Standard atlas of Oceana County, Michigan : including a plat book of the villages, cities and townships of the county...patrons directory, reference business directory and departments devoted to general information
Geo. A. Ogle & Co.

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Page  3 I9 'lit' w it jiltDI it it IF T t~i ~ ~ ii i li ýji III -ri LLLfýlj Trfll J L LHiý ''I Hit ii"tt"'i.i It hit T Ii- 11 I iiItIHiui'-ilIi1111 i PILL\ K - K COG OF THL Patr VILLAGES, CITIES AND ToWNSHiPS OF THEC'OUNT ons Di'rectory, Reference Busi~ness Direotory and Depatet devoted to- General -Informati~on. ANALYSIS OF THE SYSTEM OF U.S. LAND SURVEYS, DIGEST OfTH SYST EM OF, CIVI L GOVER NM-ENT, ETC. ET C. @om Ilied and Tublished CHICAGO. No~ I V_.ANNJRGCTE GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN

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Page  5 rSLLER APPRAISALSC;,) I. 1 VANDENBERG CENTER TPBLE OD MONTICHNT TI9BL5 -Or GONThNTS GBN5RfI INDEX. PAGE TITLE PAGE..........................................3 TABLE OF CONTENTS......................................5 OUTLINE MAP OF OCEANA COUNTY........................7 MAP OF THE STATE OF MICHIGAN..................a... 62-63 MAP OF THE UNITED STATES..............................66-67 MAP OF THE WORLD.......................................70-71 PATRONS' REFERENCE DIRECTORY, OCEANA COUNTY...73 ILLUSTRATIONS.............................................77 PAGE, ANALYSIS OF THE SYSTEM OF UNITED STATES LAND SURVEYS.........................Supplement I-II DIGEST OF THE SYSTEM OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT.... S...........................Supplement III-VI GENERAL INFORMATION REGARDING BANKING AND BUSINESS METHODS......"........ Supplement VII-VIII ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY CHRONOLOGICALLY ARRANGED........... Supplement X-XXIII OOGflNf COUNTY INDEX PAGE BARNETT, PLAT OF.............................. 24 BENONA, PLAT OF..................................35 BENONA TOWNSHIP......................51 CAMPBELL LAKE PARK, PLAT OF.................14 CLAYBANKS TOWNSHIP............................ 53 COLFAX TOWNSHIP..................................29 CRYSTAL TOWNSHIP..............................31 CRYSTAL VALLEY, PLAT OF...................15 ELBRIDGE TOWNSHIP............................41 FERRY, PLAT OF............................11 FERRY TOWNSHIP...............................47 -GOLDEN TOWNSHIP......................... 37 GRANT TOWNSHIP.........................55 GREENWOOD TOWNSHIP..............................59 HART, PLAT OF...............................10-11 HART TOWNSHIP....................................39 HESPERIA, PLAT OF...............................14 JUNIPER BEACH, PLAT OF....... o..............21 LEAVITT TOWNSHIP.......................... 43 PAGE LITTLE POINT SABLE, PLAT OF....................1 MEARS, PLAT OF..............................27 NEW ERA, PLAT OF...............................15 NEWFIELD TOWNSHIP............................. 45 OCEANA COUNTY, OUTLINE MAP OF............... 7 OTTO TOWNSHIP..........................,....,0.57 PENTWATER, PLAT OF NORTH PART OF..........................17 SOUTH PART OF...........................20-21 PENTWATER TOWNSHIP...........................35 PLEASANT BEACH RESORT, PLAT OF...........14-15 PYTHIAN PARK, PLAT OF.........................25 REED, PLAT OF...................................... 11 ROTHBURY, PLAT OF.......................14-15 SHELBY, PLAT OF.........................24-25 SHELBY TOWNSHIP....................................49 STONY LAKE, PLAT OF.............................21 WALKERVILLE, PLAT OF.........................25 WEARE TOWNSHIP.......................... 3

Page  6 INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS I r.' PAGE.Anderson, G., Residence of....................83 Barvoets, Frank,.......................79 Beadle, L. C. and Grandchildren..............79 - Bearss, Jess, Residence of..........................81 Beebe, Mr. and Mrs. W. H......................79 Beebe, w. H., Residence of..............83 -Bender, Milan, Residence of..................... 83 B enton, E. L........................................... 79 Benton, Nellie G........................ 79 Brown, Geo. H., Residence of................. 81 ITuttelman, C. H., and Family................. 79 Buttelman, C. H., Residenceof.................. 83 Buttelman, Herman....................79 *-Cement Bridge, Hart................................83 Cober, M rs. Alfred................................. 79 -Cober, Lewis.............................. 79 Dam, Hart...........................83 Demmon, Frank............................ 79.Dorrance, A. R..............................79 Eaton, Ida A............................................ 79 Eaton, WVm. A....................................... 79 IFay, H. M., Residence of......................... 83 Fleming, C. J...................77 Fleming, W.11.. 77 Fletcher, Walter, Scene on Farm............... 83 Fox, Peter, Scene on Farm of...................83 Frishett, Mr. and Nelson.......................79 Greiner, A. A. Residence of..................... 83 Gurney, T. S'....................77 PAGE H aight, G. W.......................................... 77 Haight, G. W., Pleasant Valley Farm........ 83 Heimler, W., Home of................ 83 High School, Hart...................... 81 Hilbourn, Frank P................................... 77 Holt, Noble, Residence of........................81 Hotel Nexw Era........................ 83 Huntoon, Vim., Residence of..................81 Hutchins, Emma R.................................. 77 Jonassen, Jos............................................. Knapp, 0. B., Residence of...................... Krantz., Sam., Residence of.............. Lathrop, Edward, Residence of......... Lavis, Vim. H., Residence of................. Lentz, Charles, Residence of................. M cFatland, W. H............................... M itchell, L. B......................._:........... Myers, Mr. and Mrs. Geo. C.................. Neidigh, Z. P., Residence of...................... Newman, Fred R............................ Old Pond, Hart.. "....... Palmiter, H. J......................... Parish,.-James J............... Pentwater State Bank.................. Pleasant Valley Farm, G. W. Haight Pro-. prietor........................... 77 81 81 83 81 81 77 77 79 83 77 83 77 77 81 83 I PAGE Roach Canning Factory, Hart.....................83 Rollins, W. E.................................... 77 Ruggles, Josiah L., Photo from.............. 79 Schmieding, C.T.......................77 Schmieding, C. T., Residence and Scene on Farm of........................................ 83 Sears & Nichols Canning Factory, Pentw ater.............................................. 81 Security Bank, Walkerville.....................81 Shaw, 'Mrs. Julia A.....................79 Shaw, W im. H......................................... 79 Skeels, Rufus T..................................... 77 Smith, Thos. S., Highland Orchard............ 81 Souter, Mr. and Mrs. Alfred E.................79 Sparks, Albertus, Residence of.............83 Spencer, Edward A., Residence of............... 83 State Street, Hart.................................... 81 Steffe, Mrs. David....................... 79 Stubbs, John, Residence of................81 Sullivan, Jerry, Residence of....................83 Swinton, Mr. and Mrs. John...............79 Vail, Stephen A.......................77 Van Dyke, Elmer.................................... 77 Walkerville, Scenes in............................79 W est Bridge, Hart...................................83 West Bridge, View from, Hart.................. 81 Wetmore, F. ER.........................77 W ickham, Burtr..................................... 77 Willetts, Ingraham, Residence of............... 81 Woodland, Alfred L., Home of.................. 81 Rankin, Robert J....................... 77 Rasmussen, Edmund, Residence of............ 81 i..

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Page  27 t.VJLF -.APRAISAL IR-- VAI~NIDENBERG CENE GRAND PRAPIDS, MICHIGA *' 4 - - * * *Au ** *. IN C COe U 00 0141 04) C\4 --.49 * 10 N CNVý K - 0 NIr IL /7 gJ 969 eVT 'I-- 049 eq4,i) $ 4 eq co ~i0 eqN N1 -, 0N eq 04 *9 09 0,99909 0.9j 0 - N 40& NC CID0N - qeqe 0 S0 Ct0) 4ft N eq00 C6NNNCN YNN I1tl<k"9e op -Z "o V. N e (3) NI NWVIN SctVJ/n4 1102 N) QN 9.9- 0- 9 N 44 -0) '9 0 A#) 9C

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Page  29 V tt~li iii:31 N GRND wA44. Mfwli APPptBA k~~o* Pbs, MIcH5"-%iS J~k Scale 2 inches to 1 mile 3 J7own8hip fI6C X"orth, Sanyo IS Vontof MeheYkichiyan S/Meridian 40 11.z 6/,57/61357 /1 2/ ý 1451'e-7 *.C.Pct ino re __rroy -yovP 0 N40 4 1 1Pm - a -_-I__c __ _ 4L_-__ _ _ _ _ 4crb~ 4oo V~T4 reIvIZI WI ~5 "Ot Jiatr-C11Lna J~h iue j yoo 14 13 7c; C C4. 64cJK K ttortfe7 '9 AV%7Car;l A'oivwd..&Bo e~ I~rc/4-o 4o 41 -wtvcrte s & -c Y A7 ~7~KMh[> K'.\ JI/'n~u/~. a 'Wa.t ~j~z01~ecw So mWr 1BulerkS YJ Lts4 ro ~ Lurrb -fMwlext~nC.11- Zc 'o Caber.Iey " /'fm> -4o-o/ n ___________ - _____ _____ ____- W-______ 4-TV0h el. 1Sfe< ___ >0 < 3 fivalf______ % f wu,6 V W. 0. Ct'' rbblsinaSadr Jas I asl.Warter I C/t-' ~rc y TuhsWSofy-~,'om __.?00 80 s o:SoC)ISoA co 4 K-' ~FOrarn ChsoT~rw I - MrE --L: MV'-/.Z 25ý N ý *Xý 4N,ýWN I - '9,ýw

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Page  31 * ~~~GRAND RANID CIA 1 4 *D 0 4t I - 1--A -Ifl ' * J~~~~~~~ownah pf16 Xorth, 32angeli208ofteStcgaXe *.P.4 MASON (30&,z;Z A,;( 4'zO. I, 4 i b r o.''40 /o *,tcerna FranK JI Henry sLJa dyora.T so loses Gerardaham. 4.5. tor.HM~umrrw&l"Itea JT1I Pe/el-as 0.S4b3-lo 1 Res CLB Ph tta 510 Bert mm;rarl Tarre 1cm E Col SoSTte rpyhettOro Idlit ldfo It! ~ ~ L AAnsl1zs -Co 670,fdbS B. *p4 ~ Ceortr~rTI4c '~ 1/rc~h J12ts C,* ~A4oa I RU U 4o N YS j ~ ' C"OVER DALI ettreEoncIo~co6H.C 120tc on Woer Awon M 4o Sm.. Lo~tif K C,%2, 4v it C-t- are Wlawir -Carb lis pro N Le>OnMlta 10 40 PB tr(a S,>:q,Iia,Be so Buien ftrcnt hiffraceHaretv'eer. IiBIPC *q Gay~.4-'--' Caroline ] br b' i:15 Tf.tttts LWmClare 4v WItz i.MDodttV 4v 4o 524 Sso &tters als' lut0r1 Z4cm W, T, F F ce r rdieb Rec'fz +~ Jr 4o

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Page  33 FIJLLIX..'.. ASALS NO'* I--VANDENBERG:'CENTER a 6NM, Nt I 4 I 4 i Cl *2 1 4 4 4 4 4 ~. G 4 -APAIJSALS Scale-2 incei oIml Jourwn-shtp 7f 6 Xorthany. /7 Wostof te.ffeiaMilrda *a~2 ~ 91 9.17 39~7 39.36 iaI', akm a.3~j ~ 4 Uls2O 'Jar. J-fZarn fcdnzdoic CL J a A s m3G 7.5 J h i- l s s m ~~swber;-~ eF;ez if eN> ec #7. (Z /e 41 ro,8. CDt $C ~n,_ _ _ _ *~~~V 1e7I 5 jns ca Ingfl-eena 4o 1 z ad Q, CSo EsinvoWeImo rolu _______ afflum~wOD N1N0 atcwrs.aue WJMrrt R T5 rJcn Geo UJ&nfa h woo Uz. I E vo * So 4 1 1 40 410o k'7G (5 C ~ Eah>Ua - 4 ýc i 00oc 4703 J1f),aso -0~. I C~o I 3L1- W 7k e, 7-i- (Ti'o Miff Pi-Bonqer 400 Dlie ryIeru (, W 714o ljj~jr rtl FUJ- ande& G.osts fl.are Lo 4o 1 ) 0 " + cr usen e Gr4 ce Pen n XJamChoi afiJiai~ nt ________ ___ rO or0 40?o Boy/C v S.4~, *0I-0 600 e--0.7Fi -M. aWNMIAJ- Mut/r- /rnUa-o - 0.- 4o- o BSetier - a0 -o sc80 4oý PP ~ ~ 2~h A- Bqjaun--~f/e -Wz - Cobw;kDls -0Zt-BOY1130 S oo?-t~tat t oo - - I~/e,.? ~zu nt J-r~12/207t C orP NEter Iho OM N s gior1, 4Go t 416i TAxI.Adro ono~- arnse ~ - ouBrrn-r-nern ro rro V )eI-E1-- I Z M~er 4L T-7) l:&UQ %d,'I Ndcdeta.00 -Tf lflvMnn. v ~~C lbHeW77-1,, J051 y -S I-~4a Jo a-Z a Ir WRA.5 t t.99ir~ t ~ _- 1 Snyae -J 0 rC&A a Viebo 1:5 40 oPot40 -jC-Ccttere z 0 - ~ co ~ loutdsAerls A i. Ce z-( irdell0..1- ) C Genr*Clara-69 Pinlga k - SClfer Car t 40Awer Aa. -4 .9- A. A..4-------- *. jC AA 2,~NtC.ZAs. A-.. 2.- .y..,.. jfffgý ~17 =-J i-I

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Page  35 1117/1 v CJ---3N^Z -%3 v V., Ski I 'VANDENBERG CENAL=PENT WATER li I -L= A IF-i- 1 1 tjý 7% TOWNS-HIP Scale 2 inches to 1 mile I.]3EN-OIN TWA ccc, 7K 5ractiona( Ciownahip 16 orth., I?17ange f18 WVonof the -Sitichigan $ieridian BEANOWA It PoD6@r4 Lan gon 4 L . *t NOPTH Ks9 o 7~10 ' tPJ2.1 W/LLIlAM 5no4 H1+J ~u2.. 77/04J2/A5 - 2S 33 2 1 SUMMI Trmrq Pl-EA SAN T A 4 I V i 500/2 Jo~z2cA. 9SON _ ($4 er 40..inde.9,50. 5#~2 en sa Co1ense. Z'e-z6ch-e iir r22p2 - /t __ __ __ /40 /00 so a - ' K2~ S a Z7 c7 A 13. 2~ jj cj1ir 4 )o4 'J~3~$~L arrte& \ %8C0asif93d PP120 /1/ #87g 0 yEO 40 P/UI 40 rc/ot? _________40 4 / ~ ~ 1 /0019PN0 4 U 7>t I K 1"80... Stony......L......e 8 - L S FT *1 3 -S -979 7-. K K K r -* - - - - -A - - r 9 'ii-.l#-' '4.- ~~~ ~. I 4 4 4, 4 4 4I!4 4 -4 4 4 4, 4,, *I I 4 4I4 lk h IS 'O"RO'.

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Page  37 Km'to t.,- ý'v.;III-j '.6. N PA K PA (1) Nt4 <clt N. %I ~ ~ LrkJL 'ph;az~ K/ _ I&JC 9~S-.;'1I&z. I t~ z Cz IS Ai 19 f 14 14 Nt N K l.L&. f - -7, --- I -ýI-t ý * =t W v4"MR, %/#A -"Wn= "?I44Ng3 draW uy,o S7VS;v8 v __ '4

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Page  39 FULL> itEL IWo. I VANDENBERG: CENE I I Scae uinhe to1Lil t0p,7ownakip IS Xorih, oSlange 17 Won of teSfeia krda ralrc c'ez < 3- OPT sJr zm's) 7g' 20._ Z,6 _ ____ 40.,77 i# I#9 / v a ____. v / 1+o ___ Z 6J7an C 204 _ _ _ __ _ 404 3 23 74{~ozz.~&dcztzi 4 I /VPA'ocYcAS& Z2 q- Ieho95 __ 7 J 4 40 ______OP, *fcz~z9,5 *~ ~ i~ &t r -K0 A _______ ~ ~~ft! rcz e abelcbnm ffCk 1600 ass -~~C400. eeorrasl 0 NJ0 V <ýj chr ozz 4 &tY c~oi1 SI-0 *fseCns 32 140 2~ I1 lw.g=', ý. il' 0fI~ -jCa)lcertj1 So(120 del-f (-o. 5 itS rv9 1.1 6%K0 Rrocct-IaA -d At~rtn Aicreeb-__ (F ka 1:KNceyeefa&1c 20 fbe z % I ~ 4 a ll aC 1 t00 0L' 5 7 0t * 4 40 * 0 reccctk 0 lmik6As0 e*%JA< tNCgz _Z1--*NI-2 d a e I95s m c * S.cs s i "g{ ~ I i 0,D It] 4d Racc3 04 Ba66d\ 68 Vz.0. Izr it-less,_ den 1 I. 6r77~ E&* A B 7 z8:sý siP ooZ/&ap50tYYK 40, "*Oh2fhooihr12 j A(-" 4p9% rr - ndncasi s.we s ' ln 6M6s.: '0:; ia- PcYA0/ 40.40:, ybz, 4 40 -5 2T r 1 CTCra,azm. a _ K400 20C40cz. 0 L& NI-oo 4~ Lzza 20 tch Krt I~ -4'0' IA1z9~r 1ý qMV A-W' 414 avor4,ýw NIM, <W

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Page  41 NQ, iV"NPPRAISAIS VACENNR MIC1GAN A? K lw{ K -~ C> 7, ) 7 7, I k t I 7 & >4 4 L >2 4 V 4; d7 AC.4 4 4 *> v.0r~vr--sw---NV~ ZI 4j Scale 2 inches to 1 mile V12 IN' nR.Z5ownship, f S Xorth.,.Sanye /6?~e8t of the.YNichigan Skeridian -TV S eo Froe.-14410m e 4 o e r ~- - So ~--;'anqz- c 4D00 N Jae Ho9/y -Y 0.M r by c/r o o/n en7IS aniIn/es NJ -? 'eM fl'm '-~uJJi~ Rede~yAtno Brne S Zr \ 50 -Co40 g1L20~Ii&e- eh a I/ M rwY /e oF Asia aeJesnOH* i Sha!_ _ oS w X Jo-Ja0R h77Cc Z-;t 4a V "'Jil4e0-- Cr,7"" U o wa/Cni4, N4os. Jue 4- -2is ilA iS Pl4be0C1 ' Jacob4 YHaear.y 4 ors /a-nGit ----------------------------- ---- Ten ~z01 eror &n~g/ ~- -ca -c a'6 r n-. ha~mlai X~~rCIOS J-D.J.So -1 0 A nt$07-Ms7 m71- 3naIGO Ma0,AE -A Coo ot ____0 40Fr7 Mid? Cc Jc Xra~Wof.Tlymn a cJanedtiz~ Rvulgale C. 4a4a Ccc1 -7o cN,Y MC rcd *. aco N.lisAC. --4Hoh 46 9 4c 40 SJol AI A U A/v Jh 'alrsn re/i,- ~ l Jo-E.baq hr4annznaa-/C. 71c v 3Ccff Wm.I HzTwaebfi C coco_ __ _n -P-AIdrsreCA- C-0._ _ _ _ _ __ _- _ t [ieer W ZNcscoce wets. enooloin' 4 fl-n m ns 1 1K crc S L ~ 'assa'ar -' Gc-j7EdII _ _-oJ 4 I.Jnh:s Ic.- Abjen Arnld, ne en o In-Jt- IJncsJoac iez~ ral-ar ~en-o/r [Nt o ~ ayIN i-b~t40+ 4 JN* UN3Am.5 N~ as*Ah~1icec (hs4iy-f ~- Qoh 'Jin jPZot/wr/ ItnY~. ~ ~ 771b 7 Jpeh77 H'ye ny- reo i/ie i "Jacob. JI'ha. ejJob - I r. Lester Anna Jils 10h U~rc,ci oh6, hmz VN Slt sK-na 2 7e I,nýenyrerws.i as'ni /O 11h 4 4_IW__ 71 5_lx_ 2 I Zee Ih ZBloonierAhiner ' (/012 Mlff~lWV A -B Is-.4!o 4ci1So I $5 ai I Wl A-C -4 - I orScnA e '-A A z e lao LtI L o (atcs I a, q h~.o Necbeto~ -J~'r i t at&.z - If7: brc Col 7-17,bo 20 --7 - -' 7-$6 4c i B afghr- -R Clase I -4o Co- ~Hds44'~i I~e 7yfrl brec 6i JJ eonb. - 4* 4 G 'ed-2 Bol-7 V ~ ~ 7 nN~nz~ 0_________j \vI J~ 91za Sryr, - -'7z t- r- -_- iu 4- on e -- 0 4c g < 4 0' ~ II C Cc~~ ~ ~~ ~ 30adt osBae K In J4 IQII w0'rirorn -Lest~er6&rr iozne1Os Car 7'ufl nc/ýie- O3hU dTler 39C Ceda re)76e ___ -G BCa(h V- F jjZ~rn44ct S/ia/erv ISSmnafl My7 Erei -I.4-oA~Sa 3 Ll 7 'nari~L, ~c7Onsma o 4c-,I ob We-n f-I may Haes v~c~r d ote ort 4' -D- uer ________________ kk_ 1Km )~j-p Bet'La~ ~ ' mitCcsfenet (3( fo -4o0 W ln 4 -li 158- )VTlýzte rs I5 I I I p K I %ax 14 'ýL I Lkm:!6ý1 N I lrryr-m)ýX' iwr-rll IýA' A oz, 4 * * * 4 9 I* ** * * $, * r. * *

Page  42

Page  43 FULLER APASI No~'1VADEN G ENTE NG A D RA I SM ICHIGA -AA ~itt > ~.* * *.4 4..*.*... tNO 47N-l6...* 41 TO NSH I P__ 5owship J5 orth, SangefISJ:West ofthY/feia$(rd CQOLFA?( _______ 4~ IrT,~ 5$I~O 42? 129 44 8cr? *$nt IC2. WarB rrd 8721 &s ~ 7s * -ay -n7 -C. 4 lVcdlzW& ~ aZ~;BJ2: ~r9;tanrcuu.,_ 6. As'7o "$T$d~ A),m-40eA ~ r 1w4* 4.0Cew4,7 I "cia~Pir * * ~ 'Petr77. ____ ___ ___ _ 23', 4Wozr ____________ ___________________________ __________________________ ____________ i ___________ _________________________ vmFzr/Cenon ~ '4 Ito e 4 i It Wa A w AorecS34 138 4. C o pi 1 _ _ _ t-'-'t 1-,nH' ci1 43 an +0.73 41-70 SQ QD C. Glaon 4* GItber Ccgt man I 1Reun WVAb/on-1 4oo S # or/on., 'Kvnlmroc Ja~-' 4 ~ ~ aj 4f~h~.ihav PVSoIZ If! ZoCM:C., 2 A tor 'A0I.&A[,OF'i B2ter i I 1A 3 Ba-4U.t/aac n 4 4 ~ ~ ~, r _ _ _ _ _ *g) 40 Pa QJa AFe nrtw Wahrwo leov o d &ýttJLM 4 * * * 44%54So 4c,* SAT~ 4-v +0 ars ree: ser Cl-HaWa 4a 40 ~.,,g~. dsvan AKnowles - 4c #p Pronew yax,.e0 rower 0 Botwer; 'I KolI be.40 40 -+01 4ac 1.0ldr 4 hSPSR/A atTW 466 t V I I I Wý, - u

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Page  45 FULLER APPRAISALS. N.IVANDENBERGGRN0ENTER ~4 0,4 4<4 ' * 4.>* *4*944 BERGCENT, Scael inhsto1ml 7,5,onshipf14.X"orth,.S~angeASW tofheiCcign ie -LEA V 12T22eR Tdw __/7a 9 a3'r63'.6a 2tO=Sof \IOLA-7125 $?~zre 4 T ~ hni7 Oar \~ >f Ch S J22~0 5Z2Ol0/782 0,4c0 0n r4f4Q 4 OrSe,& Jok Cr/f> $ j t9-larken coilC-, if /Z B_4f(::>l c9 NpjK urc mAez/csfr~s.2Cof1 IJs Mo3Iun- /toea', -- 5ctrs.Lt/ 3c a8 /)Yo- 5ho Zareyz JSirlk unfje cz1 * *bunear09fl /a tts P39 a n L277tn A vr__ _ I - A.- -- 20 -FtsCoue i ~4ýz?7S/ Aw_ - /r- ad ZL ctiO9 Ea~t. Foret 39/ HerrJoe.,?6- 0*22jr tln v ~4 ~ -2-slZl57Z67-'_-, 27g 'lidian Z n;ct~ t Wa 4 0- o7PasZa6zi'>esf ~iza7 ~Z~o3- / ~ 9 > 2 - Ko zc~e _ P~r atai )t~~~3/fet~ P679' o4 92~~~ Ah2~GZ ~~i '20/.00?izJY'raz t56 C9'- Z92lOSC P Sr 0 6'o I ~ Vo KA*?lýanh Z leer, Arc /29ma5 om7cve 40 40 ___40 - *vA W.Ac -CE.3Q.0IceSZat9 o -Fsl e7 ~~o7 IN %a zez- S72Na N Nj%374 717' F elVas -'r. f Ca (1 I_ - -. t - Jo/i o l n t~er a/t s~i~rrev ~yovs cSanzz1e6 '50 "-po %ollc ~2$'_____ G. 1.* 5 rclzy cy 0l ýo E4oc e 7-2 0 z C _ - _ __-E -7)--.,dI ae* __PI~ 317 Socret - -7- G-c> -- - - 2---2- - -- - -130 C ~04 k-Yo 6') So:C 430.-en'esse9 ~cm~7- '8cr/- n/ cir cat er/?ZU7an 50son 80 S 40 40 jO O: 00 ~~ #ysnczerýze*r'bm F - F7 - a K a (,&,a'N %.L 27 R0e __ CysJ&ei n l r iliIi' - h722 ry ( C. "'~.. * 4 9

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Page  47 FULLER APPRAISALS Ho. I VANDENBERG CENIUN ~;4 4 4 4 4 ~r4,D9v li 4.W 6) A-n hi..-&a---cv---6$~~'N& YADPERG CEN-RE' GRAN R~u~,MICHIGAN / i~ ~ FERRY''. Scale 2 inces oIml C~ownahip f14,X orth,.21ange t16 We8t of theSitihgnXrda 33439 sC33b 3 43 MPSZ 393: ' S45 Y3c5 0O?&7(Y o 5Y-1f86CZzcc sfi Yr7 07 ot,1-0 ~so }pao zg E's I U) ~0 RoertZJ~ho U ',NJ KZ00ZZ17tQ16 N IdNe eli boe at- 1zrdg*c1/r4~o - ir Oron72boUtyo ans~ 6400 SB-51 -.1201~~ im ____ -- 5? C)C) 17501,,40__ tZ9S U ~.. r 159TzrWsaV&- 42 7p7s4&1 oe o /e360t7292 79.S 0 40 fi3 ti n - ranczon~~ ~ 7;j 0.'40 c-c SwVozzzin *40 4 7c Iatm-Ion. N "0.w2). CV)kB ao f/rier @7 0 _720 Y__ 4>. 72_ CZn 6zLIT fBCeo 771 u~ 7.r.3Sq/07a&CC CSI en/v10 Cht3 I i rc LI C62 7~)~ y * 9 __ __ 0- 0 4 111+ esCCg~l on it/irs Wi - c/poci,rFr vs Aziriets~' WgT&Z 792512 Pdur-4 Balesg ISO c oýred YO 490 N 4 4 4 4 4 '.1 4 4 4 _E. Jo-V GJV cam ~ tb "ýfo --'- c). /it. v le 5ij~ o BeR e Kn;~ a --=r--- Cc "c cf /RA D.21,--K. 4 4 4 4' 4 4, 4.4 4 4 4 4, 4 4 4 4

