clinical pathology. He received his M. D. degree in 1921, and in that year he began a one year medical interneship in Barnes Hospital, in St. Louis, Missouri. Much valuable knowledge and

Page  160 160 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY experience was gained by Dr. Lohr during the World war, when he spent eighteen months behind the British lines in France with the Army Medical Corps. He dropped his studies in order to thus serve humanity, though he at once resumed his college work when he was honorably discharged from the service in 1919. Dr. Lohr was married, July 3, 1924, to Gernith Francis, a native of Fostoria, Michigan, and a daughter of Alexander and Cora B. Francis. Dr. Lohr has been a resident of Saginaw since 1922, having come to this city in that year to assume charge of the pathological laboratories. He is regarded as a very capable and conscientious physician and, as a result of that regard, enjoys a large and profitable general practice. He is a member of the various local, state and national medical associations, as well as the Masons, the Exchange club and the Canoe club. Much of his professional duties consist of diagnosis and pathological studies in connection with his work in the Saginaw Hospital. His private offices are at 302 South Jefferson street, while his residence is 614 Madison street. Lufkin Rule Company. More than forty years ef continued prosperity have been enjoyed by the Lufkin Rule Company, of Saginaw. This company manufactures almost every kind of measuring devices and maintains a branch factory at Windsor, Canada, and branch sales offices at New York and London. From these offices and from the main offices in Saginaw, the Lufkin Rule Company sells its products in all parts of the United States, Canada, Asia, Africa, South America and, in fact, in every spot on the globe. The Lufkin Rule Company was organized more than forty years ago, as a small manufacturing venture whose success has been phenomenal. This concern has pioneered in the development of many types of measuring devices and is a recognized leader in its field. Not only in America, but wherever measurements are taken, the Lufkin products are known as the standards c(f accuracy. The Lufkin tapes, rules and other articles are marked in the measurements used in the various countries, thus affording the residents of all nations the convenience of such methods of calculation with which they are familiar. The Lufkin Rule Company adheres to a rigid standard of quality in all of its products, with the result that its tapes and rules are the most complete and durable on the market. All of the company's various items are manufactured in its own plants. The raw materials are selected and tested to assure their being the best obtainable for the purpose and only the most highly-skilled mechanics are employed in the manufacturing operations. The parts, as well as the completed articles in which they are assembled, are thoroughly inspected, and especial attention is given to the packing of the goods before shipment. The Lufkin Rule Company products are carried in stock by hardware jobbers, dealers, tool shops, engineering, technical and professional supply houses, stationery stores and other merchandising establishments throughout the world. The manufacture of fine mechanical tools is one of the most recent ventures of the Lufkin company. This

Page  161 I PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY %s 161 branch of activity has been begun on an extensive scale, with the intention of making each tool the best of its kind on the market. Micrometers, calipers, micrometer heads, combination squares, bevel protractors, combination sets, tool makers' spring calipers, dividers, firm-joint outside and inside calipers, pocket-slide calipers, thickness gauges with a patent lock designed to meet the requirements of the automobile trade for a low-priced yet accurate tool, center gauges, depth gauges, metric depth gauges, and rules of all kinds to meet all needs, are now being designed and manufactured by this new department of the Lufkin Rule Company, which has determined that in this respect, as in others, the name "Lufkin" shall reign supreme. In the other sections of the mammoth plant are made the steel measuring tapes, woven measuring tapes, boxwood wood rules, spring-joint rules, miscellaneous wood rules, lumber rules and many other similar items. Since the company was first founded, its growth has been very rapid. Under the guidance of its first owners and officers it has forged its way to the top and held the leadership in its wide field of manufacture. The following men, officers of the company, have been in charge of its affairs since the day it began operations, more than forty years ago: Fred Buck, president and general manager; Theodore Huss, vice-president and treasurer; and H. F. Krauss, secretary, all of whom are highly-respected residents of Saginaw. Augustus H. Mershon, another of the many prominent figures in the lumber industry in Michigan, departed this life May 15, 1885. He was born May 27, 1827, in Rochester, New York, and was the son of Elias J. and Hannah (Southwick) Mershon. When he was yet quite young his parents took him to Trenton, New Jersey, where they resided until he was twelve years old. They then moved to Livingston, New York, and took up their residence at Mt. Morris. Augustus H. Mershon, at the age of seventeen years, began his career as a lumberman while in the employment of a man named Bronson, at Rochester, New York. From the Bronson lumber yard he went to Port Burwell, Ontario, to take charge of a sawmill. He came to East Saginaw early in 1852, and not long afterward became associated with Jesse Hoyt in lumbering operations. T'he first planing mill in East Saginaw was built by Mr. Mershon, who maintained branch yards in Chicago, Illinois, and St. Joseph, Missouri, for the sale of his products. The business continued prosperous until the disastrous panic of 1857, when he was forced to suspend operations and at last had to give up his business. Later he built a planing mill on a site now occupied by the Charles Lee mill, and he operated that plant several years. He was in control of the Haskin, Martin & Wheeler sawmill and salt works near the city, and when a fire destroyed these plants he was placed in charge of the Rochester Salt & Lumber Works in Carrollton. In 1861 he, with the financial aid of Dr. A. G. Bissell, built a planing mill and box factory. He also served as inspectorgeneral of the state of Michigan under the provisions of the old

Page  162 162 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY inspection law one term. He was married in 1885 to Helen Johnson, of Canton, Illinois. She, like her husband, formerly resided in Mt. Morris, New York. To this union were born four children: William Butts Mershon, Sr., Edward Clark, who is now dead, Mrs. William Jarvis Wickes and Elsie C. Mershon. Henry E. Naegely has for years been a foremost member of the Saginaw county bar. He is regarded as one of the most successful lawyers in the state, and is well liked and popular among his colleagues and contemporaries. He is counsel for some of the best-known industrial and mercantile concerns in Michigan and enjoys an enviable reputation in legal and financial circles. Henry E. Naegely was born in Saginaw, March 16, 1869, the son of Henry and Margaret (Breen) Naegely. He obtained his education in the public and private schools of Saginaw and in the literary and law departments of the University of Michigan, where he graduated in 1894 with the degree of Bachelor of Laws, and was president of the graduating class. In the same year he was admitted to the bar. Early in his professional life, Mr. Naegely held various public positions. He was judge of the recorder's court of Saginaw, assistant prosecuting attorney of Saginaw county, and city attorney of Saginaw from 1899 to 1905, earning for himself a favorable reputation in the latter office. During his years as city attorney much legal work and litigation arose, which he disposed of in an able manner for the best interests of the city of Saginaw. Among the most notable of the cases which were tried in the Saginaw circuit court and the Michigan supreme court were actions involving taxation, constitutional law and public improvements. Mr. Naegely has been a student of Michigan history as well as of American history from his early years. The state of Michigan in 1918 arranged for a centennial celebration of the Saginaw Treaty of Lewis Cass, and when this notable event was held, Mr. Naegely was the orator of the day, delivering an inspiring address on the "Treaty and Its Maker," which was later published verbatim in the Michigan Magazine of History. Mr. Naegely, in addition to winning an enviable standing as a lawyer, is known throughout the state for his oratorical abilities. He is a director of the Peoples Savings Bank of Saginaw, and is a member of the Saginaw County Bar association, the Michigan State Bar association and the American Bar association. He is also a member of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion, the Saginaw club, the Saginaw Country club, and various other social and fraternal organizations. Mr. Naegely married, in 1901; Catherine McCoy, of Saginaw, Michigan, the daughter of Timothy H. and Katherine (Fitzpatrick) McCoy. Mr. and Mrs. Naegely have three children: Margaret (Mrs. James F. Heneghan, of New York City), Marie E., and Henry E.:Naegely III. William M. Nagel, secretary and treasurer of the Saginaw Paper Box Company, which was incorporated August 11, 1924, was born in Saginaw in 1882, the son of Mr. and Mrs. William M. Nagel.

Page  163 i PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 163 Prior to his association with the Saginaw Paper Box Company, Mr. Nagel was for several years identified with the American Paper Box Company. Although the Saginaw Paper Box Company is a new enterprise, it has grown to large proportions and is one of the leading enterprises of its kind in the state of Michigan. The Saginaw Paper Box Company each day produces twenty thousand paper boxes, which are sold to industrial concerns in the city. The Lufkin Rule Company, which is mentioned at length in this book, uses a large portion of its output, while other large users are in Flint, Lansing and other Michigan cities. Materials for the manufacture of the boxes are obtained from Kalamazoo and New York paper mills. Approximately twenty-five persons are now employed in the plant throughout the year. Mr. Nagel was married, in 1906, to Clara M. WVeinberg, of Saginaw. They have four children: Harold W., who was born in 1907, is a graduate from the Arthur Hill high school; Violet, who was born in 1910, is a student of the same school; Billy, born in 1912, and Rosalie, born in 1920. Mr. Nagel is a member of the Masons, the Board of Commerce, the Saginaw Automobile association, the Exchange club, the Elks, and the National Association of Box Manufacturers. He is an energetic, upright man who has made a success in life through hard work and fair dealing. He has a host of warm business and personal friends who are pleased to witness his continued prosperity. The present officers of the Saginaw Paper Box Company are as follows: Ernest Snow, president; C. M. Nagel, vice-president; and William M. Nagel, secretary and treasurer. These men are all practical business men and are numbered among the leading citizens of Michigan. John O. Newberry. For thirty-one years John O. Newberry has been a potent factor in the legal profession of Saginaw and no attorney of that city stands higher at the bar. Mr. Newberry was born in New Haven, Macomb county, Michigan, in 1871. His father, John J. Newberry, despite his advanced age of eighty-one years, is still active. Mrs. Almina J. Newberry, wife of John J. Newberry and mother of the subject of this sketch, died in 1910. Jolln O. Newvberry has a sister, Mrs. Ella Munroe, of Saginaw. Another sister, Mrs. Lena E. Duhamel, resides at Grand Rapids, Mich. A brother, Williamtn A., died a number of years ago. John 0. Newberry received his education in the public elementary and high schools of Tuscola county, Michigan, and studied law in the office of the late James H. Davitt, a leading attorney of Saginaw. Mr. Newberry passed the state bar examinations and was admitted to practice in 1895. Since that year he has been a:prominent and successful member of the Saginaw county bar and a dominant factor in the affairs of his community. Though his law business has been of a general nature, he has devoted much of his time to real estate and corporation work. He is affiliated with many legal, fraternal, civic and social organizations, among which are the Shrine and other branches of the Masons being Past Potentate

Page  164 164 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY of Elf Khurafeh Shrine; the Saginaw club, the Grotto club, the National Real Estate association, the Michigan Real Estate association and the Saginaw Real Estate Board; the Saginaw County Bar association, the Michigan Bar association and the American Bar association. He was married, in 1891, to Lillian M. Greenleaf, of Tuscola county, Michigan, the daughter of Henry T. and Sa*loma (Draper) Greenleaf. Mr. and Mrs. Newberry have two daughters. The eldest, Mrs. Mabel L. King, resides in Baltimore, Maryland, and the younger daughter, Marion, is now completing, under the direction of Madame Marcella Sembrich, of New York City, her preparations for a musical career, having already taken vocal instruction in Germany and Switzerland under noted teachers. Mr. Newberry, who has been engaged in real estate operations since 1893, obtained for the Second National Bank the site for its handsome and commodious new building, which is the largest structure in Northern Michigan. Opportunity Manufacturing Company. This thriving industrial corporation was incorporated December 9, 1909, by J. George Schobert, Herman Grunow, Daniel Bauer, Mrs. Matilda Z. Schobert and Edward Winterstein, all of whom, with the exception of J. George Schobert and Mrs. Schobert, have disposed of their interest in the concern. All stock in the enterprise is now owned by twenty-seven stockholders, who have made Mr. Schobert president and general manager of the company. The Opportunity Manufacturing Company started its career in a small frame building on the site of its present three-story brick factory, which measures ninety by three hundred feet. A complete, high-grade line of hardwood burial caskets and funeral supplies are produced by the Opportunity Manufacturing Company, which enjoys an excellent reputation throughout the United States. The hardwood used is first quality quarter-sawed white oak from West Virginia, while the pine, from which the outer shipping boxes are made, comes from the state of Oregon. All linings are made from fiber silk, which is imported from Japan and Switzerland by the company. The factory is modern in every respect, the machinery being the most efficient obtainable and electricity being used as a motive power in all del)artments. All automatic sprinkling system, recently installed, affords protection against fire, and every possible precaution is taken to prevent injury to the company's employes by the various machines in the plant. Thirty men are employed in the factory throughout the year. The Oppor — tunity building is very attractive, and is covered with a mass of climbing ivy vines and surrounded with beautiful plants and shrubs. Mrs. Matilda Z. Schobert, assistant secretary of the Opportunity Manufacturing Company, was born May 18, 1868, in East Saginaw, the daughter of Joachim and Sophia Zimmerman. She received her education in the Germania and Central schools, and for seventeen years was one of the most popular dressmakers in Saginaw. In 1899 she married J. George Schobert, who was born

Page  165 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 165 April 21, 1869, in Bavaria, Germany, the son of Andrew and Margaret Schobert. Mr. Schobert came to the United States when he was sixteen years old and was employed as an expert cabinetmaker in Saginaw and other cities until 1909, when he founded the company of which he is now president and general manager. Mr. and Mrs. Schobert have three children, as follows: Rosina, who is the wife of Lawrence Lindley, of Prosperity, Pennsylvania; Martin M., who is connected with the Opportunity company; and Alfred G., who is a trusted employe of the American State Bank at Detroit. Much credit is due Mr. and Mrs. Schobert for the able manner in which they have guided the destinies of the Opportunity Manufacturing Company, developing that concern from a small and precarious venture into one of the largest and most favoraby known enterprises of its kind in the United States. Howard F. Patterson, one of the most successful of Saginaw's younger real estate brokers, was born in that city, August 21, 1895, the son of Egbert H. and Sarah A. (Fenno) Patterson. He received his elementary and high school education in the schools of his native city, and graduated from the University of Michigan in 1921 with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. He at once entered the real estate, insurance and surety bond business conducted by his father, and is now recognized as a young man of great ability in mercantile pursuits. In 1921 he married Hazel M. Paro, of Milford, Michigan, the daughter of John E. and Sarah B. Paro. Mr. Patterson is a member of the Junior Board of Commerce, the Saginaw Real Estate Board, the Elks, the Masons and the Shrine. Mrs. Patterson is an active member of the Ames Methodist Episcopal church, and is also vice-president of the Saginaw Woman's club and a member of the American Association of University Women. Russell G. Patterson, treasurer of Saginaw county, was born in Saginaw in 1896. His father, E. H. Patterson, died in October, 1920, at the age of fifty years, while holding the office of county treasurer. E. H. Patterson held various public offices. From 1904 until 1908 he was alderman of Saginaw, and from 1908 until 1912 he was county registrar of deeds. In 1918 he was elected road commissioner, and during 1919' and 1920 he was county treasurer. lHe was active in the real estate and insurance business aside from his duties as a public official, and had thousands of staunch friends in the community. He was a member of the Masons, the Board of Commerce and various clubs in Saginaw. His widow, Mrs. Sarah (Fenno) Patterson, a resident of Saginaw, is now in her fifty-ninth year. She is the mother of four children: Howard, Clara, Sarah and Russell G. Howard and Russell G. now own the well-established real estate business conducted for so many years by their father. Russell G. Patterson graduated from high school in Sag. inaw in 1916 and in 1917 enlisted in the United States navy to serve during the World war. After receiving preliminary training, he was assigned to a submarine destroyer, on which he remained during the last months of the conflict. When he was hon

Page  166 166 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY orably discharged from the navy in March, 1919, he returned to Saginaw. On April 1, 1919, he was appointed to the office of deputy county treasurer and continued in that capacity until January 1, 1925, when he assumed his present office. He was married, in 1924, to Katherine S. Schury, who was born in Saginaw in 1896. Treasurer Patterson is a member of the Blue Lodge, Chapter, Shrine and Grotto of the Masons, the Elks, the American Legion and the Saginaw Country club. Mrs. Patterson is popular in social organizations of the city. Aaron Kortright Penney, one of the first residents of Saginaw, was born in Orange county, New York, May 28, 1817. In his boyhood he served an apprenticeship to a ship carpenter, becoming so skilled and acquiring such a thorough knowledge of the woods used that he was sent West to locate ship timber, landing at Saginaw May 5, 1848. Immediately grasping the vast and apparently unlimited possibilities of the forests extending far to the north and west, he at once entered the lumber industry. Settling on a farm near Selina, situated in the section of the city now traversed by Washington avenue and Center street, he immediately became associated with the firm of Gordon, Penney & Co., manufacturers of salt and owners of a salt well. This firm had its plant on a site near the Cass river and the "town line" bridge. Later he was a partner of Jesse Quackenbush, who operated the old Copeland mill near the Lee mill, on South Water street in Saginaw. In 1861. Mr Penney sold the farm mentioned above and soon afterward disposed of his timber interests. He then removed to Canada, where there ensued a period of several years in which he was active in the development of oil wells. On leaving Canada he returned to Saginaw, where he engaged in the milling business as a member of the firm of Penney & Chapman. The mill was a grist mill, and was situated on Genesee street, on a spot now occupied by the Woolworth store. Later acquiring a plot of ground at the corner of Franklin street and Genesee, he erected, in 1876, a three-story brick building, and founded a clothing business which was conducted by him and his son, Charles J. Penney, until the year 1878, when the blusiness was purchased by the late James Mack. In 1843 Mr. Penney married Marie Louise Romar, of New York. Four children were born to this union: Charles R., Sarah E., wife of Thomas Saylor, Alice L., and Harvey A. Mrs. Marie Penney died in 1884, and in 1888 Mr. Penney married Mrs. Caroline Taylor, of Williamston, Michigan, who survives him. Mr. Penney retired from active business in 1878 and enjoyed excellent health until a short time previous to his death in 1907. He was an enthusiastic lover of outdoor sports, and he indulged in frequent hunting trips, giving up these excursions only after he reached his eighty-eighth year. In religion he embraced the teachings of the Spiritualist church, and he often entertained in his home on South Jefferson street many distinguished followers of that faith. Mr. Penney died from pneumonia in March, 1907, being in full possession of all his facul

Page  167 I i PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 167 I ties and powers until but a very short time before he passed away. Harvey A. Penney LL.M., of Saginaw, is now serving his fifth consecutive term as state senator. He has had a brilliant career as a public official and an even more successful future is predicted for him by his many friends and admirers. Senator Penney was born of English parents, April 26, 1866, in the house which adjoins his present residence in Saginaw. He attended the public schools in his native city, where he graduated from high school, and then took a course in the law school of the University of Michigan, where he received the degree of Bachelor of Laws in 1889. In 1890 he took a post-graduate course in law and for his efforts in this respect he received the first diploma given by the University law school conferring the degree of Master of Laws. Returning to Saginaw, he quickly became a successful lawyer and a leader in civic affairs. He held the office of alderman more than six years, was a member of the Board of Assessment and Review, and in 1912 was appointed local "white slave" officer for the city of Saginaw for the United States Government, a position he held until in 1914. Senator Penney was married, October 7, 1896, to Sarah E. Procunier. As a member of the Republican party, he was elected state representative in 1914, and on the strength of his record in that office he bested his opponent in a race for a seat in the state senate in 1916. He is now serving his fifth term in the senate from the Twentysecond district, which comprises Saginaw county, having been reelected in 1918, 1920, 1922 and 1924 and receiving, in the latter election, a very large majority. I-le is a member of the Masons, the Odd Fellows, the Knights of Pythias, the Elks, the Saginaw Country club and various other social and fraternal organizations. Ile is the author of the Penney Rat Bill, which provided for a bounty on rats. Miles James Purcell, LL.B., the subject of this sketch, was born in Zilwaukee township, Saginaw county, Michigan, August 25, 1868, the son of James and Elizabeth (Gaffney) Purcell. His father, who was a pioneer in the solar salt fields of Saginaw county, died in 1874. His mother died on July 4, 1912, leaving besides her son, Miles J., a daughter, Helen. Miles J. Purcell received his elelmentary and high school edlucation in the public schools of the township of Carrollton, where he lived, and in the high school of East Saginaw, Michigan, from which he graduated in 1887. After his graduation he taught school for two years, and then entered the law office of Tarsney & Weadock, where he remained as a law clerk and student for substantially two years. He was admitted to practice upon examination in 1891, after which he entered the University of Michigan as a law student, graduating in 1892 with the degree of Bachelor of Laws, having accomplished the two-year course in the space of one college year. He then returned to the City of Saginaw and became associated with the Hon. George W. Weadock, the law firm of Tarsney & Weadock having been dissolved, and on January 1, 1893, entered into a co-partnership with

Page  168 168 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY Mr. Weadock, which continued for fourteen years. During this l)eriod of time Mr. Purcell served for more than five years on the school board of Saginaw, East Side. In January, 1907, he assumed the duties of prosecuting attorney of Saginaw county, having been elected in the previous fall. The assumption of the duties of this office necessitated his retirement from the firm of Weadock & Purcell, which had continued during the period of time above stated. In the office of prosecuting attorney he made an enviable record. After the term of prosecuting attorney expired, Mr. Purcell became associated with Fred L. Travers, in the partnership of Purcell & Travers, which continued until the death of Mr. Travers in 1910. His practice has been of a civil character, largely devoted to the trial of cases. In 1920 Mr. Purcell was appointed an assistant to the Solicitor of Internal Revenue, his designation being "Trial Counsel." In this office he had supervision, so far as the office of the Solicitor of Internal Revenue was concerned, over the preparation and trial of revenue cases throughout the United States. He directed the preparation of briefs for the use of the United States attorneys in the different jurisdictions, conferred with the different lawyers in the solicitor's office, who were delegated to write briefs and assist in the trial of cases. During a portion of this time he was chairman of the conference committee in the office of the Solicitor of Internal Revenue, and was at the head of the penal division. He also argued revenue cases in courts of appeal at different points, and assisted in the praparation of briefs. He was also appointed as assistant to the Attorney General of the United States in the preparation and trial of three large tax cases in the city of Chicago, and personally conducted the trial of one of these, being the case of United States vs. G. H. Hammond Company. In this case, after a trial of five weeks duration, a judgment was secured by the United States for substantially $294,000. This case, as well as the two companion cases, was subsequently compromised and adjusted under the law, whereby the United States received very substantial results. When Mr. Purcell entered upon his duties as assistant to the Solicitor of Internal Revenue, Hon. E. A. Tessin was associated with him as partner in his Saginaw law office. Mr. Tessin was subsequently appointed judge of probate for Saginaw county. During the time prior to this appointment, Mr. Tessin was in charge of the business of Purcell & Tessin while Mr. Purcell was absent, and the affairs of the office were conducted in a manner very satisfactory to both partners. After Mr. Tessin had assumed the duties of probate judge, Mr. Purcell formed a partnership with Frank A. Picard, the firm name being Purcell & Picard. Mr. Picard was subsequently appointed city attorney of the City of Saginaw. This relationship is a very satisfactory one. Mr. Purcell retired, permanently, from connection with the Bureau of Internal Revenue, in February, 1925, and has since devoted all of his time to his general practice. Mr. Purcell is Past Exalted Ruler of the Benevolent and Protective Order

Page  169 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 169 of Elks, Lodge 47, of Saginaw, Michigan; a member of the Saginaw club and the Saginaw Country club, and the Knights of Columbus. He is married and lives at 434 North Washington avenue, Saginaw, Michigan. Remer Brothers, dealers in building supplies and fuel, Saginaw, annually sell approximately one thousand five hundred cars of coal to the retail trade in that city. Forty-five men are employed in the yards and on the trucks which deliver the firm's products about the city. Anthracite, as well as bituminous coal, is received by boat and by rail at the Remer Brothers' plant, which is situated so as to have ready access to rail and water connections. In 1870 the Remer Brothers Company operated two lime kilns, burning rock from Kelley's Island, Lake Erie, in open pot kilns fed by wood from Michigan forests. When there ceased to be a surplus of wood refuse from the lumber mills, the lime kilns were abandoned. Since that time the company has given its attention to its coal and building supply business, which has grown to huge proportions. Two yards for the convenience of the public are operated, one on the east side of Saginaw and one on the west side. Officers of the company are: Henry C. Remer, president; Herbert C. Remer, vice-president and treasurer; and Clarence Remer, secretary. Ezra Richardson, for many years identified with the lumbering industry of the Saginaw Valley, was born in Burlington, Maine, November 7, 1838. His boyhood was spent in his native place, where he acquired his early education in the district schools. Like the majority of boys in those days, he set out early to make his way in the world, and added to his knowledge of men and affairs by hard work in the exacting school of experience. He came to Michigan in 1860 and settled in East Saginaw the same year. Although young in years, he quickly realized the value and possibilities of the vast timber resources of this section of the state, and at once became engaged in the lumber industry. By strict assiduity to business he gradually rose upon the wave of prosperity that swept the Saginaw Valley thereafter. In 1878 Mr. Richardson formed a copartnership with Waldo A. Avery. Extensive lumber operations were conducted by the firm in Michigan until 1896, when they began operations on a large tract of timber which had been acquired in the Duluth, Minnesota, lumber district. Operations were successfully conducted in this locality for many years. While examining a large tract of Minnesota timber with Mr. Avery, which the firm had recently purchased on the north shore of Lake Superior, Mr. Richardson was suddenly stricken with heart trouble and died at Cross River, Minnesota, on November 30, 1901. The funeral was held in Saginaw on December 4, and the interment was in Forest Lawn cemetery. Mr. Richardson is survived by his widow Delia A. Richardson, four sons, Lloyd M. and Robert K., of Saginaw, Ard E., of Lansing, Michigan, Howard C., of Pasadena, California, and one daughter, Mrs. Ara R. Kline, of Saginaw. Mr. Richardson was rather retiring in his associations and was noted

Page  170 170 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY for his quiet and unostentatious demeanor. In business as well as social circles he was characterized by his probity. Personally he was genial and companionable and was widely respected. His friendships were legion and he avoided antagonisms, and it was said he had no personal enemy in life. In politics he was a loyal member of the Republican party, and his church affiliations were with the First Congregational church, where he was a regular attendant. After his death his estate was formed into a corporation, the stockholders all being members of the family, and the corporation is named The E. Richardson Company, with headquarters in Saginaw, Michigan, and carrying investments in lumber operations in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and timber investments in the state of Oregon. Edward P. Roeser, clerk of Saginaw county, was born in Saginaw, May 7, 1873, the son of Otto Roeser, who was judge of the Saginaw county probate court twenty-four years, and Mrs. Susan Roeser. Judge Otto Roeser, who was born in Germany, died in 1885. He received his early education in his native land, coming to the United States in 1848 and settling in Saginaw soon afterward. He was always much interested in politics and public affairs, and exerted a powerful and wholesome influence in his community. He served thirty-six years as a member of the board of education, in which work he was deeply interested. He labored indefatigably to advance the cause of education in Saginaw county, and the present excellent standards of the schools in that county are due in part to the plans made and foundations laid by Judge Roeser many years ago. Having come to Saginaw county when it was yet largely a wilderness, he lived to see it develop into an enterprising community in whose civic and moral welfare he was deeply concerned. He was one of the charter members of the Saginaw lodge of Masons, and held the thirty-second degree of that order. His widow, who survived him until 1896, when she died in her sixtieth year, was the mother of seven children: Otto W., Adolph G., Anna C., Mary, Lena C., Frieda W. and Edward P., the subject of this sketch. Edward P. Roeser attended the public schools in Saginaw, graduating from high school anld spending several years in clerical whork in that city. In 1901 he ventured in business for himself, opening a retail cigar and tobacco store, which he still owns. Following the footsteps of his father, who was judge of the Saginaw probate court from 1860 until 1884, Edward P. Roeser became interested in public affairs. From 1906 until 1912 he was registrar of the probate court. In 1916 he was appointed deputy county clerk and in 1920, in recognition of his excellent service to the community in the above mentioned offices, he was elected county clerk. He was re-elected in 1922 and in 1924, and is thus the only man ever to hold the office of county clerk three terms. This fact in itself is a testimonial to the high regard in which Mr. Roeser is held by his fellow-citizens. He married, in 1898, Rose A. Davis, who was born in New York in 1874. Mr. and Mrs. Roeser have

Page  171 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 171 one son, Edward S., who was born in Saginaw in 1901. He is a graduate of the Saginaw high school and the Ferris Institute, and has spent one year in the literary department of the University of Michigan. After he finished his education, he spent one year in newspaper work, but is now holding the office of deputy county clerk. Edward P. Roeser is a member of the Masons, the Board of Commerce, the Elks, the Moose, the Pioneer and the Antlers' clubs, the Grotto, and the Grotto Country club. Mr. Roeser is a member of the Eastern Star and the Woman's club of Saginaw. William Roethke Floral Company, of Saginaw. Modern greenhouses, covering one hundred and seventy-five thousand square feet. of ground, twenty acres of land devoted to the growing of shrubs and plants and two retail stores, at 335 South Washington avenue and at 200 South Michigan avenue, are owned by the William Roethke Floral Company, which is said by expert florists to be one of the most complete establishments of its kind in the state of Michigan. The company's sales during 1925 included approximately one hundred and fifty thousand roses and almost two hundred thousand carnations, in addition to large quantities of other flowers and plants. Seventy-five persons are employed by the Roethke company, which uses three motor trucks in the delivery of its wares. The business was founded by William Roethke who, with his wife and five children, left Germany in 1873 to come to America. They arrived in the United States in May, of that year, and came directly to Saginaw. Mr. Roethke at once purchased two acres of land on Wheeler street and started, in a small way, what is now the huge Roethke floral business. In 1882 he prospered sufficiently to enable him to purchase the land now occupied by the company at 1717 Gratiot avenue. In 1909 Carl and Otto, sons of the founder of the company, assumed control of the business, which continued to prosper. In October, 1922, because of impaired health, Otto Roethke sold his interest in the enterprise to his brother Carl. On January 25, 1923, Carl Roethke was taken by death, and the William Roethke Floral Company is now ably managed by his widow, Margaret Roethke, mother of two sons and one daughter. Mrs. Roethke has adapted herself to the demands of business, though she still retains a keen love for her home and family. She is said to be very energetic and capable, and the continued success and increasing business of the Roethke company more than prove that assertion. Mrs. Roethke is a member of the Board of Commerce, the Florists Telegraph association, the American Association of Florists, and the Women's Business association. Her eldest son, William, is a student in the law department of the University of Michigan. Carl, her younger son, is at home, and Violet, her daughter, is taking a college preparatory course at the University of Michigan. The C. L. Roethke estate owns one hundred and sixty acres of reserve land, on which Mrs. Roethke grows, under state protection, beautiful shrubs, pines, willows and other trees.

Page  172 172 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY The Ruggles Motor Truck Company, of Saginaw, was incorporated in 1921 with a capital stock of two million dollars. Present officers of the company are as follows: J. W. Fordney, president; R. J. Goldie, vice-president and general manager; Charles F. Kerry, treasurer; and E. L. Smith, secretary. The Ruggles plant covers an area of approximately forty acres, employs at present approximately two hundred men, to whom it pays a total of about three hundred thousand dollars in wages and salaries each year. Adequate switching facilities are provided by direct connections with the Pere Marquette and Michigan Central railways. Ruggles Motor Truck Company manufactures a complete line of highgrade motor trucks and busses, ranging in capacity from one to three tons on commercial models and from fifteen to thirty-three passenger capacity on the busses. The company is well represented in all parts of the United States and in many foreign countries and its production during the past five years places it among the leading manufacturers of motor trucks and busses in the United States. R. J. Goldie, vice-president and general manager of Ruggles Motor Truck Company, has had a wide and varied experience in his vocation. He was born in Canada and came to Michigan when quite young, with his parents. After leaving school he spent some time in railroad work in California. Returning to Michigan, he was employed by the Oakland Motor Company and from that time until now he has been one of the foremost men in automotive industry. He spent five years with the Chalmers Motor Company, two with the Metal Products Corporation of Cleveland, seven years with the Columbia Axle Company of Cleveland and has been general manager of the Ruggles Motor Truck Company for the past four years. Ezra Rust, deceased, whose memory is ever an inspiration to the people of Saginaw, was born at Wells, Rutland county, Vermont, September 23, 1832. His parents, natives of New England, removed to Michigan in 1837, settling at Newport (now Marine City), on the St. Clair river. Ezra spent his boyhood on his father's farm, attending the district school until, at the age of fourteen, he went to work in his brother's sawmill at Newport. The following three years of his boyhood were spent in jacking logs, which occupation consisted in raising logs by steam power from the river boom to the sawing table in the mill. In 1849 he left the mill, entering upon a term of steam boating, serving the first year in the capacity of second engineer of the steamer "Pacific" of E. B. Ward's line of lake steamers. The following year he became chief engineer of the same vessel, which then plied between Chicago, Milwaukee and New Buffalo, Michigan. In 1854 Mr. Rust became chief engineer of the "E. K. Collins," of the same line, which plied between Cleveland and Sault Ste. Marie. This ship met with disaster on October 8, of that year, at the mouth of the Detroit river, ending his steamboat career. Early in the spring of 1855 Mr. Rust returned to Newport, entering into an agreement wih his brothers

Page  [unnumbered] VoIT",..........

Page  173 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 173 to operate their sawmill. He continued in the work until the fall of 1858, at which time he was compl)elled to abandon the mill on account of lack of stock. Undaunted l)y past misfortune, he accel)te(l a situation in Cuba, managing a large sugar pllantation for nine months, returning soon after to Michigan and joining his brothers and James Hay at Salina, where they successfully operated a mill under the firm name of Rust & Hay until the death of Mr. Hay, November 15, 1881. This firm built and operated a sawmill at Salina and in 1862 built a salt works at South Saginaw. In 1865 Mr. Rust became interested in another firm operating under the name of Rust, Eaton & Company, which carrier on an extensive business of logging and milling with great success. A partnership was formed in the year 1885, with C. E. Wheeler for the purpose of conducting a business specializing in buying, selling and exchanging timber lands in Michigan and surrounding states. This lucrative business was in existence until the death of Mr. Wheeler in 1907. During this time Mr. Rust had acquired mnuch timber land in Minnesota, which later proved to be rich in iron ore, and he immediately became interested in the development thereof. In 1871 the firm of Rust & Hay, in connection with Butman & Rust, purchased the old mill on Seventeenth street in Bay City from James Watson and M. W. O'Brien, and after extensive remodeling operated it successfully for a number of years. During the many vicissitudes of his busy life, Mr. Rust ever was keenly sensitive to the interests and misfortunes of his fellowmen, expressing his sympathy in many acts of charity. His greatest gift to the city was Ezra Rust Park, which he developed and beautified. This park, located in the heart of the city, is a monumental tribute to this great citizen. Mr. Rust was a man of strong and lovable personality, of kindly open countenance, and large, commanding figure, being the cynosure of attention wherever he went. He was a brilliant conversationalist and possessed a remarkably lucid memory. Mr. Rust was a charter member of the Detroit club, a member of the Athletic club of Detroit, and a founder of the Saginaw lodge of the Masonic order. Mr. Rust was married to Emma B. Mather, of St. Clair, on November 25, 1856. To this union were born two (laughters, wlo (ldied in infancy. Mrs. Rust departed this life May 9, 1913. On April 28, 1914, Mr. Rust married Mrs. Estelle Sturtz, of Ann Arbor. She and a daughter, Maxine, survive him. Ezra Rust passed away January 4, 1918, in Los Angeles, and in his death Saginaw suffered a great loss. Saginaw Mattress Company. This company started manufacturing operations in 1916 at 317 South Hamilton street, where a very bad fire, in 1921, caused a loss of seven thousand dollars in materials and equipment. The company again started in business at 318 Van Buren street and, in 1924, moved to its present advantageous location at the corner of Perry and South Hamilton streets. The Saginaw Mattress Company's plant is equipped with the most modern machinery and uses only the very best materials in the

Page  174 174 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY making of its products. A general wholesale and retail business is carried on, shipments being made to all parts of the world. During 1925 large orders were received from customers in Italy and Australia, indicating that the Saginaw Mattress Company is indeed making rapid strides in its field of endeavor. In addition to the regular office help and sales force, six skilled workmen are employed throughout the year in the factory. George R. Bishop, head of the Saginaw Mattress Company, was born in Saginaw, May 28, 1886, the son of John A. and Lucinda L. (LaCount) Bishop. He received his education in the schools of his native city and early in life engaged in a business career. May 2, 1905, he married Mary O. Parker, who was born in Isabella county, Michigan, the daughter of Thomas and Leha (Goodrich) Parker, and to this union were born four children: Frederick Eugene, who is in the United States Navy, at Brooklyn, New York, Louise M., Vera J. and Helen R. Mr. Bishop owns his factory, a two-story brick building measuring forty by sixty feet, and a modern, comfortable home at 408 Mackinaw street. The Saginaw Press, a weekly newspaper, is published by the Saginaw Publishing Company. This corporation was organized in 1912 by Emmet L. Beach and George W. Baxter, with a capital of ten thousand dollars, which has since been increased to twenty thousand dollars. Its first print shop was situated at 210 North Hamilton street, and the paper was published daily (except Sunday) under the name of the Saginaw Evening Press. So rapid was the increase in the business that the original quarters became very cramped, and about three years later Mr. Baxter erected, at 410 -412 Hancock street, a modern brick building with high basement arranged and adapted especially to the requirements of the printing and publishing business. The daily newspaper field was very well covered and the difficulties of printing a daily journal were such that, in December, 1912, it was deemed expedient to change the Evening Press to a weekly paper. This was done and since that time the paper has appeared regularly as the Saginaw Press. It has a wide circulation throughout Saginaw county and is everywhere al)preciated on account of its clean reading pages, its vigorous editorials and valuable farm and country news. It prints from eight to ten pages weekly, and for the last ten years, and one year at a previous time, was the official paper for printing the county records. In addition to publishing the newspaper, the company does a general job and book printing business, and its completeequipment affords every facility for printing directories, pamphlets, catalogues, etc. On January 1, 1917, the Saginaw Valley News was taken over by the Saginaw Publishing Company and consolidated with the Press, and on October 1, of the same year, the Saginawian, an old weekly newspaper, was united with the Press, leaving the latter paper the only newspaper published on the West Side. Arthur A. Schupp is president and general manager of the A.

