History of Montcalm County, Michigan its people, industries and institutions...with biographical sketches of representative citizens and genealogical records of many of the old families
Dasef, John W.

Page  5 HISTORY OF Montcalm County MICHIGAN ITS PEOPLE, INDUSTRIES AND INSTITUTIONS BY JOHN W. DASEF With Biographical Sketches of Representative Citizens and Genealogical Records of Many of the Old Families VOLUME I ILLUSTRATED *In I 'j1 I, t * Ie 1916 B. F. BOWEN & COMPANY, Inc. Indianapolis, Indiana *

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Page  7 llllll lOllF m 3 0000 002 234 536 UMM OF NIIIA DEDICATION To the dear, departed ones, whose busy hands changed the giant for. ests into fertile fields; whose love of home established the hearthstones, the tender ties of which yet bind together the heartstrings of the native born; whose patriotism gave the best of their lives and substance for the de.fense of their country; whose graves make sacred the soil their feet so often trod..I i II I

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Page  9 PREFACE All life..i-ld achievement is evolution; present wisdom comes from past experience, and present commercial prosperity has come only from Ipst exertion and sacrifice. The deeds and motives of the men who have gome before have been instrumental in shaping the destinies of later communities and states. The development of a new country was at once a task and a privilege. It required great courage, sacrifice and privation. Compare the present conditions of the people of Montcalm county, Michigan, with what they were seven decades ago. From a trackless wilderness and virgin land, it has come to be a center of prosperity and civilization, with millions of wealth, systems of railways, grand educational institutions, splendid industries and immense agricultural and mineral productions. Can any thinking person be insensible to the fascination of the study which discloses the aspirations and efforts of the early pioneers who so strongly laid the foundation upon which has been reared the magnificent prosperity of later days? To perpetuate the story of these people and to trace and record the social, political and industrial progress of the community from its first inception is the function of the local historian. A sincere purpose to preserve facts and personal memoirs that are deserving of perpetuation, and which unite the present to the past is the motive for the present publication. A specially valuable and interesting department is that one devoted to the sketches of representative citizens of the county whose records deserve preservation blecause of their worth, effort and accomplishment. The publishers desire to extend their thanks to the gentlemen who have so faithfully labored to this end. Thanks are also due to the citizens of Montcalm county for the uniform kindness with which they have regarded this undertaking, and for their many services rendered in the gaining of necessary information. In placing the "History of Montcalm County, Michigan," before the citizens, the publishers can conscientiously claim that they have carried out the plan as outlined in the prospectus. Every biographical sketch in the work has been submitted to the party interested, for correction, and therefore any error of fact, if there be any, is solely due to the person for whom the sketch was prepared. Confident that our effort to please will fully meet the aplrobation of the public, we are, Respectfully, THE PUBLISHERS. - — ~-../

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Page  11 *:,:;:,^ CONTENTS VOLUME I CHAPTER I-GEOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS --- 33 Surface Features-Altitudes-Streams-Lakes-First Correction Line-Rock Formations-Terminal Moraines-Glacial Drifts-Effect of Lakes on Temperature-Extremes of Temperature-The Growing Season-Rainfall-Coal Deposits-Types of Soil-Area-Improved Land. CHAPTER II-ORGANIZATION OF MONTCALM COUNTY ---------- 43 Adoption of First Constitutions by State-First Settlement of State-Principal Facts Concerning Formation of State-Legislative Act Creating Montcalm County-The First Settlers-Montcalm Township-First Election and First Officers-First Assessment for Taxation-Montcalm County Enabling Act-Its Name-County Board of Supervisors-Apportionment of Taxes, 1850-Real and Personal Property Valuations-First Land Entry in County -Other First Events —Location of the County Seat-Beginning of RivalryFirst Court HTouse at Stanton-Bond Issue for Present Court House-Exciting Contest-Description of County Buildings-Care of the Poor. CIAPTER IlI-BELVIDERE TOWNSHIP --- —----------- ------------- 60 Location-Boundaries-Organization-First Election-First Officers-SoilDrainage-Land Entries-Early Settlements-First Schools-SumnervilleSix Lakes. CHIAPTER IV —BLOOMER TOWNSHIP ------------—. --- —------------ 66 Organization-First Election-Natural Features-Early Settlement TardyNaming the Township-Assessment Roll for 1852-Original Land Purchasers-Early Settlements-The Miner Family-An Early Visit to Crystal Lake -Pioneers-Early Events-Carson City-Its Settlement, Growth and Business Enterprises-Statistics-Country Contributary to Carson City-Characteristic Features of the Town-Prominent Citizens of Other Days-City Officials-Butternut. CHAPTER V-BUSINELL TOWNSHIP --- —---------- -------- --- --- 84 Organization-First Election and Officers Chosen-Location of Township and Boundaries-Natural Features-Original Land Entries-Early Settlements-First Crops-A Bear Ilunt-An English Immigrant-First Events in the Township-A Long-drawn-out Suit for a Gun-Vickeryville.:.;,:

Page  12 Ct. NL NT 5. E~ntries-Soite of tile Iarly Settlers-Villagi of C oral-Truafntt Maple Valley-Staihamo NVX Lladu CIIAiTIER X%7J.MO(N IC Xlf, M oXX NSI ----------------— 184 Thle 1 iaysr ITownshtip of tlt( C ouity-Its Organizaition IFirst Towoship Meeting-Area ia1( 1 ounilries Nlatral FaturesI anol L ntries- lcI he - co~ln1a ot lyOtto r I. tarl Settlesrs kesst idts int lPl (owaeit V'illge CIIAPTEP, X 7If -t --- —N ----\-N-I — 194 Sitttation C Itian it I t Area Prsetit Boiiitdlri(cs-Natalt it Feathin s Ori,-_ 1a itid FntP Ines I irly SettletietnIs Early Es nts Villatie of Piierson-~ Mahple It ill XVood I 1 tO XV Iitel sht Lak~e-Saiti Lake. CIIAPTI R XX III -PIt IX\ NSI P_ 2 — - - - 1 Ilonetiat is-s (riaaon if IFirsi Officers-Soil atid Otttei -attiral FeatturesOriginail Laitt IntitetesItiiLimeritt hinerests-Heginitiiig if AXgricuiltureA Stuceessfiul Hiotel-Firtst Postoffise-Langstoit t'IIAPITE,]\ XIX -ELYttl ItS TOXWNSHIP. --- —------------ DescriltioititiOr ititiation I -~irst Toiwnslhip Mesting-O~riginal -Stesamis aitd Soil I nitbsr I nitiletr-It isari C ity -Iii the Early Settlers (iroisfth of the Tossnt-Ilisastrotis Fires-W Tiowsi Toitay-Thte Beseitet I lone-,otiger. fi C.;IAPiTER XX-RICIILAXVI7 '1rOX.\VXSIIIP ---------------- -— 222 Organization if the ITiwnshiit-Loeatiiii.d~~j_ ~ ana Fealtures -OIrigintal Laiti Etitritcs-ChtatrIis DeaiimAb*bmW.W CIIAPTEIE XXI-SIDNIV TOX\ ----— A~. ------------------------ 229 atti lire-Early Settlki ne$O.tLand Entrtes-( olby-Stildey. CAiTEXXIt ~W~lt~iitV SIP - - ----— 239 tDescriptitiii LfOgn;o-lIiiitIande Fittries-Early SettlietientsEa rlIy Eveiits-Amhble. (t I AfTEE T,, XI-G~U R IN MINTICXl M COUNT NIX ----- 245 Mttaits a~k i&Ag-rieiilture-Montethu si', Iligh satik XAitiin Her Sister Coiiities --- AXei~lit ad Yield of Potlatoes Livte Stuosk( nip RettortsLeaditig Pitlato Mhiivets-County Farmi Xgetits-Conttiy Dttins-IThe E-'ra of (itod Roadil, ht~~alltt Coutity A-grienlttiral Socie'ty tFairs Other Xgricultural Assoe~i~t*1W4,air aiti Eacst a t Itoward CitylOr'ginizatitins of StocL fri eitrs-46~~7 if Osear Fennt Montcalni I-oiiity IFariners' Instituute-Coniditions in Pioneu r Dlays. CHAPTER XXIV-l`44GHWAYS XNI) hTsANSIPORTTtION_ --- —--— 265 Naltural Coindituiouk"' -rly Days-Indiati Traits-Story of the Early Roaids aiii Trails I irst44NiWkid lsicatiltug Sittme of the Early Riiauis-Aranusintg

Page  13 CONTENTS. Entries-Some of the Early Settlers-Village of Coral-Trufant-Maple Valley-Stalhanl W. Ladu. CHAPTER XVI-MONTCAI.M TOWNSHIP. '. --- —----------- -------- - 184 The Pioneer Township of the County-Its Organization-First Township Meeting-Area and Boundaries-Natural Features-I-and Entries —The Lincoln Famnily-Other Early Settlers-Residents in 1851-Gowen Village. CHAPTER XVIT-PI ERSON TOWNSHIP --- —------------------------ 194 Situation —Changes in Area-Present Boundaries-Natural Features-Original Land Entries-Early Settlements-Early Events-Village of PiersonMaple Ilill —Wood Lake-Whitefish Lake-Sand Lake. CHAPTER XVIII-PINE TOWNSHIP --- —-- ---------.. --- —------- ----- 201 Boundaries-Creation of-First Officers-Soil and Othie 'Tatural FeaturesOriginal Land Entries-I.unbering Interests-Beginning Jf AgricultureA Successful Hotel-First Postoffice-Tangston. CHAPTERI XIX-IREYNOLDS TOWNSHIP -------- -—. Description-Organization-First Township Meeting-Original -Streaims and Soil-,umber Industry-floward City-In tl4 Early Settlers-Growth of the Town-Disastrous Fires Town Today-The Besemet H ome-Conger. CI APTEIR XX-R1C(IILAND TOWNSH1IP....___ Organization of the Township-Location ai -Original Land Entries-Charles De - F --- —-- --— 222 tural Features i I i - CHAPTER XXI-SIDNEY TO' Description of-Organizatj and Fire —Early Settle t tCIIAPTER XXI I Description Early Event CHAPTER XXIIIt ULTt Michigan's R riculti Counties —Ac t Yie Leading Pota ts-C of Good Roal I ( cultural Assoc U air Stock Brceder of C tute-Conditioin *cer CHAPTER XXIV-I - YS Natural Conditio ly and Trails —Firs - ad 229 ea tures —Des tructive Tornado,and Entries-Colby-Sidney. rNSIIPl l- ------------ ------------ 239 Original ILand Entries-Early Settlements JRE IN MONTCALM COUNTY --- —------ 245 ure-Montcalm's High Rank Among Her Sister Ied of Potatoes-Live Stock-Crop Reportsounty Farm Agents-County Drains-The Era iounty Agricultural Society-Fairs-Other Agriand Races at Howard City-Organizations of )scar Fenln-Montcalm County Farmers' InstiDays. AND TRANSPORTATION_ --- —------ -— 265 Days-Indian Trails-Story of the Early kRoads -Locating Some of the Early Roads-Arausing:,I;:;.-::::i; r: ~

Page  14 CONTENTS. Interest in Better Highways-State Highway Commission-Greenville Good Roads Commission-Internal Improvement Scheme-The First RailroadFinancial Difficulties-Right of Way Changed to Wagon Road-Present Railroad Systems-Proposed Trolley Lines. CHAPTER XXV-MONTCAL M COUNTY IN TIlE CIVIL WAR --------- 282 State Troops and Enlistments from Montcalm County-Brief Mention of the Various Commands with Which Montcalm County Men Served-Rolls of Enlisted Men. CHAPTER XXVI-EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS --- —----------— _ --- — 300 Brief History of the First Schools in Each of the Townships of the County -County (rganization-Commissioner of Schools-Stanton SchoolsSchools at Howard City and Greenville. CHAPTER XXVII-CHURCH ORGANIZATIONS ------------ —.. --- — - 323 e Congregational Churches-aptt rchs- etodist h Episcopal Churches Frec Metho hurcMethodist hurces-Geran Methodists-Protestant Episcopal,. h-Church of (hrist-Dunkard Churches-Danish Lutheran Churches tcal Lutheran Churches-Seventh-day Adventist Church-Catholic CHSIAPFT i.TTI. E I). NMARK DANISIH UTHERAN CONGRE-... --- —--------------------------------------—.351 Organizat hd- Settlers-Gowen-A Journey from Denmark to M ichigan an-Ri i arge Parish-Gowen's Business Interestsortieth Anniver" '. le s Pastorate. CHAPTER XXIX-SECRET' lD FRATERNITIES --- —----- 360 ree and Accepted Masons 'l"tcrt Star-Independent Order of Odd Fellows-Daughters of ' nIcampmet and CantonKnights of Pythias —Danish Broti lS; n ay —anish SisterhoodModern Woodmen of Anlerica-Tribe of^,/"c.',.. nm-Ral m Royal Neighbors of America-Patrons of Husband al of the Republic -Woman's Relief Corps. CHAPTER XXX-BANKS AND BANKINGC -— _ ----_ ---. — 385 Financial Changes During the County's History j mcber Era-The Agricultural Era-Individual History of the Actilj j of the County. CHAPTER XXXI-NEWSPAPERS AND PUBLISHF 's --- —--- 394 Montcalm Reflector, the first Newspaper in the BiL rief Mention of Other Papers Which llave Appeared and Son ting Incidents in Connection with Them. CHAPTER XXXII-TIIE MEDICAL. PROFESSIO ------------------ 4.0 Importance of Physician in the Community-HIH d for Professional Ethics-Montcalm County Medical Socicty-El ititioners-Registration-Nurses-Optometrists.,.;

Page  15 CONTENTS. CIIAPTER XXXIII-POLITICAI. AND STATISTICAL -----—.. -—. --- —-- 428 Republicans Generally Successful in Montcalm County-Vote for Presidential Electors-Constitutional Conventions-Amendments-State SenatorsRepresentatives-County Treasurers-Sheriffs-County Clerks-Registers of Deeds-County Surveyors-Coroners-Township Supervisors-PopulationTaxes. CIIAPTER XXXIV-INDUSTRIES OF MONTCALM COUNTY. --- —- --— 443 Brief Mention of the Manufacturing and Mercantile Institutions of Montcalm County, with Statistics. CHAPTER XXXV-C()URTS AND LAWYERS --- —----------------- - ----- 465 County Courts-District Courts-Circuit Courts-Early Juries-Circuit Judges-Prosecuting Attorneys-Probate Court-Circuit Court Commissioners-Attorneys Who Have Practiced in Montcalm County. CIIAPTER XXXVI-STANTON -—. --- —----—. --- —--- ------ 484 Location-A Commercial Center-Incorporation-Meetings of Supervisors -The "Owl's Nest"-Opera ITouse-County Seat Discussion-The Fire of 1880-Public Utilities-Marine Band-Mayors-Clerks-Prominent Early Citizens. CHAPTER XXXVII-GREENVILLE -------- ----- -------------------- - 505 Its Beginning-Settlement-Early Unfavorable Conditions-Indian TrailsIndians-Survey-Early Settlers and Pioneers-Growth-Industries-Public Improvements. CHAPTER XXXVIII-CARSON CITY PUBLIC SCHOOLS --- —----------- 14 First School Ilouses-Early Teachers-First Graduates-Improvements in Buildings-Superintendents-Equipment-Present Faculty.::-!' ^u-. * *;^ If I~

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Page  17 HISTORICAL INDEX VOLUME I A Acreage -------------- Agricultural Societies Agriculture _ --- —--- Altitudes -—. --- —-- Aml)le.. --- —- ---------- Amble, Rev. Olc --- —Amsden ------------- Area of County ------- Assessment, First - Attorneys --—. --- —--- B Baldwin Lake ---. Banks ------------ Baptist Churches -- Barley ------------- Bass Beach ---------- Bear Hunt, A___-___-... Pelvidere TownshipBoundaries ---------- Election, First ----- Lakes --- —------- Land Entries -------- Location — --- Organization of ------ Schools ----------- Settlement --------- Soil -------------- Streams ---------- Supervisors ------ Texas -- ----- Vote on Bond Issue - Bench and Bar ------- Ben-Hur, Tribe of ---Besemet Home ------ (2) --—...- 245....- -. ---- 251 -. ----__- 245 --------- 33 -243, 347, 457.-.351, 354, 357 -----—.- 159 -. —. — 42. --- —--- 45. ---- 465, 475 ------- 136 - - 65, 115, 385 — _ --- —- 330. --- —--- 247 -— _ ---- - 106. --- —. 90 ---- - 60 ---- - 60 ------ -34, 61 --—.-.-..- 61 ----------- 60 ----- 60. --- — - 64, 300 --- -. --- — 6 2 -—. --- — 61 -__ --- 33, 61 --—. --- 435. --- —----- 442 442 --— 54. --- —-— _- 465 -------- 378 ---— _ - 221 Bloomer TownshipAssessment Roll, 1852 ---------- 67 Boundaries ------------------- 66 Churches ----------------- 328, 334 Doctors ----------------— 412, 415 Election, First ------------— 66, 68 Land Entries -------------— 66, 68 Naming the Township --- —----- 67 Natural Features ------------- 66 Organization of ---------------- 66 Pioneers ---------------------- 73 Postoffice, First --------------- 74 Schools ---------------------- 301 Settlement -------------------- 69 Streams ------------------- --- 33 Supervisors --------------— 50, 436 Taxes ---------------------- 442 Vote on Bond Issue --- —------- 54 Bonds for Court House --- —------ 54 Bounties, Wolf ----------------- 48 Bushnell TownshipBear Hunt ------------- -- 90 Building, First ------------ 92 Crops, First -------------- 89 Doctors --------------------- 411 Election, First - -------— 47, 84 Famous Suit ------------------ 93 First Events ----------------- 92 Indians ---------------------- 92 Land Entries -------------- 85 Location -------------------- 84 Officials, First ----- ----- 84 Organization of ---------------- 84 Postoffice, First --------------- 92 Road, First ----------------- 92 Schools ---------------------- 301 Settlement ------------------- 87

Page  18 HISTORICAL INDEX. Bushnell TownshipStreams --- —------------------- 85 Supervisors -------------------- 436 Taxes --- —--------------------- 442 Vote on Bond Issue --- —--------- 54 Butternut --— 82, 328, 389, 456, 459, 460 Butternut Drain --- —-------------- 249 C Carson CityBanks ------------------------- 392 Busincss Interests -------— 76 Cemetery --- —------------------ 79 Churches --- —------------------ 348 Doctors --- —------------------- 415 Enterprises, Early --- —---------- 75 Fires --- —---------------------- 79 Improvement Association --- —-77 Industries ------------------ 452, 460 Land Entries -------------------- 75 Location ------------------------ 74 L~odges --- —---------------- 360, 368 Newspapers -------------------- 403 Officials ------------------------ 81 Platted ------------------------ 75 Population --- —----------------- 77 Prominent Citizens ------------- 79 TRailways ---------------------- 277 Schools ------------------------ 514 Telephones -------------------- 459 Valuations --- —----------------- 77 Case, George F. --- —-------------- 499 Cathotic Chstrches ---------------- 348 Cabo TownshipCanal, An Early --- —----------- 101 Description --- —---------------- 95 Doctors ----------------------- 413 Election, First --- —------------- 95 Lakes. ------------------------- 34 Land Entries --- —-------------- 96 Lumhermen -------------------- 102 Naming of --------------------- 96 Natural Features --------------— 95 Orchard, First --- —------------- 99 Organization of --- —------------ 95 Schools --- —------------------- 302 Settlement --- —----------------- 97 Soil --- —----------------------- 96' Streams ----------------------- 33 Supervisors --- —------------- 50, 437 Cabo TownshipTaxes ------------------------- 442 Vote on Bond Issucl --- —--------- 54 Cedar Lake -------— 175, 348, 456 Chapin, Clarence W. --- —---------- 501 Church of Christ ------------------ 343 Churches --- —--------- 145, 228, 237, 323 Circuit Court Commissioners- -474 Circuit Courts ----: --- —---------- 467 Circuit judges ------------------- 470 Civil War Record ---------------— 282 Clerks, County ------------------- 434 Coal Deposits --- —---------------- 40 Colsy ---------------------------- 236 Commissioner of Schools ----— 312 Conger -------------------------- 221 C:ongregational Chsurches ---------- 323 Constitutions, State -------------— 431 Coral ----------— 179, 310, 336, 379, 388, 397, 419, 457, 459, 4600 Corey Lorenzo -----------------— S500 Corn --- —------------------------ 246 C:oronsers --- —------------------- 435 Correction t-ine --- —------------- 34 Cotunty Buildings ----------------- 51 County Clerks --- —--------------- 434 County Courts ------------------- 465 Cotunty Drains ------------------- 249 County Farm --- —---------------- 58 County Farm Agent -------------- 248 County Medical Society ----------- 405 County Normal ------------------ 316 Cotunty Seat Located --- —--------- 50 Cottnty Surveyors --- —----------- 434 County Treasurers --------------— 433 Cottrt House Bonds --------------- 54 Court House Itistory --- —--------- 51 Courts --- —---------------------- 465 Crystal TownshipCreation of -------------------- 107 First Events ------------------- 113 Iuscidents ---------------------- 112 Lakes --- —------------------ 34, 108 Land Entries ------------------- 108 Location ----------------------- 107 Natural Features --- —---------- 107 Schools --- —------------------- 303 Settlement --------------------- 110 Streams --- —------------------- 33 Supervisors ----------------— 50, 436

Page  19 HISTORICAL INDEX. Crystal TownshipTaxes ------------ Vote on Bond Issue —. Crystal VillageBanks ----------- Breeders' Association Business Interests ---- Churches ---------- Doctors ----------- Hopes ------------- Improvements ------- Industries --------- Location -------—. Lodges ---------- Newspapers -—. ---. Settlement -------- Summer Resorts —. Telephones - Custer ----.-.-.-...- 442 -.-.-. --- — 54. ----115, 390 -. --- — 255 -— _ --- — 116 -___ 326, 343 ---.. — - - 4 17. --- — 1 15 -... ---- -- 116. ---455, 461. — 1 --- 114._ —. ---- 371 -__ ----.- 402 -------—. 114.. ----. --- 117 -------- 459 123 D Danish Brotherhood.. --- ------- 374 Danish lTutheran Churches —. 344, 351 Danish Settlers ------------ -- 351 Danish Sisterhood --— _ --- —------ 376 Daughters of Rebckah _-__. --- - 366 Iay TownshipChurches ------------------- 338 Creation of --------------- - 118 Description ----------------- 118 Election, First ---------------- 118 Land Entries --------------- 119 Name ----------------------- 118 Schools ---------------------- 334 Settlement ------------------ 120 Streams ----------------------- 33 Supervisors --------------------- 437 Taxes --------------------- 442 Vote on Bond Issue — -------- 54 Deaner, Charles --------------- 224 Divine Family ------------------- 131 Doctors ----------------------- 405 Douglass TownshipCreation of ------------------- 124 Description ------------------- 124 Doctors ---------------------- 419 Election, First ------------ 124 Fatal Fire --------------------- 128 Land Entries ---------------- 125 Douglass TownshipNaming of ------------------- 124 Officers, First ----------------- 124 Pioneers --------------------- 124 Roads, Early -------------- -- 127 Schools ---------------------- 304 Streams ------------------------ 33 Supervisors ------------------- 439 Taxes ----------------------- 442 Vote on Bond Issue — -------- 54 Drainage Commissioner ----------- 249 Drains, County -------------------- 249 Drifts, Glacial ------------------- 36 Dunkard Churches -------------- 343 E Early Danish Settlers ---------- 351 Early Juries ------------------- 469 Early Medical Practitioners ---- -- 407 Early Roads ----------------- - 266 Eastern Star, Order of --- —--- 361 EdmoreAgricultural Association _- _ 256 Banks ----- ----------- 388, 390 Churches ----------------— 330, 339 Commerce. --- — -__ --- — 173 Doctors -----------------. -_ 415 Fires ----------------------— 173 Industries ---------------— 454, 461 Location ---------------------- 172 Lodges ---------------— 363, 367, 375 Mill ----------------------- -- 172 Name --------------------- 172 Newspapers ------------------ 401 Officials ----------------- 173, 174 Plat ----------------------- - 172 Public Utilities ---------------- 174 Settlers ---------------------- 172 Telephones ------------------- 458 Educational Interests ----------- 300 Election Statistics ------------- 428 Elections, First ------------------ 47 Elevations ---------------------- 33 Enabling Act, County --- —------- 46 Entrican --------— 129, 334, 370, 421 Episcopal Church -------- --- 342 Eureka TownshipCemetery --------------------- 132 Doctors --------------------- 412

Page  20 HISTORICAL INDEX. Eureka TownshipEarly Settlers ------------ Election, First --------— ___ First Events ------------ Highways --------— _ —__ Land Entries ---- -- Location ----- -- Milling ------------ Name ------- ------ Organization of — _ —__ ---_Roads, Early --— _ --- —__ Saxton Entry ----— _.. -_ --- Streams -- --------------- Supervisors ------------— _. Taxes --- --------- Vote on Bond Issuc --- —--- Evangelical Lutheran Church_ Evergreen TownshipChurches --- --------- Creation of -- ----- Description -. --- —. --- Events, Notable --------- land Entries — _ --- —-— _Mill -- ---- _ --- —-- Schools ------------- - Settlement ----------—.Streams ----------------- Supervisors ---— _ --- —---- Taxes ------- --- --—. Taxpayers. First -_ --- —--- Vote on Bond Issue --- —-_ -- 134 _-47, 131 ---- 132.. — 136 --- 137 --- 130 --— _ 133 --- 130 ----- 130 ---- 133 ----- 134 — 33 ___50, 435 -— _ 442.- 54 -- 345 ---- 145 -- 140 ---- 140 ---- 144 -.. 140 ---- 143 ---- 305 _ --- 142 ---- 33._50, 437 ---- 442._ 143 - 54 Fairs ------------------ ------- 252 Farm Agent, County --- —------—. 248 Farm Statistics ------------- 42, 245 Farmers' Institute ---------- --- 258 Fenn, Oscar ----—.. - ------- 256, 498 Fenwick -------------- 158, 370, 421 Ferris TownshipCreation of -------------—. —_ 161 Description of ---------— _ --- 161 Doctors. — ------------------ 423 First Events -----— _ --- —- -- 166 Land Entries.-_.._-_.. ___ 162 Natural Features -- -_.... - 161 Reminiscences —.. --- —-------- 166 Schools -__ ----. —...__ --- —_ — __ 308 Settlement ----—. --- —-----— _ 163 Supervisors --------------- 50, 438 Taxes -—. --- —----------------- 442 Vote on Bond Issue -----—.. - 54 Ferris Village —. --- —-----— __ 167 First Settlers --------- ------- -44 Fishvillc ----------- ----- --- 148 Flat River ------- -------— 185. 250 Fraternities ------------------- 360 Free and Accepted Masons --- —-.360 Frec Methodist Churches --- —-- - 340 G Gardner, Daniel M. ---------- --- 499 Geology -------------— _.. ---. - - 35 German Methodists. —_ ---_ --- — 341 Gilbert, Giles -—. --- —---- ----- 498 Glacial Drifts ------------ ----- — 36 Good Roads Movement --- —------- 250 Gowen --------- 192, 333, 351, 356, 420 Grand Army of the Republic ----- 381 Grand Jury, First -------------- 469 Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad__ 277 Grand Trunk Railroad --- —--- 277 Grange, The ----. --- —-----—. — 380 GreenvilleBanks ----------. ------------ 386 Beginnings ----------------- 505 Churches -----------— 323, 330, 334, 340, 342, 344, 348, 513 County Seat ------------ ---- 50 Doctors ------— _ --- —------— _- 407 Early Conditions ------- --- 505 Early Roads ----------------- 506 F Fairplain TownshipChurches -------- Creation of ----- Description -— _ — Doctors ------- Election, First -- Land Entries -- Land Speculators _. Name -- ---- Natural Features - Residents in 1850 —. Schools ------- Settlement --- Supervisors — _ --- Taxes --------- Vote on Bond Issue_ -----—._ 345 -------- 149 ---------- 149 -----—._ 413 -------- 47. --- —.-.- 150 _ —_ --- —. 156 ----- -- 149 -------- 149 ------—. 157 --------- 305 -. --- —-- 152. --- —- 50, 438 ---- -— 442 —. ------- 54

Page  21 HISTORICAL INDEX. GreenvilleFair Association -------------- 253 Good Roads Association --- —---- 272 Improvements ------------ 512 Indian Trails ------------------ 506/ Indians -------------------- 508 Industries ---------- 443, 461, 512 Lodges -- 369, 372, 374, 376, 379, 382 Newspapers -__.Pioneers ---------- Potato Market _ ---. I'ublic Institutions -- Railroads _ --- —-_Schools --------- Settlers, First ----- Supervisors ---- Survey, Early -— _ Taxes ----------- Telephones — _ --- —Vote on Bond Issue-. — __ — 394. --- — 510 -..- 247, 513. --- —. 513.-. —.- 277 --—.- 317. --- 505. —_ --- 440.* --- — 510._. ---- 442. —. ---- 459 ------ 5 4 H Hamilton Family ---------------- 152 Hawley, E. D.. --- —---------- 502 Highways ---------------------- 265 Home TownshipCreation of ---------------- 168 Description of ---------------- 168 Doctors --------- ----------- 414 First Events ---------------- 171 Land Entries ---------------- 169 Natural Features ------------- - 168 Old Settlers ----------------- 171 Schools ------------------— 171, 309 Settlement -------------------- 170 Supervisors ------------------ 438 Taxes ------------------------ 442 Vote on Bond Issue --- — ------ 54 Horse Breeders' Association --- — - 256 Howard CityAgricultural Association -------- 254 Banks --- -------------------- 387 Besemet Home ----------- -— 221 Churches ------------------- 331, 345 Doctors ---------------------- 417 Early Growth ----------------- 211 Early Stores ------------------ 212 Election, First --------------- 212 Fairs ----------------------- 254 Howard CityFires ------------------------ 215 Incorporation --------------- 212 Industries --------------— 456, 462 Lodges --------------— 361, 374, 378 Lumber Interests --------— 213 Newspapers -------------------- 400 Olden Days ------------------- 213 Platted ------------------ -- 211 Present Business Interests ----- 220 Railroads -------------------- 220 Schools ------------------ - 316 Settlers ---------------------- 214 Waterworkls --------------- 219 I Improved Lands ----------------- 245 Independent Order of Odd Fellows 365 Indian Trails ------------------- 265 Industries ----------------— 443, 460 Internal Improvements ---------- 272 J Jail History --- ----------- 51 Judges, Circuit ------------- - 470 Judges, Probate ---------------- 473 Juries, Early ---------------- 469 K Kendallville ------------------— 206 Knights of Pythias ----------- 372 L Lakes ---------------------- 33 LakeviewAgricultural Society ---------- 254 Banks ----------------— 390, 391 Business Interests ------------ 105 Churches —. --- —-----— 327, 340, 341 Doctors --------------------- 408 First Events -------------------- 104 Indians -- -- 103 Indians --------------------— 103 Industries ----------------— 453, 462 Location --------------------- 103 Lodges ---------- ------— 365, 378 Newspapers ----------------- 401 Telephones --- ------------ 458 i a i7 w I. I I i.:;! ~;9 I'-_::~~r;*.I.~- ~~~ ~`~

Page  22 HISTORICAL INDEX. Land Entries, First in County --- —- 49 Langston --------------- 207, 397, 417 Lawyers -------------------— 465, 475 LeDu, Stalham W. -------------- 181 Legislative Act Defining County ---- 44 Lincoln Family ------------------ 187 Little Denmark Danish Lutheran Congregation -------------- 351 Live Stock ------------------ --- 246 Local Option Question --- —--— _ 431 Lodges ----------------------- 360 Lumber -—.._ --- —--— 65, 203, 210, 213 Mc Mills - -------------- -133, 143, 145, 172, 180, 210, 237 Miner Family ----------------- 70 Modern Woodmen of America ---- 376 Montcalm County Soldiers -------- 282 Montcalm County Telephone Association --------------- ------- 458 Montcalm TownshipChurches ---------— __ --- —-- 346 Creation of ------------------- 44 Description of -._....- —. —_ 184 Election, First -------------— 45, 47 Lakes ------------— _. --- —---- 185 Land Entries ---------------- 185 Officials, First -----------— 45, 184 Original Township -------— _- 184 Residents in 1851 ----------- -- 192 Schools -------...__-.. —3- 310 Settlers ------—. --- —_ -------- 187 Streams ------------------- 33, 185 Supervisors -..... - 50, 439 Taxes ----—. --- --------- 442 Township Meeting, First ------ 189 Valuations, Early _-__ --- —---- 45 Vote on Bond Issue --- —-------- 54 Moraines -—.. --- ——.. —.. --- 36 McBrideanks ----------- Business Interests -- Churches -------- Doctors -------- Fire -------------- Growth of ---—. Industries ---—.Iocation --------- Lodges ---------- Name --- —------ Newspapers ----—. Settlement -------- Telephones — < ----. --—. —. 392 -1. --- —- 123 ----—.. — 339. --- —---- 417..-.. --- 122 —. ---.1 — 2 123 ----—..- 463. ---_ ---- 122 ___368, 377, 384 --------- 122 ----------- 402 --------—. 122 --—...- 458 M Maple Hill ----------------— 199, 347 Maple Valley ---—.. --- —-- 8181, 419 Maple Valley TownshipChurches ------------------- 338 Creation of ---- ----------- 176 Election, First --------------- 176 Land Entries -------------- 176 Natural Drainage --------------- 179 Schools --------------------- 309 Settlers -------------------- 178 Supervisors ------------------ 438 Taxes ---------------------- 442 Vote on Bond Issue --- —-------- 54 Masonic Order --------------—. 360 Medical Profession ------------ 405 Methodist Episcopal Churches ----- 334 Military Record -------------- 282 Miller's Station ---—.. ---- ---- 160, 457 N Naming of County__ Natural Drainage — _ Nevins Lake ---- New Home ------- Newspapers -------- Nurses ---------—. 46 33 327 171 394 426 0 Oats --------------------------- 245 Odd Fellows -------------------- 365 Optometrists ------------------- 427 Order of the Eastern Star ------ 361 Organization of County ---------- 43 ()rganization of State ----- —. --- 43 P Patrons of Husbandry --- —--- Pere Marquette Railroad ---- Personal Property Valuations 380 278 49

Page  23 HISTORICAL INDFX. Physicians ---- PiersonDoctors ---- First Stores Industries -- ---.. --- —---- 405 -__-. ----.. --- 413 ------—.- 198 — _ --- —---- 456 Location --------------------- 198 Platted ---------------------- 198 Pierson TownshipChurches -------. ------— 341, 343 Creation of -----------— 50, 194, 486 Description of -------------- 194 Doctors ---------------------- 415 First Events ----------------- 197 Lakes ------------------------- 34 Land Entries ----------- --- 196 Settlement -------------- -- 196 Supervisors ----— _ ---- --- 50, 439 Taxes --------------------- 442 Vote on Bond Issue ------------ 54 Pine TownshipAgriculture ----------------— 20 204 Creation of -— _ --- —-------- 201 Description of -------------- - 201 Doctors ----------------------- 419 Early Stores ---------------- 206 Election, First ---------------- 201 Land Entries ---------------- - 202 Lumber Interests ------------ 203 Postoffice, First --------------- 205 Schools -------------------— 206, 310 Soil ------------------------ 202 Streams ---------------------- 33 Supervisors ------------------- 438 Taxes ------------ -------- 442 Vote on Bond Issue --- —-------- 54 Pioneer Days ------------------- 261 Point Richards ------------------ 129 Political History ------------ -- 428 Poor, Care of the --- —----------- 58 Population ------------------- 441 Potatoes -------------------- 245, 247 Present Railroads ------------- 277 Presidential Votes --------------- 430 Press, The ---------------------- 394 Probate Court ------------------ 472 Probate Judges ---------- - 473 Prosecuting Attorneys ----------- 472 Protestant Episcopal Church ---- 342 R Railroads ------------— 214, 220, 273 Rainfall --------------------- 40 Real Estate Valuations --- —----- 49 Registers of Deeds --- —--------- 434 Registration of Doctors --- —----- 416 Representatives ------------------ 433 Reynolds, Montgomery A. --- —- 500 Reynolds TownshipDescription of ---------------- 208 Land Entries --------------- 208 Lumber Interests ------------- 210 Mills ----------------------- -210 Organization of ------------- -- 208 Schools --------------------- 310 Soil -------------------- 2 210 Streams -_ --- —------— 33, 210 Supervisors — _ --- —----------- 437 Taxes --- ------------------ 442 Vote on Bond Issue -------— _ — 54 Richland TownshipBreeders' Association — _ --- —-- 256 Description of ---------------- 222 Doctors _ --- —------------- 423 Election, First --------------- 222 Lakes ---------------- --- 34, 222 Land Entries ---------------- 223 Natural Features ------------- 222 Organization of --------------- 222 Schools ---------------------- 311 Settlers ----------------------- 224 Streams ------------------- 33, 222 Supervisors -------------------- 439 Taxes ---------------------- 442 Vote on Bond Issue --- —-------- 54 Rivers ------------------------- 33 Roads, Improvement of ----------- 250 Rock Formations ---------------- 35 Royal Arcanum ----------------- 379 Royal Neighbors of America --- —-- 379 Rye -----------------— 245, 247 S Sand Lake --------------------- 200 School Commissioner ------------ 312 Schools ---------— 64, 203, 210, 213, 300 Secret Societies ---------------- 360 1. I, \ a -, i

Page  24 HISTORICAL INDEX. Senators, State ----.._.-. Settlers, The First ----- Shanty Plains ----— ___ --- SheridanBanks ---- ------—. Business Interests -— __ — Churches _ ---_-__ —__Doctors -------------- Early Business Interests. Industries ----------- Location ------ Lodges --------------- Mills.. M ls — ------------ ----- Officials ------ ----- Population ----------- -- Railways __ --- —--— _ ---- Telephones --------— __Sheriffs ---- --------- SidneyBeginning -_ --- —-—.._-_ Business Interests --— __Churches ----------—. Industries ------------- Lodges ------— _ ---__ Mill -- --- - Settlement ----------— _Sidney TownshipChurches _____ --- —— ____ Doctors ---------—. Election, First -_ — — ____ Forest Fire ---------- Land Entries ---------- Location ----------- Natural Features ----— _ Organization of ------—. Schools - ---- -- Settlement --- —------ Supervisors ----—.-__-_Taxes -------------- Tornado --- —-------- Vote on Bond Issue ---Six Lakes 65, 362, 387, 411, Soil Types ---------—. Soldiers from This County.South Park -------------- StantonBanks -------- Churches -------------- Clerks ------- ---- -—...- 432 ----- 44.-_.- 158. --- —._ 389 ---— _ 147 ------ 324 _____147, 417 -. ---- 146 -___456, 463 ----- 145 __- 364, 371 ----- 145 ------ 148. ----.- 145 -... —_, 277 ------ 458 ------ 433 -—. — 236 -- 238._-_237, 329.__-237, 457 — 237, 375 ---- 237 —. ---- 236 -- -- 327 ------ 413 ------- 229 ----- 233 ------- 234 ------ 229 ------ 229 ---—.- 229 -- ---- 311 ------ 230.-. —50, 440. --- —- 442 ------- 230 -. ---.- 54 417, 457, 458 ------ 41 -------- 282 ------ 136 _ ---- 386 323, 331, 348 -------- 495 StantonCounty Seat ------------.-51, 487 Doctors -----—. ---. --- —---- -414 Early Citizens --------------- 495 Fires ------------------------ 491 Forestry Association -----—. - 493 Incorporation ------— _ --- — - 485 Industries. --- —. ---. --- __ 449, 463 Location ------— _ --- —----— _ 484 Lodges --------------- 365, 381, 383 Marine Band --------.. ---. --- 493 Mayors --------------------— _ 494 Newspapers ------— _ --- —-_- 396 Officials -----— _ --------—..-. 494 Opera House ----— _ --- —----- 490 'Owl's Nest" _ ----— _ --- — --- 488 Population ----------- ------- 485 Potato Market. --- —. — -....- 247 Public Utilities --— _... --- —- _ 493 Schools --- ----- -------— _ 313 Supervisors -------— _ --- —----- 441 Taxes —.. ----_ --- —-— __ 442 Telephones -------—. --- —— _ 458 Vote on Bond Issue — _ --- —_- 54 State Highway Commission ----- 271 State Organization ------— _ ---_ 43 State Road, First --— _ --- ------ 268 State Senators ------------------ 432 Statistical ----------------—. ----_ 428 Stevens, Thomas N. ------------ 503 Streams of the County --- —--— _ _ - 33 Sumnerville -------------------- 64 Supervisors -----— _ --- —__ -----— _ 435 Supervisors, County Board -— _ 48 Surface Features of County -— 33, 41 Surveyors, County ----— _ --- —— _ 434 T Taxation, First ---------.. —. — Taxes --- —----------------- Telephones -------—. --- ——. Temperature ------ --- Terminal Moraines ------------- Topography of the County-._-. Trails, Indian --- —--------- Treasurers, County --- —------ Tribe of Ben-Hur- --------—.Trolley Lines, Proposed --- —-- _- 45.- 441 __ 116 37 - 36 - 33.- 265.- 433 __ 378 __- 281

Page  25 HISTORICAL INDEX. Trufant --------------- 180, 338, 344, 375, 391, 413, 418, 455, 459, 463 Turner, Nelson M. -------------- 497 Turner, William F. --- — --------- 497 U Union Telephone Company --- —---- 458 V W Weather Facts ------------------ 37 Weatherwax, Capt. John M. --- — 496 Weatherwax, Jacob -------------- 501 Westville ----------------------- 123 Wheat ----------------------- 245 Whitefish Lake ------------------ 199 Willett, James W. --- —------ 502 Winfield TownshipDescription of ---------------- 239 Land Entries --------------- 240 Organization of -------------- 239 Schools --------------- 311 Settlers ---------------------- 241 Streams ---------------------— 33 Supervisors ------------------- 439 Taxes ------------------------ 442 Vote on Bond Issue --- —------- 54 Wolf Bounties ------------------- 48 Woman's Relief Corps --- —------- 382 Wood, Edwin K. --------------- 503 Wood Lake ------------------ 199 Wyman ------------------— 174, 422 V Valuations, 1850. --- VestaburgBanks ---- Business Interest: Churches ---- Doctors ----- Industries ------ Location - --- Lodges ----- Name -----. Settlement --- Telephones ----- Vickeryville -. —. Votes for Governo --------------- 391 s ------------— 229 --------- 228, 343 ------------ - 420. --- —------- 455, 464 ------------- 226 --------- - 369 --------- 226 --- ------- 226 -..... --- —----- 458 -. — 93, 459, 464 r ------------— 428 Youngs, S. Perry -------- 55

Page  26 TN, " I", 1,

Page  27 BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX VOLUME11I A.\dams, Charles 11., D. V. S_~ A\danms, William E., D. V. S_. Aelick, Prof. Earl J. --- —-.\llchin, Vir C. --- —----------.\llen, Albert ----------------- Almack, Orange S. --- — ---.\lmy, Alhert A. --- ------.\nderson, Simon --- —-------- Arbogast, (;eorge A - Atbogast, M. C.. --- --------- - 500 - 239 -243 - 359 - 93 - 95 -565 - 102 - 200 - 460 Biacon, Arthur E. --- —------------- 356 Blacon, Melvin C.- ----------------- 356 Blailey, F'rank W. --- —------------- 50 Bairdl, Mrs. D. 1]. --- —------------ 309 luall, Fred. --- —------------------- 194 kannen, Richard --- —-------------- 318 Canton, Edwin R. --- —----------- 394 Banton, George R. --- —----------- 3F9 Barber, Leslie T ------------------- 131 Blarclay, James --- —------------— 6032 Ilaty, James --- —----------------- 324 Baty, Thomas --- —--------------- 284 Blehrenwald, Henry C. --- —------- 594 Bellows, Elliott 0. --- —------------ 256 Bennett, Jeremiah A. --- —--------- 425 tlennett, William R. --- —---------- 422 Bissell, t-:ewis L. --- —------------ 595 Black, Ernest A. --- —------------ 404 lBluetoly, Herman R. --- —--------- 548 Blumberg, Charle-s W. --- —------- 574 Blunmberg, George I. --- —--------- 573 Blogert, Orson --- —--------------- 344 Bollinger, Rev. Samuel ----------- 452 Bower, Horace L., M. D. --- —-36 Bowman, Edward J. --- —-------- 592 Boylan, Natban 0. --- —----------- 204 Bracey, Lewis E. --- —------------ 159 B~ranman, Charles H. --- —---------- 501 Bransan, George --- —------------- 585 Braman, George A. --- —----------- 493 Blrice, John N. --- —-------------- 121 Briggs, Fred D. --- —-------------- 416 Briggs, 0. A. --- —--------------- 667 Brooks, Edgar S. --- —----------- 229 Brown, Jobn M. --- —------------ 590 Itrown, Raymond A. --- —---------- 75 Brown, William A. --- —----------- 312 Bullock, Sid V. --- —------------- 105 Burgess, Charles 0. --- —---------- 657 Butler, Benjamin F. --- —----------- 173 C Cadwell, George W. --- —---------- 160 Campbell, John W. --- —------------ 69 Canis, Clarence_ --- —------------- 507 Carothers, R. Arthur --- —--------— 894 Case, Seymour J. --- —---------- 475 Caswell, Francis S. --- —---------- 115 Chamberlin, Fred J. --- —--------- 111 Chanshers, Mrs. Mary L. (Barber).. 642 Chandler, Chester E. --- —--------- 380 Church, Frank P. --- —----------- 302 Clark, Eli S. --- —---------------- 122 Clark, John W. --- —------------- 196 Clark, WilliamMMM —M ----MMMMMMMMM-474 Clement, Clifton H. --- —---------- 51 Clement, John N. --- —------------ 518 Cliffe,. Thomas J. --- —----------- 417 Closson, Cornelius F. --- —--------- 536 -M I' I;;_ I.

Page  28 BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. Cole, Fred J.... —.. --- —------— __ 39 Collins, Irwin M. ----. --- —------ 540 Collins, John C. ---_ --- —. ----_- 313 Collins, William H. --- —-----— _ 114 Comden, George F. ---_ --- —— _ ---_ 401 Comden, Samuel J.__- -_ --------- 429 Comstock, Jared V. --- —-----—. 570 Cook, Prof. Aral E. ----_ --- —---- 331 Corder, James --------------- 542 Corey, Allen I., M. D. --- —_ ----_ 62 Cornell, George E.-.. -_ --- —-- --- 419 Couchman, George D. --- —----— 4 644 Courter, J. Watson --- —-------- 271 Crandall, E. L. --- -----— __ --- —-- 364 Crawford, Bert C. -------------- 108 Crockett, W. V. --- —------ -— _- 638 Crooks, Thomas G. --- —-------- 427 Cross, Charles I-. —_ --- —----— _ 559 Culver, Chester R. --- —-----— _ 551 Cummings, Edward C._ --- —_ ----_ 67 Cummings Frank F._ --- —--------- 509 Cummings, Otto --- —------— __ — 635 Curtis, Fred E.__ — _ --- —----— _ - 604 Curtis, Lorenzo D. --- —-------— _ 100 Cutler, Roy A.___ --- —--------— _ 270 Ede, Albert E._ —_ —. — Edwards, George --- — -- 1hle, Oscar E. --- —---- Eitelbuss, George W. --- — Eitelbuss, Mrs. Mary S.-_ Ildridge, Bert A. --- —Eldridge, Eli A. ---___ — Emerson, Robert F. ----- Evans, Robert -— _ ---F Farnsworth, Lauriston B._ Fender, John IHt. --— _ — Finnegan, John_ ---—._ Fitzpatrick, John M. -____ Fleck, Roswell —..-___.. French, Charles W. -___Friedt, James W. ----. —. Frisbie, B. Stephen, M. D. Frost, James --- — -_.. - _. Fry, Randall --- —------- Fuller, Thomas F. —__. Fuller, William H. ---. Fults, John C. ---—.G Gaffield, Benson I.. ------ Gaffield, John W. --- —-- Gallagher, William J. ----.Galloup, Prof. Lewis B. —. Galloup, Orland W. --- Gates, Clarence M. --—. Gates, Merton D. --- —.. Gibbs, George R. — _ — Gibbs, Jay H. --- —— _. — Gibbs, Lucius IT. --- —-- Gibson, Frank S. -------- Golden, John A._ ---. --- Gooly, Matthew ------- Goodwin. Andrew B. --- Graham, Byron A. —_.. — Graham, William -------- Grecnhoe, Edwin D. --- —Grill, Martin A. ----. —.Griswold, Warren G. ---_ --- 296 -- - 258.- 269 ---- 383 -- 382 -- 486 -- 228 --- 232 - 411 -- 189. — 209. —407._ 391 ---- 408 — 96.. 199. --- 237 - 633.-,- 462. --- 338. — 265 -- 299 — 480. — 424 235 -- 367.- 373 — 526 --- 472 -- 245 40. — 112. — 607 _ 469 - 337 --- 288 — 461. — 534.- 282 _- 305 - 220 -- 242 D Dailey, James A. --.._ Danforth, Mortimer E., M. D.. Dasef, John W. --- —----—. Davis, Thomas D. ---— __. Davis, William F;. ----. — Dean, Diz W. --- —- _ --- — Dean, Fred L. ----------. Despelter, John C. --- —_ —. DeYoung, Cornelius _ ----._ DcYoung, James --- —- --—. Dickerson. Allen B._ —..... Dickinson, Charles F. ---- Dilley, D. Darwin --- —------ Dolloff, LaForest H. --- Dow, Thomas D., D. D, S.-. Drews, William E. ---- --- Drummond, Clark J... __ Durkee, Ervie E. —__ --- —---- Durst, Jacob W.-. ---- '_ Dyer, Clarence. -.__ ---. --- --- 150 --- 664 --- 560. - 334 -_ _ 358.- 169 -_ 369 -_- 617.- 254 -- 467 - 71.- 119 -_ 650 __ 646.- 247. — 614. --- 213. — 280.-. 290 - 639 Gunther. Fred, Sr.

Page  29 BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. U 1! aack, ('hrist F. --- —------------- 586 Ilailctt, John W ------------------ 116 11 janchett, Joseph ---. --- —--— 352 1 anse n, Carl F. --- —-------------- 283 l 1ansen, Englebrecht --- ---------— 610 H ansen, Frank G. --- —----— 266 Hfansen, Bans --- —---------------- 580 I larsen, Hans I. --- —------------- 581 1 ansen, J. William G., D.- V. S. --- 273 1 hansen, Jens P. --- —------------- -645 1hansen, Lars P. --- —-------------- 267 I-Tansen, Oscar T. --- —------------ 295 H arcly, G. W. --- —---------------- 582 IHarriman, George F. --- —----- 341 h-arris, Willians A. --- —------------ 327 Itlare, Cicero W....... --- —----------— 543 Ilaskiss, James B I. --- —---------- 326 Itatchew, Pbilips J. --- —------- 606 hawley, Charles ------------------ 376 Hleisler, It. EF --- —--------------- 375 llenipstead, Caist. Henry M. --- —80 Henry, Charles EF --- —----------- 126 hiernan, George-. --- —------------ 601 Hlerold, John A. --- —------------- 308 Iterrick, Adelbert A. --- —--------- 368 ht1errick, Charles R.- ------------— 525 I leorrick, XWalter GC --- —----------- 510 Hicks, Charles I. -------------- 556 Iligisee, Cisancellor F. --- —-------- 37-1 filt, Augustns F. --- —------------ 184 ffiller, John N. --- —-------------- 572 It1illis, George T. --- —------------ 451 Huhli, Josepls C. --- —------------- 515 11hillis, Robert J. --- —------------- 443 hlinds, Henry II. --- —------------ 128 Hlinkley, Leon L. --- —------------- 520 flolconmb, Albert J. --- —--------- 445 llolcomh, George W. --- —--------- 444 holmes, Ilarry C. --- —------------ 170 l-onghton, Olon J. --- —---------- 531 Nowell, William E. --- —----------- 436 lioworth, IHarvey E. --- —--------- 336 Hubbard, Melvin C., M. D --- —---- 485 Hulnt, TLyman --- —---------------- 385 Huant, Mortimer A. --- —----------- 523 Ingrabam, Ilenry LI --- —---- ------- 577 Isbam, J. Frank ------------------- 379 Jackson, Tbomas E. --- —Jan-iieson, William C. --- —Jarstfer, Leroy K. --- —--- Jensen, Nicks --------- Johnson, Fred A., M. D. --- -441 -- 172. — 554 -- 300 -'- 666 K Keith, William W.Keirp, Ernest A...... Kennedy, Salem F-. Pient, Silas ------ Ketchum, Serenns D. Kinsball, Jesse B. ---.. Kindell, Edwin J. --- Kipp, Howard C. ----. Ki4.-er, Willians J. -- Kirtland, Horace Lb. — Kittle, F. A. --- —Elees, John ----- Ktees, Joseph ---- Klees, PeterA___ Knapp, Almeron N. —'.. Knapp, James H. ----. Knapp, Orlando J.. —. Ktreeger, Julins ---Krohn, Isaac ----- Krnm, George A.'-, L -330 *398 -178 -654 -42 -553 -624 -253 -456 -167 ----— 405 -505 -505 -497 -538 -205 -316 -463 -123 *468 i 1 i.r tLaDu, Charles W. --- —----------- 203 LaDu, Rev. Stalham W. --- —— 210 ILarsen, Cbris ------------ 634 Lascelle, Joseph M. --- —---------- 238 Lee, ILewis N. --- —---------------- 521 hLester, George H. --- —----------- 568 Lester, Will H., M. D. --- —------- 277 lewis, John ------------- L --- —--— ' 89 Lincoln, Edward W. --- —---------- 620 tLisk, Solomon ------------------ - 323

Page  30 4~~-~1-: LI~~~P — L --— u ----l —l ---- -— 1I-I^ --- —- ---------— --- — BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. Long, Sherman__ ----____ Loper, Marvin I,..__ Lovely, William -......Lower, R. Earl ----... --- Lunn, William P. ---__ — Lutterloh, Henry — _ --- Mc McClellan, Spencer -._McCloskey, J. E. —__ — McConkie, M. J._ ------ McCrea, Jacob,-.. —___. McDonald, Angus H.-_McGowan, John ------— _ McHattie, William-.. --- McNutt, R. D. _ —._ — - 399 _- 627 _- 103 _- 261 -_ 648 _- 208 616 310 613 545 40( 622 384 147 e N N'cf, Jacob M. --- —-_ Neff, Sherman E. --- —.Nelson, Judge Francis_ Nelson, John A._..-.. Nelson, Oscar E. ---. — Neve, Robert ------ _Nevins, Iarlan P.___ —__ Newbrough\ J. C. --- —Newcom)b Solomon B.-_. Ncwhouse, Newton W...Newton, Rudolph --- —-- Nickerson, Charles R..... Noah, Ashcr R.__.-___ Noah, Clarence A. — __ Noah, Joshua I1I. -_ — Noah, Williamm....__ Norton. Bernard ---— __O'Brien, Fred U. —. O'Donald, Albert --- —-- ()'Donald, Richard I-T.... (swald. Simon ----.__ — Otis, Rev. Norman L... P ----—.- 156 -— __-.- 163 -- ----- 598 --------- 307 --— __- 297.. —. _ 404 --------- 437 -. ---_-_ 176 -—.-.- 319 --—.- 55 ----- 626 ------- 502 ---— 46 465 ---—._.- 596 —.-,.- 448.. --- — 304 ---—..- 291 M Mabie, Charles A. --- —- --------- 351 Maddhes, George -1... ---------— '292 Mader, William... — _... ---- ---- - 388 Madison, Albert ---------------- 473 Madsen, John --- —-.- -- ___- 587 Martin, Josiah -----------—.. ---. 550 Marvin, Charles H. --- —------- -641 Mayes, Delbert-. --- —----------- 528 Meach, Charles I. --- —- _ -------- 183 Merrifield, Nicholas C... --- —----- 430 Messenger, Judge Christopher C._ 34 Miel, Judge Iucas M. --------- - 192 Miller, Charles M. —. --- — ------- 140 Miller, George W. --- —-------- 652 Miller, John C. --- —------------ 658 Miller, Noble W., M. D.__-.. — 320 Miller, Oscar C. —. --- —-------- 77 Mills, William H. --- —------- 583 Minard, George I-I. --- ——. ---- - 466 Miner, James. --- —------------- 354 Miner, M. J. --- —---- -------- 348 Miner, Uriah — ----------------- -355 Mitchell, John H. - _ --- —------- 470 Moffatt, Edwin E. --- —---- ---- 275 Moulton, Ralph W. --- —-------- 301 Mulick, Edward G. --- —---------- 272 Musson, Thomas W. --- —- ---- -- 578 332 311 44 298 377 Pakes, Fred A._ ---IParker, Rev. CharlesPaulson, Brede A..__ Peabody, George W. Peck, Ford S. --- —---- Peck, Mrs. Mina_._Peck, Samuel D...... Penny, John L. —_Peterman, William I? Petersen, Peter -— _ Phelps, W. S. --- — Pickell, Fred S. ---Pierce, Harrison --- Pierce, Warren B._.. Pierson, John W. S.Pierson, George J. ---_ Pintler, Raymond A. Platt, Frank -—. —. Platt, Hezekiah-__-. Potter, Thomas J.. —. ---------—.. 662 ----— _-1-. 148 -— 1 ----_ --- 198. ---- 6 --- —-- 621 --— 1 ---- 361 -_ —...... 361. ----. ---- (60) ----—... 285 [. — __-.... — 447 ----------- 264 -------—.- 629 ------------ 286 --------- 342 --------- __ 530 ---------- 136. ---- f 651 ----.. ---- 481 _ ---. — -.- 494 ---—.___ 496 ------ 73

Page  31 BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. Preston, Hubert S. ----------- 222 Prevette, George C. — ----— _- - 154 Prout, J. H. -----------------— 109 P'ugsley, William H. --- —-----—. 488 Purdon, James, M. D. ----------— 547 Q Quigg, John ------------------- 263 R Rader, Henry ------------------- 383 Ranney, Ellis W. --- —---------- 143 Ranney, Frederick E. ----------- 47 Rasmusen, Willard C. --- —---- -— 647 Rasmussen; Nels P. --- —-------- 294 Rasmussen, William E.. --- —------ 152 Reader, Fred B. --- —--------------- 589 Reed, David C. --- —------------ 611 Reynolds, Claire C. --- —--------- 660 Reynolds, John ---.. --- —--------— 293 Rice, I larvey W. -------- - 76 Richards, Charles S. --- —------ 187 Richardson, Albert A. --- —. --- —- 374 Ridley, James T. -.. --- —--- 79 Riley, Charles W. --- —--------- 260 Robinson, James W. --- —------— 597 Rowland, Oren A. --- —-----—.- 281 Rowley, Edwin S. --- —--------- 603 Rule, Zacharias D. ----------—. - 230 Russell, A. Noah ------------- - 104 Rutan, Eugene ----------------- 33 Rutan, Manning. --- —--- ------ 48 Rutherford, Ernest A. ----------- 268 S St. Clair, Marshall A. --- —-----— 514 Sanford, Otis A. --- —---------- 226 Sayles, Cyrenius C., M. D. --- —--- 512 Schermerhorn, Lucius B. --- —----- 393 Schroder, Martin --- —------------ 262 Serviss, John H. --- —-—. ----— _- 141 Sexton, William H., Jr. --- —----- 434 Sheehan, Rev. John J. --- —----- 135 Sherd, Marshall D. --- —--------- 362 Sherwood, Charles 0. ----------- 517 Sherwood, Mrs. Emma C. --- —-- 347 Shook, A. N. ------------------- 195 Silver, Bert C. E. --- —------------ 90 Siple, George W. --- —--------- 322 Skarritt, Alfred F. --- —--------- 124 Skeoch, J. E. --- —----------------- 207 Slawson, Earle B. --- —----------- 98 Smith, Herman W. --- —--------— 395 Smith, Rayburn B., M. D. --- —---- 218 Smith, William B. --- —--------- 175 Snow, Bert R. --- —------------- 628 Spangler, Benjamin L. --- —-------- 340 Spencer, John P. --- —-------- - 454 Squire, Eli --- —---------------- 387 Staines, William J. --- ----------- 618 Starr, Harry C. --- —-------- 637 Stearns, Alfred L. --- —----------- 53 Stearns, Wesley J. --- ---------- 240 Stebbins, Allen E. -------------- 106 Stebbins, Arthur M. --- —------- 118 Stebbins, Chester H. --- —-------- 328 Stebbins, Ensign B. --- —-------- 224 Steere, Joseph B. --- —----------- 409 Steere, William M. --- —--------- 439 Stevens, Frank A. --- —--------- 535 Stevenson, Morris W. --- —------ 60 Stoddard, Elmer E. --- —------- — 132 Stokes, Edgar A. ----------- 615 Stone, Albert 0. ------- 498 Stone, Luther R. --- —---------- 656 Strait, John B. --- —---------- — 216 Strait, William E. --- —---------- 495 Summers, S. Clay --- —---------- 631 Sutton, Samuel --- —------------ 412 Swarthout, Charles --- —----------- 215 Swarthout, Scott - ------------ 162 Sweet, Clarence A. --- —--------- 249 T Tallman, W. A. ---------—. ---- 655 Taylor, Arthur J. —. --- —-------- 83 Taylor, Frank A. -------------- 413 Taylor, H. W. --- ------------ 151 Taylor, J. Philo, D. D. S. --- —--- 133 Taylor, J. W. --- —---- -------— 278 Teed, Lemuel J. --- — --------- 490 Thurlby, John F. --- —---------- 513 Tower, R. J. --- —- -------- -— 134 Towle, Delos A. --- —------------- 57 Train, James K. --- —----------- 144

Page  32 111 - - - BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. U Urie, James W. --- —-- V Verplanck, James H._ W Wagar, Hon. Edgar S. Wagar, Harry E.. —_. Waldo, Otto C. --- —-- Wandel, John H. ---Wanink, William W.Ward, Lewis -------—. Warts, William O. — Waters, David L. ---Weeks, Clair W. ---Wheeler, Wilson-__ White, Charles M. --- —Wickes, George P. —... Williamson, Francis G.. Wilson, George M. ---.Wilson, Oscar W. ----. Winter, Thomas B...... Wood, William A. ---. Woods, Joseph.__ —__Worden, Adelbert --- —. Worden, Thomas W.64 Wright, Cass T.__-. 38 Wright, Will L._ --- —. 201 Wyckoff, F. M. ---—. — ------ 363 ----- 636 ----- 186.. ---- 458. --- — 414 ------ 177 _ --- — 432. ---.- 558 ---- 588. --- — 623.- 45. ---. 233 -_ --- 274 iyu 593 181 508 306 88 649 Y Youdan, J. Claude- -- Young, Ammon E. T.Young, John P., M. D._ Youngman, Niel H... 315 477 492 567

Page  33 I -. -. —' ----i ----r-:. —:-~~... —I:,,....,;_ HISTORICAL ('-HAPTEIR I. GEOLOGICAL AND PI'IYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS. The surface of Montcalm county, which. is extremely varied, is covered by many small streams and lakes. Originally, it was covered by dense forests of pine, with some hardwood timber interspersed here and there, but these monarchs of the forests have almost altogether disappeared and in their place arc hundreds of fertile farms that produce the good things of the earth. The farmer has taken the place of the lumberman and the plow that of the axe. From Bloomer township, which stands about one hundred and fifty feet alo)ve the level of the Great Lakes, the surface rises to the height of three hundred and fifty feet above the same level in Home, Belvidere, Cato and Winfield townships. The city of Greenville has an altitude of two hundred and fifty feet above Lake Michigan, which is somewhat less perhaps than the general level of the county. The princilpal streams of the county are Flat river, Little Muskegon and Pine rivers, Tamarack and Fish creeks. The first rises in Six Lakes and other lakelets and streams in the northern part of the county and in the southern part of Mecosta county, and, flowing through Belvidere, D)ouglass, Pine, Montcalm and Eureka townships, affords considerable mill power which at different times has been utilized to some extent. The Little Muskegon and Tlamarack creek, its tributary, flow through Cato, Winfield and Reynolds townships. Pine river, in Richland, and Fish creek, in Day, Evergreen, Crystal and Bloomer townships, flow to the southeast while passing through the county and finally mingle their waters, the former with those of the Saginaw river and Lake Huron, the latter with the Maple and Grand rivers and Lake Michigan. The lakes of Montcalm are numerous, there being more than one hun(3)

Page  34 ------------------— ' rr I 34 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. dred and sixty in number. The principal ones are Crystal and Duck lakes in Crystal township; Rock and Bass lakes in Richland; Tamarack lake in Cato; Town-Line lake between Cato and Belvidere; and White Fish lake in Pierson. FIRST CORRECTION LINE. Montcaln county possesses one peculiarity in the first correction line. This line, in its course across the lower peninsula, parallel to and north sixty miles from the base line, passes between townships TO and II north, or through the center of Montcalm county, from east to west. The necessity of this U(d of other correction lines will be perceived when it is remembered that if north and south lines are true meridians they will not be parallel, but will approach one another or converge toward the north. Tn fact, if continued sufficiently far, they would meet in one point at the North Pole. The convergence in a single township is small, though quite perceltille, the actual excess in length of its south over its north line being, in Michigan, about three rods. The townships north of the base line. therefore, become narrower than the six miles width with which they commence, by that amount, and those south of it become as much wider than six miles. I f continued too great a distance this narrowing or widening would cause serious inconvenience, and to obviate this effect of the curvature of the earth's surface it is found necessary to establish, at stated intervals, standard parallels commonly called correction lines. These are usually sixty miles apart, though in some localities it has been found convenient to establish them nearer together. Michigan has five correction lines, all north of the base line; the first, as before mentioned being the one which passes through Montcalm county. On these parallels, which form new base lines, fresh measurements are made from the principal meridian, and the corners of new townships are fixed six miles apart as on the original base line. This method of procedure not only takes up the error due to convergency of meridians but checks and arrests errors which from want of precision or carelessness, are likely to occur in the surveys already made. The effects of running the first correction lines will be noticed by referring to any outline map 6f Montcalm county. Its position is indicated bv the offset which commences there in the north and south lines. Thus the east lines of Ferris and Richland townships are carried nearly half a mile to the westward of the line which forms the eastern boundary of Bloomer and Crystal townships, and these offsets continue on the same line to Iake Michigan.

Page  35 - ----- -—.I-.. _ MONTCAI.M COUNTY, MICHIGAN. ROCK FORMATIONS. In the southern peninsula of Michigan the rock formations present less variety of features than in the northern peninsula, and are much less open to view, because of the greater thickness of the glacial deposits. None of the rock formations il the southern peninsula have been subjected to such upheaval and folding as characterize the formations in the western part of the northern peninsula. They all lie in nearly horizontal position with a gentle (lip toward the center,f the peninsula. The beds of shale, sandstone and limestone which outcrop in the eastern part of the northern peninsula, also dip toward the center of the southern peninsula, and pass beneath the beds which form the surface of that peninsula. The rock formations of the southern peninsula range in age from the upper part of the Silurian, through the Devonian, to the lower part of the ('arboniferous, and consist of a series of limestone, shale and sandstone beds with which are associated deposits of coal, gypsum and salt, each in its o\\n particular horizons. The arrangement of the several formations has been likened to the piling up of plates or saucers in a series of diminishing size, and diminishing amount of dishing from bottom to top. The uppermost and youngest formation, though resting on those which precede it in age, does not stand above some of the outlying parts. The rock formations in Montcalm county belong to those of the Carboniferous age and to the particular division known as the Saginaw formation. The surface formations in Montcalm county include the moraines, both landlaid and waterlaid, bowlder-clay plains, outwash plains and sandy drift. There is a fringe, slightly less than six miles wide, beginning in the southeastern corner of the county and gradually tapering off to the extreme northeastern corner, of bowlder-clay plains or till plains which were formed under the ice sheet. The soil ranges from clayey to sandy loam and from first-rate to good second-rate quality. North of Carson City, however, this fringe is broken by a strip of outwash plains where the sand or gravel was spread out by water escaping from the ice sheet. Here the soil is usually light and requires intelligent cultivation. There is also a narrow strip of outwash plains between the two moraines, one west of the bowlder-clay plains already referred to, and the other just east of Stanton and extending north and south throughout the entire length of the county. Still a third outwash plain is bounded roughly on the east by the Grand Rapids & Indiana railroad and extends west to the county line.

Page  36 rrc*-. :1~~ i-r 36 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. TERMINAL MORAINES. Two of the principal moraines of Montcalm county have already been referred to. The Montcalm county moraines, which are landlaid altogether, consist of rolling or gently undulating glacial deposits formed at the border of the ice sheet. The soil is quite variable within a short space and ranges from very stony material to heavy clay with a few stones and is usually fair to very good farm land. There is one moraine of this character which is bounnded roughly by a line drawn from Greenville to Gowen and tapering almost to a point by straight lines some three or four miles north of the Montcalm county correction line. Another moraine lies in the northern part of Pine and the southern part of Cato townships. A strip running through Stanton, north and south, four or five miles wide at the southern line of the county and tapering to the width of the city of Stanton, then gradually broadening out to the northwest to the Pere Marquette railroad, consists of bowlder-clay plains, already described. Besides all these formations, there are several areas west and northwest of Stanton, consisting of sandy drift, or sandy deposits not definitely formed as outwash from the ice border, and in part deposited under the ice. The soil of these areas is variable but usually is second rate. Areas of this character may be found in the western part of Douglass township, in Pine township, in the southern part of Cato and in Maple Valley township. HOWV THE GLACIAL DRIFTS WERE FORMED. The glacial drift which covers so deeply much of the rock surface of the southern peninsula consists of a more or less commingled mass of boulders and small stones in a sandy or clayey matrix, though it differs greatly in constitution and texture from place to place. It was brought in largely, if not wholly, by an ice sheet or continental glacier which moved southwestward from the highlands of Canada across the several Great Lakes basins, carrying in it the earthy and stony material gathered from the loose surface material of the districts over which it was moving. The Canadian highlands were thus extensively denuded of soil and subsoil, while the district south of the Great Lakes was correspondingly enriched by the glacial action. The average thickness of the drift in the southern peninsula is about three hundred feet. There are places near the border of Lake Michigan where the drift is known to exceed six hundred feet.

Page  37 - - -T r —i-r-5 m r w MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 37 Places in the high interior of the north part of the peninsula may have over one thousand feet. There is evidence that the drift of this peninsula is not the product of a single ice invasion, but instead, of two or more invasions, between which were long perio(ls of warm climate such as prevails today. Between the deposits of glacial material are soils and peat beds and other indications of the presence of vegetation such as would thrive under a genial climate. Among the most prominent of the topographic features are the belts of rolling or hummocky surfaced drift called moraines, which have already been discussed. These belts have been followed in some cases for scores and even hundreds of miles in their broad sweep around the basins of the Great Lakes, and across other districts. They were formed at places where the edge of the ice held a nearly constant position for a long period, and, 1w a continual advance to this line, brought in the material which furnished the irregular surfaced moraines. The uneven surface of the moraines is probably due largely to differences in the dirtiness of the ice. The dirtiest parts upon melting would furnish the material for the hummocks, while the cleanest parts would fall short of building up the surface and leave corresponding depressions. It is probable also that some inequality of surface is due to disturbances of material by the ice movement. \WTith the exception of a small area in the southwestern part of Montcalm countv, where the altitude is from six hundred to eight hundred feet, the altitude of the county varies from eight hundred to one thousand feet above sea level. TEMPERATURES MODIFIED BY TIHE LAKES. The climate of the lower peninsula of Michigan is insular to a marked degree on account of the Great Lakes. Large bodies of water tend to equalize the nearby land temperatures, and this is especially true of the lower peninsula, where the effect of the great cold waves sweeping down from the northwest is modified by the warmer water of the Great Lakes, the movement of these anti-cyclones, or cold waves, is often deflected by the great bodies of water. The effect of the Great Lakes, particularly that of Lake Michigan, in modifying the temperature effect of cold anti-cyclones and warm cyclonic storms, makes for lower Michigan a more equable and less extreme climate than obtains in the states of similar latitude on the other side of Lake Michigan. This influence is very marked in the immediate vicinity of Lake. v.

Page  38 38 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Michigan, although apparent in all parts of the lower peninsula. In Wisconsin winter temperatures have frequently continued from ten to twenty degrees lower during periods of extreme cold weather than in lower Michigan, owing to the warming influence of the lake which intervenes between the two. In spring the influence of Lake Michigan particularly, and all of the Great Lakes in general, is of untold value in modifying the eastward sweep of early hot waves and late cold waves. In summer the refreshing southwest to west winds are making the entire shore bordering on Lake Michigan one continuous summer resort. EXTREMES OF TEMPEl. RATURE. Tlhe January mean temperature for a period from I886 to [9rI, in Montcalm county, varies from 22 to 23 degrees, while the July mean temperature varies from 69 to 72 degrees. The mean annual temperature of lower Michigan as a whole is about 46 degrees, ranging from 49 degrees in the extreme southwestern part to 42 degrees in the extreme northeasterly portion. The average mininmum or day templerature ranges from about 82 degrees in summer to 28 degrees in winter, while the average minimum or night temperature in summer is approximately 57 degrees and 12 degrees in winter. The highest known temperature in Montcalm county from 1886 to 19T1, was IoO degrees and the lowest known temperature during this period was 26 degrees below zero. Michigan is seldom visited by tornadoes. The most destructive storms of this character occurred on May 25, I896, in Oakland county and at Orner, Arenac county, on May 24, 1897. In recent years the most destructive tornado occurred at Owosso on November II, 1911, and at the very unusual hour of about eleven p. m. Long heated spells in summer or abnormally protracted cold ones in winter are very unusual. Historical ones occurred in the summer of 19II and the winter of I899. The continued high temperatures prevailing during the latter part of June, in I9TI, were phenomenal and had never before been equalled as far as length of time is concerned. On the other hand, the phenomenal cold weather which occurred (luring February, I8'99, marked the longest period of low temperature known. A strong factor in determining the continued cold of February, I899, was the freezing over, or rather the covering with fields of rubble ice, of Lake Michigan, thus forming a bridge instead of a barrier for the advance of the northwestern cold wave that crossed the northern states that month.

Page  39 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 39 THI GROWING SEASON. As a rule, destructive frosts do not occur after May 15 in the spring, nor earlier than September 30 in the fall. Over a large part of the southern peninsula killing frosts do not occur until October I. This gives an average of one hundred and forty-five days, or nearly five months, when, under average conditions, there will be no destructive frosts. Except for a small part of the extreme western part of Montcalm county and a tip in the extreme northeastern part, the average date of the last killing frost in the spring is May 5. The average date of the first killing frost in the fall varies from October 5, in the extreme southwestern part of Montcalm county, to September 30, in the extreme northeastern part. The average length of the crop-growing season in Montcalm county varies from one hundred and fifty to one hundred and sixty days. The prevailing winds for the greater part of the year are from the west and the average hourly velocity ranges from twelve and one-half miles per hour in March and April to a minimum of about nine miles per hour in August and September. The wind is mostly from the west and southwest during the first three months of the year and from June to December; while the prevailing direction is mostly southwesterly during the months of April and May, quite a large period, but less than a majority of the time, the surface movement of the air is from the east and northeast. Maximum velocities of short duration ranging from twenty-five to forty miles an hour occur during most months of the year and velocities from forty to sixty miles an hour are not uncommon but rather infrequent. Extreme velocities of sixty miles an hour and over are of comparatively rare occurrence; at Grand Rapids the wind velocity has exceeded sixty miles but twice in the last nine years. Winds are more variable during the cooler half of the year. At all seasons the southerly winds are usually warm and moist, the northerly winds cold and dry. The easterly winds usually herald unsettled weather, the westerly winds fair and settled conditions. Owing to the fact that the prevailing summer winds are southwesterly, the shore of Lake Michigan from the southern limits of the state northward is rapidly becoming one continuous summer resort, where much relief can be found during the hot months; the water breezes are refreshing, especially at night, and insure greater comfort than can be obtained at any point inland.

Page  40 T;BT1"7 -—.- - -- — ~" —..-. —i -.-XI ---- 40 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. RAINFALL OF MONTCALM COUNTY. Agriculture, as adapted to most any part of the United States, requires from twenty to twenty-four inches of annual precipitation properly distributed as a minimum amount to grow successful crops without irrigation. A well distributed annual amount varying from twenty-six to thirty inches is ample for successful agriculture, while amounts exceeding thirty inches, if well distributed, are not injurious to the class of crops grown in Michigan, unless more than forty inches a year. The average annual precipitation, which includes melted snow, hail, sleet and rain, is greatest in the extreme southern part of the state and least in the northern part. The general average for the entire peninsula is approximately thirty inches. The average annual precipitation for Montcalm county, based on observations made from I886 to I9II, is from thirty to thirty-five inches. The average monthly precipitation in Montcalm county in no month is less than two inches and varies from two inches in January and February to nearly three and one-half inches in May and June. It is slightly less than three inches for July, about two and one-half inches for August, two and three-fourths inches for September, two and one-half inches for October, two and three-fourths inches for November and two and one-third inches for December. Since the long and intense general drought of 1894-95, there has been no serious droughts in the state. Previous to 1894 moderately severe droughts had occurred in Michigan in s88I and 1887. The sunshine will average somewhat over fifty per cent. of the possible amount, the percentage being much higher (luring the period extending from May to the middle of October, than luring the winter nonths. During December, January and Iebruary it sometimes falls as low as twenty per cent. of the possible amount, while during June, July, August and September it exceeds sixty and sometimes seventy per cent. of the possible amount. As a rule, July is the sunniest month and IDecember the cloudiest. COAL DEPOSITS. Observations of the state geologist show that coal measures underlie the surface deposits in Montcalm county. No wells penetrate formations deeper than the coal measures in the group of counties southwest and west of Saginaw bay, including Montcalm county, and there is therefore no direct knowledge of the character and thickness of the deeper lying forma

Page  41 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 4I tions. Records of deep wells at Grand Rapids, Mt. Pleasant, Alma, St. [ohns, Delta and Charlotte, however, indicate the general geologic conditions obtaining in Montcalm county. Tt is very probable that gypsum and coal deposits exist in Montcalm county. Marl or )og lime is known to exist in a number of places, but under present conditions marl deposits do not have any considerable economic value. Tt is quite possible that in the near future marl deposits will be developed for agricultural purposes. TYPES OF SOIL. The classifications of soil for Montcalm county, herewith presented, merely sets forth the general classes of glacial deposits such as are evident to anyone without the pains necessary for a close analysis. Observations have seemed sufficiently complete, however, to form a basis for the estimates for the relative amounts of sandy and gravelly land given in the tables. The gravelly loam appears in river terraces and has been reworked by streams. The sand is found in both glacial areas and alluvial tracts. The sandy loam is in some cases glacial and in other cases alluvial, but in Michigan it is ordinarily glacial and more or less pebbly. The fine sandy and silty loam is widely represented in the ordinary till plain, the silty phase being classed as clavey till. The following table shows in detail the surface formations in Montcahnlm county: Swamp Clayey Sandy Gravelly Sections. Area and lake till till Sandy loam sections. sections. sections. sections. sections. sections. T. 12, R. 5 W --- —-- 36 3 3 22 8 -- T. T2, R. 6 W --- —---- 36 3 9 2I 3 - T. I2, R. 7 W --------- 36 6 13 17 -- -- T. T2, R. 8 W --------- 36 3 8 21 4 -- T. I2, R. 9 VW --- —- -— 36 I 8 I8 9 -- T. i2, R. io W ------ 36 -- I I 32 2 T. ii, R. io W --- —- 36 4 15 7 6 4 T. ii, R. 9 W ------ -— 36 -- I2 I6 8 -- T. I, R. 8 W --------- 36 -- 4 20 -- I2 T. II, R. 7 W- ----- 36 2 4 22 -- 8 T. I, R. 6 W --------- 36 -- I8 I5 3 -- T. I I, R. 5 W -------- 36 I I3 I8 4 -- -:""'

Page  42 _ _1__ _ ___ _ _ C I__~ 42 Sections. T. o, R. 5 W_ T. to, R. 6 WT. io, R. 7 W_T. iO, R. 8 W_ T. 9 R. 8 W-__ T. 9, R. 7 N — T. 9, R. 6 W__ T. 9, R. 5 W\ — Total MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Swanmp Clayey Sandy Area and lake till till sections. sections. sections. sections. ---- 36 4 I2 14 ----- 36 2 8 20 - 36 2 T( 14 ---- 36 3 3 20 ---- 36 2 6 22 ----- 36 2 Io 20 -- 36 2 24 4 ---- 36 2 28 Gravelly Sandy loam sections. sections. 6 - 6 -- 2 6 4 6 6 IO 720 42 217 312 II3 36 The total area of Mlontcalm county, including lakes and embracing 720 sections, is 7To square miles, while the whole number of farms in the county is 4,678. The average value of the land per acre, which is devoted to agriculture, is $26.44. Altogether, there are 613.9 square miles in frirms, or 84.8 per cent. The total farm land improved amounts to 67.8 per cent., while the per cent. of all land improved amounts to 57.5 per cent. The principal crops of Montcalm county, as given by the state geologist, are hay, potatoes, corn, oats, rye, wheat and Ieans, namted in the order of their importance. These figrures, however, are taken from the T910 census and are not dependable at this time. The undeveloped land in IMontcaln county is chiefly in sandy plains, the more productive land being under profitable cultivation.

Page  43 CHAPTER 11. ORGANIZATION OF MONTCALM COUNTY. 'The pcoplc of Michigan adopted their first Constitution in 1835, preparatory to the admission of the territory into the Union as a state, but this first Constitution was rejected by Congress and in December, I836, a 'second Constitution was adopted and this was accepted. The territory of Michigan was formally admitted to the Union by act of January 26, 1837, with the capital at Detroit and the boundaries reduced to approximately the present limits of the state. A small strip of land, covering about six hundred square miles, and embracing the present city of Toledo, Ohio, was claimed by both;Michigan and Ohio. By the terms of a compromise which subsequently settled the dispute, Miichigan received the upper peninsula in exchange for the territory in dispute. In 1847 the seat of the state government was moved to Lansing, then a dense wilderness. Three years later a third Constitution i was adopted. Michigan derives its name from an Indian word meaning "great lake." The first settlement was probably made on the Detroit river in I650 by the French, a temlxlrary mission having been previously established at Sault Ste. Marie in I64T by the French priests, Joques and Raymbault. The territory was subsequently colonized by the French and ceded to the British, together with Canada, by the treaty of Paris in I763. By the treaty of 1783, Michigan became a part of the United States, but it was not fully surrendered until I796. On August 6, 1796, a proclamation was issued by General St. Clair, governor of the Northwest territory, by which he organized the county of Wayne, a county which included the northwest part of Ohio, the northeast part of Indiana and the whole of Michigan-which then included a part of 'Wisconsin. When the territory of Indiana was organized, on May 7, 1800, out of the Northwest territory, the eastern boundary line of Indiana territory was extended northward through the middle of the lower peninsula to the straits of Mackinaw, while the eastern part of Michigan continued a part of the Northwest territory. On January II, 1805, the territory of Indiana was divided and the territory of Michigan created. The first meeting held to organize the government of the new territory assembled at Detroit on

Page  44 i I -Z.";- I 44 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. July 4, 1805, the twenty-ninth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. Until after the close of the WVar of 1812 no further action was taken with regard to the organization of counties. On November 21, 1815, Governor Cass reorganized Wayne county by an executive act and made the boundaries to include all the lands within the territory of Michigan to which the Indian title had been extinguished. By an act of the Legislative Council of the territory of Michigan, approved March 2, I83T, Montcalm and several other counties were given definite limits. Section 7 of this act provided: "That the country included within the following limits, to wit: West of the line between ranges 4 and 5, east of the line between ranges 8 and 9 west, south of the line between townships I2 and 13, and north of the line between townships 8 and 9 north, containing sixteen townships, be, and the same is hereby set off into a separate county by the name of Montcalm." TIE FIRST SETTLERS. At that time no township lines had as yet been surveyed, nor had the government, by treaty with the Indians, acquired title to all the lands so described. After an interval of about nine years, during which Montcalm county was attached to St. Joseph, Kalamazoo and Kent counties, it was finally, by an act of the state Legislature approved on April I, I840, formally attached to Ionia county. Settlers came into the new territory very fast, and the population grew from year to year. Among these first settlers were John Green, Josiah Russell, Thomas H. Myers, Stephen H. Warren, Rosecrans K. Divine, W\estbrook Divine, Luther Lincoln, George Gibson, Anson Ensign, EIthan Satterlee, Frederick W. Worden, Ananias Worden, Elihu Fortner, Samuel D. Barr, Edward Petty, Lyman H. Pratt, I-. N. Stinson, Josiah Bradish and Volney Belding. These sturdy pioneers found it extremely difficult to make the journey to the then distant seat of Ionia county, to which it was necessary to go for transaction of any official business, and soon became very insistent for the organization of a separate township. On March I9, I845, Montcalm township was formed by act of the state Legislature and was defined to embrace all territory designated by the United States survey as Montcalm county except townships 9 and io, north of range 5 west, which had been previously attached to North Plains township, in Ionia county. By this act Montcalm township was attached to lonia county for election, judicial and taxation purposes. The act fixed

Page  45 ~;i " =-~~ -- r r~ — ~ —~y-rs-~ MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 45 the first official meeting place of the township at the house of Anson Ensign. It was here that the electors of the township met on April 7, 1845. The board of elections consisted of Stephen H. Warren, moderator; George Gibson, Josiah Russell, Ethan Satterlee and Rosecrans K. Divine, inspectors, and Josiah Russell and Rosecrans K. Divine, clerks. Thirtysix electors who appeared at this meeting chose the following officials: Frederick W. Worden, supervisor: Josiah Russell, township clerk; Rosecrans K. Iivine, treasurer; George Gibson, Stephen F. Warren, John Green and Elihu Fortner. justices of the peace; Samuel B. Barr and Ethan Satterlee, assessors; Westbrook Divine, Edward Petty, Lyman H. Pratt, commissioners of highwvays; H. N. Stinson, Josiah Bradish, Ananias Worden, school inspectors; Volney Belding, Josiah Bradish, directors of the poor, and Henry S. Halford, Jonathan Gould, Lorenzo Whitney and Lyman H. Pratt, constables. It is rather remarkable that of the thirty-six present at the first township election, nineteen of this number were elected to office and two of the nineteen were chosen to fill two offices each. FIRST ASSESSMENT FOR TAXATION. In I846 the real estate of Montcalm township was valued at $29,945.28, and this plroperty paid a county tax of $209.62 and a state tax of $74.86. Ananias \Vorden succeeded Frederick W. Worden as supervisor in I846 and he was succeeded by Josiah Russell in I847. Russell was succeeded by Rosecrans K. D)ivine in 1849. In this connection, the basis of the assessment of property for taxation in 1850, the first levy made by the board of supervisors after the organization of Montcalm county, is interesting. At this meeting, held at Greenville, on April 9, 1850, the following rates of assessment were agreed upon: "Wild land, ten shillings per acre; improvement, ten shillings per acre; good house, like A. French's, $125; ditto, like Becker's, $75; ditto, like Green's, $50; good barn, $25; good span of horses, $25; good yoke of oxen, $Io; good wagon, $io; good cow, $4; good two-year-old steer, $2; good two-year-old colt, $4; good sheep, 25c.; good double saw-mill, $400; good single saw-mill, $30o0." By an act of the Michigan Legislature, approved on March 20, I850, Montcalm county began an independent career as one of the political units of this commonwealth. By this act, however. Montcalm county was made a part of Ionia county for judicial purposes and it was also left attached to Ionia county for the purpose of electing a representative in the state

Page  46 46 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Legislature. A temporary county seat was fixed within the present limits of Eureka township at what came to be the city of Greenville, but the act specifically provided for the permanent location of the seat of justice by the supervisors elected ten years later, inll- 860. Montcalm county, no doubt, was named for Louis Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm de Saint Veran, a distinguished French officer who was born near Nimes, February 28, 1712, and was killed in the defense of Quebec, September 14, I759. THE ENABLING ACT. A complete copy of the enabling act by which Montcalm county was formally organized is presented herewith: "Section I. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the state of Michigan, That the county of MXontcalm shall be organized, and the inhabitants thereof entitled to all the rights and privileges to which )y law the inhabitants of the other organized counties of this state are entitled. "Sec. 2. That all suits, prosecutions and other matters now pending before any court of record in Ionia county, or before any justice of the peace in said county, or that shall be pending at the time of the taking effect of this act, shall be prosecuted to final judgment and execution; and all taxes heretofore levied and now due shall be collected in the same manner as though the county of Montcalm had not been organized. "Sec. 3. There shall be elected in the said county of Montcalm oI the first Monday of April, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty, all the several county officers to which by law the said county is entitled; and said election shall in all respects be conducted and held in the manner prescribed by law for holding elections for county and state officers: Provided, That until such county officers are elected and qualified the proper county officers of the county of Ionia shall perform all the duties appertaining to said county of Montcalm, in the same manner as though this act had not been passed: And, Provided further, That the cotmunty officers so to be elected shall be qualified and enter upon the duties of their respective offices on or before the fifteenth day of April, one thousand eight hundred and fifty. "Sec. 4. The board of canvassers in said county, under this act, shall consist of the presiding inspectors of elections from each township therein, and said inspectors shall meet at the county seat of said county at the time appointed by law for the county canvass, and immediately after the election

Page  47 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 47 authorized in the third section of this act, and organize by appointing one of their number chairman and another secretary of said board, and shall thereupon procced to discharge all the duties of a board of county canvassers as in ordinary cases of election for county and state officers. "Sec. 5. That the county of Montcalm, when so organized, and the coulntv of lonia shall constitute one representative district, and the election returns of said district shall be made at the county seat of the county of Ionia. "Sec. 6. The circuit court for the county of Ionia shall have the same jurisdiction over the said county of Montcalm that it would have had this act not been passed, until otherwise provided by law. "Sec. 7. 'I'hat it shall be the duty of the sheriff of said county of lMontcalm to provide some suitable place for holding courts in said county, at the county seat thereof, until public buildings shall be erected. "Sec. 8. That the county seat of the said county of Montcalm shall ie, and the same is hereby, fixed and established on the northeast quarter of the northeast quarter of section sixteen, in township number nine north, range number eight west, until the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty, and until the same shall be permanently located as hereinafter pro\idedl; and the sulervisors elected for the year eighteen hundred and sixty in said cotuntv shall have the power, and it shall be their duty, to permanentlv locate the county seat of said county: Provided, That the inhabitants of the county shall not le taxed for the erection of county buildings until the permanent location of the county seat is made, as provided in section eight of this act. "Sec. 9. Ihis act shall take effect and be in force from and after its passage. "Approved. March 20, 1850." THIE FIRST E.LECTION. According to the provisions of this act, the voters of four townships, Bushnell, Fureka, 1'airplain and Montcalm, met at the polls on Monday, April i, 850o, and elected county officials. The returns from Fairplain township, consisting of 53 votes, were thrown out because of irregularities and in the three remaining townships a total of 133 votes were cast. Of these votes, Josiah Russell received 129 for county judge and Ethan Satterlee 12o for second judge. Stephen H. Warren was elected probate judge over 1. Fifield, receiving 122 votes to Fifield's 4. Enos T. Peck was..::;

Page  48 ;3 --- 1 __ _ 48 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. chosen county clerk. Gibson S. Fargo was elected the first sheriff, receiving 125 out of 126 votes cast for this office. For county clerk, Henry M. Moore was elected, receiving 87 votes to 35 cast for Ananias Worden, and 4 for Hlenry WV. Moore. John Porter was the only candidate for county treasurer. Newcomb J. Ireland was elected register of deeds over Hiram H. Slawson, receiving 85 votes to Slawson's 36. For county surveyor, Josiah Bradish received 122 votes and Josiah Russell I. For county coroners, (hauncey Olnlsted received TI9 and John Green I26. Rosecrans K. Divine, of Eureka township, Volney Belding, of Montcalmn township, and Rufus K1. Moore, of Fairplain township, were elected members of the board of supervisors. COUNTY BOARD OF SUPERVISORS. At the first meeting of the Montcaln county board of supervisors, held at Greenville, \pril 9, I85o, all the members of the board were present. The board appointed the "public house of Morton Shearer at Greenville as a place for holding the county courts of Montcalm county, and a bargain was accordingly made by the sheriff with Mr. Shearer for the use of his house for said purpose at one dollar per day." At this meeting the first certificate of the killing of a wolf in Montcalm county was presented by Hiram Rossman, of EIureka township, and a bounty of $8 allowed Rossman. Between I850 and the close of I860, a total of $1,320 was paid in bounties for the killing of 23T wolves. Many of these bounties were paid to Indians. The second rleeting of the board of supervisors was held on April I7, 1850, attended by R. K. Divine, of Elureka, Volney Belding, of Montcalm, R. K. lMoore, of F.airplain, and C. W. Olmsted, of Bushnell. After the reading of the minutes of the first meeting, the chairman and clerk of the board were authorized to issue county orders, bearing interest from (late. "to the amount necessary to pay the expenses of the county up to the mid(le of October next." It seems that Daniel Munger having declined to furnish the necessary books for the county, the clerk of the board was directed to order books from A. S. Bagg, of Detroit. The board of supervisors also authorized the chairman and clerk to procure a county seal. At the third meeting of the board, held on October 14, I850, the following claims were allowed: E. R. Powell, for printing county orders, $9: A. Monroe, for going to Ionia for books, $2; I. Russell, freight on county books, $7.50; A. Roosa, serving notices on supervisors, $2. On the

Page  49 _. _1__ I __~?~ _ _____1_ MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 49 next day other accounts were audited and allowed as follows: G. S. Fargo, $5.50; Morton Shearer, $8; S. H. Warren, $1.75; A. S. Bagg, $130.25; John Porter. treasurer, $7; E. B. Burrington, $3.54; R. K. Divine, $12.25; C. W. Olmisted, $10.74;; R. 1K. Moore, $9.12, and J. Russell, service as judge, $1. The county clerk of lonia county was allowed $20 for his services for acting also as clerk of Montcalm county. The journal of the board of supervisors shows that there was raised by taxation in Montcalll county in T85o for state putrposes, $80.44, and for county purposes, $350. Another entry in the journal of the board of supervisors shows the valuation of taxable property in the several townships of Montcalm county for I85o, together with the apportionment of state and county taxes to the different townships for 1850: T\ownships. As as.sesed..ks equalized. ersollll. Total. State. County. Bushnell --------------— _-$ 6,952.50 $ 6,952.50 $ 893.00 $ 7,845.50 $ 9.46 $41.271 Eureka ------------—. __ 24,600.98 24,600.98 1,504.62 26,105.60 31.45 136.70 Fairplain -------------—..- 18,127.39 18,127.39 1,031.50 19,158.89 23.08 100.431 Montcaln -.. --- —---------- 12,542.24 12,542.24 1,114.00 13,656.24 16.45 71.59 Total...-_ ---__ _..$62,223.11 $62,223.11 $4,543.12 $66,766.23 $80.44 $350.00 REA.., AAND TPERSONAl. PROPERTY VALUATIONS. Before the levy of 1852 was made Bloomer township had been organized and the total real and personal property, as equalized, had increased to $98.430, with a county tax of $500 and a state tax of $387.71. The stateecnt of valuations for real and personal property for 1853 shows that total values had risen to $2()1,645 and that 1,847 out of 90,933 acres of land il the county wvas implroved. The total valuation of all property in 1854 was $50I,882; in I855 it was $795,612, and in 1856 it was $893,58I. There was a reduction in valuations for real and personal property for 1857, blit the valuations rose again to $908,900 in 1858. By this time Pierson, (ato, Evergreen, Sidney, Feris and Crystal townships had been organized. In I859 the total valuation for real and personal property in Montcalm county for the first time exceeded a million dollars, the aggregate valuations for all property being returned by the board of supervisors at $1,027,517. From certain records on file in Montcalm county it appears that Judge Epaphroditus Ransom, afterwards governor of the state, made the first land entry in Montcalm county. In June, July and August, 1835, bhe (4)

Page  50 I 50 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIIGAN. entered certain parts of sections I and 2, township 9 north, range 5 west, and section 36, in township Io north, range 5 west. The first transfer of lands between individuals was made on October I8, I837, by Benjamin Young, of Ontaria county, New York, to Carso Crane, of the same county and state. The first entry transfer of lands made by Newcomb J. Ireland, first register of deeds in Montcalm county, was made to Ebenezer Salyer on May 2, I850. Luther Lincoln is believed to have been the first settler in Montcalm county, having lived near the junction of Flat river and Black creek as early as the spring of I837. The first marriage recorded in the county records was that of Benjamin Weaver, of Otisco, Tonia county, to Gertrude Stockholm, of Eureka township, the ceremony having been performed on March 19, I85I, by the Rev. Wilson Mosher. LOCATION OF THE COUNTY SEAT. The act of the Michigan Legislature which provided for the organization of Montcalmn county temp)orarily located the county seat at Greenville, but provided for the permanent location of the county seat by the board of supervisors elected in I860. The original act also specifically set forth that no tax should be levied for the erection of county buildings until a permanent seat had been chosen. Until the present county seat was selected in i86o all official business was transacted at Greenville, the early court meeting at the house of Morton Shearer. The people of Greenville were anxious to retain the county seat an1d made at least one significant move in that direction. They obtained the incorporation of Pierson township, previously a part of Mecosta county and which then included the present territory of Pierson, Winfield, Maple Valley and Reynolds townships, in order, no doubt, to add weight to their cause, since this territory lay to the northwest of Greenville. The original act; approved on March 20, 1850, was amended by an act of January 29, 1859, to provide that although the supervisors might designate a place for the county seat, the question would have to be submitted to the people for ratification at the next general election. When the Montcalm countv board of supervisors met for the first time in I86o (January Io), the following representatives appeared for each of the ten townships then organized: Bloomer, William Patrick; Cato, Albert S. French; Crystal, John Burk; Eureka, Westbrook Divine; Evergreen, Mortimer Gilleo; Fairplain, Martin P. Follett; Ferris, Peter Schlppi; Montcalm, Stephen Rossman; Pierson, George A. Page, and Sid

Page  51 -— ~' i;. —~ —;i- 1 - — r MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 5I ney, Ira Barlow. Meetings were held on the Ioth, IIth and I2th, and on the last day the board adjourned to meet on April Io, I860, to consider the location of a county seat. At this meeting John S. Smith appeared in place of John Burk as the representative from Crystal township, Aaron Lvon appeared in place of William Patrick as the representative from Bloomer, George F. Case appeared instead of Mortimer Gilleo for Evergreen, and William Castel appeared for Bushnell township, lately organized. BEGINNING OF THE RIVALRY. At the session of the supervisors on April II, I860, the board resolved itself into a colmmittee of the whole to examine different locations proposed for a county seat and on the same day a motion to locate the county seat in the city of Greenville was lost by a vote of seven to three, Messrs. Rossman, Divine and French voting in favor of the motion and Messrs. Smith, Lyon, Schlappi, Barlow, Follett, Case and Castel voting against it. A little later, a motion submitted by Peter Schlappi, to locate the county seat on the northeast quarter of section i, township IO north, range 7 west, carried by a vote of seven to three, the supervisors who had voted against Greenville voting "yes" in this case and the supervisors who had stood for Greenville voting "no" in this case. This act of the supervisors was submitted to the people in November, I86O, and carried by a vote of 504 to 374. Early in T861 a committee, consisting of Westbrook Divine, Albert S. French and William Castel, was appointed to fix the exact location of the county building. On January 3, I86o, a motion, made by Peter Schlappi, that $I,ooo be expended by the county in the erection of county buildings, consisting of a court house and jail and offices for the county clerk, treasurer and register of deeds, was defeated for want of a two-thirds majority, the vote being six to five in favor of the proposition. Another motion, however, authorizing John L. Smith to procure a deed from Frederick Hall for the site chosen for the county buildings, was carried. Mr. Smith obtained the deed and made his report next day. Several efforts were made to get the necessary appropriation for the erection of county buildings, but no Pffirmative action was taken until June 12, I860, when an appropriation of $I,ooo was obtained by a vote of seven to four. The next day a motion carried for the appropriation of $5oo for clearing off the site of the county seat and laying out a town. Frederick Hall sold to Montcalm county the site of the present seat

Page  52 n-'-m- ---— ~F --- I 52 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. of the county for $50 and in consideration of his liberality the town was named "Fred" for him. Later, however, when it came time to establish a postoffice at the county seat, the application papers were drawn up and the name of the lxstoffice left blank. These paplers were sent to Mr. Hall with the suggestion that he supply whatever name he desired. Mr. Hall was at that time a great admirer of Edwin M. Stanton, then secretary of war under President Lincoln, and he therefore filled in the name "Stanton" in the blank space and the county seat of Montcaln county was permanently name(d. lThis change in the name of the county seat was recognized by the Legislature in an act approved on Felruary 23, 1863. Stanton became an incorporated village by act of the supervisors on October 18, I867. FIRST COURT IOUSE AT STANTON. According to authority of the Montcalin county board of supervisors, the first court house was erected at Fred, now Stanton, in I860, and this served the purposes of the county until 1870, when a brick structure replaced the old wooden building so far as the judge of probate, register of deeds, county clerk and county treasurer were concerned. Both buildings, however, were used for offices and a jail until i88o. The "fire-proof building," erected in 1870, cost about $I,5oo and was erected by Seth Sprague. Generally speaking, Montcalm county's malefactors were confined in the county jail at Ionia until 1870, although it is certain that the upper part of Abel French's store was used for a time. From I86o to I880 several attempts were made to obtain an appropriation for suitable and safe county buildings at Stanton, but to the feeling of the people of Greenville and vicinity that the seat might sometime be restored to their fair city, the failure of these several efforts may be attributed. "There were no shutters or vaults in either of the buildings," says a political tract issued while the campaign for the present court house was being carried on, "and during all of the time they were in use any enterprising thief on a dark night could have broken in at a window and have carried away all of the nearly priceless records of the real estate of this county, as the books in every office were kept on open shelves." In the spring of 1879 the question was submitted to a direct vote of the people whether $1o,ooo, together with a like amount to be contributed by the people of Stanton, should be raised to erect a new court house. The proposition carried by a vote of 2,482 to 1,3T6, and a contract was sub

Page  53 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 53 sequently let to Jacob C. Consaul, of Fair Haven. William Backus, William F. iurier and \V. 1). Bellows were designated as a building committee fromn the board of supervisors and work on the new structure begun about August i, 1879.. The building was completed and occupied in July, I880, and cost altogether about $23,000. This building contained fine offices for all the county officials and substantial vaults which saved the records in the 10o5 fire. The late Clarence W. Chapin, who was well known in Montcalm county as one of the leading bankers of Stanton, had previously raised $6oo by popular subscription, which was spent in grading the court house grounds. DEDICArTIN(; THIE NEW BUILDING. The new court house, built in 1879-80, was formally dedicated July 5, I88o, the dedicatory address being delivered by lion. John Lewis, of Greenville, former prosecuting attorney of Montcalm county, and later judge of the probate court. Apparently, there was a lurking suspicion in the minds of the people of the county that Mr. Lewis might discuss phases of politics to which they did lnot care to listen, for the assurance was given in the -i'cckly Clipper of June 25, i88o, that the speech would be free from local politics. "To correct an error under which some of the people of the county are laboring," said the Clipper, "we would say that there will be nothing political mixed up with the dedicatory ceremonies of July 5. The orator of the day has been especially informed that his hearers want nothing of the kind, but expect something adapted only to the occasion, viz: The dedication of our new temple of justice. He will not make a Fourth of July oration in the ordinary acceptation of the term, so our hearers may rest assured that there will be nothing that will grate harshly on the most sensitive ears." A careful reading of extracts from the address bears out the above promise or pledge. Mr. Lewis did, however, make the statement that at the time the first session of the circuit court was held in Stanton, in June, J862, there were but two buildings in Stanton, the court house and a log tavern which occupied the site of what came to be the Stanton House, kept b)v one Roosa. In some unexplained way, the court house erected in I879-80o caught fire about ten o'clock in the morning, February I6, 1905, and burned to the ground. A considerable portion of the old brick walls were left standing, and with $20,000 insurance it was planned to erect another court house at once. Plans were obtained and paid for by the county at a cost

Page  54 - i 54 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICIIIGAN. of $500 for the erection of another structure, without a jail in the basement, for the sum of $I9,945, but proceedings were halted by litigation and a proposition submitted to the voters April 3, I905, to bond the county for $40,000 was defeated by a vote of 3,774 to 3,I97. a majority of 577. On April 2, 1906, the same proposition was defeated by a vote of 3,455 to 3,214, a majority of 241. Later in the same year, November 6, a proposition of bond the county for $30,000, was defeated, 2,474 to 2,231, a majority of 23I against. On April I, 1907, the same proposition was defeated, 3,074 to 2,731, a majority of 343. No further vote was taken until April 5, i909, when a $50,000 bond issue was defeated by a vote of 4,113 to 3,920, a majority of 193. BOND ISSUE' FINALLY CARRIED. By this time the people of Stanton and vicinity were thoroughly aroused and when the proposition was submitted the next time they were well organized and the court house bond issue carried at the election held on April 4, I910, by a majority of 31. The vote by authority of which' the present court house was erected, by voting districts, was as follows: District. Yes. No. Belvidere ------------------- 24 45 Bloomer -------------------- 20I Io2 Bushnell -------------------- 62 83 Cato ----------------------- 47 226 Crystal --- —-------------- 217 53 Day ----------------------- 342 20 Douglass --------------- 242 2I Eureka ------------------- 3 I43 Evergreen ------------------ 212 91 Fairplain ------------------- 43 I08 Ferris ---------- ------ 236 9 Home ---------------------- 290 24 Maple Valley ---------------- 33 374 Montcalm --— _ --- —---------- 6 213 Pierson --------------------- 6 I31 Pine --------------— _ --- — 30 I73 Reynolds ----------------— _ 56 I89 Richland ----------— _ --- —-I 86 33 Sidney ---------------------- I20 128 *, / I4

Page  55 __ __ j I I_____il__;~i______ MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 55 District. Yes. No. Winfield -------— _ --- —-- 23 124 Greenville, first ward --------- 32 220 Greenville, second ward ------- 59 334 Greenville, third ward -------- 54 290 Stanton, first ward ---------- 240 Stanton, second ward _ ---_ ---- 165 I Total -----------------— 2,966 2,935 Majority for bond issue, 31. Stanton's joy hardly knew any bounds after this event. A struggle of five years had culminated finally with complete success and the people no doubt had a right to feel jubilant. A brief article in the Edmore Times, appearing after the election, describes somewhat humorously, the feeling of different sections of the county. "''Not a bloody, bloomin' thing was done' at Stanton for more than four hours after it was known that the court house bonding proposition was carried MIon(lay night only for the citizens to howl. The band came out, dynamite was shot off and the fire whistle blew so long and loud that it woke up the (lead at Greenville. "Even citizens of Edmore, wearing broad smiles, sat out on their porches and listened to Stanton's musical fire alarm and saw and heard the fireworks nine miles in the distance. "It seemed to be catching and the bullfrogs in Crystal lake and the citizens of McBride all joined in the chorus. "Over at L.akeview, Howard City, Coral and Greenville the lights were turned out and everybody went to roost early. Not even a cock has crowed in either one of these towns since. "After 'Jim' Haskins, of the Howard City Record, got the returns he quietly slid his stereotyped court house editorial into the 'hell box' and crawled under the bed covers. His devil will issue the paper this week." LEADERSHIP OF S. PERRY YOUNGS. Five years after the resolution adopted by the Montcalm county board of supervisors for the bond issue of $50,000 with which to build the present court house, was indorsed by the people at the polls, it seems proper to give credit where credit is due. No man had quite as much to do with Stan

Page  56 ..... -... - I - - - - - -- - - _ _ 56 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. ton's final and complete victory as S. Perry Youngs. His name does not appear on the tablet in the court house. Nevertheless, he was the leading spirit in obtaining favorable action on the resolution in 191T and was at that time a member of the board. lIaving in the meantime been appointed supervisor of the census, he was not permlitted to accept another election in 1910o. 'The secret of Mr. Youngs' ultimate success in obtaitinig the new court house was a spirit of undaunted courage and unfailing determination. Throughout the many unsuccessful campaigns he never for one moment lost hope in ultimate triumlph. lven the friends of Stanton had despaired of success and sought to postpone the issue in I9q1, when Mr. \oungs Ibegan to muster his forces for another caimpaign. There are uwil\ritten incidents of the final calllpaign w\hich it were better, no doubt. not to set (1own here, but in everything the leader of the Stanton forces displayed courage of a rare order. (f course, everything else was sutbordinated to the main issue, and Mr. Youngs so well knew the strength of his opponents and the weaknesses of his friends that he was able to counteract the (oe land 1)olster up the other. TIe didl most of the detail work as well, including the plreparation of a vsoluminollus amotunt of camp)aign literature, which Iwas circulated \ith good effect aimong the doubtful voters. In all of this, Mlr. Younigs \vas fortified wvith experiences gained not only from 19o6 to T910, but likewise from the canmpaign for the court house of 1879. in which he was prominent. Tn the campaign of 1879 the leader of the Stanton forces was the venerable. II. IIinlds, wlho is still living in Stanton. At a meeting of the supervisors, held on \lpril T3, 1910, Smit' A\. Bo(oth, of (reenville, Wyllys R. 'Thomas. of Staiton, and Frank Boyer, of Day townnshilp, were alppointed a conmmittee to advertise for bid(s for the sale of tonds for the lew court house, and April 28. 19TO, fixed as the day of opening bids and selling the bonds. OnI the same date, April 13, a building conmmittee. consisting of George HIolland, of Sidney township, chairman: Henry S. Sharp, of Miontcalm township, and Eldwin Porter, of Douglass township. was aplpointed. The contractor's bond covering the construction of the new court house and jail was also fixed at this mIeeting at $2o,ooo000. The bonds were duly disposed of and.Edw'yn A. Bod, of ILansing, selected as the architect. The contract for the construction of the present court house was let, therefore, to Wright & Prall, of Ionia. June 24, I910, 'their bid being $58,280.68, and included, b1esides the court house, a jail and sheriff's residence and a power house. The contract for heating was let to Henry Gable, of lonia, for $3,168.33. and for plumbing the


Page  [unnumbered]

Page  57 _________-1 _ __ 1 _~ MONTCALM COUNTY, MICIIGAN. 57 three buil(lings to Mr. (able for $2,034.36. A beautiful tablet in the main corridor of the first floor gives the names of the supervisors at the time the building was bleing erected. These names will long be remembered in the history of the county and are as follows: Robert Evans, chairman; \V. Glenn \lbbott, clerk; ('harles F. I)ickinson, R. Arthur Carothers, Jacob 1l. Parkhurst, Franklil B. Henkel, Jesse L. Vanwormer, George A. Fournie, Thomas V. IMusson, (;eorge \V. Miller. Lucius L. Church, William T. Fisk, Janmes 1-. Steere, Frank xV. Bailey, James P. Throop, John I.. Taylor. Fdwin Porter, Ienry S. Sharp, Vir C. Allchin, John H. Jenson, Smith.\. Booth, Frank Bover. John Bannen, Eno C. Yanke, Wyllys '1. Thomas and George IHollanld. DESCRIPTION OF COUNTY BUIlDINGS. 'Ihe building of the present IlMontcalIn county court house, jail and sheriff's residence occupied about two years. The court house is a magnificent structure built of buff brick, trimrmed with stone, and is adequate for ev\ery lptrlose of the county. It is thoroughly fire-lroof atl(., lieing situated o11 an eminence in the vest part of Stanton, mayv le seen for mlany miles. The people of AMottcalm county are justly proud of this splendid temple of justice and of the enterl]rising spirit of its citizens who made it possible. The )resent jail and sheriff's residence, which was erected on a lot south of the court house, is also built of pressed buff hrick and presents a very attractive alpearance. The sheriff's residence is in the front and the jail ill the rear. The present accommodlations for prisoners are in marked contrast with the accommlodation s furnished in the old court house when prisoners w\ere housed in the basement. Interesting in this connection is a rleport made by an agent of the state board of corrections and charities and lpublished in the Stanton Weekly Clipper of February 15, T889. "I visited the jail of Montcatlm county on February lo," says the agent. "A great iml)rovement has been made in bringing out the iron bars so as to allow the prisoners to be kept within the bars. They can no longer communicate with those without, and receive tools through the windows. The general condition of the jail is good. With care of the sewer pipes, there should be no odors. The great need is a bath tub. Men coming in in a filthy condition should he required to wash themselves thoroughly. The \voman's room should be put in better condition, and might be used for boys swhen not needed for women. The jail has the necessary disadvantages of

Page  58 58 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICIIGAN. a jail under a court house. The classification and selaration the law calls for is impracticable. I found nine men and two boys, one manl held for nearly a year. There is opportunity for doing good in some suitable person holding a service on Sunday and in furnishing proper reading. The men listencld respectfully to a service T conducted." CARfI OF I)EPENDENTS IN MIONTCAI.M COUNTY. Although little information is available bearing upon the care of the poor in Alontcalm county prior to 186o, it seems reasonable to believe they were well cared for, inasmuch as during the \Var of the Rebellion the county expendled $36,81.6.91 in aid of soldiers' families while the population of the county was only three thousand nine hundred and eighty-four in 186o. Several attempts were made to purchase a county poor farm prior to I86o. On Octol)er 12, 1859, William Backus, of Eureka township, and Asa \Vard, of Crystal township, were app)ointed as supervisors of the poor for the ensuing year. ()On the next day, provision was made to advertise for sealed proposals for the purchase of a county poor farm, but nothing further seems to have been done. Five hundred dollars, however, was voted to pay past inldebtelness on account of the poor, the balance,to be applied to expenses for the ensuing year. On January 11, 186o, a motion was madle by Supervisor Westbrook Divine to buy a county poor farm, the cost not to exceed $1,2oo and interest not to exceed seven per cent. This motion carried by a vote of six to four, Messrs. French, Divine, Follett, Page, Rossman and Barlow voting in favor of it and Messrs. Patrick, Burk, Gilleo and Schlappi voting against it. Three days later a portion of the present county poor farm located in sections 5 and 8, township 9 north, range 7, west, was purchased of Maria M. Light for $900. On October 30, I868, an additional purchase was made from Ervin Sanford for $i,ooo. The present county farm, which consists of one hundred and twenty acres or thereabout, is located as above described in Fairplain township, a few miles northeast of Greenville. It is a remarkable fact that the cost of assisting the poor has not increased in proportion to the increase in population. The total expense incurred on account of the poor in T88o, for instance, was $8,379.58, and a report of the superintendents of the poor for the year ending September 30, 1915, shows that the net expense for the last year was only $7,262.48. A summary of the superintendents' report for September 30, 1915, shows the following:

Page  59 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 59 Total expenses for townships and wards for temporary relief --------------------------— $3,826.37 Total expense for county farm ------------------ 772.10 Total expense of county infirmary ------------- 3305.69 Grand total of expenses ----------------------- 7,904.16 Credit by amount paid to county treasurer ------- 641.68 Total net expenses for the year ----------— $7,262.48 The total number of inmates enrolled at the county farm in 1915 was forty-six, of whom twentv-five were males and twenty-one females. The average enrollment was thirty-eight. Four deaths occurred at the infirmary in I9I5.

Page  60 CHAPTER III. TOWNSHIP IISTOitY. III the following pages are presented the history of the various townships of Tontcalml county, comprising a brief sketch of the organization, the names of the original petitioners, whe he hey are disclosed l!- the records, topogral)hy and general characteristics of the soil, the original land entries and first settlements. The later history of each township properly comes withiin the scope of the general history of tihe county and is covered in the several chapters oni agriculture, industry, elducation, secret and fraternal orders, transportation, etc. BELVIDERE TOWNSIIIP. ielvicdere township, which was the eighteenth township erected in this county, is located in the extreme north central part of Montcalm county. It is designated on the government survey as township I2 north, range 7 wvest, and is hounded as follows: On the north iy Mecosta county, on the cast lby I-Home township, on the south by Douglass towvnship and on the west lby ( ato township. Belvidere township was organized 1y the board of supervisors on Marlch 7, 1867, I)lt the minutes of the meetings of the board of supervisors from December 2, I866, to October 14, I867, are missing, and hence the business of that bodv at the time the township was organized has been lost. It is also very unfortunate that the petition for the erection of this township has also been misplaced and it is impossible to give the names of the petitioners. It is an established certainty that the first election was held at the house of William Garden on the Ist of April, I867. The meeting was called to order by George Stevenson, and William Gardner was appointed moderator. The total number of votes cast was nine and there were eight different voters elected to office, so one voter did not receive an office of trust in the newly-created township. The ballot box used at this first election was a wooden box made of rough boards, in which a hole was bored for the reception of the ballots, after which formality the lid was knocked off and the

Page  61 __ MONTCALM COUNTY, MICIIIGAN. 6i votes counted. The following is the list of officers elected at this meeting: George \Vysel, slupervisor; WVilliamn Wysel, clerk; William Bock, treasurer; John llammel, George \\;ysel and George Stevenson, highway commissioners; \Villiam Gardner, William Taylor, George Stevenson and William \\ysel, justices; Samuel Smithl and George Wysel, constables. It was also voted at this election to raise two hundred dollars for highway purposes, and also that the next township meeting be held at the house of William W\ysel. Thus the township of Belvidere took on a definite organization and asstumed a place along with the other seventeen townships of the county. The soil in the northern part of Belvidere township is of a sandy loam, and in the early days there was an abundance of pine timber; towards the south the soil beco-mes heavier, and the dense growth of pine gradually gave way to a heav\y growtl of beech and maple. The agricultural pursuits of the settlers have lien looked after to a greater extent since the land has been cleared of its timber. Thle first general advance in farming was made in the southern l)prt, but of later years advanced methods of farming have been taken tip in the northern part also. Belvidere is drained by Flat river, its surface in general sloping towards the source of that stream- on the northwest quarter of section 1, where it serves as the outlet of a system of six lakes, situated on sections 12, 14 and 15, and of several streams of considerable importance from the north, east and south, which flow into them. The whole system served as an extensive reservoir, in which, tw a dam, the waters were retained for the purpose of raising the river when large quantities of logs were to be rafted to the mills at Greenville, Grand Rapids and Grand Haven. There are a number of other fine lakes in the township-Town Line lake, situated on the line of (ato and Belvidere, leing the largest. Iorse Shoe lake, named from its peculiar form, is in the adjoining sections 19, 20, 30 and 3I. Wysel lake, P'enn lake and Long lake are all connected with Flat river. I.AND ENTRIES. Section 2 —I-enrvy T. Stringham, John F. Morris. Section 3-Hlenry T. Stringham, Edwin F. French. Section 4 —Henry T. Stringham, John Squires, Edwin F. French. Section 5-Henry T. Stringham, John Squires. Section 8 —Henry T. Stringham. Section 9-Henry T. Stringham, Edward C. Gallup, Henry T. Stringham. Section Io-Henry T. Stringham, Edward C. Gallup. Section II-Henry T. Stringham, Edward C. Gallup.

Page  62 02 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Section I2-Sidney M. Root, Janmes M. Kidd, Edmund Hall. Section 13 -John Ely, S. M. Root, J. M. Soverhill, J. M. Kidd, R. E. Lance, Edmund Hall. Section I4-John J. Ely, Henry T. Stringham. Section I5-Henry T. Stringham, E. K. Wood, Edmund Hall. Section I6 —Joseph L. Kelsey, Ambrose Atwood, James Coleman, 0. P. Gould, A. S. French, Albert S. French, Albert Sage, I eonard C. Sumner, Dana S. Gibson, D. Summers. Section 17 —Henry 11. Crapo. Section I8-Ilenry H. Crapo. Section 19 -Henry II. Crapo. Section 20-Henry H. Crapo. Section 2 I-S. Hill, Aloney Rust, Henry H. Crapo, Benjamin Joy, Elijah Wilder, John Hammel, Albert S. French. Section 22-Lysander Hill, Edward C. Gallup, William Taylor, Philander Gowe and George Isham, Joseph L. Kelsey, 1F. K. Wood, E (dmund Hall. Section 23-Julia A. Clark. Section 24-John J. Ely, James M. Soverhill, Lannon B. Townsend, John Stout. Section 25 Julia Ann Clark, L. B. Townsend. Section 26-Julia Ann Clark, Josiah J. Morris. Section 27 —John Whitner, George Wysel, William Wysel, Philander R. Howe and George Isham, Anson Ware, John G. Whipple. Section 28-Aloney Rust, Henry H. Crapo, Charles 1. Ellsworth, John C. Blanchard, Joseph I.. Kelsey. Section 29-Aloney Rust, Jacob I)avis. Frank S. Peck, Henry H. Crapo. Section 3o —Aloney Rust, Stephen F. Page, Jacob A. Davis, Henry II. Crapo, Silas L. Smith, D. C. Moore. Section 31-Aloney Rust, Stephen F. Page, Carso Crane, Samuel B. Peck, Lewis E. Smith, Benjamin Joy, John J. Ely, D. C. Moore. Section 32 -Aloney Rust, Stephen F. Page, Joseph J. Shearer. Section 33 —Jonas Snyder, Aloney Rust. Cornelius Slaght. Section 34-Aloney Rust, Hiram Bopinan. Allen W\right. Henry M. Cawkin. Section 35-William Gardner, Philander Howe and George Tsham. Henry Cawkin, Baw and Spencer, Edmund Hale. Section 36-Julia Ann Clark, George Stevenson, William D. Mason Miles, Emma A. Ripley. EARLY SETTLEMENTS. William Goodwater, who as early as I855-56 settled near the south line of section 33, is regarded as the first white man who, with his family, entered the wilds of Belvidere. Aside from the fact, and that he subsequently became a resident of Douglass, little is known of him. He built a small log cabin, but made no other improvements of importance. Being of small stature and owing to some business transaction with a party of settlers from the south part of the county who stopped at his cabin while on their way to fish in the lake on section 28, he was thenceforth known as Penny

Page  63 - - -I-~ -I-r___*-__ MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 03 G(oodwater. Although the circumstance which occasioned this singular use of the word has passed from the memory of men, and even the location of his cabin can no longer be designated, the lake before referred to on the southeast quarter of section 28, as well as the smaller one in Douglass, near whicl lie subsequently lived, received their names from this circumstance, the former being known as Big Penny and the latter as Little Penny lake. Goodwater remained in Belvidere but a few years, when, selling his claim, he removed to Douglass. Many years elapsed before another settler came in. William Gardner, from- New York, who entered the north half of the northeast quarter of section 35, in the fall of I864, was probably the next. He built a log cabin, a;ld the following lFelbruary brought his family-a wife, two sons and two daughlters. To clear a piece of land was his first work after safely housing his family. But to do this in the heavy timber, alone without a team, was a slow and severe task. The large trunks of trees could not be removed from the place where they fell, and were redluced with the axe to such dimensions as enabled them to be carried away or burned where they fell, and being -green at times they required an almost indefinite amount of labor and patieice. By spring, however, constant effort had not only cleared but prepared nearly two acres ready for planting to corn, potatoes and smaller vegetables. The following winter both sons died within a week of each other, theirs being the first deaths in the township. They were named, respectively,;Guian TT. andl Villic S. Gardner. There was no funeral service, there being at that time neither minister nor neighbors in the township. They were interred at the cemetery at \Vestville. In I866 \William Taylor and George Wysel came in. George Stevenson entered land about the same time, but the wilderness did not retain him long, and he (lid not settle permanently until some years after George Wysel settled on section 27, near the lake which still bears his name. Both built cabils and brought families to the township, where they lived until their deaths. The same year William Wysel and William Buck came in. The former settled near his brother George, on section 27; the latter did not become a permanent settler, although he lived here for a time. William W\'vsel raised the first frame house in the township, but it was a small and unstable building. The first frame barn was built at Six lakes by the lum-;,er colmpany. The first grain barn was built by William Gardner as late as 1875. The next settler was John Hammel, who built a cabin near the banks

Page  64 irirc -— p-. I 64 4MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. of Flat river, ill the central part of the township, but finding subsequently that he had made inmprovements on land held h y another, owing to a mistake in taking the minutes of his land, he alandoned the claim and entered or. iprchased a claim on section 32, where he built the first frame dwelling house in Belvidere, and where he resided until his death in 1879. Among the first settlers were Milo iRhodes, George Stevenson. John Brennon, Roderick Kennedy, Julius Rhodes and Lyman Gredy. Altho(ugh the township was organized the year previous, no school was taught until the summer of 1868. In the spring of that year the first school district, which comprised one-fourth of the township, directly south of the center, wias set off, a meeting called, and the necessary officers elected. The rough boards of which the school house was made were bought with money raised among the inhalitants by subscription. WNhen the material had been collected and the shakes for the room prel)ared, they assembled and the work of construction was of short duration. The house stood near the south quarter post on section 22. SI.M NEIRVIILIE. Sunlmerville, the first village platte(l in the township, was laid out by L. C. Sunrier upon his land in i873. Several lots were at once sold and a number of business p)laces opened, the first being that of (. Il. Hunt, who Ibuilt a store and opened a stock of dry goods and groceries. lie stubsequently sold and removed to Edm(lore, where lie continued in the trade. The village blecame a place of considerable business importance, but when the Chicago, Sagiinaw & Canada railroad was completed and located its depot near the foot of Six lakes, the superior advantages of this place for a village caused Dr. J. B. Daniels and Hliraim Clark to purchase seventy acres of land and lay out a village which they named Six Lakes, after that system. This land comprises the southeast quarter of the northeast quarter of section 16, and the northeast quarter of the southeast quarter of the same section, and was purchased fron the government by RIobert S. Kelsey and son, who ownled two thousand two hundred and ninety-six acres, mostly pine lands, in the township of Belvidere. Dr. J. B. Daniels became a permanent resident of his village, where he continued to reside and practice his profession. Hiram Clark opened a picture gallery, but did not reside in the village. The water power at this place after the death of the elder Kelsev passed into the possession of his son, P. B. Kelsey. At the death of Rich

Page  65 — --- —------ ~ MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 65 ard Roberts. who had been taken in as partner, the property passed into the possession of Boyden & Ackley, of Grand Haven. The aggregate amount of logs placed in Six Lakes during I88i reached many millions of feet. The firm of Stinchfield & Company, the largest firm ill Six Lakes, placed on an average one hundred and sixty thousand per day ill Penny lake, James I)arrah averaged forty thousand per day, and the firm of Moses & Company made it ten millions. With the passing of the timber industry in Belvidere township, Sumnerville gradually begun to decline in prosperity. The few interests which had prospered in this town now found no means of sustenance and immediately began to leave for other parts. Stores and places of business of all kinds were moved away and eventually even the postoffice and depot were taken out of the town. At present Sumnerville is merely a little hamlet with a few scattered houses, but no stores or places of business of any sort. SIX LAKES. Six Lakes, as has been previously mentioned, was platted on May 13, 1879, by Henry Cankin, surveyor, for Hiram S. Clark, Benjamin J. Daniels and Thomas Merrick, proprietors. Six Lakes, situated, as it is, on the Pere Mlarquette railroad, and the only town in Belvidere township, has taken quite a local prominence as a business center for this community. At present Six Lakes has a population of approximately five hundred people. The Six Lakes Elevator Company, with G. C. Marotzke as manager, carries on quite an extensive business in this locality. The other members of this firm are Fred W. Kinde and Fred M. Gross. The State Bank of Six Lakes is one of the strong institutions of the county. Other business firms of Six Lakes are C. E. Cornell, general merchandise; Ida M. Wood, general merchandise and millinery; Len Wood, hardware and drug store; M. Cartwright, general merchandise; Charles Cosselman; H. Gibson & Company, coal; Williams Brothers & Company, of Detroit, have a pickling station here. There are also other smaller businesses, as restaurants, etc. Six Lakes is a quiet little village with two churches. The township hall is also located here. In the past few years Six Lakes has taken on an added growth. In the past year, five dwelling houses have been erected in the village. This village is the potato, bean and stock market for the entire township. The elevator, which has recently been rebuilt with the installation of a bean picker, does an extensive business buying these different products. (5)

Page  66 CHIAPTl'1\ IV. BLOOMER TOWNSHIP. Bloomer was the first township organized by the supervisors of the newly created county of Montcalm and it was the fifth township established. At the time of the establishment of Bloomer there were only four supervisors, one from each of the four townships. Their minutes of January 6, 1852, state that a petition \was presented with twenty signatures who were freeholders in tow\nship 9 north, range 5 west. It was resolved by a unanimous vote of the supervisors that towns 9 and lo north, range 5 west, should be set. off from the township of IBushnell anld organized into a new township to lie called Bloomer. 'The first election was held at the house of John A. Miner on the first Mlonday in April, 1852, with the following persons acting as inspectors of election: Asa H. lIawley, Edward Cole and John Richards. Upon the erection of Crystal township the present boundaries of Bloomer vere established. It is situated in the extreme southeastern corner of the county and is bounded on the north by (rystal townshil, on the east hb Gratiot county,. on the south 1y lonia county and on the west b)y Bushnell township. The surface of this township is mloderately undulating, and is well watered and drained by Fish creek and its branches. Originally the entire township was covered with a heavy growth of beech and maple timber, which up to the time of settlement, and, in fact, many years after, was the retreat of all kinds of wild game Ipeculiar to Mlichigan. From this source the early settlers secured a large part of their winter provisions, and without it, in some instances, severest want and suffering must have ensued. Although Epaphroditus Ransom entered the south half of the northeast quarter of section and the south half of the northwest quarter of the same section on the 26th of June, I835, the largest part of the township remained undisturbed until the year 1849. From that time and during the years i85o-52, the greater part of the land was taken as shown by the records, although there was no permanent settlement until 1850. After the timber was removed, which in itself was a great natural resource, the settlers turned

Page  67 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 67 their attention to farming and the best evidence of their success is merely to take a drive through this township and note the excellent state of cultivation under which the farms are at present and also the excellent farm buildings and homes, where once stood the log shanty. NAMING THE TOWNSHIP. The incidents which led to adopt the word "Bloomer" for town 9 north, range 5 west, were as near as can be learned, as follows: At a dance held at the cabin of Isaac Pennington, in the winter of I851-52, several ladies astonished the good deacons of the Pluritanic school (who had stopped there for the night) by appearing in bloomer dresses. When their surprise abated, the dresses were the occasion of some mild jokes, and the term became something of a by-word in the infant colony, and when in the spring of I852, a name w\\as needed for the township, this one was adopted. This staten-ent is discredited b1 some, and it is said that a number of citizens desired the township to be called "Bloonmingdale," but as there was a township in \'an Buren county by this name it was named Bloomer. The weight of testimony is entirely with the first explanation. ASSESSMENT ROLL FOR 1852. Anderson Miner, sections 21, 28 Jra Brooks, section 35 - -- Jeremiah W\illson, section 26..James Covill, section 23 ---- Joseph Roop, section 13 ----- William Sherman, section 12 _Hiram Hunt, section lo2 --- S. H. Pennington, section 30 --- T. B. Colton --------------- Mark Wilsey ------------- George Benjamin ------------- G. H. Dennis -------------- Acres. ------------------ 320 ------------------ 8o ---------- 160 -------------------- 6o -------------------- 60 --------------------- 8o --------------------- 8o --------------------- 60 The total valuation of personal property in the township of Bloomer, w\hich at that time comprised also town Io north, range 5 west, was two hundred and seven dollars. The aggregate valuation of real and personal property was sixteen thousand three hundred and twenty-seven dollars.