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Page  49 FU LLE R AP PRAI SALS No.' 1 -VANDENBERG CENTER GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN I m Scale 2 ince o1ml C5ownshp 4 Xorth,.Ange 17 Vet of teStihgnSirda Jl2 qer2c-z ja1t B27n ^I.1qCntcjr2 re 2 K j See) 7a.]Eandt7~ 6 80 801s74k1 1 Qo (3 4Z40 Y40 Z2Ceo. -37.'00 on 7%6& 0rA cre.4. ~ -YO C)63 Z9 PP/N5.1 ALLEY 7?~2. C&E R VA N LEE YtScoooM X.-?-4 L~ It-i ohn 25 rztzA6> John ~sV.1N41 20_-~*~4EUNa J f o 6&o7>40 3:30 xt:; 19-2 co 03% KzaZ% word % RA>-ost-- -Z I~ T 7yh 1,40-41 Y,!ajra4. L-ZV2'11*1 TY.C/-i 722J Oct J~~ h~rr~- r ~~ ~ ~ Fox 7,2? ~r4 ZcWO2SZ~~nnV s ~W~ec/war& so' rc i80S I J4 a0cr 40 Fcd civil? )f.&Crq0_1___e___ 22 '7JT7 AVT(JIzd G.M Y7bej''c/a a nu 60 s er Q " 40 o (3j7 It/tar.0) a // / V, A ICQ 7te-ao.. rzrs r~;:~ -Qicsiro40 7ac/a12?t Per_ insq e ctAli_5_4 Pt? c/En 32 QZ,5r ZnwlW&3h-1 ____Bvizleq '/Y/ticm\.m /eA/b ro c/ rYr,2c an'-V-Z,7%-Za _ _- __ _ ''sc tn ur 4~~i SosNlo.ol 4I0 6 / 0~0~I~v~adre OJ7eter WRCRoz.z'I) Fr<>0.O70.I *P IQýr/ernrQrn? 0 mi 0CAs&2 Brown 60 Perins tYo1sc67c en n10 G $tzgene en-Cý Z,4IT" 30 ate2c <1,V 7? I2) ron 3 e4 eoS3.3 6en9 07 ansi rese *~ i~w co~1000 __ 'O 0) O S-7 i 427Moe -10 #rCJohn Qifo znOR _ 4 60 Kj 408,Se K R~,>j__ Fc'.i Jo aZ Zeclr E.G 40.fI~z9 72C) Nj 72 E.GC P- tg/i 1Z2 f/9 -0 40 Aft-,-Y5 /SO, MAD; Gz012_ 6d 4p I -Ii lu,M,

Page  50

Page  51 TJUiRvtaAPPRAIS-A' RQ1 -VANDENBERG CENTER ID ýIH 44 to Ioco ~ -1d#2t229g7-4 ID V~l 1 0 MAX~ 7 an qzc Y9 M _____ t '~'' 3d9{Vdia/L (W ~+1V~f-TI - - - - - - r i, I. - - ~ Is~ 1 ____ ~ *SR _____IK0(//JCUIIUI 1 I

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Page  53 *FULLER APPRAISAIS No. I VANDENjjf1CET.4 vcv GRAND R,s MICHIGAN Scale 2 inches to I mile SPart o~f Yraeuionai l ownship f o t,0ag58 Ve t o he d f hg n % rd a % o:OI35o Srarto S36 0 38 4o rodotst --_ _ _zarq -7 O I 3 Os o o~ 0. LOT- "Ceot0n7?7Z ý ~r~vp &Ee ZSl01-2 (fl - Fred ot ain *I eL g o doE s?1- do ~ e s r z 1 7 2 1 4 $T e 6 z6 z U ' I V 5 e K ~AlsI 0 F rrll ~ /rdths ______ __ LOTJt 6ter ~&otz40 'Eate tte *Q 4707 Z6CCi'5160 ILO _ _ _ _ _ * L7* W~fl -ri<~r 0 Z-Z7-',5hl~7 '~ a-! ~ amlintc ha I ___edz4C 900 -2zz00Z? 0S 1- a:

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Page  55 RILLER APPRAISALS No, I VANDEN13ERG CENTER G"D RAPIDS, MICHIGAN lop t!vr ON%IS flip" Tj Ry k LS, YANDU NBER cý,GRAN6V m Ek MICHIGAN dmlw lip F -1 M Cmile Michigan Jeridian 40 - T-WP. Scale 2 inches to 170wnship' f J Morth, Range 7 'Wegt of the Iv. Mews, %PO, 6S -Z.7 <AM CqA kj N) Qj Afzzz- I r (i). Qý J Cl N 13LveeZ NQ)o a /77Z ()IV Al 915Z2 eon- N _17 -ý50 14 1) 1-0 N Q) '\CN. ý6 zo Qj t1l Izz IN ýr ý) to I.ý 6 07 z ArýEiF;Lo a.272 -R.1?4 -.7o-l-z n.5 on Z-0 -'s 15W':ZOE o 1,73 iK c7 &,R Q cTD 2-2. zlzq 02_2 7, P-zz Z9 o) -12S7 vk, r,ýj 0 5on 'NJ sa) ZZ271 = CZ-.10 -575-0 Yo 7-2 -yo 240 7 -P Ai or 7 -2 U) ksý.Nd 2-72 ZY272 C.) j92 er 470 trIlls 33 -glo Noz NN Q v-) qj Ga-=-- L7 I -,c -De Z.-9- 2 e z IV 2--rz C-L 0 a 27? 40 20 I ýjl If AV AV 1,6z (f) 2 Zn2 -9 5, lz NZ 722 lný-72A /-i e Z, nan Q) -,/.74ro &5zead 40 1ý P,,[ Q I y 41c) Ak C-4 ý(- - W, _V?2'02? -4 11"1 Fe.55 e z fez, tri -. 2Y Zo 0 L5,!5 K4 40 1 it CV ri <22? N)Sch6,, ýi I QJ lbs Alb- 0 3 r %J -Fzi 5 ca er - Is *c, Ap.,q I c7o c c) 6 ý:LE- - I Zo 7c I ýP.;ý..104,.(55 m.& - -Lozv 7-.'03 -7-7 Q) tv ý,qj )ý Z,5'027 I z9? - iý%. i m;ý X, a "EmR I U) It.:!?a 1 11 1 Y60 X27? 0ý 1!7 Z PUZZ 7 -IYY. O-Z 1 Z77 40 cTEe. c--Tc-),xzP (ý, ý 7 -Xo ZZr eýr 5,722 ' _277 o<-47 -DO &Z In CC --2t7 (J yo (7Z Cl) -2 IcTohr? (ý.A ce-z- cl, 9-) ZY I OD ý4 7 c'-J k4 7Z(rZ 2-2 CZ Z47 4C) 40 Awe 722ý ý7- 41 47 7.( e,; 1)3(2 _,/-ie 57 -Pe Z- z z "11Z7 -4 C- "s )- a- -,4, -Dz 3 3 0-h 7-2 Ilk z" J27- -cz Z2 2eýr Pe c/ -0. 7- 2 7? ecTOhZ-2 -72 -Z- -3ý?27 ze- OTOn& Vezzz,- Haýe-A.2wa c r or zz,/r -Y 0 OCS? CD zzr-z*z-?j7c.727iZzh;5ý2Z47,5 0 10 VerzzZ-72 zs qj qj 490 IL v Q) 4. 1 7-2 do]ý'c ZZ Z Ir2e Q) 20 7 cTo.72 n -771 c 56 20 5c 00 4 -72-Zl Z-0 _72?0.2 -Q) ez" ý502-? ir '(J) gn (s Z or c7a -Po Výs c h -Es t -Z 6 C-,-) 01 n I YO Yo 0.490 YKE - cT- F'09,9 0 J16? -Do ZZ ol 261,62 Da Z-2 J C-L W 5 on 't Q) 'E, Zm QJ -7 s e 0 if:;ýez NJ 17)VZ Zc-,.r sez'% -Z 1. 7 $40 Pý 4,/1 5 P4EE? zz 44 c-Tc-L 7K I-vz CCU ZZ le _7- 1 _.ZP 5eaL)erl 41 CL I -Zý,5e 7-7-Z 72 2 0 ýn cTOhn CO oz'zl2,9e2 40,, eo G OX 4-3,40 60 7 ýZ,5h zng cz-z z 72 COT Ze ZO 2-2 sh Zý7 -7_7 r-5 co, 40 40 V't=-"-FA V;=r-rrr 1 OWN' MAj-.VV4 "W4

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Page  57 FULLER APPRAISALS N."VVANDNRGCTE `^QWRPlDSM HIcHAý O4l 1 11 3 4to 4w 40 40 -0 4. I r10 -11 lfoAMIADENBE&G.CEN.. J-L3 PR/ PT0. 92 --1 5 8 0?41 OTTO __1 71 71 -Utvr Na S IP T&U~n. ba Rcle Ry 2l in4 Cownsi- f4o 4oth,\.4Qa 4. W st -f _ _ flerz-y p 17w36/j /19.. Or 3S4 4o qir GeDaINuot o Oso ole -~~.E~artwra t 55 M~e41;'-/ 400 Carl -j4-r--J e,- m h(Juh ts - J1J7)dILi) tt Ac0t14oru~z, Goo a rIT. -va 1/1117 L V40 4, ___ __ ___ __ __ __- ___ __ __11Z _ rWP. Ch~w? I39a-779 fkaEllec j - In 4 0 4117L 1 (-oveltt l ' 5ewoo --T 77tA J-a on BO i~O ugi-fO/-za. cn4-SP4-oo& Bc-Ke St PC J/mb avLate Lanc- Co <-Dan B va.,< v,,e MY o j +0 Yc-A74W CE & -AL. ~.,, CE kBm ve -. IL8 c vet CoveillalL cet 1NTY A IV.or lanc l w)On- ~a 2411411awro-z-c-e +1 A fctW 7,Cf A N Lawrence 14.MAALwr erce.Lowe -4-. o 640emcoo 40 ardo ffWolaorx 4 DobTrlokc Cocc -W7 40 Cedar oft UYIM, 7?&. - - -. -.4 4. - - -, - 4 & A A

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Page  59 No. I VANDENBERG CENTER ________GRAND RAPID;1 MIC1iGA a I4 VANDE:GC'ENTE, 36.3? T 06W SN2S 368?P C~- PI 4Irar et rran (31' T~t'dwcrcl Bzw h H ~ z otc er ac J M r 7-ande 30a13-Z So w#dos oeF/ir.'a ~1yT7oc= TVCoCI Wn. 0" ei 0-. 'T War.b i- 4-, zoa/ln yore 4o rzleJyP? N4oo4o4o 4&A n oue 44 IC H alM.hC0tdyýc& 7/ran IK fi-m77 W00a van P G Z:Cl-v.n, 4 Van Flee Band Poe Flenun 4721K. Zoo - ore, ft a0 Rot5e ' i Ttvi; 40 40 4u 4o' 40 -+ - o g5o1 Ns 40Tr4-1. -Toh ' 4o Z 0 0 4o 4-c 4 S0* Zti~ &4-o so,STAEcZ -n dn onh~b-r?/7tdyI eiLlanct Q) JO 1- 7 j JeO/Cit n. 0 so tc'___~Joseph 7 rr o S0S I -4-a So o 4 fE000 -rý I0-t - I -C (aell f -1 6 -8 8la Cask.j -Fred- Ja Nte edB lranzylron-t h'ooi ~e,,-AC 4o s Ia c,~I So 4. 6im ii 4-o..4 A b bo ttI Rop h-1. a/n Dan/m-c0-z a'drr Je b-re /f-7_ EA:- ODp Z jM-T S T iNCtlet JVu. J? ( 072L i'mn a nCo. s\ 7)/i)1, Sv Vebe azV -f JoTO 77-77,cJOC.2L. ClW i Te 16orch TIE ~A~*?htiolin2,na, fat -Rain 'o aved oa ___balc __ ff1c?0 (a ~ it/wt4 Lei40 J47't~ J Clamio 9c SawMitIA ~ 0 M7'5.J077M Ja-lWS07 -Bs57a d o h 7'4o7r 71v.55 Eva M-7-ho, Onus-N I PX Emn T77ca N1 -I-arn b/ u71la-nat 60,.4o I Agna~-;h _r-ý 4t, TVOidt IL.-Z.Z 16o0y Ii K HerbertYtt&'rsow-, 4o' I -,70i7z n -E&zfB 7%notT JO A HO~t/S T Jon.8 In- so Hoo 2f-AF2:2__ Pa/its on rvy Clatm.3 ) a-I Jcott{ 640 Arbi-ifri Soul -4-a(o V I'dQe,-zracol 3o 4'7 -N 0 co r c~eo. IW-r97d 160. I -L-Cad hort-c i A'o: CSo 4o40 r Joe( 40 4 Jvlan/ WUah 0"ccaý &. -AgrIF-,40 41776, ZZ ICFox ' 4yc"260EVm ic-et& Sebolcc Ho_/__ 7-_-a__ do? IM/ ' L U~Cllurn~ aCdsfenhoix Bra, I 4uh~ye ~t0 ~ ~N 4/ ftrw i ROB Coe. fGo I--- ---'- -..-... Q --.-- __________.4a L. -1 1 MUSKEGO - U S EC O~.TZ~c5 ~ - - -- - ~ " - - S - __ ____ ___ I - Co. AX/,%\l\l\XXWY fiolxýx AV 0 -- - V.-' Gvko4Jo. 4 4.. -(

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Page  66 I irl Go O;CA AN VERNON GERARD Of% I. l. O.TD -..4v NAKUSp IVAIjAi YA48 9% RAMIS an SA IV (3A8,9 Zak R DEA L Zake PEN -ri Cro K 410 00 p__ -7 - - --------- J 12 IVOI? tdo ke RePUBLto OM r la Col. 7- - - - ---- - so Njyj PER) - ---- --- -SPRI cs 'SpRilva OA RVI 7. a.. 0A L P w7 - --------....... CA' L Ts,. Uf Cos rA NA-rohE SPOKA IV OR-Y Ah- Nr. CO N OU IA C07JýA plýEHkJ8 ive BL z IM* 8BURG FIrzvi, 0 A LLC A ou elk AKES. ýRoti A ' pAp. -fl_'YAK/AfA Col"VeLL. W4 L --- miNd 0 li COL ARFIFLD...... 1% a k ea PJj L AN MOSCOW lVDA4a PAS -01 ILLA At W b AU PROaS,, AXTON ITSBUR UU 41-1.,L-41Z- wjST rAQ l< - 7ý_ q 04f ý,ýA_!L ZTLL 0'. SuFia: V.W $Jbo co 0 0 tpp tL O-ALUA 411 U ---------- CO Lim p..............Co ------ Ar O.Pni KER Ivem. "d 13A Aft j. 46.4. VRKtE eAfp Al -VAL Z A'y r P ER.ID AYý 0 QRN8 UR 00 4.0co ý_Qz *ý,R Ili OR ý F j4 0 OINr ALE. C$Sre" ''o-PLAC EFtV IL COL Kt, U CA, takv, AHO ( ý_ I I...: ý: Ira Q............... z b N lp Pý. Aelýtzaz j -PAsoi*,ý o A E.......... ý4"ý - - -. '3ý - -, - - ____ TA 10 y OUly IN =7 IPA S; Cfk&. U.-7 MA A.i3 Up z_ -. I 1ý1 __ WEI? C.......... Aft r0tv 7.. so 016. le Z::7: Gockee zc ýx_ KA AS, 4G ecor jV t AIA Blackq Q 0 q/f IA PANDIst, DIN C A e8ept. VA 0 00 Zý eco p OWI; &Luip,8 i2k 11 USAVV- 1 6 6ýý * 0., J. UCCA 0 f ip 0 0., <c ke 4, 77 AfA 0 M Cý_ plflb -0 CHIC OREA/vo 'LL Clry ALLEon 7 _ - - - Or 0 cp.........;kF <11 0 ell, -4 ol 0.9 C. fvjt 0 A.:M 9 1 ck-c. - --ic;, -;I-. /?OVVIVg c, Z. a IV.0 SPRIIVGS - X4 VA 8.4 C I Y. AL COLpAi, oe F 'ALPHA CH Riy <0 *s_____o CAro Ks Ns R. AC8. 1. tell A GALT A U'Q-rlN E4 RFKA

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Page  70 Pimmensions of the Earth,.,, COUNTRIES, CAPITALS. ARACOM CEairdMlegofteWl Ciru mfer enea t D iam e ter.....................?.2&2S u a e il s, P O U L T I N w i h h eN A IO A L D E T S R V N U. a B uen os A iPrA S. A RAesM E R E 1,3ES M I Areas of the Earth. A u a******** %? 31r4 a0204l9885a 4975,6 ios8$6,7300 $1.8$0,5,0 * nte tts.T tl Pr ai T tLPr aia T tl erCpn Agra..................9, Areas of theSq.amiles, Austr sia- 1- ngr........Me371.5...74 Vi,44 275ennaoo3.214 420........... o e 1064 3283 331552$,606500$885W.o~o 115 5,Qoo$09 ^ ema-fc:::::;::: Water Surface............................ 147,000,000 Belgi um Br...... usn a 20s24,0,e766 250 117,6,2l43s586,0.7 58 600 76:1.......I.. o io 1265A J I I2,62 0 6,5,4 57 3,3,0.0 3,9,0.^Brts atArc........... ToaO.................ans.8 Boulgaria:... a a 6 4 0 ^ 2 6 7 69 66.8,0.4 >i,o o19,6 30 0^4| ^ *G.. * - *-....... M x c 7 7,0136 5 194 2 778 1 59 53 5.92,7,0 0.52,1,00.0Egp....:::::::::...:.......... Sofi 6qMie.cifilc ulan........... oia 3 00714423,.....6248.00,.608,1,000.5 8,5n00tarctic.........M nau 4,2050,00134 1855063 l 8 80300 742390004.8iW 3,65.:...... Atlantic 'oo 35009O0 rti........5ODD Chile....................... Santiago 2^089 * 27215373221734113^ 864001.84,0,0 f^ ^......... snin 170060001,1 12385I.51:0:0.3l W o^^ 4^ ^W Ana:::::: Pe r incipal alt Lak es.. Chlmin a....................... t 7 30 Pekin2344 4,9216......,................ i a 65,3.i~oo2532923 ^ 0.2.3.o.6,io 15 ^ dp~etsae::::::: Se fAal.... Austia. 26,3000 26 abv s ECuas Hnis uc...... avania 73,046000022093......6.3,0.36,5,0 dr........ a avao, 51068888 2,9,7.7321003 6324oo32 S^y:::::::: Beks h........... Asi 1250 70 DEcu aorl Copenhagen...Q 100 0127,6.4,5.466 847.0,0043,4,o nt o ig...S nt o igo 1,4 6 oo o17 03 12,2 9494.819 000.317 20 02.2Fru eEs fic........ Eye......A ustrai a.^^ 4,00 70 0 Eras In die s... u........... Baavans 24023 9739 W$80 0,0 5.26 52600 78 9,5,0 ^.......... a gk k 30005oooo.......... 3 2.0 27 600027 e ^............. Va....... sa 2, ea 5,465 Francem l..............N. G aeml.829.,4.3.118...214.3 73,460 012421900 1,1,0P4,4,003 447r2,2,4i2.s i4 ooo.6810 9000.cUruperio...... As a. 17 4000se 66o d rs........rg cgla 4,505750S^ 6'952 7i141.7*oo17,6.0 j g......... Montevide Berlin 207.4,4,i 2,6.2 28 67300M 5>3,o 53 ga~a.............. M i hga nl............. Afic A.5 83007 *00 ab v GeA G reece< - o h r.........................* A t en TaL a yke rSa. Country,.... Sq. M.00 ft. 50. H ait......................................I Nya~a....,.....\;;;..SAfr 12;v00 Hondura........ Tegucigalpa 2 __ 3Lniue 4at4 fo 50Geni^ / O 9 13 0 ^ 1 * * ^ \Q ^ ^Qe~ c o 54 3 3 7^ 8o1 5 2 0Ebgfd at4rrm 2 re~c 0237 _^ 2 __. \Feeae aa tte........ Suero................ No Am $200 2 India Calcu./:i- - t ta-*.; 1,76 ^.^ ^ n: J "~ A ^ ^. ^ ^ f ^ 1^:::::::::: Baikal:....::: 210 23^ H ^ \-^^^^ ^^ --; s~^ ^!^^ ^ ^ ^^^ n ^ owr^1,.APLT ^^,Tre a~i................. Asa 400,6 Great Bear...........::. N. Am. 14,000 250. 2J'~ff IIO S. - ^ ^t^ ^ 3 '^ _ _,,,~~ Baen....g......we olo)..................i Aft. 10,200. 8,690.-.^^ --^ ^ ^ -^ <':-<- */:"--.,.^ \ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ nA S ^ ^ ^ ^ -. *-Y' (o^/-^ O1< ^ A " G....... ---. Winnipeg(SSS........ N. Am. 8,900 628::-<.7 ^-- ^ E ^ T Tr""p-, 'n r:: -s -*' -- ^:.^\ ^ e^ ^ i w ^ ^ ~^ v^.*.-,-c~E ^ ~ i.^ - f^? v ETETI Erie.......,,..rn& ~ jNcSAR^ ^^ 'A~oA^ - ^ ^ iL.p..~oi.-.." -- --.*..,. ^ -;. v -.;, - " ^^^ ^f ^ F ^;^^: --- reo ^0^:^~ ^ ^ ^ " G^ ^ * ^:^ -*-^cc~i^ ^ ^^Jmia_........................ N m. 780.6 Luake of the.. oo............. N.A mr1. 7,650frT - --.,.^ /yo\ (-- ~^ ~ &,-. * ' PNPSL '* ASA-S.,-:- ^--\ - -** '^^ ^ ^ ^- ^ s j~-^ ^ A ^ *;-;... *ret n~^ coas^: S^ ^^.. ^.. ^'--, h^ {RT). ot io............... JaAletN.. a.................... 7,,500,~ ~ f,;.a.V - S _ ' ^..,,,.ir { m ~ u.*-?*-* SVG s. F.:. <- ' ' A C-IEA O -., * ^^ ^ W / ^ i Ap W --;? ~ /-l. ^ 5.- pi.~ ';,' - r ---;- ^ - ^ ^;v o iino ~ u d............ 8, Lbadoga.............................. 7 1 5000 49 ^ ^- ^. --*.PETN ^^ ^ T K W ^-^ ^ ^ *^ _ - -* ^.*..-*;.E. "-;.- - ^.:.:'-(F._. - ^ \ -;;;::^ ^ z~:--^ ^ ^^ aai~n raaele.. ^l^D~s(mL ^ ^.*** -, ^ ___ ^ R ^-;:-^A gnia................ o P O nt a r io................. N. A in....... 4,9 0,S O 5 2 C A P E-;...-- -: N;:.:: - E. A;H E -.. - "- - *. ' * * *... " ^.. -; -:;: - -:, ~ ^.. ^ ^) i '/. * ^ - ^ y ^ ~.:. - ^ \ \ -.... -: - ^ - -..:: '. w. ^;. ' - -. * - -. * -. -:. -*..* *, *N w S u h W l a.............1, S Aede baska................N. A m...... 4, 2060.0; - - - 'P ^ " -: / 7--- ^^ ^ *.'.*':*-.^..a.' - '* * \. ^.. **.. ^ ^ /' ^: ^ --" ' ':;-.;.^-^ ** -' <- ^ ^ j ^ / - _ _L - * '-**. *"; *; ' ^-^ *:..:-.* *.. '^:.^ otK l~ h i i ge \ ^ * __. __ - ^:;^ cC i a.................: 1: Neicargu......:..:.:.:::::.... N. A.:: 8 4:600 52 6 *:-v -...*.*....-..,^ l^.otE cl.! ^ ^:! ^.ý *K'M~ cs ' **** * *;- *: ~ ~ ~ ~ ' ' * -. ^~ '~ *.Y; ^ ^ I,////] -\***** ~ ^ ^^^ bt ~ ege ' ":*:;,.:;'.: - ^, ' l'. -:- ^.:. **.'L.**\^ - " ^.. *.-.; *: E oumnega........;........ Eu. 8 5,380; 237... -.(s~':.. " -.. ^ -. T S-; **' * *^ ^ ' ^ S ^ ^ ^^;-. ": ^ *- --'T ' - ^ -' l ^ ^ -: '- *1.;. ^.;- -:* -.;*\,./ - o w y.................. i~ TuGreec..................... Al...... 3.... 28,900., k..-*. -L ^, - -* ^ ^ ^^ - - -:-.: -.- ^ -. -: *. -: -, -.,*,^.,'- ^ ^^ -.- ^ ^ -^ ^^. *.- ^.**- *.:.-'^'- ---iG~ ^ i.;.* < ^ -,;- **(oo.:.*r -;- -^ -T -^.--.-* ----j.S.AI/ -Cp ooy..............., B eraei................................. 2 8,120 143 "'.^ - -;.\:^ *.:. - ^ - ^:- - Y t S " ^*.;:* e ly t ^ ^...^: *- -*.... ( - - -..^ ^....: ' "^ -....;-; - -*- ^<^ _ _ ^_. - -*.:...1- * * *. "1 **:.<m? -.- ^,>, ___e.:* -/-! -'*,- ____-^ ** *- * ** *--- A a) - 4 e e ln..............., Cham pian................. N.... A..m.0 1,500 #'--; -.. -^.-, -;:. - - - o '.,*^..^-E U R U " -- - _ '. ^ i ---. ^ - - ^ --------- - - - - - -: -.. ".. -*:*..., < ^ ^ g..* - -' g ^ -V e n ' * --: - ~ - - ^ - '" ~.;. *. *. -.: *G U H S.(~' *. - -; ^..- -. *...\...**:.: *, *,,::.'**,.:; *, - -.. *';. - *; ",F e c u o- h n......... K or bea................................ 1 7,3 00 Wei:.. r -,;^ -;.-:-. *-*..-**...::;,/. *' ^ ^ ^ ]a ~ c so.- - s^ - ^ w ^ *" --.^ ^: /..... -. - -..-:- *-.' -' -^ * '::. - -.;- -. -^ '.. "-- - *: y ^ ~ N. ^ ^*.... *. 1 \.**' ^ 'TT 1, ^ ^ "'" ^':> ^ ^. -. -, * *: " *''.. --'.:" K o ng o~~ I n e e d nTtt......... 6 1 3; -; ',.., - _.. 0 'r,., *: - -.r V ^ ^ " - -; -. H b t k ^ ' 1 ^ --'. - - -^ - V ^ p ^, 0:..-. * -: ^: ~ - - -, ** * > *^^^ C i E s.;^ ^^.. -...... - /;. - -. s f A. - ' -.. -* -- ^ -; -.... ^, -,;.,. 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's ^ ^ ^ ^ -.. '... s.** -*..* ** - - *:' *-: - 2,700:.. - *;, *- -..; ^,....* -,. S weden............. *@,Pao***....... China. 7 2,8 0 0**/:,, *, -^:::;.: -.. - *,:,.., *.,:.. *:. ***. -: - -;. >".:.; * s..:* T ' ' ^ ' ^ *- Tr ' " f ' V ' *T S ^ ^ ^ ^ ' -* m s i s.. ^ ^.. -.. '::.-- * '*. / -, ^..y..' -: jT * ' A' V '^ - - ' * ** - *....*. *. Lenae................................. 7;5n Asa 2,500:^:;-::,;;^:-.:.: '.:''.:* -.*':.:;/;-\ *: - ^ ' 7'^:**'.:..-. ^.*;;-.:.-. * * i. T ^. A; *J SC' *T *, * *:* ^ ^ ^ ^ ';, * ^.-..- *; -. ***' '. * ''^;':.^ *^;. '';,:_.**': ^ ^ "' *-' M.. - * ' '7-.:::. Niger.............. W. A0 --frim'::** "- -:* *: __ " ^ *^: *::" ';';-:. __:;" '.':':^. 'I."-....^ -; -* '^"*,.7. --^.:.^, _ -'".* ^ * - -- *..- *- "." * ___ '. -. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ -::.-"/ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^:^. *':.'!-' - '.:-^ ^:" ":: ^:~*^ ^ ' '^ - ------ -.'';. --- - - - ---- - -- - - "------7 a o e::::::::::: Spi.....,,,,.....,,.... 600 \.*_":;^..;^:^^:." ';; ':'"'^.";^ '**^'^*" ^'i " *...'.'.:.. ^ ^^.. 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Page  71