Page  175 I PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 175 F. Bartlett Company, one of the flourishing industrial concerns of Saginaw. The Bartlett Company, which manufactures more than one hundred and twenty-five tons of high-grade grey iron castings monthly, also does a large amount of structural steel and machine work in its modern plant, which employs a force of twenty-five skilled workmen. Approximately thirty-five tons of steel are machined and prepared for the use of contractors and builders each month by the Bartlett Company, which ships this part of its output to northern and western points. The Fredericksen Company, which operates a non-ferrous foundry in which first-quality bronze, aluminum and white metals are cast into specified parts for the automobile trade, and which is in the same building in which that of the A. F. Bartlett Company is located, is also under the supervision of Mr. Schupp, who is a member of the Saginaw and the Michigan State Manufacturers' associations. Mr. Schupp was born in Saginaw, December 27, 1895. He graduated from the school of mechanical engineering of the University of Michigan in 1917. In that year he offered his services to this country as an officer in the experimental department of the Army Air Service and served in that capacity with the American Expeditionary Forces in France. He was returned to the United States and given an honorable discharge in 1919. For one year, after he returned to civilian life, he was employed by the M. L. Wilcox Motor Company in the manufacture of automobile parts, and since June, 1921, he has been in charge of operations of the A. F. Bartlett Company and the Fredericksen Company. Mr. Schupp was married on September 5, 1925, to Miss Gertrude Olds, of Cheboygan, Michigan, and they maintain a pleasant home in Saginaw. Philip J. Smith. Few manufacturers of machine tools have had a wider or more varied experience in their work than Philip J. Smith, of Saginaw, whose pulverizing machines are now used in factories in all parts of the United States. Mr. Smith was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, July 14, 1871, the son of John J. and Elizabeth (Henrich) Smith. Philip J. Smith attended the public schools in Scranton, Pennsylvania, and Girard College, Philadelphia. After he had completed his education he followed in the footstels of his father, a blacksmith and wood-worker, by serving a brief aI)aprenticeship in the lattcr's shop. H-e then began working in the shops of the Lackawanna railroad, where he learned the machinist's trade and did considerable work in the coach shops, freight car shops, foundry and drafting room. Thus prepared for a career as a mechanic, he left the Lackawanna shops and sought other lines of employment. He worked for some time in the shops of the Loew Machine Company, in New York City, going from there to the Dixon Locomotive Company in Scranton, Pennsylvania. He also worked for the Nordyke & Marmon Company, automobile manufacturers, at Indianapolis, Indiana, as a machinist and patternmaker, and was later employed in a similar capacity in Dayton, Ohio. From the latter city he went to Washington, D. C., where,

Page  176 176 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY as a patternmaker in the employ of the Navy Department, he helped to build, during the Spanish-American war in 1898, three battleships. Still later he was a trusted employe of the Reed Engine Works at Oil City, Pennsylvania. He gained valuable experience and knowledge while employed in the huge plant of the Brown & Sharpe Tool Manufacturing Company at Providence, Rhode Island. After leaving this concern, he worked in the factory of a Columbus, Ohio, manufacturer of engines. In 1906 he came to Detroit, Michigan, where he founded the Detroit Machine Company, makers of an improved line of veneering machines. As the concern prospered he bought the interests of other stockholders in the enterprise and moved the plant to Monroe, Michigan. After three years in that city he came to Saginaw, where he has since been a dominant factor in the business and industrial life of the city. In Saginaw he has carried out certain ideas he had cherished for years. One of these ideas, which has proved to be of great value, embraced the building of a new type of pulverizing machine. This device so thoroughly decimates and grinds waste paper, old rubber, wood and other substances, as to render them readily capable of being re-worked into new materials. These machines, which have a large number of uses, are being shipped to all parts of the United States and Canada. Mr. Smith has invented and tested a number of other labor-saving machines and devices, one of which, an improved wood-working machine, known as a feeder and joiner, does several times as much work as other machines of its kind with but one-third of the labor cost. Mr. Smith has many plans for future development on which he is constantly at work. Despite his many accomplishments, he is of a quiet, unassuming nature, and speaks very modestly of his success as an inventor and manufacturer. Mr. Smith married, in September, 1898, Bertha Bornstein, of Dayton, Ohio, the daughter of Rudolph and Alice (Shoe) Bornstein. Mr. Smith is a member of all bodies of the Masons, while Mrs. Smith is a member of the Eastern Star. The Sonora Phonograph Company, Inc., of Saginaw, was incorporated in 1924 to manufacture a complete line of phonographs, radio cabinets, panels and numerous other parts for the radio trade. The Sonora factory now has a floor area of but little less than a half million square feet, and employs approximately eight hundred and fifty employes. The company's products, produced during 1925, had a value of close to four millions of dollars, and the factory, equipment and materials usually held in reserve for manufacturing purposes are valued at about five millions of dollars. The Sonora Phonograph Company was organized in 1917 by George E. Brighton, who is now a manufacturer of radio tubes at New York City, but the enterprise owes its origin to John Herzog, of Saginaw, present factory manager of the concern, who started the manufacture of musical goods twenty-five years ago with a capital of three hundred dollars. Mr. Herzog, a man of vision and great business ability, who possessed a remarkable aptitude for devising

Page  177 I P'ERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 177 new instruments, built up his business from that humble beginning to what is now perhaps the largest plant of its kind in Michigan. Though his factory has passed through two periods of expansion and re-organization, Mr. Herzog still remains as the guiding head of its activities, while S. O. Martin, president of the concern, supervises the selling of its products. During the twenty-five years Mr. Herzog has been a manufacturer his plant has been increased in size by thirteen separate and distinct additions. John Herzog was born in Frankenmuth, Michigan, September 30, 1876, the son of John and Elizabeth (Weisse) Herzog. His father was born in Germany, came to Frankenmuth, Michigan, in 1848, and there en-., gaged in farming for many years. Mrs. Herzog, mother of the manager of the Sonora factory, was also born in Germany. Both the father and mother are now deceased. John Herzog, after attending the district schools near his home, spent two years in the study of art in Europe. Returning to the United States, he completed a course in the International Business College and then, having been interested in wood-working all his life, he turned his attention to the manufacture of furniture and phonographs of beauty and distinctive tonal qualities. How well he has succeeded is shown by the fact that his factory is now the largest in the city of Saginaw. In 1900 Mr. Herzog married Emma Graebner, who was born in 1885 in Saginaw, the daughter of Christopf and Katie (Huber) Graebner. Mr. and Mrs. Herzog have two children: John L., who was born June 4, 1903, and is now a student in the engineering department of the University of Michigan, and Clara M. K., who was born October 26, 1905. Mr. and Mrs. Herzog are members of the Lutheran church. Mr. Herzog is a member of the Board of Commerce, the Rotary club, the American Automobile association and the Michigan Manufacturers' association. He is a man of charitable instincts and winning personality, who has thousands of warm friends throughout the state. Gilbert M. Stark, lawyer, of Saginaw, has been mayor of that city two terms, being elected to that office with the support of the Democratic party. Mr. Stark was born in Clinton county, Michigan, August 28, 1853, the son of George R. and Lucina P. (Chapin) Stark, honored pioneer residlents of that county, who removed to Saginaw in 1862. (illbert M. Stark graduated from the law school of the University of Michigan in 1875, and in the same year was admitted to the practice of his profession in the courts of Michigan. He later formed a partnership with Benton Hanchett. This association was continued with great success until 1893, when Mr. Stark withdrew from the firm of Hanchett, Stark & Hanchett, to give his time to the interests of a large group of private clients. Mr. Stark has done much legal work for persons interested in lumber and banking operations, and has acted as administrator, executor or trustee in the closing of several large estates. He has been honored with various public offices during his long and active career. He spent twelve years as president of the

Page  178 178 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY West Side board of education, and during 1889 and 1890 was mayor of Saginaw. He was a director of the old Saginaw Savings Bank and a member of the war emergency board of Saginaw county. He is a member of the Board of Commerce, the Saginaw City club and other clubs and societies. In 1884 he married Helen Little, who was born in Saginaw, a daughter of the Hon. Charles D. Little. To this union were born a son, Gilbert Little Stark, deceased, and a daughter, Mrs. Pamela Stark Humphrey, who now resides in Cleveland, Ohio, and another daughter, Helen Stark Smith, who now resides in Detroit, Michigan. C. C. Stevens, superintendent and assistant manager of the Saginaw Ladder Company, was born October 12, 1890, in Saginaw, Michigan, the son of W. F. Stevens, general manager and treasurer of the Saginaw Ladder Company, and Mrs. Susan F. Stevens. William F. Stevens, a native of Canada, came to Saginaw as a young man and for many years has been actively engaged in the lumber and shingle manufacturing business in that city. In 1903 he founded the present company, which has since become known as the Saginaw Ladder Company, makers of large quantities of step and extension ladders, wheelbarrows and poultry shipping crates. Ten traveling salesmen are continuously employed in the sale of the company's products, which consist of approximately a half million feet of ladders and fifteen thousand wheelbarrows yearly. Charles C. Stevens worked in the mines in northern Canada four years after he finished school and then served an apprenticeship under his father in the wood-working industry. C. C. Stevens was married, in 1912, to Hazel Elizabeth Brown, of Saginaw, Michigan. To this union have been born three children: William F., Charles B., and Martha J. The Saginaw Ladder Company is a member of the Board of Commerce and C. C. Stevens is secretary of the National Ladder Manufacturers' association. George W. Stewart, M.D., physician and surgeon, of Saginaw, was born in Ontario, Canada, June 19, 1865, the son of Alexander and Susan (Shipley) Stewart, farming people. George W. Stewart received his early education in Canada, where he graduated from Strathroy high school in 1884. Coming to the University of Michigan in 1889, he finished the medical course provided in that institution in 1892, when he received the degree of M. D. Desiring to fit himself in the best l)ossible manner for the practice of his profession, he went to London, England, where he spent one year in study of special subjects under the tutelage of noted professors. In 1893 he returned to the United States and at once came to Saginaw, where he has since been regarded as an able, learned and conscientious physician and surgeon. He has spared no expense or effort in keeping abreast of the latest developments in medicine and surgery, and since coming to Saginaw he has taken post-graduate work in the Montreal, Canada, General Hospital. He was a member of the examining board which had charge of enlistments from Saginaw county during the World war, and has been mayor of

Page  179 I: PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 179 Saginaw four years. He rendered a great service to the community as president of the Saginaw I(ard of health. lie was married, in 1903, to Celia Wirtz, of Saginaw, Michigan, the daughter of George and Ann Wirtz. Dr. and Mrs. Stewart have three children. The eldest, Angeline 0., who is society editor of the News-Courier; the second child, Jane C., student at West Chester Seminary, West Chester, Pennsylvania; and the third, George W., Junior, attending high school. Dr. Stewart is now a surgeon member of the staff of the Woman's Hospital, Saginaw. Stork Manufacturing and Engineering Company. This concern was formerly known as the Stork Motor Company and was established in 1907 in a building at the corner of Hancock and Niagara streets. F. W. Stork, founder of the company, was born in Saginaw county, January 4, 1881, the son of William and Sophia (Reinke) Stork. He attended the rural schools near his farm home and in 1902 came to Saginaw to serve an apprenticeship in a machine shop. This venture proved to be a well-chosen one, as it made possible the founding, many years later, of the Stork Motor Company. Mr. Stork's natural abilities, coupled with his earnestness and eagerness to familiarize himself with all phases of the metal-working industry, soon won for him the respect and the confidence of his associates and employers, so that when he decided to engage in business for himself he did not lack friendly assistance and support. The Stork Motor Company, which manufactures an improved line of marine internal combustion engines which are used in a wide variety of power boats, was incorporated in 1914. In 1924 the name was changed to the Stork Manufacturing and Engineering Company and was incorporated under that title with the following representatives business men and manufacturers as officers: George W. Morley, president; John A. Anderson, vice-president; Walter D. Hoist, secretary; and Fred W. Stork, treasurer. In addition to building large numbers of marine gasoline engines, the Stork company does a large amount of machine work on contracts and makes for its customers parts for marine motors and metal boats. The company has a complete pattern-making shop, and also owns a separate and complete brass and aluminum foundry. All machines in both of the plants are propelled by individual electric motors and are equipped with every modern safety device. Thirtyfive men are employed throughout the year. Railroad connections and switching facilities are provided by the Pere Marquette railway, while the company has, at the rear of its plants, its own private docks. A two hundred and seventy-five foot frontage on Niagara street is owned by the Stork plant. A recent development, which promises to greatly enlarge the concern's scope of activities, is a new type of telescopic automobile jack. The company now is busy in completing a large government contract calling for equipment for many new boats for use by the United States Coast Guard. Mr. Stork was married, in 1906, to Elsie

Page  180 180 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY Myer, of Saginaw, Michigan, daughter of Fred and Lena (Heidman) Myer. Mr. and Mrs. Stork have four children: Dorothy, Ruth, Cathryn and Fred W., Jr. The Stork Manufacturing and Engineering Company is affiliated with the Board of Commerce of Saginaw, while Mr. Stork is a member of various branches of the Masons, Both Mr. and Mrs. Stork are prominent in social and civic welfare movements in their community. Timothy E. Tarsney, whose death occurred June 9, 1909, is remembered as having been a leader of the Saginaw county bar and the Eighth District of Michigan Representative in Congress from 1885 to 1887. He was born at Ranson, Michigan, February 4, 1849, the son of Timothy and Mary (Murray) Tarsney, parents of seven children. Mr. and Mrs. Timothy Tarsney were born and reared in Ireland, and the husband was employed as a mechanic after he came to the United States. After Timothy E. Tarsney finished high school he became an engineer on the Great Lakes, but he decided, after a few years in this occupation, to prepare himself for a professional career. Accordingly he began, while still employed as an engineer, the study of law. Still later he entered the University of Michigan, where he was graduated in 1872 from the department of law. He was admitted to the bar soon afterward and he then opened an office at Saginaw. He was not long in attracting attention and his abilities and education placed him among the leaders in his profession. He was elected city attorney of Saginaw and was at all times favored with a large private practice of a general nature. As the Democratic nominee for a seat in Congress he bested his opponent, the Hon. Roswell G. Horr. He was reelected to Congress at the end of his term and he made an enviable record as a legislator. In 1895 he began the practice of law in Detroit, where he remained the rest of his years. There, as in Saginaw, his keen intellect and broad knowledge of the law, with his oratorical powers, placed him at the head of the members of his profession. He served several years in the important office of city attorney of Detroit. He was a member of the Holy Rosary Catholic church and the Knights of Columbus. He married Catherine O'Brien, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Martin O'Brien, of Ann Arbor, in 1871. To them were born eight children, of whom three died in infancy. The names of those surviving are: Isabel, wife of a prominent flour manufacturer in Detroit, David Stodt; Charlotte M., a writer for newspapers; William E., a lawyer, of Detroit; and Monica W., a graduate of the University of Michigan school of medicine, and who is now employed in the Harper Hospital, Detroit. She formerly studied in the Mayo Hospital, Rochester, Minnesota. The Hon. Timothy E. Tarsney is buried in Calvary cemetery, Saginaw. The United States Graphite Company, of Saginaw, was organized in 1891 by H. D. and E. N. Wickes and T. A. Harvey, progressive and forward-looking business men. The company has since grown to immense proportions, and it is now occupying what

Page  181 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 181 is said to be the largest plant devoted exclusively to the manufacture of graphite products in the world. The company owns, in the Sonora district of Mexico, mines containing vast natural deposits of the material from which its pencil leads, lubricating graphite, graphite lubricants and paints are made. Large quantities of brushes for motors and generators are also made, as well as automobile and steam packing rings. A recent innovation, which promises to add greatly to the company's sales, is the. manufacture of carbon rings. The United States Graphite Company's plant now covers an area of four city blocks, and employs a force of two hundred workmen. Twenty-five salesmen travel in all parts of the United States, disposing of the above-mentioned products, under the direction of the sales offices, which are located in Saginaw, though branch offices are maintained in Chicago, New York, St. Louis, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia and San Francisco. Lawrence Fields is manager of the plant, while Oscar R. Miller is advertising manager. The company is affiliated with the Saginaw Board of Commerce and the Michigan Manufacturers' association. The Valley Grey Iron Foundry. This thriving industrial corporation was formally launched on April 7, 1907, with the following representative business men and manufacturers as officials: J. C. Luetjohann, president; P. J. Redmand, secretary; Charles E. Gabel, vice-president; and Henry D. Richter, treasurer. The Valley Grey Iron Foundry sells its products to Saginaw manufacturing plants, which find its service of great value. At this time the company occupies a plant which measures fifty by one hundred feet. Approximately thirty-five men are employed throughout the year, while the yearly output of castings is estimated at approximately five hundred tons. The foundry has been greatly increased in size since the company was first organized, the original plant having been a very small one. Only persons identified with other Saginaw industries have any share in the capital stock of the Valley Grey Iron Foundry, thus making the concern a purely local institution. The Valley foundry is associated with the Board of Commerce. P. J. Redmand, a capable and energetic business man, has acted as secretary and guiding head of the foundry since it was incorporated in 1907. George W. Weadock, who was the first mayor of Saginaw after the two cities were consolidated, was born November 5, 1853, in St. Mary's, Auglaize county, Ohio. His parents were Lewis and Mary. (Cullen) Weadock, who were born and reared in County Wexford, Ireland, and who emigrated to America in 1849. They were the parents of seven sons, of whom three are lawyers. Their names are T. A. E. Weadock, John C. Weadock and George W, Weadock, the subject of this sketch. Two other sons are farmers in Ohio. George W. remained on his father's farm until he reached the age of seventeen years, and attended the schools of St. Mary's, his native city. Because of his natural aptitude for study and his superior mental powers, he was given a position as a teacher in the

Page  182 182 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY public schools, and while thus engaged he earned the money which made it possible for him to study law in the University of Michigan in 1875. However, while employed as a teacher, he spent most of his leisure hours in reading treatises on legal subjects under the direction of Col. S. R. Mott, a famous lawyer of St. Mary's. In 1876, after one year of study in the University of Michigan, he was admitted to the bar. On the board of lawyers which gave him his examinations prior to that event were Judge George P. Cobb, the Hon. H. H. Hatch and the Hon. T. F. Shepard. Judge Sanford M. Green presided at the time Mr. Weadock took the oath of an attorney, on September 11, 1876. He at first was associated with his brother, T. A. E. Weadock, who later became mayor of Bay City, in the practice of law there, and in January of 1877 he came to East Saginaw to enter the office of the Hon. T. E. Trasney. Slightly more than six months later, or on August 1, 1877, he formed a partnership with Mr. Tarsney that existed fourteen years and brought much profit and honor to both members of the firm. Mr. Weadock was left to handle the firm's business alone during the four years Mr. Tarsney was a member of Congress, and during this period he was admitted to practice in the federal courts. He was admitted to practice before the supreme court of the United States, February 18, 1888, on motion of Solicitor-General Jenks. In 1891, when Mr. Tarsney removed to Detroit, Mr. Weadock continued in charge of the extensive practice built up by the firm. But in January, 1893, feeling that the pressure of business was greater than he could withstand alone, he admitted to partnership a young man who had for several years studied in the Weadock office. The name of the young man was Miles J. Purcell. At all times Mr. Weadock was interested in the political aspects of the development of his county and city, and he was elected mayor of Saginaw on March 8, 1891, following his nomination in February of that year. He served as mayor until 1892, rendering an exceptional service in adjusting the affairs of the two municipalities to the control of one city government. His tact and understanding, coupled with his energy and executive ability, made it possible for him to effect satisfactory compromises where weaker men might have plunged the city into deep trouble as a result of disputes and controversies arising from the merging of these two cities. In the matter of choosing locations for public buildings, Mr. Weadock, as mayor, forced rigid observance to the terms included in the original agreement made by representatives of the two municipalities before the consolidation. The second of his terms as mayor brought to his attention for adjudication the situation then existing in the offices of city clerk, police judge and clerk of the police court. As a result of his investigation he removed the officials named above from their positions, as they were found guilty of malfeasance in office. Though these men were members of his own political party and many pleas were made in their behalf, Mayor Weadock was prompt in action.

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Page  183 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 183 The same faithfulness to trust that guided his course in this emergency characterized his public acts throughout his career. Despite the fact that he was often asked to become a candidate for Congress, he declined to seek that honor. He has always been an earnest champion of the rights of the people and he has ever been faithful to the interests of his clients. During the World war he served as president of the Welfare Board. He was married, September 16, 1878, at Saginaw, to Anna E. Tarsney, of that city. She was born in Hillsdale county, Michigan, December 27, 1856, and was a sister of the Hon. T. E. Tarsney, mentioned above. To this union were born nine children: Lewis T., George Leo, John Vincent, Bernard Francis, Mary Louisa, Joseph Jerome, Catherine Elizabeth, Raymond Isadore, and Philip Sheridan. Mrs. Weadock departed this life March 16, 1892, in her thirty-eighth year. Raymond Weadock died from diphtheria on April 27, of that year, and on May 13 Catherine succumbed from the same disease. Mr. Weadock married Grace McTavish, of Saginaw, April 14, 1826. To this second union were born four children: Arthur A., Frances Mi., Edward E., and Robert E. Mr. Weadock has nine sons who are practicing attorneys. Two of his sons served in the World war; Arthur saw service in France as a member of the Motor Transport Corps attached to the Eighth Casual, and Philip was a first lieutenant in the Tenth Colored Cavalry Regiment of the United States Regulars. Mr. and Mrs. Weadock are active members of St. Mary's Catholic church and the members of their family belong to the same denomination. Mr. Weadock and his family reside at 440 South Weadock street. His offices are at 301 Bearinger building. William Lewis Webber was the son of James S. and Phoebe (Smith) Webber, of Belfast, Maine, who removed to Ogden, Monroe county, New York, in 1824, where he was born on July 19, 1825. In 1836 the family came to Michigan, where his father obtained a patent from the United States Government and secured a homestead of wild land in Livingston county, where the subject of this sketch grew from boyhood to manhood. This period, devoted to clearing of the land, subjection of the soil and its preparation for the uses of humanity, witnessed a struggle which resulted in fine physical health and development and during which the foundations of education were laid. The pioneer schools of those days presented a striking contrast to those of the present time but, such as they were, he took advantage of and, being naturally attracted by knowledge as found in the books then available, he supplemented the limited school acquirements by constant absorption at home of all sources of knowledge then available and established habits of industry. In 1844-45 he was placed in charge of a local school but the death of his mother in the latter year resulted in a dispersion of the family. When, at the age of twenty-one, it became necessary for him to decide upon his life's work, Mr. Webber's mind first ran towards the profession of medicine and at that time

Page  184 184 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY he spent about two years in the office of Drs. Foote and Mlowry, at Milford, Michigan. After that experience he was attracted to the profession of the law and finally decided to adopt that as his life's work. He opened a select school in Milford in 1848 and utilized his spare time in preparation for his finally-decided-upon profession, to which he was admitted to practice in 1851. After one year it became evident to him that his field should be larger and that he should select a location which would. afford greater opportunities. At that time he made a preliminary visit to the then village of East Saginaw, which was rapidly becoming known as a center of lumbering operations. He was impressed with what he saw and made a decision which resulted in his establishment in the location which witnessed his life's work. With his father, James S. Webber, in January, 1853, he drove overland from Milford to the village which preceded the city of Saginaw. His father selected as the site for his first home the corner of Genesee avenue (then Plank Road) and Jefferson avenue. This was then partly cleared but many stumps of original forest trees remained. Upon it the house was built and completed in September, 1853. In the subsequent month James S. Webber opened a retail store at the corner of what is now Genesee avenue and Water street. William L. Webber acquired the lot on the corner of Genesee and Federal avenues, built a house on the same and opened his office in the building in which his father's store was. Less than six months had elapsed before Mr. Webber had his time fully occupied with professional and other work. In June, 1857, he formed a law partnership with John J. Wheeler under the firm name of Webber & Wheeler, which continued until December 31, 1860. The next year Mr. Webber became the senior partner of the firm of Webber, Thompson and Gage. This association was brief and remained for only about six months. In 1862, Irving M. Smith, a cousin of Mr. Webber from Romeo, Michigan, entered the office and remained as a clerk until July 1, 1863, when he was admitted to practice and the law firm of Webber & Smith was organized. After six years, Mr. Webber retired from general practice and confined llis activities to services required by the Flint & Pere Marquette Railway Company, which was organized in 1857, soon after which Mr. Webber became its attorney and subsequently its land commissioner. Under his administration the land grants awarded by the Government were administered. When most of the lands had been disposed of in 1885, Mr. Webber resigned as land commissioner but continued as general legal counsel until 1892. Jesse Hoyt, of New York City, who died in 1882, was one of those to whom the railroad owed its being. Mr. Webber became his special counsel and in association with Mr. Hoyt's New York adviser prepared that portion of Mr. Hoyt's will which related to Michigan property and under which he became executor and trustee of the Michigan part of the Jesse Hoyt estate, and continued as such until the infirmities of age made it appropriate that he should re

Page  185 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 185 tire. The Saginaw, Tuscola & Huron railroad, partially uncompleted at the time of Mr. Hoyt's death, was carried through by Mr. Webber and was under his special care until its absorption by the Pere Marquette Railroad Company in 1900. It was during this period that under Mr. Webber's care the stone quarries near Bay Port were opened. Early in 1859 the State Geologist of Michigan announced his belief in the existence of salt and the first company in Saginaw connected with the salt industry was organized by Mr. Webber. In the development of coal industries, Mr. Webber freely used his means, gave his services, and was one of the first who in a practical way demonstrated the existence of coal in merchantable quantities in and around Saginaw. Mr. Webber's experiments in the growth of sugar beets preceded and led to the organization for the utilization of sugar beets as a Michigan crop. He was associated with and aided in founding the East Saginaw Gas Company, the American Commercial & Savings Bank, of which he was president, the Academy of Music Association, and the founding of the Hoyt Public Library, the latter being the direct result of his personal appeal to Mr. Hoyt that something should be founded in Saginaw which would be a continual monument to Mr. Hoyt's memory. Mr. Webber never sought office. His politics were Democratic and he filled the offices of circuit court commissioner, prosecuting attorney, mayor of East Saginaw and state senator. He failed of election as Democratic nominee for governor in 1876. He was a patriot rather than a politician and in the free silver campaign cast his vote with the Republican party. A sketch of Mr. Webber's life would be incomplete if no reference was made to his Masonic affiliations. He believed in the principles of the order and was a charter member of most of the several bodies originally organized in Saginaw. He became Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Michigan, Grand High Priest of the Grand Chapter and, although lihe held no office in the Grand Commandery, was a most influential member of that order. All agricultural interests of the state enlisted his deepest interest. He was among the first to import finely bred cattle. Any advanced methods appealed to him. Whatever relieved the laborer, simplified and lessened the hours of daily toil, in his estimation increased the value of life. I-e wrote freely and enlighteningly on agricultural, political and economical subjects, as is attested by many pamphlets and papers now in existence. For many years he was connected. with the executive board of the State Pomological Society. In 1878 he became president of the State Agricultural Society. He was a pioneer in the good roads movement and at great cost to himself demonstrated the value of drainage, broken stone, gravel and cement in the construction of highways. This was the forerunner of what he dreamed of but never saw. In 1849 Mr. Webber married Miss Nancy M. Withington, of Springwater, Livingston county, New York, who came from surroundings less wild to what was then a western wilderness and who shared with him many of

Page  186 186 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY the privations and hardships of pioneer life. Two daughters were born to them: Florence A., who married James B. Peter, and Frances E. Webber. As a business man Mr. Webber possessed a broad mind. He was quick of discernment, positive of his judgments, careful of the details of his undertakings. To Saginaw his name will always be associated with the progress which it has attained. He possessed a striking and forceful personality. As a citizen all his efforts were directed towards the furthering of all that was good, the suppression of all that was ill and for the promotion of those municipal characteristics that make a city worth while and its citizens honored. In manner he was affable to friend or stranger, rich or poor, helpful and considerate to young men, and possessed of a kindly disposition that gave him an active interest in the affairs and well-being of others. Having achieved eminence in his profession and attained leadership in the bar of the state of Michigan, he died October 15, 1901, in his seventyseventh year. No greater honor can fall to the lot of any man than that which came to Mr. Webber. He died secure in the esteem and love of those who knew him best. "To every man there openeth A High way and a Low And every man decideth Which way his life shall go." The record of the life of William L. Webber shows that in serving his day and generation he trod the upper path.-(The above biography of Mr. Webber was written April 22, 1926, by James B. Peter.) The Wickes Family has been prominent in Michigan and especially in the Saginaw Valley so long that the name is familiar to almost everyone in the Lower Peninsula. One of the first Puritan settlers of Dorchester, in the Massachusetts Bay colony, is said to have been a descendant of an ancient and honorable Devonshire family, the original name of which was Wrey and whose seat late in the fourteenth century was at North Wyke, in Tawton Hundred, alout twenty miles from Exeter, England. In Playfair's British Antiquities, in a history of the Wrey family, the earliest name given is that of Robert le Wrey, who was living in 1135, the first year of the reign of King Stephen. Robert le Wrey's name indicates that he was of Norman origin and he is believed to have come to England with William the Conqueror. As time went by the name Wrey became Wykes, being spelled in the latter manner from 1377-99, during the time of Richard the Second, and Weeks, early in the seventeenth century. Burke's Heraldry mentions the coat-of-arms of the family as having been "Ermine three battle-axes sable" and the crest as an "arm embowed, in. armor proper, holding a battle-axe gules." "Ermine" was a white field with black spots; "Sable" was black; "Embowed" was bent; and "Proper" was of natural color, while "Gules" was red. Thomas

Page  187 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 187 I iI I Weeks, who was the fifth great-grandfather of Harry Tuthill Wickes, William Jarvis Wickes and Mary Wickes Randall, of Saginaw, was born about the year 1612 in Devonshire, England. November 29, 1635, he left England with his brothers George and Francis and, after what is supposed to have been an uneventful voyage, reached Watertown, Massachusetts. Not long afterwards he went to Wethersfield, Connecticut. From there he went to Stamford, of which he was one of the original proprietors, in 1640, and he finally settled at Huntington, Long Island. In 1662 he was brevetted freeman and chosen constable, and in April of 1663 he was one of three men whose names were sent to the court at Hartford for appointment as magistrate, and he in 1666 was one of the patentees. Thomas Weeks married Isabelle Harcutt, of Oyster Bay. To this union were born several children, who were named in his will, which was dated in June, 1670. He gave to Thomas, his eldest son, several parcels of land, and to the widow and the other children property and sums of money. After his death, in 1671, his son changed the spelling of the family name to Wickes. This was perhaps done to distinguish themselves from the sons of Francis, who bore the same family' name and resided in the nearby town of Oyster Bay. The descendants of Francis are now quite numerous in the counties along the Hudson river and on Long Island and they still retain the original spelling of the name. From the eldest son, Thomas, through a line of descent including Joseph, Silas and James Wickes, the family is traced to James Harvey Wickes, who was the grandfather of William Jarvis Wickes, Harry Tuthill Wickes and Mary Wickes Randall. James Harvey Wickes was born at Schaghticoke, New York. on February 24, 1802. He became a farmer, as his forbears had followed agricultural pursuits, and he combined that occupation with that of cabinet-making. He maintained on his farm a well-equipped tool shop, where he made * furniture, coffins and other articles required by his neighbors. May 29, 1823, he married Maria Tuthill, who was born October 13, 1803. She had come with her parents, Joshua and Sarah (Reeder) Tuthill, to Starkey, Yates county, New York. Until 1837 they resided in Eddytown, and from there they went to Reading, New York. In 1856 they returned to Yates county and settled at Rock Stream, where James Harvey Wickes died, August 13, 1866. Not long after his death his widow went to Watkins Glen, New York, where she made her home with her son, George Augustus Wickes, and where she died June 10, 1884. She was a woman of great intellectuality and high character. Her name is held in reverence by her descendants because of her many virtues. Her family consisted of one daughter, Sarah Tuthill, who died November 1, 1842, at the age of seventeen years, and five sons, two of whom, Henry Dunn and Edward Noyes, emigrated to Michigan and became prominent in the development of the Saginaw Valley. Edward Noyes Wickes, brother of Henry D. Wickes, was born

Page  188 188 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY November 11, 1835, at Starkey, Yates county, New York. Like his brothers, he spent his boyhood on the family homestead. He attended the district schools and helped with the work on the farm until he was about twenty years old. At that age he came to Michigan and joined his brother in the foundry and machine shop at Flint. In 1860, when the Wickes family went to East Saginaw, he resided with his brother and remained with the latter and his family many years. There existed between the brothers a bond of sympathy and an affection which is but seldom manifested. The two brothers were inseparable in business, in their home relations and in their social life. Doctor Bliss, the Wickes family physician, in commenting on the close ties of brotherly love, said: "When either of the brothers dies the other will not survive him long." Doctor Bliss was a true prophet, as the deaths of the brothers occurred within a period of one month. Edward N. Wickes was, like his brother, gifted with a natural aptitude for mechanics. He became an inventor and to his thoughts are due many of the improvements in the gang sawmills and engines manufactured by the Wickes Brothers. Henry D. and Edward N. Wickes spent their time together when devising new machines or creating improvements and to their concerted efforts and to their skill and ingenuity is due the great popularity of the products of their factory. Edward N. Wickes was for many years a member of the board of water commissioners of the East Side and he was in a great measure responsible for the building of the first water works system in 1873. He also guided the city in the expansion of the water works as the city grew in size and in population. He was in manner kind and generous, and in all his relations with the public and with his business associates he displayed marked refinement. Like his brother, he was held in high regard. He passed away at his home on North Warren avenue,-January 13, 1901, when he was sixty-five years old. The youngest brother of the Wickes, Charles Tuthill, who was born at Reading, New York, Mirch 26, 1841, came to Saginaw about 1865 and was admitted to the Wickes Brothers firm. Charles Tuthill Wickes possessed great literary talents and natural gifts for study. He removed to Stanton, Michigan, about 1875, and died there February 19, 1909, leaving surviving him his wife, Flora I (Rood) Wickes, who still resides in Stanton. Harry Tuthill Wickes, who has for the last twenty-five years been the head of Wickes Brothers, was born in Flint, Michigan, November 2, 1860. In the year following his birth his parents brought him to Saginaw, and there he was reared and educated and in that city he engaged in business. He attended, as a' small boy, the old Crary school and obtained his high school education in the central school, as the high school building had not been at that time erected. In July, 1878, he finished school and began his preparation for what has been a very successful business career. His father and his uncle aided him in laying the founda

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Page  189 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 189 tion of his career and they added to his venture their inventive and mechanical skill. However, it has been the- present Wickes Brothers Company which has developed and expanded the family's business and enterprises. Mr. Wickes began as an apprentice in the shop. He fired the boilers, operated the simpler machines and watched the various manufacturing operations, gaining in this manner a thorough knowledge of the details of shop tactics. After he had stayed two years in the shops, he was made a bookkeeper and correspondent in the office, where he and one other person, a shipping clerk, were intrusted with a great amount of routine business affairs. As the demand for the engines and the sawmill machinery manufactured by the company was increasing by leaps and bounds, the need for a more complete organization became apparent, and in 1883 the company was incorporated and re-organized with Henry D. Wickes as president and Edward N. Wickes as vice-president. But a few years later the business had increased to large proportions and the management of the factory fell to Harry T. Wickes and his younger brother. Late in the Nineties the father and uncle retired from active participation in the management of the company. Mr. Wickes, October 21, 1885, married Fanny Hamilton, of Saginaw. She was a very beautiful woman, who possessed great personal charm and fine attainments. She was very hospitable, and as a result of that hospitality her home on North Jefferson avenue became a favorite meeting place of the representative citizens in Saginaw society. She was very generous and was an untiring worker in St. Paul's Episcopal church. Her tender sympathy and personal interest in others endeared her to a host of devoted friends. She died at the family home, May 3, 1901, leaving five children: Arthur Hamilton who was born on February 27, 1887; Harvey Randall, born September 1, 1889; Elizabeth, born on May 19, 1892, and who is now the wife of Albert S. Harvey; Frances, who was born on Septelmber 22, 1894, and who married George B. Bliss; and H-elen Louise, who was born on December 3, 1896, and who married William E. Stone. The sons are now connected with the company and are acquliring the practical knowledge of the business with which they will probably be associated most of their years. In addition to supervising Wickes Brothers, Mr. Wickes gives close attention to his investments in other industries in Saginaw. He founded the first coal company in Saginaw county, and was instrumental in the sinking of a shaft on the property of the Saginaw Realty Company, another concern in which he was interested. Still later he was instrumental in founding the Consolidated Coal Company, one of the largest producing companies in the state. With his brother, W. J. Wickes, he established the United States Graphite Company, of which he is an official. He was a director of the Saginaw & Bay City Railway Company, the Saginaw Power Company, the Modart Corset Company, and other corporations which have added greatly to Saginaw's prosperity.

Page  190 190 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY His energy and resourcefulness have found expression in his efforts in bringing new factories to Saginaw and he has been for several years president and a dominant figure of the Merchants' and Manufacturers' Association. Mr. Wickes is a Mason and a Knight Templar. He is a member of the Elks, the Saginaw club, the Detroit club, the Toledo club, and the Toledo Yacht club. Yachting is one of his chief hobbies and he finds much pleasure in sailing the large steam yacht "Capitola," which was built for him in 1904. Henry Dunn Wickes, who was one of the pioneers of East Saginaw, was born at Starkey, near the Seneca Lake, Yates county, New York, August 19, 1833. He spent his boyhood on the farm and in 1839 accompanied his family to Reading, Steuben county, New York, where he attended the public schools. Despite the fact that at that time there was near his home no free college or similar educational institutions, he took advantage of all op-.portunities offered to obtain a liberal education in practical things. While he was still quite young he displayed a natural aptitude toward things mechanical and he gave much of his spare time to the devising of simple and practical tools and machines for home and farm use.. When he was nineteen years old he began serving an apprenticeship in a foundry and machine shop at Penn Yan, New York, where he remained two years. From there he went to Auburn, in that state, and there he spent one year in learning the machinist's trade and in obtaining a knowledge of the business fundamentals which made it possible for him in later years to build up, with his brother, Edward N. Wickes, one of the largest machine manufacturing plants in the Middle West. In 1854, when the great timber lands in Michigan were attracting the attention of eastern capitalists, Henry D. Wickes established his residence in Flint. There he became conversant with the resources and opl)ortunities offered by the lumber industry, and he decided to remain in Michigan. He wrote to his younger brother, Edward Noyes Wickes, asking him to join him. In the year which followed, the brothers met in the old Garrison House at Detroit, and records in the possession of the family contain a newspaper clipping mentioning the names of the two brothers as having been new arrivals at the old hotel. From Detroit they went to Flint and with H. W. Wood founded the Genesee Iron Works, which did a general foundry and machinery business, which included the making of plow-shares and old castings of the sorts required in a newly set — tled region. The founding of the Genesee Iron Works was the beginning of an eventful business career, which was distinguished by extreme care in producing high grade products. Henry Dunn Wickes' abilities as a mechanic and his genius resulted in improvements in practically all kinds of machinery used in the lumber industry. Pig iron used by the foundry was brought to a point on the Saginaw river by vessel and was then transported across the country to Flint, where it was made into castings. The two Sagi

Page  191 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 191 i 14' i. i I naws at that time were vying with each other in an effort to obtain supremacy in the manufacture of lumber and salt. Because there were no foundries in those cities, many of the castings at Flint were hauled back to the Saginaw sawmills over the rough post road. The Wickes Brothers saw that this proceedure caused a great waste of time and labor, so they, in 1860, moved their establishment to East Saginaw, where they brought to a realization their plans for their business. They cleared two parcels of land on the bank of the river, these tracts still being in possession of the family. In 1864 the brothers bought the interest of H. W. Wood and from that time until many years later the firm was known as Wickes Brothers. Almost from the inception of the business the Wickes Brothers manufactured gang sawmills. This important machine claimed the attention of the Wickes brothers, who sought to improve it. After long experimenting, they devised a method of giving an oscillating motion to the saw frame, which caused all teeth of the saws to cut smoothly and evenly and obviated the defect of only the lower teeth doing any great amount of cutting. The new device was placed on the market about 1868. Frank E. Kirby, of Detroit, who later became a famous marine engineer, and who was then a young man of twenty-two years, made the plans for the invention. Hackley's, of Muskegon, was the first mill to use the improved machine. In rapid order other improvements of the gang sawmills followed. The saw speed was increased, thinner saws were used, reducing the kerf and increasing the cutting capacity four times, all improvements containing the same principle. The gang sawmills were made to meet every requirement of the lumber industry, ranging in capacity from the monster gang saws of the Pacific coast to the thin gangs used for cutting boards one-quarter of an inch or smaller with a saw kerf of one-thirty-second of an inch. Because his duties in connection with his business prevented his taking a too active part in politics, Henry 1). Wickes was hindered from holding )ublic office. Yet he did not lack public spirit and he gave much of his thought and his great influence in the community to the cause of good government. He spent in all, forty years as the head of the firm of WVickes Brothers. He is regarded as a man witliout whoml Saginaw would not have enjoyed her great prosperity. lie was for many years a vestryman and senior warden of St. Paul's Episcopal church. When the church building was rebuilt in 1886-87 his counsel and financial support resulted in creating an edifice of great beauty and durability. He was a deep thinker and Christian gentleman in every way. He was married, September 21, 1858, to Ann S. Bailey, daughter of Jarvis and Eliza (Sharp) Bailey, who was born in Genesee county, October 4, 1839. To this union three children were born: Mary B., who married Robert M. Randall; Harry Tuthill, and William Jarvis. Mrs. Wickes was a woman of keen intellect and pleasing personality, and she was a leader in social and religious circles. She passed away at the family residence on North Jefferson avenue, April 27,

Page  192 192 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 1889. Henry Dunn Wickes departed this life at Guadalajara, Mexico, February 14, 1901. Mr. and Mrs. Wickes are sincerely mourned by the members of their family and by their thousands of friends and admirers. William Jarvis Wickes, deceased, was born in Saginaw, August 2, 1862. He attended the public schools and at an early age began working in his father's shop. There, with his brother, Harry T. Wickes, he grew up in the business. While still quite young he demonstrated his executive ability and as he grew older he became of great value to the firm of Wickes Brothers and to the corporation of the same name which was later formed. When trouble was experienced with the hand-riveted boilers manufactured to complete contracts for sawmill installations supplied by the Wickes Brothers, he aided in establishing a boiler shop at the plant. This addition to their facilities enables the Wickes brothers to compete with other boiler manufacturers. Then they started the manufacture of Scotch marine boilers for F. W. Wheeler & Company, of Bay City, the Chicago Ship Building Company and for whaleback steamers owned by Alexander McDougall. Later this part of the boiler business was abandoned because of the fact that it prevented the firm from accepting other and more profitable work. The next thing to occupy the attention of Mr. Wickes and his associates was the vertical type of water-tube boiler, which they perfected and placed on the market in 1896. This type, which is now in general use, was originated by the Wickes brothers. Because of the long life and the ease with which this type of boiler may be cleaned, the demand has increased to truly enormous proportions. In December, 1907, the boiler department of Wickes Brothers was incorporated as a distinct organization, the Wickes Boiler Company. The Wickes plants are now among the largest and most modern in the West and their products are the standard of their class. Mr. Wickes found time, despite his many duties in the corporations which bear his family's name, to devote to other industrial enterprises in Saginaw. He was vice-president of Wickes Brothers, president of the Wickes Boiler Company, the Saginaw Plate Glass Company, the Consolidated Coal Company and the United States Graphite Company. He was a director of the Bank of Saginaw and during the World war was president of the Saginaw Shipbuilding Company, which built twenty-four vessels for the United States government. The Saginaw Plate Glass Company, which was later purchased by the Fisher Body Company and is now known as the National Plate Glass Company, was founded. by him. With his brother Harry, he was responsible for the organization of the United States Graphite Company. He was a member of the First Congregational church to which, at the suggestion of Mr. Wickes, the Wickes Boiler Company contributed liberally towards the Fisher Memorial Room in memory of Elbert Curtiss Fisher, late vice-president of that company. He was also a Mason and a member of the Saginaw club and the Detroit club. His large

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Page  193 PERSONAL SKETChlES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 19;3 stature and commanding presence, coupled with his keen intellect and sound judgment, qualified him to plan and execute, and made him a natural leader among men. Mr. Wickes was married, July 14, 1886, to Cornelia Mershom, daughter of Augustus and Helen (Johnson) Mershom, of Saginaw. Mr. and Mrs. Wickes were the parents of seven children. The eldest, Helen Augusta, born December 17, 1887, married the late Melville Brooks, and is now Mrs. G. William Davis; Edward Bailey, who married Helen Hill, was born August 11, 1889; Ann, the third child, was born June 13, 1891; James C., who was born February 17, 1894, departed this life April 24, 1894; William Jarvis, Jr., was born May 26, 1895; John Y. was born September 28, 1896; and Elsie, the youngest, was born January 26, 1911. William Jarvis Wickes, whose public spirit and charity will long be remembered by his fellow-citizens, died November 1, 1925. Dugald E. Wilson has been actively engaged in the real estate business in Saginaw twelve years, and in that time has made thousands of warm business and personal friends. He is a member of various civic, social, fraternal and mercantile organizations, among which are the Blue Lodge, Chapter and Shrine of the Masons, the Elks, the Saginaw Real Estate Board and the Board of Commerce. Mr. Wilson was born in Saginaw county, January 30, 1888, the son of Andrew J. and Catherine (McKellar) Wilson. His father, who was born in Saginaw county, Michigan, in 1859, has been a farmer all his life, and his mother, who was born in Saginaw county, Michigan, in 1865,'also was reared on a farm. Dugald E. Wilson has three brothers and three sisters, as follows: David, Andrew, William, Mrs. Fannie Bartlett, Mrs. Ida Olson and Mrs. Kitty Gay. Dugald E. Wilson obtained his early education in the public schools of Saginaw, and graduated from the International Business College in that city in 1907. He began his business career with the Western Mott Company at Flint, Michigan, remaining with that concern five years. In 1912 he returned to Saginaw, where he was associated for a number of years with the Tromley Wilson Real Estate Company, in the sale of farm lands and city properties. During the last seven years Mr. Wilson has been in business alone, and at this time he has offices at 615 Bearinger building, Saginaw. He was married in 1913, to Mabel Marshall, who was born in Manitowoc, Wisconsin, July 3, 1894, tle daughter of Isaac J. Marshall. Mr. and Mrs. Wilson have five children: Robert Earl, Marshall Lawson, Dugald Ellor, Loretta Jane, and John Andrew. Robert and Marshall are now pupils in the Saginaw public schools. Glenn R. Wilson, under-sheriff of Saginaw county, was a sergeant-major in the United States Army during the World war. He was born in Saginaw in 1894, the son of Charles 0. and Lulu (Choate) Wilson. Charles 0. Wilson, who died in 1923 at the age of fifty-six years, was a conductor on the Pere Marquette railroad and a member of the Brotherhood of Railway Trainmen and the Odd Fellows. He was active in politics, and served many years

Page  194 194 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY as postmaster of Saginaw. Mrs. Lulu Wilson, his widow, is residing at the family home in Saginaw, being at this time fifty-five years of age. Glenn R. Wilson is one of a family of five sons, his brothers being Charles C., Edwin P., Homer D. and Lee J. Wilson. Under-sheriff Wilson completed his education in the Saginaw public schools in 1910. Desiring to see something of the world during his younger days, he went to Montana, where he worked for the Northern Pacific railroad. Later he resigned his position on the railroad and became a guide in the Yellowstone National Park. After continuing in this work soime time, he went to California, and eventually settled in Texas. When the United States entered the World war in 1917, he enlisted in the One Hundred and Sixtieth Depot Brigade. In this organization he rose from private to the rank of sergeant-major, receiving that rank in November of 1917. Later he was sent to the officers' training school at Camp Grant, Illinois, where he was honorably discharged after the end of hostilities in 1918. In 1919 he was commissioned lieutenant in the Officers' Reserve Corps. On leaving the army he became a traveling salesman for the Buick Automobile Company and later represented the makers of the Buick automobile in various states. In 1920 he returned to Saginaw and opened a tire and automobile accessory store, which proved a successful venture and which is still owned by him. He also started in the trucking business. In May of 1926 he formed the General Oil Company, a firm selling auto oils and greases. He was appointed to his present office, that of undersheriff of Saginaw county, on January 1, 1925. He was married in 1917, to Meta Irene Stein, of Saginaw. They have one child, Meta lone, who was born in 1922. Mr. Wilson is a thirty-second degree Mason and member of the Shrine, and is also affiliated with the City Junior Board of Commerce, the Exchange club and the Saginaw Country club. Mrs. Wilson is a member of the Eastern Star and a leader in social affairs. Christian Winter, lawyer, of Saginaw, is a graduate of the University of Michigan and an outstanding figure in his profession. He was born in Carrollton, Michigan, November 8, 1878, the son of John and Gertrude (Neuner) Winter, both of whom were born in Bavaria, Germany. Mr. and Mrs. Winter came to the United States in 1851, and settled in Hermansau, which, in the German language, meant "Herman's meadow," a Bavarian settlement in Saginaw township, Saginaw county, Michigan. The emigrants who made their homes in that community were mostly of the Lutheran faith, and had come to the New World chiefly to avoid the differences of opinion and discord which existed between their church and the state church of Germany. John and Gertrude Winter are now buried in the Bethlehem cemetery, on the Hermansau road in Saginaw township, Saginaw county. They were the parents of ten children, whose names were as follows, in the order of their birth: Edward, John, Oscar, Ernst, Christian, Johanna, William, Caroline, Albert and Julia. Christian Winter at e X

Page  195 I Ir 11 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR SAGINAW COUNTY 195 tended the "Christian Day School" and the public schools in his native township, as well as the schools at Carrollton. He graduated from high school in Saginaw and took a course in the Bliss Business College. He then entered the law department of the University of Michigan, where he graduated in 1906 with the degree of Bachelor of Laws. He was admitted to the bar in that year, and soon afterward began general practice in Saginaw. In 1922 he married Clara Krauss, of Frankenlust, Michigan, the daughter of John L. and Barbara Krauss. Mr. and Mrs. Winter are —members of the Bethlehem Lutheran church of North Saginaw, and are prominent in social and civic affairs of their community. Mr. Winter is a member of the Saginaw County and Michigan State Bar associations.