Page  68 !-p- -— P — 68 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. FIRST ELECTION. The first election in the township was held at the house of Anderson Miner, in April, 1852, at which time there were present Anderson Miiner, James ('ovill, Jonathan Cole, Ira Brooks, Edward Cole, George Benjamin, Sylvester 'ennington, Zadock Heath, Hiram Hunt, William Sherman, Joseph Roop, Jeremiah Willson, John I,. Miner, W. S. Miner, David Sebrig, Mark Wilsey, Dr. T. D. Colton, George H. Dennis. At this election the ballot box consisted of a soda box furnished by Mrs. Miner. She also prepared dinner for the entire company. OIIGINAL,AND PURCHASERS. The following is a list of persons who entered lands in the township of Bloomer: Section i-Epaphroditus Ransom (June 26,.1835), Ira Armstrong. Section 2 —Epaphroditus Ransom, John N. Fowler, Sylvester Bronson, Ira Brooks, Thomas J. Smith. Section 3-John M. Gordon, E. L. Davis, John N. Fowler. Section 4 —Thankful Albro, James Cross, E. Davies, John N. Fowler. Section 5-Thankful Albro, Daniel W. Clark, Edward Robinson, William P. Johnson, Simeon S. De C'amp, John G. Williams, John N. Iowler, Amos A. King. Section 6-James Donovan, John Shilling, Jr., Stephen F. Page, Levi Trim, Christopher Rice, Mortimer Gilleo, Lorenzo D. Mason, Joshua Bogart, Harvey D. Mason, Newton Gilleo, Alvin Groner. Section 7-William W. King, Susan E. Clock, William Headland, Rebecca Headland, Benjamin Carey, Cyrus Dickenson, Alfred D. Isham, Harvey D. Mason. Section 8-Evander Spaulding, John P. Nellis, John Norris, Jr., Job B. Morris, Levi Smith, John G. Williams, John N; Fowler. Section 9-John B. Allison, James Cross, Benjamin F. Holmes, George Tibbitts, David Aldrich. Section Io-James A. Dickinson, Ira Armstrong, George H. Dennis. Section II-Thomas R. Brand, John Herrick, George Winsor. Benjamin Fuller, John N. Fowler, William F. Bigelow, Thomas J. Smith. Section 12-Epaphroditus Ransom, John M. Gordon, Robert McClelland, Joseph Roop, Abram Ely, Ira Armstrong, John Kipp, William Chaffin. Section I3-John M. Gordon, Robert McClelland, James R. Langdon, Darius C. Larkins, Joseph Roop, Abram Ely. Section I4-Israil Gillett, Peter B. Casler, Anthony Cornue, Joseph P. House, C. P. House, Samuel Clark, John T. Cornue, Cornelius Bigelow. Section I5-John Johnson,

Page  69 _ _ __ _ MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 6o Thlomas Allen, Gary C. Fox, Sidney Thomas, John Cave. Section I6-.loses Bean, P. Barrister, Mary Jane Carl, J. G. Bright, W. H. Chapman. Section I7 —Charles Benjamin, Hannah Graves, William Huffle, Joseph Urie, Sidney H. Sherman. Section 18 —Isaac Pennington, Charles H. Potter, Matilda Adams, John Smith, Hugh Adams, James A. Clock, Alexander.\lams. Section I —Tsaac Pennington, Seth M. Root, Joseph L. Clock, Iohn Richards, Sr. Section 2o-Seth M. Root, William Fancher, John \Veaver, Robert McGill, Daniel F. Perky. Section 2I-John Fish, Ira \\ilder, Catharine Post, Betsey Tubb, Jonathan Boyer, Isaac Piper. Section 22-Nathaniel Benton, Abraham Shafer, Elizabeth Cronkrite, Peter (lock, Daniel Bellinger, Heman Pratt, Jay Olmstead, Mark Wilsey. Section 23-James R. Langdon, Robert McClelland, James Covill, Silas Everest, George Covill. Section 24-John M. Gordon, L)arius C. Larkins. Section 25 —James R. I angdon, John M. Gordon, Daniel Barker, Samuel J. Goff, Isaac Braman. Section 26-James R. Langdon, John G. Welsh, Jeremiah \\ ilson, Asa \Vard. T.ouis L.ovell. Section 27-John G. Welsh, Roswell Paine, Alden Giddings, Seth Rol)erts, George H. Dennis, Lester C. Bennett. Section 28-Anderson Miner, Henry Fargo, Alden Giddings, Thomas Bainborough, Henry F. Brown, Amasa A\ldrich. Section 2 ---H. Tarrell, William M. Gardiner, lJohn Richards, Thomas Bainborough, Jedidiah W. Lane, 11. Bump, John C. Blanchard, \William Dorton, John W. Pew. Section 30 — Francis Budine, Jonathan Cole. Thomas Covel, Harvey I). Allen, Polly l'owler, S. M. Cornell, \. I'. Lindeley. Section 31-Seth M. Root; Charles \Kiap)p John N. Fowler, Calvin Peters, Richard Sinkey, William Patrick, George Robinson, Nelson Covell. Section 32-Seth M. Root, Alpheus Ilawley, Abigail \cKelvey, Thomas Stafford, Charles W. Owen, Melvin Iavierty, Calvin Peters, Iouis Lovell. Gilbert F. D. Wilson, N. Ferris. Section 33 —John S. Decker, Stephen Stafford, John S. Hunt, William Ayers. Tlorace Beebe. Section 34-Benton Bernard, Henry Tnnes, Henry Chaffee. John Minich, John Hunt, John C. Blanchard, Louis S. TIovell. Section 35 -F. Smith, D. C. Hawley, Benton Barnard, Philip Cling, Ezekiel Ferrington. Section 36 —F. Smith,' D. C. Hawley, Daniel Barker, John Lowry, John Snyder. EARLY SETTLEMENTS. 'The township of.Bloomer was a wilderness until the year 185I. On the town line between Bushnell and Bloomer a man named Francis Beudine had built a shanty. and occupied it some six months previous to that time. lTe entered the south half of the southwest quarter of section 30, but at the

Page  70 I- -xi -0 70 MIONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. expiration of that time sold it to Asa Hawley, who was the second settler in the township. Hawley came from Jackson county and remained about two years, when he sold out to Charles Knapp. In the summer of I85I Jonathan Cole and Sylvester Pennington settled in the township. The land, which consisted of the southwest quarter of section 19, was entered in the name of Isaac Pennington, while Cole took up the northwest quarter of section 30. Pennington remained in the township a number of years and then went to St. Johns, Clinton county. This quarter was later owned by Harvey Bump, who cane to the township in 1854. The land entered by Mr. Cole was later occupied by A. Boyer. The first to penetrate the heavy beech and maple forests of the interior of Bloomer for the purpose of making a permanent settlement was Anderson Miner. As has been intimated, this region had long since been visited by land speculators or their agents, and as a consequence, considerable portions of land had already been entered. An abundance of game, which at almost all seasons roamed through the forests or found retreats in its dense and almost imnpenetrable thickets, had for many years n-iade it the favorite resort of both Indian and white hunters. Amnong those of the latter race was Asa Hawley, whose favorable reports induced Anderson Miner, in company with his son, Winfield Miner, to visit the southern part of Montcalm county in June, I85I. It is unnecessary to add that they found it even surpassing in beauty and fertility reports theretofore hardly credited. Mr. Miner accordingly took the description of the northeast quarter of section 28, and with a soldier's land warrant, which he had received from the government as a recognition of his services in the War of I812, he proceeded to lonia, where the government land office was then located in charge of Stephen Page and Frederick Hall. He soon received a duplicate of his land, but owing to the great rush of emigration for a number of years, the office at Washington had steadily fallen behind in its work and the patent conveying his land did not reach him until-a year and a half after the entry was made. ARRIVAL OF THE MINER FAMILY. In the following November, accompanied by his sons, John and Winfield, and their families, Mr. Miner, with three yoke of oxen and as many wagons, set out from their homes in Jackson county for the wilds of Bloomer. The "ups and downs" of that trip can never be described. The wagons, loaded down with the women and children, provisions, household

Page  71 r ____li MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGtAN. 71 goods, cooking utensils, farming implements and a blacksmith's outfit; the crossing of streams over which there were no bridges, and the almost impassable roads, made it a journey common enough, perhaps, in those days, but one now known only in story, and realized only by those who participated in it. in about eight days the little compainy reached the cabin of Asa Pennington, who kindly offered them its shelter and accommodations. Here, then, it was decided to leave the women and children while the nen cleared a road to the farm entered by Mr. Mliner, which was situated one mile south )f the centre of the rownshil). To complete a I)assablle road to this place from the house of Mr. Pennington. occupied nearly a month of hard labor. The distance in an air line swas only three miles, but the natural obstruction in the way made it necessarv to cut the underlrush and timber a long way around at times, in order to avoid them. In this work Mir. Mliner and his sons were assisted by Elder \\ ilsey, who also became a lpermlsanent settler of Bloomer. After completilg the road, a small log cabl)in was built, which stood on the land later owned' b) MIartin J. Miner. The cabin was one story, twelve by fourteen feet, and was the first, aside from a htlnter' s hanty on Fish creek, erected in Bloomer. 'T'he orchard is also thought to have been the first in the township. These Irelilinilary steps beilng taken. Mr. Miiner went back to Jackson county, whence he retturned with the rest of his family in January, I862. Mr. M5iner remained in Bloolncr, one of its mOost esteemed citizens until his death. which occurred in 1878. His wife, who shared his toil, his hardships and his successes, lived for many years afterward. Soon after Mlr. Aliner brought his family another settlement was commnenced in the eastern )part of Bloomer, the leading members of which were Joseph Roop, Hiratm Hunt and William Sherman. These with their families settled on land now in the limits of Carson City, or vicinity. They immniediately built cabins and settled down to earnest work, and were among the best citizens of the township. Mr. Roop settled on what is now known;as the Goolthite addition to Carson City. He cleared this land and placed it in a good state of cultivation, after which he sold it to Thomas Toag. His son. Clark Roolp, who afterward married Clarinda Hunt, came to the township with him, and also cleared a farm. Hiram Hunt came from Erie county, New York, and settled near Pewamo, whence he moved to Bloomer, as stated. He settled on the north half of the southwest quarter of section 12. His family at that time con

Page  72 72 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. sisted of a wife and two children. \Villiam Sherman settled the south half of the southeast quarter of section 12, later owned by R. M. Affott. A VISIT TO CRYSTAL LAKE. Mr. ltunt once related that at an early day a little company consisting of ten or twelve individuals resolved to visit Crystal lake which had already become somewhat noted. None of these, however, had ever been there, and without knowing its exact location, started early one morning in the direction indicated by a gentleman who had entered a tract of land in the vicinity, and whose glowing description made them still more impatient and desirous to see it. When near the Bloomer and Crystal line the entire company were brought to a sudden halt by one of their number, who, being a little ill advance, held up what appeared to be the bones of a human hand. In a fe\v imomentts, when the amazement gave way somewhat to curiosity, the opinion of a young man from Gratiot county, who represented himself as a physician, was denmanded. He turned the immense "hand" over several tiimes, and then with two or three nods and a long breath (inl the manner of an experienced physician whNo has made out a satisfactory diagnosis of his case), handed it back, and as he did so, said, "Yes; that's \what it is." "'\hat is it " came from -half the party. ".\ man's hand," replied the would-be doctor. lie asserted with confidence something about which he knew nothing whatever. Then came the search for the boly, or any clue to solve the manner and mystery of death. All efforts were unavailing. 'The party. which utl to this time had been one of extreme merrilent and hilaritv, becamle at once the counterpart of a funeral procession and as the' p1asse(d on their way the noody silence was occasioned not through fear for personal safety, lut melancholy theories with which each tried to satisfy his own mind. Some of these wvere advanced for the good of the rest. "Some one liad lost his way, had wanldered ablout until exhausted, had sunkl lown and had been devoured Ibv bears or wolves, with which the woods were infested." The theory tlat some one ha(l first been shot Iby a lurking savage or border ruffian was less credited. But they kept on their way, and when in the vicinity of the lake catme to a level space. evidently not long since the camping ground of a large band of Indians. Ilere after a successful hunt, they had gorged themselves on bear and venison, the bones of which were scattered in every direction. ()n one side there was a little stack of the bones of bears' feet that woutld fill an ordinary wagon box, evi

Page  73 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 73 dently the collection of several years, and upon examination it was found that they corresponded exactly with those found on the way. They concluded, therefore, that they were thrown away by sonime Indian who had made a repast of tender roast bear's paw. OTHER PIONEERS. In the fall of 1853, C. R. Dickinson, a native of Addison county, Vermont, came to Illoomer and purchased the east half of the southeast quarter, of section 28, this being part of the entry made by Alden Giddings. Mr. Dickinson stiubsequently married Hlannah Terrell, daughter of H. Terrell, who settled on section 29. Mr. Terrell having collected and prepared material for a commodious log house, was requested by Mrs. Terrell (preparatory to raising the same) to go to Ionia and procure meats for the occasion. The morning b)efore the raising however, he and his sons, Reuben and James, went into the woods not far distant, and in less than all hour each killed a fine deer. InI T854 Hiram Rool, from liulton county, Ohio, became a resident of the township. The same year a Mrs. Bishop came to Bloomer and bought the southeast quarter of section T3 and the northeast quarter of section 24. She was a lady of most estimable character and always retained the esteem of those who knew her. Tn the fall of the same year John and Paul Mulrray, wh(; afterwards purchased a part of this tract, came to the township; thev were from the "Province of Quebec, Contmtv of the Two Mountains, Scenery of the Argent Isle, Town of La Chute, Canada." In \lay, 1855. H. M1. Robinson came in and bought the farm of John M.uirray. Patil Murray paid for his first cow by felling the timber on five acres of ground, and gathered his first harvest on a sled. G. W. Palmer, a native of England, settled on a farm in this township onl the loth of May, 1855. This was a part of the tract owned by Mrs. Bishop, as was also the land later owned by J. Barrett and Peter Goolthite. Mr. Palmer also b)ought forty acres from John M. Gordon, who had entered fourt hundred acres in this vicinity. Isaac J. Burt, who also settled in this vicinity, married the daughter of William Sherman. He first settled in the town of North Shade. The land originally settled by Daniel Parker was later occupied by H. F.' Blanchard, who opened the first stock of goods in Matherton. In the meantime, while these settlements were being made in the eastern and southern part of the township, other localities received many additions,

Page  74 LF 74 AMONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. some before and some later, in the person of such men as R. IBogart, C. 1E. Decker, in the south; Jonathan Boyer, T. Cliffe, J. Grace, A. S. Richardson anld (. Smith, in the center; N.,. Otis, A. Boyer, S. T. Richardson, J. AMitchell, C. 1Foler and IH. II. Iowler, in the west; and C. ling, A. R. Ishami P'. Long and E. Benton, in the northwest. TIhese ilimmediate localities, and especially in the vicinity of Miner's Corners were hives of industry and activity. Mr. M.itner had olpelled a blacksmith shop ( the first in Bloomer), and often lie and his son, \Winlield, were ipounding away froti early morning till late at night. To repair the chains and others imilplements necessary inl clearing and ilmproving a new country is an imlportant iteni in its welfare. Schools had I)een started in the eastern and celltral parts, and religious meetings were regularly attenlided, )ut these were not the only indications of perrnilient prosperity. A sa\\-miill w\as built ill the towniship of (Crystal (then a part of Illoomer) from w-hich timlier was dra.wn in considerable qulantities, and improv\enlelts fromi this time were more rapid. There is record of the marriage of James Covel to Miss Fairbanks, which was the first wedding in the to\\vwship, and also the birth of the first child, Nathan \V. Cole. son of Edward C'ole, who had settled on the northwest quarter of section 30. The next birth was that of Frances, daughter of \\Winfield S. Miner. The first postoftice was kept hl AT. K. Richardson in a little cal)in wlhich stood o( the southeast corner of section 21. The mail \\as ciarried from Greenvlille to Tthaca by a man named G(odfr-ey C) org. iMorg e \\as siulsequently killed in a dense undergroxwth by a lhuilter who mistook him for a deer. From the list of early settlers should not lie omiitted the nl;me of (George Benjamin, al eiigincer froin (Chicago. lIe was the first sulpervisor of the township. A.fter two or three days' haIrd lalor lie succeeded in felling a large tree (probably the first in his lifetime) and after endeavoring as much longer to convert it into ashes. with hands blistered and clothes torn, he concluded that farming for one's health was a failure, and left the township. CARSON CITY. ('arson City, Bloomer township, which is situated on sections 12 and 13, on land originally entered in part by Joseph Roop. July 2, i8,o, was, founded by Thomas Scott and two nephews, John and Thomas LaDule, about 1867. Scott had returned from Carson City, Nevada, in its boom days and gave its name to the village in Montcalm county.

Page  75 __ 1_ MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 75 The patent for the land entered by Joseph Roop was granted on May 8, 1851, and covered the west half of the southeast quarter of section 12. Abram Ely entered the east half of the same quarter on December 20, I85i. These lands were later occupied by R. M. \Abbott. The east half of the southwest quarter of section r2 was entered on November 2, I836, and the patent therefore received was dated on November 2, I837. Robert McClella(l's patent for the west half of the same quarter bears the same date. It was entered on Novenlber 8, 1836. The northwest quarter of section 13 was entered by James R. Langdon on l)ecember 16, 1836, and by Darius C. Tarkins on August 13, 1849. The northeast quarter of section 13 was also entered by Joseph Roop and Abran Elly. The former took the west lialf and the latter the east half. (arson City was platted on land owned by R. M. Abbott, Delia Miner and H. T. Sherman, (ctober to, I866, and recorded on;ebruary 28, 1872. Thc first lot was sold to Thomas Scott and John and Thomas LaDue, as a;love noted, who1 ulnder the firm nlame of Scott & LaDue, built a saw-mill in the fall of 1868. Tt was the first in the village. They also built a gristmill about two years afterward. These enterprises gave the village an impletus 1and the building Ianld business interests in general grew ulp very rapidly. This imill lbuilt by Scott & ITaDue, has had an interesting history. ShIortlv after Scott's death. Williamll Y otungs obtained an interest in the enter)prise antd l;. ('. (Tutnm11intgs. now a -well-knowxn l)anker of (Carson ('ity. l)ought i)lit 'YIungs, ' interest and operated the mill for a time in partnership with lThomas laDuc. Subsequently, Mtr. Cutllrlings l)ought out Mr.,aT)Due and lhe traded the mill to LTorenzo MA. Lon and Luther M. Tones for two farms. Mr. ummlllings had made mloney out of the enterprise. After operating the mill for a nullmer of years, it came into possession of 17. L. yon, a son of Lorenzo \1. Lyon, and George M. Jones, an adopted son of Luther M. Jones. George Mi. Jones was succeeded in the business by George K. Daniels and tie enterprise is now operated by Lyon & Daniels, who have a splendid local trade. tluther M. Jones died at Carson City, April 28, 1911, at the advanced age of eighty years..orenzo MI. I.yon and George AM. Jones were still living in I9)5. Addison H-. Mack, who bought a lot and built a small store building near the grist-mill, opened the first stock of goods in the village. Mr. Mack was soon succeeded by H. P. Miller who opened a good assortment of gen

Page  76 EL_.~~ —r ~ — --- ~ --- 111 -- 76 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICIIIGAN. eral merchandise. Mr. Miller, who died in the nineties at the age of sixtyfive, also had built the Miller House which took the place of Hinds' Tavern. Mr. Miller's daughter and son-in-law operate the house today. In this connection it may be said that the old Laphan hotel, which was operated for many years, was a landmark. The first hotel, however, was built by Hiram and Daniel Hunt, father and son. The first hardware store was opened by Sullivan E. Felch, in the large building which was known as the Proctor store building, the property of Alonzo Proctor. Augustus Barnumn, E'lmer Lewis and Anson Davenport were connected with the early business interests of the village. Brower & Howe built up a planing-mill and sash- and blind-factory, which was subsequently owned by Lacy & Acker, in whose possession it was at the time it burned. This was a serious loss to the town. Lacy & Acker also erected a saw-mill which proved a failure and resulted in the dissolution of the partnership. A siding- and shingle-mill was built by John Taft which was sulsequently moved to the north of F.dmnore. In 1878. another sash- and blind-factory was built by H. T. Sherman, which was equilpl)ed with machinery and modern applliances. This establishmen t is now extinct. A steam saw-mnill and car factory, which was a valuable addition to the village, was moved to Saginlaw. During his life, I liram IRo op olerated a large apiary. BUSINESS ENTERPRISES. Carson City, while not a manufacturing center, has several thriving enterprises at the present time, all of which are duly noted in the chapter on Montcalm l county industries. Here, however, it is well to enumerate them.: planing-mill and machine-shop is run by J. T. Waters; a large elevator by the Rockafellowv Grain Company; a cheese factory operated by Franlk T..Miner; electric light plant operated by the Rockafellow (rain Company, and the flour-mill operated by Lyon & Daniels. trancis A. Rockafellow, who was the founder of the Rockafellow enterprises in Carson City and who (lied there on Iebruary 23, 1904, at the age of fifty-five, was a prominent man in the life of the village for twenty years or Imore. Sheldon H. Caswell, who founded the business in furniture and undertaking now operated by his son, F. S. Caswell, in a magnificent building in the heart of the village, was born in Oneida county, New York, Februarv [5, I846. He removed to Portland, Michigan, at the age of twenty-one and engaged there in the shoe business. After his store burned, he came to


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Page  77 _ __ _____ _ _ 1__________ MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 77 Carson City in lNovemler, 1872, and engaged in moving buildings and selling sewing machines. In 1874, he purchased a furniture and undertaking business and managed this enterprise until 1894 when he removed to Newark, New York. There he remained fourteen years and in I908 removed to Los Angeles. F. S. Caswell succeeded to the business in June, 1894. George A. Thayer was in the general mercantile business where the Carson City State Bank now stands. Although he retired a great many years ago, he is still living. Get rge R. Gibbs, former postmaster of the village, was prior to his term as postmaster a bllacksmith and wagon manufacturer. He came to Carson City just before Sheldon H. Caswell. Mr. Gibbs has been retired for many years. Fletcher Reasoner, who died at Carson City on December 28, 1914, at thIe. age of seventy-two, was in the general mercantile business for many years. John and Paul Murray, brothers, were prominent in the business life of Carson City for a long time. The former died on July 25, I888, and the latter, the father of L. W. Murray, present manager of the Rockafellow Grain Company. died on Tecember T4, 1883. John Murray was fifty-eight years old at the time of his death, and his brother, Paul Murray, was fortynine. -\nmong the thriving enterprises of Carson City at the present time are The Gittlemnan Company, T. Krohn, Carson City Produce Company, A. E. (;unther. W. O. Canouts, Brooks & Sons, Patrick J. McKenna, Chester R. Culver and John Brice. Carson City. which was incorporated in 1887, has an assessed valuation at the present time of approximately $900oo000. Its population is given as 8o8 by the I910 census but it is now estimated at nearly I,Ioo. In 1904, the census gave the population as 89I of whom 4I9 were males and 472 fenales. At this time, 832 citizens were native born and fifty-nine foreign born. In 1904 Carson City enumerated 247 children of school age, five to nineteen years, of whom IT5 were males and I32 females. Of these children, 243 were native and four foreign born. The character of the population has probably changed very little since that time, 1904 being the last official state census. COUNTRY TRIBUTARY TO CARSON CITY. Carson City lies in the center of a rich agricultural country where the land is worth from $100 to $I50 an acre and where corn, wheat, oats, hay.

Page  78 78 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. beans and sugar 1eets are raised in al)undance. The farmers living ill the country adjacent to Carson Citv and, in fact, in the country tributary to it, are splendid farmers who have gone on from year to year improving the land by everv method known to modern agriculture. IBloomer township was a pioneer in road building and as a consequence the farmers enjoy the use of roads second to none in the countv. They have always been liberal spirited in the expenditure of money for this p)url)ose. o(lod roads have 1ma(le marketing easy and especially the marketing of the products of their dairies which are sold to the cheese factory, operated now by Frank H. Miner. but established by Henry Fitzpatrick. The dairy industry has made not only the village liut the country surrounding it, extremely p)rosperous. 'The (.'arsoil (.itv Town and Country Improvement Association, organized in February, 1915, succeeded the ('arson City Boosters' C'lub and is well organized fo. the purpose of imp)roving the village. bringing factories to tlle conniunitv, and keeping the town clean. 'lhere is an executive committee for the town section and one for the country section. The former consists (of I. lB. Stebblin:s, Ira Cummings, I.. W\. lurray, E. S. Brooks, Charles IH. Adams, 1. S. Caswell, William E. Adams, I-T. I5. Cowdin and \Villiam Hlutting. The latter consists of William T. Hill, T. M. \Vilson. Walter Herrick, 0. W\. \\'ilson, Martin Grace, V'alois Todd, R. W\. Brice and AM. H. K<ilpp. The presi(!ent is Dr. J. 1'. Taylor: vice-president, I,. D. L.von; secretary. (hester R. ('ulver, and treasurer, W\ill L. Wright. This association advertises that ('arson City is "the best and biggest little city in the state, located in the heart of the best agricultural district in the state, in Blohomer, the best towvnship in Mlontcalm county, and which has an assessed valuation of $2,01T3,005." The association also points out that Carson Citv has a modern brick school house, built in I891, with a $15,000oo addition, Ibillt in J( 15; an ul>-to-date course -of study with nine teachers and is on the apl)roved list of the University of Michigan. St. Mary's Academy, built in 1907, has a faculty of five members and a special music departilent. The town has a W\oman's Club of sixty-six members, the usual fraternal societies and a fine theatre seating five hundred people. The village is equipped with electric lights and has its own water system. There are five churches, Methodist, Congressional, Catholic, Baptist and SeventhI)ay Adventists. The ('arson City State Bank and the Farmers and Merchants State Bank have combined resources of $556,045.49. Moreover, the village is located advantageously with reference to other points, being twentytwo miles fronm Greenville, twenty miles from Stanton, twenty-three miles from Alma, twenty miles from Ithaca, twenty-eight miles from St. Johns

Page  79 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICIIGAN. 79 and txventy-five miles from lonia. The Carson City Gazette, owned and published l)y II. E. (Covdin, is an excellent newspaper. (-arson City is located on a division of the Grand Trunk railway, which \\as built through the village in 1887. At one time a railroad was projected through C(arson City running north and south, generally, and called the M.larshall & Northern. Although the roadbed was graded for many miles, it \was never complleted. ('arson (City peolle are very proud of the care with which the cemetery laying to the northwest of the village and consisting of some acres is kept. The cemetery is managed and maitainie( by the East Bloomer Cemetery Society, organized on February 21, I867, at the Roop school house. At the first meeting of this society, \Villian- S. Everest was elected presi(lent and -Hiram T. Sherman, clerk. Iliram Hunt was named as treasurer and \\ illianm Roop as sexton. The society was incorporated in I867 and, eighlt years after its charter had expired, was re-incorporated in I905. The president of the society is Mrs. A. L. Luce, the secretary is F. S. Caswell, and the treasurer., ra Cu(inmings. The trustees include, besides the officers, AMrs. 1. \\. Murray, Thomas Gardner, M\rs. J. Tennant, Mrs. Julia F. hamberlinn. Mrs. E mma Sweet and W. L. Wright. The village of Carson City is what might be called a "Saturday night town." GCenerally the streets are filled with people at the close of each \\eek's \ork. Although the streets are not paved, they are well graveled and the sidewalks are built of cement. About ten years ago there was a -,nmewhat protracted controversy over the grading of the main street. The gra(le was first changed in order to furnish surface drainage to citizens living in the wvest end of the village but the old grade lines were practically restored after a bitter fight and considerable litigation. Numerous fires have occurred in Carson City, but by all odds the worst fire occurre(l on August 29, 1904, about nine o'clock in the morning, when the tank of a gasoline stove used in W. M. HIarden's lunch room exploded. Before the alarm could be sounded the whole building was in flames. They spread rapidly and in two hours the business places from P. J. McKenna's store to that of F. A. Wright were in ruins. The total loss amounted to ablout $50,000. Since that fire, the whole section of the city has been rebuilt with modern, well-equipped store buildings. PROMINENT CITIZENS. Among the prominent citizens of Carson City, who belong to a past generation, several may be mentioned here. Others, still living, will receive

Page  80 6~9 "111 1 - - -~ ~ 80o MONTCALM COUNTY, MICIIGAN. brief mention. Charles IT. Morse, who served as state labor commissioner, as a representative in the Legislature from Gratiot county and also as a state senator, was a colonel in the Civil War. lie died on March 21, 1914, at the age of seventy-six. Mrs. MIorse lives in Carson City. Charles Dickinson, who was supervisor from Bloomer township for twenty-five years, was a resident of (arson City. His son, Charles Dickinson, is president of the MAontcalm county board of supervisors at the present time. Spencer (;. Millard, who for many years was superintendent of the Carson City schools, studied law and was admitted to practice in Tonia county. Ile later removed to California where he was elected lieutenantgovernor and where he was a candidate for United States Senator. He is now deceased. Eugene D. Straight. although reared in Gratiot county, a short distance from.arson City, taught school at Carson City for five years. Mr. Straight is at present school commissioner of Montcalm county and has held the office for many years. Robert Montgomery. former register of deeds in Montcaln county, lives at present five miles southwest of Carson City in Bloomer township. A. I.. Bemis, who edited and published the Gazette for many years died at Carson City on August 5, 1912, at the age of fifty-four. Ophir R. Goodno, who served many years as treasurer of Bloomer township and who was otherwise prominent in local politics, died August 4, Igo6, at the age of sixty-five. William C. Fife, who was repeatedly elected to the office of township treasurer of Bloomer township, died on April 13. 1912, at the age of thirtythree. The Rev. Peter K. Shutter, who died on December I, 1901, at the age of seventy-four, served many years as postmaster of the village and was also one of the first ministers of the Baptist church. The pioneer physicians of Carson City and Bloomer township as well as old-time attorneys, have received mention elsewhere in this volume. Needless to say, the public affairs of Carson City are well managed: the streets are kept in good repair; the fire department, which consists of two hose carts, a hook and ladder wagon and fifteen hundred feet of hose, is well organized; the village is kept scrupulously clean and the village well attains its claim of being "the best and biggest little city in the state.".I

Page  [unnumbered] , l.? -] ~I"-~: "-',''-:::: ~: ~~;,,~ it- ffi -- NHC NEWHPIIGH SCHOOI BETILDING, CARSON CITY.

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Page  81 M0ON1'TCAI.M COUNTY, MICHIGAN. CARSON CITY OFFICIALS. The 1)1 seit offici 1k of the city iclulIde Edward D. Lyon, liresident R. E`. Brooks, clerk- Jess R. Combs, treasurer; H. G. Heaton, assessor, and C. H..\danis Ja IX 1)c n, A. (7. MeC(rary, R. H. McDougall, C. F. Wright mu. A. Sixeel. trustees. ihe village attorney is A. B. Goodwin, who i also 11w llresent lpostiilIster. ('arson ( itv, as stated heretofore, was incorporated in 1887. 11e presidents of the vilage electedl since its tincorporation anul the dhates of their electioli are as folloxi John NT Halalet, I887; Thomas T. LDixson, 1889; Peter K. Sltiuter, 1 89o; George A. Thiayer, 1891; TDeGayler L. Straight, 1892; Thoma s 'F Dixson, 1893, G.'eorge WV. Caldwell., 1894; Joshua 'Pennant., 896; \-, Y Sessions, 1897 XXilliai (. Sniith, 1899; Thomas T. Dixson., 1900ol \7 iiial B. Iuce. 1901: Alfred B. Loomis (appoiinted to fill vacancy). Igi- lnr..-eton, 1 '2 Georg.adwell, 1903; C. F. l.owler, 1904 -1George K.~- Daniels, 1.908; P. Mlorris Netzorg, 190o; A4. B3. (;uodwl~in. 19 ii; Ir Cumimiings, 19T21 I," S. Brooks, 1913; I.D. I'Vonl, The roll of clerks of the village since 1887 follows: Ophir R. (Goodno. I 88,7 S,'ni'Uel 1. Smi1th, 1889. XX illianuiiJ. Shuttter, 1890; \Nilliami J. Loomis. i (o- F. I' Luce, 181)6 A. K Goodwin i8o' I L\;:. Lyon, 1906; Fred ( wmt her JIr 9. K o 1 1. I` rookS 1913. ThIn roll (If I illage treasurers, followss sL.\. Lyon, 1887; Samulel J. Smith. 18o0 Fraiik Hale Te 189- - S.J Smith, 1893; Isaac Pitt, 1894.; Y. Sessions, i89(5 XXilAii. Smith, 1897k WX I I bayer, 1899; George IKiuihkerbock.Ier, 9cm 1 Fred.\ XXright, i902' C. -4 Fvey, 1904; Frank H. XIlner, 1906 I`.\ N \Xriht lit198, P' 1 XcKenna, 1909; F. S. Brooks, 191)I1 'dI St-iaight. 1913. J. T\ Combs, 1i9i5.\s,.cesors of ( irson ( itv sin1ce its 111co1rl)oratioll followi; V. B3. Luce, 188'7; \V'. A. Sweet, i8oo; L..A. Lyvon, 1894; H. G. Heaton. 1913. The trustees of the v-illage Since i88 7 have been as follows:;Thomas 1Dixsoii, George Xi1. Jones, Frank Rockafellowe, Zadoek S. Heath, Fred.nnitlier and Svlvester Stowe, 1887;1 Lafayette IL. Trask, A. C. McCrary and \I. jones, i888; John A. Hogan and Charles.A. Sweet, 1889; Nelson WA. lzaggett, 1890; F.E. Cummings, William C. Hubbard, Joshua Tennant and Liee1. Hamilton, 1891; John A. Hogan, Frank H. Miner and E~mmet ITvRower, 18Q2; George M. Thomas, George MI. Jones and B. WV. McVeigh, (6)

Page  82 82 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICIIIGAN. 1893; Henry P. Miller, Vinal B. Luce and Alfred B. Loomis, I894; George M. Thomas, George Ml. Jones and B. \W. TMcVeigh, I895; Peter S. Hawken, George WV. (Garner. (eorge H. Lester and W. A. Gardner, I896; Vinal B. Luce, George M. Jones and Alfred B. Loomis, I897; George \V. (;arner, George H. Lester and Peter S. Hawken, I898; Ruben Clark, Harley G. Garlock and \William J. Miner, 1899; 1. D. VanSickle, IT. G. Sessions, George WV. Garner and Uriah Brillhart, 19oo; Charles F. Fowler, George M. Jones, John IT. Blakeslee and Uriah Brillhart, 190T; George W. (;arner, Charles R. Culver, Joseph D. Van Sickle alnd James Rundeo, 90o2; Fred Gunther, Sr., John W. l1allet and Richard C. Cowe. 1903; George K. Daniels, George \V. (arner and J. I). XVanSickle, I904; Fred Gunther, Sr., Orrin.\. Myers and F. S. (aswell, 1905; John C. Chaniberlin, Fred J. (hamlerlin, William E. \ldams and George Wialt, 1906; Dennis S. Sullivan, John B. Schofield and H. (;. Heaton, 1907; cldgar S. Brooks, Perry C. Older and William F. Gunther, T908; George Lowe, (Charles R. Culver, J. H. Blakeslee and \William E. Aldams, 1qo; Ray F. \Varner, Iouis Ligram2 and W\alter,owe, 1910; (eorge R. Iowe, P. J. McKenna. A. R. Allsolpp and Martin Straight, r91 I; Walter Lowe, F. S. C(aswell and C(harles H. Adarms. 1912; Fred Snyder, J. R. Comibs, A. C. McCrarv and M. A. Rice, 1913; R. H. McI)ougall, Charles H. Adams and (. F. Wright, 19T4; A. ('. McCrary, J. Dean and C. A. Sweet. T915. BUTTERNUT. There is only one other village in the township of Bloomer. This bears the name of Butternut and is merely a small settlement located just east of Carson City on the (rand Trunk railroad. It has at present a post office with Mrs. T.. (reek as postmistress and the only business interests of the town is the butternut cheese factory. This factory does a nice business and is well patronized by the farmers and dairy men in this locality. Butternut has never been platted and is associated with the township in its government. 'The present population of Butternut is one hundred and fifty. Libby, McNeil and lil)l)r have a salting station located in Butternut. The Eagle hotel is at present under the nanagement of Mrs. Cowin. Benton & Kerr own and operate the elevator which deals in l)cans and all kinds of grain. The bank of Butternut does a general banking business. Dr. J. Cowin is the physician of the village and also has a drug store.

Page  83 __I 1 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 83 The other business firms of the village are: Ray Dehart, grocery;.. Conklin. general merchandise; Deer's hardware and implement store; I eTIart's general merchandise; Highbee and Bluemby, stock buyers, buy quite extensively and this is noted for being one of the best stock markets on this branch of the Grand Trunk railroad. Ira Ginther is the village 1blacksmith.

Page  84 ('IA\PTER V. BUSHNELL TOWNSHIP. Bushnell was tile second township estallished in Montcaini county and ill reality was the first organized in the newly created territory, as IMontcalm township had heel established five years previous while this territory was still attached to lonia counlt. This townshilp was organized 1) an1 act of the state Legislature and dates its existence from the same time as that of the couiit, as the two were created by the same act of March 20, T85o. The first election in the tow\nshilp was held at the house of Jospclh Stcvens, "for the purpose of choosing officers of said township," on the I2th of April, iS1o. (' \. Olmistead was chosen moderator; James ('lock, clerkl; Edlwin H. Stevens atld Jeremiah iMalie,, inspector of election. 'The polls were closedl at three o'clock, when it xwas found that the greatest nunmher of votes cast w\as twelve. and the following i)ersons were declared elected: (Chauncey W\. ()lnlstead, supervisor; \\;illiaim 1lusker, clerk; Edwin I1. Stevens. treasurer; Jaiies S. Bacon, Henry A\..\Ale, id\win II. Stevens and ('h.iuncey W\' Olmstead, justices of the peace; Jericiah Mabie. James ('lock land Jo sephl Stevens, co(mmlissioners of the iigh\ways; Chaunceyv W. Olmsteadl anid \\ illialm Mulnix, school inslpectors' James Clock, \illiam Mulnix and Joseph Steveis., dlirectors of the poor. The meeting then voted that a bounty of one dollar should be paid for every wolf killed in the township, andi also that no license for the sale of intoxicating leverages should Ibe granted, after which it adjourned, to meet at the same place the next year. Bushnell townlship lies geographically in the southeastern part of the coilnty. It is bounded on the east by Bloomer township, on the south bv lonia county,, on the \west by Firplai n tow\Nnshi and on the north by Evergreen. It is described in the government survey as town 9 north, range 6 west. This towneship takes its name from a young man by the name of Bushnell who was at that time clerk of the house of Representatives. \Vhen first organized auishnell included townships 9 and IO north, ranges 5 and 6 west, or what has later constituted the townships of Evergreen, (Crystal and Bloomer, but with the formation of these townships it was reduced to its presient limits.

Page  85 MONTCATM COUNTY, MICIIlGAIN. 85 Prairie creek receives no trilutary from the east, but three small streams Hlow into it from the west. The southernmost branch is the outlet of Snow lake, near the centre of which is the corner of sections 29, 30, 3I, 32. The central lbranch, which is usually known as Bacon's creek, drains a small pond,)ii the northwest quarter of section 12. Another small stream in the neighborhood of the old Dean mill unites with a small stream from the north. The stream thus formed flows eastward, and unites with another from Evergreen to form Prairie creek. Tlhere are several small iodies of water near this stream. One-Allen's lake. so named from the first settler in the township-is in the southeast tquarter of section 23. Pickerel lake is on the northwest quarter of section 26. Tt will thus lie seen that almost the entire township of Bushnell forms a basin sloping tl\wardls the western half of section 26, where the waters are collected and 1)ssillg through Prairie creek flow into Tonia county. This is a part of the (;rand river system. ORIGINAL LAND ENTRIES. 'The following list contains the names 'of those who purchased from the gencral government of the state lands situated in this township: Section -Jesse Stumll, Benjamin Casey. George S. Griffin, N. D. 1 art. Levi Trim, George Bartholomew, Columbia Page, Joseph Hartwick. Secti(on 2- -.\ldrew S. I'hilips. N. S. Benton, John W. Dunn, L. H. Smith, 'aroiline Brotherton, Benona Dickinson. Almon Charles, John Arntz, ( 'lirles Brown, Tholmas Cornell, T.. 1. Taylor. Section 3-Caleb Mills,.lih C(. 'llatnclhard, Tames TR. (;riswol(l John Gillett, Zerah Willoughby, D. \ '.lliott, F.inus \\. \ ickery, Norman Firmby, Ira Hawus, Doctor F. Barnes. Section 4 —C(alelb Mills, Frederick Hall, Absalom Gillenwater, John C. Illllachardl, (ornelius C. Darling, J. (ilfin, Orin Knapp, Austin P. Gallup, (;cerg -lolland. Section 5 —Joel Soule, Samuel C. Kinyon, Tobias C. 1Ia-nor. Frederick -Hall, Noah Bennett, Austin P. Gallup, Clark Harringlon, Frastus P. Brown. Section 6-Nathaniel Foster, Asaph Belcher, (lhristlopher (. Tyler, Levi Brainard. Americus Smith, S. Moore, George L. \\eek, Fredl Hall. Section 7-Whitman Stoddard, Nathaniel Foster, (Chancev Beckwiith, Edward Soule, Joel Soule, John Wabesis, Joseph P. l'owell, \mericus Smith, George D. Van Alstine. Section 8-Jerold Bander,.1. l-oward, Wh\itman Stoddard, Hezekiah McDaniels, Howland Soule, Jamtes I,. Jennings, Henry Hull, William Terrington, Jedediah Austin, John (. lexter, Hannah Burgess, Clarinda Van Keuren, Noah Bennett, Roswell

Page  86 I _ _ ___i___ 86 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Nettleton, Orson (Cheeny. Section 9-Rufus Wells, Dexter Smith, Maria Pitcher, A. Gillenwater, William Bush, Alexander D. W. Dodge, Royal J. Perkins. Section To —Miary Hill, John Grinnels, John C. Blanchard. Section I i —\illiam Knox, Andrew L. Phillips, Stephen F. Page, Willard Corser, John C. Blanchard, Albert Kent. Section 12-Joseph Stephens, John G. Eckert, Anthony Hill, Jesse Stump, Joseph L. Clock, XWilliam Cooper, Charles A. Umbenhauer, Calvin Lyons, D. F. Barnes. Section 13 -Frederick Hall, Joseph (.lock, Philander R. Howe, James Clock. Section 14-Isaac Pennington, Alvin Bartholomew. Samuel Rose, Julius Jennings, Stephen Page, Lewis J. Trim. Section 15-Thomas Arthurington, John M. Iamb, Lewis J. Trinm Stephen F. Page, John (. Blanchard. Section 16 -P. Hall, E. Tall, XWilliami Bisj, John I. Williams, George P. Tyler, James Sharp. Thomas \Vorthington, XVilliam Bush, Charles Lamb, N. S. Wood. Section i — John (. Snow, Hosea Bnnett, Josiah Bennett, Moses Bennett, George Lambl, (rson A. Cheeny, John E. Morrison, Edwin Hall, Caleb M. W\ade, Christopher Tyler. Section I8-George R. Lamb, Artenius Gleason, Roswell R. Idxwards, John A. Rosback, (hauncey Peckwith, Henry J. (Cheeny, Artemus Gleason, Leonard.Kirby. Section 19 —Albert I)eitz, W\illiam Adamls, Roswell R. Edwards, Edwxard Decker, Sanford Yeomans,.. hli. Cheeny, (aleb MI. W\ade, James Henderson. Section 2o-.lbert Deitz, I)aniel Kellogg, James Fitch. Moses Bennett, Tsaac Randall, Benjamin H-amilton, David Hall. Section i2-James S. Bacon, John Dickerson. John J. Hammnell, James Bacon, Mary Bacon. Section 22-Moses T. Bennett, William Husker, Jason Mills, Joseph Gallup, Peter Tucker, Alonzo Curtis, Frederick Sapp, Peter Tucker, Jason Mills. Section 23-Henry A. Allen, Charles S. Smith, James A. Clock, Joseph Gallup, Jr., Alonzo Curtis, Stephen Page, John J. I-ammlel, Frederick Sapp. Section 24-James Whitaker, Charles Rick, Charles Stevens, Grin Green, William S. Smith, Isaac Philips, L. (riffin. Section 25 —homas White, ILevi (Cox. Jeremiah Baringer, William W\hitaker. Section 26-Jacob Bargy, Albert Van Vleck, Isaac Herrington, Morris W. Maine, Daniel Heath, Isaac Jason, George Jason, William Castel, Isaac Shurte I). F. Barnes. Section 27 —Xilliam H. Weed, Joseph Young, William Castel. Joseph Stevens, Lyman Stevens, S. Dickinson, Chauncy W. Olmsted. Section 28-Solomon Myers, Albert Van Vleck, Franklin Herrick, Christopher G. Tyler, Jeremiah Taylor, John M. Cole, Joseph P. Powell, Gotlieh Haytlauff, Lewis H. Ranson. Section 29 —Godfrey Woohlben, Philip Slaght. James Fitch, Olive Hall, William E. Alchin, Louis S. Lovell, Stephen F. Page, David F. Ferguson. Section 3o — Alonzo Wood, Mansfield Harrison, E. B. Soule, Covington Blanchard, Stephen

Page  87 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 87 I'age. Section 3t —Edwin Comstock, Boswell Bennett, Solomon Bacon, John \Vest, Andrew Benedict, John C. Ferguson. Section 32-George W. Stevens, George \\V. Hewett, Edwin Comstock, William Campbell, Cyrus (;ilert, NV. M. Youngs, Richard B. White. Section 33-Thomas Magrath, lhilip Shaffer, Jeremiah Mabie, Moses Wells. Section 34-Willianm )cvore, \\'illiami IT. Weed, EIdwin TT. Stevens, Leander Millard, Joseph Stevens, Jeremiah MIabie, Julia Olmstead, LymaIII Stevens, L. White. Section 35 -John \Van Vleck, John B. Velch, Jeremiah Mabie, Peter Van Vleck, Adaline lBolton. John B. \Vhite, Joseph B. Miner, Rebecca Schute, D. T. Barnes. Section 36 —John B. Welch, Oscar F. Gladding, Aaron Sloan, Thomas Covcell. Caroline Sloan, I)Dennis Cranson. Roderick H. Wood, William Tyler, Sally P. Taylor, Stephen Ackles, Orin Iloisington, William ITowarth, larvev I Iowarth. EAI\I.Y SETTLE. M ENTS. As near as can now be ascertained, Henry A. Allen, who came to Bushnell and built a small log cabin near the lake on the north half of the southeast quarter of section 23, was the first settler in the township. Of his nativity and life previous to his settlement here, but little is known. He was a man of little energy, and to use the expression of an old settler, "he lhunted, fished, and imade staves, alternately," and on the whole, lived an easy life. His wife died about the year 1850, and he subsequently sold his farm to John J. Ilammel and moved from the township. Mr. Hammel became a resident of the townsthilp in the winter of 85 1-52, and was elected clerk of the township in 1852. He remained here a number of years, and then moved to the northern part of Michigan. \Villiam Devore was the second settler in the township and the first on the west side of Prairie creek in Bulshnell. He remained but a few years..- brother-in-law and wife came to the township soon after but the sisters became very much depressed, and persuaded their husbands to return to New York, which they accordingly did, about the year 1848..As early as the summer of T843 a young man named William Weed came to the hospitable cabin of Elder John Van Vleck, in the north part of Tonia county. He was of prepossessing appearance, and his ready conversation soon secured him admission to the hospitalities of this home on the very edge of civilization. The good deacon not only gave him much information in regard to desirable lands but volunteered the following day to show him some choice pieces near at hand. One of these, the west half of the southeast quarter of section 27, was a beautiful plain sloping to the

Page  88 s88 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. northeast. It is told even at this late day that this piece was intended by the deacon as an inheritance for some son-in-law owhorn heretofore he had( only seen when his eyes were closed. However this mnay Ibe, William Weed entered it an(l then returned to his home at Salem, \Vashtenaw county. He soon inlduced his father-in-law, Joseph Stevens, to visit the township, and he being \ell pleased with that section, purchased this piece of Mr. W\eed, and a con-siderable tract in addition on the north part of section 34. Mr. \Veed did not return to ltiushnell. '['he purchase of Mr. Stevens ultimately resulted in a large settlement in the township, and his relation to the early settlement in connection with a number of others deserves brief mention in these pages. iTe was born in Connecticut, and after living a number of years in New York came to Anin Arbor (then a settlement of two houses) ill 825. The next year he entered eighty acres of government land in the to\wnship of Salem, ill \\ashtenaw countv, \\here he is thought to have b)een the first resident. He cleared lup his farm., built a saw-miill, and resided there until he came to Blushnell to settle upon land already located, as before stated. The party consisted of Joselph Stevens, a wife and four children, and his son-in-law, Ed\win Stevens. \\vh located on one hundred andl sixty acres on the south half of section 34. Joseph Stevens ilmmediately built a temporary shelter, and then coiimmenced the log house which remained standing for miany years. The same day that this house wnas raised, Williamn Devore raised his log cabin on the farm later occupie(l y J. Snyder. These were the first cablins raised \\est of Prairie creek. Lvinan Stevens, who accompanied his father to this county, tmade his home on section \25. Many of the incidents of those early dlas remained fresh in his mind, some of which he passed oi to the present generation. At one time \\hile driving towards lonia through a narro\w\ road, and \\here it was imlossibile to turn aside, he came sud(lenly upon a huge bear quietly lying in the road. Tt arose, looked around, and then started off ahead of him. but it soon sat donii, fairly blocking the way. The two women wlho accomipanie hilm were extremely terrified. He could not turn around, and to advance swas perilous. I-He d(rove nearer and shoutedl at the top of his voice, lbnt it only brought growls and a dlisplay of teeth froil Bruin, who evidently proposed to stay. After a swhile, however, hle moved leisurely on, and the young man succeeded in driving around him, the wheels of the wagon passing within two or three feet of the bear's body. When Mr. Devore, who has already been spoken of, left the township in 1849, he employeld TLyman Stevens to assist in the journey, who when

Page  89 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 89 lie returned brought his brother-in-law, (.'hauncey VW. Olmstead, and family. IMr. ()lmstead had married Joseph Stevens' eldest daughter, Julia, in Washtenaw county. ITe at once became a resident of Bushnell, and settled on the cast half of the northeast quarter of section 34. Lyman Stevens subsequently married Tunice Bacon, whose parents became settlers in 1849. FIRST CKROS IN B SHNELL. J. S. Bacon was a native of New York state, whence he came 'to Mlichigan iln May. 1834, and settled in Rollin, Lenawee county, being Laong the first settlers in that section. lHe came to Bushnell on May 5, 1849,,an(l l)ought the cast half of sectionl 2, and brought his family, which at tlis time inumbered six, ill.\ugust following. lie left them all at the hlouse of his father-in-law, Joseph Stevens, while he built a log house \\hich lie covered \\itlh boards brought from the saw-mill on Dickinson creek, ill iairllain to\wnship, which was then moned by a Mr. Burrington. I-e immnediately blegan clearing with a team of horses which he had brought to the townshil), but sooln disposed of them and procured a yoke of oxen. The nlext spri li he sowed a small piece of ground in spring wheat-the first so\wed in the townshil --— lbut it proved a failure. 'The year previous Joseph Stevens hald sowed a field in winter wheat, which was the first in Bushnell, andil \\hich yielded a fair crop. Mr. Stevens also set out the first orchard in the town\ship, he having been engaged in the nursery business in WVashtevaw c(ount. He broughtt trees with him and set them out in the spring of 1848, at xvhich timle he also planlted some spring crops. Thie settlement thus far, with the exception of William Mulnix, who came in soon after his brother-in-law, Henry A. Allen, with whom he stlloppedl, had been in the central and southern parts of the township, west of I'rairie creek. But the fine lands east of that stream were destined not long to retain their primeval solitude. James Clock and his son, Joseph L. Clock, camec to the township, and after looking around selected the eastern half of section T3. 'The former took the southeast quarter, and the latter the northeast quarter. Joseph Clock's two sons married the daughters of Harley Blump, an early settler of Bloomer. In the spring of 1850 William Castel, another son-in-law of Joseph Stevens, came to Bushnell. He afterwards went to work in Olmstead's mill, in Evergreen township, where he remained until February, 1851, when he entered the northeast quarter of section 27, and soon after built a log house. Mr. Castel was closely identified with the public interests of the

Page  90 O0 MONTCAI.M COUNTY, MICIIGAN. county, having been elected a memlber of the board of supervisors many times, and to his exertions while serving in this capacity is the early organization of the townships in the east part of the county mainly due. A BEAR U.. NT. Shortly after locating in the township James Bacon called at the house of Mlr. Castel and as he signified his intention to return home, Mr. Castel took his rifle, and the two walked along together until corning to a piece of timber around which were small clearings. Ilere they separated and passed around, intending to meet at the opposite end of the wood. Mr. Bacon, who was in a great hurry, \wishing to get home w\ith his cattle, which he had set out to find, walked on rapidly. As he passed under a wild cherry tree a peculiar sound attracted his attention, and looking up to the top he saw five bears eating wild cherries. He hallooed to Mr. C'astel, but before he came,Mr. Bacon had brought one down, shot through the head. Mr. C'astel shot another, which was lodged in the forks of the tree. It was now found that they had not enough powder to load another piece, and while Mr. Bacon went to the house for armmtunition, Mir. Castel remained to watch. Another bear soon after came (douwn, and rwhile the party by this time collected, assisted by a large dog, pursued it and killed it, the other two escaped from the tree. However, thiev secured three large bears out of the five. Many other instances are reported, which, with the reminiiscences of the sufferings, hardships and dangers which everywhere surrounded the pioneers of Montcalm county, would fill a volume. Many who came here were po(or, with no exlperience in frontier life and no supplies to sustain them until the first crops could be secucred. To go to Ionia to trade, when so fortunate as to have the wherewith to procure the goods, through the terrible roads of those early days, was a hardship not now to b1e appreciated or understood; huit with those who had not the means the struggle was long and severe. Mlany came with high hopes, hut few remained to realize them. Those who went away frequently lost the little they had invested. Others who remained became the most substantial and wealthy citizens of Bushnell in their day. David Hall, of Herkimer county, New York, came to the south part of Tonia county in I84I. He settled in the township of Ronald in I846. In I85I he came to Bushnell and remained here until his death, in T873. They moved into the log cabin before the fireplace or floor was completed.

Page  91 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 9I It is said that in the fall of 1853 there was but one-half (lay in two weeks in which there was no raising. Among the early settlers of Bushnell also were Iowland and Joel Soule, brothers, from New York. The former entered the west half of the southwest quarter of section 8, and the east half of the southeast quarter of section 2. Joel Soule entered the south half of the northeast quarter of section 7. They cleared a road nearly the entire distance from their farms to David Iaall's, who was at that time their nearest neighbor. In the year I863 Dr. R. R. Edwards and Artemus Gleason, with their families, came to Bushnell. The former settled on one hundred and sixty acres on sections I8 and 19. TIe was the first physician to locate in Bushnell, and one of the first in Montcalm county. Mr. Gleason was a native of New York, and settled near Cleveland, Ohio, 183I. He came to Bushnell, as before stated, in T853, and settled in the north part of section I8. AN FNGLISHI IMIGRANT. Richard Low and his wife, to whom he was married in 1826, landed in New York from England, April 21, I846, and then moved to Lodi, Washtenaw county. He had at this time a large family. At the tinme of setting out for the New World his youngest child was but four weeks old, and the hardships of the journey to the mother can well be imagined. On the way from Buffalo to Detroit the little one was completely drenched with water by the sailors who were scrubbing the deck above where its mother had for a few\ moments laid it. It took cold, and after reaching Detroit died. But they could not stop there, and as she wished to bury it somewhere near the hoime to which she had so long looked forward and for which she had left all, she carried it, closely wrapped in a cloak, for two days; but as they did not then reach their destination, she was prevailed upon to relinquish it and it was then buried in a rude box by the side of the road. In T853 his son, William Low, then a young man, was shown some lands near Grand Rapids and also some in Bushnell by Philander Howe. The young man was most pleased with the latter lands and his father subsequently purchased the northwest quarter of section 13 from Mr. Howe, for whom he worked a number of years. They came to their new house in T856, and later enjoyed the fruits of years of patient labor and waiting. Of this family four sons and one son-in-law served in the Union army in the Rebellion. David Low was instantly killed on the IIth of May, 1864, in the battle of the Wilderness, and Joseph was severely wounded. Another

Page  92 02 I2MONTCAL.M COUNTY. MICHIGAN. s-on narrowly escaped by b having his miother's picture, about which twelve large sheets of letter i)aper were wrapped, in his vest pocket. A large ball pierce(l through the elltire mass and inflicted a slight wound.;Among other settlers of Bushnell were \Villiam Bush, the Burnetts, and the.\lchinis. in the vest part of the township, Thomas Atherton, on secti6on 15, andl R. S., J. V.. ' V. and "_. ('omstock, whose father settled oil section 32. \Villiam Husker. the first town clerk of thle townlship, settled on the west half of the southwest quarter of section 22. FIRST E VENTS. The first road, or rather the first opeiiii inII the forcsts reselmling a road, led from Pale northward to the saw-mnill in Evergreen township, whichll was owned hlv Myro Ry(lder and known as R lder's mill. It was complllleted gr.adulally. maniy differenlt persons contributing to the wvork. It led past the farms of Joseph Stevens anld James Baconl, alnd was (costructed thile greater pa)rt of the distance through Bushnell townlsllip (luring the year T849. Sooi after a road was underbrushecl inr the east piart of the township. and part of the avy ()on the line between Bushnell and Bloomer. T1he first franle btlildinlg in Bushlinell was a bar-n built ho EIrastuts Brosrwn for Joseph Stevens in 1849. It was comllplete(l in the month of:\igtust of that year. 'L'he first frame dw1elling was built for ('alvin (Crippl)l)en, on the southwest q(larter of section 2,, itn 18,52. He openedl a small stock of goods, but trade was not profitable land the store soonI closed. '1The next frame buildings erected were ly Joseph Stevens and James Bacon in i8S The first wedding vwas that of Charles Bacon to Rebecca Stev ens. T he first birth wNas that of a daughtei of MAr. ald Mrs. (hauncey \\,. Olnstead, and the death of George Iutint, wxlio was killed 1by a tree falling uponl him whilie at wvork (Oii the coutnty line road, was prolbably the first in thle towxnship. I e wvas buried in Fairplail. T]he first postoffice was opened at the house of Willianm (C. Griffin, about the year I85f6, and was retained )y him a nllumber of years. Ab\l)out the year I8, Lora ('. Jenks settled in the northeast part of the township and soon after David 1Ilisker built a saw-mill at this place, after which Edward lTilleby built a store roonm and ol)ened a small stock of goods. The village of \'ickery (Corners was platted by John Vickefy. At the time of the settlement of the northxvest part of the towuship several families of Indians, under John WVabasis, resided here. Thev were a remnant of thle numerous bands of Chippewvas who formerly inhablited

Page  93 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 93 this section. They were engaged principally in hunting and making maple sugar in the spring of the year, and also carried on a considerable traffic witll their birchen- an(d bead-work with the inhabitants of the early settled districts. In the forest fire in T857, which raged through Evergreen, one of their number was suffocated and perished in the intense smoke. In 1853 a man namred Stevens in the township attached for debt a rifle bIelonging to one Osterhouse before Justice Covey of that township. John Mlkcl\el\v. off North Plains township, lonia county, appeared for the prosecution and W\illiam C'astel for the defense. lWhen ready to proceed the 1)O11(1 given for costs was iiot to lbe found, and the counsel began at once to accuse each other of stealing it. This was a mlistake, however, and the opliiol now prevails that the defendant ate it. thus effectually putting an cud to the suit for the tine being. But Justice (ovey said the law must take its course, bond or no bond, and rendered a decision in favor of the plaintilf for seventy-five dollars, which wavs fifty-nine dollars more than the bill claimed. The rifle was sold at auction and bid in by the plaintiff. Osterhouse. liowv\\er,l disl)ose(l of a cow, and with the proceeds. after the lapse of three months, replevineld the gun. Again the learned counsel came face to f;icc. The course taken to sustain the suit was that the gun had now been in tle possession of said Stevens three months, and that its use was worth t1\xclt-five do-llars per mionth as a means of procuring provisions for the plaintiff's family. The jury returned that the position was "vell taken," 1l(d that the gutn ielonged to Osterhouse on those grounds. Butt the end was ino t yet. The famous suit was carried on by one person or another until sixteen decisions had t)een rendered, at a cost of between two and three tunIlre(d (ldollars to the parties. Of the sixteen decisions "one only was;accorcling to law." The conclusion finally reached was, "no cause of 1(.t1 tii.'' actiol." The first saw-mtill in the township was built by G. L. Dean in the fall,f 1865, and commenced sawing the following winter. Tn 1868 John Hl-itchcock opened a dry-goods store near this mill, which swas purchased the followitng year by William M. Thomas, who later built a grist-mill in the south part of Evergreen township. VICKERYVTLLE. Vicleryville is one of the real old towns in the county, but just when the first settlements began are shrouded in mists of forgetfulness. The old l)art of this town lies in the south-central part of section I, Ibut when the

Page  94 94 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Grand Trunk railroad came through this section it ran one-half mile to the south of Vickcryville. In consequence, a new town began to spring up at the lccation of the depot, which was in the central part of section 12. The business interests of Vickeryville have always consisted of several stores, a saw-mill, feed-mill, and smaller industries, such as blacksmith shops and repair shops. At present there are some four or five stores in the town. also a grain elevator, which is located opposite the depot. Vickeryville also supports a postoffice, which is the only one in Bushnell townshi). Although Vickeryville lies half way between Sheridan and Carson City, in a small way it is a rather prosperous trading center.

Page  95 CHAPTER VI. CATO TOWNSHIP. Cato township, as originally laid out, conmprised the territory included in towns II and 12 north, ranges 7 and 8 west. The petition for the erection of the township, with its first boundaries, was presented to the board of suplervisors signed by the following resident freeholders of that territory: Samuel Youngman, David King, E. Smith, Seth Smith, Daniel Gallop1, Irank S. Kniffen, James Taylor, C. King, Peter Johnson, J. Aldrich, S. I'earson and I.ewis Buckley. The board of supervisors acted upon this petition on January 5, 1857, and the new township was officially created and christened Cato. The first election was ordered at the house of Samuel Youngmnanl on the 6th of April, 1857. The three presiding officers at this n,etting were Samuel Youngman, David King and Edward Smith. Upon the sulsequent erection of Pine, Douglass and Belvidere townships, Cato township was reduced to its present limits. In the original petition therefore we find the names of men who did not reside within the present limits of Cato but were settlers in the other three townships. This toi\wnship is situated upon the northern border of Montcalm county, or that portion of the county which was the northwest corner township as originallv formed. For its boundaries it has Mecosta county on the north, 1Belvidere townshilp on the east, Pine township on the south and Winfield to\wnship on the west. The surface of this township is generally level, and forms the divide between the Fllat and Muskegon river systems, the former draining, to a slight extent. the eastern part, and the latter receiving the waters of the western portion through a branch of the Tamarack creek, the outlet of l'amlarack lake. These systems prove excellent artificial and natural drain-;te for the farrms in this section. Tamarack lake, which upon the north alnd west shore, was bordered by a growth of tamarack, hence the name-a;varietv which also covered several small islands that dotted its surface-is situated principally upon sections 9 and IO. extending also slightly into sections 15 and 16. A belt of lowland extends through the north part of sectiotn 2 and runs in a northwesterly direction. It varies from a half to

Page  96 96 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHII(AN. three-quarters of a mile in width, and is mostly swampy and untillalle. Although there was much swamp land in the section at an earlier date, this is gradually being reclaimed with the advent of tiling and the advanced methods of drainage. The northeastern part of the township was originally covered with a heavy growth of pline, hut this has been cleared and the land makes excellent farms. The black sandy soil of the south, central and western parts is of exceeding fertility, and is cleared and highly developed 1)x- a thrifty and industrious class of people. T'H'1E NAMAING OF CATO TOW\NSHIIIP'. (!ato townsi\-ti], as previously mentioned and originally laid out, consists of four congressional townships. At the same meeting of the h)oard of sulervisors which laid out and organized the township of Cato, also organized three other townships. There was a committee of four applointed in the nlaming of these townships. Each supervisor in this committee drew for the township which they should namle. It fell to the lot of Westbrook P. D)ivine to draw the township of (ato, and he named it for a township in his native state, New York, which, he said, was like a garden of Eden. 'hus the townshil) was christened. ORIGINAL LAND ENTR IEI.S TN CATO. Section --- \llen \lacomlber. Section 3 —A. \\oodruff, CG. Tacombler, A acolber. II. (;arbutt. Section 4 —larry Sto-w, Charles I. IRose, lerome \\ oodruff, Hannah.1. lartlow, John Haire. Ira Tiurnham. Sectioi 5 --.\llien \ right, I)avid C(hase. Section 6 —\llen \\:right, David (illeo, Samuel Sanbolrn Samuel \. Nichols, David (Chase. Section 7 -George Santolrn, (;eorge Main, George Sanborn. Section 8 —Jimes H. Somers. John H. 1 rench, James.. Bryant, David Chase, Reulten \\ hitman, John T1. French,..Macoml)er. Section ) —[ildwin French, Reulben \Vhitman, Lewis 1E. Smith, Albert S. French, T)Dvid Chase, Albert F'rench. Section to --- Ilijah A. ( olland, \Warren Kimball, Sarah (. I)iamond,.. Macormher, Chester H. Stebbins. Section I2- - orenzo I. Rider. Section 13 -Lorenzo J. Rider. Section I4 —Carv R. Hakes. Section I -— Jonas Foster. Section i6 —William \tilliams, A\sa N. and Hiram A. Toveyv, A\lbram Shoemaker, Albert S. French, James IM. Orcutt, Richard Chaenley, A. S. French, Asa M. Havey, Hiram Hovey. Section T7 —Justin R. French, Thomas Rae, William Martin, Steplhen Rossman, Th(omas Rossman, Thomas Dary,

Page  97 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 97.\. Maconmer. Section 18-James Stewart, George Main, James Edgar, iSamuel Stewart. Section I9-Charles P. Wilcox, Gardner Mooney, Samuel ielly, George Macomber, S. C. and E. Hall. Section 20 —Thomas \\Vynlkoo, Freeman Rice, Iliram Hull, Fite Rossman, Daniel G. Hopkins, Joln Smith, John Finnicano. Section 2I-Ellsworth H. Stryker, Chester King. I onrad Fricsli, Daniel Gallup, Freeman Rice, Daniel Gallup, John A. \\Vandal. 1:(lund Hall. Section 22- llsworth W. Stryker, Seth Smith, 'Lhllbomas \Wynkoop, I Edmund Smith, (Cornelius Richards, William Bassett, laines \. ()wen. Section 23-H-arriet M. Hakes, Illsworth Stryker, Jackson lIarr, Lord \V. Ross. J. D. Brinmmes, Edmund Hall. Section 24 -I orenzio T. Rider, Josiah Bailey, Ethan Satterlee, Barr and Spencer. Sectioll 25-John J. Ily, Ethan Satterlee, Barr and Spencer, Edmund Hall. Secticon 26 ---lorenzo J. Rider, Harrison Thornburgh, E. B. Gallea, Sarah (' ianlond. I'lias Kent, ('. A. Moore, J. B. Ball, Edmund Iall. Section 7- -John 'Turner, Iornzo J. Rider. Simon J. Vcdder, Patrick Nash, Luther \anbuskirk, Ilarrison Thornburg. Section 28 —ames Taylor, John A. I1rd-,l, Henry H. ('rapo, Isaac and Elisha Pearl, l'hilo M. Carpenter, Luther G;. Vanbuskirk, Cornelius Richards. Section 29-Samuel Youngman, Otis Irish. J. B. Barr, S. R. Sanford. Section 3o-Luther G. Vanbuskirk, Jason I argo, William N. \RRogers, Gardner Flint, Samuel Scudder, Charles H. l'ushley, S. C. anl E. Hall. Section 31T-J.. Barr. Section 32-John M. II':inem(lorf. Benjamin (arter. Nelson Crop, Albert French, Leonard H. Randllall, 1Edmund Hall. Section 33-David King, Dennis O'Neil, Henry 'ra]po, James Mi. Orcutt. Section 34-David King, Daniel Tucker, Austin Ir. 'Butler, Harrison Thornburgh, Emmerilla Butler, James S. Green, 1:ri S. Smith, J. H. Brimmer. Section 35-Lorenzo J. Rider, Carso Crane, John 1. 1 ly, Benjanin Joy, John W. Fiser, James Mathews, Lydia Mathews, 1ldnmlnd Hall, Charles W. Butler. Section 36-Jacoh Davis, Lorenzo J. id(er, Samuel Peck, Carso Crane, Benjamin Joy, Chauncey Crowell, M. Ilderi, J. Ba. Brr, Edmund Hall, Peter Biesh. SETTLEMENT OF CATO. The first settler of Cato, as near as can now be determined, was lEdmund Smith, from Geauga county, Ohio, a native of Connecticut. After conling to Michigan he stopped for a time near Grand Rapids, but being anxious to get a piece of land he came to Cato in the spring of I855 and located on the east half of the southwest quarter of section 21. He did not (7)

Page  98 98 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. bring a family at this time, but a mere shanty of logs and boughs for a ternporary covering, and then began a small clearing, which, without a team, farming implements or the tools necessary for clearing land, rendered his task in this direction doliblv difficult. A small piece at length, however, was prepared and platted to those vegetal)les which he deemed would be most acceptable the following winter. The yield was abundant. Idrnltnd Smith \\as a minister of the Disciple church, and officiated at the first funeral in the township, being that of a child which died in the west part some months after his settlement there. lie returned to Cedar Springs, where he died in 1873. In the fall of I855 his Iirother, Seth Smith, reached the township with his family, and settled on eighty acres adjoining on the east. I le, too, determined to make a hoime in the wilderness, and under similar disadvantages went to work to make ani opening in the forest. Soon the suppl)lies were nearly exhausted, and the wants of his famil demanded that he shoiuld leave home and seek work. 1-le succeeded in (;reenville and at the close of the iveek converted his entire earnings into provisions, which lie carried a distance of eighteen miles to his family. Some years later, while at work in (;reenville, two ministers came to ('ato and stopl)ed with Avery Pool, where they remained some time. As there was no building in the townshil) considered of sufficient dimensions and warmth in which to hold public imeetings, they called at the infinished house of Seth Smith. It haid a roof on but one side, was not chinked lbetween the logs, nor otherwise completed. Bult there were boards near by and shingles at a distance in the wood(s. With the permission of Mrs. Smith they at once l)egan to finish the cabin. It was in the month of December, and to assist in the work Mrs. Smith hauled the shingles from the woods on a hand sled. The work was completed, and the surprise of Mr. Smith, who upon coiming home on Saturday night found a cosy cabin with a shingled roof on both sides and the walls chinked and mudded, can be well imagined. The next lday being Christmas, the first of a series of meetings was hel(l there. Seventeen evenings the meetings continued, and in the spring of T8.9 the first church society in the township was organized. The next settler in Cato following the Smiths was I)avid King, a young man from Ohio, who, with his vwife —also young and with no adequate ideas of pioneer life-settled on the east half of the northeast quarter of section 33. i-e was well educated and had already made considerable progress in the study of medicine, and may, from the services which he rendered during his short stay here, be considered the pioneer'physician of

Page  99 __ ___ Carson City Public Szhool Carson City, Michigan MONTCALM COUNTY, MICIIGAN. 99 (Cato. His daughter, born in the early spring of I855, was the first child 1(r,1- il the township. He exchanged farms with E. B. Gallea and returned o ()hio. where he creditably followed his profession. Mr. Gallea came to the townshilp p)-olalyly in 1857, and remiainedl until 1876, when he moved to Iii(liana. FIRST ORCHARD IN CATO. In f)ecelmber. 14 55, Samuel P. Youngman, a native of Pennsylvania, caeii to ('ato. lie had previously been to the township and entered the northeast lquartcr of section 29, and had built a cal)in, into which he moved Iis family. AMr. Youngmani cut his road through the woods from the house of lr. King-a (listance of nearly one and a half miles. Tle set out the first orchard in the to\wn in the spring of 1856. \When he came to Cato ir-st, in the spring of 855, in company with a man named Robins, he plic(lel u1 a sillall quantity of potatoes which had been spilled from a wagon oil its \\wa froi Gr (;rcellle to langston. Upon reaching (ato they found a small lnlian clearing. T'hey chol)l)ed through the heavy sod and planted the plotatoes. In1 the fall Franklin French, a prominent land dealer of those (lays, \who passed throutgh here, found a fine crop of potatoes. Whether the Indians, of whoml there w-ere a number of families in the vicinity, cultivated theiii is not known. 'Ihe heavv mlaple groves here and the small clearings that abounded llad lprol)ably heen used by them many years-the former in making maple sl-gar, atnd the latter prolalll)ly filled from time immemorial. By the spring of 1857 these hardw(ool belts were all more or less occupied'(, and( the scttlement (f the township may be considered as fairly bgeun_.\)el French had settled on the south shore of Tamarack lake, James Owen near the center of the township on section 28, James d(lgar on section I8,. I'lami Sanborn on section 7. MAr. Summers, who settled on section 7, was one of the pioneers. He \-as killed by the limb of a tree falling upon him; the limb had been chopped oli' )v the Indians. His remains were the first interred in the cemetery in \\infield township. He was buried first, however, on his own farm. His \was the first death of an adult in Cato. George Salnborn entered the east half of section 7 in December, I854, at the time being a resident of Langston, where he and his brother, Elam S;anborn, were employed at the saw-mill. In the spring of I855 Elam cam(e to this land and built a cabin, which was the second in the township. I fe also planted some garden vegetables preparatory to the entry of his

Page  100 100 MONTCAI.M COUNTY, MICHIGAN. brother's family, which came in March, 1856. George Sanborn lived in Cato until 1865, when he removed to Orleans, lonia county. Hiram Hull, another pioneer of Cato, and at the same time advanced in years and much afflicted with rheumatism, entered the northwest quarter of section 2o. Notwithstanding his physical disabilities, which at times were very severe, with no team or any farming implements, and all the difficulties which surrounded him, he succeeded in making a home for his family and placing his farm in a fair state of cultivation. KNOT MAUL. In 1855 James Taylor entered the east half of the northeast quarter of section 28. He resided here a number of years, then moved to Indiana, but subsequently returned to Greenville. Upon his land stood the first cabin used as a school house in district No. 2. He-was the first settler at the corners known as Knot Maul. The next settler here was Ellsworth I-I. Stryker, who entered the southwest quarter of section 2T, also in the fall of I856. Mr. Stryker was an early and earnest Abolitionist, and for years the favorite and successful candidate for the office of township clerk on the Republican ticket. From an incident in which he was the leading spirit the corners near which he lived received its singular name. During the presidential canvass of I860, when the several political parties were extolling the virtues of their representatives, and the superiority of the Republican candidate as a rail-splitter was represented in every conceivable way, Ellsworth H. Stryker, with his brothers, Uriah and William, brought fron the woods a most singular growth in the form of the body of a tree. The trunk, which at the base was scarcely more than a foot in diameter, about fifteen feet from the ground suddenly enlarged into a huge knot several feet in diameter, above which it again assumed its normal growth, and several feet above branched into limbs. The trunk was severed just above the knot, and the contrast rendered more striking by taking the bark from the handle of what was intended to represent a huge maul. When completed it was placed in the ground at the corners where the roads cross on section 28, and the peculiar sign was:at once understood as it was intended-a declaration of principles. The people of the township, heretofore in need of a name for this place, which in the meantime had grown to be of some business importance, began to refer to it, some as the Knot, others as the Maul, and the union of these words probably being the only natural compromise, it was for years known as YIYi'j-; ~

Page  101 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. IOI Knot Maul. The knot was subsequently chopped down by James Ward and others who represented opposite schools in politics. It was again raised a(nd again hauled down. In I863 Charles Wright purchased twelve acres of land of James Taylor and built the public house known as Knot Maul hotel. The accommodations were good, and the house was well patronized until other routes took the travel. Mr. Wright also kept a small stock of dry goods and groceries. The first store, however, was opened by Louisa Frederickson. The first steam-mill in the township of Cato was built at this place 1v the Stryker Brothers. They also kept the hotel and a general store in co.(tlnection. THE CANAL FROM TAMARACK LAKE. Earl] timbering in Cato township is related by one of the pioneers of L.akcvicw who had intimated an actual experience in the lumber camps of the early days. "The firm of Lee, Oak & Steel owned a very large tract of land in Cato township bordering on Tamarack lake. In the year 1867 and TSf68, nine thousand feet of logs were placed in Tamarack lake preparatory to floating them down to Tamarack creek and then south to the mills. The outlet to Tatmarack lake is very small and did not carry enough water to float the logs down. Consequently some artificial means had to be employed to carry the logs from Tamarack lake to the main part of the creek. It was ailout a mile distant. Towards this end a canal was dug, four feet deep altcl sixteen feet wide from the lake to the creek, and it was intended to sluice the logs down this canal and thus place them on the market, but this project proved a failure. The ground was boggy, marshy, and the fall was insufficient to carry the logs down. Consequently, when the water was turned into this canal it merely filled it up and formed a swamp but didn't prove an agent for transiporting the logs. Next a scheme was put in operation to build a flume of planks to sluice the logs through to the creek. Planks \were drawn from Kendleville and the work of building this was soon accomplished; but failure again awaited the devisors of this scheme. First, the Fall in this instance was so great that the water in passing through it went so rapidly that it did not form great enough depth to carry the logs. Also after a certain amount of water had passed through this flume the lower e(ld of it began to float and was raised to such a position that the entire lioject was made useless. The logs in the lake were finally drawn out and lhauled to Tamarack creek. But the entire project lost the lumber firm a great deal of monev."

Page  102 102 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. CLASSES IN TI T, LUMBIER CAMPS. Generally speaking, there were three classes of men employed and, found in the lumber camps of the early days, namely: 'he rough class, tho common class, and the better class. All of the men who followed the lumber camps were rough, free hearted, at times quarrelsome; but on the whole a rather strong following of men. 'here could also be a classification of the men who came to the different camps for emlploynlent. These could be divided into the rough class, the farmer class, and the city class. These different men could be distinguished as soon as they alighted in the camp by their respective actions. 'hose of the so-called rough class, which may be a misleading term and does not necessarily mean a criminal or vociferous class of men, but those used to this life, rough and rugged; they were men who had made this their life work, knew the ins and outs of the camp life, lived it and would not exchange it for any other vocation ( or calling. \Vhlen one of this class came into camp they were very quiet. They said nothing, sat don\\, put their satchel beside them, but in their experienced way. taking note of the canmp followers and the work at hand. 'hey then asked some of the elmployees for the "puish" man. Being shown the foreman, they ilmmediately asked for a jol). (n an inquiry of the foremlan as to what special line of work they could do, they alwvays reverted with the answer that they could do anything he wanlted them to do. Then they would ask for their btunk, remlained close mouthed all the time, making no brags, but using their ears and eyes. They dlid not try to push themselves forward andl hastily meet the different men of the calmp. but bided their time which they knew would soon come. Soon they would fit into the life and be a smooth cog in the runling(, of this mIachinery. The farmer class was that class of men who came from agricultural pursuits and only practiced this calling during the winter -when nothing was to be gained on the farm. They came into camp, took everything in completely, not in one glance, but gave everything close scrutiny, talking loud, trying to be jocular, and making remarks about the camlp. ' They would keep a running fire of conversation, talking of the country and everything on the farm. \When questioned by the foreman as to what they could do, they, too, replied that they could (do anything and did not care \what it was, but in reality they could do very little. Some of these mn-en proved good camp followers and stayed; others would get homlesick in a short time and return to the farm. If this class stayeld witli the w^ork they soon fitted *1

Page  103 MONTCAI.M COUNTY, MICHIGAN. T03 in and lIecamlle part of the machinery of the camp and in a short time could not be distinguished fronl the older camp followers. The third and last class which is distinguishlalle is a city class. They caInme ilto clal] and wanlted to sleak to everyone and get acquainted with all tile emplloyes in the caimp il as short a time as possible. They were very free to talk, tell of their fun and experience in the city and generally let their ego get the best of them. These men were blustery and if given a job very selldom ever Imade good. l'his was the class which really (lid not dlesr\ce a place in tlhe lumler camps (f those days. They, as a rule, had no g)ood( reason for taking up this life. They did not like it and consequently dil nlot lprolit by it, or the comlpany did not profit by them. VILLA(;E (F LAKEVIE\V. The village of Lakeview occulies the site of an Indian village on the sliore (f Tamarack lake, in the southwvest quarter of section 9. The Indian village referred to, when first visited by white men, consisted of perhaps fifty lodges, and contained a 1po))lation of several hundred. The wigwams \\cre arranged in two rows. which formed a street, the outlines of which correslponded w\ith those of the main street in the present' village. It was the scene of the exciting ganmes of the In(lian youth as they strove for tribal popullarity. Itere also the chil(lren engaged in their milder sports, \liile the elderly miembers of the tribe smoked their pipes in stolid indlifference. It wIas the scene of public festivities, and here they conducted tlieir ancient and revered ceremonies. Tllis pecularity of the Indian (lisposition —their rigid adherence to lncienlt custoIms —is illustrate( in thle bulrial of one of their number, a hunter of considerable renownl, in the winter of 1855-56. The weather being extremely cold, and several dlays elapsing before the corpse was removed, it l)ecame rigidly frozen. When the appointed time came the dead warrior was lb)ound tigltly with bark ropes to the back of a pony and a party numnlering at least one hundred proceeded to the Indian cemetery north of (;reenville. The trail led thr(ough the forest, underbrush and trees closely bordering it all the way. The alnost inmpossilbility of fastening the frozen boly to thle poly rendered many stops and rearrangements necessary, but Indian custom demanded that it be interred precisely at noon and in order that this custom be olserved, great haste was necessary. As they passed rapidly on their way the feet would strike a tree or bush and the head would swing

Page  104 104 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. forward; next the head would come in contact, while now and then, as the way became narrow and both extremities struck, a helping hand was necessary before the journey could be resumed. The warrior's journey to the tomb was doubtless not the smoothest through which he had passed during his earthly career. In 1858 Albert S. French cut the first tree and built the first dwelling house on the bank of Tamarack lake in what isl now the village of Lakeview, and for some years he, with his family, lived in their new home with only wolves and deer for near neighbors and stately trees for churches and schools. But a field so rich in material for industry could not long remain unclaimed, and Allen Macomber, seeing the opportunities, erected a sawmill and commenced to convert the dense forest into lumber. Meanwhile, Mr. French, having visions of the future, had plotted the land into blocks and lots; gradually a few more families took up the burden of pioneer life in the wilds of the future village. The first postmaster was Frank French; the mail was brought, once each week, by Mr. Wise on horseback. 'Philander Stevens built the first hotel, and as the nearest railroad was then at lonia and all the freight bound for Big Rapids was transferred by teams by way of Greenville and Lakeview. it was no uncommon occurrence to see upwards of fifteen freight-encumbered vehicles drawn up to Mr. Stevens' place to find comfortable.quarters for the night for tired teams and drivers. Greenville was the nearest place of replenishment, and it being twenty miles distance, imagine the joy of the early citizens, when, in January. I868, Ilenry Seaman and L. L. Bissell erected a building on lot 4, block i, which was to serve as a truly general store and postoffice. About this time a stage line was established between Greenville and what was then known as Big creek, so the mail and possibly a passenger came by stage as it passed the village once each week. By this time lumbering in this vicinity was carried on quite extensively, and the several camps furnished a brisk trade for the new store. Soon the sharp eye of the home-seeker espied the fertility of the lands in the country surrounding the little town, the little log houses sprang up, the sound of the woodsman's axe "that spared not the tree" and the "whoa l)uke and haw Dime" of the plowman wvas heard on every side, and hand in hand the primitive farm and the wee town advanced until at present the farming country is recognized as one of the most productive agricultural localities in Montcalmn county, it being adapted to the successful growth of nearly every crop lilr -I .

Page  105 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I05 that can be raised in Michigan, and this town has become a village, which though not large, has won many words of worthy praise from visitors who admire its broad streets, spacious sidewalks, neat, well-kept homes and places of business. In July, 1879, the first train came into Lakeview. The road was then known as the Chicago, Saginaw & Canada railroad. With the coming of this train the old stage coach passed, just as has the log house and the tallow candle. Several times has the fierce monster, fire, threatened to destroy all that energy and application had accomplished, and in August, I894, practically every business place was wiped out, only heaps of ruins and ashes remained; but nothing,daunted, the business men soon replaced the lost by structures mluch in advance of the old. Thus has the village withstood the many difficulties and drawbacks until at present it is a prosperous little place of about eleven hundred population, having two good hotels, one restaurant, one bakery, three meat lmarkets, eight grocery stores, three dry-goods and clothing stores, two tailor shops, two millinery stores, two jewelers, two bazaars, two book stores, two drug stores, two doctors. two dentists, one veterinary, three furniture stores, three banks, one of the best printing offices in the county, one photograph gallery, two tonsorial parlors, three hardware stores, two agricultural implement establishments, four blacksmith shops, one automobile hospital. two tin shops, two shoe shops, one harness shop, two livery stables, one flour-mill, one saw-mill, one planing-mill, one sash and door factory, one table factory, one electric light plant, two grain elevators, a large potato and general produce market, one pickle salting station, one sugar beet weighing station, one stock yard, two telephone lines, six rural free delivery mail routes from the postoffice, five churches, and last, but not least, the school, which is one of the best in the county, eight teachers being employed. The school has been placed on the accredited lists of four of the foremost colleges in the state. There are also some nice places for pleasure and amusement about the village. The grove just to the south is an attractive place in summer, where picnics and camp meetings are often held, and the lake is no small factor in making the village pleasant and beautiful. In winter it furnishes sport for the skater and fisherman; in summer for the fisherman and boat lover, besides, the clear blue water is fair to look upon and the pretty islands, one consisting of five acres. All in all this village is one of which all her citizens may feel proud,

Page  106 1o6 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. and nothing goes farther to make it such than the harmonyl of fellowship which abounds. Lakeview is one of the many commercial centers which are located in different parts of the county. The industries consist of the Michigan (Chair and Tablle Comillany, which at present is manlaged by Leroy Stebbins. The Lakeview creamer! is managed( by Mr. Bettys. J. J. IBale has a lumler and electric plant. X\. R. Roach has the vining station at ILakeview. Beans, peas and sweet corn are made ready for comlnmercial use in this plant..lart & AlcGuire's salting station is located here. The L.akeview TFlevator Colmpany, which is ilmanaged!by V. T. (Coverdale, is one of the largest in this section of the countl. T.akeview Milling (omplany, which is managed by 1. V. IFinch, also has a great volume of business. X\. M. Isentz owns an ice house, whichl annually stores froim live to six thousand toins of ice taken from the lake.,akeview has an excellent potato market, with four to six Iuvers. Lakeview has t\swo good banlks, two good hotels, and Ibusiness houses whichl rank in the foremost of any in the county. )During the summer this village is visited 1)b scores of people seeking pleasant sutliiers. The lifferent business and professional imen of the village always have the better interests of the town at heart, and are ever striving towards its increase and up-lbuilding. in order to estallish it a;imongl the foremiost towns of the county. T'he present o(fficials are: John J. Bale president: Benjamini F. Butler. clerk: Scott Swarthout, treasurer; John Ii. Jensen, assessor. BA.SS B EACIT. Bass B'each. which is located in the inortheastern corler of (Cato townshilp. on Town T.ine lake, was platted on August i, 1889, for George Whitcolmb and wife and a Mr. Batemran. Tt evidently was the desire of the proprietors to make this a resort. but so far. their wishes have not materialized.

Page  107 CHAl.PTER VII. CRYSTAL TOWNSHIP. At the regular session of the I)boar(l of supervisors, hell on March 4, 1856, a petition was presented signed by the following persons: Edward Robinson, George Robinsllso, Willian (Case, Chauncey Case, John L. Smith, John \'aughan, \. \. 'roctor, J. 1. Proctor, Enos Drake, George Fox, John \\:hite, Judge Stilson, \rteimus Taylor, lenry Parker, Eli lavis, Ira Stuart, G. \\Watt, Iarney Mc(Glotay, Charles Howard,:). A. Cornell, John Linkey anld ames Beck. This petition was dated on January 15, I856, and stated that the persons \whose names appeared as given al)ove were freeholders of the township of Blloomer andt that they d(esired to have town io north, range 5 west, letached fromi the township of Bloomer and organized into a separate township. They further prayed that the name of this township be fixed by the board of stlper\isors as Crystal Iake. The petitioners also asked that the house of Elli Davis be appoilted as the place for holding the first town meeting; and the judges be Elli Davis, John I.. Smith and Henry Parker. The notice for this petition was )rinted in the Montcal lRcflector, which \was a w\eckly newspaper pbl)lished at Greenville and at that time edited by Milo Blair. The notice of this petition stated that the petitioners asked that the townlship be given the namle of Crystal Lake. but on examining the original petition it is found that they asked that the name of Crystal be applied. Crystal lies on the eastern side of the county and is bounded on the north by Ferris township, on the east by Gratiot county, on the south by 1loosmer townlship and on the west by Evergreen. This township was originally covered by forests of beech and maple itmber, and after these were cleared of their trees the fertility of the soil \\as dliscovered and that fertile belt which lies in the east part of Bushnell township, and comprises the greater part of Bloomer, extends also into Crystal, reaching to and bounded generally by Fish creek, although the timber to the north and east of this creek was of a mixed variety. This tract. which lies in the basin of Fish creek, as was mentioned above, is the most productive and best-tilled part of the township, and comprises the more

Page  108 Io8 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. wealthy portion of its inhabitants. The township, on the whole, has a great number of good farms and the farming is done on an extensive scale and compares very favorably with any other township in the county. Fish creek, the largest stream, enters from Evregreen, flows in general in a southerly direction, and enters Bloomer from section 35. It receives a number of small tributaries, the most important of which is the outlet of Mud and Crystal lakes, which are properly a part of a small system extending southeast to Evergreen township. There is a great contrast between these two lakes, as their names indicate. The waters of the one are turbid arid filled with floating particles from the muck and decaying mould beneath. Its shores, low and level, are lined for the greater part with sedge and rushes. It is indeed a mud lake. Its name, however, is not more appropriate than that of its fair sister, originally known as Silver lake. But even in an early day, owing to one of those mysterious changes which can be accounted for only by the general consent of all parties, it received the name by which it is now known —namely, Crystal lake. Its waters are clear and beautiful. Its shores, usually firm, in some places rise to elevations of considerable height, covered with oak and pine. A small island, accessible from the shore next to the village of Crystal, furnishes grounds often resorted to by picnic parties and excursionists. Crystal lake covers about eight hundred acres, and is about one and one-half miles in length. ORIGINAL LAND ENTRIES. Following are names of those who purchased from the general government and state of Mlichigan lands situated in their township, showing also the sections upon which they located their purchases: Section i-A-aron W. Roby, John D. Trowbridge, Mlartin Baer, Robert Brown, Joseph Rounds, Philip Krain, Samuel Burtch, John V\. Osterhouse. Section 2-Harvey Westfall, Valentine Williams, Sanmel Spencer, Benjamin McCloskey, Hiram C. Buck, Ienry Parker, Jacob HIouseman. Section 3-John \Vhite, Edward Hogan, James J. Belden, Darius Bogart, Charles Richardson, Jesse Stewart, Emm-a Ripley. Section 4-A\. L. Soule, (eorge Fox, Elmore Burrows, Henry Burrows, Bartlett Clark, Francis Hawkens. Section 5-(hauncey Stebbins, lThomas Cornell, James Culver, Ievi Harrod, Daniel S. West, IT. Davis, Andrew J. Tissue. Section 6 -Mary and George Edick, Patrick Fox, Levi Harrod, Samuel Kemp, George Gideon. Section 7 —James R. Langdon, Patrick M. Fox, Erastus Wilcox. Section 8 —James R. Langdon, Mathew H1. Fox, John Fowler, Henry

Page  109 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. lo9 Kemp. Section 9-Michael Lane, E. Drake, Eli Davis, Daniel A. Cornell, James J. Belden, Franklin S. Ferris. Section io-James R. Langdon, W. S. Coon, Daniel A. Cornell, James J. Belden, Franklin S. Ferris. Section TI-Eli Drushell, John C. Blanchard. Section I2-John F. Gilkey, Myron Kendall, William W. St. C(lair, W. Gingery, Joseph Rounds, John C. Blanchard, 3Bezaleel I.ock, J. B. Taylor, William Erey. Section 13-John F. Gilkey, Myron Kendall, Michael Fry, Oliver Cunningham, Floyd Palmer, Joshua Bogart, John C. Blanchard, Barber Dickinson. Section I4-Zimmerman \Vatts, Solomon Drushell, Peter Snyder, Francis H. Brown, Richard Sinkey. Section 15-James R. Lang(lon, Joel Parker, Adam Hosteter, Ira Stewart, Ezra Stewart. Section I6-Augusta Bean, Alfred A. Proctor, Joseph F. Proctor, Benjamin F. Proctor, Augusta Proctor, Anson Sherwood, Richard L. Robinson, Henry Morgan, Aaron Brown, Henry F. Brown, John F. Steffey, Samuel Burtch, H. H. Steffey. Section 17 -James R. Langdon, John N. Fowler, Peter B. Stiven, Jud Hall. Section I8 -James R. Langdon, Daniel Harter, Stephen F. Page, May J. Hill, John N. FIowler, 'Asa Ward. Section I9 —James R. Langdon, Frederick Hall, John N. Fowler, Daniel Hill, Asa Ward, Hiram Bowen, Thomas S. Pew. Section 20-James R. L.angdon, Jonas Ashley, William R. Page. Section 2i-JTames R. Langdon. Section 22-Janmes R. Langdon, Jesse Tenney, Solomon ]D)rushell, John C. Blanchard, Frederick Hall, Warren Sherwood, F1rancis Brown, Peter Burke, B. F. Fuller. Section 23-John M. Gordon, Sally M. Cornell, Simon D. Defuy, Martin Eckart, Joseph Kneer, John A. Stout, V. E. Casper, V. B. Luce, Emma A. Ripley. Section 24-John M. Gordon, F. Smith, Zadock THeath, John McIlwain, David Tryon, J. B. Taylor, \ illiam Erey. Section 25-S. L. Stone, Sylvester Bronson, F. Smith, David Alverson, G. Wilmarth, John C. Blanchard. Section 26-John M. Gordon, James I. Shinabarger, Jesse Tenny. Section 27-James R. Langdon, John M. Gordon, Harvey Westfall, Isaac Morse, William Hatfield, Jacob Huffman. Section 28-Don C. Hawley, David B. Webster, Sally Fish, Lucius B. Irish, Harvey WVestfall. F. Hall, James Kennedy. Section 29-James R. Langdon, Harvey Westfall, Fred Hall, Stephen Page, Jonas Ashley, William S. Goff, Harvey W. Rice. Section 30-Harvey W. Rice, Alonzo Rice, William Goff, W. R. Page, Warren Brown, William Case, John Vaughn, John I.. Smith. Chauncey Case, John N. Fowler, David Hill. Section 3i-Abel C. Ross, T. R. Butler, Thomas Coulson, John Bancroft, Parmenio Long, Edward Murray, John N. Fowler, George Bogart, John Bancroft. Section 32-James Forman, Edward and George Robinson, Joseph Green, Abel Ross, Jonas Ashley. Section 33-James L. Glenn, Daniel

Page  110 1O MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Falk, 1lenry Gettman, Dennis \Wolverton. Thomas IT. Arnold, Jonas \shley. Richard Sillkcy, David 1-loffmnan, 1l1annah Slanker. Section 34 —Clifford S. Phillips A. 1. \. Alvord, Jesse M. Beck, W\illiam Hatfield, Philander \\ood, John Sinkev, Thomas S. 'ew. Section 35-\V. I. Smith. Sylvester Ironson, I angdon lentley, James I.. Shinabarger, D. Al\erson. Section 1(.-I:.lpaphrodituis Rlansom, \\illiam H. Smith, S. L. Sone, Sylvester Bronson, James i. langdon, Thomas lullbbar(l, Jr., John C. Blanchard. SIETTI.EMENT ()F CRYSTAL T()OWNSIP. In the month of June. 1852, John Smith and his brother, Humphrey, came to Mlontcalim county in the employment of A. Rust & Complany, who at the time were engaged in the lumber trade in Marine City, and for whoni they were looking tp pine lands. 'IThe hrothers traveled through the eastern part of Mlontcalli county, and coming to the shore of (rystal lake, were delighted with the beautiful sheet of water, and caimled and remained here froml Saturday until the following M?.onday. This journey led John L\. Smith to return and take up) his permanlent albode in the tow\nship the following year. His life previous to this time had been somewhat checkered. He was born in Onondaga county, New York, whelice he came to Mlichigani in 1840. He stoplped in the tos wn of Superior,.enawee county five years, and then moved to (Grand Rapids. The first time he visited Jackson it consisted of but one house. Grand Rapids had one frame house coimpleted and tw-o in the course of construction on the east side of the river, and on the opposite side the Indians, \vho were afterwards removed under their missionary to Prairieville, in Barry county, had a little village, luilt for them by the government. Mr. Smith remained but two years ini Grand Rapids, and then moved to Easton, Ionia county, w\here he subsequently married the widlow of Geore Case, who had settled there in 1834. Mr. Case had already begun to lay out a village on his land bordering Grand river, when in endeavoring to ford the river to go to Grand Rapids, he was drowned. Mr. Smith remained in Easton until he came to Crystal, as before stated, in 1853. He built a log house on the west half of the northwest quarter of section 28. This was the first house in the township. About the same time George and Edwin Robinson, brothers, came in and built a cabin on the southwest quarter of section 32. It is asserted that these young nen, not being accustomed to the howling of wolves and the other accompaniments of frontier life, made neither door nor wvindow

Page  111 MONTCAIM COUNTY. MICHIGAN. III ill their cabin, lint covered the roof partly with shakes, leaving an opening ill one end which served as both, and through which they passed by means of a ladder. During the splring of 1853 John \W. Smith cleared up about an acre of land and lplatnted it to potatoes and other small crops. All but the potatoes were a; failure, these yielding one hundred )bushels, which, considering the ground planted alnd their importance the following winter, was a valualle crop. On the 27th of Septeml)er his wife and her three sons came to the township. I he sons were young men, and each located eighty acres of land, si(le 1v side, on section 29. Mrs. Smith was the first resident white woman ill the tow\nshii) of Crystal. Chauncey Case settled upon the east half of the northwest quarter, and (oI adjoining farms w'est his brothers. William and James, settled. This first land was entered( in exchange for the farm settled ib George (ase, in Ionia county. Late in the faIll of 1853 the family of John Bancroft and a man named ('olton came to the to\nshilp. They entered three forty-acre lots on section. (olton remained but a short time. and then returned with his family to Jackson county. Tohn llancroft renained until his death. Robert Bancroft, who \\as born in Jlanualry, i85, was the first white male child born in the township. The samle dlay at dlaughter was borni to Mr. and Mrs. ludge Stillson, \which was the first girl born in the township. ItJdge Stillson anld James Beck had reached the township in the early sl1ing i,f 18;4. Stillson settled on the east half of the southeast quarter,)f section 23. lint he subsequently returned with his family to Jackson ciuntv. lames Beck entcred the southeast quarter of secti-on 34, by means af a land warrant received bv his father for services in the Mexican W\ar. tIe divided the lanl w\ithl his sister, who was the wife of \illiam Swarthout,;ntld who remiained in the towxnshilp but one year, and then returned to Jacks,)n coiuntv. MIr. Stillson and Mr. Beck together built a temporary shelter i,) the latter's farml into which the two families moved until Mr. Stillson's lii use, which was the second in the township, was completed. (;eorge Fox and his son-in-law, John White, arrived in i855. The formner entered the south half of the southeast quarter of section 4 and the iorth half of the southeast quarter of the same section. He died in the \illage of Crystal in 1879. John White took up corresponding parts of section 3. Hiram C. Stewart, a native of New York, but a resident of the southern part of Michigan for a number of years, came to Crystal in the fall of I855

Page  112 I 12 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICIIIGAN. and completed a log house commenced by (hauncey Case, into which he moved and lived until he could build one for himself. lie was the first town clerk of Crystal, and held the office until his death, which occurred in 1859. I-e purchased a farm on section 28 from a Mrs. Bunnell, of Lyons. Mr. Stewart had a wife and seven children, John Sinkey was one of the first settlers in the south part of the township. H. L. Parker, later a resident of lRoscommon county, was among the first to settle in the northeast part. John Burke, from \\ayne county, Michigan. to which place his parents moved in 1826, and where he lived until his twenty-seventh year, came to Crystal in July, I856, and bought the northeast quarter of section 34. of W. C. Oliver, of Ronald. He was accompanied by his parents, who lived with him until their death. The tract upon which he settled was entirely new andl without any iml-rovements, and in order to reach the land he was obliged to tmake a road from the center of Bloomer, about three miles distant, there being at this time only a trail leading north from this place. Barber Dickinson was amiong the early settlers in the northeast part. He was born in New York, whence he catme to Eaton county, Michigan, in 1853, and afterwards lived successively in Bushnell and IBloomer, coming to Crystal in 1856. He entered forty acres of governmlent land and continued to reside in the townslhip until his death which occurred in I86). INCIDENTS. In 1854 the people of Crystal made preparations to celebrate the Fourth of July, and at the appointed time assembled with baskets filled more with substantials than with delicacies, and crossed over to the island in Crystal lake in an Indian's skiff. The fame of this lake had already been carried far by hunters and land seekers, and the people of Bloomer not infrequently visited it for pleasure. Upon this occasion two men equipped to fish entered a boat, and upon nearing the island were hailed and invited to share the hospitalities of the occasion. Upon landing, Asa Ward, of Bloomer, one of the men, introduced his companion as Elder WVilliam Evarts. The people thought it in keeping with the occasion to dedicate the beautiful island by anl oration, and Elder Evarts was prevailed upon to mount a platform of sticks and bark and speak, which he did to the satisfaction of the entire company. Mr. Ward soon after became a resident of Crystal, and at the time of his death was treasurer of the township..The oration of Elder Evarts on the Fourth of July led to the first

Page  113 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. II3 religious meeting in the township, which was held at the house of John Smith in September following. Mrs. Smith invited Mr. Evarts to come and hold meetings there whenever convenient, but being at the time a resident of Bloomer and engaged in farming, the distance, the almost impassable condition of the roads at certain times, and other duties prevented him malking any perlmanent arrangements at Crystal, although he conducted services there several times subsequently. The next year Peter Burke, a llember of-the United Brethren church, preached in the same place. The first frame building in the township was a small barn built by John \\. Smith in the fall of 1854. His house was among the first frame structures in the township. O() Christmas eve of T856 the first wedding in Crystal was celebrated, the contracting larties being Henry L.. Parker and Sarah Jane Davis. Justice Smith performed tlhe ceremony. Henry Parker had come to the township in 1853 ald devoted imttch of his time to hunting. His skill with the rifle was proverbial, and )b meanics of it supplied the little settlement with venison. ()ICe, iln com1pany with another huiter on the shore of a small lake between ('rvstal and l\cvergreeln town(ships. lie miade all cxtraordinary shot and killed a looln far- out in the water. Frolml this incident the lake known as IJoonl lake took its llname. lTe pre-emlpte( land in the south part of the township, but sold subsequenttly and removed to Isalblle county. Eli Davis, father i,) the brile, settled on section 9 iln 854. 'I'e night of the weddilng the grounld was covered deep with snow, 1and the roads being passaible, several sled loads from Ionia came to the ball \\liich lasted until the "wee slla"' Iours. The justice and his wife came onl;l sl(l mladle of plaltnks and. drawn lby a yoke of oxen. Music for the occasion was furnished v.\..\. Proctor and his Irother, F. J. Proctor, who had previously settled on section T6. The large log house just built by Mr. Davis had not yet been partitioned, and furnished a good room for the ball, h\lich was one long rememlllered. The Proctor boys olpened the first black-mlith shop in the township. The first death was that of Eli Davis. He was buried near his house (,I sectioln T6. but his remains have since been removed. The funeral sermolin woas preached byl Peter Schlappie, of Ferris. At the town meeting of '185 it was decided to raise twentii-five dollars for the purpose of buying or leasing suitable grounds for lurial purposes, these grounds not to exceed four acres in extent; and the town board was authorized to select and pay for the same. The committee selected four cemeteries, but only two were (8)

Page  114 II4 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. put in use, and at the town meeting held at the house of A. A. Proctor the work of clearing the one on section J8 was given to Asa Ward, and the other, on section 30, was left to William B. Gambie. These were bought and lput in order at a cost of fifteen dollars each. At the time of the settlement of Crystal, HIubbardston was the nearest postcffice. On July 4, 1857, Alanson Snow, after whom Snow's Corners, in Ronald township, lonia county, was named, took the contract for carrying the mail from lonia to a station in Isabella county then known as New Albany, and later called Salt River. lie followed this route nearly four years, most of which time he carried the mail himself, but was occasionally relieved by his son, Richard Snow. The trip was made on foot, the iml)assability of the roads rendering it imrlpossible to use a horse. He left Tonia with the mail Tuesday afternoon and reached Snow's Corners the sallme night. Hle took dinner with John W. Smith on Wednesday, and iinished the trip to New Albany and returned home by the next Saturday. The first postolfice in the township was kept by A. A. Proctor in his house \Nhen Mr. Proctor removed it was kept by his brother. Ferniando.Proctor. CRYSTA. VILLAGE. The village of Crystal is situated near the east shore of the lake. The first settlement in this vicinity was made by Enos P. Drake who in the year 1857 built a small dwelling house and saw-mill, the latter on the outlet of Mud lake. Drake built the first mill. The first framed building was the Eagle hotel. The village was laid out by Asa W\ard on land owned by Mr. Burtch and Mr. Drake. Beautifully situated in the northeastern part of Montcalm county in a very picturesque valley is a lake called by the people in that part of Michigan, Crystal lake. As the namle implies, the lake is like a crystal, and as the sun shines on its pretty waters it acts more as a mirror. On the southeast shores of this body of water, which is considered small in comparison with some of the lakes of which Michigan boasts, although it covers about t,OOO acres, is the village of Crystal, the seat of a thriving, hustling, agricultural section. Crystal has about 500 inhalbitants, possesses practically everything a city of ten times its size has, but it is not incorporated and progresses famtously with the ad(linistration of its affairs by some real live boosters of which a much larger community might well be proud. Farming and the summer resort is what makes the village, and those who call Crystal their

Page  115 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 115 home are ever alert to take advantage of any opportunity which presents itself to further civic interest. Since Crystal was founded on April I, I868, there have been at least a dozen surveys into the village by various steam and electric roads, and each time just when the fond hopes seem about to be realized, negotiations ire declared off. The townspeople do not sit down and wait, praying for another survey, but with renewed vigor direct their efforts to make the village a magnet that will eventually attract some promoters to come through there with the necessary railroad to the larger state cities. Just at the present time a survey is being natde, possibly the thirteenth, maybe the fifteenth, but the fact remains one is going through now and within a very short time it is believed that the road will be constructed. To the visitor it seems a wonder that someone has not as vet awakened to the possibilities of developing that rich agricultural district in and around Crystal. True there is a road at Butternut, five and a half miles away, but this makes it more difficult for the farmers and villagers to market their rohlucts and secure their shipments. The automobile is meeting the long felt want in some respects as the hotel in Crystal, and it boasts of three, wllich provide auto bus service to and from Butternut by all trains and to \estaburg by appointment, so the village is not so isolated as one might suppose. Then, too, prosperity has smiled upon the townspeople and the farmers, so many have automobiles for pleasure and business. Travel is not difficult over the country roads; a liberal supply of gravel has made the highwsays excellent. To get to the story of the village proper, Crystal is not incorporated, the citizens enjoying the freedom of their own government, and meeting ct11 masse when the occasion arises for whatever seems the betterment of affairs. For the guest Crystal has three hotels, the Park, on a bluff overiookin the lake; the Lakeside, only a stone's throw from the shore line, and the Shaffer House, on Lake street. The latter is open the year around, but tlie two former close with the resort season some time in September. Naturally in a place of this class, banking takes a prominent part, the State Bank of Crystal recently occupying its new home on Main street, serves the community well. It began as a private institution under the lallnagement of honest and capable officials, and has recently been incorporated a state institution. The postmaster, J. M. I.ascelle, under recent legislation enacted by ((ongress, holds his position on a life tenure. No political changes can retire himn. Rural free delivery routes supply the rural communities with mail.

Page  116 1ib MONTCALM COUNTY, MICIIIGAN. The necessity of walks a few years ago was the bone of contention among the villagers and at a mass meeting it was decided to construct cement walks, aanl now\ Crystal has two miles of cement walks, an excellent showing for a village of half a thousand people. iThere are many forms of business enterprises in Crystal, and each offers a complete stock in the particular branch it represents. There are three groceries, one drug store, one jewelry store, two hardware stores, a bazaar, garage, photo studio, confectionery, two blacksmith shops, wagoi shop, flour and two feed mills, cheese factory, electric light plant, telephone company, a live weekly paper-the Crystal Mail, lpublished by C. \V. La Du, ex-state oil inspector. Educationally the peiople of Crystal have not overlooked the welfare of their children. There is.a full twelfth grade school, a diploma from which admits to the smaller colleges of the state. Crystal has four churches, the Congregational, Baptist, JMethodist and United Brethren. Fraternally, one can find as 11much of a diversity as in the religious field. There is a Masonic lodge, and a chapter of the Eastern Star, the Farmers' Grange, Gleaners, Odd Fellosws and Rebekahs anl Maccabees. A booster of tlhe village is Otis A. Sanford, and it xwas mainly through him that many1 of the improvements of the village were brought to a successful culnination. *lr. Sanford is too modest to take any credit for the ork, anld when askedl who it was \ho put through the ma.ny improvements, he says "the boosters of Crystal." But Mr. Sanford has many friends in the village who arc willing to give him the credit deserved. Mr. Sanford organized the Crystal Telephone Compa)ny, writh a capital stock of $2.50oo. Tt serves inearly two hundred sulscribers. NX ork is now going on to increase this number, and the Crystal boosters who have secured the right to connect with the \alley -Home Telephone Company for state service are not going to quit until they have secured the same privileges with the MichigTan State Telephone Colmpany. One great asset which the village has is the self-sustained lighting plant. Crystal has twventy-four-hour electric service. The plant is operated with steamn power, is not surlpassed in the state, and as far as can be ascertained, in the United States. Where water power is used the case is different, but at Crystal generators are operated with steam. At ten o'clock at night the power is furnished with storage batteries, and they are also used after the plant closes Saturday night and until it opens Monday morning. Leaving the main street of Crystal and turning on to Lake street it is but a short distance down the side of the hill before one has a glimpse of the

Page  117 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. It7 lake. Tt is a pretty Ibody of water, fed from springs which are distributed a;ll aroun(l the lake bed. The lake has a sandy bottom, affording delightful bathing. One nma wade a great distance before reaching a depth greater than six feet. The'l lake is comparatively shallow, but there is one place;ibout three-fourths of a mile from the resort where they never have been able to locate bottom-. This may be just a myth, but you will have to take it for \what it is worth. On the southeast and northeast shores of the lake are very fine summer cottages, nothing special lbut very cozy, providing the usual comforts of a sunm1 er resort. On the southeast shore many of the cottages are owned bv l)eo(lle who occupy their own during the warm months. On the northeast shlore is a group of cottages, p)ossibly two hundred, known as Crystal I cights. Tt is an association and( has been incorporated. The Park hotel is -ituated almong the cottages at the end of Lake street near the lake shore. At the end of TIake street, near the lake shore, there are a number of pavilions. Some are operated 1y residents of Crystal, while others are leased to pa;trtics who have mIade their summer homes in Crystal for the past fifteen t, t\\entv y-ears. IBUSINESS MEN OF CRYSTAL. B3. F. Smith, proprietor Lakeside hotel; 0. A. Sanford, manager Mairr Street ogarage; \N. Y. Beard; proprietor Park hotel; Bert Silver, manager Silver Family theater; Edward Nolty, boat livery; R. H. Radcliff, ice cream lavi\lianl; 'eterman!Brothers, proprietors bathing beach; B. F. Shaffer, proprietor Shaffer hotel; '. T. Kimball. general merchandise; C. DeYoung, llardware and supplies: Z. I). Rule, dry goods and groceries; J. D. Smith, pure drugs and chemicals; Sturgis & Son, meats and general merchandise; (;eorge Holcoml, manager Crystal Cheese Company; William S. George, manager Crystal T'elephone (Company; R. B. Smith, physician and surpseon; Blackaller & Bennett, opera company; Orcutt & Son, general hard\;lre; F. H. lMarcy, furniture and funeral director; W. J. Reed, boats and cottages; Frank Morgan, barber shop; V. C. Canouts, jeweler; E. A. Durl<ce, Lakeside I'ark; Oscar Shives, well drilling and repairing; J. M. Lascelle, plstmaster, insurance; Bank of Crystal, general banking business; Lee Ter\\illiger, blacksmithing and repairing; L. H. Gearhart, cement blocks and tile; J. C. Sigsbee, carriage painting and repairing; J. S. Parker, blacksmithing and repairing; C. W. IaDu, editor Crystal Mail; H. S. Preston, photographer; Charles Woodbury, cottages and boats; Carl Benthine, ice and drayage; Thomas Young, proprietor opera house; Louis Steele, variety store.

Page  118 CHAPTER VIII. DAY TOWNSHlIP. Day township is located in the central part of the county and is designated on the government survey as town I1 north, range 6 west. It is bounded on the north by Home township, on the east by Ferris, on the south by Evergreen and on the west b D)ouglass. The erection of this township, which comprises congressional township ii north, range 6 west, was brought about through the presentation of a petition signed by the following: Alonzo Darling, TT. E. W. Palmer, Samuel Butts, Fared Strong, Jr., R. Rawson, D. S. West, Sebastian Martin, \Vin Armstrong, Conrad Rough. J. J. Mounton, Alexander Oneal. Henry Kretzinger, EFgbert L. Heath, Christopher Tare, David Buck, John S. Ford. Albert Ferris, Wibber E. Robv, John M. Hancock, Isaac Tillne, E. B. Hare, Andrewv Zuncr, J. G. Garrison and Dtavid Shaffer. This petition was passed upon by the board of supervisors, and the township was duly created on October 12, 1864. The first election was held at the house of Henry Kretzinger on the first Monday in April, i865. anld H. E. W. Palmer, John A. Dver and Jared Strong acted as election judges. The name for this township was selected by a nere accident. Wthile a number of its citizens were debating on the question of a name and unable to select one from the many proposed, some one suggested that action in regard to it be postponed until another day. It was then proposed that all the other names be dropped and the name "Day' inserted in the petition, which was accordingly done. The first meeting was held in compliance with the appointment made by the board of supervisors. The meeting was called to order by H. E. WV. Palmer, one of the inspectors appointed by the board. The other two inspectors chosen by the board were absent, and George F. Case and John D. Herrington were appointed by the electors present to fill their vacancy. George F. Case was chosen chairman, and H. E. WV. Palmer was chosen clerk. The following persons were elected to offices in the township: Supervisor, Sylvester Derby; clerk, Edwin K. Wood; H. E. \V. Palmer, treasurer; G. F. Case and H. E. W. Palmer, school inspectors; John D. Herrington, John K. Marston and Henry Kretzinger, commissioners of high

Page  119 MONTCALM COUNTY, 1 ICIIGAN. II9 ways; George F. Case, John D. Herrington, Samuel Butts and Albert Register, justices of the peace; -Aaron F. Lee, Phipps Waldo, IH. E. W. Palmer and John J. Owen, constables. LAND ENTRIES. Section I-Byron G. Stout, WVilliam Green, Freeman Rice, Byron Stout. Section 2-Sanrnuel S. WVoodworth, James Cisco, Gamaliel Waldo, Phipps \\aldo, W\illiam S. I'ost. Section 3-Elias Hardy, James Eakright, John 1Rash, Aaron Grash. Section 4-John J. Mountain, Henry Kretzinger. Section 6 —Julia A.. Clark, Sebastian Martin, Alpheus Brown, Jared Strong, Jr., Luther lardy, Stephen F. Page, Edmund Hall. Section 7 —\illiam nd(1 C(ornelitus \'an Name, Jacob,eniasters, Williami P. Baker, James Knox, (Conrad Roosh, John J. Owen, Erastus P. Brown, Alonzo Darling. Section S —Jacob Lenlasters. James Knox, \lonzo Darling, Frederick ilayland. D-avid H. Thomas, Xormlan VWebber, A. IDarling. Section 9-David Jacobs, Frederick Hayland, I)aniel S. Simes, Peter I-. \'atson. Section Io-L. B. Townsend, Peter II. \Vatson, Sylvester Parsons, \illiam H1. Stanfield. Section i -John G. \\'illiams, Thomas 1'. Bennett, Peter -1. Watson, Gamaliel \\Vldlo, Olivci' iutherford. Ilcnjamiln P. Boskin. Section 12-John A. Dyer, John (. W\illiams. Albert E. Regista, Moses A. Dyer, Solomon Rash, Ru\ssel 1. Dyer, Ilenry 0. Corroll. Section 13-Alexander Fraser, Clarkseii S. Hance, John X\N. Tate, Cyrus Rutherford. Section 14-Moses C. (;rev, I'cter I-. \Watsenl, George Sapp, Peter Seyo, William Knott, Cyrus \Rutherford, \Amos S. Pennington, E'. K. \Vood. Section T5-William Beaty, \\illiam \XValdo, Alexander Fraser, George O. Taylor, Henry G. Johnson. Section i6T-Marcellus Ialmner, Andrew B. Nevins, Norman Webber, Oscar R. \Wilmarth, IMarcellus Palmer, H. H. Belding. Section I7-William Cornell, Henrv i1. Tupper, Mary S. Palmer, P. R. Howe, George Isham, Sylvanius Taylor, HTampton Rich, A. S. Johnson. Section I8-Charles B. Wilsenl. Section 19-Charles B. X\ilsen, William and Cornelius Van Name, Stephen McNeil, William J. Cornell, Benedict Brooks, Steven Shepharl, Josiah J. Morris, John D. Harrington, William Armstrong, Edwin B. Moore. Section 20-William J. Cornell, Hugh T. Brooks, James M. Soverhill, Cornelius Van Allen, P. R. Howe, George B. Isham, N. Webber, D. Chase, Hampton Rich. Section 21-William J. Cornell, William Beaty, Larmon BE. Townsend, Cornelius Van Allen. Section 22-William Beaty, Thomas J. Bargar, William Beaty, Alexander Fraser. Section 23-Thomas J. Bargar, Larmon B. Townsend, Daniel Buckley, David Stewart. Section 24 -

Page  120 120 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. \\ilsen.ee, \Villial 1'. Partello, John Barrett, Edwinl A. MLoffatt, Joselphus Dasef. Section 25 —Charles B. WVilsen, Henry II. Crapo. Section 26 -I.. M. Bennett. Albert (Cisco, Smith Felton. Section 27-Larmon B. Townsend. Section 28 —L-arnlon B. Townsend, Satmuel Mead(, Edwvin D1. Finch, Salmuel.ett. Section 29-Hllgh T. Brooks, lenedict Brooks, Larmon B. Towlsend, Clharles A. Brown. Section 3(-\V'illianl J. Cornell, Benedict I-rooks, Michael c(lad, NVillian Dunham, Larmon B. Townsend, Isaiah J. Mlorris. Section 31 ---E\raln H. King, Michael i\iead, William L. Tanner, Michael ITead. Section 32-John W\aite, Frederick Hall. Section 33 -mllro.se L. Sonle, Iarmnon B1. Townsend. Alexander raser, Stephen F. Shortep. Samutel Mead. Section 34 —Amibrose T.. Soulc, Henry H. (rapo. Jacob \Waner. Alexanlder Fraser, E(ldwin.\. Nloffat, Rudolph Wagner. Section 35 —Henry Craxpo. John WV. Osborn, A\lexander Iraser, Stepheln '. I)ohnson. Section 36-l.oren M. Barrett. Henry Sisco. E:A RLY s'i 'rTLEMEI N'TS. The first settler of tlie townslip was John A. Dyer, later a resident of Ferris, who came in in J854 and( settled on the southeast quarter of section 12. Ile built a good log house, set out an orchard, planted the first crops. anld tmiilde the first improvements of note long before any other settler came in. Itis wife, who diedl sublsequently, is regarded to l)e the first death in Day township..\bout the year 1862 several families came to the township andl entered small tracts on section 8. I'hev all built simall cabins, but soon after, selling their claims, removed. The next settler andl the first permalnent one in that vicinity, was Alonzo )Darling, who. untler the state homestead law, entered o(ne hlndlred andl twventy acres, principally on section 8. He made some permanentt implrovements, cotnslicuotus among whiich was buiilding a large barn and cle.aring fort! acres. Sebastian Martin was the first settler in the xwest part of the town\, having entered land and built a cabin on section 6 as early as I862. \ith his wife he lived here for a time, naking shingles by hand; but at length he, too, sold for one thousand dollars and moved. His wife was subsequently drowned in Grand river. In May, 1864, accompanied byx his cousin, Marcellus Palmer, came in, andl with him purchased two hundred acres of Jacob L.elasters for three dollars and fifty cents per acre. H. E. W. Palmer was formerly a regular minister of the Baptist church, but his health failing, he sought the pine

Page  121 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 121 land(is of Michigan in hopes of restoring it. After purchasing, Marcellus returned to Ionia and in about eight months brought his family to Day. In 1865 Conrad Rlouash settled on section 7, where he remained a nunmber of years, when he moved to Douglass. Some tinie after the settlement of the Palmers, Norman Webster came in and bought the northeast quarter of section 8, for which he paid a team of horses, a wagonl, and some minor consideration. He also sold out and moved to Kent county, thence to Texas. John Harrington camte from Hillsdale county, i\ichigan, in 1864, and settled on section 19. In the spring of T866 the school board formed the northwest (quarter of tlhe township into a school district. The first school meetingo was held at the house of I-I. I'. V. Pallter, he being chosen director, and Sanmuel Butts, moderator. Marcellts lalmner, assessor. The first school was taught by.Mrs. If. 1". \V.. almner in an unoccupied room in her dwelling. Arrangemcnts were inade to buill a log school house, but the motion was reconsi(lered 1v a vote of the district, and it was decided to erect a frame one, which was accor(lingly done. The second term. however, was taught by l. olena Palmer in the log house of Samuel Butts, before the school house was completed. She became the wife of El. M. Mallet. The second school \was taught in the northeastern part of the township; but, as the inhabitants imostly sooln after remove(l, the district formation was dropped. 'The first public religious meeting in D)ay, so far as is known, was con(luctedl hy Rev. H. 1K. IW. Palmer in his house in 1864. The first Sabbath school was organized 1by Marcellus Palmer at his house, and of which he eas lected first slul)rilltef(lent. These settlements above referred to were all in the west and southwest portions of the township. One of the earliest settlers in the east part of the towvnlship) was Smith Flelton, who located the north half of the northeast (luarter of section 26 soon after the Civil W\ar, from whence he came as a soldier. lie made a small clearing and built a log house on the high south lbank of Hooker branch of Fish creek, where he lived until his death, in the early nineties. Another ol(l settler of that locality was Josephus Dasef, who settled on section 25 soon aftev Felton came in. He built a frame house on his homestead, about the first in the township, and early engaged in the lumlering business. I he cut the pine timber from his homestead and from (ther lands which he purchased, drew them to the banks of Fish creek, but a short distance away, and in the spring of the years he was in business lloated them down to Grand Haven, where they were manufactured into tlumber. He closed out his business in 1872 and moved to Stanton, where

Page  122 122 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICIIGAN. he remtained until 1876, when he purchased a farm in Bushnell township, which he developed and lived thereon until old age and ill health compelled him to sell, when he mov ed to Stanton in 1907, where he and his wife lived until their deaths, in July, T91 5 They died within two weeks of each other. VIr,LAGE OF M BRIDE. The village is named after Alexander McBride, a native of WVayne county, New York, who caime to Day township and in 1874 purchased the saw-mill built ly Emery Mallet the year previous. The following year it burned, being a total loss, but it was at once rebuilt by him, and from that time the locality was kno\wn as McBridc's Mill. When the railroad compaln established its station near by it adopted the nanme which has accordingly been applied to the village. It is situated principally upon the southvwest quarter of section 9. It was platted by I). L. Jacol)s in 1877. A\bout the same time Philpps \\aldo laid out the east half of the northeast quarter of section 8 in village lots, which he named Custcr. Several lots were sold and a number of buildings erected; the first completed was the blacksmith and wagon shop of IDean \ illber, being the first business place in the village of Custer, which is now properly considered a part of McBride. Phipps XValdo came to Day township in I864, and entered the southeast quarter of section 2, where he resided until February, 1872. C. A. Chillson opened the first store in the village. The sales for the first six months amounted to eight or ten thousand dollars. Soon after J. A. WValdeon opened a stock of ready-made clothing, being the second in the village. lThe sales amounted on an average to ten thousand dollars per year. The growth and prosperity of McBride continued unchecked with one exception. On Saturday, May 16, 1885, fire broke out in McBride about five o'clock in the evening, and before it had spent its force had destroyed property valued at $57,400 and made twenty-four families homeless. The fire was started from a stove pipe which passed through the ceiling of Andrew Martin's house and on account of a strong wind was sooIn beyond all control. Altogether fifty-seven buildings were burned. The total insurance carried on the destroyed and damaged property amounted to only $I3,25o. Notwithstanding this and other lesser fires which were very disastrous, McBride has grown and is continuing to grow as fast as any other town of its size in the county. McBride is one of the large shipping points on the Pere Marquette road in this county, and has proven an excellent market for all kinds of farm produce. This makes it one of the lively towns in this

Page  123 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I23 section of the county. It is the only town in Day township and is not rivalled in this reslect. It has at present a population of about six or seven hundred. Benjamin Caldwell operates the only elevator and does an extensive business in all feeds and grains. Neff's Bank is one of the strong financial institutions of the county, while the lMcBride Review takes care of the publicity for the town. The other business firms of the town consist of the two gencral stores of Arthur Steere and William Alberts. There are two hardware firms. D. \X. Dean and Oscar Swift, and the Godfrey implement store. George Pierce is the proprietor of the only drug store, while MAichael Fredericks has a candy store. The Woodruff hotel caters to the comllercial trade. WESTVILLE. The village of XVestville was laid out by Daniel West, who owned one hundred and twenty acres, which included part of the west half of section 7, of Day. Upon this, in anticipation of the Detroit, Lansing & Northern railroad, lie platted a village, which naturally thereafter took his name. Ie gave ten acres of land for depot purposes and five hundred dollars in cash to the cormpany as an inlucement for them to extend their line to this place. The citizens also raised nine hundred dollars for the same purpose, which, as it appears, was paid to the comlpany in full; but the road passed to the east some distance, and the village has not therefore reached the importance hoped by its founders. The first business place opened was a general store owned by Jordan &.Allen. \Vestville was platted on April 30, I886. and with the growth of lMcBrride, Westville gradually began to decline until nothing now remains but a cluster of residences. During the early days, however, this was a very prosperous town. Mr. Luce kept a hotel here, and it was a great stopping place for travelers through this section, but after the building of the railroad, which ran to the east of Westville two miles, McBride became the commercial center. At present Westville is only a little hamlet with no business interests of anv kind. CUSTER. Custer was platted on April 2, I878, for Phipps Waldo and Ieah \Valdo, proprietors, by Ade F. Gardner, surveyor. To many of the readers of this book this would prove a puzzle if no explanation was given. It is a plat of that part of McBride which lies on the east side of Division street, but why a separate name was given is not for the writer to say, as in reality it was platted just six weeks before the village of McBride.

Page  124 CHAPTER IX. DOUCGi.ASS TOWNSHIi '. Douglass township is situated in the north central part of the county and is hounded on the north 1y Belvidere, on the east hy Day, on the south lb Sidney and on the west b P'ine. Until the organization of Douglass it was attached to the township of 1Pine. The petition for the erection of Douglass township was presented to the I)oard of supervisors with the following signatures: Daniel Lang, Joseph W\ilcox, Alfred W\akeinan, (Christian Iarner. Ira l-lale, Emersonl Ilale, lm'ory Ha1 —le, Richard Charnlev, Sylvester Rockafellos. (Charles Service, D)avid R. Hart, John J. Rile\, Alphonso Brundage, Arnold Clark, A. S. ( lark, S.S. \\hiitinre,. S. \Vhitier, enjamin Persens, It'nos Root, Aaron flunt, lenaljah l'ersens, Stelheln Aldrich, J. \V. \\itmer anl( George R. fHart. I his petition bore the date of Feblruar! 17, 1864, and consisted of the territory embraced b' towrn 1l north, range 7 west. The board of supervisors granted the prayer of the petitioners on February 17, t864, land created the township as (lesired. The first election in the township was held at the house of Aaron l:Iunt on the first Monlday of April, 1864, at nine o'clock, and at this first meeting Alphonso Brundage, S. S. \hitnmer and Banajah l'ersens presided. The naming of this township seenis to have caused the greatest difficulty. Tn the orginal petition as first written the name of \\ashington was selected for the new to\wnship, but before this ewas presented to the board of supervisors this was scratched out and the name Lincoln \\ritten alove it. Lincoln was also placed on the map w\hich accompanied the petition and was also written in tlhe minutes of this meeting of the supervisors. But in all three cases it was scratched out and the name Douglass inserted. The latter name was selected in honor of Stephen A. Douglas, the presidential candidate on the Democratic ticket in I860 and for whom a majority of the electors of the township voted. At the first election Alphonso Btrundage, Benajah P'ersens anld S. L. Smith were chosen justices of the peace; S. L. Smith, supervisor: S. S. \hitmore, Aaron Hunt and Benajah Persens, highway commnissioners; S. S. Whitmore and S. L. Smith, school inspectors; S. S. Whitmore and Adam Shaffer, constables.