Page  72

Page  73 PATRONS' REFERENCE DIRECTORY OF Oceana County, Micb1igcan EXPLANATION.-The date following a name indicates the length of time the party has been a resident in the county. 1 "The abbreviations are as follows: S. for Section; T. for Township; P. 0. for Post-office address. limits of the village or city named, and, in such cases, the When no Section Number or Township is given, it will be understood that the party resides within the post-office'address is the same as the place of residence, unless otherwise stated. Abbott, W. G., Farmer, S. 17, T. Ferry, P. 0. Shelby. Aldrich, R. B., Bakery and Restaurant, Hart. 1908. Anderson, A. C., Farmer, S. 3, T. Clay Banks, P. 0. Shelby. Anderson, Chas., Farmer, S. 22, T. Golden, P. 0. Mears. 1872. Anderson, Frank, Farmer, S. 19, T. Grant, P. 0 Montague. Anderson, G., Farmer, S. 31, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Andreas, Chas., Farmer, P. 0. Walkerville. Andreas, H., S. 15, T. Leavitt,"P. 0. Walkerville. Andreas, T., Farmer, S. 16, T. Leavitt, P. 0. Walkerville. Aronsen, Johan, Farmer, S. 25, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby; Artlip, R. B., Farmer, S. 34, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Holton. Atwater, Chas. I., Clothing and Furnishings, Shelby. Averill, E. R., General Merchandise, Wholesale Produce, Mears. 1898. Baade, Frank, Farmer, S. 23, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Bailey, Wui. F., Merchant, Rothbury. Baker Sidney, Farmer, S. 11, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Balkema, Henry H., Farmer, S. 10, T. Grant, P. 0. Shelby. Barrett, Geo., Farmer, S. 11, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Bartlett, James, Farmer, S. 29, P. Grant, P. 0. Rothbury. Bates, E. L., Real Estate and Publisher, Pentwater. Baxter, Geo. W., Farmer, S. 34, T. Clay Banks, P. 0. Montague. Beadle, Lee C., Mason and Farmer, Crystal Valley, 1880. Mr. Beadle was born in Fabius Township, St. Joseph County, Michigan, in 1866 and settled in Oceana County in 1880. Bearss, Jesse, Farmer, S. 8, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Mr. Bearss was born in Welland, Out., in 1837 and settled in Oceana County in 1865. In 1868 he was married to Miss Libbie Morningstar who died in 1876. To them were born three children. In 1879, Mr. Bearss was married to Miss Fannie Beam. To this union two children were born. Mr. Bearss was again bereaved by the loss of his second wife. In 1886 he was married to Miss Anna Lord and to them a son was born. Beattie, H. B., General Merchandise, S. 17, T. Elbridge, P. 0. Hart. Beebe, A. R., Farmer and School Director, S. 16, T. Colfax, P. 0. Walkerville. Mr. Beebe was born in Alleghany County, N. Y., in 1861 and settled in Oceana County in 1865. Beebe, W. H., Farmer, S. 22, T. Golden, P. 0. Mears. 1862. Mr. Beebe has held the office of Road Commissioner for 7 years. Bement, E. M., Farmer and School Director, S. 22, T. Crystal, P. 0. Walkerville. 1909. Bender, Milan, Farmer, S. 6, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Bennett Lumber & Manufacturing Co., Incorporated, General Contracting and Building, Established 1895. W. C. Bennett, President and Manager; S. D. Young, Vice President; Burt Wickham, Secretary and Treasurer, Hart. Bennett, W. C., President and Manager of Bennett Lumber & Manufacturing Co., Incorporated, Hart. 1882. Mrs. Lucy M. Bennett, wife of W. C. Bennett, was the first white child born in the Village of Pentwater. She was born in 1865. Her name was Lucy M. Flagg before she was married and her parents was among the few early settlers of Oceana County. Benson, 0.. Farmer, S. 11, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Benton, E. L., Merchandise and Postmaster, Ferry. Bervoets, Frank, Farmer, S. 34, T. Weare, P. 0. Hart. 1906. Birkman, J., Farmer, S. 28, T. Elbridge, P. 0. Hart. 1888. Bowers, C, W., Farmer, S. 10, T. Ferry, P. 0. Shelby. Brillhart, J. M., Farmer, S. 31, T. Weare, P. 0. Hart. 1872. Brooks, Erman L., General Store and Farmer, S. 26, T. Hart, P. 0. Hart. 1867. Brown, Geo. H., General Merchandise and Postmaster, Crystal Valley. 1873. Bubert, Heinrich, Farmer, S. 11, T. Grant, P. 0. Rothbury. Buck, Palmer E., General Merchandise and Farmer, S. 3, T. Weare, P. 0. Pentwater. 1869. Bunting, E. L., Editor, Walkerville. Burmeister, Carl J., Farmer, S. 14, T. Benona, P. Q. Shelby. Burmeister, Frank, Farmer, S. 34, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Burmeister, J., Farmer, S. 32, T. Ferry, P. 0. Shelby. Burmeister. Joe, Farmer, S. 32, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Burrington, Andy, Farmer, S. 30, T. Weare, P. 0. Pentwater. Mr. Burrington was born in Oceana County in 1874. Bush, H. K., Jr., Farmer, S. 26, T. Newfield, P. 0. Hesperia. Bush, S. A., Farmer, S. 23, T. Ferry, P 0. Ferry. Butler, Wm, Basket Manufacturer, Shelby. Buttelman, C. H., Farmer, S. 36, T. Clay Banks, P. 0. Montague. -Buttelman, Geo., Farmer, S. 35, T. Clay Banks, P. 0. Montague. Buttleman, W. E., Farmer, S. 30, T. Grant, P. 0. Montague. Camber, Fred, Farmer, S. 28, T. Newfield, P. 0. Hesperia. Campbell, H. I., Passenger Conductor, P. M. Railway, and Land Owner, Holland. Cargill, James, Farmer, S. 25, T. Weare, P. 0. Hart. 1865. Cargill, Wm., Farmer, S. 1, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Carleton. John, Farmer, S. 13, T. Grant, P. 0. Rothbury. Cartwright, A. E., Farmer, S. 8, T. Otto, P. 0. Rothbury. Chalke-, Sylvia, Farmer, S. 29, T. Ferry, P. 0. Shelby. Churchill, C. L., Banker, Shelby. Clark, W. E., Farmer, S. 10, Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Clark, W. S., Farmer, S. 23, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Holland. Clark, WV. V., Farmer, S. 2, T. Ferry, P. 0. Shelby. Clute, B. D., Farmer, S. 19, T. Crystal, P. 0. Crystal Valley. Mr. Clute was born in Kent County, Michigan in 1856 and settled in'Oceana County in 1878. Cochran, Geo. F., Farmer, S. 16, T. Elbridge, P. 0. Hart. 1865. Mr. Cochran has held the office of Township Clerk for 2 years. Coffin, Cal., Farmer, S. 4, T. Leavitt, P. 0. Walkerville. Colby & Spitler Co., Hardware and Farm Implements, J. H. Colby, President; Harry Spitler, Vice President; J. W. Spitler, Secretary, Hart. Cole, D. S., Banker, WValkerville. Collins, A. D. S. Drug Store, S. T. Collins, Proprietor. Hart. Conger, J. B., Produce Dealer, New Era. Conroy, Frank, Farmer, S. 13, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Corbin, F. L., Shipper of Potatoes, Fruits, Beans and Farm Produce, Hart. 1865. Cotton, Eagene, Farmer,. S. 3. T. Elbridge, P. 0 Hart. 1864. Cotton, J. N., Real Estate, Hart. 1864. Mr. Cotton has held the offices of County Treasurer, County Supervisor and Deputy sheriff. Covell, J. B., Farmer, S. 31, T. Grant, P. 0. Montague. Coy, Herbert C., Proprietor of Pythian Park Addition and Manufacturer, Chicago, Illinois. Coyle, M. P., Farmer, S. 11, T. Weare, P. 0. Pentwater. 1904. Croff, Daniel J., Farmer, S. 12, T. Ferry, P. 0. Hesperia. Croff, J. W., Farmer, S. 4, T. Newfield, P. 0. Hesperia. Crowthner, Chas. H., Farmer, S. 32, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Cummins, D. H., Farmer, S. 28, T, Crystal, P. 0. Hart. Mr. Cummins was born in Allegan County, Michigan in 1872 and settled in Oceana County in 1879. Cummins, H. M.. Farmer, S. 17, T. Crystal, P. 0., Crystal Valley. Mr. Cummins was born in St. Joseph County, Michigan in 1878 and settled in Oceana County in 1879. Curtis, John, Farmer, S. 1, Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Cushing, A. R., Farmer, S. 23, T. Ferry, P. 0. Ferry. Daggett, E. A., Farm Implements, Pentwater. Darlington, Frank, Farmer, S. 10, T. Newfield, P. 0. Hesperia. Davis, H. E., Farmer, S. 3, T., Newford, P. 0. Hesperia. Decker, James, Farmer, S. 28, T. Ferry, P. 0. Ferry. Decker, Wm., Farmer, S. 17, T. Colfax, P. 0. Walkerville. Mr. Decker was born in Pulaski County, Indiana, and settled in Oceana County in 1902. De Haven, E. W., Township Clerk of Shelby Township, Shelby. Demmon, Frank, Farmer, S. 28, T. Hart, P. 0. Hart. 1867. Mr. Demmon has served as Sheriff for 4 years and Highway Commissioner for 4 years. Dennis, W. R., Merchant, Rothbury. Dennison, Geo. H., Farmer, S. 10, T. Elbridge, P. 0. Hart. 1878. Deuster, P. J., Farmer, S. 25, T. Golden, P. 0. Hart. 1911. Deyman, R. E., Farmer, S. 11, T. Clay Banks, P.-O. Shelby. Dorrance, A. R., Proprietor, of Cherry Ridge Fruit Farm, S. 25, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Drake, S. M., Farmer, S. 6, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Dukes, WV. N., Farmer, S. 33, T. Leavitt, P. 0. Waikerville. Dumaw, Everett, Farmer, S. 8. T. Weare, P. 0. Pentwater. Mr. Dumaw was born in Oceana Count; in 1874. Dzur, Herman, Farmer, S. 17, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. East Shore Land Co., E'stablished 1909. Hart. Eaton, Wm. A., Farmer, S. 17, T. Clay Banks, P. 0. Shelby. Eberle, Chas., Farmer, S. 16, T. Grant, P. 0. Rothbury. Eddy's Bargain Store, Chas. B. Eddy, Proprietor, Hart. Mr. Eddy is President of the Hart School Board. Ellis, C. E., Produce and Coal, Shelby. Elmquest, Aug., Farmer, S. 11, T. Newfield, P. 0. Hesperia. English, Willard W., Farmer, S.. 4, T. Weare, P. 0. Pentwater. 1896. Espehaug, Thomas, Farmer, S. 36, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Estes, C. F., Fruit Farming, S. 30, T. Hart, P. 0. Hart. 1904. Evans, Leo, Farmer, S. 27, T. Eibridge, P. 0. Hart. 1887. Ewing, S. L., Farmer, S. 29, T. Weare, P. 0. Pe-twater. Mr. Ewing was born in Pennsylvania in 1857 and settled in Oceana County in 1893. Fairchild, Joseph, Farmer, S. 35, T. Leavitt, P. 0. Hesperia. Falkema, Dick, Farmer, S. 3, T. Grant, P. 0. New Era. Farber, Simon, Farmer, S. 4, T. Newfield, P. 0. Hesperia. Fay, H N., Farmer, S. 33, T. Weare, P. 0. Hart. 1873. Fidler., Wm., Farmer, S. 13, T. Ferry, P. 0. Hesperia. Figiel, Michael, Farmer, S. 27, T. Newfield, P. 0. Hesperia. Fincher, F. W., Banker, Pentwater. Fisher, John F., Supervisor of Hart Township, Hart. 1881. Mr. Fisher has held the office of Township Treasurer and President of the School Board and is serving his third term as Supervisor. Fleming, C. J., Fruit Grower and Supervisor, S. 20, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Fleming, E. K., Farmer, S. 15, T. Grant, P. 0. Rothbury. Fleming, 0. H., Farmer, S. 24, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Fleming, Wm. L., Farmer, S. 30, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Fletcher, Walter, Farmer, S. 15, T BElbridge, P. 0. Hart. 1888. Mr. Fletcher has served as School Director and Highway Commissioner. Flory, 0. E., Farmer, S. 32, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Flory, Wm. 1U., Farmer, S. 12, T. Golden, P. 0. Hart. 1366. Floyd, Isaac L., Farmer, S. 31, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Fohlbrook, Julius, Farmer, S. 26, T. Clay Banks, P. 0. Montague. Foster, F. A., Farmer, S. 6, T. Grant, P. 0. Shelby. Fox, Joseph, Farmer, S. 25, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Hesperia. Fos & Long, Livery, Shelby. Frees, John, Farmer, S. 14, T. Ferry, P. 0. Hesperia. Frishett, Henry, Farmer, S. 28, T. Crystal, P. 0. Crystal Valley. Mr. Frishett was born in Kent County, Michigan, in 1863 and settled in Oceana County in 1869. Frishett, Nelson, Farmer and Hotel, Crystal Valley. Mr. Frishett was born in Kent County in 1853 and settled in Oceana County in 1869. Gafford, John W., Far-ner, S. 31, T. Crystal, P. 0. Hart. Mr. Gafford was born in Pennsylvania in 1856. Gale, A. F., Farmer and Saw Mill, S. 36, T. Hart, P. 0. Hart. 1891. Gallop, Oscar, Farmer, S. 34, T. Greenwoo 1, P. 0 Holton. Garrety, C. E., Farmer, S. 9, T. Grant, P. 0. Rothburv. Genia, E. A., Fruit Grower, S. 19, T. Hart, P. 0. Hart. 1871. Getty, C. E., Garage and Saw Mill, Shelby. Gleason, James, Farmer, S. 9, T. Leavitt, P. 0. Walkerville. Gongwer, A. C., Real Estate. Hart. 1895. Gorden, Charles, Farmer, S. 17, T. Colfax, P. 0. Walkerville. Mr. Gorden was born in Allegan County in 1867 and settled in Oceana County in 1900. Graham, Wm. R., Farmer, S. 11, T. Veare, P. 0. Pentwater. 1883. Grant, H. A., Surveyor, Pentwater. Greiner, A. A., Farmer, S. 30, T. Crystal, P. 0. Hart. Mr. Greiner was born in Wayne County, Michigan in 1871 and settled in Oceana County in 1883. Greiner, G. P., Farmer, S. 28, T. Weare, P. 0. Hart. Mr. Greiner was born in Wayne County in 1864 and settled in Oceana County in 1883. Grinwis, Thos., Farmer, S..28, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Gurney, C. A., Editor of the Oceana Republican, Hart. 1892. Gurney, T. S., Attorney, Abstracts and lands, Hart. 1866. Mr. Gurney has held the offices of County Clerk, Register of Deeds and State Senator. Hager, Chas., Farmer, S. 5, T. Leavitt, P. 0. Walkerville. Hager, Jacob, Farmer, S. 10, T. Leavitt, P. 0. Walkerville. Hahn, J. H., Photographer, Hart. 1911. Haight, G. W., Fruit Specialist, S. 33, T. Hart, P. 0. Shelby. Hain, Albert, Farmer, S. 20, T. Grant, P. 0. Montague. Hallack, F. E., Farmer, S. 6, T. Ferry, P. 0. Shelby. Halland, L. J., Farmer, S. 36, T. Shelby. Hamill, R. 0-., Shelby Roller Mills. Shelby. Hannum, Earl, Farmer, S. 31, T. Elbridge. Hart. 1885. Hanson, A. W., Farmer, S. 33, T. Pentwater, P. 0. Pentwater. Hanson, J. D. S. & Son, Real Estate, Loans and Insurance, Hart. Hardy, Joe, Farmer, S. 16, T. Newfield, P. 0. Hesperia. Harness, WXm., Farmer, S. 26, T. Clay Banks, P. 0. Montague. Hart Cedar & Lumber Co., J. K. Flood, President, Hart. Hart Journal, The, Newspaper and Printing, I. B. Dayharsh, Editor, Hart. Established 1870. Hawkins, Chas., Farmer, S. 1, T. Weare, P. 0. Pentwater. Mr. Hawkins was born in Oceana County in 1879. Hawley, George A., Nurseryman, Hart. 1892. Hedges, Silas, Farmer,.S. 20, T Ferry, P. 0. Shelby. Heimler, WXm., Fammer, S. 2, T. Elbridge, P. 0. Walkerville. 1876. Henrickson Bros., Farmers, S. 25, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Henrickson, G. A., Farmer, S. 32, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Henry, D. B., Farmer, S. 11, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Hertoghs, Chas., Farmer, S. 28, T. Weare, P. 0. Pentwater. Mr. Hertoghs was born in Belgium in 1855 and settled in Oceana County in 1881. Heuvel, Vanden Frank, Farmer, S. 30, T. Crystal, P. 0. Hart. 1907. Heykoop, J., Farmer, S. 4, T. Grant, P. 0. New Era. Hiddema, Mont, Farmer, S. 28, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Hill, W. T., Liveryman, Hesperia. Himebaugh, Archie, Farmer, S. 13, T. Newfield, P. 0. Hesperia. Hobbv, H. B., Farmer, S. 2, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Hoffman, Alva, Farmer, S. 22, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Holbrook, Griffin, Farmer, S. 10. T. Leavitt, P. 0. Walkerville. Holcomb, L. R., Farmer, S. 20, T. Golden, P. 0. Mears. 1882.

Page  74 74 PATRONS' REFERENCE DIRECTORY. Holt, N., Farmer, S. 1, T. Elbridge, P. 0. Walkerville. 1868. Homan, Johnl, Farmer, S. 27, T. Newfield, P. 0. Hesperia. Homan, M., Farmer, S. 14, T. Newfield, P. 0. Hesperia. Hook, Gutty E., Farmer, S. 28, T. Hart, P. 0. Hart. 1892. Host, W. A., Farmer, S. 13, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Hesperia. Howard, A. J., Farmer, S. 17, T. Newfield, P. 0. Hesperia. Hull, Israel, Farmer, S. 4, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Hunt, Geo., Farmer, S. 15, T. Newfield, P. 0. Hesperia. Hunkins, M. H., & Co., Shoes and Men's Furnishings, Hart. Hunt, Lee E., Farmer, S. 22, T Newfield, P. 0. Hesperia. Huntoon, Wmin., Farmer, S. 27, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Holton. Hutchins, Mrs. Emma R., School Commissioner, Hart. 1879. Hutchins, D. Burns, Produce and Fruit, Hart. 1873. Immel, Frank, Farmer, S. 5, T. Newfield, P. 0. Hesperia. Jensen, Frank A., Superintendent of School, Hart Village, Hart. 1878. Johnson, C. W., Farmer, S.'3, T. Newfield, P. O...Hesperia. Johnson, P. M,, Farmer, S. 6, T. Grant, P. 0. Shelby. Jonassen, Jos., Watchmaker and Jeweler, Hart..1909. Jonker, John, Farmer, S 11, T. Grant, P. 0. Rot'hbury. Jordan, C. 0., Farmer, S. 28, T. Ferry, P. 0. Shelby. Jorissen, Cornelius, Farmer, S. 36, T. Weare, P. 0. Hart. 1894. Jorriissen, Eugene, Farmer, S. 14, T. Hirt, P. 0. Hart. 1893. Joslin, C. A., Undertaker, Hart. 1899. - Kamnstra', R., Farmer, S. 3, T. Grant, P. 0. Shelby. Kantz, G. A., Real Estate, Shelbv. Kempker, Ralph, Farmer, S. 5, T. Grant, P. 0. Shelby. Kenfield, Clifford, Rothbury. Kiel, John H., Farmer, S. 14, T. Grant, P. 0. Rothbury. Klotter, Oscar, Farmer, S. 10, T. Grant, P. 0. Shelby. Knapp, 0. B., Farmer, S. 21, T. Weare, P. 0. Pentwater. 1876. Knudsen, C. M., Farmer, S. 35, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Knudsen, C. N., Farmer, S. 12, T. Clay Banks, P. 0. Shelby. Krantz, Sam, Farmer, S. 15, T. Golden, P. 0. Mears. 1905. - Krauss, G. F., Farmer, S. 4, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Kroll, Conrad, Farmer, S. 13, T. Clay Banks, P. 0. Montague. Kurger, Edd, Farmer, S. 33, T. Ferry, P. O. Hesperia. Ladegast, Win., Farmer. S. 22, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Lathrop, Ed, Farmer, S. 11, T. Elbridge, P. 0. Hart. 1882. Lauber, Joseph, Farmer, S. 6, T. Weare, P. 0. Pentwater. 1896. Lavis, Wm. H., Farmer, S. 7, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Lefevre, Henry, Farmer, S. 28, T. Weare, P. 0. Hart. Mr. Lefevre was born in Belgium in 1849 and settled in Oceana County in 1875. Lentz, Chas., Farmer, S. 26, T. Weare, P. 0. Pentwater. Mr. Lentz was born in Germany in 1858 and settled in Oceana County in 1885. *-Lewellyn, F. E., Produce, Shelby. Lewis, S. E., Farmer, S. 36, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. 1866. Lintz, E. E., Farmer, S. 29, T. Hart, P. 0. Hart. 1869. Long, S. G., Farmer, S. 23. T. Grant, P. 0. Rothbury. Longnecker, A. A., Merchant, Rothbury. Longnecker, Ben, Farmer, S. 16, T. Grant, P. 0. Rothbury. Lovell, R. J., Farmer, S. 32, T. Weare, P. 0. Hart. Mr. Lovell was born in Oceana County in 1885 Lundholm, John, Farmer, S. 12, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Luther, Fred A., Proprietor of Broadview Farm and Breeder of Full Blooded Guernsey Cattle and Hampshire Swine, S. 1'6, T.,Hart, P. 0. Hart. 1875. Lydens, J., Farmer, S. 2, T. Ferry, P. 0. Shelby. Lyon, W. F., Jr., Secretary and Manager of the Lyon Furniture Co., Village and Township Treasurer, Hart. 1904. Lyon Furniture Co, Ltd., The, House Furnishings, W. F. Lyon, Secretary and Manager, Hart. Lyon, W. F. & Sons, Fruit Farming, S. 19 and 30, T. Hart, P. 0 Hart. 1896. r ',.Manners, Andrew, Farmer, S. 2, T. Weare, P. 0. Pentwater. Mr. * ~ -Manners was born in Oceana County in 1869. " Markham, W. D., Bees and 'Fruit Grower, 1866. "Mr. Markham is one of * the oldest settlers in Hart. He has been married sixty years; Marsalek, Frank, Farmer, S. 20, T. Grant, P. 0. Montague. ' Matthews, Henry, Farmer, S. 9, T. Weare, P. 0. Pentwater. 1868. Mathewson, C. D., Merchant, Ferry. Mauk, -Fred, Farmer, S. 15, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. May, G., Farmer, S. 27, T. Elbridge, P. 0. Hart. 1874.. Mr. May is at prssent holding the office of Supervisor. He has held every township office at various times. McCallam & Co., J. B., Abstractors.,Established 1907. Hart. McFarland, W.. H., Village and Township Clerk, Hart. 1895. Mr. McFarland has held the office of Village and Township Clerk for 5 years. McLaren, Dock, Farmer, S. 12, T. Newfield, P. 0. Hesperia. McLouth, L., Farmer, S. 24, T. Benona, P. 0, Shelby. Mengel, David, Farmer, S. 29, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelbv. Meyer, Karl, Farmer, S. 12, T. Grant, P. 0. Rothbury. Miller, Bernard, Farmer, S. 14, T. Clay Banks, P. 0. Montague. Miller, Peter F., Farmer, S 31, T. Newfield, P. 0. Hesperia. Milner, H. J., Farmer, Walkerville. Mitchell, E.- L., Proprietor of Lakelett Fruit Farm, S. 36, T. Hart, P. 0. Hart. Mitchell, L. B., Justice of Peace, Retired Farmer and Poet, Hart. 1868. Mr. Mitchell has held the office of Justice of Peace for eight years. Monroe, F. P., Farmer, S. 22, T. Grant, P. 0. Rothbury. "Morley, R. D., Farmer, S. 16 and 17, T. Golden, P. 0. Mears.. 1886. Morrow, Joseph, Farmer, S. 21, T. Newfield, P. 0. Hesperia. Morse, R. S.;- Farmer, S. 26, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. SMosher, Walter, Farmer, S. 6, T. Newfield, P. 0 Hesperia. Munger, L. P, M. D., Physician and Proprietor of Juniper Beach Resort, Hart. 1895. Munson, Hans, Farmer, S. 2, T. Weare, P. 0. Pentwater. 1870. Munson, H. 0., Farmer, S. 34, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby, Myers, Geo. C., Farmer, S. 1, T. Clay Banks, P. 0. Shelby. Neidigh, Z. P. Farmer, S. 3, T. Elbridge, P. 0. Hart. 1801. Nelson, C. A., Farmer, S. 21, T. Elbridge, P. 0. Hart. 1882. Newman, Fred R., Farmer, S. 35, T. Ferry, P. 0. Hesperia. Mr. Newman was born in Scranton; Pa. in 1854 and settledin Oceana County in 1861. In 1880 he Was married to Miss Frances D. Keich and there were born four sons and two daughters. Mr. Newman has held the offices of Township treasurer and Supervisor. Newmyer, Win., Farmer, S. 9, T. Grant, P. 0. Shelby. Noret, E. A., Real Estate, Horses, wagons, carriages and harness, Hart. 1890. Oceana Canning Co., John R. Odell, manager, Shelby. Oceana Courier, Newspaper, Frank P. Hilbourn, pfublisher, Hart. Odell, Samuel, Farmer, S. 19, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Osborn, N. H., Groceries, Dry goods and Millinery, Hart. 1901. Page, G. F., Farmer, S. 11, T. Ferry, P. 0. Hesperia. Palmer Auto Company, Automobiles, Repairing, Vulcanizing and Supplies, Hart. Palmiter, H. J., Proprietor of Homeland Farm and Clothier, Hart. 1870. Palmiter & Peterson, Clothing, Tailoring and Shoes, Hart. Established 1873... Pankow, August, Farmer, S. 14, T. Claybanks, P. 0. Montague. Parish, J. J., Farmer, S. 30, T. Ferry, P..O. Shelby. Peterson, E. S., Farmer, S. 34, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Pittenger, T. H., Register of Deeds, Hart. 1865. Mr. Pittenger has held the offices of Justice of Peace and Treasurer. Platt, A. H., Livery and Feed Stable, Hart. 1890. Platt, L. S., Postmaster, Hart. 1892. Platt & Collins, Clothing and Gents Furnishings, Hart. Established 1902. Plummer, L. B., Dentist and Fruit grower, Shelby. Pontius, Joe, Farmer, S. 14, T. Ferry, P. 0. Ferry. Potter, W. H.',Farmer, S. 1, T. Ferry, P. 0. Cobmoosa. Powers, E. S. Butter Company. Hart. Prow, A., Farmer, S. 12, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Pugsley, Earl C., Attorney at Law, Hart. 1909. Purfdy, Bert W., Farm Produce and Fruits, Hart. 1873. Putney, Ira, Farmer, S. 20, T. Ferry, P. 0. Shelby. Rabe, Fred, Farmer, S. 9, T. Clay Banks, P. 0. Shelby. Randall, Mrs. L. M., General Store and Farming, S. 13, T. Hart, P. 0. Hart. 1864. Rankin, A. J., Hardware and Implements, Shelby. Rankin, Robert J., County Treasurer, Hart. 1879. Rasmussen; Edmund,- Farmer, S 33; T, Weare, P. 0. Hart. Mr. Rasmussen was born in Oceana County in 1865. Reinhold, F. W., Farmer S.S 31, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Richter, W. C., Farmer, S. 18. T. Hart; P. 0. Hart.. 1868. Riebe, C., Farmer, S. 16, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Roach, W. R. & Co., Packers of Hart Brand Canned Goods, Hart. Roberts, Gust, Farmer, S. 20, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Robinson, Wm., Farmer, S. 4, T. Ferry, P. 0. Hart. Rockwell, H. Mi., Farmer, S. 17, T. Grant, P. 0. Shelby. Rollins, W. E., Assistant Cashier, Oceana' County Savings Bank, Hart. 1871. Mr. Rollins has served as Village Treasurer and Township Clerk. Rolph, Wesley, Farmer, S. 5, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Rouse, F. 0., Farther, S. 4, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Rowley. Reginald E, Farmer and Fruit Grower, S. 21, T. Crystal, P. 0. Walkerville. Mr. Rowley wvas born in Oceana County in 1883. Royal, H. M.. Publisher of.Oceana Herald, Shelby. Ruggles, Josiah L., Farmer, S. 7, T. Crystal, P. 0. Pentwater. 1902. Rumsey, Mort, Farmer, S. 36, T. Newfield, P. 0. Hesperia. Sackitt, T. A., Farmer, S. 13, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Salter, Dan W., Farmer, S. 21, T. Hart, P. 0 Hart. 1895. Sanborn, Geo. G., Fruit Farming, S. 1, T. Elbridge, P. 0. Walkerville. 1906. Sandberg & Coote, Produce, Shelby.' Sands, G. T., Banking, Pentwater. Sands, H. F., Farmer, Pentwater. Satterly, Wm, Retired Farmer, Shelby. Schaner, Chas., Farmer, S. 29, T. Weare, P. 0. Hart. Mr. Schaner was born in Oceana County in 1879. Schaner, Nick, Farmer, S. 28, T. Weare, P. 0. Hart. Mr. Schaner was born in Oceana County in 1873. Schiller, Peter, Farmer, S. 10. T. Clay Banks, P. 0. Shelby. Schmieding, Chas. T., Farmer and Real Estate, S. 5, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Mr. Schmieding was born in West Alden in 1868 and came to Michigan in 1881. He was married in 1889 to Mary L. Burmeister and to this union, six sons and one daughter was born. Schmieding, E. H., Farmer, S 7, T. Ferry, P. 0. Shelby. Schmuck, Joseph, Farmer, S. 14, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Schroeder, H., Farmer, S. 14, T. Grant, P. 0. Rothbury. Schroeder, Paul A., Farmer, S. 14, T. Grant, P. 0. Rothbury. Sears & Nichols Co., The, Canned Fruit Packers, Pentwater. Shaw, WMm: H., Sr., Farmer, S.. 22, T. Ferry, P.- 0. Ferry. Mr. Shaw was born in Connecticut in 1856 and settled in Oceana County in 1879. He was married to Julia A. Parish in 1881. Shepherd, J. D., Farmer, S. 10, T. Ferry, P. 0. Shelby. Sherwood, Geo., Farmer, S. 34, T. Leavitt, P. 0. Hesperia. Shull, H. C., Farmer and General Merchandise, S. 11, T. Elbridge, P. 0. Hart. 1894. Skeels, Rufus F., Attorney at Law, Hart. 1896. Mr. Skeels was prosecuting Attorney for 8 years and has served as Councilman. Skinner, Elmer A., Farmer, S. 29, T. Weare, P. 0. Hart. Mr. Skinner was born in Oceana County in 1880. Skinner, H. G., Farmer, S. 6, T. Hart, P. 0. Hart. 1866. Slocum, Lester, Farmer, S. 27, T. Elbridge, P. 0. Hart. 1877. Smith, D. H., Farmer, S. 20, T. Ferry, P. 0. Shelby. Smith, E. R., Farmer, S. 31, T. Elbridge, P. 0. Hart. Smith, H. T., Farmer, S. 21, T. Ferry, P. 0. Shelby. Smith, Thos. S., (Highland Orchard,) S. 1, T. Elbridge, P. 0. Walker. ville. Snow, Will H., Farmer, S. 2, T. N.ewfield, P. 0. Hesperia. Snyder, Frank, Farmer, S. 15, T. Newfield, P. 0. Hesperia. Snyder, W. E., Grower and Shipper of Fancy Apples and Manufacturer of Apple Barrels, Hart. 1866. Souter, A. E.,' Attorney, Shelby. Mr. Souter was born in England in 1851 and settled in Oceana County in 1876. He was married to Miss Susan McClentic in 1875. Mr. Souter has held various offices in Oceana County. Sparks, Peter, Farmer, S. 10, T. Ferry, P. 0 Shelby. Spaulding, W., Farmer, S. 22, T. Newfield, P. 0. Hesperia. Spencer, Edd A., Farmer and Fruit Giower, S. 20, T. Hart P. 0. Hart. 1893. Squire, Chas W., Farmer, S 21, T. Weare, P. 0. Pentwater. Mr. Squire was born in Oceana County in 1878. Stanley, Ed., Farmer, S. 4, T. Elbridge, P. 0. Hart. 1902. Stears Lightning & Power Co., The, Hart. Stetson, A. C., Hardware, Walkerville. Stevens, C. B., Attorney at Law and President of the Villige of Hart, Hart. Mr. Stevens has been Prosecuting Attorney of Oceana County four years and has served seven terms as President of Hart Village. Stever, Jerry, Farmer, S. 3, T. Colfax, P. 0. Branch. Mr. Stever was born in Trumble County, Ohio in 1851 and settled in Oceana County in 1865. Stillman, George, Farmer, S. 18, T. Otto, P. 0. Rothbury. Strait, A. D., Farmer, S. 9, T. Leavitt, P. 0. Walkerville. Strait, Elizabeth, Farmer, S. 32, T. Crystal, P. 0. Hart. 1884. Strickland, Wade B., Farmer and Treasurer School District No. 4, Hart. 1862. Stubbs, John, Farmer, S. 9, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelbv. Sullivan, Jerry, Farmer, S. 21, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelbv. Sundell, A. J., Farmer, S 3, T. Clay Banks, P. 0. Shelbv. Swears, Nick, Farmer, S 33, T Crystal, P. 0. Crystal Valley. Mr. Swears was born in Holland in 1843 and settled in Oceana County in 1880. Sweet, M. H., Farmer, S. 6, T. Grant, P. 0. Shelby. Swinton, John, Farmer, S. 11, T. Ferry, P. 0. Hesperia. Tate, E. J., Farmer, S. 18, T. Crystal, P. 0. Crystal Valley. Mr. Tate was born in Oceana County in 1868. Taylor, J. E., Farmer, S. 13, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Taylor, R. H., Farmer, S. 34, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. Thaler, S. J., Local Director of Hart Grange, Fruit Grower Breeder of Full Blooded Duroc Jersey Hogs, S. 13, T. Hart, P. 0. Hart. 1894.. Mr. Thaler has served as School Director for School District No. 6. Toner, John, Farmer, S. 6, T. Benona; P. 0. Shelby. Township of Hart. WV. H. McFarland, Clerk. Tremmel, Frank, Farmer, S. 3, T. Ferry, P. 0. Hart. Tucker, C. B., Agent, Pere Marquette R. R., Mears. 1895. United Home Telephone Co., the, Hart. Vail, S. A., Superintendent of Oceana County Poor Farm, S. 5, T. Hart, P. 0. Hart. 1904. Vandeputte, Henry, Farmer, S. 24, T. Golden, P. 0. Hart. 1892. Van der Ploeg, B., Farmer, S. 9. T. Grant, P. 0. Shelby. Van Duinen, John, Farmer, S. 18. T. Grant, P. 0. Montague. Van Dyke, E.,. Hotel and Livery, New Era. Van Nett, Ralph, Farmer, S. 4, T. Grant, P. 0. New Era. Van Wickle, Franklin H., Farmer, S. 25, T. Ferry, P. 0. Hesperia. Van'Wickle, Judge F. W., Probate Judge, Hart. Mr. Van Wickle has been Probate Judge for. 12 years and Mayor of the Village of Selby. Varnum, E. Belle, Farmer, S. 31, T. Weare, P. 0. Hart. 1912. Vaughan, T., Farmer, S. 7, T. Leavitt, P. 0. Walkerville. Villadsen, Villads M., Farmer, 'S. 17, T. Weare, P. 0. Pentwater. 1904. Visger, Herman, Farmer, S. 16, T. Leavitt, P. 0. Walkerville. Wagner, A. M., Farmer, S,"13, T. Grant, P. 0. Rothbury. Walker, A. J., Produce, Walkerville.. Wyble, Walter, Farmer, S. 4, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Ward, L. A., Farmer, S. 2, T. Otto, P. O. Ferry. Webster, Glen, Farmer, S. 22, T. Ferry, P. 0. Ferry. Wentzloff, Henry, Farmer, S. 17, T. Benona, P. 0. Shelby. WVeiskopf, Joseph, Farmer, S. 33, T. Veare, P. 0. Hart. Mr. Weiskopf was born in Germany in 1855 and settled in Oceana County in 1903. Wetmore, F. E., Prosecuting Attorney of Oceana County, Hart. 1894. Wever, Ion 0.-, Manager of General Store for Ray Ardis, Crystal Valley.1880. Weykoop, J., Farmer, S. 4, T. Grant, P. 0. New Era. Wickham, Burt. County Clerk, Hart. Mr. Wickham was born in NewYork in 1872 and settled in Oceana County in 1888. He was married to Laura A. DuMont in 1896 to whom were born one daughter and two sons. He has held the office of Village Clerk at Pentwater and has been re-elected six times to the office of County Clerk, the position which he now holds. Wighton House, Mrs. Nellie Hellman, Proprietor, Hart. Wilder, H. J., Farmer, S. 10, T. Weare, P. 0. Pentwater. 1887. Willemen, John, Farmer, S. 33, T. Weare, P. 0. Hart. Mr. Willemen was born in Belgium in 1883 and settled in Oceana County in 1905. Willick, Benj., Farmer, S. 13, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Willitts, Ingraham, Farmer, S. 18, T. 'Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Wolf, F. J., Farmer, S. 21. T. Grant, P.' 0. Montague. Woller, Ed., Farmer, S. 25, T. Clay Banks, P. 0. Montague. Wolting, J,, Farmer, S. 3, T. Grant, P. 0. Shelby. Wood, Chas, Merchant, Ferry. Woodland, A. L, Farmer, S. 2, T. Shelby, P. 0. Shelby. Wright, George, Farmer, S. 1, T. Weare, P. 0. Pentwater. 1863. Wylie Bros., Fruit. Growers, Shelby. Zaugg, B. F., Farmer, S. 29, T. Grant, P. 0. Montague.