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Page  199 i Personal Sketches William O. Albig, merchant, of Adrian, was born in Monroe county, Michigan, June 20, 1873, the son of John and Mary (Zimmerman) Albig. John Albig, who was born in Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania, September 9, 1842, came to Michigan in 1868 and settled on a farm near Monroe. His parents died when he was twelve years old. The parents of Mary (Zimmerman) Albig settled in Lambertville, Monroe county, about the time of the Civil war. His father died in 1922 and his mother now resides on the old home farm with the older brother, the farm being operated at this time by a nephew of William O. Albig, subject of this sketch. Mr. and Mrs. John Albig were the parents of seven children, one of whom died in infancy. The names of the children are: Minnie, wife of Elroy M. Loose, of Monroe; Robert E., a farmer; Alice, who died in 1897 at Willard, Ohio; William O., of Adrian; Ruby H.; Mrs. Bertha A. Rauch, of Monroe, and the Rev. Orville M. Albig, of Lansing. William O. Albig, the fourth child of the family, took a course in a Normal college at Valparaiso, Indiana, and Davis Business College of Toledo, Ohio, after a course of study in the Monroe schools. From 1891 until 1895 he taught in the Monroe county district schools and in 1895 went to Spring Arbor, Michigan, as a clerk in a general store. Two months later he purchased a half interest in this store, which he continued to manage until 1896, when he sold his interest and went to Willard, Ohio. In that town he became a partner of his brother-inlaw, C. C. Hansberger, in the operation of a general store. In 1899 he sold his share in the enterprise to Mr. Hansberger and started a general merchandise store on North Main street, Adrian. In 1902 he moved into a building which contained space for two separate business places. 'I'lis building, which is now occupied by the Kline department store, he sold in 1920, when he purchased the business owned by the W. C. McConnell Dry Goods Company. Mr. Albig then incorporated the W. O. Albig Company, which is now one of the leading business houses in Lenawee county. Mr. Albig has been a director of the Y. M. C. A. and the Chamber of Commerce and was superintendent of the Methodist Episcopal church Sunday School eight years. He is a member of the Masons and the Exchange club and is financially interested in various commercial and industrial enterprises in his city. On September 1, 1898, he married Jennie I. Nessel, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Hiram A. Nessel, of Monroe. Mr. and Mrs. Albig have two children:

Page  200 200 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY Gordon, who was born November 11, 1916, and Louis, who was born October 28, 1917. Asa Wilson Aldrich, a retired merchant who resides at 128 West Maumee street, Adrian, recently passed his ninety-fourth birthday. Mr. Aldrich, who is one of the most highly-respected residents of that city, was born December 8, 1831, at Batavia, Genesee county, New York. His father, Richard Levi Aldrich, was born in Monroe county, New York, and his mother, Mrs. Bashabi (Wilson) Aldrich, was born in Essex county, in that state. Mr. Aldrich's ancestors, maternal and paternal, were members of the Friends, or as that denomination was more commonly known, the Quaker, church. Richard Levi Aldrich brought his family from New York to a farm in Raisin township, Lenawee county, arriving at their destination on May 5, 1842. Asa Wilson Aldrich remained on the farm until he was twenty-two years old, attending the district schools, the college at Leona, Jackson county, and Adrian College. Going to New York in his twenty-third year, he spent one year in carpentry work, returning to Adrian in 1857. He then entered business as a photographer, an occupation he followed for fifteen years. At the end of that period he sold his business and equipment and became a shoe merchant. For thirty years he conducted a prosperous shoe store and spent ten years as proprietor of a millinery and fancy work business. Mr. Aldrich married Mary J. Smart, daughter of Van Ramseler and Elizabeth (Queal) Smart, in 1841. To this union was born one son, Herbert F. Aldrich, of Buffalo, who spent twenty years in the employ of the New York Central Lines and is now traffic manager for the Larkin Company of that city. Asa Wilson Aldrich, who has been a resident of Adrian more than eighty-three years and has lived on Maumee street forty years, is a member of several branches of the Masons. American Red Cross. Gertrude M. Spielman, secretary of the Adrian chapter of the American Red Cross, 818 College avenue, was born in Adrian, December 10, 1892, the daughter of Christian W. and Mary K. (Moehn) Spielman. Miss Spielman's paternal grandfather, a native of Germany, came to Adrian. He was the father of ten children: William, of Toledo; Peter, of Adrian; John, also of Adlrial; IJenry, deceasced; Fred, of Adrian; Mrs. Frank lu1tnter; Mrs. llizalbeth Gusseni)auer, deceased; Emily Spielman; Mrs. Mary Talppert, of Detroit, and Christian Spielman, father of the subject of this sketch. Christian Spielman for many yearsresided on a farm in Lenawee county, but since 1920 has been a resident of Adrian. He reared a family of five children: Gertrude M.; Lillian, who is associated with Fireside Industries, of Adrian; Edna, a student in a nurses' training school at Washington, D. C.; Edwin, who is in business in Adrian, and Walter, who is dead. Gertrude M. Spielman graduated from high school in 1916 and then took a course in the Brown Business University at Adrian. Late in 1917 she entered the service of the Red Cross as a stenographer. In May, 1922, she was promoted to the position of secretary. The

Page  201 PERSONAL SKETCHES POR LENAWEE COUNTY 201 I Lenawee county chapter of the American Red Cross was organized in April, 1917, with H. A. Lee as chairman. Mr. Lee held that office until late in 1921, when he resigned in favor of Dr. E. T. Morden, present chairman. Other officers, in addition to Miss Spielman, are: Mrs. C. H. Ives, vice-chairman; Fred M. Phelps, treasurer, and A. V. Riddle, who was secretary during the World war and is now a member of the executive committee. Miss Frances McElroy, who did a great amount of work in the chapter during the war, gave her services to the organization and to the veterans without cost. In December, 1918, the chapter established a Home Service Station with Mary Mackenzie, now Mrs. Murray Heldman, of Grand Rapids, as secretary in this department. Since that time Mrs. Ada Pangburn, now of Lansing, and Miss Helen H. Wolfe, of Cincinnati, have been employed in this section. In July, 1920, public health nursing was inaugurated with Miss Laura Comfort, now Mrs. Dann Birdsall, of Albion, as nurse. Nursing reached its height during 1921 and 1922, when Miss Isabel Devlin, now of Fort Wayne, Indiana, had charge of the nursing program. Miss Genevieve I. Robb, of New York, succeeded Miss Devlin in the nursing work till the program was discontinued. In December, 1923, the lack of funds forced the discontinuance of the public health nursing, which was then the chief objective of the chapter. Shortly after the World war Dr. A. M. Stephenson gave his home and office building to the city, and in this building the Red Cross of Adrian has since had its headquarters. Edwin C. Andrews, proprietor of the Andrews Truck Line, of Adrian, was born July 7, 1879, at Detroit, the son of William R. and Elizabeth (Collis) Andrews, both of whom were natives of England. The father, who was born in London on July 18, 1859, the son of Mr. and Mrs. William Andrews, came to the United States when he was twenty-one years old. He worked in the steel mills at Hamilton, Ontario, five years, and went from that city to Detroit, where he was foreman of the Barnum Wire and Iron Works. Three years later he became superintendent of the Windsor, Ontario, plant of that company, and later accepted a similar position with the Page Woven Wire Fence Company at Walkerville, Ontario. lie held the latter position until a short time before his death, which occurred March 19, 1919. His wife, Mrs. Elizabeth Andrews, was born in Portsmouth, England, in 1857, the daughter of George Collis. When her father, a shipbuilder, was accidentally killed at his work, she and her mother came to Hamilton, Ontario. There William R. Andrews and Miss Collis were married, Mrs. George Collis going, soon afterward, to Rockford, Illinois, where she died in 1891. After the death of his first wife, which occurred in 1889, Mr. Andrews married Mariah Misner, of Paris, Ontario. To his first union were born seven children, five of whom are now living, as follows: Edwin C., of Adrian; William F., of Windsor, Ontario; Maude and Bertha, of Windsor, and Elizabeth, of Worcester, Massachusetts. Edwin C. Andrews left

Page  202 202 PEIRSONAL KICITCII lllH' It 1 iENAW I. (:()U NTY school when he was twelve years old to become an apprentice steel worker under his father's direction. From 1894 until 1899 he was a machinist in the Grand Trunk railroad shops and from 1899 to 1900 was with the Canadian army in Africa. In 1900 he returned to Walkerville and began work in the Page Woven Wire Fence Company plant, being made, later, night watchman of that establishment. In 1907 he came to Adrian as superintendent of the Bond Steel Post Company. In 1916 he started in the local and long distance freight transportation business with one motor truck. From this humble beginning his business has expanded until today he employs fourteen trucks which make regular trips over three established routes. On April 25, 1901, he married Margaret Boreland, daughter of William and Margaret Boreland, of Toronto, Ontario, and who was born in 1880. Mr. Andrews is a member of the Blue Lodge, Chapter and Commandery of the Masons and attends the Episcopal church. Ralph W. Armstrong, merchant, 134-136 West Main street, Hudson, was born October 2, 1871, in Hudson, the son of Almerion D. and Ellen (King) Armstrong, natives of New York. With George Pullman, who later acquired fame and a fortune by designing the Pullman car, Almerion D. Armstrong left his native state afoot, carrying their possessions on their backs and hunting game on their way to Chicago. When they arrived at that city both obtained employment, though Mr. Armstrong later left Chicago and hunted from there to the hamlet of Lanesville, which is now the city of Hudson. Arriving at Lanesville, Mr. Armstrong began working at his trade of painter, as he had learned that occupation as a boy. Later he became interested in bee-keeping and engaged in the manufacture of apiarists' supplies and equipment. At the outbreak of the Civil war he enlisted in a company recruited in Hudson and served throughout the war as a Berdan sharpshooter. After the war he returned to Hudson and was elected township clerk. He died in that city at the age of seventyone years. His son, Ralph W. Armstrong, one of a family of seven children, attended high school in Hudson and when quite young (juit his stu(lies to work for his father in the painting business. Th'lree years later he became an apprentice in the James Deem tin shop, receiving for his labor two dollars a week. After nine years in the Deem shop, he went to Adrian to work in the S. H. Perkins tinning and plumbing shop, where he remained one year. Returning to Hudson, he worked three years in the M. E. Powers hardware store and tin shop. He then purchased the Deem tin shop, which he and a partner operated until 1905. In that year he and his partner purchased the Palmer hardware store and moved their tin shop to the new location, where they remained 'four years. At the end of that period Mr. Armstrong became sole proprietor of the enterprise, to which he still gives his entire attention. For twenty-six years Mr. Armstrong has been on the fire department and for the past three years has been chief, and has been city

Page  203 . I PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 203 plumber for twenty-six years. He takes an active part in the councils of the Democratic party and is a regular attendant at the Methodist church. He married, on February 14, 1901, Pearl G. Allen, daughter of George W. and Anna Allen, of Medina, Michigan. Mr. and Mrs. Armstrong have four children: Lloyd R., traveling salesman for the Brown Shoe Company of St. Louis, Missouri; Loraine, wife of H. Earl Gruel, of Adrian; Donald L. and Robert Vincent, pupils in the public schools. Another child, Raymond, died when he was twelve years old. Mr. and Mrs. Armstrong have a grandchild, Jo Ann Gruel. George Washington Ayers, lawyer, 331 Church street, Adrian, Michigan, has been circuit court commissioner twelve years and has been attorney for and director of the Adrian Building and Loan Association since it was organized, in August, 1889. He was for thirty-three years a trustee of the First Baptist church of Adrian. Mr. Ayers was born on a farm in Fairfield township, Lenawee county, December 7, 1854, the son of John and Amanda (Porter) Ayers, the latter of whom was born in Westfield township, Chautauqua county, New York, a daughter of Isaac and Clarissa Porter. George W. Ayers has a sister, Lida, widow of C. F. Morse, of Adrian; a brother, Edwin, who died in infancy; Albert J., who died in 1913, and a sister, Clara, also deceased. John Ayers, the father, was born in the state of New York and was a son of Septimus Ayers, who brought his family to a farm in Fairfield township early in the nineteenth century. John Ayers lived on a farm practically all his life, and died in 1866. His widow died in 1912, after having made her home with her son, George W. Ayers, many years. George W. Ayers remained on his parents' farm until he was eighteen years old and attended the district schools of Fairfield township, and later studied two years at the academy at Westfield, New York. Returning to Adrian, he entered high school and in 1877 graduated and began teaching school. After seven terms in this occupation he began the study of law in the office of B. F. Graves and later with Judge C. A. Stacy, and graduated in the class of 1884 at the University of Michigan with the degree of Bachelor of Laws. He was admitted to the bar in 1883. He then began the practice of his profession in Adrian, which has been his home since that time. OnJuly 3, 1889, he married Miss Della H. Dodge, daughter of Dr. Thomas F. and Lucinda Dodge, of Adrian. Mr. and Mrs. Ayers have three sons: Percy B., building supervisor of the city of Detroit; Merle P., who is in the real estate business in the same city; and' Robert, who is a student in the Detroit College of Medicine. Mr. Ayers, during his forty years of law practice, has handled many very important cases and has acquired a high reputation as a lawyer. He is a member of the Maccabees and the Lenawee County Bar Association.. He was one of the organizers of the Adrian High School Scholarship Association of Adrian high school, now the A. E. Curtis Scholarship

Page  204 204 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY Association of Adrian High School, and was its first president. He is still a member of the board of trustees. Edward Augustus Bachman, contractor, of Adrian, was born on a farm in Ridgeway township, Lenawee county, on September 25, 1865, the son of John H. and Margaret (Miller) Bachman, natives of Germany. His father, a carpenter, who was born at Hanover in 1827, came to the United States in 1850 and settled on a forty-acre farm in Ridgeway township. Margaret Miller, who was born in 1841, came with her parents to Ridgeway township in 1847. They settled on a farm, which was her home until her marriage to John H. Bachman. In 1905 Mr. Bachman and his wife moved to Britton, where she died in 1913, at the age of eightytwo years. They reared the following children, two of whom are now dead. Those who survive are: Henry, George, John, Michael, Lewis, Edward A., Hannah and Carrie; Mary and Wilmina being the names of those who died. Edward A. Bachman left school when he was fifteen years old to learn the carpenter's trade under his father's direction. When he was twenty-five years old he moved to Britton and started in business as a contractor and builder. Among the important buildings he has erected are the Davies & Rankin creameries at Ridgeway and other Michigan towns. So satisfactory was the first plant he built for the Davies & Rankin Company, that he continued to erect creameries for that firm for two years. In 1919 he removed to Adrian and since 1923 has been building inspector for that city. In 1890 he married Carrie Britton, who was born October 23, 1870, the daughter of John and Sarah Britton. To this union have been born four children: Sadie, who has been dead several years; Maxine, Marcella and Ralph. Mr. Bachman is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, thie Masons and the Odd Fellows. Clarke Edward Baldwin, lawyer, of Adrian, was born in Canandaigua, sixteen miles southwest of Adrian, in Lenawee county, November 24, 1871, the son of Edward C. and Marilda E. (Baggerly) Baldwin. Edward C. Baldwin was born in Chesterfield township, Fulton county, Ohio, on February 8, 1847, and his wife was born in the same place on August 15, 1852. Charles H. and Electra Ann (Crouch) Baldwin, grandparents of Clarke E. Baldwin, moved from their native state, New York, to Ohio soon after their marriage and for many years lived on a farm in that state. Edward C. Baldwin moved to Canandaigua, Lenawee county, when he was a young man and remained there, settling on a farm which he cultivated until his death, February 8, 1917. He was married in 1869, and reared a family of three children: Clarke Edward Baldwin, lawyer, of Adrian; Ernest C. Baldwin, postmaster at Hudson, Michigan; and Mrs. L. H. Harrison, of Butler, Indiana. Edward C. Baldwin was a staunch Republican and was elected sheriff of Lenawee county in 1888, and re-elected at the expiration of his first term. He also served his township as highway commissioner a number of years. He was a member of the Canandai

Page  205 I Y PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 205 gua Congregational church, the Masons and the Knights Templar. His son, Clarke Edward Baldwin, received his first schooling in Canandaigua and at Hudson. He graduated from high school in Adrian in 1892 and from the law department of the University of Michigan in 1896. Returning to Adrian, he entered the law office of Watts, Bean & Smith, as a junior partner, and remained with that firm until it became Watts, Smith & Baldwin, in 1900. In 1912 the firm became Baldwin & Alexander, with offices in the Adrian Savings Bank building. Mr. Baldwin represents the Citizens Light and Power Company and the Toledo, Western & Wabash railways. In 1907 he was a member of the Michigan Constitutional Convention. For the past eight years Mr. Baldwin has been president of the Adrian board of education. He is a member of the Episcopal church, the Masons, the Knights Templar, the Rotary club, the Adrian City club, the Lenawee Country club and the Chamber of Commerce. On November 1, 1900, he married Adelia A. Wing, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Abram Wing, of Adrian. Mr. and Mrs. Baldwin have three children. The eldest, Clarke Wing, was born July 24, 1907. The second child, Edward A., was born June 8, 1909, and the youngest, Alice M. Baldwin, was born February 8,,1911. Mrs. Baldwin is a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution and the Woman's Club of Adrian. Mr. Baldwin owns a farm a few miles west of Adrian. Edward A. Ballenberger, dealer in meats and provisions, 111 South Main street, Adrian, was born in that city on March 9, 1887, the eldest of the four children of. George F. and Caroline (Reisig) Ballenberger. His grandparents, John B. and Christine (Hertline) Ballenberger, came to the United States from Germany in 1854 and were married in 1856, celebrating their golden wedding anniversary in Adrian in 1906. John B. Ballenberger, a stone cutter, is now deceased, while two of his four children are still living in Adrian, George F. Ballenberger and Mrs. James Winnie. George F. Ballenberger obtained the greater portion of his education in the German schools, and attended the public schools but two months. His first employment was with the F. R. Stebbins Company. Other concerns for which lie worked are as follows: the Austin, Treat & Goodsell Company, the Comstock planing mill, the l'ennsylvania railroad shols, and the Comstock Company, for which he worked at two different times. His next venture was in the retail meat business as a partner of William Spielman. The firm of Spielman & Ballenberger started business in a- building on Maple avenue and was successful from the first. However, one year later, Mr. Spielman retired from the firm, and from that time until 1908 Mr. Ballenberger continued as head of the enterprise. He was a member of the German Lutheran church, the Maccabees and the Democratic party. On May 14, 1885, he married Caroline Reisig, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. George Reisig, of Adrian; To this union were born four children: Edward A., Louise, wife of George Dorner, and Alma and Lucille. All were

Page  206 206 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY born in Adrian and were educated in the public schools. Edward A. Ballenberger attended Brown's Business University after he finished his elementary grade education, having obtained a job as office boy while yet a student. Later he was made a stock boy in the Peerless Wire Fence Company offices in Adrian, where he had worked while attending school. Still later he became secretary to the superintendent of that concern, and in 1907 was made a traveling salesman for the company. In June, 1915, he became a partner of his father in the meat business conducted by him since 1885. In 1923, on May 1, the father withdrew from the enterprise, and since that time Edward A. Ballenberger has been the sole proprietor of the business, which is a thriving one. Mr. and Mrs. George F. Ballenberger are still living, as are their three daughters: Mrs. George Dorner, Mrs. Raymond Lewis and Mrs. Anson Dickinson, the latter being a resident of Blissfield. Edward A. Ballenberger married, on November 23, 1912, Bertha B. Fritts, daughter of Henry and Flora Fritts, of Lincoln, Nebraska. To this union have been born two children: Gertrude, on November 26, 1915, and Edward A., Jr., on November 3, 1923. Mrs. Ballenberger was born May 20, 1892. Her husband is a director of the Chamber of Commerce, a director of the Community Sanitary Market and is a member of the Masons and the Elks. Harriett Bell Barnum, photographer, 523 South Winter street, Adrian, was born in that city March 30, 1869. Her father, Joseph A. Merrett, was born in Worcestershire, England. He came to America when he was very young and became a painter, paperhanger and decorator, an occupation he had been taught in England. On January 1, 1861, he married Ann Boyes, of Monterey, New York, and later in the same year, after the beginning of the Civil war, he enlisted in the Union army. He fought during the entire war, receiving an honorable discharge in 1866. He then brought his family to Adrian, where he resumed his painting and decorating work, and died many years later. His daughter, Harriett, attended high school in Adrian, after she had finished the course of study in the elementary grades, and was employed several years in her father's store. She married Frank Shephard Barnutn, son of l)elos W. and Lor`raine Putnam (Ware) Barnum, who came from Canada to Adrian in 1890. From 1890 until his death, which occurred October 26, 1893, Mr. Barnum was associated with the Webb Engraving Company. Mr. Barnum left, besides his widow, a daughter, Katherine Josephine, who resides with her mother, the subject of this sketch. Mrs. Barnum assumed the responsibilities of the management of her husband's business, which she has since conducted very successfully under its former name, the Webb Engraving Company. Mrs. Barnum has a brother, Joseph A. Merritt, of Adrian, and a sister, Mrs. Frances Josephine Clory, of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Isaac Bassett, president of the Adrian Casting Company, was born December 15, 1878, at Montreal, Canada. His parents, Isaac

Page  207 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 207 I I I and Sophia (Gabrault) Bassett, were born in that city in 1855. In 1883, when their son, Isaac, was five years old, Mr. and Mrs. Bassett moved to Chicago, where the father, a blacksmith, established himself in business. Isaac Bassett is still living but his wife died in that city. They were the parents of ten children, three sons and seven daughters, four of whom are now dead. One son, Lester, is a foreman in the plant of the Adrian Casting Company. Isaac Bassett, Jr., left school when he was fifteen years old to begin his career in the metal industry, which he has followed continuously since that tender age. He worked awhile at Jackson, going from that city to Detroit, where he remained only a few months. Returning to Jackson, he worked in the foundries in that city until 1914, when he accepted a position with the Adrian Steel Casting Company, as superintendent. In 1918 his experience and abilities won for him the post of vice-president and general manager. In 1901 Mr. Bassett married Clara Schuessler, of Harvey, Illinois. To this union were born two children: Arthur R., who was born April 3, 1902, and Carroll William, who was born September 28, 1904. On June 28, 1923, Mr. Bassett was again married. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias, the Exchange club and the Chamber of Commerce. In addition to holding the positions of president and general manager of the Adrian Casting Comp)any, Mr. Bassett is a director of that concern. Hubert Thane Bauman is an attorney residing in the city of Adrian, state of Michigan. His abilities in the court room have brought him many important cases in that state and in Ohio, and despite a handicap in the use of his limbs, Mr. Bauman handles a large volume of legal business. He has been admitted to practice in the United States supreme court and has held the office of city clerk of Morenci, Lenawee county, and city attorney of that municipality. From January 1, 1913, to January 1, 1917, he was circuit court commissioner and is now holding that office, having been appointed by the governor to serve during 1925 and 1926. Mr. Bauman was born at Morenci on August 23, 1891. His father, William J. Bauman, was born in Ashland, Ohio, October 21, 1861, and his mother, Mrs. Marion E. (Drake) Bauman, was born July 26, 1861, in Fayette, Ohio. His grandfather Bauman, a native of Baden-Baden, Germany, settled in Ashland, Ohio, and died in that city in 1872 from an illness incurred during his services in the Union army during the Civil war. Mr. Bauman's grandfather Drake and the latter's three brothers were also in the Union forces during the Civil war, two of the brothers giving up their lives during the conflict. After the war Mr. Drake returned to his farm in Seneca township, Lenawee county, and was a resident of that county at the time of his death. William J. Bauman, father of H. Wane Bauman, is a very successful clothing salesman and is now employed by a company with which he has been associated more than twenty years. His son Hubert attended the Morenci public schools and graduated from high school in 1909. Entering

Page  208 208 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY the University of Michigan school of law, he obtained his degree in 1912 and was admitted to the bar on September 3 of the same year. He began the practice of his profession at Morenci, where he remained until -1923. His offices are now in the Adrian State Savings Bank building with those of H. R. Clark and D. B. Morgan, lawyers. Few lawyers are more favorably known for their abilities in the conducting of lawsuits than Mr. Bauman, who is aggressive and energetic in spite of the handicap which resulted from a paralytic stroke in 1909. On August 14, 1918, Mr. Bauman married Margaret Connolly, daughter of Thomas P. and Mary (Tully) Connolly, of Toledo, Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. Bauman have three children: Regina, aged six; Hubert Thane, Jr., aged five years; and Margaret Ann, aged three years. Mr. Bauman is a member of St. Mary's Catholic church, the Elks and the Lenawee County Bar Association. He is now Exalted Ruler of the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks. George L. Bennett, lawyer, real estate operator and insurance broker, is one of the leading citizens of the city of Adrian. He is president of the Chamber of Commerce, president of the board of trustees of the Adrian Community Fund and a director of the Adrian Y. M. C. A. He was, during the ten years which preceded the sale of the Adrian plant of the Page Woven Wire Fence Company, manager of that plant and a director in the company. Since 1920, when the plant was sold, he has had offices in the National Bank of Commerce building and has built up a thriving real estate, investment brokerage and insurance business. Mr. Bennett was born on a farm in Rollin township, Lenawee county, on December 22, 1859. He was the son of Gershom B. and Marie L. (Rawson) Bennett, his father having been born in Shelby, Orleans county, New York, on January 22, 1822, and his mother in Macedon, Wayne county, New York, on August 26, 1822. His grandfather, Deacon Matthew Bennett, was born in Orange county, New York, in 1778, and was taken by his parents to Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, in 1792. In 1805 he returned to New York, where he lived on a Tioga county farm eleven years. While a resident of Pennsylvania he married Nancy Brace, and their eldest son, in 1828, came to Lenawee county, returning to New York one year later to persuade his parents to come to this state. In 1834 Matthew Bennet sold his New York state property and settled on a four hundred and eighty-acre tract of Government land in Rollin township, where he remained until a few years before his death, which oc-. curred at Fairfield in October, 1863. His son, Gershom B. B. Bennett, came to Lenawee county with his parents in 1834 and helped his father erect the third house built in Rollin township. He was one of a family of ten children, and spent fifty-six years in farming his share of the homestead his father divided among the children. In 1880 he moved to Adrian, and after a short while began farming again, buying a sixty-acre tract in Adrian township. In 1891 he again came to Adrian, and in 1905 moved to Santa Cruz, California.

Page  209 I PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 209 i His wife, Mrs. Marie L. (Rawson) Bennett, died on January 3, 1902, fifty-eight years after their marriage. She left a family of three children: the Rev. E. R. Bennett, a Baptist minister; Emma, wife of G. A. Cook, of Santa Cruz, California, and who is now! dead; and George L. Bennett, of Adrian. George L. Bennett graduated from the University of Michigan in 1883 with the degree of Bachelor of Laws and practiced his profession in Adrian ten years. He served two terms as circuit court commissioner and four years as assistant prosecuting attorney, holding the latter office under D. B. Morgan. He was associated with Mr. Mor- i gan in private practice a short while, and when his health became ' impaired he accepted the post of attorney for the Page Woven Wire Fence Company. Later he became sales manager and a stockholder in that concern, and at the time the company was pur- I chased by the American Chain Company he was plant manager, as well as a director of the corporation. Mr. Bennett was married on June 28, 1905, to Margaret Chesney, daughter of the Rev. and Mrs. E. Chesney. She was born in Canada, but was brought to Michigan by her parents when a young girl. She was graduated from Kalamazoo College in 1889. Mr. Bennett has a lovely resi- J dence, one of the old substantial places of the city, at the corner of Broad and Church streets, Adrian. Katherine N. Bennett, his! only child, was born in 1912 and is a student in the public schools. i In March, 1923, Mr. Bennett. terminated more than thirty years'! service as superintendent of the Baptist Sunday School in Adrian. He is a member of the Rotary club, and for the past thirty years has | been a director of the Y. M. C. A. Stillman W. Bennett, justice of the peace of Adrian township, | Lenawee county, has been county registrar of deeds and has served l six years as alderman of the city of Adrian. He was born July 30, 1842, in Fairfield township, Lenawee county, the son of Davis D. and Malinda (Hagerman) Bennett, both of whom were born in the state of New York. Davis 1). Bennett came to the Territory of Michigan in 1828 and spent a short time in Adrian. He then returned to New York, where he married. In 1829 he brought his I bride to Adrian township, where they remained until 1835. They then settled on an eighty-acre farm in Fairfield township, and, still later, bought two llun(lred acres. They remained on their farm until 1870, when Davis Bennett sold his land to his son, Stillman, andl moved to the village of Fairfield. The father, who was a Democrat until 1856, when he joined the Republican party, was a - member of the state legislature in 1847, when that body met for the first time in the new capitol building at Lansing. He died in 1891. Mr. and Mrs. Davis D. Bennett were the parents of ten children, all of whom are now dead with the exception of the subject of this sketch, Stillman W. Bennett. His education comprised such schooling as was provided in the district schools of Fairfield township and two terms in Adrian College. In 1868 he married Mary L. (Livesay), of Fairfield township, the daughter

Page  210 210 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY of Mr. and Mrs. James Livesay. She was born May 29, 1844. Stillman W. Bennett remained on the farm until January 1, 1885, when he moved his family to Adrian. From 1884 to 1889 he served Lenawee county as registrar of deeds, and later was alderman six years. In 1897 he returned to the farm, where he remained until 1902. In that year he came to Adrian to accept a position in the sales department of the Page Woven Wire Fence Company. In 1906 he was elected justice of the peace, and has been re-elected in each subsequent contest for that office. In 1878 he was elected state representative and met with the legislature in its first session in the new capitol building opened in 1879. Mr. and Mrs. Stillman W\. Bennett had two children, both of whom are now dead. Arthur L., the first child, was born in 1871 and died in 1913, leaving his widow, Mrs. Caroline (Potter) Bennett and a daughter, Florence L. Florence L., daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Stillman W. Bennett, was born in 1881 and died in 1902. Stillman W. Bennett is a member of the Masons and has been Master of Lodge, High Priest of Chapter, Thrice Illustrious Master of the Council, and Eminent Commander of the Knights Templar. John Everett Bird, justice of the supreme court of Michigan, was born on December 19, 1862, at Clayton, Michigan, the son of Reuben E. and Caroline (Caniff) Bird. Reuben E. Bird, who was born in Litchfield, Connecticut, and afterwards moved to the state of New York, came to Michigan in 1837 with his brother John, and settled at Trenton. Mr. and Mrs. Chauncey Bird, parents of Reuben E. Bird, also came to Michigan and took an eighty-acre tract of government land near Clayton. Reuben E. Bird also located eighty acres of land and conducted a mercantile business in Clayton for several years. Hle died in 1883, and his widow died in 1903. They were the parents of seven children, of whom Justice Bird, and Lydia, who lives on the Bird homestead, are now living. John Everett Bird attended the village school at Clayton, and Adrian College, but was obliged to leave the college after being there three years, on account of the death of his father. Later, in 1916, he received from that college the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. In 1881, before he entered Adrian College, he taught a district school southwest of Clayton for a period of one year. In 1886 he began the study of law in the office of Bean and Lane at Adrian, and was admitted to the bar on December 19, 1887. He remained in the Bean and Lane law office one year, and then became a partner of Fred B. Wood and A. L. Millard, lawyers. Two years. later he formed a partnership with Mr. Wood, which lasted four years. In 1894 Mr. Bird was elected prosecuting attorney of Lenawee county. He was re-elected at the end of his first term, and held that office until 1899, a period of four years. In 1904 he was elected attorney general and served nearly three terms of two years each. In June, 1910, Governor Warner appointed Mr. Bird justice of the supreme court. Though his duties are chiefly at Lansing, he has continued to reside in Adrian since 1912. Justice

Page  211 I. 11 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 211 Bird is a lawyer of great ability and is held in high regard by the members of the Michigan bar. Justice Bird is a member of the Masonic order and the Knights of Pythias. He married in 1895, Katharine Brown, who was born on December 17, 1872, at Troy, New York, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Frank Brown. Justice and Mrs. Bird have three children. The eldest, Everett, was born May 30, 1897, and is now a resident of Detroit. Major, the second child, who has studied at Dartmouth College and the University of Michigan law school, was born April 13, 1901. Gertrude, the third child, was born. August 20, 1903. She graduated from Adrian high school and attended finishing school at Lowell, Massachusetts. She now resides with her parents at 450 Dennis street, Adrian. Justice Bird and his sister, Lydia, own one hundred and forty-four acres of land in the village of Clayton, which includes the old Bird homestead. He has been, since 1903, a director of the Schwarze Electric Company, of which he is now president. F. J. Blouch, merchant, of Holloway, is a stockholder in the Mutual Oil Company of Adrian and the Lenawee Sand and Gravel Company of Tecumseh. He is also financially interested in various other enterprises. He was born in Monroe county, Michigan, December 25, 1882, the son of Michael and Nancy (Ackley) Blouch. His father was born in Pennsylvania and his mother was born at Ida, Michigan. They resided on a farm until about five years ago, and are now living in Holloway. They have three children living: Mrs. Carria Feldman, of Scofield, Michigan; Norman, who resides on a farm near Carlton, Michigan; and F. J. Blouch, of Holloway. A daughter, Myrtle Palmer, died a number of years ago. F. J. Blouch attended.the district school of Exeter township until he reached the eighth grade. When he was fifteen years old he dropped his studies and began working in the grocery store of Charles Rauch, of Spring Arbor, Jackson county. He remained there until 1889. He then returned to Monroe county but later began working in Spring Arbor again. In 1904 he purchased the store building and merchandise of the firm of Kohln & Fiedler, of Monroe county. He operated this store until 1909, when he moved his merchandise to Holloway and opened a store in the old (;range building. In 1916, after a fire destroyed his llace of business, lie erected tie large building now occupied by him. This structure is one of the most commodious and substantial in the town. Mr. Blouch is a member of the Maccabees and the Masons and is a leader in civic and social affairs in his community. October 4, 1909, he married Maude Bale, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Bale, of Carlton, Monroe county. Mr. and Mrs. Blouch have three children: Edna, Sherman and Allen. Their first child, Burl, is deceased. Charles Burridge, resident manager of H. Brewer & Company, of Tecumseh, is a native of Lenawee county, having been born in Tecumseh, December 10, 1873, the son of Charles and Harriet (Blinn) Burridge. Charles Burridge, the father, was born in Eng

Page  212 212 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTYland in 1834, and came to the United States alone when but a boy, settling in Lenawee county. He attended the district schools of the county and when he had availed himself of all the educational advantages thus afforded, took up the profession of teaching, conducting schools in Lenawee county for some time. During this period he studied law assiduously and to such good effect that he was admitted to the bar, whereupon he moved to Tecumseh to begin his law practice. He took an active interest in politics, serving the community as village clerk and justice of the peace, and was a candidate for probate judge on the Democratic ticket. He was an ardent member of the Presbyterian church, and devoted a large part of his time to the betterment of the village of Tecumseh. He was married, in 1867, to Harriet Blinn, daughter of Samuel C. Blinn, and to this marriage three children were born: Walter C., Charles, and Mary Louise, now the wife of Dr. H. S. Jennings, of Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. Charles Burridge, the son and subject of this review, attended high school in Tecumseh until he reached the age of sixteen years, when he left school to begin a career as an electrician. He was first employed by engineers of the Thompson-Houston Electric Company, of Chicago, in 1890, installing light plants in Michigan and Illinois. After two years of service in that capacity, he was employed as electrician in the Hooley Theater, of Chicago, and later went to Eddy, New Mexico, to superintend the installation of an electric lighting plant. Returning to Chicago, he was in the employ of Adams & Westlake Company until he returned to Tecumseh to take a position with the Tecumseh Telephone Company. In 1899 he began his work with H. Brewer & Company, as sales manager, and as a reward for meritorious service was later made resident manager of the company. Mr. Burridge was married on May 3, 1905, to Anna Katherine Gaston, a daughter of William and Jane Gaston, now deceased. William Gaston conducted a jewelry business in Tecumseh for a number of years. Mr. and Mrs. Burridge have a son, Charles Gaston Burridge, born in 1906. Mr. Burridge is well known to the community as one of the successful and progressive business men of Tecumseh. Ralph Lavere Carr, who conducts a general insurance business. at 103 North Main street, Adrian, is a veteran of the World war and a graduate of Adrian College. He was born in Adrian on July 28, 1897, the son of John E. and Catherine (Decker) Carr. John E. Carr was born May 28, 1867, at Covington, Kentucky, the son of James and Annie Carr, who came from New York to Kentucky soon after they were married. James Carr was a native of England, and his wife was born in New York. The parents of Mrs. Catherine (Decker) Carr were John and Kate (Cobbler) Decker, the former of whom was born in Bavaria, Germany, and the latter in England. Mr. and Mrs. James Carr moved from Kentucky to Adrian when their son, John E., was fifteen years old. John E. Carr was employed

Page  213 I I I I,i / PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 213 in the brass foundry of the New York Central railroad shops at Adrian a number of years. Later he became a member of the firm of James Carr & Son, founders, of Adrian. James Carr died at Benton Harbor in 1921 and Mrs. Annie Carr died in Adrian in 1919. Mrs. Kate Decker died in 1921, her husband, John Decker, having died in 1908. Leaving the foundry business in 1898, John E. Carr became secretary and treasurer of the Page Woven Wire Fence Company, of Adrian, and remained with this company until 1921, when he moved to Benton Harbor to become fiscal advisor to a large corporation there. In 1922 he was employed by the R. E. Olds interests in an executive position in Florida. He remained in that state until February, 1924, when he came to Lansing, Michigan, as private secretary to R. E. Olds. John E. Carr has been president of the Michigan Baptist convention two years, and is also past president of the Michigan Anti-Saloon League. Mr. and Mrs. John E. Carr are the parents of two children, Ralph Lavere, of Adrian, and George Lee, of the United States Internal Revenue Office at New York City. Ralph Lavere Carr graduated from high school in Adrian in 1915 and studied at Kalamazoo College until 1918, when he enlisted in the Motor Transport service at Lansing. When he was discharged from the army in January, 1919, he entered Adrian College to complete his education. His first position after he graduated from college was with the Burroughs Adding Machine Company as manager of the Adrian sales district. Later, spending one year as manager of the W. B. Shankland insurance office at Benton Harbor, he decided to enter this profession alone, and in 1923 opened a general insurance agency at 103 North Main street, Adrian. On November 20, 1920, he married Esther M. Critchell, daughter of Fred and Elizabeth Critchell (deceased), of Adrian. Mr. and Mrs. Carr have two children, Elizabeth Catherine, who was born January 30, 1922, and Joanne L., born February 7, 1926. Mr. Carr is a member of the Baptist church and the Sigma Epsilon fraternity of Adrian College. Bert D. Chandler, lawyer, of Hudson, was born on a farm in Rollin township, Lenawee county, March 19, 1872, the son of Spencer G. and Viola (Doolittle) Chandler. His father, who was born in Waterloo, New York, in 1846, was brought to Michigan by his parents, Reuben and Sarah Chandler, in the early Fifties. Reuben Chandler settled on a farm in Rollin township, where he and his wife died many years alter. Spencer G. Chandler attended the district schools of Rollin township and the normal school at Ypsilanti. After leaving school and until February, 1870, when he married, Spencer Chandler worked on his father's farm, which consisted of one hundred and sixty acres of very good land. When Reuben Spencer died, at the age of ninety years, his son, Spencer, the only child, inherited the farm and lived on it until 1909. In that year he sold the farm and removed to Hudson, where he died in 1918. After his death his widow, Mrs. Viola Chandler, who was born in Hillsdale county, Michigan, in 1849, moved to Adrian.