Page  125 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN.12 12'I LAND ENTRIES. Section 1 1Ltthet 1L. W\ard, Erastus P'. Brown, Jonathan 11. Loomis, fohit Birown D. S. \\,cst, Elidinmd Hall. Section 2 —Allen Wright, liberty 13. Britton, Datrius 1I Blood, Anmos S. Joltison, Wood and Gilbert. Section i ----A Boney houst. Hor41111~opniana, Seth hlolcomb,, 0. Wright. Section 4 -AlIoncv Rhot Abehl Ficnchl, John Cook, Peter j ohnsoit, Josiah Rupell. Eliza Httrd. wction lone stis, P'eter Johnson, jacob A. Dairs, Carso ('rane, viiiotto If. Ptratt, Frederick 11. Noteware, Blenajah Persens, ILorenzo l'tttcklev. Sectiolt 6 -Osc-tr 1? Ctrmill, Jacob A.. Dav is, Carso Crame, Johtn 1Cdlv, II enry C. ft rantt Set 11o1 /71Uitt. 1ossiri, toOscar F. Cargill, 1irail] Rossaitta S 1 Ft Pae, John F'risler, Jacob A. Davis John J. ElIy, M~iller \\ 00(1 Sectton 8-.\loii\ kttst, Hiratil lsossnman, George Rossntan.. Sltehet I'ate, joth Tripler, J ttob Davits Henry C. Bry ant, Cyrees W~ooditttt. Secttott 9 NAltone lttst, Stepheni Page, Jactb A. Dav is,. Stephen Aidicit, Johin AN. Itrady) Sectioit io-Matrtin Sheatrer, Ohsver I) Knox, FErastt rttst it loctt, t1njitit Persets. Thoitas S.:\drich, Wtilliam A. McCloud, Gettrte Casrpettler Secitoit it Erastos Browno Henryr N'~7 Wilson, John Trisler. Catistt Cratne Oliver P' tKnttx ITsa M. NHartris, Alphonso Brondage. 12titt t NWll tt13,1 taker, C hsrles 13 \. kisnit Willia ao tnd Cornieliuis Van N~ame atte Stetlwn NlcNeil, Andrew J. Cltrk, T'oi 1L. Root. Section I3 -ChresN ittitn l1itirs Vt` kttt, VtWilltitt \. iat Na'toe V and C. Van Name itiS. N~t. Neil. Seettoit i4 I 1eiry Wtilsoti. John Trisler, Carso Crane,!)a\tid I\s (It totlkter John S. \\3 ititeroe Stepthen S. Wlitimer. Section 15 -Johitrislener, Godfres.ottiatigher, Carso Crasne, Aaroit Hunt, Stephen S. \\ltnitttr.\artol Huntt jotitit B~ennett. Jacob B. Barr. Section i6-Eli I I11tit. jcoelb J. Carpenter, Adami Shaeffer, (eor-e WV. Eittricatn, Albert L.. E`1toricait I colt M\iller, I Itunttit Joseph (. V attghn, Timotlty J. Scidniore, (t 01-e hlellatitts 1osep11 NVilcox. N:. H. Briggs. WV. Simmteons. Section 17 -_\ott Rotit George h\ossiitan, H-iramn Rossman, Edward B. Edwards, -Stet~hen IFI P-e I Tittotlis Scitlittore. Section t8-Steplten Page, George RossItleo Secitit it 1(Silas B~arton, Alonev Rtist, Getorge Loticks, Benjamin H.ni-tit, IttI lsard B. Edwvards. ILarmion Chatfield, Stephen F. Page. Seet111t 2o —D tnel 1. Newstoin. Silas Bartoit, George Loucks, Benjamin Knight. 111011o ( Itatfield E dward Fl. Edwvards, TAvndert Boose. Section 21-.lttttev hust, Ldwsard B. E-dwartds, Myitdert Btver, Edwin Merrifield, Jacob B F Brr Seetioti 22-Edwin R. Merrifield, John Shamip, Jacob B. Barr. SeCttitn 23-Chailes B. X\ilson. David Ft. Chandler, WV. and C. Van Name a SI. McNeil. Section 24-Chalrles 'Wilson, William and Cornelius Van Natine 10(1 S. McNeil, William j. Cornell. William Armstrong. Section 25 — Williant J. Cornell. Section 26-William J. Cornell, David R. Chandler.

Page  126 126 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Section 27-Edmund IHall. Section 28-Loren Curtis, Jacob B. Barr, S. Gates, Edmund Hall. Section 29-Charles Leonard, Thomas J. Bruner, Ambrose Atwood, C. Hewitt, J. B. Barr. Section 3o-John Lewis, Edward B. Edwards, Carso Crane, Charles Leonard, Thomas J. Bruner. Section 31 -Stephen l'age, Carso Crane.' Section 32 —James Clifford, Rheubar Whitman. Section 33 —1Edwin B. MToore, John Brown, Edmund Hall. Section 34-Hiramn Amsblury, Adolphus I. Skinner, Russell Ackley, Adolphus L. Skinner. Section 35-Benjamin Towlc, Joseph Smith. Clifford lake, a beautiful body of water over a mile in length, is situated on sections 30 and 32. Upon its banks are several residences, and the groves are being utilized as picnic grounds and places of summer resort. PIONEERS OF DOT(GLASS. The first settler in Douglass was Hiram Weller, but the exact date of his arrival is not definitely known. It was probably the fall of 1853, as in the following year he sold his claim and rernoved to LTangston, where the John Green Conipany w\as erecting a saw-mill. IHe remained there several years working for the company, wthen he moved away. Peter Johnson, who purchased the claim of ITiram Weller, was the second settler in the township. Soon after taking possession he built a more commodious cabin, cleared a small piece of land, and sowed the first spring crops. About the time of his arrival Uriah Stout,and Messrs. Covey, 1Murray, Bradford and a num)ber of other settlers pre-empted land in the vicinity, but none of these rerained long eno-ugh to make any permanent improvements, and none brought families except Uriah Stout. \Villialm Goodwater, who settled just over the line, on section 32, in Belvidere, came in about the same time. He soon after came into Douglass and built a cabin near Iittle Ienny lake, which was named after a nickname applied to him. He also subsequently moved to the ilills below on Flat river, where he died. James Farnsworth pre-empted eighty acres on the east half of section 9, but within a year he sold to Stephen Aldrich, who, in the suimmer of 1854, came into the township to look for government land. His wife, formerly Rebecca Stewart, whose parents settled in the township of Gilead, Branch county, and became permlanent settlers there with the fanily, came to the township of Douglass in the fall of T854. Mr. Aldrich went to work immediately to clear and improve his farm. The following spring he set out the first fruit trees in Douglass. In I862 he enlisted in the Seventh Cavalry,

Page  127 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 127 co0ntinuing in the army and participating in the campaigns of that regiment during the war. In the year I854 Benajah Persens and his family came in and settled in the northern part. He purchased forty acres of land and lived here until his death. I)avid R. Hart, Alphonso Brundage and Stephen Whitmer came in soon after the settlement of Mr. Persens. Alphonso Brundage had been a resident of Ann ~lArbor, whence he came to Douglass and bought the north half of the northeast quarter of section II, where lie built a cabin. David R. TTart sold a part of his land to S. L. Smith, who, with Aaron Hunt, came to Michigan first in 1847, and lived a number of years at Jackson. He subsequlently returned to 'ennsylvania, where he lived until he came to Douglass, as stated above. At the first township meeting he was elected supervisor, and whein justice, officiated at the first wedding after the organization of the township, being that of Jacob Miller and Mary Hunt. Mr. Miller came to Michigan from Monroe county, New York, in 1856..\aron iHunt entered onie hundred and sixty acres, which was the south half of the northwest quarter andl the east half of the southwest quarter of section 15, where he resided until his death, in the spring of 1867. Iis son, Eli lunt, served in the Union arm-y during the Rebellion. George VI. IEntrican, another early resident of Douglass, was born in ()akland county, to which place his parents came in I836, being among its first settlers. lie came to Easton, lonia county, in 1847. He was among the first to enlist frolm Douglass, and served two years and six months in Corpal)nly K, Twenty-first Regiment, Michigan Volunteer Infantry, participating in the campaigns of the Army of the Cumberland under General l(cC'ook. For two years he was clerk of the township. Joseph and A. l11ls\orth were the first permanent settlers in the southwest part. Clifford lake is named after Mr. Clifford, a feeble old man who settled near it, and who was found ldead beside an oak log, having Ibeen taken sick suddenliy while at work. \lthough as early as 1853 the settlement of Douglass commenced, and from this time until I864 many additions were made, but few became perlmanent settlers in the township. The great obstacle to its prosperity was the total lack of highways and the consequent inconvenience to travel. The general routes to the north had been through the township to the east and Pine and Cato to the west. A state road was early located along the east bank of Flat river, but when the saw-mill at Langston and a bridge across the river at that place were completed, and this route to the Big Rapids

Page  128 128 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. made passable, no further attention was given the route through Douglass until many years after.:As it became necessary, the settlers each as they came underbrushed the road where it alppeared the most feasible, and as a consequence, it wound ablout all conceivable obstacles. After the organization of the townlship it was considerably improved, S. I.. Smith doing a large part of the work. The improvcments in other parts of the township were rapid, large sums of money being raised by taxing land held by speculators. The river road originally followed as near as possible an Indian trail which extend(ed along thie east bank of the river to the Indian settlement near the central part of Douglass. It contained about forty famiilies under Shogwogino, who built and occupied a house located on the farm of S. L. Smith. In 186o the entire tribe, with the exception of three families, were removed to the North l\- the governmienit. It appears from tile clearing inade and the land which the\ tilled being free of stumips that they had lived here many years previous to the entry of the whites. About three vears after his settlement in Douglass. Peter Johnlsoll, already referred to, went to Greenville to find work, as was his custom, to procure the necessary provisions for his family. It was the year so long remembered onl account of the late frosts, when the little pieces of corn and g'arden stuffs of the settlers, so important to them, were totally destroved. when want and sufferinig aboundled oi every hand, andl had it not been for aid voted by the state aind sent gratuitously from older settled districts absolute famrine must have prevailed. Game, which to this time hlad lieen plentiful, suddenly became scarce and almiost impossible to lbe securedl, and wlhell obtained was lean ailld unplalatable. The following spring little children barefooted scoured the baliks of streams before the frost had fairly left the ground to fi( sicculeIit )laIts to l)e b}oiled and eaten. 'T( find work wass almost impossible; nevertheless, Peter Johnsoin left his family and went to Greenville, as lbefore stated. While absent his wife, who in a recent illness lilad been attended by Mrs. Stephen Al(Irich, who lived nearly two miles distant and who walked that (listance through the forest imany times to see her and administer to her wanits, went to the house of NMrs. Goodwater to ask her to come and stay with her children, which she hadl left sleeping in a cradle near the fire, while she called on NMrs. Aldrich, who was now ill. The two women returned andl found the cabin enveloped in flames and the roof just falling in. The miother was almost paralyzed but was taken away fronm the spot by Mrs. Goodwater, and by her conducted to the house where she had intended to call. The children, the elder of whom was two and onehalf years of age, and the younger a babe, perished in the flames. Their charred remains were gathered the following morning, placed in a box and

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Page  129 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I29 buried near the site upon which the cabin stood. It is said the parents did not visit the spot, but removed to the south part of the county. Olive, the elder of the two, was the first white child born in the township, and it was proposed to name it in her honor, but owing to a similarity of this name with another in the south part of the state it was abandoned. The first marriage in Douglass was that of William Goodwater to Mrs. Julia Buckley, and took place in the house of Leonard Buckley. IThe cemetery on the farm of the late Stephen Aldrich was the first public burial place in Douglass, and the first person interred here was William Entrican. The first orchard was prol)ally set out by Aaron Hunt, in the spring of T864, and contained one hundred trees. James Lee built the first framed dwelling in the winter of I865-66, and about the same time Moses Hunt built the first framed barn, on the northeast quarter of section 14. ENTRICAN. Entrican is the only town, or rather village, in Douglass township at, the present. It lies in the south-central part of section 9, and although an old town, it was never platted. It began its existence in the lumber days, and with the exhaustion of this industry, has fought bravely to maintain arn existence. Located, as it is, in the central part of the township some eight miles northwest of Stanton, it has proved a trading center. There are at present some fifty inhabitants, with two churches and a postoffice. The business interests of the town consists of two stores, owned by Ilerman Smith and Ray I'intler. There is also a small blacksmith shop for the convenience of its patrons. In the palmy days, when the lumber industry was at its height, millions of feet of logs passed down Flat river, which flows only a short distance to the west of Entrican, and the saw-mills at this place did a flourishing business. But those days are over and the interests of Entrican are kept alive by the farmers of this section. POINT RICHARDS. Point Richards, which lies in the extreme southwestern part of Douglass township and on the west side of Clifford lake, was platted on June II, I88I, for James W. and Nettie D. Richards, proprietors, by F. A. Palmer, surveyor. This is now the location of the Clifford lake summer resort, which is owned and managed by Ulysses G. Hayden. It is quite a resort and consists of a hotel, dancing pavilion and a few cottages. The dancing pavilion is unique and original, having been built around a large oak tree. (9)

Page  130 CHAPTLER X. EU'REKA TOWNSHIP. Eureka township began its existence at the same time that Montcalin couity was organized. The Legislature which erected' tils county also officially organized Iureka township, luner tle.\Act No. 177, approved on MIarch 28, 1850. Tlhis township consisted of congressional township 9 north, range 8 west, and was set oft from Mlontcalmn township, of which it was originally a part. It lies in the extreme southwestern part of the county and is hounded on the north bv Monitcalh township, onl the east by:airplain townshilp. on the south by lonia county andl on the west 1y 'Kenlt counlt. iThe first town ileeting was or(lered to be heldl at "the district school house, near the (reenville postoffice.".\t the meeting held in the tonllship) to choose a suitable cognomenl for the new biorn township, after a due amount of discussion, it was christened \.'abasis, after the creek of that nalme that flows through the townshipl. The creek itself having been lnamed, long before this time, after \\abasis, an Indian chief, and therebyl hans a tale. The son, John, of this Indian chief, relates that his father offended his trilbe ib deeding certain lands to the United States. in coinse(luence!e ewas condenmnce to be b:mnished to that part of the country lying north of W!abasis creek and \est of Flat river. the understandling being tha t he was not to ventiure south of these precincts inler penalty of death. IUnfortunately for him lie allowed designing Illdians to persuade him to take part in a po\w-wowx at the month of Flat river, and tluring the ceremony hle \was set utpon and killed. But returning to the name \Vaibasis, it seenms that this dit not appear to strike the fancy of A. 1.. Roof, the legislative representative of the dlistrict. as favorably as it did the townpeople. So of his own: volition he substittited the name Eureka, which means "I have found it," but just why he made this change cannot now be determined. It happened that the good people of this township were at first prone to look upon Mr. Roof's amendment as discoutrteous, Ibut eventuallv they became reconciled to the name, and it has never been changed. The first town meeting was held in the school house of district No. T.

Page  131 MONTCAI.M COUNTY, MIC-IGAN. I3I April T, 185o, as ordlcred by the act of March 28th. Stephen H. Warren was chosen moderator at this initial meeting; [Ithan Satterlee, inspector; John Porter and Aaron G. Stockholm, clerks. 'here were sixty-six votes cast at this election, and the following officers elected: Supervisor, Rosecrans Divine; clerkl, \\estbrook Divine, who was the only candidate for this office; treasurer,.. W. Mayvnlard; justices of peace, Hiram 11. Slawson and lJohn M. Sheldon; highway commissioners, John (C. Stockholn, for three years, A\ram Roosa, for t\\o years, I'than Satterlee, for one year; school inspectolrs. John Porter Iand Josiah Bradish; assessors, Nathaniel Coons and (;eorge Van' Ness: constables, Henry Satterlee, Enoch R. Wilcox, J. M. Becker and Elijah Van Derhoof: overseers of the poor, Enoch R. Wilcox and lEthan Satterlee. lThIs the township of Eureka, the fourth towxnshil) to be )organizedl ill lIiontcahl county, took on a definite government. INCIDENTS I TN 'E LIFE OF \WESTBROOK DIVINE. It seems fairly well established that the first settlement in Eureka township and also in Montcalil county was malde in August, 1814. Hon. Westbrook Divine, who \was a lronminent figure in the early history of the county, has related the story of that settlement, together wiith mention of incidents leadingl thereto and followiing after, the substance of which is here set out: In \ugust, 18-3,, Steplen -1. \Warren anld R. K. )ivinc, then living in central X\ewv York, started for the far \\est in search of land locations. After looking over the soutlhern portion {of the state where they hoped to find pllaces to suit them, without, however, succeeding to their taste, they visited Grand Rapid(s. T'here they met John Ball. who advised them to visit Mlontcaln countv, and acting upon the suggestion they found sure enough, in what is now Eureka townsship, such land tracts as they wanted. Each selected one hundredl aid twentyt acres in section 34, and thus having finished what he hadl come for, Divine returned at once to the East for his family. \Varren concluded to stop behind, and arranging to hoard at John Shaw's, in Otisco, worked during the month ensuing upon his Eureka farm, breaking up in that time about four acres. Mr. WVarren's work, as noted, may therefore be regarded as the first attempt at land clearing in Eureka, and Irolbally in the county as w\ell. R. K. Divine reached his New York home in August, I843, and on the 4th of September, following, started once more for Michigan, accompanied by his wife and brother, Westbrook. Journeying via lake to Detroit, they bought an ox team at the latter place and pushed on by way of Scott's and

Page  132 13.2 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Lyons village. Ten (lays after leaving Detroit, and sixteen after the departure from their New York home, they landed at John Shaw's, September 2o. They found Warren still on the ground and assisted by him and Westbrook Divine, R. K. Divine put up a framed house on section 34, the lumber being obtained at Dickinson's mill, in Otisco. Touching Stephen Warren, it may be briefly stated that he left for New York a few days after the arrival of the Divines, married there, and returned to Eureka in July, I844, for a permnanent settlement. ITe remained a citizen of the town until his death, in I878. Mr. Divine's house, in which he moved on October 29, I843, is said to have been the first house erected in the county. R. K. Divine lived in Eureka until I866, when he removed to Oakland county, in Michigan. Hon. Westbrook )ivine assisted his brother, R. K., until December, I843, when he bought sixty acres, and between work upon his own place mand occasional labors for his brother he divided his time and energies until January, 1845, when, on the 27th of that month, he married Elizabeth Roosa, of Otisco, and took a place among the actual settlers of Eureka. Although Mr. Divine was the first one of fEureka's settlers to marry, he was married, as a matter of fact, out of the town. The first marriage in the town was that of Abratham Roosa, of Otisco, to Deborah, daughter of John Green, in February, I845, at Mr. Green's house, in what is now the city of Greenville. While on this topic it may be well enough to record that the first birth in the town was that of Josephine, dlaughter of John Green, in June, I845. She later became Mrs. Starkweather and resided in Greenville. The first male child btorn was John, son of R. K. Divine, January I6, 1846. He made his home in Oakland county, Michigan. The first death was that of Mrs. John l.oucks, who died in 1846, and was buried on the bank of the Flat river, above Greenville. After her death burials were chiefly made on Enos T. Peck's place, east of Greenville. But few persons were interred there, however. before the town laid outt a burial place west of Greenville. There was some controversy as to the proper place for the location of the town cemetery, for about every man in town wanted the graveyard near his place, and when the matter came before the town board for decision there was such a conflict of opinion that, as the only method of determining who should locate the burial ground, it was resolved to draw cuts. It happened that the task fell to Westbrook Divine, who bought of John Green four acres of land lying just west of Greenville, for which he paid one

Page  133 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I33 hundred dollars. His action in paying so much money for a cemetery site was generally regarded as a species of wild extravagance, and as a clincher popular argument pointed to the conclusion that the four acres would never be entirely occupied with graves, for the reasoning was that the town would not have people enough to make a sufficient number of deaths probable within at least a century. Divine simply said, "Wait and see." The graveyard has long since been so crowded with graves that no burials have taken place there for many a day. Until the summer of 1845 R. K. Divine, Westbrook Divine and Stephen Warren lived with their families in R. K. Divine's house. Warren built a house in I845, and Westbrook Divine built one in 1846. In the earliest days of the settlement, milling was done at Ionia and wheat marketing chiefly at Grand Rapids. The latter trip, made with ox team via Plainfield, and there across the river via ferry, usually consumed three days for the round journey. When the night camp was made bells were tied upon the cattle and the traveler himself, using the ox yoke as his pillow, slept soundly enough until opening dawn warned him to be up and away. \Vestbrook Divine hauled a load of twenty-four bushels of wheat to Grand Rapids and selling it at fifty cents per bushel, took his pay in money issued by Daniel Ball's bank. Before he reached home the bank failed, and the twelve dollars that oting l)ivine had looked upon as a fat reward for his produce and labored efforts to get it to market melted away to nothingness, like mist before the morning sun. It was pretty hard, but he had to stand it. After keeping the money a year in the hope that it would be redeemed he sold it at seven cents on the dollar, at which rate it yielded him for his wheat just three cents and a half per bushel. Lyman H. Pratt, Ethan Satterlee, Sr., and Westbrook Divine, as the first board of highway commissioners of Montcalm township, laid out the first roads in the present town of Eureka. One of the roads was a continuation, from the south line of Montcalm, of the road coming northward from Cook's Corners. That road they carried on to Lincoln's mill on the north-a distance of eight miles. Another road, laid about the same time, was one from Warren's Corners to Greenville, and a third a branch road from Greenville into Fairplain. Besides having been one of the first highway commissioners chosen in Montcalm, Westbrook Divine was chosen the first town clerk of Eureka; was in I850 elected county register of deeds, in which office he continued four years; was supervisor for Eureka from I856 to I88I (with the exception of only two years); served two terms as state senator, from i863 to

Page  134 134 MONTCA.\M COUNTY. MICIITGAN. I867; was appointed United States assessor in 1867 and retained the place until the office was abolished, in 1872; was in r875 appointed by Governor Baglev as one of the coimmissioners of the Tonia house of correction (of which lie was one of the board of managers); was president of the Excelsior -\gricultural Society of ()tisco from T871; was president of the board of directors of the People's Fire Insurance Company of the counties of lonia and Mlontcalm; and for a long1 time \was prominently identified with Grange affairs in town, county and state. Such a record is of some consequence, and in a historical wav receives additional lustre from the fact that its possessor was the oldest living resident in the count!y until his death, and one of its very first settlers. T'lE SAXTON ENTRY. One of the earliest land entries in AMontcalim county is said to be a tract of forty-nine acres ill lot 8. on section 22, upon the bank of the Flat river. The patentee, Silas Saxton. of New York, entered the land in I839, and for a long time it laid wholly ille. lMr. Saxton paid the taxes regularly on it, and( when asked whl hie did inot improve it or sell it, said that he wanted to keep it for the satisfaction of o swning some AIichigall land, and that although he did nlot care to have it imlllroved, his children miight som1e lda take a notion tc) make a farm of it. The earliest comers (outside of Greenville), next to the Divines an(d \Warrens, were the Satterlees. There were l1than Satterlee and his three imarried sons, Alexander, l.thanl, Jr., and l-ienry (each of whom was a man of family), and four unmarried sons andcl daughters. The Satterlees owned about six hundred acres of land located on sections 7, 8 and 28. Henry, who had come on to prepare the way. as it were. hal( been on the groundl alout two weeks when his father atnd the other members of the famnilv arrived. Whenl the latter reaiched Fureka all hands moved into HIenry's shanty, and on the following day Satterlee and his soins put up a house, and( finished it before night rea(ly for occupancy, although to tell the truth it was not much of a house. The Satterlees brought in five teams of horses and a drove of cattle, the horses bein- the first animals of that kind to enter the town. Tlhere had been horses in the vicinity, owvned by Cook Morse and Shaw, but they lived in Otisco. Fthan Satterlee, the elder and his son, Alexander, located onl section 8, Henry on section 7. and Ethan, Jr., on section 28. The Divines and Warren probably put in the first orchard, the trees for which he brought from Jackson.

Page  135 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I35 One of Ethan Satterlee's daughters, named Catharine, taught at Greenville in T1846, the first school known in Montcalm county. She taught two sulmers in (reenville, and for twvo summers after that in the Loucks neighborhood. east of Greenville, where Harriet Wilcox was perhaps the first teacler. During the period that Miss Satterlee taught in the Loucks neighborhood, the settlers thereabouts included the two Loucks families, the Maynards. Sandersons, Sanders, Moores anti Moors. North of Greenville, on the Flat river in section 9, was a small band of Indians called Blacksmith Indlians. who to the lnumber of a dozen or more, lived on a forty-acre patch of land aid pretended to cultivate it, lbut who dlid far less land cultivating thlan loafinlg and begging. They lived in huts and eked out a precarious existence bl huniting and fishing andt sugar-making until the filling tl) of the counttr drlrov e out the gamille, and then the loafing redskins made off for mrc0-e nor)therly latitudes. OTHlER EARtlY SETTLERS. In 1846, John C. Stockhollti, a New Yorker, came VWest to embark in tile lumblering buisilness with the \Vorden Brothers, of Wordens' mills, in Mlontcailnl townshil. \\hen Stockholm reached the country he concluded the lumbering business would not suit him, anl (leterminiing to engage in pioneering ill its stead, blought of James Kerr, on section 33, in Eureka, a farim of \\hich NMr. Kerr had improved thirty-six acres, and had built thereon a log house an(l fratmed barn, the latter (erected in 1845) being the first one of tlhe kind in TEureka. ()1O the town line south of him were R. K. Divine, \Westlrook, Divine, Stephen \\arren andl Lorenzo Whitney. The latter, who ladl been in about t\\o years, lived east of \Vestbrook )ivine, and after a resildence of seven years moved back to New York state. Inl 1847, A. C. Stockholml, brother of John C., came out to 'Eureka to look around, and looked around to such goodl purpose that he botght one hundre d intl twenty acres of landtl on section 32. In 1848 he went back to New York state an-d married. In 1849 he returned to Michigan for permainent settlement. John C. Stockhohl resided in Eureka until T865 when he emlbarkedl in business at Cook's Corners, in Otisco. About the time of A. (G. Stockholm's cotming to Eureka in I847. came also Josiah Bradish, who in 185o sold out to WVilliamn Stokes and moved to Fairplain. Henry M. Moore, already mlentioned as one of the earlest settlers, opened the first store in the township, on section IT, in i848, just without the present limits of Greenville. William Backus was one of Mr. Moore's

Page  136 136 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. clerks, of whom two others were W. E. Sholes and E. B. Campbell. The location was probably not a profitable one for trade, for after a two-years experience Mr. Moore closed the store. Outside of Greenville that was the only place of trade Eureka ever possessed. The first white woman to penetrate into the territory north of \Vabasis creek is said to have been a woman who in the spring of 1844 went over the creek and into Greenville to keep house for John Green and his mill hands. IHer name cannot now be recalled. Mr. Nelson came in somewhere about I850 and not long afterwards caused the creation of [Eureka postoffice and the appointment of himself as postmaster-a place that he held until the office was discontinued. GREENVILLE. Greenville, the chief commercial town of Montcalt county, is located in the north-central part of Eureka township, but the history of this town will be taken tup in detail in another chapter. The only other town in Eureka township which was ever platted is that of South Park. This is a summer resort and is located in section 2I on the south banks of Baldwin lake. It was surveyed and platted by M. Cankin for Carpenter C. Merritt, Mary A. Merritt, his wife, Peter McDermond and Carrie McDermond, his wife, proprietors, September 23, 1895. *At present there are a number of cottages and this is a popular local resort for the people of this section to spend the summer along the lake. BALDWIN LAKE RESORT. The name of this resort is now locally known as Baldwin Lake resort. Cottages are located all around the lake and these are owned mostly by the people of Greenville who make this their summer home. These cottages are built on either side but mostly on the right side of the drive which extends entirely around the lake. This is a very beautiful resort, and one of the largest and most popular in the township. TOWNSHIt P HIIGTIWAYS. From the highway records of the township of Montcalm, it appears that previous to the organization of town 9, there were twenty surveys of roads in that town. The first four were as follows: May 27, 1845, a road com

Page  137 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I37 mencing at a post twenty chains east of section 33, and ending at the mill yard of Green & Company; Sqetember 9, I845, a road commencing at the quarter post on the south side of section 33, and ending at the quarter post on the west side of section 6; December 9, 1845, a road commencing at the northeast corner of section I6, and running eastward to the quarter post on the east side of section 13. June 25, I846, a road lying on a line between the towns of Montcalm and Courtland, commencing at the northwest corner of section 6, town 9 north, range 8 west, and ending at the southeast corner of section 31, town 9 north, range 8 west. On May 13, I850, the township of Eureka was divided into ten roaddistricts. District No. I included sections 7, 8, 17 and I8. No. 2 comlenced at the southwest corner of section I6, ran east to Flat river, up the river to the quarter section line on the east side of section 9; thence north on said line to the northeast corner of said section; thence south to the southwest corner of section 16, the place of beginning. No. 3 commenced at the quarter post on the north side of section 2, running south on the quarter line to the quarter post on the south side of section II; thence west on section line to the centre of Flat river; thence up the centre of Flat river to the west side of section TO; thence north to the northwest corner of section 3; theice east to the quarter post on the north side of section 2, to the place of beginning. No. 4 include(l sections 13 and I4, and all of 15 lying on the eastern side of bIlat river. No. 5 included the south half of section 25, the south half of 26, the whole of 27, the southeast quarter of 28, the east half of 33, the whole of 34, 35 and 36, and( lot No. 8 on section 22. No 6 includletl section I. the east half of 2, the east half of II, and the whole of 12. No. 7 included the southwest quarter of section 28, the south half of 29, the s(outh half of 30, the whole of 31 and 32, and the west half of 33. No. 8 comlmelnedl at the northwest corner of section 19, and ran eastward to the center of Flat river; thence down the river to the quarter line of section 27; thence west to the quarter post on the west side of section 30, thence north to the place of beginning. No. 9 included sections 4, 5 and 6. No. o1 commenced at the northeast corner of section 24, and ran west to Flat river; thence down said river to the quarter line of section 26; thence east to the quarter post on the east side of 25; thence north to the place of beginning. ORIGINAL LAND ENTRIES IN EUREKA. Section I-Henry Brayton, Peter Green, John Porter, Rufus K. Moors, Phite Monroe, Charles Hubbs, C. W. Butter. Section 2-Hiram Rossman,

Page  138 138 138 MO'NTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Gicor-'e Rossmnin FI ija ii 'ardcn, Hirani iRossnIian Ciiaries Hcilis, Lecvi Ni akiev Ihite Rosniinan NVilliam NN aikinaton. Section 3 1`ite Rossmnvin George Lonicks, Noa Ri obbins, Henry NfT Nloori Lewtois E Snmithi Jacob N%?. I'ettv. Section 4-Rtisseli (Green amd Denmciest Jans Kerr, Leowis EK. Siiith, Snirtli Millkr George Rossian.i Secntion 5 —Geotrge Kelies, Joseph b3roon rind John \ilcrioft NVi i liii Dc-otis, George Loucks andi I ite Rossan, Leii onar d Stew art. AI doard -Butler, Jicoh N Petty, Joiii 1). NYion. Gcor-e NY` P eck, NI artin ShIC rer. Secticii (3 11e.111 11. IOW 1111( Smi1th fRowlaidi Geor-e W'. icc1 Joirn D. NNilsoi Andrew I' ( rowell. John Ni. S-icidon, (eorec Green. Secction 7-\nios L Fay isHeInry Satteriec. Fri Satteriee, Fzira Satcrh c. Section 8-Nk'iliai in t ood 001james NMcti nley. George Kelieys Robert Shani I tiian Satterlect Scction g- I than Satterice,.Tosiah Riissels S. D)cnirest. Sectloii io lihiiles Hairrisoii hfenrv Ni. NMoore. Geor-e Naniness, xli NY) Pettyi Georg tiolnmden (Charles Sevniour, Janics GCa nt Anmos It- Russeli indi Alexainder N. Loomnis, Tra i I rter. Section 1 i-NVN nh mAi Holoindeii Chia rles Sceynour, Gun ge Iotilcks Jamies Grant, Richaird A. P orter, i-enrv N Nlooie Levi I Ni-kley FIvans NYiiiiins.,Sectioii 12-NfirS iPorter, Rutus i\. Ntloors, Ricihiid N IPorter. Section 3 —r Ire John iaid NWilliun All Porter, Lewis L. Johnsoii Secct'o 14 Tohn1 IPorter, Heiii AlN. NMoire, Levi IPcck, (corg ILoucks, Damiel NV. Toniinson, -uguistus NV' Niavnar-d. Sectioii i J-r iPIorter, Thomias (cciiI uiNYi ms Lmi V. Tmmliso Jo0SCIph C. L miicVs Sectioi i6-s I miii Loticks, I curs Ni. Moo sre, Thornas tGreeni Sriiitli mud Ntmoore. l ne s thaibi ieri iiii Lew is E'. Sniitii, Enos T. IPeck, Saminuci B. I cii Miannrug Rutan, George -intl F ristus Fisher. Saiiiiil It. iPeck Jaimes 1' C hanilierlain, Leonarii Conant, A. S. NWatson. Section G — (eorgc tlng I Siai -tteriee Alc\xiiiicr Scatterlec, W~illiaim Kitts, [ith mu Satterici. Seetion 18-N ormnii Saitterilee, N\/illiami II Floyd WilN\iaimi Stuvci Ahel Bill. Davis iii Pennock. Soloniun Satterlee. Sectioii 19 -1 iiocti Brown iiMadder IAlaconirler, Soluiriin Satterlec. George NV. 1Poil johii C. Stockholmi m iilv A. Shout, Fanny S. Rihlier, Abel Bill, Freenman Saitterlec, Wi lliamnu Stockes. Levi Mfacornher, CGordoin I. iieelutv, Samuuic N. Cairperter, Jitlii B. Iotter, Jofn C. Burgess. j1. NI. Fuller. Section 2o-Suimosori Sattei icc NW arreri (hapin, Aforton Shearer, loiuathaii Arnuoild Daeiil Fi-tzgeraldi Samuscel R-oad, Catherine Sa-tterice, "N]illiars Stokes Danmud II. Perkins, NNViiitney Juries, -Aileri D. Corey. Section 2i-Etuari Satterlee C. P. Bush irii C:. A. Jeiffreys. Section 22-Siias Saxten. Jeroi N-NVilson, James Grant, Daniel Benson, Moses Il. Hiss. Jessie A. Parker, George NV. 1Pcck. Section 23 -

Page  139 ATONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 139 Daniel lRansom. Jaimes Gratnt, Henry AM. 'Moore. Section 24-James T. TIailman, John R. I1 aliiiian john Porter, W~illiam H. Samnders, 1 D. and R. (7. Miller, \Vdiliann Wiells Saimuel Monroe. Section 2-NViilliam Wells, eoge Willson, J. Vaiim\ormncr, Leamler Cole IFrancis Crawxford. Stec ti0n 26 —Le-Tonard K_1_1pp Section 2-7-Isaac Yoning. Section 28-1 than Satterlee, James Grant, Alonsoni 1). Force. Section 29 '-iron G. Stockholm. Thomas Thav C irroii Weaixer, Ashael K. Cole, George 1 Caise, J. K. Sehoaiten, I. 'dxv in Ra-nnex Richard D. Benitlx Squire Cogswell. Section 30 —1ohn1 Pill, John R'ossman, IIoriee D. Plato, G. HT. Shons., Hoxve] Ashlx, Oscir '\L h-fill, John Rxossmin. \shlyx Osgooid. John Davis. \William S. Swxitzer, ja-cob Davixis, John Davxis LxyMa \V. Luscom, John House, LDaxvid Cruawfordi (Cha rkes 11a nsn Seetuoln i-John Rossman, E. E. Bchlin-u 0,;air 'l. Haill, Daninel 'F Stokes, Neroan Putnev, David Deani, I lenen Spaulding J. 1Fleteher, ANelussi NV. Smith. Jacob Crawxforil, 1Edxvard Jacksoni Se(t tioi 32-Lessis D. Rhodles, Wullmi- Slagt, Johii Ball, James Graiit, \ireit G Stockholuu 'Alleiu 'I'hoiripson, jarnes Kerr, N\athaniel Coons. Jamnes L B-1 Keurr Benja miii CaisiselI Secetion 33 ----Orpheiis Nelson, Edwvin A. I Tax'ilui, JoSiahl Ilrad'sh Hieniv Bfexonce Simon Root, Ezekiel Wood, Jaiiis L. B. Kerr Secliti(t 34-StePhex H. Varreii, R~osecrans Divine. NNestbrook Dix'iiie. Jesse hi htnex \Airon NVieaver, I-. W~arreni and R. Divin~e. Stephen H. Wa rreii james Grant. Section 35 —.Jtdm1 Riker, James Grant. Joseph Bailex, Jesse NN hitnex \lbici Vtrighi. Roscrans Divine, johnl NN'. Follas. james Cramt. Seection 16Atns rnhenx fl oore, Mortoii Shearer. ILcaiiler Cole, Adam I. hoof, James Grant, Ira Porter, Dax'id Burnet. Renil'll ~Vioodiril Aimos Josiaib WVilli am Russell.

Page  140 CHAPTER XI. EVERGREEN TOWNSHIP. IEvergreen township is one of the interior divisions of Montcalm county and is situated southeast from Stanton, the county seat. It is bounded on the north by Day township, on the east by Crystal, on the south by Bushnell and on the west by Sidney, and is (lesignatel on the government survey as township 10 north, range 6 west. At the regular session of the board of supervisors held on the first Tuesday in March, 1856, a petition was presented bearing the signatures of the following freeholders of the township of Bushnell: Ira Rider, S. Allchin. C. Allchin, E.:Allchin, Robert Bennett, W. Phinesey, Asa Griswold, James Griswold, \Moses T. Bennett, William Griffin, Lynman Stevens and F.. H. Stevens. These petitioners prayed that the honorable board divide said township of Bushnell and organize town Io north, range 6 wvest, into a separate township to be called Evergreen. IThis petition was dated on January T2, T856, and was ]ublished in the Montcalm Reflector, of Greenville. There were also the additional names of C. C. Bacon, Joseph Gallope, G. \W. Stevens, J. Stevens, C. G. Tyler, C. \V. Olmstead and Edwin Comstock on the original petition, which were not given in the Reflector notice. The petition for the erection of this township was presented to the boar(l of supervisors of the county by Ira Rider, at the time a representative from \Washtenaw county, though a resident of this township. As the name indicates, it was selected on account of the prevailing kinds of timber found in tllis section. ORIGINAI. LAND ENTRIES. The first purchases of lands in the township were made upon the various sections as here indicated: Section i-Henry Crapo, William Crapo, David Montross, Lorenzo D. Montross, Israel E. Richardson, Aaron Clark. Section 2-I'hilip H. Martz, Henry H. Crapo. Robert Gregory, Sncel C. Hinds, Emily J. Hinds. Section 3-Ambrose I.. Soule, Henry H. Crapo, John \V. Abbott, Emily J.

Page  141 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 141 Hinds, Henry J. Kingsbury, Levi Harrod, I)avid Curtis, Elisha L. Hill. Section 4 —Ambrose T.. Soule, John Walters, Alfred Richardson. Section 5-P.H. Chatpin, Ambrose L. Soule, Frederick Hall. Section 6-Ambrose Soule, Frederick Hall. Section 7-Charles Bean, Ambrose IL. Soule, Frederick Hall, Benjamin Fowle, William Paterson. Section 8-Charles Bean, Ambrose I.. Soule, Eastrran Colby, Horatio Peck, Philander Bennett, Richarld M\organ, Sylvester Spencer, William Boyer. Section 9 -Ambrose L. Soule, Frederick Hall, Alfred Richardson, John Walters, E. I,. I;razer, P. R. Hiowe, G. R. Isham, Samuel Besseguie. Section Io-P. R. Howe, George B. Isham, Henry H. Crapo, John Wilkinson, Charles A. Cook, Louisa E. Richardson, Emily J. Hinds, Jerry Buckley, Henry Kingsbury, James Case, David Carter, Elish L. Hill. Section II- Philip H. Martz, Henry HI. Crapo, William H. Corbin, Charles A. Cook, Orlando Goolthite, Jacob 13. Smith, \'illianim H. Whipple. Section I2-Oliver H. P. Goodwin, Joseph McCurdy, William S. Bills, iF. M. Hinds, William Cramer. Section 3 -Frederick Hall, Stephen F. Page, Oliver H. F. Goodwin, David G. Hoag. Lorenzo D. Smith, Chancey Case, William H. Whipple. Section 14 Frederick Hall, I'. H. Martz, Samuel Greenhoc, Orlando Goolthite, 'William Whlipple. Section 15-Stephen F. Page, David D. Hoag, Henry I. Crapo, Frederick Hall, John Wilkinson, Ezra Burgess, I.evi Flarbell. Section 6- Albert Van Vleck, Easltman Colby. Section 17 -Jay Olmstead, Charles Bean, Charles Merrill, Ambrose I. Soule, David R. Chandler, Coolby & Company. Section I8-Charles Merrill, Charles Blean, Colby & Comllpanyss, Thomas Patterson, Ralph (ollingwood, Isaac T. Baker. Section 19-Charles Merrill, Charles Bean, Jeremiah D. Gleason, I.. B. Townsen, Jane Rodgers, Joseph D. Burgess, Margaret Decker. Section 2o-Jay Olmstead, (Charles Bean, Wallace Gleason. Section 2I-Fitz Robinson, Stephen Robinson, Jay Olmstead, John T. Sherman, Stephen Page, Marv E. Chase. Section 22-Jay Olmnstead, Joseph Scott, Ambrose L. Soule, Stephen F. Page, H. F. Deal, O. WV. Holly, John Wolverton, C. C. Darling, Joseph Hanchett, A.' C. Hanchett. Section 23-Frederick Hall, Peter Carr, Joseph Begole, Joshua Begole, L. B. Jennings, Gilbert Stover, John P. Place, Benjamin Soule, William Blake, S. P. Loomis, W. R. White, M. Greenhoe. Section 24-Aaron Brown, Persis Robinson, John M. Phelps, Jeremiah Van Nest, Frederick Hall, Benjamin Soule, Daniel Morton. Section 25-Daniel Morton, Jacob Fake, Charles Rawlson, Ira Lothrop, Louis S. Lovell, Charles Merrill. Section 26-Louis S. Lovell; Christopher Rice, Christopher Greenhoe, Charles Conklin, H. N. Jenks,

Page  142 142 142 MONTCAILM COUNTY, AMiCil11AN. XXVilliarii XMorgan, XX'illiani R. Evans, John ArntzL Hanipton Rich. Section 27-Einan Riplex, rnhrose L Soule, Henvry Arntz, George F. (Case Sanltordl North, C.hristopher Greenhoc, X nson Darling, Daxvii Flaill XX illiani Scott,.:lhcert X -in X kIck, XWilliamiF E. B1 on0II iniilton Rxich. Sec~tioii '8 -fax Olnsstac.l\nmhrosc Soule, John li. Utter, Chlarles Riclvardson, ISaaC Alcen George 1' ( isv Vinlson Darlowg Section 29) fa} Olnmstead, Willan T hoimpson, Stepheic FI Paiec X\'cilliains hilnesex, Frclerick Haill, John B. t ttei. Robert Bennett. Section 30 F' hiartes Mferrill IUredlerick Hall, WXillia on II XX aterliouse, Er-stti F) Broo\n ii\ltfredl C' Mitchell. XXilliani Good.xvin. C C. Darlin- IlTenrx XX. LewxisX Nilbiano Eiton, I dnioiid. Hall. Section 3i- Edowin Xlerrificbld Joseph P. Powell, Jcrteniah D. (lac son. Frederick lhall, I honas BxVxxater, Da rxxin 'Cxlevelnd, Irastiis PF 1 row-n, C. C. IDarlin- Gilbert ( ook. SectOoi F 3 I' ri-stUS P. browxx WsXilliam Tlillotson, Frederick Ha ll PRicharil Derrick, Thonvis Bxvxx iter Horace ('aswee11, Thoimas I IPost. Sec tioii 33-XXWi-mial A-Xl i, in, I. Hall, R. D. Sniith. Al fredl V. Roosa iThioiia s Bennett, WV FI D)rke, John T- Xlorrisonl, Thaclens Ilhickok, Abel Bvxxxater. Section 34-XXilliaim F. Dr ikc XXVilliami?vbor1an, Thadeus Hlickok, XX illi ilii Caiiterinlri Kinnex, Oscar TI mCOtt. Xlhicrt \Van X leek, Silis 1) Looiiiis E. XI. Davxis. Section 3.-Naithaniel S. Bientons, Louiis S. Loxvel XXVilliano Stoiic Naithaniel Bcntoii Hiiriii Duiii, Sylvester X\rntz, Thoioas Dickinson, John 'i\cler, Silas P. Looiiis. Section 36-John XVT. IProsser, Joinaithain McE.Irov, 'Mortiioer Gillco. Hugh Callaian, TLoiis S. Loxvell, Aiubrose I, Sonle. FAii Y 5TTi.FMJSNTS. The settleieiit of Evergreen begaii piroperly in I 848, sv-ieii a sax-inill xxas coniiienced il i section -i- It is -isserteid that the land npon xvhich it stoodi xxas entered by Fite Rossai, aonch that he xxas the prime mooser inl the enterprise. Althonghi lie iiax have been connecteil axith the Imill lie entered iio land, anld his di()iiiiectiOni withi the coiopanv at mos)t xvas of short dnratioii. Elvei liefore this, and Nicars after, hie is remem-bered to have taken cattle to the rush beds of Gratiot countv to xwinter and from this Jay Olostead hecanme connected xsitli the nill lproperty as early as i849, and eiiplovecl a iiaii iiamedl Patrick to oversee it and his xxife to keel) the boardlug house, sehich was the first dwvelling house erected inl the towiushiip. At onle time, xwhile lookinig for cattle, Patrick became belatedi in the xxoochs. AZes night caioe on the distant howeling of xxolves gradually canie nearer, and iucreased unitil lie xvas assare that lie xvas hieing surrounded. As it became

Page  143 MONTCAIM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I43 lmore difficult to pick his way homeward, he could see them crossing and recrossing his way in front, while a hungry pack were steadily coming nearer behind. Deeming, in view of these circumstances, discretion the Ietter part of valor, he took to a tree, and through the night listened to the chorus of their voices. \With the first break of day they dispersed, and he returned home, muich to the relief of his wife, who had watched for his coming all night andl had been similarly entertained. This family soon after left the mill, and \\William Castel was employed. The mill next calme into the possession of Ira lRyder, in 1854, who became (lne of ltvergreen's most l)roniinent citizens, and who owned it during the settlement of the most of this part of the county. He brought a wife and three children to the towvnshil. On the 21st of October, I854, \\illiam Morgan and his brother-in-law, R. D. Smith, came in and found employment at the mill referred to. They worked here and at other mills until September, S55. w\hen \illiani Morgan entered the east half of the northwest (luarter of scction 32. He built a cabin here, but owing to a mistake in the (lescription or minutes of his land, lost his claim and improvements the following sl)ring. He at once entered another piece, upoll which he lived for a long time. P. I). Smith returned to the township and remalinel( until entering the Union army. The next settler \was Robert Bennett, who settled on the southeast luarter of the southwest qluarter of section 29, and built his cabin in September. 1855. His house was the second built in the township aside from those at the mills. He did not bring his family from his former home iln orthplain until the following spring. In the winter of I855-56 William Phinesev, from Orange, lonia county, caine in and built a small "shingle shanty" on land adjoining Mr. BIennett. to which he brought his family the follohwing spring. He was a soldier of the Mlexican \Var and also of the Rebellion. FIRST T.\XPAYER. The township was regularly organized in the spring of I856, and the first assessment roll bears only the following names: Ira Ryder, William Phinesey, Amos Setter, Robert Bennett, William Morgan. During the summiner several new settlers reached the township, anong whoml were Joselph Allen and two sons, Zene and Samuel, who located in section 28. He remained in Evergreen about fourteen years, when he disposed of his property andl went to Bloomer.

Page  144 144 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. In September, Mortimer Gilleo, from New York, came in and settled on section 36. Hugh Callahan settled on the same section a little later. William Thompson moved fron Northplain, where with his family, he had resided a number of years. 1lis wife died on the way from England and was buried at sea. His family consisted of five children, four of whom were (laughters. They settled near Phinesey lake, on the farm later owned by George flolland. \Villiam Tlhompson (lied in I862, and his remains were the first interred in the cemetery on section 32. This ceinetery was laid out on land owned 1y A\ugustus Derrick, from whom it was purchased by the township for twenty-five dollars. This sum was raised by direct taxation, andl the condition upon which the vote passed and mentioned in tle deed was that any resident of the township should have the privilege of selecting a lot when nee(dcl for burial purposes. Augustus Derrick and his two sons came in I856, and settled on section 32, where they resided a number of years. They subsequently moved to Muir. About this time 'hilemon Hoisington, Joel Washburn and George F. Case became residlets. The latter engaged in lumbering. John Arntz settled in Bushnell in 1857, He had been a soldier of 1812, in the Pennsylvania \olunteers, under (:aptain Culverson, and stood guard over the magazine at Baltimore for forty-eight hours in succession during the campaign there. In common with the soldiers of tlat war he received a land warrant, with which he, in company with four sons, sought the frontier and located land on section 2, as before stated. In the War of I86I-65 his sons, John and Henry, took part. Sylvester Arntz, another of the four, came to Elvergreen and purchased land of William Stone on section 35. George Holland, a native of England, and formerly engaged in the mercantile business in Toronto, came to Evergreen for his health and engagel in the lumber business. Evergreen did not escale the windfall of 1855 nor the frosts and fire of I856. The consequent suffering which nearly depopulated other townships was experienced here in all its severity. True, these times are not now often referred to, for those who endured the toil and privations have all passed away. The fire swept through the township and, ere checked by the rains and snows of winter, destroyed nearly all the improvements of the settlers. The frosts of August left them without provisions for present wants, and without means to procure, even when possible, sustenance for themselves and cattle. Many families at once left the country, others had invested all their means in land and the necessary farming implements

Page  145 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICIIIGAN. I45 and were compelled to remain. The wild hay and underbrush, upon which the cattle heretofore had wintered, was burned, and as a consequence the stock nearly all perished during the winter. Month after month wore away; provisions were very (lear, a farm could not be mortgaged for sufficient to sustain a family a month. In mnany households cornmeal and water *was the only food for mnany weeks, until at last the state voted aid, and the suffering was relieved. At this time Sylvester Arntz who still resides on his farnl in the township went to Ohio, south of Toledo, and collected a siimall debt due his father, walking the entire distance both ways. Ior several years lonia, Palo and Greenville were the places patronized by the inhlabitants of Evergreen. \Vhcn the mills and stores were built at A.isden, that )lace being nearer, received consideralle trade. The first store in the townshil was the one opened in Sheridan by Jonathan Forbes. The first blacksmith shop, and the only one for many years in Evergreen, was that of \Villian Bells, who settled on the shore of Loon lake in an early dlay. The first sermon preached in the township was by Elder John Van \lcck, of the Baptist church, at the home of Robert Bennett. He was followed bly Ellder Randall, who preached in the school house. This society did not then form a church. The Methodist Episcopal church organized a class a number of years afterward. Ellder Swim being on the circuit, but it continued only a short time. SHE IIDAN. Sheridan is located at the conjunction of four townships, Evergreen, Sidney, Bushnell and Iairplain. It lies on both sides of the state road which separates Evergreen and Sidney townships. It was incorporated by the Legislature on Malrch 30, 1877. lie population of the village in g9Io was 436, an increase of 58 since 1904. In 1904, the date of the last official state census in Michigan. the population of 378 consisted of i91 males and 187 females; also, there were 362 native-born citizens and i6 foreign born. The ratio of foreign born and native born population probably does not differ much today from the ratio in I904. The first saw-mill in Sheridan was built and run by John Winsor, and it stood on the east shore of Bass, now Pearl lake. After a number of year this mill was destroyed by fire and Mr. Winsor then built another (to)

Page  146 146 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. mill, which he sold to Hamn Stanton. A company subsequently was formed by Mr. \Vinsor and Charles and George Stanton. The first was afterwards dissolved and the mill purchased by D. T. Fargo. E. P. Brown, in the meantime, had built a shingle-mill and sometime after the erection of the shingle-mill, a saw-mill. With the decline of the lumber industry, thle milling business at Sheridan disappeared. The first dry-goods store at Sheridan was opened in 1864 by Jonathan Forbes in a little room in the wing of his dwelling, which was the first frame dwelling in Sheridan. Mr. Forbes was appointed postimaster and was the first citizen of the village to hold this position. Tie was succeeded in 1864 by Erastus P. Brown, who was appointed to the place on October 14, of that year. Charles H. Stanton succeedel Brown on August To, T869, and Edgar A. Clarke, July 24, 1874. Stanton was again appointed August 20, 1874, and served until March 19, I877, when John S. Mlanning was appointed. Clifton H. Clement, who is one of the pioneers of the comlmunity and is still living at Sheridan, is one of the few Democrats before the present national admlinistration, who has served as postmaster of the village. He was postmaster lduring Cleveland's second administration. George Holland is also a former postlimaster of the village. Some time after Jonathaln Forbes opened his store at Sheridan, he enlargedl his house for the accollmmodlation of travelers. but afterwards sold it to Mr. Keene, who( enlargedl it further andl called it the Keene House. This was the first hotel in the \illage. In the meantime, Lymanl Smith, who owned tle ground where the princil>al part of the village now stands, had legtlu the sale of lots. which was vers rapid. The business interests of the town developed rapidly. Tlie Keene House eventually cane to be called the Keen Exchange, but it has longi since been abandoned. For a number of years John Dolan conducted the Hotel Dolan, at Sheridan. The Hotel Dolan was, prior to ilie timie Mr. Dolan obtained possession of it, the Davis House land during that period was owned by \V. B. Davis. There are two hotels in Sheridan at the present time, the Central hotel, operated by T. C. Hloughtaling, and the Shericldan otel, operated by E. A. Rutherford. Frank W\ilson, lwho ran tle tHotel W\ilson, is still living at Sheridan. After Mr. Forbes' store, another store was opened in the building later owned by Lewis, who kept a hardware store in it. It was kept lby 0. S. Stebbins, who also served as one of the postmasters of the village. \V. B. Stone, another early citizen of Sheridan, operated a store, shingle-mill and sanw-mill for some years.

Page  147 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I47 (eorge \'. Stanton, whose death occurred about 1905, was a prominent lumberman and farmer of Sheridan during his life. Dan T. Fargo, who was a lumberman and saw-mill operator, died abott eight years ago. John XW. Prestel, who was in the lumber business at Sheridan, and an extensive mill operator, died in December, 1914, at Payette, Idaho, and is buried there. E. J. Barkham and Jesse Summers operated a grist-mill at Sheridan for a long period, Summers (lied in I905 and Barkham is still living at Sheridan. The grist-mill was torn down when the new elevator was built, in I915. C. H. Clement, who ran an elevator at Sheridan for some time, sold the elevator of E. A. Rutherford on August 14, 1910, and this elevator burned in 1915. Mr. Rutherford rebuilt on the same site with the old gristmill, w-hich lhe had purchased. Mr. Clement, who is a native of New York state, and a veteran of the Seventeenth Regiment, Michigan Volunteer Infantrv, camne to Sheridan in 1883, and for a long time conducted a general mercantile store. He sold out to the J. G. Cutler & Company, March 27, I905. J. P. Conlecy, who was in the elevator and produce business at Sheridanl for many years, died at Seattle, Washington, in I908, after he had gone there to regain his health. The elevator which Mr. Clement sold to E. A. Rutherfordl as purchasel by Mr. Clement from Mr. Conley. Milford Gray, another of the early merchants of Sheridan, moved to Alma and (lied there about 1895. Andrew A. Greenhoe, who was also in the mercantile business at Sheridaln Imany years, (lied there in 1907. The present business people of Sheridan are as follow: R. E. Lower, J. G. Cutler Company and C. P. eddick, general merchandise; A. E. StebIins, furniture lad undertaking. Mr. Leddick is also the present postmaster; A.. Stebbins, jewelry, cigars and tobacco; A. M. Russell, hardware; W. TT. Wood, druggist; A. E. Davis, groceries; S. E. Almack, groceries and notions; E. E. 'Yhayer, confectionery; I.. A. Rutherford, hotel, livery and elevator; T. C. Honghtaling, hotel; Genette Ford, millinery; Frank Sebring and Robert -arr-igan, barbers; Sike Pitcher, pool room; F. M. Wycoff, produce; Eugene Rich and N. C. Caratensen, blacksmiths; R. A. Fuller, meats; J. C. Gallagher, motion picture show; George Edwards, coal, and E. E. Stoddard, editor and publisher of the Sheridan Advertiser. The Sheridan fire department, which is a volunteer organization, has an equipment consisting of a hose cart and ladders. The main streets are well kept and the sidewalks are made of cement. The village is electrically lighted. There are no industries of any great proportions in Sheridan, though Albert McGuire & Company have a salting station in the village. I'racticing physicians at Sheridan include Drs. L. E. Bracey and W. E.

Page  148 148 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Lee. Dr. Ed Perkins is a veterinary surgeon. Dr. R. H. Blaisclell and Dr. S. M. Gleason were two of the early physicians of the village, but both are now deceased. Wesley Stearns and Harnion \\. Tavlor have both filled county offices. The former resides near Sheridan on a farm. HTe served two terms as treasurer of MAontcalm county. The latter served one term as county clerk. Ephraim Follett, school teacher and lawyer, who came from Bellevue to Sheridan and who (lied at Sheridan a few years ago, at an advanced age. was a well-known and prominent citizen. The present officials of the village of Sheridan include Elmer E. Stod; dard, president of the village; Bert Crawford, clerk; Edward Greenhoe. treasurer, and Watson Courter, assessor. The trustees of the village are E. A. Rutherford, William Rassmussen, George Iitdwards, Ed Holmes, Zary Greenhoe and liram Taylor. A. 'E'. Stebbins is the lpresent postmaster. FIS IVILLE. Fishville is a small hamlet located in the central part of section 14. At one time a saw-mill was located here, which was the beginning of a settlement in this place. A store was also kept for the convenience of the mill hands. The present store in Fishville is owned by Robert Evans, and as there is no other store in the townlship closer than Sheridan and Stanton, Mr. Evans carries on a good country trade. A huckster wagon is also run from Fishville over a scheduled( route for the convenience of the country people.

Page  149 CHAPTER XII. FAIRPLAIN TOWNSHIP. Fairplaini was the second township established inl Montcalm county and the initial step for the organization of this township was taken before the official organization of the county was made. The petition for the erection of this to\wnshilp wals drawn in the fall of I849 and lpresented to the Legislature and it was properly acted utpon and duly erected on March 28, 1850, and the first election was called on the first Monday inl April, I850. The inletings \\hich were he!l for the steps towards organizing this township aiil selectilng a suitable name present a rather humorous side and are here related )by one of the early settlers:."The inhabitants of this territory met in the fall of 1849 for the purplose of selecting a name, preparatory to being organized into a new township the following spring. As is usual in such iieetillgs there was a multiplicitv of lnames, and, as usual also, every one thought his name the most appropriate. A committee was appointed, however, to draw uip a pettition, and signers to it were secured whereby the Legislatutre was prayed to set off town ) north, range 7 west, as the 'Township of Rilggold.' It was intended wvhen the name was proposed to name it after Major Ringgoldl wh\ose bravery in the Mexican War was still fresh in the minds of the people. But the coimittee, intentionally or otherwise, omitted one 'g' in order to gain time.:As a motion would then be necessary to change the namlie, at a subsequent meeting, this motion was passed, but the chairlman of the colmmittee, Nelson Cole, by the advice of several parties, amoniig w\hom was John Hamilton, instead of inserting the missing letter, inserted the niame Fairplain. The petition was forwarded, and in due time, to the astonishlment of every one, and the chagrin of those petitioners who wanted the 1name of Ringgold, the towntship of Fairplain was erected." Fairplain is situated in the southern part of Montcalm county and is bounded on the north by Sidney township, on the south by Tonia county, on the east hv Bushnell township and on the west by Eureka. It originally consisted of timbered tracts on the northern, eastern and southern portion, while the plains, rendered almost circular by the general direction of Dickinson creek, consist of the most fertile and productive oak openings. Since

Page  150 I5o MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. the timber has been removed this elltire area has been turned into an agricultural community and the entire section of land rivals any in the county. These farms are among the fairest and most fertile tracts in the state. This is evinced by the high state of cultivation under which the farms are at present, the good public buildings and the comfortable homes. Dickinson creek is the only stream of any importance in this township. It enters the township from the west of section 6, and meandering east. south and west, leaves the township near the southwest corner. A small stream enters the township from Sidney and unites with Dickinson creek. These streams furnish excellent natural drainage for the township and also served the early pioneers in water power to run the early mills. ORIGINAL LAND ENTRIES. Those who purchased from the general government lands situated in this township are shown in the following list. MAany did not become settlers, others (lid, but remained only for a brief period, while among others are the names of some of the most respected citizens of the township at the present time. Section I-Chester Coates, Alanson R. Cornell, L.evi Grainard, Spencer Skeels, Erastus 1P. Brown, 1 Ihdmond Hall. Section 2-1Erastus P. Browsn, Merritt Wade, Valancourt Northrup, Norman Hamilton, Daniel I. Welch, lnlmanuel Royer, David Fordl Davi(l M. Hickok, Peter Thompson. Section 3-E. Hall, John Snow, Clayburn Harris, George WV. Gregory, R. Helton, David Balde, Lydia B. Taylor, Joel and William Hall, Frederick Hall, David l;ord. Section 4-Joseph C. Bailey, John W. Anderson, E. B. Burrington. John Porter, O()smond Tower, I lenry 1. Brayton. Section 5-IHenry F. Brayton, Joel and \Xilliaim Hall, Thomas Seeley, Charles 0. Reed, Daniel R. Hartwell, Myron Laverty, Daniel Tomilinson. Section 6-John S. Willson, Betsey W\illson, James Grant, Charles 0. Reed, R. Hilton, C. B. White. 'Wesley Smaggard. Section 7-\Villiamn M. Porter, George I oucks, Norman Hamilton, EI. H. Sherwood, David \Wilson, F. Rossman, Benoni Bentley, John S. Wilson. Section 8-Myron Laverty, David R. Ilartwell, Dewitt C. Chapin, David Morris, Francis K. Getter, James B. St. John, Miner Porter, James Porter. Section 9-Mathias Smith, James Grant, Philo Townsend, Henry Holford, Henry M. Moore, Abel Avery, George Mathews, F. B. Peck. Section Io-George Mathews, Asa Houghton, Osmnond Tower, Frederick Hall, Enos T. Peck, Aaron A. Dudley, E. B. Barrington, Daniel Austin, David Balde. Section I i-David Balde, Aaron AM. Gaylord, Martin

Page  151 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I5I lollett, T. G. Amnsden, Simon E. Allen, Abijah Noyes, Erastus P. Brown, Nathan Johnson, C. 1E. Shephard, William R. Bates, Isaac Throop. Section T2 —Cllancey Beckwith, Aaron M. Gaylord, John Shilling, Thomas Patterson, (Calvin Palmer, Thomas Cornell, Walter II. Wright, David Balde, Hiram Hathaway. Section 13-Chancey Beckwith, Aaron M. Gaylord, John Shilling, James Gould. John A. Rashhbuck, David Balde, Henry H. Scoville, Moses Ml Il. [ull, onzo Hubbell, John Shilling, Henry 1olford, -umiinphrcy I lolford, Charlotte MI. Gould. Section 14-Abel Avery, Louis Smith, Isaac B. Cadwell, Alonzo I!ubbell. David Balde, John W. Balde. Section T5-i-\sa T Houghton, E. B. Harrington, Frederick Hall, Orin Chapin. Caleb Huffin, Edward G. Decker, Freeman A. Decker, Zimri Moon, Henry Holford, Tyler M. Burley, "l>enezer Salyer, Gerard Willson. Section I6 -Josiah IBradish, John N. Voorhies, John Lindell, David Barncs, William M. Shepard, N. J. Shepard, Matry:\nn Rose, l)avid Balde, Josiah Bradish. Section T7-John 1'. lKnappl, i_)arius A. \Wilmarth, Tra Porter, Christopher (ornmis, Richard Porter. Section T8 —James 'orter, Minor Porter, Tra Porter, Dewitt (. Chapin. Section 19 —D)aniel W. Tomlinson, William Kitts, Sarah Case, George \,V. Sherwood, Ira 'orter. Section 20-Ira Porter, Caleb Knitfin. Richard Porter, Sarah Case, Richard Tom, Adam Roof. Section 2T —Adam T.. Roof, Samuel I'. Youngman, Ebenezer Salycr, Ira Porter, Luther R. Jenks, Jamnes (rant, Freeman A. Decker, Edward G. Decker. Section 22 —John F. Wyman, Caleb Kniffin, J. Willson, Marietta Clark, Joln Patrick. Section 23 —Erastus Brown, George Mathews, George \T. I'aul, Syl\vanus Weed, I)hilo Beers, Joseph P. Powell, Miles Porter, Charles Chambers, Charles Bisby, Seth C. Barnes, John H. Child. Section 24-William P. Johnson, Edward (Cheny, Edward Decker, William IT. Hall, Thomas l'atterson, Calvin Palner, Thomas Brown, William F. Goff, William H. Leman, Stephen Brown. Section 25-William H. Linfield, David J. Gleason, George B. Fuller. Daniel B. Tillbbar(, Thomas J. Blackwell, W. H- Rumsey, David Gristwood, Mathew Gore, Simon Gristwood, Moses Bennett. Section 26-C. Shepard, D. Bald, Charles Chambers, Charles Bisby, John C. Ball, Joseph B. Powell, Hiram Clark, Ald Avery, Norman J. Shepard, Hiram Bristol, Sally Harrington, Clarence Gavitt. Section 27-James J. Breese, H1iram Bristol, Ira 'orter, Cyrus Lovell, Joseph P. Powell, Joseph C. Bailey, James Grant, George Mathews. Section 28-James Grant, Gerard Willson, John F. Wyman, Joseph C. Bailey, Samuel P. Youngman. Section 29-Samuel P. Youngman, James Grant, Daniel W. Tomlinson, Charles Grant, Samuel Dowley, Sarah J. Noyes, I.ewis E. Smith. Section 30 -

Page  152 1-2 3 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Francis Craixvford, Williaml Kitts, lra Porter. Section 31-WX'illian Wells, Richaril D e, F rederick Hall, John Almys Thloma's C ornell, Alexander \. Loonmis, Jra Porter, Willianm Meguiernon. Sectionl ()0 Soolth, \k" Tomopkins, haics Ml Kidd, Ira, Porter, Cklarence (Gavitt, Joseph (. 13lok Charles A. Smith, -lostwich Leech, Jesse I eech J. I- I el Section 33 -Chiarles Aleliiii 0) Smsithi, George D~avis, IHlioy \cGlockiine Ira 0] )ds George WI. Paul1 Section 34-Sanliiel Kiog, George \VX Patil, Johni I) Salker, Louis Sn~ithi Noirian G. Cornell, AhlI Averks WXilliami J. IFace, Sally H-arringtion Sectioii 3,5 David S. Jeiiks, Johii kiioxIon, Abel Xxverv X'Villiami Osterai iltX Wilia m M. Clark. Spencer (lessvitt, Jiisepli 1) Powelli Section 36-Solonion Bacon, Sanluiel C. Aldermian, Ora B. Stiles, Hawley \\hite, Lo1Cioda1 SCIIlanilling., Rosalier Coimstock, JoeI Soiiule. ciii:E TiA.iT~N F~iriv In tile iiooth of April, i8(4, lteiijilii IHaimiltoii, assisted hy hIls soil, olni IHamilton, set out fromi L~vons with live yoke of oxen and three wagons. loaded with the famiiilies a-nd hoiiseholil goods of X\Tilliaiii Haioilton ailotiler soil ) and G..'eor-ge Gihson lioth mlarriedl, the laetter having a large family of childreii. Previouis to thiis time they lad sisiteid tile tmviishili, and it is not strangye tiiev were deligilted withl thle heaiitiful plaIns whlich afterwvards gave thle liiwiisiiip its Ilamle. AX;large tract of laiii had heen eiitered hi Ira ID. Porter, a lawyer iii Ionia aiii conniecteid with thle laiod office inl that pslace. TCo hiiii they applied loll purchiaseil, Gihson linying the south ilalf of tile siiuthleast (Iliarter of section i8, aiid I laioiltoii takiiig tue west half if the sout hwest qtuarter of sectionl 17. These lands were boughit oil par payilci-t, abood hbin- given for tile bialance to lie lpaidl in three years. A ter porchasiog the land the twio mcii iaisei tile body if a lug hiouise iear tile sioutliwest ciirner iif I Iuiiiiltoi's lanid. Theii they, retiirneid tii L yons. \Vlien the piarty beoire spiokein iif reacihel~d dyle the road tertniinated, and froni tllis place thseir jounies wkas sliiw anid wearisonie. During the last lay if their journey the rain piouireid dowvii aliiiist incessantly, arii tue enitire Plartv. dreinchedi aiid iincomlfortabile. tile imiei wading aloing tllriotgl the andl( 10(1 slush of April, tue \soin~en anil chillrenl shuiveriing iii the wagons, reached tile boidy of the hiuiise before referreil to iii tile miididle of the afternoon. Tile house was svithout a roof, floor, idoor, wviiicow or fireplace, laidc the hare log~s proniisedl little silelter froni the inlclemncely of the wveather. It was a gloioimy prospect for tue svhole party, and a co~ld anic cheerless one fur the

Page  153 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 153 \omen and children. But while some were engaged in taking the wagon boxes apart and placing the boards in one end of the cabin-if such it may lbe called-as a shelter for them, Mr. Hamilton succeeded in building a large fire in the middle of the cabin. IHe watched it all night, adding fuel when necessary. T'he next morning being clear, a team was dispatched to get a load of lumber, which had been brought to the township by a man who hadl purclased a part of the lorthwest quarter of section 19. This man had purchased this land intending to build a house, marry and bring his young wife to lairplain. But being aware, it seems, of the uncertainty of matrimonial bonds, he concluded to marry first and build a house afterward. His misgivings seem to have bleen well founded, for his wife refused to become a pioneer. Hle therefore disposed of this lumber, which furnished neans to partly cover the cabin of \Villiam 1Hamilton. The lumlber to complete it was brought from Kidd's mill, which had( been in operation but a short time. This was the first dwelling built by a settler in the township. The two families lived in the cabin and the men generally worked together. 'Ihey cleared and broke 11p a snall piece of groutnl for a garden, and later planted a small lot to corn. The garden yielded abundantly, but an early frost killed the corn, which was not vet mature, hlaviig been planted late in the season. The same summer (1844) Silas \\:ard, who had entered the west half of the northwest quarter of section 21, came in and hoarded with then while he prepared a considerable tract, which he sowed to wheat in the fall, but, not being fenced, was entirely destroyed tile next spring by the deer, whicli sometimes in herds roamed over the plains. Tlie land at this time sowed to wheat was later owned by N. Johnson, and his buildings stood w\here the first wheat grew in Fairplain township. In the spring of 1845, George Gibson built a cabin on his land and nmoved his famils into it. This cabin wais the second built in the township. Mr. Gilbson (lied in T851. His wife subsequently move(l to Lyons where she (lied. Hiram;lad Richard were the last nemtbers of the family living who came to this township with their parents. William Hamilton remained but three years, when he removed to Orleans, Ionia county. His brother, John Hamilton, who had been to the township several times since the eventful night of the first settlement, came in the month of March, 1845, with a wife and four children. intending to remain permanently. He occupied the same house with his brother. The Hamiltons subsequently sold their claim to this land to T. M. Burley, who came in 1846. The barn built was the

Page  154 I54 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. first frame barn in the township. John -Hamilton and his wife later lived on the south part of section 7, and were the oldest residents of the township,;it the time of their death. The next settler was Jerry lialford, who, with his family, came in 1845, and settled on land later owned by J. I'. Shoemaker, and (lescribed as the north half of the northwest quarter of section 15. ITalford built a small cabin a(nd improved the land aroun(l it. JOSE IPH DIECKE IR, PIONIl.R. The samne 'year Joseplh Decker and his sons, Oliver and Freeman, who were married, and Edlward and Jesse, single meni, reached the township. They settled on the northeast quarter of section 21. Oliver and Freeman, vith their families, occupiled a house which stood near the house of P. Barnes, while the other family dwelt in a house near the site occupied by the house of Charles Barnes. In the month of June, I846, a daughter, the wife of Samuel Johnson, wlio came \vith them, died, and was buried near the line bet\ween the father anid sons aind about forty rods from the road. It is believed her remains were after\ard removed. This was the first death in Fairplain. Of tl-is family, Oliver resided in Orleans, lonia county, for a tnlumber of years. William Porter, who settled near the town line, and on sectiol 7, whose brothers settled in.lEurela, came in among the first in the western part of the tow\nship. \ part of this landl subsequently came into the possession of.\. J. Russell, vwhose father, at a very early day, was connected w-ith the building of the first mill il Greenville. He sold his interest in this, and then caine to Fairplain and bought large tracts of land, but the family remained only a few years. From 1845 to 185( there was a continual inflow of people until the greater )art of the fertile pllains became perianlently settled. Tyler M. Burley and his brother, Myron, came in in the sl)ring of I856, and purchased their interest in the (luarter Ul)on which they settled. Myron Burley Ilarried Alice Wilcox. This was one of the first weddings in Montcalml county. Mr. Burley went to California during the gold excitement of 1849 and died there. His widowv subsequently married and lived in Grand Rapids. In the same spring Roswell Dudley came and settled, with his wife and family, on the south half of the southwest quarter of section 15. Of his three children none now remain in the township. The following summel r Mrs. Betsy Wilson, a widow with a large family of children, four of whom were boys, lanled respectively David, John,

Page  155 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I55 Thomas and Willialm, came and entered the west half of the northwest quarter of section 8, while her son John and son-in-law, Myron Lavery, entered the south half of the southeast quarter of the same section which was later owned )y Jamnes Griffith, who came in and settled in I859. Mrs. WVilson remained until the spring of I88o, when she went to Red Cloud, Nebraska, with her sons. (aleb IKniffen also came into the township in I859 from Macomb county, Michigan, and settled on land later owned by John Rasmussen. Kniffen reared a large family of children. It is thoulght that Joel Saunders and William Weed also came that year. Saunders bought a half section, while Weed settled on section 7. After the cleath of his wife lie moved with the remainder of his family to Ionia county. Coisl)iciuouls amlong the names of those who came the following year are Ebenezer Salver and George I.unn. The latter was from England. His voyage to this country in an old sailing craft which was condenmed on its return to England as unlseaworthv w-as fraught with dangers now unknown on the sea. The trip, owing to the contrary winds, lasted thirteen weeks. I.1m1 arrived in Detroit eighty-five years ago, in I83o. It was then a promising village of as few hundred inhabitants. The streets were almost impassable and the little log shanties of the French and Indians presented a sorry spectacle. Tie remained in \Vayne county for a time, anl subsequently in Macomib and Oakland counties, where he purchased a farm, and in course (f time exchanged it with William Taliim, who owned the south half of the southeast quarter of section 20. \Vith his wife and family, Mr. Lunn reached Fairpla:in township on the 8th of June. i847. Soon after, being an authorized local preacher of the Methodist Episcopal church, he organized and conducted thle services of the first religious society in the township, and was ever closely identified with its interests. 1benezer Salver settled the east half of the southeast quarter of section 21. It is b)elieved that Thomas Seeley, who entered a tract of land, began during the summer of i847 to erect the first saw-mill in the township. It occupied the site where the mill in the southeast part of section 5, on Dickinson creek, later stood. But it was very different from it in its mechanical structure, machinery, etc. The saw was not circular but perpendicular, and sawed as if there was danger of an oversupply of lumber. It had a capacity, if kept at its best, of three to four thousand feet per day. But it answered for a time every purpose, and furnished lumber for the cabins of the early settlers, which have long since become pleasant and prosperous homes. The mill subsequently passed into other hands and was destroyed by fire.

Page  156 156 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAIN. LAND SPECULATORS. As has been intimated, the settlement of Fairplain from 1846 was rapi(l. But many settlers came into the township, and after making slight implrovelents, removed, some from discouragements, but usually the finer portions of tie township were entered by sl)eculators, who sold them at an advance to settlers, taking almost their last dollar as first paiyment and allowing tl-ici three vears in which to pay the balance. It was usually impossible to meet this p)ayment, anl, as a conse(luence, manyr lost not only what they had paid but also the implrovements which they had been oblige(l to make in order to live. and then left the township poorer than when they entered it, while the speculators always profited b1 these losses, as the lanls reverted to themn andl they placed an additional p)er cent to the selling price. But the;ilundant crops which the fertile soil produced when fairly teste(l, the ease of clearing anid tilling. were (lualities soonI apl)reciated, and men of means were so(on attracted to mlake their honme permanentl wtly itin its limits. In 18_.6, John D. I'argo and his brother, lalles lar-go, who became a resident of Eureka. can;le to the tovwnship from New York, of which state thev wvere natives. They plrchased tw(o htundred 1and forty acres of land from \V'illiami Kitts, who lhad entered it but who was not a resident of the township. 1iglity acres of tiis land was situated on section 30. The balance. (n the southwest luairter of section 13, was later occupied by L. H. I'ratt, one of the earliest settlers iln Montcalm county. Jol-ln D. ';argo and his brother. (ilbson S. Fargo. who arrived sh(rltlv after, built the first )permianent school liuilding in the township, \which was known until it was destrove(l as the "Red School house." Gilbson S. Fargo lied on December 28, i8o, alnd wa\s interred in the little cemetery on the west line of section 2o. 'lie groiull comlprised in this cemetery was gien to the townshisip in 850o lby osiah Russell, an old settler in that vicinity. He was county jutdge 1and a native of New York, liut his people were amolng the pioneers of Oaklland county. Ihe land Utpon which he settle(l and which he subselquently bought, was owned 1)x George Loucks, froom whoml he pturchased it. During tle (ivil War he enlisted and served three years in the First Regiment, Michigan.Ingineers and Mechanics. \illiam Rasmussen, from New York, came to Fairplain on the 6th of June, 1849. He came to the lo, cabin of Mrs. Wilson with a wife and eight children, three of whom were boys, named William, Henry and John. IIe bought the west half of the northwest quarter of section 17, and also

Page  157 MONTCATLM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I57 the east half of the northeast quarter of the same section. Mr. Rasmussen bought of John Knapp, who had intended to settle in Fairplain, but when he returned to New York his wife refused to move to "far-off Michigan." Knap)p therefore, sold to Rasmussen. Tn 185I, B. B. Crawford. a native of Livingston county, New York. arrived. Mr. Crawford became a settler of Macomb county, Michigan, in 1834. \\lhenl he settled in Iairl)lain he purchase(l two hundred acres of land frolm Dewitt C. Chllpin. George L.oucks, Rufus K. Moore, Fite Rosman, Richar(l (C. Miller, Luther Jenks, Josiah Russell. Joel Hall, Mark Diffen. Josiah Pradish and Orra B. Stiles. were among the pioneers reaching the towInshilp (luring the years 1849 to T853. Rufus K. Moore and George Gibson built a saw-mill below Alsdlen, on Dickinson creek, at what was known as Podunk, about the year 1850. Riclhard C. Miller lurchased the west half of the northwest quarter of section 18. He was treasurer of Fairlplain frolm I855 to I865. He later resi(le(l in Greenville until his death. In 1855, Elijahl Pierson settled upon the east half of the northeast quarter of section 27. 0. Bradley was also a resi(lent of lairplain. He settled in lonia county in I850 and was at one time engaged in the lurnler lbusiness, and tlurchased( the McGinley mill lroperty. James Griffith, one of Fairplain's good citizens, purchased the south half of the southeast quarter of section 6, which he highly improved. RESTDENTS IN 1850. 'I'he following is a list of resident taxpayers of the township in I850, accor(lilng to the assessment roll: Sections. Acres. Alansoin.dams ---— 5, 8 8I Hiraml IAmsburg _ — 1-15 80 Josiah Bradish -------— 15 40 David C. Church ------— 9 I20 Nelson Cole -----------— 9 40 W. M. Clark --------— 35 I6o )ewvitt Chapin _ —_ — 8, 18 204 Tyler M. Burkey --— 15, 17 120 \Myron Burley ---— _15, 17 120 Marquis T. Brower ----— 8 3 Sections. Acres. Roswell Dudley -------- 0 8c Edward Decker _ _- -T5, 21.8c Oliver Decker ------ 15, 21 8c Freemont Decker _-__-__21 4c John Fargo -_ ----I9, 30, 31 286 Daniel Fargo ----------— Personal John Hamilton --------— 7 8c Joel Hall --------- 8, 3 42 William Hall --------— 5 4c Spencer Hewitt ------— 35 g9

Page  158 158 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Sections. David Jenks --------— 35 Luther Jenks -----— 21, 22 Caleb Kniffen ----— 15, 20 Austin Kinney --------— 7 \\;. V. Kendrick --— 4, 5, 8 (eorge Lunn -----— 20, 28 Gibson & \Moore ------— 23 Rufus K. Moore ---------- George Gibson — ___ William Porter --------— 7 \\illiam Rossman — _ ---I7 Da;tus Russell ---------— 4 Ebenezer Salyer — __2I, 28 SecAcres. tions. Acres. I55 Myron Savery ------— 5, 6 Toc II4 Joel Saunders ---— 1I3, I8 24C 200 \Westlev Swager -— ___ ---6 4C 8c Chancey E. Shepard ----- 312 I6e 8c I2C i6c 8e 120 ---------— 3, 4, I,, 15 Philo Townsend ------— 9 Nelson Towslev -------— 8 Edward Sherwood -----— 7 Abijah Peck --------— 9 Orin Phelps ---------— 5 David W ilson ---------— 7 William Weed ---------- Davis Wilmouth ------— I7 80c, 80 77 4C 4c 4C 8c 4C I 6c These lands were all situated in town 9 north, range 7 west, except one hundred sixty acres belonging to Joel Saunders. being the northeast quarter of section 13, town c) north, range 8 west, now the town of Eureka. FE N WICK. Fenwick, which is located in the northw\estern part of section 25, in Fairplain township, and on the 'ere Mlarquette railroad, was platted on May 22, I874, for Simon Ml. Griswold, Sarah and David Griswold, proprietors. by S. C. Aderman, surveyor. IIenwick beganL' its existence with the a)oi-e menltionIed railroad and has lproved a good trading point for this section. The first reverse that FIcnwick really suffered wras in T903 when lire broke out which laid waste one-half of the town. Fenwiick now has a population of a hundred persons. Theere are two churches, a lodge anld a graded school located here. There are four stores, two of which are conducted by Robert Chalman and J. C. Thompson, who is also the postmaster. \\Walter Root conducts the hardware store. Fenwick, owing to its location, has become the largest village in the township. SHANTY PLAINS. This settlement, located in the southeastern part of Fairplain did not conmmence until several years after the settlement on the west side of the river. It received its name from the many frail dwellings which during

Page  159 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 159 one summer, were erected here. It is now impossible to determine who was the first settler, as a number came in and remained but a short time and then removed. But it is probable that William M. Clark, who settled on section 35, was the first. He sold a piece of the land upon which he settled to a Mr. Conkwright, who remained a few years. \Welis Clark, who also came in early, sold a piece of land to Peace Robohen, who died some years after. Ora B. Stiles settled here at an early date. About the year I850 a little cabin of tamarack poles was built on section 35, and several terms of school were conducted in it, but when or 1)v whom is shrouded in the mist of forgetfulness. This cabin was used until 1854 when it was replaced by a frame lbuilding. Hawlev \Vhite, whose lparents settled in Jackson county in I835, entered the cast half of the northeast quarter of section 36 in I853. The next year he broulght his wife and two children. Mrs. White died in 1863. AMSDEN. 'he village of Arnsden was not regularly laid out until 1867, although for many vears previous to that time considerable business of various branches had been successfully carried on here. A saw-mill was first erected about the year T850. In 1859, J. P. Shoemaker and M. P. Follett built the grist-mill at this place. It was the first flouring-mill (outside of Greenville) built in the colnty, and for a number of years gave Amsden a decided advantage over other plrospective towns springing up in the vicinity. The settlers for many miles from the north came here to mill and to trade. This was the prosperous period in its history, and the principal part of the village was lmilt at this time. \Vhen, however, the railroad was constructed fron lIonia to Sheridan, and another to Greenville and to Gowen, the prospects of.Aisden, like those of Langston, were considered much less promising. The sav-mill of R. H. Roice & Company had a capacity of thirty thlousanldl feet per dav, while the shingle-mill in connection with it had a capacity of fifty thousand. J. P. Shoemaker, the founder of the village, was born in Herkimer county, New York. For over twenty years he hadl been a resident and identifie(l with the business interests of the township, later being elected state senator of this district. Amsden was platted for J. P. Shoemaker and twelve others, by E. IH. Jones, surveyor. It is located in the central part of section 15. Amsden experienced ain unchecked growth until the coming of the railroad which passed a mile to the east. With the coming of the Pere Marquette on the

Page  160 16o MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. east side of the township, Fenwick sprang up and began to draw on Allsden's resources. There was a mill located at Amsden with a store in connection, but as Fenvick grew, A.\nsden gradually went down until at present it only exists as a cluster of houses. There are no business interests in the village. Situated two miles to the north and west of Amsden is Millers Station. This is located on the Grand Trunk railroad and now consists of a depot, and one store, the latter beincg owned I)y M r. Hansen. Miller has never been platted.

Page  161 CHAPTER XIIT. FERRIS TOWNSHIP. lerris township lies in the northeastern part of Montcalm county and is bounded on the north by Richland, on the east by Gratiot county, on the south ly- (Cr!stal and on the west bly Day township. It is described on the government survey as town\ship l1 north, range 5 west. When first organized into a separate to\wnlship, Ferris contained townships II and I2 north, ranges 5 and 6 west, of the latter range only the east half was incorporated in this townsfiil). These were later detached and formed the separate townships of Day, Richland and lomie, leaving Ferris with its present limits. \ petition was presented to the board of supervisors bearing the signatures of the following undersigned freeholders of Montcalm township: Philander \. Peck, Sylv ester Fuller, Jackson Cato, Frank S. Peck, J. D. Sterns, Silas Brown, B1arney Bigler, 1F. L. Smith, Daniel Gallop, Seth Smith, \. H. Monroc, John Churchill, Samuel F. Burtch, Nilson Lee, Franklin Stiles. John T. MTiller, Lucian l ewis, 1li Smith, N. B. Scott, Arch Conner, W\illiaml G. Carpenter, \T. Douglass, George Sherman, Christopher Hare an(d I. Hulbbell. These petitioners prayed that township II and I2 north, range 5 we\st, and the cast half of tow\n II, 12 north, range 6 west, be set off from the townlship of Mlontcaln to lbe organized into a separate township and to be knowvn by the name of Ferris. It was further provided in this letition that the first annual township meeting le held at the house of N. B. Scott, and that N. B. Scott, M. Douglass and L. Jewis be appointed a hoard of inspectors at said meeting. This petition was duly considered by the board of supervisors and passed on January 5, 1857, thereby creating the new township of Ferris as prayed by the petitioners. The date set for the first meeting of the township for election of officers was held on April 6, 1857, at such place and with such inspectors as desired by the petitioners. The township of Ferris is divided into two nearly equal parts by a ridge or watershed, which in places is well defined, extending through the center of the township north and south, thus producing on either side distinct basins. (II)

Page  162 I 62 162 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. ORIGINAL. LAND) ENliIES. Section i-Aloney Rust, Peter Schiappe, Michael K. Strayer, Bairon Blanchard. Section 2-.Aloney Rust, David XV. Rust, Ambrose LI Souie. Che~ster Baxter. Section- 3-Anmbrose L. Sotice, Aihert Washburn, Michael Riddlel, Jr., John S. F'ord,, Stephen D. Frances, Josiah L Ztuver, Jacob Schoonover. Section 4-David Eschliman. George Reomyard, Saimuel Corder, R~odoipli 1-owry, k'Villiani MWiller, James Harrod-L, vci Harrodl Gil1)ert L.. Corilti. Section 5-WVilliam Mfiller, John Criso, I' R. llowc G. B. Isham, Levi Harrod, John Criss D iniel \brey Em ium A Rxiplcys Edintinel Hall, C. XV. Putler, I. W. Sxparrossv, William Mf Xluiriav Secton 6-H. I\). kk'oodworth, Eliass II irdly Peter H XX Watson, Hilmeis Smi1th. Sectlion 7 -Law'soin F enis, I iaes R. Staill, I ucene Buck, Edo -ird Tishitic I- LI Hill, Edmuind Hall. Section 5 Benjaminii 1. 1Luther, Mmry '61eirris, Jamens G. Garrison, I..cs i Harinod, Willimmc H. tOsborn, A\ A. Broc kwavi Scction 9 -Amuasa Wilcder, John Reinihard, Davis iiIsclhli~ma,n XXilliaum Moor, Joseph 'V6. F~ace. Section in —Gone, Sanders, X\iii is WXildler John A-lovor, Saimuiel J. Bailey, Johii tussell, Sinouel DTonlev, Isaiac Bennett Allicrt Ferris. Section 1 i -Alomicy lsiist, Archibald (Coriner, Xlicajaili Douglass, \rch C.oniior, Chester Baxter, George S haiw, Jacobs Kmmste r SectionJ 2\-lOnes R~ust, David XVN. Rutst, Peter Schlhpiim Mineajah Douigliss. George Sheruman, Ebhenezer Shernian. Sectio)n 1 3-1 oums Luither, Benjamnin F. Luther, Mlicajali Douglass. Elleazer 'ohunson, Robert SouthssvelI, [Iijih I erris ThIonmas Crofford, Samutel linirtcli, M\ine -iah l)ouiglissl Abl 1A\ Brockway X c~luington R. Rust. Section i4-l lijI iii I enris. X'hcijih Doiglass, Tleazcr Johnsoii, Chester 1Bill, Peter Selilappi, George Sluias, John- I), SnNs dei I manuel H-issary, John B. Strait, Frinklin D. Norris. Sectioni i, -Hezekia i 1ii ubell, Mlartin Chaffee, Garrett Coolsbamdli Isaac I1 shine Saniiiiel J. Bailev, John A. Dorr, Alhert Feruris James S. D vis.i Section i6-\inliess J. Tishnte, ('ihristopiher H are, XWilliam ('rock-ford, Eirastums Throop, XX7illaian II. II. Morehead, Solomuoin B. Knapp, (iristopher Hare,.Xlthea Stiiith. Section 17-R~ichard Dye, John Mfatiser, Johnt Arntz, James G. Garrison, Nathaniel Smith, Charles K. Mlarsh, Dewitt C. JLewis, XWilliam Allen. Seetion- i8-Charles B. XVilson. ]Franklin Stiles, Samuel Pine, Eli Smith, JohnAzrntz, Charles B1. Banghamn, Benjamin F. Stiles, XWilliam H-. H4. Mooreheaci. Section i9 —Charles B. XVilson, Erasttms Yeoimans, Lucian Lewis, Jolii T.. Miller. Section 20-Richard Dye, Erastus Yeomans, Elias Salishury, Amos Classon, Peter I-I. XWatson, Nathaniel Smith, TLafavette Peters. See

Page  163 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I63 tionl 21-Patrick (urry, John Berie, Elizabeth VW'arner, Andrew Burer, Peter II. Watson, Christopher A. Packard. Section 22-Nathan B. Scott, James Scott, Robert 'Wool, Jr., Elizabeth \Warner, John D. Snyder, John M. Kel\vc. Section 23-Aloney Rust, David W. Rust, Elijah F'erris, (hester Baxter, Samuel TT. Comnstock, Daniel Strayer, Samuel Comstock, George Sherman. Section 24-Aloney Rust, David Rust, Horace Lansing, Santiel Burtch. Section 25-G. S. Bill, Aloney Rust, Ezra Fuller, Jacob Klees, (eorge Stratton,.\l)el. Brockway. Nickolos Klees, James Hicks. Section 2( —.\lo1ne Rust, Ambrose Soule, John Raynur, John M. Reinhart, John (. Taubert, John M. Kelvey. Section 27-Thomas Byrne, John Raynur, H-ezekiah lHubbecll. \(lam Gass, Thomas Burne, Thomas Crawford, Robert Southw ell, John lcKelvey, Grafton Reid. Section 28 —Francis F. Hawkins, \William Tonynoton, Ilias M. Heath, Abram Van Horn, John Russell, Bradllcv.\. Brown, (;eorge \V. Sover, B.eljamlini Magoon, Joseph Tishue. Section 29 —John Smith. lohn XM. W\atson, John Ruperd, Nelson T. Dunshee, John Mr. Ilancock. Section 30-Charles B. Wilson, Levi Carpenter, Israel E1. Richardson, \W'illlain Mladison, William Kelly. Section 3I-John Harrod, Israel I1. Richardson, George Hancock, Cyrus 1D. Dunshee, Stephen \W'. Toimpkins, '.Ihomas 1<av!mlon(d C(harles Litch, Myron Austin, William E. I.itch. Sectioni 32-1)avid \\oner. Ephrainl Trim, James Tissue, E gl)ert I.. IIath,.\daim A. Flint, Myvron.nAstin. Jacob lemasters, Isaac R. Packard. \'illiam MIadison. Section 33 —Amb)rose I.. Soule, Limon Rice, AsaheF Buck, Francis F. Hawkins, John Watts, Isaac \Wandell, Adam A. Flint, Mvrroln Xustin, Simlion Rice, lMyrol Austin, William Davis. Section 34 -Ambrose I. Soule, Simon Rice, Dolphus Byrne, Thomas Byrne, Julius R. Comstock, Simon Rice, Nelson I. Johnson, Daniel McArthur, Simon Rice, George G. Shermana. Section 35-David W. Rust, Harvey Westfall, Jesse Bodley, -\mlrose Soule, Merritt FIlint, Luke Flint. Section 36-Aloney Rust, Am lbrose.. Soule, M artin Ginther, Christopher Giither. Henry Waterb)urv, Rohert Hucker, Daniel A. Corkins, Samuel Burtch, Seth Robinson. FIRST SETTLEMENTS. Elijah Ferris was the first settler in town I north, range 5 west. He had formerly resided upon a farm in Geauga county, Ohio, and was very much inconvenienced for the want of water. For this reason, when he sent his representative to select land in Montcalm county in May 15, I853, his express directions were that a running stream must be one of the favorable considerations. This may account for the peculiar selection of his land

Page  164 164 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. upon which he lived and died. In the fall of T854, well equipped for thile frontier, with a good team of horses, which soon after his arrival he exchanged for a yoke of oxen, with farming implements and household goods, he brought his wife, four sons and one daughter, to the township of Ferris. He entered, with several other tracts, the northeast quarter of the northeast quarter of section 23, on which he built a log house. This was the first residence of a settler erected in the township. At this time the road known later as the Old Pine road was located. but was completed only a short distance above the lumber camp, which had already been located near the present site of Carson City. From this place to the land which lie had entered, a distance of eight miles, Mr. Ferris, with the help of his sons, cleared a road. The distance was about eight miles in a bee-line, but his road winding as it did through the forests and around evcry conceivable obstacle, traversed at least a third of the distance farther. After the death of her husband, Mrs. Ferris returned to Ohio. Asa Buck was the second settler and came on August 1i, 1853. James Tishue was the third settler and located in Ferris, August T4, 1855. Archibald Connor, Robert Husker, Thomas and Rodolphus Burns, and Samuel T. Burch came in the winter of I854-55. Burch and Hlusker were married men, the others were single. All became residents of the towuship for a longer or shorter period. The Burnses were natives of Ireland. Burch settled first on section 36, but subsequently cleared and lived upon a farm on section 24. He remained in the township Iluntil I877, when with his family he moved to Idaho. He built a large part of the village of Crystal. Archibald Connor settled the north half of the southeast quarter of section I I. Robert Husker settled on the east half of the northeast quarter of sectioll 36. Nathan B. Scott, a native of Berkshire county, Massachusetts, moved with his father to ~Washtenaw county in 1830. where he lived until he came to Ferris township in i855 and entered the northwest quarter of section 22, paying seventy-five cents per acre. lie built a temporary house to which he brought his family, which consisted of a wife and four childdren. Mr. Scott made one of the first clearings, and planted some of the first crops in the township. Hie was drafted and served his time during the Civil \Var. Peter Schlappie built the first saw-mill in the township. It *stood on Schlappie creek, on section 12. Previous to this time the lumber used by the settlers had been brought from Ryder's mill in Evergreen town-ship.

Page  165 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 65 Christopher Hare, from Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, moved to Sandusky county, Ohio, in 1835, whence he came to Michigan in 1843, and settled in Portland, Ionia county. From this place he came to Ferris and entered the southeast quarter of section I6, for which he paid four dollars per acre. In October, 1855, he brought his wife and nine children to the house previously built. lie cleared the road from the cabin of Nathan Scott to this place. At the first town meeting Mr. Hare was elected clerk of the township, an office which he filled creditably many successive years. In T88o lie was the nominee on the National ticket for the office of county treasurer. William Carpenter also reached the township in 1855. His house was made on a novel plan. Two large oak trees which stood about twelve feet apart were felled so that they lay nearly parallel. Into the trunk of each a row of holes were bored, and into these posts high enough to make the walls of the house were driven. Split shakes were nailed over them, and the roof made of the same material, his house, with a large fireplace in one end, was ready for occupancy. At one time Mr. Carpenter killed a bear, and invited two yoting meIn named H. C. Ferris and William Boodl to dine with him. One of the logs, which in the meantime had been hewn to as near a flat stirface as could be conveniently done with an ax, served as a table. Upon this in dtue time the smoking ham (of a young bear was placed and the guests who sat on the outside of the house regaled themselves through the window to their eitire satisfaction. T-T. C. I erris, the nephew of Elijah Ferris, came to the township with W\illiam Boody from Geauga county, Ohio. The latter, who was a splendid shot, came with only slport in view, and killed a great deal of game. He became poisonel while hunting in at swa1mp, and soon after left the townshil. IFerris remained until the next May, and then returned to Eaton county, wher e he married L.ouisa Blodgett, and in about two years again returned to Ferris. Micajah I)ouglas caime to Ferris in the fall of T854, and entered four eighty-acre tracts in sections TI, 12, 13 and 14. He was born and reared in Monroe county, New York, and was not married until just before coming to the land which he had previously entered. He married Laura Sherman. They moved into the township on the 22d of March, 1856. Mr. Douglas was elected justice at the first town meeting. His daughter, Lydia Jane Douglas, was the first white child horn in Ferris. She married Thomas J. Blair, who was in the mercantile business in Elm Hall, Gratiot county.

Page  166 I66 MONTCALM COUNTY. MICHIGAN. In the year of 1856, Jacobl Klees, a native of Germany, came to Ferris. His family consisted of his wife, two sons an(l one daughter. He located on section 36. It is said that in an early day, when the family had walked to Matherton for the lurpose of plrchasing store goods and groceries, Mrs. Klees carried a barrel of flour to her home in Ferris. The tradition, no dlouilt, has not suffered from reletition; the fact which gave rise to it being that after father and son had been loa(ded with the flour taken from the barrel, Mrs. Klees, feeling that it would supply a want when added to the scanty furniture of her cabin, took it with what flour remained upon her shoulder and carrie(l it the entire distance. David Eschliman came to Ferris in 1867. He Vwas born iln Lancaster county. IPennsylvania. HTis ancestors purchased one thousand seven hulndred acres of land from William Penn, and his relatives, who l)ecamle numerous. lived in that county. In 183.1 his father moved to Stark county, Ohio. RENMINISCENC ES. In Jtune, 1856, David Buck and Phoebe lMoore \ere married at the house of W\,illiam Moore, who had come to the township in the spring of I855. This was the first weddilng in the township. Daniel Strayer, a minister of the United Brethren churcl, officiated on this occasion. He was a resident of Elm Hall, ald came on foot, with only a rifle for protection, to perforll the ceremony. Mlr. Strayer had occasionally preached in Ferris. p)revious to tile wedding, at tile little cabin of I-ezekiah Hubbell, who had settled just east of the center of the to\ 1wship in the fall of 1855. This cabin was so lo\iW that when the mlinlister stood up his hedl wNould be between the poles which serve(d as joists. Mr. Strayer died at T llT I all in the fall of T864. Frank J. Scott was plrolably the second white person born in Ferris. The first orchard in the township was set out by Peter Schlappie, who brought trees from Ohio in i855. He preached the first funeral sernmol in Crystal townshilp, and sas a local nminis-ter of the United Brethren church. He settled on the northeast lluarter of section 12, where he lived until his death. Elijah Ferris, the first white man to make his home in this toswnship, was also the first to die alnd be buried here. HTe had the consumption when he carme to Michigan but during the first year the change seemed very beneficial, but in the spring after his arrival he died. John Mautrer and Micajah Douglas mnade a rough coffin with boards taken from the loft of the cabin of Daniel Strayer, who at this time lived in the township. The boards were nicely planed, and hot water was then poured upon

Page  167 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 167 the sides, )y which means they were bent and then made into proper shape. It was then stained with a miixture of Venetian red and sweet milk. Mr. Ferris had desired to be buried on high ground, and as Nathan Scott had offered ground for a public cemetery, he was buried near where the residence of that gentleman stood. There was at that time no road, only a trail, through the swamp from the east to the west side. The remains were therefore placedl upon1 a litter and carried by six men to the place prepared for them. IErastus LTarnardl olened the first blacksmith shop in Ferris township at the center of the township. He remained several years, and his shop filled a wanit long felt. Hte subseqluently ipurchased a farm which he supposed to 1)e unincnlmbered, alnd paid for it in full. A numher of years after, a mortgage giveli lv the former ownier was foreclosed an(l he lost his entire prolperty. FIRR'.S VILTLAGE. Ferris or Ferris (.enter, is located in the center of the township of the same nanme. It was never platted and although it was once a postoffice for the convenience of the rural people, has lost this through the coming of the ruril routes. Ferris lbegan its existence in the early days and has always been the location of a school house and( a town hall. At present there are two stores. Frank Hare is the proprietor of one of these. Ferris township is. rather unique in the fact that it has not a railroad anl no town has ever been platted within its limits. Vestaburg draws the major percentage of the trade from this township.

Page  168 CHAPT1.'R XIV. HOME TOWNSHIP. Tonme township is designated as town 12 north, range 6 west, and is situated in the northeastern part of the county. It is bolunded on the north by Isabella county, on the east by Richiand township, on the south by Day and on the wvest l)v Belvidere. This was the sixteenth township organized in the county. IThe petition for the erection of a new townshi) to )e called -Homie was presented to the board of supervisors on ()ctober Io, r864, andl containedl the following sigatutires: Testus I'. (Goldsmith, R. Jackson, J. F. Beard, R. B. Nichols,.. Roach, J. \'V. IIayimond,. N. iTupi)per, Tholmas Forquor, WVilliam \T. WVoodard, George C. Roush, Abra Johns, F. A. (Goldsmith, C. A. Packard, 'EIgbert L. Tctteath, Calvxin A. \Voodard, Christopher liare, Chairles Stiles, N. n. Scott, David 13Bank, Isaac Pilnie, J. G. Garrison Tlenrv Crockfor(l, (Calvii (). Woodard, \Niit(lrewx K. Zuner, David Shsaffer, Saimuel J. Baile, \V. B. Robbins,.. S. Gairin, John Brown, John (Correll, George bIhler, I-. Rowland,. \tcirick, George Offiner and Joshua Fsir. TI his p)etition wxas datted at IFerris, \UgIlst 20, T864, and comprise(d the territory in town ' lnorth, rantge 6 w est. The board of supervisors passedl upon this petition and grante(d the prayer of the petitioners on October 12, I864, and further ordlered that tile first election lbe held at the houlse of R. Jacksonl onl the first Monday in.\pril, i865. The control of this election was placedl in the hands of R. Jackson, iI. N. Tulpper and(l \Villiam \V. \NVoodard. The surface of Huome townlship is genlerallv tn(lulattilg, rising gradlially t(iwards the cenitre, w-here it forms a divide lnorth and soutith between the Flat and fLine river systemils. The streams are all small and of little importance. furnishing no water power in the township. The lakes are few in number aind inconsiderable in extent. The soil is of that peculiar mixture of sad( and clay wvhich pro(lduces both the hard ands soft varieties of wood. Pine. hcowever, predominiate(l in ftully threefourths of the township. A large proportion of these land(s were held for lumibering plirposes. MAore particularly was this the case in the northern

Page  169 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I69 part, where a few firms early purchased the more valuable tracts. Whitman & IHighlanl held two thousand one hundred acres in one body, and nine hundred and sixty acres in another. Stinchfield & Whitney held fourteen hundred and eighty acres, besides a number of smaller tracts. This part of the township, although an unbroken forest for many years, developed rapidly in both its lumebering and agricultural interests. As rapidly as it was stripped of its timber, venturesome and hardy pioneers built their cabins an(l started on the most laborious but surest way to wealth. The township has in general a l)roductive soil, and the demand for all kinds of home produce was stimulated on account of its extensive lumbering interests; andl the ready means of access to the markets of the East and South b1 meaans of its railroads, which form a junction at Edmore, rendered agriculture a lucrative employment, and to this source in no slight degree is the rapid development of this interest to be attributed. LAND ENTRIES. Section i-Ambrose L. Soule, Warren A. Sherwood. Section 2-Warren A. Sllrwxood, F. T. Goldsmith. Section 3-Franklin MIoore, Amy Goldsmith, Peter Parmenter. Section 5 —Levi Parkin, Michael Sullivan, Edmund IIall. Section 7 —James M. Hall, Ira H. Sheldon, John Gresefant, Genesae M. Bro\wn, I'. lfall, Solon-mon L apaugh, Edmund Hall. Section 8-Philander R. Howe, (. B. Isham, George Beardsley, M. Sullivan. Section 9-Edmund Hall, Jacob \V. Stinchfield. Section I —Horace P. Dean, Alonzo Parnlenter, John Mr. Parsens. Section TI-Jacolb N\. Stinchfield. Section 12 -A\iisbrose I.. Soule, Ildwin lB. BMoore. Norman Shepard. Section 13 -A\mbrose L. Soule, John D. Throop, Andrew Nisenger. Section 14 -A:mbrose I.. Soule,.\oses Pixley, James M. Ilall, Fayette Beardsley, James Mi. Tall, George.\. Baker, 'hineas Carter. Section 15-James M. Hall, Oscar l)eMott, \Villiamn E. Rury, James M. Hall, James Alzer, Phineas Carter. Section T6 —A\mos Bissell. James Lascomb, George Beardsley, 1Edson 'Packard. Section 17-Wtillis1am W. Woodard, John N. Stock, P. R. Howe. G. 1. Isham, Albert 1'. I.avertv. Section T8-Willianm L. Easton, James M. Soverhill. James MT. Hall, Andrew J. Cory. Section 19-James M. Soverhill, Stelphen F. Page, James M. Soverl-ill, Chelsea Tupper, John Camp, Authll IR. Price, John Camp, David Vandersen. Section 20-Stephen i:. Page, Chelsea Tupper, Frederick Bishop, William Wl. W\oodard, Albert T. T\vans, Allen B. Morse, Nelson E. Latham, Philander R. Howe, G. B. Ishanl, WVillianm \W. WVoodard. Section 21-John Peoples, lHugh Peoples,

Page  170 170 170MONTCALM COUNTY, 'MICHIGAN. Saigc Rice, Solomion P. Rapp, Leander Cook, Alden 11 WVright, Leasnder Cook. Section 22 \mhrosc LI Soule, T homas F orguert James ]I. HaII, Willis Nelson, Malcom A\ Dunning. Sectionl 23-\iiirose Soule, Paul \\ il1kinsI Thaoddcus TIiblbs Michael IP11lisky, F'd\\in Finich. Section 24 - I 'd\\ ar(l Wvells, Samuel Smith, 1'ete \Virck, Andrew Nisangcr, \\ irren A Shcr\\oo00( Solomon, Lapagh, John Mcae. ie Section 25-Samuel Nl ILeggett, J0111 Correll Gco)r e F. Elder, Pcter Wsirick, Jesse Rlioiles,?slyroii Ho\\-ard, Jamies K. Lrown, iJee B. Siiock. Sectionl 6-Saimiiel AL L egg~ett, Iestus 'F Goldsmith. oliii1 Bro\\,n iu11(1as S. CGarvin, Williai Rn 1kJackson, Correne C. Jacksonm Sectioln 27-N-ith'm I,' Nichols F rcder ickA. Aciis, 1Fistiis A. G olidsmith, joslitn Uior, Chirkes D) C osteil. Sectionl 28 -J acii F. Beard' R. B. Nichols, AWilliam \Armstrong, Johii AX II iymond, J ames Gilson. Section 20)Chthincec Topper, Henry NTIupper, M ary J. X,in Diisen, lcnrv N. 'I iippcr, Spencer Beairil }ohii AX. fItimiind James ILoNN iw, Saimuel NlnItser, Jao L(1 I C\i ertz IThomais N. 'Fvor. Sectionl 30_ --- J oii th in Green, James AL Sosverhill, IToathmn Grcen, Xrthnr Rk I rice. Section 31iAWillisni Steveiseii SCCtion1 "2-Geora'c 0) Roushi Ahia Johns. Sectionl 33 1 raikliii Tripp, AXilliam AL B. Reedl Al irtin Bent. Section 34-james Woodiar(l, Jeremiah Myvers. Henry Cohh. Incas S. Garyin, Mfartin Bent, Gilhcrt Wilson, W~illiani B. Chlilce. Section 35-Ssamuel S. Woodworth, Henry R. Woodwvorth, WV. Robbhins. Sectionl 3Ci-Elias Hardy. Freeman Rice. FARLiY SFTTLEMENT. Edward Wolhcrt, who scttled ini the extreiii southivest coriner of Home towniship, was prohahlv the first man to huild a cahin is~ithin its biocindaries, aside frorii the huitcers who now\. and theii pienetrated its solitudes and huilt temporary shelters. Hlis cahin stood near the state roads, and besides lieiiig a dwelling house it made in oaidit icii, some iiicager preparation for the accommodation of travelers on their was' fromt Tonia to ichillhrook. This route hecame, as soon as, pirolperly opndlcicl osue of the favorite roads of travel to the north. M~r. AVolhert's cahin wvas the last one for imany' miles, and the road, if such it may' he called, stretched throcigl miles of forest unhroken hy' a single clearing. The towniships of Douglass, Day, Belv'idere anil Richland also wvere coniparatively' uuuhroken wilderness at this time. Mr. XWolhert remained here huit a short time, whent, with his famnily-a wife and one child-he moved to the South. About the year i862 a party' of ten, consisting' of John Peoples and his

Page  171 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I71 family, anld Tugh Peoples, an unmarried brother, came to the cabin of Edward \Volbert. The men had been here previously and entered land, and while preparing temlporarv shelters left their fanilies here a few days. John Peoples entered the southwest quarter of section 21, upon which the railroad station at Ildmiorc anil much of this village is now situated. Frederick Bishop settled on the adIjoining lquarter west, on section 20..Iugh Peoples entered the atljoining quarter east. 'They all built cabins and commenced clearing lands. The struggles with want and privation which followed were long and severe. ' he nearest mill was:Amsden, to which place those settlers who had no teams were obliged to carry their grain on their backs. Stanton was then a flourishing village of three houses. One was a small court house, another Roosa's log hotel, and the other a dwelling house built by Levi Calburnl. After making some improvements, Bishop exchanged his farm for one near Charlotte. One of the first marritages in Home township was that of Hugh Peoples to Maria \Wysick, whose parents were among the pioneers in the east part of the townlship. The first white child born in Tome was Anna Peoples, daughter of John Peoples, born on January 15, I863. T'le first death was that of a Mrs. Rapp. She was buried on the west side of the road, and just outside the present limits of the cemetery at ld'nlore, where her remains still rest. The following are naimles of old settlers of -IHome: F. A. Goldsmith, R. I1. Xichols, \who settle(l on the east half of the southeast quarter of section 28: lamles C(. Gillson, XV. W. \\oodard, (liver Aiken, Z. Rice, William Stevenson. whlo oclculie(l the farni entered by Edlward \Vollbert; Thomas F orguer, (scar 1. iloot,.\ndrew Neiswanger, John Carroll, Thaddeus Tibbels, Edwin \\Vells, Jeremiah:Myers, William S. Eaton and Paul Wilkins. N)o school was tautght in lionme until the spring of 1865, when the people in the south ipart of the township met and organized a school district, and built a simall log house (n the southeast part of section 28, and employed (rlando Evans as teacher. He was a nelphew of Josiah Fair, with whom he resided at the time. 'I'he next summer a site for another school house was selected one and one-half miles east of the first. A house was erected, in which a school was opened by Mrs. James Brown, whose huslband taught at the same time in the cabin before referred to. The first frame school house was built on the east line of section 30, in district No. 3. In I866 a postoffice was established at the house of Thomas Forguer, who was appointed postmaster. The office was known as New Home.post

Page  172 172 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. office. Previous to this time the nearest office was at the village of Stanton. Doctor Jackson was the first physician to come to hlome. He settled in the south part of the township, on section 26, where he remained several years, and then removed to the West. He subsequently, however, returned to IHome, where he (died. The next physician was Doctor White, who entered a piece of land, but, like his predecessor, remained a short time and then went west. The following extract. taken from one of the town books, needs no explanation: "The town board met at the clerk's office on July 5, 1872. Full board present. The meeting being called on account of tle clerk's office being burned on the morning of the 2d( of July, 1872, the board proceeded to examine the books saved and found the following: book of registration, the accounts with the township treasurer, the financial accounts and school record, records of the commissioners of highways and board of health." The records of election were not saved and the town clerk's office contains no connection or definite record of the officers of the township before this time. EDMORE. Edmore is situated principally upon the south half of the southwest quarter of section 2T, and the north half of the northwest quarter of section 28. The original plat, however, contained but one hundred and twenty acres, several additions having been made from time to time. The name is derived from Edwin B. AMoore-the name of its founder-who platted it, Iand on the 28th of A.\ril, 1878. caused the survey to be made. The first lot was sold to Williaml Cronkite, who at once erected a small building and opened a shoe shop, for although few improvements had xben made in this vicinity, the colmpletion of the railroads the fall previous, forming a junction at this place, had marked it as an important business center for the future. There were also several families, who had settled here a number of years before, and who had made some slight improvements in agriculture. One of these. that of James Gillson, settled here iln 865. He was a native of Scotland. whence lie came to Aierica in I828. He served in the Uniion arimyl in the Civil War, and for disabilities received was awarded a pension. He hIilt the first hotel in the village of Edmore, soon after the village was platted. (n May\ 28, T878, E. W. Kitchenl purchased a lot, lbilt a house, and o>pened a general stock of dlr goods, boots, shoes. groceries, etc. These were the first business places in the village. rAbout this time a portable saw-mill was secured, and the ltmber for

Page  173 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I73 building purposes, which heretofore had been brought from a distance, was now mnianufactured from the timber taken from the site of the village. After the manufacture of lumber began in Edmore its growth was exceedingly rapid. Few villages in central Michigan will compare with it in this respect. In the winter of 1878-79 the village, having a sufficient population, was incorporated, and the first election under the charter was held on March 8, 1879, at which time the following persons were elected to the several village offices: -'resident. E. B. Moore; trustees, R. S. Robson, H. G. Johnson, C. S. Knight, C. NV. Stafford, E. S. Wagar, If. Austin; clerk, F. M. Burbank; treasurer, 0. S. Tower; street commissioner, H. J. Chainey; assessor, A. M. \Wolaver. The following is a list of officers for I880: President, Ei. B. Xloore; trustees, H. G. Johnson, C. WV. Stafford, A. V. Rowlison; clerk. F. \V. Harrison; treasurer, H. C. Umlbenhaur; street commissioner, J. K. Train; assessor, A. M. Wolaver. During the month of September, i88o, the Chicago, Saginaw & Canada railroad shipped 225,49f pounds of freight, the freightage upon which was $173.19. The number of plounds received aggregated 5,207,544 and the charges collected were $1,642. The receipts for the telegraph department were $55.04. The report of the Detroit, Lansing & Northern railroad for the same r1month iss follows: Total freight shipped from this station, 8,506,597 pounds; charges, $5,804.1I4. Freight received, 1,o98,928 pounds, upon which charges were collected to the amotint of $2,I90.95. The tickets sold over this route amounted to $1,036. Edmore came out of that period which followed the exhaustion of the pine timber in the county better, or rather as good, as any other town in the county. 'Ihis was due partly to the fact of its location. It is truly located in one of the rich farming communities of the county. The scope of territory and rich resources which it draws from gives it the life which it has at present. Edlhinore and the people can truly be proud of such a busy, hustling village. Although other towns in the county may present larger buildings and longer business blocks, but few can surpass it in the amount of produce received and shipped during a year. It is the trading center for the north and eastern part of the county and the shipping point of the entire community. Edmore has suffered two fires, which, if it were possible to wipe out, would leave it with business blocks doing credit to the volume of business (lone in the town. In the year 190I one entire block on the south side of Main street was destroyed by fire. The loss was placed at $25,ooo, but it

Page  174 174 '74 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. carriel wvitil it another pang, for one life was clainmedl by the flames. This was a small gnirl who, bein~ trappedl, was tlnalble to receive assistance aind 1)erished. In this fire th.e town hall. hank iniliding, Vanil several other hosiliess honscs xxvcrc entires consinned. T11w second fire xxvas nust blesidle the first, onl the north sidle of Main street. This disastrons fire wiped out almost the entire block. Three stores an1d two Smaller huiiidimns xvere dlestrovedl before the flamles could he checked, enltailiii- a loss Ot S 'o20 00(1 T1e Moorehead bllock was erected in 1885., andl it is onle of the lairgest husiness hlocks cof Eldmore. At present Edimore has 'a poj)t1dtionl ot eighit hnndred. Atownship, and village hlall was erected Inll T902, atacs f $6,ooo. InII his townl hall the cooncil rooms, jail anid postoffice are located- also the fire depa-rtiient, which is a volunteer compa ns (If (hief and six mien ande( hook and ladder and hose-cart equililmcnt. Thie Nxiter xxvorks is a. mlunliciplal Illailt, which w\.as installed in tie sear i88o, oale is foils eqlnippell in ev'crv respect. TIhe electric light phlalt is a private husinless oviledI hv J. H. Gihhs & tiomlpanv. The lbtisilless~ ilterests (If tile too~l COI (151t of the L. Rarber (.'reamerv (i-onipianv\. TIhis creamnery is second ini capacitv in the county. The volume (If businiess of this creamlerv aiaounts to approximately oiie-h-alf mil onIlilars pe year. Thie \.\V. h. Roach Camining Comlpany is also oiie (If tile illiortalit itirustries of the tosyi. -Approximiately $85.ooo Was Paidir (lit bv this coriiiaiiv toI the hlcll aiid tll farmiers (luring tile year. Ednmore hlas aI potato aild stock market. It ilas 110 equlal inl tile couity, Vand gTreater tonnage (If business is shipped from Rldmore tilan anyv other 105511 witih tile exceptioll problably (If Greenville, which rankcs ahead of Edmnore iil the po(tato ilarket aloine. Tile mlerchiants aili butsinless immenl of Edmnore receive tiheir patroiiage fromi the entire ilortileast and souith of the courilty. There are two elevators ill Edm~lore, cownel biy J. H. Gihhson & Sonl and I.L. Thiomlas. E. F". Curtis is Islie of tile largest s)canl ailc potato huyers ill this ((lilitvs Ix\(rvllodlv aind eve rythinig in tilis village is a live svire (if tile toss. II it\x roiil faster thlan anyv otiler ill Moritcalml conilty, and wviii Only liea matter of a silort tulle until it ranks amoiig the first in every resilect. ITle piresent officials are: Harry E. \Vagar, president; Fred E. Curtis, clerk- Jaliles NWV Swvift, treasurer; Hugh McKay, assessor. There are too hamlets iii h~ome toswnshiip wyiicil deserve niention. Tile first of tilse is Wsmanvi whell is a little station on the Pere Marquette railroad. Thiis hamnlet hais h id a precariousis existeince anti has failed to reacil mluch size. ITiere is one store at present and a little cluster of houses.

Page  175 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 175 WyNvimn, although so small, has possessed two names in its life; it formerly was known as.Averyville. The other hamlet of this township is known as Cedar Lake, from the body of water of thr:t name. Cedar Lake is a small resort 1and could hardly be classed as a village. It is the location of the \Advent College. 'here are at present some dozen houses.

Page  176 (CT.;\ PTIER XV. MAPLE VALLEY TOWNSHIP. The first petition for the erection of the township of Maple Valley was dlated on Decmeber 5, 1863, and contained the nalmes of the following resident freeholders of the township of \Vinfield: E. R. Glenwood, Daniel:. Knight, Allen Mlaconmber, Isaac Gileo, C. C. Johnson, Moses Swarthout, Francis Strang, -I. S. Barton, Nicholas Whitesel, Seth Beal, James S. Smith, Albert D. Rust, Charles -1I. Blanding, who were residents of town I2 north, range 9 west, and John Codly. Cornelius Sulivan, James Ferguson, D. S. Applelby, Wilimn Maile, F1. Iootc, Jacol) Ferguson, Charles Parker, Patrick Gahan, Patrick Cain, \Viliiam C.ody and Lewvis J. Moses. T'his petition was to have been presented to the board of supervisors at their regular session on January 6, I864. The notices \were duly posted, but whether it was not presented to the board or they rejected it at that time is not known. But it is safe to say that it was presented, as it is found among their early (documents and in all probalbility they failed to act on it at this meeting, for another petition with the same reqiuest was presented at the next meeting. The latter petition was signed by the following: Lewxis J. Moos, Charles Parker, Jacob Ferguson, James lerguson, Peter Kain. Patrick Galhan, Patrick Lynch, Charles Blanding. \\'illiam Cody, James Cody, Tdward F. Foot, James Appleby, Albert 1). Rust, \lfred Rust, I. R. Ellenwood and Seth Beal. This petition was (lated on Fecruary 17, I864, and is the one acted upon by the board of supervisors. The supervisors acted upon this petition on February 17, I864, and ordered that the new tow\nship be duly organized and called Maple Valley. The first election was held at the house of Edward F. Foote, on the first Monday in A.pril, I86., and Lewis J. Moos, Jacob Ferguson and Chairles Parker acted as judges of the election. The territory organized into the new tovwnship consisted of town II north, range 9 west. ORIGINAL LAND ENTRIES. Section i-James Lively, JasoIn Westaves, J. B. Barr. Section 2-A. F. and H. J. Orton, Jeremiah Ryan, George P. Demoray, J. B. Barr, Samuel S. Holcomb. Section 3-Jeremiah Ryan, D. A. Wilson, Peter Johnson,


Page  [unnumbered]

Page  177 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I77 Leroy R. Stiles. Section 4-Allen Wright, Philander Griswold, Moses Warner. Section 5-Peter Sanborn, Charles Parker. Section 6-Adriapa Miller, William AMale, Martin Ryerson, Rob W. Morris, P. Johnson, Junius Ryerson. Section 7-XWillianm Becket, James Ferguson, Howland Soule, Patrick Gahan, Elmey J. Blanding, Jacob Ferguson. Section 8-Alexander IT. Blanding, IPatrick Lynch, Cornelius Sullivan, Isabella Parker, Charles P'arker, Enoch lE;arl, Edward Foote. Section 9-Charles P.. Wilson. Section TO —Jeremiah Rlyan, A. J. and H. J. Orton, William Cody, Hiram 'routy, R. I.. Buchanning., A. S. 'rice. Section i -Allen Wright, Heber Cowden, Abel T. (Cowden, Charles Cowden. Section 12-Charles XV. House, P'arnclia House, Harvey 1F. Price. S. Rockefellow, Jason Wrestave, J. B. Banrr. Section 13 —Harrison Morgan, George Macomber, I.ouis S. Sovell. Section 14-Ilarrison AMorgan, (eorge Macomber, Peleg Soule, Michael Donahue, IMlary Keefer, E.immanuel Fralick. Section i5-Allen Wright, Jeremiah Ryan, Jeremiah Donahulme. John Sullivan, William Cody, William Sheehan, l)ennis C od, Patrick Cody. Section I6-Jamnes House, HI-lowland Soule, H-1ugh McGuire, l)avil R. Morrical, John Cody, Peter Johnson, Henry Purdly, (Charles Earle. Section 17 —William R. Foote, Emery J. Blanding, Ashael J. Root, James l.ively, Charles Parker. Section T8-Charles H. Blending, I.ewis J. Moore, -\shu Parks, WVilliam Watts, Charles J. Church, John WX. Denton, E'lias R. Ferguson, Ansel Adams, R. S. Halcolm, J. W. Dentton. Section 19-John l.oree, Nelson Marble. Thomas Almy, John B. 1letcher, Lewis M\oore. (Camlbyses F. Hinchman. Section 20-George Macomber, 1Elizabeth Richardson, W\illiam C. Tngraham, James B. Surram, Enoch Farle, \. Sylvester Ingraham, Alvin Davis, J. D. Lirnan. Section 21-Emerv Trufant, Daniel J. Reed, Soammi Cowdin, Anson Bellamy, Marvin Saxton. Section 22-G-(-eorge Macomwer, Emery Trufant, Marvin Saxton,.Seymour lamond, W\illiam Fitzgerald, )Patrick Gahan, James House, Owen \V. Garrett, William Duffey, George N. Morgan. Section 23 -Henry IMN. Cowkins, Emery Trufant, Harrison Morgan, George Macomber, Emery Trufant. Section 24-George Macomber. Section 25-George Sotke, L.eonidas Scranton. Emery Trufant, George Macmnober. Section 26 -Henrv M. Cawkins,,Emory Trufant. Section 27-Emory Trufant, George Macomber, P'eleg Soule, loren Curtis, James Turner. Section 28-George Macomber, William Almv. Russel N. Wright, T. Stevenson. Section 29 -George Macomber, Martin Mason. Section 30-Richard Williams, Malvina P. Fletcher, (ambyses F. Hinchman, Cyrus Hinchman, Philo B. Ingra(12)

Page  178 178 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. ham, William Brownlee, James Calkins, Robert Taylor, William H. Banks, Jr. Section 3 —John Buttolph, Michael Whitan, Philo B. Ingraham, Benjamin WV. Ingraham, 1)udley M. Ingraham, Simon Whelan, Edgar L. Grey. Section 33-George Macomber, John Buttolph, \illiam Herriff, Daniel Flick, IIenry Shatto, Jesse Blake, John B. Fletcher, Samuel Marble. Section 33-George Macomber, Samuel W\. Gibbs. Section 34 —Emory Trufant, George Macomber, IHugh Maguire, David B. Morrical. Section 35-Emory Trufant. Section 36-George Souks, Emory T'rufant, George MaIcomber, tEmorv Trufant. SOME OF THE EARLY SETTLERS. The permanent settlemnetn of Maple Valley township began in I858, when Heber Cowden, with his family, settled on the northwest fractional quarter of section 11. He was a native of Washington county, New York, whence he came direct to Jackson county, Michigan, in 1835, where he continued to reside until I858. On coming to Maple Valley he built a cabin and began a clearing, and continued to reside on this land until his death, in I862. His death was the first in the township. Mr. Cowden was a well, hearty man, but one day, coming into the house from his work, complained of feeling ill, and in live minutes he died of heart disease. The funeral took place at his cabin. He was buried on his own land, near the lake, in a beautiful spot. Michael Whalen came to the township about the same time. He entered the southwest quarter of section 3I and the west half of the southeast quarter of the samle section. Soon after his brother, Simon, came in. In June, 1858, E. J. 1Blanding, of Livingston county, New York, and his father-in-law, Tlowland Soules, of Vergennes, Kent county, came to Maple 'alley, which was then a part of Pierson. The latter selected several tracts of land, but did not become a resident. Two of his sons, James I'. and Benjamin Soules, subsequently settled in the township, liut at the time they entered their land several settlemients had alreadv been made. James and Jacob Ferguson. John, James. W\illiam and Patrick Cody and Patrick I.nch all settled in the township previous to I858, and all became permanent resilents. lames F'erguson settled on section I8, his brother, Jacol, on section 7, the Cody brothers, who were direct from Ireland, on section 15. Patrick Lynch settled on section 8. His daughter, Mary, who was Iborn in the summer of 186I, was the first white child born in the township. In the fall of I86o F. J. Blanding came in and settled on

Page  179 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I79 land which he had entered two years previous. The lumber of which the floor of his cabin was made was. hauled from Denmark, seventeen miles distant. In 1863 Mr. Blanding enlisted and served in the Tenth Michigan Cavalry as sergeant. and was subsequently promoted to lieutenant. In the meantime several other families had reached the township. Daniel Appleby settled with his family on section 7, and Peter Wood located just beside him. This covers the first settlers in this township, and after this period the settlement was made rapidly and the land was taken up by permanent settlers, who have made this their home and been the chief factors in placing Maple Valley township in the front ranks of the townships of Mlontcaln county. Maple Valley township has three general natural drainage systems. That of the northeast, of the southwest and the southeast. Muscalonge lake is the reservoir for the latter system, but the two former ones are merely small streams. The Pere Marquette railroad runs diagonally through the county fron the northwest to the southeast and furnishes an excellent means of transporting the products which are raised in the township, to foreign iarkets. Maple Valley township has three villages within its limits. All of these are located on the Pere Marquette, with Coral and Trufant, which are the largest, occupying positions in the opposite corners of the township, and Maple Valley, which is merely a small hamlet, occupying a position between the two. VILLAGE OF CORAL. In the fall of 186T Charles Parker came to the township iand settled on section 7. lie bought also the west half of the northwest quarter of section 9 from Charles Wilson, who settled in Pierson. Mr. Parker bought this eighty acres for the pine which grew upon it, intending to float it down Tamarack creek, and in pursuance of this plan, he put a considerable number of logs in the river. But the mill company of Toward City, considering this an imposition on them, brought suit against the lumber company for damages, and the practice or rafting logs was prohibited. Hence, when the saw-mill of Morris and Henry Stump was completed, Mr. Parker commenced the manufacture of lumber. When the Detroit, Lansing & Northern railroad was completed through here he laid out the village, which he called Coral. Wilson had cleared about an acre of land and built a log cabin. This was the first house in this vicinity, and was built when the country

Page  180 18o MONTCALM COUNTY, MICIIGAN. was a wilderness. The next was a log house built by Parker for his men while he was engaged in taking out logs. 'llisi mill, which had a capacity of twenty thousand feet per day, was the beginning of the business interests of the little village. It was burned, however, in 1874. Clayton W\ood soon after bought a lot, built a small house and opened a light stock of goods. This was the first store in the township. But he soon failed in business and turned his attention to farming, but subsequently renoved to Dakota. lThe development of the village from this tinie wNas rapid. James l'arks came from Indiana and opened a blacksmith shop. Ilrankinberger opened the next store. IThe saw-mill and dryer built by J. Potter Hart in I872 had a capacity of forty thousand feet per day. It continued in full oleration, turning out an iimmense quantity of lumber and employing from forty to sixty men, until the p)ine was exlhustted and the 1ill removed, inI I88o. A flouring custom-nill was built by (George Highlander. It had one run of stones for feed and one for flour. Charles I'arker, its founder, remained in the township until I88o. when he removed, with his family, to (regon. Situated, as it is, on the )banks of Spruce lake, which is only a small body of water, Coral lias grown anld proved a very nice location for a village. It has passed from a timlber camp to a very busy little village with a polpulation of approximately four hundred. It has never been incorporAted and its government is cInnleced witll that of the township. V I.iAGE OF TRUFANT. Trufant village was laid out on land entered from the government by Mr. T'rufant, xwho built a saw-mill here in 1872, which was the first run by water in the townslip. He sold out to J. B. Ilileman antd Jacob Hesser, who built a steam saw —mlill on the site of the old one. They later. added a shingle- and planing-mill, alnd elmployed eighty men. They averaged forty thousand feet of lumber and forty thousand shingles per day. The firm of Hileman & Hesser laid out the village in the year 1874, and lnamed it after Mr. Trufant, the first settler of this land, who moved to Mount Clemens and there died. The first building erected was a boarding house built by this firm an(t run by Samuel Barr. In 1872 T. H. Stimpson put up a builling for a hotel. He was a lmembler of the United Brethren church and subsequently went to preaching. The first store was opened by Herrick Fox. He built a small house and opened a light stock of goods, but (lid not remain

Page  181 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I8I long in the business. Philip Wilson opened a stock of goods in I873, and remained in business but four years. Frank Seymour started in the mercantile business il 'Trufant ill 1875 and closed out in I880. George II. Cowin opened a stock of drugs in 1877. Dr. J. T. Joslyn was the first p)hysician to locate in Tfrufant. Tle remained but a year, and then returned to Guernsey. He was succe(ledd lb Doctor -Halimmond(. The death of.Elmer Howey, in 1872, was the first in the village Trufant was first laid out, March 10, 1875, and three years later the town had grown until an addition was laid. This was (lone on March 31, 1879. Trufant is a \illage of allout four hundred inhabitants and is situated on the northwest side of lMuscalonge lake. This is the largest body of water in Maple Valley township, Cowden lake.alone rivalling it. Trufant, like (oral, is a very busy little town. Both are good markets for potatoes, stock aind grain. Elevators are located at both towns, and these do a good business. Both towns are supported by the trade which comes from the farmers, as there is no natural resource to give life to the town. MAPI.E VAII.Y VII.AGE. This hamlet was situated principally on land ownedl by William Fitzgerald, in section T5. He sold eighty acres to R. Kearney, who laid out the village in 1872. The saw-mill was built by Babcock & Ferguson in 1870. Soon after the village was laid out, Doctor Slawson, who was also the first postmaster, built a store and opened a stock of goods. He remained in business some years..\ hotel was built 1b Horace Sturtevant. The town of Maple Valley has entirely ceased to exist as a village, only a cluster of houses 1lmarking the place where it was laid out. STALIIAM \. IADU. Stalham W. ILaDu was born in Fishkill, I)utchess county, New York, February 28, I823, and died at Coral, Michigan, October 3, I910. He was the son of Jacob and Hlannah LaDu, who were old-fashioned Methodists, his father having been for many years a class leader. His parents were descendants of French Huguenots, who escaped to America from the massacre of St. Bartholonew and were of the party who afterward settled on the Hudson river. He was converted when about seventeen years of age. and early felt the call to preach the gospel. Severe sickness for several years prevented him from engaging in the work until, on his knees by his bedside,

Page  182 182 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. he promised God that if He would give him strength he would leave all and obey His call. He picked up such education as he could in the common schools, splent part of the winter of 1842 with a minister in reading and study, and later entered Red Creek Union Academy, where he spent two years pursuing such studies as would be best calculated to help him in the work of the ministry. In his twenty-second year, being out of funds, Mr. LaDu, with a young associate, went to Canada, where he secured a position as teacher in the county of Northumberland. Soon after opening the school he commenced preaching in the school house, with the result that several were converted and the community stirred. He followed the same course in other localities in Canada, with like results. Having united with the Canadian Methodist Episcopal church, he, at last, after a long struggle, decided that God wanted him to preach the gospel in Canada and he resolved to do so even though it might mean poverty and hardship. At this time he was married to Clarissa N. Gaffield and she willingly consented to share his lot and work, knowing fully what it would mean. Stalham W. LeDu joined the Bay Quinte conference in September. 1845, and was appointed to the Colbourne circuit as junior preacher. While on this circuit he had gracious revivals with splendid success. In I848 he was elected agent for the book concern, in which office he traveled through the connection. The next year he was appointed as pastor at Colburg. Ile remained here "preaching with fair success" until he was prostrated with nervous trouble and was obliged to leave the work. This was when he was but twenty-eight years of age. After a rest he partially recovered and was appointed presiding elder of Colbourne district. In addition to the district work he also had charge of the church at Belleville. While engaged in that work he was again prostrated. For three years Reverend LaDu was engaged in business at Brighton, after which he again went into the work and served several charges, on each of which he had gracious revivals until about 186I, when he was again made presiding elder of the Colbourne district, this time serving four years. From that work he went to the Detroit conference and spent three successful years in the Lake Superior district at Hancock and Calumet. He had revivals and built the first church building at Hancock and organized the first society at Calumet. At the completion of the work at Hancock he planned to go farther west, but while attending the Canadian general conference was prevailed upon by his former associates to return to them. He

Page  183 MONTCALM COUNTY, MIC-HIGA1N. I83 again entered the itinerary in Canada, laboring for three years, when his health failed entirely and physicians assured him that he would never be able to take up the work again. lie was greatly disappointed, but accepted the inevitable, and seeing an opening in 1874, came to Coral, where he spent the remainder of his long and useful life. \While in Canada, Stallham W. LaDu was a man of commanding power and influence in the church. IIe was one of the founders of Albert University and was a member of the board of managers. He was a dlelegate to every general conference while he was engaged in active ministry and was once elected fraternal delegate to the general conference of the United States. On coming to Coral he made his life a part of the life of the village. He entered the business life of the village by operating a lumber mill; he took an active and leading part in the religious life of the village and county through his association with the Methodist church. Reverend.La)u was often referred to as the pioneer temperance worker of the county, having inaugurated and led in the war against the liquor traffic that first made Montcalm county dry by local option. He was twice honored by election as a member of the House of Representatives in the Michigan I.egislature, where he served with such conspicuous ability that he was considered a leader. Ile was a fighter for the temperance cause while in the l.egislature and fathered some of the temperance legislation under which the tsate is now working. Stalham W\. I.aDu was prominent as a candidate for governor of Michigan and held the balance of power in the Republican state convention that nominated Russell A. Alger for governor. Governor Alger later appointed the subject of this article state oil inspector. Mr. IaDu was one of Governor Pingree's advisors and had a part in the nomination and election of that gentleman as chief executive of the state. During the Pingree administration Mr. IaDu was a deputy oil inspector and on the death of Probate Judge Fenn, Governor Pingree wanted to appoint Mr. LaDu probate judge of the county. He was a member of the hardware firm of LaDu & Baldwin, which did an extensive business in Coral for many years.