Page  75 I U ADVERkTISING SEGTION "Pay Less and Dress Better" Palmiter's Square Deal Store Hart, Michigan. Black Orpington Poultry Farm We make a specialty of breeding the DUKE OF KENT strain of Black Orpingtons. We can furnish either birds or eggs at a reasonable price. Write or phone H. K. BUSH, R. F. D. No. 4, Hesperia, Mich. L. S. PLATT JAS. L. COLLINS. PLATT & COLLINS Collins' A. D. S. Drug Store S. T. COLLINS, Proprietor. Drugs and Medicines, Cameras, Kodaks and Supplies, Rubber Goods. Stationery, Perfumes, Toilet Soaps, Sporting Goods, School Books and School Supplies, Etc. United Home Phone 49. Bell Phone 53. Clothing and Gent's Furnishing HART, MICHIGAN. Mrs. L.M. Randall General Merchnndise Store at Tigris. HART, - - MICHIGAN HART, - MICHIGAN COLBY & SPITLER COMPANY HARDWARE AND FARM IMPLEMENTS Specialties-Sheet Iron Work and Tin Work, Plumbing, Paints, Oils. Varnish, Sewer Pipe, Drain Tile, Champion and McCormick Harvesting Machines, Superior and Empire Grain Drills, DeLaval Cream Seperators Majestic Ranges, White Sewing Machines. HART, - - - MICHIGAN J. D. S. HANSON & SON Real Estate, Loans and Insurance OCEANA COUNTY-Projects out into Lake Michigan farther than any county on the east shore, and is therefore protected as to weather by the waters. It has more orchards planted, according to the cleared land, than any other county in Michigan. It raises more peaches in proportion to the acreage bearing than any other county. It is the best all-round farming county in Michigan. It raises wheat, timothy, clover, alfalfa, oats, barley, corn, apples, plums, pears, peaches, all kinds of small fruits and the best potatoes in the world. For further information, write J. S. D. HANSON & SON, Hart, Michigan. Square, honest dealing, prompt service and an earnest desire to please, no matter at what cost. Add to this our carefully selected and unquestionably superior line of Watches, Clocks, Jewelry, Silverware Novelties in Gold and Silver, Souvenirs, Etc. We can offer you inducements worthy of your attention. Expert repairing a specialty. JOS. JONASSEN, - - Hart, Michigan H. J. Palmiter. L. A. Palmiter. Gurney Milling Co. HART, MICHIGAN. Earl C. Pugsley LAWYER Rooms 8 and 9 Russell Block. HART, MICHIGAN. E. R. AVEIRILL General Merchandise Wholesale Produce MEARS, - MICHIGAN HOMELAND FARM J.H. HAHN. Hart, - Michigan When You Think of Photographs REMEMBER that "Hahn, the Photographer" has modern equipment for -all branches of photography, whetherportraiture, commercial, view, flashlight or copying. Satisfaction Guaranteed. WM. BUTLER Basket Manufacturer HAHN STUDIO, Hart, Michigan W. C. Bennett, - S. D. Young, Burt Wickham, Pres. and Mgr. Vice President Sec. and Mgr. H. C. Shull. Carl Shull. C. B. STEVENS LAWYER SHELBY, - MICHIGAN BENNETT LUMBER AND MFG. CO. (Incorporated) General Contracting and Building Manufacturers of Wood Turnings, Dowels, and Wood Specialties. White Pine, Yellow Pine, Lath and Shingles, Sash, Doors and Mouldings. Paints, Oils, Hardware, Plaster, Piaster Board and Cement, Etc. Hart, - Michigan SHULL BROS. Dealers in General Merchandise and Farm Implements. Aents for Sherwin-Williams Paints, U. S. Cream Separators and Johnston's Harvesting Machinery. Dry Goods, Clothing, Footwear, Hardware, Groceries, Notions, Wall Paper, Carpets. Branch Store at Hartwell's. Aldrich Bakery RESTAURANT Phone 59. HART, THE HART JOURNAL Dayharsh Bros. HART, - MICHIGAN MICHIGAN A. H. PLATT Livery and Feed Stable. Lake Shore Phone 42. HART, - MICHIGAN WIGTON HOUSE Mrs. Nellie Hellman, Proprietress. Electric Lights Steam Heat Chas. I. Atwater Clothing and Furnishings HART, MICHIGAN F. E. WETMORE, Michigan HART, - MICHIGAN ELBRIDGE, - MICH. SHELBY, - MICHIGAN H I jEE i - i -

Page  76 =1 fADVERTIS8INO SEGTION J. N. COTTON REAL ESTATE For Sale-Farm, fruit and wild lands in Oceana, Mason and Newavgo Counties. Houses and lots in Hart and Pentwater villages. * PM I THE LYON FURNITURE CO. (Ltd) ( F. J. Russell, W. F. Lyon, N. H. Lyon, - - - Chairman - Sec. and Mgr. - - Treasurer Conveyancing accurately done. Titles adjusted, money.loaned. Call or write. HART, - MICHIGAN jA.*C Gon mum Dependable House Furninhings Victor, Edison, Columbia, Machines Records and Supp'ies. Lyon's Furniture Polish and Bazaar Goods, China, Crocktry,Furniture. Glassware, Silverware, Rugs. Carpets Curtains, Linoleumrn, Pictures and Framing. Lake Shore Phone 32-2R. HART, M'CHIGAN OFFICERS: R. Simmering, - - President W. H Sears, - Vice President H. V. Huston, - Vice President F. W. Fincher, - Cashier DIRECTORS:Niels Jensen, Win. H. Sears, Win. Gilchrist, Joel S. Coffin, Hary V. Huston, Richard Simmering, Francis W. Fincher. Pentwater STATE BANK Capital $25,000. Organized under the supervision of the banking department of the state Michigan. Transacts a general bank ing business. Burglary insurance and modern devices for the protection of depositors. Money loaned on approved notes and improved real estate. Drafts bought and sold at moderate charges. Interest paid on time and savings deposits. Your patronage solicited. Pcntwater, Michigan, SAVINGS BANK Organized October 31, 1887. OFFICERS: Geo. R. Bates, - Presiden G. T. Sands, - Vice Presiden W. E. Snyder, - 2d" Vice Presiden D. J. Mathews, - - Cashier -W E. R61dlins, - Ascistant Cashie] DIECTORS: George R. Bates, - - Hanrt H. S. Newton, - - - Hanr J. N. Cotton, - - - Hart W. E. Snyder, -. - Hart J. B. Conger, - - - New Era L N. Keating, - - Muskegor G. T. Sands, - Pentwater Capital, - $40,000. Surplus, - $11,000. FlARrT, - MICHIGAN t t t r r OCEANA COUNTY Oceana Courier THE OCEANA Unsurpassed as an advertising medium in its field. PRINTERS HART, - MICHIGAN Frank P. Hilbourn REPUBLICAN HART, - MICHIGAN I Publisher - I I Reliable Dealer in Reliable Real: Estate I handle nothing but[the Sno skims or jack pine lands. best, HART, - MICHIGAN SE.A. NORET Dealer in Real Estate All kinds of Horses, Carriages, Wagons and Harness. I BertW.Purdy Farm Produce and Fruits Apples, Peaches and Potatoes in car lots a specialty. References-First National Bank, of Hart. Oceana County Savings Bank, Hart.. Produce Reporter Co., Chicago, Ill. Located in Eastern Part. of Village on P. M. Tricks. U. -H. Phone 92 and 121. Bell 22. HART, - MICHIGAN I George H. Brown, Mrs. Olive Brown, GEO. H. BROWN General Merchandise Dry Goods, Groceries Shoes, Patent Medicines, Wood, Shingles. Phones--United Home 604; Bell or Farmers' 14 L. S. L. Crystal Valley, - Michigan Postmaster - Assistant 1 E. S. Powers EDDY'S BARGAIN STORE CHAS. B. EDDY. Dry Goods, Millinery, Rugs, "Groceries, 5c and lOe goods. The same goods for less money; or more goods for the same money. BoLh Telephones. HARTI, - MICHIGAN R. D. Powers. I E. S. POWERS BUTTER COMPANY Manufacturers of Fancy Creamery Butter and Ice Cream. Factories at Ravenna and Hart. HART, - MICHIGAN W. G. Palmer. PALMER AUTO COMPANY Agents for Cadillae and Stevens-Duryea Motor Cars. SRepairing and supplies, vulcanizing and machine work. United Home Phone 191-2R. HART, - MICHIGAN P. S. Palmer. t t F. J. Russell, - - President J. K. Flood, - Vice President |A R. J. Rankin, - Cashier BATES i hThe First National Bank Real Estate HART, MICHIGAN. PENTWATER, MICH. The Steamrns Lighting l a ob and Power Co. FOA L Lig ht.r Heat Livery Power LUDINGTON, - MICH SHELBY, - MICHIGAN N. H0.. 0bRn Co E ELLIN Groceries Dry Goods Produce and Millinery and Coal Both Phones 35. HART,, - MICHIGAN SHELBY, - MICHIGAN T. S. Gurney J.B. McCALLUIM S~& coo Attorney and Abstracter. Lands Abstracters For Sale. HART, MICHIGAN HART, - MICHIGAN D. Burns Hutchins Dealer in General Prodnce Fruit, Beans, Rye, Potatoes, Buckwheat, car lots a specialty. United Home Phone 15 Bell Phone 51 Reference-First National Bank, Hart, Michigan. HART, - MICHIGAN t HART, - MICHIGAN EAST SHORE LAND COMPANY Dealers in Oceana County Fruit, Grain and Stock Farms Wild and Improved Lands HART, - MICHIGAN I W. R. Roach &Co. (Incorporated) Packers of Hart Brand Canned Goods Factories-Hart, Kent City, Lexington, Edmore and Scottville, Michigan. i M. H.. HUNKINS & CO. "The Store with Little Prices" Shoes and Men's Furnishings. Queen Quality Shoes for Women, and Crawford Shoes for Men. United Home Phone 28. F L. Corbin Shipper of Potatoes, Fruits, Beans,. Onions and all Farm Produce; car lots a specialty. Correspondence Solicited. I ] HART, - MICHIGAN W. E. Snyder Grower and Shipper of Fancy Apples, Manufacturer of Apple Barrels. Dealer in all kinds of Horses. THE UNITED HOME TELEPHONE CO. W. A. Cartier, - President G. T. Sands, - Vice President Thos. W. Bromley, Jr., Sec.-Treas. A. B. Clark, - Superintehdent Independent local and long distance telephone. I! HART, F. W. Van Wickle Flour and Feed. "King David Flour" Corn, Cracked Corn and Corn and Oats. GEO. A. HAWLEY Successor to E. Hawley & Sons. Nurseryman Peach, Apple, Cherry, Pear and Plum, Ornamental Trees, Shrubs and Vines, Etc. References-First National Bank Hart; Oceana County Savings Bank, Hart. Hotel New Era Elmer Van Dyke, Proprietor. Rates $2.00 per day. Phone, Livery and Dray in Connection. H. B. BEATTIE Dealer in General Merchandise I handle Dry Goods, Shoes, Groceries and Notions. Best prices for dairy and poultry products. Cedar Corners-Bell or - Farmers' Phone. R. F. D. 4. Telephone No. 7-W. MICHIGANI HART, - MICHIGAN HART, - MICHIGAN New Era, - Michigan E. A. Daggett Farm Implements Clarence A. Joslin Funeral Director g 1 HART, - MICHIGAN HART, - MICHIGAN I HART, - MICHIGAN HART, - MICHIGAN PENTWATER, - MICH. HART, - MICHIGAN I I

Page  77 -w I PAGE 77 4, ILLUSTRf\TIONS 4' 'V I. ROBERT J. RANKIN, Cashier of First National Bank, HART, MICH. F. E. WETMORE, Ex Prosecuting Attorney, HART, MICH. C. J. FLEMING, Supervisor of Shelby Township and Chairman of Board of Supervisors of Oceana County for year 1912. S STEPHEN A. VAIL, Superintendent of Oceana County Farm, HART, MICH. G. W. HAIGHT, Proprietor of Pleasant Valley Fruit Farm, R. F. D. No. 6, SHELBY, MICH. BURT WICKHAM, C. T. SCHMIEDING, County Clerk, SHELBY, MICH. HART, MICH. EMMA R. HUTCHINS, HART, MICH. FRANK P. HILBOURN, FRED R. NEWMAN, Editor Oceana Courier, R. F. D. No. 2, HART, IiCH. HESPERIA, MICH. RUFUS T. SKEELS, W. F. ROLLINS, HART, MICH. HART, MICH. ELMER VAN DYKE, NEW ERA, MICH. H. J. PALMITER, HART, MICH. JOS. JONASSEN,. HART, MICH. W. H. McFARLAND, HART, MICH. JAMES J. PARISH, R. F. D. No. 1, SHELBY, MICH. T. S. GURNEY, HART, MICH. L. B. MITCHELL, HART, MICH. W. L. FLEMING, R. F. D. No. 2, SHELBY, MICH,

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Page  85 UNITED STHTES LAND SURIEYS SUPPLEMENT I. ANALYSIS 1R 4SYSTEM ---GRA- b &tt CiGNr -- 0 ates 5u Veys METES AND BOUNDS P to the time of the Revolutionary War, or until about the beginning of the present century, land, when parcelled out, and S sold or granted, was described by "Metes and Bounds," and that system is still in existence in the following States, or in % those portions of them which had been sold or granted when the present plan of surveys was adopted, viz.: New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Texas, and the six New England States. To describe land by "rMetes and Bounds," is to have a known land-mark for a place of beginning,."and then follow a line according to the compass-needle (or magnetic bearing), or the course of a stream, or track of an ancient highway. This plan has resulted in endless confusion and litigation, as land-marks decay and change, and it is a well-known fact that i the compass-needle varies and does not always point due North'. As an example of this plan of dividing lands, the following description of a farm laid out by " Metes and Bounds," is given: " Beginning at a stone on the Bank of Doe River, at a point where the highway from A. to B. crosses said river (see point marked C. on Diagram 1); thence 40~. North of West 100 rods to a large stump; thence 10~ North of West 90 rods; thence 15~ West of North 80 rods to an oak tree (see Witness Tree on Diagram 1); thence due East 150 rods to the highway; thence following the course of the highway 50 rods due North; thence 5~ North of East 90 rods; thence 45~ East of South 60 rods; thence 10~ North of East 200 rods to the Doe River; thence following the course of the river Southwesterly to the place of beginning." This, which is a very simple and moderate description by "4 Metes and Bounds," would leave the boundaries of the farm as shown in Diagram 1. _____ MERIDIANS AND BASE LINES DIAGRAM 2 THE present system of Governmental Land Surveys was adopted by Congress on the 7th of May, 1785. It has been in use ever since and is the legal method of describing and dividing lands. It is called the "Rectangular System," that is, all its distances and bearings are measured from two lines which are at right angles to each other, viz.:--. These two lines, from which the measurements are made, are the Principal Meridians, which run North and South, and the. Base Lines which run East and West. These Principal Meridians are established, with great accuracy. Each Principal Meridian has its Base Line, and these two lines form the basis or foundation for the surveys or measurement of all the lands within the territory which they control. Diagram 2 shows all of the Principal Meridians and Base Lines'in the United States, and from it the territory governed by each Meridian and Base Line may be readily distinguished. Each Meridian and Base Line is marked with its proper number or name. Diagram 3 illustrates what is meant when this method is termed the "Rectangular System," and how the measurements are based on lines which run at right angles to each other. The heavy line running North and South (marked A. A.) on Diagram 3, represents the Principal Meridian, in this case say the 5th Principal Meridian. The heavy line running East and West (marked B. B.) is the Base Line. These lines are used as the starting points or basis of all measurements or surveys made in territory controlled by the 5th Principal Meridian. The same fact applies to all other Principal Meridians and their Base Lines. Commencing at the Principal Meridian, at intervals of six miles, lines are run North and South, parallel to the Meridian. This plan is followed both East and West of the Meridian throughout the territory controlled by the Meridian. Entered According to Act of Congress, in the year 1909, by Geo. A. Ogle & Co., in the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington I D. C.