Page  214 214 PERSONAL SKETCIHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY In 1925 she returned to Hudson, which is her home at this time. Mr. and Mrs. Spencer G. Chandler reared a family of three sons: Bert D., of Hudson; Nelson, an employe of the Michigan Telephone Company and a resident of Kalamazoo; and Charles, also an employe of the Michigan Telephone Company and who lives in Detroit. Bert D. Chandler attended the public schools at Addison and graduated from high school at Hudson in 1889. In that year he entered the law office of Grant Fellows, who later became supreme court judge. After studying law three years, Mr. Chandler took the state bar examinations and was admitted to practice in May, 1893. He then became a partner of Mr. Fellows and practiced law with him until 1916, the year Mr. Fellows became a judge. Since 1916 Mr. Chandler has conducted his business alone. From December of 1914 until June of 1915, Mr. Chandler served as judge of the Lenawee county circuit court, filling the unexpired term of a former judge. He has been city attorney. of Hudson more than twenty-five years and for more than five years has been president of the Post-Gazette Printing Company, an institution he helped to establish. He is a director of the Hardie Manufacturing Company of Hudson, and the Parker Rust-proof Company of Detroit, and since May, 1925, has been president of the Hazen Manufacturing Company of Hudson. He is also a member of the Hudson Country club, the Elks, the Knights of Pythias and the Blue Lodge, Chapter and Council of the Masons. He was married on August 10, 1910, to Caroline Fitch, daughter of James and Clara Fitch, of Coshocton, Ohio. Artemas W. Chase, M.D., 130 Toledo street, Adrian, is a veteran of the World war and a former mayor of that city. He is known as an authority on diseases of the chest and as a specialist in X-ray work. Dr. Chase was born on a farm in Raisin township on September 7, 1875. His father, A. W. Chase, was born in Raisin township, and his mother, Mary Smith, was born in the state of New Jersey, having been brought to Michigan when a child by her parents, who settled on a farm near Ypsilanti. Mrs. Chase died in the year 1890, leaving her husband and two children, of whom Dr. Chase is the youngest. The Rev. Levi II. Cllase, grandfather of A. W. Chase, was born in Providence, New York, and was married on October 24, 1826, to Anna Haviland. lie brought his family to Lenawee county in 1833, and remained a resident of this community until his death. Dr. Chase graduated from the Raisin Valley Seminary in 1896 and from the Detroit College of Medicine and Surgery in 1900. He at once came to Adrian and began the practice of his profession. Though he has always enjoyed a large practice, Dr. Chase has been able to find time to devote to political and civic welfare movements in his city. He was city physician two years and was mayor of Adrian in 1914-15-16. In 1917 he gave up his profitable connections in this city and at a great personal sacrifice enlisted in the Medical Corps of the United States Army. He was commis

Page  215 i 11. j PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 215 i sioned a first lieutenant and sent overseas, where he remained approximately two years and was made a captain. When he was returned to the United States he was placed in charge of the Army hospital at Sandy Hook, and held that post until shortly before he was honorably discharged from service. Since he was in the army he has taken two post-graduate courses in medicine and surgery, taking one course in Chicago and the other at Howell, Michigan. In politics Dr. Chase is a Democrat. He is a member of the Masons, the Baptist church and the Adrian, the Lenawee! County, the Tri-State, the Michigan and the American Medical associations. On April 19, 1900, he married Bertha J. Smith, of Adrian. They have two children: Edith M., who was born January 27, 1901, and Francis, who was born in February, 1902. Francis Chase is now employed in the Lewis & Coe department store, in Adrian. In addition to the organizations named above, Dr. Chase is a member of the Knights of Pythias and the Exchange club. His office and residence are at 130 Toledo street. Edward D. Clark, of Morenci, manufacturer of the Clark gas producing machines, was born in Morenci on October 2, 1865, the son of James and Margaret Clark. He attended school at Morenci until he was fifteen years old, when he began working in his father's factory. This factory produced a line of clay-working machines for brick and tile companies and included a complete machine shop and a foundry. Here Edward worked until he was sixteen years old. At that age he was made a salesman and for a period of twenty years traveled about the country selling the machinery manufactured by his father. In 1893 he returned to Morenci and began the manufacture of a line of machines which produce gas for cooking and lighting purposes. The gas producing machines were at first machined and assembled in the clay-working machinery plant. Later the demand for the gas machines subsided and Mr. Clark plractically suspen(led ol)erations. In 1919, after his father's death, Mlr. Clark again began the manufacture of his appliances, specializing in a line of improved apparatus for use in the better class of suburban homes. This later venture has been very successful, and the Clark gas producing machines are now bleing used in all parts of the Lliited States. These al)pliances are very durable, some of them lihaing been used for more than thirty years with excellent satisfaction. His factory is modern in every detail and is busy throughout the year. At this time efforts are being made to speed up production, as orders for the machines are rapidly increasing in volume. Mr. Clark's two sons, Marvin and Edward D., Jr., are now associated with him in business. Mr. Clark is a member of the Masonic order. Herbert R. Clark, who is now serving his second term as mayor of the city of Adrian, has practiced law in that city since 1892, the year he graduated from the law department of the University of Michigan. He was born on a farm in Palmyra.township, Lenawee county, June 14, 1868, the son of Ralph Jerome and Almyra Ann

Page  216 4 I i I f III I rt,1' I i i I 216 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY (Corbett) Clark, both of whom were born in Palmyra township, his father on October 22, 1838, and his mother on October 6, 1845. Mr. and Mrs. Clark were the parents of another son, William E. Clark, who was born January 4, 1876, was educated in the Palmyra township schools and Adrian high school, and is now in the real estate business at Highland Park, near Detroit. Ralph Jerome Clark spent his entire life in Palmyra township, and died there on May 22, 1893. His widow survived him until December 16, 1916. Lester P. Clark, grandfather of the mayor of Adrian, was born in Connecticut. He came, when he was a young man, to the Great Lakes and became a shipbuilder. Later he bought a vessel which he sailed many years on the lakes, and, afterward, he settled on a farm in Palmyra township. He served Palmyra township as one of its first supervisors. For a period of two years he conducted a drygoods store in Adrian, after which he returned to his farm and died there in 1872. Lester P. Clark married Miss Smith, a native of Lenawee county, who has also been dead many years. Herbert R. Clark received his common school education in Palmyra township, and graduated from high school in Adrian in 1888. Then, for a period of two years, he taught school and acted as principal of the Palmyra high school. In 1890 he entered the law department of the University of Michigan, graduating in 1892, and beginning practice in Adrian in the same year. His first office, in which he remained several years, was on South Main street, over the Commercial Bank. From that location he moved to his present offices in the Adrian State Savings Bank building. Mayor Clark is a lawyer of ability. While his practice has been of a general nature, he has been retained by many big corporations, among which is the New York Central railway. He has been district attorney for this company since 1906, and since 1917 has been attorney for the Cincinnati Northern railroad. During his terms as mayor Mr. Clark has worked very hard to obtain for the city a new sewage disposal plant, a "White Way" and additional paved streets. He is a Mason, belonging to the Blue Lodge, Chapter and Knights Templar; is Past Exalted Ruler of the Elks, and a member of the Adrian club, the Chamber of Commerce and the Lenawee Country club. -He is also a member of the Moslem Shrine, Detroit. Mrs. IHerbert R. Clark, before her marriage, was Lillian M. Thompson, of Adrian, Michigan. His father was for many years treasurer of his township and was also a member of the school board and Grange. Mayor Clark is much interested in breeding of blooded stock and poultry, and spends much time on his Lenawee county farm, north of Adrian. Marjorie E. Conlin, secretary of the Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Company, Commercial Savings Bank building, Adrian, was born October 10, 1898, at Tipton, Lenawee county, the daughter of John and Leola Conlin. John Conlin, a native of Canada, came to Tipton as a young man and purchased a general store, which he conducted until 1908. He was postmaster at Tipton many years,

Page  217 A i I PERSONAL SKETCIIHS FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 217 but is now retired and enjoying a well-earned rest on his farm east of Adrian. His wife, Leola Conlin, was born at Blissfield, Michigan. Their daughter, Marjorie, attended the public schools of Tipton and Adrian, and graduated from high school in the latter city in 1916. She then entered the literary department of Adrian College. Two years after she finished her school work, Miss Conlin accepted a position as assistant to the late R. M. Boyd, who was then secretary and manager of the Lenawee County Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Company. When Mr. Boyd died, three years later, Miss Conlin was appointed secretary to succeed him, and her success in this position is evidenced by the large volume of business the company has enjoyed under her administration. At this time the Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Company is the largest one-county mutual fire insurance company in the state of Michigan, and has more than twenty million dollars of insurance on Lenawee county properties. Miss Conlin is regarded as a very capable young business woman. Her tact and energy have won for her an enviable reputation in the world of commerce and finance. She is a member of Kappa Kappa Gamma, national woman's sorority, and in political preferences is inclined toward the Republican party. She has two brothers: Gladstone, a physician of Detroit, and Gerald J., who is associated with the B. E. Taylor & Company real estate offices in Detroit. Both men were lieutenants in the United States Army during the World war. Warren W. Cooke is an acknowledged leader in the industrial life of Adrian and Lenawee county for, as president of the Adrian Wire Fence Company, he has so ordered the affairs of that concern that it has become one of the most important manufacturing ventures in the county. His paternal grandparents were Wilbur and Emily Cooke, the former of whom operated a tannery in the state of Vermont. Their son, Truman W. Cooke, father of him whose name heads this review, married Louise M. Whitehead, who was born in England in 1835 and came to the United States with her parents to settle on a farm in northern New York. After farming for a time in Vermont, Truinan Cooke brought his family to Michigan in 1865, remaining at Hillsdale one year and then taking up a farin at Clayton, Lenawee county, in 1866. In this county, Truman W. Cooke farnied during the remainder of his active life, his death occurring in 1909 and that of his wife in 1889. They were the parents of two sons, Warren W. and George F., of Minneapolis, Minnesota, the latter of whom was born in 1863. Warren W. Cooke was born October 13, 1859, at Standford, Vermont, and after the family came to Clayton he attended school for a time, giving up his studies while he was still a boy to become a clerk in a store at Clayton. Subsequently, he entered the employ of H. C. Haskin, the proprietor of the Clayton grain elevator. His apparent business ability and willingness to work won the favorable attention of his employer, so that before Mr. Cooke was twenty-one years of age, the two men organized the Exchange

Page  218 i I I i 218 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY Bank at that village, where they were engaged in the elevator business. The bank was conducted by the partners for eight years after its inception, but at the expiration of that time, Mr. Haskin sold his interests to John Johnson, after which transaction the bank continued under the firm name of Johnson & Cooke. At the end of another eight-year period, Mr. Johnson sold out to Messrs. Lamb and Judson, the firm style then becoming Lamb, Judson & Cooke. Subsequently, Mr. Lamb died and still later Mr. Judson, leaving Mr. Cooke in control of the bank's affairs. At that time, Warren Cooke took in his son, Warren W., Jr., and Miss Carrie Culver, of Adrian, as partners, and the enterprise thereafter bore the name of the Exchange Bank of W. W. Cooke & Company. Thus, for a period of forty-three years, Mr. Cooke was president of the bank, his activities winning for him the presidency of the Unincorporated Banks Association of Michigan, an office that he has filled for ten years. His extensive banking experience in the county has made him familiar with financial conditions of that section of the state, and this fact influenced his election to the directorate of the Adrian State Savings Bank. Perhaps his greatest achievement and one that has done most for the county as a whole, was the part he played in the organization of the Adrian Wire Fence Company in 1902 in partnership with N. B. Hayes and Sherman Withington, both of whom have since died. Though the company has never gone through a period of extreme expansion, it has nevertheless enjoyed a steady growth that makes for solidity in its business affairs, and for the substantial condition of the enterprise Mr. Cooke is given all credit by his fellow townsmen. The industry is one of Adrian's largest manufacturing concerns, and its volume of business has done much to promote the prosperity of the city as well as of the county. On August 26, 1882, Mr. Cooke married Eva Marks, who was born in Rome township, this county, January 17, 1864, and who died July 20, 1923, leaving two children: Warren W., Jr., who was born April 30, 1889, who is a partner in the bank at Clayton and married Sylvia Drager, of Adrian; and Merril 0., born November 20, 1886, who is the wife of Earl T. Scott. Five miles east of Hudson, on the Adrian-Hudson highway, is located "The Maples," the country home of Mr. Cooke, who has used the farm for the breeding of Duroc-Jersey hogs and Guernsey cattle, branches of stock raising in which he has attained more than local prominence. Charles E. Dibble, contractor and builder, 921 Bristol street, Adrian, has erected many important buildings in southern Michigan. He has become one of the city's most substantial business men and is now a director in the Adrian Building and Loan Association and the Chamber of Commerce. He was born on a farm in Ridgeway township, Lenawee county, on June 13, 1872, the son of George A. and Sarah (Lanning) Dibble, both of whom were born in Lenawee county. Mr. and Mrs. Dibble now reside at the home of their son. George A. Dibble was born November 16,

Page  219 r' r i': r I 1. PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 219 1846, and Mrs. Dibble was born May 10, 1850. They still own a residence on Bent Oaks avenue, just outside the Adrian corporation line, and a one hundred and forty acre farm in Adrian township. George A. Dibble served two and one-half years as a private in Company D, Seventh Michigan Volunteer Infantry, during the Civil war. Charles E. Dibble has one sister, Mrs. Adelbert Vedder, of Adrian. Charles E. Dibble obtained most of his education in the Raisin Valley Seminary, and learned the carpenter's trade soon after leaving school. After following this occupation a few years he entered business for himself as a contractor. He has erected many large office and industrial buildings in this and nearby cities. One of the first big structures he built was the H. Brewer & Company factory at Tecumseh. Almost all of the buildings at St. Joseph's Academy have been erected by Mr. Dibble, who also built the Adrian Masonic Temple, remodeled the National Bank of Commerce building and constructed the Adrian Wire Fence Company factory. On June 26, 1895, he married Edith Vedder, daughter of Loren and Sarah Vedder, of Adrian. Mrs. Dibble is a graduate of the Tecumseh high school and is a former school teacher. Mr. and Mrs. Dibble have two children. The eldest, Marion, was born August 5, 1900, and is now superintendent of the Duco department of the Dupont Paint Company, of Flint, and Velma L., Mr. and Mrs. Dibble's second child, was born September 11, 1903, and died August 4,. 1918. Mr. Dibble is a member of the Masons, the Maccabees and the Knights Templar, and was a former commander of the Adrian Commandery. Frank Philip Dodge, deceased, the subject of this sketch, was born in Adrian, Michigan, February 28, 1859. He was a descendant in the eighth generation from Richard Dodge, who was born in England in 1602, came to the American Colonies in 1638 and settled at Salem, Massachusetts. A descendant of Richard and an ancestor of Frank P. served with the colonists at the Battle of Lexington. Frank Philip Dodge was the son of Thomas Frank Dodge, born in Andover, Vermont, August 21, 1806, and Lucinda Morse Dodge, born in Putnam county, New York, June 24, 1826. Thomas F. Dodge came to Michigan, prior to 1830, settling first at lMlisslield. In 1836 he took ulp his resildence at Adrian, where he followed his profession as a practicing physician until his death in 1877. Dr. Dodge was married three times. Frank Philip was the youngest of the ten children. Mrs. Lucinda (Morse) Dodge was a descendant in the seventh generation from Anthony Morse, who was born in England and came to America on the ship "James," landing April 5, 1635, and establishing a home at Newbury, Massachusetts. Mrs. Dodge came to Michigan in 1834 when her grandfather, Charles Morse, made a unique migration from Putnam county, New York, bringing with him ten of his fourteen children and the families of those who were married, and settling in Fairfield, Lenawee county. Frank Philip Dodge attended the Adrian public schools and was graduated from the high school in 1877.

Page  220 220 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY He began his business career as a clerk in the shoe store owned by Barse & King, where he remained a few years. Later and for more than twenty-five years prior to his death, he was employed as a traveling salesman for the Simmons Boot and Shoe company of Toledo, Ohio. During his long and faithful service for this company he became one of the best and most favorably known salesmen of southern and western Michigan. Mr. Dodge was married at Adrian, December 27, 1894, to Florence Winnifred Weaver, daughter of Clement Earle and Mary (Race) Weaver, of Adrian. Mr. Weaver is remembered as having been an attorney-at-law, prominent not only in his own locality but throughout the state for nearly fifty years. He was attorney for the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway company for more than thirty-five years. Winnifred (Weaver) Dodge was born at Hudson, Michigan, July 4, 1864. She is, like her late husband, a descendant of honored pioneer forebears. She is in the ninth generation from Clement Weaver, who came from England in 1640 and was one of the originally landed proprietors of Newport, Rhode Island. Her great-grandfather, Richard Weaver, was a soldier in the Revolutionary War and her grandfather, William Weaver, was a Michigan pioneer in 1835. To Mr. and Mrs. Dodge was born a son, Frank Riley Dodge, September 16, 1895, at Adrian. He was graduated from the high school in his native city, 1913, attended Adrian College for one year and in 1914 was appointed a midshipman at the United States Naval Academy, Annapolis. Because of the World war, his class was graduated in 1917, one year in advance of the appointed time. He served throughout the war on the U. S. S. South Dakota, a cruiser engaged in convoy duty. In 1918 he was advanced to the rank of lieutenant, senior grade. In 1922 the Navy accorded him a post-graduate course in radio engineering, and he was graduated from Harvard University in June, 1924, receiving a master's degree in electrical communication engineering. He was then assigned to duty as communication officer on the staff of the commander of Destroyer Squadron No. 11, and was with the battle fleet on the Australian cruise of 1925. He is still engaged in duty with the Pacific fleet. He was married, May 29, 1918, to Miss Dorothy Graves Clement, daughter of Mrs. Florence Graves Clement. of Adrian. Lieutenant and Mrs. Dodge have one daughter, Elizabeth Winnifred, born in New York, August 3, 1919. Frank Philip Dodge was a member of the Knights of Pythias and Elks lodges. In politics he was a Democrat, but never an office-seeker, only interested ih good citizenship and good government. He died in Adrian, January 8, 1921. He was a man of high character, upright and honorable in all his contacts in life. Though quiet and unassuming by nature, he was possessed of a magnetic personality that made and held a wide circle of friends. Mrs. Winnifred W. Dodge was graduated from the Adrian high school in 1882, and besides her home duties has been for years actively engaged in matters of community welfare. She is a member of the Episcopal church and

Page  221 o:i:P. a:' PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 221 has been identified with its various activities for many years, also with the woman's club movement in the county andl state as well as city, having been president of the Adrian Woman's club for three terms, president of the Lenawee County Federation of Women's Clubs two terms, and an officer on the board of directors of the Michigan State Federation of Women's Clubs for three years. She is at present president of the Southeastern District of Women's Clubs and a member of the state board. She was for two years, during the war period, Regent of the Lucy Wolcott Barnum Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution. She was, during the World war, appointed by Governor Sleeper as the woman member of the Lenawee County War Board. In addition she served as chairman of the Woman's Committee Council of National Defense for Lenawee county, and as chairman of Women's Work for the Lenawee County Patriotic League. Mrs. Dodge resides at the old family home, 464 South Main street. H. Ray Dowling, real estate and insurance salesman, Maumee street, Adrian, was born on a farm in Rome township, Lenawee county, on December 1, 1871, the son of Philip H. and Diana T. (Luther) Dowling. Philip H. Dowling was born in Somerset, England, in 1834, and came to a farm in Rome township, near Fairport, when he was sixteen years old. His parents had given him such educational advantages as were available in the public schools in England, and until he was nineteen years old he attended the district schools in Rome township. After finishing his studies, Mr. Dowling taught in the Rome township schools and at Adrian College. In 1875 he abandoned the teaching profession and accepted a position with the Stewart Map Company, manufacturers of maps and county atlases. Later he assisted the George B. Caldwell Company, of Adrian, in preparing an atlas of Lenawee county. About 1880 or 1881 he settled on a farm in Rome township, and remained there until his death, which occurred in 1919. Mrs. Diana Dowling was born in Rome township in 1842, and was educated in the district schools of that township and at Adrian College. Mr. and Mrs. Philip Dowling were married in 1864. Three of their four children are now living, as follows: L. Wayland, professor of mathematics at the University of Wisconsin; Dora L., of Adrian, and H. Ray Dowling, the subject of this sketch. H-e attended school in Rome township until he was sixteen years old and worked on his father's farm until 1892, when he married Lena A. Judd, daughter of Daniel and Charlotte Judd, of Greenville, Michigan, and for a few years after his marriage farmed the Dowling homestead. Growing dissatisfied with the opportunities offered on a farm, he became a traveling salesman for the Adrian Fence Company. Later he was employed by the Anthony Fence Company of Tecumseh, and sold the products of the latter company in the states of Indiana and Illinois. In 1913 he returned to Adrian as secretary for the Dr. Lape Veterinary Company and four years later engaged in the real estate and insurance business, open

Page  222 222 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY ing an office on Maumee street. Mr. Dowling is a member of the Masons, the Isaac Walton League and Chamber of Commerce. While living on the farm in Rome township he was elected commissioner of highways. Charles Evans, farmer and state representative, of Tipton, Franklin township, Lenawee county, has rendered a great service to the state of Michigan. In 1919 he introduced in the state legislature an automobile license billwhich embodied several improvements over existing legislation on this subject, and in 1925 he obtained the passage of another license law which is said to be a still better piece of legislation. Mr. Evans is also the author of an act adopted by the state legislature regulating the issue of bonds by each and every taxing unit of the state government. He was a leader in the fight for the gasoline tax bill passed by the legislature in 1923, and has been instrumental in enacting other important laws. Mr. Evans was born August 14, 1858, in Montgomeryshire, Wales. His parents, John and Ann (Swayne) Evans, were born in that country, his father on May 10, 1825. They reared a family of seven children, only three of whom are now living. John, William, Mary and Richard Evans are the children who have died. The names of those who are living are: Edward, an engineer, of Shawsbury, England; Thomas, of England, a farmer, and Charles Evans, the subject of this sketch, who came to the United States in July, 1880, when he was twenty-two years old, bringing with him his wife, Mary, a daughter of David and Margaret Andrews, natives of England, who died many years ago. Mr. and Mrs. Charles Evans had seven children. Edward died at the age of nine years and eight months, Lena died when she was five years and ten months old, Agnes and three other children died in infancy, three of them having succumbed to diphtheria in 1891. Mr. and Mrs. Evans have but one child living, Howard, who married Miss Tillie Coller, of Tecumseh, Michigan. They have two children: Ruth, who was born March 31, 1915, and Maurice, who was born July 26, 1919. Howard Evans and family live on the ninety-acre Lamkin farm which his father purchased in 1909 and which is located just across the road from the home farm. Clarles Evans has been in public life many years. He has been, at various times over a long period, justice of the peace, school director and member of the board of review. In 1917 he was elected to the state legislature and was soon afterward appointed a member of the committee on roads and bridges. He also was assigned to the special tax commission of the legislature during the years 1921-23. In 1923-25 he served as chairman of the general taxation committee and gained a state-wide reputation for his knowledge of tax matters. Mr. Evans is a member of the Masons, the Knights of Pythias and the Congregational church. The Exchange Club of Adrian was organized by the following men: James H. Baker, W. R. Smith, Dr. A. W. Chase, Dr. W.

Page  223 I PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 223 S. McKenzie, Dr. A. B. Hewes and Ladd Lewis, Jr., whose efforts to create interest in the new club were entirely successful. The Exchange club has grown rapidly, and today numbers among its members eighty-three of the leading business and professional men of the community. The club has for its objective the advancement of community and patriotic interests and the promoting of a better social relationship among the members of the club. The Exchange club was chiefly responsible for the organizing of the Adrian Girl Scouts, and paid all expenses of this body, including the salary of the Scout executive. Any business or professional man of good character who is interested in civic movements in Adrian, is eligible for membership in the club after his application has been approved by a vote of the members. Officers of the club now are: Burton E. Tobias, president; W. S. Harvey, secretary, and A. G. Storer, treasurer. Harlan L. Feeman, A.B., A.M., D.D., LL.D., president of Adrian College, is known throughout the United States and Canada as an educator, public speaker and leader of church movements. Dr. Feeman was pastor of a church in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, four years, and since he came to Adrian as a member of the college faculty his services as a pastor and speaker on religious subjects have been in great demand. He has endeared himself to both faculty and student body at Adrian College, and few men engaged in educational work have a greater number of warm personal friends than he. Dr. Feeman was born on a farm in Champaign county, Illinois, on January 22, 1873, the son of Henry B. and Margaret (Ewing) Feeman. His grandfather, Benjamin L. Feeman, was born March 25, 1816, at Pleasantville, Fairfield county, Ohio, the son of Benjamin and Elizabeth (Lamb) Feeman, of Shaffertown, Pennsylvania. Benjamin Feeman, who was born at Shaffertown in 1782, was a son of a Revolutionary soldier, Adam Feeman, who was born in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, in 1745 and died in 1815. Adam Feeman's father was Valentine Feeman, who was born in 1720, according to existing records, in Germany. An old Bible in the possession of the Feeman family shows that on August 29, 1730, a ship called the "Thistle" from Rotterdam, Germany, lbroughlt to,Laicaster county two hundred and sixty persons from tlhe Palatinate. An(d in the list of names of those passengers is foulnd that of Caspar Feeman. Caspar and Valentine Feeman settled in Lancaster county, Caspar having been granted two hundred acres of land on May 13, 1736. Valentine received a grant of two hundred and fifty acres on October 29, 1737. Before the birth of Benjamin Feeman, the family name was spelled Vieman, after the German construction of that word. Benjamin L. Feeman, grandfather of Dr. Feeman, married Miss Leitnaker. He died at Pleasantville, Ohio, in 1905. Dr. Feeman's mother, Mrs. Margaret Feeman, was a daughter of David Ewing and a granddaughter of Judge Ewing, of Lancaster, Ohio, where she was born June 13, 1849. She was married in 1872 and now resides at Celina, Ohio,

Page  224 224 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY with her son, Harry Ewing Feeman, who was born October 31, 1887. Her husband, Henry B. Feeman, died in February, 1923. He was the eldest of a family of seven children: Almeta, Ellen and Henry B., deceased; and Luther, Oliver, Elizabeth and Mary,:who are living. Henry B. Feeman enlisted as a color bearer in the Twelfth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry early in the Civil war and was in the battles led by General Thomas against General Hood and was in the pursuit of the raider Morgan. He also helped chase Jefferson Davis through the extreme southern states at the end of the war. After the end of the conflict Henry B. Feeman returned to Lancaster, Ohio, and in 1870 went to Champaign county, Illinois. In 1872, when he married, he purchased a farm in Champaign county and cultivated it until in 1901, when he sold his farm and brought his family to Celina, Ohio, where he died in February, 1923. He was a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, the Odd Fellows and the Knights of Pythias. Harlan L. Feeman, the eldest of the two sons of Henry B. Feeman and wife, received his first schooling in Champaign county, Illinois, and in 1891, 1893, 1896-97 was a teacher in those schools. In 1900 he graduated from the literary and theological department of Adrian College and from 1900 until 1904 was pastor of the Sheridan Methodist Protestant church at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 1904 he returned to Adrian College as professor of history and economics, and continued in that post until 1907. In 1907-08 he took post-graduate work in eastern universities and in 1908 returned to Adrian College as head of the theological department. From 1911 until 1915 he was professor of practical and biblical theology at Westminster Theological Seminary, Westminster, Maryland, and from 1915 to 1917 was secretary of the Board of Young People of the Methodist Protestant church. In 1917 he was elected president of Adrian College, and has since filled that position in an able, distinguished manner. Though his duties as a college president are many, he has found time to take an active part in community affairs. In 1924-25 he was president of the Adrian Rotary club, of which he is now a director. He is a member of the S. A. E. fraternity of Adrian College and is state chaplain of the Sons of the 'American Revolution. In October, 1901, he married Annie Cairns, who was l)orn in Belfast, Ireland, April 6, 1870, the daughter of the Rev. James and Mary Jane (McMullan) Cairns, who brought her to the United States when she was three months old. The Cairns family settled in Dunkirk, New York, but later moved to Pennsylvania. Mrs. Feeman is one of a family of six children, four of whom are living. A sister, Mrs. Nelle C. Hurst, is a missionary to China, and her brothers, William B. and Dr. Alexander Cairns, reside in Newark, New Jersey. Dr. and Mrs. Feeman have two children: Hyrtl Cairns, who was born December 14, 1902, and Margaret Nelle, who was born January 16, 1905. Both are now students in Adrian College. Dr. Feeman is the author of several books: "The Kingdom and the Farm," "Prayers for Com

Page  225 Ilfl.. i.. # at l S.,; Z..:, PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 225 fort, Strength and Good Cheer" and "Jesus' Training as a Common Man for Christian Service" being some of his best-known works. J. Arthur Finch, proprietor of the Finch Printing Company, 216 West Maumee street, Adrian, was born in that city, December 25, 1885. This history of the Finch family in Lenawee county begins with the birth of his grandfather, Dr. John W. Finch, dentist, who came to Adrian iin 1862. John W. Finch, whose ancestors came from England, was born June 6, 1826, at Arcadia, Wayne county, New York. He worked on his father's farm as a boy, and during the winter months was a student in the academies at Yates and Marion, New York. He taught school seven years and from 1850 to 1854 was employed in building railroads, having taken, during this period, contracts for constructing portions of the Illinois Central, Chicago & Alton, and the Baltimore & Ohio railroads. In 1855 he married Frances M. Thorp, and in 1855 entered the grocery business in Chicago. Three years later he moved to Delaware, Ohio, and began the study of dentistry. After completing his studies, he came to Adrian in 1862 and was a highly-respected resident of that city almost a half century. In 1870-71 he served as alderman, and from 1874 until 1880 was a member of the board of education, serving as president of that body in 1878. Dr. Finch received the honorary degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery from the University of Michigan on March 5, 1879, in recognition of his splendid efforts toward the advancement of the profession. He was a member of the Masons for more than fifty years. He joined the Meridian Sun Lodge, No. 266, at Richfield, Summitt county, Ohio, in September, 1855; the Royal Arch Masons in Adrian in 1864; the Royal and Select Master Masons in Jonesville Council in 1865, and the Adrian Commandery, Knights Templar, in 1867. He received the Scottish Rite degree in Masonry from the Michigan Sovereign Consistory on February 23, 1867. He was Worshipful Master of Adrian Lodge No. 19 ten years and held, at various times, practically every office in the Adrian branches of the Masonic order. He was elected Grand Master of the Michigan Grand Lodge in 1878 and Grand High Priest of the Michigan Grand Chapter in 1873. Sherman F. Finch, son of Dr. and Mrs. John W. Finch, was born in Chicago on June 9, 1856. He was brought to Adrian by his parents in 1862, and was a resident of that city the remainder of his life. He graduated from high school in 1873, and from the dental department of the University of Michigan in 1877. He practiced dentistry for awhile in Ohio, returning to Adrian three years after he finished college to enter his father's office. Later he became much interested in printing, and gave up his dental practice to engage in that business. He was, like his father, a devoted Mason and was, at various times, Master of Adrian Lodge No. 19; High Priest of Adrian Chapter No. 10; Thrice Illustrious Master of Adrian Council No. 18, and Eminent Commander of Adrian Commandery, Knights Templar. He also was a member

Page  226 226 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LINAWEE COUNTY of the board of education several years, holding the office of president of that body in 1904-05. In 1880 he married Eva Barnard. To this union were l)orn three sons: Frank B., J. Arthur, and Iloyd F. J. Arthur Finch graduated from high school in 1903 and at once entered his father's printing plant, which was then located at 134 East Maumee street. After a short while he was admitted to a partnership in the business. On September 11, 1922, after.his father's death, he became owner of the enterprise, which now occupies a site at 216 West Maumee street. Mr. Finch married, on October 22, 1914, C. Mildred Gilman, of Hudson, Michigan. They have one son, Richard E., born on December 31, 1917. Mr. Finch is a member of the Masons, the Elks, the Knights of Pythias, the Lenawee Country club, the Adrian club and the Chamber of Commerce. James M. Ford, dealer in lumber and building supplies, Blissfield, was born on a farm in Riga township, Lenawee county, on February 21, 1870. His father, Eugene F. Ford, was born in Massachusetts in 1840 and his mother, Mrs. Pamelia L. (Wilson) Ford, was born in Lucas county, Ohio, in 1844. Eugene F. Ford, one of a family of seven children, was brought by his parents to a farm in Lucas county, Ohio, in 1850. He received his education in the district schools near his home and later taught school at Maumee, Ohio. He enlisted in the Eighty-ninth Ohio Volunteer Infantry and served three years in the Civil war. After the war he returned to Ohio and married, and in 1869 settled on a farm in Riga township, Lenawee county. tie bought a sawmill and started in the logging industry, purchasing a section of heavily-timbered land and logging it off until he had sold all but two hundred and sixty acres, most of which was cleared and ready to be farmed. Mrs. Eugene Ford died in 1920, and Eugene Ford died in 1924. They were the parents of four children, as follows: James M., of Blissfield; Hiram W., who resides on a farm in Palmyra township; Louis C., a farmer near Buckley, Ohio, and John, who lives on the Ford homestead in Lenawee county, Michigan. James M. Ford completed the course of study offered in the district schools of Riga township and took a literary course at the Normal College at Fayette, ()lio, in 1888-90. IHe then returned to his father's farm in Riga township and assisted his father in the logging business until 1901. In that year he came to Blissfield as the owner of the lumber yard formerly conducted by the H. B. Hathaway Company. Mr. Ford has continued in the lumber business in Blissfield since that time, and now has a very complete stock of lumber, building materials and coal. In 1901 he married Emma D. Dreher, of Riga township, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Adam Dreher. Mr. and Mrs. Ford have one daughter, Gladys, who was born in 1905. She is now a member of the senior class at the University of Michigan. Mr. Ford has many fraternal and business connections. He is a member of the Odd Fellows, the Chamber of Commerce, a stockholder in the Jipson Carter State Bank at Blissfield, a stock

Page  227 i PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 227 holder in the Farmers & Merchants Bank at Riga and the Sylvania Savings Bank at Sylvania, Ohio. He is also a director in the Reeber-Koltz Company, spotlight manufacturers, at Blissfield. As a member of the Republican party he has served four years in the Blissfield council. Lloyd B. Glancy, of Onsted, a dealer in farm implements, was born on August 26, 1895, in Columbus Grove, Ohio, the son of George and Frances Glancy, who also were born in Ohio. Mr. Glancy's paternal grandfather, a farmer, was a veteran of the Civil war and the father of ten children, seven sons and three daughters. George Glancy, father of the subject of this sketch, has been dead several years, and his widow, Mrs. Frances Glancy, is now living in Clyde, Ohio. Lloyd B. Glancy has one brother, Clyde, who is a partner in the implement business at Hillsdale, Michigan. Mr. Glancy attended the public schools at Columbus Grove until his parents moved to a farm near Ottawa, Ohio. The Glancys remained at Ottawa three years, and then came to a farm in Lenawee county, where Lloyd attended high school for a while. When he was fifteen years old he dropped his studies and worked on his father's farm until September 18, 1917, when he enlisted as a private in the Three Hundred and Tenth Ammunition Train. He was promoted to corporal and spent eleven months in training at Camp Custer. On July 8, 1918, he left Camp Custer for Camp Mills, New Jersey, and on July 30 sailed from New York on the ship "Tueser" for Liverpool, England. From that city he was sent to Southampton, and from there went across the English Channel to Cherbourg, France. He was attached to a casual company at St. Agnes and was in the battles of St. Mihiel and in the Toul sector. Later he was stationed at St. Maurice and at St. Agnes, and after spending five months at Bours, sailed on August 8, 1819, for America. He landed in New York on August 16, and from that city was sent to Chillicothe, Ohio, to receive, on August 23, 1919, an honorable discharge. Returning to Onsted, he married on September 4 of that year, Lillian Wimple, daughter of Walter and Lena Wimple, who resided on a farm near Onstead. Mr. Glancy then rented a farm on which he lived five years. He then sold his equipment and live stock and purchased a half interest in the C. J. Pentecost farm implement business, his brother, Clyde, having purchased the other portion of the firm's assets. The concern now does a thriving business throughout that section of the state under the firm name of Glancy Brothers. Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd B. Glancy have one son, Norman, who is now four years old. Mr. Glancy is an enthusiastic member of the American Legion and is regarded as one of the most progressive of Lenawee county's younger business men. Grover C. Graham, secretary-treasurer of the Electro Pure Dairy Company, of Adrian, was born on a farm in Lenawee county July 25, 1885. His father, Joseph Graham, was born in Ireland in May, 1836, and died on February 5, 1923, and his mother, Mrs.