Page  184 CHA\PT R XV I. IMONTCALM T()'r NSIIIP. Montealn township bears the distinction of being tile pioneer township of Miontcalrn county. It was established before the county even took on a civil existence antl five years before the seconl township was established. It was officially organized on March 19. 1845, and took in the entire territory of the county, as then formed, except townshil)s () and 10 north, range 5 west, which later fornedl the towiship of Bloomer. MIlontcalm township was organized by an act of the state Legislature, andl although the act which organized Montcalm county was passed at a later date it did not affect the earlier organization of this township. The first town mleeting was held at the house of Anson lEnsign,.\pril 7, 1845. The minttes of this meeting give the business accomplished in detail and are given \verbatiml: "A record of the proceedings of the first town meeting, holden in the house of.-Anson lInsign, in said town. Stel)henl \Varrcn was chosen modlerator; George (tibson, Josiah Russell, E'than Satterlee and Rosecrans K. I)ivine were severally chosen inspectors of said meeting, between the hours of nine and ten o'clock in the forenoon. And after being duly sworn, the said Josiah Russell and Rosecrans K. Divine were (dul chosen clerks of said meeting, and the polls of said election w\ere duly opened, and the result was as follows. to wit, the whole numbler of votes polled for an\ one office was thirtv-six.".t this election the following persons were duly elected: Supervisor, Frederick \\orden; clerk, Josiah Russell; treasurer, Rosecrans K. Divine; justices, George Gibson, Stepheln 11. \Warren, John Green and Elihu Fortner; assesors, Saimuel 1). Barr and Ekthan Satterlee; commissioners of highways. \Vestbrook l)ivine, Edwardl Plett! and lyman H. I'ratt; school inspectors. IT. N. Stinson, Josiah Blradish and.nanias \'oVrdenl: directors of the poor, Volney B1elding and Josiah Bradish; constables, Henry S. Halford, Jonathan Gould, Lorenzo Whitney and Lyrnan -H. Pratt. Montcalm originally contained some fourteen congressional townships. but as the other and later toxwnshil)s were formed its boundary was gradually reduced until its present boundlaries were reached and it contained but one congressional township. It lies in the second tier of townships from the south and borders on Kent county on the west. It is bounded as follows:

Page  185 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 185 Pine township on the north, Sidney on the east, Eureka on the south and Kent county on the west, and it is designated in the government survey as township io north, range 8 west. 1 here are several lakes of considerable size in this township and many smaller ones, most of which are drained by small tributaries of Flat river. I'his stream, which enters the township on section 4, after a very tortuous and meandering course, Ilowing through sections 4, 9, I6, 17, 18, 19, 30, 31, 32, enters Eureka from the southwest quarter of section 33. This river furnishes excellent natural drainage for the farms in this section. The steep and precipitous banks along its course and the rapid fall of its current also furnish excellent water-power, which has been utilized to good advantage. Ilat river has had an enviable career, for in the (lays of the early clearing it bore its countless millions of logs to the mills in the older settled districts. It is rather reniarkalle to note that in a single year, exclusive of the logs manufactured into lumber at the mills in Mlontcaln, Pine and other townships, one hundred and fifty-four million feet passed through the chute at the little village of Gowen to the mills below. Hundreds of men, horses and cattle were necessary to stubserve this interest. But this natural resource was soon to be exhausted and that period of stagnation in business which inevitably follows the exhaustion of natural resources that have for a long period furnished constant and profitable employment to large bodies of men, was soon felt. The lulmber interests in Montcalm, like those of other localities, were pushedl to the limit and soon the lumber camps ceased to exist and in their place large fields of stumps of these giants of the forests were the only markers of this once thriving industry. Then the interests and pursuits of the inhabitants who had determined to make this their future home must needs be turned along other lines of business. The soil in this section was found to be the best. It was a sandy loan and agricultural pursuits soon began to claim the attention of the settlers. The pine timber has all been obliterated and onlly the stutmps of these pioneers of the forest remain, and thev are utilized for fencing, and in their places fields of grain or potatoes show the versatility of the early settler. Thus when lumbering ceased to Ie profitable the settlers took up the 'more stable business of farming and have made even more progress than had been at first hoped. IAND ENTRIES. Amlong those who purchased from the general government lands situated in this township were the following:

Page  186 j86 MONTCALM COU.NTY, MICHIGAN. Section I-J. B. Barr, Jacob A. Davis, Thadeus A. Laurence, Henry 1. Caukins. Section 2 —Richard M. iPatrick, Jacob A. Davis, David R. Hart, Williamn Burt, George Rossman, T. A. Laurence, Henry M. Caukins. Section 3-George Rossman, Richard 'Patrick, Benjamin Joy, Marshall Stark. Section 4-David Carpenter, James Davis, Joseph Iellshaw, Samuel B. i'cck, C. Crane, 1). 1'. Clark, Sainuel Peck, C. A. Worden, C. P. Morsc. Section 5-George Loucks, Jacob Davis, C. Crane, Saniuel B. Peck, Benjamin Joy. Section 6-Jacob A. Davis, John Clark, C. Crane, Claudius B. Nichols. Section 7 —George Loucks, Eliphalet Gregory, Greenville 0. Holmes, Levi B. Gregory. Section 8-Warren S. Ielt, Charles Seymour. Section 9-Josepl Fellshaw, Allen Thompson, Robert t1. Smith, William Degulice, Solomon Elyah, A. Godfrey, Jamles Davis, Charles Seymour, Henry NI. Moore. Section lo-Fite Rossman, George Rossman, Hiram Rossman, Eiios T. 1eck, Samuel B. -Peck, Jacob Chapman, Charles E. Vanderburg, William Atwvill, 'holmas N. Stevens. Section I-Benjaiiiiii Osborn, James Brown, George Rossmaan, Thadeus Laurence, Samuel B. Peck, John G. Morgan, Henry Osman. Section 12-Thadeus A. Laurence, John W. Kent, Harmonius Brower, lEdward 1. Jones, D. Towsley, Philip Leech, Peter Brown, George Bower. Section 13 —Hiram RossmIan, Leonard Rossman, Michael MlcCabe, Joseph B. IMurphy, Christian Sodtman, E. II. Jones, D. Iowsley, Martin Sebalt, C. Sedtiman. Sectioi 14 —Abel Iawlcy, Ebenezer Balcomn, Jamies i1. Brown, Janes Feltonl, Iiram Rossinan, John G. Morgan, Jamies R. Brown, Johln Devier. Section 5- -Enos T. Peck, Rebecca Pierson, Jamies I;elton, H. Rossman, Sanmuel I. Peck, J. A. Peck, S. Kent. Section I6 —Chapin and Booth, (). Loomis, Anson Bellamy, John Temp, H. M. Fuller, George W. Bellany, Joseph Burgess, John Breitzmer, George Fiek, C. Vogle. Section 17-Abel French, Henry Moore, Charles Seymour, Whitney jones, Robert Slmith, \illian- Degalia, lEzra Jones, Wilson Morier, 1;. W. Worden, II. I. IFuller, H... Smith. Section I8 — lorton \Vilcox, George.oucks. 1.. Gregory, Sanmuel Gregory, \Vhitney Jones, William Kitts, Allen Thomnplson, John Shaw, Frederick W. Worden. Section I9-Legrand Cannon, Daniel Jones, John Alma, Ira Porter, J. B-. Dickinson, Martin Shearer. Section 20-SamunIel H. Combs, John Miller, Ira Porter, Alfred B. Miller, John Ball, F. Ransom, Leander Cole. Charles Seymour. Section 2I-W-V. and W. C. Ransom, Leander Cole, Charles Seymrlour. Section 22 -Elias Small, James Grant, Enos T. Peck, Robert Burdick, William Cook. Robert Burdick, Jr. Section 23 — Caleb Cooper, Joseph Whitbeck, James Grant, William Toby. Section 24-Josiah Todd, Edward Straley, Hiram Rossman, Sidney Todd, William McCrudy, Michael McCabe, Eliza Will

Page  187 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I87 iams, Martha Rossman, Garrett J. Van Allen, Edward If. Jones, William H. Johnson, William Sanderson. Section 25-Enos Wetherell, Nathan High, George Rossmnan, Henry Osmnon, Charles Cross, Stephen Cupp, Potter Kelley,.. F uller, Obadiah E. 1Fuller. Section 26-Michael Gordon, Enos \Vetherell, John Kent, Harvey Allen, William H. Ellsworth. Section 27 -Joseph D. Stearnes, Isaac Miller, Richard W. Wells, Dennis Arnold, John Churchill. Section 28-Charles Seymour, Whitney Jones, William Degalia, George M. Pierson. Section 29-Alfred L. Driggs. Section 30-Luther Lincoln, Ira Porter, John Almy, J. L. Morse, V. Belding, Legrand Cannon, Edmund Bostwick, Philo Beers, Ira Porter, J. L. B. Kerr, A. L. Briggs. Section 3T-William W. Baker, J. F. Smith, Andrew P. Crowell, Hilton and White, W\inslow Dodge, Henry Hilton, Richard Hilton, Ira Porter, Edwin A. Hayden, Louis Merrifield. John D. Wilson. Section 32-John D. Wilson, Jacob W. Petty, Chauncey Cole, John Ball, John Green, Jerome P:'ease, Abel Avery, W illiam Degalia, Francis Potter, Samuel Demorest. Section 33 —Samuel Hamilton, Whitney Jones, Ransom 1. Wood, N. E. Horton, XMartin Shearer, Samuel B. Peck, Jacob XV. Petty, Ilenry M. Moore. Section 34-Jacob W\. Petty, Sarah Vanderhoof, John Churchill, Lewis E. Smith, Chauncey B. Miner, Abram Mann, XVilliam Harris. Section 35 -levi J. Allen, I.ewis Buck, David K. Goodman, George Rossman, Fite Rossman, Barney Bigler, Thomas H. Hartwell. Section 36- Charles Hubbs, Jacob Reblman, John G. Reker, Henry B. Tipp, Squire M. Newberrv. ARRIVAI. OF THE LINCOLN FAMILY. Luther Lincoln, who entered the land at the junction of Black creek and Flat river, was the first settler in Montcalm township, and one of the first in the county. His entry at that time comprised the northwest quarter of section 30, upon which, near the junction referred to, he built the first cabin in the township, and with a son he continued to reside there and in that vicinity manly years. He is said to have been peculiar and eccentric in many particulars, but, upon the whole, a man of many estimable qualities. During the first years of his stay he cleared a small piece of land and raised several crops before any other settler entered the township. Some years later he danimmed the river and built a small mill with an upright saw; this was in section 30. It employed two men, who, beside Mr. Lincoln and his son, were probably the only ones in the township. This property passed into other hands before his death. His mind for several years before this event

Page  188 188 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICIIGAN. is regarded as having'been clouded, and it is to this fact that his business reverses and disasters are attributed. His son, who subsequently removed to Kent county, was killed by lightning. In 1844 L. I. Pratt and his brother-in-law, S. D. Barr, bought an interest in tle mill property of J. I. Morse and one Belden, who had previously been taken into partnership by Luther Lincoln. The wife of S. D. Barr, a sister of L.. f1. Pratt, was the first resident white woman in Montcalm tovwnship. Her daughter, Sarah Dett Barr, was the first white child Iorn in the townlship. It was about the year 1845 that an incident occurred which shows the strong reverence of the Indian for his ancient customs and superstitions. In the spring of that year the band known as the Blacksmith family, being a branch of the Ottawa tribe, wvent, as had been their custom, to the North for the purpose of making mlalle sugar. \While engaged in this avocation one of their numller, a woman, was taken suddenly ill and diedl. The band set olt at once to retlurn to dlel)osit the corpse in tihe cemetery( of their forefathers, located near Greenville. In the northern part of Montcalm county -probably in the regione of Six lakes-they obtained a canoe, and bv means of it descended the river as far as,incoln's mlill, known then as Barr's mill. I-ere they desired 1,. IT. Pratt to take his teaim and wagon and convey the corpse to its destination. manifesting- a great anxiety that the ceremony of burial should take place just as the SII reached the mIeridian. The horses ecre soon attaclhed. and the cltrpse. xvrapll)ed in a cloak, pIlaced in the center of the wagon box, while the mourners arranged thenselves on either side. The rough corduroy roads seemed to forbid rapid travel, and through respect for the deeal, Mr. I'ratt curbed his team to a moderate pace. But the Indians, watching the sun. as the hour of noon gradually drew on, manifested every symptom of impatience, and finally urged the driver to drive more rapidly. To their infinite relief the horses took a swifter pace, the corpse bounded from side to side, and they retained their places with difficulty. It is probable they had never been in a wagon before, and their glee wvas unbounded. Upon reaching the burial place they dug a shallow grave, and, with a spoon, knife and bowl, as an introduction of a faithful squaw to the happy lanld, they interredl the corpse. This tribe subsequently moved to the North. S. D. Barr was later a resident of. Belvidere township, while L. H. Pratt, who was one of the first postmasters in Montcalm county, m1oved to Fairplain township.

Page  189 mo NTCAILM'CoLT'NTY, MICHIGAN.18 189, On Jtine 19, 8184, ]Frederick NV. \VoideIn entered the south half of the southeast qutarter of section i8. tiloil wxhuch the x illage of Gowen is situated. It has been assertedi that Lieutenant Worden, of the United States navy, and celeb~ratedI as the coinmaniler of tilt Monitor' during its action with the reilel rain 'Id errinlac,' was b~orin here. Ihis, however, is hot authentic, althoiugh hie liveul here wvhen a child wi th his parents for several years. The house builit i\, NMr. Wvor(Ien as a uIxveilino, for his fainiilv stood across the roadl from wNhere tile brick hotel built by J iiiex GowVCn st~ool. Onl A'uu-st 26. i8-14, Xir.. \Vorden sold aii iliterest ill tile wxiter plriv'ilege to Volnev and Thlomas Belding. uind tile coipainv ininiidiiiately erected a saw-m~ill. FIRST TOWNShI1P MEETING. A~bout the Vyear 1844 Anison Flnssi'n camell in aild purellased the wvater pri\,ilege oui the nlorthwuest qutarter of cectioii 30 w xlicll place lie built a damn anti saxv-iiil aned goave emplllivineilt to a coiisiderable force of meii. Ill a sallal house buiilt near this m-illl and owxedi liv 111i1 the first towvnship meetiing in the counuty wvas helul, in tile sprilig of i 845. This lull subsequiently piasseel into uhe possessioli of D. Underhili and later xvas osvned lby Ihenry W~atson, xxlio molvedi ilto the towvnshipi in i857. and( xxorked iii it for one dollar per dlay. in 1845" John D. Wilsonu. a ilati\ve (uf Huddersfheld, Eingland, came to N'dichigaii. aiid il 144Ii dontcalimi, and entered llel in the south Ipart of section 3 111 32. lie, cleareti the brush frouii tllirtv7 acres. wvhiclh he plowed during the sunitnlder. He xvas ullilarried 111(1d ioarded in Eureka wxlile doing tilis wvork. Tibis wvas the first niiprovemnic-t iladle in the toxvnship, aside froii that miadie isv Luther Linicolii. Mr. \Wilson subseqiuentlv disposed of Ilis land aild started for.\sistraiia, sillce wvhicli tulle nothinlg defin'ite has beein heard of hini. Iii I845 ihis lirother. joe W~ilson, wutlh his wxife and thre e children, miovedi to idlnia counity aiie settleul ill Otisco, wx'lere le lived until the wvinter Of 18-46-47, Wheii lie entereul eighty acres of laud on sectioll 6, in Eureka towvnsliip, and1( biitit a cahill, into Which lie iloved soill afterwvard. In 1846 lie sowved to whleat a part of the tract ill Montcalil brokell uip by his lirother txvo vears previously. It xvaS the first piece of any coinsideralsle extent sown ini the toxvnship. 1-lavinig secturedl eighty acres of his brother's land, bie took dlowni the cabiin which he had built anth remloved it to this land, where he agaill set it ulp. It was the first house, aside from those at the mills, anti its occupant wvas tlle first in the towvnsliip to engage exclusively in agricultural

Page  190 1(0 (90 MONTCALM.COUNTY, IiMICHLIGAN. lpursiuits. Ilie traded hils land( in I.,tirela fo r eighty acres on sectionl 34, ONVit.ld lV John \V I Petts 1)iiit a hons;ci upon it, and resided there two vears. Ini I I4 hi Wtl \illia ti Ionintait \\Winit.m diel ttiii Was buOriedi beisidce hils sistcr InI Otisco tow nsip. 'I his was probdaby thle lurst ileath InI thle townlship. as Sarah, the votingest. child otf Ji li \\ olvertoin. whose (death is osually collsiilcredl the first, (1i( not (Ile olitil stomt weceks- afterward. She was, liowever, the firtif situcr11 clIn tlic towsnslltt the ceitietery beitng SitUnated oil tile cast linle of I. r tfithCi' s I n1 ii 11ad dli tIti ySoulth 0f the qutarter )o-st. It beicamte a puln ic toria p ii ce ( ndt is tihc Iit-St ini the towtilsiiip. \hoiit the vecar in,48 Jolhn \\ nixrtoii settled oii the sonithw~est quarter of section -I, hatirmo at tile S;iiiit tint cntclrcd land adjoining7 Eutreka tcown Slhji ipuii vlii w ich hie built its bam on Ihis siection o)f Moimttalit previoils toi that tunle was, knitmis as isIincoln' s I tlls, l)int froiii that tutu to thuc present hals licci Called Wo llseciton P I ilts. Hi's t Inlil- conjsistedl cif, I tN'e tind si' clhildrieni. Mr. \\ tlvet c li ilici 1,IIV ni eacris sinlcc. and his wiidoss whoii becamie the wcife of t i0ti tttl ii I it In advancedl age. Jolin hiTcrofit anti Jit)se llt rowt it ierc tile text to reach the Utown t'isii 'Flie settlei i oi sectmii bu1itlt catl ins tid itatde siore other Imprtioxvenents, lint. seliiiig. mitt soittit.it i tiiei 1m10ved wa>vy ii5Nl i vm lit Fi OlR DEFIRi BAlT. Itt 14941 J itoh (tir \\-lii hacd entercd 1an oiilO section 33 lc itt o residl pcrniaitttli Iit thte t owitlhiii At titis- ntie, being sitgde lie itoardeii wisthl tic \\1ilsIt Wuttle Ikiiit gtt somte tInprovemenchts ii liis laindl Amton uther things lie cicircil 'it 'icre of. t routid aiti soxvcd it to ishie it tot s (leei alatt nl iptoit whihel lic suicceeied 1I ii illi ui, mtani (leer. \Ilr Fain snbscituently ot tlic (ildcst sittlcr Iit thte toon ittp. I )iii ii th( first 'tics ot lils stay he Iciscpit I) I Sctailts tlt c it\'t to reachtl tltc tiwnshuipi liii a silt le itano hIsuiditl wxitt Mr. \Wilsott, ats diii Jacob) (arr, whilc ilttlri vitg his farto, ti chi comprtttisedl tic soutliwest quarter Of sec~titA is7. Mr iStearrns was also xcery c \tc 15v1vii e-lageditcl it liitil ihcritig. itavitig, vit ed icier-ti ittills itvariot TIN A iI illl, I larrmis Goodmitant, Lotuis istich ii ti tutut (1linretill are liiitil t he pitontcrs itt titt soutthi tart 7c1 the towns nhtip (Chutrchtill settlced ott titi wx st hiti t if tile, iorthicust qutarter of secticiti 34 lici ii the~ west ituti itt tite 111thfti vist qlaiter osf sectiout R, tIch iii thic iou ti half of the' utortht

Page  191 MONTCALAT COUTNTY, -MICHIGAN.I)I 19 I cast quater IL o tlie s Iml section. Tile)' were all very promlilnent in the affairs Af till LollIty an(1 township for a numlber of years. Anion- ti- eairliest settlers in the central part of the towvnship was \.obert 11tirdicik 55IM110hail beeni a soldier of 1812, 11nd who, wvitii a -overnlment. land( Nainalilt, liltere~li tile nortliie'st (Jilalter of seCtionl -2, wilere he bullit 2 1(1 lo- house 111d while lie l1vii iiitil. his ileath. 11is familyv. several ch11ldri o1 w111111 wCrC iiarrieii aiii lived~ 'Ill NessN York. eame a few secars aftter hi ar11riva. III 18 — hil'os Lrowvn, wvithi his smi~is, ii. 11111d Silas, aiid fonr daiih-11 (ers, tws L (If whoiii105 I l Ivr mriedl is were also hisl twvo soils. reaeched ihe tiw I sIIop) Thie to\ o 1 eniaiiiii-t Idaughters were mnarriedl to William 1111 RobLit.101i -iLk, -fr IYh ila tt~er lter Ir Lsiiiel.(II 015laili elntei'ei 1)1 his father, while William (IcuLL ii L 111d Lilterl- bii ushi fathier-iii-lasv, lines lBrowvn. Aniithier Soiii-iii-L'I.W TilllCS IW, lixLlitLIrLi tilL illIlthwevst qunarter (If secti~ll 23..Ni Id)le IAl1 Lbc wiL ti(lie neLxt toi penietralte the wililerness iii the northea s tart ot the t 1w151 hip 111 'Ils tamiiiii at that time consisited LIf aL Nvi fe all three Lhildrii. Lii cih(Li ILMc1Cabil diidi in 1875. _At 1wl 'ililiL tlhe-L LettleLents xxcre inlaie there Ivars 11( elearimi,' to the niirt h in thiiis Itxxn by p 'Jame lo own cleared a riaid from thec state roadl to lis il ILL in i 8;.,there leieu a't thit n~o settlement ilLtwx ll luiii anid the 'IIi It I i-istill Ai iiiild was soi n a fterwarid comipleteii to tilL smix-mill starteilli Iv 'snics i Locs Liin tilL scilool sectioni north Ilf tilL like. [his miii1 ivs 11Sil1L qoi oils biuirned 'nol. wai' never rebulilt. ThLs Iaiiiiilieis IIvc heci L iumiiber (If sears, lietoii mxI\ other settle(((lie ( 01cr wL (Il ill tiii 1111 ite ist pairt o)f the twiisviisiii I his hlL ihitv" '1)wll'g LcoveLreC w iith (lie. I iotLrii Iii iiix iiistacies tii rapid diive lopmen~it, 'lul thieie Wellt so iii tr ict',lL~ d1c( liiw luouulierimw 111rp10c It II vcri laite perio(di Jilt they are all '-onme at presenit. Sectiolil 23, hosx'exer, ('ecil ci twx f inilics aboult this t no1C SV iVsL ti J 1cks5011i md A\ ostin BarrIett, neitheri If xxhcii remainied loop'. 11arreLtt 0 Lcilt initi tilt, lvii liii 5515 iv'L'reportedi kil~le( T. L iiiersoi puirchiasedIlii 0 thcout iallf ot tile inithicast- qttar'tLr of SCit0on 22froii Jioe 'IY'isoo! wh10 (IO LtInas aI3Cnit fur losephx )\ott, of ScLhuy llr Iounts', Ness 'Ilwrl Wlii liii A\ PLum- wii as nicoog the tirst tci settle in thL iiirtii part of Moiti'iiiii IHLe iltL rci tilie norIthl half of the normthwxst quar1teri of scetioo 14. anOl 1ienthe 1W hrst impri ivemlents in this plart of tie tossnship. He -leillos~l, hut a Iterwvards returned xxith his brcotheLrs, Geor-o F-., James S. 11111.\ ixandeur, all o)f vhioiii becanic pirulaaucrit settlers, andi madL the prinicipaiiI i'iis'r~eiiieiits onl thieii re'spectiv'e farms.

Page  192 tNi(JNir(i\itm cm-\-rv miXilct (;.\1\ llit i83o j1)11 \\; tI tn ai 111 j012 Wij lson ca-~iStcdl by other settlers HIi hired H\ictitt1. \\itititle, lof ~ K elit oo11tv h( Usach.i Sh\\ol dertIis tarvot. titl 1II, \i\tits the lirst selmtf t11ali-lit III the otmvosllop l. tYe ext Selwot I hoose wais I iii t ott SeCtil(it 11 rescol (1(c1 Itie f titer 'i n.11tittcit; t itistitst tisNTS ((Ill whlichi tIheir htit Is(tell m1 i tiitl ill tilte numbtel ten acre~s I viteil IT etelh vene, (accq(ti~ljt to tlie tsesiitt ol of thait seat ) indlicated In t let tollos\seetittiss Ac res. sects ~ cs \res. Sautitel PIan- - -...2c 77;l I1211 tstetr s 2.- 7 j -17. iS. 21-t1m427 cor \V\'isertt iho 17.. l8riggx.. 25.0t (t14 se~o ll \\iloi --------- I Sci6 FK. II. ltitrrioe11too - -_20 4c1 fhit \\ilsoi. 3 I Oet lers - Vt -p - l - - I t It lttlcct I. Alich4 4 itttI A loor 1. Letw Iis Iic( So Ic 132c153 D.t ill Is lboth it i 6o 1,V( I- N lIi I - StG " cei tr le eZItttlt1k r tleitist ill. l etrlp r f u tailxa- i a lie I o()terealNItll ),ItItilto 1112 sI lseptett;i SItios I to f istl ndteir li itailed fo tl lo: t til~l i ita( l I c lttstile t'11 li- IW It i11~ ksi llt o;I hiotell.s St~titliIwi lot to'itA cei Alil PAlt. eI lid (i tlI- ttlw iali \A1iilueodt teit elincsch tIil ics i uiIii ill s he (tiitiv cllmAl itAAloN later lt12c2lwhirC tile (tfe (It li I` Is ii t t411 it tlan lived l I Ctrleans. ti o)I(f the tttt tihii1-. he lirst nititisi-ter sths preachied ll this secttliAl tVtaS ReVOtiend \lleii, tsht 1 ors titmSie visited lie titill re.ifilanly seversy ttxti) ttccsli~t1 a eltiollliteted iI lIt services:. kThe will 'had, iii thre 111c1(1 itttitle

Page  193 MONTCALNM COUNTY, NMICHTGAN.10 I(,, passed th rough -many different hands, hut h-od heen little chianged. In1 1870 James (award htillt ani addition to it, w hich wa the first iriprovemelit made it it ffr m any years. The samte tear Hencry Smith and J. Ml. Fuller opened a store InI a building- previously built bv Janit s Caiward for a repair slhop. Alexan0der Hewjitt sticeeeded theni in about a ier. InI 1871 the Detroit, Laiising, & Nortlierit railway was ( oitplctc d thtrotigh the township. and Jamoes (.otveit. ltMViitg1 itirlt-iMSel the mill lproperty troit the Flat River Booii OmtptiiivOt p~latted the villa~ge whicheairsiv I iii title. The first train that lassed ove-(r t le mail a fteir its completi in 1brought biriek for the large hotel at thi vllage It wa-;s lie lirst briek hiotel inl ihe cotintv, oil withits ftirnitore eos~t ti ftecit thoumsand dolllais.;Iiile(s t t(ueeli, tVIR lit~ mliii herb)c be oinsOideted the fouiiideir vf the village tt 1h11-i 'ii Laneas~tir eouiiyh I en viiithntia. Ireviotis to his et tleteitet ili Alo)iitealti lie tad ~eeti p' c-(lpe lritmipatlly- iii taking eoittraets onl large 1ptili -ienpi-oveiiients, aniug wvhi ch w crc the ttuiicl tiider the Lake at ii ag intl seveiral other simtilar Nvtoit s at C inctiniiati anti itl the LCast. Gmcitli fiiist 1hoie die tame ttf t re-or' Mil a ntl latter thi~ twas lroppelI fttr IKavteotd. jtst wtltt this latter lituite tv-s giveti or- with wvhat it onieitateil is tot kttotwt tit the writer. -iFle nanit C otten teas giveit tlte village ait thei litite t) If ts platting til Notenilir I7, /1i871i It was itaiieil in hionor oif Its scititw proprietittoi. (d. J-linie ( tveit. H einrv Alt I - tiller was a partiner Itt the pl ittine mlan LIvitl mt tit iti thts Itx, twit hitcth was dltic lhv E'. FI. Tines-, stItve I-IVcVC ' lbi t II(,~e -icthlit ith the toil t one( iii I ountealm ti wvishii.li. as never atattaiet tlic sie intl proport iotni whiIch wtas httpetd fttr lhy the iuriginid proprieto-tis Go~vaen i1;iou c nitelcitt buosiness canter for the farmiers (If this twilttishItp lbe hlotinc-ss hi uses e itcri eslpeeially tot this elass cif tratde and tlte life Ittf ttc t wn its miiintitainted through titese efforts. ( 13)

Page  194 ('11APTI-1\1 \VII. Ill tihe I1101thw'cSterii piart, ill tiiit -,ccttii 115haich wii 0111lls, s hen thet Commli i\( h -~ 1( (1 \\ lilizedi 111(1 istcd o 11( thul~lp IeIiiindii 2 1ti1ltll li Iis 1) 1 1(til I -tr This las~() ihealic \r' 111/e divide (ildi formed~ til t tvilt'ip iit'1 i\vi i dS i Wi lhid alld i aIci V alley, t lltie ( r(dii cIt Pi er (Is tioitis'iii'iii li't tlimtiu. 1 ii it( oil ilc01 lly(' liliilzcd' u tilt 1chrtmrv o 'Iie ssts o ii' oh tht illetttit rs tilld Pitits( ii I, I iiiiilti itu ii i)fthi- ii' it iioli liii t~l mitptacet hi\i. hue ii iC itI li wh'i'e ie l lu st settlers.t 'be -IcleIt 'iiiiS' '1115ii ii thastis '1111 it 'tiit~l.ii Iad 'iuiitit'i'i 1111111o,' 4 lu itlwas l i r111 lii tli ti'ir ii ar li/A tlnit tiii'iiitill's t rni lii a Th r' las ' which ~ hal l is, 1))retr at riuie 11111( (II 7,lIlsil i 181171. "H'It'a ilehu liiiit I e i- iir 1 (Iltilie r )toIf sars- hut 8,S this i tilIe i es met ringi hi chia 'Irliiiiixc t hItiii toin if lt't wiship.A re u d to iit~is ars scsheli ufs litc si-liho 11lred (II' ihe l(iitli hr oitl o uh tlam eara t riv Mai'. Vallev, m tile ~()Ilt 1 b 1115, \ lit allot ()I \'iltile wst. v N ~ a~( Su'p ae itioii il — thct Saull ici ii, \ai'ru'ii-Sthliiicii partth Iii th — Amsr paice h'iioieldU~ i~t'knoug fw-fitsNteuh Ililirdisll \Vs hllkc N \ithihs Nice.atedi'hill 4 — eterl, N. loeran 1 SzIarl H1"11 ries'.vl aM t tllr was -p 5 11ev. Saee-it hure (i-Juhiirhditi'e \V 'i'llu wi.lsteirif pai I i til tIwlishliai coi-lills Iiai

Page  195 MONTCAILM COUNTiY. MICHIiGAN.15 I (-.) s 1.1fa An5 idiewsV Wiliam fgrs-c I 1b1c iie S iiions \iI Tnrner, Beiijaiiiii o )i~t S( tnii/ I(ii Hll)I i~e Se ction 8-\i-nlirCXv Hu-r pjniciiii'g Alva dirow)X\1 ridgc, j'ines- B radshaw XV a ide Shook, Ieter 1.Van Ienisclkoin. Sec tini o-O rin 1. Nicc I Ii is AIIcyV Scc(tioli io ILcvi Strubl~e ()riiiln \ice I` ii ABkv Kendrici(k Kice, Otis N\Vilson, \\ 11am Bader. SectiOii iT mliii IsV1~s- di~Sh-rv N ens, \ii miiiis W\ormlcii [ S. Ferguison. Scctim-.ii 12 N) Virrcin\ WeIllmani Jeeiaihii Nl r~ivdN Wilia mi Warrenii EdwVXinl S. IParishi Seth Ilec Alexa \nder Wa\\ mtts Jonlsoni I. Rcese J nmes Tiart. S. [1 leii iii lic Secitioni I ii 1 ubt C. I IIet(ler, 1 ia Ss I1Z Feiiisoii Thomnas I 'mIi 1.111 \N Is iii I) X Thimi s \~ Ismbiin-oii, 11(111v II iiikld N)illiamii Dowiiiaii. Ni ii Stewart, I rcil C, I aikc Sectc'(" I 4-( cnr-e Wo od, George L.. (Tink liie \hlwttl lPmnlial NMc luaidi Ii an ieis L l-ielincr, 1l 1 GraiX \Ianson iStnd-iidii S(ct-Ioni i 5 Iria Imlmnti Icniir A \ ( nrpe ntcr Joseph tjr t i i. Scctioni i i 1) nne I ( aii Gc nr- I) NMorrikle. Chariles NNW si Isaiah \llc, f 11 ciii W N)filI, Ii'einui T. I'o\, TI ciii R siiiXn Vii avid Cou( iirser. sectinii i /-Aiidi1cXX I\ a li-"cilil~'iG AlvIi 1Trowlridge, (corge Baiik. Sect1on i S Ii rlem fIol lnw I'ctci S. CViii Tnimothiy NI FdvII Saimueil Cornell, N)lc mm I Vc N)I miio \Aarii Carpentcr I Femdcrimck Hill. Sctc ion ii Iircimzo lidcr, (harln Iv-I Iloicl Sectionl 2ci iidreXV H arniciilii Alvahi Trowiclrild-c' \olnexv (CXV iis hrl, Ii IIiiniiaI Nathaniiil Siiith. Sectimmn 2 i-AX h wi iidgein cW)illia Hn.I Nflclmk, N)Icey 1'. R\evnclis, ILewXis Sm-deri I liii N n NVIcct. i nds i-tim c mliii Isice, IXsilah Allev, Georo Ir-t Nathianic I Sniith ili -o cti~ 2m I CVwi: N Meli)sh i- Ca-h B. Rice. Isaiah Mnintlev. Bcnii niiii \cv,. s a 1)-irl 9estoii Gecorg m. Ga(tcs, Mortmii NV. 1- ilih, Ransoni I~ \\V01)1 Sectionl 2 1I cnrn N.mn Stemniiir-, laties I-I BriayX aiiitii Mortoni N) I- 'noifsli 1Davidl CriaVii Tiiliis 1 Fie](d, PsansomiIN Wmocd Jaiies II, 1Filil Siiiioi S unoes. T] C ra i Ti _ T. Pomtter. Sectionl '4 Mi lton IIInc 1)ter Davi Dil )V I is- \) illimii Ii 'illci- W~illiami N'ercach \)Wiiaurn FmlXwurcls II cnrs Hleiiklc, NIartin NVcllcru 11 ir mil BickIeiic II Ircul F Taylor, Dilaniel \Abrcv. Wlcliington ( pi~iciiaii Johlii I ickiiell. Sectioni ',5- Nhlton II. Tinder, N\ illianiiI Ehdardi I Sectiii (il 26 TicohCb C i ralnc Gilbiert E. Fish, S~anford MIiiis, Toh11 1dVVaiis. (;cor-e NI. Pritt, lcffersoni BrownX iDeg-rass, Fish. Section1 27-StepliIl) i I 1 ersoui, Iavid S. Piersoni Thomias Peck, Luithier INI Carpeiitcr 1 iiiis Ncvsc 1 clwarcl 'Snsv MarX -Nese Frederick H-all, TDm \ter ClIark, I lirient C Iarl. Isu.ai1ciii NN" Wocdl ITacob HnTtckc-Ibry. Section 28-\V ill1 Trusswbridlge N\VIc R.F Re-nolls, Jumhii Vain Nlcet, Orison A. Piersoii Davsill I'Verson I. IT louts and Jolsephi Sheairer, George M%. P-iersoii SeCtIOn"1) 2 \nircXV Harpcienidiligy Ai-lia TroXXblrir e. L-eonidas

Page  196 I (-)6 I o6 I0( NTCAINLj COUNT'Y MI CHTGlAN. Scia (ni fii I rclIzio It Rider LewisN AlcoP Stcephen V" Jo~c WV G. P hilips Sc Itioni~ Iicl(l Rderi ("or-e W\ I li-borli, I iisha 1aoiboirii Joln Nani Sawx HIaskeii S. -I'dborli Wlco1me1 Johnson. Scct'"i" i I manies Cavlierc L oreil/I l\i111r StCl)hleil I. P'c \b~hi l Gfreen, Stephen Pae MIarvx DIdlii. sectlai N2-ix,1 Trmvbr\ idge. 'Natha ni ironghs, jaines An hl aclp oni'iiii Dn 1'r mdlcvx Chester (Conalot I'i Bclins (Charties Be nnc tt, nnc. AN IDevis \iiiW dainl StcwarLt, Fra mc is G. airce. S~c(tioii 3 (cor-e I le hI- IIfo;odxxilx II ocx lxi 1 iio HI \\cd, (George 'Al 1Pii ori SCCLIOnI 3A Lxi x Wee\dccl Joixix Vn ViNcti ILewis Nice, 'meoll Illckcihri IraC (Iirpcitcr L d(1(1(1 1 Isnii lls, 1(11111rNi Mnihalit 1Thoins 15 utc keiimirx, Jamesi Is. I rllev, Itra1lix Sinithi Jacoib Ihidcllltitx. Sec tioii 35 IhlOixllas I. (tils, Nliiixii II1 I iidci, IFI iencc AN Ihiilipms Naron F dna. Section" 36 -P 10iM toris Mi~ltoni Ilinict David IPrestoix nl tilt xvcaI i8 clStlicu n Pis ersoIn st tied x lich towxxishiip ()f.North 1 ins1111 tculitx. I- Iw x 1 a iaive(((x Ox ntcaItO coltiltx Nexx York. Twxo cears 1latcr Inflimiciiel by favoribli irepotsc Iiroliii inixi lull a ocideiittiaix fironl Cortlandx, Nici crlIi txx o thier bro lthiceis D)avlid anli O.rson Pierson, aiid their I -lici, st Ittcl trom Newicx Nor wl xithx a tta oIi(f horses, ill xxhich they jocirinscxl to tiflfalo) xxhlci tihcy toolk passg tco Detrolit, Mihchigran. Upon rech~ilii thlat ill cc tllcvx maiiill ia recotrsc to their teanl(. alii drtoxe throtigh tol tixe hxoiil It) uthi brothe I liii I llIii 1 cm((lotvs As goxvctnment ot mtate landis xrci cthli (I)h cct ofl thcir xisit, thiiv calin tol tixxi I i nortlh, rlloge io xxcst, wxd enteirel oinc hondi(, anilol sltx l I511 sectilii1S 27 (10( 28.Atog Iothicr Itracts xxr cicswlO enteredl it is thon.xdx1-t to have bieeii the first eiitrx lixadc In the twlixxh1 p i Tim xc\ (uit a cabIml twenltv by txxei~ty-floli feet in (Iiilil isixolls, (ue stor hi 101 \\ Itli I ir(((f Slop)ing Ilie way, lie ceiliig bileti so Imxw as tI-I alllolx li win scarce roll(il tox silili erect Iii. lhiiis cabii(. stood ()Ii the fauriu of Orsoni[Ihirson, oi( xxas tlicfirst bouit il this towniship. On tile I tti I Decembiiler, i854 Ge(sotg- M. Piersoni, having seiit (In smilei h1('scholl 1(1 I Ils, xx th a wxif tcnidl foiii small chiildlren, Iceft his honue Iill Nexw York aniic sct Sit II his joulriiey tol oini time settleniiiit conimtcedcc bv -his broxthers inll \VLSi l i 00x mst that tiite the ileltest trlilroadl stationm. Thev, thicircforec too0k tlie stain Cat tiat place. Imnd Grand Rapids ibeing the enli of the liiec iiiad(c the test lot the jouriney iIi a liumbher wvagon. The cabin of hIs broltheiibhem' time only\ oiie in the toxxishipl, wams already lilleci to oxerfloxx nil Irle nexx parttx mecreasecd the compaiiv to cighteenl. A\

Page  197 mo-N-CALM COUNTY, MICHsIGAN.'7 I97 wvagos liox serveil as oie bed, wbil~e tbose not so fortunate were stowed away ais lbest thee could lie. Tbc (litterent families, how ever, soon built cabins on thle laidsuvicslire tibe at since seccireil. Ini tbe latter pirt of January, tTS,5 -l ilfoird Pierson was born, being tlic first whifte chill liorii in Piersoii towiisbip. George M, Pierson built tbe niext cabin Inl the towviisbip. H aviiig iso team, tbe Nvork of clearing, olsicli lie s5 as h e-ais, was necessarilv slow an owl dficeilt. In addiition, he was Cmeoisslledl to speii(l iiiiicb o)f bis tust oa isfriiii hoiie ini ordler to vrocore the iiccessaries of life. Whleiilbe. nioied ito his cabin it bail neither diso-r nior wiiildos —blanikets, bongm before the openings,, serving fsor tbis pur'pose. The snow lay several feet deep. On tbe 6th of M~arch, Charles M. Pio.rs"It Wiiws s))iri, being ilie seconil childo- in the towuisbhip. Diirisig, tie first winter, George 1'd. l~iersol iiaide shing-les, sehich lIeI hauiled to R~ockforil aisl siul(i for teni shillings per' tboiisand, anid at the same tiiie paid dlec dollars Iuir liunisresweigblt fo r floor, 1ut. the wood~s aboundeid ini g-ae, (leer especiallv e ingus abulisint., an,,,fro tsis source supiswere seciireil. i'miuuuuc lake, also, onl due southeast (fiarter of sectionl 33, as wvell as the larger bodies s f water inure remoute froni the settlement, absounded ili schools (if fish, which weiti liitle troulile coiili lie secuiredI it all times. George 'M. Pierson Iihiiriig- lie greater part i)f lie time foir five years seas absent. excepit luiring Sundae. Isis woi~k hscimg aboiit sixteeiini ]lles distanlt. He carried Is mnuc onl each successive Saturldav IIi glit irovisiuiis for Isis faiuilv the wveek fnllo\\eiiug. lie dutg, op thle geuiuiii witli a muatto~ck, asiil (no tbat grouniiii raised onie liiiiil(resl bushels of c(i ii anid si xty lusbels o)f postatoes. '[be first sear a large scar carrieil siff a hog tis ihie iwioods aid ilevisirci it wbhihe Mfr. Pierson seas; ahsenit from ionic. Six others wvere lost iii the saisse wax'..\t the tiuie of settleieiit thse iiearest tradilng pos"t sesRockford. Mris. G. Mil. I iersois res~isles Iis the townuships eighit veirs biefore visiting a drvgiscui)Ols store. Ti er sist r, I isllv s Aflxis s Iec k, usho caiie tio the towniship seili erauul ieel ucr (liiiii te frs sis f its sctttlenieut. moved to the s~outh sart sif ilse states Theiri f tlir, I hssiiias 1 cik, camse ts Pierson souse years later ansi scttlcil oni sectsioi '27 sloil there lie resideled uiitil Isis death. The first sleaths iii icirsoisi wsas thait iii a s oun- ian iinaned Fish, uhos was accsldeustahly shunt isv liiirdv ras is. w-l ua 'interred ons the farm owned by Georg~e Pratt, friso whlich tie Iuvas reimiss il to tbe ciemetersy at a later dlay. The first secldiliug ill 1Isersisis w s us i 85f6i whe lsisaiah \llev and Naomni Tlarker were imarriedl. 'Sqisure iiisches. (if N~elsonn osrnciaterl. Dr. Daniiel S~liosik was the first ir sishs it plixsiciatii H-e us s loion in Dustesess county,

Page  198 'MONT'LM'ia (01 NTY. MITI('1GA N. HKCo Iit I m f tt C I I)I-LC tc ii 'II hII I' liattlr(oii atild i Cauai settic( i til( 1101 tii 1,lt iii I 'Ci 5o11 III til C I ii ii 2.f Ilc 11105vcd to (Cor il in i877. Ie Rii ki i n tefrt settlers 'II thce north part of Picrs-on Ii os' was h~ii iil Niw I oil wis ctilc cl tCacme to) thii toss oshii inl thle ill 0) IA S lii ialici Amnos 1. Ri'cec mOrcu ttic sootiiiwst (uater lt f scctton1 2thle sp i' iiiion'. 1-ic Scttlcil here cimAINHicliti, itied rcsidiciI here ontil hlis, ilcth 1i I ic sprim,' 1f111 ising' thecir Settlcemecnt hiiri tliti i et Out thle fit st fruit, ticc' ill tile ii tace Geci)r-c Alt m~d )iihil F ciii '~cttlc il ci tic oiimtiicit quamrtcr o)f scctioti i12, I ciii o 8>06 Pt\fitt ii eel enitereid thc wesct. liii f of tihc southea1st pJin1-tU tc 'aCCtfi0 2. Sooi alt cir.t t ",)Ice I ad 1 ildt hIls cat in IIs soil ittIaw io f At tPratt, c inic to tite townmshitp tie Chose a Ilocatioti. Oil Scctioti ter, 'iti c(_I mph(I ttit somiiisc ver l(-tir. It wa s tue first grist-miiii inl Ptierson V IiiGF OF PIiiRON. Iihe vllilic cit I ici -Oh11 is liiilci c-iiiI,itiit eniteredi hiv lv'mi S. Pimetrsiii -iiii i c \tc C.litk w oho isvicr f:r I liivi ii crs residetnts o)f tic tiviii 1111 \\I i lat to ooi t.'an Raidos &I iii(liaitiI rii oil0d wvas C'ompiieteci tiiroiigh itenon, this viilagw iaot anIfifcr tIii t le inortht part (if itie township wvere laid otit. \ cite ti a tt iitic iiliii spicsial t11Ptiillrticc(' S1. sC. (I iiH iiiiiti cyllcdi the f ir-t store Ili P'iersoni. iii i86'7. th'Ie ctilidiii''- \ hoh hl e ci cctci stioit (iii tie si 'tith west ecirlier cif tue ticrthwsitO ititarter I '188 f. (1. f ivliii hlt It a is tel, iiiiiallv kif.Istiowt as thle Tavior Hocuise. Soilic scar' lticr Ix huiliit aii cldititiuii iiiudthele s(-ul( it to O~tis hitch. I t II F 1ilt Iii \V;L s a1fiiaic of (>aiaia, atiu Caine to P iersoniit (S(tui iHe ii;1 0ilc li.-t 'phyli 'icaiai iii time vii Iage. I lit remiaiticu citily a swtucr titus, iwhic lic rctuiuved toi Ness Yirk. t t t sxetcitt H. i) 1 tldiuci aitii II). fohiii on folloomcul. 'Th its rsc ii Ii)tcl wo ht1 mut bi ic hartdti (I itt 187 OfiMtuttel iuiiI IIl mit1t coullt\ts huhiiIticilt I t ttiit111 i-t tii tillsce It titiuicil m it. 1(11.0t avera's' ithrec tiillilts of fecet ticr ycir. Iii i tuIi iii11 erectei tilic ETotipre,' Iiiimiring ii itls li Kiesi at a o t o tell thoiiusaitti ioloars. It l~ike a clipicits uif seel ctytfiivc barirels i)f flo-mt 1Pu et soil wasl" plattc'u atis ltit( ont c-iii )ctioibir iS, 18-0 foir Daid)i S. I 'Itersoti Icutit L. Shumican;mtci x'et (CI rk proptrictots ii \ViN ii 1 Tnihutrtoli, itriciot. This seas time targec't lumbter iceimfir lii Piersuit towsshipi.t bitt of

Page  199 NI ONTCALM C'OU;NTYN. 'miciIIAN. T Q) ti]e historI of tilt 10011v from11 the tulle it was pla)1ttedi iip to thle plresent is tmerei \ reI sta~temen~t ( lite ihisto ry ofo ill\ lllumbertownl or ('ampl ditrtiti the timte wh iti tile 1111111er ildilstrv \vas it its Zenith1 'iThis was a itrosperotis v Iiagco 1 st xx 111 titlis, itxtsotes~s xxts exit txtted tile prosjteri tv of 1Piersont xwatted. At prtxcttt I )Ielsoll IS a smttti Nvilta-e It is a station ott tite Grfand~ Rtapidi &- Indiana1 1 111)11( atid] thle hitsinlnsx lilter est of tile t11w1 eltlsist It 11i tee s~xters 'Ilid tw(t ctevatot's. It is~ ta t Smll traIlitl, pitt whietre thle pleolle Ill thct s11th iat, ot 0 thle Iiottl-~hut I'll (ill 11111 tIrttiitg. attthmllgi it is, to() tix Sc to I ixtxarI CiItYx to iraxx textV \( ttxItVV ei At p0I-Cset ii ti aIT itiP~mtia lixttt of txveittvx tVC. OTIIF NFl IAll'S. i01 -ott tx txx t11tt tears tile ihotort if tihIt Itttgit 1111 e calieti, 0f ii It 1-11 tile lIIr-cst tttittilt (If Ixeltis withini it-, telrritort N Int atil there have iteetn fix -Saitit L. tic Wt t ti ake, 11111 \\'itettsit La i ANi of these, eitih titt extep111.1 iItt i I i\, al tocatelt (Iii titt ftttt iRaplids &- Itttianta Iratilrtotd A tip 1 Hlii hit it lies ll tite sottitxxwtst cormer of ettit2, WvaS p1lttteti ottx sttctv((I. it wxas tite lot tititm f a satx-tttiii. whitieh tiit t mt ralute( totstticss 11,)1 I'itt ot tears, 1lit 'ts fit' '1 tile viliage goes, it itever atttinied,I ("retSiz stI A xt(r (It xa txtet f(1 tt te (Ittlittdalii 01 of tht- erpoyhtees of lcwatcd Itl 'tpicpIti fi ((N iiilit ttta in ~ iperceentage of the butsintess itt titis of 5~cto( 11 1 I oli tilt like whitlit wars the satte tatlei. ITtis town~, or xittla-Ct xx itt ttt I 1(11 Niirth it21 i87o for Hetnnr Ni. (aripenter, pro~prietor, Iiv Cl' twhlr Hii tit sIlrtv~ev- of ie tai itIrLake wh(Ilt lake ihew arled HittaN' nevertItitt t tititm -rett ait iso selvelic Itt tite 1twir ttlhittl frit o leontarin City. N\tl xiIte Nttti ste a lx ~ttIltI Iotett Tee~lttt NNr i plattedt atid 111(11lt tiIt Itwt diifterentt tittits i (tailt IN IOctobter 4. 190(i and A\ii-tit I 1110/ IThe flrntier plilt NNs tmatde for II. I'. andi '1. Camtpbiell, hixit it itt' latr t wiax's 111(1ait fotr Jattis \. titi] MNirI NA. Skinnier'. Iothli of these ptlatsNtCt w lit Srexyed aitd lailt Ililt bvx I~ I)atotst. suirveyoir \Wh It ctIIsi Lake ret'xirt hies oil titt 1(1st sitte (f NNhitttfisht 1 atita ill seetiOti 20. titti1 txx'e

Page  200 200 NIONTCA\LM COUNTY, NTrICTIIGAN. mioles west of Pierson, which Is the nearest railroad station. During- the snninier, crow(ls of piicknickcers', canmpers, anld personis desiriiig qjniet arid rest for)] a few\ weeks v sit this resort. Saild l~ake lias its majortoto i etcut' although one phat haks been niadhe andi recorded iii this County. hut this part of the town does not att'aiii 1)roniliciice euouighi to deserve ai heii-fliv discoiirse ini this chap~ter.

Page  201 CTHAPTER XVIIIf. PIETOWNSHlIPi. Pine townsHhi]) wichi ii s dlesignatedl oil the gov ermenin t survev ais township I I noith i) mane 8 iivest. is h~oundeel onl the north byi Cato township, onl the east Iy lDoiudliss on the South hi Mlontcaliii ano oii the iivcit hy MNaple \alle. IThe pctition iaskini, t or the ereetioli of Piime toiinship wa s (lateel onl April i~ 86 T, and lsii e the following, sicri-atures Daniel Lang., Hirain Thill, S. I.) Yinn-mam in \thomms Platte, I". LI. ( Milles, Ira IIale, James Soon t Sa umel lu llc t r, ri Maiii. V'. R. \Iarin inmiel S. inhorn, A. S. Frem.ch Iiveis Rne j Diu eiiltt, t. 1-1. Strvker iJames A\ OwnH.V art. Stephen A\ldrielihom \\Valiace. I lnt Persoiis MI (. Comlier, A. WVakenman, G~. R. Hiart. A\ \Y dd in aiil 1L. lTtitte. Thle si-i mier of this petit ion were freehohlers~ of twi-o ishimo i i iiid i., iiirtli ranges -anid 8 west. This letitioil was pi selited toi the lsiird of supervisors it the ir regoilar session held in Jiine. i S6o iiid] iskeid that townmshmp ii north, ranges 7 owl' (S West, ie iletaclieil troiii the tiiwnship if (iato inid orginized iiito a separate toiwnship to he Ikno an is PI iie. The iiotiee of tIn lietitioni was lrinted lin the Greenisal' odpc151cut. Atcr doe c onsalerition the hoard iii siipe rv i s'r gramited the praver of the petitioiieirs iiid erected the tois11iiship Pi IiC OIn the i 6th of Octoher, S6i, at their re-iilar O ctoher session. Thles ilso ordeired tliat the II-St, dctlet iiiile held at lie1 hous-:e of A\. \i \ddam, anil th it David oLaiig, Davidl R<. IHlit anil A.\. t Addaiii act as piesmiling offac ers it this meeting. The m1(ilic of the newly created! tiscoship isas seleetecl as eado ireadily he seen, froii the lcadiii variety of 'is tiiiilier, and iias choseii by one of the commiittee oanied to idina ft thle' petitioni for the erctioe n ii fi the toiiinship. A\t the Ii-St Cleet~ii h(. ucd In April. i Sf2, the re we rc must nmnieteen \i otes (ist, and of this electi in the followmug(, isis the result:Snpervisor, Winp \ilcox clerk, lDamiel Lang, ireastirer. Steplieii Aldrich Ii t stuces ot the tIeue, Stlde A \ldrichi, tLlena ali Iersns, anid A l fred \Vakcmamu: highway cmniumissioniers, AlI fred \Vakleemiiu iuui I simac Ht{art;coiistahl es. l1len jammin I ersens and Selvestcr 1\i icLbfe~llos. It is rather imuteresting to lute that there sierc tenl offices to till aiid miviilyiinetecnl vo(ters Iin all. andl thiere were twio oftices tilled hy the saiie menci.

Page  202 MIONTCANINI C0II NY. MNCI1GAttt.N`. The soil HnI I'll( to\\ Il-h1p Ill ')eiieral a ligiht 5)11l)d loaiii, aiii as tile malle Idilctl'Cs the tim1be11111r 1s plIet with a miixtiire o1 becch 11n. IlIaplc. TilJeon par1 huN IIIiy ind I piiCcI ~, rough as to lhe o)f little \cainle fH far111111 11111 iiI t~iC 111 lord CeCtei piart the silrtace is I1ore level, tlIC. tIlihCr c(I Coi'itiII- PI 111c pa uy ot tJ1C wardwil~loi varieties, a111 the soil cI iavc11( alld Itterii aditpCd to tileC 111rcuts (0 agrieiilittire. )Iii tii somliltxxwCt 0 Iirtet otf ' til(il 20 the( Fdat rIce!-, Whx 11111 t)\VS H)i (I Iii I I t ()I1 iet 1011 34 1 (1 Mdn~i 1( f11urises 111 excellent Nwater-pioxee. Th ICmitict itf tile small LtikC ()11II iCe 'a) iIlc i, iquarer o)f seloi21lolia 111)0( 0I tile saime 1111a11ty. Nc21r tile cC-ltr C1 i -ect 1m1 I- tile iitlet ol4 itresielaKe fuirnishies;Il1iot~lie go-,()i lpmixcr. Th10 tileC Southi pert stfilriiisliei Nitli three gloldllinlois.( 0101 frhh l iCI liiia iith lalini factxlre of liiiiler. lTiese, InuIIIcmillC-CI 1) NN 111 sevNrCl 1 1(211111oki and -ithieis that Nwcre i)lperIIcdI fron ti1111 to tlle, 1111 tiC l~lt riveIN C whNlie1h ihere to)fire lore large qutant ties o)f logs froiii its MinicIiCiiltCt vcN1111ixv have clearedl tilie t owlislilip of Its ollcc 1heaiit ifill and( extcnl:iviN Iractl ii pilie. wh'lic~h wNere alhlmllg the tuiiest III theCliiN iitn;iNAxi tANo iENTRIES IN PIINiS ectio i 50)11 \ I IN I'tr-1, S liiCiA Ai Joals 1- Il 11(1)1 St IIIC JShtaoIv iet illom 2-fl Iio Al Ii )ii \ IICIII S liII l SN IC -t. i's, Cl11 vIII CN I iiit I IIIC- St 1~~1k \bCt i IIli(iilI II(MIC-Joetei Section l, —sa Devirs el I irI lira JoIiu ii' I I d11 -o Il1. lIlliCI \J, I a Ii N. Se111111) -(CO)l-IC Alaeonli 1b(r HeClii JIJ ( irap.ui I)) I Cilmlllli SectI)IlIt \bl\CNii i(riii I I afl ' —Ctel )li ta'-lal vcii- ICtir ill JCkiaIft5 l l oCp 51116 \Jtiu A\JirtIJN I'd\\wi S1 lil luuiClrt tJIII 1) IINS irrriiI IlOP SC,ii lii liii- hwtlCrl \1tlrC-N I-hir —el Steliciicr age \ii 1 \ CIIon CCutherll 6 1rrv ~~cub 11 Jir-Gor ICNN M0 1li Siiiitlieurv ti.n I'a, Oili J'Imli —CI Sectaiim 1- 1 Aviii v Ifix CII. Sei ti p in i ~ I miii S I oCl 101CN I.i~i I Scton )Da\ Isii limiell. 1c11.) A No Sect )1Iol I ramisuiiii ll-C Tnri 011 1 oxeCli

Page  203 0 i C.ii O)UN'iTY, MIiCH IGAN. 21 20j. (.ri ejohn II airc Ii ra mmlihii SeCtion1 22 ixCar Cargill, Ihlrx li. Rusell Ste pheni Pa-c \\ll Iiii P t ci, A\x Pailmer, Ja'mes Mt Ferris 'Sectioii 2 ( iSC'ir F. L ir ill, Alvin I crri Sti.plhci I a-e jao Da) vis SeCC nol 24 \-N SI ouIt. Dl)'nn Moorin c cinimiii Knigh'lt l A~iilen R xr Sett oni ( eGcrg'e ILoiicks aCoh A. \ VI)i SeCti0in 2 - Voliiey Belileni Johin ('.s I I iili1(h li (ren Setin olinIix 2` —( oxi iir- lxiiuxcs l Ab lii Avv Ocari Car-ii S(Ielli iI c-N i c S-am ii roS ( tcre 1ealriii li i "111 (,rcmeii Snt~lII 1ii \i,[ii SielHielI 2i -c Ixrloe Louickl In oil Ii lia F. (Sexgiiiici tiiilId 11itlcr, \ i itchhl dh Chaleisc Sexmoiim SCeti0ii 2()- osilil RuissellI. Sectioii mo LI ot cii(irti 1 (;or-c IitLouck ii Hrisoio MIor-ni I ottis LiovelI. SetCti( ii'i I nitMlxk Louis Love ll I itoh A\ Iavix iantl fohii (.1ark. S-cci() — i' I i'rili I. lii ill Louisi 1Lov 11 Jacobi A\ D)avis j11 C~lark, Josiah i. ja iii( ~Swctiol 'j-iHlntir \loire, (con e 0. ) lx xxdi Josiah Rutssell. cimxIix 1ovll Jaco Aii 1)11ls xJ din (1a11k, Charle i Cchulinch. Villiaii Van ILiii. Sec tinil.1 (ni- iii. tiok L, -I iiiihalct (Grci)orx' Chirles Sexnmoor. Sectioii;-Jsiixhl kuxixi. ii a coli A\ Iavisx ix aI)id Hart11 i Section 36 -jac~d A. avis Wiliam xirt Daielii i_ N'~einx Tliih iixc dvliipinieii of clii liiiilhiriiii ititerextx was tie oci.'asiiii of the lirst iiipiix c iiicntx Ili the tiiwnishiii ofi Iini. Ahmit lie xyear 18,5-12 in1 assoetl iii c ii tof e kiicixx i s the iiC cciiGree (ciiiiplan, anil eoiiiiiiiei if ~ii i ( it cii, Abl cl'reiici. joslilh 1toiss Ii m Chiarles C. Fllsxxorth, caeii into tihiii tou nxhipi iid xx-ith;L forci. if iien iat I iicc liegaii p repicratiiiis for erccill It S i 'Ii lul Thiuce ixais cit thIi tim iii setIxi tler nii r hcmiiln naiutautio (Ixi in -,III liiiS(o itilie Iidii ins, x i tliii n t coi uuies. It wxas necessarx. tiercfiirin thi t caiiiiis fiir t ie nien hei first huuilt. whichi xxheii erectedl ivere iiiil- iti iTli iit prav icharacier. its til cimiiiiini iirIiei buiiilding iiiire periiiiieiic iqiuarters is, so ii a iiiilmi.r cioiilil lie luituntifactoreil. Thle rivxer xxas snot mciimncil tlntugh iiit siluhstantiallx, as ic hiiciieiiiitlv xxashedl nut, a frau I was erecteil. aitu one scix set Iin opleraltoi. Thie eahmins biiilt cit this tiie wi eri. the hLest iii the tiiwxishipli and stood cast of lie mill, iiear the hank. The fuulluwimxi Chlristinis ciiiother saxx ixas aduleu, ciiid the force of iieii xxas inereaseid. Isaac Hart, xwho ilie(illi thle xa\,r, xxas tile saxxyxer oif tie upright Scox a i. Snitcil xwas fiireiian cif the circular saxi. 'Tle ciiiiiany failed i allont liwo vears amnI the miiiil iasseil into the liaiids of Fastern palrties.

Page  204 204 204 MONTCAL'M COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Josiah Russell, who ssas ai man of considerable nmeans and( osvned large traecis of land isl v rions le adities, suibsequiently remnoved to the North, where hie diedI John Green wa s a resident of Greenville, anI is spoken of more fuily in niother ipnrt oi this work. Ii is sonl. John Green, Tr., ownedo a sawmdi the we sterin pairt cI Sidney. Ahel French afterward hecaine a resilast iof F to \s hare hie lisveel niany ears. silo'm tile maifly sshii owniedl the m ill property at Tangston wsere George in\x fGreeliilie, mud 1E(1011 Breese. It next caine into the possession of.1 t11ii rand f Ral s pidsl It sas s ater owvned liv D. J. Browvn. AGe t Ume.i i E B LEGUs N IN P1INE ross\NSIlisp. 'Flie first settler whlo eaiie inti ['Sise mitemidimo' toi ens"'e irm a-riciiltueie wa s Al fred Wa\ keniass. lie settled on thle sou)ttl liiif of time soimthwssest ijiarter of seection 6, soiie sears aifter thle settleieneit iil the Southeastern part eif tile tiissship begal. Ilie seas follossed sooin atfterssard is Jaties Starks amii T. (. ) I ren s othm iF shii i settled (in sectilon C. \\ilue the null liefore referreid to ssas syet ili possessioni osF Lswi'im I reew~e Daniel ILanug', friiii St eieilci counts', \si Vrk cae iiie i to tatke chire' 'nid iive'rsee tlie woirk. lest se'srcees s yer hadi iiicapsil isheis -i.\r I recse faiiled ii isl Mlt. I sa issis e'ompelleil toI loh k uct, is secre sill the ciiiilioiees, for wciupisit in e'leisvlue're. It wa'5i iii t il \ liili isl tso'se Idiy's is sit present. \V\'l ikCould nit ibwisas lie secireel tfor thle iskiisg iisieei. Ill tie' esulier sail'-s of Its, settlessient. sork s-it timises a (iilil iiit lie 'mccured (it i vns ternss. lVie stsiie n' al frm in Ireeiiville tii isl is iapids had aislreesids Ieels e'stailIi shed. siiii travsel i vcr this rinOte list I)Cbee I issu te I ai ld ii i cistsintl s' A5 SieCiESSF1,i. HOiTEL' Daniuiel I-su-, ilieretfii, ipit 551I a siiisll fraiiie bumldisu (iiii commmseisced kcI e'epii iwiel (II a srisiill scale'. It ss'i tse' seconid Fiase liiouse isl tl'e tiss i,isilp, iue lirt 1 icin sbuilt isisii tin tisli is tse isill compnip is TIhe eliterpr1ise isis eustirels' 'tuecess fis, siiii liereised iipitriii-c' re'iiiereci it lnecc ar i tis "it Air I 'iii', shosulil soosil iiiild il aiididition sshiiihi lie acoedinly dis liii I ie misisre' 'odltitosus: lie' hlslt I siiiii tiies weire itt i heil addiutionis iuisin ahdiitoulss sush iswu cssi'el liis hiouse' inl the'- twisiliht. liikeii like easctle oih the Rininue-aimil isi de.ple'csd''e of fimriuslumug, amlll'ee icconmsioal mtmms it ill tsillsie use niomre pioipular thle liiitel siini its iroprie tor liecae (ms W\heis iiiteicipiting iihat thle traisel I soulii poissiblyi shifitt tii iisimlser riit lise decideeid tii biiuild no

Page  205 MO0NTi(A1,N M lOO.NTY, NttCHiGAN. 20N; iiior-C, his hotel xvtis tile lir est hetwx cc G recniixlie allotiRlog Rapids. NWhen the lhi glioav from Gran ml apids to tiii vxxillage became tile, general lhue of na ccl, awl( i~tler roiitsc (iiiilccteil xvitli it, tiie dclihne ill huiniiess aniticipatedl bVi Ni. I.1 agc;L1Ile ill fat. mti thin tliorodliftire to the iiortli, opon which at all h(ours of the lax, nd Iastunig 1ite unto tile nighlt. the hialloo of teamisters iulthe crack of thirnx whnps could1 tc heardlti bc aiie ahltost dleserted. Tu'le ci nii1ictioil of ilic 1 ralii (ds to the norti icst and( west also tenidedi to this rcsnilt. Danieil Laom lieu iiii j86o. 11 lcire (iaokiiis w is isto prnihiuuiieuly coiniectcel with the earl\ developiiieiit of thisl- toxwoxlip. Ice oai coosidereul the 1es cIniifoiimed i ii regard iti land 1honndaries. scctioni 1incs tc ot mlx\ maii Ii this section of the state. Ilie hecaiiic a resicic t, iumi liveil here a nniuher of vea-rs, filling the office of tiowii clerk several terism iii suc cession. Hie s-urveved nearly all tile land in this; sectioni, atid also plaittced the village of Langston. Nathan FT. Briggs -mud his elder hrother, Hiram, wvas a niative of Ncwv York. wvhence, with hils pareilts hie mtoved tci Medinla contultv2 Oiiiuu, whten that conliuti was vct c ma o l eilew. Itl 1i837 tile famiuui micvecd iiito 1LiviIlostoli coutiyit NIichiga n, tiict ani alimost ctunbrokent wvilderiness, the nearest neiduluor uc~iii ci ci~l ii iiics x istailt. '['here uls pareuits settled perniaen1tiV i'li T 851 till' lii i thic i I cICdni to caiie1(1 to Pilie, iilteidiciig to sptiduu a part (ii thic xxiiitcr lionti, \i.nie Nthan ii. ri-inggs wa,;s at that time Vdi xiic x c 11sOf 0(C c iiiii miuiiarricil, atidliiai niio thongolit of uiak~i- it Ills i1(ic. ix I. irixiiiixliiii o tv-iiiir leer hail falleii lix iis rii te, and lie estiiiiatcd ii iiit lic kieil iio Iexs thi n twoc hiiiicreii withiii the coniniies cif tihC 1mi o hhuii If Pillc \iiiitiir ibro thier, Zeulas B~riggs, whlc camec iii 8,,(i2 ami ei i-wcid iiol ucbrun-. aetter eiigaiged iii farmitig InI No clliii ci i i 80 ii J ixchil NWilcox ca.ine to Pitie friiii Greenviille. wichrer lie hail settleil fi iir rears prexiuulis. Hle theii luecanie IM-iromineiitIV ciiiiiecteii xithi its uilcial ilterests. bleiii ehecteul sniiervisor at tile first tiiwni Iiieetiinlr FtIdRS icPOSTFFICE IN PINT. TFhe tlirSt pcustoffice iii I )Iiii towxishipi wvas kept iil tile liiiise iifNta IT. iT`ri-gs — Heiiry NW. (aik-ins ieiiig piostmlaster anid M\r. Briggs deputyIii i 86 P.Irevicuis ito this tiiiie the tmicst ciinveniienit office fur this section xxas Greeniiliie. TFhe mail incite at this tine extended fromt that village to 3ig, Rapidls, ovxer wviichi tile minii passed once a wxeek, heing earnied on horsebacek. WNhenl the rciadls hecaiie iimpiassable. it xxas taken on foot. The office wvas subsequeticntly remiocvedi to Daniel Lang's hotel. and next to tile stcire of

Page  206 M l ONcm-ALf (1) N TY, Xl 111l('IIAN. Mri. ( 0ov, w1m1 canlel Mi and( rititid ai store iiiiuildimi ereiteil by Zelias Brliggs I agne ilt'l( a "eo(ial St(o.k (If "OulS, blot itl 1 SIiiid'C year ireiiivecl his'- stuck fromt tile t(wioitiip. Ill 185~7 (' 1 Ilt Ie luteIr '4tIIteil a 1)1acksmiitih s1ho1. lesilt Si(1I(I to Chriistophier' Lipsuomb) i iguiisinithti lie si'iiC111~ Sto4i i \V;Ls oii ii 0(ldb 01. Noto it d( RK F Spraguei. Nortoil. Miii later ci igagedil ii111 11i banmh lciM 1 0Spi gie, wihio coindltctedi tile IIHIC iSii S VCi'V siicctcssols 4tllv f iir itit tihree ICarls. wihilli lii s ld )it to Bieiniitt & Aticllx told Ilio"ei to Isrecivi lit. Th lit es iii N illrtoll a(ld Sjl)~Iagic were iiiiiiiciisc. co1iisieriig- tile timlis, ag!lre-atiii tn fift ii~itho 001 eollars per 1K". W\air aid was kImviwo a- tte W\ard 1 1 lock. It wais s \tN- 1 i eighity feet oil tiit -rmidiiil. oll( thre si ils hiiih. TIhe lower' Iour wais ftoi ii-l Stiore routIIs, thle sect sald1(( for ottites, maid the' third flor fr Iairge tfail. T]uie hiilliiug111 \oi- it(.t, iuoiivevi. ciitirelv cmiopleted acoo rdI11 tii origiuIal ties1igius. lit' iziciggs hl(tkd was bll', hy iciuicoiii Plrigss whlii c uiie to tite tiiwviShp dIl 1866 aid( ci u ttg'CiI lerst iii the mlercanile it uslii eus. Astiuual hotel had h 1 cii erected li Christophiier I IpsiolIih (II tit Silte latter icetipici liy thle flue hutll kiiowii as the I)iri-_-cs Housise, lafter its first proprietor. It cost abotit i've thliosaiid d ofllais. Wh\cu'u iliesc blu ldniis wt'ie eiecteil there was ti'- tIug auiticipat lii thatt lit' rai liroad which passeS thrioudi ti tilt westwiard iiotilii CMICe. tio 1.tiiigStfi ii. ItIt t tl fall it OM6 tlit firmu of Irice & Kendall eirectt'd a Sawi-uu11 ill thet le ortii 11(1t i)f tile towivustip, their lauids 'viut priiicipialiy ()I sectio I oo 8. 'lhtv si irttil wxitli a Small poitail' iiiill alul clillplici 1 1iii few ocoel. S h owiii ert they eiilarc-ed tile iiill land ilutro(tictcd i u\w aol Imipinvixt Imlathiiiuty anl Cllpllii'cd tweuitv-tiVe ilieul. Tile flii i, with its sor'tiroioliiug(Is. IIU HiC tlippiroiit of (puite ai villalge. anti retceivecd the ltamte of Ki-cioallvilit', trimii lit of tIlit urprietors. Thle lirst Sc'lwuo IiliPin1e1u tiii isliip \xx is tatug-iut by Jeninie ILaui. li ill a iiicihpii c le riiiii )f I lavld 1- airt's hou sse liu the Summliler of i 8-8. MlISS 11.ai0, receited cc )iieut dollar tiiiltifIts tctits litr week. The terii lasted three uaouitius.:iud tile atic'uulaice was Ii I c ii55ici iilt h first. Scitool hi(lst' lin the tioxxnship. K-euudail ille wvas lirti' platte ti nid u is iiily Oneotif thle ullalix' itiiiiliei ca11iiis whichi xvere (icatedil ii this comtyt,it that earls' elate. There was a saw-iiiii;15 \VIlS iuiCsioli;Idv omentiouted xwitii soiiie eight to' ten ulwvelliuugs file the Itimbenien'iti. Wiitii the' eshatistion i)f thle trimber this CdliiiI) ceaseil to exist

Page  207 Co~'L OU NTY, MICHiIGAN.27 207 w.AN(' TON. I aiigs( tolli- the oIIIv tiowni t In Pine towsh soip wiich wasti ever ilattedi and it the jireelit tililei oh~ a h nih lt. It ws 1)1attedl ott the sotithi~vest qitarler if th 1w sotloces;t qii nc r i f:c 1(1Cl 26 anot aIso a piart 01 the adjoining sIctiom. thsws rc 1 el is frsiiig s plit of the village of Liangston and \waS siiiV'vCde andil aid ( t aI Aprirl I i 8-o i i I leo iv \V. ( atikii. Th ie, o igin pri qliiciirti 1 4 thiis vii'ic' wer Hug11 I 1rvintg, 'Liectra J. Lipsetombi, le aiii11.1:1ics cii ti 1'. leur T. Ijlarke unl Thomas RI. \tII i c. Ho icc sirc ( t the time (it tie plattinig the streets of Mlain. A,\ ll, ' an Is iver wilh li e i et, Second. Third anid Foiurth as cross strcets. 'There Ii v c K cltl W( ilili t ii i ti thii oiinginual plat ' That if I lootnhergs. swhich \\as situ i ci cIi ii \il 22, i 8"i, aiol that (if.\vXrv & ( 'ankin. which wvas (t)ev Il -'Iii rlii 28I. 18 tJ Ii hCti ii le''i its caiccr \\ lieu the tititer idtiiist ry wsas at the zenilth (it its iopcrattitls Hidt was cute uif the nicst flouri shittg cli f the lutmher iiwits. Si tuatct. is, it is, 'ii lie central part cif a town'tship wvhicht hears its name oti acc'iiunt i thei I titil if iiit idr swhicli covereil it. there is ito great expanaio tuece(SS III\ ito sliiii tIc (rignti 'ait carts ~roswthi of this X'illai-e. It issituatedl (,II ItheI ilsfls of I 'lit i'ivir, which at that titie wvas the chief river highwsay iliii i\lIi itic lii' icerc raftc'i. M~ills ahounidedl luete aiid it was trutlv the tclie it 'I miiitier caioi aIS telpictetI hYl Ralph (V('iiroir attd oithers. Bot svith lie cxlai ist io iifi tie tittihet' this vi llagc hegati to dlecrease inI piipilation1, autil1 hvl no'uiiii 1ua resirctti aiti tiot 'ecun aI railrioad, it scetit downt ven' rapiiit Theie i tich at itesetit atiiiit itie huindlredl Inhahitants in the village. anil iii ii'- ti lie I 'ct tihat thliis tcmwtispluiti hts pr'iiodc'ed sottic excelleilt farmiIIIlans thic to isII 15;" iu'vcii I atr'ainhg 'enitet'. There are twvo getnerail stores at pi'celit, is\vcid lii I.. 1L. T'litkey & ( omipatis an I 'ats lCtInisoi.I 'there ii'at si I) tw iii lackt sith whI ~ti siichi arc tiatiageil liy Henii's Spicer tout a i~li. Allen I Tit sviltag-e is servedl lv tait oiil the 'itel roiutte front Staniton atud Giiowcit

Page  208 (CliA\P111ikl X-Ix. itt 10Iioiti o miship. wiiii lis leo ga ted 1 )1 the governmelnt survey as t iii12 nor)1th ran- lo1 itest, 0S aitt ttil 1n ite \xtrem ll iortiiwesterii corlt101c ()ftle 011ieil Thil tile110 tii dist N Itint 1) tteitii oL~ tile nieaeeth lt\wnohpt101 niiarl 0 sj i1 ith (jt m-aIi ke'I of fat tha li oe if lilt colityI Richflaeniiid t f4)ebenor this ilzeelli at tlirsi ate. Re aIN shmle )Itl no ithb tite trtxi)tiiii ii n tiii e eas 110Wll is6 t~milt tiprlo i titlui Smith l 11p liptloil Ih ie t b isitlof i i to1 i t tilt (it (I itil its111 a ahrtiesirii sth e ofrglliatlo tl It tiiev tt1iilsilili. If tlei spri utA' toil thet(Iwiisitv for 01wiieeiigtu irooes missIring 011) I tue ereatii naii leititon itdi iivtii for rthecreatite eief fajie tisto ntt tiusiti iitenittite givi ine 111 os(If athe theremi ar tii liciltite fro tiDtei oftr I.,n 8,s to eI iItiII 161 'ihe tirst Illeet ill ii, lieS at tue htouse of Davidi Sixartioutit hut tliroiii-h siomle iiiiilti it oiiiillg' the vi Petrs i)f the towlnshiii diI not astiiilei it thle tille aippoiinted li th lit ii of tIpervistors, andlt the iriiiiizatioilnii otit tiltritfiii telipilleteil ontil Mias i7 T 86ii, ivieii ill aeeoirIklate w iti a lo0tiee utlvi atveil the clecttirs a-,ciihllei oid eleeteti tue lietesa]i oifficeri N* tioii 1. i. Ala-at o iii Ioiln Mioure, who lcad bieen ectilIri v appiontet i lsletr of eieethiii helici aisent, -Ii1arryN Stevenls anti \iiti F. Sttevein.i wrt ppii iutel ]Ii thieirI -,tta DaI vitd Swalrthioit wxas appoinilited thirmaint l andt Hoiratii) L. Whct it c iitrki The whIole niuiner if votts cast wais thirtv-two. tiRMiNAL LAtNil INTTRiE'S. Section i -1)avid lo1ia-, Ai alt. fayxnttr. Seetion 2 —AIOntsV Ill't Janits WV. Saulborn1 1Peter Saillio-~rni NVili~iao WV. Squiires, A\hijah Pavilter, f-tioiert I'. Ni iteiel, NelsoiinI g1,hie, Jiales M\. ITirner. Seetionl 3-J~Iiles NW. Sanhorni, I eter Sanhorn'. \lhii N iglt Sect'oi" 4-Gidelei Trutesdlell

Page  209 MON.,\TC.AL.M COUNTY, IMICHIGAN. 21 200 J osepli H1 [luckie lercmiiaii Ryan, Daid ( Rice Robiert I f Smith, Martinl I'arkhnirst, r''iln Barcs Jeromei Dickc ll"OiAlber~it P ope, Javob) Smith. ScIn ~- tGeor-" e Iolilit re. Section 6-1 lenry G~ilmore, George Gilmuore. NNitioainii Harris Jaones Allen, I.N- adci N\ 1D (lairi John C. WNilliaims, jIWO1) 1t1 Ict- lv Scct(tilli /- mc I ~- nc.)todev' Jamesc' Alleni '5Cctionl 8- - ~1 arhall stariik J iiiiilxx It IINv A\ Ni oslic r Albe rt \MIosher r litlirl I). (ill1ev, Albert (J Fev, S Ilsi-cite 1 entoill \Nichl us WN Gahilsoii. section I) — ii Ciii).SteCVils, \\~, dtli SId I(. GLciC I I 'till H1ii NI, Mii di-S1 I S tarii' -sctliii 10 -ieter Sal i1m)r) NNaliter 'till, ( ulcon i atiian, I irinklilii Smith, Ii uri Stcveiis. Sectilo) i I I clvi Sanbornl 1 irinklin Smiithi\, ii 1b'a 'Pa ite Svc tinI2 F1 gcr I_ (;ra DaL)id D. 1Goa o A'\iai uP 1 ntei, john F. ( 010ler, Miartlin Rverm. n i \VN NP-rs I i. 5ccion i 3 \-Aija~h Iaynteri Ni sliall Stark, john.Squires. I ad-ar (r lv 1 1 cci Janlil S1iiiiiim is J NI1)rii Al Sectio' 4 Jalles Bucle' I F1 i ircdtibii giiii \AIc \ Illnc Liucis, J osephi Lncas, Hiarry Stevciis. Sicloll it) Ni Merritt ii iccksNN Wiliialiii Riiet \ilil'soll COrtosi, Allago stns Paddock11 lJames Ii cirronl Stepheii (. iai iiiJerrilt N\ardI. Sectionl 1 —.Jutfviron N Mori s~ll Sectilli i8-\N aiic' ii I Pge, Jeffersoil Morris, ianm i'a liii 1(1 i JohI itInn \ ewniaii ii Seciouiii ii I ltrick Lvnicii, Louis '~vllcl RKii ii iiti1)1 JoIn ivuch. Sectioii '0 JOSi ii Stvenrs, Anios Sitevcii I Aaronl i.1ZilOk K I i i tili'vi Saniiiic Sainwciri liro I_ N\ iVvi r, I laces- Havelc I i`atu A N ii iiici Hillm Iu naivii Saiiiiic W\orkiiu" Aiithony Nic saille itii} c ii i iiiii ctt Sv lsi'3-Jo ll" Sires. Setee il' i1 i (o us JY I-a itii ~~ith C1r Squcicr ti ncc l(Am xi) H''cc, ()I2- i dCtel S'uiuhtso1i S CMl 2) ' i - 'dCi~ 5 11111)1-11 N rIm isi li i'P'Pct A1 Niii JIliuili F1 cxxvilcr iANaron NcInn01vs tHusr Stes ves. Sect11111 '8 1111 il 'lliichiid iLevi LTirott, Niartii I\vIersilil, Robel(rI tv loris, NVicciii JG(ilusiiitii \N lii iii ii. \niiv flaiiv is Stevensi Lucitis niiis, iDavii Swartho1111 N. F Stevcns, NAurton \N ildci Secticmi 29 jo 1)1111 i1ianciialii Sect 1111 ') (cii "C i uikati Lois(11 Swcvii Ritciharti Ixe, 111111 D. ilordenl J llines II1 iBusii Ii xiir Shiiimimoims \Ntoeli Stevxenis Sttll3 Joili Ni u cc 'Alilci 'cihcirsoim 5-c tion 32' I eorge i uck urt, IL ciizo Raider, l*ii~iu C iilinltPiarti Nieciiitt 1Haxieck, iFzra L. sexoldus, Iilratil N\ Snmith, 'liuiuni us Ii iii Secti i' Al\leni NNrightJh Bll lanII icha'rd. Sect'tll3 Ale r-lt 1`- liivck. iLevi L~eonartd. I oxiarti Iradiev, NN'ilaiiia ver I iciurs Graves. SectTIi ~6-i'etc'r Salhoril. (14)

Page  210 "No 210~M ONTCLAM COO NTY, 2MICHIGIAN. STREAMINS AND! SOIL. 'The entire surface of the township. as the streams indicate, slopes in ei~ctiral t(. the \\(.stwar(I towardis thle Mdncke-on river, into which empties, Tamnarack cerc(k anid L ittle ricer, xhiicli st rcatins drainl the toxinship of Reynolds. h latter cf these enters the towniship on section 3), from Mceeosta ('oiiit'.11tv1 an lo's III a sotithwesterlv onrse across sections 8, 0, TO', 17 and1( 5. 101 f vli wicli it enters; Newa-o coointv. It,also makes a slight cnrvc into t tic northwest (lila rter of sect ion t 6. Stephen (creek, the outlet. of the smiall it ke itl the ii1c (if kcvnolds mll( \inlictd. enters 1-ittle rivcr oii scctioin 17. Tama raick ci cc, t cntcrting Oil sectiont 6' and pi'tccing iiito Ncwaygx'to c otiliti on sccctnon pi, ftt ' ttirotitt scc'tioi, 2, 7 33 tiii )2 Tt receivcix twxo snmttt stri c oo trtim tic si itli, whxlic tlox thromii' sccc'(Iiii 32 'tnd \iitttic ti iull flows thiotidit sc'tJIonc i. 2' 'mad 10 1. lie toowilship i thereftoie wel c rt ttt illit11(1 wa'tercd. FIc Ittcitl it tile r'c''ter' it Is Ii'ht. otfdx to iti111(1, ill p1 tccs iS no0t 1r_)dolictiVC Thce1 twi iie- c iio eCI ci MCi l "lt Wid fIt rniin'o 'amdc bt.i thexvow1re tnv- iii'tI llx ci ri ccI i itlr i t l tihe coxmpI t iiit md th rnit Rapidisc thl tnitiic ra ilI'oatd. to die ilt~ttill, it It owxi t y( ix xi Itice orgatizatiton of the tiownshiptlt it havingo heili a i p irt If icis~ con titti ttil c i ii tS ). At tha t tiii( licr xxetc hlit thii-t'v'twii re'odilt'tt otici It Ic to\iixxncIliti titit thcl larger portionl of R-. StCVCIts tIlt St'Cti01ii 2 Ill- was xi c1lie h:ti 4 it1illliicx 1)vnolmtc. ITce long tin.p mitt (-sepcvllt itic toiltc biiililuti if ttlwc itill 'intl the rcetil iitcaili it utllt' rc'iiteret it (f lii ft itu ii lit chit to tlt scttttercsx iiio nhow Ilet.it tot conlic' li Itic' tctotisliitt. lt~ ] i l llts sincehlit cixoitptaraitivcly ratpidl 'This int1 l hiscc it iliti ttt hiisei'cci itf niomitr & \ilmx intl xx s tticiaicIttiiii 1873 Wx Itt ' tli it A\lti itlti 1 liil iii tilxc s txc silt' N\ is ttxso ilestitxeit lix fir antd tic iic itr hitcii elitiilt.I lit t6xc AN I. itevex s xctIimitelitei a sttitide itit1 'ilcit) hut ticfore comiitutittgul it lii' itold t lxittf titci c to Dlaxidt 1011. Thits.'c'ittc'iitmix itli J. Ic Kippi butilt c sxxwntutl ol sctiotut

Page  211 MONTCALM1 COUNTY, MICHIGAN.21 211 33. Tile streamis at tins time wvere lbeing madle uise of by mill companies at Mfuskegon for tile purlposC of r~afting large quantities of logs from Reynolds and other townships to the EI'ast and N~orth. For this pulrpose the streantIS wvere (lailloed, aiie thus large tracts of land Were overflowed Hand renderedl practically worthless. I he firm of fKipp, & Jorel wal~ tile first to declare War against what they colilr~ nillImpositiorn, ailli] \wilell the Muskegon companies commnceledl to raft logs tllev- very promlptly signified their illteltiolt to dispute tile usurpat onl. The P00111 Ciompany, of Muske-on sent men, it is asserted, to tear 2WiIav the dlali of the mIlll collpallv. Ai r. Kipp. with some instrument at hlandi frouli the 11611, took hisl position abiove the men wvho were abotit to remove soline of the timbllers. His resolulte demeanor was so stuggestive of whlat tlhey maight ~xisect if thee persisted iii trespassing llpoln his p~rop~erty that they sent awls't for rein forcements. Tile case wals talken into the cotirts, ani ilassedi from one tribunal~l to allotiler, mtintl the township was finally freed fromn this uilsailce of raising and lowering tile wcaters in its streams h mlllaria arisingL froin coverings large tracts withr Nvater, and then exposing theni to thle suin ill tile slililii-er, almost mlliversallv restilteci in fev.er and agule. IIOIVAIIO CITY. Thie 'ill'te (If 1101ar 11( tit\s wss platted inl T868 ity E. NVt. Muenchier. tite civdl en-oncer 01 tile (1 11111 1 Rapidls & [ndiana railroadi. file prillcipal p(art IIf the 5 IIag is sltli(ted (Ill tile Ilortih half of tile nortileast cquarter of sectIon 11111 thdfe soltihl ia lf ef tile southeast diearter of sectionl 26. Benj amlill ill'nlev\ all ery 11sdettler lie ' tile. cast lile olf clse onmolltv, anle 5511 ait tile titme tile ra11110111 was cs(ompleted Ownled ka Ilutlber of tracts of latnilil tills vic111155 w5as tile or-ii11ttllfUl~dle rO(f tile Villalge. The side tracks of tile ralilrod wl 5 e ec ((Iliietell a1111 111 August, 1869, the idepot erected. Ellis W5'i1 tile berst hlolse lililt 11111111 tlte lInlits of the v.illage, and besides tilese impllrI-enienlts thlere s\s.s 110 51011, (of a settlellellt here or break or clearitlg ill tile pr-inleICLl solititeles. lhe Col~lpanye sttitoled at tmanl Illmed Splencer It tilis tiace, butt hei 5(as Soon1 stipersedei 115 Wt illiaml lldlloneison, 51110, witlt ilis fialllil. Iuldellda tile edepot. ande 55110, sIdeing thalt travel was constanltly lIldreasitlg plreiparedi to enltertainl is 111i g1 u ests as hiis lillited accomunlodatiolls seouldi iallw. IThis hrellch (If tile bittiness seems to have ileel isoth agreeaible 1(11( renlltinerattivel to llimll sinee inl the fill he isuilt (for a iiotel) a 51111 l~lliose, whiich w1111 1Iln1l modifeictioii, later served as tile wing of the ('oboirn's EFxchange. It was no-.t orimiallaly a pretentiotus edifice, or s-rev

Page  212 212 212 xx-iONVAI lx C'oVNTY, Xi Cii1GAN. coin forthle Ic ii wxinter, lxiit it insxwcrexi the in ixxxe for w hichl it wxx xxInteindedc xixlwas tue i'r.-I busiines px i ce' inFl Howarud (" it lie village, iixwx v rx hi 1d( xxii early rival. In the x xilter1C I o fii / 0~-7. J.K. Kipp. flxxixy cx Stcvciixx and a nan inoxliedi Blaixsxiell lxriiicxd ali asxxx)clatioxii. iiitexldiix- to stait a v iilaxe x)II the' Sx Ixil Iliii of the xx xithleaxt qua rter of t*ectiOii 2ixi tile huIe Ot tile i'al.ixxaxl xiild ixoxit Cu)le ixiile ixortli ot H owirxl ('Itv. lii"I idi wasxxx i~ieci lxx Ilarvev l Stex cii~ I 1lxixdell, xiii' It C(~xlidictx r (xii theI iali xiid it wxas H I(xIx'd xit ith throxil' ix iii x1 iiihlCxce thxcV xxiiilxl he ahlxl tol sccixic a statioiil aiii sxiciiel 'I liec pireilim'inar ar-MIOrxi' inuiits xxere entireix stiieccesslxxi. lie slate rxx xito cxxiiicct N\Itxxli x xl~iiil xx hii''_i\VxxL ix fi xii G.raiid Ra~ixslxx to ix 1\ kpixid xxxid axlreadiy beenx compn~leted xOli diisxi'tance ecist fixm xiiii\i ikc-Oxi xxi xi the Iiii xxiectx xirxx f the ixeix x'illage xat oxice set lwixlit tox seceire it. Iii this, txxxx() tiiex wx rc siicce.xx flxi iiiici to tue diiappoilxxitiltixcit i)f thxxse iixte-i-exiex iii ilie pxrosperlxity lx xxxxxrci (ity, wiiix xl xx I Revxix 1 is I xexx tox hx le ili (1ilciandx xxiii tixise eekling' 1isiness locxalixAS xi 'SexVcr.i xlweie' sxxli llx Onei tpuxrchaser. Or)i. Andriexl wsx erectexi a stxxre xilixx' liIn Ixe ixlexxit iiix'lii e'xixxinie oxany xl ixile. Ilixcy lxexxi xeti xe uxei x x xxixlx eciv xx sex a xx rtxxixle sax ixilxi xxeriatixxi 'ii xxrxder to) xxiiixtii xxiii lxxixxiier tlixxs xxixdixiixc to) hxilxl. T1 hix ixeins, xdxoie, the sxuccess if fliiiex Ici lxiplxi xxas lxxxxikex I p xxi as; xx~sxirexl. xwhile the ixisxx ctels xx I loxxxxrx COiX, xcexe re'pxx rxlcx xs c rexxrxx~xxxxii'x xixxexInx ixxiiiix fxxr Rcyeiiclxis. lix xwever. xx inert-xx xw ixo xxhe'-xxi tx xble roibcxi cxle., e.xixx reneleredx a Clear title lxx liic vi axe lxxts inixx xxxile xi Tile' coxlliiixe xxt tile xinxlerakiiig Wvils xs1 xCxxxtlele 'xx it xxxI 'tidlxcix, fixl] the sxixcces xf Howixarxi (iitx xxas it ouice iiisuiredi. Thue secxxxxx lxii',' xtlxxxex xxtxx ixexi xix this] vxllaxge xxi lie little grxxcerv cf W\. I). Saxiiimxlxx xi \\ xx lix xxxc t xI.VHd x ll[V xxx nld ixx oi lx rect a suixixl buxiludsxxxaftx'r \\illixamxIxlixixlx xxieliexi iii' lintel \lr. Sxxxii sxxleItiieiilx ixixexI xlix (Od xxxxxlxixx la1ter hixixlt x Ilxir"c' xtxxre lxxxxieix aixd Oexneixx xx stxic'l xxf lxxixr xx e xi I c xCic lxx f I i87 1 g)-x'rxie'ted frxxii cighlieei tx xtwxe'itvx tlix xxi xxii dlxxilais I xxx xx f xiie Ii rxlt xxxsixxess ixixiccs xxpeixex l ii Ifixxxarxl I Cltaiix-x xxai tile lxxrxdwarxe xlor xic f jxxiii I-'. whiixx xliich stxxxxd acrcxss the roxadi frxxii ile hotiel xxiii xxv I lxix xidxsxi. Ile remxinixexd iii tiacie ixit xx short tiixie. 'Fli hirs I xw i xxxi xxs xxixxilt bvi 1D)xild Ixxltsfxxrxi it xxai lxiter owexd-xx lxx I~lie rv HIinilie, ox Pic'xrxx n Ixownishiip. taixtx, wai ix iiipxxi i Thx Ile first eiec'tionx iiiiiler the chxarter walixi xcIii nix the 7111 xxl \ixil x 8 7,'ix a xt x' icli tiiie exie lixixixirexi xxiid nineteenx vxtes xx-ere exist. Of hxxiichi fxxi the xxfice xx)f presixhent oi the vihhge', Albhxert I). Th'h.uixxis

Page  213 MONTiCALiM COUJNTY, MITCHIG.AN.23 213 receixcii o)iic hitiniircd anid eighteein. The foih~xving persoins ivere elected triustces j)im It ".. (huhh, i (olx oiiui, John T.. Shattu~ck, Dunican C. Mc 'l\ininonl clerk. I cure(, Ii Se-ar; assessor, ii. 'Mat hews; treasurer. lDavid l~otsfPrdi inarsiiai, josepli F 1oles. 'The foihoving axiticl i\t xx it Iken fruin the iooi ('hristmlas numiher of the / Jot'ird Ci/v Rezuid, 'nid is the ihest hlistory- that couili he writtelii I N THEi Oi)E,)-N D-\YS. The cmimiiii of 1 mi road to a tuivi aioavs iiarks one of the mtost iii(miiieiiiois eliochs III its history Pi Ireviouis to the 'lose of txc ('vill War thln-iusaids of i riie' sviii 'oes ex(istc'i aiid hail their icing, were pleasant aii11i comnfurtahie iiat rt of ihode iiii b usv marts of trade, y'et wrhose only ti iiicctii is oifl th oml t iu/ide \\x urhi uric olitaincil liv the ild- fashiiuneri stagecoicii ljicts am I truck iix tealiits hick aild fourth froii tue Ihore p)oplousi1 ael iii1- ui'r ittiiatr 0 uiwrs loiatcd upiio n thiose- -reat arteries of traile.-tite railroa(is. tr liisc oii tic wxir camie thereo fiire tinrivxalleii priosperity anii cmi iiiiic'rial activxiii IIiI lte \ irtii. id )iiiin oft the mxost miarked advanceiii'its if thle ilecaili\v'Is its biiiii hun of i'aiiiriadls. ii ii iid itv wxas ii it tiieii III existeiirr. Ill iS68/ tiit tGraiii R'apiiis & I1iidiaix rili iii i hai i i reacheicu a piiiit is far north it (edrii Sprinigs, and the oiiiiirx ixiith 'if it wxas to ag nreat extent aii unbiroken wxildieriiess. Big Rapiidt, Trvxri w ity iiii Luiiiiitiiii uric 'onlii the qIap iiii \id tiskcgon xx~ls i thiv xiii- o itl tornXi. Iaris and ilersex, iiith lieiln lixcateid en rivexrsli 11( i t iorc (-i' ~x lxxii an wxie lxiikeil iiion as tradingii pusts, nil Croton aixi \ Xx ix-ii ti tiii ixest wxere iircr ()I' ies~s prciniiiiiiit A stloe line ivas. iii i iiiir'it'iiin hewtc'i~ u Rl'/iiis 'mii 1Graiii I iapids, tixe nearest Stopping piliice toi xxhat aifterxir(i iiecaine THioxarid (itv heinig B~en Ensley's tavern. six nixiiis sotititxiest iif hei e onil ta old state riiaii. That xvas a iiri-tedI place inl tho(se (lax' aiixl Mri nsik xwxx 'it.' Tie had a stoire and sailooin, as well ais a tavecrii aitd all teanix coiniigi aini going oxen the stage line nmatde it a point txi Slop Iitli lii ll aiid ilit ii I'est aii(i refresiiiients foir both man and Imiiiilering hieiiiaixi ibelien ii pirogress txwo eir three vears here, at that timee aind oldi-timir wiltlx recaxll stich men as the Orton Brothers; Atwvood, iif G1reenxviile Pait Giirmni' tif Granid Rapids. anil C. F. Nason as tirnong' the earliest corners. Ltiter on., with the -amivent of tixe railroaii, canxe Henry H-enikel. Dare Botsford, ('harlev MNiller. Seth B~eals, Morgan & Stanton and

Page  214 2 14 2 4 MONTCALMA COU-NTY, M IC lIIGAN.,other., S hingi k nll' also liegan to (lot thle surroto~indn' COootrv 'ftter the roa wlo s plit Ilhroti-'1(1, anhe. IHalyx Iiothers Sam TDeot ( hohhb & Poo eli, JOCI Soil ilh & S0i~111, -I1 others foundit 1 t p ice illWi o10.1 to do0 iL lourishiuof bslt111. and. thei f estlxC Uh1111W Ic0 vCr0 \vidi lII ii, 1)111 ottomieii trouser lets, brload lillulldoil- hoI oim ait d0 vcst an(d 'allot turholl 11at XXvas tile ICau10dole f1aslliiill Therec sore ttur mixy two settlers bettweeo (Cedar Sprlllgs 11n( Bell 1' ii'lcvx- '11d 11010 ll( lthec 001rth th(e 10oId w~to 51( about thoi-00h till I)iU ortts 11 not 'aoother settcr 1 0 '1o1010( muitilwith11111in e or six mlelis ot o LU' Ils Iiii 111e old Ra thbunii 1fo111 Cwas' tile 1tadii0 ilotelil 0Grand R'ppiii whlell tile old lari ard oiH oose 'oil tiii Blronson Hlouse oo 10.d by '\ii. i iiuirtovri-hil, father of W\i11001 ULliurtmiri ht. of \'esvav'o.'o vied \oith one iliithtr forii seecind place. lit1 thlt sprill-~ 1)1 1 hf' tile Grarli Rapids &- Indiana 111a ilIroad r'eaced~~ the iuin111( tc1111 w1hill I fter'oartl iieaoe i-Hovard (it, 111](1 W15 15lililt till Iortil 15 1a 0 s 15 orilt's, NNxiiel fir I' timle tciiitmuedi to lie tite noirlthlern termlinlal. (11 iii siili olil 'II its earlier year1s alni tile lumbe1r jaeks \\-iti thleir 51kcc iiois aIl (1 luadcliaW Suits- uiuaie l'ioiue lliiWx IV~ix littll CllICt' Il fromu for ci llvt'ili tile timbeh(r friili Ilte Itli the Ilills It A ltlke-onl alld tile 1he.15 ofeii l it roit W plime for- whlith thils setct~l(-il of tile st te ileeanll famous piroduiedeimi 101 fortulles, wiiiiei stile m tlyllt t'aken elsesihereC to bie spient. \iiiii tlle earliti' settler', 15 illrc 1-0 \v0,VI \\V~llbr, Jo ctlI ho~ie' I llllI'I' sii I~a Ia1111 \Viiliai 1)ti11k,,Bl\ 111111 'ff. Loxeiv W1. Lovely' 11hIrle 1 1115 Ri-s, LIi eo ilid IFrank1 11(1-1ih llorac ICCANlekCe, Major A. B. IHois c liii II - il'Itllers, Dali toild ( 11,11 IC S ' iels I'ete TX B. 1111 irl-i'11111 ial wh IIiih~ is 11015' Cobhiurn' s F 'eilange; C aptainl Coon, whio later -raI'Citv ('1111reuthtie 5111111( mdiiuihdl F1. ( ( uioit Iix who lia s o~wnled it mlanvc Ye'lI's SillCt' II ali. 11111 1 c~tr sttivills, I ilts Ty ler A P. Thoma~'s, J. L Docxtor SnyderIC S '-\ Alcwihe io'll T I Prillt, ~: 1' I lltISimw, lf AT leollm r. \h Spalshilrxy, 'SVi lial D11 ose 1111ir 111. Tiloopson tex e W N I shs Arttur Pice, It sali;111 AlSuch Por i Dl yi) 1 allll W. 1). SaIbin Orhl Potter, Sidnev Grallierl Fil Os riact A. Bohlli (Chester A. Rockwsell Cilarlex Bro1st, John (. (Coltts, Willh'am Robiehll Sohllorrlo i sk. (I J. X'Solfe C. C. Aterhtrv, IRIichard H. ald Ailbert (1 Dolald, lelrv Hlenkel, Ed L oxeix 0 J. KnaIpp

Page  215 MIONTIT\LM COUNTY. MNICHIGAN.21 2 1 _S "Bills"' W\ilsoin, 1E. V. W\ilson, Richiard Perry Alex Denton, George 'M. I) )tv, J. I. H askinis. VJhn Fieldls,.BRieJon-TlximadF d \Watts, Jim Sargent. AleX DMnICanl Seth Pcals, Si '\or-ani Sonntel Dent, laick A lc I lien, 1). A\. I orrav, Dain Shook, J. a\ o Sid V\ Bullock, Henry 't-ers. leter IDe'Aitt, ill)co.tt L owsell, j ohnx ~Iontste, D) n Mllher, George lo -11erdc'rsoin. G;eorge U ndriioll, (apt, otIohinson, Tob Rohin So)il. ( \V hue,.1 sepi) SO~tth~I 111(1 aldOthers 0Vhose l~Ii wits;ire not at ptesent recalleil( For Ii fteeii years o)f its existencec HowarI ('Itv \\ Is a woodnili town. It was (li~tilicti i-clv a I inilber to\oli. Th Inpiiie -r1 thick 112)(1 heavv here, ni I s rnGo all aliout alin Itoniher wvas comnparatively che'ap Tlie princiill tiii iiglit was ow to miake lo( neycas qu1ickIv anl in aS Ilarge (etital1itteS as o~ssi 'Ilaid then go elsewhere to enjoy tic ifroits ot it. Iittle thoughit wvas decvitcd Iin the earlier vears to hoild~ing for the futtiri to' securling, shadv streets aiiii I)Ceaiti jul honiiis. or ii in prteetinl tropci-tv ftontt hire. For fi fteeii Yea rs, wii th tlte e-xcct Itjol cif at I nc f perio wlxheni (L IheCA 7 S 1i(1liatid.hnd cnigoe. alayout O-.f rep;Iir. 'Was osI neil liy the v illag e the onis\ Iprotectiosn agaiit t.ire Was a 1 —t ' "hucket brigade,' of which every man, woman and child ii the place was a Inenlilir. \Old soreliv if (115v town sswas cver tiorui riicv rismaei 1wv fire H owardl f-its- 0vis. \ASii froiii the otiiial I ir plerhaps W\e shiould s15' tuntstial fires. ()cll rng Iriill iear to xyeari tilre ih ave heeit -enera ii onti a'rtioils wichiel itt a ho i ir I ii hIt liiie prectically 011111 (lit tite holslie(ss sectciii of tile toawl. PreNoils to i 8Sli tile 11sinlis ilirtlot oif the vli'lag 5w15 prinlcipally inecatce (.ii FnlIsles street. parale1 \vitli tue (1r111d Isapids & 111(11 lla railrolad, c(iit iiid S(11111 if '"i ertoll sticet. ( )n the night ot lDeceiher 1 3, 1883, tire inroke ioti ili tile 1hiilding iieetpleel tin stiire atil resiiienue hv (1. T. Kisuapi I t a11o11t ninie ci eli ieck in thle Csell~ll'1_ It was littterly cold alie a sliarp wind waIs 1(m11(1 i 111aikttl, it 5v rv unloniforltaible for those enia-'dell iCuiiltestin i te prowerss of the 11lnes Th le only wa ter niltalin )le for tile tise of thle lAcke-t brigacie was froni two or three wells ii the vicinity, at which 55viiii hI lials woriIkedi tile 11111111 iice'ssalltiy The tiue pained Steacdily' and i lookeli a5 though-I the whole to\tl 55was doiomledi. TIhe Gi'and Raid'sil ('1tre dlepalrtmlent w1 nlotiftiedi ily teleg'raph 1a1( Iililte(lotte aidi was askedl for. iroiipt actilit 0w15 taken there and a steaml tire engine seas sent here by special train, accomnpanieeh by a force of traitned firmeitei. There we're two or three old tire cistern's Wxhich had heen hetilt xvhen the local] hand engine hall ieeti purchased, buct these had fallen into clistise anti what little water was in them weas exhausted in a very' few motments

Page  216 216 216 M~NONTCAI.LM COUINTY, MICHiiIGAN. 1w tile Steaeiiel A ]UK (If hose was thenllaid to the rivert The fice d1id not gYet Iiilrth Il Idal(ertlll street-oi Liislev street ( Coburn'sl FXI \ tI'l (11( -,il (Icltil (If it ilellig Illaredll hut southi fromi tihe F'xeliajie everyl huidi11 on1 tile st leet was w1iped oult 1. lllipletely. TIlese coIlipri sed tile I ollow (1g At\\O-So-,r\- llii~ldiml 111 tIle corniec 001(11 b)1 N\ Hl Lm(0el, f)1110wed (,Il lie' so"liti III a 1(11)tollbilil I~c ler el Itol e (111 vIllO 17(I roo s Ill a ma111 n11ali.d Pra tt. Next wals tile -rolier 1 111 1restailrlit of I f. tile (11111 tt whII ich 111 wI- r imi It the tulle 1v Ii mll ill11 111.5 an111 11 heyI Ile tli~lt a Sall(il~ 111)(1. tel IVD~ll l)Hiifirtiitt, iI 1111.111l-h t I) Trlitilit 1)1 thle, ftirtliec ecrner (1 a' tile 1(1d 111)I I 1 111\v 1 0111.1 opeated byil Fdi I` lie II 111 of Imther. Not I veistie' (It this entire Illoeb- \\1'1111s Iim I''St11 k11-(it iII. 117(12t 11 b(Illl Sie desI Ml ll illi fil 11111.1 e I ee) (II ll ic diig Iaft1er Ttheli. (l e IIIc(mipi (11d1 II iiil lm e ildln Alit111e 11crI I br)iik lock111 sIl(\\ ilceN t. ()Ill the elI waI I" twloIstult IfIciiii 111111(1111 isedlis '15 -rl)cerv lb Sam Sweet, thle upperlC 1111 billl ellig cllpel 1v Sa111 lnk11111 adiI (Ilil. \Next occuiliei liv 1111111.l It 111 fa1111111 (11 tile 1-Iroilil fooc Mi. Knappli Iclllliiited 11 grcIicIy 111111. It wI I ill tlis lIlildiil 1111.11 tle fille I i-1'llted fir11111 a1 (IC tecth IC A.1((C NI. Tliloiiils 111111i IIiclaw11 iffie e 11 tile ticst flooc ill the lce\t lluildiili. wCithl (Captainl 1\lllliisI~ls lusie Iceurit tupstairs. Petec stvelils, andIllhs IhIdt111r, iclailk, ((vimle the tell stocs framoe iiext east 1111d ]iveeld lecrelial. lheir cSlid shll (las onl the' -rollidloor.111 ()I )iihe cornlec. whiecc II. Ml. (I OhiS' sttlc 111111 slalmds, was a (lrii stoll C(10hell lby Drc. fohon Tie ilr' 0.111 111 factiicr east thaii this 1(.111ne, 1111 Whilte slic-, b11t(11 111 tile' SIIiti iie' If Fd-ec-tol~l Streel, I pfrit5 e tue 1)11111. 1 It 1le~lltIOiie'l WILlS 11 whollI r(Il IIf franiii lhiiildilgs Ihat w(ic destiroseli 61) the iFdgectln and11( \White sitreetI lcllei wa,~ a 101,-411rII fcaelie b1111ill 1(0 1w ed a1111 occup~ied he )Ic a & (-)I ll,; os.s aL "leneir al i-toc ''Nie 'e' ' hs 1 ai taiioriiig estalii1hichlllit lipstairs. NMI. Ii 1. jellul ha11( I Imillill ilext wIest, whiece lie hail a ewchie st1 le' nexl west (IlS the' ((I Uniou bloek i ThI ilo wer' clllnis were iilsCII, tile' east lbv Nirs. I. I` Ni iiccv's mlillinery IIstoce, an( tile' eest bly ''iiiliey \' WisI liiS miarket. Nur'aci 5iv edi (Ie-cr thie -1 torleC 1111 tue NiIsIIllic lodgK el 1(11s o tile' thiric 11111I. Ne \t was' tile Inme gr IceI\; tore' of Fcank (D. L(lcd. with officees tililtalirs. A. Nitmlig- 1111 on tilt 1.01iiercbI tue ai1ev, whlere' Nagecrs, 11111g Sltlle 111v stallel" w Is I Icrane hnileini- whiech 11ad1 lleen 1111vell tilere' frolll amothlec loceationi 11v IhillsnOIS )n k alled Ileipiieli he his

Page  217 MOlNTiCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 1 21 7 inj )Oick (1111w If Seaittle), with a stuck of drugs There was a doctIor' SothiCC Oel h1c. Nl ext Nvest of the tallev was a hnihhdng owntel and OC~tjt( 115 \ ie i I coIIS 5 ili goce. \djoining it wasI a. lug L-sliapedl biltlidli-tl" 00tell lv Dail Milleri runnitii back ab~ont sevs cots hive feet andl tuntitiii cast, taeIII, the t11\1 Iin the rear of thle corner 101 lili- Mr. and Its. I silia Tii v1111iti cm-cupi itcH' thls for a restanranit ano-1 ha ke rv The next twl) lots were vacanti 111(1 it the eoriner, aicr)ss froml (Cohurn it Exchange. was t5I t~lII 1101' hlicbidiligO I whijel wtas at that tinle occuiediic y.1)a saloon. l~iIlll iv \V\ ii. I Llv Si itth from Liroas; & (Collis storc Wsete three lliildl~iit' 11W(111 is Solomoii n ILisk All ssere liestroveil 1111.n.itsw 111 agaril in thiise i s Its eitizens were iieii iif aeliolIll 1111 bcforc the cenblers If t11 -ret fire hade co oleil preparation 115were (i fis I~t Iiiikinl- to a reliiiidhng (If tic litrntic d ii troet Iin a micre stitstanitial itanneic thai lilicore,IThe v iI o e 1minitil net and priimphtly eniactell a tire ordiianee. establ liShin11 firc' 'nots wi'thiti which thc Cr11 tiiit cit lii \vsiioeile liti~liing w5iiild 1.11 111rmtitted audil hah teliis hleen rigidill etifcirc ci thle tciwrn wsotlil lie thte better fur it toiias. hi tlte man t it ssas iihseives ci nhd iinia lrint s* f the ness bloiks liilt theiaertr Ic wcrc' line lookingj-, suistaintial tso-s;tOrs hriek structures. swhichi sitiil till] a crieidit tco the cittcrp11ise (til pluck o-.f their cowners. Itn a titti ilber itf it lit'nitecs, howsever, 1pe titions swerc. macde is those wiho had lost all 'ii the f-icc toi- liernissicl tiIllttl frin(il bitildiiigs fur tettporars- use, t, latcr lie rcplacedl lhy brick stoires. Afltci more or less cnitentioni these reiqiie~st; wsere graiiteil aiiil althtiiiili eseviiteett xcirs have since elapsed thle little traite liiidilclt, twicre or less silirrepittiutisly aidieid to and Impilrovedl 5i1111 still stand11 and arc likely tio flit yecars to ciiiie. 'Fthem fiirtiisli a plalee ti Ib buolosiness. it is tri-te, aiti toi has cdilnieid thc ii the privsilege cif cotisitie-lc tiun swoitld ill c1\ heelt rather severe till m the bitililers, but had all bieeni treatc il alike itil the iicliitatce aclhercedi to, IHissaril Cits wotuld tav-e tolaxI ae if tile hatldsciinest biusiiiess streets if ans tossnin IId Mcligan m of like piipulati0on. diiIt )iiick, Frank 0. Loril, Jolin C. (Colliins R. LI t) Doitalil, Peter Steveiis, A\. I'. Thoumas, 0. J. Kitappl and IRicharid Perrs etlecteclfihe twsostory lirick hloeks the year folloiving the tire, and thc ttext vcar -leitry IHenkel also ptitt a tine liloclk of the samte character cm the wsest iott adljoining thte alley. TI. Gi. Cohttrn also htiilt the lIg skatinig ritik \vhich SSvas afterwa'trd ciiiterteil intiia livers harn. Anthctier destrucetive tI re ssas that swhich oeetirrecl ciii Stindaty, May 19. i 88q, stairting in ti hack riillt of a grocery storc ow neil and occuiied hy

Page  218 , 18 218 MUONTCAAI.M ('IlNlY, MCTITGttAN. CtaspeIr Schtitt, next east Ut) w(here IllgieilllI store C 111 is U)II the sotith side ot i"Aiertou street, east frmi WIhite street. There wx re ftur store 1(uildiin's iii this hiock aIlli a hrick churcih Uownet by1) the 'rcte-Will 1 lptl ts on the ill? t corlIel east, whiere tie t Ui-regaItIoali ch1urch it iow\ sta11d11 Thitre ww(5 aiso Il 5Ui(( dbloc Ut framoc hidlluli -s U)Il tilt Ulpim~site slide Utf tiett iect., from W\hite tU) L incohi streets I inludingll the hiopera ho1(1 1()11) 1 (1 these w\ere Ill tiestirm-eo, as wxerc;,(lU tli Ie residence s (If A\ C( White tttoi S. V Bulnlock, ((here IIUv st111115 till ihUomes (It A\ () i laid alit ii N, GhS Is(iso the residliele (If 111111 1). Mor11toll xhetre Hi Steelill Ian's hii~se is; till rIdclie(Ce Uf AF \ 11Iil11 tile llt 11010 IculeCdii byi~ thiat Uf J(1111 ( oliiins Sir linl tile r eside11ce l)t J, WX i hilloL allli I vaICalit bildlinigit llw\ Il Ii y xxere saxveli ihoilc ( estrovll iIll till, loltih side iulluiess iliock w~erIe J. W. 1 1velvs hairdwai r le storlt UUI tile cIiIIrr X. W. Ntather' 5 i)nkl wxitih iDr. ited ily tile LIbbiie mt i llliilerI StIltrS aint till Amierica Ill i press Ioffhe "tolr (If F asill I 51illt ((illre the ilrt staritedi He IXve oliv)c titc stole, (lit wxith ihis faml~vixv(as (vlsitjll ill till comailrI 111e1 the tilt, occulrredi Nex\t (c1st Uf tiiis. \V;Is aI xx its (list 11w1 ld Ii J. W.X ],(((eCly '11t (iet foiiox-IIIt, tite iiiterxeitiiit 1v lit I It- wI s tue i Irec WX iii aplitist. chlurchii xxitih a sitaii framle ihouse5 ill title Irer I Onil tile ixorti silie Itf the street, oIll tite coriler, wxiere itow s1511(15 itt t xx II 1tor I rick sto(re (It CI \. VtiiDeixuer-2 \\xitli tule (IlliCe O-f tite~ I /Ah~1 ll 'I 01 1111 tile,eClil b ( rI 5 u tr iiarket. Di. S.1. I,,ilmi-ai ille Cltlilystaliri Aleit\ Dentiiwi - lrocery wxas III the. text store eas:t, xxiterc tithih i()] pstoffice aild F oi J. LiirteiSli'sdi-1tOstoic ihai foirterix bccix. Next tane Il I lx Ird & FPippil it rliwIre anti sihoe stolle Ill titt west ro11(11 ailli irs. Xi. L G, (Iivll (i S(iry-gol(s 4111 e in tite east one. Dr )i an(ilt To(1 tili's (Iltiact 1.). N illlll r S i1w olffice, tin (Grani A rmyi of tue Joohn F. ((ats iid al HxiIt isiltitit ihoi ilext o1 tiit east, foiiowxedi by is Aibott s lixtws liepolt aild Iresilei-(lee iiTitn Cmie C. NV. 1'erry's laxx office anii Aldaml ixes office, rondic~tlel iv X~eNiti H(1 iiis, xxo 110(iS aisol citv ci eris N ext wxas -Ai list f'iiiriii its sihot shop) nid residence 5111 011 tile clrrier wx s a lxxoI)st(Irx imildinil xxitii resiliences iii tue icar, oxxiedi by A. IT. Axyers. Tule store xxas otcniieti In D~r H. P. Fuiiier and the secoiid floor

Page  219 MON'TCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 21 210 Contaicnedl the fitsitt roomis of Mr. antd AI rs. NV 1-f. Las-ene. Fre Booth livced int the residence- iti rear of store IFollowt ow this lire the people lic'an to itrouse to the importance of get tii lire protection-. Ilte Re'ordI hic ah camne tinder the cotitrol of B. J. ILotrey, it Ohe tituni iii f i88~, Ii c long' idvocated this, and shown the lriote1 lhitV of Zi ittMnicIia owviiershiti of wa ter works lin villages, andi the vilg 'oItn diecideil to sitfhtit' to the people it rcilositioni to hitilil a wvaterworks isvsteni. 1 otace Ml. Mlenkee was vill-we presidlent at that litte aihld Ct NIesseiwer, I 1 weJ. A. ( ohis. Fried A\shlev, G. Ml. Doty and 1 letirs XBnn e th( lx)oardl of tritstecc A peciali electitii was calleil. to) he lielil cm1 N ovetnler 27, anel a propositionl Wits Sithbmitted to tse peopie to tondl the village for $8,ooo to lie exptetided tor tue pitrchase andi layiso' of i isystenm of wvaterworks. iThe tistial cititeittios Ifolloswedt, vigorouts opiposition lieing jitit tip hy those Nvho thought it wsoitldl enorintioslyv increaise taxation. Thle qutestionl wa~s silintlitteil, totwevri -nid carried iovcrovheni~ii-i'v. 1111 s-ote was a very Iiligt one, otle~ ii~) li llous belcti Cast. Of these ij votied ii favor anti oiiy.58 ag-aitist. ti. C. NIMessenger, 1. 1. L owcry antI Jf A\ 1 u)111 wvere appoinlteti hy the count LS t. -iC01tmitt b ntm r ot pl ites having- wvaterworks to learns islet kitit cit a) litit swould lie nmost tie.iratble to purchase. The cornutittee vISIteui \Iiti St. Ltitus, (li]re, Farwtseli and Rerid Cite, anti after carefitl itvcsti';i tutu repiortedlis iii 01oro iri pipes for seater mains, at direct lir( —S`tIrr SeSteIts atid twso trge ptumps eich with itia capacity. sibert operating alose, cpItiil to ins\ ordinai rs ilctiandc tiat mitgiht lit mtatle tilon the svsteni. ILater hidls wiete ivis rtised ii sr, itind it contrate let to Mf. NWalker ftir St12,000 for Stiritshing tail pi)ttnilina isi waterworksi isystent equipped weith two of hit high irt sitirptlimps, (ich wtith i PIIIT"'- capaMcits Of 750,000 gallonts eversIssentys tistr liimiii;itti] t;( -iir-inted thit eitithe r t)ite cats lie workeed ilidue.enelristis of the othllet or h 0th it titter wtt ai ieutitiltie capsacity otf 1,So)0000 gallonis ill tweeistv- fittr histrs;. Ill the itiigittal plant there- si-rc two miles of isater miitins, principally ten, six anti fsuir-ittch anti a small tquantite of twvotinch tin short circuits ciii side streets. A\nothier nijie seas laid latter. 'Thle biitildn' s iertilth pumips. lsoilc-rs anti eqliipmenit pilt in, the niains all lantl ]ose cairt anti hose antid hook atid laddter otitfit purchased anti the storks isverr tested anti accepted the followving spring. Later it seas eotedi to honsc the villa-e fcir an addiitioniali $3,0o0 for conipletnigi- the diant, anit stwo extensions oif the mains has e since bretn made,

Page  220 2 20 220 ~MONTC'ALM COUNTY,:0I1(11GCAN. 0)tat nerl evt (rt p)01tion o)f the tall-ole has hr Iroetin avnient of thle 1h1n1s has he n-1 inl pr1(1 ess for setveiral rears, so that the entire hooded 11e1t o)f the vrdla'- 0)(l't is 0n1) S,5,.oo.1Theowaterw'orks are nlow selfInstIInn, andl have sekxcra t~ii s saveel the town from thlirtttenedl anihda-li tli.The (ran) lRapids1 & Indiana i II( [Pere M\arqunette railroads take the Xvater siippii ir i theii engines anl ldsp)] pro.pertv from the village and pay there for aii alnul]]] rentalI TMV 11N (IF TODAY. 11 ovard ( 'tv- hias today a 1 II]lati Ii I f I100( ICOlI~le. The tI.W11 is nIo l~i-gr a Itiiiler tow]. The 1on1ber cot wats bninshed years ago( anl its last saw-inlli I. 11)1)1 sinlce V meII. Tailiarack river wnhich hasli snept I]]i y fuilliois (4 If lilars northl I) 1 gos Itraird the miills has fel ott cii the tni'liilency c(ti~se'(I iii Its wa(ter ill those ldays aild is today1) stoc1ke1 wli]th beauti ful speckled hrl(k ti-lit. nwiere thle aniglers, iiake spileni ca' tchtes I) Ithat les;t I)f all g.Ilil tIsli ever) sp~i-iig. 'Tle 1 iusiinCs hi)cks,- ire miosty stihstani i a inwo-toll b rick strii(tuiret wi tlh cI(iiiiodioiis lbasemieliiis aol beauti ful Ilate-I (55 t ironts an o mleOi of the hest and 1 1n rest s:tocks (If g((lsfounml iiorthi o)f G~rand1(1-ptpids -ire fotiiid tthcoini IThe st reets are Ihroail and \vcll shade d mui the too it eonitOlis iiiAiiV lbe(lit]fli lulld sublstaiitial imoderii Ii)mins witli t (4 tv d n,( ve 11 kepIt I wns 1h li tI 01 Its li'hlteil with eleelirilitv rIII 1)(11h blISiiCte 55 tie r sill) iie (listrict1s. IThere is a pivate sr.Stein (It se'ne''a-e' inl the hnsliness se twil (in (iIl ](li ii((is (fthe iresideice' Seeciions, o i tlhe t~own. 11(1)1 d i l(itt is 10(e (Ii the Ic ading h~taIt) mn rkets 'ii this part of tle state'. aind tlii e IlI Mon]tcam, is lhord ill \Iiehi in ii'n the' inia iiitudc ()f this greait \NiJi pilroducit.T I i el~ l(4 lo)1( Inl this emlliltl Is ill excess (If one iiillfion loishlIs. TIhe IratenvwIk 5 5er c 'm(l1pri'ies (1]l equipimiie'it if a size uisua]lly' fouiid ((I111 Ill tonils, 8' 111( to 1011(11(1 lmppillt on Fire streamsl l oo feet lilgltl caln he throtwo ('oitiiiui((iv it tIle' samO t~iiiie In thle wa ktf(It i nlroaid I ieilities, lie Grand taphids 8.: Tndialil. f the lishiiig, hue runnitng diirect to Mtackliiaw PIII tlsker and the oIthier' inorthierin resolrts. passes thir((I'l thC tO\l II nd Is iitei'sectei helie lit ttorin ues of the' Pere Ztharonette st stein 01w tfroim Hotar oiCity' to iDetroit. thte other from I Iiw r(tt iI ityt'ol Sagnwil iT hIle IPeire Marhtuette' also has a hue: surrereed fioiwIoraa t 1est to sikeI ale' Ieuga t inlingtonl to tle' uiorthi and Ni nlskeouII l iih lt(t too this extenlsion twas puirchiaseeh anhI( thle iTiiiicatwiMS re tihiit the rolad ttill he buiilt.

Page  221 Ni1ON7TCAINI COUNTY, MICHIG AN. 2 221 Asa trdiniii I jit iHo waird Cits has few eq nals intl no superiors Inl this part if the s:tate. Thlcre is a Cash market for everything produlced witliiii the tradiing ridlitis, 1prices ruile high and oin thre oilier hind goods in] tlii Sliirc5 (rC 501(1 ()II cl(s nSciariiiiii a11( tradeis ~ correspondinigly Itirge. )iie it thle iciiiarkaille ins,4tilitiiiis (if fI owarl (Citsy is lie "Ilesenict II loiie, whliih Ii Ii is(S (ie Mt 110CXstenice Ill resliutise tii the altlial ineeids if the ci mumniunitvs Pirents canie ti M lr. nidl Mrd s. lieseniet and imip1loredl tlicii t( taikcle thir chiiliren, and tihus the liome grew to its, present iropo)rPar uents wo liihad clihildren inl t le hiosie spread tilie gi iiis news atiti, otlici- )ii Iii"' thle p(st I'eyer ci ghitN clildren have Iheen cared for. '[he he-en1~ilet I Ii tule hlas a,state licenise, hut the Inlstitiutioni is tot ineorliiatcd. It ii iqinily liappeils that a homtie is hroken upl bo- the death if one of the 1-irenlt,~ (I- ir v desertioni of the father i ir mother. Ili suich cases M1 r. and \M Ir insiciet take the childreni ato accepit whtatev-er isproffereil bw way if adl ti sip iwirt. \\lcttci Codi tiotis have Changeid anld thle liotite canl i~e rc-csti II shed, tile childrcii are retiurneid to their piarenits oir a),rent. \Vhiile cliildreiI rcetain at lie Ii iii dici\ lire pr(iiperic ciotlteil provided with gOod. wlhilco n)ile oi sil anid sclit to the puilic School and toi Sabbathi school. No lii 11(1 ill1(S tir assistaince have ever 1hcci niail.' ioiiNTGli. ierwhich Ilies Iii sectio in 2i __of Revis his towtsistp, onl the (Granid hRapid I Iniai na radliiri i shioild, on Itt d (1 arch5 1 87/ This itas- pslatteid for Iilitmi Conir priopricelot i hetice the itmie hyi A\ I-. Uhitoti, suirsveyor. A\t thc tutuc it tluc laii -i siit t) this town it was thic oiaitiiii o)f a sowiii ilht own to~ i tn.iie lit tiess to IHooarid (ity-. wvhiich is iinly three itti conehledf aiiik o nii witoh thle edimlistioiti of the tiliiiinr, it Ceaised to exist as a ~ii tinetcial Iointt iiii at prceceil exists oul in nime.