Page  86 SUPPLEMENT II. UNITED STATES LAND SURVEYS I These lines are termed " Range Lines." They divide the land into strips or divisions six miles wide, extending North and South, parallel with the Mer Each division is called a Range. Ranges are numbered from one upward, comm- cing at the Meridian; and their numbers are indicated by 1 characters. For instance, the first division (or first six miles5 west of the Meridian i6 Range I. West; the next is Range II. West; then comes Range IV., V., VI., VII., and sj on, until the territory governed by another Principal Meridian is reached. In thesame manner the Ranges East of the Me: are numbered, the words East or West being always used to indicate the direction from the Principal Meridian. See Diagram 3. Commencing at the Base Line, at intervals of six miles, lines are run East and West parallel with the Base L:ue. These are designated as Tow Lines. They divide the land into strips or divisions six miles wide, extending East and West, parallel with the Base Line. This plan is followed North and South of the Base Line until the territory governed by another Principal Meridian and Base Line is reached. These divisions or Townshi numbered from one upward, both North and South of the Base Line, and their numbers are indicated by figures. For instance: The first six mile d rLorth of the Base Line is Township 1 North; the next is Township 2 North; then comes Township 3, 4, 5, and 6, North, and so on. The same p followed South of the Base Line; the Townships being designated as Township 1 South, Township 2 South, and so on. The " North" or "South' initials N. or S. being generally used) indicates the direction from the Base Line. See Diagram 3. These Township and Range Lines, crossing each other, as shown in Diagram 3, form squares, which are called "Townships" or "Government Towns' which are six miles square, or as nearly that as it is possible to make them. These Townships are a very important feature in locating or describing a of land. The location of a Government Township, however, is very readily found when the number of the Township and Range is given, by r counting the number indicated from the Base Line and Principal Meridian. As an example of this, Township 8 North, Range 4, West of the 5th Pri Meridian, is at once located on the square marked * on Diagram 3, by counting eight tiers north of the Base Line and 4 tiers west of the Meridian. idian. woman SIII., ridian rnship both ps are vision lan is '(the hips," piece nerely acipal Cc= I TOWNSHIPS OF LAND. V4T rOWNSHIPS are the largest subdivisions of land run out by the United States Surveyors. In the Governmental Surveys Township Lines are the first to be run, and a Township Corner is established every six miles and marked. This is called "Townshipping." After the Township Corners have been carefully located, the Section and Quarter Section Corners are established. Each Township is six miles square and contains 23,040 acres, or 36 square miles, as near as it is possible to make them. This, however, is frequently made impossible by. (1st) the presence of lakes and large streams; (2nd) by State boundaries not falling exactly on Township Lines; (3rd) by the convergence of Meridians or curvature of the earth's surface; and (4th) by inaccurate surveys. Each Township, unless it is one of the exceptional cases referred to, is divided into 36 squares, which are called Sections. These Sections are intended to be one mile, or 320 rods, square and contain 640 acres of land. Sectionr are numbered. consecutively from 1 to 36, as shown on Diagram 4. Beginning with Section 1 in the Northeast Corner, they run West to 6, then East to 12, then West to 18, and so on, back and forth, until they end with Section 36 in the Southeast Corner. Diagram 4 shows a, plat of a Township as it is divided and platted by the government surveyors. These Townships are called Government Townships or Congressional Townships, to distinguish them from Civil Townships or organized Townships, as frequently the lines of organized Town"ships do not conform to the Government Township lines. I. SECTIONS OF LANDS - 70 I nAGRAM 5 illustrates how a section io139.6 R may be subdivided, although the -r17 1& Diagram only gives a few of the 43. _______ many subdivisions into which a_ section may be diviled. All Sections (except fractional Sections) are supposed to be 320 rods, or one mile, square and therefore contain 640 acres-a number easily divisible. Sections are subdivided into fractional parts to suit the convenience of the owners of the land. A half-section contains 320 acres; a quarter-section contains 160 acres; half of a quarter contains 80 acres, and quarter of a quarter contains 40 acres, and so on. Each piece of land is described according to the portion of the section which it embraces-as the Northeast quarter of Section 10; or the Southeast quarter of the Southeast quarter of Section 10. Diagram 5 shows how many of these subdivisions are platted, and also shows the plan of designating and describing them by initial letters as each parcel of land on the Diagram is marked with its description. As has already been stated, all Sections (except Fractional Sections which are explained elsewhere) are supposed to contain 640 acres, and even though mistakes have been made in surveying, as is frequently the case, making sections larger or smaller than 640 acres, the Government recognizes no variation, but, sells or grants each regular section as containing 640 acres "more or less." The Government Surveyors are not required to subdivide sections by running lines within them, but they usually establish Quarter Posts on Section Lines on each side of a section at the "-noints marked A. B. C. and D. on Diagram 5. After establishing Township corners, Section Lines are the next to be run, and section cor" ners are established. When these are carefully DIAGRAIM 5. located the Quarter Posts are located at points as __~_____________ _ _ ~nearly equidistant between Section Corners as J possible. These corners when established by Government Surveyors cannot be changed, even though it is conclusively shliown that mistakes have been made which cause some sections or SN.. E. 1/4 quarter sectionis to be either larger or smaller uL than others. The laws, however, of all the o States provide certain rules for local surveyors < to follow in dividing Sections into smaller S16.0 A. parcels of land than has been outlined in the A N 10 - ---e Governmental surveys. For instance, in divida C0 |ing a quarter section into two parcels, the dis0 SN 1/2 of S. E. 1/4 ance between the Government Corners is care""k ^> fully measured and the new post is located at a -a 80 A. ___ point equidistant between them. This plan is N. of S.W. followed in running out "eighties," "forties," "ofs.E.' 4 S. E. 4 "twenties," etc. In this way, if the Govern(20 A.) of S. E.'1/ mrent division overruns or falls short, each S. iof S L '1 portion gains or loses its proportion. This is (20 A.) 40 A., not the case, however, with Fractional Sections STUBDIVIDIOTG A SECTION. along the North or West sides of a Township, S_________________ ______ - or adjoining a lake or large stream. im-ý-, I FRACTIONAL PIECES OF LAND. SYONGRESSIONAL Townships vary Sconsiderably as to size and boundaries. SMistakes made in surveying and the Sfact that Meridians converge as they..:run North cause every Township to vary 16 14 more or less from the 23,040 acr'es which a perfect Township would contain. See SDiagram 4. In arranging a Township into Sections all the surplus or deficiency of land - - --is given to, or taken from, the North and ~ West tiers of Sections. In other words, all Ii | aSections in the Township are made fullq i 23 a S, 640 acres-except those on the North and y 22 9 23 t t c 24 West, which are given all the land that is 0t t ~ left, after forming the other 25 Sections. S LTIMBER Diagram 4 illustrates how the surplus or t deficiency is distributed and the Sections it S.....-.... - ects. It will be seen that Sections 1, 2, S3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 18, 19, 30 and 31, are the S^"Fractional Sections," or the Sections 27 2 2 which are affected if the Township overruns 227 or falls short. Inside of these Fractional k Sections, all of the surplus or deficiency of / _0-... land (over or under 640 acres) is carried to r the "forties" or " eighties" that touch the STownship Line. These pieces of land are Eg, as he called "Fractional Forties" or "Fractional C a^^ Eighties," as the case may be. Diagrams 4 and 6 show the manner of marking the 34,355 acreage and outlining the boundaries of these "Fractions." Diagram 6 illustrates how the surplus or _______________ __________ deficiency of land inside of these Sections is __....________ _ ______ distributed and which "forties"or"eighties" it affects. From this arrangement it will be seen that in any Section that touches the North or West Township Lines, the Southeast Quarter may be full-160 acres-while another quarter of the same Section may be much larger or smal',r. Frequently these fractional "forties" or "eighties" are lotted as shown in Diagram 6. They are always described as fractional tracts of land, as the '" fractional S.W. j of Section 6," etc. Of course those portions of these Sections which are not affected by these variations are described in the usual manner-as Southeast ~ of Section 6. As a rule Townships are narrower at the North than at the South side. The Meridians of Longitude (which run North and South) converge as they run North and South from the Equator. They begin at the Equator with a definite width between them and gradually converge until they all meet at the poles. Now, as the Range lines are run North and South, it will at once be seen that the convergence of Meridians will caur- every Congressional Township (North of the Equator) to be narrower at its North than at its South side, as stated. See Diagram 4. In addition to this fact, mistakes of measurement are constantly and almost unavoidably made in running both Township and Range _______________ lines, and if no new starting points 6 were established the lines would DIAGRAM 6. become confused and unreliable, and '2 -. the size and shape of Townships LoT 4. LOT,. ZOT 2. LOT 1. materially affected by the time the surveys had extended even a hundred 45 42.5 ^ 40.5 milesfrom the Base Line and Princi- 2. AC,0 A0CRS ACRES " ACRES. pal Meridian. In order to correct the surveys and variations caused 53 aa. _______ by the difference of latitude and LOT a. straighten the lines, "Correction 4. S Lines" (or Guide Meridians and 29 AC. Standard Parallels) are established at. ACRES. g a frequent intervals, usually as follows:,. so __.__, North of the Base Line a Correction -55 1o. ____-- -60-- Rods.--" Line is run East and West parallel LT 6. 160 Rods. with the Base Line, usually every -, twenty-four miles. South of the 232 AC. Base Line a Correction Line is usually 0 4 established every thirty miles. Both o64 1, 0 < 160 ACRES, East and West of the Principal OT 7 Meridian "Correction Lines" are 0 usually established every 48 miles. 14 37 AC. All Correction Lines are located by careful measurement, and the sue- 74 R. 80 Rods. 160 Rods. ceeding surveys are based upon PFLAT OF A FRACTIONAL SECTION. them. Entered According to Act of Congress, in the year 1909, by Geo. A. Ogle & Co., in the office of the Librarian of Congress, Washington, D. C.

Page  87 T SUPPLEMENT I! DIGEST OF THE SYSTEM OF "OIVIL GOVERNMENT DIGEST OF THE SYSTEM OF CIIVIL GOVERNMENT WITH A REVIEW OF THE Duties and Powers of the Principal Officials Connected with the Various Branches of National, State, County and Township Government. NATIONAL GOVERNMENT THE GOVERNMENT of the United States is one of limited and skecific powers, strictly outlined and defined by a written constitution. The constitution was adopted in 1787, and, with the amendments that have since been made, it forms the basis of the entire fabric of government under which we live. The constitution created three distinct branches of government, each of which is entirely separate and distinct from the others. They are the executive, legislative and judicial departments. The constitution specifically vests the executive power in the President, but all members of the cabinet are usually classed with the executive department,; the legislative power is held by Congress, and the judicial authority is vested in the Supreme Court and various other courts which Congress has provided for in pursuance of the provisions of the constitution. It has been the aim of these pages to explain each of these different branches of government, and to briefly review the duties and powers of the principal officials connected with each department. The President and Vice-President are elected by popular vote, but the vote of each State is separate; so that a candidate may have a large majority of the aggregate popular vote of the country and yet fail to be elected. The Presidential election is held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, when Presidential electors are chosen in and for the various States, each State having as many electors as it has representatives in both branches of Congress. The electors are chosenby the ballots of the people of their States, and all the electors of a State constitute an electoral college. The electors meet in each State at the capital on the first Wednesday in December following a National election and vote for President and Vice-President, certificates of which are forwarded to the President of the Senate, at Washington, who, on the second Wednesday in February opens the certificates and counts the votes in the presence of both Houses of Congress and declares the result; and the final step is the inauguration, which takes place on the 4th of March. The law provides that if neither of the candidates have a majority then the House of Representatives shall elect a President from the three candidates receiving the highest electoral vote. In elections of this kind each State is entitled to only one vote, and twothirds of the States form a quorum. PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. The President is the highest executive officer of the United States. He is elected for the term of four years, and receives a salary of $75,000 per annum. He must be thirty-five years old or more, and a nativeborn citizen of the United States. The President is charged with a general supervision over the faithful execution of laws passed by Congress, and has supervision over all executive departments of the government. He appoints a Cabinet of nine officials who become the heads of the various departments, and these departments are intended to be managed and conducted as the President directs. The President is Commanderin-Chief of the Army and Navy. Hie has power to grant pardons and reprieves for all offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment; has power, with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties. He nominates, and with the advise and consent of the Senate, appoints Ambassadors and other public Ministers and Consuls, all Judges of the United States courts, and all other executive officers of the United States, except in such cases where the appointments may be vested in the various "departments.' When the Senate is not in session he can appoint, subject to its action when it reassembles. He has power, in certain extraordinary occasions, to call together both Houses of Congress, or either of them, in extra session; and is required from time to time to communicate with Congress, as to the state of the Union, and offer such suggestions or recommendations as he may deem proper. He is empowered to approve or veto all measures adopted by Congress, but it is provided that any measure may be passed over his veto by a two-thirds vote of Congress. The President consults frequently with his Cabinet, and nearly all important official matters are discussed by that body. In case the office of President becomes vacant through the death, removal or resignation of the incumbent, the law provides that the office shall in turn be filled by the Vice-President, Secretary of State, and other Cabinet Ministers in regular order. VICE PRESIDENT. The Vice-President of the United States is elected for the term of four years, and receives a salary of $12,000. In case of the death, removal or resignation of the President, the Vice-President succeeds him. The chief duty of the Vice-President is to act as the presiding officer of the Senate. He has no vote in the Senate, extept in case of a tie, or an equal division of the members of that body. The VicePresident administers the oath of office to the Senators. STATE DEPARTMENT. The head of this department is the Secretary of State, who is appointed by the President as a member of the Cabinet, and receives a salary of $8,000 per year. The law provides that in case the office of President becomes vacant, through the death, removal or resignation of both the President and Vice-President, the Secretary of State assumes the duties of the Presidency. The Secretary of State may be said to be the official Secretary of the President, and countersigns all commissions issued by the President. 4 The Secretary of State is the head of the Department of State and is the chief diplomatic officer of the United States. In his department and under his supervision is conducted the public business relating to foreign affairs; to correspondence, commissions or instructions to or with public Ministers from the United States; or to negotiations with Ministers from foreign States; or to memorials or other applications from foreigners, or foreign public Ministers, or citizens of this country in foreign lands, or complications arising therefrom. The Secretary of State also has charge of all other business connected with foreign affairs, extradition matters and diplomatic officers; furnishing passports to vessels going to foreign countries, etc., and.has charge of the Great Seal of the United States. Connected with the Department of State and forming a part of it in the great work of performing and caring for the duties outlined are the following bureaus: The Diplomatic Bureau, which looks after the affairs pertaining to foreign governments. The Consular Bureau, correspondence with consulates. The Bureau of Indexes and Archives, the duties of which are to open the official mails, prepare an abstract of the daily correspondence and an index of it, and superintend miscellaneous work of department. The Bureau of Accounts, in which all of the finances of the department are looked after, such as the custody and disbursement of appropriations; also indemnity funds and bonds; also care of the building and property of the department, etc. 10., The Bureau of Rolls and Library, which is charged with the custody of treaties, rolls, public documents, etc.; has care of revolution ary archives, of international commissions, superintendence of library, etc. The Bureau of Statistics, for the preparation of reports on commercial relations. The chiefs of these bureaus receive from $2,100 per year to $2,300 per year. In addition to these there are connected with the State Department the offices of translator, at $2,100 per year; assistant secretaty, $5,000; second assistant secretary, $4,500; third assistant secretary, $4,500; solicitor, $4,500; chief clerk, $3,000; clerk to Secretary of State, $2,500; passport clerk, $1,400. Besides these are the various comptrollers, auditors, clerks and assistants, which number well up into the thousands. TREASURY DEPARTMENT. This department was organized in 1789. The head of this department, known as the Secretary of the Treasury, is appointed by the President, is a member of the Cabinet, and receives, a salary of $12,000 per annum. The Treasury Department is one of the most important branches of the national government, as it has charge of the financial affairs of the government, custody of public funds, collection of revenue and maintenance of public credit. Among the many important duties devolving upon this department are the following: It attends to the collection of all internal revenues and duties on imports, and the prevention of frauds in these departments. All claims and demands, either by the United States or against them, and all the accounts in which the United States are interested, either as debtors or creditors, must be settled and adjusted in the Treasury Department. This department also includes the Bureau of the Mint, in which the government coin and moneys are manufactured. The Treasury Department authorizes the organization of national banks and has supervision over them; has charge of the coast surveys, the lighthouses, marine hospitals, etc. It has charge of all moneys belonging to the United States; designates depositories of public moneys, keeps a complete and accurate system of accounting, showing the receipts and disbursements of the Treasury, and makes reports at stated intervals showing the condition of public finances, public expenditures and the public debt. -4 There are a great many important officials connected with the Treasury Department, chief among which are the following, viz.: Private secretary of the head department, at $2,500 per yea'; three assistant secretaries, at $5,000 each; chief clerk, $3,000; chief of appointment division, $3,000; chief of warrants division, $3,500; chief of public moneys division, $3,000; chief of customs division, $3,000; acting chief of revenue marine division, $2,500; chief of stationery division, $2,500; chief of loans and currency division, $3,000; chief of miscellaneous division, $2,500; supervising special agent, $8 per day; government actuary, $1,800; supervising architect, $4,500; steamboat inspector, $3,500; chief Bureau of Statistics, $3,000; life saving service superintendent, $4,500; assistant, $2,500; commissioner Bureaus of Navigation, $3,600; superintendent United States coast and geodetic survey, $6,000; supervising surgeon-general marine hospital service, $4,000; Bureau of Engraving and Printing, director, $5,000; assistant director, $3,500; superintendent engraving division, $4,500. The foregoing will serve to show many of the lines of work attended to in the Treasury Department, as the names of these offices explain the branch of work they are charged with attending to. There are a number of other important offices in the department that should be.mentioned, among them being the following: The Solicitor of the Treasury, or chief attorney, who receives $4,500 per year for attending to the legal matters connected with the department. The Commissioner of Customs, who receives $4,000 per year and his deputy. $2,250, has charge of all accounts of the revenue from customs and disbursements, and for the building and repairing of custom houses. The Treasurer of the United States receives $6,000 per year, assistant treasurer $3,600, and superintendent of national banks (Red. Div.) $3,500. The Treasurer receives and keeps the government funds, either at headquarters or in the Sub-Treasuries or government depositories, paying it out upon warrants drawn in accordance with the law, and pays all interest on the national debt. The Register of the Treasury is paid a salary of $4,000 per year and his assistant $2,500. The Register keeps the accounts of public expenditures and receipts; receives the returns and makes out the official statements of United States commerce and navigation; receives from first comptroller and Commissioner of Customs all accounts and vouchers acted on by them and files the same. The. Comptroller of the Currency receives $5,000 per year and his deputy $3,000. This bureau is charged with a general supervision of the national banks and matters connected with the issuing of paper money. The Director of the Mint receives $4,500 per annum, and is charged with a general supervision over all the coinage of the government. The Comptroller of the Treasury receives $5,500 per year and his assistant $4,500. This bureau has charge of the auditing system of the Treasury. With the exception of the postal revenue accounts, the comptroller prescribes the forms of keeping and rendering all public accounts. Auditors. There are six auditors connected with the Treasury Department, each of whom receives a salary of $4,000 per year, and is allowed a deputy at a salary of $2,500 per annum. No one auditor takes rank over another. The first auditor receives and adjusts the accounts of the revenue and disbursements, appropriations and expenditures on account of the civil list and under special acts of 'Congress, reporting the balances to the commissioners of the customs and first comptroller respectively for their decision. The second auditor devotes most of his attention to army affairs; looks after all the accounts relating to the pay, clothing and recruiting of the army; the arsenals, armories and ordnance; all accounts relating to the Indian Department; reporting to the second comptroller. The third auditor has all accounts for sustenance of the army, military academy, military roads, fortifications, quartermaster's department, certain pensions, claims arising for military service previous to 1817; for all property lost in the military service; he reports also to the second comptroller. The fourth auditor also reports to the second comptroller, and attends to all accounts of the service connected with the navy. The fifth auditor reports to the first comptroller, and adjusts all accounts connected with the diplomatic service of the Department of State. The sixth auditor adjusts all accounts growing from the service of the Post Office Department. WAR DEPARTMENT. The War Department was organized in August, 1789. The head of this department is known as the Secretary of War; is appointed by the President, and receives a salary of $12,000 per annum. The War Department attends to the execution of all laws affecting the Regular Army, and carries out and performs such duties as may be provided for by law or directed by the President relative to military forces, military commissions and the warlike stores of the United States. In former years this department also had charge of Indian as well as military affairs, but this has been transferred to the Department of the Interior. The War Department is also required, among other duties, to maintain the signal service and provide for taking meteorological observations at various points on the continent, and give telegraphic notice of the approach of storms. There is also maintained a Civil Engineering Department, through the aid of which is carried out such improvements in rivers and harbors as may be authorized by Congress. The Secretary of War also has supervision over the West Point Military Academy. The private clerk for the head of the War Department is paid $2,500 per year; assistant secretary, $5,000; chief clerk, $4,000. The most of the subordinates and assistants in the War Department, except those mentioned, are officers of the Regular Army, who are paid salaries and perquisites. The Commanding General, next to the Secretary, looks after the arrangement of military forces, superintends the recruiting service and discipline of the army, orders courts-martial, and in a general sense is charged with seeing to the enforcement of the laws and regulations of the army. The Adjutant-General keeps the rolls and the orders issued. The Quartermaster-General has charge of the barracks and the supplies, etc., that may be required for the army. The CommissaryGeneral is the head of the Subsistence Department, and has supervision over the purchasing and issuing army rations. The Judge Advocate. General is the head of the department of military justice. The Surgeon General, as the name implies, looks after the affairs of the army relating to sick, wounded, hospital, etc. The Paymaster-General is the disbursing officer for the money required by the department. There is also the Ordnance office, controlling ordnance store, arsenals, armories, the manufacture of arms, etc. The Topographical office has charge of all plats and drawings of all surveys made for military purposes. Besides these there are the Inspector-General's Department and departments devoted to war records, publications, etc. In this connection it may be of interest to the general reader to refer briefly to a few facts concerning the Regular Army. The United States is divided for this purpose into a number of military districts. The head of each department receives his general instructions and orders from headquarters. The term of service in the Regular Army is three years. The pay of private soldiers at the start is $15 per month and rations, and this is increased according to time of service. The pay of the officers is proportioned to their rank. The pay of officers in active service was fixed by an act of Congress May 11, 1908, as follows: lieutenant-general $11,000 per year; major-general $8,000; brigadier-general $6,000; colonels from $4,000 to $5,000; lieutenantcolonels from $3,500 to $4,500; majors from $3,000 to $4,000; captains from $2,400 to $3,360; first-lieutenants from $2,000 to $2,800; secondlieutenants from $1,700 lo $2,380. In case any officer below the grade of major required to. be mounted, provides himself with suitable mounts at his own expense, he receives an addition to his pay of $150 per annum if he provides one mount; and $200 per annum if he provides two mounts. The pay of retired officers was fixed as follows by the act of May 11, 1908: lieutenant-generals $8,250 per annum; major generals $6,000; brigadier-generals $4,500; colonels from $3,000 to $3,750; lieutenant-colonels from $2,625 to $3,375; majors from $2,250 to $3,000; captains. from $1,800 to $2,520; first lieutenants from $1,500 to $2,100, and second-lieutenants $1.275 to $1,785. NAVY DEPARTMENT. The head of this department is the Secretary of the Navy, who is appointed by the President, and receives a' salary of $12,000 per annum. This department is charged with the duty of attending to the construction, armament, equipment and employment of vessels of war, as well as all other matters connected with naval affairs, and appropriations made therefor by Congress. The Secretary of the Navy has direct control of the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland; issues orders to the commanders of the various squadrons; has general authority over the Marine Corps; and has control of all the several bureaus of the Navy Department. There are a number of bureaus organized in the Navy Department for the purpose of more thoroughly handling the work, among the most important of Which may be mentioned the following: Bureau of Steam Engineering; Bureau of Medicine and Surgery; Bureau of Navigation; Bureau of Provisions and Clothing, Bureau of Yards and Docks; Bureau of Ordnance; Bureau of Equipment and Recruiting; Bureau of Construction and Repair. Attached to this department are also officials or bureaus to attend to the following matters: Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C.; Museum of Hygiene; Naval Dispensary; Board of Inspection and Survey; Navy Supplies and Accounts; Naval Observatory; Hydrographic Office; Library and War Records; Naval Intelligence; Nautical Almanac, etc. t. The admiral of the navy (line) is paid $13,500 per year; the first nine rear-admirals each receive $8,000 per year and the second nine $6,000; chiefs of bureaus are paid $6,000 per year; captains $4,000; commanders $3,500; lieutenant-commanders $3,000; lieutenants $2,400; junior grade lieutenants $2,000; ensigns $1,700; chief-boatswains, gunners, carpenters, sail makers, $1,700; midshipmen at sea $1,400; midshipmen at academy $600. In the Marine Corps the major general receives $8,000 per year; colonels $4,000; lieutenant-colonels $3,500; majors, $3,000; captains (line) $2,400; captains (staff) $2,600; first lieutenants $2,000; second-lieutenants $1,700. An increase of ten per cent is allowed them when on sea duty, or on "shore duty beyond the sea." Chaplains of the rank of lieutenant-commander or higher rank receive the pay and allowance of a lieutenant-commander; those appointed prior to July 1, 1906, who have the rank of lieutenant receive $2,800; and others are paid according to their rank in the foregoing list. Naval constructors receive from $3,200 to $4,200 per year; assistant naval constructors $2,000 or the pay of rank according to the foregoing table; warrant officers $1,125 to $2,250. Petty officers and chief petty officers receive salary ranging from $33 to $77 per month. First class seamen receive $26 per month; seamen-gunners $28 per month; firemen, first-class, $38; ordinary seamen $21; firemen, second-class, $33; shipwrights $27; apprentice seamen $18; coal passers $24. The term of enlistment in the United States Navy is four years. POSTOFFICE DEPARTMENT. This is one of the most important branches of the National Government. Its head is the Postmaster-General, who is appointed by the President, and receives a salary of $12,000 per annum. The Post Office Department has supervision over the execution of all laws passed by Congress affecting the postal service, and has general supervision over everything relating to the gathering, carrying and distribution of United States mails; superintends the distribution and disposal of all moneys belonging to, or appropriated for, the department; and the instruction of and supervision Over all persons in the postal service, with reference to their duties. In providing for handling the general work of the Post Office Department it has been found necessary to create four bureaus, or offices, as they are termed, each of which is presided over by an assistant postmaster-general, who each receive $5,000 per annum; are all subject to the direction and supervision of the head of the department. A review of these various bureaus and their principal officials, with the name of the office, will show very clearly the work handled by each. The first assistant postmaster-general is allowed a chief-clerk at $2,500 per year; superintendent of salaries and allowances $4,000; superintendent of division appointments $3,000; superintendent of city free-delivery service $3,000. The second assistant postmaster-general has charge of the following divisions, indicated by the following officials who are under his control: superintendent of railway adjustments $3,000 per year; chief of division inspection $2,000; chief of division of contracts $2,000; chief of division of mail equipment; general superintendent of railway mail service $4,000; superintendent of foreign mails $3,000. The third assistant postmaster general controls the following divisions: superintendent of money-order division $3,500; superintendent of registry system $2,500; superintendent of division of finance $2,250; superintendent of division of stamps $2,500; also the post-card agent and the stamped-envelope agent at $2,500 each. The fourth assistant postmaster-general controls the following divisions: Superintendent rural free delivery service $3,000; superintendent of post office supplies $2,500; superintendent of dead-letter office $2,750; topographer $2,750. Besides the various chiefs of divisions mentioned above there are connected with the Post Office Department a law clerk, at $2,500 per year; appointment clerk, at $2,000; assistant attorney-general, $5,000; a disbursing clerk, $2,250; also the auditor of the post office department, at $4,000. I Copyright, p19o, by Ueo. A. Ogle & Co.