Page  228 228 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY Helen (McPhail) Graham, was born in Scotland, in the city of Glasgow, in 1845. Nathaniel and Eleanor Graham, parents of Joseph Graham, came to the United States and settled on a farm in Ogden township, Lenawee county, when Joseph was ten years old. They were the parents of one other child, Sarah, who has been dead many years. Nathaniel Graham moved to Tecumseh, where he remained a short while, and then bought a farm in Raisin township, which was his home at the time of his death. Joseph Graham, who was a farmer all his life, married in 1864. When he died, in 1923, he was the owner of a fine one hundred and twentyfive acre farm, which is still owned by the Graham family. Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Graham were the parents of seven children: Nathaniel, Jane, Ella, Margaret, John, William J., and Grover C. Grover C. Graham attended the district schools of Raisin township and spent two years in high school at Adrian. In 1902 he completed a two and one-half-year course of study at the Brown Business University, at Adrian. From that year until 1912 he was employed as a bookkeeper in the offices of the Adrian Gas Company. On October 17, 1910, he married Margaret Seger, sister of his present partner, Fred R. Seger, and the daughter of Dr. and Mrs. Fred R. Seger, of Adrian. In 1912, when his father's health became impaired, Mr. Graham leased the homestead in Raisin township and farmed it until 1924. This farm, one of the best in Lenawee county, is now in his possession, though he left it in 1924 to come to Adrian. On July 5, 1924, Mr. Graham formed a partnership with his brother-in-law, Fred R. Seger, in the Electro Pure Dairy Company. This concern has a thriving business in dairy products, and owns a thoroughly modern plant. Mr. Graham's mother lives at his residence, 360 Crystal Spring avenue. Mr. and Mrs. Graham have two children: Margaret Ellen, born November 17, 1912, and Eleanor Jane, born June 29, 1915. Mr. Graham is a member of the Baptist church, the Masons, the Exchange club and the Chamber of Commerce. Harry H. Hammel, well-known physician, was born on a farm near Hartford, Berrien county, Michigan, September 8, 1893. His father, Olia D. Hammnel was born in Berrien county in August, 1861, and was the son on John Hammel, of New York, who came to Michigan in 1850. He received his education in the district schools of Berrien county and graduated from the high school at Hartford. After completing his school work, he became connected with the Victor Buydl Company, of Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts, where he was employed as a foreman for a number of years, later returning to Berrien county to engage in the lumber business. He continued in the lumber business until 1917, when he removed to Detroit, taking a position with the Packard Motor Company as a foreman and in which position he now serves, making his home in that city. His wife, Lois (Matrou) Hammel, was also a native of Berrien county, born in 1870. She had her education in the schools

Page  229 i PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 229 i of Watervliet, graduating from the high school in that place, and was married to Mr. Hammel in 1891. Mr. Hammel is a member of the Congregational church in Detroit, is a Mason, and is in his political views a Repullican. Dr. Hammel attended high school in Watervliet and, having graduated in 1910, entered the University of Michigan, where he spent one year, previous to his medical work, in the literary department of that school. In 1915 he graduated from the medical department and served for six months as an assistant in the Department for Women and Children. On January 1, 1916, he established himself in Tecumseh, taking over the practice of Dr. Walter Briegel, now of Detroit, with offices located at 112 West Chicago street. Dr. Hammel has a worthy record of war service, having served in both the United States and British armies. In 1911 he enlisted in the National Guard, Signal Corps, at Ypsilanti, serving through the year 1914, and was in active service for three months during the riot at Calumet during the latter year. In 1915 he was commissioned in the Medical Reserve Corps of the army and in 1916 went into active service attached to the United States Cavalry in Mexico. He returned to Tecumseh during the next year and on May 27, 1917, was ordered to Fort Benjamin Harrison, and was commissioned as first lieutenant in the Medical Corps. Hle was one of twenty officers to be selected and assigned for duty with the British Expeditionary Forces during the late'World war, serving for two years. He landed in France, July 2, 1918, and was promoted to a captaincy and later in the fall was made a major, then he received his discharge. He then became attached to the Four Hundred and Thirty-sixth Field Artillery of the United States Army, as a major and, after receiving his discharge, January 17, 1919, returned to Tecumseh. Dr. Hammel was married in December, 1915, to Lois McKerrigan, daughter of Henry McKerrigan, of Bay City. She was a trained nurse, a graduate of Ann Arbor. On February 20, 1920, a child, Lois Germaine, was born and shortly after, the mother passed away. In March of 1921, Dr. Hammel was married again. The bride of the second marriage was Elizabeth Wilming, daughter of Joseph G. Wilming, of Watervliet, and to this marriage there are two children, Jack B., born January 26, 1922, and Richard Theodore, born October 6, 1924. Prominent in Masonic circles, Dr. Hammel holds memberships in the Blue Lodge of Tecumseh and the Michigan Sovereign Commandery and the Moslem Temple of Detroit. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias, the Alpha Sigma fraternity of Ann Arbor, the health department of Tecumseh township, and is president of the Lenawee County Medical Society, and is affiliated with the Republican party. Dr. Hammel enjoys a large and substantial practice, and recently went to London, England, to study, and is well known for his efficient methods, care and tact. Hugh H. Hanna, Tecumseh township supervisor and agent for the American Railway Express Company, at Tecumseh, was born in New York, June 5, 1884. He was the son of the late Hugh and

Page  230 230 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY Margaret Hanna, farming people of Genesee, Livingston county, New York. Hugh I lanna, Sr., was born in Antrim county, Ireland, in f837, and Mrs. Margaret Hanna was born in that place in 1847. Hugh Hanna, Sr., came with his family to the United States in 1865 and settled in Livingston county on a farm. His first wife died in 1878, and he and Margaret Jane McCracken were married in 1879. To this union were born five children, one girl and four boys, all of whom are now living. In 1889 the Hanna family moved to Michigan and settled on a farm in Macon township, Lenawee county. They remained there one year and then moved to a farm near Britton, in Ridgeway township. Hugh Hanna, Sr., farmed there five years and then moved to Tecumseh in March, 1895. He established his new residence on a farm just at the edge of the city and continued to farm until 1912, when he retired. He died in 1920, leaving Mrs. William Redman and Elizabeth Hanna, of Pavilion, New York, daughters by his first marriage, and four sons and one daughter by his second marriage. Their names are: William J., of Adrian; Hugh H., Joe M., Fred C., and Mrs. Fred Marsh, of Tecumseh. Mrs. Margaret J. Hanna died in 1923. She and her husband were members of the Presbyterian church. Their son, Hugh H. Hanna, attended the public schools of Britton and Tecumseh. After leaving school he went to work in the Freeman cigar factory in Tecumseh. Later he sold life insurance for the Northern Assurance Company of Michigan. In 1913 he was made agent for the American Express Company at Tecumseh and is still acting in that capacity. Having become active in Republican politics, in 1914 he was elected clerk of Tecumseh township. He continued as clerk until 1922. In June of that year, following the death of John F. Schreder, the supervisor of that township, he was appointed to the latter position, which he holds at this time. Fraternal and other organizations with which Mr. Hanna is affiliated in Tecumseh, are the following: Tecumseh Lodge No. 69, F. & A. M.; Tecumseh Chapter No. 42, R. A. M.; Blanchard Council No. 34, R. & S. M.; Eastern Star, Knights of Pythias, Uniform Rank K. of P., Pythian Sisters, American Legion, Tecumseh club and the Commerce club. Also the Michigan Sovereign Consistory and Ancient Arabic Order, Nobles of the Mystic Shrine at Detroit, and the Lenawee County Triangle club at Adrian. During the war Mr. Hanna served in the Second Officers' Training Camp at Fort Sheridan. He afterwards served for two years as military instructor in the Tecumseh high school. Burton Lloyd Hart, of Adrian, judge of the circuit court, was born November 23, 1871, in LaGrange county, Indiana, the son of a school teacher, A. P. Hart, and Mrs. Sarah J. (Strait) Hart, who afterward came to Michigan. Judge Hart attended the public schools at Blissfield, graduating from high school there in 1887. He then entered the law department of the University of Michigan, earning funds to defray his expenses by teaching school at intervals, and in 1895 finished his course and was admitted to the bar. e

Page  231 PERSONAL SKETCHEIS FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 231 I In July, 1896, he began practicing at Morenci, Lenawee county, and remained in that town until in the autumn of 1896, when he was elected prosecuting attorney of the county. He gave up his residence in Morenci and came to Adrian, where, on January 1, 1907, he began a four-year term as prosecutor. From January 1, 1911, until April 11, 1915, he was a law partner of Earl C. Michener, who is now a member of Congress from that district of Michigan. On the last-named date Mr. Hart was elected to fill a vacancy on the circuit bench. He has since been twice re-elected and is now serving the second year of his second regular term as circuit judge. While a resident of Morenci he held the offices of township school inspector, village clerk, township clerk and member of the school board of Morenci. He has served two terms in the state legislature and was a delegate to the Republican national convention in Cleveland in 1924. He has been Exalted Ruler of the Elks, Chancellor Commander of the Knights of Pythias and is now affiliated with those lodges and with the Masons, the Woodmen of the World, the Modern Woodmen, the Michigan State Bar Association, the Rotary club, the Adrian club, the Chamber of Commerce and the Presbyterian church. He has been admitted to practice in the Michigan, United States district and supreme courts of the state and nation. He is now a director of the Commercial Savings Bank and is financially interested in many mercantile and industrial enterprises in Adrian and Lenawee county. On November 19, 1893, he married Myrtle E. Bay, daughter of William and Mary (Compton) Bay, of Ogden township, Lenawee county. Judge and Mrs. Hart have two children. The eldest, Lloyd B., is now thirty years old, and is athletic, director of the high school at Whiting, Indiana. The other child, Mrs. Mildred E. Sletten, is now a resident of Chicago, where her husband has an executive position. Judge Hart has one grandson, Richard Marland Hart. Weyland Stuart Harvey, of Adrian, was born March 13, 1894, in Benzonia, Benzie county, Michigan, the son of Stephen Benjamin Harvey, who was born at Petersburg, Michigan, in 1862, and Mrs. Flora (Woodward) Harvey, vwho was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, in 1866. Mr. Harvey's great-grandmother, Mrs. M. E. Bailey, the granddaughter of Samuel \Voodward, a Revolutionary soldier who was with Washington at Valley Forge, died in Hillsdale, Michigan, in 1925, at the age of ninety years. Mr. Harvey's' great-grandfather Harvey fought in the Revolutionary war. His grandfather, the son of the Revolutionary soldier Harvey, was a soldier in the Civil war, and starved to death at Andersonville Prison after his capture in the battle of Bull Run. Mr. Harvey's great-grandfather Woodward brought his wife and family of nine children to a farm in Lenawee county in 1834, making the trip by way of the lakes to Maumee, Ohio, and from there to Lenawee county by ox team. Mr. Woodward died soon after he settled on the farm and his son, grandfather of the subject of this sketch, left

Page  232 232 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY the farm at an early age to go to Grand Rapids, where he worked as a carpenter and builder. Later this member of the family went to Minnesota, where Mr. Harvey's mother, Flora Woodward, was born. After the death of her mother her father brought the family to Hillsdale, where he died in 1920. Stephen Benjamin Harvey, father of the subject of this sketch, was an infant at the time his father died in Andersonville prison, in Georgia, and was the only child of the family. He grew to young manhood at Petersburg and at the age of twenty years entered Hillsdale College, where he graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Later he was awarded the degree of Master of Arts from Chicago University. He took a post-graduate course at Lake Forest College and soon afterward became professor of Greek and Latin at Grand Traverse College, Michigan. After this he was made professor of modern languages at Hillsdale College and in 1895 was made dean of this college. In 1911 he went to China in the interest of educational activities in that country, where he remained until 1919. He is now supervisor of the State Welfare Board of Michigan. Mr. and Mrs. Stephen B. Harvey have three sons: Marvin, a civil engineer, of Jackson, Michigan; Stanley, a student in Hillsdale College, and Weyland Stuart Harvey, the subject of this sketch. Weyland graduated from high school in 1911. He spent one year at Benzonia College and then entered Hillsdale College, where he was awarded the degrees of B. A. and B. P. D. Going to China in 1915, he spent two years as head master in the English department of Wuchong University. In 1917 he returned to the United States and enlisted in the Ordnance Department of the army at Boston. He was made ordnance sergeant and served in this capacity until February 15, 1919, when he was recommended for a commission as second lieutenant. Instead he chose to enter civil service in the Ordnance Department. On September 15, 1920, he resigned from the service and purchased the dry-cleaning plant he now manages so successfully. On October 25, 1921, he married Ruth Margaret Lee, daughter of Dr. R. M. and Sylvia (Marquardt) Lee, of Mt. Blanchard, Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. Harvey have a daughter, Dorothy Ann, who is now twenty months old. Mr. Harvey is a member of the Baptist church, the Masons, the Elks, the American Legion, of which he is commander, the Exchange club, of which he is secretary, the Young Men's club, the Chamber of Commerce and Alpha Tau Omega, college fraternity. He is an officer in the Michigan National Guard and holds a commission as first lieutenant in the United States Officers' Reserve Corps. He is also secretary-treasurer of the Drechsler Shoe Company of Adrian, Michigan. Rudolph A. Heesen, president of the Heesen Brothers Foundry and the Lilley State Bank of Tecumseh, is a son of the late George and Angelina (Nyland) Heesen, prominent residents of Tecumseh. George Heesen came to Tecumseh township April 19, 1858. He was born March 12, 1829, in the province of Gelderland, Holland,

Page  233 I, It PERSONAL SKETCIEHS FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 233 a son of Rudolph and Petronella (Taute) Heesen. They were natives of the province of Suderwick, and were born and reared near Buchold. Mrs. Petronella Heesen, who was born August 6, 1801, died July 4, 1859. When the son George was a youth (of seventeen years, Rudolph Heesen came with his family to the United States. They resided for a while in Baltimore, Maryland, and went from there to Youngstown, Ohio, where George Heesen found employment in the steel mills. As he had learned the trade of tailor in his native country he left Youngstown and went to Cleveland, where he remained thirteen years. His mother died in that city. She was the mother of five children, three sons and two daughters. In the spring of 1858 George Heesen came to Lenawee county and started a clothing store and tailoring business at Tecumseh. In the fall of that year he married Angelina Nyland, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Anthony Nyland. She came to the United States in 1853. In 1872 George Heesen, his brother John, and Henry Nyland established a factory for the manufacture of hog rings. This venture was a very successful one and netted him a handsome profit for many years. He also was employed for some time by the American Express Company. He was a member of the village board, a member and trustee of the Presbyterian church, and a consistent Republican. He died in 1902 and his widow passed away in 1910, leaving the following children: Nellie, who married Thomas Adamson; Delia, wife of John L. Trann; Rudolph, Hannah and Alfred, deceased. Rudolph A. Heesen, the subject of this sketch, was born in Tecumseh, October 11, 1865. He attended the public schools until he was seventeen years old and then took a course in a business college. He then became a clerk in a wholesale hardware store, where he remained until 1887. In that year he became interested in the foundry business with his father and uncle, John and Henry Nyland. In 1894 he and a son of Henry Nyland, Frank H. Nyland, took their fathers' places in the business and conducted the foundry together five years. They then purchased the plant of the old Tiffany Iron Works, in the southern part of the city. After remodeling it, they moved the foundry to the new location, where it is now situated. The Heesen Brothers louit(ldry 1no\w manullfactures the well-known Tecumseh feed cookers, tatk feeders, stoves and high-grade castings for computing scales. The scale castings, which were first manufactured in Tecumseh in 1896 by a Mr. Stimpson, are still an important part of the company's business. Expansion of its operations has made' necessary several enlargements of its factory. Mr. Heesen has been very active in developing the city of Tecumseh, and is largely responsible for the acquisition of the Detroit, Toledo & Ironton railway for Tecumseh. He has for the past fifteen years been president of the Lilley State Bank. He has served two years as a member of the council, and has been president of the village two terms. September 11, 1889, he married Flora Roof, of South Bend, Indiana. Her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Roof, are now de

Page  234 234 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY ceased. M. 1cMr. ecs is a1 mncnleer of the Masons, the Knights TemIplar, tlie Scottislh Rite Conlsistory and the Presbyterianl clhurch. lie is now serving his fourth term as mayor, having been first elected to that post in 1921. Elmer Hendershot, M.D., has given up his extensive general practice to devote his attention to his farms in Lenawee county. Doctor Hendershot is perhaps one of the most widely known and most highly respected physicians in central Michigan. He numbers among his friends and former patients thousands of representative Michigan citizens, who regard him as a very capable medical man and as a thorough gentleman. Doctor Hendershot was born in Macon township, Lenawee county, September 3, 1861. His parents were Michael and Louisa (Collier) Hendershot. His father, who was born in Pennsylvania in 1805, died in 1890, and his mother, who was born in New York in 1823, died in 1873. Michael Hendershot came to Michigan when a young man with his brother William. In 1834 they settled in Macon township, acquiring one hundred acres of land. Michael Hendershot was married in 1837. To him and his wife, Mrs. Louisa Hendershot, were born the following children: William H., John M., Jesse B., Kathryn, Louisa, George W., Eva, Michael and Elmer. But three of the family are now living: Eva, who married Samuel Woods, of Dunkirk, Ohio; Michael, of Bellingham, Washington, and Doctor Hendershot, of Tecumseh. When Michael Hendershot died in 1890 his property which included six hundred acres of excellent farm land, was divided, one hundred and twenty acres in Macon township being given to Doctor Hendershot. This land is still in the latter's possession. Elmer Hendershot received his early education in the district schools of Macon township. HI-e graduated from high school at Teclmseh and, after spending one year at preparatory school at Ann Arbor, he entered the medical department of the University of Michigan. He was graduated as a Doctor of Medicine in 1886. In that year he began the practice of his profession at Dunkirk, Ohio, where he remained two years. In 1888 he removed to Britton, Michigan, where he enjoyed a large practice lduring the twelve years of his residence in that city. In 1910 he caine to Tecumseh, establishing offices in a downtown building and later purchasing the hone of Doctor Jenkins, 309 West Chicago street. IIe remains at that address and June 1, 1923, he retired from active practice. Dr. Hendershot owns three fine farms. One is the old homestead in Macon township. The others are in Tecumseh township. He was married, in 1889, to Allie Orth, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John A. Orth, of Dunkirk, Ohio. Dr. and Mrs. Hendershot have two children: the eldest, Mrs. Veva Connor, who was born in 1890, now resides in Detroit; the other child, Fred, was born in 1895. He is a graduate of the University of Michigan, school of engineering, class of 1918, and is now living in Joliet, Illinois. He married Corinne Cardell, of Millington, Michigan. They have two children: Fred, Jr., who was born

Page  235 I'ERSONAL SKETCHIES FPO LENAWEE COUNTY 2:35 in 1923, and Barbara Jean, who was born March 5, 1925. Dr. Hendershot is a member of Tecumseh Lodge No. 69, F. & A. M. He is a stockholder in the Lilley State Bank and has been for the past twelve years a member of the village council. His brother, William, served during the Civil war with the Third Regiment, Michigan Volunteer Cavalry. Ara B. Hewes, physician and surgeon, 136 East Maumee street, Adrian, is a veteran of both the Spanish-American and the World wars. Dr. Hewes was born in Medina, Ohio, on December 27, 1873. His parents, Alanson B. and Mary Jane (French) Hewes, were also born in that city, his father in 1836 and his mother in 1840. Alanson B. Hewes received his education in the public schools and a private school in Medina, and was a farmer until 1862, when he enlisted in the Union army to serve during the Civil war. He was assigned to the One Hundred and Sixty-sixth Ohio Volunteer Infantry and was discharged from that organization, because of disabilities received in service, in 1864. He married, on May 29, of that year, Mary Jane French, who had been educated in Hillsdale College and had been a school teacher several years. Alanson B. Hewes died in 1874, leaving six children: John C., Ora K. and Ara B., and three daughters, who have since died. Mrs. Mary Hewes then moved to Sharon, Ohio, to reside at her father's home, and when her son, Ara, was eleven years old, she returned to the farm. Later she sold this land and again moved to Sharon, where she died on March 16, 1912. Though greatly handicapped by the loss of her husband, Mrs. Mary Hewes spared no effort in giving her children all reasonable educational advantages. Ara B. Hewes was graduated from high school at Medina in 1895. After attending Hillsdale College one year, he became a teacher in the Medina county schools. In 1898, at the beginning of the Spanish-American war, he enlisted in the First Reserve Hospital Corps and was made a hospital steward at the barracks hospital in Washington, D. C. lie was then sent to Camp Alger and to Camp McKenzie, Georgia, where he became ill with typhoid fever. When he was discharged from service in 1899 he returned to Medina and a short time later began the study of medicine in the Cleveland HIomeopathic Medical College. When he graduated in 1903, with the degree of M.D., he came to Adrian and began practice in an office on South Main street. In 1918, after the United States entered the World war, he closed his office and enlisted in the One Hundred and Seventieth Aero Squadron. Until February 24, 1918, he was stationed at Selfridge Field, near Detroit. When he first arrived overseas he was assigned to duty at Base Hospital No. 35, at Winchester, England, though he later was transferred to other posts. He was honorably discharged December 20, 1919, at Camp Dodge, Iowa, with the rank of captain. He at once returned to Adrian and resumed his practice, opening an office at 136 East Maumee street. He has a large general practice and specializes in electro therapeutics. Dr. Hewes was married,

Page  236 236 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY on October 7, 1903, to Mabel A. Ferris, of Rose, New York. They have three children: Helen Mary, born February 19, 1905; Richard F., born July 10, 1906; and William Harvey, born September 6, 1915. Dr. Hewes has been city physician six years and has been a supporter of Republican principles in politics. He is a member of the Presbyterian church, the Masons, the Knights of Pythias, the Exchange club, the American Legion, the Lenawee County, the Michigan State and the American Medical Associations. Ile is now president of the Lenawee County Medical Society. Clement T. Hoagland, proprietor of the Blissfield Robe and Tanning Company, was born in Blissfield on May 9, 1893. His parents, Lamont and Minnie (Clement) Hoagland, were also natives of Lenawee county, his father having been born at Britton and his mother at Blissfield. Lamont Hoagland took a course in the Brown Business University, at Adrian, after he finished his studies in the district schools near his home, and began his career as an employe of the Wilcox Hardware Company, of Adrian. Later he obtained a position with the Adrian State Savings BFank, where he acquired a thorough knowledge of business principles, and in 1891 he organized a bank at Britton. This venture was very successful. Mr. Hoagland remained at Britton as head of this bank until 1900, when he disposed of his stock in the enterprise and moved to Blissfield. In that town he started the Blissfield Robe and Tanning Company, which he managed until about 1903, when the condition of his health made it necessary for him to seek another occupation. Accordingly, he sold the company to W. G. White and entered the real estate business. Later he became a member of the firm of Hoagland & Lane, hardware dealers, and, still later was associated with the Blissfield Hardware Company as a result of the consolidation of the Hoagland & Lane and the Phillys hardware stores. Mr. Hoagland remained in the hardware business until 1915. In 1922 he and F. M. Wright, of Chicago, purchased three thousand six hundred acres of land near Baldwin, Michigan, in the region known as the Chain Lakes. This land Mr. Hoagland and Mr. Wright are now improving and selling to persons who desire attractive summer homes where boating, fishing and other outdoor sports are to be enjoyed. Mrs. Hoagland1 diedC in 1906, leaving three children: Clement T., Kennetl and Lamont, Jr. Clement T. Ioagland left high school in 1911 to enter the theater business, which he left in 1914 to take a position in the Carl Seeger clothing store. In 1916 he withdrew from the Seeger store to found his own clothing business as a member of the firm of Johnson & Hoagland. Though this venture was successful, Mr. Hoagland sold his stock of merchandise in 1917 to enlist in the Three Hundred and Fifty-third Aero Squadron. In July, 1918, after having been stationed at Kelly Field, Waco and Fort Worth, Texas, he was sent overseas. He was returned to the United States and honorably discharged in May, 1919. Returning to Blissfield, he managed a pool room and cigar store until

Page  237 I I I i I PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 237 February, 1924, when he purchased the Blissfield Robe and Tanning Company from W. G. White, who had bought this concern from Lamont Hoagland. Clement T. Hoagland in 1912 married Margaret White, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. WV. G. White, of Blissfield. She was born January 1, 1896. Mr. and Mrs. Hoagland have one child, Clement Thomas, Jr., who was born May 6, 1925. Clement T. Hoagland is a Mason, as is his father, Lamont Hoagland. George B. Horton, agriculturist and publicist, one of the most influential men in public life in the state of Michigan, and who died on June 2, 1922, was the father of Norman B. Horton, state senator, of Fruit Ridge, Lenawee county. George B. Horton was born in Lafayette township, Medina county, Ohio, on April 7, 1845, the son of Samuel and Lucina A. (Perkins) Horton. His father, who wvas born in England, December 19, 1818, came to the United States with a schoolmate when he was sixteen years old. The vessel which carried him across the Atlantic lost her rigging in a storm and, as a result, one hundred and four days were consumed in the voyage. The food supply became exhausted and seventeen of the passengers and crew succumbed to starvation. Several years after he arrived in this country, in 1841, Samuel Horton married Lucina Perkins in Herkimer county, New York. He purchased a farm in Medina county, Ohio, where he brought his bride and remained six years, selling the farm in 1847 and going to Niagara county, New York, then to Jackson county, Michigan, where he remained until 1853. In that year he came to Fairfield township, Lenawee county, and began the manufacture of cheese, establishing the first cheese factory in Michigan. When he died, in 1872, he owned a farm of four hundred and sixty-nine acres, two cheese factories and other valuable property. Samuel Horton and wife were the parents of three children: Alice, George B. and Harriett. George B. Horton was six years old when his parents came to Michigan, and he received his early education in the Fairfield township schools: Later he attended Adrian College and HIillsdale College, after which schooling he began working for his father and mother on the farms. When his father d(ie(l, April 25, 1872, he assuimed managemient of the estate, and later purchased the interests of the other heirs and became sole owner of the big farm and the cheese factories. He was an able business man and continued to add to his farm property until he owned a total of one thousand four hundred acres in Fairfield and Seneca townships. One of his many public welfare projects was the conservation of timber land and three tracts of land which have been conserved are now thriving on the Fruit Ridge farm now owned by his son, Norman. It is said that, at the time of his death, in 1922, one hundred and thirty acres of timber land owned by him had a value of eighty thousand dollars. George B. Horton was prominently identified with all projects related to agriculture. He was a charter niember of Weston-now Fruit Ridge-Grange, of which he was mas

Page  238 238 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY ter thirty-eight years, holding that office at the time of his death. He helped to found the Pomona Grange of Lenawee county, was master of that body six years, and also was prominent in the state Grange work. He served six years on the executive committee of the State Grange and, in 1892, was elected state master, holding that office for sixteen years, placing the organization at its peak in membership and influence. He also helped organize the Lenawee County Agricultural Society and, in 1878, when that organization was bankrupt, he was elected president to replace it on a firm financial basis. He held the office of president thirty-four years and helped make the Lenawee County Fair one of the biggest in the state. He helped organize the State Dairymen's Association and was made president of that body, and also pioneered in agitation for pure food laws and taxation reform. His first appointment to public office came when he was appointed postmaster of Fruit Ridge by President Arthur. In 1890 he was elected to the state senate, but was unseated after holding office sixty days when the question of his eligibility to hold both the postmastership and the senate office was raised, despite the fact that he had previously mailed his resignation as postmaster to Washington. In 1902 his name was much discussed as a probable candidate for the office of governor on the Republican ticket and he was placed in nomination by Henry C. Smith, of Adrian. In 1907 he was a member of the Michigan Constitutional Convention. He also served six years on the state tax commission and board of assessors. Governor Luce appointed him a member of the state board of agriculture. In August, 1921, he acted as host to three thousand Michigan farmers who assembled at his farm at Fruit Ridge preparatory to a tour of southern states. Mr. Horton had a wide acquaintance among farmers, business and professional men throughout the state and was in great demand as an organizer and leader of agricultural movements. On January 3, 1878, he married Amanda M. Bradish, daughter of Norman F. and Caroline Bradish, of Madison township, whose first American ancestor came to Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1(35. To this union were born four children: Alice L., on September 27, 1878; Norman Bradish, on July 18, 1881; Samuel Wesley, on May 3, 1884; and Caroline L., on April 17, 1887. Ailanda, his widow, survives his loss. Norman B. Horton completed the course of education provided in the Fairfield township schools, and from 1895 to 1899 studied at Adrian College. He then took a three-year course at the Michigan Agricultural College, graduating from that school in 1902. In that year he returned to his father's farm and became active in the management of the six cheese factories owned by-his father, purchasing a onehalf interest. Seven more factories were built, purchased or leased, making a total of thirteen. He had, while in college, specialized in dairying and allied subjects. In 1912 all but one of the cheese factories were sold or closed, due to condenseries paying more for milk, the one factory being situated on the home farm, to utilize

Page  239 I PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 239 the milk produced by a herd of two hundred cows. In 1912 he went to Osceola county and built two cheese factories there, and in August, 1917, sold those factories to enlist in the United States Army. He was first stationed at Camp Sheridan, though he was later transferred to other posts, and spent the last nine months of his service at Camp Sevier, South Carolina, in command of the Supply Company of the Eighty-ninth Infantry, Twentieth Division. He was discharged in March, 1919, with the rank of captain. Since his father's death he has been managing the big estate, which includes fourteen hundred acres of land and various cattle and swine-breeding projects in addition to the various allied agricultural activities. Norman B. Horton was elected to the state senate in 1922 and was re-elected in 1924 without opposition. He is a member of the Grange, Masons, Knights Templar, Elks, Sons of the American Revolution, American Legion, Adrian Rotary club, the Adrian club and the Lenawee Country club. His mother and he reside on the family homestead at Fruit Ridge. Frank A. Howland, M.D., physician and surgeon, 120 South street, Adrian, has since 1917, specialized in diseases of the eye, ear, nose and throat. Dr. Howland graduated from the Bennett College of Eclectic Medicine in 1907, and on August 5, of that year; began general practice in Adrian. His first office was on the site now occupied by the Family Theater, and he moved from that location to his present offices on South Main street in 1919. He has an attractive home at 563 South Winter street. Dr. Howland was born on a farm in Adrian township, Lenawee county, on April 11, 1866, the son of Mr. and Mrs. Jonathan Howland. He graduated from high school in Adrian in 1887, and for a short time afterward remained in that city. In 1902 he entered the medical college at Chicago, where he was graduated in 1907. On May 22, 1889, he married Alice B. Armstrong, daughter of Richard and Jane Armstrong, of Detroit, who came to that city from Ireland. Dr. and Mrs. 1lowland's only son, Alvin W., born September 12, 1902, is nCow a student in the medical department of the University of Michigan. Mrs. Alice Iowland died in 1910, and on' September 2, 1924, Dr. Howland married Mrs. Maud E. Hare, of Adrian. Mrs. Maud I lowland has a daughter, Aileen, who is a graduate of Adrian College in 1925. In 1916-17 Dr. HIowland took a post-graduate course in diseases of the eye, ear, nose and throat at the University of Michigan, and since that time has specialized in the treatment of these diseases. For several years he has been examining physician for the Knights of the Maccabees and the Modern Woodmen of America, and is also medical examiner for a number of old-line life insurance companies. He is a member of the Maccabees, the Modern Woodmen, the Odd Fellows, the Masons, the Exchange club, the Lenawee Country club and the Lenawee County, Michigan State and American Medical Associations. Harold Hoxie, hardware merchant, of Adrian, was born September 8, 1898, at St. Louis, Missouri. His father, Vernon Hoxie,

Page  240 240 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY was born at Palmyra, Michigan, in February, 1845, and his mother, Mrs. Daisy (Bate) Hoxie, was born in St. Louis on January 2, 1854. Mr. Hoxie's maternal great-grandfather, the paternal grandparent of his mother, was a veteran of the Revolutionary war and her relatives, the Ralfords, fought in the Civil war. The Ralford family came from England many years ago and settled in the eastern states, coming to Tennessee and engaging in farming prior to the War of the Rebellion. Mr. Hoxie's great-grandfather Hoxie, a native of Scotland, settled in Schenectady, New York, where he remained for a number of years, and eventually obtained a tract of government land near Traverse City, Michigan. Mr. Hoxie's grandfather Hoxie was, at the time he came to Michigan, twentyone years old. He was a member of the Friends, or Quaker, church, and farmed until he was sixty years old. He died, at the remarkable age of ninety-eight years, in Palmyra. Vernon Hoxie, father of the subject of this sketch, remained on his father's farm until he was seventeen years old. At that age he went to Detroit to work in a creamery. Later he became a machinist and inventor, and has a very successful career. He is now vice-president of the Peerless Wire Fence Company and a director in the Lenawee County Bank. Vernon and Daisy (Bate) Hoxie have two sons, Harold, of the Hoxie Hardware Company, and Albert, also a resi(lent of Adrian, and two daughters, Hazel and Verna. Harold Hoxie attended the Adrian public schools, the Tennessee Military Academy at Sweetwater, Tennessee, and the Miami Military Institute, at Germantown, Ohio. After finishing school lie went to Havana, Cuba, where he worked two years as a mechanic. Returning to Adrian, he took a course in Brown's Business University, and enlisted in the United States Navy during the World war. After he had been honorably discharged at the end of the war with the rank of first-class seaman, he returned to Adrian and entered the hardware business with A. E. Bennett in the building now occupied by the Hoxie Hardware Company. When Mr. Bennett decided to dispose of the enterprise, Mr. Hoxie purchased his interest, and since that time he has been sole proprietor of the concern, which does a thriving business. On October 17, 1924, Mr. lloxie married Agnes Elizabeth Campbell, daughter of James and Mary N. (Clark) Campbell, of Onsted. Mr. Hoxie is regarded as one of the molst substantial of Adrian's younger business men, and is a member of the Episcopal church. Hugh P. Hoyt, grain dealer and miller, of Clinton, was born in Muir, lonia county, Michigan, November 27, 1872. His parents were George and Della (Gerould) Hoyt. His father was born in the state of New York in April, 1845, and his mother was born in Elmira, New York. George Hoyt was a son of Jonathan and Isadora (Vanwee) Hoyt. Jonathan Hoyt came to Michigan in 1862 and settled on a farm in Ionia county, where he resided about ten years. He then sold his farm and with his son, George, removed to Lyons, Michigan. There they purchased the Hale & Son mill,

Page  241 PERSONAL SKETCHES 1FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 241 which they operated for a number of years. Later they purchased a mill at Saline, Michigan, in 1876. Several years later Jonathan Hoyt disposed of his interests in Michigan and went to Spokane, Washington, where he died in 1890. His widow passed away in 1919. Their son, George, was educated in the district schools of lonia county and in Olivet College. He was married, in 1868, to Della Gerould, the mother of the subject of this sketch. After having been in the milling business with his father many years, he removed to Elm Hall, Gratiot county, where he purchased forty acres and operated a mill until 1884. In that year he removed to Osceola county and farmed and conducted a mill there until 1891. Selling his property in Osceola county, he became the owner of a mill in Stanton, Michigan. When this mill was burned he and his son, Hugh P., operated a mill at Remus, Mecosta county. After Hugh P. Hoyt started in business for himself his father sold his mill and retired from business. His death occurred in 1922. His widow still resides in Remus. Mr. and Mrs. George Hoyt were the parents of seven children, all of whom are living. Their names are as follows: Marcus, a druggist; Hugh P., the subject of this sketch; Mrs. Egbert Fell, of Holland, Michigan; Mrs. Carrie Coldgrow, of Remus; John, Ernest, and Mrs. Joseph Spaulding. Hugh P. Hoyt attended the public schools of Mecosta county a number of years, though he dropped his studies while he was quite young. Several years later he took a course in a business college at Ypsilanti. After he withdrew from his father's mill at Remus, he leased a mill at Deerfield and continued in business there two and onehalf years. At the end of that period he was employed by the Hoyden Milling Company, of Tecumseh. He remained with that concern until 1912, and then purchased the E. R. Smith grist mill at Clinton. At this time Mr. Hoyt has one of the largest mills in Lenawee county, and also operates a large warehouse at Jackson, Michigan. This latter enterprise has been under his management seven years. Mr. iHoyt does business on a large scale, and ships the greater portion of his products to Norfolk, Virginia. He has served as a member of the council and as a member of the school board several years and is a member of the Masons and the Presbyterian church. lie was married, November 27, 1899, to Kathryln 1oag, dlaughter of Mr. and Mrs. Lucius Hoag, of Stanton. To this union were born the following children: Paul B., in 1901; Ruth, 1902; Ada, 1905; Hugh, 1915; and Nina, born in 1908, and who died in 1924. William O. Hunt, former mayor of Adrian, and the president of the Lenawee County Telephone Company, rendered a great service to the city as head of the committee of citizens which obtained funds for the purchase of the right-of-way used by the Detroit, Toledo & Ironton railway. Had public-spirited residents not donated liberally to the fund which Mr. Hunt and his associates collected, it is doubtful whether this railroad would have brought its tracks through Adrian. Mr. Hunt has been a director of the

Page  242 242 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY Adrian State Savings Bank for more than thirty years, or, in fact, ever since that bank was founded. He was born in Adrian, on August 20, 1856, the son of William C. and Martha H. (Pierce) Hunt, who were natives of the state of New York. The father, a manufacturer of pianos and organs, died in April, 1880, and Mrs. Hunt died in 1893. They were the parents of three children, only one of whom, William O. Hunt, is now living. He graduated from high school in 1873. He worked a short while in the Clough & Warren organ factory in Detroit, and returned to Adrian as a member of the firm of Berdan & Hunt, dealers in musical instruments. After purchasing the music store of King & Rice, they bought the Constantine Music Company and for several years had a monopoly on the sale of musical instruments in Adrian. Later he became sole owner of the Berdan & Hunt Company, which he sold, in 1894, to the Grinnell Company, of Detroit. Until 1896 Mr. Hunt managed the Adrian branch of this concern, leaving its employ to assist in obtaining funds for the purchase of the rightof-way necessary to bring the Detroit, Toledo & Ironton railway to Adrian. He was employed by this line six years as a traveling passenger and freight agent. In 1896 the Adrian Telephone Company was founded and Mr. Hunt immediately became interested in this concern. In 1903 he resigned from his position with the railroad to become an official of the telephone company.- Later he became vice-president and manager of the company, being made president of the Lenawee County Telephone Company, a consolidation of the Adrian and Citizens Telephone Companies, in 1903. This consolidation was brought about by Mr. Hunt, who has since suipervised the construction of a new exchange which furnishes service to the subscribers of Lenawee county. He was elected mayor of Adrian in 1896 and alderman in 1902. He was president of the Adrian Produce Company many years, and has also held a number of other important social and financial positions. He is, beyond doubt, one of the most enterprising residents of this city. On June.15, 1881, he married Ella D. Young, who was born in New York, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. William Young. Mr. and Mrs. Hunt have one son; Harold 0., who was born on January 25, 1883. lHe is a graduate of the Adrian high school and the University of Micligan, anld is now general manager of a large corporation at Minneapolis, Minnesota. He iarried Margaret Washburn, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John Washburn, of Minneapolis, and has two sons: John Washburn and William Olney Hunt II William O. Hunt is known in Adrian and the state of Michigan as a talented musician, and for twenty years was the leader of the opera house orchestra, in Adrian. William Robert James, plumber and tinsmith, of 229 Finch street, Adrian, has been making his own way in the world since he was nine years old. The story of Mr. James' life is an interesting one. He was born in Adrian, Michigan, one of a family of eight sons and seven daughters of William Lucius and Sarah (An

Page  243 I i: PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 243 derson) James, natives of England, his father having been born in Cambridgeshire in March, 1815, and his mother in the same place in 1827. Of the fifteen children of the James family, nine died in England and seven-William Robert, Sarah, Mary, Emma, Jeanette, James and Thomas-are now living in America. William Lucius James brought his family to the United States more than seventy years ago, and established a home in Adrian, where William Robert James, the subject of this sketch, was born. Young William attended school until he was nine years old, and at that tender age began working in the Joseph McKenzie brickyard. His eleventh birthday found him employed in the Edward Swords brickyard, and when he was thirteen years old he became an apprentice tinner in the shop of Wilcox Brothers. His weekly wages as an apprentice were, during the first year, two dollars and eightyeight cents a week. Out of this small sum William gave his mother two dollars, and kept the remaining eighty-eight cents for pocket-money. At the beginning of his second year as an apprentice his wages were raised to three dollars and eighty cents, and he then gave his mother three dollars each week. During the third year, when he received the sum of four dollars and seventy-eight cents, he contributed four dollars to the family exchequer, having for his own use but seventy-eight cents. During the fourth year he received five dollars and seventy-five cents, and gave his mother five dollars. When he completed his apprenticeship he went to work as a journeyman tinner for one dollar and twenty-five cents a day, which seems but very small wages, but which Mr. James said was ample for his needs. With this meager income he was never pressed for spending money, though he exercised frugality and economy at all times. Mr. James says that when he was married, in June, 1875, he spent his honeymoon trip in going to work, and his wedding suit cost him but seven dollars and fifty cents, though it was of such quality and workmanship that it would cost many times that figure now. His wife, Mrs. Mary D. (Navarre) James, was the daughter of Edward and Caroline Navarre and the granddaughter of the first white resident of Monroe county. Mr. and Mrs. James have four children: William, aged forty-two, who is a doctor of cllirol)ractic in Toledo, Ohio; Adolph, aged thirty-eight, of Adrian; l,afayette, aged thirty-four, who is in business with his father; and Caroline, of Adrian. One child of the' James family died in infancy. Mr. James remained in the Wilcox Brothers tin shop thirty-five years before he started in business for himself. In 1904, with C. C. Habler and Walter Knight, he established a plumbing and sheet metal shop, of which he is now sole proprietor. He is a former alderman, though he has at all times been an independent voter. He is a member of the 0. M. E. church and, though well past his sixty-eighth birthday, is still busy at his shop each working day. He is one of the best-liked men in the city of Adrian. William Eri Jewett, Sr., is the oldest physician in the city of