Page  222 ('R AFTER XX. Th I etiti tton asimift r tci Ie (detaillchmet ot townlship 110th rano-e5 w) (t1 1fr1m Perrits tiwn ohlpi a11d 1(0r1111711 it m1to a separ1ate tmv ii 1111) wa S di td( 011 Nov Cim-h 1 1861 It 'er ris 111s lore the I 11( wIno 11 ooc.,ICob] chosoov cr, G eorge Ha 00 J01h1 F. 'I'ails, loshtua Paiter, Rufus,Saides Levi G~1oi I1111 tIcorice Camlpbell, FIi s (Cordcl, lendaidi 11 lce, 1111m /Isi k 11 J 1h (M.l~l D'ai ls, F 01111 Thrli if. 1 \V111od111d, F111111 L (11 Heati 111011) Swamii111 Idi1ol11 111it(1 il 11k1, sd 101, J ()1Sloosc 11 11I1 ohnt Shaffer jilimcI F/111k 111111l c 5 htfflrc Gci i~ilb/e11rts 11Chfied dil M 1 11111crd hlt eHae Ruane II 111 1liii ArcI hiii W 1utoo llip of Daniel 11111re A111,11 it I I),s ultlok Ai) l~ldre oter losiep it Lati-Illii and 11.1 B1 Sortt. rThe nae st. -e N.I iilaied I ld t1cche I s'll-St d ctio wa 11clici 15t t Ico11s) tol itoshuarr Pintsertiin iiI /- I hAr 1111.1- 511111stI ctiols ki fll))) II I( cji& li 111re tilec11ed11 Super J 1 he mdc 1of 11tlle Sif lete Zink 'ill Jo011u1 ilainterId'Iel. atr ie 11111it c rli ihe tilet settlrdica tovltc p1(111Itll i liii I ill cuiii1lity 1the lilil idpar o)t iie 1(rth 10v( tlswlca011 altmv it isetll b '6 1rt coultck lik t11liektoreld ip of~ i~rti.; If shich mt~ited Iill cell. it i 111e( 1 atiiaii ( lt ti iesweltl by c' ler tcwilsrit i art it11l isjit iiii IMO11(). I111(11111 t 12 1 nortih i os rn e eis-ic iie Tll cr Pifnle I ivlriiiii ~~lareo hc s I 511 tile sceltli' oftsc Ii a svre fres tofes, ic )Ilici lw~lli 1t11 -MldIi i 11(1] )1 dcstiiivil. Cpct Nearer tile r cluthe sail al~evlofs 1 lack is11(1)111101 b ct Wile r(a fil roiletoftimhres. I'orth 11ofuthe

Page  223 MONTCALM COUTNTY,.11iCHIGAN.22 22' river litc cciido in pie are the leading, varieties, and tic soil, though in piaces ligit, is generailly excellent. 'Ilie lumbecring interest Nvas the iprincipal source of enmpiovneien when the townshiip was first ormainizctl onl the demxand for farii produce h its c onseqtcianly funiishied a good ma rket f or home prodlticORi~NANi. LA-ND E)NTRIESii Ct101iZiiilN t gaett, jwilin I )n Jimes 13. Roberts. -Morris Dunnii Aiii isa Rost, James C. IDaveniport, NN inrrcii 'ck Sherwood. Section 2Sainiucl ci. Le-ecett. 1`zia tRuist, janic 11ais 'unnii XV. NXright, tlines Hiii XX 'reii \ Shcirwo0(2( 1 zra\-t,list Jaones TIaix Vailorous Ak. FPavn~c ID)lluav ix "Iiic Sokb mii LiaI paugh Section 3-\ Ilortis A. Pavyne, loslin i )Diuiii ) Daiel Stiavix ciI71 i Rnit Jameni liii Solonioii Laipalih. II aitijitoii Isicli- STtc tio 4-Xiiilhrite L Sotile, N ii nix AX Pvixe, Jantues II. HiillI 4-itii Dunito (Charies Merillii Sec tioii I)ixii Icst Aimilrose I.. Soiile, S ixst id ii. PNililri Ambiiil L0.1 SoniceI Frederiick IDiiiin. Mtorris Dnnn1 i i I Isre P.RcliiirI cii j loxii Dti)nn, Chairles NIerrill. Section 6NXWilliaim II \\atlter J eS-itia I )iiii Georei Wc N NYoiiig Nlexander F. Bell, C harlces NlcI-II il Scctl 7i / iixiWOSC Sonice Jotshiia Duinn, Alexander F. Ll Ieu, J liii ~(mi ol itn ohn i\ Duiiiii X Wliil uii Mc I-enz/it C hester ~NN 7alh erI. S~ettiiiiS iicii 8-l i-eic Dulnnn Israci I" isichirtiseni Joshuia Duinit. See — tioin N-) VC,1ill n A \ltIv(-)rd foshitia Dunnl Israecl 1' Isieliardsen, Tohn XV. \alorii-oA I at jic Si ihliiinn I Hampili11ti onii RichIi S. \ I iier. >~els-oii I - Si1hoi nVi c SccO t i TiTi Iauiies 11ck(1 lRiitliIxn lt, IGb-rge NV. ID)cnii ix' \aili ii -\ I iavli Aixiiiii \V.X Wi~ilt. Sectioii i2- DlaiVI XV. li~ti. Mertie N~rill, liiiv PrIitcliardi XXeslet ( istic. Scctiion ir.-X Rust. I)vix il X lxtiit Charilcs I-idlIt ILansftie I. IWXilider TiosIia Rogers, (;eorcc NV NIcrit i Gcrie \\. NNri iht- Secti"1 ixi4- \liiev Rust. Taxvitd NV. Rut I~t ainc N ichils, IIija Grayi is eIvi. Is N ons1)ii IDiitt. Seeli Oi ~- XoliexV N si Xi Iist i Lust I li ii B-enton, I ic-tcr -Blacknxan, \Villiantil A Aiv oil, roitili Paiiiter. Sectioni itS XA ilnrtii A Paynex, Ximiiii N\. \\rig-lit. H mixiltiiii Priitcharid i I ii li Switnii Jailez TI -inskni Jacoi ~NV. ~Stiii-II liid (I Lii I 11' I) iSi ((iii XX7 1Dtaiie, Nfiiie~rxa P ritcha rcd, Eugene 0 happdte Sie tutu i -Charilt s Meri nll Lorcii K. Hew itt Iorciize ii. fuirtis, I;ilic eZ nI i ScOt0lio i- Aiiirttsi S. Sotile Jiosliii iDlmn. Sectioin iToa —( It rits NA llr-11 XXamiin A Slie'rixouil Sa mue NIIl.. Lego-t Jiishiia Dnnn IFredeiciki Di hmn Iavid PaddIckiix IDanIiel I. Stillitvii Siection 20 --- LV IIillic, to(r- tWX Ilenixett, I Patddocktillt I ames Nichxols, Chxarles

Page  224 224 224 ~~Mi)NT'CAIM (C0UN TY. M ICHIIGA N. Ale(rill. I-redierick iumiii D1) i1 ii S nlxi CCti0n iiI ---Charles Merrill. - \ iiil)i05e Soiile-; I \vm11 1 Hoover, Vilorns A. I avne,.OS11oslin Dunn. iredl Diiiiii. Andre\\ \. I 11 Hlenrx L. IIlexvink I liineas l1virten. Sectin1l22 D~avidl NW. Rust \Viliam in \ANvx rdn ix-hIi I )nnn, liolert. N(i d. Anintxwi Alicr. N niiiii \N N\lN\ \ IriiiiII N N11 x (1( A II ciry IL. H olcombl, I-,. A\. Ripi lIxCV SCCtiiii -A~Iiiii x lit, I) Vx iW N I list, I Ile-izer IBlackiian.Nilin Nix vurd, NValm-rii I. PiLVnIC, sitia Dunnii Chlristiopher ( lcxvcrtiiix, Charles Arerrll]. lecctiopli 21- lniiii Iusta I..xI Idi NN Rust, jixln N. Robbilins, Willam N\. Mu lrpihy 'aiiiiv \ichls I joiah ili\wcxvaii, WN. A. \l vioril, Nalorus N. I Nuvile, Chiarles NMlrriill. Scclii1 2i ---- N\xonev ixist. lklizahetli AMcNabibi I)iii N. ITimlii diii 'ixxixCini RIx iixxi I lixC p)S Siiatiiiii 26- sininiel.NI I-(iett I IlZLhulxtlI Nli\xlliIhii i lhaic iieinr Ixsli ia lDiiiiii Sectixin 27.,iinxl I 1e-gtt. i dxxiii Dxin. \tintwon iiieNr( Jouhii \N Du)nnn Hieirx NIIi tt\iii I I0 ix Ill K illiti I8Aho~ L x Sciixe iii 30 aiiii xIA Al\1C JOIRig Dunn MJuiliii\ I) mid Ni ii iil hink alerJuxli. NIV1) nnI liil,01 2lii Ialxx li i l N\-et iiiiulxiii Ai Pavlx N\ iiiiil tiiiii S 'iniiie 1)-u-S n le -M iTerlxiiik, x)I III l DInittii NIr( iiiii Nximlei~ini Alira. Dnesccthi lii er(core. I IxilxIi1 N\ lx 111111 D111J, 1()111 1 c aiie ii~ Ilx iii Sxtni mn i i i l xiiun StllielI)". I r cti(1 lici iliiiiiii citui i IxiI ueI ~u -\iiirsI Daieils, liete txlpIlxi, I. li I iitiiir M i ()ixii,(i ( x1a rAx NMerrial. Sechiti'(i' \luIe)iiiii eliiiI iii II n NI Nx nl 1xi xi I]I. 1 n s ISamuel i i iii' - ctt 11 xlito tI 1 c17.c\N jil IiiiI IIaic io Zr i Ix Ruttli thme. txuixAiirslih if liucleiix IheI ter ixlxiian iv xix Im iii N\ii iiixilx I cI- iii err xHci. lieth 6n t \ NRxdIst x A iii~s L p S)mlx rx lix x11imiaxltiera vAllmo ndn ixi imrsd Ficdenirck do-ltkuo Dcli waci thle I i'-die't lloi- tivenue t i-1S11 lef o toCIIUd I le iitx \cexx Nik. NAftir;! i iiilhir it xeans lie. mnoxed txi xlmiix nt NA lnm olixg,1,11 iiV f1 1iiix_ SixVCxl Sxifi~iient iiicans to pirocure a x uiki it oxn.l a N i ii a ir n aiii cilditv xaiicr i)f liiiilIt SIvelitv~j-t cenCtt 11(1 acre. Whichm1 lie ilntieIreld In the litilmer if IIixo, 1111 xvhich ixac situatedI on tile South ilt Of Sectixl 26i in lRichllndli ti xxnsh~ip. TIn order lii ista111blis III.,

Page  225 ()ONTCALM.N COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 225 clainl it \NaIs nlecessaryX that lie i0il(l a cabil and piass one night ill it. 13eing entirely lnacquaiiitec( with the use of the axe, this cabin was anl exceedingly primlitive structure, comprised, as it Nwas, of ploles laid tp something in the fornll of a corn cril), \itll a small opening for a door, and covered with Ibruslh. \ ter remaillning in this cablin tshe reqluiredl time lie returned to Ionia, w-here lie relllainedl iitil the liext May. wlien hlie emlployed two teams to fetch his fandilv andl goods toI tle new\\ home. Upon reaching Bell l'own the drivers ollloa(le(l his goods 1nd(l onl accoint of the )ad(l roads, would go no fartiler. N.r. l)eaner twnici employed others to complete the journey. l)' o reachliilg tile house of Da)vidl Strayer, in Gratiot county, this being the cll(l of the roadl. r. D. aner w\as compelled to lunderbrush a road from this placc to the lam1d w\hich he hlad entcre(l. AIrs. l)eaner walked the entire listanlcc. carrilng the o gest chlild. tlflen but six months old, and leading a little lo\ o(f liv\e ye;ars. Nearly exhiatisted( the\y reached their destination, the ln(l (f priolise ill \I willerless of woodls, three miles from their nearest neighlbor. Blt thleir troobles< were not vet ended. The teams, which were s(O(I untload~le(l set ltit itle(ldiatelv to returll. I 'lev were scarcely ouit of learinlg \\hell the cablin, in which everything of use had beeni stored, took fire andl was destroyedt. With miuch (lifficultv a l-)arrel of pork and some other articles were saved fromi the flames.,As it was. their bedding, wvearing al)trel. dishes anid ll)selhold litel]sils wcre destroy!ed, whichl w;s a iost seriotlu loss to) tIheml \\itli their liited iiealis. T'he accident occurred from Ia ire wh-lic i ad l!een kiiidlead lv! Henrl-v eller, the father of Mlrs. Deaner, who. wisuilnl to ligilt his pile. h;ld indiscreetly applied a umatch to a brush leap l ear tie omse. I roml tliis the fire spread rapidly, aInd threatened at (lice to) e ( lopl the neighl)or in tiniler. lint after the destructiomn of the cal)illn it was clheciedl. Th-le Ili-st niidllt p1asscl ed 1 a white fainiilv in Richland. therefore, Nwas oiic (,i extl-elle lIurdshil. l l hi l ir mm was c(ld, and( the rain at intervals pouredl (lo(\\ ill tot-re'ls. t \\itli 11( covoernilg or shielter the situation uiayv bietter be inlag<illnel thn (Icscriledl. I The iiiailit of Mr. Deaner to ulse the axe has already l )cen -referred to. h)oit b!y the assistanc of Josthula Strayer, 1who helped alil at Ili-st ill gettilln a description of his land, a(lld Nlwho ever after proved a sinicere friend hlie stretche(l some sliceets over poles. thuis making a passalle Ihut inl d(rv weather, but L \very poor protection front wind anmd rain. In aholut three weeks ble succeeded, witholut a helping hand, in raising a cabin atidl covering it waith shalkes. Tt ser\eed wsithout a floor during the summer. (55)

Page  226 226 226 ~MONTCALMI COUNTY, M ICHIG JAN. 'I'ite first season Mr. iDeaiier 1)1anited sonic potatoes atal garden vegetables. hut being plantedl late they barecly rctm-nid the seed. Thei next spring lie set out thle tirst triut trees iii tue township) aiid pliuted corii andi potatoes, wxhich vic ldedl ibundanitly. Hlaving as vet ni plow, aiid the grou)xnd lieiii, ful of roots anil brush, lie chopped with anl ohld aIxe little square hroles, nl the gond01( and thus planiteci each hill of corn and potatoe's. The next xvlitc'r scveci I partics of meii having camipedl ini the vicinity and en gagedi iii gettiii out 1lo(s tor the Sagiiiav iiarket, hie fouud a ready sale for all he. could sp irc li while iiiaciv others have miaxle their liones wvithi i the Ii ails of Rsichlaind, and have soon b~ecoiae discourage I and remio~vedl, thus losing- tiliii and the benciiet of sevxerail xcars of laboir aiii hprivation1, Mlr. 1)Caner closely a(lliereil to Ilxi, Origina'd purpose and biecamic entirely success ful. Sonme years after his arriva a i rc it iiiaiiv settlers caiiie to the towiishiip, h ut coiiparativelv x'Few remuatiiedxlon(- eiiti-i to make any\ Ired and sixtv aicres aiix(l bulilt a cabiul, huat soonl sold bus d un11 to Elias(ir dcr, Who also Soo1 a ftler sob I and reiuovcd fio d~ii t owx'shipii. George hiaV1ueS Settled oii theC sou~tlie.iSt quarter Of SeCtio (Ian remiained long eiiotighl to girdle tile spleinlid Ipiuc trees on l aout txx ctt icres and sowvcxl it to wheat among- thce stuutidiug tr-ces. Hie remsainced bit four years. 'F'lue uext twox sc ttleis i Pasli x inter iiixjlmh I. E 'van, xvere more perinicuieii and rem'uied inl tlic t wxxhip lul Pauutei cixtcrexl fortv acre s on theC soultheast q1iiLitt irt wf etoo0n i5 EVIus took th( id otning,~ forty 'icres; on seition I b). 'I'llc ii xx to-et ic'r, piirii-ascd a m imiler of other tric ts. Mr. Evans wvas extelisivex ci'ciiaicgIii lunibering, haiyine lilt iil the "Sa-uona miarket, itl the xg-rc-'a c, txxcuits uullions, of feet. Ile suied the itrhis fromi Ohio, xc in- ixl tiw IOne TI'xi(iiri clnd I xxents cI'-ith Rit gcimienut, Oio Volunteer TiiFaiitrvx iiorc thin twx( yecars. ' r. Pa'inter' eti-agex In bxsixless inl Vestaburg. \iiotlici settlcr, I ci \\ itkiis, settl(d Iin the cxst. part, of the towiishiii ill i 866 Saimixic Zlnk x one ini shortly iafterwxard and I itt m noxvcd to \Vesttilirg. '11w illage- of \'cstalxxrg wa's iianed afier tile xvi fe of its fouinder, G. Vx. O'Donnell. It is situated1 on flit northeast qiuarter of the southeast quarter of sectioii 23, oii ]landF iiimcr i xOxwned by Mforris Duni, a lumnber uierhait (f Ssil~, Gatiat 'utY- Ill \ciugiist, 18'-74, Mr. O'Doninell ptrcha~sed this quarter. aiid -tanic xxith his tfiiiilY to the towxnishipl and stairtedl a

Page  227 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN.27 227 lunftber camip, rafting the logs to Sagiiiawlv myieans of the m'ie river, whichi is about two miles north of the village. After establishin a ap anti putting uip lbuildimgs for his men, bie appllic(l ami1( was Conmnissioned lposttmaster tinder MINarshiall. Jewell, on Septemlber 14, I 875. 'FIns wa~s tile first tostottice iii the township. In the winter of i876-77 Mr. O'Donnell employed Fliza A\ndrews to teachi a school, which wNas ithe secondl otie tatighit soutlth of tlte river aind the first In the village. 'Ihe railroad wa-s cottpleted] In tilte fall of 1875, and the 29th of Octolter, NIr. O'Dlotnnell pilattedl antI laid otnt the village of \'estabttrg. T'he tirst biusiness liotse establishedl was a shingle-mill. by Starkweather & Alger, to wchoti MIr. ODoitnell gave a block for a location for their mtill. It wtis burnted a fter comtinig itito the tossessioti of George WV. Palmer. IVilliatit Statki,~veathier sooti after otented a smtall stiock of diry-gioodls andl,groceries iii the bitildiiti later occupiedl as a store by Jantes NW. Robinsort. '['e postoffice wais remotvedl frott the lumber camip tio this place. George NW. O'Donnell, the foundler of V~estaburg, was torn. iii Rutland count\', Verttottt, \vhertce hie catte to Saginaw in 1854, 11n( ettgaged in lttmbering. 'later lite ci tgagedl irt the real estate butsiness iii N'estabitrg..\fter tlte passitig of tite lumber ittdttstry Vestalburg~ settled clown to a (ilttet existettee, bitt Iteitig sitttated, as it is, itt tite cettter of a good] farmting district, it It s minidta itted its eart I impilrovementts;aitt in the last years has taketi onl (littea - rowith I-ach vear there are dwvellings erected anti it has lieconite a tratding cettter foir titis purt of tite townsvhsip. Tt haks a poputlation of appiroximateitc thte itituclredl 'The bttsiness ittterests oif the town CoilStt of four criocery stores, whieh are owvued liy tite following persots (Claretcec i uars, fohn 'I ltttrlbyx H~owardc & Becrutius anil Tiller's grocery. Thle NWallace, Orr & Ciompanytt.s 1 ink hais a gootl patronage int tltis itart, as also tlte otnly cevat or it the town it hteh, is ownied liv tite satrue firm. Ed [hard1 -ilg keeps'atoenter'il lttte of It rdwa re, attd Hornbieck Brothers keep an agricultural store. Dru. M. C. Hiulbbbard is the onis- phyvsician in tile toNVxtSltip., antI also owits a drtig store. There are two mteat ttarkets, owtned 1liv \Nickersott & Soti attd a Mr. G-otlil. Earl \\alker' htas a cotifectionerv stoie antid also rsnuts a hotel. Da-t — Ion Grstick olierates a creatterv stmitot mnit pioultry' hotise. MNrs. Dewitt NI trtagye keeps a getieral lute of ttillinterv B. B lhtiirpi( kceels a jewelrv.Stire. Uredl Coritell a fec(] ansi liv ccv butrit IThere are two blackstititlt sltops, ownette 1y iavid l a -Lrliit attd N rr NVorilent Titere is also a pickle saltiitg statiott locateil here, whiich is ow neil bts \Aliert MeAitcCire & C'omtpatny.

Page  228 228 MON'rC;\LM COUNTY, MITCTITGAN. Vest;ltirg- is an excellent potato nmariket, which business is carried on by.'ranlk iCul nings and Eugene Tl.ane. Geor-e Peaslcy is railroadl agent and Charles Nickerson is present postmllster. A Mr. McDowell keeps the only l;irler shol). The lirst elevator built in Vestaburg, and in fact this part of the townshilp, was erected anld ow\iled by Dr. A\. 1). Balloti in T906. 'Ihere are two chullrches, DL)nkard ntl Christiin, located in Vestaburg. ''The Pere larilucttte railroadl passes throughl \ cstabunrg and has provedl quite a stimnulant to the interests of the town.

Page  229 CH.\'TER XXI. SIDNEY TOWNSHIP. The township of Sidney is situated geographically in the central part of the county. It is bounded on the north by Douglass, on the east by Ever-greenii on the south by Fairplain and on the west by Montcalln. Tlhe petition for the erection of a new township was dated oii November IT, 1856, and( cotmprised tle territory of town Io north, range 7 west, and bore the follow\ing inamles: Abner Hall, T1iyan Johnson, Samunel (;illmore, William Lampmanl. Nathaniel Ferris, 1. \. Noah, Charles Kellogg. 1I. Gillmore, Johii Laiin, George F. Noah, W\illiamn II. Noah, Orrin Phelps, S. Butterworth. C. ITI. iel, Janes.ight, S. VWheeler, J. Meginley, C. E. Shepard, J. Bradish, H..\mslmurv, Ar. Frederick, J. \. I)rake, iN. B. Amsbury, George FIleck, J'hilcas S\ift and N. To\slce. This petition asked that town Io north, raige 7 west,.be set off fromi the township of Fairplain and organized into a separate to wnship. ''he petitioners asked that the name of Nelson or Iath l)e giv-en to the newly-erected township. T'his petition was presented to the -board of supervisors at their regular lmeeting in January, I857. T'e I)oardl of supervisors acted upoil the labove )etition iand granted the prayer of the petitioners on Januarlr, 1857, in respect to the official organiza;tioi of said territory into a new towxnship, but in the selection of a lname for the newxlx-created township it seems that the supervisors had their own idea 0on tllis lmatter and chose the namite of Sidney. Just why they should reject the niames suggested by the petitioners and choose this name is not kinown. The first election was ordered to be held at the house of Joshua V. Noall oii the 6th of April, 1857. At this meeting Joshua V. Noah, Willialm L.ll)11amp;mn 1and ()rin Phelps were aplointed to act as election judges at this mieeting. Originally, as with all the tolwnships in this part of the county, Sidney \as densely tiiibered, pine. beech and maple being the principal varieties, anld until 1855 its forests were comparatively free from underlrush. But in the latter year a terrific tornado swxept through portions of the township, destroying the heavier timber on thousands of acres antd causing damages to the extent of thousands of dollars. Verifying the proverb that "trou

Page  230 230 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICIIGAN. hle never conies single handed," the following y'ear a very destructive fire s\\lvt that part of tile country laid w\aste 1)y the sto)rm an(l this raged for several months, (lestroying nmtch vatlnble timtler that had lien left stan(ling. As;a restlit of the devastations, a secondl gro-wth of timber so Illmade its al'plearance ever\yw\here. w\hich later became almliost inll]etrabl)e and oxwing to the great arnotont of work necessary to put this land tintler cultivatijon, it inpleded the settlements greatly..\ltliomgh the Iiiarks of this tornatlo;ldl(l fire were visible fo'r nlI1anv years after, ther-e \ere inalian! Ilarge tracts (of pine which were left tnilinjredl. and ill 0uitsefilcience Sid(ncv r;lnlkld very high for many ll ears in the lillc-ltiniber ilniustry:d this was 1her t lricllal resoire(. \Vith the lestructioll and relmova l of the p)inc forests the itnhailitlants gradtlall shifted frol the Itirslit of ]nlli)crillng t, tllse of.o-r-ictlture. and rapid develol)mlents ill this lle\\ line were soOn nmade. The sil wasIs naturall good., and \vith the:alveincedl methods of tarmitl;itnl dlso the care taken in the lIiilling p1) of tlie land it has l)ccomle swell adallted to agricultural pursulits and ranks A-Sell:IlltingR the othler farillilng toc ns1llips of the cotlty. iSlituY si I iir r[, E.NT. Ill the carly day the line tiobl)er of Sidliity ttracted the attenltion of silingle makers, and a nuhibher of their cal)iis were erected before there was eany permanenit seattlemlent in the to\\wnship. The persons thns engage'd were genlerally 1men wh\lo laidl no0 attclitiol \whatever to l)rolerty lines, regardinl as pult, ic lroplcrty am1 tinm)er lands whicll were not closelvy g-artded(. and lidl not scruple to p)itclh their tents (or hmildl their shanties wlhere ever thlcy considlere(l themselves safe from interrull)tionl or discovery. In the summnier of 1854 the first re-giilar settler. Phineas Swift. catne intoi the towsnshmip;illd Ibilt a cablin o( the northl-est }part of the solthwest quarter of section 27. [le w\as a na;tive of New \rhrk, but of himi little else is known, as he remnloved from the to\ivnshil) lbefore 1many others canme in. I-lis son, Eugelle, wvas the first white child bornt ill Siilnev. Swift blilt a shll;nty, in whicli he imadle shingles, Iand also Illmade a simall clearing andt set ouut some fruit trees l)efore reuloving frotin the township, whih lie lid after a stay of seven years. In the fall of i854 THenry G(illnlore, a mnative of New York, came to Sidney-. IHis father, Joseph Gillmore. \vith his wvife and four children, remioved to Nelson, Portage county, Ohio. in i8TS. where he lived tiuntil his death. He was among the pioneers in that cotunty. Henry Gillmore was

Page  231 TNONTCALMI COUNTY, MICHIGAN.23 23I mnarrieil to Lucy?dlerwin, (laughter of Doctor Merwin, and remained inl 01hio until hie caine to Sidnecy, inl 18-4, as liefore stated. lie settled on the niorth half of the niorthwest lutarter Of sectionl 28, and entered also eighty acres onl thle souithwest quarter of sectionl 21. He liiit the first permanent dw~elling" ill the towlnship), Zm(1 dluring the wvinter and early spring, assisted bv hIls -sonls, (Gcorge \V. aud Noble I-L. the formier Icling then seventeeni years of z. age, built a large shiiigle shop) for the purpose of making shaved shinigles. TIhev';lsoi clearedl about three acres of lauld, which Iin thle springIlie planited to corn., imloiaies nid vegetaibles, together wvith a small pieee of flax, the sect for whichi he had (1 irou~ght from Ohio. Di )riing the summer lie cleared seveil.ici(csx lvicih lie sowed toi wheat Iin the fall. To tfienry Gilhimore iic nhe edo outst Is atributicI the hlo)nor of pflanting,( the first garden anl sowin'g hle 1-fi-rst aim iln Ia1 too vo byl of Sinlney. T11w following slriiig lie sct (lilt the arsl oirclhard ITheodore I i 1111rc om 04 I le critracwtnig, pairties of the first marriage in ll t (11 11111)lip 0va e ld icie i 0 this fainiilxy lie wxas iiarriedl to EunLlice I )m 110(1R \lI1CS I n tliti (f the paie Iin l'ail-ilaini, o)ffciatedl. It is Sald ih t tile 1Ju11ice, \vi an skedil a ((iiIlie fe( wu0(11( lie, repl1ied: '\bout a ilol Ila r 1D)1)11ars Nvcr( \ exed(l11v Ii cir cc '0 those davs, at(1 the bridegroomn so i-if ornied the \vOti slil5(111e. Bit the hield swas full (if puimpkinis, and the tee iva pa ii\l0itlia \.1- x on Id( x which Mi. filliiiore hauiled to Fairplairi. tbenil ire f llilorc \vis 1k 1v in the ( ix1 Wa r. fol tile fall Of 184 Orin I liclpns 111(1 11)111 I Ik( I si ( one to fle t(mx-ih p). The formner brought a ife ii lid(Ii111i i etkIo se1(11) John1 F1lake Settled near Dchrbs Like wheolieie1 runuiiu mifnti Ilii dkeatfi (.'Alyin idMason was also an C(2111 setilci foil (ilid lint Out 10I'l loul~ lIn thi faill of i St 1. I1. \nahi wxithlisu sont. Josiah, aixd a lured mHan ialiucdI JiiesI Jexelll ca iii Ii They cearuedi anl underbriished a patch for crqf h olo i fri1 I oahl1 brniight Ilis faiiily to the township inl thld iioiitl of ad s i 8,6. \V fliani Noahl, xwlo wvas married, came at the sana11 time. )ii tIld 14111 Of 1` briii rv 185L yniiin 1(o111801, xvith his wife and four chicldren, (dlii fio 011F1iruuubull county', Olhio, and( stopped at the house of N elson T owuslex in tir rplaon. xxheroe hie remained three iloliths. lIIe then (2011. to Sicluev ( elterl 55\fiee lid( pre-emlptieil eighty acres oIf land on section i o. I lird Mr. Iohusoi fbuilt a goodf, comfortabile log house, miade a clearing aIiid th e follow iiig sprilig set (lit a liiiimber of fruiit trees. H-e afterWard purchased the place cutered fby Phineas Swift. Tile same winter, 1855-56, teorue Vaili Ness, F linItelds wnd Edwin Lafferty caine to Sidney. They

Page  232 232 232 MON rCALM COU7NTY, MI1CHIGAN. all settledl on section 2o, where Van, Ness lived until his death. Hie brou~ght a age faniily. One son, Nelson, was, killedathm iyth acdealvs charge of a gun. 'E dw rdl was almost iiistantlv killed in the army, beling, shot throtigh the nesck W\illian ields(I remainied in Sidney until 1i862, whenl hie removed to Kansis. I dxxill.1 allcity returnedi to New Y~ork. [i llrn 6 8t I r, i arloW settledl, with his xvife aitxVO childrena soii and l da l.1iuter —on thv nortlea't. quarter of section 15 lie scuLIred this laindlin 8o xWithi i aI md xa ii haxing!~ servedl ]ii the k exican W'ar mnder Genteral Scott. -d\iI I tarloxv was horni inl TIivingstoii countv, Nexv York, in wvhich p1lacc hi, father xvas ant early settler. They- canie to XNaxiIC Counltx Mliviigaui ansi settled HIi \'ii iiti oxxnshl ii 835. H ere lie wa s inarriedi to \iii Mv cIntoshi \Ai th fit-S tioxvn neetliiu hie xxas elected superxviso iiand hieldl the office s xveii yeairs. At the same time hie came to Sidnex, his brotlmcr-MIiw1 xxjoliii 1,1oxvii, ncuived forty acres onl the sou~thcast quirtcr it sv ctioii 39 Is( rviiiiiiiv iiin the toxiiship hmt is short tiiie. lDr S. Dcbix xxo liiasie iricii IFiirpai n (iii xvhiich towxtshipi lie xvas the first pixys I in11) settied cmi vs ctusi io iv ii the sosithieast shore of the lake which noxx, liv irs his iiuiiic. iiie iiillit t cailiii anil remiainedi a number of vear;~ le wxis oIie ofi thiisechviar isisrs siiietiiies net xxithi on the froittier -a genisis Ill his xxv ix escilses h~e111 It 'al00 phiysiciani for those days, hie xAv~s a giii-Is~iiiihi, could repair a xwatchi aiiil clovk, and xxas inl fact, i jisk-ofall.-trades. Il~e siilisejiiieitly xxvii iiortii, xwiire, it is s iid i hfer ii in-m"ioxvci foir the fiirtietli time. lie s-ettleil xoxxvi, aiil kept as hold. Dr. J oiii hiailsii xvas also on-e of the hirst phlixsicvi s xii i Siiimiv and although1 his imethiods xxere oecillau- anld stroui'dx\ 'oeiti uertto lie is Conisiiiereii oii tile xxloilv;is liaviiik I veii sliicsvsfiil ill hIls proife ssion. lie miovel xwest. xwhere lie vdiedi. \Viiiuu I aupmuau aui.\sir lai vuuc t Silis lli i 8 1 lie fornier settleil on the siasthixest liiarter of sectioni '. [le seixrved ii the army, dutriiig the Cvl\V'ar, aiid] after its vcvise lie c ontinued to rseside in Sidney tiitil i 8o, wh leu lie ireturuivi to Nexx Yiirk, his iiatiiV State. Abnler Hall canie fromi F uudmild Ili the fall if 1836. [He also servedi iii the arimi, and xxas xwouiiiedi at thy bittle of Hatchier's Ri~umi ~At oiie tiiie lie workedi for jamiies Chefhfin of IUiirliii ii, for li ftx ceii s per dmm\in, xwheni potatoes vecre one dioliar aiindI fixt sceiits to txvi idollars per bushel. Amioni- the pioneers of Sidney also wcre ox vsster Barrett, xxiii settlici in the xwesterni part if the tioxnship, andi wxho, joii-iiig the armii, xxas kcilleid iii Iattie alixim Mlamnm, Alaiison Smioxw aiii W~est Drause. Snoxv entered one hiuiiiired and sixyace

Page  233 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 23t on section N3, with a land warrant given for the military service of his son, who died ill tile Mexican War. The first death in Sidney was that of Mdrs. John Ryan, who, with her family, in the year i8.;5, settled o)it the east half of the southeast quarter of section 21. |I ere she was hburied, lint her remains were removed to the cemetery at the oenter in the spring of r88o. Dr. ( haunctev 1l'. Sheiphard. wvho resided ilin airplain, was among the early physicialls wlo lpipracticed in this township. He ustially made his rounds on foot. accompanied by a log and carrying a gun..\An instance is related in whicl lie is said to have killed a large hear near the cablin of a settler iln the south part of the townshil. p "inding the family absent, andm having ino means of conveying it to his holme, lie dragged it to a wagon which stood near the rudle )arn. Into this lie finally succeede(l in placing it, where it lay as if ready to spring upoii the first passer-by. The next morning Archie Smith. then:a lad of twelve years of age. with several playmates, were passin'g the time to the best possible advantage to themselves, when lie, followed blv a companion, ran upl the wagon tongue into the bosx where Blruin hadl )een placed the evening before. As if par-;dyzed with thle sight lie walked strai.ght out of the wagon, without any regard whatever as to where lie 1laced his feet. \Vhen Doctor Shephard returned with a teani to tlake his prize home, he found a patient who re(luired his closest attenitin for several days. )octor Shephard also stibsequtently lived and practicedl mledicine in the township of Evergreen. Until 1862 there was no postoffice in Sidney, the one at Stanton being the nearest. )ii the 20th of Selpteml)er, of that year, Montgomiery Blair, thenl polstmaster-general, appl)loitedl.oshuia V. Noah to the office, which he retained iat his house for nine years. THlE FORi. ST FIKIRE. \s has been stated, in 1856 large tracts of timbler were prostrated by the wxild. Oni the 22(d and 23d of August, 1857, severe frosts killed the corn and all garden stuffs, except cabblage and turnips. The grass also was killed. The leaves changed color, and soon began to fall from the trees and in a short time the ground wvas covered with them to a depth of several inches. Soon a fire, which spread with wonderful rapidity, broke out in the timber. The dry, crisp leaves were soon burned, but the fire did not stop here, itit worked its wav (down into the mould and fallen timber, andl. lav` after day, hduring August, September, October, and part of November. the

Page  234 2 34 254 MONICA[,Xi COUNTY, M ICHIGtAN. Crash of t alliog- trees scas heardl almost iiicessaol-sl. A\t times the smoke hong- iike a pall. (ver the ss-lo 11a11.hottiog ooit the sool and rendlering the air almost irrespiralible. Xers e ses-l, o -loe to the settlers was, (lestros-edl. Feitecs,, stack-s ot hIv is-ssios. and es-erything lpreliaredl for wiritcr wseic swspt awsas, 111(1 it wss o tell wsitlh the it-reatest slitfiticlty that the ealiiis thicnselses wsere saved. I lic siffeittc ii'hat follossed III mas nsane \,isa iltenlse. hilt was illisjatsii i hilp i()li lbioiil. h le tires ioiiltinote(i iiitil the late raiii (4 thle fall] im1 s~irotsiet iii anid ceceked them. M. -) - llett ssas- pilpou ited to. di strilbune so)( I to settlers III ssaiit. Theo.se gYOidSs wsere seceireil tiiilie 2seiiitths 1),t~ \\li Irr s iIs ntrodiiecd aI hllI fi i that inri se.Soe lea ea lie "tamel I u thle sufferi og of these tini~es ss ienl it is~ ki osso that ii ssas almost imipossible~ to get a (lays work- on attstiiii-~. -Alhner Il ill c leared teii aere-s O (1 lai1il laviiig 01) the iiisderlmrish iecads to lie- 1buirned, for teishll jisPer aicre. IPmok at this tinie swas tss~eits — Ii i.c cenits per toil, corni twsi idlolar~, pcr 1isliel, aiid( Other thlungs iii proprtwiol. Irat I arlois isa iked for hisih I haiShi ill l;iI rpliaII. for three sliilliiigs per iiv, aiid toi (k ato pto a siuiall sheep salited ait four dollars. \hoslft the towsuili Il at this t ioic?t ost if those wsho reitaineel at last "'aiiuei CouiIfor-talil homles, anld it is pirobiabile that, ssithi its fertile sioil and iapidly devs slopi up resi irces. Ilic simt ild Irisatioii i f earlier sears ssill miii s r um11iil he knosso inl Sidniev. iORIGINM Si-i-ND ii tNTtIF S. T he iiidulO"1 pirchiasers of kild Iin Sidluey tisowshuip are shlwiis inl tIme tiilkmls mw list Sectiiiii —uh hI-brii.\\- -Iaii Frederick Hl. Sectio01i 2 \i tsiiIiiOck, Hecure- t ralio. \ \V. W. rato. Freilerick Hall, John (F Willmiamis Gt A. W-ilcox. \V-. IL -Trosslridge -. Section, —A-. \igistiis Iad (lick Dasvid Icrii Thelodore I. I hIs ot Sectioin 4 II H t. Cripe) Wv \. liii) Gt I' \Noili, G(ciie A\ \\ ukoxs MaI rtiiin Tleeec Alhu(rt lDorr, FIdwi'lsi I )rir, o1Sliii1 i. \ \O ii Asa\ iI). Sherni iiii \\ eod iii ilbtulert. Section5 Stephen I. Page I iib \ [)visi IT II CiahO. W\ \,\. Cripo, James A-I..Soverhull Sectioii h-St phen F Pi-e Sirahi S. I eck, David IHenderson. Section -— George Isossmni-, II-1 II t.rapoi W. \V\ (rapo, George WVilcox, Phimletis Kuhn, Jiohii Ilendcrsoii W A\ PIchimes (CIharles Athichson, john reen. 'Sctiont 8 11 HI tCrapoi W.\ (:ripo, Georie A\ Wilcox, John 1Fheck. NV toftes, W ls Bates, Vi-lhian Messier. Section ()-Orin IPhelps, II I ( rapo, NV NNH (rapo, Gustaviits P IiHosner,..huiail Haclev. See

Page  235 MIONTCALMI 'COUNTY, MICHIGAN.23 235 tol ionA10gustu Paddock0( Gjeorge A. IPillsburyt Guistav us I. H osnitr, S. F. I' tge, SvIv estr Derb, Lev ts amsibrnri I, K. NV00(1 Srci on ii IJohn Tr isler, II II (_.irapo, W\ W. C po, Jac01) 'Smith. Section i12 -iihtries Meirrill, IL H1 (alto \\ V N (V ripo I Frederick Ti l, George A. \Vilcox, -Ldw in Cheeirbio. Sectionii -harit \Merrill 11 B.1 ( ripo \\ \W. Crapo, sunits FTersillo'-ri Sdias (O)i~looIc Lev G Iiisoln L\-nian Grav hfaila Bab1) coc k Iark (;arnnr, \\ood and (xilkrt. Rova Har 0rio-toil Settiiil 14 -W\\illi 1-i Chapmn, ( eorge A\ ill1skiiii v II 11. (111)0 W. W. (rapo, T.(\)1 (eiiou, Ga r~I'rdner Rylb Hsarr11ingiitoni R 41<I Hennettt Secitioni 15 en 1 ion. HIo, C. ( 1 ami (ioles G-ilbert. Si tioii 16 —Joshtia Xoahi Cha rke Kecli) — A \1 Ais! rh K irgn ich Amsbur, Ranisom D. Smith, Amos LI Frenk, B. F. Bailey, John Biosvn Ilenns (ourter, Joseph ('ow11tr. S(1 tIon I 7-I) Isd I.P11Milot \oiiii1" iII uiiilton, 1 lrnry C.ourter. Jose1)h I-I. Steirns, NV illami Flu ding, W\ RK Bates I"ii is Steel Imllore Fiilln r. 1 nti C our r I Iiinil A\ RipJleys Stectioni 8 1(111n 1 orter, II ira Ron( ssni i Sarahi S. Ick, 1.eon irl It. luhni li ohni D 'Simithi U liilets FKulin Stitloii io- Il H. ( i po, W. \\ (Crapo. 'F bound Laftfeirty teorge Yainl \ess ii W no,1) F1 oW, 1) 1.j u \\.v Wiliam L Va n Svke, 101)0 H1 V\1i Ness. Sec tion oL\ai n i unpinin, GcMor!~e A r-inley Z. PB (Grover, A\. 11 (~roser, johnl 11 \Vi Nt-ss MIrnin I' II wlets S. WV Tuiiiiei, NF M. Saniford, \Ni'l~ i Ri I. itts 1 P) inrr -ic11011 2TS1 1iiinil NMonroe, George IDitinaisi olin1 I Z11iiipni in N \oib 1 sn i Johnson H1cnry Gilimort. I L Smlith, I zekitl Gabhit IHliki iii Uistt Williami N oahi NNilliamii Shtphardl 11011~ 22- Iihirlt Nieriiill Saimiiil N I 111or Itort' A\ IPillsbuirs J(o111 HVao Ns.- Stephen ITutker IS ii1 ibhis. IAii iai i - Lacyit 1Thomiis Wsilson. SSit inliliii I ii IZsipitV Srrtioii 2'(;li'ie Alet trrill Chalbets JrJeiii Gtor-i A. PI lsbiirv, I raisl 1Li rown, \NNilliaiii I. ChIipuiian, Gilbeirt Coiok, iiiiitl St irr, I ltltii A A\elsi W\ 1) e11 co Section '4 —C hines Merrill, Char1(5 Ltaiii 1L0111 S 1 nell, Albtrt C. Siinclair WNillia on Fl Cha pman in C.Darl'ino Er'stns P1 iown, Lu ther iBennett. Sectioit 2.5C haries Mferrill. II rute Beinnttt Peliii 1111111 sns,; i N illi tin1 I') StOiic. SCtiotli 26-Charles Al errill, \ltiei I ifll \Nelson FTotisles Joseph Pitcher, jolii ShItl. Sectioni 27 Nil uii Aikler, Jatob \ckleri jatobi Iorliisseii 'Jaimts F ox Georgr Spooii. Tohn 1)a-ci C harles Alerilnll (Satiiel AMtnlroe, D. lowsleys Phincas Swift, Jr. Geroge NIacombertt C hister L MnFnti WNilliam D) Browvii L. Towsles'. Srt~tionn 28 -,I tile ndrick. Joseph C. Batiles Getorge A. Pillsbury, Charles Nliel, Henrs Gillimoi \Albeirt 1otelrl. Seition 299 Ccorgr Rossman, Edward B. Edswards, Chbestir H. Dhth anitl Swill, Tohn- Bales, Charles J. Colt,

Page  236 236 2~6 MOCNTCALM COUTNTY, MICHIGAN. (ieo.r,,c Hatl. Sect'(" 30 —Sihas 1kamilton, George Rossilind EL 1-i. Edwatrds, I knry h. n~pp Hira Rnlossnman. Norman [_ crris, XX S. Patrick. Section j-D1)vid 1(ierson. (eor-e kossnian. El. B. Fdwxarids (Chatries B~aker. Asa D) -tairkov atiter Natthianiti Ferris. lizra Ii nailton, Lorenzo I). Palnier, I non Fer ris oi 001 F erris I'. R. 1 lowe, Geor- B. Ishani, \William R. BIteS Sewtilon X 2-Nillban R. Bates..\1deen A Jenne, fohn \Vheeier, Iotiph ( Batilt I. 1' 'lix wrds. Sainn1el G;ilimoret Lymanii Johnson, Caleb J. Bares Set olon 3 I Davenport. Sectioii 34 1Franklin S. Ureemian, Ir t Davenpor t, 1' sephl ( Bailci., ~\Velcome Rnttei vorth tiiristian Fox. tcctioii 5 X toi Liottrworthi, Ira WX Bairlowx lixdwrdl Mcfiitosli, C htrles \ [crrill. S~ection 3(0 Roil A\ 1amtiiipo.t 1 lits Petermanar lDeloii T heodore L~aniiiiiaii [Jolin. XXl F i Srantcis Smith, TLero\y Uores li,t I situs P. Brownv. NVX iani Dm )Iegg J. XX Fior fin. CO1Litt Co~l' iivos ncvei pilattcel mi(l \vas onlyS (hi loctitoni of the tColhy Brothvrs saxNmill1 which at the lioni ot tht himhtr indlnstrv inl this scction, was one of tilt lar-cst mills in tile toiiitvx C olbo xxs lotcated ill Sidnev itviwshipt oi fi present locatioii ot te ( o~l y ranutu SIDiNEY Thie tillaie of Sidoii.. ili Sidiiev btOWPhij), (1LateS froii thc comnolg of Joslhoi X Noaiii and his stvo sons joshita, Jr., and Gecorgge, to whlat is nlow\ Sidnex tmxi ithip.) iii the fall of i I-bey hail lived iii Siiiimit coutyit, Oio, alidl seelkiii a desirable lhomn Iil tiit \vilderness, located lanl aiid built -caibm ill lit wvoods albt it a hldf milt Nvest of tile preseilt village..N f ter speniding tile winter inl Icdug-tn, the futtler retiirneil to Ohio Ili (lie spring itt 1 86 mud hrought h)ack< with liiii his xxvhole family, iiicloding his son, XWilliatm Noah, tnd XWilliam on \-tfe and two children. 11hev arrivedi at the cabii oil Mal tx I - 1 6 I vinai J ohiison. xvhO had tIsoI comiie from Ohio. stttltd wxith iii t mu xv a fe\\ rod 0(aiuthii and west of tile Noah cabin iii 1855. He-\en xGI llinoi anid his famiily hat-d aireatly settledi oiie iiile south and oneIraif inile xivtst of the villaize xv-lieit the Noahis arrived iili 8.~6. Tue Noahs iini Gulinuores xwere related. Xxi lia tinNoa iiiai txl sani to his-c bieeii the first citizen of tile plreseilt \ill tget XXNjtl l 111 xi ifftetiid tivo chljdrenl lie lived xvith his fatiler ililntil lie ilililt hils (lxiii t-iblni otil tilt site of piroplerty nowv oxviiel bx- Tars Peter 1tn

Page  237 1MO.NTCAL'M COT!UNTY, MICHIGAN. 237 sen ill the villaic of Sidney. '[he venerab'. \\illianl Noah, who is a veteran of the (:i\-il \\ar, having served valiantly as a sol(lier ill the 'l'wenty-first eginent, Mlichigan \Voltnteer infantrvl, w\\.s horn ill Sumilnit conulty, Ohio,,\ug'st 14, T18'I. ill a86., after his return from the (ivil War, \Villiail Noah e stallisihed tile tirst store ill his cabill ill Sid(linev ith 1mionely lie had sasve(1 as a( solier. Ilte l);rchased mIerchlandise to the value of onle hundre( loollars at lia,;illd( ran thie store for a year or two. Later. lie built a store for (h Iarles 1Kelt. of lairplalin, who was iM business for one year. Kent )ecamle liscourircdl and the store reverte(l to MIr. Noah, who nlext op)erated it for tli'ie or fourt years. T'lhe ildin- erectedl by Mr. Noah is Inow the rear of the store occuplie( l Ir: ink G. I lainson.;inall!, Noah sold the store to his ibrothers, ()range ilad John Noah, who ha(l,a shingle-mill jtust thirty rodls west of the \illaige I'zekiel Gable estalllished the tirst saw-mill at Sidiine, but after his uiitimel!v de;th, his soi and \\ illiam Noah hal charg-e of the Imill, I)urcliasing the inlterests oft \II-. (;lCle's other helirs in the blsiness. Slubsequentl, tl.Alr. Noah took twvo of his o\\n llSons into the lnisiness, lbit one of the sColls sold out to the othler, and flthier a(l soll. (;eorge, ol)erate(l the Illill as lonig as therc was ainy timber, or until alouit i00oo. lamles Siblev oleine(d the tirst blaclkslithl shop it Sidiney oi l)rolperty ownIedI lb \\yilliill Noah allouilt I87o. lThe tirst l)hysician in the villlage w\as Dr. 1:. (). Icfft, who canle to Sidl!v a few!ears ago anl(l who is still ill the active practice of his profession. Sidie!y has t.o chlurchles, the (:ongre-tilonal anti Daiiish Lutheran. T'eh ( onireational] chliiirc was estaliishe(l ill 1887. Its lirst pastor was the lev. Artithur tCla tliu,ho assisted ill the blidingl of the clhtirch. It cost about one thouisanid' dollars. Tire are at l)resent eleven memibers. 'The I)aniishl i.utlicraeln church at Siilney was erected about thirteen years ago. Icffo- ie tlhe lresent lumililg \\.as erccte(l, the colngregatiol iiet at North Sidney, ile mile west al(l one lile niorth of the village. The lichurchl, Awhich has a nmellliershiip of tw\lent-olle, has a residlelt pastor, the lev. \\alidemlar Nielso(. Its first pastor w\as the Rev. hRasmuius Nielson, and the pastor whenl the chiurc'h was lbilt was the Rev. 1'. I-T. AlMiller. 'here are are ()ll two secret ord(ers in Sidliey, the I)anish Brotherhood and Gleaners. BIotlh are well established. 'l'he indlustries (of the village include a cheese factory, of whichl R. kR. Beam is presi(ldllt, and Nelson Lambi, secretary-treaslurer. Tt has ani oultpit of about forty thousand liouiids annually and is a co-operative enterplrise.

Page  238 Err - I Z

Page  239 C'11APITR{ XXII. \ViN FElJix roWNS iii P. W'infied( towniship, is (lescrinot (In the goxvernnmcnt sorlvev, consists ot 11 1' p I 1101ti i-1ii'e i)west, 'ouu is nonelxiiteiorth bv NI ecosta comiityx OttI the e 1st byx Cato townishipi, ohI the south liy l\MIaple Valley, anti onl the xx ct lbx Rlvi olhs. Tonit the erection of MIaple \Vallcey, N ilfieldl took onl to lpresenit houndarincs A petitioni xi ned 11y 1). 1. lnight. I1. IR. lliioiIx.oiiarl Rlossmiiil, Julili Van -cxxviii Allenu MIacombe ir, II eilr\- MIacixmbi ir, Isaac Gilco. Ti. C' Johnson, \uchlau WihVitccell. J1 FP lRust Irt I N Ich C. TiD. i\'ellogg( and( Il J1 Whoiilti x liixxe llC ii. rsiuictits owl tfrecioludler if towxis i i an(i 12 niirth Ii i-inc 0 xeest; mit( Cerx PI1icrisiu I on1e's -S I,'cruosot, R. I FecukiUSo0i I xoliii 1)I)Vx,- 111 S 1 1) ix IV xliii N\V lx Ros ralitic olcnittit, 1Hocrace loxx iie,: II at, t xiri (tI lixtisc. I enilrick Riucc I)amu 1 Carionicy, 0. N..\iildrcos H Iiii- \M. c xCarpentr 11 1R e iiil olin Rip ( there xxvcrc two other tiattes uiI thIis petitioii lint thice I had biecin wri tten inl piec it ixll( had failed tiiti thex cotiuld liot lie deciplitrd)e iix icilr sicit uu ectlir ixf toxVtiS Ii a Iid.2 noirth. rtieixto wvest, da(lted onl NLIa 13, i86it, was lire-,~nc othe hioard ofsuprisoc sof Alontcalu xoit. Tlxese- eiinr reprcsentcid thieiiselvems is iactual residentts aiic freehuolders ixf the townshipm i)f lPiersoti. whiclh towixx shipi xxas it that tlime attacheid tii NIonitaluut, coun1tv itilhiicial. iiiiiicipail inu ireprescintative puirpoxses, and( is conmprised cif toxx'itSlilxSx I an x( ixiuirth, rnoes 1) andi To xx-st, toil that since it xxoiilil lie inituclhnixri convixenitent fur the resixdenits of txxxxnshilis Ix oI 1n 2 nor1th., Ca we 1) west, to beC (Nii -aii7edl Iitii a separate toxwnship. they liravexl that the 1 oarxl if stupervisor-s ilctichl t.)\I iixxiiShii I t alit 12 iiixrtli, rauii,,e o xxest, fruxim the toxxnIslipt if 1 iersxu xi (imii tx orxigainizc the saitue into a setparate toxxnshipx. tcx lie calledl NN'initieti Thex ds~o a ski-il that tile firist txxxishlip iluec-ting tie hxetld at tlxe himuse cit loluil iI NIol oxiiixi thc first Nlx xuuxlae\ if Apil, i862, aRt ici('ht oxclxock, all(d thiat I lxiiiR I lltcixxxxixix, ILexuuarxt lRxssuiman anit Isaac ittex the Ipplxtixiucxl t1-pcit lxxi ofi this, tx wxishxipli uectimui aitd electixxi. this tpetitionx xx s actexi] iipoli, andu after ulcie consideration xva-s passed lix the tbxarit x f silritxe xoxrs xxii f~tbc txr fi i Pi6 i, unit~ thxe towxnshuip xx f Nkii fieldl Camxe iiito existeceii

Page  240 240 240 ONTCALMt COUNTY, 'MICT-iTGANT. ORIGINSiI. LAND E NT11ES1 ccton IN I lit)511011hot(ld)Jh1n tto 2 ---ticgr Sonicl I AiiN1 n lOi c e crinc 1 1G. Stirann laues I. htx noids, George I'lock t, Fd o- I. I rovo \Vill an S. on, joshiica Wyolff Setoi - \llcn I ccc toi 4 I i 01 I o-h iit \\ii ht Niairinda F' Rutst, hn~stii Fdi) ilcckit)vI caimion lxii- (w~ore I eckiev. Section 95 2 haries WIcciii D)avid 1). ito~- i \iieii \1ri-lit. Stction 6-1 )tivid Hloag, N\iaitinl hiversciii, ilirti 1 4(11i i Scct inl 7-1 )aV' (1 1)0ito) -\iIOS1IOIl (-)itoill 1. (S tonl Setttio 8-I)visdc lii o(a' hn Sqoutrs Niaotin Ryrcison, R\(iert Miorris _\istin 1 Pck. Cuirto (is.Ii.\lfrtd L. Rst, \ihert host. Nm i1as W\\at clii Section Rt1c)1 ist. I dward J. (Ortis. ldgair Grary, F I al ii II Orition Ji stpii \. Corneill Rctcielici W4 Sniad, Jacob 1. Sciarthoiit, I t-oi(, -'\- Cr'lilt Ietci ioliison. Scction 10- S-.eth I toltombi, ich1ior hcnbcii WV Iitc. in,11 n ohl Bisbe iPctcc oiinisoo Josepiht Pleritc. Stc tiiiii II-Sctii Iiiieiiinii I ci Sm)iiic \hnei Sliteiwin. Aibert Rust. Sectiim in i \ 44 iiiinIs OC-c SMi1iiit 44 lsist _isaiac I ciSceth Hol coiii, I cie S nitc 5ctc mIn i fI Iriii sct on lii 4Vesthke, -N csoil C hambecs, Niiciil \i coinlirc IFte ho Ii inl I" isosmaoaii FIbLi FI lcinvuoii iiaii mciii 1w — iiiiii \Ini s )in ( )rtoin II I )rti ii SechiOi" 14Im41ither i ( a iin —skirk, Stcphic it' I I c I cit- Smiiilit \cison (Chambrcis, N ics-c Sowirtont, Nielvi-in Ni iitiii Scct'i ini Stcphicii Ia-i Scdtion ia olj(in 13uhhisco, I iaies I cciii i )imidi I so ieii, cinjaiiiiiilit Nitie c\fr~ I NIcoiiircc jiihi Nioi Icter ()john onj S~ct') tiI olin- S() outs xc'iii loller, J~iiiiii Hatic Chacles Keiio- N I. I ic miiii ci Scectioo i S jolin SItoirts. N FI iiic It. ()rtiii, iL(-ir 1 ti (;iv N\lbcir Rotst Scc (im p liiie Sanborn ii yroicii Siioices. Se tOn1 20 john11 Tiorali Hi I ics Saoimrii (iiiii 44lichicvii foliol Rochestcr, I ul-u I iav Iciv il44iii Prtt iia Slit ilcr Scctiioii i iiiies 4V4 Saniicrii I" iiiidi I (Ii ti m, I ii — ir rai i 1iiii W\ I eirulu1 SeCticii.i2 jameuts S iiiiii i I tci Ga'ii Sc-ct iii 24 —I liii) i FI lcowoiss \iien Ni lconi1 ic Sc ctiOo -2 iu liiiS iiIithier N aniiiiiki rk Iecit Soulic 12 recnt Is s S-'c.ctuoo.do-I li'iii Ircntiuis, A41rliii Isieison. i\ohIect At orris, 1etec Johnson iih(rIicl I'ils iii zra Steivcns iiiii Hieonr Iettvi Section -1 I thin 44. renti-ss Sec tiiiil 28 c Jnic lilli i 4I01A 1 Artin IRverson Rxohect Moccis, (Ii cir -4 iiic \\iii nit -Nifl i utti Mc Ihecson. Geoc-chkctSme. Iiiitchiiis Tra W4 41 son. ( 1FosSuiiu SCCt(iou 2'9-JaIIICS Sinbiocii Scc

Page  [unnumbered] 1% -c % V 4 PULLING STUMPS. NEAII S.TANTON-.

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  241 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 241 tion 30 —Peter Sanborn, James Sanborn, Orin Willard, Martin Ryerson, Robert Morris, John Cliubb, John W. Rochester, Edgar Gray, John Borden, John H. Simmons. Section 31-'eter Sanborn, Edgar Gray. Section 32 -Peter Sanbornl, James Stevenson, George N. Rykert, Edgar Gray, John Toree, -Henrv Henkel. Section 33-James Sanborn, John Loree, George R\. Rxkert. Section 34 —Jereniiah Rudes, (layton Wood, Francis Kellogg, ( 'alel \\ea\er, lohn I looloim, 1l-nglehandl Debus. RL:\!TY SIE'TTLIEMINTS..\lthotugl the first settlicncnt of \\infield is involved in some obscurity, there is little rooml for doulbt that Isaac and Chauncev Gilleo were the first to locate permanently w\ithin its borders. On the 7th of June, I855, assisted )b- W\illiaml Ru\lssell. wh\o ownred the saw-mill at Langston, and by whom tlhey had been cmllloved, these voung men camie to \Vinfield, then a part of Piersoni, and entered land( ol sections 1 and 2. Mlany selections had been mid(le and much land entered in the township previous to this time for the pttrlpose of actual settlement, )tut none of the parties had vet returned to attack the heavv growth of pine, I)eech land maple. And although the land lre-enmpted byv the (;illeo!.rothers lay in the north part, it is not to be inferred that there was no goverinment lald to the south. The hardwood belts, it is triue, hadl nearly all K'en entered, butt valtable tracts of pine were passed by as worthless. The yoting Ien referred to selected a very fine tract of land, and built a calbin of poles and bark, the first in the township. They also at once commenced a clearing, a part of which they soon after planted to lpotatoes and turnips. (wing to the lateness of the time of planting, however. the yield was not large. Previous to this time (when is not known) the Indilans had mna(le a partial clearing by underbrushing and cutting all the smaller trees on a consideral)le tract in the west part of the township, to the south of this place, and it is lprol)able that they had raised several crops. In the spring of 1856 they Imade sugar here, hut subsequently went to the North, where they remained. The clearing colmmenced by1 the Gilleos grew to a field of more than four acres duringl tile winter of 1855-56, which, in the spring, they planted to corn and vegetables. Thus they lived, cleared land, made shingles, shot deer. of which there was no lack, occasionally a bear, did their own househld work, and carried their provisions from Langston or Greenville, the former fifteen and the latter twenty-five miles distant. In the fall they (I6)

Page  242 242 242 MONTCALM COUNTY, Mi1CHIGAN. sowed the field to wheat, md the crop, which when threshed with a flail amounted to eighty hushels, they sold for sixteen (lollars, andl with. this they startedl onl a visit to triends inl lennsvlvania, btetweeni fonr and five hundred miles (listant. Ini the stiummc ot 1 \\~ illiam Rose canic to \Vilntield. He built a siiiall1 hoLt, inl wh ich he a nd three children md1( a granidchildl lived some, vears. NVtlen, subseqtuently, Mr. Rose otfcred hIs, farmi for sale, it w-as- spoken of as, haIng a ulvelling house uponl it. Whenl he called hie found a cabinl abiout ten by twelve teet. A tew boards a;id( looni oii the ground served as a tlour. 'Fhe door was also madle of iroud1i lii irds. Thlere wis but a siiigle pane of glass inl the~ whole cabinl, aunt fto a litilapidted l 11( stove a, smlall pile reaclsed but part wsay to the lv tic iii ticl root, tt tthi snioke. which whecn ttic elements wecrc at peice, tilled the cahin nierly Isto sutfon ition, Iin the slighitest wvind titade it uniendurabsle to thle iiiiiites. Mr. Rose was a very intellignit anut wic11edicinted ociitteiiaii, who hadA 1een lbrought to extrette poveirty liy hlitstis reverses. Ite was,; anxivais to sell Itis farm wvithi tte slighlt iitprovm cnio ts. It f Smitth becante the purltase, atti in Ifi~ttvl( d Itio the tow nship, \t lint C bin toed for a ]ott' t~itie. lie \Ca5 thle tirst carpentitr to mocite Iin tttis par t cit the utoimtly, aInd lewed the timbers for the first nutll iii Lake. View, for Allen ii coitber, antd butilt the first fratie ]uarit ii (Ion totienstip, for \tltert French. Thte tttirdl settler Iit WMfoield was (jalielu Johtnsonn (a brother-in-lasv of Tsaac (liileo I, who, M iiit fall of i S50, catte itt witht Itis famiilv atnd ettereit land outs sectioni t. lie nosed ittto the touug hirnise wehtiet theQ ("'litos, l1id litritt the year Itreviouts, tint the it_,xt sotutitcr le commitenicedt a clearntg itt his; owetn lattd]. 1-Ic also littilt a house atid set ouit ttte hirst (orchtarid itt tlte township. Williamt C. Jothnsotn. hIls scmt. otto tvas ornt iii \ tail or May, T85, wvas ttte first chili1 torni itt Wintield. hIt ttte sprinig if t t6o the! invsalid sister of Tsaac itC-'ole., uwhit tad 1beet irouttigit frotm lPetttsvtvana wvlte the lurothiers, rettirtedI tu lthe towtiistip. nlieit. atti oas btiried ott thteir farti, lint seas stiitseqtiently remiovedn to the cemetery oin scctinit t, whvieht wvas Ic eded to the tow~i-ihip he Nichtolas NNVhtiterellt ttiitn sehtose ]andt it was loctedfi. 'This wVas otte if the first de~aths in thse township. 'This farti seas later ownted to' jtige J. ATl. Dickersoti, a tnative of Yates countyt, New Yotrk,, sehto camec tnt Micttigaitii tl j863. i-Ic \\vas etecteil judlge of pirobtate itt t868 and biecatte a resident of W~infield Iii 87.3. Mose-s Swirthiout was ait early settler in the east part of thse townt. HJe hocatent on sectiots 14, where he cleared a faint antI placed it iii a goot state

Page  243 MONTCAILM COUNTY, MICHIGAN.24.243 of Cultivation, uponl which he livedl until ahont tile year 18S71, wheil he Ibecaille a resilleit of Cato. The farmi settled isv Henry Mfaconilber was latter occupiiedl ly Williami \W\. Kelsev, who callle to XWinfield in all early day, hut (lid not become a perlilanlent resident till the lapse of several sears. He was iln the Union arnlv, and, it is said, wvas conldeln-ned to dtie for sleeping on his post, hilt through iniany extelliiatin-li"rCOll((lstances, was p~ardloned~, wfe hc i as wounded'( ill balttle. Ife serv'ed as town. clerk for several] years. In the svinter of i 86o,-blj h.everend~s Ardlridlge and Church caine to the towIhilp (0(1 liold aseries (If mieetings at the hiouse of H-eniry Macomnber. Tlhev reiacllinedl several weeks ill tile vicinlity, 11n( althlough1 a numnbler were baptizedl 01) r).gulhr organii'/atioln was effected. Tfle sweather wasL., extrelneiv cold, and ail opeielilllg waIs bade, through the ice ill Tamarack creek inl order to lierforlil tle nlltlllrsiolls. which were the first in tile toilvlshi1). 'Ihle first isa111111 a11( store wvere in tile northeastern sirt, on the farmn later owne bvh ( h(1e 1Dickerson. Tlil mli was ((lilt by Mailen THarrlig'n l and jl 0111tfuiatt. w(11 lroligilt ill a piortablse engine anli mlill. Ii. Ganrbutt 1(1 \\illiami Kelly' olpenedl tile store, which Was Onet Of the first Ii thli. 1(01,b part of the cot~inty. These supplied wvants loug felt, (1(1 Vtt (lilallea~~ltioi o il l(1init5 itretof this localitv. T his, store was afterwvards iitrcliasedl by Sanmiel aid Abiner "leeks, the fornier being alpisii~te(l lpostiillaster. and tile first office being openied at this place. Seth Beal, atl early settler, ilicateti oil sectionl j. Ilie w~as a mall of gYreat strengthi, and( at liec tulle lie carriell eigh-ty lioundis of sugar to Croton, sviicii he traded for eughlty ioinIiis oA Hlonel and ill adelitioti to this load, lbroughit 110111 several till pians altd sonile siiialler articles andt iniide tile entire distaitee oIf tilirtv-si-\ milts ill twelve hollrs. He stibsequientlv nioved fromn tile towshisiip, to XMissoirlr. A plart of tile latid enteredI by- Mr. Beal wvas later (iwnled by [J11n Gaffield, wyilo canie to Winlfleld froul Can~ada. 1-1. L. Barton0 lo(cated. (ill the southtwest quarter of section 9. jamies Stevenlsoil Settlc(l ((1 te nodrthi ial f (If the solit'l-west quarter of sectionl 32, ill 1860. Hie wsas aiiiollg tild first settlers ill this hart. Hec served in the h.lioul atriall thlree years. AMBtlE. Anlible., whlichl is located ill the center of W-infield towns.hip, onl the P~ere Marquette railroad. was pliattedl oii Julyv 8, 1886. The proprietors of this illage were David L,. C. Elaton, Nathan WV. Merrill, Janies T. H-ail and Thinias Fiskc. Parker Mverrill sulrveyed and laidh out the townl. This is the

Page  244 244 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. only town in '\Winield township and has never reached the desires of its original proprietors. It was named il honor of Rev. Ole Amble, of the Danish Lutheran church. It began its existence after the lumber industry had reached its height and has failed to prove a railroad center, as was desired. At present there is one church in Amble, and the business of the town consists of one general store and a creamery. Like many of the other villages of the county'. Amble has not attained much size. 'lThe present business interests of the village are the general merchandise stores of Peter Hansecn, and (lsen Brothers, tlle latter beilng erected in 19I5. Amible also hIas a co-operative creamery, which receives excellent patronage front those interested in this association, and also fromI other dairy raisers in this comrni-nity. I.ouis W\aldo operates an ele\vator in this plice. iAmblle has a population of approximately one hundred and draws its resources from a rich farming communtlity in which it lies.

Page  245 (CHAPTER XXIL. A(;II(RUI.'I'T'R TEN MO()NTCALM COUNTY. \ hile Mlichigan does not rank with the prairie states in the production of certain cereals such as corn, wheat and oats, its acreage of corn in I9I1 llamoll ted to I,69oooo, andt its production in bushels to 55,770,000. Of course, this prodiuction does not compare with the production of Illinois, Iiialia, and Io\\a. Tn T!)1 i 1,o25,ooo acres were sown to wheat in the state of Michigan, whichl ranked eighth in the whole country. The average yield of wheat per acre in Michigan was 18 bushels, which conparecl very favorably with the viel(l in the prairie states. It is significant that there has heen a steady increase in the vield (of wheat per acre in Michigan since r870. The tenyear average vicel(i in 1879 was 14.7 hushels and in both 110o and (91 r the vield \\was T( bushels per acre. lin the North (-'entral group of states east of the Mississippi river. Mlichigan also ranks last in the production of oats, but the yield per acre nevertheless compares favorably with that in other states of the group. In1 the production of rye. 'Michigan is the first state in the Union in acrelage sown vland second in arnnulal prod-uctionl. Iln TO9 the total acreage of the state was 4oo.o00 and the total production was 5,840,000 bushels. Only \\isconsin produced a larger crop. The average vield of rye per acre for the teiin-ear period from I900 to 1909 was I;.I bushels. Montcaln countyr ranks righ namong the counties of Michigan both in acreage of rye so()wn and in annual production. ACRIAGE AN1 ) YI,LD O(F POTAT1OES. It is in the production of potatoes, also. that Michigan and Montcalm counties, especially, takes high rank. In acreage planted to potatoes, Michigan ranks second only to Newr York, that of the latter being 375,000 in I9II and of the former 330,000. In annual production, Michigan ranks second only to \\isconsill, that of the latter being 32,480,000 bushels in

Page  246 246 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICIIIG\AN. li9) anId of tile former, 31,020,000 bushels ill 1911. The ten-year average yield of potatoes ill the United States is 91.4 bushels and in Michigan the tel-year average iceld is 88 bushels. The production in 191o, however, was o15 bushels per acre and in 19TT it was 94 bushels. In the pro(luction of live stock, Michigan hardly compares with the great agricultural states of the Middle We\st and under the conditions can hardly l)e expected to show a favorable comparison. On January I, I912, there were in Michigan 634,00o head of horses and 4,000 head of mulles. On the same date there were in the state 8o6,ooo milch cows and 701,000ooo head of other cattle. At this time, Michigan surl)assed Indiana in the number of milch cows uild wais o)nly slightly below Indiana in nutmber of other cattle. On January i, 1912, there were T,382,ooo head of hogs in the state and ablout the saell time 1,6ooooo head of sheep of shearing age. In the production of sheel) Michigan ranks secoid only to Ohio of those states east of the Mississippi river and is exceeded only by Montana, Wyoming. New Mexico, Tti \aslhiigtoni, California and ()regon of those west of the 1 Mississippi river. 'he Michigian c rop report for November T, 191r4, issutedl l the secretary of state, slios tha t Monltcall1l county ranked eighteenth among all the counties of tlie state in the acreage planted to corn but that it ranked first il acreage amioni the central counties of the state. The estimated acreage in 914 was 43.374. \ith anl estimiated yield of 1.5 8,o0o )ushcls or 35 blushels to the acre. In 1r14. not only did MAontcalm county r-anlk first in acreage swnsll 1 to lie;t lbut it also ralks first in production am1(ong the counties of the cent.ral grouil whichl. l)si(les Montcalm, include Bay, (ratiot, HTuron, Isabella, fMecosta. TMidllan(l, Muskegon, Newavgo, Oceal, Saginaw, Sanilac, and I iuscola. In acreagec sown to wheat ill i1iT Montcalmn countv ranked third in the centr;al groulp and in total vield it ranked fourth. The acreage so\wn to wheat in 1()1T in Mlontcalm couinty was T2,340, the total yield 246,8oo l)ushels land the average yield per acre 20 bushels. Huron and Sanilac counties surpassed Monttcalmh in acreage sown to wheat in I9Ir, among those counties of the central group, anI Huron, Saginaw and Sanilac surpassed Montcalm ill total iceld. So far as the acreage and l)roduction of oats is concernecd, ontcalm county ranks seventh in the central group in acreage sown and eighth in production, the acreage being 20,123 in I91I and the production 603.6o9 bushels. The average vield of oats per acre in T91I was 30 bushels.

Page  247 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 247 IYE IN MONTCALIM COUNTY. It is in the production of rye that Montcalm county surpasses every other county of the state. In I1911, 20,148 acres sown to rye in Montcalm county produced a total yield of 302,220 bushels, or 15 bushels to the acre. When it is remenlberedl tlhat Mlichigan ranks first among all the states of the Union il acreage so\n to -ve and.second in annual production, the production iln Montcalnl county takes oii added significance. In the production of potatoes, Mlontcalni county also ranks very high. ()nly one county in tlhe state surpasses Montcalm in either the acreage p]lanted or the total production. This is Oakland county, one of the southern group. In 1914 there were 20,386 acres planted in potatoes in Montcalm county and 22,.006 acres in Oakland county. Montcalm county produced approxilmately 2,364.776 bushels in 19r4 and Oakland county 2,772,75( bushels. The vield pier acre in Montcalim county in 19I4 was I 6 bushels. Besides potatoes and rye, which are raised in abundantt quantities in [lontcalnm county, beans also thrive in the county and the crop is gaining in )poplularity. JIn 1(14 Mlontcalm county plroduced I34,T8O bushels of beans on 13,418 acres. 'ITo years ago, 1914, the state of Michigan lprodu(lced 4.669,5I4 bushels of lbcans off of 414,035 acres, and the average yield per acre was 11.28 bushels. Of this, the central group of counties, including Mlonitcalml countll produced a little more than one-half the total or 2,373,X60 bushels from r9,163 acres. Mlontcallm county also raised T,200 )bushels of barley off of 48 acres in 1)14 11nd 24,66 lbushlels of bluckwheat off of 1,897 acres. The county likewise producled T,140o )ushels of peas from seventy-six acres, and 1,352 tons of sugar beets from T69 acres; also 41,900 tons of hay from 31,985 acres. Thirty-six per cent. of the farmers of Michigan used commercial fertilizers in sowing wheat in 1914, 43 per cent. in the southern counties, 37 per cent. in the central counties, 10 per cent. in the northern counties and 8 per cent. in the upper peninsula. LEA.DING PO'TATO MARKETS. From the fact that MIIontcalm county takes high rank as a potato-raising county, Greenville and Stanton are naturally large potato markets. Pota

Page  248 2 481 248MONTCALM COUNTY, MiNtil lOAN. toes, p~robiablv m-ore thaii aiiv othcir protltct, have made the county swell known throughout the country. In f ictt Greenville and Stanton are twvo of the largest shipping centers of pot stoes in all the country. More inortagMfes have lie en iaid off in.Michigaii from the iiicoiie fromt )otatoes thait any other cro p, perhaps, and it, is to lbe remnembered that Msontcalm county produces more potatoes than any othcr c onnty in the state, save one. Thi S section already has a.n eiiviabile stindlingo in the lprodoictioli of potatoes aind its future is wvell asnsured. Bloth t ~reeiiv lle and Stanton, especially, have superior ativaitages as shripping hoots. U~nder anithority of an act paissed it the second extra session (if tlie M ichin staite It ltitinii'telorict lIrior oeach countsIs lit cliv iuthorized to ipp~roplriatt or ri sc iiiooev is- tax to lie uised forto opcr utisve xxvcii wsitii thc A1 cluaii uAgriculttiral t ollege. in encoiiragiiig iiiprosvcd mii.thods of tfirmx irniamneent ind practical instruIction andi deniomis;tration in ao-Iiculture. The licit niakes it the dotst of dit board if suipervisors malcing ni iappropiriitioii, or ot aii ontiiiit Ilii o i \.Iii -Liv onoiey shlld] be raiseti for the iiiiipost of tiiat,i "prior to th tiiin s,Mime is available fosr tise, to pirescrilic tiles aod iregLI,tiItim foii tllt tiw n-id cxpmiditumre of the same.'' The miioney so appiropriaitedor ir i uCl ii hi t:ix oust lie expeinded snider t le direction ofteboardl of sulpervisor-s ii I iitoii switli the Midclii ii Nrictilit iri College. LUndlcr this act, Comiimt fitrn a-icits swhose dit1ties arc to icnolci expitrt assistanice to farniers Mi ill plii i (sf ginctiiltmie have licen -appointedc foi several ecionties cif the state. TisI act i -in iiiportaiit step ii flit scene~titic developitment of agriculture ini tlit state of slIchigaii aiic althioghi Iii tomioty farm agent has yet been applointced for \Montcalmn coontys thitrt is altealv a svell-definetl sentimnmit in favx oi f in t s\peilititire of its umoV for this piirpose. ('oninoenting onl the appinusiitmeiit of i coutotv farm agyent in Kent t uiiiiitx the IHowuard Ci'tY Record, oint i oh tt of Yovember iTI, iio i, has the folloswing to say: "Iii the disctissioin -vheihcr IKtnt county could afford the services of;t cotmtv farm agen~t at $2.0oo Jc Vear. flt Grand Rapids NcscS pointeil outt that tin a valciation of txvi htin~lr-cI and thirteen milliotis of tioliars the aticeci cost svciildh int exceed fix c cot tcr tax paver iser year. Hosw ltitg xwiii somne false economis,1ts strivie to belittle really ituportant work?Hcov cotdd Kent coutmyx eveti thitik of iffordciii the loss of scich an importants

Page  249 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 2( 24( feature" H aiplily. the approplriatio n is forthcoming inI Kent. But InI MionttCalltI we contitnue to dlawdle an(1 twid~dle onr thunmhs.'" COUNTry DRAINS. Originally all (Irainage niatter in M ontcaltm. as well. as every other counity of tile state, were Ill the hatldis of tile t(wt\\Iisj)~ iloardi consiSting Of the sup~ervisor, clerk an(1 tw\o jnstices (If thle ipeace. Applications for drains wvere miade lby petition of one-third (If the freehoilders w-hose lands were crossed by thle prolposedl (drain andl these pletitions were presentedl to tile town~shti) lboardl which I 1111r rejected or granlted the p~etittions If thle peti1 Ott were grantedl tite lit allt \V IS slireveyd untdler authortty of the diraitnage (c0ntt1itttiotler P rior to11 1 S, a commltitssionter was chosen tor c (cel townlship, hult 1y aI ac lt applrove1dl.1tine 2, I 80, the ottie (If towntship dirainlage c(I IIttltS'tnttdt UIS Ia111)1olse~l 1111 tlte otftce of contlty drirnage comissitt5oner esiablili'e~ll l-'d) I nllullI(r It yearts' tile coun~ty (lralttal' commi~tsstioner \vas applintled Iy IIIhi h111 rdI l)t Istipervis1 rs, ))nt the office'(1 11 wa 11fi tll Iadle elective 1111 is 1n11w fillel1 11v direct 1 (lted If tile p1e1111. ToI tite presenCtt ohr11m111 01mimitssimiter (If Al otaltoitn Icountty itas fallenl tile I111111 If '0t persVi 'ill" the hIi1 cIInstruc tilit If 11111 of tite l'Ir11Cst lIraitage prlljects n flhd lit'tory l)t tile dl(ilty This lis~I tlt( 1 ttenttcttt ( reek ldraill lIeel p~ractica11 llttcopleted CatI co.-t Itf $ ",j268..;o, dar Ite Il tIrlI't c age I.f 111n1 tn I loo IllIet- 1 11 1111(11 Iver-rectl atnd (Crystaito tIvittlIps. Altogetiter Ithe projlect I IvIrs alolIt tw entyXtwo ml~les lf 1tiltte rtlttt creek a1111 it", ttllttrc I( ll "(tIlnl letition~ers( toit tlte hIra ItlvIere 0) W\ \Wilsotw I' IRriw, tt Il (Ihand~lerl. Ii. Iadph, Is Sqire s, A\ C onklint, (Oril Rattger, 1 lls A. Strttghaml1111 Joh (l lCary I. J. Sprltiwsteenl F'ehvardl R alplt, ChIarles DaI ) ki(oh 1o r etJ 1111 A\ L cc I rttl I axter1 1 tIlt Itit Ishiati, dlrgei. Lowle. T. 1. 1LovettI R111 Smlith 111( G~arter Smith, of Bulshnell tOtIlI1,11)- 1[iattt;lltFl 12 Iotl' Dliimdl Kidd-er. A. H. o Ilcotmbl atll( A\tina Al Kiddoer. (If ('rystal 111wnship, and lao 1.1 liog of IFvergrecei tovwlisbiil. Aithllogh thle l-htttemittth (It w asltae(i 111 litigillft I ttbr of veil rs tile litigatill atl ( ally wa one.11 If tile hVwprlucit~cs If the' light Ito 11(vcc a ((C\V etAlrtr toot d lulit It Stan~totn. (cr11011l Citizens white OpposCed tile tlraitt xxvete friettdivy111 StaItonl'l S calIaIaigt for a 1121 coltirt ltioIse a11( the acdion o~f tite islari (If 5011(1rvIsclrs wa.s tlladle tel talilY witht Stallton's interests ill the coirtr hottse' c~iiaiii 1111 Il)willeiths Ilf thle lir-aitl IIr er, etrged

Page  250 2;( MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. -as an argument against it that a prc\-ioms agreemnilt w ith the petitioners relieNved them from any inoral ohligat ion to he taixed i hbiihldiing it. Another large. drainage project comnpleted somne yeairs a-0 ]in Aloiitcalm ci imtv was the Prairie ("reek drain. the oroognal petitioin foi- \N hich was tl' d j nae3. 'Hihe main channel (if this ilraon cov ered a distance of nearlv six, niiles nit there were miiiteroiis ext( sii~oi5 and br anches one of which was kiiowii as 1 ranlic No. 3., one mii Iand( s1 \ty-eight irods long.. hIle petitioiiers for the Prairie I 'reek (Iraiii ovr iCI L. Heisleri Sylviester Arntz. [F. H. XXVhitc, XWilliamt A. [tickiiei. F \l IFinmear, H. IT. Powell, SlJieriiaii Arntz aiid WX. Du )nn. o)f lvvergrecii toivii'hii I Ii Squires, 1. L. Jelks, Jacob Itover, U.i MXack. XcV. H. C'hamhers. J. IT. Tones, MXrs. FK. S. tonklin, I) A\ Neoeoiombli\, 1 Wiiam A. MXliller aiid Stoii"Ihtoii Miitchiell, ot I Ioshinell toownshipi 'I lie woirk ii f ciiistrtiitioii onl this draiii Ibegaii in i(( aiid was ~'liishled III iJ(( US11La11Ni; IN WODt iMADi.\i J'[le people if X iiiitc alii omi oty are thorooghhy awalec to the iieed of adeqnate Iroinic aiid iiithiing, has had iiore to do with their thorotigligriiiig Coiiversion inI this part iciilar tliai the realization t hat good roads are itpsi leiitil Iproller dtr ii' are 1laid. '[hle itt entio iicf thle pieoplle has retieatedly heon called i i this fat ciod el 1liril supillilt of any meritorMios lirojeci callnioiw lie de.peoidedl tpoii 'I lie o1ttsonoism to speiieiiig iineiie foii thiis porpose which was si imi rked ]ii tiiirier vc irs ha s largely (lisapliearedl. I'ihe count v draiii Coinmm SSouti either i Ii s ii t compllJeted iir has III process'5 thle fidlowiiig pr~ojects: a'is'id I ohiisoii draon, lKiieer aiid Rtobin5(iii draiii. Mutdi Lake draiii \o. draon 'Xl atooiev drina, M~anzer dhraiti, (ihsoii-t olecr dlraiii, 1t tickleclern iii Iike draion Hilker I ike drain, Stillwater clraiii. the Ootlet to the XX edlaiii drion, itiinc ilion, (isle ilraiii Siple ilrain, Plairplaili drain. )ea in rieclk i-ljio ind the Ilirkhaii and Siummers I lie lairgest river of Nil otcalii counts' is Flat river, which has its source ii the ii rth central pait of the' comiity aiid, passing thriotigh [ntrican, Langstim Cooeii;iiel reevile laiis te cotiitv through Se('t;oii 35. i erk trowuship. To the days whenl the tiimber resouirces of M-kontcalm county were lieiii- exploited this riser was iused largely to tfliat lcigs clown stream- to io'rket. 1lat rii er Is not ioviable, however, and in fact there is no naviihble stre'im in, the cotintv,.

Page  251 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN.25 2..5 M ON''L COO'N'IS' AGisICui.'ciusL SOCIETY. While they throw iio great light upon the status of agriculture in 'Montcalm county at the present time., thle Incorp~oration of various associations for promoting agriculture and stock raising are interesting, in this connection. The Montcalus t ouintN Agricultural Society. lperhalps the first organization of its kind ii Msoiitcalmn counts, was formed at a meeting held oil Septemher ~., i578. Btefore this. however, on October 15, i86s, the Montcalin i enity hoardl of supervisors Voted to raise one-tenth of a mill tax oii tile dollar for the henetit of aii agricultulral societ\. At the fii st meeting of the Moiitcalin Counity Agricultur-al Societe the follossing officers were electeil: Presideint, F. D. Finch, Stanton, vice-psresidehnt (Charles \\W. Blumhcrg. D)ouglass; secretary, I. 1.1. Urench. Stanton; tieisuier, Israel J. Lucas. Stanton edirectors. MIarcellus I 'alnier, TDav FK 1) Hauslevs St-mton; WVillam U. Tlurner, Stanton. A ccording to the constitiitioii aidopteil at the first session, thle first annual iieetiiig seas hield in Stanton onl February i, 1 879. The soc iety weas theii inco~rposratedl accorliiig to the law~s of the state and liefore adjbournment the follosving officers were chosen for the eimsuing cir: P residlent, Henry H. Hiiids of Day ix ecretairs I' Ii. Uliicli, of Sidiiev:treasurer. I srael J. Lueas. oit Dayx vice-presidents, Heiiry Kent. of F'airlilain; Charles 1tinuIser (if Muglonass; D)visd Fsc hlimian. of Uerris: R. 'W. Hoy, of Ilushmiell; If. G. Cohurn, ef Hossard ('tvit; M. Dickerson, of \Viliielil directors, Orsville F. Mason. of ICrS e Xis M ieelliis Palmer, of I av; F'. K. \Vood. of 1.Has' Wi lliani F. iiriier of Sidnev;: F. D. I-hawles, of Dav; II. N. Lvaiis, ot Uiurptin, A. S. Ireiieh, of Cato. special imeetiii of the moiril of directors seas liehl on Max' 1, I879. swhen measures ssecie pierfected tor feciicig aiid iniproving thme groumins of the soceits, the ecoimittee appointedl to attend to such matters heing E. 1). I Jasvley, H. L. 1-35mles mted l.X A. Reynolds. Scicli conmmittee ssere also enipossereil to control and cunt the grounds. Onl junIe:2, 8791 A\ I, SI ight. F. K. XWinsor, (;Iles Gilhert, M4. A.. Reynolds, Joim W S. Piersoii R.. 'F. Dyer. Wood & Thayer, Haslehe & Pratt, Richards & Soil Oc)ae Fi1 nn, WVebher & Chapin, J. M". Weatherswax,.R. S. Thownsencd, I. II. Hinds, E. D. Finch, A,. D)e F. Gardner. William JF. 'Turnier ami C. D. Xlleii loaned the society money to tile atlnount of three hundred and ninietv-cight (lollars mmtil the society wvas ablhe teo pay hack the sanie.

Page  252 252 23 moN'1_ALMN ((t7iNTY, MiCli IGAN. 'Ihe fiest fuir wxas held onl Sepltemb~er 23.11(1 '4, 187(p at Sta Iitoii dMi — jng which the reccipts foi tickets amounted to $4 13.65anod at that timle, froimi other sou~rces, such is life-membership tickcts, cntirancc fees. ctc. thcre was also received $?oa a'52 At the Secondi auniml lueetini-, lel(l iu Stan11on 00l January 1 3, 885o the followiing officers xxere electedI to scrve for one yeao Precsident, II 11. I hinds, of Staiitonu seciret irx,. It1. Ilachman, ot Staultoil ti easlirer J R LgIelecof Staniton I ice-p rcsileiits. teoroc NN' St antoni If Sheri ida 01111 XV. S. Ic1rs51 Il of Stanltonl l)avidl ijN hliiaii, ofi~ I ciri; ID. (. (arpeuter, of \VickervvIll~e tCharles Stiuchtjelcl. of I'dliulre: W\ 1.) Bellows,(If Langston dlirec(tors I onie ycar, Al fred Stolile, of ( eirceville: A. L. Smith, of C'rystal ( too xyears') Mort11 imier tGjllco. of Sliericlanii Israel T. Lucas, of Stain (Iii (tIlrec xears I uarcelliis IPalmer. oIf MIc ride, (. NW. Bilumberg. If StantoniHen Cluo (litci (If S;idnev I cuter. The seconiid -aniual tfaor was, lielil iil the s1ocietyvs iroundis at Stantoii o11.September 2.? 23, 11(1 24, 1 880. 11111 proved~ a success. t!)e hundred amd thi rt -three seaison tickects wcre s~old. a11d too hundred aiid seven prcullicllills, ruilgiog from too (to tov cenlts to tllree dIollars, ovcre awarcded. Aniuou thosc 10hi, 110 tic Iayilleit of tell dollars each. hecaume life umemblers of thc socieity \cr( t 1). \lleii IT. Atwxcll, H. L LBailey, C NW. I jercre FI I 'ac l\ I. tOvr IIL)1v(11 ) cdu~i ohll Is I uAloleback I,. H IFrench N L I. 'llailli-' t SoCai I o Ii. Il D. 1i'ch, WIilliami IFillei, I) MN. t, rncr, tls GiIllbeIt 1)1 1 t ii d~hler, Alonzo G ilbert 1 1 111Ic I, NV. I -i.iiis II Ill Nns NI Il liunt, Iutlicr II adx, [Ured Is. teilbeck, uames WN ILoooii? A\ 1Tcivitt I liulcs _\ ILouiolni 1i-iad J. Lucti( Nelson IA1nun1 I ItMooiec Aiv~ in lursc Jamies dcl iiix 1 IL NI thcxxs, i \. NWc 10111 N\ S. IPicirson I. F. Iraltt W\illia noP iit 1 i. Pooell, W.I RsicharnIx NI. AN Isilo iiol Rsoberi South. No0111ii Shepardc AN L.. Siliithl, Stanlsell c\ thu bc irt, Willis StanulsII (I-' A. Tllavc, NWilliam F. Turner, R. S. 1 oxo isen~ll HI buns S. oFw Ieor-c F. Wallace, E. K. NNood. W.Ieatloerwa\, J. NI N\ ctlici xwi F, Is. NWiusor, WV P. NNhite, J. NV. NWillett aiid S. Perii 0YNi111111 The grouiidls fiii the MNliiiti iii I iioiity A griculltuiral Soc~iety had hecui lltirCliiSedl Oclrigin il lo tx\_l cl c ctiC ns ((lii each piaid olle hlllmdrech dollars into a fumd for tlile ll prchasc of ircal estaite. After four dor tixe fairs had 1 (ecil hlucd the fail rouiuds xxerie i~l iicl adI andI the real estate revertecd to tlie. geutleillail wxho h id raiised thice tlild If woae thoiusandi twod hundredl dollars. l~ater the p~rop~erto wx s siili iiolnii filna Cllysai inth p0osession of F. I.). THaw

Page  253 MONTCALM COUNTY. MICHIGAN. 25.3 Icy \who o wned the land originally. For some years the fairs had been especially successful on account of the local interest in stock raising. Then the interest wraned and the fair was abandoned..About the time the fairs were abandoned or a little later, the Stanton l)riving 'ark ( ompany was organized by E:lvas 1). Hawley, Clarence W. (hapin, (scar F cn, Ii. 1-1. Hlinds, Norman Shepard, Israel J. Lucas, Montgomer) A. Revnol(ls, John1 \W. i. ierson. Michael E. Fanning and William 1B. Pratt. Ilhis company was ilcorporated on January 31, I888, with a capital of one thllsand six hundred dollars. The attempt to hold agricultural fairs had, in a \wa, preceded the agricultural develo)pments of the colinty and it was natural that the fair was not long-lived. lhe Stanton Driving Park (omlpany, whi-ch held three or four annulal race meetings, in Auglst, on the fair grounds track, represented an effort to hold the interest in these things until the county was more nearly ready for agricultural fairs. W\hile they were being held the race meetings were )olular and successful altogether. OTHE R AGRIC'.L'lTtTRAI, ASSOCIATIONS. The Northern Mlichigan Agricultural Society was organized in 1877, its first officers being Richard C. Miller, president; James Satterlee, secretary, and \V. 1ackus. treasurer. The fairs of this society were held at (reenville for a number of years anml w\ere very successful, the receipts aLveraging $2,500 yearly. The Greenville Fair Association, Ltd., was incorporated on November 29, 1905 bv Theodore 1. Phelps, David Jacobson, W'illiam \V. Slawson, Williamn 1). Johnson, Meno S. Dadles, Frank S. Gibson. Juniuts E. Osmon, Ernest A. Kemp, Frank Nelson, Eli S. (.lark, Charles M. Miller, Mikkel Skroder, \Walter Feldt, W\illiam H. Browne, Gerrit J. Kastenberg, John H. Tenllink, Willard J. Kingsbury, Thomas B. P. Winter, William H. Bradlev. Delmer H. Moore, Eugene Rutan, Duncan K. Black, Willard J. Bennett, Rufus F. Sprague. James T. Ridley, Lawrence (. Lincoln, James W. Belknap, Cass T. Wright, Charles L. Rarden, Fred E. Ranney, Chris Hanson, Charles WV. Johnson, J. Edward Van Wormer, Horace L. Bower, C. Jesse (Church, James Callaghan. Charles T. Ranney, Marvin S. Wood, Carlyle R. Kirkbride, N. 0. Griswold, William H. George, John Rensman and James Ahern. The purposes of this association were to conduct annually a general fair and exhibition of farm products, implements and machinery, animals and fowls and all products of the house and field; all kinds of manu

Page  254 2,54 254 MONTCALM COUNTY. MICHIGAN. f-w~tored goods., wares. mlerchandise. machinery and implemnents; to pro(Idt for a traick suitable for thle speeding of horses, and to lprovidle for anld pay premiinns for superior 'excellence ini all eXhilbits. ()ii NIao i.i ~i I. the (;reenville Fair.\ssociation was incorp~oratccl with a capital ot teni thoosalil (dollars for thle porpose of 'condocting from time to time competitive exhibitions of horses. cattle, sheep, hogs and poultry loll -raiun fruit anid agricultulral prodlucts, and of farm an(I other miachinlery. took. Implelmenlts, ntenslils andl vehicles, as well as of works of art and of skill" Th 1wicorporators inclnded a lonlg list of Greenville citizells. 1.i til 1 nioc thle ( Irec~i ille lair A:ssociationi was ai limited Partnlerslhip, but the re-orgainiation inl 1()I o adle it a stock company with. a capital of teni thollsanld (lollars, as abmve i~l(icatc(l. _Newv building-s were added from tile o uni at the, lresellt. time the. association ha oe of the most complllete fai r equipllelits ini lie sntatie, considering the. size of Greenville. 'it has lprospere(I for tell years and]( each year has received good support. The -ioi5fair w\.as onle of file. best ever held, both f romn the standpoint of pat ronage widn~l tinacial shooing,..hie grounrls consist of about tweltitv acres valuied at OIIC thou~sal id six, hulnlred dollaris. while the btlildings are valued( at tell thousand rlollars. The annual mneeting of the fail- association is on Novemlber 24. 1Sf each -\earl. The piresenit officers are A. MN. Berridge, liresideiit, 1. l1. N-ielsell, vice-presidenit, aml. D) L blear(lslee, secretarytreastifer. O)n Nov\lnller 17. 1 8rs(7. tile ( itizells,;\ri cultura Soc~ iety' of Lake\-iew ivas orgaliizedI '"for tIle cm-ild-lagelnent andl advancemeln lt of agricuiltuire. hlaliufacture, alid the liechaiiic arts," with Jolil WNN Kirtlandl as lresideilt; Alleli SMacoliber, vice-liresidellt: Saleml F. Kxelimedy, secretary, anid ('harles IF. Frellell, treastlrer. 'Tle trllistees, illcllde(I -A.I. 1)11 Dvlie, Willialui Rae, Al'. \V. Staples. Peter Petersoll and Ch'larles WV Northern. This society held several fairs at L~akeviewv and thell dihmidaledl The fuirs, however, were Vseex SlldCCessful for a limiher (If vellrS. 'rilE. tAIR AND RACS TA IIOWAIO ('t~ry. '[le Ioward C ity Driving Palk and Agricultural Association was foruied oni October 24. t8qi I.aied the first fair was held on September 27. 28, 21)-'and 30, 1892. It wvas very shuccessful. During the year previous thirty acres ly\ing onl the souith linie of the village were pturchiased and cleared tip for the fairgrottnc and a very fast half-mile race track built., Successfill fairs were held amimla~lv eacil fall. After the fair of t8qf financial

Page  255 IMONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN.25 2,S. dififctities. were encounitered. following tile hard times of the early nineties. andl it wvas dclidled to otter the -roonds for sale to clean nip the dehts. Ini A\pril, i8o7, thc ogrounls wvere offered for sale but 110 one hid them Iin and finally twvelve men guaranteed the payment of the encmbcirance, paid the aniounts due, a11d biecaiie the owners of tile Iprolperty. Thie association's. first ofticers wvere: Presideiit, Johin C. Collins: secretarV, 131. J. Lowreytreasurer, N. WV. MNTather. iiiiallv11 eighteen hosinless Mcli formed an association Inl 19 02 and aegain hrooght the fair to life, leasing the grouiids froisi the owners foi- several v ea e-. TI'le flair 1rospcreil and Ini One, 1907, twenty-six busintiess menx organized, murchased the groounds ad huildings anid Inc orporaitedl innder lie nauwin of the IloNAaird ( tN Fairi Assoeciation, holding, annual i expjositions that ste'dhlv grewv Ii iite rest iind inmportanice instil 1913 wh len the stockholdelee voted to dihxeon61tino the fair s The f lie' surp1ldo 11a( been tised opi Ill taking cart, (if tue inoecasilog Cel)eiies of 10aintenance of a iplanlt that wvas st(eidixy depi cam tlii, owld beiol' Lhle to p 0 1)o1 cxvery (dollar of indehtednless so1d 01)1)110 squaire xxvas conside red hetter tha oi Isking dleht inl the futore. Ini lie sprino- of I 914 thle p-opelrtv \vas sold anl list old fairgcround ix. nowx a memiory mld the hond aftie farisi The I hoxwiiid(ty trac tel ad al history stich iis te", toovos eouldl le.ast. State irecords xieie frequtenitly simashed i de lsorseiien from several states alxvavs looked hi xx arel to tiste lloxxr r(' titv races. They xvere always hardfoolglt eontests omell( the toxvns possessedl inaney aileiit faiis NOIhe ciijoyed the sort. i oniimeot ioiig the stocikholelers aiid officers of t le fair bieside's those ii ained. xxere:.C, Scott, J. I ollins, WV. H1-. Colliiis. W. H-. ILovelv, J. WV. Loxvely fTT II Haskins Hf \l. G;ibbs, L,. IL. Church, J. H-.!\rhogast,. Warren I isk t C arrx Rieuhird leery. S. V. -Bullock, tMaine 1feilkel, A. Ael. took, J. PB Hskins, V I' Snmiths, Fred.\sliley, I. B. IKilia, John A'Natson and others. Thue tiresidents ot the faiir xxvere J. C. Colliiis, J. A. Collins, J. AV. ILoxelxr, J. B. King, Feed Ashley. WV. TT. Collins. B. J. Lowrey was thle' secretary continuiocisly until 1908, xxhen he xxas succeeded by J. B'.. Haskins. Treasurers xxere N. AV. 7\1ather, S. C. Scott, H.. M1\. Gibbs, Fred Ashley anef D. -XV. Cliapp. ORGIANIZATiONS OF STOCK IiREFDERIS. The Curstal Horse Breeders' and Tuirfm-en's Associatioii, of Crystal,. xvas imicorporated onl Aulgcist 31, 1907, with a capital of $io,ooo for the purisose of conductiing trotting and running races, hy 'Marccis Poilasky, C. Wk'

Page  256 2 -6 2 MIONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. LalW, E. 1l' Fuller, (-' DeX onng R. 1' Smith, F. T. Kimball, S. N. King, H-. S. Phillips C. II. Mor-an andl (eorae A. link. The R'iclilanid Guernsey Breeders' Association xvas incorporated on Junie 21 0o8, with. a caipitali of one thousan 101(ollars, by, Ldgar S. Wagar, Harry I'_ \Vagar, Jamnes Punidon F ramk LI L~imes, A rchie Foster, TFhomias XV. Atissonl, XX d1al An ' XXVood, \n~us i-i. AiJD)onald, F.rank Eitelbus, H. iecir Hlaiisen Ilosinei I) Beebe, Ilcirbert -1. WXilson, John C. Sack, Mlichael Rlx rohii,.1olin] I' t;no, iii/( Xi iie I3) Thloimas and Leo Elirlich. The.Vdnmore i )rixvin- Pa'rk and A\~rlieltural Association wast iiicoiporated oii N o enihier 10. i MS xwithi a apiita:l stock of two thousand dolhi'-S, and1( with XXilliam Rn l\ ILs, XWilliain II. GIardnier, Harry, WV Robson, James I\K. TIrain and W\ ilhi oi trown as ilirect()rs for the first Neir. The o)rigi)nal stockhoildcis Iincludedl besides the ilirectors, famies XlT Corry, A. J. [iriags, Fi. XX Nia-r. l MI XXilson. S ILindoii, Robert AlOrser A. Eimersoii, A. P. Curntis, CIharles EI ITayloi Jolii Stone, Charles E. brown, A. H. 1,arman, I) B). \Alorlica idnid N. L N iian The Al ontcalni (Counity 111)1e lIreeders' Association xxas incorpoarated On June 26i, 1875, tot the purposc. of improving the "stock of horses" in Montcaliii cotiitv. It 0rigina ca1 pital was six thousand doll irs and its iiicorporatois xxeie AIx mu Ridlet H eniy Hart,, L. Judd Macomrber, L H-. Colwvell, L,. Ri. Lester, N. 1F. lDerbv. I. If. VFdsall, J. Ml. Bennett and H. A. Smith. STORY tiF OSCAiR FENN. While not typical of indlividuial progress itn article ap~peariing in the,Ytanton WIcck/x' C/Ip/cr of December 3. i88io, under the caption "Fixe Years Progress..may be regarded as somewxhat typical and, in any event. deseriptive of one Montcalm counitx residlent's success, 1)0th in an industrial and(;agricnltiirtd xxav, dutring the late seventies. "'In the \vinter of i875,'' says, thle (CliPPcr "0. Pennh, then register (of.deeds (If Mlontcalmi countyr. located his shin-le mill about twxo miles northeast of Stanton in the midst (If a five-hnltldred-anel-twenity-acr-e tract of unbroken pine forest. TIhcre is vet about three onotths xwork and then thle -entire tract xvill have leen m-ranuifactured inito shingles. in round numbers, -o,ooo,ooo, exclusive of culls. The average price 1paid for shingles during the last five years has been txvo (lollars per thousand as near as can he ascertained. Trhis xvotild iuake the gross valuie of the first crop from this 520 acres $io0,000. "Mr. Fenn commenced clearing in April, 1877, and that fall harvested

Page  257 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 257 his first crop, about 8 acres, and obtained about io tons of millet. That fall and the next spring he cleared 22 acres more land and harvested from it, and that cleared the 1)revious spring, i6 acres of oats with a yield of 36 lmshels per acre, from 5 acres. 8 tons of millet anld from Io acres about 15 tons of hay. InI the fall of 1878 and spring of 1879 he added 53 acres to his cleariing, and that fall harvested T8 acres of wheat, which vielded 24 bushels per acre: 35 acres of oats \with a total yield of T,o5o bushels and 30 acres of meadow which made 35 tons of hay. In the fall of I879 and sl)ring of i88o, 61) acres more were cleared and in I88o he harvested 6o acres of wheat, partly "stubl)ed in," and( obtained T,16o bushels of the finest qu1ality of wheat, from 37 acres, j.040 bushels of oats. from 55 acres. 65 toils of hay. "['his fall sufficient clearing was doiie to make the total number of acres under cultivation 200. lie has 40 acres of wheat now in the ground and looking well, 75 acres seeded down for meadow. He has 120o acres of clearing now lcunder way, which lie proposes to have ready for wheat next fall. lIn 1878. 1r. I'c erected a substantial frame barn on the premises 36x46 and the carl)enters who built it laughed at him and walited to know wlhat he would use it for. lpresuming he could never raise enough produce on the place to make such a barn necessary. Notwithstanding this prediction, this barn was o(ily a circumstance. TIn the summer of I880, Mr. Fe-:nI was forced to call in the aid of the carpenters again and build another )arii, this time larger and better than the first. The new barn is 48x50 feet, withi elevator roof. 'lihe outside posts are 20 feet and inside posts 32 feet. Under the whole structure is an 8 foot basement formed by the stone foundati(.i t upon which the barn rests. There is not a handsomer bit of masonry under:iy dwelling ila the country. The barn is well built, handsomely pailnted and wvell lighted with windows and transoms over the doors. "Besides these lariis Mr. Fenn has a neatly-built granary 20x30 feet,ald two stories high. T he produce of the farm this year filled them to their iutlmost capacity and it became necessary to store several hundred bushels of grain elsewhere. The farm is well cleared and the entire 200 acres of improvements are under good substantial board fences and the lay of the land is as good as any m1an can ask for. A first-class windmill pump supplies the water for the stock and a set of Fairbanks scales adjoins the new barn for the convenience of the farm,. The farm is only one of many of like proportions that have sprung up around us within the past four or five years and will serve as an index to the rapid development of our country (17)

Page  258 -8 238 MONTeCALM COUTNTI Y, MICHiCAN. a it a s index to our fotitre agriciiltoral piroslpects. T[here is no farmling conntrv 'in the wvorl(1 that canl make aI letter showin g thaiii onir pine lani(Is. condemned as they are Jov the wviseacres of the 01(1, 'ornl-ont agricultural (listricts of thle Fast and( South. SMr. Fl1enns shing'le noll1 is one, of the liest amld lest-tnaiiag1etl mill1S ill this section of country', wvith a capacity of 6o) to 65 hosand per dlay. ThO-t me t i' e]leI inoeatlgit u as this mill inI a few short mouths wil haeflihe t itiso1 ii iei one of the thing-s of the past, we delei it onnecessarv to make any forther mentiont of it inl this connection.'' T[his farm is no\\ owsneI Mnid occupied is' Josiah Martiii. who pirociiied it fromt the heirs of Osear b'eiin. MIONi'CAIN ia cot' i FARM (R5 TN-,'i'i't A\ thog-h. the farnicrs o)f Ml ntcahit countyis have tilet together i in lstittites for aniais sears,, the tirst Institute held tinder tlw( (resenlt arrantgemneit. 1v whIcI tIle \vork is do(e nisler sipervisiott of a state 'uiperiltt(ndetit of iiistittttes, \\vas held at tlte CGreeiiomi GCratige tall onI I )eceniher '0 (3 oo. The state la rqore that thle M51ichigan State. A-iietlt tira d tollege holds;I, to o li ii vStit itt ii sil COi itVis hItoino '-Ill inistititte otr-ainir'tioii and authorizes the holdni'- ot is na-ot s(itdIve ins nitote- as oniioisns \sar ranitit (i(ttitti Itistittii(, irc iiiisv hein- helvl in 'slsiit ( ighlt of AlIRhipaii's ci-'-htv t hrei- cvintint e itl itt iieail -ili it these coitiities ((le or notre (5ne(lx suvte i I in iiiitiont tii the outtnt 1s t ittitce Beside., the onecli instituites xsrve 1i6 'Iditieenle} iiit ir iI"dixJiiiir i huiltg lanro tq tp rx'statte Taiditir Stlo an oeiss aimaN I 2I0iiax, so dixv inst it ittes wvere 1ielil 'is II 55 ov IICits, jantars i 4 aiild 1i iiih It f ';Is i In fifty-two '\lihiv ii Hieoliiitiec s vinienl's Congresses 55-ver hlvd I'll COIIsection wsith i te ciiiity s iistittitis iii To i. The first svomeii's coeviress; hldi Isl Alovlvtcalius1 e oniits v viii ~rliigo tv) the mittnites of the secretary', ssas held at I akesiew, oii Iri do ittv atriiiCviii TIaiiiia's 22, T1009. Since thait dhate xsvoinien's oigvssshits' 1ccii fi-hil cach Ii 5(ai ill eoisiei'tivsi wsithi the couts'lt institute. Thie fitrst seceitairs of tlii '3 t ilii (Cointy Farmisers' ITistittite ss'as Thtoisas Bry'inin ain(I it thy tiirst tinecting, held at the Greenwsood Grange hall. 'V. 1K. Smithi Ph 'ait. wss. the stati spicaker. At this tieeting the feil

Page  259 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN.25 25c 1ooim, mienmbers wxer e receiv ed: Tlowa rel (ity-A. W. Rogers,.L. L.. (hntrch, \\ 11mam Handl Austmn Barher, Henry Miller, J. H. Haskins, J. C. Gilmio e,,V. 1I Westhirook and 1Finley Schoonmalker; Morley_ —Levi Finch. t'. H ess, l\. FryJ VVt Miller, Vtrue (lie, T1hoinas Gordin, Corwin Braymlanl. t. A\ 1 oughtadinl NI I. \lverson, \'Ptt Johnson,, F. E. Cole, Clyde (Cole Franiik W\itiright indl 1Thomais Brviaii m T he receipts of this meeting w\erC %5 7i T he next iit(tilie of this so( lets owis held at the Greenville Granige hall1 on.1 cemiiler () 0a(1 -, 1)08. 1The itt endaince vas very good and~ twentythree neiw nm.mniers Nvr retceiv(edee AN meeting was helil at Trufant the followiwi (lay lbnt the attendaiice was not all that could he desired as it wVNas New Yea1rl-s Ha.Towever. twventy-four neiv meiiiers wvere taken in. Thc uicxt Incectiuli- was lieldl at B-intternunt Janetiarv 4, iQO9). F. K. Smith, the speaker, wsas veyi vwell likeil and the attendance wvas ve'ry good. 'the meetuuugs of the issoci titon oiii January 22 anil 23 wvere of great ilrtneand verv uuuterestuiu- They were held ait ILakeview. The secretary's rclxrt siibiiit tedl it thus, meeting showed the halance onl ]and to lbe $36..51 the al11u0iunt of the ~ens~eIse hieing- $38.28. The relport submiiittedl at the close oif the iueetui'S III 190() showAed 8H34.58 to lie the anoiont oul hand andl the exPeullSeS $i7 78. Thle fiu st meeting- helid Ill i () iO niet in Neff's hall onl January 2 1 anId 22 eoirge Arniold wi s the lirtsiehent, 0. J. Houghton the secretary andI Jastoin\ Nioeliiii of Paw~ Paox the conduictor. The Woman's Congress was liedhl in the \lfethndu4t FplisCopaI church onl Jannary 20o. M~rs. Nellie Sackett was lpiesideint, A'drs ( J. l'lonihton the secretary, aiid M~rs. Creyts the coiieiuctor. I vr cion(ie of these meetings was xvell attended. Thle ntxt meetimr wis hlcd onl Fehruarv 8 amd 9, 191T, in Neff's hall. wvith the follwin- speaiker Iin it tendaniee Nv. Tr. Taylor, of Shelhy, Michiia; A. B (Cook, of Owosnon M~ichigan; E. J. Creyts, of Lansing, and (icor e Arunold. Thle iiext meeting wvas held at Stanton where the next tiniancIial itaitiieiin was suhmitted. It showed the halance onl hand to lie $38.41) anid the cxpeises to i~e $17.63. George Arnold was the plresidlent at the nIlcetimn'I Si taiitoii (1. J. Hotughton. secretary IL. V~. Taft. state. sniei iittndelet; J, N. Mckldride. ctiduientor; C.A. Tylver, assistaiit condudictor. A mii-iiens itcr lair was hield Ini coililectiol wivth thisinttue One huntdred dlollars iv is paidi out at this timie, \which ivas conitributeil hy the peop~le- of St~anton. I lie nlext meeting ivas hield at Sheridan on Jantuary s6, 17, 1913. One dyi~ix ustittutcs ivere lielel at Hoivardl City onl Febiruary ii, at Lakeview onl IFehbriary 12-, at Vestahurg oii lUehirary 13, at C.rystal oui February

Page  260 260o MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 14 aind at lButtcrnut on February T5, 1913. These meetings were all well attended and were made very interesting b)v special music provided for the occasion and the slpeeches were of interest to all. In 1914 F. I.. )ean was again the president, R. J. Thompson the secretary and treasurer and Charles B. Scully was the conductor. The first meeting was held in the Woodmlans' hall at Vestaburg, January I3, 1914. Very interesting sulcects were discussed and all pronounced it a good institute. The second meeting was held at Crystal and while the weather was very cold, the attendance was very good. The Silver family furnished fine music which was enjoyed by all present. Thirty-one mremilers were secured at this meeting. C'arson ('itv was next visited. Eben Mumford of the United States department of agriculture gave a very fine address, and at this meeting sixty members \vere received. The next meeting was held in the court house at Stanton, Januarv r6..\ very fine address was delivered on the "Construction and Value of a Silo." during the morning session by Charles 1B. Scully. a state speaker. (ovcrnor Ferris also gave an interesting address ont "Education' in the afternoon. Trufant wvas the next lplace on the list lbut the secretary was absent at this meeting so not nmuch can be said regarding it. However, fortv-four members were secured at this meeting. Greenville came next and the meeting was held there on January 20. C. F. Holmes of Lansing tookl up the subject "()u Boys andl Girls" and delivered:a splendid address. ('harlcs B. Scully talked on "Our Opportunities" and several local sleaklers gave very good addresses. Eighty-eight members were secured at this time. The institute was held at THoward C(ity on Tanuarv 21. A. R. Brown and 1(ohn 1. (ibson were present at this meeting and to them was due muclh of the success attained at this time. A free dinner was furnished by the Board of Trade and ladies to 578 people that day. The final meeting or "ro1und upl" of the Montcalm County Farmers' TInstitute was held at Sher-idanl on January 22 and 23, i9.14. Doctor I 1ansen of Greenville talked on "Bovine Tulberculosis" and gave many helpful and interesting points. Charles BE. Scullv, ('. H. Bramble and G. N. Outwell were other important speakers. It was decided that the next "round up" should le held at Stlanton. F.. Dean and R. J. Thompson were re-elected as president andl secretary. respectivel-. The financial statement submitted at the end of the period showed a balance of $20 and expenses amounting to $299.05. In T915. the officers in char- e of the farmers' institutes were F. L. Dean, president: R. T. Thompson, secretary and treasurer; T. R. Taft. of Lansing. superintendent. Mrs. Dora Stockman, of Lansing, was the con

Page  261 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 26I ductor of women's congress at Howard City. The "round up" was held at Stanton on January 20 and 3o, E. (. NMartindale, of Wilkinson, Indiana, being the conductor. B.. 'ailey, of Gaylord, Michigan, and Hon. James N. McBlride, of Burton, Mlichigan, were the state speakers this year. The institutes held at the various places were better than ever and each community took their part in making them a success. The financial statement rendered for 1( 15 showed a balance on0 hand of $27.25, the expenses amnounting to $86. CONDITION'S TN PIONEER DAYS. in tlese da\s w\heii Montcalm county is producing nearly 2,500,000 bulshels of potatoes, (and more than 300,0o0 bulshels of rye: when the enormous toll taken from the pineries of Montcalm county in bygone years is remembered, it is interesting to recount the experiences of the first settlers when tile county was \ holly undeveloped. ()One of these first settlers, the venerable Joseph 11i. Tislhue, now of Stanton but formerly of Ferris township, has told an interesting story of 'agriculture' in the early days. Perhaps it is best to let iJMr. 'ishue tell his own story: "Ve came to.'erris on the 14th of Au-ust, I853, to build a house on the west half of the southwest qcuarter of section 32, town 1 north, range 5 west. \We returned to near Portland, Michigan, to our family and remlained there until the 28th of December, of the same year. Then we moved in on tle said described property. Our nearest neighbor was one tile away, and the next nearest, three and one-half miles. We had plenty of red men for neigh1x)rs tbt there were no other whites at that time. 'Ihere were tell children in my father's family, I being the eldest o)y. We lived in a log house. all the family living in one room and had a fireplace with which to heat the house and to cook. There was not a nail in the house except in the door and no wintdow nor door when we moved into the house. There vwas two and one-half feet of snow on the ground at that time. My father and I could have carried on our backs all our household goods when we came. Our meat we got from the animals of the forest. We had one cow that we brought with tls, and a yoke of two-year-old steers which we afterward broke for oxen. W\e built a little stable within thirty feet of the house in which we wintered the cow and oxen. It quite frequently occurred that we had to go out nights with a torch made of a pine knot and drive the wolves away from the cow and the oxen. This usually was my work as nmy father worked away most of the time. "When spring came we had about two acres of the timber chopped off

Page  262 262 262 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHITGAN. aiid thle b)rush bur-ned. My mnothier and I did this, making a fire and drawing the brush and burning it all on)I the same grounld ibecause thle snioxx* was deep that year. WVe raised a very fewv lotatoes, say twenty bushiels, that were about tile size of wvalnuts. AI V Iotiler usd1 to count them ouit to us when we went to dinner ani we wvere allowed three apiece for llreakfast and three for (dinner illt none for sup)per. fill tile fall of 1854 wve soxved ani~t three acres of wvheat auld twvo of rve oil tile ground. file iiext year, O1l tile I4t1 (If JuIlle, we ilat a frost that killed tile wheat. s0 we ilever got aiiy oIf it, but we g1ot 1110111 a 11a11f crop of rve, 110 corII a11d searcelv alnstililng else. Ou IIl- ractice wais thl t wheIw fatlier worked 0o1t, 1. staved ait ITOnIC. X'VfIC1I Ile1 StaVe~f at 11(M111 I xx ol k1C d olit u ltl~ixl TOiilg" as far soutls as Portland a111( somietiiies fat 1111 to tsiid xxvork. \\e tistiall ork, a week orI too, a111( t11(1 took xx 11it xxe 1 (0111 Cai on o 1)1 Ni1 ~ck 110111( to feed tile familyn. A\ ter we erissc d MaleJl rive a1 t Mluir, xe C1a11 to ford everx streaml we cameli to as there w-,re 111 l 1.rl~lges. M mxya tille xve cailire ioiiie 1(1 find tlil fauiil~v gonle to 111 xxvitllotut supperi beat 1(st thtv 11ad noitllii- to eat Ilntil mlothler cooked soiuetiiiis 5v1 b rou~ght ihonle. "W~e fixed oill ilhat fatrm 1101e tha1121 toV Ve; x e a1 11 did not have tiVC pounds of sulgar, teal 1101 co)11c iii 11h1 louse du1ring tlhlt tinie. 1 hiave ofteil collie 11011( 1a1n( foudilliti 111'iiioter \\xeefllig,, like a childi hecauise she xxas dheprixed (If tile lieceessary tilings, of life and xvishiing Ilerself back Iin Ohio. butt I aixxays said to hler. "Motller, the stll will shine agaill for uis,' ailcd it tditd later onl. It wvas a coImlloii t~iiilg for t1i(1 to take mli clog- aild (drive the dleer froul tile xwheat 511(d Ii tle xxiinter luceanse tiley were diggiing III) tile wxiea~t 111( 1 ihaxv sltfoxte 1(11iilxaterin. tile ilarlixard, whici xxvas Ilot lmocre tiaii six nods froiii tile louse.. We had to wxatch our cattle wxhen1 we fed t11e11 to keep tile (leer from eatinlg their feed. Thle first xxiniter xxe xwere thlere xxe 'brsilsedl tiieiii. Tie next sear wxe wxenit to tile imarsiles and1( cuit mlarshl grass: xxitli xxhich to xxinter otir stock. \Ve al1s0 fed 'l);agast an11( so goit tiirotigl ithu] Nxe raised corin and1 millet. "lil'ere wxas Ileitiler a schlool house ill Ferris whlen wve camle hlere, ilor eve11 a chlrch buldin ilg. The first school lotiSe xwaus erected Ilear (olr Illace. It 'was a little log btuildinlg abouit txwelve by sixteen feet, wyhichl had no floor in it, aild but txxo little xx'indoxxs. Our seats were Ilade of iogs split inl txso and then legs put Ill thenl. The one that xxe xvrote 011 xxas a little higher so it came uip ill froilt of us. Tile school teaciler sat oil a bench anli had tile satse' kind of benlch for her material. It w~as qulite comlmlonl in those clayss for people to go to cilurcil Carrvillg their rifles for protection fronl tile blears

Page  263 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 263 and wolves. I have knowxvn men to lbe treed by the wolves and kept up all night. We thought nothing of seeing a man come to church with a gun. \e (lid not have the free school system in those days. The school was supported )by a rate bill an(l the teacher boarded around among the patrons. MA- father had the largest n1lutmler of children in the district and practically paid the teacher's wages. "\\;hen we )egfl clearing our farml we were poor and so girdled the oak tilber. Then we\ let it stand until it got dry. \Ve cut down the other tiiiiker, felled it all o(ver the gro-unil and when it got dry we burned it and logge(l it inl heaps to mtlake rooml for tile crops. We (lid this to the first seventy acres of our farm. I.ater on, we blotught another eighty acres in ('rvstal townlshilp), aldoutt a half mile f-rolll the lhomestead, which we also cleared. It was: a cOinllion tiling ill those days as the settlers came in and began to lbild their houses, not to wait for 1an iivitation to go to the raising 1. I used to g-o aro(lld later ()1 w\ith the oxen and gather til the girls for five or six 1miles aroilld ald danie all iiglht. W'e also used to have alln logIging bJees. \\hen Illell go)t readly to log. evervlbo(l gathered up thle logs. logged tlhem ito) heaps. and then we had a (lance that lasted nearly all night. I was one of the fortunate voilng mien of Alontcahn county. My father never lbought nle a pair of boots alnd [ never had but two pairs of Shoes lhat he l)oughltt mle. J k]illedl many a deer and mladle moccasins out of tle hide and wore themi. w0hel1 I wore anvthing, winter and suimmer, luntil.1 was sixteen (or more y!ears of age. "\We hadl three Imeans by whicli we cotult take go\ernmlient land when we camle to Moltc.ialm coutrlt!. nalnlrelv: A lpre-elmltion right which we had to settle; second. a graduattioni right, paying seventy-five cents per acre for the land and iln which tle claimanlilt was colmpelled to settle on it within six lmonlths; third, lv paviltlg the goverinment price-ten shillings per acre. We took land 1under the grladattionl act. We came on it in the winter, because o(lr time was nearly ulp after taking it in the spring. During the smoky fall of 1856 one incidelnt occurred which I do not wish to omit. We had a stmall tract east of our house inclosed with a brlush fence. Our cow and oxen w-ere il this inclosure. We kept them there so as to have the oxen to use when wee wanted them. Mv father was a very early riser. One morninlg wheln lie got tup it was quite smoky and he said that I should go an(l get the oxen. I could not find them nor the cow because the smoke was so dense. Finally we got hold of the fence and followed it around intil we got to the bars by the house. It was within twenty feet of the

Page  264 264 MIONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. house and we had to leave the cattle in there. There were many days during the twenty days in which the smoke was so dense that we were compelled to peel bark and stretch a line from the house to the well and from the well to the barn to find our way there. \Ve surely thought we were all doomed. Finally the smoke cleared away. "\Ve saw, one day, comling over the hill east of the house, three wagons filledl \ith women and childrl-l. inamelv, the Bailey people. They moved to an adjoining farm and we knew then that we were not entirely alone. The same year my uncle, ('hristopher 1 arct, mo\ed in and soon many others came, and we began to knl(: that we were living in good old America. We brought with us a very \icious (log. -Alany nights T got up, scolded thie dog and let in the red lman \\ho la! dow\In 1v the fire. \Ve used to trade flour or cornl meal to the reld man. 1-le w\coul take the flour sacks with hiim to the wigowam and tell us hI wo\uld1 Iing it )ackl in so many moons. WVe never lost any sacks throulgh the red menI. In later years, I owned land where they used to camp —a large company of themn, sometimes two or three hundred, every wiliter. "I r-emained with m1 fatlher lit il h ad about sixty acres of ilmprov\ed land. At the breaki-ng (-o of the ('i\il \\War I left lin houmee onl the Imorning of the 17th of.\lril.!S6i, land paid mivy own fare to the city of Buffalo where I enlisted in the TUnited States navy. T served my tiime-one yearstarted home and camle as elar as Detroit. There I enlisted in the Union army anld went 1ack to the South."

Page  265 (CHA IPT'ER XXIV. HIGHWA.\YS AND TRANSPORTATION. In the days l)efore the first whitc explorers anid settlers had set foot ill XMonitcalml county, Nature's higlhways, consisting of streams and rivers together \\ith pathways or trails tlhrough the dense forest, furnished the only avenues of travel. These lot only were sufficiellt for all the purposes of the Indians who roamed over the country but they likewise served all the needs of the early lUrench explorers alnd fur traders. Manty of these iincertain patihways through the forest traversed the territory of Ionia ald,loltcalm cotunty, the principal ones following the valleys of the (rand. Milaple, the Looking (lass and the F;lt rivers. 'There were others also of less illllortallce which crossed the country in various directionls anld connccted the br)ader ones, luit all of them converged tow\ards. the villages of the red lmei anld their crossings of the large streams. The.n1dians (displayed cllsitldrall l enlgintering ability in choice of ground for their routes of travel, for though rugged surfaces, sallllps, lakes and overflowed hottom lands were avoided, still their courses were pretty direct. and the crossings of creeks and rivers \-ere imade at the most favorable places. The first settlers in the various counties iln MAichigan soon learned these facts, and 1many of their earlv high\wa\ s were so laid as to follow the routes. takein by the trails. INiIAN TRAILS. Mlaps made by the United States deputy surveyors in 1830 and 1831 show that at that date the principal Indian settlement and points where all the trails in Ollinia collt converged \as the village of Cocoosh (old hog), or, Moctiquaquash, near the mouth of Alaple river, or the vicinity of thepresent villages of Lyons and lMuir. From that place the "broad Indian trail to Detroit" passed eastward across sections 20, 2i, 22, 23 and 24 in Lyons township. The same trail in its course westward crossed the Grand river at Genereau's trading post, and thence continued along the valley and on the north side of that"stream, through the present towrships of Ionia,.

Page  266 266 266 N1ONTCALM COUNTY, MKICIGAN. Laston. keene anldlioston, isto Kent coumtity. the route now pursued very uiearly lY tl( wvagoui roadl. Another trail ran parallel -with Grand river onl its left hank. hut froin Ivons wrestward, it was not so much used as the one onl the opposite side of the stream. 1.1`111 tocoosli village this trail patssedl up the ceft sanik of the same riser to iwar the southeast cornier of section 8, in I )andy' townrshipii. I lerc it crossed the riv~er and led on soutttieasterlv, v iacthe nicanillll1ge of Peslint-Iccoml ( apple-tree la ce') towrsi) tot The surveyvors Hin their tII(ld( totes lnelltiolied t his as the 'trail to Chigraulaskin" I soft-maple place ), whiclh wIs ain Indian v-illage iiear ShiawasseetI I\-lI ill S~llia\VaSSee COUlltV. 1111 Sodnilaw 0111 tCrold rivser trail Ic ft tile llatter streaml at Gellerau'is tradmo11)0 st, 1111(. thenice passing till tile val11ev of M-aple river to the great Mued Iln Gratlot Comilty, crossedl to the heallwtters of flad ric!er amle followed IIxIl 15 11 Its cm5e aol 1 Ill of Sagina1a Ivlvr o thle great ChIipplewa Canmping ground at Satginaw. I a sides tllose alrcalll 111(1 (ell, 1110 trails cml\eerg~illg, at. Co 'lIsIvihoge Ibore o)11 tI) the 1101h-1 nest, llleotgll Ionia and( Rolnald towsreishps, inito I oitt 11111 loul-ltv. Ano~thler left tile I;rlill riv er trail onl the site (of the 111esentt ciIty of Ilmia, a1111, talkill(g~ 110llIlNtllwest ('ortles aterlss tlte towniships of Fatston 10111 Orlealls,. iltcrsecteil il the vicillitv of Kicidville the Ilatill Flat river trail, which fol~lm-sell tlle c~iir-se If that streaml from its mouth twily nortilwsar d Ilto tile lill fo~rests elf M liltcalml comlity. R 1 r1 i 1)1!), Ii, \ iltYR D)1511 SA N1lT I LAS. H111 V. I. 1(loIes, at 1o111 tillte preolltc Jud~ge cof Alontealdul comlltv, lblt nIIIS at resillelt of I lelvier, ( 'oloradfl ca m1ll to I;reenville inl 1 862 when there w~ere MI n, nile hiouses let\\eell tle nortlh 1211( lof \Washinlgton street a111( tile Rtussell imill, lol thle \vdlag-e If L anlgstonl. M\Ir. Jones hlts a vi\s-id recollec-.(I I)f the early 11)ads(15 or rate i t trog,oncl Iotlllty and ill the, Grem'fllc' /u1fIdCpCdIfcs I f Selotc-ll1bIcr 210. tit i, wrote allt extetlelel accounit Ofthese e:Lrlv road~s 11111 trails,. 'The track aletling froll Gr;eem11 Ille to thle Russell mill,'' says Mr. I oiles, ''wA(1111ld througlt the line wloels, sometimtes cirdlillg huge pines, liut oftener passing over gnalrledl roo~ts lying far enlltgh aliove the garotmd to give the vehlicle In which lone seas rdiltg at sev-ere jolt. '' logging- road",' lie econtillued, "laigthe line (of the present state rolal at the polit where lio\\ stands tle Al onlroe scllool Ilotse, led wvest tc what wvas then known as the Gregory 'Mills, 11ow Goweln. Ott this road

Page  267 ,MONTCAI,M COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 267 - there was neither house, shack nior shanty; tile pine w-oods, untouched by the inllliberl n's ax, l)ordered this road on either side. Besides the mills there were a few \vather-l)eaten houses and shanties at (Gowen, liut aside from a l)lacksmiith shol) amid tile nlills there was nothing which l)ore any sembnlance to business, nicarly ll the w\ants of thle people of the village l)eing supplied fromt Greenville. "'romi the (iregory liiills there were several logginlg r()a(lds leading in a liortlherlv lirectiol. one( of wlich l ed to the D)ane settlemllent. Fromi the Dal)ne settlement;aithcer \woo(ls road lel to;a settlemlellnt on the 'lTamarack. ('lhis road \\was t;ral\lc(l also l)! the early settlers of Alaple \Valley, who foiil( it tlie Imfst feasil)le olle to their )base of sulpplies alt Greenville. "l-roml tile lellamr corners, fie Iiiilcs north of Greenville, another r()1tL Ihrancli'd1 i',l flro)lll the linue,f thle state road to\ward the east. This r(oail was liiost lv tra\veled by tos ih(s laving bltsiness at the cotimty seat, 1which 11h;(l, (, the first f i allunarv.S I8(2, leCl elll-\ imed from-i Greeinville. But tlelrc were otlier r(otds ill tll( \viiiitv ()f (;irciimville which were ofteni traveled, 1-i,;t(ls w\ichi 1;1 iicL'er c)l cc wilkel. e, l),ut becaiie letter as the amount of travel i])on tlili increasedl. No mian kiilo\\s w\\hli they w\ere laid Out. It is cer-tain, loc\veer, thal t \\ere traveled lonlg l)efore tIle office of llig-\wa c((,liii ssionMr1 \\Ias cstal)bli-t(l ill thIe Uniited States. 'J'hese roads were the lidlian trails. "()Ite trail leCl ill) thle river, oi the east side. striking the south linle of tlhe citv not far froii the oldl brick valrd. Irom this I)(oiit rtunning 1nearly parallel with thle 'lceral cour-se of the streami. it crossed \Washinmgtoin street near the present localitv of the ('atholic church. then continuiniig in nearly a; straig.iht course to the top of the high lklllk. unortheasterlv from the I-'ere Ilar-(luette (Ic),)t. tl lnce norlhti\sterly across tie l ell(l in the river, strikiilg tle streallll a;i ill ailout ialf a miile above the nlorth 1lotiidarv of the city. Fromn this last point. after nanyl turns. somietimes near the river and sometimcs at quite a (listance froll it's nearest banik. it ledl to Turk lake, where ill eairl pionieei (las. the Indian.s had onle (-f their favorite caim)ilig grounds. T'his trail conltinued arotund the south side of Turk lake and thence in a northelasterlv d(irection to the Dickersonl lakes in Sidney and Douglass townshillS. "This utp-r-ier trail was crossed very near the Catholic church by the Sauginaw and 1Pent\water trail, the most conspicuous and interesting of the North 'Mlichigan Tuiliian roads. \Nearly fifty years ago this trail was quite distinct nearly all the way front Greenville to Bushnell township. It connected the wraters of the Saginaw svith streamts flowing into l ake Michigan.