Page  88 1 SUPPLEMENT IV __________ DIGEST OF. THE'SYSTEM OF OIVIL GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. The Interior Department is under the immediate control of the Secretary of the Interior. He is appointed by the President, and receives a salary of $12,000 per year. In this department, as the name imples, is conducted most of the public business relating to domestic or internal affairs, and, like most of the other executive departments, it is divided into a number of subdivisions and branches. The Secretary of the Interior is charged with a general supervision over public business connected with the following branches, viz.: 1st. The census of the United States. 2d. All matters connected with public lands. 3d. Everything relating to the Indians or Indian affairs. 4th. All matters concerning pensions or bounty lands. 5th. The issuance and filing of patents and caveats. 6th. The custody and distribution of publications. 7th. The compilation of statistics relating to educational matters in the various States. He also has oversight over several of the Government's charitable and benevolent institutions. For the purpose of handling properly the business connected with most of the subjects mentioned, there are bureaus organized for the purpose. The salaries paid to the principal officials connected with the Interior Department are as folows: First assistant secretary of the interior, $5,000 per year; assistant secretary, $4,500; chief clerk, $3,000; assistant attorney-general (Dept. of Interior), $5,000; commissioner of the General Land Office, $5,000; commissioner of Indian affairs, $5,000; superintendent of Indian schools, $3,000; commissioner of the Pension Office, $5,000; medical referee, $3,000; commissioner of the Patent Office, $5,000; commissioner of the Education Office, $4,500; director of geological surveys, $6,000; director Reclamation Service, $7,500. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. This department was formerly connected with the Interior Department, but in 1889. it was reorganized and made independent, and the Secretary of Agriculture was made a member of the Cabinet. The head of this department is appointed by the President, and receives a salary of $12,000 per annum. The general duty and design of the Department of Agriculture is to acquire and diffuse among the people of the United States useful information on subjects connected with agriculture in the most general and comprehensive sense of that word, and to procure, propagate and distribute among the people new, and valuable seeds and plants. The following is a list of the chief officials connected with the Department of Agriculture and their salaries, and the list will also serve to indicate the various lines of work handled by and the various duties which devolve upon the department, viz.: Assistant secretary of agriculture receives $5,000 per annum; chief of Weather Bureau,, $6,000; chief of Bureau of Animal Industry, $5,000; statistician, $3,500; chemist, $5,000; entomologist, $4,000; botanist, $3,240; chief of forestry division, $5,000; pomologist, $3,000; plant pathologist and physiologist, $3,500; director of the office of experiment stations, $4,000; chief of division of accounts and disbursements, $3,250; editor, $3,000; agriculturist, $3,500; director of public roads, $3,000; statistical scientist in charge of investigations of production and distribution, $3,000; chief of biological survey, $3,000; chief of bureau of soils, $3,500; chief of bureau of plant industry in charge of seed distribution, $5,000. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. The head of the Department of Justice is the Attorney-General, who is appointed by the President, and receives a salary of $12,000 per annum. The principal assistant of the Attorney-General is the Solicitor-General, who receives $7,500 per year. There are a number of assistant attorney-generals who receive $5,000 per annum, and a special assistant attorney-general is appointed for nearly all of the various departments, including the Treasury,. State, Post Office and Interior Departments. Besides these there, are a number of special officials connected with the Department of Justice, such as attorney in charge of titles, $2,700; chief clerk and superintendent of buildings, $3,000; appointment clerk, $2,000; attorney in charge of pardons, $2,750; solicitor internal revenue, $4,500; superintendent of prisons and prisoners, $3,000; chief examiner, $2,750; chief of division of accounts, $2,500; disbursing clerk, $2,750; solicitor for department of commerce and labor, $5,000. The Attorney-General is the legal adviser of the President, and it is the duty of the Department of Justice to give all opinions and render all services requiring the skill of persons learned in the law necessary to enable the President and other officers of the various Government departments to discharge their respective duties. This department is also required to prosecute or defend all suits or procedings in which the United States is interested. The Attorney-General has general supervision over all the solicitors for the various departments; and also exercises general superintendence and direction over all United States marshals and United States district attorneys of all the districts of the United States and Territories. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND LABOR. The Department of Commerce and Labor was established in February, 1903. The general design of this department is to collect, assort and systematize statistical details relating to the different branches of labor and commerce in the United States. The head of this department, known as the Secretary of Commerce and Labor, is appointed by the President, is a member of the Cabinet and receives a salary of $12,000 per annum. The following are the principal officials under his control together with the salary paid: The commissioner of the bureau of manufacturers, $4,000 per year; commissioner of the bureau of corporations, $5,000; commissioner of the bureau of labor, $5,000; director of bureau of the census, $7,000; superintendent of the coast and geodetic survey, $6,000; chief of bureau of statistics, $4,000; supervising inspector-general of steamboat inspection service, $4,000; commissioner of bureau of fisheries, $6,000; commissioner of bureau of navigation, $4,000; commissioner-general of bureau of immigration and naturalization at $5,000; director of bureau of standards, $5,000. INDEPENDENT DEPARTMENTS. There are several independent departments, which, although none of them are as important as the foregoing, and their heads are not Cabinet members, yet they form a very necessary part and attend to very important branches of the National Government. Government Printing Office. The head of this branch of public work is the Public Printer, who is appointed by the President, and receives a salary of $5,500 per year. His chief clerk is paid $2,400 per year, and there is a foreman of printing and a foreman of binding, each of whom receive $2,100 per annum. Civil Service Commission. This commission consists of three commissioners, each of whom are paid $4,500 per year. The chief examiner connected with the commission is paid $3,000 per annum, and the secretary $2,500. Interstate Commerce Commission. This commission was cr6 -for the purpose, and charged with the duty, of seeing that the laws regulating interstate commerce were faithfully executed and observed, and to prevent unjust discrimination on the part of railway corporations and common carriers. The commission consists of seven commissioners appointed from different sections of the United States, each of whom receives a salary of $10,000 per year. The secretary of the commission receives a salary of $5,000 per annum. JUDICIARY. The judicial powers of the United States are vested in the following named courts, viz.: The United States Supreme Court, consisting of one chief justice and eight associate justices; the United States Court of Claims, which consists of one chief justice and four judges; the United States Circuit Court of Appeals; and the United States Circuit and District Courts. All judges of United States Courts are appointed for life, or during "good behavior." The chief justice of the United States Supreme Court receives a salary of $13,000 per annum, and the associate justices $12,000 each. The circuit judges receive a salary of $7000 each per annum, district judges, $6000, and Court of Claims, judges receive $6,000, and chief justice $6,500 per year. The jurisdiction of the United States Courts extends to all cases in law and in equity arising under the Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more States; between a State and a citizen of another State; between citizens of different States; between citizens of the same State claiming lands under grants of different States. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a State is a party the Supreme Court has original jurisdiction. In the other cases the Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction. LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT. The legislative powers of the United States are vested in a Congress, which consists of a Senate and House of Representatives, and which meets annually at Washington on the first Monday of December. The constitution gives to Congress the following general powers: To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises; pay the debts of the United States; borrow money on the credit of the United States; to regulate commerce; to establish uniform laws on naturalization and bankruptcy; to coin money and regulate the value thereof; fix the standard of weights and measures; to declare war; to raise and support armies (but it is provided that no appropriation for this purpose can be for a longer period than two years); to provide and maintain a navy; to grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water; to make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces; to establish postoffices and postroads; to promote the progress of science and the useful arts by securing for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries; to constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court; to define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas and offense against the law of nations; to exercise exclusive legislation over the District of Columbia and places purchased for forts, magazines, arsenals, etc.; 'and further to make all laws necessary for the general welfare of the United States, and for "carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by the Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof." The Constitution expressly forbids Congress making any law respecting the establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. Congress cannot suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus except in cases of rebellion or invasion when the public safety may require it. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law can be passed. No tax or duty can be laid on articles exported from any State. No preference can be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another. No title of nobility can be granted. Every law passed by Congress must be submitted to the President for his approval. If he returns it with his objections, or vetoes it, the measure may be passed over his veto by a two-thirds vote of both branches of Congress. The Senate, or the "Upper House of Congress," is composed of two Senators from each State in the Union. They are elected by the Legislatures of their respective States, for a term of six years, and receive a salary of $7,500 per annum. No person can be elected to the United States Senate who has not attained the age of thirty years, been nine years a citizen of the United States, and is when elected an inhabitant of the State from which he is chosen. The Senate has sole power to try all impeachments. Its consent and confirmation is necessary for all important officers appointed by the President. Its consent is also necessary to conclude any treaty. The House of Representatives is the "Lower House of Congress." Each State in the Union is divided into congressional districts, of as nearly equal population as is practicable. In each district a representative is elected by the people for a term of two years, and each is paid a salary of $7,500 per year. Besides these, a delegate from each organized Territory is admitted to the House of Representatives, who is not entitled to a vote, but has the right to debate on all subjects in which the Territory which he represents has an interest. No person can be a' representative who has not attained the age of twentyfive years, been for seven years a citizen of the United States, and is at the time of his election an inhabitant of the State from which he is chosen. All bills for raising revenue must originate in the House of Representatives. STATE GOVERNMENT T HE method of State government throughout the United States follows very closely the general plan of government that prevails in national affairs. The various functions of government in State affairs are handled in departments, with a State officer at the head of each branch, and the lines are clearly drawn between the executive, legislative and judicial powers. All the States are governed under a constitution, which outlines and defines the powers which each of these departments shall exercise and possess. All of the most important State officials are elected by the people, but in many of the States the less important offices are filled by appointment of the Governor, by and with the consent of the State Senate. GOVERNOR. The Governor is the highest executive officer in all the States of the Union, and is elected by a direct vote of the people. The term of office varies materially in the different States, ranging from two to six years. As to the matter of salary that the Governor receives, it also differs widely throughout the different States and is subject to frequent change. At the present writing three States-New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey pay their Governors $10,000 per year; Illinois $12,000; California $6,000; Minnesota, Indiana, Alabama, Colorado, Louisiana, Missouri, Montana, Virginia and Wisconsin all pay $5,000 per year; Kentucky $6,500; Massachusetts and Ohio $8,000; Nevada, Connecticut, Michigan, Tennessee, Texas and Washington, $4,000; Maryland and Oklahoma $4,500; Mississippi, Arkansas, Florida and South Carolina $3,500; Iowa, Georgia', Idaho, Kansas, North Carolina, North Dakota and Rhode Island $3,000; West Virginia $2,700; South Dakota, Nebraska and Wyoming $2,500; Delaware, Maine, New Hampshire and Utah $2,000; and Oregon and Vermont $1,500. About the only statement concerning the qualifications required for this office that would be common to all the States is that he must be a citizen of the State in which he is elected. In most of the States, in addition to the salary named, the Governor is furnished with a residence, which is known as the "Executive Mansion." The powers and duties that devolve upon the Governor are about the same in all of the States. He is charged with a general supervision, over the faithful execution of the laws, and is the legal custodian, of all the property of the State not specificially entrusted to other officers by law, and is authorized to take summary possession of such property. He is expected to communicate by message to each session of the State legislature such information or recommendations regarding State affairs as he may deem necessary and proper, and he is empowered to call extra sessions of that body whenever the public welfare may demand. He accounts to the same body for all moneys received and paid out, and presents estimates of amounts to be raised by tax ation for various purposes. He has a negative (or veto) upon all laws passed by the Legislature, but it is provided that measures may be passed over his veto by a two-thirds vote of that body. The Governor is commander-in-chief of the State military or naval forces, and has authority to call out such forces to preserve peace and execute the laws when the local authorities are unable to accomplish this. He may require the opinion of the various State officers upon any subject relating to their respective offices, and examines and.approves the bonds of State officials. In many States the Governor has power to grant reprieves and pardons, after conviction, for all offenses against the State except in cases of impeachment; but in a few of the States the pardoning power is vested in a board selected for that purpose, of which the Governor is generally ex-officio member. The Governor has the appointment of a number of State officers, and in many cases if an elective office becomes vacant he has the power to fill it by appointment; has power in many States to suspend a State officer, or even a county officer, pending a legal investigation. The Governor issues requisitions upon the executives of other States for parties charged with crime who escape to other States, and he has power to issue warrants for fleeing criminals upon requisition of other Governors. LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR. The office of Lieutenant-Governor does not exist in all of the States in the Union, at'least not under this name, as in a few of the States this officer is only known as the President of the State Senate. In some of the States the Lieutenant-Governor is paid a certain amount per day during sessions of the Legislature or General Assembly, and in others he is allowed a fixed salary, but it is provided that if the duties of Governor should devolve upon him, he shall during the continuance of such emergency be entitled to the emoluments thereof. The principal duty of the Lieutenant-Governor is to act as the presiding officer of the State Senate or Upper House of the State Legislature. In case a vacancy should occur in the office of Governor, the LieutenantGovernor would act as Governor until such vacancy was filled by election; and in all cases where the Lieutenant-Governor is unable to act as presiding officer of the Senate, a President pro tempore is chosen by that body. The Lieutenant-Governor has no vote in the Senate except in cases of a tie or equal division of the members. SECRETARY OQF STATE. The office of Secretary of State is one of the most important offices within the gift of the people of a State, and the office exists under this name in every State in the Union. The Secretary of State may be said to be the official secretary of the Governor, and countersigns all commissions issued by the chief executive, and he is the custodian of the Great Seal of the State. As a rule it is the duty of the Secretary of State to call the House of Representatives to order and preside until a temporary presiding officer, or Speaker, is elected. It is his duty to see that the halls are prepared for the Legislature or General Assembly; he prepares the legislative manual and causes it to be printed and distributed; secures the printing and distribution of the State laws; indexes and files executive documents; provides and distributes election blanks; has charge of all books, bills, papers, etc., of the Legislature, and is practically "keeper of all public acts, laws, records, bonds, etc." The Secretary of State is required to keep a register of all the official acts of the Governor, and affixes the Seal of the State to all official commissions, etc., keeps a record of them, and is obliged to give any person a copy of the same when demanded. In all of the States the Secretary of State is ex officio member of a number of the State boards, but no list of these could be given that would apply to all States, as they are different in the various States. STATE AUDITOR. The office of Auditor of State exists under one name or another in nearly every State in the Union. The title of this office, however, is not alike in all the States, as many of them, notably California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and a' few others, it is known as State Comptroller. In a few of the States, including Michigan and Pennsylvania, the office is called Auditor-General, and in two of the States the public accounts are audited by a Board ofAuditors. In all the States, however, the duties that devolve upon this branch of the State Government are practically the same, and a general explanation of the scope of work handled by the State Auditor in one State will apply, except as regards minor details, to all of the States. It is the duty of the State Auditor to keep the accounts of the State with any other State or Territory, and with the United States and all public officers, corporations and individuals having accounts with this State. He audits the accounts of all public officers who are to be paid out of the State Treasury, and all persons who are authorized to receive money out of the State Treasury. In fact, all claims against the State which are to be paid out of the State Treasury must be presented to the Aud itor, who, after the same is adjusted, issues warrants therefor payable at the Treasury. A complete record of each warrant is kept by the Auditor, who also keeps an account with the State Treasurer, charging him with all moneys paid into the Treasury, and giving credit for all warrants paid, and the books and vouchers of the Treasury must balance therewith, as settlements are made between these two officers at stated intervals. In a number of the States the Auditor is charged with a general supervision over certain corporations, such as insurance and banking corporations and building and loan associations, and in some States is ex-officio a member of a number of State boards. He generally has authority to make and execute satisfactions of judgments and assignments thereof in behalf of the State. STATE TREASURER. This is one of the most important executive offices in the gift of the people of a State. The State Treasurer handles vast sums of the people's money, and as a rule a very heavy bond, ranging from $500,000 up into the millions, is required of him; and generally the Governor is empowered to demand additional bonds if he deems the bond insufficient to fully protect the State. The duties of the State Treasurer are implied by the title of the office, and they are very much the same throughout all of the States of the Union. The State Treasurer is custodian of all the State funds. He deposits these funds in banks, which give bonds to secure the Treasurer or State against loss, and which pay interest on daily balances. The Treasurer pays out State funds only on warrants issued or signed by the State Auditor, or other.. proper official, and a full record of all warrants is kept in both the auditing office and Treasurer's office. The pian by which the Treasurer receives the revenues of the State is different in different States. In some States the Auditor issues an order for him to receive the same and charges the amount against the Treasurer. In others he is charged with all moneys which he is entitled to receive, and then given credit for delinquencies. In still other States the Treasurer issues duplicate receipts for all moneys paid in, which must be countersigned by the Auditor to be valid, and one of these must be deposited with the Auditor, so he may charge the amount against the Treasurer. In this way a double system is carried on-both Auditor and Treasurer keeping a full account of all moneys received and paid out, and their books and accounts must balance, as at stated intervals the Treasurer must make settlements with the Auditor and submit books, vouchers, etc., to the Legislature. In most of the States the State Treasurer is required to publish at stated times, in the newspapers at the capital, an itemized statement of the public accounts, expenditures, funds, receipts and disbursements. He is also required to make a complete report and itemized statement to each session of the Legislature. In nearly all of the States the law is very explicit in outlining the duties of the State Treasurer, the following being very common provisions in relation to the office, viz.: That a complete record of all moneys must be kept, showing what is received or paid out of the various "funds,". which "funds" must be exhibited in separate accounts. In several of the I I I n l iii i ----,L Copyright, x91o, by Oeo. A. Ogle & Co........... Copyright, 1910, by Ueo. A. Ogle & Co.

Page  89 SUPPLEMENT V =,=__,,=_ -:27 .. DIGEST OF" States the Governor and one or two other State officials constitute a board, which must at certain times examine and ch&ck up the accounts, books and vouchers of the State Treasurer and ascertain the amount of funds in the Treasury. ATTORNEY-GENERAL. The Attorney-General, as the name implies, is the general legal counsel or lawyer for the various branches of the State government. In all of the States the powers and duties of the Attorney-General are very similar. It is his duty to appear for the State in all actions and proceedings in the Supreme Court in which the State has an interest; to institute and prosecute in all courts all actions, either for or against a State officer, in which the State has an interest; to consult with and advise the various county or state's attorneys in matters relating to their official duties, and when public interest requires he assists them in criminal prosecutions. It is his duty to consult with and advise the Governor and other State officers, and give, when requested, written opinions on legal or constitutional questions relating to-their official duties, and to give written opinions when requested by the Legislature or any committee thereof. It is also his duty to prepare, when necessary, drafts for contracts or other writings relating to subjects in which the State is interested. He is required to enforce the proper application of funds appropriated to the various State institutions, and prosecute breaches of trust in the administration of the same; and when necessary to prosecute corporations for failure or refusal to comply with the laws; to prosecute official bonds of delinquent officers or corporations in which, the State has an interest. The Attorney-General is required to keep a record of all actions, complaints, opinions, etc. STATE SUPERINTENDENT OR SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. This is an office which exists in nearly every State in the Union. In three or four of the States the management of the educational interests of the State is vested in a State Board of Education, but in these cases the secretary of the board assumes most of the detail work that in most of the States devolve upon the State Superintendent. The full title given to this office is not the same in all of the States, but it is generally called "State'Superintendent of Public Instruction or Public Schools." In Ohio, Maine and Rhode Island, and a few others, this officer is termed "Commissioner of Schools." The duties of the State Superintendent are very much alike in all of the States, as he is charged with a general supervision over the educational interests of the State and of the public schools. In many States his authority is not limited to the public schools, and he his authorized by law to demand full reports from all colleges, academies or private schools. It is his duty to secure at regular intervals reports from all such educational institutions and file all papers, reports and documents transmitted to him by local or county school officers. He is the general adviser and assistant of the various county superintendents or school officers, to whom he must give, when requested his written opinion upon questions rising under the school law. It is also his duty to hear and determine controversies arising under the school laws coming to him by appeal from a county superintendent or school official. He prepares and distributes school registers, school blanks, etc., and is generally given the power to make such rules and regulations as are necessary to carry into efficient and uniform effect the provisions of the laws relating to schools. The State Superintendent is required to make a detailed report to each regular session of the State Legislature, showing an abstract of the common school reports; a statement of the condition of public schools and State educationa! institutions; the amount of money collected and expended, and all other matters relating to the schools or school funds that have been reported to him. He is forbidden from becoming interested in the sale of any school furniture, book or apparatus. STATE LIBRARIAN. In nearly all of the States the laws provide for a State officers under the title of "State Librarian." As a rule the office is filled by appointment of the Governor, although in a few States it is an elective office and is filled by direct vote of the people. The State Librarian is the custodian of all the books and property belonging to the State Library, and is required to give a bond for the proper discharge of his. duties and safekeeping of the property intrusted to his care, as in many of the States the State Library is an immensely important and valuable collection. In some of the States the Supreme Court _iudres. prescribe all library rules and regulations. In others they have a Library Board of Trustees, which is sometimes made up of the Governor and certain other State officials, who constitute a board of commissioners for the management of the State Library. ADJUTANT-GENERAL. In nearly all of the Sta-tes provision is made for an AdjutantGeneral, who is either elected by the people or appointed by the Governor. The name of the office implies the branch of work which is handled by its incumbent. It is the duty of the Adjutant-General -to issue and transmit all orders of the Commander-in-Chief with reference to the militia or military organizations of the State. He keeps a record of all military officers commissioned by the Governor, and of all general and special orders and regulations issued, and of other matters relating to the men, property, ordinance, stores, camp and garrison equipage pertaining to the State militia or military forces. PUBLIC EXAMINER OR BANK EXAMINER. This is a State office that is found in only about one-half of the States. In some States it is known as Bank Comptroller and in others the duties which devolve upon this officer are handled by a "department" in the State Auditor's office. The general duties and plan of conducting this work, in many respects, is very similar, but there is a great difference between the various States in the officers who attend to it. Where this made a separate State office, generally speaking, the requirements are that he must be a skilled accountant and expert bookkeeper, and cannot be an officer of any of the public institutions, nor interested in any of the financial corporations which it may be his duty to examine. He is charged with the duty of visiting and inspecting the financial accounts and standing of certain corporations and institutions organized under the State laws. In several of the States it is made his duty to visit certain county officials at stated intervals, and inspect their books and accounts, and enforce a uniform system of bookkeeping by State and county officers. COMMISSIONER OR SUPERINTENDENT OF INSURANCE. In all of the States of the Union the department relating to insurance has grown to be an important branch of State government. The method of controlling the insurance business differs materially in many of the States, although they are all gradually moving in the same direction, viz., creating a department or State office in which all matters relating to insurance and. insurance companies are attended to. In former years, in nearly all of the States, the insurance business formed a department in the State Auditor's office, and was handled by him or his appointees. Now, however, in nearly all the Northern States and many of the Southern States, they have a separate and distinct insurance department, the head of which is either elected by the people or appointed by the Governor. The duties and powers of the insurance department of the various States are very similiar. A general provision is that the head of this department-must be insurance matters, and he is prohibited from holding an interest in any insurance company. The Commissioner or Superintendent of Insurance has extensive powers concerning insurance matters, and it is his duty to see that all laws respecting an.d regulating insurance and insurance companies, are faithfully observed; ke issues licenses to insur "THE SYSTEM OF CIVIL, GOVERNMEN-NT -F- I ance companies, and it is his duty to revoke the license of any company not conforming to law. Reports are made to him at stated times by the various companies, and he has power to examine fully into their condition, assets, etc. He files in his office the various documents relating to insurance companies, together with their statements, etc., and at regular intervals makes full reports to the Governor or Legislature. COMMISSIONER OF LABOR STATISTICS. In several of the States a "Commissioner of Labor Statistics" is appointed by the Governor, who is the head of what may be termed the labor bureau. In a great majority of the States, however, this branch of work is taken care of by a board of labor commissioners, a bureau of -statistics or by the State Auditor and his appointees. The general design of this bureau or commission is to collect, assort and systematize, and present in regular reports to the Legislature, statistical details relating to the different departments of labor in the State, and make such recommendations as may be deemed proper and necessary concerning the commercial, industrial, social, educational and sanitary conditions of the laboring classes. OTHER STATE OFFICERS. In all of the States there exist one or more other State officers in addition to those already mentioned, which are made necessary by local condition or local business interests. It is, therefore, unnecessary to mention any of these at length in this article. It may be stated, however, that in all of the States may be found two or more of the following State officers, and further, that each one of the following named officers is found in some State in the Union. viz.: Superintendent or commissioner of agriculture, commissioner of mines secretary of agricultural board, secretary of internal affairs, clerk and reporter of the Supreme Court, commissioner of railways, commissioner of immigration, State printer, State binder, land agent or commissioner, commissioner, register or superintendent of State land office, register of lands, commissioner of schools and lands, surveyor-general, inspectorgeneral, State oil inspector-general, State oil inspector, dairy commissioner. STATE BOARDS. Besides the officers and departments Which have already been mentioned, there are a number of State boards or bureaus that are necessary in carrying on the complex business connected with the government of a State. The following list of such State boards and bureaus includes all that can be found in the majority of the States; some of them, however, are only found in a few of the States, because they are of a local nature and are only made necessary by the existence of certain local conditions or business interests. It will also be observed that some of the boards named cover the same line of work that has already been mentioned as belonging to some State officer. This grows from the fact that a few of the States place the management of certain lines of work in the hands of a State board, while in others, instead of having a State board they delegate the powers and duties to a single State official. All of the States, however, have a number of the State boards mentioned in this list, the names of which imply the line of work each attends to, viz.: Railroad and warehouse commissioners, board of equalization, board or commission of agriculture, university trustees, board or commissioners of public charities, canal commissioners, penitentiary commissioners, board of health, dental examiners, trustees of historical library, board of pharmacy, commission of claims, live stock commissioners, fish commissioners, inspectors of coal mines, labor commissioners, board of education, board of public works, board of pardons, assessment commissioners. LEGISLATURE OR GENERAL ASSEMBLY. The law-making power of every State is termed the "Legislative Department." The legislative power, according to the constitutions of the various States, is vested in a body termed the Legislature or General Assembly which consists of an Upper and Lower House, designated usually as the Senate and House of Representatives. In a few of the States the Lower House is called "The Assembly." In most of the States the Legislature meets in regular session every two years, but this is not the universal rule, as in a few of the States the law provides for annual sessions. In all of the States, however, a provision is made whereby the Governor may, on extraordina'ry occasions, call special session by issuing a proclamation. The Legislative Department has the power to pass all such laws as may be necessary for the welfare of the State, and carry into effect the provisions of the constitution. The Legislature receives the reports iof the Governor, together with the reports of the various Other State:officers" they provide by appropriation for the ordinary and contingent Iexpenses of the government; at regular times provided by law they apportion the State into political districts, and make all other provisions for carrying on the State government. There is a general prohibition against the passage of any ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or making any irrevocable grant of special privileges or immunities. Any measure to become a law must be passed by both branches of the Legislature, and then be presented to the Governor for his approval. If he withholds his approval (or vetoes it), the measure may be repassed by a two-thirds vote of the Legislature, when it will become a law notwithstanding the Governor's veto. SENATE. The Senate is the Upper House of the Legislature or General Assembly. The various States are divided into senatorial districts, in each of which a Senator is elected-the term of office varying from two to four years. Except in three or four of the States the presiding officer of the Senate is the Lieutenant-Governor, although a President pro tern. is usually elected, who acts as presiding officer during the absence of the Lieutenant-Governor. The presiding officer has no vote, however, in the Senate, except when that body is equally divided. Every Senator has one vote upon all questions, and the right to be heard in advocating or opposing the passage of any measure brought before the Legislature. In filling all of the most important State offices that are to be appointed by the Governor, the appointments must be approved or confirmed by the Senate. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. The Lower House of the State Legislature, in nearly if not quite all the States of the Union, is termed the House of Representatives. Like the Senators, every member of the House has the right to be heard in advocating or opposing any measure brought before the body of which he is a member. The House is given the sole power of impeachment, but all impeachments must be tried by the Senate. As a general rule, there is a provision that all bills for raising revenue must originate in the House.,1. JUDICIARY. The "Judicial Department" is justly regarded as one of the most important and powerful branches of government of either the State or Nation, as it becomes the duty of this department to pass upon and interpret, and thereby either annul or give validity to all the most important measures and acts of both the legislative and executive branches of the government. It is impossible in a general article to give a detailed review or description of the construction and make-up of the judicial departments of the various States. The courts are so differently arranged both as to their make-up and jurisdiction that it would be useless to try to give the reader a general description that would accurately cover the ground. In all of the States, except, possibly, one or two, the highest judicial authority of the State is known as the Supreme Court, and unless questions are involved which give the United States Courts jurisdiction, it is the court of la'st resort. The Supreme Court is made up of a chief justice and the several associate justices or judges as may be provided for by the laws of the various States, usually from four to six. Generally these officers are elected by the people, either from the State at large or (in three of the States) as representing certain districts, but this is not the case always, as in several States they are chosen by the Governor or Legislature. In all of the States the Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction both in law and in equity, and has original jurisdiction in remedial cases, mandamus, habeas corpus and cases relating to the revenue, but there is no trial by jury in this court. Various other courts are provided for by the laws of the different States, such as appellate courts, circuit or district courts, probate courts, county courts, superior courts, municipal courts, courts of justices of the, peace, etc. The jurisdiction of all these courts is, of course, inferior to that of the Supreme Court, and varies greatly in the different States. Besides these, where there are large cities, various other courts -are also established to aid in caring for the enormous amount of judicial work that arises from such vast and complex business interests. The various courts are also provided with the necessary officials for carrying on the judicial business-such as clerks of court, court reporters, bailiffs, etc. COUNTY GOVERNMENT S O far as the principal county offices are concerned, the general arrangement and method of handling the public business is very much the same in all of the States; but the offices are called by different names, and in minor details-such as transferring from one office to another certain minor lines of work -there are a number of points in which the method of county government in the various States differs. The writer has adopted the names of the principal county offices which are most common in the Northern States, as in the Southern and New England States there are scarcely any two States in which the names or titles of all the county offices are identical. AUDITING OFFICE AND CLERK OF THE COUNTY BOARD. Generally the principal auditing officer of the county is known as the "county auditor" or "county clerk." In Illinois, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Wisconsin and many other States the office is called "county clerk." In Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota', South Dakota, Ohio and others it is termed "county auditor." In a few of the States under certain conditions this office is merged with some other county office. A notable example of this is in the State of Michigan, where they have one official, under the simple title of "clerk," who looks after about all of the work which in most of the States devolves upon both the county clerk and also clerk of court. In all of the States a bond in a moderate sum is required of the county clerk or auditor, and he is paid a salary of from $1,500 to $3,500 per year, besides in some States being allowed certain fees, unless it is in a very large and heavily populated county, where the salary paid is of necessity much higher than this amount. No county treasurer or member of the county board is eligible to this office. In general terms it may be stated as a rule the auditor acts as the clerk or secretary of the official county board, although in a few of the States the court clerk is required to look after this matter. The clerk of the county board keeps an accurate record of the board's proceedings and carefully preserves all documents, records, books, maps and papers which may be brought before the board, or which the law provides shall be deposited in his. office. In the auditing office an accurate account is kept with the county treasurer. Generally they file the duplicates of the receipts given by the county treasurer, charging him with all money paid into the treasury and giving credit for all warrants paid. The general plan of paying claims against a: county is as follows: If the claim is one in which the amount due is fixed by law, or is authorized to be fixed by some other person or tribunal, the auditor issues a warrant or. order which will be paid by the treasurer, the certificate upon which it is allowed being duly filed. In all other cases the claim must be allowed by the county board, and the chairman or presiding officer issues a warrant or order which is attested by the clerk. A complete record of all these county warrants or orders is kept, and the accounts of the county treasurer must balance therewith. The above in general terms outlines the most important branch of work which the county clerk or county auditor looks after in most.of the States, but in all of the States the law requires him to look after a number of other matters, although in these there is no uniformity between the various States, and no general description of these minor or additional duties could be given that would apply to all the States. COUNTY TREASURER. This is an office which exists in all of the States, and it is one of the most important of the various offices necessary in carrying on the business of a county. It is an elective office in all of the States, and the term of office is usually either two or four years, but a very com-. mon provision in the various States is that after serving for one term as county treasurer a party shall be ineligible to the office until the intervention of at least one term after the expiration of the term for which he was elected. This provision, however, does not exist in all of the States, as in some of them the county treasurer is eligible for reelection for any number of terms. The general duties of the county treasurers throughout the various States is very similar. The county treasurer is the principal custodian of the funds belonging to the county. It is his duty to receive and safely keep the revenues and other public moneys of the county, and all funds authorized to be paid to him, and disburse the same pursuant to law. He is required to keep proper books of accounts, in which he must keep a regular, just and true account of all moneys, revenues and funds received by him, stating particularly the time, when, of whom and on what fund or account each particular sum was received; and also of all moneys, revenues and funds paid out by him according to law, stating particularly the time when, to whom and on what fund payment is made from.k The books of the county treasurer must always be subject to the inspection of the county board, which, at stated intervals, examines his books and makes settlements with him. In some of the States the provisions of the law relating to county treasurer are very strict; some of them provide for a county board of auditors, who are expected, several times a year, to examine the funds, accounts and vouchers of the treasury without previous notice to the treasurer; and in some it is provided that this board, or the county board, shall designate a bank (or banks) in which the treasurer is required to keep the county funds deposited-the banks being required to pay interest on daily or monthly balances and give bond to indemnify the county against loss. As a general rule the county treasurer is only authorized to pay out county funds on warrants or orders issued by the chairman of the county board and attested by the clerk, or in certain cases on warants or orders of the county auditing office. A complete record of these warrants or orders is kept, and the treasurer's accounts must balance therewith. In most of the States the law is very explicit in directing how the books and accounts of the county treasurer shall be kept. COUNTY RECORDER OR REGISTER OF DEEDS. In a' few of the States the office of county recorder or register of deeds is merged with some other county office, in counties where the population falls below a certain amount. A notable example of this is found in both the States of Illinois and Missouri (and there are others), where it is merged with the office of circuit clerk in many counties. The title of the joint office is "circuit clerk and recorder," and the, duties of both offices are looked after by one official.. The duties of the county recorder or register of deeds are very similar in the various States, although in some of the Eastern and Southern States the office is called by other names. The usual name, however, is county recorder or register of deeds. In Illinois, Indiana, /. -- --. - - -- - I Im Copyright, x91o, by Geo. A. Ogle & Co.