Page  244 244 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY Adrian. He has been practicing his profession in this city since 1872, and has only recently consented, at his family's request, to withdraw from general practice and to enjoy a well-earned rest at his home. His son, Dr. William Eri Jewett, Jr., is one of Adrian's most successful physicians, and numbers among his clients members of families which had been under his father's care over a half century. Dr. William Eri Jewett, Sr., is a veteran of the Civil war, and has been, for many years, one of Adrian's most substantial citizens. He has been, for thirty-five years, a director in the State Savings Bank, and was examining surgeon for the Lake Shore and New York Central lines over a quarter century. He is a member of the Presbyterian church, which he served as organist marry years. The various branches of the Masons have been helped greatly by his enthusiastic support, and he has held many offices in the Chapter, Council and Knights Templar Commandery. He was Grand Commander in 1875 of the Michigan Grand Commandery, Knights Templar and the Michigan Sovereign Consistory, Ancient and Scottish Rite Masons, Valley of Detroit, and in 1898 was made a thirty-third degree Mason. He is one of the few remaining members of Woodbury Post No. 45, Grand Army of the Republic, an organization he has given much time and energy to in recent years. Dr. William Eri Jewett, Sr., was born in Sangerfield, Oneida county, New York, on December 8, 1842. His parents, Eri and Harriett (Winchell) Jewett, were also born in that state, of which his grandfather, Jonathan Jewett, was a pioneer. Jonathan Jewett died, at the age of ninety years, on a farm which had been his home eighty-two years and which had been the property of his father. Jonathan Jewett's death occurred June 11, 1872, on the same day that his grandson, Dr. Jewett's youngest child, was born. William F. and Submit Winchell, grandparents of Dr. William Eri Jewett, Sr., were natives of Connecticut, and moved from Goshen, in that state, to Oneida county early in the nineteenth century. Eri Jewett, in 1855, brought his family to a farm near Austinburg, Ashtabula county, Ohio, and in 1868 he moved to Constantine, St. Joseph county, Michigan. In 1871 Eri Jewett and wife again changed their residence, going to Vistula, Indiana, where they remained the rest of their lives. Their son, William Eri Jewett, remained on his father's farm and attended the rural schools until 1857, when he entered the Grand River Institute, at Austinburg, Ohio. During vacations he worked on his father's farm, and after he graduated he taught school during the winter and worked on farms during the summer months. In 1862 he enlisted in Company K, Eighty-seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and fought with the Army of the Potomac in the various Virginia campaigns. After he was discharged from the army he spent one year in the office of Dr. E. A. Munger, at Waterville, New York. Having shown a marked adaptability for the medical profession, he continued his studies at the medical college at Cleveland, Ohio, and at the Homeopathic Medical College, New York City. He ob

Page  245 I I PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 245 tained his M. D. degree from this school on March 1, 1867, and spent the following winter as an interne in the college hospital. In May, 1868, he came to Michigan, where his parents were living, and opened an office in Constantine, St. Joseph county. Almost four years later, in February, 1872, he came to Adrian, where, for over a half century, he has been a successful and highly-respected physician. Dr. Jewett, Sr., married Clara A. Root, daughter of Henry E. and Lucinda Root, of Constantine. To this union were born two children. Their first child, Henry R. Jewett, was born October 24, 1870. He became a lawyer and one of Adrian's foremost citizens. Their second child, Dr. William Eri Jewett, Jr., was born in Adrian, June 11, 1872, and is a successful and popular physician and surgeon, and has been practicing medicine in this city since he completed his education. He married Mrs. Lula B. Spence, of Adrian, on January 28, 1901. To this union one child has been born, William Eri Jewett III, born November 27, 1903, who is now a junior in the University of Michigan and intends to make his life's vocation the same as his father and grandfather. He is a member of the Masonic order. Dr. William Eri Jewett, Sr., has been a Republican all his life, and cast his first presidential vote for Abraham Lincoln. Theodore Murrill Joslin, former mayor of Adrian, judge of the circuit court, bank examiner and prosecuting attorney, was bornDecember 21, 1869, at Woodstock, Lenawee county, Michigan. His father, Alvin Joslin, and his mother, Mrs. Elizabeth (Holmes) Joslin, were born in Wales, Erie county, New York. His greatgrandfather, Gideon Joslin, was a pioneer resident of New York, and his great-uncle, Willard Joslin, was a soldier in the Continental Army. Letters written by Gideon and Willard Joslin are now in the possession of Theodore Joslin, the subject of this sketch, His grandfather, Willard Joslin, was elected highway commissioner of Woodstock township when the first officers of that township were selected. Seth Holmes, father of Mrs. Elizabeth (Holmes) Joslin, was born in 1801 and was a resident of Erie county, New York. Theodore M. Joslin attended the Brooklyn high schools and Yp'ilanti Normal school. As a young mlan hie entered the tlUited St;tels postal service, and while engaged in that occupation cllllloyed llis spare time in the study of law. tie was admitted to the bar in June, 1892, and began practicing on January 1, 1893. In 1897 he was appointed a state bank examiner, an office he resigned four years later to return to Adrian to practice law. In 1902 he was appointed city attorney. Election to the office of prosecuting attorney followed. In 1909 he helped organize the National Bank of Commerce and in 1911 he was elected mayor of Adrian. In 1912, as a supporter of Theodore Roosevelt, he took an active part in the fight which caused the split in the Republican party, serving as a delegate-at-large to the Bull Moose convention and being made insurgent candidate for the office of United States Senator. During the World war he acted as food administrator of

Page  246 246 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY Lenawee county, and in 1922 was a strong candidate in the primary election for the nomination for governor. He served as president of the Adrian Industrial Association. August 15, 1895, he married Mary (Hollon) Joslin. Mr. and Mrs. Joslin have two sons, Wendell Belmont and Theodore, Jr. Two other children, Merrill and Helen Elizabeth, died in infancy. Mr. Joslin is a member of Christ Church, Scientist, the Michigan Bar Association, the Masons, and the Knights Templar. He enjoys a flourishing general law practice and is still a potent factor in Lenawee county and Michigan politics. Charles A. Kerr, of Onsted Lumber Yard, was born on a farm in Cambridge township, Lenawee county, November 30, 1870, the son of John and Elizabeth (Sherraid) Kerr, natives of Ireland, his father having been born in that country in 1830 and his mother in 1837. Mr. Kerr's grandfather, who was known as "Big Bob" Kerr, left his native land, Scotland, and settled on the Crankill Hill estate in Ireland, where he accumulated much wealth. He was the father of one daughter and four sons, one of whom, John, the father of Charles A. Kerr, camei to the United States when he was twenty years old and settled near Adrian. He was a foreman on the Lake Shore railroad ten years and later purchased a farm near Springville, where he died in 1895, leaving his widow, Mrs. Elizabeth Kerr, and six sons: John, Matthew, Edward (who has since died), Hubert, Frank and Charles A. Kerr. The subject of this sketch attended the Springville schools and Brown Business University at Adrian. During the first summer after he finished school he worked as a deck hand on a lake freight vessel. Forty days after he started in this work he was promoted to lookout-man, and later in the same season was made wheelman. He worked three summers on the Great Lakes, spending his winters in study at Brown's Business University. After he had arranged to work on the lakes a fourth summer his father suddenly became ill and died, at the age of sixty-five years. Mr. Kerr then joined his mother on the farm and in 1899 married Hettie Sheeler, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Frank Sheeler. Mrs. Kerr, his mother, died on the farm at the age of sixty-eight years. Mr. Kerr remained in the country until his wife died. lie then engaged in the hay-baling business and until 1902 bought, sold and baled hay in large quantities. In that year he purchased Jack Wemple's interest in the elevator at Onsted and assumed an active part in the management of this enterprise, which was- known as Onsted & Kerr. Nine years later the concern was incorporated and when John Onsted, original partner of Mr. Kerr, died, Bert Onsted assumed his interest in the company. Mr. Kerr and Mr. Onsted managed the business five years and, at the end of that period, Mr. Kerr bought Mr. Onsted's share in the concern and sold the elevator and adjoining lumber yard to the Farmers' Co-operative Elevator Company. In April, 1903, Mr. Kerr married Eva Ayres, daughter of Andrew and Josephine (Des Ernia) Ayres, of Lenawee county. Mr. and Mrs. Kerr have two

Page  247 #i v,; I PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 247 children: Josephine, who is now twenty years old and a senior in Hlillsdale College; and Raynor, who is now sixteen andl a student in high school. Mr. Kerr was the youngest man ever elected to the office of supervisor in his township, having been but twentyeight years old when he assumed this office. He has been mayor of Onsted two years and for fifteen years was a member of the school board. He is now a director in the Onsted Savings Bank. William S. Kimball, general manager of the Clinton Woolen Mills, of Clinton, was born in Tipton, Michigan, August 18, 1848. His parents were Leander and Jane (Russel) Kimball. His father, who was the son of Dumas Kimball, was born in Pennsylvania in 1810. He came to Michigan in 1840 and settled on one hundred acres of land in Lenawee county. He married Jane Russell, who was born in Olean, New York, in 1811. Leander Kimball was one of a family of five children, all of whom eventually settled in Michigan. Their names were: James, Samuel, John, Sarah and Leander. Leander Kimball lived on his farm near Tipton until 1860 and in that year he was elected clerk of Lenawee county, and he sold his farm and removed to Adrian. He served two terms as county clerk, and in 1864, when he relinquished the office, he purchased a farm of one hundred and twenty acres near Leoni, Jackson county, where he and has family resided until he died in 1870. His widow, mother of four children, died in 1885. Names of the children were John, Maurice, Esther and William. All but the latter are now dead. William Smith Kimball obtained his early education in the public schools of Tipton and later attended high school at Adrian. He also took a course covering a period of two years in business college. On leaving school in 1866, lie became a bookkeeper in the Ackley general store at Adrian. He remained in that employment until October, 1870. In that month he removed to Clinton and obtained a position as bookkeeper in the Clinton Woolen Mills. Here his ability and energy vwere recognized. In 1883, when the company was re-organized, he was made general manager of the mills. In October, 1873, lie married Lucia Wood, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Wood, of Saline, Michigan. To this union came two children: Clare L., who was born August 30. 1876, and is now assistant manager of the Clinton \Voolen Mills; and Amy Beth, wvho was born in October, 1880, and wllho married James R. Foreman, of Clinton. William S. Kimball is a Republican and has served as village president. He hasheld a number of other important offices, and has been a director of the State Savings Bank of Clinton for the past twenty years. He and his family attend the Congregational church. Ernest A. Kuster, 134 Greenly street, Adrian, has been connected with the Maple City Granite Company many years. Mr. Kuster was born in Williams county, Ohio, April 17, 1889. His father, Ludwig Kuster, was born in Dayton, Ohio, February 3, 1863, and his mother, Mrs. Mary (Neidhart) Kuster, was born August 28, 1861, in Williams county, Ohio. Mr. Kuster's grandfathers were

Page  248 248 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY veterans of the Civil war, his grandfather Neidhart having refused a pension offered him after the close of the war, in which he served approximately four years. Mr. Kuster's grandfather Kuster, a native of New York, moved from that state to Scranton, Pennsylvania, and from there to Dayton, Ohio, where he followed his trade of tinsmith and reared a family of nine children, and died from pneumonia, June 11, 1912, at the age of seventy-eight years. Six of his sons learned their father's trade, Ludwig Kuster, father of the subject of this sketch, having come to Lenawee county in 1895 to work for the Wilcox Hardware Company. From here he went to Peru, Indiana, where he remained a short while, returning to Adrian to again enter the Wilcox Hardware shop, where he was employed at the time of his death, October 17, 1924. His son, Ernest A. Kuster, received his education in the public elementary and high school at Milan, Michigan. In 1902, when he was fourteen years old, his parents moved to Adrian, where, when he became sixteen years old, he began to learn the milling trade. Two and one-half years later he became a salesman for the Hammond Typewriter Company. He remained with this concern until November 12, 1912, when he became associated with the Michigan Granite Company, representing this company in the capacity of salesman. In June, 1913, Mr. Kuster came to the Maple City Granite Company and began the sale of the concern's products. On February 18, 1918, he bought another's interest in the enterprise, which was continued as a corporation until after the death of Andrew Anderson. Mr. Kuster and John A. Walker then formed a partnership, under which they have since conducted the company's large business. Mr. Kuster is one of a family of four children. His sister, Myrtle, wife of Frank McLaughlin, is a resident of Adrian; his brother, William R., is a merchant at Britton, and his other brother, Owen L., is a car inspector on the Wabash railroad. Mr. Kuster, on June 1, 1912, married Minnie Frendenstine, daughter of Julius and Katherine Frendenstine, who came from Germany. Two of Mr. and Mrs. Kuster's children, Ernest and Ernestine, twins, died in infancy from the effects of whooping cough. 'Their daughter, Virginia, was born February 12, 1916. ]Iichlardl, their youngest child, \ws born April 22, 1923. Mr. Kuster is a melmber of the Masons, Odld Fellows and various other business and fraternal organizations. Arthur E. Lamley, physician and surgeon, of Blissfield, was born in that city, June 18, 1885, the son of David and Anna Kathryn (Schneider) Lamley. His father, a veteran of the Civil war, was born in Berlin, Germany, in 1841, and his mother was born in Germany in 1846. David Lamley came to the United States when he was sixteen years old. He was the son of Gottlieb and Anna (Richer) Lamley. He was employed on a farm in Blissfield township until the outbreak of the Civil war. He enlisted in the Eighteenth Michigan Volunteer Infantry. During a battle he lost an arm, and after his return from the army he opened a general

Page  249 I PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 249 store in Regia, Lenawee county. He was married, in 1866, and two years later he came to Blissfield and entered the liquor and real estate business. lie sold his saloon in 1895 and retired. His death occurred in 1922. Dr. Arthur E. Lamley is one of a family of six children, two of whom are now dead. The names of those living besides him are: George H., a physician, of Detroit; William D., a dentist, of Detroit; and Herbert A., who is connected with the city planning department in Detroit. Arthur E. Lamley attended the public schools of this city and completed his high school education in Philadelphia in 1905. He graduated from the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1909 and served two years, from July, 1909, until July,. 1911, as an interne in a hospital at Toledo. He began practice with his brother, but later established his own offices. He is now one of Blissfield's most popular physicians. From 1918 until 1922 he served as coroner of Lenawee county, and from 1922 to 1924 he was county health officer. In politics, he is a Democrat. Dr. Lamley was married in 1914 to Miss Sarah Leona Lane, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. George Lane, of Gentry, Missouri. Her grandfather, George Lane, was one of the first settlers of Blissfield, having operated a stave factory there for a number of years. Dr. Lamley is a member of several social and professional organizations, among which are the Masons, the Lenawee County, Michigan State and American Medical Associations, and the Chamber of Commerce. George H. Lancaster, president of the village of Clinton and proprietor of the Ford Sales Company there, was proprietor of the Lancaster House from 1900 to 1910 and the Clintonian Hotel during 1910-12. He has for years been one of Clinton's most prominent and influential residents. He was born in Franklin township, Lenawee county, September 28, 1876, the son of Martin and Eleanor (Gray) Lancaster. His father was born in Tecumseh, November 24, 1853, and his mother was born in Franklin township, June 12, 1856. Both of his parents were members of prominent pioneer families. Henry and Rosanna (Nichols) Lancaster, grandparents of George H. Lancaster, were in the hotel business in Tecumseh in 1851. Henry Iancaster was born in Canada, March 14, 1829), Iald his wife was b)Irn in Scotland, October 11, 1826. They were married in Canada in 1851, the year they came to Tecumseh. In 1884 they came to Clinton as proprietors of the Lancaster House. He gave up the hotel in 1899, and died on March 7, of the following year. His widow departed this life March 12, 1907. John and Catherine (Ferris) Gray, the maternal grandparents of George H. Lancaster, were born and reared in the state of Pennsylvania. They spent their last days in Franklin township, Lenawee county. John and Kate Lancaster, paternal great-grandparents of the subject of this sketch, were born and reared in Ireland. They settled first in Canada, but later, in 1851, they came. to Lenawee county. John Lancaster died there in 1880 and his widow died in 1886. Their grandson, Martin Lancaster, was in

Page  250 250 PERSONAL SKETCIIlE, FOR LDNAWEE COUNTY the livery business many years. They had three children: George H-., Edgar, and Sibela. George H. Lancaster was reared and educated in Clinton. After he graduated from high school, he spent four years in working as a carpenter. On May 1, 1899, he succeeded his grandfather as proprietor of the Lancaster House. As a Republican, he served many years as clerk of the village and as a member of the council. lie is a past treasurer of Clinton township, deputy county sheriff, and treasurer of the Cemetery Association of Clinton. He is a member of the Protestant Episcopal church, a member of Clinton Lodge No. 175, F. & A. M. He was married, June 14, 1900, to Bertha O'Hara, daughter of John and Sarah (McCook) O'Hara. She was born in Clinton township. Her father was born in Australia and her mother in Clinton township. In 1911 Mr. Lancaster started a garage as a sequel to the livery business conducted by his father. He is now owner of the Ford Agency in Clinton. In 1920, with Frank Hogan, he purchased a one hundred and forty acre farm in Bridgewater township and in 1923 he became the owner of Mr. Hogan's interest. He'has been village president for the past three years. Mr. and Mrs. Lancaster are the parents of seven children: Minota, a teacher of music in the Clinton high school; Meretta, a graduate of Ypsilanti Normal School, who is teaching at the Hillsdale high school; Lois, a student; Sarah, George, Laura and Jack. Mr. Lancaster's father died in 1915. His mother still resides in the old Lancaster House in Clinton. Harry L. Larwill, judge of the probate court, Lenawee county, was born at Rome, New York, September 28, 1863. His father, George W. Larwill, was born in England in 1840, and his mother, Mrs. Ann (Pickard) Larwill, was born near Bedford, England, in the same year. George W. Larwill came to the United States with his parents when he was eleven years old. They remained for a while in Brooklyn, New York, and afterward moved to Rome, in that state. Here Mr. Larwill learned the printing business and, in 1848, married Ann Pickard. In 1863 he brought his family to Michigan, and entered the printing business in this state, following that occulpation until his d(ath, in 1904. Mr. and Mrs. George W. Larwill were the parents of three children, one of whom, Isabelle, has been registrar of the probate court twenty-five years, and with whom Mrs. Ann Larwill makes her home. Judge Larwill graduated from high school in Adrian in 1882. After spending one year in Cadillac, Michigan, he returned to Adrian as stenographer of the circuit court. He held this important position from 1885 until 1890, when he was elected judge of the probate court. That he has given entire satisfaction to the public is shown by the many years he has been head of this department of the county government. Judge Larwill was married to Josephine Hardy, daughter of D. W. C. and Fannie Hardy, of Adrian. They have two sons, Langdon H. and George R., both of whom are

Page  251 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 251 lawyers and reside in Denver, Colorado. Judge Larwill is a member of the Episcopal church, the Elks, the Lenawee Country club and the Adrian City club. B. C. Lord, of Clayton, is identified with many mercantile and industrial projects in southern Michigan. He is a native of Lenawee county, having been born in Dover township, February 25, 1881, the youngest child of Jerome and Celeste Lord, both of whom were born, reared and married in this same township. Jerome Lord was ever actively interested in the public welfare, and served the people of Dover township as highway commissioner while a resident there, serving in a like capacity in Hudson township when he moved to that community. He was prominent in politics at Clayton, where he was elected to a position on the village council. He and his wife became the parents of five children: Mrs. Mary (Lord) Stickey, now deceased; Lavina, Nellie, Laverne, and B. C. Lord, the subject of this review, the last four of whom are now living in Clayton. B. C. Lord received his education in the public district schools of Seneca township and the high schools of Clayton and Hudson. Upon leaving school, at the age of nineteen years, he began a two years' apprenticeship as a machinist with the Marine Machine Works, of Detroit, at the conclusion of which, in 1902, he returned to Clayton to engage in farming as a renter. After two years of this work he became a salesman for a bridge manufacturing company in Charlotte, Michigan, and until 1917 was thus employed, selling steel bridges, contractors' supplies and roadbuilding machinery. When he severed this connection, in which he had gained much valuable experience, he embarked alone in the business of building bridges under contract, a business in which he has been eminently successful. He has erected many bridges throughout Michigan for the State Highway Department, and at this time has three bridges under construction near Pontiac and Evart, this state, also several bridges in Florida for the state and federal governments. He has also built nine miles of trunk-line gravel road in Dover township, and has given considerable attention to the planting of an apple orchard on his farm near the village of Clayton. He is a stockholder in the Grange Life Insuranice Company, which he helped to organize, and is one of the founders and stockholders of the Acme Concrete Products Company, of Cement City; the Peerless Cement Company, of Port Huron; and the New Egyptian Cement Company, of Detroit. Mr. Lord is a member of the Masonic order, the Grange and the Methodist church, and in 1922 erected a modern dwelling in Clayton. He was united in marriage with Flora Guss, daughter of Charles and Huldah Guss, of Medina, Michigan, and to this union six children have been born: Louise, a student at Adrian College; Frances, Byron, Roberta, Mahlon and Duane Lord. R. G. B. Marsh, M.D., one of Tecumseh's physicians, is well known in the community and attends to a large practice in the county. He was born in Waterloo, Jackson county, Michigan,

Page  252 252 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY November 25, 1893, the son of Henry J. B. and Jessie Irene (Griffith) Marsh. Henry Marsh was born in Southampton, England, March 16, 1868, coming to Canada with his parents, William and Tama Marsh, when but a boy of six years. He received his education in the schools of Hamilton, Ontario, where his father had settled, engaged in blacksmithing and wheel work until the time of his death in 1907. Having completed his preliminary schooling, he learned the machinist trade and then entered the Hamiltonf Institute of Technology. In 1890 he was employed by the Brush Electric Company, of Cleveland, Ohio, where he continued to work for three years. During this period he studied theology, and his course completed, devoted his entire time to the work of the Methodist Episcopal church, affiliated with the Detroit Conference of that denomination. His first charge was at Waterloo, which he held for two years, leaving in 1895 to take the pastorate of the church at Tipton. He has been the pastor of a number of churches in Michigan since that time. In 1898 he went to Stony Creek, Washtenaw county; in 1903 to Gaylord, Otsego county; in 1908 to St. Ignace, Mackinaw county; in 1912 to Cheboygan county; in 1917 to Chesaning, Shiawassee county; and from 1920 to 1923 was located in Northville, Wayne county, leaving in the fall of the latter year to become the pastor of the church in Tecumseh. He was married to Jessie Irene Griffith, a native of Canada, born in Welland, Ontario, July 29, 1873, and there were two children, Dr. Marsh and a sister, Irene, born January 17, 1903. Rev. Marsh is a Mason, member of the Blue Lodge, Chaplain of the Knights Templar, and a member of the Shrine. Dr. Marsh graduated from the high school at Cheboygan in 1914 and entered Albion College, where he studied for two years. He then matriculated at the Detroit College of Medicine and Surgery, graduating in 1922 with the medical degree. Between 1917 and 1919, Dr. Marsh served in the Medical Reserve Corps of the United States army, and in 1922, entered the Presbyterian Hospital at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, for an interneship of one year. In 1923, he returned to Michigan and began his practice in Tecumseh. He was married, October 17, 1923, to Elsie A. Minnich, of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, who was )born, November 25, 1894. Dr. Marsh is a Mason, with membership in the Blue Lodge of Chesaning, Shiawassee county. He is a member of Delta Tau Delta fraternity at Albion College, and Phi Beta Pi of the Detroit College of Medicine and Surgery. He is also connected with the national, county and state medical socie — ties, and is a member of the American Legion. Arthur F. Matthes has been identified with the building industry since he was a young man, as his father, C. Frederick Matthes, was for years one of the city's busiest contractors and was able to give his son invaluable training in that occupation. C. Frederick Matthes was born in Monroe, Michigan, on July 20, 1854. His parents, John L. and Margaret (Kaumeier) Matthes, natives of Germany, came to Monroe county soon after their marriage and

Page  253 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 253 remained there until 1865, when they came to Adrian. C. Frederick Matthes was the second of their eleven children, eight of whom are now living. He was eleven years old when his parents came to Lenawee county. On September 18, 1880, he married Carrie Schwartz, of Adrian. To this union were born seven children: Arthur F., Mrs. Clara Droegemueller, Bertha, W. Herman, of Adrian; Harold L., of Monroe; Edwin H., of Elmhurst, Indiana; and Walter, of Detroit. Arthur F. Matthes graduated from high school in Adrian in 1901, and spent two years in the study of architecture in a college in Chicago. Returning to Adrian in 1904, he entered the contracting and building business conducted by his father, the firm being known from that time until now as C. F. Matthes & Son. Since his father's death, in December, 1911, Mr. Matthes has managed the concern in a very able manner. The name, C. F. Matthes & Son, is favorably known throughout southern Michigan, and Mr. Matthes is busy at all times as a result of this popularity. He is a member of the Rotary club and the Chamber of Commerce, and has been a director of the latter organization. His offices at this time are at 824 Toledo street, Adrian. Mr. Matthes was married, on June 27, 1907, to Edith Vogt, daughter of Andrew and Louise Vogt, of Adrian. They have seven children: Nelda, born February 17, 1909; Clarence, born February 1, 1911; Donald, born December 15, 1913; Frances, born October 12, 1916; Dorothy, born December 19, 1921; Helen, born February 21, 1924, and Robert, born April 12, 1925. Herman G. Matthes, dealer in coal and building materials, 414 North Dean street, Adrian, was born at Monroe, Michigan, on July 16, 1864. He was brought to Adrian by his parents, John L. and Margaret (Kaumeier) Matthes, in 1865, and since tlat year has been a resident of that city. John L. Matthes was born, October 12, 1824, in the kingdom of Bavaria, Germany. He came to Monroe, Michigan, when he was twenty-three years old. In that city he learned the carpenter's trade, at which he was employed during the eighteen years he remained in Monroe. His parents, Godfrey and Margaret (Meyer) Matthes, were born in Germany, the father having died when John I. Matthes was two years old, and the mother in 1843, in lBavaria. John L,. Matthes was married, in 1847, to Margaret Kaumeier, whom he met in Monroe county. For a period of eleven years he operated a sash factory in Adrian, and afterward worked as a carpenter in the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railway shops in that city. In his later years he was a successful contractor and builder, and erected many dwellings and business buildings in Adrian and nearby cities. John L. Matthes and wife were the parents of eleven children: John L., Jr., Godfrey, Margaret C., C. Frederick, Catherine, Mary, William, Emily, Herman, Louisa and August. Five are now dead: John L., Jr., Godfrey, C. Frederick, Margaret and Emily. Herman G. Matthes left school in 1879 to work with his father at the carpenter's trade, and followed this occupation until 1900. In this year he formed a

Page  254 254 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY partnership with his brother, August G. Matthes, and opened a coal and building supply yard on North Main street, the firm being known as Matthes Brothers. They also did cement contract work until 1920, when the brothers separated. Herman G. Matthes continued as successor to Matthes Brothers, dealing in coal, cement, tile and building materials, at 404-414 North Dean street. Mr. Matthes in 1893 married Anna Delker, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John Delker, of Riga township. Mr. and Mrs. Matthes have one son, Theodore, who was born on February 12, 1894. He was graduated from high school in 1912 and for the past fourteen years has been associated with his father in business. In 1916 he married Lulu Spielman, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Spielman. They have one daughter, Virginia Matthes, who was born December 26, 1919. Herman G. Matthes is a member of the St. John's Lutheran church. He has, for more than thirty-five years, been president of the Imperial Band, of which his son is now a member. W. Herman Matthes, secretary of the Acme Preserve Company, was born October 6, 1883, in Adrian. He is a brother of Arthur F. Matthes, contractor, whose life and achievements are mentioned in this book, and a son of C. Frederick and Carrie (Schwartz) Matthes. His father was born in Monroe, Michigan, on July 20, 1854, the son of John L. and Margaret (Kaumeier) Matthes, natives of Germany, who came to Monroe soon after their marriage and lived in that place until 1865. Mr. and Mrs. C. Frederick Matthes were the parents of seven children: Arthur F., Mrs. Clara Droegemueller, Bertha, W. Herman, Harold L., Edwin H. and Walter H. Matthes. W. Herman Matthes received his education in the public schools of Adrian, in St. John's parochial school, and at Brown's Business University in Adrian. He graduated from this business college, which has since gone out of existence, in 1901. Soon afterward he obtained a position in the Acme Preserve Company, working under the supervision of Mr. Barrett, president and chief investor in the enterprise. From 1901 until now, with the exception of seven months he worked for the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railway in the office of the superintendent of telegraph, Mr. Matthes has been employed in the office of the Acme Preserve Company. HIe gradually worked his way upward to the position of secretary, acquiring, little by little, considerable stock in the enterprise. In 1925 Mr. Barrett sold his interest in the concern to Mr. Matthes, E. P. Lake and Earl G. Kuney. Its officers now are: E. P. Lake, president; H. K. Lake, vice-president; W. Herman Matthes, secretary; and Earl K. Kuney, treasurer. Mr. Matthes is a consistent Republican, and is a member of St. John's Lutheran church, the Exchange club and the Chamber of Commerce. He was married on August 5, 1900, to Anna Germeroth, of Rising City, Nebraska, daughter of the Rev. C. Germeroth. Mr. and Mrs. Matthes have one child, Marjorie L., who was born on August 15, 1924.

Page  255 I I PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 255 Earl Cory Michener, of Adrian, who is now serving his fourth term in Congress, is a veteran of the Spanish-American war and a very distinguished lawyer. Congressman Michener was born on a farm in Venice township, Seneca county, Ohio, November 30, 1876. His father, Valentine A. Michener, was born in Attica. Seneca county, Ohio, August 21, 1849, and his mother, Mrs. Sarah (Cory) Michener, was born November 11, 1854, in Crawford county, Ohio. The Michener farm in Venice township wvas purchased from the Government by Congressman Michener's grandfather. Earl Cory Michener's parents came to Adrian in 1889, and in that city he attended the public, elementary and high schools. He then entered the University of Michigan to complete his education, and later studied at George Washington University, at Washington, D. C., though the Spanish-American war intervened to interrupt his studies. He enlisted as a private in Company B, Thirty-first Michigan Volunteer Infantry, on April 26, 1898, and served with that organization in the United States and Cuba. He received an honorable discharge on May 17, 1899, at Savannah, Georgia, when the regiment was mustered out of the service. He then resumed his law studies and was admitted to the bar in the District of Columbia and the state of Michigan in 1903. Since that year he has been an outstanding figure at the Michigan bar, and has taken an active l)art in the councils of the Republican party. His first public office of consequence was that of assistant prosecuting attorney, which he held from 1907 until 1910. From 1911 until in 1914 he was prosecuting attorney of Lenawee county, filling that office in an able manner and acquiring an excellent reputation as a public official. Election to the Congress of the United States followed in 1919, and he was re-elected to this office at the expiration of each succeeding term. On June 11, 1902, he married Belle Strandler, daughter of Jacob B. and Emily (Ford) Strandler, of Attica, Ohio. Congressman and Mrs. Michener have two children, John Strandler and Elizabeth. Congressman Michener is a member of the Michigan State and American Bar Associations, Phi Sigma Kappa college fraternity, the Masons, Elks, Knights of Pythias, Modern Woodmen, the Adrian club, Lenawee Country club, the Rotary club and the Sons of the American Revolution. Charles H. Mott, funeral director, 188 East Church street, Adrian, was born in Athens, Illinois, April 19, 1868, the son of Wellington and Mary (England) Mott. His father, who was born in New York in 1834, was brought to Springfield, Illinois, as a boyby his father, James Mott, who was born in County Kent, England, in 1800. James Mott had learned the trade of casket making in England, and followed this occupation when he came to the United States and settled in New York. In that state he met and married Mariah Brown, a highly-educated young woman of Sacketts Harbor, New York. Mrs. Mariah (Brown) Mott was born in 1812 and died in 1904, at the remarkable age of ninety-two years. James Mott brought his family to Illinois, and engaged in the manufac.

Page  256 256 PERSONAL SKETCIHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY ture of burial caskets in the city of Springfield before the Civil war. lie died in 1873. His son, Wellington Mott, moved to Athens, Illinois, after he was married, and became a funeral director and furniture dealer in that city, where he died in 1879. Wellington Mott and wife were the parents of eight children, two girls and six boys. Their son, Charles H., attended the public schools at Athens and graduated from high school in 1885, when he was seventeen years old. In 1879, when his father died, Charles H. and his eldest brother, Allen Mott, took over the Mott undertaking business. Charles H. Mott afterward was in the undertaking business for himself three years at Petersburg, Illinois. From that city he returned to Athens, where he was associated with his brother for a short while. He next went to Ashland, Illinois, and was a funeral director in that city five years. In 1902 he came to Adrian and became owner of a half interest in the C. A. Conklin funeral directing business. In 1904 he purchased Mr. Conklin's share in this enterprise, and since that year Mr. Mott has conducted the business independently. He married Mattie M. Primm, daughter of Mrs. Caroline Primm, of Lincoln, Illinois. Mr. and Mrs. Mott have six children: the eldest, Earl W., was born in 1890 and is now in the undertaking business at Detroit; Lucille, who died in 1918; Primm is a graduate physician and a professor of chemistry in the Detroit College of Medicine and Surgery; Paul is associated with his father in business in Adrian, and is a graduate of Dartmouth College and Harvard University; Frances, wife of Mr. Bateman, of Lansing, is a graduate of Adrian College; Eugenia is a student in Adrian high school. Mr. Mott has been a trustee of the Methodist church eighteen years and president of the State Sunday School Association several years. He is a member of the Masons, the Knights of Pythias, the Modern Woodmen and the Exchange club. Ollie E. Mott, president of the Nu-Way Stretch Suspender Company, 227-99 North WVinter street, Adrian, was born in Belleville, Ontario, Canada, March 31, 1873. His parents, Isaac and Margaret (Chard) Mott, were born in Ontario; his father in 1829, near Belleville, and his mother on June 1, 1845, at Sterling. Isaac Mott, wvlo died in 1907, farmed for a number of years after he finisled school, and later vent to Sterling to conduct a store. He also acted as postmaster of Sterling many years, the postoffice having been in his place of business. There he married Margaret Chard, who died in 1922, at the age of eighty-three years. About ten years before his death Mr. Mott brought his family to Clio, Genesee county, Michigan, where he followed the harness business. Mr. and Mrs. Isaac Mott were the parents of these children: Jacob A., who has been dead many years; Wesley; Judson L., who is connected with the Nu-way Stretch Suspender Company; John E., also employed in the suspender factory, and Ollie E. Mott, the subject of this sketch. He attended school at Clio until he was sixteen years old, when he dropped his studies to work in the Frank Foote

Page  257 I PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 257 grocery store. One year later he obtained a position with J. K. Frost, plhotograllher, and worked for Mr. Frost until he acquired a thorough knowledge of the business. Later he moved t(o Coleman, Michigan, where he was in business three years. About this time he conceived what proved to be a very successful idea, one that earned him a handsome income for many years. Mr. Mott put his money and time into this idea, which involved the taking and selling of photographs in various: towns, with the co-operation of the merchants of those towns, and the giving of picture frames, without charge, to the subjects of the photographs, with all orders of a certain size. So rapidly did his business expand after he inaugurated this plan, that he was forced to establish a central warehouse and factory at a town in Ohio. About this time he took as a partner his brother, Judson L. Mott. Other branch offices were established in New York and Iowa, and the business continued prosperous. In 1906 Ollie E. Mott purchased a department store, which he managed until 1914. In this year he took W. H. Waring as a partner in this enterprise, and turned his attention to other lines of endeavor. He made a contract with the Chelsea Fiber Mills, at Brooklyn, New York, for one-half of their output of small rugs for a period of several years, and took his brother as a partner in the sale of these rugs. This venture also was successful. In 1912, learning of the death of a Dundee, Michigan, hotel clerk who had, for one year before his death, been manufacturing by hand an improved type of suspender, Mr. Mott saw great possibilities in this article. Accordingly he and Judson L. Mott purchased from the inventor's widow the patent rights to the suspender and started the Nu-way Stretch Suspender Company. The business grew rapidly, and in 1917 they moved their factory from Dundee to Adrian. At this time the Nu-way Stretch Suspender Company manufactures over one hundred thousand dozen of suspenders each year, and also makes a line of health belts, belts for trousers, and neckwear. 'hirty salesmen are employed to call on the thirty-five thousand dealers handling these articles in the United States and Canada. When the need for racks to display the various products of the Nu-way company became imperative, Mr. Mott and his lrot llher startlcl a selarate factory for the manufacture of these racks, and out of this venture has grown a substantial novelty furniture business, which in 1920 was incorporated as the Mott Manufacturing Company. Ollie E. and Judson L. Mott have developed and sold Sunset Beach, at Vineyard Lake, eighteen miles northwest of Adrian on the Jackson road. Ollie E. Mott was married on May 30, 1900, to Minnie A. Swink, daughter of John and Mary Swink, of Coleman. They have two children: Harold Mott, who was born in February, 1904, graduated in June, 1925, from the American Conservatory of Music at Chicago, and was awarded a scholarship because of his exceptional record in the study of voice and piano. Ollie E. Mott is a member of the Knights of Pythias, the Rotary club, the Lenawee Country club,

Page  258 258 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY the Y. M. C. A., the Chamber of Commerce and the Methodist church. During the five years he was president of the village of 1)undce he ol)tained for that village a modern sewage disposal plant and over one mile of paved streets. Frank H. Nyland, one of the proprietors of the Heesen Brothers Foundry, of Tecumseh, was born in that city, May 16, 1867. He was the son of John H. and Dena (Heesen) Nyland. John H. Nyland was born in the province of Gelderland, Holland, June 5, 1829. He attended the public schools and under his father's direction learned the shoemaker trade. In 1854 he came to the United States and for several years worked at his trade in Cleveland, Ohio. Early in 1859 he came to Tecumseh and established a shoe store. With his brother-in-law, George H. Heesen, he purchased a store building, which he occupied until 1879. In that year he removed his store to his own building. While living in Cleveland, in April, 1858, he married Handrena Heesen, who was also a native of Holland, and who came with her parents to the United States when she was ten years old. To this union were born five children, two sons and three daughters: Nellie, Jennie A., Frank, Angeline, and John R. John H. Nyland, who had but four dollars when he arrived in the United States, became the owner of considerable real estate and personal property. He died in 1906 and his widow passed away in 1900. Frank H. Nyland, after graduating from high school, studied two years at the Michigan State College. In 1890 he returned to Tecumseh and joined his lather in the shoe store. He also became associated with John and Rudolph Heesen in the manufacture of hog rings, patented by John Heesen. Mr. Nyland has since continuously been associated with them. Mr. Nyland and Mr. Heesen have built up their business until it is now a large one. A complete sketch of the history of the Heesen Brothers Foundry is included with the history of Mr. Heesen and family, in this book. Mr. Nyland, on October 2, 1901, married Margaret E. Tanis, daughter of Comer and Elizabeth Tanis, of Kalamazoo. Mr. and Mrs. Nyland have three children: Frank Edward, who was born March 21, 1904; Helen Elizabeth, who was born June 21, 1908; and Margaret Louise, born May 22, 1910. Mr. Nyland is a member of the Presbyterian churcl a(nd the Masons. ile has a one hundred and fifty-five acre farm two miles east of Tecumseh. Eugene F. Olsen, vice-president and general manager of the Anchor Concrete Machinery Company, of Adrian, was born in Rock Rapids, Iowa, in May, 1896. His father, John Olsen, one of the founders of the Anchor Concrete Machinery Company, was born in Norway,,in 1862, and came with his parents to the United States when he was one year old. Mrs. Hattie D. (Dickinson) Olsen, mother of Eugene F. Olsen, was born in Rockton, Illinois, in 1872. The parents of John Olsen settled on a farm in Mitchell county, Iowa, where they lived a number of years. They then moved to another county, in the same state, and there Mr. Olsen

Page  259 l l PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 259 became a contractor and builder. He died in 1895, and his widow in 1918. They were. the parents of eight children: John Olsen, founder of the Anchor Company, having been their third child. He left school when he swas eighteen years old to work with his father in the contracting and building business. In 1895, when his father died, he assumed charge of the business, which is still under his direction. John Olsen, in 1891, married Hattie D. Dickinson. To this union were born four children: Helen, Dorothy, Harriet and Eugene F. John Olsen, with the assistance of Charles Bradley, in 1900 began the manufacture and sale of the first Anchor concrete block machines in a little shop at Rock Rapids, Iowa. In 1903 the sale of these machines had grown to such a volume that incorporation of the concern seemed advisable, and the Anchor Concrete Stone Company came into existence. In 1919 this name was changed to the Anchor Concrete Machinery Company, as representing more fully the scope of the enterprise. In 1922 the sales had increased so greatly and the center of sales had moved eastward to such an extent that it became necessary to build a factory somewhere east of Chicago, and the Adrian plant of the Anchor company was erected and placed in operation. This plant now manufactures the bulk of the machines sold by the Anchor Company, which has branch offices at Columbus, Ohio, Rock Rapids, Iowa, Detroit, Michigan, Chicago, Illinois and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The Anchor machines have been improved from time to time and are now considered among the best in the industry. The original type of block, from which the Anchor Company derived its name, are still growing in popularity, and machines for their manufacture are being made in large quantities in the Adrian plant, which is now under the direction of Eugene F. Olsen. He graduated from high school at Rock Rapids in 1914 and from 1914 to 1917 was a student at Iowa State College. On May 1, 1917, he enlisted in the First Officers' Training Camp of the United States Army and was stationed at Fort Snelling, Minnesota, three months. He spent six weeks at Princeton, New Jersey, and five weeks at Essington, in the same state, after which he was sent to San Antonio, Texas, and Fort Worth. The last six months prior to discharge from the army were spent at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he was granted a degree as aeronautical engineer. He was honorably discharged on February 6, 1919, with the rank of second lieutenant, Air Service, and returned to Rock Rapids, Iowa, as manager of the Anchor Company. Since 1922 he has been a resident of Adrian. In that year he married Gertrude Lewis, daughter of Dr. U. S. Lewis, of Dubuque, Iowa. Mr. Olsen's first wife, Mrs. Florence (Davenport) Olsen, whom he married on February 20, 1918, died in 1920, leaving a son, Jean Davenport Olsen, who was born in 1920. Mr. Olsen is a member of the Congregational church, the Masons, the Knights Templar, the Rotary club, the Lenawee Country club,