Page  268 268 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. "'This trail crossed Flat river a few rods above the \Washington street bridge at the foot of the Baldwin rapids, thence following a sag between \\ashington and ('ass streets, passing in its course about midway between the W\atson house andl barn, thence across the ground occupied by the ('ole store. (Crossinig lafayette streets, it passed near the north side of the lureka bllck, Tlhe L ureka block stands on the trail. 'ihence it took in its coturse points near the Mlethodist church;lld the residence of the late David Iliot, coltilnuing ill til se sal general direction until it struck the river, the bank of which it follow\ed to the site of the Indian village located about a (ltiarter of La nile albove the site of the old Merritt mill. Its course was then northwesterly to I lass lake, ill Spencer townshi, and thence ill a course which is pretty lirect, but far flromi lbeing an air line, to the point where I'entwater now stands on the shore of Lake NMilchigan. "That portioil of this last trail from- Greenville to \\oolverton Plains was not on11y the Imicst direct lit ib far the best footpath leading north and west from (Greenville. It was lot strange. therefore, that it was the route taken I)v nearly all who \erc goillg or coining between the hlJderhill mills and \Woolverton l'laills t( anld froiii Greenvlllle. Trom the IndTian village another trail led to the Zielgcnfuss lake. "Ill those days if one wisihed to go t(o ntl pIoint t0orth of Greenville, the best thing to be done was to go o(i foot; if, however, one had plenty of tile or had more Iba;ggagc th.ani c(ould( be carried, one mlight go to Seaman's liverv stal Ie in Greenville;a111 for the Sltu of i ve dollars a day charter the i1llly wheeled vchicle of tlhe cstalllishment, in ild - l( bucklboard with old 'Jim' andt '(.'harl!e' as the iprolpelling- power.' iMr. Jones founl that. among the trails he examinled. none seemled near as old as the one lealing frolm Saginaw bay to Pentwater. Tt was this trail that he urged shoull(l lie mlarkell by sollme endutring monuments. FIRST T'ATI' ROAD. By1 anl act of the state Legislature. approved oil Mlarch 27, 1848. the first state road \was authorized int the county of NMontcalm. Its route was to extend from the north line of section 17, township 9 north, range 8 west (K ureka), thence to the village of Grand Rapids, via Parker's ferry in the township of Plaintield. Kent county, and Thomas Addison, George Miller lad Ethan Satterlee were appoilnted comimissioners. On the 3rd of April. 18.48, George Gibson, Rufus K. Moore and George LToucks were chosen commissioners to lay out and establish a state road from "the quarter post

Page  269 MONTCALMT COUNTY, MICHIGAN.26) 26o onl the north line of section 17 in township 9 niorth,, of range 8 west, thence to Mlathew V"an Vimck s, inl Rolland, Ionia county." A state road tromn Haistings, Barry coulntN,. via Tupper's mill to the ilaeof lonia ua etabllishie( by an act approved onl March 2.5, I850, and J. W'. U. COrr, John B. NVe cch and George Richmond were ap~pointed commissioners. Anl mct approv ed onl Febrnary JO, 18,57, nanied Rosecranls K. Divine, of Xloiltc dlm counity: Abnier Wright, of Jonia counlty, and Ephraini J. Booth, of Kent ycountys commlilissioners to law out a state road from Greenville, via lBrosses raidims. to) lowell, kent count\-. A state road fronm St. Louis, Gratiot mcomity. m i \lnia and tile geographical center of TNontcalni count\-, to the Grcenville naid BIgI Rapids road, wvas authorized bv anl act approved onl F'ebruary 1., 859. Anl act of M inch i3, i86 r, ordered a state roadl estahlishled fronl Jonlia to HoughtonilaIkm ili Roscmonmon eonmty. Two (lays later anl act was appirovedi providling foi- tile establlishmenllt of a road froin Big Rapids. inl Mlecosta county7, sontllirlv ton iitersect a roaml fromt Greenville to Grand Rapids. knowni as tile Bihg 16plids and Grand 1apids road, also the Green'Ile and Blig Rapid rimad. aod i road froil lomlia to Vermolntville. It provided also that iio aippropriaition he iladle oil thle first eigllt miles south from Iollia. A road fromn tile east center linie of B~looiier tow~ilship), via Follett's and Shoemaker's mill, ill U~airplaini. to the village of Greenville, in Mlontcalill county, wvas establishied liv anti act approved on MXIarch i8, 1863. On1 tile l-Ot1l of the saillC iiionith George lDavenport was appointedi a comnlissonner to siiperinteimm the lay omit of a moail from tile vllage of Portland, in Tonia county. to thie Granid rivir, ini (hilton eouiiitv. Tlle Ioniai ailc Snivirna state road was established my ain act approved oii Febrnarv,1864, aii1d to aid in its coilstrnctiioi fonr seetiolis of swamp lands were granted. Rog~er Wi. Griswold and Joseph NK. B3abcock were apipouilted conmmissioners o)f the Belleviie and Tonia state roaid by ain act app~rovedl oil MAarch to, t`86~. 1T)OCA~ri.\o SOME, OF Tili EA1lA' ROADS. Thme il oitcalmm 10(1 Gratiot roami froii *Hulibardston, nlorth il01 the line of XlonltcaIlm umited Gratit cimunities to the ilmrth line of said coumnties, was established byx 011 act approved Muircl 18, 1865. The Elaton, lonia and (Clinton road, froni a line bletweenl Roxana and Oneida to the township of Portland, was establimllel by ami act of March m8, m86.s, and S. W.d Moyer, D.avidl Tavlor and Benjanlin Seldon were nanmed as eomlmissioners. By the

Page  270 27( 270 ~MONrCALM Cot NTY, MICHIGA;N. samie, act a roadl was establ ishedl r ts oute extetie froint the geographical ceweir () N ontcalrn ccjlitttt\ Statototi) to thle soot hwest corner of towniship i i norith, range to w-est ( I iersoii ) midl Iliam FRossotai was apploinitedl fn I 867 a large extent of sitat( so vamp lantis was graiited to aid itt t ic root rictot ofroals tl-eai ic it (11 Ti11 last state road esta1)1 ishe(I (lilting thaiit pe~riod ii NIoiitcalii Coutyi sis the one known as the Greenville In iloott~ier road. t-le tir vi silols Io iiits colIistrvlctioli taving- teein approved on1 i'la 3. 1879. 'Ihe niinttt es of tlche alsvtd If suplerv isotrs ( f onitralin coutiyi shmoi that tile lIrst iiiotiev vcttcl lv lie suptervisors f~r Ibutildlinig a bricdge Itl thle tl)lv as. t;ropriMated(l)I cli )ctoblcr 14, tSi \. T t tlit 61 tim c1-I hii1(1ttdr (lollars \\ils applri~lprialedl to- 111i11 a Itrid-i sci Iv Itlt tiver on the,seetioii Ilue letwecii 51?cticliis it no11 T.;, Ill I"orelka Iow oship O3il April 1 I, i85. the ci lint vh1 ard (if S iipri strs~ voitetl ito rise oin( hitittred (lollars foi- a liridge ccier Fish creek, on lWIricar1 seCtII 2ou6f inl Bunshnell towniship. andl;also aplproptriatedl twcilt-vfive lillacs to) liiid a, 1hmide over Flat rivet near Ni. Rkiitan's sasv-iill iii the 1 owvi of Enureka tOn Apriil!o. i 8~,;; ilit siiperi-ci51lis vcotedl to ri asc lifty viollars cto le fray the cpe~lleics (If tie sIIr-cvccl Ii lol lie suirvey of the state roatd swhich was, to he htiilt boy atithl-icr o f the state front Greenville to the falls of thtMuiskeg-on river. The fiNisi croad, ctcI rather ilt-, first openling- in the fot-est, of Btushntell tcwnistip. led fromi IPaloi mii-tlwarl itt thle a-ilin Fv-ergrec-n towisnshipi. It was collipltetctI grdal. ti eIl past the fartit of Joseph Stevetis antI that of James Ilacoti, tulid wa~s cciiislri-icled 11e greater flart of the distatnce trgh leow hili tliriig i ye-ar 184. ooti afterwarid the road was tinderhltrosled itttll-fi eas:t part of t1h- townvshipt. and part (If the way oti the un,( litcin tti islinell -aiiiTl loomier towssihips. tiitl thle t ilitel States Ilftil l)t putiil riilldts. wits hield at G~reenville. At tiiis I xplci-ticltl t here wits cxlibi titd thy ill tt miitdern goctd-ri ails machiiirwr Io hiillidm aI md repa11-iring ioitlas- \t tlIns, itectiuig addresses were deli i-etc-i lii IlI-.ii.?ciartin I )odge.I i-v-clot- of 1p1u1lie rctadls Iratik P.- Rogers, eonSuIt ilg' eulg"ilecri of tlueitlit-hl,-tn ii diw-ti-ay comm~tissioni NV. L. Dickinsoni,

Page  271 AMONCALIM CIOUNTY, MICHIGAN. 2 271 - presicleit of the ('ounectictit \Valley 1] ighways Association; Senator H. S..Farle and others. Governor Bliss was also one of the speakers. Duoring the ineeting of the Gireentville Good Roadls Association, a strils of road one-half mille inl length was huilt north of Grccnvillie One-half of the road Was onl a. gravel sorfice hut thc other half wais onl sanid. B3oth portions stood well the test of the svcather. Thec stoip huilt of crushed stone became as hiard as cenient aild svas free froii watcr. It cost it the rate of fouir huindred dollars a minle.. \Writing'o ]ii thle S tanton 11 ckly C/ippcrl. l)eceeinher I q2 Dr. \. W. Ni1chols, pointed imit solic pe rtineiit facts with regard to.- roaid hoilding ill AMntralnil ciounty. One oititht it thc rate tilm\s built the roadl north of (Greeiisille,'' saul 1)o(Cti iiI NcIa I0Si ii~ld il iiId si \tecii mliles each sear, or iiftv mliles with thrcc nit fits, a) tws homalredl niiiles inl four years. Floor ronning north antI sooth aiii loom riiiii ni east indiv est nonlid ciovcr the pirincipial roads if thme cioiiiii This coulil be dc liic inl ifour years, -so ili tenl sears at this rate there ongl(-it nut to lie a tout if iiimnliroveil road in the County.' Unfoirtuniiatclv tilie priiness, Ii\ mwanl I iiildiiig inmiroved roads was it. as ir111( as I )oct ir N achols hopicd. hot thre agitatioii if i 902 was cealls landlm ark ili the historv c)f rnadil ii diii inl 51oiitc~alml Colimmtv. Theiag itatiiin lois never (diedI nit and the, a.ntieniet fiii hetter roails inl thle COnlts is moore active today than ever. Tlic iidvect of the autoniolbile. iir rather the popuilarizatiiin of this iioidc of traeas c especcially among the farmers of the c'ouiitv, has, hail nio1Cli1 in di) svith thisl' giriss ins sentimeiit. Nilontcalml coolitsv has maiiy11 splemilid roails today. 1Th inao ii traeledl thoroughifares, espccially those seil is iiiitorists5, ar i as fiilliii Froni Tiiiia northwvest tii hieldiliig. ti11mi-gl Greiciville aiil iiiiorthi to Lakeview, frim ai point jtist soolth o)f C orrectrion, west to Piers-on aiid Siiith to Icdasr Springs iii K~ent ctiitmts fri om ireem i il si iithisest ti Granid Rap11id1 inl Kent county; froii Tonia' inl Triiia comitv, liiordh through Sherichnii andl Stanton to the MA idlaiii anil L akeviesv mail(at the 1 sniiildaries o)f MiIecosita aind Isal ella colonties anii from S~t au/mi doe east t o thec Gral it emintv s*ine anil( th-ence northeast to Alma. smTAm: timGUNsVsY CO'MM iSii)N. AnI act if tile Ahichiiaaii state 1egislatiire, crecating the office of state hiilmws i oiissiuiier,. Wsva an iiiplorltiit eveof iii the gimmid-roads mlose11(111tcif this state. him 909)o the rmail lasvs ssere cmiisolimdatedl iln a lireteiltions act n)i tmvcnty-fiiir chapters, creating a slate highsvay departimeiit charged 'svith the giving oif instroction inl the art of buoildiing, Improsiiig

Page  272 272 272 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. aiicl( repairing pciliic wagoin roads and Isridges, collectiig reports fromn township and~ Conilty highIway coimmissioncrs, overseers of hi-liways and superinitend~ents aiid commissioners of streets Iin villagces and cities, and with the di1strihntoion of aiiv state reward for improv ing the pubillic wagon roa(1s, thlat this L~egiltueor anyi fntnre sessiolI in n prov ide for, or anv fnnds that iIayV le guruH to tile state for suich puirposes in thc United States gov-,eminent.'' \n iiiportant featnire of this lact is the secition wihich provides that the state hiliwgiav commission-er nay "re fuse to -rant ans fuirther road rewardl to iuisN towcnship or coiiitv that has, heeii reward (ed JoN the state for mI-proving roads. thwat iloes iat keep tuese state-rewarded roaiis inl proper repair." This stame;ict ais iipris dce tiiar it cuintv niav elect whether it wsill olperate tinidei tlic "timviship" (r til coimity v road systeImii anid separate isp osilm ded f i the adimmstatonof eachuss'sten. Aithongli the props sition ii ua t nee cihee' ssihiiitt ii to Olie lieople for direct vote, as requiired in tiic onsollditt ii as t ml t hi. connltv has continned to operate nuder the 'towuushup" 5ssteIn (I i ome pm tlinC Geensvills Good Roads.Association swas organlized for the purisose of sudiim" Iin the ccinst ructioni of itoisi roadls leading- into time cits-si tim Greiis u1 TIlie diii ectors for the first sear. nuaiiec in the articles of iiicisrliiratioii, isere. t. Larke. P. 1). 1P~dsall, 1-I. IT. -Decker. J. C. Newebrongh. F". A. Iohis-oni (. Ws. Riley. Hi. S. laconison. C. II. G~ibsoni and Ray S. tcssinl. ITNT1I'RN Si. r151 ii'Rovr.rFMNT 5Ci iFEME. \VcrNy soo ter \ I licip an iniergeui fronita ci ndlition of a territorv to assonie theat sita soisCrcigim s;tate, aiid eVenI hefcsre its aclnission as a niemher of the. iiussiu iie, isic oseeuriginmatedi having for their obiject the audoiition hv the sitste of a simi clmrhicisisve system of publdic improvements; ansi pur si cc~ (f this plauM) t1Clc _1c Si utiiire. at time sessioni sit t87, passed an act (,approved M\Iarchl 20 ) "to priosvidc for the comistrucution of certain works of iiteriial imiiilrsseiueit nil tfsi sthcr piuirpicses," iy which the hoard oif ccsmmuuissiiiiers of iuuterimal iiiprosvcmcnts inl time state was authorized anti directed. "as soon as nmav lie to c 5tusd sunrvevs to lie made for three several railroad rouites across the penisuiiil of Msichigani. the first sit said routes to commence at Detroit, iii the couiits, of Wayne. anti to term-inate at the mciuth of St. Joseph river, in the counts of Berrien, to he denominated the Central railroauh the secoiic if ssich rosites to commence at the navigable

Page  273 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN.27 273 waters of the river Ra'isin, passing throngh the village of Berrien County, andi to lbe denominated the Southern railroad; the third of said routes to commence at Palmer, or at or neaLr the mnouth of Bllack river, in the countyof St. (lair, aind to terminate at the navigable waters of Grand river, in the county of Kent or onl Lake Mlichigan, in tile county of Ottawa, to be denominated tile '.Northern railroadi whieh roads shall he located on the nIost eligilble anld direct rouites betweell the termini above mentioned.'' It was plrovidied by the same act, "that the sumn of five hundred aInd fifty thousand (dollars lbe alld tile salle is berebyv approplriated, to be taken fromi any 115lloll\s wvhichl 81h:11 iereafter come illto thle treasury of this state to the erediit (If the fundl for internal implrovenlenlts, for the survey Wlul Mlaking of tile till-e r(Iitroalls melltiolledli i the- first section (If this act, as follow: Ior the Sontlil-i ralilr(ll, i.l~e 80111 of one bllllcreci thousand (iollars; fortile (enitral railroad, tile 81111 (of follr iltldire( tilousanli dollars,. (lnd for the Nortbiern railrvoadl the 81111 (If l ftv thols'andi diolars.'' The state board (If ilterlnal implirovemlenlt, acting under tile provisions of tilis Fact. caliseli tile slurveys tol IC llade Wvithilot lunnlecessary delay. The rolites 111118; slirveveti for tile Central railroadtIi an the Soutilern ratilroad wvere, eCeept~llo, tile wvesternl portiloll subst1it~lltliv the same as tilose of the `Norliteml rilr11110ad r')it 1111 asI sumr'veyed ald elocted to 11.11 from the St. (lair river hy NvIv oIf I 111ccr 1111d hIlt Ku ivr villagIe, now Flint city. learlrv due wvest to tile 1,10. Rap1ids elf tile shialIvassee, 110w tile city of Owvosso; thence tihroml~i Il\(I s 118 111d AMid~ichtir11 toll 1ship1 111 Shiawassee coullity, aild wvestwvardlx Ill tile S11111 tier of tollnships tillough Clinton counlty (passing tihrollidl tile soutihern paIrt of till p)1esemit (01 poration linlits of St. John's) to 1.v011s, ill Ijolinl cotmitv. a~lci from there westward to Lake Michigan aIt till' Ilonti (If Gramld river. aI distanlce oif two hundired amid one miles. This wvas the first survey Illaide for railroad purposes near MNontcalm. county. Tile Ivork w1a5 (1011-c in- Trace, McCracken, chlief eugineer of the road, aInti his assistailts tmldler sumpervisionm of Commlissioner James B. Hunt, who had beell placedi in ehirle of tile. suirvey by the board of imlternai improvement. 11(11K STARTEDI OIN THlE FRTRAILRIOAn. In 1838 coiltracts ivere let f or clearimlg amnd grubbinig that portion of tise line b~etw\.een its easterml terminmus anld Lyonls, Jonia eounty, a distance of aliou~t omle hutldired and thir-tv hues-. The contract for the section extendin-g fromm iLvonms to the lille bletw-een ramlges 2 amnd 3 east, near tile center of Shiaw~assee county,, was awvardled to A. L. amid B. 0. Williams, of Owosso. (18)

Page  274 274 274MONTCALMI COUNTY, MICHIGAN. The section joining this aiid extendin-e eastward across the remainder of Shiawassee county, wvas takcn hy A\ H. T-each & Conmpany. of Flint. The next section eastward was awardedi to Genl. (haries C. Hascall, of Flint. Twenity miles of the section c 1st of [Lvonis was suibict t)v the. W\iilianis Brotllers to NMessrs.?xioore & Kxipp It about two litnldred and fifty (loillrs per mile. 1'he sp~ecificatiolls cqtiircdi tiic grililililg of a (central stril) twvelity feet wvile, and tile clcarinlg of a brI citli (If twents-I feet oil either side of this strip. Ocitside tliesc clearills, 011il both sides. 'siashings" were to he Ilade, eacli twenlty feet ill widith, nakiln'- I total breadth (If one hlmdred fcet. The wvork oif clearing thc roclic ci (11111 icedl ill tile fall of 18-8. and Iy tllc TSt of Sciptelller. foliow ino- it w(05 compliletedl ill lii the sections lietween Lvolils alnd Port Hunroll. except lbilt thlre( Ililes ill Shilwassee counity, east of O~wosso, anid seventceen miiiles, east (If L apeer. Contracts for gradinig soon' Illrts of til l ill w ere iladle ill tile fail of T18i8, Illi10lig tilese iilgtil t lot a 1(11 ili sectioll eastwardl from Lixolis. to B. 0. V1 illiallls a11d D~aniel 1 Tll (it Owoso 1150 Fhe Nork of gradililg was colillllellcldl 011 the colitracte(d Se(tiolls Ii [1111111 180-m andl was lprdsecifted till the following, I lvl. "I'll( IcIliltra(dirs thenl st lted" said tile chief en-giierill is repiort hlatch] T)eceinisr 7, f830 ha tint(lies's they were pi puinctmially theY cu(011110 lio pro(11 I withi teier wiork. T iiii in formed them. iii accllrllalice with Ill\- insti11i( onls, dia t if the-\ colitiliedi tol work their estimiates wouldl~, as lilslla, hl( mad111 illolthly. hilt that it w115 probaahle that tllev votlldi only lhe pai(l ill trl(115l11 (ll(lel5, whlich 00(11(1 1w playable o(lt of aWIN Illloli(Y5 l'eClived i11t1 till trl-I slrv tolftle crerlit of tile iliterlial niIprovenielit fimli. Tile c111tracts tflor -1r(1i1o0 were thici ablalldl 11(0 illliediatelv. lilt those fl-I clealrillg, 11m11Il r11111110 whlicli were liot tlieli finished, hia V 111cC 11(111 colliplet cli. Ill irc'll(l tol tihese cointracts for -i-llibbill aidi clearili" tile chief e-igilcer saji iI It iiayI not lhe imlproper for tiie to stalte that it is probiable tilat llalll If It 11 c(litracts t5ilfill tiiis 1011( siere le~t tol those who conisidieredl that thev velI tol le heliefiteri hy its speedly collllctioi,;1111(1. ill Conlsequnence bi~lli lo thlat thev ilave 1(1st iionecv in tl rsciino tile works assigned taleiii.' This reniark of the engineer was prohahly 1(5 appllicahle to thle gradiiig colitracts as to) tihose Ilarle for (learilig tile line. It is certainl, at a111 evenits. that those who toolc the latter class of contracts foundi thleml to h-e (leci(ledlly llliprofitahle. The last of the apllroiriatiolll hby the Legislature for the constrtlctioll of the Northern railroadl was oniC of fortv tilonsalle (Iollars mlade 1v act approved oin April 20, 1839. lliikilng the total amolllt appropriated for tile

Page  275 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 275 enterprise one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Of this there was expended upon the line in surveys, clearing and construction, the following amlounts, namely: 1837, $8,226.25; 1838, $12,772.44; I839, $39,122.09; total, $6o, 120.78. FINANCIAL DIFFICULTIIES. These figures show that at the close of operations in 1839 there remailned of the amount of appropriations made for this northern line of railroads, an unexp)ended balance of $89,879.22. In view of this fact, it might be regarded as strange that with this large balance remaining, the work should have so suddenly been brought to a close; but it must be relmelmbered tlat the figures indicating the unexpended balance did not represent a corresponding amiount of readl cash on hand and immediately available. T he extracts already given from the chief engineer's report fully explain the reasoil why the contractors alandoled their jobs in the summer of 1839, land it only' remains to say that the construction of the Northern railroad, being suslpended at that. time, was never resumed. Today, however, the proposed route of the Northern rail\ay is generally covered bv the lines of the (rand Trunk system. Sooni after this, the financial elmbarrassments of the state caused a feeling to slread among the people and their representatives that the adoption of so extensive a plan of internal ilmprovements had bleen premature, to say the lea-st; and ti(- result of this growing sentiment was the restriction of alpprolpriations to such iworks as returned, or could easily be made to return, the interest on their cost. Accordingly, further aid was withheld, except to the ti(letral and Southern lines, then in partial operation, and finally, in 1841, all idea of the ((llstruction of the Northern railroad ats a state work was abadoled, and tile l.egislature passed "anl act relative to the appropriation uo11)0 the Northern railroad." which recited in its preamble that "it is thoughlt implolitic 1under the lpresent embarrassments of the state, to make at present further exl)enditures on said road for the purpose of a railroad;' that "a large amount has been expended in choplping, grubbing and clearing said road. which. if left in its present condition can be of no interest to the people of the north:" and that "it is the united wish and request of the pleople in the vicinity of said road that the same should for the present be converted into a turnpike or wagon road, and thus open an important tho)roughfare through the center of the tier of counties through which the said road passes, and therelvy render the money heretofore expended on

Page  276 276 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. said road available to the best interest of the people in the northern section of the state." It was therefore enacted that the commissioners of internal improvemllelnt l)e directed to expend thirty thousand dollars of the unexpended ballace of the mnion(s which hadl been appropriated for the Northern railrodl 'for bridges, clearing and grading said road, or so lmuch of it as the said commnissioners shall judge will le most beneficial to the inhabitants aui( pul)lic in the section of the co1untry fthrough which the same passes, so as to make a good passablle wagoon road." iIGiIT-OF-WAY CI ING'ED TO A WAGON ROAD. ()O V arch 9, 1843, an act swas approved "to authorize the construction oJ a wagon road on the line of tlic Northern railroad," and ordering the appIlication and appropriation for that purpose of all the non-resident highway taxes for a distance of three nmiles on either side of the line, to be expended under the superintendcence of a special commissioner to be appointed for each of the counties of St. Clair, Lapccr, Genesee, Shiawassee, Clinton and Ionia. T'le act was repealed in I(S.6, liut in the following year;mother act \\as passed "to provide for the construction and improvelent of the N\orthernl w\agon road from Port Huron, in the county of St. (:lair, through the counties of l apeer and Genesee, to Corunna, ill the counity of Shiawasse," and aIppropriating "twenty thousand acres of inter1ial improvement land.s" for the purpose. To carry its provisions into effect the governor of the state was authorizcd to iappoint a special commiissioner, andi he did so appoint to that comiimission the Hoi..\liii M1. -Hart, of Lapeer. Still another act was passed, in I849, applointing I cwis S. Tyler, Albert MAiller and Henry 1Iunt as commissioners, "with power to re-locate, upon the most eligible ground, the Northern \Nagon road from the village of Flint, in the county of Genesee, to the village of (t orunna, in the county of Shiawassee." 'Ihe result of all the laws passed and appropriations made for the construction of the Northern railroad and Northern wagon road was the clearing- of the route of the formier, as before mentioned, and the grading or partial gradinig, of Iarts of the route into an indifferent wagon road, which never proved to le of much practical advantage to the country west of the western holrders of Shiawassee county. This history is given more or less in dletail b)ecause it deals with a period of development in which Montcalm

Page  277 NONTCALM,% COUNTY, MICHIGAN.27 277. countv was directly interested, even tisough it never derived much profit froni the proposals. PRESENT RtAILROAD SYSTEMS. At the preseist tunie three ilain railroadi systems cross M-ontcalm county, Ilianelv, the Grand Trtunk, the Grand Rtapidls & Indiana. and the P~ere Marquette. i'hC Grand Yrunik lines in Mlontealit county include that portion of tite Toleclo, Saginawv & 1\lttiskegon R\ailway Company crossing the county andi passli-throtgih GrcenviliC, Sheridan attd Carson City. Altogether, there are abonit twsenlty live niles of rosin trackage. Tfie Toledo, Saginaw & illuske-otsl\nlsvay Conmpatty, wvhich wits chartered January 25, s886, undler tile IaNN0sof tite state of Miichitiga, is controlled by the Grand Trunk through the no ncrslstp of its enstire capital stock lby tile sitareholders of the G;raned ltttitk J~lhstas Comtpanyv of Canatla. TIhe total length of the Toledlo, Sagtisva &e 5dNtiskc-oin, from Ashley to A'Itiskegon, is 95.91 miles, but it also lias trackage righlts over the Ann A\rbor railroad, front Ashsley to Owosso utllCttt]01 lIt iOSUCC Of 20.5 miles,:. The eompany Owns one passenger car., to\-) ba'~ogae c'trs, tell hox and~ fottrteeo Hlat ears and five service cars. The catpital stock of the roati amonottts to $ti,6oo,ooo attd thle fttncded debt to St,662,ooo. Itn T0t3 the road htad att operatitsg deficit Of $57,739. its1 Montstalts colttntv the Grand Trtunk Isas a jttnctiots with the Hloward ity-hoitia b~ratteb of tite Pere Mfarquette and also tise Stanston-Greertville h)ratsch of the Pere MA-areqtette at Greetsville. At Sheridatn it has a jttnction witit tise Stantott-Jonia bratseh of the Pere Marqttette. Stations on the Grand Trunk in 'Montecinm coutnty. b~egintning at the west line of the county antt in order, are Greenville. Miillers. 'Sheridati. iistshinell. Vickeryville, Ptitternttt and (arson City. GRSAND RAPIDS & INDIIANA RAILtROAD. Tse trantl Raplids & nittel torailroad, which extctsds from Richttiond, tIndiana, through Ft.,Vvavnec 1lvdaniazoo andi Grand Rapids to Trasverse Citi- 111( bevondtito Petoskcy 5 111 Mlackinaw City iassthrough the extretie westertn p itt of M~ontcailms county with the stations, of Piersott, Hiram, Mafiple Hill, lowr Ciritytt atnc R~eytolds, in MAontcalrn county'. Howat'd tCitv is the otost tmportanst point on this railroad in Montcalmn coutity. The Grand Rapipds & 1(1 ndian railway was opened fromn Ft. Wayne to Stttrgis. M~ichigani Junle "2" 1870: to Kalamazoo, September, 1870; to

Page  278 278 278MONTCALM1 COUNTY, MICHIGAN.' radRapids, October, 170; from Gran~I Rapids to Cedar Springs, Decemiher 23, 1867; to MNorlevy Tule 21, 1869; to Paris, August 12, 1870; to Clami lake (Cadillac, 1)eceemher, 1871; to Fife Lake, September, 1872; to Petoskey, Mlay, 1874. The Grand Rapidls & In1diana Railway Company is controlled lby the Pemnsylvania Railw ay Company, but is operated by its own organization. On D~ecemiiei 31 1912 the total nuleage olierated amounted to 577.73, itiCeI-1ilng- 421- / 1115ownVeil, 148.48 miles op~eratedl and trackage rights Of 7. 5 Miles. Thle mileage of tile company in Mfontcalmi county is 12.5S. The present company wvas charteredn~ ill Jully, i8o6, under the laws of Mfichigan an-d Indiana to take over the properts of the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad Comlpany, w hiell Na's sobl unider foreclosure of tile second mortgage Onl Julie TO, 189(6 1 he piroperIty xxas ti ansferred to the nlew corripanv on August 1, T~rt6. Ihe pi esent companyil owns practically tile entire cap'ital stock andi all tile inconii bonlds of the Trav erse City Railroadl Company. and also owns a one Illird niIitin thle '9l'ckinaw Transportation Coipany. Furtherniore, the coullpaly ownus sexveniit ve thousand dollars (if tile bondls and txventy-f'ixe per cenlt of the c'apit'sl stock of the Traverse City, Leelanani & Mariistique 11r lioaid (Comp'any For m'iany years tile Granid 'Rapidis & Indiana Railw'ay (omp'uiv was aolle-sixth owner of the capital stock of the Mackinaw Islaiid Hotel t up my but usl 1909 this interest was soldI for twentyk-three acres of valuiable 111n( dii oining tile hotel. The capit~al stock of tdx Giriid Rampicds & TIdhialla Railwvay Comlpanyv is 8570 70.of which tlse Penn xsylvmia Raidwvay Company owni-s $2.o65,poo. The fundedi debts alliounits to $10oTi- o00. hut this does not inchudhe the capital andl fmndeil iebt of nirderhyinc companies. PidRi 'ii\5111 i iTd' RA1ILiROAD. IThe I crc N aripiette lx iili oad (Coimpany, whichl operates a greaLter aeageI Viii loitcalni couintv tllan any otiher systeml. operates a line fromii lIonia to I howard ('itv, wilere it conlnects wyitil the Grand Rapids & TIndiana, tlhrotigh Greenville, North (;reeniville. Gowven. Trufant and Coral., in M-ontcalm cdlunty. a linle froul Howard C ity to Saginaw, passing~ thlrouglh Amnble, iLakeview, Six ILakes. Ednlorc;aild Vestabur-; a line from Greenville, tilrouigh Mloeller and Sidliiev to Stantoni, and tile lillC from JHaynlor, just north of Toniia. thlroug~h Fenwick, Sheridan. Colby. Stanton, McBride, Edmore amel Wvmani. in Montcalul county, to Big -Rapids. in Mecosta county. The Detroit &, Howell Railroad Company and the Howell & Lansing

Page  279 .IONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 279 Railroad Comlllpy were first consolidated, forming the Detroit, Howell & Lansing Railroad Comlpany. These companies were organized by local interests on the line between Detroit and Lansing, to construct a road connecting the above points. local aid was secured and a large part of the road between I'lymouth and I lowell was graded, but no track laid. Entrance to the city of l)etroit, with right of waIy down Fourth street and property on the corner of Fourth street and Grand River avenue for location of termininals was secured..fterward the stock of the Detroit, Howell & Lansing road was purchased by the Hon. James F. Joy, then president of the Mlichigan C(entral railroad and his associates, and the main line was deflected to coniect with that road at \Vest Detroit; the right of way down Fourth street was abandloned and the property near the corner of Fourth and Grand River was sold. OTHE-R RAILRIOAD COMIANIES. The lonia & Lansing Railroad Company was organized by Lansing, lonia, Portland and other local districts along the line, and the road was constructed from Lansing to lonia; opened il December, I869, and extended to Greenville in Septemiber, 1870. The road was sold to James F. Joy and hiIs associates in 1870, and consolidated with the D)etroit, Howell & Lansing railroad in that year, forming the Detroit, Lansing & Iake Michigan Railroad Companyl. Ihat plart of the road from Detroit to Howard City, of the )etroit, Lansing & Iake ALichigan railroad, except the part between LansiJg tand (.reenville, was constructed in 187I, and opened for business in the Ilonth of.August, that year. The 'lotnia, Stanitoni & Northetrn Railroad Coinpany, comprising the line from lonia to Big Raplids, was organized in I872 by parties in the illterest of the l )ctroit, I.tlsing & Lake Michigan Railroad Company, and was subsequently consolidated w ith that company. The road was opened for blusincss froi Stanton Junction to Stanton in February, 1873, and was sullsequently extelded from time to time until I880. when it was completed to Iig Rapids. The Belding branch from Kiddville to Belding was built 1!- local interests and acquiired by the Lake Michigan road in 1876. Tn 1875 the Detroit, Iansing & Lake Michigan Railroad Company defaulted in the pa!iyent of interest on its mortgage bonds. the trustees named in the mortgage took possession of the property under the terms of the mortgage. and, pending the reorganization, the property was operated Iby Hon. Tames F. Joy, as agent for the trustees. On I)ecember 26, I876,

Page  280 :28o 280 MONTCALAM C(7)UNTIY, 51MICHITGAN. the purchasers of the road, under utdic al sde, filed ar tic les of association1 with the secretary of state at ILinsing \tichi-an, ot the l'etroit, Lansin & Northern Railroad Complany 'Illis eumlpany took oxvei all the lprolperty, rights anid franchises of the D etri ot ailsin &. I ik ciganl Railroad Gonipaiiy. T'he Saginaw- Valley & St. ILuniS Rlxlroade (C0111)nyii froiii Sagitiawv to -St. Lonlis, wvas coiistructed by Suanaxez pairties 11(1 oipeised froni IPaines j unctioli ho St. Louis In Januiay u 8 'FIhe Saganra\v Valley & St. Loumis Railroad C( oipaiiv entercil into a iconltraet xxvith the Jaickson, Lauisiiig & SaginaxviY Railroad ( oinaii\y uiil the \lichioai (Centrail IRailroad ( oupauiv. 1-1111 the Sa-oonaxx\ adlev &. St. Lonixs lx silroa Ce.omnpaniy perpetuial rights oxvei thc iroaax ot the j akxiii ILansing & Saginaw ixx ailroadl Com1111) betxx eei FI ht xnd Per u c rol cilcte c rossing inch Panicis 3 nclition, includiiig the ternnnl il fac(1lities oft the j aekson, I ising & Sagimnix Ra ilroaid t(1o11 -PanxI in Sa-naixx (.)I lix ~licult of ti e Suml Of $40,000. lii1 S1ij8 ill the stis)ck oft le Sa-naxx V illex & St. ILois Ralriloaid Conxppny, exceept afex\ shi res ixvhiicI ci tudl not lie locaited, was purchasedci hov parities in the intci est itf tbc ltetruiii Linsini & Northci iTiirolCupIMII mnd the. road xxvi opcrated lbx the Dctroit, Li mlsix & N orther Rai -u rowl (Conipainc ltint the acconilits xxvee ketpt ilistiixct friiii the ac counits oif the D~etroit Ii ii & -' orilicruil i~iliOii C i1x1iparoW IThe Saiginax &\ tirisl lx ipiids raiilroadl friiii St L ouis to Almn ixxas hbtilt by the stoikhxilikis itf the Swi ina ixx lldey & St. Itios raiilroiad ili MIarichx iS79) as aii c'\tciisiiiiof ithe S mmas NVallex & StIoanix raulroaxl. The Sagyna mx W.\\estern iir ilii ii froni St. Louis tii ITlx)v ir(i Cits has a typical hiixtoiry. lx th Cincagoii Syinia ix tCanada lRailroadl ((11o11 uipa htnlt the linie firoin St. I i iti x tio Ceda ii a ke Iin 185 Tlx it xi id xx ~is 1)1 ccl in the ]lx iiis if D) D) x Iii ts 1- eivrx ci iixcl lix hiii Ic ixci tio hiihn1 A. 1 lxxelI xxo lii tendeilCd thii ri le, tio Iakex iexx- ill i 8-8~ Wuxl 18x ) In lix 883 lie roail xxis sohld iinicr iiie x ( Iiif the lilrt and xxvax piirchaxxi i y lipa rties inl the interest of the Detroit, I.-iiisiii- & \iirthicrn railroacl. Vanlin \uelist, iT8i, seas ohienech fromn ILacexviexx tix Iloxxiril (.'It\,, iii-idcr thle nanie of the Sa-imisw & Western Railrioad Qxiiilamix Thle branch froux Grcimx l~e toi Staixtoil wxas cxampleteil in iioi aii(i xxvax limlt liv (7arhand & NVarnei, of IToh lix. Ohio. Souxe years axfter the oxxi miizatiiiii of the lI)etroit, Lansiuni & N iirthc rii Railroad ('upn.in 1876, the pirope tx iif the ciixl~iiix 'in Mlontc alln county xN-ax taken oiver lix the. Deltrioit, Grandh Rapids & Y\ e stern, ind inl

Page  281 MONTC~ALM COUNTY, MICHIGA.N.28 281 - 1899 it was consolidated wvith the Flint & lere MarqjUette antid became part of the Perc Mtlrqiiette. indi(er whose managemient. it has since lbeen opieratetd. 'iSfoi 10510) iini AS LINES. Stsevera diciterciit tirniley- linies have lbeen propiosed throngh M-ontcalim comiity bnit so f ir none has lieeii built. Thie peotule of the county have been extrtintiv inttrested - in these carnons jirojcets and 00o11(1 tindotibtedly sup1)01t ttty enttrlpiise of dhis kiiit iii a very, liberal way. As aris s A av 31. iq-o, the SAtau/oni Ileek/v Ctiipper reprinte ti te inline in( tli'sp tth front Sag-inae I "he project to conniect Saginaw andl Grawd ivapltis in iiiaiis ntf an cctriti nt i hs i is now assured of sticcess, tlit (.)IIIImpI 1 \ IIIs ii i In wlcII In I I- ra nc Ixitli i, ooo, ooo capital and the ii mids liii iii leit) takel iblv Fanit ca.tcni sviitlicate. '[he route will lie f roii (int i iild Rapid cil illo lthea ( i Staintiin. I'dlinore, AIlma and St. 1 onin I.Th lteni fl(In i St ant in ti1o isan iv iiiiil will he isiilt first, then the pIs iiim 1) -iii "a-iiiaw to.\iin;iml tlit mi-mtciiening linik \\-'II probiably iiit he, t~oimp(lilt it ii l mes vest. (ii s idr cd i midcer wNay oii the westerti prin lin (ii dic i ad. It \Nili1i hc n 1 ii\\;is lie tiranii 1apitds & Saginaw elect u i oh ln iii. Tlecomiw I-. nmoripmii tid ii miilcr New Tersev as anil \\-Ill ()niI h "'lenoris ~rateil in this- statci \ltlli ii it li 1 iidicmIiiz41 if tlins hut svI timl iiassniedi," aiid aithoti-hl evercitlimii. 'ccii ci actnaili litad Iweti diii sitli ronail was iecir niiiilt aned thle Ine iiIistll e ~aiU tihe nrg-1;11Yimii0n i cmV1iin fiicth cumf'prttinAl(W 1i t iCi it L mmm0VCemieii ias i ben tii trevi liv the leading capitalists i)f Al osikc-n amid tosnva i iimild aini it lriii nail throuigh Alontcaim cmimntv I'3lit iromite n f the ipi i~osedtri illtY sine, passes through (Yasnovia, mmcii\\ii W1 1 i ish lake. thrinonim1 i'lt i n1 in Iaimit, ITan-stonn, Stanton, Crysta iii Itic St. Charles and( (ism tii S-iw in iii lie sonui this road wvill lie bulilt Is i inlititi of speculaitioti or atesswsork in which one mlan~s gtuess is as goolas another-. There chan he. no questinn of the p~ressingr neetd of trolley, evIce as" an11 nitltfu li ss~i)Clciii sect ion of thle, state.

Page  282 (IIAIPI'LlR XXV. MONTrCALM COUNTY IN THlE CIVIL WAR. TIhe Staite Of Mlichigan turilslied 90,048 troolps for service in the Civil \,ai of hilch Alontcalmi county furnished approximately 640 trOopS Of all c Il isses. Ot these 640 troops, 350 were credited to thle county under the ein olluient systeni and 287 enlisted prior to September i9, 1863. IUrom \ove"Iber 1, 1864, until the close of the war, there wvere 47 enilistments Ini the arniy fr01m Molotcalmn county and 26 recruited from thle di ift durunw the same iieriod. lif tile 73 enlistments and drafts, subsequent to Noveniber 1, 864, ther e wvere 7c0 for one year Is serv ice and 3 for three years' Service. Tlie tot ii em-rollileilt on DecemherrP im864, from Mlontcalin cotjity w as -27;"(I thle qutota charged to \ Ion~tcalmn county ill the call -Of Decenlber ii, 1864, Nt 15 0So"toPs. tI'le inilitirs cenlsuis 01 Septemb~er 10, 181), slmio\\ ed that Momltcalmn counity had r-eturnied '240 troops III iJ lne previmouslyv undei state law atid that there \vere Lat tht tun'e 3, idle piersomns living in on-tcilmi Coumity betweeni thle ages of eighteni iaid 1f1ty-ti!ve, and therefeire subjIect tci draft. Diii)iriu Ixe disItire wa ii Iontealmn coumnty fuiirshed troopls to fifteeni ciffereiit reginmemit ot utfnit ry, iicliiiing one reorgaliiiedl regimrent; eight reI emleits of anitrv onle i coiMie1t, Of colored troops; one regiment oif L niteii Staite shdirshiiiter: (lie remIniemit (if engineers al11( mieclsanics, aiid one regmumemmi of Atichii-aii Shiarishooter s. B y far tile largest numlller of troopis ftmrmimslmd nmyone r gilient iby Montcalmi coenmtv was recruiitee liv tie Iis\ e Its tijret ri miiiet' li. rolls (11 55vhIch creidit 1 37 solidiers to M-oiltcalul itli1 TVi'E'NIX FhuSt IN17ANTRIY. Thle J'W5eiity tfire \lsc'iiiCiiit AI lic-i in Voltuiteer I1-ifamitry, wsva recrtmitecl fromi larry, loenia. M1oliitcalmi. IKewit Ottawa., 51 itskegonl, OIceana, Nesvaygo,?s~ecosta, Aulasoimi, Siamiister, Granil Traverse, ITcelanaw _Mailitou, Osceola.. lFimnmet, M\lackimiac. D elta aiii I hel oygami coiimties. The rendlezvotus of the re-iment was at Iomiat recrtuitinlg having been begtun on Icily i,, 1862. The re-inmet slims mimistereti imito the service of the Uniited States on September

Page  283 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICIIIGAN. 283' 4, 1862. The regiment left its quarters at lonia on September 12, 1862, in command of Colonel Stevens, 1,oo8 strong, under orders to report at Cincinnati. It was immedliately rushed forward into Kentucky via Louisville and soon became actively engaged in the realities of the war. A beautiful silk flag was provided by the ladies of Ionia. This flag was carried through all the engagements of the regiment, brought back to the state, and at a celebiration on July 4, I865, was formally returned, on behalf of the regiment, to the ladies by the lion. John Avery, of Greenville, the highest ranking officer of the regiment present, and1(1 as received on behalf of the ladies by the lion. Johln -. Iutchins, of Tonia. On October 8, 1862, the Twenty-first regilment bore an implortant part in the hattle of Perrvville, Kentucky, suffering a loss of 24 wounded, I mortally, and 3 missing, (ololel Stevens being almong the wounded. The Tiwenty-first regimlent lparticipated in encounters with the enemy at Perryville, Kentucky, (ctober 8. I86': Lavergne, Tennessee, December 27, I862; Stewart's Creek. Tennessee, Decembler 29, 1862; Stone's River, Tennessee, December 29, 31, T862, and Tanuary I, 2, 3, 1863; Tullahoma, Tennessee, June 24., 863; Elk Reiver, Tennessee, July 1, 1863; Chickamauga, Tennessee, Septembler 19. 20, 21, J863; Chattanooga. Tennessee, October 6, T863; Brown's Ferry, Tennessee, October 27, T863; Missionary Ridge, ITennessee, November 26, 1863: Savannah. Georgia, December 11. I8, 20, 21, 1864; NAversvboro. North Carolina, March T6, 1865: Bentonville. North Carolina, March 19. J865. The final reports of the regiment showed that it had a total menlbership of T,477 officers and men, while its losses were I officer and 40 men killed in action, 2 officers and 3T men dicd of wounds. and 3 officers and 291 men -lied of disease --- total of 3.368. TH.I EIGHTII TNFA\NTRY. The h'Ighth Rcgimlent, Michigan Volunteer Infanltry, to which Montcalm county furnished a little less than fifty mIen, w.as ordered to rendezvous at Grand Rapids. A\ugust 21, I86i, and after being ordered to Ft. Wayne w\as tlmustered into the service of the United States on September 23, J86i. The regiment participated in the second battle of Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, the calllpaign around Richmond and the capture of Petersburg. There were approximately sixty enlistments fronm MNonltcalll county in the Tenth Michigan Cavalry, the rendezvous of which was at Grand Rapids. The regiment was raised under the direction of Col. Thaddeus Foote, of the

Page  284 984 284 MAONr(CALM C~OUNTY, MICHIGOAN..Sixth Michigan Ciavalry. Recruitin~g h~egaii on July- 4, 1863, and the regimient wvas nitstereil Into the service of the United States on -Nov enilr 18, 1863 1, having onl its rolls 912 officers and men. The regiment left its reiidezvons on IDecember 1, i 863, nvin iid of Cioloinel [note, tinder orders to procecil to the field iii Kentuckyvi a, timcinlnati to I xxni'toii where it reiiaiiedl n.11iii Jaiiuarvy3 1864, 0whii it moved to Liiiriiside Poiint, haviiig, eiigag0etl the eiieiiy at lotise Mountaino Other eiigagemienits alid skirmishes of tleic r 11cgimct ttere: [ieaii' Gap, Tevmessee. Alarcli 26, 1864; VRieatowni, -1 ar-ch 241 Jo~iicsboro, March 2;J ohnsonvitlie. M'iarchi ' -\Watauga, March; I 'odcr Spring Gap, April 28 LDandridge, 'day ii I Greevvtille'd A-tv -; \\liitv I loin ii. ay 31; Alorristovn, Junie2 Leaiii Staitioii J iiie i6- NIo-elrsvi lle J viie i7- Kingspoit, Jutine i; tiaii Liralc11 Juinie ~o, \N ec\l Mirkcr Jutne Nl oseetor" J iiiie 28; \\Vil1lnos IFoidI Jui no D'uIttchi Lottomii jiiie '8- Sevtcrv illk J oly NwN ortt 11, Jutly 8, \lornitottni Aunut 'jL; G e"iitl~e \ogost 4; \osiCrek, \ogst 18) [-tlolls a(ap, Atigo1t 2i.11doe Spm my-, \timtst 2 reail oot2 StrawbeLrry P1liins. Atio-.t 24- flt (reek, Aiigost 24; Kogersville, August 2- -)I il G Lap, A'togtoa 29, cLiviiiliv Septemclv 4- Swteet W atei, SeptemiLerito; Thorii ilil. Sveptemberi 10; Seivevm illy, Septemher i8; jomiesboro,.Svptvmbri )o Johiisomi Staitioii Ocvtoberi. m Vtatauga Lrmdge, Octoher 1-2; (lutck) Ied vol Jtobvm i o Newvott, IOctober i8; Iirisli Bottomis, October '5- 3N1idlSiomis llv OCIi ti i (T \lonistottii Noltvemberi 20; Strawvberry Plamins, Nolitember 2 3 '4: I' ii'~il Deceniber i 'Brmistol, D~ecember 14; SaIttville, \ir-iiiai Dvctmniicr 2o: ( lmvmcky 11nd viiv namio tl1, i865; Bralilii aMil Mrc 2, Lo1om livc N omth C arolii la1 rvh 27; Henry Cotirt Housel April 8; Abbott Grvk,,\I~l i o; High 1Point \Airil 10o; Statesville, Apoil 14- Nc~ttomli pmml m7, i865 MON ivAMSLDESiN ilit lItN 1)1HE R REi'iIMENTS. Thie l'etiit favalrv hail \t liiiv in senvice a mlemh-lerslmil Of 2,050 Officers and mcii, andI its Ivisses WciT 2e ' IOf tv-1io11i 2 officers ande i8 mien were killevh in a-Lction., ii 1iiiii lied of vo Itindil mnd 240 Of dhisease. '['lie First hImig'incers aiid 3 LLcaIcshy twhich inchidved forty-three iieii froiii M ontealniclil 11tv twtas ilistl- rIn ii t 3\larsliall, October 29. fi86i, amid wvas miostered ont at NasilVl1C root ltL(S~eptl me 22, m86~.. Time Secoiii linfamitrv. Ithicl i incliudedi four iieii fromi Montcaimi, was iiistercd Iiito tile ci-vice at De)triint Ali\t 2;. i86i, aiiei muttered out ill Delaney Hoiise. ID. C., J1111 '8, i8t'l.

Page  285 N1ONTCALMN COUTNTY, MICHIGAN.28 28.5 - Thle Third Inifamtry, ovhith included twelve men from Montcalin, wvas inuitered into tile servicc at Grand R-ap~ids. July Io, i86i, and mustered out at I)etroit, June 0o 1864. IThe Third1( icorgmniizd Infantry was musteredl into the service at firamdIxpd October rz. s864.~ and mutstered out of service at Victoria, Texas 7A51 2~ i66. It included fourteen men fromt M~ontCalmn. The Niiith lufaintl, NO-ihich included five ncin fromi Montcalin county, lvas nitisteredi ilti wi-vcer (at I etriiit, (jctoher 15, i86.i, and mustered out at Nasivhllie St ptcniiier 1s T86., I [he IFifteeltth I if iiti, ielel iiclucidcc nine iiien from Al]ontcalmi cotinty,\a Iiini111111red iiif)' iserice at Monro11-e, M-ar-ch 20. i862, and mustered out iif seirvice it Little sot k -\rklamsas, At~igst 13. 1865 'I'he Sixtecvith hiifaiitlr w lichi inlcudedi seveniteen mien from- Montcalma coun~ty3 xasi iiisisterccl into scrvice:it D~etroit, September 8. i86i, and mutstered slit of seri ice -it left rsons li1e, Indiana, )ulv. 8, 1865. lie Txsvenltvsexveith Imfif trv swas imist~ered into service April I0. 1863 at Y psiiati, iiii iuiistemrtd out if servicec at Delaney H-ouse, D). C., July 26, 1 86 It had h(1c tinw fromi Moiitcalmn collity [lie First ( avairv, whilchl inlueidedl four muien froii 75Moiltcaln couitiytv wvas mutstered iiito ser-Vice on S'eptembler 13, f86i, at Detroit, and mustereid ouit of service oli March itS. 1866. at Salt l~ake City, Utah. lhe Seciinid tavalrv. x liich Includied in11C iiieii friinl Montcalin counity, was mustered into) service on Octobier 2, 1T86T. at Grand Rapids., ande mustereti out of service at -Macon, Georir~a, August 17. 186.5. The Third Cavalrv, \Wiicil iichiidei six men froni MNontcalim, was illistered imito service oii Novemlber 1, i86T. at Grand Rap~ids. and mustered oult of service at San Antonio, Texas, Fehruary 1 2, i 86,. Tile Fourth Cavalry incliditi i one mnan froil 'Moiltalli, wvas muisteredl ilto service oil Allmtluxt 20, 186" at Detroit, aiid niaiistered out of service onl lillV 1. 1865. at Nashvmille Tennessee. The Fi ftht Caxa rn linlt linli at least one man fromt Moiltcalin, was mustered iilto service onl — itgust 30. 1 862, at Detroit, and mustered out of service onl June 22, iS6,~ at Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas. Thle Sixth Cai ilrv. micltidling six men from MN~ontcalmr county, was mustered iiito sersice onl Octobem 13, 1862, at Detroit, and mutstered ouit of service on Novembier 24, i86.5 at Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas. The Seventhl Cavadry including, three men from- Montcalm. county, was munistered into servise onl January i6. 1863, at Grand Rapids. and mustered otit of service onl Detenlber i.5 i8-6,5 at Ft. Leavenwvorth, Kansas.

Page  286 ,.,86 286 MONITCALM COUNTY, MICH-IGAN. The Fifths Infantry Was mustered into service on August 28, i86i, at Detroit, and mustered out of service onl July 5, 1865, at Jeffersonville, indiana. It included on)le mian fromi Montcalnm county. 'fie 'Yelitl Infantry, including three mien from Montcalnl, was innstcred into service onl 1ebrtoary. 6(, 1862, at Flrint, and mnstered otit of service oil J ulv Jo,1 18615, at Louilsville, Kentucky. The Tlwelfth infantryv was musteredI into service on Mlarch '5, 1862, at 'Niles, aii(l Ilinsteredl out of service on Uebruary 15~, i8-66, at (iarnden, A\rkaitls;LS. It iialuded fonr mcmi from Mloltcalml county. lhe Thirteenith infaiitrv, including five men from i'dolitcalinl county. was munstemred into. ser(1c Oil 'fan11IaV 17, T8621, at Kalamlazoo, and innstere~d out of sem vice on July11 25., 1865. The VFoumrteentib In fantr-v. jilelildill gfourteen mnemi fromt MAortcalm county, was luslteried into service oil' Felruary 13. 1862, at Ypsilanti, an(1 muitsteredl out (If serv (c onl July TS, T86,s at L~ouisville. Kentucky. '[l'ie Tws cntv-sixt \ib ufaut rv, ilicludlin' one mian from N[1ont-calmn cotilty. wvas, mustered into servsice on December 12-. 1 862, at Jackson. and mustered (lilt (If service onl Tubl T 86;, at Alexandria, Virginia. There w crc.11s1 two (i mii from MXontcalm Comiity in the One H-undred and Second U~nitedl St-lt(,- Colorecl Infantry. The following roll of?Iiont-calm county is far fromn complete. silnce it -Ives only1 a little morei tlIaI1i 400 (If tile al~proxilmately 640 soldiers accreclited to '1 ontcalin comiitv lliridii the \var. Trhere are p~robablv errors lin thle roll as it iiw Stalilds.?dMany arc unaccoun-teil feir, inlasmutch as, they enlisted inl adjoiiiing coulities aiid wvere acscredited to tile counties where tllev enlisteil. The followving is thle roll: SI`(toxu, INFANTRY. Cool/nix I tor,,-e W-. Yajier, timustered out at expiratioms of service, Jnle 6, 1864. Co /any tC I I amlil 1 (. t onerse, mustered out, July 28, 1865 Amidrew S. Phillips. nmusteredl out ',June 12, T865. Koipam AI lfrecl R. 'Isham, discharged by order, May 3, 1865. T HII) TNFANTISY-FIRST TERM. foso/uany AI alles K". Fisher, discharged at end of service, June mo, 1864.

Page  287 TMONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 27 287. Coni~p1111 C jacoli We\Vceir veterainizedl, Decemlber 23, 1863, mustered out., July 5, i865. C 0111/killo S)IL to it, disclharged at elnd of service, June i6, 1864. Com/Ipan kv E ---corge Butterwvorth, veteranized, lecemiber 23, 1863. intistereci o)tit July i865 lNss gilt Towslcy, ceteranized, December 23, 1863 oBtct loss sle, dlischliared for disability; 1! cls\,iii V "ail Wert, dropped fromi rotils o tubll pris1011e1 of \\-ao St!pbieii G. Wheaton., oustered out., Augu-st 4. i865. Col/i/1(il F'- (to\- 111 1,'11ar (liscllargedl for dlsatiility. July 30. i86t. Jo-n Lac11 dis(1.11ie 61d llt, July 3o, 1861 C oo on Olcott, transferreci to Fi ftlh Iofantry. Cosuipanuv K —Sidnes- Fox, (hedl of disease at Fo01tr ess Mkooiroe. October 20, 1 862. 'T1H/IRD TN1- ANTRY ---NEW- ItiO;IMFNT oo/oyL- - obert S. _1 iicliaiain, muistered( out, N1y 19, I865 Jailes (b1ataiberlaijo, dliscliargecl at 01(1 of servicee, February 2 i866; Ripley I-lodge, niustered coit, \u-tust: iG. 1863; ndrewi WV. Adainl miusteredl out, August 25, W8~\illiamo N. M~lain, niiisterecl oot.t ~a i866; John Peck, mustered out, MN-ay 25, t866. fioipaoy (i-Sclbouylvi (I.dricli, died of disease at Vlictoria, Texas, -May 17, i8(-66 Smith/11 1-1 i tistered ocit, Uebroiary 27. i866; Thonlas I 5. muavs itstered outit1 _\iV 2- 5,66, Beniamn~i S. Everest, illtisteredl out,. Septemiber 5, i86-. CooiPany D-Georgc \ `erlcr, mustered out, Mlay 25., 1866. Company~o F-J-leniy vArnt, illisteredl out, July 31, i865~ Silas DickerSon, outstered oc.it, 'X1l1 2-, i866; 1-lir-1ooi Torrell, mustered out, Juie i8,. i865. 1EiGHT11 TNFANTRY. (,on/pany C C~oostantioc Schlappi, illtstered ocit, Jul1y 30, t865. C ompangv D-Jobo Fgbert. iiutstered out, July 30, u865. conipnpm I Dias TT. Grow, discbargcd for disability, July 22, i 862; (Cllarlcs THobbs, dischlargedl for Wvoilids, May i8, i865; John R.. Holcomob, died of dieaseic mear Petersburg. Virginia, July 2, 1864; Samuel Hobbs, ulusteredl out, Jul1y 30. s86.~ William Judd, discharged at end of service, September 22, 1864: George WV. Ligh~t. veterailized, January 15. 1864;1-lenry H-. Peck, (lie/I in action at Petersburg, Virginia, June 3, 1864; Aaron Shawl, died in action at Cold Harbor, Virginia, Juile 3, 1864; Henry C.

Page  288 288 288 MONTCALMX COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Smirth, died of discas ist X hito July 31, 1864; Charles 1.). Spencer, (liscllarged at end uf scrv ice, Octobei 27, 1862. Comipany I (hal is C. lirveC), d-ied near Petersburg, Virginia, Junie 23, 1864; Q. MXI..Ser. ( Iliore H1 Nloble inustereil out, July 30, 1865. (iompanil G- F irst ILicuti Georg A. \Veiis, Greenville; cotinmissioned, nut111 17, 1864; stcoid lhtuttn mt ompnipuy A, August 15, 1863; iiitstered outi, Jtiiy 30, 1864. Compniyu II- I' ii t icut Ausuin XV. Crccvii, Gireenville; enlisted as ser-eant, Septembiert 5, 86i im-oiiotCl second lieutenant, Jauayss6,3 proimuied capitalin toiiip.niy I jum iii( 86-t resigiietl, Juldy 25, i1864. Serg.DeIcL tiii () 11kiCC d1Siw~l ir 26 Octvober "4, i82 Sirg. \Willianm R. Coillier, (1tS iMi-( ciiit cu-d of scisite, So.pteiibei 27, 18114 Se g. Marsena A. _Neitor"1_V Vetera'nii/(d6 )tLCenilti ')( 20 18(i mtusteireC out, Jtiiy 30, i865; Serg. h.' iii i1 Noahn di istb iar-e ( )Cobei 24, i862 \Xilii mi Ii. Ilyssvater, disc~a('ii dc ait end vif sericeI h cp'iLeiiier 12 18(i4 iobeti t I [oner, transferred in Coiiip Oi\ I, Octobl It.i, i86 Si XX i11lli nE. I, irtnn (lied of wounds at Ai nundria StpitCIiiiCT i6i 1862 Hi j i1iC 1-II I iitoil deiid in aetkon at XN1iI'imiiioion Islanid IGemr'ai Apil oii j862- N visin IGioss dlied at -New Y'ork utf WI Cllidi 1 iiIV 14, 186: (halecs (Cross. Cisciisr-ied for disability, October ~ 8i'John ID)ou Iss, Cidisciar-ed it cud 01 IerI ice 'Septemiber 22, 1864 lohn Davis, ICt Id iiiiCti JTniliMi n I 1864 I' Iny Dryeir,e ClieCd of wvoiiiis at Washiingtonl I) (. nncle11 1864 1I p iill H I Ushbti discharged to eiilist inegia er Dt cy i-iibit- i I 1862 XXVillia aI nipiuan, dislstharged forClisabiliity, Deceeinber "8, i86i Andirew "ultcOimler, dischsir-ed for tdisability, November 27 t862* (,evir11 AXIleviie dlischairged atv endl of serv ice, Septemiber 22, i 86,t Ori ine I Sn ioai Ciscbarged for Cdisaiulity, Octobei 24. 1 862;Jame11S TPirkill ulisvcIi rged foir disaibility l Octobei is, i862; Hermanl Ruissnian, veteraniizedl iFchruair i, / 864, niistrecl otit Jtily 3C) 1865 Alliert Rolla, veteranizedi Deceiiiber 20, i863, uliedi of wsounuds it Fredericksiiurg, V7irimi i\ia, 1"~a T2864- OtvI ills key, Cdischairged for ulisaubility, Mar11ch 27, s862; Reuben D. STnilth, discharged for- Cisalbilitv. October 24, i862a Williaii Shields, discharged for disaluilitv, Jul1y 9, 1862- Asa Smith, minstered ovit, July 20, 1865; Richard Wm. Xaness, discharged for disability, October 24., i862: Charles P' Wilcox, died of (lisease at Camp Denison, Ohio. October in. 1863: John1 Zimamermian, Cislharbetl by, order, Jumie 1, i865.

Page  289 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 289 NINTH INFANTRY. Company D-Melvin C. Bacon, died of disease at Nashville, Tennessee, September 27, 1862; Alexander M. Bennett, mustered out, September I5, 1865; George Edwards, died of disease at Nashville, Tennessee, May 21, 186;; George Olnstead, mustered out, September I5, I865; George W. Smith, mustered out, September 15, I865. FIFTEENTH INFANTRY. Comnpany C-Sa.muel W. Allen, lmustered out, August 13, 1865. Company B-George H. Peters, discharged by order, May 30, 1865. Company F-John Barber, discharged by order, July 5, 1865; Fordice L. Blake, mustered out, August 13, I865; Reuben Depue, died of disease at Evansville, Indiana, June 7, 1862; Emnanuel Hesseng, discharged by order, June 29, I868. Compa-iny G-Jacob Beard, discharged by order, May 30, I865; James Eldridge, discharged by order, May 30, I865; Benjamin I. Wilber, mustered out, July 28, 1865. SIXTEENTH INFANTRY. Conipany B-Sylvester Barrett, died near Petersburg, Virginia, June S, 186.4; Michael Chittock, died in action at Bull Run, Virginia, August 30, ]862; Cyrus W. Dickerson, veteranized, December 22, 1863, mustered out, July 8, I865; John WV. Howarth, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, January 15, I864; Thomas Patterson, veteranized, December 22, I863, discharged for disability, January 19, 1865; George Simonson, veteranized, December 22, 1863, discharged by order, June 29, 1865; Wallace N. St. Clair, mustered out, July 8, I865; William B. Ward, died of wounds at YWashington, D. C., June 7, 1864; Roland S. Comstock, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, March I6, I864; Benjamin Comstock, discharged by order, June 20, I863. Company D —Albert S. Cowden, mustered out, July 8, 1865; John Winters, mustered out, July 8, 1865. Company E-John Brown, mustered out, July 8, 1865; Pulaski Frost, died of disease in Virginia, July IO, I865. Company H-Charles Deland, mustered but, July 8, I865; Henry (19)

Page  290 290 290 MONTCALM COI'NrIY, V iCHTGAN. Decker, died of disease at W\ashirntoji, D) ti., Septembier 30. i86i;Nathanie', B. Overton, died in action -at (a ins Mill11, June 27. 1862. Coaipany I-Wdhlani Dav is, discharged liy order, a 30, i865; Peter Kleis, niustered ont, July- 8, i 86. rIVNINryFIi 1-0' INFiANiIAY. 1`ield and Stafj-First Lieiut. iid (. ) 1. M~artin 11. Follett, P'airplain; coniiiissioned, July:29, 1.802 resigned, I)ecemhber 14, 1863. timany-Gcorge \\:, i inctr mustered out, July i8, 1805; I'ihoiias J. li dl] died of discasc at Nav7al School Hiospitali Annaipolis, 31 rylaonl. 1 chruir-y i, 186)3; \Williani H11odges. di schairged for disabhility) 31a ix13 1864; \Wi~i~l P1. I-unIi, iiiiistcr-ed out, Juiie 8, 1804; Jaicoh Looni mustered ont, Jiiie 8, i86,5 Joliii L~ittle. Jr.. iiiisteredl out, June 8, i865 Serg Carlos D. Loring, mustered out, June 8, i865; Harvxey Noyes, died of dlisease at Gasllatiii Tcnnesscc, 1.Pehrtuar i 5, i863; Salnontel J. Noyes, discharigcd for disabihihty, February iT.5 1803. George B. 1Tvier, diselhar-ed tor disilility, March i9, 1863. Comipany C —Seconid T.ieti. Newell J. P rastt Corensilie, cominiissioiicrl, July i,i 1864; mustered out. Julie 8. i86y.. Second ILiciit James A. Kniilht. Greenville. co~iiiniss~inild \tI(IlSt 14 m862 resigned, 1Febre irv 1 3 i 86g Coin/panv I)tx s\I I itt, lied of disvise ii Savanna111 G~orgia, Felbmuary 4, 5860 Geor-e 1'. (Conanti dw d of diseise -it Muriifreesboiro Teninessee, April 7, i863, Pliiih dCIarr, dlischarged for (isabhilitv,.pril 24, 18((3; Reuhen (rut slev, nmlStered Out, June. 24,.86- fri 1Decker died of discset11 Nashville, Tennessee, 10(c ncib 21, T862 HemsI- M Ferns, niistered out. juiie 8S, i86-i; Iewis P. U1ller, dischar-cd for disailility- May 4, 1864; Lucius E. Griffith, ii osfuelIe to Veter-an Reserve (Corps; Dsh a ~le, (hscharged for disibilityI Alrcl 1~ 863- W~illiaon Toslin. died of diseise iear Clear Lake. MichigE~an. Fehri-r.1V 22i86,~ Plileiiis IKiihn. discharged foi clisahility,,. Augulst 2-2. 1863: Iliodore Lampi~niain. Imulsteredl oit. Tune T4, i865; MAichael -MCCabe. ninIerul- ou1t kI-n- 291 T86-: John TI. AMiller. diecharged for dlisahilitv, JannaMrx5 i86~-, W'illiam) N-oah. mustered out, June 8. i863; Mone C0sniaiu. niUSiCi-C 1 nt' Time, 8, 1863; Theodore Pxey-nolils. dlied of diselise at (hliitanoo-oi ITriiissee — anuiary' T6. s86~ ere Swigar, died of disease at ILotnuss lle, Kentuclev. N.ovemhier TO, 1862; Emiatiuiel Sanderson, mustered out, tte unic u8,6;; William H. Smith, mustered out. Tune. a 5. TIM; Jell Stewart01 1 dci iiizeel. Janulary T6. 1864: Hetnr\

Page  291 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 291 Tripp, mustered out, June 8, I865; Henry C. Worden, discharged for disability, February 26, 1863. Comlpany FI-Capt. Elijah H. (Crowell, Greenville; commissioned, July 18, J862; pronmoted to colonel, Novemlber I4, I864; mustered out as captain, June 8, I865. First Lieut. Robert MIooney, Greenville; commissioned, July 30, 1862; resigned, December 1, 1862. First Liett. Eben R. Ellenwood, Winfield; conmnissioned. Decenber I, I862; resigne(d, January 3I, 1863. Seond(l Iieut. 1Eben R.. Ellenswoodl, Winfield; commissioned, Julr o3, i862; promoted to first lieutenant, Iecember I, I862. Second Lieut. Johl-n 1I. Loasce, Eureka; commlissioned, December I, 1863; mustered out, June 21, 1865. Scrg. Enoch l. \Vilcox, Etureka, discharged for disability, lrel)lluary 28. 1863. Serg. Leonard Rossman, \Winfield; mustered out, June 8, j865. Serg. Thomas J. Potter, Eureka; mustered out, June 8, I865. Serg. Newell J. Pratt, Greenville; promoted to commissary sergeant, May I, 1864. Serg. VWilliam Kent, Fairplain; killed in action in North Carolina,.\ay 19, 1865. Corp. Johln N. Woodworth, Eureka; died at Nashville in 1862. (Corp. John 11. oase, TEureka; promoted to second lieutenant. Corp. John II. French, Cato; (lied at Detroit, May 30, I865. Corp. Byron W. Moore, Eureka; mustered out, July 8, 1865. Corp. Reuben W. Smead, Winfield; killed on Mississippi river. Musician Phineas Swift, Fairplain; discharged for disability, April 9, 1863. William J. Allen, mustered out. July r8, r865; Jiames R. Briggs, mustered out, May 22, 1865; Frederick Brant, mustered out, July 6, I865; John G. Brimmer, mustered out, June 8. <6,5; Johl S. Butler, died of disease at Nashville, Tennessee, December 9. 8g63; Francis Borden, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, January 15. 186- _ mustered outt, July 5, 1865: Henry Barden, transfcrred to Veteran Reserve Corps, August 12, T864; George W. Cole, transferred to Veteran lReserve Corps, Mav T, 1864; George S. Chandler, mustered out, July I8. 1865; Reuben S. Cowden, mustered out, June 8, 1865; Jacob Davis. mustered out. June 8. I865: Francis Darland, mustered out, June 8, T865; Johannas De Bree, discharged for disability, February 8, I863: Lafayette Foskett, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps; George Flake, mustered oult, July 18, I865; Benjamin Fordyce. nustered out, June 27. I865: Enos I-T. Goble, discharged for disability, February 14. I863; Richard H. Gibson, discharged for wounds, April 6. 1864; Jasper E. Giles, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, January 15, r864: David Gristwood, mustered out, July I8, T865; Hiram Gibson, mustered out, June I6, I865; George Hall, mustered out, July 18, I865; John Hunter, mustered out, July T8, I865;

Page  292 202 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. John House, mustered out, June 5, 1865; Henry Herrick, died of disease at Nashville, Tennessee, November 14, 1862; Henry H. Hamilton, died in action at Chickamauga, Tennessee, September 20, 1863; John A. Harris, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, January 15, 1864; George 0. Holinder, discharged for disability, December 4, 1863; Christenson Johnson, died in action at Stone's River, Tennessee, December 31, I862; Dallas Jenks, mustered out, July I8, I865; C. C. Johnson, mustered out, July I8, 1865; 1)aniel Judd, mustered out, June 8, I865; Jesse Kenosen, died of disease at Andersonville, Georgia, October I, I864; George W\. Keeler, discharged by order, May ii, I865; George Iaminberton, died in action at Bentonville, North Carolina, March I9, 1865; William Lamberton, mustered out, July I8, I865; William Lalmpman, mustered out, August 9, i865; Oliver Miles, Jr., mustered out, July I4, I865; Charles H. Meil, mustered out, June 8, 1865; Levi M. McOmber, died of disease at ILouisville, Kentucky, December 6, 1862; George Mead, killed by explosion of steamer "Sultana," April 28, i865; Martin IMcI)onIald, discharged for disability, January 22, J863; Chauncev H. Peck, died of wounds at Chattanooga, Tennessee, September 29, 1863; Nathaniel Pratt, (died of disease at ('hattanooga, Tennessee, November 18, 1864; James N. 'Powell, Iimustered out. July 18, 1865; Daniel B. Rust. discharged by order, April jo, 1863; Iewis Ruch, discharged for disability, January i. 1863; Seth ]B. Silith, discharged for disability, March I5, 1 863; 1.llsworth Smith, discharged for disabilitv, 'clbruar!y 1o, 1863; Ritner Skinl(r, discharged for wounds. April 6. 1864; Renssclaer \. Skinner, (lied of disease at Gallaitin. 'Tllleessee. TFelruary, 1863; James R. Squires, mustered oiut J Tulv T8, T<865 I lenr! Strope, mustered out. July i8, 186fS; Anldrew S\wift. ulistered out, J ul-v 18, I865; Daniel S. Severy, mustered ou1t Tiune (. 865 ----- Swarthout. mustered out. June 8, I865; Ilwardl Stralev, mustered out, Tune 8, 1865; \William Swift, mustered out, June 5,.1865,; ohn B. Thonipson, mtustered out, June 8, I865; Buel Towsley. discllalrged for disalility. I)ecembe lll r 2), T863; (hlarles M. 'I'ittle, dlisclhrged for disability, November TI, T862; Garrett T. Van Allen, discharged: Anthonv Van Stcc, died of wounds at Goldsboro, North Carolina, March 28, I865; Jeptha Vain W\ormcr, mustered out, July 18, 1865; Theodore \rakeman, mustered out, July I8, i865; John C. Wolverton, mustered out. June 8, T865': Oscar Weed nmustered out, June 5, I865; Enoch Wilcox, discharged for disability, February 28, I863. Company H-William R. Foote, discharged for disability, May T, 1863. Company 1-John M. Bevard, mustered out, July Io, 1865; James Car

Page  293 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 293 penter, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps; Burton Koop, died of wounds at Newbern, North Carolina, April 24, 1865. Colmpany K —Samuel Andrews, discharged by order, July 23, 1863; Samuel rAndrews, Jr., transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, January 15, 1864, mustered out, July 8, 1865; Corp. Julius T. Barrett, died in action at Stone's liver, Tennessee. December 31, I862; Hiram Barrett, discharged, May I8, 1863; L. M. Carpenter, mustered out, June 6, 1865; James Carpenter. lmustered out, July 18, I865; William H. Everest, discharged for disability, May IT, I865; George W. Gregory, died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, December 20, 1863; Sanford Himes, died of disease at Lookout MI1ountain. Tennessee, June 27, 1864: Corydon L. Hunt, discharged for disability. Ma y t, 1865; M. M. Proctor, transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps, April 30, I864, mustered out. June 30, 1865; Simeon Proctor, mustered out, June 16. 1865: Ebenelecr B. Shay, died of disease at Nashville, Tennessee. November 6, 1862: Nathanliel \rard, died of disease at Nashville. Tennessee, Novemlber 20. 1862. 'TWE'NTY-SIEVENT'H NFANTRY. o(,olpiaizy.-4 —V\'illiam F. F1all, mustered out, July 26, 1865. Coitpany E —Alfred R. Isham, nustered out. July 26, I865. Coimpauny F-T,alnsou N. Tshami. mustered out. July 26, 1865. FIRST' E.N(;TINEER: S AND MECTHANICS. C(i, iip1(y I. —loscs Burnett discharged by order, June 6, 1865; Bradford (. Dav is discharged by order, June 6, I865; Ira D. Elsworth, discharged bl order, June 6, 1865'; Boughton Goodsell, discharged for disability, May iv, 18656; Henry Kent, discharged b1y order, June 6. I865; Albert \VI. L]obdell, dischargeld b order, June 21, 1865; Nelson J. Mcintosh, discharged lvy order, J1me (0, S6; ' \\esley H. Philips, died of disease at l)uncan's Bridge, South tCarolina, 1Feblruary 6, I865; Elisha Robertham.t discharged by order, June 6, T865; Jacob M. Swarthout, discharged by order, June 6 1865; Aizariah Soule, discharged by order, July 21, 1865; Arnold \V. Terry, mustered out. September 22, T865; Cornelius Vanstee, discharged bv order, June I, i865. Company B — Allen Barnes, discharged bv order, June 6, 1865; Augustus Colfren, died of disease at Savanaah, Georgia, January 28, 865; 'Saterlee Solon, died of disease at (Chattanooga, Tennessee, February 29, 1864;

Page  294 294 294MOINTCALMI COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Newell Slawxson, dischaIrged at end of service, October 31 1864; Htnry S. Sanford, discharged( by order, JulyN 7. 1865~; Isaac Underw-ood, ciscb Irge(1 for disability, JIItc 20o i865. C onipafly D —( haIrles Mlacombler, clischarged at elnd of service, October 31 1864. CompanV 1-Serg. Samuel M. Waters, Montcalm; dischao ged at. end oIf sersiceOctober 31. T86j1. NMartin V. Feagle, (liscbargedl at end of surviceOct0 ober 31 1,j864 Jollu Nichols. Iliscllrgell for clisal.ilitv, loIv -8, i862: I rederick Roimr~k. uiscbhlr-ed at end of service, October 31, 1864- 1) Ilil~ I. Spencer, dtscbarged -It ndil of service. Octohl-e 331, 1864. 101111 V\ V IlrIbie, discha rI-edl at dnd of sers ce, October 31, 1864; Samu~el AL4 Wlaters. dischal ged at end (If service, I tobei P1 18(114- jason W4estover, dliselarge(l It (11( (If service,. Octob~er 21, 1864- SV Is steliAA ' llS, dilscbarged at end of srvccl October 31, 1864. Conollnv F — — WIilliaml ( oInistock, mulstered out, September 22. 1 865~ El11a C~bIomstock, mu~lsteredl (1111, Sept11111r 22, 186.5 jImes 1-osnier, innis1(1(11 Ou~t Septelniber- 22. i86. -,Samulel F. Owen, discharged by ordler, May 9p 1865 I ewis,: I-I. Ilailsome (11(d (If disese a5 t Sava11111lb Georgia, January 11. 1862 C omflp (ln; ---Frederiek Gr01venlberl (isch11 ed byv order, Tone1 1o, Companv K ---Robert F. Williams. mustered out, September- 22. T86;~. ComnPany I-Ireemnan IIrOWn. discharged by order. May 23. 18965; iLeandeer Roscerans, (lischlargedl ly order, Mal, T 8, 1865; Richard Smitb, discharged] iy order. Jun~e 6, 186.5: Asa Sinclair. discharged 1yw ordler. August 4. T 86s: Alvin S.'. WNatson. discharged byv order, Juine 6. 1865: Robert G. YTellng, discharged iy order, June 6, 1865. Conmpany, M —William- Wig rins, died of disease at Bridgeport. Alabama. March 10. 1864. F~izIT (TN ITE'D STATIES ST1ARPST-TOOTERS. Comi'anv C~-A.lvin Smith, died in action at Chancellorsville, Virginia. May 2, T863. COMpany I —Joshuia Rogert, died of disease at Washington, D. C7; Orrin Knapp, died of disease at WNashington. D. C.. March TI. 1862; ILnrenzo 0. Smith, dlied of disease at WNashington. D. C.,.,Mar-ch 25, 1862.

Page  295 MIONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 25 295 - FIRST CAVALRY. Company F-Silas iterk, died of disease at New Mlarket, Virgin'ia; William 1i. Costello, discharged 1w order, Jtme 15, i865. Coinpany 1f —Wallace R. Page, mustered out, March 25, T866. Ctoo1pirnll /.-W~illiiinl f1. W~oodardi. (Iied of disease at tort Leaveilworth, October 8. s868. MECOND CAVALRY. Cootpanox ( I lbe R Delano, (lied of disease at Nashville, Temiessee, July 14, 1864. COMiPnv F —( Iir Is Bariruiom dlischr-erdc for disability, July i6, 1862; 10111 (. 1 Imress, vteranizyd, bunt iry 1,863, mustered olut, August 17, i86~ George Cor1bin, discharged for disabhulitv, Dwvight F. Devendorff, discharged for (lisabll)It Emerson IT. Gallea, dischalrgedI for disability, -December 27, i8962 George xossminai dischirged for dis'ability, April 3. 1864; Hien y B, Williams, discharged foi- cisability, December 27, 1862. C oniui/ani I -Viflitnm S. Striker, mllsttred out, August 17, 86,. THIRD) CAVALRY. Coiupanv Dt-VFdwin A. Berry, discharged for disability; James H. Hamilton, discharged at eud of service,, October 24, i864; David TF. Johns011 v eteranized, January 1 9, i864, mustered out, February I2, i866; William H. Stalcy, veterallizecl, January 19, 1864, mustered out, September 23, i865 'Squire W. Wheeler, discharged for disability, October 13, i862. 6ostPanv I Richard IL. 'Merritt, died of disease at Lagrange, July I, i 862, SIXTH CAVALRY. C ompany 1) Williami S. Smith. discharged for disability, August i, 1 8631 Company I Thomnas Dickenson, died of disease at hospital in Maryland, March 8, i865; John J. Hlammel., mustered out, November 24, 1865; \'Vilhjam 11h111ev, imisterecl out, May 15, i86-. Company C Enoch V1 King. mustered out'. February i6, t866. Company K-William H. Woodward, died of disease at Fort Leavenworthi October 8, i86;.

Page  296 296 296 MONTCAL M COUNTY, MICHIGAN. TENTH CAVALRY. Ficld and Staff-lMaj. Harvey bK Light, Eureka; captain of Company M, July 25-, i863; comminissioned major, January s, i865; mustered out, November ii, i865. A,,sst. Serg. WVilliam 1). Scott, Greenville; commissioned, Juily 7, 1863~; usustered out, N~ovenmber II, i865. Comnpany A-Jacob (.rmnan, munstered out, November if, s86.5; John J. Riley, discharged for disabibity, lDeccinber 2~6, 1864. C'onpanv B —First ILieuit. Nelson Robinson, Eureka; comniissioned, August 3, 865; mustered out, NovembIer is i 86, Tohsn A rntz, discharged, December 1, 1863'- Robert _Farri iiisteredl outi Novemiber ii, i86s~. Comipany3 C, —Thomas I'. Dunn, ntustericd outit ovmbr ii, 186,5 Nathan Nichols, mustered outi N,\o\ emlier ii, i865 ComPanv D-O0id Harris. Jr. dischar'ed 1y ordlcr, June 17. i86,~ 1ra ii. arveev, killed at A sMrluinsvile \ V'r'na, Ap il 8, 1863-: illiamt H. Printler, dlischargcel by order, Au~gust 22" OM-, T homias Snow, discharged by ordcr, June 1 7, s86'5 J. 1" 11101nell ilisichar edl Iw\ order, Ju~ne 1 7, 1865. Company BE( ipt- Iari'ey F. JLigt 1,'ineka scoiiiiissionedl August 10, 1863; promoted to in ijoml Jnmuary s, iTi,86 Secotie ieut. Nelson Roliinson, Jr., Eutinka ientered service,!\itlst 20, T86- is Sei geant ITenth C asalry; conminissioned, jaitul- i 6. 186,S proimoted to fiust lie itenant ( 01-111) mv El, Augutst -, i 86, nitisti ici out. N o\enilie ITs i 86,; 1irst Sera IEnierv, J. fBlaicliin.,\\iteieiisd \n'nsti~ - i86 is ser-cant ( ominpii \ Tenth ( a:waliry poi oiite il to second lienit e iimt onipaliv I, Septembii( 2, i86; iiustereil mit, N usenilar r i s86,; Serg W illiam tI i ibl enlisted', Aut1 list 31. i86: initstereil out, N ov merifTT 1865~ Scrg. Johnson 13. Reed, Pierson; enlisteil A\tctSt 31, 1863, musteredl Out, Novenliber-,, 86. Corit IlenrsN I) Drlim'g Fvei 'reen: enlisted. Anuigst 18. i86,3 mustered oit, October 20, T86,; ( iirpi Edwin A. Berry. Fairplain; enlfisted, September 8, i,86i: died of idisease in Keiitmckyx T ebiiutry i6, i86t. Farrier Alfred V. Toosa 1 ticka 1 1 ilisted, October 20o 1863: nitistereil oset, November 1T T 86,s BeV agonei Ie t-i Spi tilelin-, Vilrekin: enlisted, Augutst 25, 1863; dischaigeil for ilisability April 26 i864- Alfred A~lmvy elischarged by order, Septenib~er TT 86x~ Anson TiucI discharged 1y order, Febrciary 20, i86~ I Lewsis Bigbone. nmtistereel oitt November T1, 1865; Charles Barnum. mustered out, Noxvemiber TT, i86: Cadeli Barnes, innis

Page  297 MIONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN.29 297 tcrtd outi Novemuber 1 TI 1865;John I.I Cll rk, nustered out, Novemiber s s,. i8o,5 Elijah Ciatrr, muistered out, _\ovember IT, 1865; james F. Douglass. musteredl out, Mta),s iS 65; Jamels _NT 1Furguson, mnustered out, November II, 18(~ Thbonas Gormuan, discharged by order, June 17, i865; Orrin flubbaird, discharged bo oriler )"iie 4, 1 6-; lenjamin. Hewitt, mustered out, Noveniher ii, 86,; ( burchill Kilburni discbarged by order, June i7, itS651 ('Is ii les Atii Moon, 11dbishrged liy order, julne (7, i865; Eugune F. Mtc'Giln (ii dd of (listeise it (.11111) -Ne(1s01, Kentucky, Januiary 23, 1863~ Akexander \lt Kehieex diud ot disease ait Knoxville, Tennessee, June 25. 1864' Jer omie P onlttr inn1isterd olit,'o NOembir 23, i86-; George HT. Rose, dischirged b~y order, J1iie. 2) T86;- hi iddlok Sliow, liscbarged 1y order, Tune 2q. t86~ Vi1111in TTI Sa tIr died of disease at Knoxville. Tennessee, [fune i 864; (,cdu S111 sth dieid of tlise ist at Detroit, Michigan, Februarv j86iS6 Deni is Saitttrltee mulstelred out, NovemberT It, i865, Urias Stout, nioisti rtl out, 's\ov ernie TT, T86,~ Stephen Skeels, mnnstercd out, Nosvenmber i,i 86. 8 (3eor, t I. Wh etler. mutstered out. N_\osember it, i865. iinpaitv FI Setond i ew. 1Emor x J Blaiding, Greenville; conitmissoio d, Septeimber 2' T(8z: iis tere(-1 out, N osvtmber.1 T, iT86; Samuiel Spen-. ceec mutstered o111 Oc tobeir.1 86, 0111 tany G-Ffturs \ Allen, di scbared ftir disabilitvy Samuel 'B. Carpenter. mutsteretl out, N.o\vemi-nhr TIi 1-865 lellev Ft. ]French, mustered ouit, Novemiber 11, 1865 Janies N.'. Onrcttt mnustered out. MaV 27, i865; Oliver Price. mustered out, Sep~ti nilis T1 1865, Jackson Riker, nmtistered' dint, November iT, T86,~ Dan;uiel I' Stokes, mustered out, NovemberIT j86; Riluel 'Fowiey, ninusterel out, Noivember TI, i86i5. Coniipany H-j-ohn Deceri diedt of dise 'se at Grand Rapids, Mliehigall. December 12, i863. fotiipaiiv 11-joinathan T. Goirtoil died of disease at Camp Nelson. TKentuckv, Febiruary IT, 1864: Delos Pircee died of disease at Grand Rapids. MXichigan. Ntivember 23. 1863. Coni/'av M ---ijlliam Jones, mutstered otit, November IT, i86,S; Stephen Sharpe. discharged. Ap~ril 14. 1865~: Daniel 'Shook, discharged by order. August 30. 1865.FIFTH INFANTRY. Corn/ia-nv E-41-oniler C. Mu11tnson. dropped from rolls while prisoner of

Page  298 298 298 MTONTCAI.NT COUTNTY, M1ICHIG(AN. T'ENTH INFANTRY. ciomnpan~y At ---Charles lest, miustcred out, July 19. 1865. C0o11pany C —Jerome Ililliker, mutstered out, July 19, 1865.Compainy E-J'anes \Walker. mustered out. -July io, i86~.9 TVE'LFTH INFANTRY. C-omPany L) ---T1homoas Li"eimuett, dischargedl by order. October I3. 186 -Solomou Sher-ood0( discharge bym order. O ctober 53, 1865. Comapau, E \territt fIaleck, dischurged by order, October 13, i86~.S Coompauy F-lobhs B1 \. 'ther ly, dischairged at end of service, Septem11cr 9), i8t). TIliliFNTIT INFA' ITIY. Cioopaluy 1)-l\1k \\ew-allen, dtischa'rgedl by order, Julne i, i865. Coompaluv I Cscar 1'. Ilettt, died 01 actiou at Chickamauga, Teunessee, 'September io, i86; An-\dre i ttle veteranized, Jauuary i8, 1864, 1I1'5 -tered out, July - i86W - Augtustus Wiser, \eterauized, Jauuary i8, 5864, cliselsarged b order, \u utst i, i865. Co-,mpanv G-ILora t Jeuks vcierauizedt, Jauuary T89, 186,5, uustered.outt1,February 2.,i 6s hORellNuTT TNFANTRY. Com11panyt I IFranuis Stron' timusteredi out, Jcdy i8, i86.5 Abraliam V\.an I-orn. multsteredl out, July)18, i86~s Com~pany B A'dath Johus, ditschargedl by order, Jutie s, i865 Nathan ii. Scott, intistere(1 out, July 8~, 1865. Company C —David Bo rgen, mtutstered ouit, July IS, i865. ComPany L) —ienry Bump, died oif disease at Fort Schuyler, New York, January i i, i865. Company E-Albert Washburn, mustered out, June 15 i86i. Comipany F-John Fields, museteredi out, July i8, 1865; Horatio Kibby,,discharged for. disability, July s, 1862; LeWis J. Moore, mustered out, July s8, i865S; Daniel Youngs, died of dIsease at \Villet's Isand,, (New York Harbor), May 23, i865. Comnpany H-Jamies P. Neve, mustered out', July i8. s865~.

Page  299 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 299) Company I-Robert Jenks mustered ouit, July, i8, 1865; Luther Jenks, imustered out, JulV T8, 1865. TWENTY-SIXTH INFANTRY. Conipany D-1 ---mauuiel Hissing, discharged for disability, August 8, 1 863. Fisl.1S t1(1CHlAN SHIARPSHOOTERS. Compauvy II- Jamles 101hiueholt, (liedl of (lisease at Andersonvillc, Georgia. Scptemiber 8, 1.864. ONE 11i-INDRED AND SEICOND 'N'ITED STJATE'S COLOREID INFANTRY. (iompauv E —Jereemuab Read, dlied of disease, September 29. i865; Elfijah Read, diedl of disease at Orangeburg, South Carolina, June 27, i865. FOUR1TH CAVALRY. (onzPanyv A ---Alexauder C. Lemuau, died of disease at Nashville, Tenuessee,, November 27, 1863. FIFTH CAVAL.RY. Comipany A' —Edo'in A. Wheatou, nmustered out,, June. 22, i86~.. SE-VENrTH CAVALRY. ComPany D-Stcpheu Aldrich, usustered out, July 10, 1.865; David mriiner, died of disease at Frederick, Maryland. December 22, 1864. ComPana' E —Francis F. Hawkins, mrustered out, July 222, i865.

Page  300 Cl IA I ' l R XXVI. I)I'iCA'I1();.I I INTIERESTS. Ihe educational chapter of any community begins approinmately at the same tilne as tllhat of the settlement of tile conilnniti-. '.i'is is true in practically evcry instance iln the settleileent of a new countl. Our p)ioneers, althoug-h nlot havinig the facilities w\ith wlhich to acluirc edulcation, were very eager that their offspring slhotitld ni(t be handicapped in this way. With the bieginlling,i) each settleleit (as soon( as there were as many as fromi seven to twelve or fifteen cllillh-en, a small school house was either erected or school was keplt illn rivate fa;ilies. T'Fh carlv school history of Allontcalm coiity (lenlanl(ls inl(cre than a imc;ao'er (lescriPtion of the early log school housC anil the su1111tou1m1llro lin'S hiicli it that tinme \\were par-t of the e(lucational systelis. letelizimg1 the liI-t \\llicl tile one-r i:):iii log school house p)layedl in laying the founlllldtioll fi(r oiir I)present SChool system, it seenis no Imore than right that considcerat ion shotlld l)e oix ve to thle first school or schools ill each t Twusliip. The follovinig w ill give the lhistory of the first schools ill each of tIhe tw\\elty too\\lshilS uof 'olltcalll collllty.1'.lVI F )VX.DRI' SCHOOLS. The first schlool held iln Telvi(lere township was taught in the sumllr er of IG868. In the spring of this saume year the first school district, which complurisecl onle-fourth of the towniship directly south of the center, was set off, a nleetilng called and the nlecessary officers elected. The rough boards of which tile schoil houise w\\as lm(lc were liought with money raised amion the inlhal)itants 1by suilscriltion. Wlieii the material ha(l been collected and the shakes foi- the rooif lprelmaredl, the inhlabitants assemtlled and the work of constructio1n was of short lluration. This house stood near the south quarter plost on sectiont 22. TIhis district and that included by Six fakes w-ere the only whole school districts formled in this township at all early date, colnsiderablle territory! lieing attacheil in fractional school districts to other townshil)s.

Page  301 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 3o0 BLOOMER SCHOOLS. As to where the first school in Bloomer was held or by whom it was taught, there is much dliversity of opinion anl contradictory statements. It seems that il the fall or winter of 1852-53 Alvira K. Miner opened a school in the little log cabin built by her father upon his settlement in the township, lie in the meantime having erected a more commodious one for the family. The names of the pupils in this school were E1nmma G. IHarley, Martha Wilsey, Bertram \\ilse, (Olive M\iner and Onella lHawley. The next summer the settlers who lived in the eastern part of the townslhip held a school meetilng and concluded to luilt a school house. They accor(lingly put up a log building, which was nearly square (about twelve feet). It hald two half-winilows, or single sash of six lights each. The benches were split froii basswood logs, and set uti on pins. It had a fireplace, such as was common in those days, macde of stones and mud, and a stick chlinner on the outside. Alvira Miner was secutre(l to teach this school also, anil it is said by soime that she received one dollar per week for her services, but others seemr to doubt the ability of the early settlers to raise so munlificent a sum. The next term was also taught by her. She was much esteemed as a teacher. The same snnmer when Mliss lMiner talug-ht her first school in this cabinl the spirit of cnterprise seized the settlers in the vicinity of Miner's Corners. A school meeting was called, Andierson Miner was elected director. while David Siebrig and lMark \Vilsey were calledl upon to fill the responsiblle positions of mioderator land assessor. It was then resolved to build a school house. Accordingl]y, a bod(l of logs was raised, making a roon sixteen byl twenttv feet. It \was finished mulch after the description of that in the east part of the toswnship. \lhich vwas luilt first it is impossible to say definitcly, but it was prolbably the one at the center. The first teacher was Rlutlh )o(lge, froim Tonia county. Bt 'SIlIl I. SCHIOOLS. At a meeting of tle school board, held on April Io, J850, district No. was formed bv Chaunceyv N. Olnstead and William Husker, members of the board. This district comprised sections 20, 21, 22, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33 and 34. A school house was soon after built on the farm of Joseph Stevens, lust south of the south branch of Prairie creek. This school house served

Page  302 302 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. the purpose of toown house, meeting house, etc., for the whole township for a nulmber of years. rlle first election held in this huilding was for the purpose of electing county andl state officers on the Ioth of November, T850. Ja;ne R1ansoml, whose people had settled in Ronald, lonia county, taught the first school in ullshnell. P'ttrstuant to an applicationi of persons interested, on November 12, I852, the school boardl again mett and set off district No. 2, which included( sections 13, T5, 23, 24, 25, 26. 35 and 36. It will be seen that this district included( all the settlemenits in tlhe township) east of Prairie creek. A school house \'was immedliatelv built of logs on tle northwest corner of the northeast qultarter of sectioll 25, anid for a number of vears served as a meeting house for all denominations, and filled a wan.t. on this side of the stream. similar to the school Ihouse oi tile other side. District No. 3 was forimed(l vth the ltoalr on the I7th of Novembcer, 1853. at shich time it coimprised sections 5, 6, 7, 8, 17. 8 and the westeri half of sectiolls 4, (i anld 16. On tle 8th of l)ecember, following, the boardl set off district No). 4, which include(l the southwestern part of the township. Its hounitdricr.s \ere soo1n more or less chan-nged, as were those of the other districts. Thle recco)rl of exau;lllinatio(l bears date of Noveiml)er 8, 1854, at which time Joseph \V. MTetcalf an1d.utli:a Coates aplpliedl and were given certificates. A report, entered oln lelbruar1v 10. i855, shows that schools had been tautght in districts I, 2 andl;. Tt also indicates the apportionnent of the mill tax in the several districts to have been as follows: District No. r receiveld Si8.o: No. 2, $8.53; No. 3. $ T.6o. The numbher of children attending in district No. i \was 6o; in No. 2, 20; No. 3, 37. CATO SCiHOOLS. In tile year 1857, after the organization of Cato, that part which constitutes the present tovwnship was divided into two school districts, which prolbably colmprise(d the greater portion of its inhabitants, although the ibollndaries of these districts caolllt now b)e definitely stated. They were, however, n l-bered T an1d 2, accordilng to the timie when they were organized, >but it is believeil that school was first opened in dlistrict No. 2. The inhabitants in (district No. i, which at that timie comprised the northwest portion of the town, Imade a bee, anld with their united effort a school house of logs, twenty-two ib twenty-four feet, was soon erected on the north part of the land owned by James Edgar. Mary Hull, the daughter of

Page  303 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 303 lliram Hull. s\ho settled in the township the year previous, taught the first scihool here. Shie also taught several other terms, and subsequently died of c' )sllst1Mption. Inl district No. 2 tile school holse, which the leople also built, was of a more primitive pattern. It was ma(le of logs, ibut the roof was covered with l;hark, and the floor across tle road from the site now occuplied by the school Ihouse in this district. The first teriii was taught by PIearly Galleo, who had come to the township a short time previous. She taught three months, and it dlefault of Imoney sufficient to pay her pittance for these services, she rcceived a calico dress hought for her by the director of the district at (;reenville. She returned to her formier hoime in Ohio. The following are the namies of the scholars who colmpose(l this school: ( lara (Gallco, Elizabeth Taylor, Phlele Butler, Samutel J. Youngman, Ells\ortll (;alleo, Uriah V. Struker. School district No. 3 was set off b)y the school iboarld on the 7th of Ml:rch. T858. It at this timte inclt(le(l the southeast quarter of the township blutt no actionl w\as taken l)! the inhaltitants to organize, and no school was,l)ened1 here ttnttil some years after. These school districts have all been rearranged from time to time. CRYS'TAL.-, SCHOOLS. n1 the fall of 1856 a school lmeeting was calledl at the house of.Ephraim l atfiell. and after some preliminaries he was chosen director. There is no record of tilis meeting, and the personis elected to fill tlle other offices of the district are no(t -)now\ known. A vote to build a school house prevailed, and it was deciled to build it on the northwest corner of the southeast quarter,if section 34. This lantd at tilis titme was ownell by Jamnes Fleck, from whom it was leased. The pleolle were not taxed, )but nemllers assembled and built i house of logs;tlaout tweinty feet square, with two win(lows, a fireplace, and;l door in the side. In the fall the first term of school was conmmenced l)v Maria Tindsay. Slhe taught three months, and receive(l two dollars and a half per week and I),artlede arolund in the (istrict. T lie school was not large, nulmbering about twelve at most..Miss Lindsay sul)sequently taught one term in Gratiot t-lnty. an(l was married to HIenry Gee. TIhey settled in the village of C'r-stal, where she died and where ATr. Gee resided for a long timle. The follo(ing summer Anna Richardson, whose parents were early settlers of I:looer, tatught one term in this house.

Page  304 ,304 ~304 ONTCALM COUTNTY, MIC11iGAN. The first school in the northern part of the towniship. weas tanight by I'veline 1R001, whose pareits wvere residlents of -Bloomer township. A log cabin had 1beens iearle compl1leted liy a mail who hail ire-ensjtedl the southwest qunarter of the northwest quarter of section. It stood on the rise near the line of the slection. jnst north of the little stream that crosses the road sea lv. \nohe trm astaglst in thsis cabinl by MIaria Ward. Previon to this tinse J ohn \V. Snmiths aiid tlse inhsabitants of tlsis neighborhsood islet aisi laid isp tse. bsody of it Icg hsouse ticar the road (o5 Ise nortls part of sect1i~i5 29. btut as thle coutist school sere wvas abanidonsed aisd the chijldreis of this district who were Iliro-e cisoistib attensdedl sesool i the [Itsrke (district..\ selsool was opessed here, however. Ill aiosit two years. DASY 5C loots. [is the spring of silbf6 the selsool bcoard forosed the siortliwest qtsarter of the township iiito a slciolA idistrict. Thae first school mseetinsg wvas seld at the hotise of 1.1. 1K. \V.. Palimer, lie beiisg choseis cirectcir, atid Sanistiel BLUts. moderator: M~arcelltos liainier. assessor. Thse first school was tatighit by Ni rs. 11 L F. W\. laliner is ass Unioccispied coons of Iser clwellliisg. Arrangeiieists wsere iiade to 1. ild a Ilog; schtool soiise, bitt the iiotioin was recotissicered 1y a vote of thic district, aisd it w is decidid to erect a. flassieI One. whichs was aLCCordihissv dn.Tcse dteim sshIowevter, wvas tati-ls t 1v Lolenina Paliser in the log Isouise of Sasusl Ibutts, before thse sclsool Isoisse was coissliletetI. Shte buecasie lie Nvif of (it I MI Mallett. 'Fhe seconsd selsool wa-,s taught Iis the isortlseaiSteris irs of t Ie towiisslip lust. asi the inlsabitatssi msostly sisoi after msosved ass as thb uistrict forisatioss seas~ dropsped. The fractiuusal school list Oct it Stl sti is ivs ssext perfected. LiotLAS,S 5 CHiOOLS. Oss the s 7th Of Seputemiber, i863 tlse first school sseethisg of Doug-lass coiseened at tile schocol hoissi whiscs \\ as it thsis tisie iii hiroicess of btuildinsg, oO sectis o ). Thsis towisshsip v'1 h llle r seimiliered, yet fornised a hart of Pinse, atid the school oIscise Isaol bei itsmuilt thurotig-h the direction of thse school hoard cif that tuiwnshipi. At thse us titsg r eferred to twii new settlers who had jiist reachedi the towis that hiy isire piresenst, S. L. Smsiths and Aarois Htunt. The hitter was electeil dihsietori the former -assessosr, aisd Benajah Perseiss, suoclerator. S. IT, Sisiths was siubseqpsently elected director, and serveid isise years.

Page  305 MIONTCAL'M COUNTY, MICHIGAN. P5,' No arrangemients for a school were miade until the next spring, when k~r. HuStnt canvassedl the townshiip andi found it practicable, the settlers subscribing one (loli]lr per scholar for the pnrpose of employing a teacher. As there were biit seven ptidils in the eistrict the stini was not large. beth Aldrich was ctigaged to teixch. for which the (hstrict agreed to ipay one eollar andl lifty cents per week, h)oard not iitcluded. Tile pupils' names wvere Mlargaret \idrrichi. Phoebe Snmth, L\,roti Smithi, Albert.-I tint, Cornelius H1 art, W-Ida \Vh1ititore ait gi~ies W~iititore. Miss Aldrich. at the time.she tattgltt this scit ool, was Sixteettl years of age. Site taetghtt three monttls, the iareuits in the elistrict tnakint- til) by sitbscritption the necessary fund. Site waxs also eiiipixioyed to teaeli tite next schoo)l here, vwaes leintg inctreasedl to tw) lolldar i ald hfty c( uts px r wecek. Site sitibseqtienuty biecanie the xxife of. \. 1li<obix. Tilie nc\lt sc ito)if was opiened iii listrict No. 2, a lug sch1ool house ixeln hulllt thlrcn xi I88. It stood0(1ex the iortliwest qluarter of section I uIe ws x cr lIt i~ s dwelling- house. iThe (irst terti was tatiglit bv Vn ( orx 'I'l buxlldillo' Was tisei tmitil 1876, wten a new ote xas cretetd. Til In 5( tol blxxxixltxx ill listliCt \O. T \Vas Ixiilt in 878. F7\1'iCA 5C1100(tt5. li11 Scpxtcniilr I.4. I 8;w' thei townslilp of Eureka orgaiiizedl ilistricts 4 "d11( 5 \oX0, 4 xx orxtlaiditCd to cont-tain site sotith half Of section 27, the souith fi;llf 54 th2 oxttlt hlalf (If 20), tite sotit0 Ital-lf of 3o, tte whole of sec1) P,3 t.33 d 34, oil thle west half 3xf. N'x. 5 coitained sections 21 and 2'tie ixort0 It tl xe's of 27.7 28. 2() a11n 30,;ml tte Sotith halves of 1() itxld 20 FVF.t`x;it-,t:N seitOOtS. lit tile 'd (If ()etoler, 1856, Ira kRvxer, iii couipiliatice wxith a resolettixxo passedi at the hrst scltoxxl mieeting in LRvergreen, adtllressed a letter to \Willians ['Itinesev, co tmanditxhi hittl to nIxatify tle qualified electors interested tltat tte lixoirxl hiJl fxrinedh a schxool eistrict to he kitowxn as school dhistrict Nxx). I, aind to include sectixotS it, 20, 21, 28, 29, 30, 3i. 32 and 33. 'it(e lirst iteetinge of tte district wxas appoinuted to be teld at the house of 1oixert Btennett, on tte lti of Noxeuttler, Tu8s6. There were then five voters in tile district, as appear's front the returit letter, wtich asserts that the followxxing talnield parties were persiuiallv notified of said meeting: Ira Ryder, \\illiam Mdorgant, tChiarlcs Richardson, Robert Bennett and William Phin

Page  306 P6 306 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. esev A the meeting held in aiccor(Ila'ce With this notice, it wais unaniiouinlv, resolved~ to have a three-nionthis' school iy a female te cher. Another mleeting- was hield on the 22(1 of Noveinher, and the site seP itt t upon which stands the school house. hin accordance wvith a vote of the (listrict, neat framed school llt)i5e. which cost sic Iiiindietl anil seventv tie do(1011s1 was erecteil lie Charles II. Riandall. Upoii its compilletion, Marla \\ hiti was employedI as teacher, hier School umhmerin- six scholars. i presenting three faniilies. TIheir ieoues were Louisa AMorgtani Il rri ffa AM1(11 1 1Theodore -Phinlesee. Joln Ihinlesce. H attic Iteluitt and D avid Bennett. She rec 1 ved oiic~ di llar and li ftv centsr ter week. whlich for her servicts ~Ilonoiit(et to six (dollars from each family. Miss \'Vhilte suhseqieiith htca ou the wi ft of N itha in eaK th iind lived ill Rolaiid. lie nlext s~chool ol tlus distri~t t\V.L t M~lit lv Malv iiax dahaii, woo taughlt a numher of i eriil Ill -in iccessioii xSlii let nlit tim \Ix1ft of Jaimes Donavan, aiit lived ill Bloonit. School (listrict No. 2 WI toi mid snei vears 1;iter- and nochited the territory in the vicoits4 of \[titd latc "I lit ii dobt iiitS it 01iii e'Ciutid it tog schoiol moose, anld thle itistrict I ae~ c(.imtomeil withi dillgit chaties toi the preent tii ic. The setiiiteastero pari t tftlie ti xownhipi xwis tinrmeet iit a f raetional school district with the alpiii townis Inl ii e uiti it i tol hle s"iiiiiiit of it 47 Ilit tit zeis if thec no0rtliwest part if the townlship decideid to rai a a(tl di in accoridaiice with thlis rt'siiltioi thev meit aiii tiiiilt siii ill cait ofx liiirids. ott the smiittixest quarter (f sectitni5osiit the 1lc t oxxsv ocpitd lli a schii1(ol h uise ottI sectiont 7. and A lice \A leon~ si ISc tp (pl ltotive in Fmureka. wvas seciureud as a teachier. She afterwardls liicame the Nxifc o I Alyeroii Bilrlee. \As has teen saull, the biuiltdiug wsa a lIuttlc fi ott Si tl-It ur indl stoel) oii the corener oif tue smithiwecst qbuarter if sec tion whlerc it was uised a ntimbier oif terms. Bitt,oittiiiocil addhitionis tio thit xichool sooii rei-thereul a larger room necessary, aint a nea't frame. 1 iiildiii10 Wx terecettd o-n (lt' saute site. titl( i itimoe heing tiirii dlown. This xv as not, ]liiwvt c, ciiisideireid a favorab le site for a schoiil hous'e. otthe grind imiiino ottcuitiedl wa stlteteth anil tile school mouse moveti friim its out location to thit new where it wvas subhseituently butrnedi, after which the ione noiw stauntdini wias buiilt. A little later, In the sanle summiner, a hoard

Page  307 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN.30 307 shianty w~as erected ne ir the site now occuipiedl by the school honse ott seetiOll 2,11111 ( taroline ~Vt leo'x tau ht in this huildiing. 1 ariv in the sprin, ot I 848 John and( Glibson Uargo. hrothers, huilt the III-St Olilstalltal S(1001 ilolise inl the township. The lumher for it caine fromt Greensv IIIIIIt.ilte ttrolitne Wilcosx also taught tile first scilool ill t i's htniding it AvaIs Imp)0rtanit Ilit the eainy affairs of tile. townsilip as hejing the place of holdin- all tile electio01s 1n(1 politticlti mleetiilgs of tiote, as wvell as ibeing a. itlatt of wort 1h11 for tile vaInms religiotts tlenonnniatioils, who were enleatvorittg to establllsh their r esptttiv e societies iii tile townshipil. It was known for t11lils1V i fto a)1 1 ilera coa(l~t of redl paintt whicih it receiv(elI. as tile 'tell Scil()l 0Hiouise.' It sto~doti Oland1( o\tlti ity 'Josephi Ritissell, Onl tile, West line( Of section 20. thottt eltght\ rolls Iortil Of till(' itarter po —st, attd was1 ilestrovel lby tire itt janniary s t86. Jatol Kimg tIlts thle hirst nilale teaciler ill tile towshtipil. 1Ice tatigilt in this hoiildling dttrlittg tile winter of 1 848-4). Jailles SI1(1V, Whse atglit tlt ht ie hirst school i tile winter of i 849~o-.5o later ttovtet tot ~(irlml Rapttds Strait. janie iR~snitttsseit was1 aniotig tile earls' teacilers, Valid iter sistcr, Mirsrv w5h11 also tatight. imarrieti Itndt remtosetd tt Ness Vork. it will1 he sceti. therefore, that peitolls to the ttrgatlization of towin Q ilortil r-ltl',re 7 ssest, titere itac ilecil several terttls of school taigltt and several tltstrtcts ftormtlIec wilille it was yet'a part of tite tosviishiil (If Mloitcalll, stAltIith It tll t tithe reallv itcldelttit the iNvhole couitlts. lltI wihet the iloartd ilet at the hitte (If i Dtse l tolet 011 tit 21)tit Of Aptril. t 850, they made 50111 It 'di-lt eltatt-es Itn tile 1hotttidaries olf Ithest, (listricts ailt ttimiitereti thentt atc111 ltttg Ito tile titl(itt SIll \1ich thtes ssere fortmed.'' Titus district Not. tttcltttdet stttt llms (S,. auttI listrict NO. 2 Inclueitlit SeetiOtls 17, 18. i 9, 20, 2t). 0. iThesc tltstricts tsecre first set o~ff hs tile comtytt school ittarti in 18.1.7, 111(1 titt ttrst schilols twere tatigilt as btefore stated. At tihis ftrst. meettig, (It tile stc111(0 1 oardi 14airlplaitl a petitiomi.sigited its Freenltit A. Detktr, Oltiver Dtecker. Fdwsarti Decker, Jesse- Decker, Josepih Decker, Ehbette7er 5 115er titt I eittier It. Jetnks, wtas presenteti, andi iil comtplianifce with it tilt' 110~l tf ortied tiistrict Ntt. 3. tite limits of Stileit.l as witih thie others. havte ibeent sittce lcotlsiderably cilailged, ailthtottght the htlti\v of tile tiistrict teettiupes abou~tt tilt sattlec relattive plosition. Duttrilg the first year ( i 85o) of the organizatiol elf the towlsnitip the pi~mary sc1100l ftttitl for all tile sc11oo0s aimounttedl to eighteen doltlalrs anid tilirtv-sixc ents ulsas(iilelaln tile sever~ii districts as foiiltws: District NO. T receivetd $9.18: tiistrict No. 2 received $5.78: (iistrict No.'3

Page  308 308 308 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICtIIGAN. R (ccii V(1 '3 40 Oi7li 18.51 the school lboirsl met -it what waste knowin as the "-led S5-olu 1-lose" in district N.\O.2 and cexamined tea'chers. Cathcirine S ittei te( receivel I crtiiat e iint] on '\`ovcnitier 8 James Snow also rse(cive o)iic tDistrict No. n~ i\s formed on)i \pril1,ia.twnh tume it compilrisedl scctioiis 24, 2,5 26 34 3 and 36. Notice was forwarded to Wiillia Clar ik, instructmg Iiithi to c ill the first dlistrict niceting- at his hnmsc Aptil 17, 18e2 Alioii" the eirly techclers iso werie Misses P. A.\ Root, t\oowttai Ie lks and Ra chel Kin) The first ch ll n ercriis wais taoighjt at the ceiiter of the township iii a tog selisiol oitisc owticti stood onl thc scoithwest quarter of sectio ii 5. ThIisI houise had ttirsec winsoos saiint aDtitchi tirepltace in one end. The seats weie iiiacle wvithoiit liaisks if p1 inks, into whichos legs wveie chiven. Sticks driven iii o tie walls, )iI wiscii hi li dsil weri- liid, sc-reed as desks. Thie first sho wvas taugh-ft o I Fsdlcr A\iiii I lire Iin the stuinmer of 185 Sh cei eloi dollar tier os ck iiiu d ii dccdlticr-ctlf, FThers- were 1 uit three families Ini the district. ~Miss Htaicc taiidit hut osiic tcrni here. The icext setchst tiioise was hulit Iii district \ou.i It wais aiicat framis building-s, wh~ich cost atsoct focr huiiirecl ands sceent v-tsve solot1ris TFuc Ilumiber of which it was huilt came froni Ifltihbaidstoiiu and.\lmas i hIir-.irct uisecosiiite wvas the first tecaclier ill thiis buisldiiug. Shte ifierwa ols inirric i oatd lived iii IleIstella. ()ii the sec-cint SatuirsaV Iin Api it i 7s the tioarsl of school iiislseetors iiist iso ssxaiiuns-c cans iilatcs wivstiuus1 iio tc-sch. Rht, as no candidates apipearesl, the bxoarit tiocee-ii-i to lay m it the towsshslip Iis sctioot tistricts, coiiimeniinrg with tlic northeast liar- of tlic toiwnshiti 1Tie tioundtaries tlieii Iais ouit sear tout little reseintlaucs- tco tliosc of todv 0aout Ihavc- tien ass frecjueiitl\ cluauugec atint were of such duration thnt they isveie scarcely, recognized. Din tti( qth oif O~ctotier, following; ( 1857), a -econd meetiiig is-as lihel, at wshich timee a1 report tci this toxviusluiti treascirer shows that there were thieii twenity-two pupils in district N\o is. hich corresponded swith district No.. of the present slay, ss i~hi Ii tis isentral itistrict of the township. The non01es voted for school plurpoises wa s toweiitv-two dollars, with six cdollars fur incislental sles-. Tlic outsI\ tiooks ucIll tioned were 'Wehster's D~ictionaries. - On the 7th of Noveciiier tlic first candidhate applearecd buefore the school hboirid in the p~erson of Marib tee \ I isomutie, to wo.-ioi a certificate sias gyrants-dl A t the meeting if thc oairil in t858 the tossn clerk wil5 ordered to inforni Peersy T. Bailev that sc hOol district NO. 3 hail been formed, and that the first meet

Page  309 AMON TCALMf COUNTY, MICHIGAN.30 309 ing( Wvi 111( be hel(l 'it his hotise 0n the 27th Of Noveimber 1858. 'ihe retorns -'Iioov thaIt Mr BIii vno 1eI h following persons. accori cng to law James 'JIsiIc, fHenry Grim, Hezekiah Davis, Myvron \%ustin, Ashel Bock, Richiar d alievs Lei c Camlibrn and \"Villialiii Davis. At the meeting of the bo(ardl Isthtr flar'0e receive(l a certificate to teach, The first nmeetinig in school (listric t N. i, inl the northeastern part of tile townshipil \vIS It the house of 51 iIca aI I 1 )11 ix (jas i inarv 1.N 1858 S(. TIhe letter Caillingi thils meeting was idirecteil tio [etei Schlapipie, iiii tie retuirins show there xxere the l in the (listrict A\ Coliiiei. M\. D~ouglas, V. Sherman. S. *lunrteh, Laiwson Sherman, Hlenrs Ierris (illicrt Ferris soil John Rank. These o ithe first schools IllisIE, SCiUtitS. No schuiil was taught inl H omev ontil the spiring oif 1865 wheii the Ipeople iii the south tart of the towviship iiiet antl organized a school district. 1111 htiilt a simall log honse o)11 lie soiithieast part of sectionl 28 iiii emplloyedl Orlandlo Evans ss teacher-. HeI was a nephiew olf Josiaih Faiir with whoni lie resided at the time. I at er lie resided inl Stanton. Th next stiminer a site for anmother sehiool house was selected oine aini one- leff miles east of the fi rs t A liiose swas erected, ini which a school wse openied hy M.'vrs. James Itroswli, \vhose lnisisiiil tliiyht at the same-i time iii the cahiii hefore referred T(. he first. fraiie sehool honse was5 iiilit on the east line of section o.i idistrict No. ~ MAPLE VAiLLEY.155 SellOOLS.. Ihie first schiool distriet seas set off liv the seciool lioardl of iiierson Iin the fall of t86o. It eompirised the niirthiwest qttarter of the township. I'hle first. sciool imeeting waus lield at the hiiuse of E". J. Itlamling onl sectiiin 7. [Ic seas eleeteil] director, flavton W~oodJ. inoilertor. aii(l James Fernuson. as~sessor. Ni. scolef \\eas tauight iltirini tie winter. In the follow'in spiring, a lug. i ilin eiduiteeli hv toeiits-fioir feet, was hiillt cii tlo sotitheast corner cif the iioithfusset itilirter oif 'sectioi7.o laiii ossned lix Howlamd Sotiles. FlizaLietli P'irkir w iho beesmnie the wife of 1Peter ITisliii t unght the first se lissl, s lieli listed three msonthis. She had seven ptipils, froni the faiiilies Oif lalic x id Jacob Fer-g soii. tCharles Parker antI Claystoil 55 01)1. She receivedi t Iiiec dollairs pier sweek, anii hoairdeid aromind isithi the paitriiis of the school A -r iiiil I. (irtil cif )itlx\ celehrstionl waVs gottc i tip idiring this stiinmner, it wxhiich (Cliii, I Parliker anid - IT. Blantding orsteil, wxhue the ir faiiilies1 seere the unteretext anuudieiicel. Thiis swas the n11) disxtritct fornmicii previous to

Page  310 310 310 MONTCALNM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. the organizationi of A-aple Valley. The next (listrict formed comtprisedl the central portions of the township. The school ]ii the village of Coral was first tanght Ill a. little framle ul~nllin'. which stoodtilO the sotith side of the railroad. Bitt the rapid growth of the village rendered this Inmpossible to accommodate the piipils. Accordingly. the question of hnlilding; a new honse wvas agitated. and culmninated HIi calling a meeting, at which a bl~ailding committee of five citizens; was appointed 11n( three thonsandl doloiars wvas Nvotedto 10uild1 a honse, which was coinipleted ill.i S73. aitd cost itetwerTI thrce and foti thonsand dollars. MONTCAINM SCh1O~LS. April i 5, i 8.~8, the school itlslectors of IMontcalm towenship) formed its that town certain school districts. of which districts T. 2, 3 antd 6 Avere embracedl in townt I north, range 8 wvest, as follows: NO. Tcontained sections 4. 9. I am i' (1.6 and all of section TO, except the northeast qtnarter, No. 2 containled sectiotis T. 2. and1( I 1, andl the tnortheast quarter of section to0 No(. 3 ineltildeil section 12l.If.2 td 24, No. 6 compilrisedl sections 5, 6, 7, 8, T7, i8, thte tortlis half of io, and the north hal1f Of 20. tiNTE SCHtOOLS. Tlhe first school ill line sias tailght liy jconic Lang,. iii ain itiocnluiped room of David Hart's hiouse, in the stinrnnr (if u8 8. Miss Latng received one (lollar anid fifty cents per week. 'Fihe tenet lastedl three mtonths. Tihi s wa:,S the first school hiouse iii the towenship. It stood jnst east of the site later occtilied In- tht( resideinee of Z/enas Bri-gs. M/attie Tirnwn taughit the first school here, inl the fall of T 86g RttEV)N(t.O5S SCttt00t.S. hiI Jittic 186(1) 1 le se huocl 1btoard elected at the first towis meeting umet and duevtied the toss nshittpit six school thistricts. District NO. T contained sections 4. ft 6,,.inii the isorthi half of sections 17 and j8. NO. 2 con taintid sec tIoiot i 6 flu 11e SoUtti haI1, If o)f T 7 a nd i.8, sectitii 1IST 9, 20, 2 i, atiul the north Is lf Of 28. 2Q itid( 30. IN(o3 contained the south hialf of sectionis 8 20) 10, the e st half of section1s 32 and all of secticon 33. No. 4 conitainet sectioms 2,, -6, 27, 34, 3,5 amh( 36. No.5 contained sectiotis 13, 14, -22, 2 -111d(1 No. 6 cotitained sections T, 2, ' 1 o t iand 12.