Page  90 SUPPLEMENT VI....-ml. _-,.,... IL L { DES O THE SS)EM O CIVIL GOVERNMEN DIGEST.F THE SYSTEM OF OIVIL GOVERNMENT = I I Iowa, Missouri, Ohio and many other States, it is called "county re corder." In Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota', Wisconsil and many more it is called "register of deeds." In all of the States thi office is the repository wherein are kept all records relating to deeds mortgages, transfers and contracts affecting lands within the county. I is the duty of the recorder or register, as soon as practical after the fil ing of any instrument in writing in his office entitled to be recorded, tc record the same at length, in the order of the time of its reception, is books provided by the county for that purpose; and it is his duty tc endorse on all instruments a certificate of the time when the same wa; filed. All of the States have some of the following provisions concerning the duties of the recorder, but these provisions are not common to all oj the States, viz.: The register or recorder is not allowed to record an instrument of any kind unless it is duly executed according to law; he is not obliged to record any instrument unless his fees are paid in advance; as a rule, it is unlawful for him to record any map, plat or subdivision of land situated within any incorporated city, town or village until it is approved by the proper officers of the same. In many States he is forbidden to enter a deed on the records until it has been endorsed "taxes paid" by the proper official; he is required to exhibit, free oi charge, all records, and allow copies to be made; he is authorized tc administer oaths and take acknowledgments. CIRCUIT OR DISTRICT CLERK, OR CLERK OF COURT. In nearly all of the States, each county elects a "clerk of court or courts," sometimes also known as circuit clerk or district clerk, indicating the court with which the office is connected. In some of the States, as has already been stated, the office of clerk of court is merged with some other county office. This is the case in Illinois and Missouri, where in many counties it is connected with the office of county recorder. In Michigan, one official under the name of "clerk" handles the business which usually is given to the clerk of court and county clerk or auditor. In Wisconsin, Missouri, Illinois and other States the name used is "circuit clerk;" in Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota, North Dakota and many others the office is called "clerk of district court;" while in many of the States, including Indiana, Ohio, Iowa, South Dakota and others, it is called simply "clerk" or "clerk of the court or courts." The chief duty of this official is to act as clerk of the district or circuit court, and sometimes other courts of inferior jurisdiction. It is the clerk's duty to keep the seals and attend the sessions of their respective courts, preserve all the files and papers thereof, make, keep and preserve complete records of all the proceedings and determinations thereof, and carry out such other duties as may be required by the rules and orders of their respective courts. They must enter of record all judgments, decrees and orders of the court as soon as possible after they are rendered; keep all indictments on file as a public record, have authority to administer oaths, take acknowledgments; take and certify depositions, and are required to exhibit all records free of charge. In nearly all the States the law defines the character of the record books which the clerk of court must keep. Although there is no settled rule in this matter, the general provisions are that he shall keep: First, a general docket or register of actions, in which is entered the title of each action in the order in which they are commenced, and a description of each paper filed in the cause and all proceedings therein; second, a plaintiff's index and defendant's index; third, a judgment book and execution docket, in which he enters the judgment in each action, time of issuing execution, satisfaction, etc., and such other books as the courts or the laws may prescribe. SHERIFF. In all of the States the office of sheriff is one of the most important of the county offices. The term of office varies in different States, being usually either two or four years, and in several of the States one party cannot hold the office a' second term consecutively. The general provisions outlining the duties pertaining to this office are very much alike in the various States, and the following resume of his duties may be said to apply to all of the various States except in a few minor and unimportant details. The sheriff is charged with the duty of keeping and preserving the peace in his county; or, as has been written, "he is the conservator of peace," and it is his duty to keep the same, suppress riots, affrays, fighting, breaches of the peace and prevent crime, and may arrest offenders "on view" and cause them to be brought before the proper magistrate; and to do this, or to execute any writ, warrant, process, order or decree, he may call to his aid when necessary any person or the "power of the county." It is the duty of the sheriff to serve and execute within his county, and return, all writs, warrants, process, orders and decrees of every description that may be legally directed and delivered to him. He is a court officer, and it is his duty to attend, either in person or by deputy, all courts of record held in his county; by virtue of his office he has custody of the jail. It is his duty to pursue and apprehend felons and persons charged with crime and has custody of prisoners. He is not allowed to purchase any property exposed for sale by him as sheriff. COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OR COMMISSIONER OF SCHOOLS. This is an office which exists under one name or another in nearly every State in the Union. The title of the office in a great majority of the States is "county superintendent," but in Michigan, Missouri, Ohio, New York, and possibly one or two other States, the office is termed "school commissioner," and in several of the States the laws provide for a board of county examiners or school commissioners, who are given considerable of the work that in most of the other States is handled by the county superintendent. v The name of this office implies the duties which devolve upon it, and they are very much alike in all of the States. The incumbent of this office is charged with a general supervision over the schools of the county, and must be a fitting person as to education and moral character. As a rule it is their duty to examine and license teachers, but in a few of the States provision is made for a board of examiners. County superintendents are required to visit and inspect the schools at regular intervals, and give such advice and instruction to teachers as may be deemed necessary and proper. They are required to organize and conduct institutes for the instruction of teachers if deemed necessary, and encourage teachers' associations. They introduce to the notice of teachers and the people the best modes of instruction, the most approved plans of building and ventilating school-houses, etc., stimulate school officers to the prompt and proper discharge of their duties. They receive reports from the various school officers, and transmit an abstract of these reports to the State Superintendent, adding a report of the condition of the schools under their charge. In nearly all the States they are forbidden having any interest in the sale of any school furniture, apparatus or books used in the schools. In many States they have authority to annul a teacher's certificate for proper cause, and in general to take such steps and enforce such methods as will elevate and make more efficient the schools under their control. COUNTY, PROSECUTING OR STATE'S ATTORNEY. There is a great difference between the various States in the method of handling or attending to the legal business relating to county matters or growing from county affairs. In many of the States the official who attends to this line of work is known as the "county attorney," in other States he is called the State's attorney or prosecuting or district attorney. In a few of the States they divide the State into districts embracing a number of counties, and a district attorney is elected in each district, who in some cases attends to all the legal work of the various counties, and in others he assists the county attorneys in their most important duties and prosecutions. But whatever plan may be followed in the various States, and whatever title may be given to this office, the general duties of the office are very much the same throughout all of the States. It is the duty of the county attorney to commence and prosecute all 7 t 0 ii 0 s or s s I f h r actions, suits,'indictments, and prosecutions, civil and criminal, in any Scourt of record in his county in which the "people of the State or s county" may be concerned; to prosecute all forfeited bonds and recog-;, nizances, and all actions for the recovery of debts, revenues, moneys, t fines, etc., accruing to his county; to commence and prosecute all actions and proceedings brought by any county officer in his official capacity; to Sdefend all actions and proceedings brought against his county, or a against any county officer in his official capacity; to give legal opinions and advice to the county board or other county officers in relation to s their official duties; to attend, if possible all preliminary examinations of criminals. When requested, he is required to attend sessions of the f grand jury, examine witnesses in their presence, give legal advice and see that proper subpoenas and processes are issued; draw up indictments Sand prosecute the same. The county attorney is required, when requested by the Attorney-General, to appear for the State in cases in his county in which the State is interested. The county attorney makes an annual report to his superior State officer of all the criminal cases prosecuted by him. PROBATE OR COUNTY JUDGE. S The method of handling probate matters is not uniform throughout the various States. In many States the higher courts are given jurisdiction over probate matters, and in others they have created districts in which are held probate courts, whose jurisdiction extends over several counties and takes in other matters besides purely probate affairs. In a majority of the States, however, particularly the Western and Northern States, they elect a county or a probate judge, who holds court and handles the probate matters which arise within his county. The jurisdiction of these county or probate courts is not always confined exclusively to probate affairs, being frequently extended to many other matters, and they generally include such matters as apprenticeship affairs, adoptions, minors, etc. In some of the States they have both a county judge and a probate judge, and in these cases the jurisdiction of the latter is confined to such matters as are in line with probate affairs. In Missouri they have a probate judge, and also a county court, composed of county judges, in whom the corporate powers -of the county are vested-as the official county board. In Michigan they have a probate judge and a probate register. The probate judge is generally given original jurisdiction in all matters of probate, settlement of estates of deceased persons, appointment of guardians and conservators and settlement of their accounts. They take proof of wills, direct the administration of estates, grant and revoke letters testamentary and of administration, appoint and remove guardians, etc. COUNTY SURVEYOR. ' This is an office which is common to nearly all of the States. It is the duty of the county surveyor to execute any survey which may be ordered by any court, or upon application of any individual or corporation, and preserve a record of the surveys made by him. Nearly all of the States provide that certain records shall be kept by the county surveyor, and provide penalties for his failure to place on record the surveys made by him. While he is the official county surveyor, yet the surveys made by him are not conclusive, but may be reviewed by any competent tribunal, and the correctness thereof may be disputed. COUNTY CORONER. This is another county office which exists in nearly all of the States. In the average county there is not much work for the coroner, but in the counties in which large cities are located the office is a very important one. In general terms it may be stated that the coroner is required to hold inquests over the bodies of persons supposed to have met with violent or unnatural deaths. In most States he has power to impanel a jury to enquire into the cause of death; but in some of them this is not the case, and he is given power to act alone. He can subpoena witnesses; administer oaths; in certain cases provide for a decent burial, and can bind over to the proper court any person implicated in the killing of the deceased. OTHER COUNTY OFFICES. The county offices that have already been mentioned are the principal ones found in all of the States. There are, however, a few other county officials besides those mentioned which exist in many of the States, and which should be briefly mentioned in this connection. These are such offices as county physician, county assessor, county collector, county poor commissioner or superintendent of the county poor-house, master in chancery or court commissioner, county examiners, board of equalization, board of review, etc. The names of these offices imply the duties. These offices do not exist in all of the States, but in nearly every State the law provides for one or more of these county officials. COUNTY BOARD. The powers of every county as a body politic and corporate are vested in a county board. This official county board is generally termed the county "board of supervisors," or "board of commissioners," but there are some exceptions to this, like Missouri, where the county board is known as the "county court." There is considerable difference in the make-up of the county board in the various States. In some it is made up of one member from each township in the county. In others the counties are divided into districts, and one member of the county board is chosen from each district. No general description of this could be given that would be accurate, as some of the States follow both of these plans. For instance, in Illinois some of the counties are governed by a board of supervisors, which is made up of one member from each township, while other counties in the same State are governed by a board of county commissioners, consisting of three or more members, each representing districts into which the counties in question are divided. The general powers of the county board throughout all of the States is about the same, except in minor details. It represents the legislative and corporate powers of the county. One of their number is always chosen as chairman or president, and acts as the presiding officer. The county board has general charge over the affairs of the county. It is their duty to provide county offices, provide desks, stationery, books, fuel, etc.; examine, investigate and adjust claims against the county, and have general care and custody of all the real and personal estate owned by the county. At regular intervals they settle with the county treasurer; examine accounts and vouchers. They locate county roads; determine the amount of county tax, and regularly publish a statement of their proceedings; make statements of receipts, expenditures, etc.; and make all contracts, and do all other acts in relation to the property and concerns of the county necessary to exercise its corporate powers that are not specifically delegated to other county officials. TOWNSHIP GOVERNMENT T HE method of township government throughout the different States varies so much that it is impossible in this article to treat of it more than in a general way. In many of the States the townships are not organized as bodies corporate, and in other States in some counties they may have township organization, while in other counties in the same State it does not exist. In cases where there is no township organization the law provides that certain county officials shall attend to the local work, or that work which in other localities as assumed by the township officials. But even where they have township organization the plan of township government in the different States where it exists differs so widely that scarcely any two States may be said to be alike. About the only statements concerning the organized townships that could be made which would apply to all the States are the following: Every organized township in its corporate capacity has power to sue and be sued; to acquire by purchase, gift or devise, and hold property, both real and personal, I for the use of its inhabitants, and again to sell and convey the samne; and to make all such contracts as may be necessary in the exercise of its powers as a township. In a great many of the States the township government is carried on after a plan very similar to the county and State governments, having various executive officers and a township board in which the corporate and legislative powers, of the township are vested. In other States they follow a' plan which reserves to the people all corporate and legislative powers, and therefore have no need for a township board, but have various other township officers to. carry out the wishes and orders of the voters. Where this plan prevails they hold what is generally termed "town meetings," at which every legal voter of the township has a voice. At'these meetings reports are had from the various township officials, and the necessary measures are adopted and directions given for carrying on the township business. Still other States combine good features from both of the plans above mentioned, and besides the other usual township officials they maintain a township board, which is given certain restricted powers, such as those of a review or an auditing board, but they are not vested with the complete corporate and legislative powers of the township, this being reserved in a large measure to the voters, and all questions calling for the exercise of such authority are acted upon at the town meetings. In many of the States the township board just described is made up of three or more of the other township officers, who are ex-officio members of the township board, and they meet at certain times, perform the work required of them, and report to the town meetings. The principal officials in township organizations in nearly all the States are the following: "Supervisors, or trustees," "clerk," "treasurer," "assessor," "collector," "justices of the peace," "constables," "overseers, supervisors or commissioners of the highways," and "poundmasters," although as has been stated, many of the States do not have all of these officials. SCHOOL DISTRICT GOVERNMENT T HE "common school system," or, to speak with greater accuracy, the method of governing school districts, in the various States, differs widely, yet all follow in a general way one of two separate and clearly defined methods, being amended in minor respects to meet local conditions and' ideas. All of these methods have their excellent points, and yet it h'as been claimed by eminent educators that no one of them is free from fault and objection, nor has reached perfection. It will be the aim of this article to briefly explain the principal features of the several methods, but it is not possible to go into detail in the matter of giving the system of school government that is followed in each of the many States of the Union. The constitution and statutes of all the States agree, however, upon several points. They aim to provide for a thorough and efficient system of free schools, whereby all the children of the States may receive a thorough common school education; they provide that all lands, moneys and other property donated, granted or received for school, college, seminary or university purposes, and the proceeds thereof, shall be faithfully applied to the objects stated; with two or three exceptions they provide that no appropriation shall be made or public funds applied in aid of any church or sectarian purpose, or to support or sustain any school, academy, seminary, college or university controlled or run in the interest of any church or for a sectarian purpose; and they prohibit the various school officials from holding any interest in the sale, proceeds or profits of any book, apparatus or furniture used in the schools in which they, as officers, are interested. In many of the States they follow what may be termed the "indepent school district" method, inasmuch as each district, so far as its corporate powers are concerned, is entirely separate and independent of other districts. Where this plan is followed the boundaries of each district are clearly defined, and each district is complete within itself. They elect a full set of district officials, and exercise their corporate powers and manage their district affairs within themselves. In this plan the corporate powers of the district are usually vested in a dis- - trict board, which has general charge of the interests of the district, hires teachers, and makes such contracts, and carries into effect such methods as is deemed necessary to raise the grade or aid in the efficiency of the schools. The measure of the authority given to these district boards is not the same in all the States, and in many States it is restricted, and a part of the corporate power is reserved to the people themselves, the officials being required, in all important matters, to carry out the wishes and orders of the people of the district as expressed and decided upon at the "district school meetings." Another method which is followed in many of the States may be termed the "township system." In such States the law provides for the organization of each township for school purposes, or as one large "district," and each township, so far as its educational interests are concerned, is organized, has the necessary officials and becomes a body politic and corporate. As a general rule, where this method prevails, the townships are divided into three or more sub-districts. All of these sub-districts are a part of the whole, and the finances and general business is generally managed by a township board made up of representatives from each sub-district. This board is generally clothed with the corporate powers, hires teachers, provides fuel and supplies and makes all the contracts necessary to carry on the various schools in the township. As with independent districts, the powers of this board are not alike in all States where the- township system prevails, for in some States their power is very much restricted, and is limited to certain official matters, the corporate powers and right to make important contracts being reserved to the people, who decide on these questions at what are termed the school meetings. In a few of the States where they follow the township system they have no official board. This is the case in Indiana, where they elect a township trustee, whose duty it is to look after all the educational interests of the township, subject to the approval of the people at the regular meetings. In most of the States where the township system prevails the law provides for the organization, under certain conditions, of sub-districts into independent districts, which gives them the power to elect their own officers and act independently of the other schools in the township. In nearly all of the States one of the two general methods given above is followed, with certain changes to make the plan more efficient and satisfactory, and to better meet the desires and needs of the people of the different States. Many of the States combine good features from both these systems, as some of the States have the township system, wherein each sub-district has its own board, and so far as controlling its own affairs is concerned, is independent of all other districts. But local conditions have in many instances made special and local provisions necessary that are different in each State, and while there may be. a vast difference in the methods followed, their aim is the same, and, as a whole, the various systems have accomplished the result of giving throughout the length and breadth of the Union the grandest and most efficient system of free schools that the world has ever known. CITIES AND VILLAGES N all of the States the laws provide for the local government of school matters and civil authority. In school affairs provision is pendent of, the township in which they are located, both as to they may be separated from, and thus manage their affairs indecities and villages, so that when they attain a certain population made for handling the more complex educational interests of villages and cities-the school boards being made larger, and in many cases the scope of their authority is very much extended. In civil matters provision is made in 'all of the States for the organization of villages and cities as corporate bodies, separate and distinct from the townships, and providing for the necessary officers to carry on the affairs of the municipality. m 1_ m I Copyright, [9[0, by Oeo. A. Ogle & Co. Copyright, x91o, by Ueo. A. Ogle & Co. Ii