Page  260 260 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LMNAWEE COUNTY the Adrian City club, the American Legion and the Chamber of Commerce. Harry C. Osgood, who is now serving his third term as treasurer of Lenawee county, has held many other positions of a public nature in that community. He was born January 22, 1878, on a farm on the outskirts of Adrian, in Madison township. His father, Henry H. Osgood, was born in Seneca township, Lenawee county, October 23, 1840, the son of Cornelius and Phoebe A. (Tayer) Osgood. Cornelius Osgood, a native of Seneca county, New York, where he was born in 1813, came to Canandaigua, Seneca township, Lenawee county, in 1834, and started in business as a tailor. Here he married Phoebe A. Tayer, who was born in 1820, the daughter of a pioneer family. To Cornelius Osgood and wife were born four children: Henry H., Perry, Tunis C. and Eliza Jane. Not long after he married, Cornelius Osgopd became a farmer, and in 1861 he moved to Colorado, where he remained a few years. In 1866 he returned to the Rocky Mountains and became a member of the Caribou Boulder Company, of California, and was killed in an accident in the mines there in August of that year. His son, Henry H. Osgood, attended the public schools and remained with his parents on the farm until he was old enough to begin working for the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railway. From an humble position he rose to a post of importance and responsibility. He was an executive in the company's supply office nine years, with headquarters in Adrian. His next promotion was to the clerkship of the civil engineer's office, where he remained fourteen years. At the end of this period, which marked the end of twenty-five years' service with the company, he resigned his position to enter business. In 1884 he purchased the Kelley, Hoxie & Company store at Holloway, in the county, which he managed in a very successful manner many years. Henry H. Osg6od married, on November 23, 1868, in Mason township, Sarah L. Miller, who was born in Hillsdale county, Michigan, on November 8, 1847, the youngest child of Lewis and Sarah (Huff) Miller, natives of Seneca county, New York. Her older brothers and sisters were: Dan B., Jane A., Tunis H. and Ellen E. Her mother having died when she was eighteen months old, Sarah L. Miller was taken to the home of an aunt, Mrs. T. C. Osgood, in Seneca county, New York, where she remained until her eighteenth year, receiving an excellent education. Returning to her old home in Michigan, she taught school three years and was then married to Henry H. Osgood. To this union were born two children: Manson P. and Harry C. Osgood, the subject of this sketch. Harry C. was eight years old when his parents moved to the village of Holloway, Lenawee county. Here he completed the eighth grade in the public schools, and in 1892, when his parents moved to Tecumseh, Michigan, he attended high school, graduating in 1897. After teaching two terms in the rural schools and working a short time in the hoop and stave factory at Jasper, Michigan, he and his uncle

Page  261 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 261 started the Deerfield State Bank, at Deerfield, Lenawee county. This venture was very successful, and in 1905, with his brother-inlaw, Rufus A. Baker, he purchased the E. E. Burnham hardware store at Deerfield, and continued in that business until 1919. While a resident of Deerfield, he received many honors. He was a member of the village council many years and served that body as president two terms. He was a member of the school board fourteen years, acting as treasurer of the board all of that time. He was treasurer of Deerfield township four terms, and in 1920, as a Republican, he was elected treasurer of Lenawee county. He was reelected in 1922 and again in 1924, proving that he has filled that office with entire satisfaction to the voters of Lenawee county. Mr. Osgood has been a notary public twenty-five years. On November 28, 1911, he married Lula M. Baker, youngest daughter of Albert G. and Emily (Paddock) Baker, of Fairfield, Michigan. Mr. and Mrs. Osgood have two children: Gerald and Margaret L. The Osgood family attend the First Presbyterian church, of Adrian. Charles S. Park, secretary of the Lenawee County Telephone Company, is one of the most progressive and substantial business men in this city of Adrian. He is secretary of the A. B. Park Dry Goods Company and director and vice-president of the Adrian Building and Loan Association. He was born on a farm in Lenawee county on February 16, 1861, the son of John S. and Emily (Berry) Park. John S. Park was born June 6, 1802, in Preston, Connecticut. As a young man he started a general store at Salem, Connecticut, and was postmaster of that town for a time. In 1837 he came to Lenawee county and purchased a farm in Rome township. After living on his farm a short while he moved to Adrian and started a grocery store where the A. B. Park Dry Goods Company store now stands. In 1850 he married Emily Berry, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John Berry, who came from the state of New York to a farm in Rome township in 1837. In 1861 Mr. Park retired from business. He died in Adrian in 1869, and his widow died in 1897. They were the parents of five children, one of whom died in infancy. A. B. Park, founder of the Park drygoo(ls store, died a nulmber of years ago, and Anna and Ida Park, daughters, reside at tlhe family home at State and Michigan streets, Adrian. Charles S. Park, the subject of this sketch, graduated from high school in Adrian in 1878 and at once began working in the A. B. Park dry goods store. After spending several years as a clerk in this enterprise, he obtained a position with the Page Woven Wire Fence Company, of Adrian. He remained with this concern twenty-two years, rising from a humble place to the post of corresponding secretary and sales manager. In 1920 he resigned from the employment of the Page company. Since 1898 Mr. Park has been financially interested in the telephone systems of Lenawee county, having helped to organize the Lenawee County Telephone Company, of which he is now secretary, in that year. In 1910 this

Page  262 262 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY concern was combined with the Bell system on a reciprocal basis. Mr. Park, in 1889, married Helen Johnson, daughter of Chester 13. and Cornelia (Buck) Johnson, of Adrian. Mrs. Park was born September 6, 1860. Mr. Park has, for many years, been an elder in the Presbyterian church. He is a member of the Rotary club and the Chamber of Commerce. Raymond W. Puffer, manager of the Webster Anderson Dry Goods Company, of Tecumseh, was born May 5, 1888, in Tuscola county, Michigan, the son of Charles H. and Lydia A. (Gilbert) Puffer. His paternal grandparents, Charles and Margaret (Livinstone) Puffer, resided at Pufferville, Massachusetts. Charles Puffer was born there, while his wife was born in the state of New York, near the city of Rochester. Charles H. Puffer was born March 21, 1856, and his wife was born November 7, 1860, in Michigan. The grandparents, Mr. and Mrs. Charles Puffer, were married several years before they came to Michigan and settled on a tract of government land in Tuscola county. They arrived there in 1852, and built on their forty-acre farm a log house, which is still standing. The grandmother died in 1908, while the grandfather lived to be ninety-three years old. He died in 1917. Charles H. Puffer was the next to the eldest of their nine children. He attended the public schools of Fairgrove township, Tuscola county, and spent practically all his life on the family homestead. In September, 1876, he married Lydia A. Gilbert. To this union were born seven children, one of whom is -now dead. The names of those living are: Alta, who married Joe Bloom, of Traverse City; Verna, wife of Stuart DeWitt, of Akron, Michigan; Alice, wife of W. E. Briggs, of Akron, Michigan; Mary, who married Fred Hoxie, of Fairgrove township, Tuscola county; and Theron, who is in business with the subject of this sketch. Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Puffer sold their farm in 1920 and removed to Akron, Michigan, where they now reside. Mr. Puffer was an active Republican, and held various township offices. He and his wife are members of the Presbyterian church. Raymond W. Puffer attended the public schools of Fairgrove township and Akron, Michigan. In 1905 he took a coursp in the Bay City Business College. From 1907 until 1908 he was employed in a general store at Reese, Michigan, and after leaving that employment he associated himself with a dry goods store in Port Huron. Later he was advanced to manager of the dry goods department of this store, and still later he was made buyer for the J. C. Sperry department store in Port Huron. He resided in that city during 1910 and 1911. After having been employed in a responsible position by the Edson Moore Company, of Detroit eighteen months, he resigned to become a traveling salesman for the Allen Boyce Company, manufacturers of ladies' readyto-wear garments, in Michigan. He next spent some time as department manager for A. Krolik & Company wholesale dry goods house in Detroit. On August 1, 1918, he came to Tecumseh as manager of the Webster Anderson Dry Goods Company, and he is

Page  263 PERSONAL SKETCHE'S FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 263; still filling that position. He was married, April 12, 1912, to Clara Maude Warren, daughter of A. W. and Margaret (Van Avery) Warren, of Windsor, Ontario. Mr. and Mrs. Raymond W. Puffer have two sons: Raymond, Jr., who was born January 29, 1914; and Warren, who was born November 17, 1916. Mr. Puffer is a member of the Masons, the Knights of Pythias and the Odd Fellows. He is a member of the board of trustees of the Presbyterian church, president of the Retail Merchants' Association and chairman of the Retail Committee of the Tecumseh Chamber of Commerce. He is also a member of the Finance Committee of the Boy Scouts of Lenawee county. Samuel William Raymond, one of Adrian's most progressive business men, owes much of his success to his inventive ability. Mr. Raymond was one of the first manufacturers of visible pumps for gasoline filling stations. He invented and obtained patents on a visible type pump, and began production of this appliance in his machine shop in Adrian. Later he obtained financial assistance and organized the Raymond Garage Equipment Manufacturing Company, a concern which has earned large profits for its stockholders. Mr. Raymond was born on a farm in Lenawee county, in Fairfield township, March 23, 1872, the son of Samuel and Rebecca (Burgess) Raymond. His father, who was born in Switzerland in 1822, came to the United States in 1854, and his mother, who was born in Ireland in 1832, came to this country with her two brothers when she was twenty-one years old, and settled on a farm in Fairfield township. Mr. and Mr. Samuel Raymond moved on a farm in that township when they were married, and spent the remainder of their lives in that neighborhood. Samuel Raymond died in 1907 and his wife in 1904. They were the parents of four children, two of whom died in infancy. One son, Frank B., who was born in 1874, is now a retired farmer and resides near Adrian. Samuel William Raymond was educated in the rural schools of Fairfield tow'nship and at the Normal College at Ypsilanti, where he graduated in 1896. After teaching school for five years, he took charge of his father's farm, and managed the same until it was sold. Then for a period of two years lie was overseer of live stock on the farm of Henry Ford. In 1911 he took the agency for Ford cars in Lenawee county. This venture proved a very successful one. In 1915 Mr. Raymond's business had expanded to such an extent that he erected a modern building, containing salesrooms, a garage and a machine shop with the very latest equipment. It was in 1914 that Mr. Raymond became aware of the possibilities of an improved visible type of gasoline filling station pump. In that year he made such a pump in his machine shop, and installed it in connection with his garage. The pump attracted wide attention and he at once began manufacture of the new device. Not long afterward he organized the Raymond Garage Equipment Manufacturing Company, of which he is vice-president and director and A. D. Billing is president. This concern sells its products in large quantities in all

Page  264 264 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY parts of the United States. Mr. Raymond has also invented a dooropening device and an improved farm tractor, neither of which has as yet been placed on the market. The tractor will, in Mr. Raymond's opinion, make possible the cultivation and harvesting of farm crops without the use of horses. Mr. Raymond was married, in 1898, to Kate D. Bryant, daughter of Melvin and Martha (Bench) Bryant, of Detroit, and is a sister of Mrs. Henry Ford. Mr. and Mrs. Raymond have four children: Russel, born February 6, 1901; Milton, born February 20, 1904; Harold, born May 15, 1907; and Violet, born August 20, 1909. Mr. Raymond is a member of the Masons, the Elks, the Rotary club and the Lenawee Country club. Emery Blaine Root, clerk of Lenawee county, was born on a farm in Henry county, Ohio, August 20, 1886. His father, John E. Root, was born in Wisconsin on May 13, 1860, and met his death in an automobile accident, September 22, 1924. John E. Root was brought to Henry county, Ohio, by his parents when he was four years old. He taught school for three years after he completed his studies in his home county, and spent one and one-half years in law school at Valparaiso, Indiana. In 1884 he married Mary E. Clark, who was born in Henry county, December 1, 1865. Mr. Root then returned to his farm in Henry county and became one of the most prominent men in that community. For twenty years he was justice of the peace at Ridgeville Corners and was an active member of the Congregational church and the Modern Woodmen. Mr. and Mrs. John E. Root were the parents of nine children, three of whom are now dead. The names of those who are living are: Emery Blaine Root, clerk of Lenawee county; Clark W., of California; Guy A., of Clinton; John Doyle, an accountant, of Adrian; Mrs. Bessie Motter, of Lenawee county; and Helen, a student, of Henry county, Ohio. Emery Blaine Root attended the public schools of his native county, and graduated from high school at Ridgeville Corners. From the time he finished school until 1906, when he was married, he was employed on farms. Mrs. Root was H. Romaine Robbins, the daughter of William and Jennie Robbins, of Ridgeville Corners, and was born on June 2, 1886. Mr. and Mrs. IEmery B. Root lived on a farm two years after they were married and then moved to Ventura county, California, where Mr. Root worked in the oil fields until 1910, the year he came to Morenci, Michigan, and entered business with his brotherin-law, C. C. Fauver, monument dealer. In 1913 Mr. Root afid Mr. Fauver sold their interests in this business and the former worked in the Smith & Smith general store until 1914. In that year he was elected township supervisor and was appointed a deputy sheriff of Lenawee county. Mr. Root also was elected a member of the village council at Morenci, and held that office until 1919. In the general election of 1918 he was successful in his campaign for the office of county clerk, and brought his family to Adrian, where they now reside. Mr. and Mrs. Root have three children,

Page  265 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 265 [ I 1' one child having died several years ago. Lulu Root was born December 6, 1908, and her sister, Kathryn, was born January 22, 1914; Alice Joann was born December 23, 1925. Emery B. Root was re-elected county clerk in 1920-22-24. He is a member of the Masons, the Odd Fellows, the Elks, the Knights of Pythias and the Presbyterian church, and is a past director of the Adrian Chamber of Commerce. Samuel J. Rubley, M.D., prominent physician and health officer of Britton and Ridgeway townships, was born in East Gilead, Branch county, Michigan, April 15, 1895. His father, Aaron Rubley, was also a native of East Gilead, and his mother, Virginia (Cole) Rubley, now a resident of Ann Arbor, was born in Wauseon, Fulton county, Ohio, in 1875. After he completed his early schooling in the public schools of East Gilead and Hillsdale, Michigan, Dr. Rubley entered Hillsdale College, where se was a student for three years, pursuing literary surjects. In 1916 he moved with his mother to Ann Arbor and entered the Medical Department of the University of Michigan, graduating in 1920 with the doctor's degree. After a year and a half of experience in the offices of Dr. Cummings, of Ann Arbor, Dr. Rubley opened offices in Britton, December 1, 1921, locating in rooms above the postoffice. In the following year, Dr. Rubley erected a modern dwelling with provisions for offices, and moved to the new location. On November 24, 1921, he was united in marriage to Alta Lehman, daughter of Peter Lehman, of Ann Arbor, born July 14, 1893. Dr. Rubley is active in fraternal and social organizations, holding membership in the Tecumseh Lodge No. 69 and the Scottish Rite to the fourteenth degree of the Masonic order, and is also a member of the Kiwanis club of Ann Arbor. He is a member of the First Baptist church. Dr. Rubley has a large clientele in the vicinity, and maintains a general practice, slecializinlg more lately in eye, ear, nose and thrl at practice. Jacob N. Sampson, lawyer, 135 South Main street, Adrian, has been mayor of that city, commissioner of the circuit court and prosecuting attorney of Lenawee county. He was born in Scioto county, Ohio, February 14, 1859, the son of a Methodist clergyman, William A. Sampson, and Mrs. Marietta A. (Smith) Sampson, The Rev. Sanmpson was horn in Ohio in 1829, and died in Pike county, Ohio, in 1892. He was the son of a Scotch shoemaker, Samuel Sampson, and a French mother, Mrs. Sarah (Beauchamp) Sampson, who came to Ohio with her parents when she was quite young. The Rev. Sampson's first pastorate was at Mt. Vernon, Ohio, in 1870. His first wife, mother of Jacob N. Sampson, of Adrian, died in 1862, and in 1865 he married Nancy C. James, of Jackson, Ohio. To the first union were born four children and to the second, three children. Four are now living, as follows: Jacob N.; of Adrian; George, a merchant, of Boston, Massachusetts; Mrs. Ella Crabtree, of Springfield, Ohio; and Stella M., widow of William Brisbin, of Morenci, Lenawee county. The Rev. Sampson was a Ma

Page  266 266 PERSONAL SKETCIHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY son and a consistent Republican. Jacob N. Sampson spent one year in Ohio Northern University after he finished high school, and later studied three years at Adrian College. At this time his health became impaired, and he returned to his father's farm in Scioto county to regain his strength. In 1884 he returned to Michigan and for five years taught in the Palmyra schools. During these years he employed his spare time in the study of law and in 1890-91 studied law in the office of Captain Charles Miller. In 1892 Mr. Sampson was admitted to the bar, and in 1895 he began practice at his present office, 135 South Main street, as a partner of John E. Byrd, who was elected judge of the supreme court in 1910. In 1903-04 Mr. Sampson served his city as mayor. Election to this office followed four years' service as prosecuting attorney and an equal period as assistant prosecuting attorney. From 1892 until 1896 he was circuit court commissioner. Since the expiration of his term as mayor, Mr. Sampson has ignored offers of support for public office and has devoted all of his time to his large law practice. He is a member of the Elks, the Knights of Pythias and Methodist Protestant church. He married, in 1883, Florence A. Fullerton, of Scioto county, Ohio, a daughter of Maurice and Margaret Fullerton, farmers. 'Mr. and Mrs. Sampson have four children: Dwight E., born in 1884; Guy B., born in 1888; Marguerite, born in 1896, and Katherine, born in 1907. Frank S. Saxton, a citizen of Blissfield and one of the proprietors of the National Bundle Tyer Company of that town, was born on a farm in Whiteford township, Monroe county, Michigan, December 13, 1874. His parents were John S. and Rachel (Howenstine) Saxton. His father was born in LaGrange, Lorain county, Ohio, March 8, 1840, and his mother was born June 21, 1850, in Wayne county, Ohio. John S. Saxton, a farmer, served with the Union army in the Civil war in Company I, Second Ohio Cavalry, and was a son of Elisha Saxton, who drove a coach for Joseph Bonaparte, a brother of the Emperor Napoleon. Elisha Saxton, upon his retirement from his employment, was, tendered a grant of eighty acres in New York as recognition of his services. Frank S. Saxton, the subject of this sketch, traces his ancestry back to the year 1635, through the following lineage: John S. Saxton, born March 8, 1840; Elisha Saxton, born July 13, 1800; Henry Saxton, born October 5, 1768; James Saxton, born September 25, 1729; James Saxton, born in 1702; James Saxton, born in 1660, and George Saxton, born 1635. Frank S. Saxton attended the district schools of Deerfield township. and studied four years in Blissfield. He was a student in the Tri-State Business College two years, later taking a correspondence course in real estate and law, and spent five years on the farm with his father. In 1905 he went to Blissfield and entered the livery business. In connection with this enterprise he conducted an ice business, having as his partner his brother, Albert H. Saxton. He has also, for many years, been interested in-various real estate operations. He associates himself

Page  267 i f I I t1 I i PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 267 with the Presbyterian church, the Odd Fellows, the Masons and the Knights Templar. He has been a member of the village council four years, supervisor of Blissfield township ten years, and is also a member of the board of education in Blissfield. He and his brother, Albert S. Saxton, who was born in Whitefield township, Monroe county, October 7, 1874, have been associated in many business ventures. He joined his brother in the management of a brick and tile mill. This mill, which was located at Bateman, and no longer is in existence, they quit operating in 1905, the year they entered the livery and ice business in Blissfield. The firm, which was known as Saxton Brothers for a few years, was dissolved in 1909, when they sold. Albert Saxton then went to Denver, Colorado, where he spent one year in contracting and building. In 1910 he returned to Blissfield. In that year he and Joseph Bachmeyer, of Trilly, Ohio, became linterested in a machine which would tie bundles of various kinds of vegetables. The machine, which was at first a very crude affair, was gradually developed and improved by the two men, who used such tools as were to be found in blacksmith shops. In 1912 Mr. Bachmeyer came to Blissfield. In 1913 he and Albert Saxton organized a company, known as the National Bundle Tyer Company, and let a contract for the manufacture of their machines to the F. Bissell Electric Company, of Toledo. The bundle tyers are now being manufactured in a modern plant in Blissfield, and the capacity for manufacturing has been doubled in the past year. The machines are now called the Saxmeyer tyers. Frank S. Saxton, the subject of this sketch, 'was married June 28, 1899, to Bertha Palmer, who was born in Blissfield, December 31, 1875. She was the daughter of George and Frances (Johnson) Palmer. Her father was born in New York, January 16, 1850, and her mother was born in that state, June 28, 1848. Bertha Palmer Saxton was for six years a teacher in the Blissfield schools. She died in 1913, leaving the following children: Ruth 11., who was born June 14, 1900; G. Palmer, born December 24, 1902; Windell P., born October 11, 1904; Frank Junior, born February 4, 1911; and Gertrude Evelyn, born July 15, 1913. Iater Frankl S. Saxton lmarrie(l l lope Palmer, a sister of his first wife. To'( this secon( unil \Vni S w )s )or a son, Ro)ert W. Mr. Saxto(ll is also a director of the Reil)er Koltz Company, manufacturers of spotlights. Fred R. Seger, president of the Seger-Graham Electropure Dairy Company, 737 South Main street, Adrian, was born in that city on June 29, 1890, the son of Dr. Fred R. and Margaret E. (Sweet) Seger. His grandfather, Dr. Alexander Seger, a native of Vermont, came to Rome Center, Michigan, at the age of seventeen years, and practiced medicine at that city and at Adrian. When Dr. Fred R. Seger was admitted to practice by the state of Michigan his father retired from active duty. Dr. Alexander Seger died in 1902, and his widow, Mrs. Olive E. Seger, died in 1905. Doctor Fred R. Seger was born in Rome Center on Febru

Page  268 268 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY ary 3, 1863. He came to Adrian with his parents when he was seven years old, and received his schooling in the public schools and at Adrian College. Entering the medical department of the University of Michigan when he was nineteen years old, he graduated with the degree of M.D. in 1885, and began practice in Adrian when he was twenty-two years old. In that year he married Margaret E. Sweet, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Myron W. Sweet. Dr. and Mrs. Seger were the parents of four children: Beatrice, wife of Ralph Clement, of Adrian; Margaret, now Mrs. G. C. Graham; Fred R.; and Marian L., wife of Joseph H. Judd, Nashville, Tennessee. Doctor Seger assumed his father's large practice and was also city physician of Adrian. He was a member of the First Baptist church, the Maccabees, the Knights of Pythias, the Masons and the Knights Templar. He also acted as examining physician for the Maccabees and Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company. Dr. Fred R. Seger died on November 2, 1893, after having been ill nine days from typhoid fever. His sudden death was a great shock, not only to his family, but to his many devoted admirers in this community. His widow, Mrs. Margaret Seger, is a generous, public-spirited woman, and takes an active part in educational affairs. She was a member of the board of education for several years, and is now much interested in the development of her farm in Lenawee county. Mrs. Seger resides at 233 Division street. Her son, Fred R. Seger, after completing his studies in the public schools of Adrian, attended Brown Business University in 1906-07. He then managed his mother's farm, three miles west of Adrian, several years, starting a retail milk business in connection with the farm. Later he came to Adrian to give the selling and distribution of the milk closer attention, and built a modern dairy house at the rear of his mother's home. In 1924 he took his brother-in-law, G. C. Graham, as a partner and purchased the plant of the Maple City Creamery Company. After remodeling the plant, machinery was installed for the electropurifying of milk, which has since been operated with marked success. Mr. Seger. was married on April 4, 1925, to Irene Piper, daughter of Mr. anld Mrs. H. M. Piper, of Fayette, Ohio. Mr. Seger is a member of the First Bap)tist church, the Chamber of Commerce and the Sons of the American Revolution. William F. Shepherd, deceased, is mourned, not only by his family, but by all residents of Lenawee county, young and old, who came in contact With him during his many years in public life. Mr. Shepherd's death occurred May 21, 1925, while he was filling the office of safety commissioner of Adrian. The following resolutions, adopted by the Adrian city commission on the day following his death, best describe his standing in the community: "As a member of the city commission Mr. Shepherd was a capable, faithful, trustworthy and conscientious official. He had the interests of the city at heart and his one great desire was to serve the public to the best of his ability at all times. He was a man of rare

Page  269 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 269 judgment and his counsel will be missed. His passing is a distinct loss to the city." Though Mr. Shepherd was a member of no fraternal organizations, he did not lack friends and admirers. His home was his lodge and his family his chief care. Honesty, sincerity and thoroughness characterized all of his relations with the public. He knew his fellow-man's weaknesses and shortcomings, and loved them in spite of them. Few persons knew of the influence he exerted over those Adrian youngsters whose pranks and misdemeanors landed them in the safety commissioner's office, in the hands of the law. And few persons knew of the interest he took in the welfare of those LenaWee county men who were paroled from Michigan penal institutions. William F. Shepherd was born on a farm in Dover township, Lenawee county, April 26, 1863. He attended the district schools of that township and graduated from the Clayton high school. After attending a school of telegraphy at Toledo, Ohio, he became a railroad telegrapher at Holland, Michigan, and Decatur, Illinois. On March 21, 1887, he married Emma A. Bovee, of Dover township, and for several years farmed in that part of the county. Mr. Shepherd represented that township on the board of supervisors four successive terms. In 1887 he was appointed under-sheriff of Lenawee county by Sheriff Ferguson, and in 1899 was elected sheriff. In that year he also was appointed chief sergeant-at-arms of the state house of representatives. After the expiration of his second term as sheriff, Mr. Shepherd became a traveling salesman for the American Steel and Wire Company, and remained in that position until in 1919, when he was elected commissioner of public safety. Two years later he was defeated in the race for that office, but was again elected in 1923 and in 1925 by large majorities. Besides his widow Mr. Shepherd is survived by two children: William M., who was born March 11, 1898, and Esther. Both are graduates of Adrian high school. Elmer W. Skeese, farmer and real estate dealer, of Adrian, was born in Fulton county, Ohio, January 28, 1868. His father, William Skeese, was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1835, and died at Evansport in 1910. His mother, Mrs. Mary J. (Ayers) Skeese, is still living, at the age of eighty-nine years, on a farm near Reading, Michigan. His grandfather Skeese, a shingle maker by occul)ation, came from Pennsylvania to Wayne county, Ohio, where he settled on a farm and raised a family of four children, three sons and a daughter. William Skeese, tihe oldest of the family, learned the art of shingle making. His father died when William was a young man, and he shouldered the responsibilties of the family. He, with his mother and sister and brothers, later moved to Fulton county, Ohio, and engaged in shingle making and farming. He supported his mother and two brothers and sister until his sister was married to Frank J. Peet, of Jamestown, Michigan. Then the mother moved to Jamestown with her daughter and son-in-law and there resided until her death in 1885. William Skeese was married while yet in Wayne county, Ohio, to Mary J. Ayres,

Page  270 270 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY of New York state. To this union were born eight children: Melvin, who now resides with his mother at Reading, Michigan; Charles, at Hebron, Indiana; Jennie, of Evansport, Ohio; Annie, of Rogerson, Idaho; Elmer W., of Adrian, Michigan; Minnie, of Reading, Michigan; John, of Defiance, Ohio; Martin, who is now dead. Elmer W. Skeese was two years old when his parents moved from Fulton county, Ohio, to the farm near Evansport, Ohio, where his father died. Elmer attended the district school near his home until he was eighteen years old. At that age he left school to help on his father's farm, until he was twenty-four years old. At that time he came to Michigan with $240 of money that he had saved. He worked on various farms by the month and day until he was married, in 1894, to Anna J. Allen, of Tipton, Michigan, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. James Allen, of Franklin township. Mr. and Mrs. Skeese then rented John D. Shull's farm of 240 acres in Raisin township and there resided for five years. To this union were born three children, all living. Irene, the eldest and a teacher, is now living in Ann Arbor and married to Walter Schaible, of Manchester, Michigan; Howard, who is a veteran of the World war, and now living on one of his father's farms, having married Grace Thompson, of Groton, South Dakota; and Isabel, a graduate of the Litchfield high school, also of Brown Business College of Adrian, and now has employment at the University Hospital at Ann Arbor. Anna Skeese died December 10, 1903, when Isabel was but two years old. Elmer, in 1906, married Blanche Vanwinkle, of Manchester, who at this time with one son, Aubrey Skeese, are living in Adrian. Elmer now owns and superintends 600 acres of land that he has accumulated by careful management and hard work. Elmer D. Smith, florist, of Adrian, is one of the ten Michigan horticulturists whose memory will be perpetuated on bronze tablets placed on the walls of the new horticultural building at the Michigan State Agricultural College, at Lansing. Mr. Smith's name was selected for this signal honor as a result of his great success as a grower of chrysanthemums. IHe was born November 20, 1854, at l)etroit, the son of Nathan and Helen (Green) Smith, ti;tlives of thle state of New Yo(rk. I lis fathier was lorn Sepl)tember 22, 1817, at MAlaulius, New York, and his mlother was born October 20, 1823, in Rush, Monroe county, near the city of Rochester, in that state. Nathan Smith was a son of Crawford Smith, who came from New York to Birmingham, near Detroit, in 1819, and settled on a tract of government land. From his father Nathan Smith learned the carpenter's trade, which he followed until 1877. In 1857 he came from Detroit to Adrian, and in 1877 purchased a tract of land which is now the site of the present Smith nurseries and greenhouses. His wife, Mrs. Helen (Green) Smith, was the daughter of Archibald and Abigail Green, who came from New York to a farm in Genesee county in 1828. Mrs. Abigail Green was the first white woman to die in Ginesee county, and after her

Page  271 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 271 death her husband, a blacksmith, moved to a farm near Clarkson, and still later to Pontiac, where he entered the insurance business. His death occurred in Adrian. Nathan and Helen Smith, who were married in 1842, were the parents of two children: Alfred N., who was born in 1843, and Elmer D., the subject of this sketch. Alfred N. Smith enlisted in the Union Army in the first year of the Civil war and died within one year of his entry into service. Elmer D. Smith attended the Adrian schools and began his business career as a clerk in a grocery store. From 1870 to 1875 he was employed by his father as a carpenter and builder, and in 1876 he and his father built the first of the Smith greenhouses on the land his father had purchased. This house measured ten by-fortyfive feet and, though small, proved a source of considerable revenue to the embryo horticulturists. Only flowers were grown at first, but later other plants were added and the Smiths expanded the business into a wholesale as well as retail affair. In 1886 Elmer D. went to Chicago and studied horticulture from a scientific angle. He made a special study of the development of various species of plants and has gained wide renown as a grower of chrysanthemums, being known as the "Chrysanthemum King" of the world. The elder Smith was active in the business until 1897, when he retired. His death occurred March 28, 1907, and his widow's in July, 1909. Elmer D. Smith married, on November 30, 1886, Carrie Lee Bailey, who was born June 21, 1865, at Jackson, Michigan, the daughter of Hiram and Ellen Bailey. Mr. Smith is a member of Adrian Post, Sons of the American Revolution. His greenhouses, at this time, cover an area of fifty thousand square feet, all of which is under glass. James W. Snedeker, inventor, who resides at 847 South Main street, Adrian, has been an employe of the Page Woven Wire Fence Company thirty-seven consecutive years and is now superintendent of the experimental department of that concern, which is now a part of the American Chain Corporation. Mr. Snedeker.was born in Adrian, April 26, 1865, the son of John H. and Sarah (Inglehart) Snedeker, both of whom were natives of New York. Mr. Snedeker's great-grandfather Inglehart was a veteran of the War of the Revolution. His grandfather Inglehart brought his family to a farin in Seneca town\ship, Iena\vee county, in 1843, and remained a resident of that county until his death, which occurred when he was ninety-six years old. Mr. Snedeker's paternal grandparents came from Holland with their family of four sons and two daughters and settled in New York City. Their son John H. (father of James W.) who was then three years old, remained in New York until he was eighteen. At that age he came to Adrian to work in the shops of the Angel Car Co., of which he was core department foreman sixteen years, John H. Snedeker later lived on a small farm on which he remained for several years, and then moved to Adrian, his death occurring in Adrian in 1912. He was the father of nine children: Evelyn, who has been dead many years; James

Page  272 272 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY W., W. L., a veteran of the Spanish-American war and who resides in Adrian; Martha, deceased; John H., of Adrian; David, also of Adrian; Grace, wife of Wesley Goff, of Detroit; Mabel, wife of Charles Wilkenson, of Detroit, and Isaac Snedeker, of Adrian. James W. Snedeker, at the age of twelve years, began working in the brass foundry of Shaw & Kennel. He left this shop later to work in Detroit, returning to Adrian when he was sixteen years old to enter the employ of Walter Clement, a prominent business man. When he reached the age of twenty-three years, Mr. Snedeker sought a new position, and on February 11, 1889, he began his career as an employe of J. Wallace Page, of the Page Woven Wire Fence Company. At the time he was formally introduced to Mr. Page, the latter was engaged in making a pattern, and when asked by Mr. Page if he could make such a pattern, Mr. Snedeker replied "I can try." Mr. Snedeker's ability as a mechanic soon won for him a high place in the estimation of Mr. Page, whose factory then occupied but one small room, situated in the old Angel Car shop building on Michigan street. Mr. Snedeker, who was present when the Page Woven Wire Fence Company was organized by a group of Chicago capitalists, eventually became known as the "Yankee Whittler" because of his ability to make patterns with the use of only one tool, a pocket-knife. Later he demonstrated his mechanical genius by repairing a machine which had broken down, and from that time he was assigned to work in the mechanical branch of the company's plant. In 1892 he was sent to Canada to build machines and start production of fence in the Page company's factory at Walkerville. He remained in Canada until 1895, managing the factory and developing mechanical ideas he had evolved through his years of experience in the shops. On February 12, 1895, he was granted his first'United States patent, which covered an improvement of great value in the manufacture of wire fence. In March, of that year, he returned to Adrian to assume his former position in the Page plant, and was later assigned a private room in which to pursue his experimental work. Since 1904 he has been superintendent of the experimental department of the company, and has obtained many very valuable patents on improved products manufactured by this concern. In 1894 Mr. Snedeker married Isabella R. Austin, daughter of Stewart Austin, master mechanic of the Lake Erie railroad, and Mrs. Austin. Mr. and Mrs. Snedeker's eldest child is Dawn, now Mrs. G. B. Franklin, of Adrian, Michigan. Their second child, a son, Grant A., is a mechanical draftsman in the main offices of the American Chain Company at Bridgeport, Connecticut. Their third child, James Warren, Jr., who formerly was a department head in an Adrian store, is now farming in Lenawee county. Their adopted daughter, Ruby Christine, is now thirteen years old. The Snedekers have three grandchildren, James Warren, Mildred Elone Franklin and Cleo Austin Snedeker. Mr. Snedeker is a member of the Church of Christ and the Woodmen of the World. In politics he is known as a Republican.

Page  273 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 273 Franklin D. Wayne Sowers, automobile dealer, of Adrian, was born April 5, 1897, in Eaton county, Michigan. His father, Rosslyn L. Sowers, was born in Fulton county, Ohio, in 1872. Rosslyn L. Sowers received his education in the public schools of Fulton county, in a college at Avalon, Missouri, and at the University of Michigan, graduating from the law department of that institution in 1905 and passing the state bar examinations in the same year. Ella Krusen, whom he married in 1893, was born in Eaton county in 1872, and received her education in the schools near her home. Rosslyn L. Sowers began the practice of law at Charlotte, Eaton county, soon after he was admitted to the bar. As a member of the Democratic party he has been mayor of the city of Charlotte two terms, and has held the offices of city attorney and county drain commissioner. He is now chairman of the Eaton County Democratic Committee. He is a member of the Congregational church and the Odd Fellows and a leader in civic movements in his community. Mr. and Mrs. Rosslyn L. Sowers have three children: Franklin D. Wayne, the subject of this sketch; Muriel, who was born July 24, 1894, and is now the wife of Harry H. Day, of Lansing; and Emma, who was born June 18, 1907. Muriel graduated from Charlotte high school and the Eaton County Normal School and was a teacher three years before she was married. Emma is a graduate of the Charlotte high school, as is also her brother, the subject of this sketch. Franklin D. Wayne Sowers attended the Michigan Business and Normal School at Battle Creek one year. He returned to Charlotte to become a stenographer in his father's office, combining the study of law with his business duties. In 1918 he spent six months in the statistical department of the Michigan Commercial Insurance Company of Lansing, Michigan. Having been successful in passing the civil service examinations for the position of stenographer, he was sent to Washington, D. C., where he remained for a few months, when he joined the United States Navy. When he was honorably discharged from the service in December, 1918, he returned to Charlotte and again entered his father's office to study law. In 1920 he was appointed court stenographlier of the Fifth Judicial circuit, and held this position until April, 1923, when he resigned to come to Adrian as a co-partner in the garage and automobile sales business conducted by his father-in-law, William D. McIntyre. Mr. Sowers married Frances McIntyre, daughter of W. D. and Delia S. McIntyre, on January 29, 1922. Since her husband's death Mrs. McIntyre has retained an interest in the business, which is known as McIntyre & Sowers, and consists of the sale of Dodge cars and Graham Bros. trucks and a general garage business. Mr. and Mrs. Sowers have one son, Robert McIntyre Sowers, who was born February 18, 1925. The McIntyre & Sowers company now occupies a new building at Main and Maple streets. Mr. Sowers resides at 418 South Winter street. He is a member of the Elks, the Odd Fel

Page  274 274 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY lows, the American Legion, the Y. M. C. A., and the Exchange club. Leo John Stafford, M.D., physician and surgeon, National Bank of Commerce building, Adrian, was born in Springville, Lenawee county, November 16, 1888. His father, John W. Stafford, was born in Springville on February 5, 1846, and his mother, Mrs. Edith (McCourtie) Stafford, was born in Woodstock township, March 26, 1848. His grandparents, Nicholas and Ellen Stafford, were born in Wexford, Ireland, and came to the United States about 1820. Nicholas Stafford came with his family to a farm near Springville shortly after the Civil war. John W. Stafford took charge of the farm and, on November 23, 1869, married Edith McCourtie. To this union were born three sons, two of whom are now dead, and one daughter, Anna, who resides with her mother at Onsted, Michigan. John W. Stafford was prominent in Democratic politics, and for years held public office in his township, serving as supervisor, treasurer, road commissioner and member of the school board. He was a member of St. Mary's Catholic church, the Maccabees and the Grange. He retired from active farming ten years before his death, which occurred September 30, 1922. His son, Dr. Leo J. Stafford, attended the public schools at Springville and Adrian, graduating from high school at Adrian in 1907. He then entered the Detroit College of Medicine and Surgery, obtaining his M.D. degree from that institution in 1911. Desiring to fit himself as well as possible for the practice of his profession, he spent two years as an interne and house physician at the Harper Hospital, Detroit. In 1913 he returned to Adrian, and began general practice, opening an office in the National Bank of Commerce building. Though he had a well-established clientele in 1917, when the United States entered the World war, he closed his offices and enlisted in the Medical Corps on June 20, of that year. He was commissioned first lieutenant at Detroit, and was stationed for a time at Base Hospital No. 36. On October 12 he sailed for France, and was placed in charge of the base hospital at Vittel, in that country. Later he had charge of surgical work in Field Hospital No. 6, of the Forty-second Division, popularly known as the Rainbow Division, and was stationed at Chalaine, France, during the winter of 1917-18. During April and May, of 1918, he was commanding officer of Ambulance Company No. 125, of the Thirty-second Division. At the start of the St. Mihiel and Argonne drives he was returned to the base hospital near Verdun, and was a member of the surgical staff which handled the wounded and maimed brought to that hospital. On April 19, 1919, he arrived at Charleston, West Virginia, with a detachment from overseas, and was honorably discharged on April 21, with the rank of captain. Dr. Stafford was married, November 17, 1914, to Violet Brandau, daughter of Charles and Martha Brandau, of Detroit. They have two children: Yvonne, born February 6, 1917, and Jeanne, born April 28, 1920. Dr. Stafford is a member of the Lena

Page  275 PERSONAL SKETCHES YOR LENAWEE COUNTY 275 wee County, Michigan State and American Medical Associations, the Knights of Columbus, the Elks, the American Legion, and the Lenawee Country club. Stanley C. Stone, publisher of the Post-Gazette, of Hudson, was born Flebruary 5, 1880, in lledina township, lenawee county. His father, Alva D. Stone, was born March 2, 1853, at Worcester, Massachusetts, and his mother, Mrs. Lucy Jane (Clark) Stone, was also born in Massachusetts. Both of Mr. Stone's grandfathers fought for the Union in the Civil war, one of his ancestors having been wounded in battle. Alva D. Stone brought his wife to a farm in Medina township in 1876. On this farm their son, Stanley C., was born, and there Mrs. Stone died in 1923. Stanley remained on the farm until he was twenty years old, attending the district schools of Medina township and Hudson high school, and taking a two-year course at Adrian College. When he was twenty-three years old he accepted a position in the Thompson Bank at Hudson. He remained in this employment until he was thirty years old, when he purchased the Hudson Gazette and entered a newspaper career. From the date of this purchase, in 1909, until in 1919, he conducted the Gazette independently. In the latter year the Gazette was consolidated with the Post, of Hudson, and the combined papers as a result have a very large circulation in Hudson and Lenawee county. Mr. Stone owns a half interest in the consolidated papers and is now secretary-treasurer and manager of the publishing company. Mr. Stone married, on June 30, 1909, Myrtle F. Bowman, daughter of Augustus and Ellen (Oberst) Bowman, of Gibsonburg, Michigan. Mr. Stone has two brothers: Stecey, a farmer, and Harry D., who is also a farmer and a veteran of the World war. Stanley C. Stone is a member of the Masons, the Odd Fellows, the Knights of Pythias and the Michigan State.Publishers' Association. He is known as a member of the Republican party. Charles Barr Stowell, who resides at 313 South Church street, Hudson, is a former mayor of that city. Though he is now in his eighty-third year and has retired from business, he still holds the office of president of the board of trustees of the Hudson Public Library, a post he has held more than twenty years. Mr. Stowell was born in Iondlonderry, Vermont, August 25, 1843. His father, Josiah Stowell, was born April 30, 1797, in Massachusetts; and his mother, Mrs. Charlotte (Barr) Stowell, was born November 20, 1842, in New Hampshire. Mr. Stowell's grandfather Frye was a lieutenant in the War of the Revolution and fought in the battles of Lexington and Bunker Hill. His father, Josiah Stowell, was a brigadier-general in the New Hampshire militia and at one time owned some of the land now covered by the city of Manchester, New Hampshire. He was, for several years, sheriff of Manchester county. After spending several years in merchandising in New England, he then settled in Hudson, Michigan, where he established a furniture and dry goods store, bringing his family with