Page  311 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 311 RICI ll.AND) SC1IOOLS. After the or anizatilo of tle townshilp the board met and divided it into school districts. There were at the time, however, scarcely pupils enoulgh for one district, anid lbut one therefore organized. This was at the center of the township. The few families in the south part attended school in Ferris, somnetillmes wallkin several miles for that plurpose. The people of district No. I lm't at thie house of loslLa.Painter in the spring of t869 and elected tlie necessary o!ticers andl resolved to have three months school. Joshila Painter, bIting appointed director, employed Johlin enry as teacher, who fulfilled Ilis engagemlellt an;(l taught in a little inloccul)ied log house which hlad l ben built on the farm of Rufus Saunders. Tn the fall the log lhouse on the east side of the road and on the northeast corner of section 2J was erected. T'his was the first school house in the township, and the first school iin it \was talligt 1,! Anna Woodard(. STDNiEY SC (-OOI,S. The first sclool of Si(Iney was taught ill i858 in a log school house which stoo(l on the north line of the southeast (quarter of section 20, on land later owned l I) Jera r. Grover. It wvas taught by Martha Newblerry, whose parents live in M:lontcalim. The school consisted of but seven pupils, who represented three flamilies. Their names are as follow: Orange Noah,!Ruth Noah..\blie Nolah lichar(il aness, Nelson \aness, Nancy Vaness and Helen \Va;iess. Aliss NXewberry receivel one dollar and a quarter per week. She subse(lquently lmrrie(d utite Griffith, and lived inl Mon-tcalnl township. IThe next school was blilt at Si(dney ("enter, and the first term in it was taughlt 1by Naincy L.ons in 1862. She afterwards married \Villiam Kelly;and removede to Clam lake. WIN tFIEll.) SCITOOTS. District No.., of W\infield, was formed in the fall of I860, and the contract to buildt a school house was taken iv Henry Macomber, who at once prepared logs for that purpose. The building, however, was not completed lntil tle fall of the following year. This house was made of well-hewn logs, from which it received the name of "Blackhouse,"a term applied to it tltil it was superseded by a frame building some years later. It was well furnished with board desks and seats, and soon became the place of holding

Page  312 31.2 312 MONTCALMI COUNTY, MICHIGAN. p)olitical aii(I religtiouis meetings 0f all parties aiid sects an(d ireally 'iisiwercid aS towil house. church and school house for thle whole towliship) Miss Swvarthiout, whlo siulbsequeintly hecaiii tihe \v fe. of H Ienrs 1 1ark and was later a resident of i\lIecosta counts', is believedl to hi is tatiiilit the, tirst, schssil. TIn tile sear 1 862 there were istt two re-tulaul formiedl e11001 districts Ii the township. District No. T containedl the greateri par t of the nuortheastern qluarter. ald district 'NO. 2 the niorthwestern quairter. 1Tle southl half had heen divsided ho the school hoardl, hut the, inlilihitamts~ lcxI( few and~ scattering., had taken no steps towards p(Tm uleit or-1 iiiizatiou COU7NTYs 0110.5\NIzArION. A fter the counity had heeu citire is siettled and schossi ulistricts had heeii laiid ouit, the school system lbc-in to take onl more lpernianelit form. This lbegan first Iil the township supervi sion I iater this work caine tiiiier a county henI. TDie tiest of18cc created in tite couiits to lie the head of the edutcational systems In thle counjtv wvas the couiits soiperinitenueleit. of schools. The coumity supserinteiident of scioiils was s(electcd Im, the lsoardl of examiners and this came otit of hle inslpectoirs froii c'ich Pm uciushp. A \t this early late the ho()ard of exanuiuers consisted of a secrietar s i1l( tvss o others appoiuned hv tue 1 oaril o stipereisors for their iceni of too yeirs. Iii the b~eginllinig of tile schoo-l systenis therie was iii county ssystemn for tcsswnship Inspec tion, the slilerintc ndent hais ii' the 1K50'S eio licenlse the teelies i in casirsy onI the gierail suipervs"ion of lis tossiisiiiii I lie office it ciiuuts iommiussioncr oft schools, xxhichu is tile, presenut hueao of tile school sy stemn ili the county bie'ian in i88q( I lie tii st to serve iuiider this sy stein wa s J. 1I \ tc (oiiiyi w (10hi licl tile ottice lii a iperiod of fouir yeairs Mr IcC loskes is luIl)\siiiic I riiteuidlcit of tie loisa'rd (its' scholius, apositioin sshiichi lie liss hield for tsselve se'ii s A\ N. Demiorey' siicceeiieu Alr. A let iiski's;nol( akI ii icliitnd the fce fur a peiiciiui it4 Io (leseai' s. 'Thse prsent lciii (111(11lit ncin I). i trldit, Iis hichl tills itflice foil ei-lthe'i sears, sshiech alounu si icakis for till ssollthi 0ft this, lineaisild thle tidgient lc' has exerciseili iii lli ic I I i cpaciits. A\ii. Straigh t hlas takcui thle sc'iii iii ss'ste'ni at tile poinit itft itt hiy Iins priecessors. al thiroiight the earnest eidcavoois aiil tili iiuippor t ofthe iciiiiiaticiii-lviisit leopli' of thic' cmiiiuitv raiseil the schools tii [lie. pres t uinuai cl sshic'h thies' Iou. 'Theie ate still too examinuers, h sselii ve fx ri a peii of too years, amd I aic ip~iuiute'i liv the suipervisors, Thle comiiimssiouniir of schicols,, hoswexer, is all electivde offiee cot' fou)ir seal's anol care'iIcs ssith it o sa Irv of one thexisaluul hs'e hunduired diii

Page  313 .moNTrc\ Cm COUNTY. MICHIGAN.31 3 1.3 lars pe year. TFlicre are 01Wie litindr(lrc anim fortyr-two( school districts inl Al oiitcaliii coiuntys, 01(d there are too 11iti(lredl tweentv licenscel teachers. Three gtrades of teacrhers' certuifaicats Vare Issuedl I1 the coliitv, naniiielv The first grade, that of four scars:second( I rade. of three easaud thirdl -radle, of 01W rear, The s cope Oft territo ry which the class (If school (listricts oIf tile Cominty corer exteiids frIm 1 t1hle ooe-rooni liibling, teaching all of the cornl at)I branches, to the 1 corner high1 schools (If the cotmitv 5wsithi all thiiir (iodlcrn (departienets. Ill listings thle sI-liolls, 1 e-imniog weth lie highi schols ond extendinig onI (orn to those lit the (listriets swithi onle thec eighlt grades. the hirs msen t((lied is tGreenrille. I Teu foll~owin,, Ii ordler, conies Holwardl (Citv I rsoli ('ite. Stanton, Laksicvcv ssnd!`dIorc, all oin the accredited urnsvers is list. Shri elsoI (I( toerIl I I ii have lchaos (If twelve grades Trtifaitt alone lIte: a schs Il (If clevenl -t oles I I ride, \ estalairg. Si\ Lakes, Voiskersv lle hr No..~..ittislmell, Cvsiall LI iiistoii or No. i, and I'iMc, all stilplplrt s111 (Ils (If Ic Idta es. I11 addtI it il the (lcbore lltillell, there are ihe fol lossin tsso0 I-00111 lOIllill(Il aisCInsI~s for tell -ral es loca-ted iii thec followin'l lIlstrlics: Ferris, NO.,(r t III Iercii0. 2011No 8., Doailgalss N7(.I, P~ine No. PIiersoin Nol 2 Ind Sidhiev No. i. Inl a certaili senlse 1111 dlistrict school11 Caln be held ili) ab ose the olthers- as slirp~assi tg inIi es.1lt 1111 sclnml ill the collilt Ieseresiinili rn 1(1ot Ills.v the svsteni swhich 'is If A-j stsinlimng bhut thle beaiitiftil builediiigs" oliich tilie p11ro111(8(1f thisl' (i strict hare ma((oe possiblle the erectilli. Thlils is a twso-rIooii tll rii1- dle oi~ihI il 1Ferrs towenship. district No. j. This~ huillding- WSa er-eltell I f chuigiollllrate stl ne, 11111 is biuilt iii such wsle 15 to grill it thle liliist artistic eliect pl)lssillle. II ISTORlI IIF STA\NTO~N SCHOOL111.S The 1fIrst schll)llIl i Stalitoli ssa5 tauight be N 111cy treei ill the roort roti1111 1 f thle 11(1 \v11 ldeli cliirt house. There ss-ere tire 1)1p1111 titd she reciselle ic-i shtiliii's~ s1 sWeel tfi lier sersices. Thte lnc-t ssintcr Alrs L esvi (11111111111 1 aught a -,C lot lit ]lie holue. Itheic- sere thiei sesvci scholsars. Tl[lii swsas the Ili-S s 111111 talu-lit hsy a regsilarle Insplectedl tea(cher lull it 51-diedI the orgai;li/ii 1111 f the di strict auoll the slchool fulml. IThe se hirt twol schiools wIere p111 toi b pis v alte suibscription. The schlsll dlistrict whssInch 1111tid-11 Irs Stault oi No. traIctional, i lcl~llds a plart of thle. four11 adjaIceitt tossnu Shipls (if Sidoes, 1's ciri ecu Da15 oild Doutglass, 1111 svals lorg-anizel bs th5 schiorl borelds of tsc irespec tive towsnships onl Alar p, 863. At thle tirst

Page  314 ,3 T4 314 M ONTCALN1 COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Meeting Abram 16.oosa was chosen mloderator, L~evi (iaiinburn, director, and 1). 0. Cornell, assessor. On)i Septenmber 8 the board votedl to raise One dollar per' scholar an ivilte dlollars for, intlne(liate exp~enses. Ilie school house site wvas estaillishedl a11d two hlundlredl dollars soted for bnilding pin'poses. 'The lioaril wias appointed iLS aI bt.dlmcmmt and the house was erccteil anid acceptedl in 1 866o. I,. 1K. \Vood wais the tirst male teacher in the. district. It was Organized asagI ra led schoo)l III I 866. '['he tirst lO~ard of trustees iinder the gradied sy-stem were Oscar F'enn, \isa AllOrse, I.P. Beers. -Marmion >-mnith, Aaroiit ILv1 i and ft. 1K. W'ood. Whlen tile scholl,) mii( se was timi1slied it ('Olisistedl of tw(o) r-ootiis anil a sina11 I 5in ilo 1 ea;ch side uiseid foi' hllds aoni stairway-s, It isas '4tirted inl tinle anid finished iii Deceinber, so tie pupiils started to school on (Christmais I )atv. There wcrc thenr seventyv-live inupils, andl 1. 1K. Wood was tlit In') f esso)r. Up to titis; timle the school hail lot been graded ail( it Iast tiic altte1nd;imi)c beCaiie SO grea';t that thle hloseceast of tile Miethdi ii t I _apwiii ii church wvas renteid fom' the iprinmiry departmnent. 'Thein, a fter a svear Or1 tiwo0 aditons were miaie tol tile scli si) house. Later it becaime soiriidcitsi timt hails, onl the siiitih were nsed for recitatiomn room is. At this tiiie tiiere were foumr teachiers~ einpioyil.?\ ii'. and( Mi's. N. f. IGriswold. TibbyloFlomhellmiii Miiss N ichls I 1 iiicteoten sticers 1 871 ~t and i88o iiiitI mci aitiii was bilit iii thle cat suite ii the bimildiio'g This was thcii calleid the central bIiiiillmg. The mhbigh cliiil (i 1 ''i inlinir utIii piimarc departeieits were iii this buiildling. Tlie ksinderIga'- rteni iiiii fiist iiii sec iiii gerades wvere taughlt inl thce first si-rd biiildliq (ii o M ill trecit- Ih lit iftii si tli 11n1 sevemith gradles were thlen Incliidedl iii tiii r11111 - m ir IC]ii t1eIt DI-ilct l "r Igtlie Vears 1 882-83, 3oselphine Dr)i'ir v was, tilit spiileiti iiiltt iiii M iss Ifholleck was the principal. Thci iereWl- thriee 'in" abates ill tie stir 1,~88 'nd (men ill i 88. N r. Ranlsoml u-aIs siperi'iiteiidt it iii th lit i iit88. IlThert owre ti1rec grailuates at titis tille. Iil tile year i 888 tlii s1111t'i-itcmii~eit sc-s MIr. Beiitedict. Ai rs. Cook was iprincilial. I'lhere were seven giraou'attes tliit v car. During M r. lienedicts term lit' becamlie Ill iiio ircsi~giiedl iiiil Nirs C inistock was appointed to till the va-cancy. I-nc two~ Years slit retainiied this posi~tion. II iiit88( thlert' were four gradi-iites. MN rs. lizzie YmN-111"s w is principal luring the f'ear 1890 aiid Flora 'loud diiiiii the yeairs t 89 1 md 18102. ill t Xqo there wvere three 5i'aclidMateS. ill t 8(m. CVt'1i, aiid Ill 18' t111Cm e were eleven. MadTlucker Doo-little. wh-lm gradliate(I iii the o\ t ir T88q) I ocer graiduateid from the OherlHaini Conservatorv of Aiilsic anul liter stiiilico inl Berlin. Site is now' a noted piamoist inl New York. Leslie NVatui-ili ss-ho (yrtidltatedl inl 1886, is a noted

Page  315 IMONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 31 3J 5 violinist a11d ias tomred litrope twice and z\mericam threie times. lie has play ed for the Pr ince If XXVale' 'aoi ailso inl the Quneenis (ircelCstral. 'JMr iMC (loskey w is appoiiited superintendlent in the ye ar 1893 and ielil this position for the followsing tenl years. J he iinumber of graduates during the tinit X Mr.X e\I( loskc( was superintendent 'soil Mairy 13 Carpenter was prinicip ii ire 'is tollow 1Tw1 in 1893 eight ini84 i i8 i i8q5, five 1 1896, iiiie i i 18it1 tenl "I i 81) eleveno inl 8iq si\ n 90 eight in M~r Hendr1y4 ws s lioseii Superiiitendeiit in 1903;'I(d Miss [-inlds was prinii~pal from 11)0, to 190~t Then Miss Catrpeinter \v55 igain isrilcipal for a few vyears. '[le inumbei of graduites ecad year that Mr. He'lndry wa s Superiiitendeiit is,is tollows ITWO in 1903- ei2"ht inl 1904, fifteen inl 1905, fourteen inl 1 o06,i. i\ ini07 11 tenl11n 1908. liriS. ldl1swoitli 0vis Superiuntendelnt inthe year iuooo 11i( Miss 1Passagie was the principal. IThe litiiiilei ot or-idit-tes that year was eleven. 1'[lie V-ear Of 11)10 Mli Jenn~in'(s NISa ChOsenl Superintend~enit wsitli Miss Tarrey ais assistant. Mlr. 11niiings serveil the schooll for twio searis. A i s' Tarrey Wats tak-en sick duiii 1Iheir secondl year iiii wias followved hi Mr. Sessions, a former tI icler it Sherolan. Ii the spring of 191 1 Mr. Sessions resignedl and Al r. XX hlitteomb took fils p1aCe [lie mnnmher of gradtdiates inl 19i IC)a.2 seven. aiid iii T 11)11 there were ten. In thle fall of 11)12 M~r. W\hitcomh wvas choseii suplerinitendlent and Miss Galatioti was prinlCipa;l. To1 i 93 Miss, i fnt w~as secuired as principal. '[here w-ere tiwenty-three. grailoates ill 191 2, twenlty-sesels ill 1913 and fifteen iii IJo tie fall of 11)14 Alliert L. (Cook weas secured to taLke the siipesi'intcIemle't's chkair, atid liiiss Rowe was plrinicipal. 'I'li iniiiiler of gradtiates in 11)1i were f oorteen. '['le new Stanltoii iiioii sehool. buodding was started iil the v'ear (If 1905 amn wias conmpleteil iii Octobier, iqo6i. This, hoilein- is a modern trick stroctiire, ivell heated, lighted anti ventilated. 'Tle school has a wvell-eqiiipped. laborators -1a(1 a godlihirariv has also been wolrkedl op, from time to time. '[le roomis are tasteftillhc decorated aiteld maiiv of the best pictures adorn the \valls. Ii cuiitiectioni with tile, schsiol there is oise oif the best-ecpiippeil nornial roomis iii the state. ''he Stanton highi school has lieeni oii the unis'ersitv list for the last tsevehs years. '[his school has alwvays beein pronminent iii debatiing contests anid israttorical work. During the last y'ear, under the supervision of Stipt. -V Li. Cook, the\- have seeii ahle to defeat some of the test schools, in the

Page  316 3i6 316 MONTCALM COUNTY. 'MICHIGi(AN. comnty. The high schiool liais always ompetsettd it the. htld mneets, aid lias \\lol)i a share of prizes. The silver tropihv otttire1 Jy ~Mr Baiker, ot Gxreen 'ile, was woii tio 0 H1 owaird(l t i iII I 1) 5-Stanitoti inimiing a total of ten g"aines oit of i possible fourteen (bring thle xc ir. J'ih inenlibers of tile championship terii wxere Mt vlxle teen,. tart I isch, Geii AL Sttsvtn on, i lelnianl1) 'It. tliiiero, L I 1'airet, Ljovi I I arneti, Fraink A\ Miller, ( ii I1I1iisicker anil \Veron Ti slioe. Iin all tlit veairs of tht Stainton- hi Ii Schluit this was the I irst ag-re-pitiolit to laiiit tilitei c npioitsliip. Staitoti ha s heeit represeitted 1y ax mimnnlltr x) list teams iiilii hket iiall 11( a id (ls efteited 'Hie 31 liclt ti C ommii \Noriiia was orgaiizedIl Ii 1 ej8. I~t is 'a tdepartmint oif the Stanton- stlhoiol sy stein tIit is seplaratetd and ilistinet in all iii n agCmient. linviii", its onwii tea itiers aitl miiiilr the itirection of tlit conntx, norl nial 1hoarid aiitlii b rIi 1 edtuecntioni. 'Tle iiorinal teachers areC Mtss 7171inn M iss \Wilsoii. 31 iss Pailiei t uimt M1iss ('rawfiiril. T[le i-Itimiilir of gr'iiit'tes illi ioS was sex tii: ill 11)0) seviliteeti, 19 to, cil-Iteeti; t qi twelve; O2 hI eeI' qi nutit lIlt 4,1 Ii ct1C]1, until 195, 1Iiit. 11110VAlit CITY SCHOOLitS. '[he Il-irs selh l wa,- fc mintd iii Howard Ciiy ii 1861) s0011 after the 'lirs tsettleitent was tiaite. So( rntpt wxas the inr0wtli it the towni that thitre was iliot time ti) ltilil a scliiuuil htliititi at the time, so ariitglt bioarit btillditg' fornterlv i sed as a inepejtier shop itear hit site it the present electric light plant, wvas madte into a schtool 1h0usC by placiitg in it some crtiie blieneles 11111 deskss. Mr. Sahine wxas thlt derst tv acher. Thle ilistricet was' ogaiZed niter ithe IprimlarY siho~l lawN\. with Charl tes 0. A\ Aidanis aiid L.. I.). ILoekliit is itirectors. J. I. jnt's as mnoideritiir andl Johna F. Chitbh as;assessiir. (Un I'elirnnrv t, I 87f P IMats iiid 'slcificiatiis;Lt d ioptet liv tte (ilistInclI firii sthootliiitig wtiitli xx s to Ie twentttv our hV thirty six feet. IThis, xxis to lie a oiie-story imitdiii'' letore wsork sins lie-'tii utin it the 1)1111 wa s S nilt i to o!O1ade lic ) itelit- pe setit -liecis. I terdoefii onl bv fli elx ' lit feet. whiiet was~ to Isc rctied liti)su tlit iresent site. \tiiit liersotmi t(-he iisi teacher, rIlininet1C( 1.nt it 18-2. Ill 1873 tlte uppiter 10)111 wxis liiii slitd it iiii ITlwmain in. Keithi totk elir-ia \At tills tiiiie the t i-Liiitx eon1 sisted itf it inis V. iKcithi Sara iii 1 lie aCitil I iiliai Dovet So reait wa s the' licnisie'ii i illlililtbesltliii' tili't "Ii 1'781 / IonWCi1 1- iT~tii 01 xis

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered] I 'I II II S lIN (II I SCHOO( L (11 1-11i11IT)TNG. rl - — -, GREENVILLE,'S UNIQUTE CITY EtTILDINTG.

Page  317 MO\1NTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. i 3 i 7 adlded to the staff, ha-vinig the position of principal. Onl jannary 6, 1879, -N.rs aS( C. naiiersoii took charge of the intermediate department, which positioti she held for nineteen yfears. Onl 1I ebro rs 17, 1885. the schoo)(l lionse hurned, aisl it was decideel to rebuinld uponl thle 01( site. A new liildlitig wyas erected, which contained five rooms anil a recitation roomi-. Ini 18(7 iminitber of niew subljects were addedl to tihe ctirrictilum~l. In no sm. veair IFthelss-in 'sVhallev hecame principal. At this time the ensrollmeiiet ws s foni homl red and eig'hteeni. The follosving is a compilete list of do. IHoswaid Ci ts principials i87 \L P" Keith; 1878. Lowell Horton;,8/(-0 h Fh1onn,-s I I hito 88mi -82 \illiani1 E. Wattt; T883-84, Myron1 0. Grises, 1884-8. 1V\ N\\idchlmi i888, C. Bi. (olliiigwood; i889-0;e(ra,( I)1). Pas i: 181)0-07 I. D) Striwht: 1898-1904, Heniry Troles; Ih liflossand t Its Ili,,-II Sch11o(l is (ois thn inis-ersits list. It hoasts of moeu teachers, 1011 for tshe hiltl school amil c-i thh -rade, one for sixth and sesveiith, onie foi loint tflnd fitth, nile for sccoinl aind third, and one for the lirst -role soil linde rga rteni Flu re ar e tsso hunl-dredmml tsdvenitv-n p 'Is inl the Tr'iles, 'iil ii seesttliiree Iin the hig~h schoiol, making a total oif twvo hm-udrnI ani-l inletsvfoiim 'I lie blifllinG eiontainsiiinhe rooms, the sighscoo and eighlth grad e lieiii ()n do.e so"ald dloor, the rest onl thle first. lImplroveilents have lieeii iiiaik at %-anions tiness ste am heat being- imistalledl in 1910, electric ligh1-ts ill 11])1 amd driinkimw fomtiiist illS 10I1)15. The total numbhero f gihtwiaeiiates to datei5i tiso, hondiri mmd thirt tiso ine beimig the aiverage iniiiier gradnated e eli sear. IHowsardl tilts iso one of the first scl1iiols in this ia),rt of the comits to introduce nios1.1ic and drawsin — r. 0 iks wsas tie first Imitsic instrnlctor, taking- charg al -i ssct ix syears a~O - tnsas introilneed the same sear: Geriman not iiiiil iqi 2. iPUBLiC SCiiiTOi.5 OF eCiEENV'iLeE. By iHarriet Macom~ber. Inl 1845 the iishah11itLantS of Greenville decided that the fuiture prosperitv of this towin deelendee iipois the education of their children. Their sinceritv in 'this svas showvn Iiv the erection of a schocil hbiilding on the site nosy occupied hy the city hall. Since then eight other streicteires and tivo annexed (dictions have housed thae schools of the place. The three-storied svhite hrick busildinsg, which perished hv fire in 191TI,

Page  318 318 318 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. was the best known of these structures, for it stood like a sentinel guarding the little citv froniIm s to ips s. TFhe cost was $30,0o0., Judlge Myron Ridler icing' the (lirector at the tiiae ofl its erection. The hune high. grouiii upon whiuch It stoodl was iptireliaseil front the government ity Judge Josiah Russell. lhis lansi lecauie the lpropecrty of -Manning P\sitan, and \WS is lo is g~eierosity liresentedl to tie cite as a school site. '['he lanil was covereil withi line oak trees, both white anil black, while here and there a tine specimen of wvIltl chierry added variety. The land slosped gently tiorthward tooward I 'ri lk ]li streets, its osice beatiti fil slopes have since been repslaced ly irtiticial levels, far less attractive than thre original -rouuld. So stuitalile inl tulane was's was this elevate d site, and so dear had it liecoime to the ahititit of flhe school, that ito imaterial consideration cotuld induce theti to believe that a mtore sititalile locatioti ouild lie found for the tine buildling wvhich i-elplaced the structure built in i 869. TFhat the itsn of the sixties believed it doing things xxedl was ptrovedl by the grelat strength of the walls of the 1)11 butlitn-. Goii-cd Isv fire iii its hou)Ir if dlestrutction, the seafll stiotI iens, ss tiit like a-s reat chiminey through which the hre ic oiredl. slestroisitg, the totetirisrr blst po(w'erless agatinst theU walls. lie11 toe ocettri'el (its the tight of \April I t ut The little tiest tbtijlsing,, twelve lii six-teen isI et. xe-s presidleil ovcr by C;Lt~lcisti S itterlee. [3f Itscr to suits -l\i pup~ilIs six wi rx Indlianis. Sh e reseietiui fot hit' services itite shitlltix s s eeck atid( tls priv ilege of testing the ss' soil in iare its thec lisuses of hecr -slisol chilslreis., Sisoitil1 butilding. kiswit is ithe "( )ll Is '.xshoosl House, w-ihich served for chutc satntd still lie itectinis, is xiell is 'ictool I stoil st the coriter of Cais slll I f ett treets. Thi s~ s rseiissscn to G'rlovec treet east, soil traislist ritsl intoo;s still biardlin, soissse, calledl the I l'sfle H-otel.'' Ott lite tissi mst ambit ions5 sit the earlier buitldings Nva's a ft str-roomi s~tu-it' tlre otti 'is-, street, ereeteul it it-s I',or seinv xe-rsr ite namse oif Mirs. MIillie Stottihtiuii siss a power iii this 1 itllding- Other u arlis i teachers, xxere hi. 'loN-le, sthe lit-st teacher. tils was suicsceseded by J1-. Pirighsam Bitt timle anth chtaitie rii's insgt theci t xssik- lucre, too. aoul the oh I woodlein btitldino is univ a teneiteint hioise sin ti~iper Orange street. oiissftent change their misids sss to the dhirectiotn of tlteir groseth this xx'as trite of G'reeuiville. 'The i'itv began to grow, tiorthwardl unitil tiodiy as goodh pisrt of the towit staisdls northi of the riser. Because of the incese i (f jx)lpui'ations in North Greenville a building of wxhIite trick, coittaining lxwo roomss, was erected il OtW\illiatt strs-ct, itl T87. In tjiie inaisuf-ittirinl,

Page  319 MIONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN.31 319 crowdeil this lbiilldiig'. makiiig the vichinty unsuitalile for a school; it wvas. thiianioeil ai-id afterwardls soild anl torn ciowii. 'Ihle schools becaLIIIe so crowded that a simall, two-iroonllcd btillding was. erecteil (.11 (ay street. this seas first occutipjed Iin 1889. Even this swas not iroviideid cith l ao of the nlodlrni coismenicices mntil it wvas remodieledt in i909. It is today iw'seof the mohst cheery anii invitingo linilding ill tile city. It ('otallts111 SIX iooiiiS. ant is p~rovided~ wcithi furnare, electric tights and 1 aseilicit tole'It rooms. InI 11)0' thle lres;eit ('ass street scholcl, a nieat irci brick strlctilre, wvas, erecteit. '[le c(iintractiir was Idiwarit Backiis, who Ilid the. Nvork for $5,ooo This Coiitaincit foiiir rooims, prciviided wvith furnace heat and electric lights. AIIV inc blo i11cciieits have beeni ailied to it. iii later sears, ontit now It is a. wvell-choipipici billding. TIi) 11,)08. at a cost of f52o~ooo(, anl aniiex to tle. -white brick bliitding was crectedt. 'this wa,`s a two-(-stirs' aiild basciisent attair, wchicti served as high schiol aIsli torlno,11. It ci iitai neil also tile soiperiiiteiiitcnt s otherc aiid fouir recitatioil r ci Si ms.11( the riiiims idevoteid to the uise i)f the coiiiiercial udepartiiciit. Tie high sclioi i hail 1 cci occiipving, tile third storv of thte old liiiil"d nIII. tihis the steasitsli icreaLsiii"' iiiiiiil ci'S- crowdieit iiiit' it seeimeid iniplissiide to -ect '111)1 0 tt I( l~Iititle 'o(iin imoreover. thle flioirs of the thiril stcirv werIe coudiiiiteilii;is- isecuire: hiciic tile aniexs'is, Imitt to retieie the crosdeite rom I -his ailtlex \V585 Iimt enitireli' satis fai'tir ci.;iild set svheii tire toiik the ilil iibtuiidm5' the stri'iitiric. thongli injiircil. lid liot bu-iii bot reiilainc(t an11d becaiiie vsr ci scf-itl luriing the 1buItdii hg f the i c\\- structure. 'The oiM mud igjie -lieil oii S'iiav la miguht. W\itth Charaicteiristic eniert9v. the slperiuntenllent 1. 1'. Strighi'dt. tplannedit iiit arri'i-aei accomm~lodaltions for the school. OnI \\ dutiisdv is ll stiildeiits were iii classes lagan. The Granige halt biecaioe tile,(Cialle oniiact activits'. 'iot ttl( citi' hlt] biecaiiit a scioli honise for the vionii-er -rades. There is one niore siiatt hiuliltis to mlentionl. Tile Pearl street school wsas occltipied first ini j alimacrv 11)14. [his is a btillding of twvo roomis for till ymiinci' children if time Ncirthm Greenville fanmillies. it is well iiiilt, and ipossesses all tile niecessary eliinipoent for a seeti-oritereit school. (;reat Interest suirromiiiis tile fine structure biliit to replace tile old 'Qminioli -school.' Its corner stone wats haiti ill 11)12 ivith inmpiressiv'e ceremioilies. Ill Jiiie, 1913. tile commiiencemencit exercises seere held ill its auilitoinnim. The building is lone iif the most modern in liesign of any in tile stt. The architect wvhii dresv tile tptans is E. ovd, of Lansing. The

Page  320 3.20 320 IONTCALM COUNTY, -MICHIGAN. contractors svere \Vright & Pra~l. anti the\s dlid their work well. The structire stands In the center of Franklin street. wvhich slopes northwardi from i t. It exteinds liroadlys trout cast to \\e(st onle Inindredl anti sixty-five feet ai(d haI-s a d(pt'tt of one hIiisdred and thirt c-live feet. T.]his material is red shale ihrick. with I rimmiig-s of ssvhltc sa;itidstone,' the roof being of redl tile. lhcre are many entrances. 1bst the aina cotrai ice is inl the center of the is i-th froii athe. Itv this on enesa ido xtetitdin es aini west, Niiile lir-ctiv il Front is the north iiii f si)c stirs. coittaining thle tine liii-h schioco al midtor'imii. ''lids ro(il!1~ islie crosnin5m glorv of the bintildng Iiothli iit., scetttiliiglv. has 1 ceit lcft ntilolle ill iteikiig, it heanlti fii atnd nse fiii..\t thle Sithi end is a stage sth Nv Ill thle etuipiltnent for entertainments or pUais y et the iiti litariati Site hsi- I t heiri e iic ft ciittcii, fir wvoolen s-lidtinp pairtitioins iiac ic usecd for Iitrusfhrintui it Inito ''CitatiliI fl001tS. '['le Sae lta1) tinun has~ I)Ccii used inl the bali1out ]ii the north cutid of the rooiii. 'ile woosiuss ri Is, in the thil1 hitfish 0f;i hii iti fiii lit- wi oak. Th'le ilesks ire iif the s niile colior. 'ii mitss inf sitVis TIliCCt 5re tli(itiCn ill thaLt t les- were tqyested its Sniteritutientit Strsti ilit iiii tiesignedil i thle utuercitanical dra'ill'mu dlepitrtment tuindei the chinec of 1 fester Uillier;the dlesks are recis ivbie te tch liavitig a s~Itei plait e otaitttiiiitg its jntiniiier, and a chtir stuth. a tittilicte itt uiiuiler. Ilt tisvels e iitiiites sitidents remote the desks anti transfotrim the rooti i1titi an MatICie itt i iitit it CC ititn hill nreat play montl, tir wha~lte\er was\ as lie Ilesircil. i tees,f tiatuirs m utitiue iiictres atiorn the roomui, thle wvltcle idfcct lieuii title ot restfiftlite's tntl ixnuts'. 'The same sticheme for iiesks is carriedi i t inl the trimar Iroom Xliiisth peifect stieeess. 'ile iitlt'c fitiks like ii ithi tii, better tmii iihlian-ung the lurosaic arranugemeiit usnial iii schiool fitruitiiu'e' titii II tls i o I io tis santle Corriedori tay iie' fmiiiit the' sniterintenclent-' tfitse, liiiii sensti irecitatiomn rooms, n -rec gratie' roiits anidti onmerotus tcloak irititiis. 'Fite stairs at the necst e'id lestcenti ti ht Ih r tibay t 1his is btoth publie intl schooul 1 ibrarv. titt this iiltrtran, \litce IFiiier, looks tafte r ite neetis tf tll. 'T'le i'brarv is fast rectisering' frttii the injitrie's titie its fire and wvater; the' petuple eif thle City tiften) adil gifts svhiich are g-reatit' appreciateti. A~niong thle nmost protminent thonors swas D~r. irihiu A\very, wvht gave i nany volumes. Ni iss J-anri R~ichiardsonu hits recentlty presenied hioth ]looks uned pititures. Vartoils reaching taitles at'conmmotdate stutients. 'The lest current hIterattire is provitdedl anti eveti the little folks save their ensn cornler for readeing. Front time uasenitenit corrihor our niay enter great pilly roonms. one for liots auttit tule foir girls. Here, too, are w'ell-eqttippuet lahboratories, with time

Page  321 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 32i necessary class rooms. Toilet rooms are on this floor and on the second floor. From the corridlor on the second floor one may enter the bookkeeping (lepartment, lEnglisl class room, seventh and eighth grade rooms, b)alcony andl teachers' rest roomi. All rooms are light and well ventilated. The eqluipment of the entire building is fast becoming ideal. All floors are of reinforced concrete. arranged to be quite noiseless. The walls are as yet of white, but will be tinted in harmonious colors as time goes on. Perhaps the once lespised "Annex" is today, in the minds of the pupils, the Iiiost important part of the buildling, for there is the gymnasium, the scene of many a hard-fought battle in basket ball, of many a gay, frolicsome party, and of physical training classes enjoyed by all. In the basement are shower baths, toilets and the manual training room. Tn the second story is the commercial department under the alble instructions of Harry Myers. Too much cannot be said in honor of the men who have personally suplerintended the building of this fine school and its equipment. No effort was considered b1 them too great to make for the success of this school plant, although they are busy men, with imore than enough of business of their own to occupy their time. These men are Charles M. Miller, Ellis Ranney, D)r. Duncan K. Black, Frank Gibson and Edward J. Bowman. Since the erection of the building Doctor Black has purchased and presented to the school different land south of the building for a fine athletic field. Improvements have been begun upon it, and in time the "D. K. Black Athletic Field" will he one of the finest in the state. One could hardly close this brief article aboutt the schools without a bit of reminiscence. Memory recalls soime of the sterling people who were strong, suppllorters of the school in an early day. A few of them have been mentioned. But there was a group of college men and women who made their interest felt 1w even the younger pupils in the early days: Rev. J. L. Patton. pastor of the First Congregational church for twenty-five years;.Mrs. Patton and VMrs. S. R. Stevens. who used to bring their weekly darning a1nd sit among us listening with keen interest: Mr. and Mrs. E. F. Crabill, alwavs as much at home there. and as well known to the pupils as the teachers themselves; Doctor and Mrs. Fish, the father and mother of our dear high school principal, Mary F. Fish. There have been many more as the years have rolled along, and most of them have passed on. Comparatively few superintendents have been employed since I869. The first was S. S. Babcock. who forsook teaching to become a Detroit lawyer; Mtr. MacGrath; Mr. Dutton: Edward P. Church. who served many years. (2T)

Page  322 322 322 MONTCAT.M COUNTY, -MICIhIGAN. and left iii I8sc to become supierintendent of the state school for the hlind N. A. Richards; P". 1). Smith Chester F1. Straight, now representing the (Charles F'. Merrill hlook C ompany. Th prsn stiperilitteodnt is A. I'l. Shigley, who is ahly carrying on the work so wvell hegtun. 'the small noniier of suplerintendeents indicate good (01sagfe on the part of Greenville p~eop~le, adefficient service on the part of the meni. Added to the work of these superintendents, is thme work of MIiss Fish. whose splendidt inflinence over.school aitd coomnunity can never ibe overestiniatedl. T[he hi1gh school has inI tme lpresenit year entrollcdl too hundored and If teen punlils. To these is iftered a choice of several conrses. A college lireINaratory coturse otterts Latitn IFrench sodl Gernman A cominercial course otters lbooklceepintc pelinandapl miypeworiting 10(1 stenograophy. \\ork InI algelbra, geoimetry owl tri-moiostrv Is offsred, the historvs cl-asses are omaov aonl well tmhti-i a course in apnict lture is prov ided andoi a coirse in iechanical clrawimig. Sewiii cli sses at tract the (irs, mld inaima1 tratilnin is oficred hcith lboys and girls. \ clas in orchestral inumsic is recceivcog onstruction, and1( one InI vocl(C110 clors ovork, A II 'di sc hool "Senate" offets to the hoys opportoo itv for oratory nid( ar-'u ment, imid Ili ter-rv c lfl) ssvill ftultill the samle office for the mirls A- sv'stenm of sclhool ha mokos thiri tdi- 'dl tlic grales attempts to teach Comimion lmsioess rotles anil Savino. D~raowin oald miisic receive tiich attenfion through all the grades. A phooograph has heeni purcliasedl through the efforts of the seventh and eighith graLeC pupls.ao aL latmtero is soon to lie Installed. Altogether, the little school commounitv is a losy. lmsy pilace, with no rooii for sloggardls. The school is drawing" in the fine vohing pleople fromn the counitrv rosindl abcmllt, and their applrec'iation is anl inspirationi to all connmected svith the school. The new buildino is the scene Of Imany11 lectores and chili gatherings of the citizeiis, makimug it a commiiimitv cemiter as wvell as school. Mfax tliv giood work go omi. aml~ otir voting p~eoplle becomoe the hest of nii tanel womnii thireiugh all these. spslendhid influemices.

Page  323 CHAPTER XXVII. CHURCII ORGANIZATIONS. FIRST' CONGRit;ATIN()N AI, C I URC ()OF GREENVILLE. (On tlie 5th of June, 1852, a Ileeting wa;s held in the public school house \\lich stood on the northwest corner of Cass and Lafayette streets, in Greenville, for the purpose of considering the expediency of organizing a Congrc-gational church. IRev. S. N. Manning was chosen the first pastor, and the following named people were the charter members: Manning Ruitan and wife, l-iram [-I. Slawson anld wife. Ursan Goodman and wife, Harriet B. I'eck, Frank S. Peck, lPhilan(ler A. Peck, Mrs. Adeline Shaw and William (ordon. 'They continued to hold their meetings in this school house until (856, when a frame building was put up at the corner of Cass and Clay streets. In 188o this building was removed to make way for a beautifl! edifice of stone and brick, which cost $25,o00, and which was dedicated on lone 6, I88o. The followingr llnlmes is a list of pastors who have served the church up to the present time: Rev. S. N. Manning. 1853-54: Charles Spooner. 154 1-65: J. 1. Patton. T866-(o: J. N. Taft, T80o-93; A.. Hyde, 1894-07: F. \V. TTodgdon, 18(7-90: A. R. Curtis, 1800-07: and James Hallidav, 1907-lT. Rev.. C. Parsons was installed in TI9r and is the present pastor. This chuirch has had a large place in community life, is broad in its doctrines, simple in creed, generous in benevolences, and belongs to the lansing Association of Congregational Churches. Tt has a large, prosperous Sunday school, and an enthusiastic Young Peoples' Society. The Missionary Societies and tile Ladies' Aid Society in connection with this church does a vast amount of good each year. The present membership of the church numlbers three hulndredl and eighty. FIRS'I CON(RI.GATTONAIL CllrRCIT OF STANTON. The First Congregational church of Stanton was organized on March 7, I874, with the following charter members: Wealthy B. Vinecore, Lucille

Page  324 324 324 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. S 'iistl, A\nnish IT1 (auiihurn. XMary _V Daniel, Polly Gardner, Frances S. Golhert, K ite C XVX Fenn, S. M/arion WVood, Nora J. Shepard, Alfreda, NV. Paine, Harlauid 1. Nevins, Alexasnder Vinecore, John IVI. Daniel. Levi imhiiir an d 11armon Simith 1The first pastor to serve this congregTation. w as Rev. George Itichadl Others w ho ha ve scrvcdl up to the present time are: Levi P. Spellisani, Wells H. Utley, Augostinc G. iiilslbard, XV illiarn Clirk Ifiiriis Tohn \XV 5 savage, Philip I. Benen aiid Clarence \XV. Long. WXillik ins \V\de~lnhoeft is thc premist pastor. The services wvere, at tirst held iii thelal1 ntist chords, hut wit'iis -s va c iafter tlse orgaisization of the chsurcls isew hui.dsgwa nder wav Is t is locasted at the corner of Camhorn avenuie aisd Bradford street. It is a, neat fraise structure. anid the cost of coisstruction is esiiisateel at $8, 500. 'Fhe clialpel connected with the church huihling in the rear wvas erected isl 884. The parsonage is located at the corner of Lincolis aveiiii and] Bradlfordl street. Ill consnection with this elsurals is a gooil Sunday school, a Youisg Peolples' Society of Chlrstiais Eisdeavor, a Ladies' Aid Society, arid a 1-Joisse and~ Foreign Missionary Societyv. A M/en's Upllift Cluh was orgaisized in Novensber, 11)13 anld is proqperiis,- rapidlys. T1he present meissership of the cliurels is our( hundreil tisel si xteeis. (s4iNREiG TION-AL eiit.iseii OF Sil'IDAisON. tOn April 9. 1877, L COMssWaVs Of eleven persons- iiiet is. a little, (o1(, (lisuised sclsool house lsgsted witli oise haisd lanisp aisd twvo lanterns, to coussider the advisahility ot lurch asin' the saise for a place of wvorshsip. That cse-ct iisg, the Cossgregatuo il Socsetv cuf Sherisdais sas foriises. TFlscv dlecidedl to hny and repair t. oue Te enlr li e Isouse pdit iii ness windlows ausd doors, pauisted inside oud 011, auid msade a cozx little chapel of it. Ablout ti1ve onsmtlus latcr, Sc pteiiber 22, 1877, tlse First Coisgregation1-al chrlisirel ws organsized, consisting of eleven msemshers, ten Nvoinen and oise isan aisd that sian w'Nas Rcv. I.'U. Otis. Avlso saxs ordained sit that tinise. R~evereisd tOtis labsored for tse church four sears aisd a half. lie was succeesled lhv Rcv. 0. B. Xkaters. wvhis stayed one year. Tlsev felt they- insist go wvhere itseir chuilslren could have\- setter sisossl aidvanstages. Before tlsev 1hsd takeis tlseir delsartisre, lPev. VT. X. Thsrushsl, frosii Bristol. Ensglandl. casise to take upl the svork. I:Ie served tlse clsssrch for two and as salf years. The saisi wveek tlsat M~r. T'hruishs resigised. a young- nais frosm Lfsions SensinarY. Ness York. caise to preach. expectiisg tos stay for a fewv weeks' varation. hut before the tinie was up, lie discovered the field was iieedly and

Page  325 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 325 lacrge- enough for a whole-hearted (Christian- minister. He felt his inability to do justice to such a field, which, he claimed, extended sixteen miles or more each wa\. Under his live. earnest effort, the Sunday school soon outgrew the little chapel. The next thing was to "seek after a sign," which was this: If the Lord increased the spiritual strength and number during the winter, he would take steps toward building a church. The sign was given. The church itself quickened and numbers increased as never before. "Let us arise and build.' " ''imes were so hard it could not be done." it seemed an impossible undertaking. But the way the leader went to work, encouraged the rest to hope. I-e (id not say, "I will not give sleep to mine eyes or slumber to mine eyelids until the thing is accomplished,' neither did he advocate the eight-hour systcni, but he quietly went at it and managed to get in eight hours in the forenoon and eight in the afternoon almost every day after he began the work. Neither did lhe, like Solomon, choose out three score andi ten thousand men to bear burdens. le put on overalls and rubber boots, took an axe and saw and started for the woods. After some hard work and discouragements the first hard battle was fought; twenty thousand feet of logs were on the banks of.the.lake.ready for use. The Rubicon was passed andl there was no backing (lown. Some said it could not be done, few tlhought it would ever be completed; only a very few faithful souls \who knew something of the pastor's determination had faith in the enterlprise; an(1 thc-v only because they faith in him. t-le did not ask the people for money at the beginning; he knew it would l)e lseless; they wouild have laughed at himl ---if not openly, in secret. He w\en\t on without asking help, except labor. put up and enclosed the talildling, put the roof on and put up the tower. The ladies came to the rescue in the meantimne, sold ice cream, suppers. had socials and helped Ivy bills. Friends fronm abroad were appealed to for windows. The spirit iiantifested by the pastor, as day by day he labored with saw and hauniier on the roof shingling (luriLn the hottest davs, filled the nmembers with zeal and courage. Many werte the lprol)hecies of failure all along. but in spite of indifferentce, oll)ositioll a1nt disc)ouragemients on everx hand, the work went along. better always than was expected. More money was raised by one-half than it wa.s thou ght it would take at the first. The roof is Gothic. The audience room is arched overheadl andl linished with brackets and panels in oak. oiled andl varnished; it is wainscotted with oak, and the seats areof, c(ik. The main room seats about two hundred p)eople. The lecture room opening into the main room bv folding doors, is provided with chairs and will seat about

Page  326 326 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. two hundred more. The church complete cost about $3,000, and was dedicated in March, I888, free of debt. During the summer of 1888 a nice parsonage was erected, and in November the Rev. A. II. Claflin took his vacation. On his return, on November 25, he brought his bridle with him. Mr. t and Mrs. Claflin remained with the church until i891. In 1892 the church leciname self supporting. Since that time the church has been served by the following pastors: Rev. (. L. Preston, J. E. Butler, 0. M. Snyder, T..\. Kirkland, Fred Pinch, J. F. I,:lnshorough. G. IT. Alexander. 1. I-. Bridgewater is.the.present pastor of the church, and he has been here one year. 'The present membership is seventy-nine. Names of charter members: Rev. J. T'. Otis, Emma Bean, F liza Barrnes, Sarah Hlolland, M1rs. J. T. Otis, Mrs. F. I. Barkhamr. Sarah Burton. Caroline Collins, Francis:Monroe, 11. II. Stodtdard and M.larx Summers. In connection with the church is conducted a Slun(lay school, hlich has three adult organized classes, one being a mlen's class. Nearly all classes in school are organized. EInr-ollment albout one hlundred and fifty. Average atten-dance during vacation season, over ninety, also have a cradle roll. This church is located in Evergreenl township. sectionl 3 3. UNION CONGRE(:ATTONITT, CHURCHI OF CRYSTAL,. The Union Congregational church of Crystal xwas organized on Marty 3, 1877, with the followinig charter members: EF(dward W. Slack, Chaunce Case, B. S. Frisbie, \dilliam VW'. Naragan, Mlary E. Case, John W. Coore, I)wight Demshu, N. I. DIemshi, Henry Graf, J. C. Voung. M aggie:Fuller, Mairian (hamplin, Illiz.aeth Packard, Mirs. John Moore, Mrs. Alfred Fuller. Mrs. Rose VWright, R. S. Smith and Mary S. Fox. At the initial nmeting this religious society was incorporated and thel following trustees chosen for the year following: Chauncev Case, T. S. Frisbie, A. I. Smith, W. W. Naragan. John '. Young. Rev. N. I.. Otis served the congregation as a first pastor and held this as his charge until it was thoroughly organized and on working basis. Since Reverend Otis officiated the following ministers have served this church: Rev. Robbins, 1)..\. -T olman. S. S. Siebert, J. E. 'Tedford. George E. Bro\wn. Iyvon. This church is located on section 17. township of Crystal.

Page  327 MTONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN.32 327 CONCGRFGATIONAT, CHUIRC I OF LAKEVIEW. The initial lleeting of thils church wvas heldl in i88o, with the following aeso s; lSlemb~ers \A B. 'Danforth, M~ary A. Danforth, Esteiles H. iDanfortil, lila I.l)llnforti,~llWliham if. Winter, -Mary E. Winter, John T. Jamieson. S. S. Parlller, Jehil (Chapin, Laura M. iCapin, Mary, P. Rey1101ds,.Liczie Ni. Itevnolds, _Aaes M1. Tamieson. lie Ilext mleetiylo 0 15ield( in tile Advenlt chllrcl at Lakeview, and tile following elecedl~ trlstecs HL 13. I.)anforth, W~illiami H. Winter, John TF. Jai lesonl 01o11 W~ood a0(1 Rohert Edgar. Thle firs 10 llteiig-s of tile ellurcll were leild ill the Grand Army of the RzepuiblIc i ll, w5 RIl ev. (Charles Scarer as the pastor. Now they ihaVe a very hine, huildiln located at the corner of L~incolnl and Fifth streets. It is con~striicted ot v elleeredl brick. It a cost of $5,000. They have a Christian Elndeavor ICLeague aii(l (150 praver illeetilngs tilrollgilolt tile week. Tile followil"- 1s 1 list 0f1)oastors \\110 have ser\-ed the cillrcil from tinie to tinle aurt, Ixl~ 'S. \\Villiail More. C.amlpbell, Myers, Secord, Siherwooci, Hulmphres and(.IIotlstoll. They 11ow1 hIv (Id a mlll elrshil( of eigllty-cigllt. ~CONGEGATIONMi, CIIIJE1CII (OF NEVINS LAKE. I hle I onre o~Ichlircil of Nevins Lake, whicil is located ill section of 01 idllY too 11 Iip 5( (Iranlizel 011 M~arch 1 1, 190o6. with twenty charter meinchers. t1u thle (111 (If October, 1903. articles of illeorlloratioll of a chilrc soI O ets at1 Nevinls Lake wcre filed. a11( tile purlpose of tilis associatioll 0N as (vell as (lesirollls of co-operalillg wvith tile First Congregational church (If Sta((toll i11 llalltlinlinlg a Sunday scilool a1n( in supporting the preaching of the ~cslIa vlsialke chapel, a building which was to he llsed for allv eva Ilgefical socicty ais approv ec by tile trustees of said society. The mlellblers p~resenlt at this meeting were: G. E. Drake, Sylvia Kilpatrick. El'lilY- Xaters, JFilly1 Kilpa)trickl Su~sie A. Curtis, John C. Peterson, Minnie Mlesler, D. IT. \Vaters. ~i cla Curtis. E-dna Kilpatrick. Agnes Disbro, Elsie F. Kilp~atrick, FV. W Mesler, I11 C. Lowry. Johin A. Nelson, Oscar E. Nelson. 1 rank Toleson andl \lldreNA FI(its. The lNevins L ake church building was erected in 1903, at a cost of $ooo. TIhis congregation ha ISeen served hy the following pastors: C. WV. 1.011 0a(1 Willilmn Wiedenhoft. The latter served this as a charge from

Page  328 328 328 MONTCALM COUNTY. MICHIGAN. Stainton. 'Pie society at present supp)iorts a Sunday school 'an( ILidics~ Aid Societs. I he present niemhersliip numnblers sixteen. FIRST CONGREGATIONAL. CHUROCH OF BUTTE RNUT T he F irst Congregational church of Biuttcri nt %vas organizedl on -Mav 14, 1892 ssith thirty'-three charter loienmber's ssvhich ire is follow:E N Vt. Johnson, MXrs. E-mma Johnson. 41 rs. F'anmy Johnson. C( 1. Chaindler, 41rs. C. E Ch'andler, Mrs. Nancv ('ross,.\41rs. Anna'1inBoont N1rM ind 1 41rs F. C. -lenty) John Ferry, Mvron Slavton, H. 1-1. Aldr ich Poilsy Aldrich Jaisper Aldrich, Isaac Geor- c \lars I. lEvans, Sira di eliengr, Orren Xi'vers, 'Mrs. Orrin Mycirs, Oiivc Vfilk, 111(0 ii iiiiier, D. 1'. Pattieison Mis D. B. Patterson, Arsviri'i Thisey ds 1airs 41 iitin, Aic e Kxipp -r. -nid M-rs (Chirles Sherman, M-,r. 'nd Airs. E1' 0 Snithi 4\iI- and Mrs. Vt- H. Wunisles, 41is. Carlie Patrick Tlie first dec"oils ot thils c(hrch sscrc I" NVi Joilnson. J01111 VFearv Mall 1) 13 PIttcirson; an11th firi 1st trlistIcs ws rc Myfron Sliston. WAillis H1. Vt'aiiiisies aniii1 If.T Aldrich. F' (. flcots Serve lis0 tile tii st clerk, andc C. T" I Ii mdliel 5\ is tie first treistirer PRes Isac D. Lille \vssi the first pastor to serve the church cii hd till otilers thiat tollowe d are: 1I C. Rohbiins. T.,A Shaintou. D. A\ ilmin, iS. S. Seihbert, T E. Teilfore (George B. Tiroswn. WViltc r Lyo s iimd N. 1.. Otis. Atfirst the rel'll'lli~s serv-c's I ~ss'erc liclid us a hail in Buitternut, hut i iT8oo a ess Imillino- coliltrtictel cof birick. at a CO.st o f $2,.5oo. \aS holilt onl a site that m-1s donal'ted bvi Charles ('ross lold srife.. This lot consisteid of onle-halaf acre, ad ine thc sear TQ15 the coii-regatiolI hooghlt anothser half acre adjoining it toi a pairsoila-e, and they are fortunate to have spaid for it alreadvs. A'n oitercstuo' Stindias school and l~adies' Aii Society are conidlueted ounier lb.. 1tis111 s ot tile church. Resv. Buriiton 1). Snook is thse present pastor. C (i'slEl CTiI)N \1. ClIUIYTCO iFll- 515 lFhe soc iety' of tile Congregational church of Bloiaiir ssas organiizedl onI -iie3 8" t the hiouse of TI. B. Coltoii. Uour s-ears, later a finc 111 clir bulidiii ~a 5s ciected and tile gros-hvti of this lhisrcl ssas, serv mariikeil froull this titne. Rsev. Scaimiocl Sessioos ss-as thle first liastor, alid lie servedI froio 1872' to 1t874. ['hie charter ilemsbers ss-ere as follosv: B. G. Ciiolev, S ir -il (1101ev U. B. Coltoii. [T. Coltou. HI. 4M. Rohinson, Jane Robiiisoii 'iari'a Rohinson. j0111 Murray, M-argaret 4'hfirra-y- H-. G. Cooley'. Mary F'.. Cooies'. SAagi'ili Barton. 'Rev. andl Mrs. Sanicii Sessions. Tihe pastors ssho hasse

Page  329 MIONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 31 32Q servedi this church aie as follows M. Smith, 1874-75; James G. FreeIl)oril i87-76: Geo~rge aiiiiee. 18/77 79 -,John1 HoTtsted, i879-81; R. A. Tay]or, i882-8~ D)arrell L ce T88- W\ 1J Skentichory, i88,5-88; John A. Kivdcx 1889)oo0 1)avid( Kirkpatirick. 1.800u02 1. A\. Shanton, 1893-94.; Clark C. Otis, 18r).-4 5 *~" W.V Millcr, 189( 97 Samutel S. Seihert. 1898-190(; N. T. Avxers, 1901-04- (George W lDell, ioos-oil; WN.illiami MitchllC1, I910-I2z w. I F rost 191 1r.4; I kciiocils 191)4-15;; and WV. 1. 'Frost is tile presCelt pastor Th IC iltircih 0\a r51ebutilt in 1902, at a, cost of $4,000. ihe-( present miembehrship 15 s51\tN5, CONGRi1AIIo-NAL Ciii RCii OF SIDNE(Y. While Sidncv lilad religions meetings., from a very early dlate, there was. no spiecial (lenonllatioii organized; hut the first meetings held. were conclicteil bvx R~exs. Pipier and Ezekiel Rossilan, memblers of thle Unlited Brethren church, at thle honse of 1l'fenrvm Gilmore. A societv wvas fornied when thte school Ihouise was lauilt, and servie~s held inl it about a year~ Then thev werehield ill tile log school Ihouse at the c-enter-. Thie societv consisted of thle follow\-ing, nieialers I osho 7oall and wvife. Mrs. Nailn Ness, Rosweli Gillmore aind se fo, inii Rvan, [HIenre (illmore and wvife. Nolile Gililiore and Geora G lilnbo e.. There \\as iio meeting hiouse Imlit, as tile societv was. evenitualyi lbrol-e cii o. Tue Con1111egatioinal church at. Sidney \\'a 5 orgaiiizeci olliiPie 10, 189)0, xx 1111 folitecil ciharter mlembilers. William N\oah seas chosen the first deacon,.Mrs. KittlC xxais tile first clerk. aiid she helil this office for seveiltecll xvetrs. Rex\,.A NV. Ilafin wxas tlue first inlillister, andliie caite froml Sheridan to, Sidnex to COl(hilct the mlietilg-s. whlichi were ieledi iii a scilool loose. iefore the erectioni (it the cinirel. Reeerend C'afiii xvas inlstrumilental ill tile huildinig of titis church, aiid the peoplie (If Sidney have ever bleen grateful to him for this iact. Tt wxas buill inl I887/ tic corner stcone xxas laiii in Junle aini it xvas dediiated ill Tilllrii tR8(o.\Ir. (laflin left tixis chulrcih ill cilarge of Rev. Jamecs I. IBitle Iill tile fill Of 1891 'nil xxeit to live ill Nexw York state. Rex. ( L IPrestoin took cl o ge of the church xshei Rex. Butlter wvent awvay,. -tor then caome Owcii '.I. "ox der. T.emtiel N. Kirkianil, Fred Pinch, Johit Ialsiloroulit Gl TI Alexaniiier and S. A. l,)ridigexxter, xxho is the present pastor. On. tite i6th of jilec 1 827, tile ladies, of this cllirch organized a Laidie s N,-id Socilets aild this organization has heeti kept uii to tile piresenlt il-tx 1h cChiurch Ii nXV_1 lias neeimhership of over -forty.

Page  330 3 3 0 0MONTCAI.M COUNTY, MICHIGAN, FIRST CON OREGATiON.Ai. CHUJIC I OF EDMORE. Il'iis cflrll-ch wa';Ls organized tinder Rev. S. it. Rosebtiron"gh, Atlgtst I2, i879. Prevoios to this inme lie had i)eeil coinducting mneetilg s ill tiie schoo10 liotise. At tdle lirst ineeting, held for tile inritosc 0t organizing a societt he entrolled tue foill( ovjill "clam1~:es, S. R. Rosclorotigh, Nathan Colemni ii S. \\. \;Vhittiescv;111(1 w fe, S. 5. Stil ford, A i rs. S. [111111 nid iSI (. Cones S R. Roseiti (rotil-i, Naithali C olenian, anhd S. W\. \Viiittlesev wiere the first trol sces.;tid I. S. Sanfort d,vas tie citrk. it ev'. RoiSei itotitgtuhii oiiiii stayed~t i('11itt tile tear Ndiii lie \,tts sitcc dlcd ho RIev. Fler, AMiarslh, tinder whilose ittorts tilt stcictv acitil d ic tt t111it slrtiitel total place if wonrsili wvhich Cost. aitotit $2,000. rThe following is t list oi tile tImsors dicmt have served ttiis elitircli si'ic the org;anizationii Gieoriiie \\W. R s Tri \W. tell. ('arison, A. D. \\haley, \Viiiiamn \Wert, ( Ib oit till F. rav is ). TI. I etton 'amid 1-f Searlett. ''ihere has teen iii ite i eliot111 e mut te In ltme idimiiiin wvhiehm etinsistedillii tue ididitloi if~ a kilt titi two itiinmlit ri it tu a readinig rooni anti furnaice mit till 0 thle. Iaseioemit itt the chcli ti 'I'lie V tit t f thie chlrch property at r-csellt is itiact itd t 0 S3oo. 'IFle mimembersh-ip at piresent niiiiiers ttirtvtivo, with a ern ictitvt Suittliav scim oi of ahoilt si xtv nteniiiers. 1t is interesting to lite litit ic. I 1 t Al arch t sirsed tr i lti setingr-ega;t iou 'for fifteen years. [lDie imctinpl fur time trl;alizaltiln tf the First B taptist church of Greeniyu'le was helul out Noseliliber Ii), uSi,3, it the sehotol liotise locatel oil the cornier itf Lafav ette aiiiil Catee etreets. lRe: i. Rasco wvas eiiioseit miolderator of the asseiblv IT. PI ID)osvis, clerk, mind the naiiies of twenty-six iieimbsers \vere uiaeedi t uton theei cliurch recortis. Iin Seilctenher, 1854, the Organization hecanie a lert if the Guarad River Baptist A\ssoeiatictn. 'he chutrch at this tiule embiliracedl hut six utuale mllemlbliers. Great iiiftictultv was experienced at this earhy periodt in obltaining a suiitahie iplace of orshiliip, aimul foi a eonsiderihie tinic it wils not pitossibtle to mlainiltailini rc-tilar appionitments. Filnally an old store helotiging to Al.. Rutain wNts sectred whieh was fitted up aiiil used ointil i865, ihien the services wvere held ini the ('onlgregatioilal chiireh for aiiout a vear. Omi Fehrtarv 10, the church dedicated its own house of;oirshit at the corner cf Washightoil aeld Franklin streets. Tn 1887 the chureh was rebhilt

Page  331 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN.31 331 a111( riededicaited '[he pastors of the church haive heen Rev. J. Roscoe, 1853 -55- \' [Hlowell, 185.517 'A,1Mr. S. D. Ross, a m-enihier of the church, supplledl 11l(1 xx7 IS ordineiid as pastor on Novemhber 28, 1857. He remained uintil the als cut of hdex- Y rescott in 1862. and in 1864 Rev. A. Platt was suinmnoneil to the chir-e In Felbruarv, 1865Re'Jr.Dunodsullel tile pilpiit, until IRex 1). 1- Hills hecanie pastor, who remained until i868. lxicN- C I. B. Arinstroup xwa' cailed in 1870, and the samfie year a parsonage xx as seciuredl Thle resignaiton of Reverend Armstrong occurired ini 18/74, xwh( n Rxex 1' inrtts succeede d. His pastoral lahor extended over a period of si\xc ers. aid xix. kaN ix1untinglton hegan his lahors inl May, i88o. The pastoes xwhlich folloxved are Tohn F,. aBuilt. MA'arcus F. Haivue, 1884; T.. D. Ias, i889: F. I Talbuit Carter. i~poo i). 1". Hills, 1801, Ch trles El. Barker, Ti97: W\ilhian II. Gart'eld. tpoo' 1. II. Stuar1t, 1004: 1 -aki.10; L I. P ettit, Wh.\. Bernlard Iiiriaii was, called inl 191T5 'rile FuSsT BAPTIST CHU ~RCH F01 SiTAN10(N. Thle Society of the 1"irst Baptist church of Staiiton xxv's organized uinder the supersixion if Rex'. Ii. ] \VW.lPalier, October 1,,j866. H. E- XV. Palmer, (ornelii I-T Pliner. Nain-x D a\-is, 6. 1F. Case ml- M lry I. (Case constituted the first or-anizatioii. Al r. l)alnier xxas elected pastor, G. F. Case, clerk. and Davixdi Morsc. G. F. Cas~e, and J. 1). Bleers. trustees. '[he folloxying ilastors Ii\- ixc crxvcd the ii iigregalio 01since its organi-zation H -. F. WV. Palmer, John ian lidk F. Curtis..A. XX'. Ilenilricks, C. N. Biirnham, C. C. M-iller, J. XX" Hciii, x ( hcsnex'. 1F. IT. Vouiiii Eug-ene Revc'raiice. H. McGrath. George XX. Baxtes 1. Al. Parscoiii and 'F. E. Britten xvho is the present pastor. 'Fhlei cli.ch xwhicli xvas conlstructed of xx'oocl, it a c'ost cif $3,0o0, xvas tlic Fi st pl icc of xvorship In the x'illage. Tt xvas constructedl inl i868 and dedicated on [i iniarx' i 86o Elder Van Vieck xw'as Ipastor at this time, Fand( he together xxith A\. XlMither an-d S. -B. Fis;h conduicteil the cledicatorx' serx'ices. Tile lot. tunoix xxhiiih it starids wvas ilonated lix' Ge6rge 12'. Case. The church memenirship noxx nuimiers eighty-three and the Scinday school iil roniictionl xxith this clxirih has a rnemhership of seventy-sevenl. The youingr people hasve ioro'ail7el 'a Baptist Youing People's U.nion and heave a iiieniiiers;hip of twvi'itx'fou~r The Bethel MNission Siindax' school conducted iiiiilcr tile alisluices of this chulrch has a, memhership of fiftv-seven. FItiST FRll xWILL 'BAP'rIS'r CIIiTRCSI. The First Free XXi~II Baptist church society xvas organized hy Rexvs. XBiliiam H-. Sniith anid D. H. L~ord, at a meeting held in the school house at

Page  332 332 332 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. II lowar.( ('ty 011 thle evening of MaN 3, 18-74, and isoriginal niwibers Nvere niamed1 as follows: David 1ii T ord Sainmiel 1. Pulsifer, Arthur Scott. I' uwne 1. J1 rownl, A\nnetta II. iLord, \rvsla A. Pitilsifer, Electa Scott. LtOlisa ILIor(I Hielen 1). 1Ptlsiter, I' mina Strong and E~llen 1-lickok. S. G. 11 ick-ok joined sooni a fter. Is av)id 1(1. Lord reminaned in charge six crs IT l preachedi the first sermnoi in Howard Cite ini tile waiting- rooml of the dep(io) in '1870. [h'le societs cointiniei to meet at tile school house d(imrn the summer, hut sooii aiter\Vards David I-T. Lorcd luilt a liouise tweentyfour in tlhirtv feet wvhich cost ov er $5oo. w here tlieey heldl their riieetiiigs for atime ont now constitutes at vestiy of the chlurch. [In the spring of 857 the societv comileincedl tue 1bsily of a brick buililhig tilirty-six ly hifly tovc feet. It I's a sliilstanlial a111 C1(1 c 1iliOdi 's buiildling:iild -COst ahIotit % '2010o it-w 's -dedicated on Maey 30. T88o, hy Ransomi Duiln, 1). D), of II fi lid le. and it that time a collection weas taken armouiiting to $500 whichi dcl1acii tin socclev from debt. In the iloilth of Mlae, 1870, thle first Sabbath school w is oroaitilzed ill Reyniolds in tile dirilili room of the small hotel kept by NV illiiin I Elmonidson. On thc first clay of meeting there ivas anl attelilance of sev eniitcii scholars. Rev. David ITI. Lord was sueiirinterielent aniil as slsed lriiliii p lv tiy Aies. Willfiami F. ''ihompson. wvho tiamieil it the "Star o~f Hlope" Sabbiathi school. After niectilig at tile hotel a few tinies thle place of mleeting wvas chiangeil to a little carpenter shop ownled liy Samilnel 1.Pulsi fer. which weas so cold ini the winiter tinic that tlhev again resoirteci to tile lictel. 'Fhis shop) seas also at times iiseil as a mleeting, liiise. iii thle slimmer of the iient year Amos iR. M~ather becamie the teacher of the first Bible class orgaiiizeii iii Reviioldls. This Sabbath school was the -erin iif tile Umliji i S-blialil School, which wasi- well atteiiced iiitil lieN clilirclics" were erectedi whieii it wvas dlivideid. Vti5 1. cs' C iiTiii:j (I,' iF i0IVAII ClTY. Ih Fire1lst Baptist chuimrchi societv sias orgaiiizeii oni Februniry ifi 18,3. Ii, l~ees \ Stilis\selI, wshose efforts hadl brovigitt the friends togetiler. i e ireacheil to this circle cevcrs Ilternatc Sabblathi [lie sociefi biuilt a chinicii. hut 11p11areiitls tiics wei cii110 cohn irv successfsml is their mleetinos sveire soon disoiiiitiiitedh It w~a tioht loll- hossesver, hefore it ivis reorgasiizcdi his J. \l irtlin nL1 il te follow ung officers \vere elected: C. V\ Howe, iCLeCOii Wa dllg clerk; A\ A\ 1'dhiime, treasurer; trustees, I' %itiimOrill VN 'Skid, I ~I diie, I E Hai11,: 'F[lie follows in Atugust Rev.I R. Monroe seas calleid 1(o tue ipistorate Duirimlg hits yec r sixteell mlembiers si rc cacleid to tile

Page  333 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 333 church. 'The next pastor was Reverend Spencer, who was followed in January. T877, 1)! A\. W. alterman. Fourteen members were added during the following year, of which two remain, Mlr. Edl)ergh and Mrs. Walling. lRev. J. J. Monroe came to the church in 1878 and was ordained here on july' 2, of that vear. The next year the church was reorganized, but the recorl of the following tel years was destroyed in the tire of i889, so a part of this history is taken from nmemory rather than record. However, the followingl pastors served in order: Rev. Mr. F.razier, (harles Baker, J. Spooner, Mr. Service, Charles ()ldfield, Reverend Welker began a good work but his health failed him and lie died shortly after leaving the field. Rev. C(. A'\. A\tes calme to the field on October I, T890, and continued two and onehalf ears A Rev. eMiller supplied the pulpit three months and then Rev. C[harles Oldfield again served the church. In August, 1893, Bro. A. M. Conkliln iwas gralited a license to preach. lHe made the best of his opportunities and(l rendered the denomination a true service. He is now a field worker in the White River- \ssociation, where he has built five churches. Revs. \\illiam '.l:lemplenen was called to the church in May, I898, and rem-ined al vear and a half. Rev. J. 1..Carstens came in March, Icoo, and served acceptably one year. The church was then closed for muitch needed repairs. In the latter part of July, 19oI. a call was extended Rev. W. H. Belfry to leconme pastor. It was accepted and he is inow on the field. There is not time or space to tell the story of the heroic effort and sacrifice that has miade and preserve(l this organization. Great cred(it is elide J. R. \hbbott, Mrs. (. A. \. Vadenbergh aild others who have for so ianv svears carried the hurdlen of responsibility and given their time and service. There are towt tw\enty'-two imenimers in the cihurcli. A spirit of unity p)revails and the finances are in a satisfactor- colndition. Services are held every Sunda(l both morning and evening, and prayer mieeting every 'lithr-slav night. All are falirl well attendled. 'lThe Baptist church in belief does not differ materiallv fromii some others. Tlhey accept the Bible as the inspired word of (God. The believe in the ordinances which are instituted in the New Testament and none others. Tlhc have no creed, noC catechismi, nothing to subscribe to excel)t faith in C(hrist iand in his teaching. They are indepdelent in governmenlt land preach a full gospel. FIRST BAPTIST CTiURCi(' OF G01VEN. The First B-aptist church of Gowen was organized in i88o with Rev. N. P. Batrlon serving as first pastor. The church is a neat frame building

Page  334 334 334 MONTCALM COUNTY, 'MICHIGAN. constructedl i I881) ~It L Cost Of 'sT n Thel following iammed pastors have ofifciated up to the present time:N. I- I.Brlon. 'Mr. Osgood, Mr. Callahan, (ole N an Gandt and A. T1 N ilts. Riv. C. M'. Baker is the presenlt p~astor. Thie ehnrch was rcorg; niiivd 'in thnav 0op, hV IN r.o sn state II11S11,1Fliii'. hir preseiltit II(1c'1cr111)ipiiiiil Ill's seveniteenl. cit~15 r izo-ii (11 F i-'N'RIiC.AN. The [LintriCan Baptist ehnrchi \VL 0_1 1I111ed onI April1 15, 18821, With thle fo)11owiii' (1111ter iiiemhers Samuinel a11( -Margaret Steele, Charles and NI irthi I lunnierg, G. WV. u'vaiis and w ifev ( iaherine 1,an~i1, Sinmon Cunnnmns kild wxift. raI Steele, Judial Stetlt. I itl NVin Pattein, Harrison Ctummiinis,.1i ltdert B rooks and 1ilz7ie A.l H. Parsons was tile first plastolr. anid Rtv Jf Bennetft is now the pastor in ch;,roe. Other pastors are: R'e v. Pont 5 1)1v11 on.lam iI. V~limett, I' NYoun s. Pidllips, Seill)onho1ven, Gates, C. Slierwood1)1 Sharp, Fllis and H. W. P owxeli 'The first clinrdi htidhing was dtedlticttd I n 11Dlet'einl r 'o, 11s"61;1111 Nva 1bu~rnedl lownvii i Agtigst, 1909. I lut in 11)1 1 1 niew' 11111] llvre clm~clxtiint hnuilding took its place. It is locatell in Doi~glaI ~s towviislhip ill sectioni 1) 1a1 1s constrilctell of cement Plocks lat a cost olf S5i,ooo. T[here are thirty imetiblers that Pelon- tv this chturchi wxho 11sot) ake lert 'in miakiiig an I itrl -lint' Stinday school and Ladlies AIll Soeietxv. 'ihe first ileetilig' I)f the Bap11ti"t thrtirc society was helI at the hiinse tof N~ilfiami ijverest, ill thle year 1856. It xxvlx organizet tunder the direction of lFlder 11)111 Van Bl1ack, xvitli thit followuiii persons as mlembiers: W illiam I'verest aind wife. Miiltoil Baldwix ind.1( w ife, H irami Hont and wvife, TheodlI et Flverest and wvife. Till iiieetings, were held iii the school hoose oO secftion 26 for a intiibhtr of xvt rs 'lil 1111 o)n settioi it) a fterwarcd becanie the pluicc of worshipl iaftei wxhith li arisoni (itx Pecanie the lplace finally chosen. ik nit'e church. tosting Ilicilt S-.001) xx bu Pilt in 1876. At the ses5-1111 of thy 'Ilichioani cfmf' lce iii i8_~o. Rex. Eli WNestlake anid Re-v. R (uis (. Craiie xx rt appoiiittcl to Flat River ciretuit. theii coniprising- harts (of ITola, Allegain and Kenit toutnies, aild lairplain in Mlonttalni tounity. I lit\x tWAl liillaloIntmentiiit inI Greenville ill the fall, and in

Page  335 MONTCALM COUNTY, AMIC iIIGA N.35 335 iintiairs foflostvin, 1\'e\ It ti (ii o1le coIltmmeced a series of special services Iii IFairpolaii, whi11(1 restilteil III the org r)niaio a M1ethodist Society ili Februairy, i8.~i The ileetin s wvere hield lii a school hoose then standiiii oii the (01o1n. 0r 1115J-Ltavtt and( ( ll streets. \nioi g the first memhers ivere 1). C. Xl (orie nid Nvite, G~eorge Li ocks, and wife, IDr. 1Jalmes (Chamnherlaiii and \iiie 1' l\ 1 Al oore and1 \Ife IL IR. A\damis 0111 w-ife. Levi 31akiey' a11d wi fe, I~rasttos F isher and wife aviid Mrs. ior-ess. lTlie first hoard of trustees wvas orgainized iii April 18,5i nid it once t( ok steps towvardIs erecting a church 111101 a lot donai tedi to 11w soviets liv foliii Greeni. Thle grouind was sittuated -a1t ss St Le Jaiiiis KeLit iiii 1.). C. 3iiiorc were -also active Iii the wvork. ( Lo'eIoucks inid Wvi. Rl. (. Cr~ane wsere applointedl a committee tvi prioiceil 55vit the erci C 15 of the chuirch, and it wvts compilleted Inl tile atittomll of I 8 I It oI is in iile Of wood 11111 licateil oii the lot nex\t to the piresenlt par-,i 11111 oii thle wvest. Dni-iuig, the palstoralte of Rev. A\ R lBoggs t his liuihling) ivas lovs itoii thyn corlier of (ass mid Frankliin streets an1d ctnusidcrahlv clilar'-e cail ui oilier;dilitions wvere madile idnriiug the iiictimibleiuv if 1. W 1<cii li I d huritiug the pastoraite if _Rev. Lild G(roseniotugl~i, the olil litildiun- s.i's remolvedl to make wvay for the piresenlt edul Vce whiich is a very huie bin Lk iiiildhiiii aid whichI sias ci nsztruicted It 11 cost of $30,000. \ list oh hiastors ili order oif service follows: Ruifus (C. Crane, Noah Fas ett A\ R. 1Bartlett, \. Wakefielil (feo.r-e lh'naill A\ A\ Dmnton, Francis (;Iass, \V I. Jenkins II(lii XX Isrk I XDi o.S arnles. \. Al. tolbii V\\. AIldrichi A\ I. Bougs,. XV. Reuid A A\ Browni, Delos 'roik, G.I I LeeI Louis Groseiuiaiii'h, F. C. LeJ Wc X L Dai) son. Addis Albri 'R.I S. Xl Grcoii A I JDii Hat \V. FI lKendriLk, Josep 11Du itton, LIIois lDe Iamaiiter iiii IThoiiias I ox. 'Flie hirs loirid of tillsties xivis comp~os-ei i)f thle fi iol - en si us: Gciow- I iitiks, Adil onL ticks. XX illiai, XXVeIJs,.1amle- ChIimiiil a 1in iiii Isuifiis l. 31 ors Thle Snnjda is 5ol 0) seas or —anize in i8 iitiX ill lii n to T1 1 Rook, aunid Iliii Kent as the tirst slIlperlintvieliets. Jiihi 1Leiwis becaliii suplerintenidenit in 18636 tind remiainecl in office uintil i875 when he w\as stucceciled bv 0. XW. Green for two vears. A. HI. Beiuiett tlicii look charge fci- aI leriodi (if two vears, and 31. 0. Grissiold for one year, svhein A\. IT. Iteiinett wvas atgaiii electeil. The aittendalnee wsi Small ait the hegliiiniig. and many if the app11lianices for successftl StilldayI\ siioiil svork vecre lilea-er. The school strtiggleel oii thirotigEh the years grailuially impi~roving ini nniiilers 1111( resotirces tiitil it how 11115 a menihership vif four Iiiinidred scholars. Ani.Epworth Leagnie., compllosedl of fifty nuemhers, a Home all( Foreigii Mfissionary Society an111 Laidies' Aid Society. are auxiliaries of this church and (10 aI vast anilomlit of -ooil each vear.

Page  336 ,336 336 HONTCALAM COUNTY. MICHIGAN. METHII DIntSiT 1EPISC.OPAL Cit.'IC i OF CORA L. Ini 1861 there was org'ilzedxl in \laipk\ alle xthe hi st NMetilodist Epis(COpa ciihitriii society' tog'ether with theifirst Sabbax th school. Ill 1862 thle fir st cliss \v ix organiiled witlh tile folloxxn 1 members11 Ec. lBlatiditg alld lxI ft I Ix eri 0o-01 a11(1 wxifei \M rtiti 1hlillips 1(l\d witi. Thiomias P1lu11 and wxift mu. xlle I lxxxiixlii an \ Fe,. I. Reed and xxie. The first minister xwas JRev I 1- Tanner1 xxl( 11 ax asistedi lby Rv. xJo111 Gnr hait. Reverenlds I`w )citz, Johns a1(1 Sauniders are aniton, th. c irlx itin11e1ants. The first class lieaxerx xxcre 1K. J. ihlanolihiil ailll I-, 'R. ieguson. lIn tile x\eir 1873. aftcr inainx strxI ildeS, L CiSx wxx ix01aiizeil at Coral Inx a hoc ii preaidler lby the nlath. O1 I N onit roxi. Thle plxi.e of \vorsitij was xi a s11111 schoolxx Ilmise locate1 xxi thi. i ti. xxhi.re Paik Ho ise tiioix standsi. Theii (iii iiit xxas thilt ei-iillec~te ithx 11 tlxe tig Ra pidlx disxtrict O n IPclrniary 1,J873. I rcidiiig ixIder 1 ecik sciit I \\ I assett tix tike clharge of the xwork. hii Apiiil tixthit vearl' i olrcaii xi \V.S i.itecti~d A Sidit v sxcho iol xxas orgail'iied Utcm I (1111 axnd A\int II fix h ilHoil~ombh xopeiiedl their idoirs fur servicex. Sooix after tile schiiool liii( tlox the hIld O'e-r DI IT1 Shook's drx'gOoils store. A g'rext ntpli ft cnie tox the societx nixoil tlxi ar rixal of Brothers Robxinson mud O ak s, lothi earniest 1dcthoixistx I -rxii De.tiroit1 iir koIxl1001 \xa-, cxisclx' jIdentified xxith the intt res tx of tile chlxirh.h T hi xxxi.itx 11111 felt thwat an cdifiice sholdi lie e.ri.(tid.i [) 11111 iiild [oAlnI ixflelitlih) gavie thle bhuilditip' Site. 1I art-f aks t OMtixlxx O'ax'e $300 ~iiid;ill tiii. iiemibers iand fricixis xxere a iiilit toxi jtisli tlii i. ttirlirxi.- atlmix W\ \V\ lxbluxxil xx ix1 ajiiiited class leadler andl Suixia sx chiool xiipeixi~teixcxlitd iie \ x 'x 1:01111) iwIas mlade stexxward. At the eniu xxf the c('xiifi.'rxcxie xciir i71, xxr'il xx unxited xxvith tixe IPieri 6Oi i'i i iit. T W\ I Iclloxxd cl alx, ixpiolntltdi psastoxr and~ lix'ied;it P)ierson. 'L. iilii his xpixtixi it 1 iV1. xx xl iCnetixio ixere lieldl xl pastoral xxork carefully aittendiexd tox. l tkl-l~ixuriie xxork xrxx'ressexl oxu a Wxotiiexs' C7entral Templ~eriiiie.i. I i i ii. xi xxr`xon17cxl The chliirchl xxas fiirnishled wxitlh stoves, colleettoix bxoxex, ci. Iir hv l innilx nil Bibles Inl.ailuarv 1874. thle ciireii xvas delixtieit. Dl l. [ocxixix ot \llxionl tCille-c pxrieacedl the d iclxiatonr sernilon..ill \pixrl Revx S. W. Ixi)xi, of tlii Pay Qiuixte cotiferencee, oif Catlada, catte 1e.1 W.xxith itls f ittitix iTixl ftroml til t tutu oil tile iistorx' of Ilis li fe has heen tlii llixtorx itf tlii cirx i~tt ' in it xxf GI wx h xi se heart butrnedl xviti tile loee tfox souls 11n1 a txxxxer of strenthtl to thcltiuse, of Christ for txvetitv-ftve years.

Page  337 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 337 Rev. WV. I. Cogshall was sent here as pastor in 1874 and remained for t\o years. The church prospered under his administration. The church was blessed with a great revival in I875. In 1876 the district conference was held here. Re\. John Glover followed Mr. Cogshall and was with the church for one year. In this year Coral was set off from the Pierson circuit and was mlade a circuit of Tonia district. During this year Windfield, Trufalt and.laplle \alley were organized into classes by Rev. S. W. Lal)u.. GR. A. A. uell, an earnest devoted minister of the Gospel, served the circuit for two years. The church was i-mproved by an altar and pews were put in, the tower completed and the church decorated with a coat of painlt. 'I'he years 1878 and 1879 were supplied by Rev. S. \V. l.aIu who ltad associated with him as assistant pastor Rev. J. C. Beach. In I878 the parsonage building' was p)urchased. Du)ring 1882 and I883, Rev. D. S. Ilaviland served as pastor to tle great profit of the charge. In 1884 and 1,885 J. \\. ]).x\i(ls. a brother lbelovedl 1y the whole community, was sent lere and( lost his wife wllile here. 'The charge enjoiyed prosperity under his lpastorate. The following iinisters have served: 886-87, \V. R. Pierce; 1887-88, 1. 1. 1\'owen; f888-89, S. V. LaDu; 1889-9o, MAr. \Wyant; 1890-91, N. S. Gil)s; 1891-)2 (lprt of the year sulpplied by S. \W. IaDu) J. W. Sutton; 1892(-()3 S. \\. LaLTl)u (during xwhose term the annex was built, the church repaired, rep:ilnted andl pllstered at an expense of nearly $7o0); 1893-94, S. l-. Til; ' 18894-(9.. 1. ' oweer; t895-96, J. C. Dictrick; I896-98, XVilliam [lldd: 18o8-1902, i). 1. TRee(l; 19o2-o1904,t A. P. Moors; J904-1905, 0. E. W\ightman; 1)o)5-i9o6r6.. W. (Chatiehld T9o(6-19o7, Fred Deighton; I907 -I'el)rueary r, S. McD)onalld 190)-190(9, Frank James; 1909-19o1, W. H. Holcoi)ll; 1910-T l, 11. I,. Prentice; T()11-1913, Carl Critchet; 1913-T914, J. \. \ an(tuldyx 91)4-t9)16, Charles Ostrom. In 18)96, during MIr. Judd's pastorate, Coral and Hioward City were united. In NovemCl)er, i898, the board of trustees decided upon some church improvem-ents. 1The church was papered, a bell was placed in the tower, shed buiilt, roof repaired, class room painted, new carpet put down, together with minor improvemlents, all at an expense of $400. Following was a great religious awakening in \which more than sixty sought God. The spiritual interest has continued, cullinaintig in a wonderful ten-days tent meeting now closing. The Coral Methodist Episcopal church has grown fron a small society to a strong progressive evangelistic missionary chturch with bright hopes for the future. (22)

Page  338 338 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. MMEIT11ODIST EPISCOPAL CHUICIH OF M'KINLEY. The Coral circuit of the Methodist Episcopal churcl includes the church at?McKinley which is located il Maplle Valley township in section 20. 'his is locally known as the MlcKinlley \Memorial church and was organized in 1869 with the following charter members: Mr. and Mrs. R. Taylor, Mrs. James Banks, Mr. Banks, \Villianll Fries, Mrs. 1iinchllan, MLr. and Mrs. \\right and Mr. and Mrs. Samutel Wiseman. The services were first held in the school house of MAaple \Vallev, section 20. AIong the first pastors who served this church were the Reverends Johns, Saulnders, Cogshall, Beach, Buell, Davids, Pierce, Bowen. Gilbbs, Tlavill-ad. This church society was re-organized on January 20, I902. The present )building was dedicated on l)ecemiber 28, 1902. This is a plain fram1e bulilling wlihich was erected at a cost of $1,200. 'lhis congregation has a Imclibership of twenty-two at present anil has a good Sunday school with an average attendance of thirtv an1d also a thriving Ladlies' Aiid Society. \ith one or two exceptions this church has been connected with Coral as a charge. AMETITOI)iS'T.EPISCOA)I'. CH URCII OF 't[RI.FANT. The Coral circuit also inclulles the Trufanit Methodist 'Episcopal church. This is located in tle village andl was organized on lFelruarv TT, 190T, with the following charter Illembers: Ester Emierv, Allina Idens, Estella Duvoo Mary Ileatll, (live Simpllsoll, L.ouisa Pierce. Tvla Force, George Force, I. T. Simpson and Miabel Timlmerson. This society first Imet in what was locally knowni as the old( "Red lil)lboii 1all." This church has been attached to the Coral circuit and served by the ministers of that place. The membership at present numbllers eleven..\ Sunday school and T.adies' Aid Society are active auxiliaries of this society. METIIODIST EPISCOIPAL CIHURCII OF HEMMINNGWAY. I1emmllringway derives its nlale from an inland lake at which was located a saw-mill conlnected wvith a large general store, postoffice, telegraph office, branch railroad, anld ianll small b)oardlin houses that usually follow such a tbusiness. Some of the enterplrising citizens saw the need of religious worship in the town, and in the year i882 a Union Sunday school was organized and services were cotnducted occasionally as it was convenient to (do so.

Page  339 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 339 They were held in a board shanty near by. It was soon found that a much larger and better building was needed, and a subscription paper was circulated to raise funds to build a new church. The people were loyal to the cause, and the work commencedl and a neat, small church was completed, situated on section I8, township of Day. It was dedicated as a Union church Lb Rev.. J.. Patton of Greenville in the year I884, and retained its local name. In 1895 the Rev. J. W. Davids, of Stanton, effected a new organization under the name Methodist Episcopal Church of Hemnfingway. There were only ten charter members. They have a present membership of forty, and their present building is a frame structure erected at a cost of $i,ooo. A list of pastors who have served this church is as follows: J. W\. Davids, Jones, Valentine, W\ightman, Moore. PTArsons, Frye, Pollock, Nichols, Bready, James, Hill, McDonald, Critchett and Johnson. The present pastor is Rev. Cramer. MRETIODtST EPISCOPAL CH-URCH OF EDMORE. 'The MLethodist Episcopal church of Edmore was organized in 1878 by Charles B. Voorhees, who also served as the first pastor. The church building was erected in 1884 under the supervision of Rev. D. C. Reihle. It was constructedl of wood at a cost of $2,200. A list of pastors who have labored for this church are as follow: Charles B. Voorhees, T. B. Miller, A. T. Gray. R. TI. Bready, \v. W. Oldham, J. W. Rawlinson, D. C. Reihle, J. Gulick, O. J. Golden, W. J. Wilson, Samuel S. How, A. C. Carman, A. C. Parsons, E. W. Davis, U. E. Partridge, M. A. Oldt.. II. Viner, J. H. Cornelius, Irving Eagle, George Traver, A. E. North andl W. H. Holcomh. The membership is fifty. MET'HO()D)IST P15'COP1AL CHIURCIH OF M'IRIDE. The MTethodlist lpiscopal church of McBride was organized about the vear 1875. This church together with the Methodist church at Edmore forms a circuit which is sersedl by Rev. W. t-. Holcomb. It was organized by Charles B. Voorhees. The present building is a frame structure, built in 1885 at a cost of $I,8oo. Rev. D. C. Reihle. who was pastor at that time, supervise(l the work. The pastors who have this church are the same as those of the Methodist church at Edmore. The total nunber of,-lnembers is fifty-two.

Page  340 340 340 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIG;AN. FIRST as THri01ST EISlC:OP'AL ClIURCHl OF 1AKEIE'iso. Ilic First Methodist i1spiscopal church of Jakeview~ was Organized inl September, 1873, at the schoo(l hou1se, undier the supervision of R1ev. N. 11. H~all, who also served as the first mnimster. It was only six years before the peop)le decided to liuildi a chnrch, andi the lot was (donated to them hy AL. trench. T'he buloibliig cost ahon-t $2,200 and wvas dedicated in i88o. there wvere unix tenl charter members aS follow: Oscar Kilborn and vi fe, Dlavid Kilborn iiid xvi fe, 1. 1. Coves and wxife, L. L. Bissell and xvife, and 11' P. E.verett aind xxvife. A list of pastors xvho hoLXe served tlxis diiirch since its or-anizatioi is liere -i xcii If. AL flaill Tacob M iizol f,1 11. iiIhoniiu1, NVtlliam ju ddm I). S. iioilauiii, G. K. Fairbank C( Ii. Jacokes. Geoirge I]aight. XX W Suitton, (eorg'c Stinchicornhi, NV. I.). Rowlaid, Fred G. Dinubar C. T. Vain Antwverp, I. I) Kenxyon, NV. M~ooney. john Delout, A. PI' Tower, C. W.' Holdxen, aid i~'. Al Pritchard. xvho is the prestnt paustoi. Thu chiurch hais grosv ix ste adily uixtil it mlxv has reached a membeirship of niu txvlxxo. In connection wvithi the chunrch isconducted a. good Sundax school, m1 F pxxortli league, anid a Ladies' Aidl Society. The Ladies' Aid Societx st iitedl iidoit thirty years ago. xvith only seven miembhers. The society' is noxx lounic xsxoie repair swork on the church stud a nexv ftirinace is also to be installhdt FIRST N11S aETi 0D1ST (ltiRCiI OF GREENV*IiL.d lie first aitteimpi ituater to org-oiize a coiigregation of the Free, Afethodust church society xvss Iatinchied oii 1I'ebrtusirV 23, 89C)2. This rieetiig, is rathier Obscure aiid the onix' evidence ave have is tixe tiling of articles of imcorpoi-a lion. with I). (f. Wol vertoit. Albert 1)ax anti Gilbert Tlsadlev sicting, as the board of trtistees. Nothing of imp11ortsunce cauiie of this meeting and iio iiore cletiiite forii sesis taken. 'The iuext effort to (org-uizc L society of this faith xvas the folloxving vesir wehen a hosird of trustees xvas elected, as folloxws:Abnier Reed, Joseph Palmer antl D. C. W,,oiverton. It is very sappairent thsit this xvas mnerely a contintiation oIf the tirst effort to estsahlish a society of flue Free Mfethodist -faithi astthe mimlie cif I. C. XWolvertou is found serviii- aus a trustee for botfi vesirs. This societe soon ceased to exist sant the ixext step was not takeii to form sa societv or rather to orgsinize a congre-sition Uiitil September 20, 1905. This society seas iiicorporated xvith the followeing charter members: Bessie Brown, Arville lBrown, Lucy Rowvland. Aria. Ancleson, Maiy Loper, I-enry Wycoff, Charles Loper, INTes Jolmson, all of Greenville, aisri Ellen

Page  341 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 341 I;urns, of Bel(ling. 'he first ]pastor to serve this newly organized society was \\. I. lJry and the iirst meetings were held in a hall in the downtown district. Since the last organization this church has had a rather proslperous existence. The membership has increased from time to time and it is 111 earnest, bIus little congregation. There is also a Sunday school.as an auxiliary to the church. The present building is located on Pine street and is constructed of cement blocks. Some of the pastors who have served this church are as follow: W. H. Jlur, F. W. Smith. C. G. Miller, G. W. W\eilanl, (. A\. Calltup. JA. A.inscott, A. A. Thompson. S. A. Whitmore a(nd the present inctlmbent. Mary J. Ilinch. FKREE MIETII)ODST C:IiURCII OF LAKIVIEW. 'hle.Free Methodist church was organized in Lakeview in the fall of the year 1887 under the pastorate of Rev. M. Gilfrin, with a membership of sevell, somle of whonl are still alive. Following are the names of the charter members: George lerkins and wife, William Clements and wife, Mr. Swear, M[rs. lester Gaffield and Mrs. Mary Jensen. In its infancy it had a hard struggle for existence, but moved steadlily onward; its growth has not been fast nor has it attained a very large size, but its members have stood stanchly for righteousness and trulh.,(l mnanvy have finished their work and gone to their resard. For some time they mIet in private houses, principally at George Perkiins. until they rented a store building on the outlet of Tamarack lake where the furniture factorv now stands. A few months later thev remloved to a store building owned iby Frank Perkins, where they rerainedl until deprived of a home by the fire of 1894. They then worshipped in private houses until in Igo9, when under the labors of Rev. J. A. Linscott the present building was erected. It is a good substantial building of brick veneer located in section 9, of Cato township 12 north, range 8 west. It has. a present membership of iwenty-five and a good prosperous Sunday school. TI 'NKEL GERMAN METIIODIST CHURCIH. The first German church in this vicinity was the one built a nmile west of the line in Pierson township, two and one-half miles south of Howard City. It was built about twenty-one years ago, Henry Henkel donating the site and assisting materially in the building of the church by furnishing the lumber, shingles, etc. Mfr. HTenkel. Fred Fahner, and William Rader were the building committee, and others of the substantial German farmers of that

Page  342 342 342 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. vicinity assisted ill pronioting its prosperity. Rev. H-enry Utt was the pastor in charge when the edifice was huilt. Previous to that time meetings were held in the hrick school honse at MWaple l1ill, aend also at an old log school honse which nsed to stand on tise corner, in front of Henry Henkel's home. Rev. Cisarles Staffeld lpracticesl there qnite a timre, making his homne at Mr. Henkel's. Rev. S. Hlenne, remnemleredl havinig lieldl neetings in the old log school honse there over thirtx' years a-o, hefore the coinldetion of the Grand Rapids & Indiana railroad. when hie was a circuit rider living at i-ersev, traveling fromn one ltnmhber cOImil to another dOn horseback. This chnrch wvas formerly tile German Evangelical Association hut in later ye~ars wviis gradnallv transformed into the Mfethodist faith and now is knowns a,, the Gernman M~ethodist. Reverend Schmidt is the present pastor. Other p~astors xvho heave served this charge are as follow: Reverends H-enry UtJ C Ailr. Bo-an, Frev, Dill and Hess. ST. PAULT S i'ROTiFSTA;NT EPISCOPAL. CHURCH. t)F GREENvIL[LE. St. IPaol's Episcopal chnrch wvas organized on jaiioary 20, 1872, with the following membilershsip) W\illiaim B. WXells, XXillnaci N. Pettee, John.Averv C. Tess( hiurch, I din id id.l Stevelix Ephiraiim Williamis and 1L. Jndd 'dCoiic:011(1 The Infirst commnlinon eelehrasted in tlse pairishs was held on serI)'iv, Xlaircls 31 1872 an(i on- this oLcc'ion0 there were sixteen comnii-iinicatist i'lie i irst neetinu of the pairish xwa's elci on the saine lay wvheii tlii followsing v estiy wexx ei.lecedul W\ B. NVells, C. lesse Chnrch, I- 'tndd Xf-C oinlri ki ous C oriixelx Aindrewx \VX hoffiman Johii \xcry and Willardl \ PIettcee At the tiirst vesxtry meeting XX B WXells xw s elected seiiior wari (den and C( iet Chtisrch, iniior wa rdlen aisd treasurmer. A Smnday school wa s orgaiiizeil onuixd Sisy April 28- 1872 xvith NV. It Wells, snperinsteiident; Airs. S. 1\. Stvevns, secretary, and] Mrs. L. Judid MeComber, treasurer. Sexveral teacelers xvere inistalled to takce charge of the work. W'hile tie parish wxas a miiisiomu the conigrep'tioiu were unider the ministrations of Reveremsds X~lorris anu XXoodl. Later followedl Rev. Sidney H-. W*oodforil. 1872-74; WV. IL. Sparluiuiw, u88o: F-,. XXV. Flowver, T188.i-83; EF. T. Baficock, I884; F. G Noek: Joseph XW. 1-alaicroft, J. NN. RZippey, i8io0-98.; Thomas T —. 1iemniev; 1Thomis fleeSisi. i899-i902 I. C. O'Meara, 1903; XV. M. XWarloxv, M,. A., iqo~;, J Iax r Chiambers; Harvey Bush, Ph. D., T909-10; Floyd Keeler, M. A. B.. O;191: obert B. Evatt xvas chosen rector in 1913 and has served tip to the preseist tinme.

Page  343 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 343 The society owns its own guild hall and the church edifice which is located on the corner of Cass and Clay streets, and is entirely free from debt. All the usual activities are maintained in an energetic way and there are continual additions to the Inembershlip. The church buildings, exclusive of lots on which the! stand, are rated as worth $5,000. CHURCH OF CHRIST OF PIERSON. This society was organized by Elder E... Brooks, and the following lnamles were enrolled: Alfred Driskell, Sally Driskell, Sarah Goodwell, \Alviln '. Stringham, Jomhn Boer, John F. Carr, Albert Stringham, Daniel Bover, Caltharine lover, Maria Miller, Emily Williams, Laura Parker, Henry.ewis, Sarah. Lewis, Elizabeth Brown, MNary Gokey, Lucretia E. McIHenrv, Sarah J. Holcolmb. Socrates Sheldon, Henry Pomeroy, Mary J. Webster, Erepta;Gates and:Electa Brackbill. Albert Stringham was elected first pastor and served the congregation for many years. DUNKARD CI!.TRCCH- OF CRYSTAL. The Church of United Brethren or Dunkard church is located in Crystal township, at the southeast corner of the cemetery in section 20. It was organized on August 15, I90I, with the following charter members, namely: George F. Stone, MIatilda Stone, Samuel Bolinger. Watson Towsley, Viola Towslev. Jacob XWitter. 1. Easterday. Emanuel Bolinger, Margaret Bolinger,.John Blolinger. Sarah -Bolinger, Valentine Babcock, Ella Babcock, Sarah Roger. Mlargaret Shiveley, Nancy Johnson, W'ilford Roose, S. E. Marsh and (Orlando T [enrl. Iust one year after the dedication of the first church, this society suffered a great misfortune. Their new church was burned to the gromlid. Tt is thoutght the fire caught from the chimney, but they kept up their brave spirit and again decided to build. This was a frame building, and was completed in the spring of T903, at a cost of $1.500. Since the organization of this church it was divided, and another church started at V\estaburg;: but despite this fact it has a membership of forty-eight. George T. Stone is the present Elder; S. Bolinger and Carl Young also served this church. DUNKARI) CTHURCH OF VESTABURG. The United Brethren church of Vestaburg is situated in Richland township on section 23. This society was organized in 1907 with fifteen charter

Page  344 344 344 MONTCALM COUNTY, -NiCHiGAN. nenibers, atid now their memberwiship haks 'tust doubled. Samutel. Bolinger, M~. -AI. Bolinger andl Joseph Robinson have been pastors of this church and have done mutch to keep the interest alive and to keel) it going gyenerallv. The chur-ch is a neat little building, of stoite vetieerilig, whiich was bnilt InI 1907 at a cost of $i,ooo. t)AN[Sit Li 7TIJERAN CHURCH-~i OF GRtEENViiT.E.H' St. la1idFs Danish,1 Luttheran cnurch wvas organizeil at Greenville \\vitli Th. N. Jersilvi as the first paotor. iK1. liennescnitin I'. TI Miller have ser\vedl silice that tinme md \\" (. Kielsen is now\ the pistorl I he chureh I'S now% suplportedl by eighty inenbers. -.\ Notin Peop)le s Society and a Ladies' \id Society is cotiducted in connectioin w\itlt tltis churci as ire alotwo Suindav schools, Daiiish and 17in-lish. The Danish Stindais school has been loing estab~lishedl, but the Wiidih va staLrted but i short timue i-o awl nowN has a muembershipi of h ittv I-Ioth are steadilyv increasing. ITle chnireh building is a lbriclk structure, buillt about i875., and Inl T9T Tta fi e baisement, whilch afford~s mantv additiona 1cons eniecess, was added to the chtrt It TAriTi 'RII Ciii - C11 (Ii' L.ITTL DiiA N 5IiSH TL~ Pethania Dinish I'\vai'elieal,titlheran echirch was oi ganized inl the Little Danish Settlemniit bhout i878 and H. J. Pietersen Was the first pastor. This church is dlso in the Greenville circuit and is served hv the 1) nish pastor at Greenv ille, NV.. Nielsen. in i88o, a frailwe structure Avas putt uip at a cost of $i 00o anid this buileding is still uised for church purposes. L~adies' Aid Society is cotuducteul with this elitrelt and the Ilaeies meet otice a month for this purpose. The church has a lpresent mtembilership of fiftv. The following pastors hav-e served this church H -. J. Peterseis, 'N. Thomipson, Th. jersilul, 1K. Bennesen and Ti. T1-. Miller. iDANiS it iJUTiiERA.N CiiiRCHi OF 'riRUFA Nr. St. Thomas's Il)anisli E1vangelical Lutheran church was organizeil in i879j, with TT. J. Petersen officiatitig as the tirst pIstisor. The first trustees were Lars Rasmutssen, Carl ('hristensen iand H~. P~. Larsen, andI they also were the sole charter menuibers. The first iutildinun wals a wood structuire but for sariOtis reasons; nuost of the religious, maeetings were helil in the school house. The present church IWIi bulilt i-i T892 at a cost Of $4,000, atue in i909 it was

Page  345 'MONTCALMI COUNTrY, MICHIGAN.34 345 enla rgced consider his is it \vas fomiol that their work could not he earrned oil is th(v i vishc d in soth hlnited(l tiarters. Thle side aldditions huilt oil are siaKteen in- tw cotv-six feet, tnl the main part of the church is, twenty-six hv fiftv feet. In cooniction w ith this church is a Siiidav School, a Women's Societv, ' oiin- People s S;o ictv aind a Heathcei Missionarv Societv. these soc ieties 5 re ompi1osed of eaii ist aind ortinring workers, aind altogether preseiit a v erv biss cttioslplh(re The chulrch mioeiilirsliij iuintilers twvo hundired iml fi fty. A lust of pa stors swhlo have served the church op to the. inesenut tiiiie is ~is follios: IT. P etersen, N. llimmsei. 1R. _Nielsen, HT. P. Strandskov, Th. Jersild. 1. '~oe Mlr B oria(M'd id I T. ijei. Chr. Petersen is the preseiut pastor. St. Peters I )inuslu g s'i ala ii utherain clutirch wiahich is locate(Ili Fairpla-in towrnship, wsas (.u r-nuie l in the syeaur 18/6, us oh II. J. P eterseii as the first pastor. A timaII bliiildi A is bliilt ill 18,/7 'it LCOSt Of $6oo. and Ini C(Ici Tuncu sascle rtehrc Ihe paistors wsho Ihaise servedl this chutrch are as follo )5 HI P Ietrc i ut N. '1hoiisen H4 C( Strandlskov, R. Nielsen, Th. N. Jersildl, K. 11eniesen. I). HI. Miller. \V. P. 'Nielsen is the liresent tpastor. T1his clhorrlt is in a circulit coinposedl cf Greenville. Little Da)nuishu Settlement. and Fairplaiii, and are all served hv NV. C. NNielsen, of Greenville. T'he present rnembl-iesip) is fi ftv. FVANcx;iciiiCAu. ito csFRAN i MH NItA.' CONGRFGAi'OiN OFi iHOWASRD CiTY. T'Ils couugrega"Ztion wvas orgainized iii Howvard Pity onl April 19, I893, by N. endlauiit. August Siebart, Wsilliaim ILittmaii aind ahout ten others. These few mcnueiers assounied the buirden and[ responsibility of potting up a ehorehi and sehool boilding- coiloibeile. A lot was puirchaseid oii the hill In the sooth part of the village. the edifice erecteil and it was dledicatedl onl July 2, 1893. The congregationu grew rapiiilyv and now\ onnibers one huniidredl and ninetyfive sools. TFhe ledcliation was uinder the direction of Rex. F. WV. Geffert. the local pastuir tit that timec. M~r. Geffcrt left here tin julyl 4. 1897, to go to R~eed Ptand( xvas succeeded hty 1Rev. II. 1. Ileidel. swho cailne on Augiist in of the Samle year. Inl Januarv. i 898, it was clecideil to build a parsonage. The svork seas miiidertakei utt once and a very pretty parsonage was completed in,Novemher of the same year, the congrIeg'ationIs it Tnrk Lake and In Pato towvnship

Page  346 346 346 IMONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIIGAN. assistiii" in thle furnishing of stone for the foundations. N~o aid from those oiitsick the (11111ch was asked. PanIl (-. N offze served this congregationi from I903 to 1907 and then H. I \ordlen took charg-e of the xwork. R'everend Norilen now resides at Moslt, ke.goni I hie present incnimhent is Carl ()tznIlan, who has had charge sic TOO) Ihe secular school of this chnreh was maintained wvith apisroxinintely thirt ptxipils lor (foite a nnnmher of years. lbnt owing to the fact that miiv isof ilk famnhies of this conigregatoiol moved away, it was decided to all 1indon thle daily school hot the spirit of this enterllrise was kept alive 1by iiieetings at regular intervals. lieytwo weeks' anill il'y meeting of the (1h11(11en is hield. 'hese niiietinl''s are classes held onix iaturdav ano inder th 5Ol sprv ision of the imjimster. At present these meetin-s are attended lix torty pililils. T hc Ev n-elical Lutheran.1 Imianaiiel. Cinrchi of Hoxxarcl City is verv a VCtx thi meiiiiiersliii atlrs'it is one hiindred and ninty-fixve le hnc and parsonage Ire kept ini excelleiit repair. '[liis soc iety is free frciii idebt and is prospeIriiiif SrU KLAK Ci~ l Ai\N E NFiiIACALi.t ('T I IiE XX 'SOCi FT'. 'lurk l wexas tlic( first. dlilic'' iiioii of this societv or-aniized iii Moiitcalm coixit\'. TI is church is IoCrted iii \l10ontCilnx tosVsInehip Wiol altiough SeIrveil li the 1,si r (If the I ixxi Cits Iniaiimi~iel coliicre-ation it is the stron-lest sociei\y of this faith in toh ountvs Thei hi stiiiN x (f this church, hoswever. Is closeClv connectedI xv-iii lt it (It thc 1 1(155 iiItvit church a-nd haks;aloavs 1bccii serv-ed as a charee i (rii thle lattei congregaition and can trully lie classeid wlo itlxxi thy foni1 icr iciurih l A S xxS ]is \ii v 1s iois in1Ciltiune, this is oiie o f lie stroii-est c'oilre-atiosf tlt C otiiltv, h~'It aineiillber'hil 'it ineseiit olf twxo hundred., hlue;rc i ti\cl Iliher societies (If thle Geruuati!'augiaLiutherani conxgregaitioni ii the comnty. (Gist' of these is located inl Cato towvnship. There is iio churich 1 ald ilti at presint, but scuvices arc lielil in the school h-ituding of dlistrict No. T.'his society has a nmembershiip at present of sixtx fixe min I illl problbiitiiies xsili hav-e a lhuildiii, in the course of the iitxt fesx xvt'rs. Grecuiville is the ill-st rc'centlx' organized scey ivth cotiists TIhivi c ri' at llreseist at the latter place thiirtx-fix',e souls enrolled iil this xwork

Page  347 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 347 GERMAN EVANGELICALT LUTHERAN CHURCH OF MAPLE HILL. The German Evangelical Lutheran church of Maple Iill was founded somewhere back in 1885, Rev. W. Bauer of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri, being the first pastor in charge. He was succeeded in I888 by Reverend Greuter, of the LEvangelical Synod, of North America. The church was struck by lightning and burned in 1889 and was rebuilt in that same year. In 1891 Rev. H. Greuter resigned, and the congregation called as pastor, Rev. I;. W. Geffett, of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri, who then took charge of the congregation in 1891. In I894 some difficulties arose ahout the moving of the cllurch lbuilding (which was then some two and one-half miles southeast of Howard City) into Howard City. Those of the congregation living in towln were ill favor, together with their pastor. of moving the church to town; those living il the country were opposed. This caused separation; thle church remlained out il the country and the Germlilans of FToward Citv remainedl in town. Tlhen J894 Rev. H. Schaarschmidt of the German Evangelical Svnod of North.\America, took charge of the congre-gation in the country. He was succe(eded in Autlust, 18)5, by Rev. L. Krueger. In that year the church was incorlorrated. Rev. reger resigned in 1898 and was succeede(d by Rev. E. Brenion, who staved mltil.August, 1900. On the night of lutle 12, T902. during an electrical storm, the church \was again striuck by lightningi and burned to the ground. As soon as possille after the d(estructionl of this church, the congregation set albout to erect another bulilding. They were successful in this end alnd in August work wa(s hbegun on the edifice. This was dedicated in 1902 and was materialized through the effort of Reverend Saffron. Tlis congregation has not 1heen as strong iI tlhe last few years as formerly owing to the fact that other church buildings have been erected in the vicinity which proved a greater accIommlllodation and less distance to travel for the worshippers. At present this church is supplorteld by six families. ERMA.\N EV.\ANGIA1C.\l. LUTI]ERAN ST. IETEI':S CIIURCII OF AMBILE. The exact day of the organizatiol of the Amble Evangelical Association canlnot be determined. It is known that a smaller body was organized, although not with a permanent organization, many years prior to the organ

Page  348 348 348MONTCALM COUNTY, MINCHIGAN. izatioiio the church. TIhese nicetimuigs \\ere liehi In the school houses an1d atprivate residences. Ti oggatioii has always been served lb\th Pistol at Maplpe H ill and the list ore of this congregatioii is closely coitnected wvith tile St. Peter's churich. At presetit the nienmlershipl of this church miiiiiers t wentv families.. I;iNt i-GNI-AN ADV[ENTISl srU IL1 tOFCIORCLA1H5 Tihe Seventh-iDav.\dvei-itist ehnreii \vas orgainizedi oil Jnx3 1 y 87y. with the foliow-ing charter nieiiibcrs: Francis \Nehson ilAinaE. Neisoii, Nhintmnii. la11, Saniira, Nickols' C hirlotte Welister, 1iviri \Velister, H~erbert Catstle, FEliza Castle. Mlary A. Alorey. WVillianm S. NSelson, Harriet Nelson, Andi~ress, "erce. Alarv I jerce iiil Alvrld IPler e. Eld1( Fraricls NSelson was tile tirst miiiiister to serve the church. hut thev Irise io resiiiett eider. 'Ihlle ineinership hass iicreased to one hunduured auniI fiirts onie A Sahbbath school and a. A0o1iug Ieopie's Si(aietv' colisisstilit of two huiiiidredi and thirty-four iueiiilers, is contducted uiider the auspices ojf the ehurch. 'Fhe orgatlization of this eiiirch is ]II liar-iuinsm \eitli tile teacitiits ut the Biblie einjoininig tue validity of the Tenl Cotuuuantilunets, the fourth of wvhichi teaches the observance of tile seventh lay as tile Salibathi. Pesiiles the teachiill of tite observance oif tile seveitii day Sabbuathi, the chnrch teaches and pritetices health reforius, anld are stricily temlperate. Tihey believe in tile coiling~ of Christ, a resurrection oif tile lead, and a rewvaru of eteriiai lie for tile faithful; a. total ciestructiori vif the wvicked. uiti( 1w eterllal tire or everlasting pliiilisheiiiet, 1 ut byv Coipliete atid totAal aniltation. CATHOItCIL CHIURICH OF GREENVILLE. ilhe etruiest sees ices whiiih led to the forniation eof a Riiian Catholic society in Greenville omeirreii In I 85.~ whien meetings were ieled at tile hiotise ut Paitrick A.icD)oriald. Thev wvere cviiiiiiteii biy Father Rivers, of Grattoni. ssho officiauted it intervals for a pe~riod of three years, ailc then nioveul to AMiskeoii wihere hie died Iil 1878. F.:e. wsv tilei followed hv Rev-. Charles olote, of 101n1a, wvhov orgainize I the psreseint Catholic ciiurch of Greenville, wiith the followinslg peoplie uis chlarter iiemibers: Patrick McDounald, Airs. W!. Dears, Jolln Norton atId Bermiird \Wiegers. At tirst it was a. ulision atteilteli miostiv fromi tarsoni tCity. ihe first ciltrcit buildinig. svhiich wsas locateid ill Eutreka towvilsiip. wvas a franie striicttire wihich wsas torin dosvn ill 1913. auid tile coiigregatiorn bouught a lit in the city iif Greenviilc. A\ beautiful l1tw

Page  349 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 349 church has just b)eei completed which is constructed out of stone and brick at a cost of $35,000. Several pastors have served this church as follows: Rev. Father Leitner, Seviold, Crumbly, Irmary, Brogyer, Caldwell, Govsen, W\halen and C. 1.. Iolte. Beginingi, with only five members the church has now reached a membershil) of two hundred fifty. CAT1iOLTC CiHURCHT OF STANTON. St..\ppolinia's church of Stanton was organized by C. B. olte, then of lonia, with the following charter members: J. Blaine and family, the Crawe family, the I'. L)avlst famlily and the R. Evans family. After C. F. Btolte hadl servedl his tile cam.e Rev. lierle. of Tonia, and then Father Sey)old(. J. M1. Stelfes, J. \. ngelnian, Josepli Voyle, Berlnard Kethusom, then came Reverend Aibel in ico6. IDuring his regime the mission was handed over to R. Whalen, of Carson City (September 3, 1910). The vear following the church wass remlodele(d 1!v 1lther W\haleln. It is a frame building which was constructed in the yrear T880. The total menmbership is one hundred. On January, 1914, the Stanton mission was handed over to Rev. Charles -Bolte. cf Greenville, under whose charge it has remained since that time. ST. MA.RY S CHIIURCIT OF CARSON CITY. St. Mary's l)arish of Carson C(ity. i\onitcalm county, Michigan, was organized in 1l896 for the Catholic niemlers living north of the Ionia county line, who had to thlt time worshilpped in St. John's church at Tulbbardston. The task of forming the new parish was entrusted to Rev. K. J. Whalen, who heldl his first service inl the "o)pera rink," Felbruary 9, i896. The membership was small. inumieriing about liftv families, mostly poor and, owing to the financial stress of the year, hard pressed even to live. Despite all the hindering circumstances, the melmbers of the newly formed parish and their friends ill tlhe colmmunlity started with the determination to succeed in building ll) a new church plant of which they would in time be proud. A hall was rented and changed into a neat chapel and served as a place of worship until Christmnas, I896S. 'he next move was to build a church. [aterial was seciirel, groundl bhroken and the corner stone laid amidst a great concourse of people the following June. After a rest of a few months, the brick work of the church began, October I6, and was pressed so that the b)eautiful church was opened for first service Christmas morning, I896.

Page  350 350 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Later the interior was finished, the tower erected, and all put in the best of order, furnished to the last dollar's worth that might find fitting place. The next miove of the parish was to build a large, well-ordered, brick parish house in i8()8. These uil(lings were followed by a brick barn and stla)les for teamls. In 1905 a seconl lblock just east of the church property was secured and in 1907 St. Mary's brick academy was built and opened as a parish school under the direction of the Sisters of St. Dominic, of Grand RItl)i(ls. The school was place(l in charge of Sister M. Berchmans, assisted by Sister M. Tearcltia, now dlead, names that shall never die in St. Mary's parish. Tn 1906 a tower clock was placed in St. Mary's church by the citizens with the on(l autoinatic angelus connection in the state of Michi-an. This complete( the church lbuil(lings and placed in Carson City one of the grandest church plants found in a Catholic parish in Michigan. While in charge of Carson City parish, Rev. Fr. Whalen cared for all Catholics west as far as Rockford and Howard City, northeast to Alma, southeast to El sie lnd south to the Tonia county line, giving him the care of all Catholics in fifteen. hundred square miles. D)uring the eighteen years in Carson City, he also builded, and builded well. in Greenville, Harvard, Maple Valley and Stanton, preparing Greenville and Maple Valley for resident pastors. F1r. Whalen was transferred to St. Joseph's, Saginaw, January, 1914, and was succeeded by Rev. J. T. Sheehan. the present pastor.

Page  351 CIlIAPTIR' XX V\II. I ITTrLI. I)iDENMARK DANISiI.lUTriRAN CON(;IE(;ATION IN MONTCALM COUNTY. By Rev. Ole Amble. Little l)emllark l)anish 1uthcran congregationl in Montcalin county was organized on April 21, 1873, and this came alx)ut through the efforts,f TIans Christen!.en. (hristian,nderson, Hans H. Niclson, Jens Christensen and Jl(ens Jensen, Jens Jensen alone surviving of the original' organization. There was no church building at that early date, and now four churches lhave churclh i)ildings. Big settlement, two miles north of Gowen; Little settlement, two and one-half miles east of (Gowen; North Sidney, one mile west and ole mile north of Sidlney station, and South Sidney, two miles south and two andl one-half west of Sidney station. Besides these churches one other is rented in T'Jrufant. So there are services of this denomination in Kendallville settlement school house in Pine township. And also in Bernen, which is two miles north andl one-half mile east of Langston. The whole congregation is divided into the above numtner of meeting places, and includes one thousand souls in Mlontcalnm county. EARLY rA. NI SITI STIKI'TlS. 'Ilhe congregatiol owns a parsonage in Gowen, as the pastor lives in that place. The following is an article taken from- the Greenville Independent of April 29, I914, and the occasion was the fortieth anniversary of services of the Rev. Ole Amble, of Gowen, which was held on May 20, 19I4. "Gowen, the pleasant little hamlet, located six miles north of Greenville, has the honor of being the lboyhood home of Lieutenant Worden, who is known in history as the commander of the "Monitor" in the Civil War, famous for its fight with the rebel ram, "Merrimac." Tn fact, runior says that Lieutenant \Worden was born in Gowen, but this cannot be confirmed. His father, Frederick Worden, came to Gowen on June I9, I844, entering the south hlalf of the southeast quarter of section I8, upon which the hamlet of Gowen now stands. "On August 26. 1844, Mr. WMorden sold an interest in the water priviMONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 351

Page  352 3j2 352,IONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. leges to \Volney alld Thomnas Blelding, memblers of tile famous family of ipioncer silk manufacturers of tile city of itel(dhug. This company erected a, saw-imill. hot disposed of their interests a few years later. ''It is Claimed that many years later Gowen had an oppo~rtunity of bccorninig tile silk city of NlIichigan., as tile Beiding Brothers tried to negotiate for water ipower (111(1 land 011 which to erect their big factories', hut were frnstrated ill their attellpt b~y one, of the princeipal land owners of tile litehme.'Flie saLo-i11ill erectedl lack iitile forties in' tile IBelding Brothers a11( Air. \\'orteiet was later owned 1y Jamles Gowvell also anl ettrly settler, liter w11011 tile ilanllet was nalledI. \~t thti prelsen timei Gowenci and veiciiltyi thickly poptilated with tile 1)1111ii isoplel wh1o startedl eomiiii"tn higit iit85~6, tile piolleers ill "01 whlo all camie froii tile samel little vill I-e ill Denmark. Ill fact, M r. 101111s(il whm was a veteran of tilt 1)a11h mel iDutch 'War of T1849. camle to A Olotclmlli coilntv ill I853 01 iT84. \ir T ohilsoil was one of tite six Danliii resICiti( it to answer:-\briahi111 incoiln Is call for volunlteers at tile -Ot)CliiI o)1 the Oivil ar, a11d hie wa~s killed in tile first hattie lile took Part ill. Hi s 1)0(1 lies iii Ill iiikiiowii grilve ill tile ot~ittillalll 11011. IPrnor to 1857 there were four Datiish people at Gowen, M\r. iandti Mrs..asnitiissiii Siir. lohinsoil. and a votinig mian 1y the namne of Joiln Peterson. wi-0o wias workitig inl tlil saw-mill, at that timie ealledi Gre-ory's miii, and w~hicih stood 00l tile presenit site of the Gowecn depot. Oil tile Toth of Auigust, t 8 / oii~to the repres;eitations of Sir. kasmiiisseil, forty Danes aridci il 'nltitlill Si'. Rasnmisieii 5511 iLgCd lilotier aiit Sir. Tohiison's ag-ed tather. Fiirtvs sx of thi; 1n1mb1er were relatives and the mieeting-, after over a \ tars SehiaratioIl seenied like a fmnilvy reunion.'' FIIOM iDPN INtARK 'to 51TiC liTtAN. lile following acecotunt of the 'ouriiev froii D~einmark to Gowven is takell from tile Grceian'ille Indpedc''lnl'lt, of tile NNvinter of 1902, and wasl written by Mr. Rasmussen: "III two ilolrs' dirivei we haidl reaceidl Slalgelse. our first raiiroad station. I-ere nmy birotiler said. 'If God wlvi, lind le live. lwe wlli see eacil other ill America next year.' At last farewell. Tlhe train mlovedi and wye were soon at tile station ill Korsor. Froml tilere we wlent 011 the first steamboat to Keel, -one night's voyage. Maxt 1iitil lye reached Altoonai. Here I had served six

Page  353 MONToNrALjm COUNTY, MICHIGAN.35 353 teci niiontl ws a s)ldlier, and I vas vell acquainted. I visited my old lbel()\e Ca3pta11n beeuaiid. and many others. H lav 3 I left llaumhurg (Germlanv). After fifty-four hours we, wcere 'wcru's tlit Nortll Sea, reached 110(11 (iCuglanl). The black horse qulickly bro1 Gilt lls across Elugland~. Al av 16 we reached Liverpool. LA1ly 22' s\'e emblarkedl oil a great sailship, whlere lie had our ihomle for IXLeaVCi- ht wees.tk Here we leariled to eat salt meat aild hard biscuit, if we had lnlt tearned1 it before. It xvas a still kitcllen we had for a large crowd.( It W;I 15 full dLVS sWork for three hundredl peop~le to cook their own food illi kitchell ro 011 tell by sixt ecu feet and get only ialaf enouigl to eat. l\ce laid fog,,, storml a011 hecadwind 111(st of the timel of our voyage. Sometilmes we had tIle sutun (tillrl left, somietiules 011 tile rigght side, wllich melanlt Zag'- Work or Ilalt. We saw a whlale about forty feet long anld a sea serpent (if about tIle s ame lengthl. Mahny were very- seasick. On)le 1105 (lied -and was bulried ill the oceall. Aold Oile halo was horn; he was namledl Atlantic StIcrll, ilecallse lile seas hornll1 a Ilreadlfll storlllv Ilay. "1I he 16111 of july we took o)11 board a p)ilot, an1d1 July 17 we dlrew into N~ew York harbor. OIl, 1how glad wve were to set our foot 111 the solid and 11(e1 laud. Ill Castle tGardenl ((r satchlel, wNitl ollr mo1(st valtuable belollgings, suhel 1s 11y111 book, bible a111d ((tiler good 11001s, was stollen. NNe were glald to -ett 51 fromo this great bui'ld il- whlere iligatIlanldedI, and hence Nvere 111t1ibutteI tllroll-holt tile hitcd States. W-e reLClled tile wondeerfull Niagara F 111s 011 Illy to). Here we ul1aCl 11 slIOrt StOjI Of four hours. \Ye e"lltilllutd wsestwa3rd tile samel afternoonl. J lIly 20o, at tsvo o'clock ill tile afterlo10(11 0\ t hoard(edl a11 immiligranlt train 11nd( started for Kalamiazoo. The plmssage reqfuiredl four (lays. Th~is was the worst of our journey-snioke, du(st uan vcr111111 froml whcihe it was imlpossible to escape. 11N hi 4i ldt oecloek ill tile morning, we reachied iKalamnazoo, wilicil \\-Is tIlt 1 1111(1 ((1 t tioll Iearest Greenvsille, ill tilose dlays. \Ve took a, stage to, Greenlville. \V'e ricahleI the hlome (If -Mr. Osgood, a farmer ill Cakfield, Jui'.26, at 1tw0 otclock iln tile I fternoon. H-ere ouir ctlachm~an toolk a leaf fro-lo hlis notebook, i1 wh 111h he tracedi tile route we s110111 tllke ttlroslg'll \Voivertol n i l'1111. 1Tiell 15e scparllted f rou him and at six o'clock at ni-ilt Rellheilt Christiaun Jchno n'lsol shlanty, thr~ee yasafter 1 1li1(1 takeu hlis 2 Iliress ill IDenmark. Fuilowvilg tile yearC i S I~6 111(1 1857, the Danishl ipeople have come to Alichigall ill traill loa1(1 1111111 thlere are 110w several thoulsand~ Danes il (23)

Page  354 3,5 4 354 aONTiCAi.vM COUNTY, MICHIIGAN. \olottteilt exmintit to sax itothliwo of the cottities farther north.i I fot, in this x t titx e Danish people tre 0(1d to) hoh1( the btalance of power. 'Ilie D) anish Ip olile irc thrifttx ooll Iox ahiding.- The D anish languaige is-till lh( mtother tougeaOCttl is spoken liy the miajority of the oldler peo~ple. Thle Dishut lx ioxit ills hlv hxclelil toonship aoil couttyt ohies T hex are t-iits)ft hih Ii chIoiis, colleges tin ( rs'ties dte litittis ciltes. Irhey xxIi lbc iniild ii ThC xils0 Ile leseendlanits of the (carix Dan'ish scttflers iiiv bx e foonil iii ( p (I rt c~ liic Ulitited States, titil thev n um1heI pieaeliels laI ox xsc baitikcrs toil ieni it cvery professixix [liey -ii the lxackxxtot(mic (ii k t( xlii omityx nitt aill lii tor to the last suriviixiii- mcittiters i)f those liattlds i)f litt (lw itetih() earvedi lhomesitl(l iiode(st forttones, tilt i)f the xxideith sti 1itFxix text xxtTti tEV. Oii. ANxt.Mti The tmiajritri ix xxiti Lai tsh peopi~le are tmembietrs o1 the Luttliai faiI ith, tund their qliriitit ii nieeds lite icoked a ftet lix Rc xOlde \Aiillc wxho iresidles ill t -ixiet, autd wxx preaichi les iii sexeti dil ferent oeatitties ILittle D ane Settleii iut, I Da~llaii Settleeniut, lu-tifatit, SOLuth Sidniex, Notrtht Sidiuc xKenidallx lie aiii the 1 1() x-cl)dlimIix se. Tl.i the D) iisht pieople, Ole Amxblle is ixot (-Il x Ito i h it t eaeiher. lawy er, i loetor, fither itnd generaul frietix. [lie fox/ ci dtc/if ar tiucle exititi ixtex "I \vill txexer fuxrge-t ito\ xisit to Rexerenxd Aihles hxoixe. Arrixiog- in Goxxi ll I xxs di ireeteul tilt the ralvdtrax WkS tox I iM)t, it txx-storx xxhite lit itisi iti thie tx irti sule uliete xxa.s;i stortt htotise, titd I cottix noxt helix butt itbet crc ax I kuixckeil timidillx at the xloot, thit tltc te xxven ill if six.tuiiis Oxf rlet 4cs sit tiC1" patietitly ili tlie sxirtit It use '.xitt nii for t ruttv (lav..\ -fruff vixiex tixid tie to cot ixlil. I xlii qso. i~tt fxitxld Iitixsell inl i small lxxiii. a Iexiiig ntttt wihat, was;xitiarcutill a iliixtstaitrs fixviii t (xiii, tutu( stairs, lIii-_d ill' tix the secontd storv. "It XVI iL x ilitstixt its to xxlitelixt I sixixtixi make ai hreak intito xxlat miitlit to lie the i i toomitti ilotitaitrs x)I. xx t~ittxier uplstairs tatd lie titistakeli for a secxi tix rvix xxx riker. Suddtlylix I lxxicil i toitise uipstaiiris atnd quiiekly gixticedc til \) I itilxll vo-Iitx —icxlx faee \\xi -iaziti- lxxxiii at tue. I start~ed tilt the sttirs, askingx at thec saniti titit xif tti s wxas Rsexerenid Amble. I"lie i ixter o-f the VoItixx"(s xxiii C 'iai ssured tie it was, attd aiskedl II e pxint lxi11 xii whaxt I wixtteil. lxiicl in the mitiutter of a thirteeti-xear-otld xchlotil lxxi I in foriute htiti thtit I XxVititexl tox tixet himx atnxd thelx. as atix aifterthti-ixit tixtroduedttet mtvself.

Page  355 MONTCAT.M COUNTY, MICIHIIGAN. 355 '" was iivlite(l into the den, which consists of anl upstairs room devoid of carpets and conpletely tilled \ith books and newspapers. A desk stood in one coriner anl there leveren(l.\mble sat down, indicating any one of the three or four clhairs in other parts of the room. Papers upon papers and l)bonks u)pon books, pipl)s and cioars, taliles, chairs and chests and dIrawers. It is there tlhat this lea(ler of the Danish lpeople manufactures his sermions, it is tlere lhe listens to the tales of trouilles toll hin- by the members of his c(ngreogation; it is there lie thiinks and there he reads. 'iort!- ears ago tile 20th iof Mas', Reverendl Amble came to this countr!,;uld the fact that todlay he is stronger enitrenchedl in the hearts of the )aiiish peolple thlin) at tany time in the past, is but a faint proof of the esteei ai(dl \cnleratill in \\hich lie is held by the peoplle. 'i()n \I 20o there will be hel(l at the (Grange hall in (Greenville a union inlletin', (if all the nicmle crs of Reverendl Amble's congregations, who will (lsscr c the tf,-tieth a nlnivaersar- of hlis arri\al at (;(owenl. Anl excellent programl is lteilir arran:l e(l, and after the services a lilnner will be given for the Cnlljom'illnt o fl tose plresenlt. R'ltc(ell cr ml.\le l has one of the largest parishes il the United States, andl is ersoI.ll inlltlence covers the eiitire country. H-e came to Gowen on.\lao 2o. 1874. nd1ll ha]1s -(remailned ever since. IFor the past twenty years lie has talenii his nicalhs ceirvx d y with M\1-. h ldl Mrs. R. \. Swan. JEverv(o(ly ki'ows xlieire his houise is. It is i I-cfluge to 11ian11. ~ Tn all six hundred lii(l1 t\\etii-six- (CiOul)lehs liii\-c lI)ecn ciil lr-ied 1)i!- this veteran minister since his colning to (;,ien. ci e is the glenerall adv\iser f(-r tile Danlish peolle, and has iilister-cll to tlicim for fort- ears. "Rexcrrelll \l)ilc is ia Norwegian ly birth. f Ie was born on0 July 28, 1(84,, in i'ot\\nl, c(m'in ll't tihe Unitcl Staltes inl May, 187t. three years l)efore llis comml ini, to. (;,\en. fie went to lMa(lison, kWisconsin, then to I\arslhall, \\'isc(llSin. -radlo;itedl fromin the.\ngslburs' Theological Seminary. t-e \\xis ori(lnilldc l i miniister (im Time i I, i8,,anod hadl his first charge in.\ll;ainake countit!, Iowa. ilI the N orxwegian Iutheran church. Reverend A\miuble is a frienl tOc evcery!lodyrl, intl( e er!l)lod! is his friend. Tie is al deputy countIty clerk, a position lie Ias held for years. lIe issues his own marriage licenses aiid then larries the couples. 'Iii nix forty years of service,' rermarked Reverenol \mible, I [ have had occasion to confirm-i children, later graiit theiiil marriagce liccnses and Imarry them, confirm their children and officiate at their ftineral.' "'Am I against the tan go? Really I know nothing about it. I ani no

Page  356 31- 6 35INIONTCALM COUNTY. -MICHIGAN. Popie, that I 511001(1 (dictaIte to mny pecople what. they shoubi Ido ani what they shiouldnot. Now0 owother thioig. I have ibeen writteoi about a loonmber of times an(1 it isot necess' irv to s-v mutch abouit me,' contilluc(1 this pioneer preacher. 'Now he soire and1 ay just as little as vou can, for evervbodlv knows inc allv way.' ''Somehow I found my - way out of titat wondierful 'denl,' futii of awe;oi.d respcct for tbe Grranul Old Man of the Danish people, the man whbo camel fromin far-na N r iav d1( has givell tis N\vhoic life to the betterment of tile D)atish people A man full of ittdomitable courage. 5110o could have reicilei tile top rtttw ot the ia(ilier in allythillgr- lie mlight hav'e tundertaken.'' GOWVEN SI IUSINESS SECTtON..It is cla1111ed titaitGtowcit ttuo (C tile site of one of tile Commonwealth T 011er C ompany'stv (1(1115 Ill tile lear future. Tlhis story goes that, if tile AIl tskC 011 to Salitn1w ilitertlrlkal project goes through, tite big, power cotliPtll 11 1 11 iIIbuild -1 (1(1111 it tGolvclt and ftirnisl tile ''j1ice for tile electric irs. 110oth 11v f1troml Trti fallt. V.Thomlseln & C ollpanyl is, ole of tile veteratn bulsiness firmis of this little vill1-ic. 1A. PK. A'iltoutscll. 1 5011. alst forniterly coll(Iitcteti a gelleral store ill '1'rtt falit. A ftill lille of agrioiittiral implllements is also carried..1 1.aitilseiu, tite prvoprie-tor of tile otiler general stolre, is also proprietor -Of tile hiotel. M'lr. 'l~IIuisCI Ita-s erectedi a title blrick- llock for both his hotel an11( store, whiich \\01i(1( be~ a crellit to townis illalls' timles tile size of Gow\ell. 1r.)1 C. I.I. ILozar, wvho catie to Gowent two years ago frolll Coien']attn,owils- the (irtg store and( is tile ouly p1racticinlg phtysiciatn il tile place. 'Ihle postoffice is abdv lookedi after by Spencer MdcClellan, 0-11 received Ilis conimissioll ((In Novemlber I, I 94 1( is still (on the joli. Tilere is (ole rtlral route from Gowen, aititottgli titere is strong agitation for a1 seconll rouite, reaciling Ivest (of the villoog - Gowenl is imp~lortan~t 15 a pota~to niarket. Thlere are fottr ItIyelr5, all (If m11011 represellt (recilville firms. Better roads aroulit Go~weli -o111( (l0 1111c1 to lad\.-alce tite market feattures,. Gow,,eti is also tile ilolme of Oscar A,-. Rastlltssell, wilo is fast becominig n~otedleiil tilis pairt of tile ctounltry- as an atuctioneer. M-r. PRisntissen, not univ -attends, to Ilis fr inlltecrests, blit lbtys otoegai; etc., aiddoes a big atuctioll bulsiness. 'Mr. Rsasmultssen 11a5 a pleasing persollalitv anti is,extremely popular witil the Doltish people. GowN'en is also noted for its, ball tealm. file Gowen b~asebalal teatl- has

Page  357 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 357 ahlvaysl ocCtllied a pironunent l)li Ce in the sporting wvorld of this county. Strictly 'hoine-gromvo " nmiaterial, the members have developed wonderful team wvork aiid are ftaredr bv ll of tile other smaller towns of this section. A. E1. Patulsen, inana, ariid (Clvde Lmmnllllons, captain. The manager of the team claiiiied, \\withouiit milnng- a particle, that bie had a pitcher who could throw soitie (i (lie mlost wx oniltifiil ciirxes ill thle countrV, curves that wvould fairlv vi-idl thenmsel\vex arotiiid the latter's neck. Gowcn has an cidlt- ra(le school, iiiilcr tile 5ctip1rvision of Oceje Nielsell, w'hich is ((lie of tile biest of its size in the country. AlsO last, hult niit leist, \\hat is kno\wni as S\vali's hotel, n-imust not be overlookedl. Tlis is tlIm pirivite residence of Mr. and Mrs. R. A. Swan, wvell knlown Ili Grecxville, \vierIe Mirs. Swan condhucts a sort of restaurant or hotel. [File Danish polall tioni xx i tirst started aritnl Go"wen andi canie in thle la~rgest nmbler- oii~ utist IO i -o fifty-eigcht xears ao in the fall of 191,5. I lt the Danish pohlollation Iiao. sprcal adll over the country. 'T1eyv ire, as a general lull, indosti olns anxd ]MIiid-x'oNrking, and (lo hot bother the judge. Very fex\\x have ever itell Aiviithin the clutches of the axe. TIlhey are industrious. Intelligeiit amid (0(1oIi11- race of ipo-ple. IFhe voillgl!,er eli-ses ot Dalincs —as there are at present the third amid foomrth -elleration ill thislls iitix — ale very e-Mer to leans alid, therefore, aice foiiiol anriolig tdii ilx L cyrs, (locttrsi \xeteriiriais, attorneys, deiitists amol lots of teleegrahl hipCiratioirs iid niiisibeiIt sss qlii lltities of sch-lool teachers bodth aonllg the cmi,ol al( women. hxcy cimmnnot ite excellel in their farming-, their hoiiie liife and ili the eneteral mod thiex do to thle comlmun.itv. I RT in 1.i TH AN. VERsAYSit c SNOU IT J. \\rticle froni ( ricci;i lbc [aiv Cal. l x 1 1914, on the celebration andl ill lionol if tIef i;thi ti strvices if Rex. (-e Amble, who for forty years si cen lpaetor-t of the church ot (ox en A' ist ntimuber of I s mm-h cititoen h1oh -i-il-i day i, i this city yestcrday, xxhen tlit x iatberit frmi i ll P),its of tht counts ti celebrate the fortieth a1uni versarx it l\ei Ole \iille s comimi to this tonmity to take charge of the D;LaiiSh1 i Aithitraim chiurchlml I;oxxcmi lie center of attraction for the gatherg of tle Dani)smo aii \nmcricanl pciple xxvis the Grange hall, which xa-as hicuitifuilt- decoiriteil wiithi llia, boxes if plants and flow-ers. hFitire \tvxte t\\-clx c tUhiles, caipabile of seatin fromt forty to fifty banhiuctters. e nix hpiletd 1111 \xxitli mod thIings to eat, and the five hundred intl

Page  358 MxON'TCALM COUe NJTY, MICHJIGAN. sixty-four who x it dowxn to the banquuet Nvere well xvaiteil ipoin byv the hiamisome waitresses. )irmn the banuxicu(t iUSIC onl the pixano ws ax dlv execuited bo I l~azel Ni(lsen preioius to wxhoich L['e\x St. Clare Parsons oft ered iira i er. "A fter the banqiuetiiet \\Vells Spraigle, who ha(( (Cell selectedi as toastma-ster, called upon \\Viii~ B.11\ Welis editor of the TDailx C dll to minke a few rkniiarks. lie 1t1(1 of the Ion- ieqjii untanee hie had had olwith Revx Ole Amible. extending for fortx y eairx iiii o1 the repeated notieex in the (columis of the Ca'll IIi, ihad iii ((e 0ot the rev erendi geintleiman' gooil w ork aLs the i-ears rulled lo lie ilso iiledi iLtteltit)Il to tile indlefatiyibie w ork- of P1astor Oie Amblde xxo 11f1roin lieing tile paistiir of a1 smnall Church w ith few members. findixy hid stirteid six chlurehes ini the eounty, all preosperous and undier his sup~ervisioni Ilie spoke if the sex. Ole Amble)Is Christian charactel, wxhich wxis ahoxe repir(aI h ( aii iii kene I him to a maii xwhei xvaiked hand inl hanld xvwith] (od Illx Iathei. lie hadi onIx oixe tiling against the g-ood mlanl, and( that xx'ax his irefusaii tii -ct mirried, and finished in leaxing this act of disiliedie-icc inl the hanls o1 tile 1hdie. 'A addressx iii the 1)ani-h language, xwas given by R`1ex-. P. Rasinlusseli, xxhech xxe xxeire tniiiabe tii relsort, as xx e(lo next enieerstand tile Danish laguag-e; but iiie thin", xc doex knloxx thait it xvas effective, feir tile tears roidleid ivon tio fciees of I iarge numb er of tile meni (lnd womlen listening, to hiiim. F'lie iie\t wax mi iiddress exf AMiss A\'edia Thoimseii, xxho eloequently told of the xxork oix i. iAmble. aiui fiinisheil hy reciting a ipiemi. '(7. 1. ixarilei e omidlnentcxi Mr. Amble aini congratiilateii him uiioii haxingo xxi fine a fxilixmxx ind i the iexx)\e of them dll. Ilie spoke if the rex — crend geuticeiun' x ppositicx tx xduixvorce ((ld hoxx lie aixxavs refused tix perfexrni tile iliri nine cereiiixxi ovxxer dliviorcei people. lie also telid eof hax-ing oiii twoi diiixires to xox xiin for the- D'anishi people xWhio hild lieeii iiirrieii li Mi Aiixhxie xxiicii wais a gre at reexorid iiiit of over six hiunedreci couples Made 1(1an imd xvife. h t. j. - -asiniixiseii, xrhie caiie tex this comntr- fi ftv-seven years agor. xs Caled lieuponl fur a fexx reiuarks~-. xxhinch lie gaxe in tile Danish anld i ulishi ian-nu-e, finally w(indililig upj in presentiing Rex-erend Atxiille xvith a purse eexntaminill 550 gi xii as a1 iiiark of affectioun ixf all of the people aiid his Meniidnrx hex loxvc aid liiciicr their xxortiiy pastor. 1Then ithe recillient tliaiiked his pxeopule and his friends; feir their remeulbranee illd the nxeeting weas bromght to (iii end by. the beneeliction, by Rex-. St1.1 ilre 1 irsons. 'Retxweeii the spceches the choir eif M~r. Amble's chief ehiirehi xin" Iaanv selections.