Page  276 276 PERSONAL SKETCIES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY him to that city. Not long afterward he was thrown from a cutter, or sleigh, and suffered the loss of his eyesight as a result of his injuries. This accident threw the family responsibilities on his son, Charles, who was twelve years old when he was brought to Hudson. Josiah and Charlotte (Barr) Stowell were the parents of two other children: Laura, who married Cyrus Chase and resided near Manchester, New Hampshire, where she died at the age of ninety-five, and a son, James Henry, who died in New York, June 12, 1895. Josiah Stowell died December 11, 1873. Charles Barr Stowell attended the Hudson public schools and Hillsdale College, remaining on his father's farm forty years. He married, October 27, 1868, Ellen Caroline Olds, daughter of Harley J. and Dianta Ruby (Bowman) Olds, of Jonesville, Michigan. At this time Mr. Stowell was a member of the firm of Brown, Stowell & Co., merchants. He was a deacon in the Congregational church forty years and in 1909 was a delegate to the International Council of Churches of the World to Edinburgh, Scotland, and visited Spain, Portugal, England and France on his trip abroad. He was alderman, mayor, member of the school board, holding the office of chairman of that body twenty-nine years. He laid the cornerstone of the Hudson Library, of which he is president, and also helped create sentiment for the erection of the new high school. He is a member of the Sons of the American Revolution, and Mrs. Stowell is a member of the Daughters of the Revolution. Mr. Stowell's cousin, Cyrus Wallace, was the first clergyman in Manchester, New Hampshire. Harrison F. Temple, vice-president of the People's State Savings Balk of Britton, is well known in Michigan banking circles, and is one of a family of bankers. Mr. Temple was born in Ridgeway township, Lenawee county, April 24, 1888, son of Frank J. and Nellie (Reynolds) Temple. In 1893 the family moved to Tecumseh, where Mr. Temple finished his public school work, continuing through the eleventh grade. In 1905 he went to Detroit and entered the Detroit Business College Institute, where he was engaged in the study of commercial and banking subjects for six months. This training completed, he secured a position with the (Old D)etroit National Bank, of Detroit, as clerk in the transit departlnent, and after two and a half years in this position, became bookkeeper and receiving teller, then railroad teller, and later general utility man. This work provided a valuable education in banking matters and broad experience, serving as a valuable background for his future endeavors. The opportunity presenting itself, he came to Britton and was one of the organizers of the banking firm of Frank J. Temple & Sons, assuming the managership of the institution. On November 25, 1919, the bank became a state bank, known as the People's State Savings Bank of Britton, organized with Frank J. Temple, the father, as president, and the sons, Herbert S. and Harrison F., as active vice-presidents. Mr. Temple is also connected with the Lilley State Bank, of which his

Page  277 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE OOUNTY 277 father is vice-president, and has served as a member of the board of directors of that institution for the past ten years. Interested in civic affairs, Mr. Temple served during 1922 as president of the village, and also as secretary and treasurer of the Business Men's club. He is active in various fraternal and social organizations, holding membership in the Masonic order of Tecumseh, and the Odd Fellows of Britton, and is a member of the Lenawee Country club, the Tecumseh club, and the Adrian club. Mr. Temple was married, September 7, 1910, to Rachel E. Edgeter, of Fremont, Ohio, born in April, 1889, daughter of Harry M. and Clara Edgeter. There are three children, Virginia, born August 13, 1911, Harry, born February 13, 1913, and Claire Louise, born June 4, 1915. Mr. Temple is in his political affiliations a member of the Republican party. Respected for his keen business ability and for his interest in the public welfare, Mr. Temple holds an enviable place in the life of the community. Gamaliel I. Thompson, banker and philanthropist, was a resi- | dent of Hudson approximately sixty-five years, having come to that city when he was eighteen years old. Mr. Thompson and his son, W. R. Thompson, in 1923 donated to the city the park which bears their name. Gamaliel Thompson was born in Fort Ann, New York, April 11, 1843. He was the son of Israel and Martha Ann l (Baker) Thompson, both of whom were of English ancestry. Is- i rael Thompson was a direct descendant of Anthony Thompson, who came from England in 1638 with Governor Eaton and Reo Davenport and settled in New Haven, Connecticut. Martha Ann (Baker) Thompson was a descendant of Edward Baker, who came X from England in 1630 and settled in Sangus Hill, near Lynn, Massachusetts. Gamaliel Thompson attended the public and private schools in Fort Ann and received his academic education at the Granville, New York, Academy and at the Fort Edward Collegiate Institute. At the age of eighteen, after having been a school teacher one year, he came to Hudson, Lenawee county. He was employed as a clerk and bookkeeper three years, and was a partner in a merchandise and grain business. He was a clerk in the quartermaster's department of the Union army two years during the Civil war, and was with General Sherman on the famous march to the sea. When he returned to Hudson in 1867, he and his brother, W. B. Thompson, founded what js now the Thompson Savings Bank of Hudson. This bank was at first a partnership and was conducted as a private bank twenty-five years, with W. B. Thomp-. son as president and Gamaliel Thompson as vice-president. In 1892 the bank was incorporated under the general banking laws of the state of Michigan, with Mr. Thompson as vice-president and his brother as president. In 1915 Mr. Thompson became president, ' succeeding W. B. Thompson, and was head of that institution at the time of his demise, which occurred April 15, 1926. W. R. Thompson, son of Mr. and Mrs. Gamaliel Thompson, is president of the bank; C. C. Whitney, vice-president; L. P. Beal, vice-presi

Page  278 278 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY dent; E. J. Scovill, cashier, and E. C. Rickenbaugh, assistant cashier. Gamaliel Thompson was for many years president of the city water board and a member of the board of education. He was a member of the board of trustees of the public library since that institution was founded and has also served many years as a member of the Hudson city council. He was a member of the Masons, Blue Lodge, Chapter and Council, and the Odd Fellows. In 1879 he married Sophia Williams, who was born November 3, 1850, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. George Williams, of Hudson. Mr. and Mrs. Thompson have two children: William Royal,,who was born April 18, 1886, and was educated at the University of Michigan and Oberlin College. He married Louise Allen in 1911 and in 1916 was made vice-president of the Thompson Bank. Martha Irene, the first child of the Thompson family, was born May 8, 1882. She graduated from Vassar College and on September 28, 1907, married Charles Glenn Beadenkopf, of Wilmington, Delaware. Burton E. Tobias, president of the Adrian State Savings Bank, is a member of the board of directors and treasurer of the Lenawee County Telephone Company and a director of the Guarantee Title & Trust Company of Detroit. He has been employed in the banking business since he was twenty-three years old, having begun his business career in the bank of Whitney & Wilcox in 1889. Mr. Tobias was born January 8, 1866, on a farm in Dover township, Lenawee county, the son of Charles M. and Angeline (McLouth) Tobias. Charles M. Tobias was born July 5, 1827, in Tompkins county, New York, and came to Michigan with his parents in 1851. Though he had been reared as a farmer, he began working on railroads soon after he came to Michigan, and followed that occupation until 1867, when he purchased a farm in Dover township. In 1869 he brought his family to this farm and was a very successful stock breeder for many years. He died on July 14, 1897. Moses and Jane Tobias, parents of Charles M. Tobias, were natives of New York, Moses having been born in Ulster county and his wife in Duchess county. Moses Tobias died on September 30, 1876, at White Pigeon, Michigan, and his wife died there on May 7, of the same year. Mrs. Angeline Tobias, mother of Burton E. Tobias, wvas the daughter of William and Betsy McLouth, of Dover township. Charles M. and Angeline Tobias were the parents of four children, Burton E., the subject of this sketch, having been the third child. William McLouth was born in Cheshire, Massachusetts, September 10, 1792. He died September 4, 1860, in Dover township. Mrs. Betsy McLouth was born in Clarksburg, Massachusetts, March 26, 1798. She died July 25, 1873. Their daughter, Angeline, was born in Dover township, July 4, 1835. Burton E. Tobias attended the district schools of Dover township and Adrian high school, graduating at the head of his class and winning a scholarship in June, 1887. For two years after his graduation he taught school in Lenawee county, and then entered Adrian College. Later he studied at the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Institute of

Page  279 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 279 New York, of which he is a graduate. From July, 1889, until in June, 1893, he was a bookkeeper in the Whitney & Wilcox Bank. He became assistant cashier of the Adrian State Savings Bank, which succeeded the Whitney & Wilcox Bank, in that year. In January, 1894, he was promoted to cashier. Meritorious service won for him the office of president of that bank, a position he has filled in an able manner. He has been prominent in the affairs of the Michigan Bankers' Association and has been financially interested in many industrial projects in this community. He is a stockholder and director of the Michigan Wire Fence Company and a stockholder in the Adrian Fence Company. He served twenty years as l)resident of the Adrian Y. M. C. A., and is at this time a director of that organization and a member of the Adrian City club, the Lenawee Country club, the Elks, the Chamber of Commerce and the Exchange club, of which he is president; a member of the board of trustees and treasurer of the A. E. Curtis Scholarship Association; a member of the board of trustees of Adrian College. On September 20, 1897, he married Kate Humphrey, daughter of General William and Mary Elizabeth Humphrey, of Adrian. Mr. and Mrs. Tobias have two children: Harriett Elizabeth, who is now twenty-two, and Florence, aged nineteen. Both are graduates of the Adrian high school. Ray G. Turner, druggist and merchant, of Onsted, was born September 24, 1887, on a farm in Woodstock township, Lenawee county, the son of Eugene C. and Elizabeth M. (Bennett) Turner. His mother was born August 2, 1859, on a farm in Cambridge township and his father was born on the family homestead in Woodstock township, June 16, 1857. Mr. Turner's paternal grandfather traded a pair of horses for the forty-acre farm he first lived on, and which is now a part of the one hundred and eighty-two acre homestead. Eugene C. Turner was one of a family of three children, his brother, DeWitt C., and his sister, Josephine, who married George Hickox, having died several years ago. Eugene C. Turner, who lived on the home farm until he was fifty-two years old, was a farmer and veterinary surgeon. He reared a family of two sons, Ray G., and Edward, who is a farmer of Rome township; two other sons, Roy and Cecil, having died when very young. Eugene C. Turner in 1909 moved to Onsted, where he died in April, 1924. His son, Ray G., graduated from the elementary grade schools at the age of fourteen and entered the Brown Business University, where he graduated in 1905. During the winter of 1905-06 he clerked in an Adrian store, working during the summer months on his father's farm. On September 1, 1'07, he began clerking in the J. S. Kane drug store at Onsted. On March 23, 1905, he left the drug store to accept a position in the N. B. Hayes shoe store in Adrian. In July of the following year he came to Onsted to work in the Kane drug and general merchandise store. On February 1, 1910, he became a junior partner in the firm of Kane & Turner. In 1912 he took a course in the Warner Practical Insti

Page  280 280 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY tute of Pharmacy at Marlette, Michigan, and in November of the same year returned to his business at Onsted. On February 1, 1919, he purchased the interest in the store owned by his partner, Mr. Kane. Since that time Mr. Turner has conducted the business, which consists of drugs, sundries and general merchandise, alone. On June 5, 1913, he married Bertha A. Boyd, daughter of Charles and Clara (Millikin) Boyd, of Franklin township. Mr. and Mrs. Turner have one son, Elwyn, who is now seven years old. Mr. Turner was appointed postmaster of Onsted, Iebruary 18, 1922. He was re-appointed postmaster for a second term January 21, 1926. He is a member of the Masons and the Baptist church and takes an active interest in community affairs. His mother, Mrs. Elizabeth Turner, died on January 31, 1917. Louis R. Ulrich, dentist, of Addison, was born November 4, 1897, at Three Rivers, Michigan. His father, Frank Ulrich, was born in St. Joseph county, Michigan, and his mother, Mrs. Minnie Kathryn (Routzohn) Ulrich, was born in Illinois. Dr. Ulrich's great-grandfather, the first white settler in Three Rivers, settled on a tract of government land at Fischer's Lake, when the doctor's grandfather was born. Frank Ulrich, who died April 18, 1925, was one of a family of five children: John, who died from typhoid fever in his nineteenth year; Alva, a druggist at Porkville, Michigan; a daughter, who married Willis H. Fox and who (lied April 18, 1924; and Alice, who married Joseph Corvell, of Porkville. Frank Ulrich, father of the subject of this sketch, was reared on the family homestead. When he was thirty years old he became an employe of the Haywood Company. Returning to Three Rivers when he was forty years old, he taught music until 1921, the year in which he retired from business pursuits. He was the father of Paul, a mechanical engineer, and Dr. Louis R. Ulrich, of Addison. Dr. Ulrich in 1920 married Mary Perkins, daughter of George D. and Lillian Perkins, and they have a son, Robert D. Dr. Ulrich is a member of the Congregational church and the Masons. Fred G. Van de Mark, hardware merchant, of Clinton, was born there June 26, 1879. His parents wvere August B. and Elizabeth (Starrett) Van (de Mark, and his father was born March 28, 1841, in Phelps, New York, the son of Lodwich B. and Jane (Westfall) Van de Mark. L. B. Van de Mark and wife came to Michigan in 1856 and settled on a farm in Clinton township. Later they purchased the old Benton homestead, and when his health failed Mr. Van de Mark sold the farm and came to Clinton. There he bought the J. S. Kies hardware store, which he conducted from 1867 until 1870, the year he died. His son, August B. Van de Mark, was educated in the public schools of Clinton. During four years of the Civil war he taught school at Eaton Rapids, Michigan. His uncle, Edward Van de Mark, served with the regiment of cavalry known as the Merril Horse. After his father's death, in 1870, August Van de Mark assumed the management of the hardware

Page  281 t,qi PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 281 store. He was married in 1869 to Elizabeth Starrett. To this union were born three children, two of whom are now dead, having succumbed to diphtheria while quite young. August Van de Mark was a Democrat, and held various township and village offices. He was a member of the Episcopal church, and was a Mason. He retired from business in 1922 and turned the hardware store over to his son, Fred G., who was educated in the Clinton public schools. He graduated from high school in 1896, and in that year began clerking in his father's store. He remained in the store until 1912, and in that year went west, where he was employed in various lines of endeavor and spent much time in the hardware business. In June, 1921, he returned to Clinton and re-entered his father's store, and when the latter retired from business in August, 1922, Fred G. Van de Mark thus became the third generation of his family to have charge of that enterprise. Only recently he remodeled and enlarged the store to accommodate his increasing patronage. On June 30, 1903, he was united in marriage with Helen Benson, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. A. H. Benson, of Maiden Rock, Wisconsin. To this union were born two children: Anna May, September 11, 1904; and Augustus Benson, August 18, 1905. Mr. Van de Mark is a dominant factor in the affairs of his community. He is a member of the Episcopal church, a member of the school board, a trustee of the Cemetery Association, and a leader in various social and civic movements. John A. Walker, of the Maple City Granite Company, 246-248 West Maumee street, Adrian, was born in Deerfield, Lenawee county, on July 31, 1870. His father, Peter Walker, was born in Baden, Germany, in 1841, and his mother, Mrs. Lucinda (Clement) Walker, was born in Rome township, Lenawee county, on September 7, 1849. Peter Walker left his home in Germany and came to the United States when he was nineteen years old. During the Civil war he was a member of Company F of the Fourth Michigan Cavalry. After the war he returned to Lenawee county and was married, settling in Adrian and rearing his family in that city. Mr. and Mrs. Peter Walker were the parents of six children, the eldest having been drowned on April 5, 1885, in Adrian. The other memlers of the Walker family are: (George., of Clicaigo; Mrs, N. \V. Salton, of Woodlatnd, California; William Frederick, who resides at the family home with his mother, at 963 Lincoln avenue, Adrian; Lawrence L. and John A. Walker, of Adrian. Peter Walker, a staunch Republican and an active member of the Grand Army of the Republic, died on September 7, 1913. George H. Walker, a son, was a bugler in the Thirty-first Michigan Infantry during the Spanish-American war, and was in all battles of consequence on the island of Cuba. John A. Walker served an apprenticeship in the granite works of W. H. Harrison & Sons when he was a boy, and after he had mastered the details of the trade he worked as a journeyman granite worker in Adrian and other Michigan cities. In 189( he started in business for himself at 963 Lin

Page  282 282 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY coin avenue, and two years later formed a partnership with 0. J. Johnson and John Anderson. In 1901 the three partners incorporated the Maple City Granite Company, of which Mr. Walker was made president. Two years later Mr. Anderson died and Andrew Anderson became a stockholder and director in the company. In 1918, when Mr. Johnson died, the company was controlled by Mr. Walker, Ernest A. Kuester and Andrew Anderson. In 1925, when Mr. Anderson passed away, Mr. Walker and Mr. Kuester purchased his holdings in the enterprise from the widow and are now sole owners of the concern. On June 25, 1903, Mr. Walker married Allie May Pixley, daughter of Dr. and Mrs. G. A. Pixley, of Adrian. She was born in Petersburg, Monroe county, and was educated in the Adrian schools. Mr. and Mrs. Walker have a very attractive home at 219 East Maumee street. Mr. Walker is a member of the Modern Woodmen and the Knights of Pythias. Richard Herbert Watts, vice-president of the Adrian. State Savings Bank, was born December 27, 1872, the son of LieutenantColonel Richard A. and Suzanne (McKeever) Watts. Richard A. Watts was born in Mercer county, Ohio, in 1838. On May 1, 1861, he enlisted as a private in Company K, First Michigan Volunteer Infantry, which was organized to serve a period of three months at the beginning of the Civil war. This regiment was mustered out of the service on August 7, 1861, and he re-entered the service as a second lieutenant in the Seventeenth Michigan Volunteer Infantry on June 17, 1862. On February 1, 1863, he was commissioned first lieutenant, and on November 1, 1863, was made adjutant. On June 17, 1864, Richard A. Watts was wounded while in the battle in front of Petersburg, Virginia, and after the battle of Spottsylvania, Virginia, he was brevetted captain of United States Volunteers for gallantry in action, on July 30, 1864, while in the fighting at Petersburg. He was again wounded, and on October 4, 1864, was commissioned captain. On March 25, 1865, he was brevetted major of the United States Volunteers for distinguished service in the battle at Fort Steadman, Virginia. On April 2, 1865, he received his third wound while fighting at Petersburg, Virginia, and was brevetted lieutenant-colonel on the same day. He was honorably discharged from service on July 15, 1865. He married Suzanne McKeever, who was born in West Middletown, Pennsylvania, in 1836. Their son, Richard Herbert Watts, was educated at Adrian College and the University of Michigan. He entered the Adrian State Savings Bank in 1894, the year he finished his studies at the university, and on October 31, 1895, he married Bess Prosser, daughter of Thomas and Jane (Cooper) Prosser, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Mr. and Mrs. Watts have three children: Richard Prosser, Prosser McKeever, and Herbert Prosser. Wallace Westerman, lawyer, 531 State street, Adrian, has been a member of the Lenawee county bar for more than forty-five years. His offices, for the past thirty-six years, have been in room No. 4

Page  283 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 283 of the Underwood building. Mr. Westerman was born January 26, 1855, at Riga, Lenawee county, the son of George W. and Catherine (Scott) Westerman. His father enlisted as a private in Company B, Fourteenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, in the Civil war and was promoted to the rank of quartermaster. He served this county as county clerk for three terms, drain commissioner for a number of years and was justice of the peace in the city of Adrian twelve years. He was also supervisor of Riga township. George W. Westerman and wife were born in Butler county, Pennsylvania, his birth having occurred in 1832 and that of Mrs. Westerman in 1831. He was wounded in the service and after receiving an hQnorable discharge, he returned to Lenawee county and in the fall of 1866 was elected county clerk. Her brother, Walter Scott, uncle of Wallace Westerman, also a soldier in the Civil war, died on Lookout Mountain at the close of the war. George W. Westerman was a Mason, a Knight Templar and an Odd Fellow, and at all times was a staunch supporter of the Republican party. Wallace Westerman studied law and was admitted to the bar on June 22, 1879. On April 16, 1884, he was admitted to practice in the United States courts. He held the office of city attorney three years, handling more litigation and clearing the city of more legal entanglements during his term of office than any other incumbent before or since that time. He also was a member of the board of education several years, and made an enviable record in that office. After he graduated from high school and before he began the study of law, he spent five years in the postal service between Chicago and Buffalo, on what was known as the White Line, the first fast mail service inaugurated by the government, having been appointed to that position at the age of eighteen years by the Hon. Thomas W. Ferry, United States senator from Michigan, who was then acting vice-president of the United States. In 1878 he married Miss Helen A. Blackstone, daughter of Daniel L. and Emma (Willard) Blackstone, of Adrian. Mr. Westerman has two brothers living, W. S. of Adrian, who is also a lawyer, and Stedman, a merchant of Battle Creek. A sister, Mrs. Ida W. Foote, resides in Jackson, and a brother, George, Jr., and a sister, Mrs. Ella J. McLouth, are (lead. Mr. and Mrs. Wallace Westerman have four children: George D., Mable I., Leslie B. and Leland S. George D. Westerman, a graduate of Adrian Colege, is now on the state staff of the Y. M. C. A. and is industrial and railroad secretary, with offices in Detroit. He married Miss Stella Hawks, of Lenawee county. They have a daughter, Marjorie, who graduated in the literary department of the University of Michigan in 1924, and a son, Sheldon, who will graduate in June of 1926, from the literary department of the University of Michigan. He has two other sons, Victor and Robert, who are attending the high school at Ann Arbor, Michigan. Mable I. Westerman, who taught school for a number of years in Adrian, is now the wife of Cullen M. Robinson, an employe of the Consolidated Paper Company of Monroe, Mich

Page  284 284 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY igan. She has a daughter, Helen, aged eighteen, who is a student in the University of Michigan. Another daughter, Bertha, is a student in high school, and her two sons, Philip and Richard, are students in the public schools. Leslie B. Westerman, a graduate of Adrian high school, studied engineering and construction at the Michigan State College and held an important position in the State Highway Department. He died at the age of thirty-three years, in Denver, Colorado, leaving a widow, Mrs. Florence (Kaynor) Westerman, and a daughter, Barbara, now twelve years old. Leland S. Westerman, a graduate of Adrian high school and the Y. M. C. A. University at Chicago, married Miss Lela Arndt, a teacher in the public schools at Cadillac, Michigan. To this union three daughters were born: Eleanor, Alice and Ruth. Leland S. is now general secretary of the Muskegon Y. M. C. A. Wallace Westerman is still engaged in the practice of his profession at Adrian, Michigan. Charles S. Whitney, banker, of Adrian, began his business career in the Citizens' Savings Bank at Detroit in 1891. From the Citizens' Bank he returned to Adrian, holding successively the positions of bookkeeper, teller and assistant cashier in the Commercial Exchange Bank, later incorporated as the Adrian State Savings Bank. In 1895 he resigned his position with that bank and with his father organized the Channing Whitney & Co. private bank, where he remained until his father's death in November, 1902. He then associated himself once more with the Adrian State Savings Bank, at the present time (1926) holding the position of vice-president-cashier and member of the board of directors. Mr. Whitney was born in Adrian, as were his parents, Channing and Ellen M. (Cornell) Whitney, his father having been born December 28, 1842, and his mother on June 21, 1844. His paternal grandfather, Richard H. Whitney, a native of Massachusetts, settled in Adrian in 1831, and his maternal grandfather, Asa P. Cornell, was also a pioneer citizen of Michigan. Charles S. Whitney received his education in the public schools of Adrian and at the Orchard Lake Military Academy, Orchard Lake, Michigan. He was married, October 6, 1897, to May Z. Sickels, daughter of Charles D. and Lucy M. (Rice) Sickels, of Adrian. Mr. and Mrs. Whitney have one son, Charles Seward, Jr., an electrical engineer now in the employ of the New York Telephone Company at New York City. After graduating from Adrian high school he attended Adrian College for one year and then entered Cornell University and graduated from the electrical engineering department of that university in 1924. Charles S. Whitney, senior, is regarded as one of the most substantial and progressive business men of his community. He is a member of Adrian Lodge No. 19, F. & A. M., Adrian Chapter No. 10 R. A. M., Adrian Commandery No. 4 Knights Templar, Moslem Temple Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, Detroit, the Adrian club, the Lenawee Country club and the Detroit Athletic club. In politics he is a supporter of the principles of the Republican party.

Page  285 PERSONAL SKETClIHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 285 George A. Wilcox, whose death on October 7, 1919, took from the city of Adrian one of its most illustrious citizens, was b6rn in that city on October 12, 1848, the second son of William S. and Sarah F. (Clay) Wilcox. He received his education in the schools of Adrian and in the University of Chicago, and began his business career as a clerk in his father's hardware store at the age of seventeen years. In 1873 he was made a partner of his father and on July 15, 1874, he married Suzette R. Berry, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. James Berry, wealthy pioneer residents of Adrian. The Hon. William Seward Wilcox, father of George A. Wilcox, was born in Riga, Monroe county, New York, April 25, 1819. In 1836 he came to Milan, Ohio, and clerked in a dry goods store there a short while, coming to Adrian on September 18, of that year. He was associated with his brother, Wilbur, in the hardware business a few years and later established his own store, which he conducted until 1855. In 1848 he was elected village treasurer. Election to the state legislature occurred in 1864, and in 1865 he was made mayor of Adrian. In 1870 he was elected state senator and in 1871 was appointed state prison inspector. His first wife, Mrs. Sarah (Clay) Wilcox, died on February 12, 1852. Some years later he married Josephine Southworth, daughter of Dr. and Mrs. William Southworth, of Avon Springs, New York. James Berry, father of Mrs. Suzette R. Wilcox, was born in Manhattan, England, and came to the United States with his father, George Berry, a silk weaver. They resided at Paterson, New Jersey, and James learned the carpenter's trade in that city and in New York. In 1836 he came to Adrian, where for fifty years he was a contractor and lumber dealer. He died on March 12, 1886, in Adrian. Mr. and Mrs. George A. Wilcox were the parents of three children: S. Francis, who was born September 24, 1875; William Seward, who was born February 10, 1878, and who died June 13, 1900; and another child who died in infancy. George A. Wilcox.led in establishing various enterprises in Adrian and Lenawee county. He held, at various times over a period of years, many important positions. He was a vice-president and director of the Adrian State Savings Bank; president of the Oakwood Cemetery Association; treasurer of the Adrian Telephone Company; vice-president of the Citizens Light & Power Company; director of the Gibford Razor Strop Company and the Gibford Automatic Pen Company; and treasurer of the Lenawee County Mutual Protection Association. Mrs. Suzette R. Wilcox died on March 22, 1910, and on December 31, 1914, he married Anna M. Larson. She died on June 23, 1915, and Mr. Wilcox on December 14, 1916, married Anna Beale, of Port Huron, the daughter of Anthony and Elizabeth (Atkinson) Beale. Mrs. Anna (Beale) Wilcox is now vice-president of the Wilcox Hardware Company, which was incorporated in 1915. She resides at the Wilcox home, on South Main street. Frank E. Willbee, president of the Oakwood Cemetery Association and the Wilbee-Morse Concrete Company, was born in Adrian

Page  286 286 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LMNAWEE COUNTY on January 25, 1865. He is the son of Charles and Elizabeth (Dickens) Willbee, both natives of England, where they were married. They came to the United States in 1856, making the trip in a sailing vessel which took seven weeks in the passage. From New York they came by boat to Dunkirk, thence by rail to Adrian. The father worked at various things for about a year and then secured employment in the blacksmith shops of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern railway, where he remained until he was made sexton of Oakwood cemetery in 1867. In January, 1896, he retired and lived quietly until his death, which occurred on October 21, 1905. The mother died on May 17, 1868, and the father married Miss Martha Tredway, of Detroit, who died on April 30, 1919. There were no children born to the second marriage. Of the seven born to the first union one died in infancy and three others passed away within a week of each other during an epidemic of scarlet fever. George Willbee died October 21, 1910. The survivors are Charles and Frank E., twins. Charles for several years was a successful groceryman in the city of Adrian, but disposed of his interests early in 1908 to enter the business of vault and concrete products manufacturing with his brother and J. J. Morse. The business was started in the basement of what is now the Walper Furniture store, but is now located in its own plant on Logan street. Frank E. Willbee received his educational advantages in the Adrian schools and at Brown College. Since his father's retirement in 1896, he has been superintendent of Oakwood cemetery. In politics he is a Republican and is a member of the First Baptist church. His only fraternal relations are with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the Blue Lodge of the Masonic Order. On December 2, 1891, Mr. Willbee was united in marriage to Miss Jennie Graham, a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Graham, who for more than fifty years were residents of Raisin township. Joseph Graham died on February 7, 1923. Two children, Marguerite H. and Arthur F., have been born to bless the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Willbee. Mr. and Mrs. Willbee reside at 122 Dallas street, Adrian. Charles H. Williamson, one of the big men in the celery growing industry in Michigan, is also greatly interested in mercantile and financial affairs in Tecumseh. Mr. Williamson is a son of the late Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. Williamson, pioneer Lenawee county residents. Charles E. Williamson was born in Tecumseh, September 18, 1850, the son of Charles W. and Phoebe (Ketcham) Williamson. Charles W. Williamson was born in Poughkeepsie, New' York, February 22, 1823. His wife was also born in New York, November 24, 1814. The paternal grandparents of Charles E. Williamson were Isaac and Martha (Miller) Williamson. Isaac Williamson, a carpenter in Cooper county, settled in Tecumseh in 1840. He died there in 1854, and his widow passed away a few years later in Grand Rapids. They were the parents of four sons and one daughter. The maternal grandparents of Charles E. Williamson were Jacob and Anna (Holmes) Ketcham, natives of New

Page  287 li. I " PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 287 York, who came to Tecumseh township and settled on a farm in 1834. They were the parents of six children. Charles W. Williamson was seventeen years old when his father came with his family to Lenawee county, and he learned his father's trade of cooper. As he grew older he became quite prominent in industrial affairs. He was a Democrat, and a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. He died July 28, 1895. His wife died October 26, 1890. They were the parents of two sons: George A. and Charles E. Charles E. Williamson graduated from high school and became a very prosperous farmer, owning two hundred and forty acres in Clinton and Franklin townships. He remained on the farm until 1885 and in that year came to Tecumseh, where he engaged in the wholesale and retail grocery business. In 1905 he sold the grocery to his three sons, Charles H., Floyd E. and Leon P. They conducted the business under the firm name of Williamson Brothers. Later Charles E. Williamson entered the furniture and undertaking business. He also was part owner of the Tecumseh lighting system, which he managed two years. He also acted as local representative for the Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company of Milwaukee ten years. As a Republican he was elected village president. He was a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, the Masons, and the Odd Fellows. On May 14, 1874, he married Louise C. Moore, daughter of Harry and Ann Moore, of Dundee township, Monroe county, Michigan. To this union were born six children: Charles H., Ann L., Floyd E., Luella M., Leon P., and Rodney. Charles H. Williamson was born February 11, 1876, near Tecumseh, and was educated in the public schools of his native village. He graduated from high school in 1894 and completed a course in the Cleary Business College in 1895. Returning to Tecumseh, he obtained a place in the office of A. W. Slater, lumber merchant, where he remained one year. He then began working in his father's grocery store and was there from 1897 until 1899. Having given his attention to the produce department of his father's store, he assumed entire management of that branch of the business. In 1904 he disposed of the produce business, selling the same to his father. About that time he married Neomi Moore, daughter of Doctor L. D. and Ida Moore, of Tecumseh. She was born December 7, 1880. After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Williamson spent one year in the east and then came to Detroit, where he and Robert S. Moore, of Tecumseh, became partners in a produce business, which they operated six months. In the spring'of 1906 Mr. Williamson came back to Tecumseh and with his brothers, Leon P. and Floyd E., purchased their father's grocery business and store buildings. They continued in the grocery business together a number of years. Floyd E. later withdrew from the firm. In 1916 Charles H. Williamson assumed control of the Tecumseh Iake Ice Company, in which he had been a stockholder since 1910. In 1920 he and a brother erected the garage building in which the Ford sales and service rooms are now located. Mr.

Page  288 288 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY Williamson operates two celery farms, which have an output of seventy-five carloads of first quality celery a year. Mr. and Mrs. Williamson have five children, as follows: Marion, who was born January 26, 1905; Lucian, born October 28, 1906; Bernard, born March 17, 1908; Edwin, born October 18, 1910; and Margaret, born December 11, 1917. Mr. Williamson is a member of the Tecumseh Chamber of Commerce. Henry A. Wing, general superintendent of the Citizens Light & Power Company, Adrian, was born in that city May 21, 1871. His father, Abram Wing, was born in Adrian, July 28, 1836, and was at one time the superintendent of the Adrian water works system. He also was employed several years as superintendent of the Ottumwa (Iowa) Water Company. He died in Adrian on May 20, 1920. Abram Wing married Alice E. Sizer, who was born in Springfield, Massachusetts, June 4, 1840. Their son, Henry A., attended the Adrian public schools, leaving high school at the age of seventeen years to accept a position in the Wesley & Sons clothing store. After five months in the store he obtained employment with the J. H. Fee & Son Electric Light Company, and in 1893 went to Chicago. Returning to Michigan, he became superintendent of the electric light plant at Jonesville. In 1894 he purchased an interest in the Electric Light & Power Co., Ltd., of which he later became secretary. Since 1923, when that concern was purchased by the Doherty interests, Mr. Wing has been general superintendent of the plant. On June 15, 1898, he married Ella E. Miller, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John C. Miller, of Adrian. Mr. and Mrs. Wing have a son, Miller S. Wing, who was educated at the University of Michigan and is now employed in electrical work. Their daughter, Mary Alice Wing, is now a student at Martha Washington College at Washington, D. C. Cecil J. Wotring, insurance broker, suite 309 National Bank of Commerce building, Adrian, is a member of the Knights Templar No. 4 at Adrian, the Country club, is vice-president of the Young Men's club, and an Elk, serving one year as Esteemed Loyal Knight of the last-named order. He was born in Ogden Center, Lenawee county, May 5, 1897, the son of Arthur Clarence and Josephine (Fairlanks) Wotring. His grandfather, Captain Jahne F. Wotring, was born March 18, 1834, in Preston county, West Virginia, the son of Abraham S. Wotring, who also was born in that county, West Virginia, and set up a tannery in connection with his born in Maryland and was a resident of Frederick county, in that state, many years. This member of the Wotring family, who was a tanner, bought a large tract of heavily timbered land in Preston county, West Virginia, and set up a tannery in conection with his farming operations. He married Mary Smith, who was born near the Maryland-Virginia boundary line. She died in the family home in Preston county, West Virginia. Her son, Abraham S., the great-grandfather of the subject of this sketch, received his education in Preston county. Soon after his marriage to a young

Page  289 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 289 woman who also was a native of Preston county, he bought a tract of partly improved land in that county, where he resided until 1846. In that year he established a residence in Taylor county, West Virginia. Abraham S. and Ruth Wotring were the parents of nine children, six of whom lived to become mature men and women. Their eldest child, Jahne F. Wotring, began working in his father's blacksmith shop as soon as he was old enough to be of assistance. When he had mastered the details of the trade and had arrived at a mature age he started a shop of his own. In 1854 he was employed in the shops of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad at Grafton, West Virginia, and he was still employed in those shops when they were captured by the Confederate forces early in the Civil war. Being thus deprived of employment, he invested a portion of his savings in a farm near Terra Alta, Preston county, where he established a blacksmith shop and divided his attention between his crops and such demand for his services as a mechanic as existed in that neighborhood. Early in 1864 he assisted Captain J. S. Hyde in recruiting a company of cavalry for the United States forces, and enlisted in that company himself. This unit later was designated as Company L of the Sixth West Virginia Cavalry. He was commissioned lieutenant and later was made captain. He was captured in the battle at New Creek, West Virginia, November 27, 1864, and was confined in the Libby prison until February 22, 1865, when he was exchanged for Confederate prisoners in the hands ot Union forces. Returning to his regiment, he served with the colors until in June, 1865, and was present at the grand review of Federal troops at the close of the war in Washington. After he had been honorably discharged from the service he resumed his farm and blacksmith work, but in June, 1866, he sold his property and purchased another farm in Morgan county, in that state. A few months later he disposed of this farm and operated a store in Terra Alta until 1870. In that year he brought his family to Lenawee county and established a blacksmith shop at Ogden Center. He married, on July 1, 1855, Mary A. Crane, who was born April 3, 1836, in Preston county, West Virginia. To this union were born nine children: Alice Belle, who married William McComb, of Ogden township; Arthur C., father of Cecil J., of Adrian; Artenus O., a physician, of Ogden Center, and wvho was killed in a gas explosion; Dora, who died at the age of four years; Ida M., who died when she was two and one-half years old; Ruth O., Bruce B., Mary R. and Maude. Capt. Jahne F. Wotring was a charter member of David Becker Post No. 25, Grand Army of the Republic, and was active in Republican politics. He died in 1919, at the age of eighty-five years, his wife having died in 1916, at the age of eighty. Their son, Arthur Clarence, was born in Preston county, West Virginia, on January 6, 1858. He attended the schools near his home until 1870, when his parents moved to Lenawee county. After he finished school at Ogden Center, he worked on his father's farm until 1879. In that year he married Josephine Fairbanks, of

Page  290 290 PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY Ogden Center, and purchased a farm on which he and his family resided until 1902. In that year he sold his property and moved to Coleman, Midland county, where he purchased three tracts of land, consisting of one hundred and twenty, eighty, and forty acres, respectively. This land he rented to tenant farmers. He purchased, at that time, a hardware and farm implement store at Coleman, and continued in business there until 1912, when he sold the store and one hundred and eighty acres of his land and moved to Adrian, where his wife, mother of Cecil J., died in 1924. Arthur C. Wutring is one of six of the family of nine children who are living today. Names of the others are: Alice McComb, of Ogden Center; Mrs. Ruth Franklin, Mrs. Molly Spangle, and Bruce B. Wotring, of Adrian; and Mrs. Maude Burgess, of North Dakota. To Arthur Clarence and Josephine (Fairbanks) Wotring were born nine children, one of whom is now dead. The names of those who are living are: Harley, Lanford, Dora, Cora, Mildred, Loleta, Lillian and Cecil J. Cecil J. Wotring attended school at Coleman, leaving high school when he was seventeen years old to work in a tobacco store at Flint. After eighteen months at that city he returned to his home ard married Lucy Newcomb, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Willard Newcomb, of Sylvania, Ohio. Soon after his marriage he purchased a half interest in an Adrian cigar store, which he operated until 1919. He then spent one year as an employe of Fred E. Ash in the insurance business. Later he worked for other insurance men, and on July 1, 1925, with Samuel K. Prentice as a silent partner, he opened his own offices under the firm name of C. J. Wotring & Co. at suite 309 National Bank of Commerce building, Adrian. Mr. and Mrs. Wotring have a son, Cecil Jarvis, Jr., born August 19, 1917. Young Men's Christian Association. After a few preliminary mcetiiigs of a groul (,f interested young men in Adrian, the Adrian Young Men's Christian Association was organized, May 9, 1892. The quarters then occupied was the Mission building on East Maumee street, just west of the Croswell Theater. From the time of the inception of the association, it has been generously sulpported by the citizens of Adrian. G. Roscoe Swift was (cletctel tile lirst prcsidetlt, Ibut held tile office only a short time, for later in tile year 1892 1B.,. 'lobias was elected president of the association, and held the office for twenty consecutive years. The quarters were soon changed to rooms over the place now occupied by Gussenbauer's Tea Room, and then later to the second and third floor of the Wood-Crane-Wood building, now occupied by Hermfes & Marx, clothiers. Here the first gymnasium conducted by the local association was installed. These quarters were occupied until 1903, when temporary quarters were taken up in what is now known as the Metcalf Block, then the property of David Metcalf, who, as evidence of his loyal support of the association, bequeathed this building to the local Y. M. C. A. at his death, which occurred in 1907. Early in 1904 a building campaign was begun, and the

Page  291 A i I Ii PERSONAL SKETCHES FOR LENAWEE COUNTY 291 erection of the new building was started in October of that year. This building was made possible through a generous financial gift of David Metcalf, and the unfailing support and liberal gifts of citizens in general. The building was completed and dedicated in November, 1905. C. S. Park succeeded Mr. Tobias as president, holding this office from 1912 to 1917. He was succeeded by John E. Carr, 1917-20, and W. A. Cutler, 1920-21. The present incumbent is C. H. Griffey, 1921-..... In 1916 the mortgage of $7,500 was raised during the administration of D. A. Rau, then general secretary. E. A. Flindt was the first full-time secretary employed. He took up the work immediately after the organization of the association, and was followed by H. K. Fox, who held the office from 1895-97. He was succeeded by V. F. Dewey, who was secretary from July, 1897, to May, 1899, when George D. Westerman was elected to the office and held it until November, 1903, when he was succeeded by Wilbur S. Westerman. In March, 1904, R. D. Collins took on the work, and he had a very prominent part in promoting the new building campaign. Mr. Collins left in 1907 on account of ill health. F. W. Boswell was then secretary from 1907 to 1913. D. A. Rau followed in the position from 1913 to 1917, and Mr. Whistler succeeded him, holding the position from 1917 to 1921. P. C. Sherman is the present secretary. P..

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