Page  359 MTONTCAULM COllNTY, AI(;IITGAN. 359 lwe coimnittec. \\-Walter leldlt, C. C. Jarke, Ivan 'Nielsen, \. Rosenddal a1nd \ r Peterson, amd the lelies, feel piroud of the successful ending et the celebration t)f tie Wis'crarv. which went eff wN.itliout a hitch." Icidsaes all the etliei werk (iee lby time Rev. Ole Anmhie. especi. dI re ill-at \vrims )l]lces, lie christens each year aiI average of fiftv childremi ci'llui ems t1 sc itsli-ve 1(1 preaches twenty.-live funerals. Altoaethier, Mri Anim-)le Ii.mci ])AfolImiedl SiN hundiredl and tweetyv-six imarrig acyeremionies since ('Oiiiiii to GowenCi.

Page  360 liHAPTF.1'Z. XXIX. So"IT Iicl r't I'N) FiATE1 RNiTlii' FI EEND. A( CEP1111 AIA SONS. (farscit titI t\ fRuI(- Not \ Ji li I'iree wii AccetptedilaIf RiIS, Wtchartered (I alItitarv' I I 0I -_? \I lII W.\ ( it ii11 plin -gin 111(Lastcr, led tHent Chlanibel)alit, 51111)1 lilitll Iwardel.l NI iitilt AnI 1r( was wx Irhlipflll mtaster NW. S. lAvCire',t. ~~l~lilc warde 1(1 iid 1. II Nts I.Wlsv ttltlIII \v- 1dlce The first preI ittiearv tcct' Io Ills hield l 't(i n(t (',ISl CM t \I A]tI ii8, T8, I PI-tcseltt 'it this ttt(Cct:tIItg ctc r I 1 M till Mi llttc W~illiami S. 1 veret, IDavid Stiickhoitse, Jelt )III -aLL~C, I ) IIIICl I I I. inkecl I.Cxi Willey, (7hitlcx lx Dickiesoit, \\'iiiIheld S. 11, i liii Iac~ I \ ilictIrI Amcliuisttu C titlBrnsam ittitrulik.mls 1Zi.\ ittitiitC. liitiitit I tI M NlilletD I C NN h ill and Ctarle(siAries. l Atok riatltttI' ttl cx11g uxiIh- cc( Id it licr 1 lie rIb 'i toi J Iciet. pr lminrylil cttip iiscs A (11t lllticI' jo-ititiiii t iiiit I 11 I ittie Tt WIletC titc Irett and Ihrls ). NI.o wtilxc ap c Ii 11111 ct~cll I /1I I i c I 111li I li)c. lTh dli ittemttietyt inv Ircic i Icot -\ s lolthc- NNf t ' Nltitit IMartinl MiTnil, worsipH. S lavage libtt " I" Iccrtilv I ct r I. ittie t rt I SciiiCI_ N, lc AIIIIIS lii C'111017 ('iarles \tnhtiim Naac jlii 1111 dwI Per I ttictct tiller I Cales~ Proctor tattle were (t) 11 d pitt It ci i to c(m tt cth li c\\x I ' II ii -il tic e istt r 1til t X.icr WdttlEr s~ellrheal. Icitt W 'heserH WI it lt. tilicr, iDaceit Tolt Snkliey. Itl. Sa hae listtitster iiI ti liige ie 'itales\ittroo, Jatecll Pt'icpnt Charic If. MDml111, II ait I Nmw w1.1allis. ii.1 \N.ile' Barutes llcI wardini A ndriewr

Page  361 AMONTCALM COUNTY, MICHiIGAN. 3. 36i (Geerc IF 1. -C-ssiii 1Fid Orth, George 'MI Jones, J. P'hilo Taylor,. rancis S. t i sswll, 1155 wad F) F svon, Stanlies F. C olenman and Frank f-I. Miner. The prcs —iil, memibership o-f the lodge is ninnetvone. OROEIR OF TIE EASTE IRN STAR. Carson isY (Chapter No() 271, O(ler o f the Fastern Star, was gralntesi a char ter iii Ochtolwrti, iooo0 to the followsing peo()pe, whlo wvere the charter n JoF~l (ho GC Anireson LBertha A ndreson, ASrthur L.. Eeinis,SaaNF Bcois, AhIr ii s CasswellF F` 111nni (_;So elF Jraocis S. Caswell, C(I oles Rs Ciilvesr.1 1 F.;L l.1'illt AIisv Finht, Rothl Finht, Clara, Ferris, Lizzle F erris, NI i ilie i' -wer, (ceorg C N Jones, Clara ool-s Nattuc B. Tones, Man r. Ki\Oierh( l~k(r( N ina L Fsinekerhockei, _Nlfiiis Netzorg. Lena -NetzorgJ I hilo Tavl or, Victoria E. WNSilkinson, Lminn H -alett, B. Frank Sowret, 1 nii-s So ret, I is e haw a0 nd Fd(Fil Sitli. IThe past worthy matrons are Berth-a Andries~lml lsi~lt lint, (tide Cauc ses 1n oilsv F lor. PaWst wsoirthy Fpatron,irs NMorrs \\eizoro, 1-si 'S F osvrtt. JPFhio Tas-For, Franicis N. Cutlver, Fr ulsisV S CaIswselFl( and I'wrd 1) 1TsonI Fh Fir ocers f -I-i l) I l re I onils Iayl'Foi \s(Irt~i- niatiroii F, 1). 1. L woritlis p dir(Ii F Clide F e. Iasloeiate m11-ltioil: Flora Dl. NVhite, sesretarv; ( hirlr F. FDiskiimsI nii treasurei 'SF meni N FUossIr, cohndlisiress; Stisan W~at1rS, ItSS0Iaiise cIIlliletre --- Fle le D iscFinson 'Sda, L~inda Tirice, Fiothi Vee, Culvei, F- sther - Fanniei N'Sright, 1Fleeta Phiona R-lice, ssarden; 1Fl'izalmetli Culvs r r slpIlalM Prese —nst Osciohlr hip is iiiiiety -one. 10155AlRi C ITYsIIl NI). I)2() Fls II( is F F,(-e X0.'20 FreeI 1111d 'ees-ted Mlasons, was gyranted a I d1"eiusatD)Ill ()II No05eil Ine '11- 1874, midelr the gr-aimd bIg-e (If Mfichigani. andl 1cod-1a (lest ilii5s \CIC ehFelhl tlie nsosiin year. the gm-and blgde (If ille state 'it its a(huha II 1 illi'llictieo(111 ili 1875 coot 11inmiit the disPlemisttioil i force III aii, 4k-i v eli FTle chartenr monlelilrs and~ hirst officers si-rc as f olls I)w 1)111 1 l 1. 11111 Avoshs ipfil iiis-ter A\Fbert FP. Thlomas. sector sa rseis FEFbeneIer \'Sighlt, 'uiior ssard(ellI- Hanib~ial GN. Cobusril, treasurer: Lessis 'S'.'S' Wilbur1 -scretarys W SSil illa I. Lvllycl, FRichard -H -O'DonaFlF. F-vlo GF OsilsF 1 lseplh F. FTles 'SNallalie Skimtt. F~redF A. TBaldwin anel 1Tle -raiid hs-e, -It its amimim 11 s onilonilic stissi ill 18-76, g-ratitell a eiiarter, the ((le ill e ffect sine. Fieing No - T~ he first meetings swere hmeFd lin a.

Page  362 362 362 Ai NTCLA ((Iil COUCNTY, MNICHIGANT. lod1(e r oni Ki1Nioo iiOdd I clio 5 li-ill, locatedl inl the.1or1( 1loclk in the si Joe of H ossardl (itys 111( t11 prJl"aItice 'onitinuledl iiitil the liestrii tion If tile 1h1111(111 11v fire( Oil the ill "lt If 1a111111 CsI I1884. ihe ii1;Ljor portion of tile (mlC'e 1(c101 aild(1 etfects \va (5IlL tro05(1. Buit oilie iiectin-' was1' hiel]i n I 884 onl Ia (mllt ( I theie leil 1(y I ] lice to ineet. 1 'ins niiietii-' wa''s the nniii I lone hell the t fllonvin- D ecemera inl the Mlasornic hall esvei since ()21.11Iiedl Jo thceol'( 10d(C,10C III( tii 1liL 11iL](JIJ & Ill0ilsiloc)1(k. I liC hi st 11((ilL)u he(1d 1 1)1v 1t ( 'ode was' iii D)ecember, 1878 aIt C.ohurn's 1 \(l Ill1 ho1101( Tis himtowl \v;Is liltI rrnItedi 1bv a serious lire inI; neighhIs ill' b'osies' 1b11 Ik 1 hti 1 er r~llven)'", to the call for hIcp and11 sulcceLedII'(" ill qiinclnii '1g tile dillis, t 11(2 retiuriiiii-~ at a late hnoir to their merryiiilakine 8 Sib e(Iia lit 1a(iqu ets \vere sneeess fnlls conduciited i on Januiary 1 2, 1 81) JIliS1 8) 1 eiie 7 14' eCeinllebr I2 ' 8o95 Decembller The ilLt1)1(1111lile ~It these AfailiS 1111 -rl~vin fromil foi't-two tol two Iildrdl soill-r~ 115 1' toI om "ii('lc(,r'ee tilL iyirowth iii numbaer's andi iiiflunciie of tile loI'e. Th l pr11sLnt 1cillb111iirlsh ipIl of the lodge is t vo hundl~redl, 1111 the priesenit I Ift '(ers a r ' Ii1 Al. (olhe. \vorsipilfiil master R. S. Jenninigs. senlior wvarlleii \\ Lii Ruhimore 111111111r Nvirieu:Aine Al1. Cook, treasurer: A. F. lknglemnan, s~ecr(tarv i U Witiler, elillor de~aconl T. I) Hlaskiins, jinnior (deacon 1L. 'IV. fGiI'ciie 11111 111111 A\ lbs stewsardis Georgle Al. D~oty, tyler. S\IN LAKEi 1L)ODG NO. 4.54. Six No.s dl 4I 4. 1 1 (C nld Acep1tedl -Masolls, seas o~rganlizedl oIl Oc')olhci 5 11(21 Thle II r'~t ni1ectiliII was heldi mulder disp~ensation frmon ilie granlid 0(1''e, 'ald Percisval1 F 05 Tonsend wai5 the first candidlate forInitiation. He wsds lInitiated1 11 \on \ ilivembe 11)08, (11d 1'aisedl to the slillilnie Ileiree o-f a niii ItL Malsoll 1111 I leceimher 2 I, 11)08. Tihe chlarteir maembiers 551 (t,Lerg LS. loss ileili \\ill 1111i A\ SN 0111 1 ticiti Mi AfSld WNilli lii 1. \Vesties, 11c(1h 1) F ' \n'otis It Alc()111 11( Rsobeit Simipkins. A(roil is. I l~ellli 151x e(11 F leckl I lciirs Gibbs and 1olin S. lonis. Thle hirst offtilrs ssrc \VNliai l (. WcS-111v worsIiIpl11fuil mai ster; Roswseli 1' lecis seniom)I ss Ii' diin 1 1 II\ lli. junior \relii G. S. lFowsseidL1( seLcrtIlls ASilliani N. WS 1111 tieaIsurerL' A ii'-iis IT Alc~Wl Iii 11 '(111(1 liea(cIII enlrs J. Gibbsl, hI nIThis lold' 1111' haII quIite a raplid "-rosst1 Illsill It. tile en( (If a f sr syears a mlemb~lershiip lot Iorts'fotllr T he pre seit olticers 'Ire: A\ F. 1' I"('l-by' wo'rshipfui l 'ater: SN (el Gibbhs senilor 55varden; T1 Al 1s011 juIr

Page  363 IMONT(:ALMf COoUNTY, MICitIGAN. 3c 363 xxvcrden R. Sipiolhis, tr(,asiiirer (i. S. Townsendl secretancry R. Fleck, senior (iac n Fred ic CrPi de 'ilor (ieaicon:A. K. loiiben, t icr. IFA511 RN SPAR AT SIX LAKSki,S-\ I dkcs (iChapter 417i Order of tie Fstern St ir w\as organized oo _\iril 22 IO-1 TIus cii 5j)teV- \\eas iiistaiiedi by \Vo~tii (Grandi Patro(ii (Geor-e ' I 'ili s, ho11 xx-a assistedi Iv M~arthla \\iliacis, ot Grand Rapids. I iii(mixlii"s 1' list of Che cha rter memibters: Id cii Wi \od, ti Fniniet (foriiil Laura OI'\\ Osend1R(1 slict. Simokins, _\ini Simikins D orotihv Sinikinls, ieiirx Gibbhs Sarah Gibhs, \Aron ii (Ablen, jessie Hlbfiien. jac ob F ox iDeii FoI ON Iii iIornieill Sarah (o~riis-, Kate W~ood, Hlazei Sxveanev, \\ iiiiciii Seii cic Laura Schlade, Alto Mc ietracken, Lottie McC'rackei Emiiiie Lakie, Miia La k ie. Pssie Fisher. Nosweil Flieck, Cora i\ iaaiterstock, 'i 'ressi 'Maoiteistock, \iir Nhiossoiin, Tiioiias Mu isson, Aliexaiider Browvn, M.,ercNx Browxni T1e c~flu(i ir cceil toi serve the neo\ iodige -xere: ida Vs. Wsood, wxortiix in tion G)1 I" (oroeii, \\vortil\v patri-i, Li~ara lFownseite, aissociate niatroli: Loettie MciC.raciken, treasurer: Anna Siiiikins. secretary; Liiiian (Corneii, conilii(tir( ss LaiP Schadie, "i55(cimie conduiictrelss: Deila Uox. xx cirien; Fress coattei-tI ek, \dta T)orthiv I aoison, Ruith: Ihazel Sweane'v, 1 ',sthiei IKate Woid Ni arlii Ncirc Mussonx 1 'beta lessie Fishier, nmarshai: Aiton MeCrkc ii l chpiuii C )ra Nlai coicito k. orig ciiit \Villiani Sehade, senitinel. TIii b ICT't il a \ iry lixeix olie, Ii tx ii attainedl a niemblership of foi tx fo\e ii i- little ox a xcear. lii present officers are: Lottie AMcCiki Fe o\\ oi thn incti cii Altoin '\let rackeii xvo)rthv patrioil Kate \,Voocl, 'isseicteoiri e iili n ertis \ Sinmkins, treasorer; Bessie I dircormoctictrss Loiira Seiainc asssoeiite condoectress: Thoiias Motsson, hp1-on. Doniictii Paticol n. inr iaii citressac 'Ai aiiterstccck, A\da Liliann (Coriieii Rutiiii Haizel Sxx c culey i'stiir:, Kate Gihhs, Mfa rsha: i'Aarv Blerrv 1icc ta Vdcith PIx ins xx ii ci o Varci Gibbsc, senltinel. F I) T 0R E cI )G No. 360. Fduinore idccc e No. '6o ieee anci Accepteui M asons. dates its bieginnirln- troii Taimnicr 4, i 883, It wvas installedl byx W~iiianx White. of Lakevew, xx-iii onix c fewx miemibicsi 5.it it has beeuu ccn the gainl all the tune, anii nowx lecs1~ ct uieniicersbhp cf cne hiuncireci andI twve. The fess pleople xvho cauichled this newx enterpcrise and hielicd to make it a siceess were: Ed w in Gcii sxe noi, xxii xxas eiected xvorshipful master: \Vi11iarel A. Coon, senior

Page  364 364 364IO'N'TCALIM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. wardi di E~Ixilxin 11) 'iliiiri jnimni wairden -, i'd-ar S. \~a-ar, secretary TI Ic I- K. T ( iiriei. Alonzo Al. \\olaxveri Fred It. Shierwood iind W\lliard c \\ 1 00. Thle peoplc wxho now liave thli vitali interests of this lodge in hanid are: TI (1" Crainc worshipfnl ma stei; 1. 11. Gibbs, Jr., senior xxvxrdcn, I) Ct Wilson, jtini xr 'xar iruln NI F. Wxir, trcisurer, El. ). LBeclic sccrctairx II (. ( Con1 lite, sc nioi dicacon \Albeit t I)tti, juinior deacon t Ciharles A I Whilte, tixIr. FA\5TiiRN Sii ATi Ii'iiMiiiE. I'iliiiic (Chapltei No ii ( ) rdcer ii tlic Flasterii Star, was or-iiiizcd onl t )ctxi ir ii. i 8)4. Tlicx wrci cfoirtunnate in haiingia lar-Ce inumbelr oxf iiic iilicr fr( ii the xc- iiiiiiii. ITlic xw rc is foiiiiwx 1. TL (_leigei Mllaggie (eliger W\ \\ Wilson, \niv \\Vigixii ( )I 'xl r-an \lxbic \foriian, L S ( rot-ci, DCI) Cr (otcci \\ C1 \\Viiicr Aiiiii W\isiici Gecoiie l. PIIAe, xl ar, Pu'rplec 11 -cickeitt.[ ersena Sackeltt A\ U. kartnt. I \dl SkariiItt T.1 I nlci -~oni Nectiice loln11ic Rose cA\ I mnon. A. N. IDeiotrax Iiicv LDciorIy Lx II.Iii utli ia Gdxlb W \ Iosrovc, Ilittie 'xl c'-rove GQ worinlix o-rinil patrcon in ( tlic hrst tx ihle electcil tii the vaiouxis offices we rc: xlio ic (ici ci xxiiidiv limtI in \Wx T. \\ilcoti woirthix piatroii, \lbiii \ Ioiiaicitc niiitroxi \ihxi rciilic trc sx Della CIrotsei. i-ssic i tc ci xixicitre~s. J W\ Saiiiic i-xii 4cxcrietari HI Sackett, trcacurer IThic taxe a pri -cut nixcilic rshipi if xxiii hiixlred thirt Ix iii iticii nuni Oc i is coi xit) ntly iIncrexcisii- Ilie Ipiec-cnt i fficers irc G~raice Rupelict, xwirthyi inatriii I, (1 \\ Iciiu woriii piaxt)ri n, Roxse Swxiftt assoc1Icint iatrion 11 Telni liH ri -xxx0I. issi cixle ci ixlxctres cc ICIara i ucrdlxn, condiucixtics c \Marixxn (Cnrtis, treaxcxrc-r 'xl Maiillda Id-erlcv xscccrc t ivx FEAR10 iLAKE i oixxcI- Nii, "21 Ieac in a ke ILil!c Xx. '2A Flcc iiii \Iccpitc Ala\sions. it Sher idan wx s i irgiiii7cil xII Inulirit\ 27, i x7,;1 I m nstaillcei lxx Grandl \Iastcr rila L.!Vehel i Ac chairutIr \vis grantced tix thc foxllowxilii' nenihei bs I Palmier II1 ITxx or J Iiim \cInvclie.iii Robert Vt ii 1IIK-alxni olin1 S. M aniningi I,;eoI re I\s ITavlori I oiii Ac Stantonn Ti lii A\ XX cstlx ik1brok Hortii W. Sanxixrn, -xiIxvcsIcr \riitz ) )( x 1) lairk, A. XI mrci ii -enciica 'SlxtcI. ITle tirst oflxcert to sc rxv this Ixil-e xxeire Pa liiic T-F. ITixbr, wo rshipfuil master; liiin I~c lii niec sciiior xxarilct Robhert NNX P mrkha no. junior xx irdicii Jos

Page  365 MTONTCALMA COUNTY, MIC1I GAAN. 6 36,9 eph \\' Al irsh; senior (kiconl. J1111 S. Manning, junior deacon; George WV. Staintoni tircisurer, teorge R. Taylor. secretarxi W. A Scott, tyler. The pre sent officeri a re: Roy A tCutler, worshipyful iia stcr; Gorden S. Ehie, senior w-rdicn E dowirci Domingo, junior wvarikn EF D. Greenhoe, senior (leaiion (George W. AJ~l11r, junior (leicon.. A\ Ruitherfordl, treasurer; 1. \\X atsoi Couter, xcrcetaryx At one time the Ixidge buildingi was burned and most of thi tomlnilturc slitu ovturcs and thle earlv records were lost. They hixve lipresciit miemblcrship of one hundred and thirty-five. iVAN'sHOE LOODi( NO. 380. l\x inhoc ILod-c sO. 38o, Free and] Accepted Alaisons, it Lakeview, was oi 'inizcd on jaiixmrv -o i 5,85, hty Arthur -AL Clark, grind master; Janmes H. I iarnuiicmdpiitv grinld iaister; -Alichiael Shoemiakecr, seniior xwarden; and Sainiiiu H or ton, jiumor wa rcden. It w\as instailled by Jamues H. Farnuim. \el 1-dx YINounxmnx ii as chosen first worshipfuil miaster; Charles T. French, Sienmir wardi en; John NVt Kurtland, juixior wvardIen It is i lamentable fact thx t tbc lodxi buildimw liixiiediloxx'm at ain early ilite, destrxxxing all the early reicorls, imucludmux thi list ot charter miemixers. I he loxile is very active at p~resenxt, haxing a miembemrship of one hundred andl fourtien. The hiresent officers are: F. AL Northrup xworship ful master; B. F. Buttler, senior xvarden; A. NV. Bibl, junior xx -rilen; RI C. Holomes, treasurer; Scott Swartboult, secretarx, [T. Sxxartliout, tvler. 151)D PENDiENT ORiDEE (xF ODDx F.ELLOWS. Pine Groxve Lodg(e N\x 202, Inilepemidemit Order of Odd Fellows, xvas cirganized iii Stuntiomn lcimai February 7, 18/73, under a dispensation issuled onl the 3d oxf I clii ii ixfroiii the graixuliodize, authorizing anud empoxvering, F.. \. Goildsmiith, George F, Case Mc irtin Joxy. A. W~alker and Morris P'. Baker to corganize and con stitiite a.subordinate lodge. By virtue of this auithort placed in the above menmtioxied mcmx the lodge xvas organized pmrstiant tux the dispenisation, wvith die foiloxvino charter members: F. A. Goldsmaitli, George F. Case. Ml. P. Baikr A.\ Walker, NI., joy and George XV. Stoxcixuruer. ihe charter for this lodge was granted by the grand lodge on February- 21i, andxi tixe huxdge toxok on aiL permamnent organization. The first officers elected wvere: hF. A:- Goldsmxith, nobxie grand; G. F. Case, vice-grand; George NV. Stonebiurner. secretars: Charles S. XWells, financial secretary; Alf. F). Baker, treasurer.

Page  366 1),66 36(1 MONTCALMI COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Those now serving tihe iodge ar:o 1 T Brown, noible grand: ALi I). iates, vIe calii.;.lnier, sccrctars. R. \rthnr Ciarothers. financial scccitcarl I Thonmas 1). Doss-, tre-isorer. 1hes own1 their own quarters, which 5 two-stors lbniilig cosrcted ot svcocercul irick iii the year T8S-. This lodge made a cciilmarl-1abii growt l in its early daye, ihaving reachedi a nienilershill of thirtv-two at the cii I of the hirst yea. No thr Illiieslj con)Isltcs (ot onle hlill1dred andl tilirtecilactive mlembiers. iAiartini Jos is the onily lharter nmembehr living. I)AIGnTERS O1 Ill IK Is A1 T STANTON. AIi istietc I 0(lie No. 71 D'tili~ters (It RebeIkahii 5v1s Iorgnii7ed It St lii toll11 0 ill onNvmf 28 ISI' I witli tile foilow5in, c hirter mneimbers WIhecicr, W\ I,' I`-tl, J Al.. F olrali Geor(,e Hi 1)1)11 C. A. a niihooeni t~e(Iie f~ettei ()his I t I ik C 'IF ol. 'Iv I A I rokii1 isk il Georl1))11 tef ers Ni1 liic l raIn klno..F (ak.P Nrtloll i ll1ii Ska I,NNh.cer ic rHlime1 [1111int iAi Millerc Jot i 1OIiii C atinainc Wi.( W. tc \i irs (e Gii i. tcc i el ciAln. A Brdfossds.1 ilii i s BY uizii cVl1i(ictre, \ln- 01"ts toilci ht sNiiorteowt elliie Conra(1 Srh I Nlor tornd iett 1 Wlllei er.t viioie-ralnli1 Hem dingt I'siisr sciiI(retav el dosns lilier guiardi W.V V~Tieecrii right supporter to 5vice-grndi P. F. (.ilirk, left bSporl~itci tol1( vicrlill NNW I P ctlls, ciipllill 151 ', V 'I \51iR]`,N NCMMENT NI)89 HIVvr-rceil E'incampmenict No. il~) Inideipicdcit OrdehIr (If Odid 1I ciiows \\cas ilestitliteli It Staliltoill \ich iilii, i Clii liiiv 5, 1879o, vitii tiic toilossno charter memershecc ii i) -Nocton, AN cnniiiigc \T 'PF Tcnnies \N J. Fir-o hanke, I'Uioimas iiric, Mairtiii Joy and Retiibcn Sassteils. T iis caiiip coii tiniiuid as aii active cpart lit tue Odd ]1 eiiosss iodge at Stantoi -nid Iin Montcaiii county tiitii till sycar i So, sshici tiirloiih lick lot iiiterest it stirreii ciereli its charter. Lsvergreeii i iicaiiiliicit No. 8o ssas reocriiliziedi -it Stantoil on April 26, i 898. Sine the rcoirganiz tioin this c-Imp has ii d apcriocd of prosperity andi grostii, anid olis~ig toI tue ictisve ipart takein by its mlemibers it ha s inosv

Page  367 NIONTCALAT COUNTY, MttICHIGIAN.37 367 rea-iced a niciabership of one hundred andI sixty-txxo0 The piresent officers are: Tohn \V\ IBaef, chief paitriarch H. C) Salisbury, junior warden; Karl Zinimermni- Iiidli prinest, F. B.herxxoo0( junior Nvarden; Daxici Mummuery, treawin ci 1 1) I D v x hnaic il sc ribe; J. C. HIrtnian, scribe; Jeronie Pintler, hrst wat ch; Ivain IIarin second watch Lee E. AicN ott, third watch; fanie Ro-er, toir 0 Och I. Lewis Johiison outstide scntinel; George Reeves, Iniside sclitiliel. CA('dx(ix\ MiOITCAI xi NO. iS Catoi \lontc ilmi No. ix, Iuidclndent Order oit Odd Fellows, was est ilisii xh a t Stainton DeLXccnbeir 6. 1Q0io with the folloxviiw charter ineiiicrs I C. Hartiian, t-' PI R rdeit (Geor-e A\ ('ritchctt, C 1L. 'Meach. R. \V: R'lhoadelcx ).F EI 1hcaoting, C If. Bachmnt -i lI. ( Christensein. Fl. S. Stithlens. [croiii Pri tlerA Vli iii NA Wri-dit, W\ \A xin Levi A. Wi]so)I Oscar I ocer Al I ). Gates nd A I. Grecn. Flit tirst officers of this caiitis wcr Ci 1)) Rhirlevi captaint tGeorge A. C ritchett, lieutenant;j.. I lartilnall en i f-I l)I hiii Im dcirk: lx. WN lRhoades accouiitatai. ''ihe in1cnilic liii)h at pircciit iiiinilicr fi tiftx fixe c iid the tollow ini. lpersonis are scrviii" the (antoit aw flie presen t otltcrs Cix hlarles (. Irexvette, captain; Ii. NI I Iii, lic itc mixt: T D) Dow, enisit, Karl /imineriii. iiclerk; E. S. S;tiihluin accoluntanlt. [.C. tlartiliiauli the onlxv irctiie cai ptatin iii thixl c an toii, iiid l. iHa rtmnan also hecars, the title of naioi. I iigiii c Iile Noj). 3 I iidlcliciilii t()ir(lei of t dd )iiFIellows, xwax ix rgaii izeil at I'diiori c ile] ito. i883, antd I tuxleil li P ist Grand I'daster N ormian Htalley ]I lie firxt officers xxerc A. Jenningsx tohie grameld Geor-e Swif-tt vceitigraiol If 11 Cl aircliildls, recordin, secretirx IFraink Bectts, fiiiancial sec retaiv x. T x'raiii trcasiireri Thli cli itcr imeiiieis 5 xxerc Georg Ac cf\ee \Williaii Setciiin 1. K. 1Tr iii, Joscph Jacohs, George Farell, George Swixftt i-I I. l'itrchldx, A. Jenningsx J. J. WNeir intl D..13. MAorelieatl. The cca ii012~ foiuiii t ncxx lrint lxhiildin, iiiner coitstruction. Tt is thirty-three hxv eit ii ndl is txi t xtoric s lxl,'i. Iit ]liax a good liaseimenut, lauilt for the covix eiicice of tlic iiemitbers IThe cost of this structure is estitmated at $6,ocica They too pohiuxexxiiin of this nexx 1)111 in N'oxvether, t9 i2. Thie presceit oftice(rx ire: Wtiliam xiiRichardx, noble grand, L. A. XVardell, vicegranci Laixern AN'Telch, recordin- xccrctarv x George Hermnit, financial secre

Page  368 368 MO'NTCA( It COUNTMAICHIGAN. tairv- A. S. -Morsec treasurer "iIlie Jlys 191 5, report showed a memihershil of one hiundred and thirtyeiglht. CARSON CITFY I OT)GF NO. 262. (arson City Loisle \0 262 hileieiideot Order (if Odd Fellows, was orgaiiized oil Septeimlir o, J875I dispensationi was granted by Grand Mlaster George Dea n to I 'mli n m Marti n. K 11.Brow, (J B. Itts, S. iV. our-dori ir W\ A\ Sweet, W\. ~d. Sever -nid (Gcor-. Knickcirboiker, iLs ci-liter nienbcirs At tlic fir1st imeeting, the following~ persoiis were elected as officeris to se.rv e that o)rgaiiizationim S. \\I' I oir-liirfer iioble graind Fl. II 1 os crowr vice,-ralid \\ f. TBurke. recordliiw secre-iarv \\ \ wmmeet, Jrtreisurer- I) 'Mliitiii wsarden; G 13) Pitts, colndctor. Anderson C.he.stiiiit, l. 1) Daisis anid S.m I. (aswell were the fir st C -indid;.tcS initiatcil Thle officers elected it the I ist nieti ig are: Clvd c Straiiglt, noble arad;. IChirles O rblih vice-iraiiidI i oil I. Bennett. recording eercrtarv J. IFred ( Firk, hoiowi 1i sccietii v Ii 1.F 1'isiersoil, treasorer. The pi esent iiibeiixrship nonibers iiincts six. (ROiRFSS I hODG NO.3 ',42. IProg5ress ILodge No is 2 Inodelideslnt, Oriler of Odd Fellowss, Bie A Iichigiiml N%;s (.i,0iraniseil in Sepitciiber i22 1t3, w\ithl the lollowsing cliarter imicilbers K ol cit Dcia 1Ge(orge I.-hint, I ines E~rridge, WVilliaiii Gould iaid ITlomas iGa(rlock. It wais iiistailbd Iiv Griand -Master B~rowvn and -it tlic first iciiiicflwi oficer owcre clt.F Garlock, nemlle '-n \illicmon Gould, ice i iiid iRobcirt D ej-s recoriling secretaryV Jamies FIrridge, liiianc il sccret-irs - (Gcoroe I-lot, trceasurei. The preseiit offiicers arn Richaid Nir-muse iioble,riiiil Ras~lpli Deja, vice-grand; Wilder 11. Godfre\, recimrdiny iscci tarii Ch(iiiles D) illi financiad secretary; 0. F. Swvift. treasiirc r ITle liiesenlt en ilii-.ishiip of this Ioil'e is seventy-twvo. 0DAtUiiTiEiS OF iEiElKAXii AT MiiBRirli. lvv Leif 1 odae I)ii-mn'tcirs of Reecahid, Avas orgaiiized at 'McBride, 'ml.y 24, T0o)0 and insta lledI by Grandl 'Master Browvn. Te nnie Deja, Julia F roani in al rtha Tcpik Al artlh IPiiticr, Gecir!ge Fromnii and Jeronse PirintIer Nvere the charter nieiiibers. The first officers wvere: jeninie Deja., noble granml M arthaTe le vice-g-raiii; Julia 1Eronian, recording secretary; Jeroiie Priiitler, iiiaiicial secretary; 'Mrs. Hall, treasnrer. The lpreset

Page  369 MVONTCAL.M COUNTY, MICHIGAN. officcr ire NI im 00c [ultz iiclhle gradi Gladyh (oles, v ice-pra;c Dora Cioles. rccirdiiii secretarv, 1(l1 S( \l1001 ( filaniaRi serta ry ir Jiidsoin Se-, mm c. tirc i~rr [lie gr(0mtl of thins 1(1w his bieen quite grati Ev igy sitce Ftiiie'i (11 No) ')i iiilpcjii(Iciit O)idci ot Oddi Fellowss at Grecnsille]IC wsei ir-nized ii uiidl a 1 iipci> iticm, ()c 'toier 2~6 i 8(5- its ii irtci lenicin cis hvl- i ieii \\ Slierwii0()1 SethI Spraiiic WNillia lii aIi\tcdi NV. N. lettec, 1). A\ Vlliott I~ts char tcr ofitcers wseie c N C, Shcrssood, noble -rand; Seth Sprague, viii - aidi LI NN ()le Icrccetary W.\ N.I ctie> treasurer. It sea,; u~tailled h us) N\' Dennius, -rivid repr esentaitise of Ilyron lod~lc iiiidc.r the ()lii iiv5-dilrec systciii A4 the tiiic of the organiizatioii otthis. 1 dg- (jeort' \V\ kisssel w as griauui master. Ilic iresc i officcrs ot this lodge aire: Xc1s Johnisiin nohle -jrandul Lars Johiis-onu vicc —ranuil inscph P". 1Fi)rrcst, recoriliny sccretaii s u J)l\l iiug-iuliii finciai seicrctary C. I Tlerrv, t rca Isuurc r. At the 1.4Ii it iiaiorv the iiiciiihc imp numbielreid two himIrcil amil) tseciite-lisve ji duustrv Idpsl g \o 171)Muugluters )f lRehekah. whichi is in au-iiiiir of tictile [cdi~loss nilde it Grecims-ilc, seas organizied (in Dcccmihr i13,.j887. 'i'luc follo"uim mesomae o servinug mis officers oif this cdcN B erilma ( (rdi(i, ol Icb griii, l No Dick, recordiiim, secretarv; Altai Strilex trcasiircr FthllN Mc I iliiiii miccera'nul Mlrs. Del Msnfinrc ia sec rc tars. r IsoAWN L0 iuGc~ No. 35~2. "Ish rgLodge No. li;, ideiieiiciit Order of Odd I chowvs, X its oraiiiieil l)ii \ii0gnSt 23 1'iS i T'liey were so iiiifortunate;as tii lose all thcii reciiids lixilre "in 18(3. sci iitih iif ilie earle1 histiire of the ioilge I'S iiiiilt liiilialc. llowever. time charter membe~rs are known, and are as follow Uiarlk\ uiticc~k Daniel 1). Striublhe, Franklium R. iorilree, John NV. Johnson, Saimiel Linki Chlristoplicr Johnson. irancis IiL Cooper, John EP. iEvaiis. Stephcu J. mM irtin. [Flie bil(-e owns a large hail. seliicl is weorth al~init iiie thonsancd doillars. (2)

Page  370 370 370 MONTCAI120 COUNTY, MICHIGAN. It Is a live lodge, composed of sixsty members. Present officers are: Noble,grani, Jesse iBeach;vice-'rind, Idward k1~'eeler; recording secretry, Fred Snvder: financiali seci efar, (. Il leisleys treasurer, D.ans Canis. ENTICAN L ODGE No. 43. -Enltrican L odge No -~1 Independent Order of Odd Fellows, was organized on Decembei 6, io pi 1 T1his lodle sivis installed by Urank 1R. j-ainllbrger, grand masts., i is itli tile following- chiarter memb~ers: \\illiami K. Delinlert, Lewis -N. Le LcuIther Allen, 1Z A\ 1Pintler, Georpre U. (on-Idln, Jerome I riitic r, I irve LeeI cc -Ivsi \V'sboo I rvsl (oiiiden. S. P. I.Ankisouse, S. I C olidenl A\ A\ Piill, I thsn Rober ts, E d\ix iid lDrier D) Al. Plumber-, \1v ninin11ins" M. A\ I loot, Gcorge I. Pdriberg, ITT ~V Smith, A L. (Cumimins, B3 Wi Smith. Lecwis \\ lsois Rov Saxles, Joe ( lirk, Chaiei Pr1itcIsardl. James jcffrcx, ~ '1iam on eac rson R. C. 1Pirshll. Rox 1 lont, Jaicob Crmoxoil iiid. Clarencec Binnmbero I hie first officers to ievise this lodge w o re Wilbia 1n I Deliiiert, noble -r'isil f1u1rv N Lee, vice-'rand, LIvcis N. I cc. 1 cvoidin'. secretaics S. a nulen finanmciali secretasri Rayi 11rintier tircasnircr. Il~ie ~I ntricai is -e puchla sved their iirvesent hldl froii tli( Knights of the A'al caedies for the consiilcratioii Of $700. This lodge hias hsad a verx miarked -rowthi as shiiin hvli tise faict thsat at the end of the only four vcars life it ias isich led ai -iisenisershisi of iiiiety-fdie. Tlic present officers are: MIortiimesr I. 11[iiii ii isle -rainc tClareciec B~lumiler-, sice-grand;.Lfbtaii lxiii rts fiii sc i ixvil sexrtav i-vs Iriiitler. treasurer. 1,i-" '('iK LiODGE NO. 517. isis vi Ik Lodge Niso ~i- Indepiciideit Order of Ovid Fellows, ixas orraiiizcil on Sepits iibir C6 i11) x ti i foiloix\ is s barter miemliers: lossir P 1rak, 1 liiiei I.' Brol awx S. P. Minimer, -lay Gallop, Jolin F'. Staiiies. Villsiiii W Smivir. Chaiiles s II 1 asto, It. I Sevely J. W.V Btdllock, Davidi I eabdsed aisi 1crv x rown The s liv rst officers chsosens lix this lodie ieca fsillsiss S I) \lsiniii isoible -rand Jax' Gallops since-giaisci J. WV. Bullock, recorcliis" secretary i Inieiiir Iarin f inaicial sevcrtary; olin F. Stasimes. treaistirer; I1F I Brokaw xiwa rdenm This lodise hls' iccmi \crcx actove ini prislieriss andi dleserves all the lsoisci possibk. Startims, wiith a iiieiibershsip of clvies ciit ias reached a tostal mnenmbership if sins hiuiiiil ciatnse fixentystfix is nud this in ax sillage of Onily

Page  371 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN.37 371 about forty inlhabitanlts. Th'lis increase in membership lhas been accomp)liShedl in tenl years, and tile lodge has drawn psrincipally from the farming districts. It niow holds third lplace in the lodges of M.\ontcalm1 county of this order for size. 'Ilic present ofticers are: V-. C. Allehin, noble grand; S. D. Gates, vice-grand; Earl (.. Jenks, secretary; J. G. Parks, treasurer; WV. W. Root, wardlen. JOY LODGE NO. 298. Joy Lodge NO. 20)8. Independent Order of Odd F'ellows, at Crystal, wvas 01rgalizedl onl Tune 21), 1877. TJhis cl1iapt~r was installed by) WVilliam Sweet, ivith the following charter n-iemblers: josiah L. Ztiver, Hiramn H-. Steffevs C hirles HI Rog-ers, AXlbert S. Ohiver, Tohn A. Drtim and C. D. Al ason. trh first ofticers clected we re: J. 1 lover, noble grand; J. A. Drtnii vici -rawoid \. S. Oli-ver. recordilng secerdtry; C. E. Rogers, treasirr. Ihe present ofticr Jr. AL aI sc ille, noble grand; Marion Waldrow, vice-groald I Bert Proctor, recording secretary; C. Mi F.rank, treasiorer. 'I his is now a large lodge. b~eing~ cojiiposed of oiie hundred and three iieiibers. Peerless ILodge No. ji Dasi-ihter of Relbekah, of Crystal, was inistittitedl On Ap~ril 21. I MSo0 1 li( cli rter inembers were: Arkemias Grennel, Dianna (Greilincl, Peil'cimio nL Ioi-, Han'nah L ong, 1aniel 1R. Shaffer, Cortielia Shafci1rc Prrv A\ lowersi Ha ttie I ow ers, Geor ge. Vermner, Lotiise Vermner, C'. G~. xNlaso I 1Lotils 111150i1 john A\ Driuni, Stisi( Druini 0. F. Mlason, Mlary Mlasonl IT1 IT I ie 1,1.1 1~' 1 rccdi Ha~rrison WVheeler, Mfary Wheeler, Wilton T.aicille. 1 'iiitii 1asc ilke D) S. Strlbe, J. S. Strtib~le and Mary Steffey. VVEN LODGE, NI). 87. iveii L odlge No. 87. Indeplendlent Ortder of 0(11 Fellows, at Sheridan, Aliciga x sor iiie i tg ji. i,188.5. throuigh a ilispensation froiw the grrand[ lodl'e Isv the grand warilen, A. ii. Clark. TFhe charter men-ibers (If this lod-e were is follciw: L.ew\. M~urraV, NV. W!lheeler, W,. F. MlcNaughton, Calv in Rooker. Fl. B. Garidner, S. D...Albright, Arthuir Hemingway, Ed~wardl 1. lbrh r, Irank t. Brackett, \V'illiamr H-. Wood, Charles Doran,.S. A1. Gleason. Chiarles I,. BrI.wn', A. G. Giddings, Williani Fnller, F,-. J. Sherwood. Henry I'. (lark, 3(o111 [. Gray, AT. A. IBonsell, David Brackett anid Charles H. Titint. 'flie charter members, who are still active and in gYO(d~ stanidimng are X\V. WhIl-eeler. AI. U. MeUNaughto_-n, E. tII. Thayer, W~illiam H1. W\ood, \Villiami Fuller. Th'le first officers of the loge were: Clifton TI.

Page  372 372 3/-MONTCALM COU NTY. MNIChTIGANT. CIe Iciiulit ncile grand;lohn La-rloer, vice graind W.illianm Peters. recording(, s~,crtar s, P cter I1'. 1ark, financi ai secretarys Aiios F'. Avers. treasurer. Fhcl temiple Xs hcr t cilc olcetings ir e held at psresenit is the prcoperty of the lde. TIhis is i two sorv1 sbsiildiliii owitli a store rooi lielow aiid thle lodge M OMS ilbovse aocl is value a t. '1 ~wo. Flu-1, hio(lse has aii eii(.1-oIll~icilt at l)Iescit of Oill. hoiildred lld1( towcots n members, iiid is a stroo-, active -oranmiztion Some11 foits of thie ou iii cis of tliis lgdCIe (1 dou to the eiscaliiiliciiiii 'it Ttntn Ihc r((is. ii mieietsn-i of the louige are hield oi0 A Ionlav oif each week ciF Ilic pri -cllct s-_ftices.;Ms in II W 'I Tin-i grole(ainl George F. B~rosvii, svice-riaiii 1 I. I,, loswr. recordinii secretairv - J oli Abbiott, liiiiicial sccretaarvs iiiu \. F i teiiseii treasuirer D\UGH1tiFi S oF NFP!iOSKA~l AT SITEitOAN. Rdide]Cal iA iPIii Nis. 375 D. ~mglters of Rsebiekahi -,vis or ooaized at Shicridasi, I cm-1iiroirs ti)02 mul( InsaldlvIrcos tIrmcse1 charter membiieirs ierue JI iiigcliiie H arrs. MI riods Cuss ci \ii icf'iiiri-~m Isabselle Sjpitc I(IIs 1(1Ia Fole i icle Ias. NIhis.issoli 1 saio-etioe H-iris s, s clioscii lis ile — riid;\usgic N Mourrisoni svice -riid NI ie NI itli(misoil, ccsrlus curct irs: Mll li I iiibc-s 1o- ici-il S-CrCItarV: Isali]c I;i Spiats.hI tic istirr ci ora ioliedscr is iii w the iiobls -ruuiil Fl. I,. A\ olfattt. vice-~r-nd 'PIe-irl MIIri- recording- ecrsetiiv I os M C leoieit, fioancial scc ietiii- I Ata B. tic cnhocu treauorer N iostisolrs fr sow luislliiig is owssoc bvi tlic locI-e. It w is iconsutis.td ili til Nc s i IR-,an1 miichasesl at a cost. of 2,0o0s Flies oossN 11isc' i iiiCuii~_lieu -hosif SOl cuts inc. I.Les s 1-odisl \ss is, Kniigh-lt-si 1f svtlhas. sf Greeinville, Mi cligan ssaS O r —aiiizesl osm sisIc 5 i tiIi slssiu-cl-tI —iiiii N N\huts. WNilliain I" NVdls, C NNIW isei I Iiil,(7,tk (. ( utich, Josesphu Ojttiuu ii 1 one,-; NI ills, (I.liiics WN 1 issis.' \ I. Stovls, ei rL iishliiiiii IF ID I t miiiisn I. C. Mosrris, WN Il IPstlowss IF WN Alleis I leitry Shiope. ciii 'e la ss NIl(. i. irnc, NN G Nclson, NN. N\ SIaiss sOns I \Nru —hi., CI NN H-errick-, listp IichIeulits.is, sii 1' NA-cryl I. F. 1- Sprgue FIlust Lu)r-asIles, L I. Mosrris. 1Lcr111 Nloisre, ( 0) sosoi N N N ichlsl (haleiIs huhson, C harlcs Nlulidllctii \. It soihusin, WN II (Conosver, Ieo- cITirnier. 1Thc first rfim.cers iierc: NNulliniu A. WNhute cliaiiccllor comiiindiicer:

Page  373 MONTCALIO' COUNTY, MICHIGAN.37 373 wV. C;. Nc i-i o vitce-ciaiaceo 111 [,oster Alkn ii relate; WV WV Siasixso, oiiistcr o)f e:ch\~eqticl \ A Il iStevens keeper olf lccordls and( sca ii Joseph Ottmar, imasier at arios (Chare I ii ixdci oiiiei ai aiui ( J. Clairk inncr guard. As is ilic hi sixory ot neit k ailx l icixlxes L e~oy No. 9 hadi its leain as well as fat ve rs- aiiic die yc-u iSx)o foiiid thcm with iaiouit fifty mcimbers. At thai timii C. ii Duiniiiiio I. F. Axcrv 11. (. Alerirctt J. C. N cx-rouigh, NV. N (-Col \ \N) Wcli C. Ca(riliii J. F. ani Worieri G eorge WV. terry aiiu a ii iiiiihei Of ithcers t(oh), iil i1(AiixC iiitcriesi in building tip the lodi-e, wxitli thc resiii that Ii i1)0II i io it ha abiit c1-lhiy uicuihcrs iiid a soilisiailitia '1 i trp~lls ili its I rc sol S rom 11000 to iqoo6 ne-irixy forty new niemhers; xx Ci addedd \moiii- themii xxvcre the folloxxing enthusiastic working iociiilcr WN KimCxskirx, 11 N. C cineix C. C. Larke. K. S. Mfason, F. G. Hoxxiiid C. NI. I e 1r)1cc C. 1. ool, TTI Af Grosvenor, AM. EC. Glass', J.I i.F'imminoii ai iiu 1 C iaav oills x x x h iiior list Siioiildilioxx he oaided R. A I )i-mxxn S. A Sxorvx 1.). Lvxiaii, in Ii. Rarden, WV. L. Rarcien, iDoi 1. Dlickcr in lxxv C. h)oixi Ii M. (dliss F. R. Hiiicklin, F. WV. 1-Jarrilxtool I. H-i 11a(Ic I. C. Tlomsoi I). S. Seamaiin, adii ii Is tiiie tox the' aciixe ixork 'oU -ltd -it of ithese iiiciilers nI lparticliiar thai the meinber-,hi ano-tary i, 11)1 ix itals lxtw li liird ci iid x-eiift-fixe. NNItdi ei-diieeii xx ist cli iiccllois it is thiuiaiht ihc tiniiteci efforts oif such ioeii a:i -le,-c- itiat 'in i1iinoal Chiristimas dlinier anil suiitabxle lirescilts of clxxti-. II aind txxx for eac Iiiilxx child 'in tie city- is giveli. anid ii 1914 a veix sueie-e.s) il si c t c xi usa \viixs coiideitexl whlichi iiettexl the loge $ i~ooo. A xolmitr six bshc ripliiixi fmiin was dlsx raisexl iii this sear, xxhich cnablede tlicei to clahor Ii ly eiquipl)ie in 4i the finiest lodge~ and chlib roomis on itie seeiiiix!Ixixir if the Stafe Ti-nk bxiildliig inll( also a hall roixili anil hanxtqit hiall. xxith (c11c-k nxxxii- xiii] a f iflly —qippIii~lexl kitchici xiii the iliirdl floor. It is the proudi 1 ioasi t (fI xvtlxil xii- lixIrceix xille thai el(fithv per cciii. if the busiiiess men of the c-if x ri c ilemba i if Lekcix No. o. TIhc lii c -ct i iticers arc las follxxx C 1. S. Seaman, chancellor ccxiiiinuk-. N 1,carvil-ic xvicechlaiiccllxr; I). L. Dickersoii, p~relate, F. WN. IIarrilytxiii, keceper xxt irccorxis and seal Philix R ich, master at arias iT. MT. Glass. ulastcr. if fiiiancc, W. i`x_ \Varxl, master of exchequer: J. Ei. V'ran NWornier. ilaster i)f \xv,rk G. H. Rhodxies, inner gutard; 1-i. Elasiiiian, outer,guaril. ii. -. fileinc-nt, xf tliis lod-e, is grandi master of excheocier in ilic graiic lodtgc of Michigan.

Page  374 374 374 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. TIOWVARi CITY LODGF NO. 2fib Howard City Lodge No. 2o, Knights of Pythias was x organized on l)ecemher 19, 1913. It was installed hy H1 E. VanDewalker, with a large numlher of charter members. They ire as follow: A. Al Cook, 'Sd NT. [htillock, J. F-Iltullock, H1 Al\t Gribbs,\ J. Smith, T" L. Carnill J. Arner., 1.1). Bailey, (. C. 1Tcrxill-er C. tCrunmins, W. A Brunner, J. L. eier, B. F. AMeier, L. B Holmer. II1 N. \andenbeigh, NV. Iish, Edwaxrd Sutton, A.T. Booth, L A. Sinipkins, R S. jcnnings, C. AM 01)onild, W. II. (olIinis J. B. Haskins C. EI B irton., F. Al. May, C. Wolfe, L. W. Green, P. S. WXool)Oall, D. X\` (CIapl) W. H. (Gregg. C. G. Larry, Frank Reamis, HN. F. Butleir, Dodge, IN. Al\iller. The first officers to serve this lodge wxiree S. [imir, clincellor comimanlder; D. NV. Clapp, vice-chancellor L.. NI (a Gecui prelaite II \1 Vandenbiegh, master of work; A. T. Booth, keepier of recotd oxind sec i1 W. A. Bronner, master of finance; C. M. O'Donild, m-ister of excehequer; R. S. jennings, master at arms; J. L. Meier, inner guiarcl 1I raii k Reamsx outer guardl. \ltlhomih this 01 g miztiton is not vet two years 01(1, it hoasts of a imemhierxhip of fortysiniiu. T1w Persofs now holding iiffices are: D. IV. Clapp, chanlcellor commander; iT. N. VNdmenbeigh, vice-chancellor; F. L. Carniell. prelate; J. I. Meier, kepeer (ot recordIs mnd seal; S. Jarlier, master of wvork-, P- S. NWoodall, master of finaiwce ( Al O'Donald, mnaster of exchequer; L. S. Simpkins, master at armsx Fraink Re aims, tiler guard; M. F. Butler, outer guard. iDANISH BIOTTIEI1hiOD SOCIETY. R-losendale Lodlge N o. 7 Dainish Brotherhood Society, at Greenville. swas urganizcd on -November 30, 1893, and installed by Vigo A. Danielsen. I'lie chacter was granted to the. folloss ing people: A4. Skroder, N. Rosendal, Peter Ilanseu, WV. Veldlt, J. Peterson, I.' Iohnsen. IH. WV. Petersen, John C. Nielsen, C. lor —useni C. P. Christiansenl, Frank Rasmussen, J. P. Jorgensen, Jacolb Nielsen ailil J. P). Nielsen. Of these people the following were elected to serve as the first officers: A/T. Skrodler, II1. Petersen, N. Rosendal, P. Hansen, NW. Feldt, C. Nielsen, 31. Petersen. C. Jorgensen',.1. P. Nielsen aild C. P. Christiansen. The persons now holding offices are: L~ars Jensen, Chris Ileedlimnan, Af. Christenseii, N. P. Hansen, IH. Hansen, H. Mikelsen, P. Anidersen, N. Rosendlal and C. S. johnsen. They have a present mem.bership of one hundIred and thirty.

Page  375 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 375 PE'TERSEN'S MINDE SOCIETY NO. I8[. Petersen's Minde No. 181, Danish Brotherhood Society, at Sidney, was organized on October 1o, 1903, and installed b1v Peter Madison, of Greenville. The following poeple made up the charter members: Hans P. Larsenl. iMartin Schroder, Lars 1'. Christiansen, Jens Petersen, Rasmus J. Rasmussen, HIans Iversen, J. L. lamb. H. P. Nielsen., Carl C. Andersen, NW. Rydahl, L. Jensen, \V. C. Hansen, A. Thompsen, N. J. Petersen, Peter E. Mathisen, Tlenrick A. Petersen, Johannes HI. Nielsen, Niels J. Lamb, Martin J. Christensen, Peter Hansen, [rank G. Hansen, Sinion M. Petersen, Marius T. Christensen, I1red \V. Jensen and Fritz Schroder. They own a large hall, constructed at a cost of $.5oo0. CHIRSTEINSEN LODGE NO. 163. Christensen l.odge No. T63, Danish Brotherhood Society, at Edmore, was organized on March 14, 90o3, and installed by C. Christensen. The following people were chosen the first officers: N. C. Hansen, ex-president; P. Nt..Mortensen, presi(lent; I. P. Christensen, vice-president; F. Jensen, secretary; X. C. Jorgensen, treasurer; trustees, Alfred Hansen, A. Jensen and J. P. forgensen: N. Larsen, inner guard; G. Nielsen, outer guard. In 1912 a new frame 1uilding sas put tp, at a cost of $i1,6oo. The lodge is a very prosperous andl lmsv one, an(l its membership numbers fifty-six. The present officers are: P. M. Mortensen, ex-president; John Mathusen, presi(lent; N. C. Jorgensen, vice-president; Albert A. Petersen, secretary; J. P. Jensen, treasurer; trustees, P. Sorensen, H. H. Hansen and J. C. Hansen; inner guard, N. C. Hansen: outer guard, TH. P. Christensen. DANISH BROTHlERiHOOD LODGE NO. To6. L.odge No. io6, Danish Brotherhood Society, was organized at Trufant on December 27, 1897, and was installed by Christopher \Vinther, a delegate from Greenville lodge N(. 70. There were twenty-six charter members, as follow: Conrad Christensen, J. P. Paulsen, 0. I'. Olsen, C. F. Hansen, N. 1'. Olsen, A. P. L.arsen, J. Paulsen, J. P. Jensen, N. P. Mortensen, H. P. Jensen, N. P. Jensen, N. P. Nielsen, 0. N. Johnson, H. P. Larsen, P. Nielsen, H. Olsen, J. I.arsen, T. S. Jensen, 0. Jensen, S. C. Mortensen, N. Petersen, 0. P. Antonsen, F. Haagen, C. Hansen, G. P. Rasmussen and H. P. Simonsen. The following were chosen to the various offices: Conrad

Page  376 376 376 ~MONTCALM C'OUiNTY, TMIC11ILAN. (hriistcsi ii, pilrcslident J. i. IPaulseni v ice-president ( ) P Olscii, ex-residciii: ( I. I iliiscii, secretary N. P. (Olsen, trea~surer A I I' Lirscn, leader; I 1cmiici. nun' ua nrd; N. I Jensencii outer l'i(_tar:1 I aiulsieii IP. [c li'.(ii iiid N. 1) Ah rieliiseit N ciecftlc triltes At tlic last htisuiiess 111cctIll tihe f0illowiim persons were clecteil ofik (-1 C. C( \Vci urich. pcledci nlt I r n '. 1r1-di vicr' presidenit NI \. [citeisi in cxli-csidclit; I) (. Iaiilsen., scrcutari L I' lenscii ti-c islrci: II I) (hristiatisrii J leaie I 1rtisi Innier' -111 I1 1. 1. Larsoil outeri -111a(1 5,A.1c11(11 F1 S-; liiisci ll and.1. 'mitleii \\ eI the tillstics Tic tota miticiiicri lipi Ill Ocitober, 111 i (1111 ihund red111 an sxty-si N. Thie lodge oweis thintr owui st-i'iicti' u lellr i v'ic i(\Clti 11111 iitsciitriic'ted it a ci 't of $ 00, A\iioa Toi)lc 6A (., 1)1111 ii Siom 1r iood. was or-ializcli it Tlf;IIi )cclli' 27 li 0111 l\-]ii t]irvtoo(, iiiaiitee ilieilers. Tihc tirt"o'tfilc'ers i i'c s foilioi 1`111111a 1 horson,01 c \ iisiilcitt Aiiia Christeos~eli, prcstcielt A ncF ar iti..c vii ee pei ciii Stinle NI. TLarseii, seirtrc ('rs tiii It iimi'eii ii irc.ui~ ci \i~in' MCS CI'. n c ilcr NI arie Ailderseti. Christine IPetersenl iii 1 NI'in Chritireti'enii wcre tic trustees; Tiuianle W~einrichi, tillecr altar I: Stitlie So 1~i a II s iii mtci 'u'iril 'I lie tiresclit )fficcrs aim' NI rs.. Aimia Sot luslwil. es ot'wc''leiut, I iiic Jeiiseni presiulcnt (Christinie itanisenl. viepresidcicit NIaric 11criii, iiscci ciry in I. ni en sen. treasurer, ( aiiii liii sell. icadicr truse Naie i I.uiu ciNina IHansen and ll 1-tuiuHasen NI iiia t~'7arl. inuside -uard \ii ilm Nielseni i lter guiard. fi tI7)ctciler, I lii. 1liey hail sciciitvI' multI act iv n aiicl thlee piiisive iiieii ters. Mii oDEN WM 11111M)F N OFiA iN ICA1.. t r~eeneI~1c ( 1111]] 'S 3789 SiMNidern iiWoodiunii of Aniiricai VI ieas"'Aiiciie o11 Aptied I 7, I fij, with11 tli I f~loiiiilii chiarter iiteniiers: 1. P. t ohiscoii, 55... A inii Sli iiSiui S i 1' Ioncer WS. HI. flrcwn. F. G. Carei. G-'eorge L. t olc, [[ciriert Decceri T. C. Denisioi, Percv AItcsai, W5. F. itiarisiiorth,.Arichcr iFoirsythe (tIIl' 1CI itc \ 'ldeitier "c'liit. I. G. FHjo,- s J. Gracv. Charles.1 aiiiper, T. Trctilkl, 'Ni. (G. IHijlmiiiai, L. NV". [[yde, C. Torgensen, *T. S. tdariil, Jiiitd MSart in. ihiwaril ~iniioln, L.. (. 1.iiic'ihi, J. A5. Lougo

Page  377 5'TONTCALii-i (COUNTY, MICHIGAN.37 377 Street, Ai '\ti-je,1 itssarntMagei Homer \t-ncc, J hm Peterson, C;. P. Ri-olers, S A s chiadi, /. Riley(ic G. B. Stirr, 1. J Scri s1s, Warren SersSs, F C( Steptihcihniil 1. A5 fipatidiii) \l S. A I lci J. Wagnier, Alva Wereks, I( C. Nir it, (_I C. 55 Io indi S.i Woodiorth TIli he old hooik of recrdii s iCeii lust. S() tilecrivit iiistiii 5 f~ this lod-eu is Shiroided iii mivstervs 1bit it Is1ii r mimberi t(hai t I crcv I Asa \\ss thii first v icc-constil. aind Wt. crv isis wz(tic cek. 'CI'lic ilrcsc lit oflicc( arei( [11 Chanliter. vicecon-util A i ~liiin ss rtlis iditsosii L. C Lincolii clmk C I H istiiail, treasircr: T Shi pcid It scirt. M1iiti BRMc CAMP I)15) Stc liir dc Campi~ \o) Ii0i04 Siuni \\er Wlis~letlc ii \iiiri I - i s orgami izcd lii I February 24. ipiL mit installed In Dcpiits John C. iars- ITie fotusikim tic( prs )ins cisutiti tid ititte chiiiter imicmticrs 1)nieiil C. IBell 55Witt iiii1 X. 1 inc Iavis it 1Irotmiks, W5illiiii (Gilcs Robtert Ha-miuitoni Sificit S. I tiiscmi Si etsec ici lissin- Tii il G. ( utiisi I esi tIc iiiliii P1tiphserti I i ink, Stiiai, t;ciiric 55 Striki Ctdsi ( iiI ssItc iii55tu 55. Gwiuiidi 'Ilii!Irst ()I~cr( i iiscii "liit scirvc thiis a155ci lioii sscre: Sciir],Taipinkc I) 1 111l derk ( cure,- 55 Strictln 1 iit c 'crt, SylIsester I lissin, slChIlMcIl.i ii I) i iii R,1110k~;- senltivs \\ Ii I'ill C(r illsysicianl D) t tacit iniistccs. liiia it. tiiiiiiiiilI csws M ich cii 1n1 Atlfredt tianseni ITic cluedin poprcil eiiitil 1)1 i 5hleu th Plic-id ciimp~ uniirtoo111k t~o r usc Ilic I te uitd tticii tss ct cmiembters itroptitd itot ticfIori ttic \ iiundirstooid isha t the ilcrctead riteii wa5 f1r I ut teli hessw iiltc me scr iv c aIdlded ini \prilt ill ttits \v 1 its 0(siC~ll cittic tiiiS hlii bci1 e pa1 id Ilsrilli the histony of ttuc Iisipe liie tlcOl nsii Ilmvldil~lli IA it(cs,;c k Se ( ' Rea iom)ist c sil t~eri. ri slt.sciertit clisit fiJ11)h 5 Ii tcs, (Irtlsiv t adisor; S. C:. Iortcnisei, cn'nnutsci tiiukcr: \ritoti t. S IcIill, clerk- ( AI Sc(rea, escort C. 5) Itc( rea. s\ratctiiim: Atlfred Andetrsoii Sceitrys '1i hrPoardt of manage rs is diiusc~ I)f thle fotlsisliinc 111111rs ( tlatil Brilu H. K. Neiiseii Mlld I'. C. M1cI rea. PiLL. CA\ SP N. 58 14 hull (amp Nil. 5814. Mod)Iernm Wooldniilin 1sf aiimi t Labngston. iwas oriranizcdI OIn Novembher 1. i)8, andl inistaitlle liv S. S. Carr. wsith the foliloirilg charter imiembe~rs: John1 W~ilcox, [cdiii Koirter, F~red Bait, George

Page  378 378 378 MONTCALM COUNTY, M ICHIIGAN. Coxvlini Clhaniccy Sparks. Janes Clifford NN'. Taylor, C. C. Sai er, L. L hlinkley, 'Vill Forll, L-eroy Saklr, F red Briggs, L. B3. Benedict amel Joe lxederstorf. TIhe first otticers ehosen xxere Jiohn Wvilcox, veneraible consul; 1olin lKorter, worthxv advisor: Fredl Call, emninent hanker;G A. '\(ovlinw clerk: C. Sparks, escort; J. Clifford. wxatchman; 'NN. Taylor. secretirx C. C. Sayxles, phy sician. Thbe lrescnt officers aire Walter Meliattic, venerdile consxl 'Villisam F orce, xwortlsx adxisour Fredl Ball, eminent banker, John 'Aiico\I clerk. Thcir lireselit membership is twelve. LAKEVIE CAM xxP NO. 3240. ILakeviexx Canip Y 0 32'40, "Xib eri 'Aoodlien of America, was organizedl 01 Seliteinier i 5o xx,)~ ohfl the folboing charter members: lean Brininsri \\ ill t.hsarnlcyx I C). ChIapmanii A. B. Dickerson, A. T. IDiehrn, Duimean F ink, C I. (reen. I" D. lRhodes E. BI. Stebbiiis, Robert Sceirrah, C. 'AV \Welch Jos iah Wh ite S. I' Y oung" anl N. II1. Youngman. The first offhcers inclmled (. I" Greeni venerable consol, R. Scurrah, xworthy adxisor; N. H. Youingman, dclrk: 1" P.) Stebbsins, eminent banker; Dunncan Uink. e seort; I' D. Rhoides amid S. 1 Yioiiix Dr. F,. R. Blanchsard. physician: A. B. Dickei son, A. [Iiehri is iidjosiah VsWlite iiiaiiagers. riEsiRiBE ce BEN iiUR. Hloxwsre C ity Court No. 3.5. Trilse of Ben1-lir, wvas organized onl July i8, i S9, andii xwas instaslled hy George Shoults. [olloxvinou are the ch-arter membersi 1. 1. [last' -M. araret \Vooelall, Joseph Woodall, Jamnes Totten Josxlii WAoodall, Jr. Vs A\ Huirllsert, 'P. B. E'nsley, Etta Wlitifielcl, Lee W~hithield 'Ma ry liast. IFrank Jones, James Baty, Williaim Templemais. John Baty, sadie lie Betv soi l Ioras I irrv. At the first mieetiis- the folloxwiisg lirsons wer crc osoeis to look afiter tlse interests of this nexx oigamization: Earisest Thist, chief Margaret Woodall, jiidge 'V A Hsirlburt, teacher; Fren Tnslev, scribe; Etta WNhlitfieldl keeper of tribiute, L. E. Whitfiebl, cihitain; Joseph Woodalal, guiile -Maix Ritx, keeper of inner gate; Frank Jonses, keeper of -outer gate. Thiis is a livexlv little orgiisiz'mtiou whchii taskes a goodly interest Ii their xvork. 1Thev hold their iseetiixgs om tise first aisd third IFuesilai of each nionths, aned ounce i months thsex hiavxe i program xvith a supper following. Thse present officers 'ire is follow: G-eor,e D~avichsoin. chief I, Ubra Larriy judge: Floreince ~V ainienbirghi teicher; Hirriet Woodall, scribe: ChIarles Vandlenburghs, keeper of tribuite 1Preistice W~oodall, capitain; Henry Opper.

Page  379 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 379 guide; Charles Pog;rdus. keeper of outer gate;.-Austin Barber, keeper of inner gate. CORAL C(URT' NO. 38. (oral (Court No. 38, 8lrilbe of Bcn-Tlur. was organized at Coral on January 27, 189(, anl installed bv Doctor Shultz with the following charter meimbers: (George A\rmitag'e, Dr. F. \illiam Plolio, George Masters, Mertie Tuck, Sarah E. IHolcombnl. liza '. Armitage, James F. Kyle, A\ugusta \Vright. Charles M. Hlolco)mb, Ellen Durst, MIarv 1. Tlolconm, Alice W\ilson, Harry M\inore, 1... Holcomb and Mlar L. Horton. The first officers were George \rniitage, chief: Dr. E. William o Bolio, 1past chief; (eorge Masters, teacher; Mrs. Mlertie ITuck, judtge.; Mrs. S. F. Tolcomb, scribe; Eliza irniitage, guardl A. \Vright, keeper of inner gate: Fred Kvle, keeper of outer ga-te; (harles M. Tlolcomb, capltain; ll1en Durst, keeper of tribute. Charles M1..[olcomb is now() the chief, and Agusta Wright is the scribe and keeper of tribute. The presenlt membership is twenty-nine. ROYALT.ARC^ANUM. Greenville Council No. 622, Royal Arcanum, was organized on October 22, i88T, and installed bi HI. E. W. Campbell. The charter was granted to the following members: A. V. Nichols, I). Jacobson, G. H. Palethorp, H. Starr, J. L. \Van \Vorner. S. L. Tyler, C. T. Gilnour, D. D. Clough, F. W. Baker, \X\illiam Maxted, G. \. Turner, R. E. Sprague, \V. Knapp, D. A. Towle, \. S. Contant, X. HI. Conover. and of these the following were clected officers: Willialm Mlaxted. regent; G. W. Turner, vice-regent; R. I. Sprague. orator; X\. Knapp, past regent; D. A. Towle. secretary; A. S. Contant, collector; \V. f. Conover, treasurer. The persons who now have the vital interests of this lodge in hand are: J. L. Vasn Wormer. regent; 1.. C. Lincoln, secretary;. I'. Van WVormer, collector; A. O. Derby, treasurer: W\illiam B1. \\ells, orator. It is of interest to know that this is the only Royal Arcanum lodge in the county. ROYAL. NEIGHBORS OF AMERICA. Mistletoe Camp No. 1216, Royal Neighbors of America, was organized at Greenville on November 29, 1898, with the following charter members: Mrs. Maggie Baker, Mrs. Hannah Bass, Mrs. Lena Bass, Mrs. Pearl Blanchard. Dr. F. R. Blanchard, Mrs. Grace Brimmer, Mrs. Grace Charn

Page  380 380 380 ONTCALIN COU-NTY, MI1CHIGAN. leV, MI r AIoII (I; toi 1 Nts. Flora Detrick 3 Mrs ( ct ii Dickcrsoilt Marit J a it Itoi 1 i I X toaFncl NI i. I I- I ri i cli IT rie s, (otI d stet I sclltNc I I loItI Icr.-1 Nltitite 11littotstoti, NI N. fo1111 ot Mis MeNrncer \cttle Piect ( MarIianneo ScotrahI Sabitt t S1 otittotiZ 31 ooe Smtotli N Ma Vttitii- otd Annait YN mo-t The o lcaItll)it ws ilosttlcl lo \y Mrs. Hattie 1 cooLardl (if (i tid l\pidos. Th fithrst Alticers ot tli c i ip werc 31 o tatiac Scillrrahi 114tot Dii ota Finc0h orold Ic; i 'rlIB itnchI tIt I- cc V1Ce-trCl II T tttic i11( I-.CIttiiT111 ('I, Fitnk rec tiki Nitir t rt-c-li receiver: Mlinnie I lhumistitto t marsha1: Nettle I ccci is;sistant to rdil Al.N A\ Johonson, otto scittliwoI 1 '11 (1 titlde S ilMi'i t -ittt it t1s, Vice-orttele: '5ettto Pierce, cltatlellli ir- I -Il~t tc( i ci, recore NI -tittitmit e irl receiver; Jcieii Swaithiiotit, tittrlttIM1l ( rcc Sca itasi itait t ilt shitl FI Ilent I ti-mitit itticr sc ittitt 1Flora II ac-Iett 1'. I I' i\ Is t p yiit Ic111 Ittit ilic ditititiistia iii to f I resitlcttt J 1~ts li oI tileIt a-iricoll — titntl aff~airs iii tli- Sthtti twerc ill sttcft t ac1 tvlrble Ic'-tot thttt it wt s leidtetc I to ttt10iltivt ittilit litt-t1fittc itthe lc f ircett tnd actertai it 111 icc ilit- it ittI-c twhc weas thliicommtttiissitocer it -tericillttino itvis placedi ili chargc itt tlic xettk. 0). HI - Ifellv, t~ f NI ittitesotta' telto itIto ltkIttlcitct)ti Itis rectiltrt Ito itatc a tep trit hi cht dicll I c stich I frlihtfuittl stite of atfftitrs that tilte Idcea if ctpttir t o ilic- te -tarters t1ilt a swicitv twis (Icti-iettlticI. Iatiia t tWilt I 'titls (It t;Iti eltaiait N;[Sillictitl I. reCiti, 11c051- til I 6in s iTric 1-tI ifticml~c &ilcerotiert I. Whirris Ilaittos, Dcttelict CCduha mat I ri shu I citert onttia lc~it-st: Alicsontt Natlet Ohto, lstcc otti Cut i Ibttlits, )ltio, thind I Tce ct-ticutltittal butllctint of Oc tiiicber 8~~ Shtowedl itritiics to the tuoiule totif sIx thtoutsand itiitt tititdi c atti foturteeci

Page  381 I '..1.38 1 I i( lii il ofujiiveil "5()1n aifte. icr share (if granges old althioughl the wiciinl totrii Initer-ests inl 31 oiteahi 0c noty hail not reaceldi that per0o (- o imt h wi hid thle\ dIdl at a later- tinie. still:i, early as 1874 al grang)e was 3sitea in (-Ill-e Noi. i 8, which was tile I'i~ rlg or-amizedilli the (mi htv w ii d-li(ii nt~ iind~er1 lie laws of 3 ielii-aui osi 3ar1h el(. 1874. 111(11 0 c I tlii itv Ii e m111( iemberis ill this g'r;ilige( W0d tilk imiaies i)f thle fIrlSt (`I(Is1,C folloo' Stcphen Ross5i11m1, imi ter1 Ch11ste1r I) liii er. Mi'1-i -a C IcH r! S. SIharp, lecturer I I_ C. 1iilicoAli 4(01w(1r- lihrhes Snydier. si-rli rv ii he1 di~pi iesat isn fromi Ihe iati inal -graoee for t le i rgallilatiloo,fthis 11ordmiliitc g"range was issiieil and a ciar-ter -rantedl (ill flv~, T874 1wv thi niatM31 i1 in iaster. lDndlev Wi. \damls. 1001 sere!torv (. H. II elles. fI lls \VI-_ Diii"il iiuid reC1-ellih iev dile state grwio-e if Michligan lii \ii-iost -1 18-)4. S. II. HOrNi iw was thle state mlaster at thiat tiioe 11111.1 FI (il~bi stllItc seuctret- ITins the lirst gyra loge ill Nliilitc~llliii ((lilt! ca11ke into C \l t(MCC "Iiii thc e 5 Cit f this iicier seas 511551 ill Mlolltcaho illC011tv Ill tl Sfilw " 0f 0M71 tIhe secoiid grang wasoran1/il 11 thiis ci)lllit\i -1 osepil 31 P den wvas lte ihie f nirkelr ill thii furthlerl-i if this imIige sehichi was i)r-alizeil ill linshuwll townishlip 1111 hielil its Initial miectin'g iii Jone with one liiii 1(1-elf 1111d1sixteen eciarti-r mlembiers prlesenlt. A t the time o)f thle iire$ uizatioii (if t fl rang- it Nva~i5 tile st rligest thtat Ilail evm 1 ieen or-alnizeif ill tilie slate a(lii is cwe ilile of the c-itllislasimi iwithi ihiclh this order.i rew Iei it i, 1101(1 the miembelrshiip fleve earslae hdieC-edt int 1 lollireif anil five miembilers ill giioil stan~ding. Sincc that tinie tlierce las 1beCll a steadvIe ilcr ease ill thle. llliimel of giii 1-0 s iraiuzed ill the coinnt. As tIle agnieniltirl~rt iliterests biecameC mlore liii vc 1111(1 thle at tenollt(li f tfle 1111 downers~ ows turnedl toi farmning a greate-r 1111111r en f -grii-lcs 551111w 1111 At te pir111Celit inlle tllere is, i stro-ll( comi~tv Slatnt iii listi No. (7 f 111(1 \iii of tlte Re-Imlldic, was lirgalliizell at Si antoni the -t!ien ell i If~ 11ite-tliree charter mlembllers. 'flu- f hrst i ifficers i)f tlte I o t were II, If Hind~k c-einliiandcer ft. -h). (lark, SC1I Viee-eeIiio'niader I I \ W Whieeler, 111111111 1vie-comimlanidlr; Jesse Ti ohCcoi i, qfuartermallste r is 31 irse, surik lii i -fdeoli Dingmlan. chaplatin: TI. 1'. N rtoh, offii-er if the day: U. CI. RoWlev. o08CCer (if the guard: J. (' IPCrciva'l1. af iltilit, ])"\. hieloiv, sergecalt mlajo~r 1-rei Nve. cftaritermlaster se;rg~eanit. Thi- officers i)f tllis 11(st were installeid he George F". Tlldd, of

Page  382 382 ITIGAN. Granid Ra pidls Precsent locatio o-.)tis on the north side of Alatin Strcct ovei (. H. Carother's storc I'lhe present membershipi is sixteen. 'Ihe Presenit officers are: 'I'. N. Smith. commander; C. R. Bellow s scnior ic noi de tiIr: F. Al. Warner, junior v ice-commander J. If. H ihoc 140arterimtstcr, Johiin lall], chaplinoi J. H. 1'ilsltie, officer of the ciati C. II. Loomiii officer of the gutard aoil J. \; C.rocker, adjutant. MIONT( Ai Pi1OSTiNO. 176. Alon)Itc11 liii lot No. 176. Grand Army of the Republic, at Stamton, was o)rgZLiiiicd onl December.i 8c); Capt. 'Ilionas ~N. Stev ens bejiag the father of the post. Tlie charter imeiibcirs were is follcm: C pt 'F. N. Stevens, 1iciit I. (' I crcival, C'apt. IA. Al [lciipsteaol henri H. 1-ouse, Joshua B. Li crbs, 3olin (. Grooiis, l~dwsin ). (Chidcs Chatrle IT. Adiner, Johii T). Sutici rland \A. Rlickard. David Hopkins, John Shusciman, Hirani 11 I.Tovc. Gor-e 1, 1arhcr atod llionias Butrus. Henry Al. 1 lciilstcacl was chosen a" fti sicotndcer, Thootas N. Stcvens adj1uitant ancd james Percival, I ui t itti 3oo.Gonsi o rveniig as cominilander, Johii R. Col tic v icecociimiaiicer, aiid I eiiry AlT llciiilstced is tlic acdjcitant and qiartetrmaster 'i'llis polst Startced witli sixteeii mieiiibers and durn _ the folloiiig s'iiVe.Lrs thirty-six additicmtii imeiibers wvere seccireci. A f ew have moved to other town oV5sr dropped out and thtirty arc known to lie dead. aiid only seveit meimbers reiiiai1 In the piost. WOMN1ANr~ RFittRiF C:ORiS5 \\'ihiami A\. Kent Lodge Nd. i-4, \Vcinaiis Relicef C orps, was orgaiizeci,at Greenville "Ii i884, 0111 isale by Ella AX Shacnk dcpiitv prc'sileiit, wsitl tic fcllomciii chcarter mien ibers-, Alirs. Al irs Gibson. N ancy Johiisoii, 1-ucinda II etett, \MMiii Mi~ t al ry Sbhtffer, AMarthia AMiddlcekton Jallni Clasc, Frraiikie \Neiton, I conoia C ooin Malrv Trask, MNary Lates Jiili t II alisen, -Al irtncl Gr oifiili Aiieliai TIorni'n FIlizaletli E'isworth, Alic e S~,tron-i S~arah Sbtglht. Malrtha Jonies, Joseithinie Eaverctt. Cstlista Van iii A nierlc AlMuinn t td, Scoit Sliteiccr iod hillt t 1ratsser. 'Fle first officers isetc as fo~llowV Al-Irs. Aniit (hiiasc, p~resticint Al Mrs Hatttie Paclcen, v icelprcsidetlc Airs. I latticlo itet- n1loon v ci c-rsiden t, Airs. Anna G.raibill, secretary; Alrs. I cillie H as dolil tasi srer AMrs. Carie Baribo, inispector: Alrs. I ituly csscu. idtiiict r: Airs. A nes Gibson, on id. Airs..\iiianda Bclknatp cliapLain. [lIies hold their ileetiins iii tile citi hatll, and the memberiship has

Page  383 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN.38 383 reachctd a Ottal o)f fiftv-four. Aoiista Bilanchard is thic lresent presideit; Laura Kiug. seuto(r viccJpresidentt Elizabeth Gras, Junior vice-prsient; liorenice Beach, secret'arv NAsrta Shenfiehl, treasurir; Alfredai Fries, chaplajno 1'iicline Elliott. ctonductor, Frauces Atwtood, gila'rd AIssi1lda Ecdsall. assistaut comid~uctor; Saills Cora i ssistaint guiard. '1hle color lbeairers are as follow l 1irst colo)r lieircr, Anii Zicgeinfiss: secoud, NI arg irct Bliughan. thirdl. I eime Peek. fourih tl Nry Suirlioiff. 'Tie patriotic instiuodor is ('orleloi ishloadcs, tile prc ss eorrespoioldeit is A\lwild I' ('. ll and( themuiltsiciani is Jessie i lale. STANTON 1.00CE NO. 9. Stantotn T odget 'Ku W \oioa's Reliief Corps, ws s organiizeil at Stanton oii 1' hru ry 2o J84. s M hs'\lit S. Hinds is prcsicdtnt. 'ihe National NWsoianus R elitt (tO rsi wis iraii ze'd 'it Dens er, Colorasdo, is 1883, with I,. 1,lorecc liirkei a'. fir'.t naitiona iipresiiieiul On April 2,I884, the TDeit t1iCIit of iWNich"iii so to kcief (Corii, was1 organized it Lansing. Tlheirefoire talI(e o is ohker thian the departmsent. Coip i No. 9 was (irgaiz ed wi til the foiiosvin- charter mteimbtrs NIMirv F' Hitols. Mary Nvc. Estli 1 lon ii i ne N ott'. liir tols irieI F Steveens, Maria Lucats NI t te NNe ithcrssx ' Ma.nIr Ca.ruth rs. Ca'therine Huhb'ard. Percia i-ic'ip~sltea, laNI "''i Rl1ioii' Hlannah Coliiirii. Marv Miller. Iaiie NNaldo. Sarah Ji~ll. Naomti lardcu. leoia111, Hugh,~les. Hentrietta Estes, Mlars' Butler, N fans I". irooiis Ju IL. S. Toowie. Mars F'. Steseiss. Diana Diii" o 1 leisiic I.' t(iild NMarinc Norhies. Alice Parns aisd Sv'Iiii F-. Graisiev 'lil purpose (f this organizatioii is to leach patricotisii and( to hielp teedy \ctediian' of tse hiv'ii MVar. 'Its sx'atclisworcls are:' F~raternity, Ch'irits toil yalos ilhs e limienilers of corp~s Not. 9 have ssrei eloii frtis purime;titti in sptte of ulisccliiragctments liase doine oiich to iiistill love of cooiitrans''td iclicce distrcss. Ias.t prc"sidenttts of tlic corlp' aie i' folclss i 884. NMary' S. IT uds i88. C arii nc I Stes tin' TtS86, NIars i~. sNe i 887. Bertha E. Siiith; i 888, Ni ary I" dil i S8,Q Carin i. IStevetn'; 1890()i 'Mars' Lnderssooti: i892., ih`otira I'iischi 1' t 3r 1stcl iii XI Mtstti 1894 N i.T;tiltia\N'eti We td. Nlattie Naleitline: Mio6 Lizzie Mfillet; T8(7 Mars E. IHolcomsbet 1898. TLouisa E. i'lllittt 1591)o 'Svl I~rtissi iiocto Cissie N'Icai on itooi-o3 Lmtiiisa E. Elliot;!0.)o.j.,' 1 1a 'ickard, 11)0~ Losta "Iickell; 11)0(1 Esther Nessman, 1907. 'tiaggic ixitlti, I o08-12 Liiiosa E' E1' ot ' IQ91 E stlter Ness'man 19i'4-i 6. Ltois, t 1l E'liiot. Thecorit tnow ts Iia '. memibiiers1hih ot sexvents three. wsith the foiloswing

Page  384 3 84 84 Mi.)N'FC\1.McotNTiY. CI ON sies Lis T,, prih 1) denit 01 IdI VN \Vil seC1crtarv E sther ~s\:litreasuieci AI (01 honoi)rs hive heen iroughilt t(.. c 011 No. q1) its niIIeIIiiers N\li Ii) hav ecCI) eciteI I to offC(icc tIIC lir( teditct depar tmen lt 11(d 1105 iial orgal izaitiouii Nice(woks 1ode~ \o 247, \"1011,1 5 lsCliCf ('01 ip, \Vhi~ C"1.1117I( -t.Ale lirilie. April ~. I p1.7 "'d ias listalBlcd by Mary Sherwood0( Hinds(1 Nvith L\Ceitv-six clhaitei leitciris Th (IC it I OIlCei W(TC ICas toll1 v 01 Nrs. Sn mal f, preslident tella Nc\IT, secretairv -,Airs. Joit CiiiIn tiC ik' irei Nhrs. CLI i, PI Ci iiis, Cliii I iii NI iMs. Ni. 1C 0J11s R tlii p~reslident Mrdi iI.A bosh. I Ccrctarv 1 Nit Niude N C I. treasurer, Mriis (Geore (Carpenterl clipiaili. is W"'Il11/iatilil W1 is VeCrv Ifortilllate iii h12v11W theiri lodge biioidiii donatedi tii th i -is la (jft i Iescut 1111111hcr'hipi is, itirty (ltl( MION'TCA\1, LODiCF Ni). lI\illt1a1i.((1il the" lXi01. Illolit (i Cii iRiieiiers wai i i SmaIC)d Cil 1J1ullhCs Lilil WIiiihi incC fimimi's iii illaNr1111 1))5ehhcrse tliC ii I.1 Sidevets 312n 1 Kieciit RtiC (sill ii le A~ls eni 1' C m, ln H ciii I1iINItC Flt (i Ir 5 IC \iiii, i Ni Ihanio(ns.~l an tlIC Oter iwhois. SIcilif)(i Viee-iPlesid(iwi ';iii ill I _,.St(!cnli5 secreiary Ni v ii i ti I -ilaircri Fl'aiiiii I I iidc Cimpai on ILucy Ml. Dishrowv, condu~ictor il iidiii(lbirv. gilairi I ehia (Chase. Ussliit AldlCllt( r ( arrie~ Bit ie orth. asis ai gili ilI. I`. Si eevils, iress correspi 1 nitit Ml. J. Birbier, piatriotic iwnstiietor: M aiv T. 1 aiiher. lliisici an. The presenit mieinherslii p is i lirtv.

Page  385 CHAPTER XXX. RANKS OF' M()NTCALM COUNTY. Thie banks and the banking interests of Montcaln county have gone throllug all of tile successive financial changes which the county has experiencel. lThese institutions have experienced the same prosperityl and reverses \lwhich illarkcd the history of the county that came through the great prosperity (dllring the pine timl)er era and reached the lowest ebb after this natural resource lhad beenl ruthlessly slaughtered and finally was exhausted. At lihe time this illdustr wa\s at its height, many banks were established and alparentlv were oln a irm financial basis, but when large timber interests which were also thought to b)e strong filnancially began to fail they generallcarried soie bank along with them. So that the life of the banks in this conlitVy, with a few exceptions, is divi(led into two different p)eriods, namely, Idring the timber period and then when the countv had taken on an agricultural existence land a more stal)le basis and a firmer foundation had been reachel. The oldest existing bank in the colnty dates its organization from 1887. while the mnajor percentage have been organized since I897. Tt is true, however, that a few of the.banks of the present day were outgrowths of some of the earlier banks, while inl onlle or two cases a baink of the present day was organized and retained the grood will of the one which had previotisly existe(d in the same locality. It is true that there have been a great number of failures in the fiell of banking- in this county and this came with the great prosperity and then when the different interests of the county reache(l the b(;ttom the banks were not able to meet such reverses anld had to close their doors. The new era in Montcalm which could rightly ble called the agricultural era, just as that period from I876 to 1892 could he called the pine timlber era. brought with it a rock basis to work on. The banks of the ccunty are all doing a nice business anl while some are not as large as others they all seem to he on a firm footing where they can insure safety to their depositors. The individual history of the active banks of the county follows. (25)

Page  386 386 MNONTCALM COUNTY. N1lCITTGAN. sTATvE sAVINGS HANK OF STANTON. The' St tte Saing11'S Bank (If Stanton frst ilegall business on)I Tone 1 1895s. s a private hank nndwr the firm niame of ti. WV. 1rench & Comnpany. 'File 1ban1101g busine~ss of Stanlton It that tinle hall ieenl at a rathier low ebbl 0(1 111 to the g.eneral wave (4dpeso hc waS sweplu Over tile ofo1osio Znd 51 e1, U '01111r as1a 1 resnit (If tile exhaustion of the timiber. hIis 11(111k was started ilv (. W\ Ireneh 1111 c iilinned as a prIiVLatC lank untlt iiSeptemiber foo1)0 W hen it was n1c1 rlmlrateli as a state, han1k linll~er tile nanie whiihi it 11o1 bears. 'Fie orlil-li, IncoriporatorsI If tile stale ibaik were ais foiioo h'eel A\ tesseilge.e i enson LI Paf fieihi Patrick. i I Iinc., Charles ii. l".la 1iali hoy. Olois N ()t hI1i 11lile- IIl Shernial I NeOff 1 t. Palmer, I,'i —eie Strai ht. 101111 i)Dakll v 1(hi) \\ S. Pi let 111 Cut nis iai 'inC(l C. \W. i_,rlc~ich. ihe cap itai liteii iou II.- 1 '1h '11111 ll;P r('tl'Illl'Ii tile' " IlC tli) to tile preselt tillie. Thein r.t I otticel (It thil'. llsltllt'itil \\((IC( i~rei R. MOisselieer. ipresilenlt IneAtak i 1) D 1vince vill pesidle 01t (i \Vt. i~retleil. cashIier. TFie I )fticc'rs 1111e 1111 (111 ( tile l~le s It fIrt wi tih tile cIN-eilt;olI (If e1I I. Giaffiehi sireh. f '41cle). PatrII ick 11( - (1111)n sil~ viccreat(1ia 111 e po t1'il eet(il 1(11 Wile I li 1111 1(1 I I6(0 11 Th~lire I S liltel 0t t11011. (I` 1IUC l illS. 'el leic asIk I astntI eel ufe(a Iral~e 11\ii2.110 ii Wtie II ill11 ill' Ilhlel~i l~t OI'lsd (1II Zt it111i/r kLSISl fr.t '.toekhoiliher f t tha thc 11 tie. \) t 1111r 'li dCoIs-lId \\ IT Ptl 0-1-1 ~Ihe X i)r Thisbl hakeil)cca I; kI Irtl t ('0 \i e L-6 nlei hl; IlW l 111 s MC di lXX k r tilt itLtefir Ct 16,)-1 1 t~ ill ('.(1111 X oL) J IilllsI to 521,00 I~i(i wIrthllillt l 11(iviEd ( Ie eoiler fil e'lill Tihfe 1 l I sino iiII Ihi It Ie 01)11 is rlllk d i lshfll propetil (re t1ilit ebani alt i~ ialuted 'mtl $6,IIo limsol m~res \tie1lI(] il e 12,000.XiiUtOl 1

Page  387 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN.38 387 is tile casihier, ill wh ich calyacity hie served since tliC organlization of the banII)k. The raink ocenpics a snhstanitial three-story 1)rick bnilding which cost. $i 21)0. The iheatitiful fixtures are in keeping with the building and are ra-.tid It S13 000. Accordiii'a to tile last statenient of this baink it has d(lj)osits ani1ounltinl tii t54715,000 I'd a suirpluis of $2s5,0o0. 0DONAIMS 1BANK OF IIOWVARD CITY. Thie Iiresent 1) Loiialds JItauik of 11 oeard it- \vas organiizeil by N. WV. IMatlier IIiI 157 with acapital Stolck of 25 -0oo00 r Mathcr stood at thle helni of fbis haoik untiil i,o~ when hie -olil it to R. FT. ODonald and Stephen C.. Scott. Ile conltllli( ii iii hushiicss tiinder the firm name of O'Donald & Scott op1 to tbe Feat oi MiVr. Sciitt In 11)111 N ow Mr. O Donald has sole charge ()f dic link k'iidis rumigili i tine businsless. The biiiilding- ocenpicil Isv thclin- jk Iis iade of brinck -iil( \ViS coiistructed Zat a cost of $;.ooo. The 1i\ture, irc cariricil itt (1)20(. 1The li1st stitilieiit if the banik shocws dep~osits. anIoIitlil'11 to, o ooo00 111F a -in 1di's Of -45 000 151511IN ii NIA -I STATs 5 iSWiNS B.\NK. Th iin ii tie Svisings BTank of tGreciiv ilke sws organized on Sec~teiinberi2 1)002, \iti;I c ijiitail stock of S.2 0ooo Thle t ollossinig persoli~s NVsere the (rAi1117Cer( allF fir-in stockhloldecrs D). 1K. Bilickl. \ o wt s, C. A. 3.1 11cr. T 1. Potter, K F. I ne, Ai. IKenipl. Paiiil N -.InI Delinse. 0. 1). Miller. Sd xi li I,' I). Lir iigs I. S. lRowlev. C. H. TNells alld Rb*. loer F Potce 1 iServd is ti-t ~rcsiileiit aiii serse cl I in fl cap~acit iiitil hoia )Illv ii 10 1 1' I" lR iiinc s was thri electeil nil hias, bice p)residenit eseir Siia( 1 ). K\ I Pak and C. A Mil11cr were hle II-tirsi scepi sidents and Ti. V. ( titlte hII-St ishiie iiiil ill three mcii base ircfaiiied thecir respeetise otlices". Thc 1Iit i italemilt showNs deli~osit.s an11tloonting to 10'475 000. With a1 50'tInit of S 91 110(1 Si.\ 1.5\00 STA~TE B.\5TK. 'Jlhe St ~te 1Bank ofSi Lakes was orgaiizedl 1111 the 30tli of No-vember, 1914. sV itl p1 it)t 1stuck o)f $2o,ooo. NWilliami J. Orr, \Williami H. W~allace, (ecirge F illi-iodi.\aironi Aoino, Anilrew- NV Orr a111( ]3enjaiiniin F. Pliindiv wvere thle or-ainizers -inil first sharelholders of this hank. Of these p~ersons Willfiam J. Orr isas choseni president; Aaron Amon, vice-p~resident. Benijaminl F. Pliinlev. cashier. These persons are still taking care of the interests,- of

Page  388 388 MONTCALM COUNrTY, MICHIGAN. thle bank. The bank building, which is located on Clark street, is constructed of cement bl!cks and presents a ve ry pileasing appearance. The fixtures are \aluled at $1,500. The last statement of this bank shows the deposits to hie $3,270.30. PEOPL.ES STATE BANK. The People's State Bank of tIdl(more was originally organized or rather estallished b1v 1:. S. \Vagar. in T897, wh1o managed it as a private bank under the name of E. S. WVagar's I Bank. Tn I(98 M\r. Wagar incorporated it as a state bank ian(! gave it the name which it now bears. The original capital stock was 1)lace(d at. $2o.ooo and this has never been changed. The first officers \were E. S. Vagar, pIresident; William A. \Wool, vice-president; If arrv E Waa ir, caslhier. ir.;'agar served at the helt of this bank until his death in 1)914 andii il his seventeen years as head of this institution he always tried to conduct the business of the bank to the best interests of the stockholders ian(d 1 atrolls. Wiilliani A. Wood succeeded Mr. Wagar to the presi(ency with James Piurdon as vice-president an(d Tiarry E. VWagar retained the lposition of cashier. The bank is on a firm financial basis witli deposits in 1915 'ullountiin to $T50,000 and a surplus of $3,000. This bank is situated in a Ibeautiful andi commodious bank building which was erected at a cost of $4.ooo. Tt is beautifully furnished with fixtures valued at $2,000. CORAI, BANK. 'Ihe Coral Bank was or-anized in the village of C(oral in 1906. Paul R. D)ilnsmore and Stepheii Mr. Dinsmore were the organizers and first stockholders of this bank, which was incorporated for $To,ooo. The first officers were I'aul R. Dinsmore. plresident, and Stephen M. Dinsmore, vice-president and cashier..\April 21. 10)8, this lank was organized as the State Bank of Monitcaliil (County ith a capital stock of $20,0ooo0, with the following stockholders: Thomas Hill. J. Stewart Newell, Hugh S. Newell, NV. D I)ay, Ro)bert P. Skeoch, St. Frank W\. Bailey. Wesleey Taylor, E. A. Bartlett. Charles D. Richard, John Doe. Lincoln Avcry, Nelson J. Fuehr, Elizlabeth Bartlett. Pall R. Diinsmore and D.. Dinsmore. The present officers are J. S. Newell, president; Thomas TTill and Van S. Reynolds, vicepresidents; S. M. Dinsmore, cashier; H. S. Newell, assistant cashier. The present directors are J. S. Newell, IT. S. Newell, P. R. Dinsmore, Thomas Hill, Van S. Reynolds, A. N. Shook. W. E. Arbogast and 'NI. C. Arbogast. This bank has deposits at present aggregating $IIO,OOO. with a surplus of

Page  389 MONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN.39 389 $5,000. 11e bank building was constructedl of red barick at a cost of $4, 172.50O ant(I the tixtures,, which amoun111t to $2,200, are highly in keeping wvith the bieautifuil l)Oil(limtiANIS OF STIRIIRDAN..1he1w ank of Sheridail was orgaliizcdlo00 Junie 22,93, with D. 1-1. L'ower aid I'). 131. i'osv-er as tile organizers ani(l stockholders. The hanik was under this direction, however, onli' until December., 1904, when another co-liartntrsbit was fS ormed. wshich Avas composed of E. Burt J enney andi D. H..1.0er ei out of tile tf01mert oss mnrs. It was not dlestinedl to remain uinder Shis iii~tnaoIemlent, for inl April, 1905), Li. S. Jenny lbecamie the partner of E. kBurt Tic11115y Air } nus' thell col)(llctcel this bardk for muany years anti served IliS pati olsIS Weli It g'rews to he a very prosperouis busitness, btit finally it begall to deubine amd ini April, t9t 4 it p)assedI ilito the hand~s of Sloctim, E'aly & lHudsoii tile 91 esit ow ners of the banik. All are exl)Crienlced bankers. 31 r. 11, 1s a miembller of thle I alv McNair Conmpany of Glare, Mi1chigan, wh'lo 0w0 andit operalte ltVy'1i alnks in the 'ihuinb" of Mlichigan. Mr. Tlludsois is miaisiei of tile finn's ban~ks sud cashier of tile I'copies State Bank,.Al i(ddi.ton, \fichl-an Mr. Sloclulli is the foun~ler of tile Gleaner Ordler svith lie'1d1111'rters 'It D)etroit. Thte present capital stock is $12,000o wvith a personal i spollsilbity Of llore than $'1oO,000. Tihe batik htiilding is construetI d of venecredl lrick at a cost Of $4,000, anti tite tixtllres, wh~ich are ILf IjulirtereCI oa It11( marble, are s-aluedi at $2.000. The bttsiness (If the I~alik its grown ist0ewi~lyii\'111 rapIidly since the new olwners have stoodl at the helm. 1111( ofticirs 1n15w servillg tilis sank are: Gran~t H1. Slocuin, presi(11111 1)1111 \f I v''1 ice-presidentlt ~Johni P. Hlldson, cashlier, and Burt C. t 1r55'fordl. ass-Istant cashtier. tBANtK OF IIUTTEIRSNtUT 'lThe i:1,allk of BuAtternuit was organized inl 1907 byk J. J. Phelps, nowy 1of Stanlton, AMichigan, 5thS) sold it tl Sloctim, Ealy & Jfudson on Septemtber I, i1909. 'T1w ness firnl built a modlern huilding in thle summer of 1913, ai equlippel I it with atolern flurniture, tine screw-door, 'burglar-proof safe, a111( ani electrical lbirglar-pIroof vault mllade iby' the Amlerican Bank Protection (iompaiiv. The btidi hg' is brick, sub1stantiadlly btiilt, wvell finished and t'tiffrtliilg cllnvenieiices for- the ptillic. It is isanagetI as a psrivate banik anti haS a1 ve,,ry floiurisiliin~ busiiiess. They hav a capta stock of $1 ith

Page  390 MONTCALM COUNTY-, MICHIGAN. a piersonal rexiponsibilit l- of IXorC than iii ooo0000 aXIri dieposits o f almoist $ 0,00. Grant 11i Slcim~~ tiu p)resident of thin 1)aink john AiL iv 1011 JU411! R. Hudso~n aie, the i.XcepCesik ents, ( I ore ( Rexynoids tiX( cashier, ad1. iNl. MierfieltX isi 0 iii,,XX ista casieiir. STIAT CXAN ()F CRYSTCXI ilhc Stat. Baonk of ( IvX xl wa- 0i~ o-ilized onil n A Xixtt (1, 101, aiii cpe'ned for iusncI1XC \ XXc~niiei 3X With a Caipitil1 Stoi(k 01 $20,000 '11he fol1mioXig niaied persIXCis511 compirisedX tiii list olf iihirchioilCXr 1 dw rd I t un ii ii-s Ir C minniiiX-X faines 1). Smith, Joseph Ni La'sceile, I one ii. Steere, IAii rd N. i)iirkCC ( 0Cor( its Dc NYotn- WNiliam ii Irisi)cX Ni ilo Str sit, Rciti ii (lx II. 11I iii. it I XX\Xll CX TIiXilm" NI MCrIackci i I aiur Ii (. 0(Xiiinis Niinuic (. CXXXiXXXOX / (CiriaSii D. Rlid C ha rles I. Ki\Xtiiaii NN iiiaii S. GorC, Job ixeiii ids, ii XX in 1'. Smiuthl 1tOcv Kimball,1Fret Kiiii]hillI 101e T1 Kiniexlha md \ irch old INi~CI. nkiC1 ix 1B) Smith wXIs (il.ct1(d ipresidenit F. T1 Isin iii. vice iC resideCnt il '. (. Cumingsiii iini Ira CtiXmingsIW diriictors, in11( C Ni. Griiier, casierii I Tlis hi ink is tue sticceCXX t(o tiiC Banil XXI ( Xtalaii XIX its coXIre sponden~lt ibXnks ar e tile ChCISC lio ii in ol~, o rN0k l I (( ile Sltat Banki (f Carson~CXi Ni ichi(Man. The CiioimeriaCli SaviX igs Plaink of LakeiLCXC \ViS org1aniiied on July XI, 1 005 XXiti I'.. N or iithrii Cii n( I. A. Noirthirol). Thle origiiiiii Caipital stock of tixi h aiik Xvi 1 5I iiio wXXitii resp)nibiiiiimties CXf $.40,000. ( NiJ\ Ni throp waXs tme lu-t- pr idnt CXXX has Serveii the iiaiik ill thXt capaXcitX CXe CsIXiCC tue X C)I_ i/al;;t(). XXI-'i Ni. N01tiiiX0iX hi-as lieu tue X)ffi'CC ut CashierC foXr an equiai ieiigtii it tiniI( Ih ICiepoisitsi if tins balnk ai~cXc~miilg 1o the list stiteIiiCint XwCrC $69 1)011 ii\v I asXIrpilus X)f 815.00. ThXC pr~esent biXXX1iiXI0 \\-;s (IcCitc~i;It ii Cost if $4, 000 XliXIXXRX -ST \CCC lANK. iThe iLdmoril St.XtC 11ink XX, IXr01 nIzX7Cl ilil Aipril 5, 181)7, XXitih a ecapitai Stock of $ t5oo 000 fol1 N W. 1:f~jf(ii IFreCericCk Neff, SiheCrman Neff IIC1XCX T. lRilreil aiiii I' N. RIndlh wi XrCC thiC orC aizeCs, of thiS hank aiii IIC fiCst stockhlde~iirs. firhC tI officCIs X XXeIe fuhl NW. Pfeifler, pCesiden~t, Fredleriek N~eff, Xice-preiCC en~t, Sheit 11nI NeffXC Vice-preident EN.. RiunXIei, cashiicr.

Page  391 M ONTCA L1 M COUNTY, MICHIGAN.39 391 ore ori-nial capital stock of $15000 has never been changed. T1e presentt m)fccrs arc joliti \.. Pfeiffer, presidlent, Shermian Neff, Henry.1 Tlnrch and I". K. Hol.rtoni. vice-tp-esi(lents: Soremis 1). Ketehuta e ishier. The last Statelinciit if this bank hov (iclicSi saIoit irigto S 1 5000, \v h a silrphis ofSoso ir.Ifc Iehasrvdste prsident of this baink for eigh teen) scars and it is onie if thec strcilg financial in stituiitons of this pllrt of thei d( nntv at the pireseilt ti til. The 1 cresent l1ocation ts In a one4stoic hiric~k binilldliie4 In the village of Ednmore. FiIN xC irt\NO1-i- BANK. Thie Tin fain I xehaiie I ank w\as,- oregattizeil and established III 1907 as a piv aie biaiik wisth ( irl I' Hainseii as prioirietor. The ileposits of this, h aiik aiinnn1-t to al out $~ion i no ii the preseint titie. This baiik is still nnder die t ihi-; f si 'i NIr. H1ansen aiid is on a str( uiig htiancial biasis. CABvIE is ANi SAiFiRCiANTS STATE' BA NK. The Vcarmerins anil Merchaints State B1ank \wa5L inicodrpioratedl in the village of 1 Ct-)]ol e 24. 1904, fMi $2 '00non The sharehidders of this hank were: ~n: I) Sorcisoii Jiihti S. N etiltdilln Nn J. Bale, John WV. Kirtaofl, 1\kiieit 1 1 Vir, (Geiirv V liiiitstiin Jain-ie., Fonitaine. Chester Stebbins. Suokmwns i fitletnain I Aclv ii iill 1Wbin D. Morton. John 1H. Jensoti, Augitst Kepxe, ChIiaites 1. I.'e1tehi Ii in Wa i nd iiell Nial11ce Eidgar-, Joniafhian Tribie, Fraiil F. N I sie itie Sailem Fi Kenneivb Thle kanit of NVestaliiir lias starteid as i pirivate bank on a Nir4. i!o9~ is tlte NWallace & Or Ctttompi nyi iti f 1a Por nt, Michligain is the organizers. he t eholil(rs at that tittl waere WiNlliiti J Orr, of Bay I ort, I ch-lit N t11lta iti IIWN llatee iof S-i ttinaw Aihighatn- (Georg-e lBillbrongh, of Rsemnts Ni cligantt 1~d C. Criamri it th it titme \'a is the cashier. atti remained ils such 1.ontil I chin iary 1,(4. 1Tle Staite Ban o~ xf Vestahitrg took o et thii holiinigtt, of tile Link if NVestahnrg and theit charter was -raitteil NI ix 2, ii)t I liTe epipttal steiek was 3 2iooo.e Thte first officers tiir the litesenit irgnizatiitoit were ViN ltianti Ofr, prestident: W\illiamt IT. N albice, vtce iresidetit Idwrdo irl Craitiert eashter. Thte ditrectors wvere Geiii e 11ilhronhI lii i~wrd ( raner, Anidtew iNV Orr atid L. J. Orr. The

Page  392 392 392 IONTCALM COUNTY, MICHIGAN. present caipital stock is $2~0,000, with a surpIlus Of $ 0 i sn iifficers art is follow: W\illia in O(rr, president; Geoi e Lillbroualh vicepiresidleint Thunm D) fludi ciz iasliier nal the diirectors are. Andliew Orri I J. OrrW \\ ()ri Gicoro-e BLilbrot~ih ndl T homa-s I). \eddu cl, Th lit(arsu n i Staits Bank wa s 01rgani7edl on i r AI irc - i- i(. CuiiimMii's. J. \V\ IIJaktt, I, A\ RokaxC lloss S. HTI. Caswell Josh3uali TeCnilit, Irsin ilt\Ic ill, Chale is Ciross, B. 1 ranC Sw eet C. C' [)ikin soii. V11illiinII Hi w1ae, S. S. Wilktr, I," P" White, I dxxin i\ i —niton werei chc or 0niizers oii 11 11-4~ stockholders of thIs baink xwhiih \ViIS asOra1iiZeil 0'itli: capita iStock of 50 Too e litrist piresidkent and cshier isa-s I' C. Cumii11m1s, nol lit he is,- seuved is piesidsent eser silnst Saimuel S. \\alker ss is. it.cliireid it. mnd the lirsl. hissi xsri J. \\. IIillett, I' t. ( i miiiii-s, I, A\ Is cIkitsllosx, S. S. Walkeri C. R. Dicitnison, Jislia ITennasit,. 1'. \Vlr~ii S5 IL Caiswell iiid I` R. Baiitoii Johin \V\ lIaIdtt is lit lpieseiit v icprtsids it; Iri Cniiiiiin s. cashiitri aiid T i Ia llett.J I) I isV hi II. C. '-sin ). Ivons W\ A\ CrailL Is i-is Kroli~ G( II. Paittersoii I. C. C uinnus11m" Sin 1 Iia ti C iiings, the irs-sent dirctiois Ili Apiril, i808. thle ap1t~ Sto -l si-is redincd toi S 2' uoo0 hut it aI iiieC.' i mif tli skIn ill in- AiiiiiSt. I )1 2, it sW-i decidtd to Incrieise it to $5oooo)0IL;11 a Niii-d thiat is tIlit prtstiit Cap1itl louck IThi l~ist itaeiient o)f this., bank Iimox kpc 1sits aliiiiiiit iii to S', 6, 1)1 al surplis o)f 4 io 0000. Tb i wscits itoi oft hi liil Is Ili ts v(-to stV s l ImCbilmliii it thce corner of -ilanilni,ll( )i\s Sioii strees ci v xibisd it $S ono iid tile ic tvtiis at $i 441. NFFSBNK ()Fii VBiiDiiiE. \s f't Baiii ol cltIr ink AMishi-iii was istabllisheil on Osctober ~ 104, hVi Frcderick Neff, Louis Neff aiid Sherman Neff. co-liartoercis. Slieriiiain Ntf wasx ilpuininlol cashlicr and Jacobh M'. Neff, assistant cashi'er, which rI t I ton iu s cu ~ v, i i limncd to thc preseit time. Rcsoiircs-s. I urn' nMl liscounnts. --- ——. --- - -- -- ----— $ 417.54-9< Ita t ~tatc iiortg-a-es and securitie I — 2 167.08 Duii fr~i ]in ailnks, reserce cities ---- -- -- -- -- -- - --- -- 2i 768.97

Page  393 MNONTCALNM COUNTY, MICHIGANN.39 393 Cash Oil hand a11d certihecates with other b~anks-_ 13,887.24 Furirtunre -.... - - - 4T9.00 $152,997.21 L ia billI ics. Loiiniclrcial (deposits -- - -.- $4t'o5.OOto lime1 ceer'tilets Of (IePOSit --- —-- 83.662.24 Saving's depiosits (b h1ook accounits) -- -. ------ 8.787.2(0 C'api tal an1d surlpills --- —--------------------- -10859.49 imiilivideil profits.. -------------- 3,597.38 $ 15 2,99 7.2 I FARtMERii AND MERiOCHA~NTS ST'ATE, BANK. the laci newT- and 31lerchalits State kink of (arson City, Michian was or-anizCdl "I the fallI of 1914, IY I". Stlhis Mr. Stehliinls waIs foriiierl s a funriitiire manuftactiirer located inl Lakeview, wh~ere hie had hcen a residen~t 1)rio) t) the 0 giglzitioii 0f the bank. The artiicles of aSsocia1tion (if thbl. iii 0 1 C11 pth Ity the Sthte Ba nkinig Department onl Decembier 18. io -1 Thle ill-St iuutt(tuuu' of tin, Stotkholders was lheldill Ci.arsoii C ity. Jaiiium- 211)1 it WhICiitltjinE the tolliiwunui' hoord of tlirecto~rs wvas chostli Willia111 t, \il ts, C1harles HI Ailtils, George WValt, Milchael Kipp, C'. F. Stroludt. t i hsLiiI dunid F. B. Stebbhins The otticers of tile leink are William11 I' Ad1nis, presideunt Georgt V dt, vice-presiident; F. B. St(.hb~lis. mI 'lwr I ( 1. Strai 1to l,It SiStmntt ctshiei. 'ihis hank hegraninsii ill Ite1111101 q1uar~ 1ters iii die Caswvell 1block. ~ehrnarky 1O, 1)1,5. Plans for aI iow bank h11 ii'd in weeacelitedl ail( same wa ctotmpleted and lccupliedl inl Sptentihiltti hllowilng-. The building is 11odern inl its arrangenments, with le~st rool i fin i WClnenl 11111;sseblllv romin for ilien. 11(1111 jNitll lavatories, andt tol'ltets. S it e dposit vaolit with pirivate hooths andi telepihone. BEldiingiiiat It tf Clit Stllel aItd shale birick, located till thle corner of S haul and Afcrc'motul sf1tretfs Bank hlas aI paid-iii capital Of $2.~,00o and deposits at tllis

Page  394 (TIAP\TiKR1 XXXI. Ni-'WS'I'xlPH- ANV) PU BISHEliR.S. III 189 \Williaiii It,. Wells foulndedl the first daily newspapecr Iii Mowiialii couintx. It ivis ealliel till DaiiiiA \ equ and the first issne, wxhich wx s (Ix]\ lilic lbx twelv c iieiis Ill size, wxs struck off on a siiall priecsx Jilly 19., J87xi Illi18 881 the nanile wa-,s clilax-ed toi thc Daily Call, ninder wxhich namne it.s xxw c mrilateil to the 1 Il J OO is tIbSI-Ih 1 ci File present size ifoilr p eges. Ncii lnins, min the eqtnilin( lit oif the pi tnt is comiplete. I r.\ Welils lis xii lii i il ~ly ((it ll(iilx iiciS9adlIesdes 1bmniixlxnx1;Mx excellelit cityx cir culiationIl i ( o-eilnivcille li lcI add~edl a sllistatltial list of sitlllhers tipoii1 the rulral flee del~liveriesx xImmediatelye snirronindingi the city. T1i1 i xiR'1 xxxi Aliii. I lie h1i iiciilm x)(!f/Cc/x', lTh lirst niicxspilxei 1ublishedi Ill i Ni citcaiiii cmxlixv wxx ex(stabllishiediat (Iireexviltclx NI lilo iiiai r. I.t xwas a six-coliniiiii fxolio. Inta jidi poitieally,;imd the first nuimbiecr xxas issiueil on Septeniber 19, 1 S As I seii i-oeeasiymiial v isitant it aippeared irrenilariv feir alboixt txxi xe rii xxhi n it xxas piureihaseid 1v x NI Fuller wxho ehangeil it froni1 a lienltral lxi I c11 Re idica oirmd' ixix Ifroii the Mitixiieilx ii xflcclor toi the ('reniIi l('ll x /u xlii w ii xi,11 Iixit hvis since boriie. Nr Fullert aI11ftcr II shoit t ii i sould the 1pip91r to ficieger, T. \Vyiidxxortli. xxhii publiishiexd IL tir i 1 rief p criuim, miitil his ileatlh. H is xxixdoxx thien ex)inliii 1(1 tue papqcr IhIs]\ lfxi xxhii tulle, biiit xxas finially siieededc lix lames WV. I 11111ap who l -xxxvx 'i idx edl chalraeter. iii Felieniarv. i Sfx6, 1. F'. Grabixil, liiicihaiedx iiix is-Antit lle i mtroxi if it. Uinier his maniaiilgemient the paiper lix siice kciit xaice xxxti the rapid dexeloixnent of tile ceonte a1111 cxiiinxin11itv inxll( wich it is publisihied. IFroni i cxv nciiclmiiim fxiiii it has, success fully dlexeloixed into aii eightCxxliixinI foxlioi aildi eniiiixi ill its pxresent form, a si x-coiniiiii qtiarto. Mirol an ofAfice iii i866f wxiure the ilroplrietore xxas cxcrytiiiii frxxm devil till, it hais IbxeexlIlc L steamI rfiniting hotxuse, its ipiper prinfedi on aI cyiinxier press, andi its jobbier ulsa uli liy si Caii Ipoxxer. It hxas aI repnitation it hioiie alid abiroxad

Page  395 MOINICALIM C'OUNTeY, MICHIGiAN.35 3 95 (If which its pibhisliter Is lirotild, aodl it raniks hi~gh aniong the COu~ntry newspapiers of the state. A5 lOLlITICAL ORGAN. 'lilt lust iiotii]her of the Grc, i ili/i Dcmiiocrit, D. TB. Sherwootd. pubtl lislitr. appeared oii J ime i, C 8i8. I t iivis 1)eoliocrtltic for a timtie. hut as A\ ol caliii counitv was sitrs ugly Repuhblicali It idid not flourish exceedinghy oill,1.cliciie it wtis eliallged to anindtpendirit shieet. At the comiiiieoceilnent )f the Greelev presideiitial camtpat 'n0tile Detmocrats of iiiiotealmi aigairl felt hit inccii it inl oe'taiii tol tissisitil liy themi, J. Vicslev Griffith pulrchatsedl thtC ppl)jCl mUd f orthwitsh acill tile pitblication of a Democratic sheet of the 151()St prIoiiiot~incl itpe. in )IIhe I xl t ) iii 'IM11Y 1878, the Llciniocritt paissed intto the hands of thn I itolint rP 1nitini, (olpi'liv, 11n1 enjoyedt a liberal anti sieatdily increaLS11111(111iage. I ts re elit itlo is an abile po)litical( Democratic) soil live lot i1 tl mlril wxx will etailifshed. It ot-is prioited lo steaol, ili cilioctlimit \0lli the Athi/v Clc.11a1d hlli liege aid compillete joh Office. In size it wais I'lit I )ti/i, Ic a11 Indieptliendet lve-eclltinl folio, wats first Issuedl onl April 1 8. 88o. It wtis ilevotl moaiolyv tii locti news. tinid etijoved ti circulatioii i)f licaietv six-~ hliltiede(pI ciiiS. lITliti G.NVILLiE INDEliiUEINDENi~'r. By Bi. EL. Avery. AIi lo) Blalir etaoc to tlte thieti villtie of Greeniville ill 8.54 titld tliat ftill startedlt( the.1 onib'itlii Rcl~ecftor oiid the first issue totoe its appetirance onl 8 it'tcitlht.iC 1p o-f that yetir. Biesiide puirsuing his ditties as editor tindi puhlisThee Rlair foutid tuime to) Siiil dV lL\ 111d1 WZt tui11mitteid to thle liar iS5 6~f. UpiJI his tolmissioo to the 1bitr lie solid thlt Ixi'f~ccitor to Jiisepil Al. loiller. wvho changed the tititte toi the rcd n11.il/e idtuhpoIlint titd in jecteil ti strotig Sentil l-ent of lReptiblictiiiisoi 11t0 its colutmns. Mr. F~uller felt iftit lie wtis ntu horn ti I le iii eiditor an oul sh the piper to George V. \Voodm'urtli onl April 2o. i wh8 I~o publ~lishledi t bit i short tritue before his iletith which occilerell onl Deceiniher 27, t8io. Hits xx idoxx WhlO afterward becamne Mrs. N. Slaglit. cotltifitted the lpape wxithi sige~ d duilitV hut finally onl )May 30, i86-2, soldl tlte piper to Janties ~Vi Belknap xwhIo gtive it considertible local peotinotoet titll later sold it tii tlte Iate E1 1. Grahill ott Fehertary 20), u866, xvhi' foe tiore thivat fortv-six vetar it wxs the p~rop~riettoe, editor anth publisher

Page  396 396 396 ONTCALM COU_1NTY, MICHIGAN. of hit Inixdxpcndet.x hils exventfxil life txame sxiddenlx to inl end oin April 4. 1912. 'he lnstoryxO th1w 10(1cpcuidci i woxu 01d he oilx\ Iidlf comiplete without a WordI re'-arding, the life intl wxondtrfil wIxork of thix Ion -time editor. Ile was 1)0r1 oin Junei6ix1(, 1 tx7. ilil xMllxl)ori Pxn1viuiix axia I IIis life was the lite tof maiix x pxooxr hox, bxtt inl tha t lxx\x' xbleasta xxs ax coux~rageousx anxx liexer xxainxix dlettrmi naix onxx txx xxii xix edxcatitixxi His lx chxxiee xxf eollegre xxa -)lrfi li anxd xl xxs 'II ixxhit Schoxl lie Ibx'-inlii tiltt idctxxxii The Sexcond~ xtar xix stchoxol fxxxixn lii Iin irktimiix to the c II of his ouintiy x ntl iix i 861 hie volmxitxtererd inl tlxat mxemxoraible xli xx Ic \Vhtcix liix xlxit ie to hins eoxxiiitr xxere eiixedl lie exiime txio;reexxxIe alnixllxi turhaixed the 1 Iildxxpcxx'ict xxhere xce contiinxxex xxvxtlxxxxt iiiterrxxltixxix xxIf reiidenexix t t xxix he cld xl lHs life xxai a cleaii xcixex 1 xx k, lie serxex h lis x xxiiniiiiixit xwxetlxl Itd Iet i retord ax a ixan: and ai exl tx-xr tlxxt ixax xxll Ixe exxxx Iil ex v;x ill xxo lixotme iftexxarxl. Fa l 1. f rabill, xlI Lx axixted lxx lix taileinttxl xxite Josepxhine I ). I irablill, toxxk xpx) the xxxrk axixix"lx ixtixxxxexl it xiitxl teplat11iinx xxi twa purchaexd lx a xtoek ex11IInlxalix l xt olxx xp xxxxexxixxi xxix Setexmciihr i1 1 i9i4. Tlit stoekhlxxxlrx mint 1Cixxeorlxoxorx xxere 'lnrx.. 1) ~rabhill TI I1 W\iittri N. Il. Girisxxoldl \. A lKtemip C. I. l\arxlnx I ) 1). Dxllex, Rx Txoxxer C) 0 tnliS0xx Ilirxrk. 1I 1. Gilxxxxxx Drummxxioxxnxxd S. ( irk;inll Brxvanit F. \x cix AXt tht xeletttxxx xl x x rti ix ixtI t1Avr I wx x e~tlettexl peiiexleixt anix x,(ii eral ixixixixix-er axidl 'issxxxixtx txt poitili xxt edtx orx ( lx iaIts 1-1. Gibsoxxi xxix electlex xvxtetprestdex t xl lx Mrsx x I). CI rxixlxll Setretar alx idx assxxitext Altxri TIhle s;ixie xxrgxniztixix x xxxUtxxxxti -it thc lrex tii Ixixix x \et t hat Mrixlxl tCrahlxll rttii tt oix Septemberxxxi -I, 1 xxi xxx x x NV xtxeexlcC x lxx IW C'irl I. (ir;Ixill xxs serttir li NTLVxxxxxixx Ax xrxANTON. 'Stanitx xis flirI: x1xxxlspxler. the.1/oitulmxfx 11cro ld xxs xx ta lisli ~l byh I. lxx in (I IsIx xxx xxxl 1ile lirxt nxumbler appxearexdx onl Sptlxttixler ix, 867. i'xl Sh Lxxx xxxxtlxxtxld xii xxontroxl txf the pxpterxxiitil \Nxxxnibixxir I.; 8( 8 x lixeii EIdxlxx iii. I xxx ll putiihastx it, xxxxxxixin- lpersonaxl tonrl o)1il Clriitixlxx xxlaxx x f thiat t v r Th I lix ra//x waisx Staxlaledl ax a SI\tXxliinin folxxx 1bix Ixtbefore it passedx froix the cotx roi l 01 Mxlr Shaxx lie lhaxl ciilar-xx it to Seve t )ii.x xxlnxix IThis xiii xxI Cx x xxxhxxxxd xxiilil the fall Of i 874. xxhti 'Mr.Ixxxt tow li chntel xl to a xx:' xCotlxxxxi xJlxxirtxx Ile gixxiix enlxarged it to i xex licii xlxiiiii quxartxo inl 1 878. Olx Ilit mixoriing xx f Oetxxher iT x, 88o lxx a toni] xrx ilion xxxi Iih

Page  397 MONTCALM COUNTY, TM CO LOAN.39 397 (levastatedi a large part of the business portion of Staniton village, the Herald office, with nearly all of its material, was burned, iiclnuling the files of the I1ci'ald, also of the, lona Gazette, Mlr. Powell's loss being aboiit three thousand (dollars. Thle Stantouu. Iail v Ali'feor, E.. R. lowell & Son, pubisliers., was first issiuedl oul hlone iS. T88o. It was a three-column folio, butt its publication was dlisconitinuiei after a pueriod( oif ab~out three months. The 3lioitca/ii Joul-liial, a R-epuluieiauu si x-coluimn qjuarto. was stuirtedl at Staniton ho' 1. 1F 1airchibld in Sepitemuber. s l75 ts publicationi was eontinuiile for a period of ouRy Whont eighteen tuouths. The SlIm/on101!!,cclIY C Ii o>'r, ati inidepoendent 1 ourual, was established lo W~illiaim Whlite in T 87( thc first nunmber appearing oin Septenuh~er iq, of that veair ft begin us i fotir-coliitm folio, hut at tite expiration of six utontlis P.S. Dodge bought inl interest iti the paper aind it was enlarged to a, scven-columtu folio. rIo o ir three years laeter Mfr. Wltite disposed of his inerestto Mrliod, wh o continued to luoblish tlte Clipper uintil t894, when lie solol the papier to \. Wi. N~esvhoitse aml IT. D. Tisedae. This co-lpartuershlili eXiStcol foi- two ii7ears, whlenti 11r. Newhouse became sole owuner and the Isolitica 31comlexi(An of the plaper b~ecatue Republicani. In (905 the Clipper was eular-ecl to a six-column qluarto. _)i Afarch i tt fr. 'Newhotise lptrcllasedl the goodI will antI subsetriptioii list o1 the Monitcaolii H-eriilo (that paper having lost its planit by fite oii 1'echinary i6. 19.13 aI13( the two iapers were merged under the name ouf the S tliitii C ltppi r-Heraldf Shortly afterwarul Mr. Newvhouse fortued aco Moitirlt)wuhU SCiohr.aid they are the prnesent iutblishers. NEi 55 'SAPEiR5 OF CORtAL. I lie fir to newpaper publlished in C'oral made, its ittitial appearance in 87 It wa i lristencd th( Coruial iiuticrprise and was edited utud owned by) Julio I ITaylor. 0ly~ a fews issites were gotteti ottt and only otie copy is kn-owsit too exit it the prescnt timte atwd that hangs in a frame in tlte office ot the C oral ATCi'S. ITht i~est hustorv of the C oriti A~ezs is found in the paper of that nume atnd ws p lutlusliset onl 1Jnuars' 28, to I 5 'the oceoasioti for this story' was the btirthiilv 'mintiversary of the paper and was written by the editor, Fred UT O) Brueni The orticle follows: Eighteen years augo the middle of last summer ye editor was dismissed frott the serv ices of the [Aorlev Tribune because the publisher of that paper

Page  398 MONTCALA'I COUNTY, MICHIGAN. wa 1 oit ill kingt etix ugh iloticy to pix our xx oges' For several mornths folIO\Viii'1 thaLt V0111- humh11le scrv lit xxis 'or the Iuiog aid go where we wotuld andI try as hatd 1 s oilie 111V it W-is Implo-ssible to secure L oh) ~Vce were not ilooci in that pired' citcttherc l\ etc thousands in the saone iioat and if mlisery cujox clconip,UIV We ii 01 lotS Of it. It swas thc pal-lic of 9-7 As list dcspeirate atteiupt to make a. living wxe conceiveil tile idea of starting a liewspaper o(o ICrl A mii otimno (f thc thouglit to sev eral met wvith a he(artyt responsc aiid advertisintl and stihscrit itonl coiltr-iets sufficient to tniarititec thle veiutnir c x cie sigticd till. Ici I itstedl und Il-svill ill I ricihls who 11wserc ill positionl to adlvaiee its tliii 11(le icsto latunch. it made Itilc xxheicls 0l otir hceadl sootc to I aise tht tic cc its cashl. A \ doixx It ShepardlI hil iInher itced a sialtl pirinting (lithlt frI nu lt c limsi iilils estatc wxhoxith slic illcred to scll I xn svet Iibcial te Tll O -o t the ioouey to m aisc the Iirs