Page  91 SUPPLEMENT ViS I GENERAL INFORMATION ON BANKING AND BUSINESS METHODS. 71 GENERAL INFORMATION ON Banking and Business Methods. RELATIONS BETWEEN A BANK AND ITS CUSTOMERS. N business life there is no more complex or important relation than that which exists between the business men generally and the banks, and it should be guarded with jealous care, so that both may retain the full confidence of the other. Business development in the United States has progressed with such gigantic strides that it has long since passed the stage where it is even possible to carry on business without the agency of banks. They are today a necessity in the transaction of nusiness and making exchanges. It has been said, and with a great deal of truth, that in the present day the entire and sole object and result of business is the transfer of credits on the books of the banking houses; and that about the only use to which money is put is in making small change or paying balances. Business, in the most general and comprehensive sense, is almost wholly carried on by the aid of banks with checks, drafts and exchange. And it will be seen what a very important part the element of confidence plays in business life, when it is remembered that every check or draft that changes hands, implies the confidence on the part of the party receiving and accepting it, that it will be honored at the bank wlen presented. OPENING AN ACCOUNT HE first step in the matter of becoming a depositor and customer of a bank is the interview with the banker, ei-t-her the President, or Cashier, as -the case may be. If unknown to the banker it is necessary for some one who is known to identfy and vouch for the applicant as being honorable and straightforward, for banks are compelled to be careful in this matter as they subsequently must handle all the checks, drafts and exchanges that the prospective customer employs in his business, so that while the business of an honest man is valuable to them and i's appreciated, that of a dishonest man is shunned by them as an element of risk and danger-the same to them as to every one else with whom he deals. The identification and reference, however, being satisfactory the prospective customer is given a pass book or account book, writes his signature in a book kept for that purpose, is made known to the receiving and paying tellers, makes his first deposit and is then a full fledged customer and depositor of the bank. DEPOSITS. EPOSITS are made in the following manner: A "Deposit Ticket" or "Deposit Blank" is furnished the customer, and he enters upon this a full description of all the items which he desires entered to his credit, stating whether it is gold, silver or currency and making a separate entry for each draft or check that he deposits. In entering such items as drafts and checks some banks require a separate entry for each item which will show upon what bank or at least what city or town each draft or check is drawn. After having endorsed his name on the back of all checks and drafts he hands the "Deposit Ticket," together with all the items named upon it, and his Pass Book, to the receiving teller, who examines it, checks off the various items to see that they are all there, and enters the total amount to the customer's credit in the "Pass Book';" and it is also carried to his credit from the Deposit Ticket onto the books of the bank. The "Deposit Ticket" is an important feature of the transaction, and the customer is required to fill this out with ink. It bears his name and the date and is carefully preserved for future reference by the bank to settle any dispute or difference that may arise. As all men are liable to error the depositor, to prevent mistakes, should always see that the amount of the deposit is correctly entered in his book before leaving the bank. If a deposit is made when a customer has not his "Pass Book" a duplicate ticket should be taken, and the amount entered properly when next at the bank. It will be seen from the above that all checks and drafts are entered to the credit of the customer at the time he deposits them, the same as cash items. The depositor, however, is held responsible for the non-payment.of all checks, drafts and other items deposited as cash until payment has been ascertained by the bank. The bank, however, must use due diligence in attending to them within a reasonable time. If a check or draft is held beyond a reasonable time and, meanwhile, the bank upon which it is drawn fails, the receiving bank would be compelled to lose it. What is a reasonable time, according to decisions of the courts, depends upon the circumstances and varies in different cases. In cities, where they have a Clearing House, checks on other city banks are expected to reach the Clearing House on the next day succeeding the time of the deposit; but as to checks and drafts drawn upon other or distant cities, a reasonable time must be allowed for them to be presented for payment. If the banker, however, is n.egli gent concerning it, he must stand the loss. Such cases very r.'ely, if ever, occur, and it may safely be stated that in the absence of any special or unusual conditions for all items such as checks, drafts, etc., the banker only receives them for collection for the account of the depositor and therefore acts only as his agent and as such is charged with using only due diligence in attending to the business. DISCOUNTS, LOANS, ETC. 'HE word "Discount" is applied to interest when it is deducted from the amount at the time a loan is made-in other words, interest that is paid in advance. It is the general rule of banks in making "short time" loans to customers to give credit for the amount of the loan, less the interest. Many, business men fail to obtain the full benefit that a bank can give them, through hesitancy or diffidence in asking for a loan; and in many instances will borrow of a neighboring business man and thus, frequently embarrass him, rather than go to the banker, whose business it is to help him through such times of need, when possible. This is what banks are established for, largely, and they are always glad to "get their money out and keep it out" provided they can be reasonably sure of its return. If an applicant is unable to furnish reasonable security, or is irresponsible or unworthy he must necessarily be refused, but in securing money which he cannot guarantee the return of, whether it be from a banker or another business man he does an injustice to the interests of business generally. However, every business man in need of financial help, whether his needs be great or little, should go to the banker first and submit the situation, securities, etc., to him, as of all men he is by training the best judge and advisor in such matters. He may be compelled to decline to give the required aid, but this refusal should never be taken as a personal matter, as it must be remembered that he has other interests to serve and depositors, stockholders and directors to protect before following his own personal desires. COLLECTIONS. N leaving notes or other items for collection the customer writes on the back of each the words: "For Collection for Account of," and places his signature below it. Upon receipt of this, the proper officer or clerk of the bank, will enter the items either in the back of the customer's "pass book" or give a separate receipt as the case may be. When the bank receives payment on the items the customer is notified and the amount is entered to his credit both on his Pass Book and on the books of the bank the same as any other deposit. A bank in receiving paper for collection acts only as the agent of the customer and does not assume any responsibility beyond due diligence on its part. All banks make collections either in or out of the city where they are 'located for their customers at very moderate rates. These items should always be left at the bank before they become due, so as to give the bank time to give an abundant notice to the parties. If the customer desires to make a "sight" or "time draftC upon a debtor, upon application the bank will furnish him withl blank drafts. STATEMENTS AND BALANCES. A FEW words concerning statements and balances will not be inappropriate in this connection. Every customer of a bank should always and without fail, once in each month, have his "Pass Book" balanced by the banker. This rule should always be observed to correct any error that might occur and avoid loss and complications. The amount of deposits is added up and a balance is struck by deducting the total amount of the customer's checks which the bank has either paid or "accepted" (certified) during the month. The cancelled checks are returned to the customer. If any error is discovered it should be reported immediately to the bank so that it may be investigated and rectified. NEGOTIABLE PAPER. ROBABLY the greatest factor in the business world of today is "Negotiable Paper," without which it is not probable that business development could have assumed the vast proportions that it has reached in America; and without which the business of the civilized world could not be carried on. This term includes a variety of instruments, such as promissory notes, checks, drafts and bills of exchange. The bill of exchange is one of the oldest forms of negotiable paper, and has been in use for a number of centuries. The draft and check came into use at a much later day, and the promissory note is a comparatively recent invention, and has very largely taken the place of the bill of exchange as it was used in former times. The most important attribute of promissory notes, bills of exchange, and other instruments of the same class, which distinguish them' from all other contracts, is their negotiability. This consists of two entirely distinct elements or branches-first, the power of transferring the paper from one owner to another, so that the assignee shall assume a complete title, and be able to sue on it; second, the effect upon the rights of the parties produced by such a transfer when made before maturity, in the regular course of business, for a consideration to a purchaser in good faith, and without notice of any defect or defense, whereby all defenses of the maker (with few exceptions) are cut off, and the holder becomes absolutely entitled to recover. A written order or promise may be perfectly valid as a contract; but it will not be negotiable unless certain requisites are complied with. The following requisites are indispensable: It must be written; must be signed; it must be absolute, not depending upon any contingency; it must be to pay money in a certain amount capable of being certain by computation; the time of payment must be certain or such as will become certain; but when no time is expressed the law implies that payment is due immediately; and lastly, the order or promise must be accompanied by words of negotiability-that is, payable to a certain payee's o.der or to bearer. PROMISSORY NOTES. CCORDING to the general "law merchant," unaffected by statute, a promissory note is the written promise of a person, called the "maker," to pay a certain sum of money at a certain time to a designated person termed the "payee" or to his order or bearer. It must have all the requisites that have been mentioned for negotiable paper, otherwise, if it fails in any of these matters it becomes a contract, as it thus loses the element of negotiability. Contracts may be perfectly valid without all of these requisites, but they do not possess the peculiar qualities which belong to promissory notes. It is customary in all promissory notes to write the words "value received" but this is not absolutely essential, as a consideration and value is implied in every note, draft, check, bill of exchange or endorsement. It is the common law of both England and this country that no promise can be enforced unless made for a consideration or sealed, but negotiable instruments as a rule are an exception to this. Between the original parties a want of consideration can be pleaded a defense and would operate to defeat a recovery. It would have the same effect as between an endorser and his endorsee, but this only applies to immediate parties or to those who had notice of the defense or became holders of the paper after maturity. It may be stated as an almost invariable rule that no defense will operate to defeat the recovery if the, paper has been negotiated and passed into the hands of an innocent purchaser, in the regular course of business, before maturity and for value. The absence of any of these elements, however, will allow a defense to be set up and will defeat recovery even in the hands of third parties if it can be shown that there was either: a want of consideration, that it was obtained by duress, or fraud or circumvention, or larceny; or that the consideration was illegal. In order to cut off these defenses and give the holder the absolute right to recover, all of the conditions named must be fulfilled. If he purchases the note even one day after it becomes due it is then subject to any defense or set off which the maker may have against the original payee. Demand of payment for a note must be made at the place where it is payable at the time of maturity; if not paid notice must immediately be given to the endorsers, otherwise, in a majority of the States, all endorsements that are not qualified will be released. If a note is not dated it will not defeat it, but will be considered as dated when it was made; but a written date is prima facie evidence of the time of making. When a note falls due on Sunday, or a legal holiday, it becomes payable the day previous. If a sum is written at length in the body and also in figures at the corner the written words control it. It destroys the negotiability of a note to write in the body of it any conditions or contingencies. A valuable consideration is not always money. It may be either any gain or advantage to the promisor, or injury sustained by the promisee at the promisor's request. A previous debt, or a fluctuating balance, or a debt due from a third person, might be a valuable consideration. So is a moral consideration, if founded upon a previous legal consideration as, where one promises to pay a debt that is barred by limitation or by infancy.. But a merely moral consideration as one founded upon natural love and affection is no legal consideration. No consideration is sufficient in law if it be illegal in its nature, or if distinctly opposed to public policy. If a note is payable at a bank it is only necessary to have the note at the bank at the stipulated time to constitute a sufficient demand; and if there are no funds there to meet it, this is suf- - ficient refusal. DAYS OF GRACE.-In a great many States three "Days of Grace," as they are termed, are allowed on negotiable instruments beyond the date set for payment. This is not the universal rule, however, as the tendency of late years has been toward doing away with this custom, and a number of States have already passed laws abolishing the "Days of Grace." Where the rule is in effect, however, and it is not specifically waived in the instrument the payor is entitled to three days as fully as though it were so stipulated, and the holder cannot enforce collection until the expiration of three days after the date set for payment. BILLS OF EXCHANGE. T HE "bill of exchange" is an open letter or order whereby one person requests another to pay a third party (or order or bearer) a certain fixed sum of money. They are of two kinds, the Inland and Foreign bills, the names of which imply the difference between them. The three parties to the bill are called the Drawer, Drawee and Payee. The bill must be presented to the Drawee and if he agrees to obey the order, he "accepts" the bill by writing the word "accepted" across its face and signs his name below it-and thus becomes the "Acceptor."' The instrument is usually made negotiable and the payee can transfer it to others by endorsement, which method of transfer may go on indefinitely., The following is a common form of an inland bill of exchange: BILL OF EXCHANGE. $600 CHICAGO, ILL., June 1, 1894. Sixty days after sight pay to John Sims, or order, Six Hundred Dollars, and charge same to my account. To HENRY HOLT & Co., JOHN DOE. Boston, Mass. CHECKS. A CH-IECK on a bank is one form of "Inland Bill of Exchange," but there is some slight difference in the liability of the parties to it. A check requires no acceptance, as a bank is bound to pay the checks of its depositors while still in possession of their funds, and the drawer of a check having funds on deposit has an action for damage for refusal to honor his check, under such circumstances, on the ground of an implied obligation to pay checks according to the usual course of business. Checks are usually drawn payable immediately, but they may be made payable at a future day, and in this case their resemblance to a bill of exchange is very close. As stated, a check requires no acceptance, so far as payment or liability of the drawer is concerned, but it creates no obligation against a bank in favor of the holder until acceptance. When accepted by the bank the word "Accepted" is stamped on its fact with the signature of the banker. It is then said to be certified and thereafter the bank is liable to the holder. As soon as the check is "certified" the amount is charged against the account of the "drawer" the same as if paid, and it is considered paid so far as the "drawer" is concerned. The drawer of a check is not a surety in the same sens-e as is the drawer of a bill of exchange, but is the principal debtor like the maker of a note. He cannot complain of any delay in the presentment, for it is an absolute appropriation to the holder of so much money, in the hands of the bank, and there it may lie at the holder's pleasure. The delay, however, is at the holder's risk, and if the bank should fail after he could have got his money the loss is his. If, before he presents the check, the bank pays out all the money of the drawer, then he may look to the drawer for payment. If the holder of a check transfers it to another he has the right to expect that it will be presented for payment within a reasonable time. He has the right to expect that it will either be presented the next day or started to the point on which it is drawn. If it is held beyond a reasonable time and a loss is occasioned thereby, the party responsible for the delay must bear the loss. If a bank pays a forged check it is so far its own loss that it cannot charge the money to the depositor whose name was forged. But it is entitled to recover the money from the party who presented it. If it pay a check of which the amount has been falsely and fraudulently increased, it can charge the drawer only with the original amount, provided the drawer himself has not caused or facilitated the forgery by carelessly writing it or leaving it in such hands as to make the forgery or alteration easy. In some of the States the Supreme Court has decided in cases where checks were "raised" that the drawer must bear the loss as they had failed to take reasonable precaution to prevent it. Perforating and cutting machines are on the market which make it almost impossible to raise or alter the amounts so as to avoid detection, and the tendency of the decisions is to regard the use of these as.only a reasonable precaution on the part of check drawers to save their bank from trouble and loss.- Some, however, adopt the plan of writing the amount in red ink across their signature. If many persons, not partners, join in a deposit they must join in a check. If a payee's name is misspelled or wrong in a check, the usual plan is to endorse it first exactly as it appears and then sign the name correctly. There is no settled rule as to how checks should be drawn. In nearly all the cities it is an almost invariable rule to make them payable "to order" so as to require the endorsement of the payee; but in smaller towns many check drawers make them payable "to bearer," in which case they require no endorsement, and if lost or stolen may cause loss-as whoever presents such a check at the bank is entitled to payment. DRAFTS. A DRAFT is a form of an "inland bill of exchange." The two forms of bills of exchange called "drafts" are the bank draft (or exchange) and the "sight or time draft." The bank draft is, to all intents and purposes, the same as a check, but the term is usually applied to "checks" drawn by one bank upon funds which it may have in some other bank, termed its "correspondent." A draft is but very seldom made payable to bearer, it being almost an invariable rule to make them payable to a certain payee or order. They are negotiable and can be transferred indefinitely by endorsement. If a draft is lost or stolen, by applying to the bank that issued it, the payment can be stopped, and after the expiration of thirty days a duplicate will be issued. The "Sight Draft'" or "Time Draft," in which case it reads to pay after a certain number of days, is a very common method of making collections to-day by creditors, and it serves the double purpose of being an order to pay to a bank or third party, and is also a receipt to the debtor. It is simple in its wording, the following being a general form: $1000 CHICAGO, June 1, 1894. At sight (or so many days after sight as the case may be) pay to the order of - Bank One Thousand Dollars and charge to my account. JOHN SIMS. To GEo. SIMs, NEW YORK, N. Y. ENDORSEMENTS. HE signature of any payee or holder on the back of any check, draft, note, bill of exchange or other negotiable instrument is termed his "endorsement." It simply means the placing of the name of the holder, or payee, on the back of the instrument, thus indicating that, for a consideration, he has relinquished his title to it, and in the absence of any condition or qualification expressed in the endorsement, it implies that the endorser will see that the instrument is paid in case it is not taken up by the maker or payor. Where the instrument is made payable to "bearer," as to "John Sims or bearer," no endorsement is necessary to pass the title-it passes with delivery and any holder may collect or sue upon it the same as if he were the payee named therein. In a case of this kind if any holder endorses the instrument, the law is construed strictly against him, and, as it was not necessary for him to endorse to pass title, the law presumes in the absence of a positive qualification that his endorsement was made for the purpose of indicating that he would pay it if the payor failed to do so. Where several payees are named in the instrument it must bear the endorsement of all of them to pass the title and make one transfer of it. In this case, however, their liability as endorsers is joint, not several. But where two or. more holders endorse one after the other in making a transfer from one to the other their liability is several, not joint. Every check, draft, bill of exchange, note or other negotiable instrument which is made payable to a certain "payee or order" must bear the endorsement of the party named, to pass the title, and even in cases where they are made payable to "bearer" it is generally customary for the party to whom a transfer is made to require the person from whom he secures it to place his endorsement thereon. There are several kinds of endorsement which should be mentioned in this connection. The first is the "blank endorsement," or "endorsement in blank," in making which the payee simply places his signature on the back of the instrument, without condition or qualification of any kind. This passes the title to the instrument, and, from that time on, it becomes payable to bearer, and the title passes with delivery, until some subsequent holder sees fit to limit by making it payable to some' other payee, or places some other qualification or condition in the endorsement. When a negotiable instrument bearing a "blank endorsement" has once been put into circulation, any subsequent holder of it has the right to limit or restrict it by writing the conditions over his own endorsement, or, by writing over the endorsement of the original payee, words making it payable to himself or some other party, "or order." This point has been decided by the supreme courts of several of the States. The endorsement may be restricted or qualified in a number of ways. One, which is called a "full endorsement," is very common in the business world. It is simply the act. of the payee named making it payable to some other certain payee or order. To do this, the endorser writes on the back of the instrument, the directions, as: "Pay to John Sims, or order," and places his signature below it. This does not limit his liability as an endorser, but the title to the instrument must thereafter pass through John Sims, and it must bear his endorsement before it will be paid or honored. J ii COPYRIGHT 1910, BY GEO, A. OGLE & CO.

Page  92 SUPPLEMENT VIII. GENERAL INFORMATION ON BANKING AND BUSINESS METHODS. Another common form of limiting the endorsement is to enable the payee (when it is made payable to his order) to transfer his title to the instrument without becoming responsible for its payment, and making the party to whom it is. transferred assume all responsibility concerning payment. To do this the endorser writes the words "Without Recourse" over his signature, which has the effect of relinquishing his title without making him liable to the holder in case the payor fails to take it up. Another method of limiting the endorsement is to make it conditional, a good illustration of which is the following: "Pay to John Sims or order upon his delivering to the First National Bank a warranty deed to lot 5, block 4, etc.," below which the endborser places his signature. He can also make it payable to "A. B. only," or in equivalent words, in which case "A. B." cannot endorse it over. In fact, the endorser has the power to limit his endorsement as he sees fit, and either to lessen or increase his liability, such as either "waiving notice of demand;" making his endorsement a "general and special guaranty of payment" to all future holders, etc., but he cannot, by his endorsement, either increase or lessen the liability of any other endorser on the instrument. An'endorser, as a rule, is entitled to immediate notice in case the payor fails to pay., This is the case in nearly all of the United States, as it has been a rule of the "law merchant" for many years. A few modifications, however, of the general "law merchant" have been made by statute in several of the States, relating to negotiable paper, in changing the endorser's liability by rendering his contract absolute instead of conditional, making notice unnecessary unless he suffers damage through want of it, or requiring a judgment to be first recovered before he can be held. In the absence, however, of statutory provisions of this kind, and they exist only in a few of the States, it may be said 'that to hold endorsers they must have prompt notice of non-payment, and it may be said to be a general rule of the "law merchant" that a7ll parties to negotiable paper as endorsers who are entitled to notice are discharged by want of notice. The demand, notice and protest may be made according to the laws of the place where payable. The term Protest is applied to the official act by an authorized person (usually a Notary Public), whereby he affirms in a formal or prescribed manner in writing that a certain bill, draft, check or other negotiable paper has been presented for acceptance or payment, as the case may be, and been refused. This, and the notice of the "Protest," which must be sent to all endorsers and parties to the paper is to notify them officially of its failure. GUARANTY. A "GUARANTOR" is one who is bound to another for the fulfillment of a promise, or of an engagement, made by a third party. This kind of contract is very common. According to the "statute of frauds" it must be in writing, and unless it is a sealed instrument there must be a consideration to support it. As a rule it is not negotiable, so as to be enforced by the transferee as if it had been given to him by the guarantor, but this depends upon the wording, as, if it contains all the characteristics of a note, payable to order or bearer, it will be held negotiable. A contract of guaranty is construed strictly, and if the liability of the principal be materially varied by the act of the party guaranteed, without the consent of the guarantor, the guarantor is discharged. The guarantor is also discharged if the liability or obligation is renewed, or extended by law or otherwise, unless he in writing renews the contract. In the case of a bank incorporated for twenty years, which was renewed for ten years more without change of officers, the courts held that the original sureties could not be held after the first term. The guaranty can be enforced even though the original debt cannot, as is the case in becoming surety for the debt of a minor. A guarantor who pays the debt of the principal is entitled to demand from the creditor all the securities he holds, or of the note or bond on which declares the debt; and, in some States, the creditor cannot fall back upon the guarantor until he has collected as much as possible from these securities and exhausted legal remedies against the principal. If the debt or obligation be first incurred and completed before the guaranty is given, there must be a new consideration or the guaranty is void. Ai guaranty is not binding unless the guarantor has notice of its acceptance, but the law presunmes this acceptance when the offer of guaranty and acts of the party to whom it is given, such as delivery of goods or extending credit are simultaneous. B3ut an offer to guarantee a future operation does not bind the offerer unless he has such notice of the acceptance as will afford him reasonable opportunity to make himself safe. "A creditor may give his debtor, some indulgence or accommodation without discharging the guarantor, unless it should have the effect of prejudicing- the * interests of the guarantor, in which case he would be released. Generally a guarantor may, at any tilne, pay a debt and" so, at once, have the right to proceed against the debtor. Where there has been failure on the part of the principal and the guarantor is looked to, he must have reasonable notice--and notice is deemed reasonable if it prevents the guarantor from suffering from the delay. It is, in many cases, difficult to say--and upon it rests the question of legal liability--whether the promise of one to pay for goods delivered to another is an original promise, as to pay for one's own goods, in which case it need not be in writing; or a promise to pay the debt or guranty the promise of him to whom the goods are delivered, in which case it must be in writing. The question generally resolves itself into this: To whom did the seller give and was authorized to give credit? This is a question of fact. and not of law. If the books of the seller show that he charged them to the party to whom he delivered them, it is almost impossible for him to hold the other party for it, but if on the other hand it is shown that he regarded the goods as being sold to the party whom it is desired to hold, but delivered them to another party and it is so shown on his books, it is not regarded as a guaranty, but an original or collateral promise, and would make the party liable. In general, a guarantor of a bill or note is not entitled to such strict and exact notice as an endorser is entitled to, but only such notice as shall save him from actual loss, as he can not make the want of notice his defense unless he can show that it was unreasonably withheld and that he suffered thereby. There is a marked difference in the effect of a guaranty of the "payment," or of the "collection" of a debt. In the first case, the creditor can look to the guarantor at any time; in the latter, the creditor must exhaust his legal remedies for collecting it. ACCOMMODATION OF PAPER. A N accommodation bill or note is one for which the acceptor or maker has received no consideration, but has lent his name and credit to accommodate the drawer, payee or holder. He is bound to all other parties just as completely as if there were a good consideration, for, if this was not the case, it would be of no value to the party accommodated. He is not allowed to set up want of consideration as a defense as against any holder for value. But he is not bound to the party whom he thus accommodates, no matter how the instrument may be drawn.. IDENTIFICATION. HE mere act of identifying a party or making him known to a banker carries with it no liability on the part of the party who thus performs it, unless it can be shown there was fraud or collusion. Customers of banks are frequently asked to identify and make known to their own bankers, strangers who desire checks or drafts cashed or other accommodations. In some cases a mere introduction is all that is necessary, but only because the banker relies upon the honor and integrity of his customer, knowing that an improper person would not be introduced, for in a case of this kind the bank assumes all the risk. Generally speaking, however, it is an almost invariable rule with bankers, as it should be, to require their customer to endorse all drafts or checks which are honored for the stranger. In this case the endorser becomes personally liable to the bank if any or all of the drafts or checks prove worthless. An endorsement which is frequently made by parties who are asked to identify others is to merely indicate that they know the party to be the payee named in the check or that the signature of the payee or party is correct. This is done by writing the words "Signature 0. K." under the party's name and signing it. This has the effect of guaranteeing -that the party's name is as written and that it is his proper signature. It does not guarantee that the check or draft is good or will be paid, but merely as expressed, that the signature is correct and the only liability assumed is that he will pay the amount in case the signature proves a forgery. Many banks, however, will not accept papers endorsed this way and justly so, for it throws upon them the burden of the risk. RECEIPTS AND RELEASES. NY acknowledgment that a sum of money has been paid ' is a receipt. A receipt which reads "in full" though admitted to be strong evidence is by no means legally conclusive. If the party signing it can show an error or mistake, it will be admitted in his favor. Receipts for money will be held open to examination, and the party holding it must abide the results of such examination-the great aim of the law being to administer strict justice. A receipt may be of different degrees of explicitness, as the word "Paid" or "Received Payment" written on a bill. A "release" is simply a form of receipt, but is more binding upon the parties, inasmuch as, if properly drawn, under seal, for a consideration, it is a complete defense to any action based on. the debts or claims so released. Herein, releases differ from receipts. A release is in the nature of a written contract and therefore cannot be controlled or contradicted by evidence, unless on the ground of fraud. But if its words are ambiguous, or may have either two or more meanings, evidence is receivable to determine the meaning. INFANTS AND MINORS, T-HE incapacity of a person to make a valid contract may arise from several causes, and the fact of being an infant, or minor, is one of them. The general rule of law may be stated as being that the contract of an infant.or minor is not always void, but is voidable, and in many cases special exception is made, giving validity to their contracts for necessaries. By being voidable but not void in themselves, means that the infant has the right to disavow and annul the contract, either before or within a reasonable time after he reaches his majority. He may do this by word only, but a mere acknowledgment that the debt exists is not enough, and it must be substantially a new promise. AGENCY. HERE are a few well-settled and important rules of law governing the matter of agents and agency, which every business man should understand thoroughly. The relation of principal and agent implies that the principal acts by and through the agent. A principal is responsible for the acts of the agent only when he has actually given full authority to the agent, or when he has by his words, or his acts, or both, caused or permitted the person with whom the agent deals to believe him clothed with this authority. This is a point which is not always thoroughly understood, but it is a well-settled principle of law. There are two kinds af agents-general and special. A general agent is one authorized to represent his principal in all his business, or in all his business of a particular kind, and his power, is limited by the usual scope and character of the business he is empowered to transact. If he is given out as the general agent, the principal is bound, even if the agent transcends his actual authority, but does not go beyond the natural and usual scope of the business. On the other hand, a special agent is one authorized -to do only a specific thing, or a few specified things, or a specified line of work. If this special agent exceeds his authority, it may be stated as an almost invariable rule that the principal is not bound, because the party dealing with the agent must inquire for himself and at his own peril, into the extent and limits of the authority given to the agent. Especially is this the case where the party knew that the agent had been or was engaged in'attending to a particular and specified line of work connected with the business of the principal. The party, however, is not bound by any special reservations or Mmitations made secretly by the principal of which he had no reasonable or easy means of having notice. The authority of an agent may be given by the principal, by writing or oral, or may be implied from certain acts. Thus, if a person.puts his goods into the custody of another whose business it is to sell such goods, he authorizes the whole world to believe that this person has them for sale; and any person buying them honestly, in this belief, would hold them. If one, knowing that another had acted as his agent, does not disavow the authority as soon as he conveniently can, but lies by and permits a person to go and deal with the supposed agent, or lose an opportunity of indemnifying himself, this is an adoption and confirmation of the acts of the agent. Al Principal is bound by the acts of an agent even after the revocation of his agency, if such revocation has not been made public or is unknown to the party dealing with the agent. An agent can generally be held personally liable if he transcends his authority; but this is not the case if the party with whom he dealt knew that the-authority was transcended. ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF BANKING. I N general, banks may be said to be credit institutions or dealers in credit. John Jay Knox once said that "the exchanges of the modern world are barter, effected by the indirect agency of the credit system, and banks and bankers are the machinery by which this is done." Metallic money and its representative, the circulating note, are only the small change of "Trade" employed in the settlement of balances and small purchases and payments. This fact is illustrated by the operations of the New York clearing house. The exchanges have been about 800,000 millions of dollars during the past thirty years, while the balances paid in money have only been about 36,0100 millions, or about 4 per cent. of the amount of the settlements.. It has always been claimed that the business of banking originated with the Venetian money changers who displayed their wares and moneys on the streets and thus supplied those in need of change. According to the most eminent authorities the earliest banking institution in Europe was the Bank of Venice, which was founded in 1172, and was based upon a forced loan of the government. Funds deposited in it could be transferred to others on the books of the bank at the pleasure of the owner, but they could not be withdrawn. The perpetual annuities of the British debt are handled in a very similar manner at the present day. The Bank of Venice was continued until 1797. In 1401, the Bank of Barcelona was formed. At a period much earlier than this, the Jewish moneydealers had invented what was known as "foreign bills of exchange," but it is said that this bank was the first institution that made a business of negotiating and handling them. The Bank of Genoa comrmenced operation in 1407 and for centuries was one of the principal banks of Europe. It was the first to issue circulating notes-which were passed only by endorsement, not being payable to bearer. The Bank of Hamburg, established in 1619, was a bank of both deposit and circulation based on fine silver bars. This bank, like nearly all of that early time, had, as a principal object, the protection of the people from worn, sweated, clipped and plugged coins, or coins of certain empires that were reduced in standard value. The remedy generally adopted was to lock up the debased and depreciated coins and circulate the credit granted for them. Various other banks sprang into existence throughout Europe, many of them being powerful government agencies, and in many cases exerted a wide influence in shaping the destinies of empires. In 1694 the Bank of England was established, and there is no banking institution in the world equal to it in the management of national finances. The Bank of France was authorized in 1800. It is not a fiscal agent of the government as is that of England. It does not collect or disburse the revenues of the exchequer, but it lends to it largely, while its credits, in the form of circulating notes and other acceptances, have borne the government safely through extraordinary needs. It is claimed that the first organized bank in the United States had its origin in the formation of a banking company without ~ 1 charter June 18th, 1780, by the citizens of Philadelphia, and first action by Congress was taken June 22, of the same year, in reference to this proposed association. Two years afterward a "perpetual charter" was granted to the Bank of North America at Philadelphia. In 1784 the State of Massachusatts incorporated the Massachusetts Bank. The Bank of New York was chartered in March, 1791, although it had been doing business since 1784, under articles of association drawn by Alexander Hamilton. Most of these institutions are still running and have been converted into national banks. The Bank of the United States was organized in 1791. The most of the stock was owned by the United States Government but later the Government interest was disposed of, and in 1843 the bank failed. State banks were organized rapidly, and private banking firms sprang into existence and the business of banking assumed immense proportions. In 1863, the NATIONAL BANK SYSTEM was adopted and in 1864 the National Bank Bureau of the Treasury Department was organized, the chief officer of which is the comptroller of, the currency. In March, 1865, an act was passed providing for a ten per cent. tax on notes of any person or State bank issued for circulation, and making an exception of National banks. This had the effect of taxing the S'tate bank circulation out of existence. As the National banking system has proven one of the most efficient and satisfactory methods the world has ever known, it will be of interest to review here some of its principal features Under this act National banks may be organized by any number of persons not less than five. Not less than one-third of the capital must be invested in United States bonds, upon which circulating notes may be issued equal to 90 per cent. of the par value of the bonds. These circulating notes are receivable at par in the United States in all payments except for duties on imports, interest on the public debt and in redemption of the national currency. The National banks are required to keep a certain reserve; they are authorized to loan money at the rate of interest allowed in the various states-when no rate is fixed by the laws of the State, the banks may charge 7 per cent. Shareholders are held individually liable, equably and ratably, for all debts of the association to the extent of the amount of their stock, in addition to the amount invested therein. The banks are required, before the declaration of a dividend, to carry one-tenth part of their net profits of the preceding half year to a surplus fund until the same shall amount to 20 per cent. of the capital; and losses and bad debts must be deducted from net profits before any dividend is declared. A receiver may be appointed by the comptroller to close up under his supervision the affairs of any national bank which shall fail to keep good its lawful money reserve or which may become insolvent. "While there have been national bank failures, there has never been any loss to the people whatever on the circulation. A suit may be brought for forfeiture of the charter of a bank if the directors shall knowingly violate the law; and in such cases they may be held liable in their individual capacity. There are other restrictions in the law-such as, for instance, the prohibition against loaning to any one borrower of more then ten per cent. of the capital; or the holding of any real estate except such as is required for banking purposes, or the granting of loans upon the security of the bank stock. The national bank circulation has been gradually growing less during the past ten years, as the United States bonds available are quoted so high above par and the rate of interest so low that there is but little profit to the banks in it. All of the States have laws regulating State banks and providing certain restrictions, but as the laws of the various States are not alike it is impossible to, give a general description of the matter that would apply to all' the States. The laws, however, provide for and require State banks to hold a certain reserve, and at regular intervals they make full statements as to their condition and their affairs are examined into by certain State officials at frequent intervals. The laws of all the States have reached a high degree of perfection in the method of regulating and overseeing State banks, and the almost universal soundness and reliability of these institutions reflect credit upon the laws under which they exist. CLEARING HOUSE. THE Clearing-I-ouse is the place where the exchanges of the the banks are made in.all the principal cities of the world. * The clearing-house system was first established in London about the beginning of the present century. It was first inStroduced into this country by the banks of the city of New York i organizing an association, under the name of the New York Clear-! ing-I-ouse, which commenced operations Oct. 11, 1853. At that time it consisted of fifty-two banks, but five of them were soon closed because of inability to meet its requirements. Clearing Houses have since been established in nearly all of the principa~l cities of the -continent. j In all cities a bank receives large amounts of bills and checks on other banks, so that at the close of each day's business every bank has, in its drawers, various sums thus due it by other banks. [ It is, in like manner, itself the debtor of other banks,' which have l during the day received its bills and checks drawn upon it. Prior: to the establishment of the clearing house it was necessary for! each bank, every morning, to make uip its account with every other.! bank. and to send its porter or agent to present the bills and checks. so re,-eived to the debtor, banks for payment. The balances were adjusted by payments in gold, which became so laborious, dangerous and. complicated that the balances were settled only weekly instead of daily-a plan that resulted in great risk and evil. This was obviated by the clearing-house system, through which the settlements are so simultaneously and quickly effected that in New York the transactions in one single day have amounted to over $300,000,000, in adjusting which the exchanges were settled in the space of an hour. Besides saving a vast amount of work, bookkeeping and expense, it enabled the banks by united aid to strengthen each other in times of excitement and financial panic. The following isý the manner in which the settlements are made in about all the clearing-houses of this country: The clearing-roonm is provided with a continuous line of desks, one for each bank that is a member of the association, each desk bearing the name and number of the bank. Each bank is represented every morning, at the hour fixed for settlement, by two clerks, one a messenger who brings with him the checks, drafts, etc., that. his bank has received during the day previous upon the other banks-called the "exchanges," and these are assorted for each bank and placed in envelopes. On the outside of each envelope is a slip on which are listed the amounts of the various items which it contains. The messengers takp their places in a line outside the row or desks, each opposite the desk assigned to his bank, while at each a clerk with a sheet containing the names of all the banks in the same order as the desks, with the aggregate amounts which his bank's messenger has against each bank. Just previous to the hour fixed for making the exchanges the manager takes his position and calls the house to order. At a signal the bell rings and each messenger moves forward to the desk next to his own and delivers the envelope containing the checks, etc., for the bank represented at that desk to the clerk at that desk, together with a printed list of the banks in the same order, with the amount opposite each bank. The clerk receiving it signs and returns it to the messenger, who immediately passes on to the next desk; then to the next, and so on until he has made a complete circuit and has again reached the desk of his own bank--the starting point. All the other messengers moving in the same manner, each messenger has, by this means, visited every bank and delivered to each everything his bank held for it, taking a receipt for the same; and at the same time each bank has received all the exchanges that every other bank had against it. This operation, even in the greatest clearing-houses, only consumes from ten to fifteen minutes. This enables the banks to know at once the exact balance for or against it, as the clerks immediately enter from the slips on their own sheets the aggregate amount from each bank, and the difference between the total amount brought by them, which at once shows the balance due to or from the clearing house to each bank. This is reported to their banks, and the balance is paid to or drawn from the clearing house,, thus at once settling the accounts between all the banks. The lists are "proved" carefully and certain fines are laid for all errors, tardiness, etc. ad" a= COPYRIGHT 1910 BEY GEO. A. OGLE & CO I

Page  93 SUPI'ILLIMENT X. IJ CHRONOLOGICAL ARRANGEMENT - O " ACENTM EDIEVAL tAND woOERNM( Copyright, 1912, by Geo. A. Ogle & Co. The chief aim of this Chronological History is to give in a comprehensive and attractive form the principal events of the history of the x For convenience this history is arranged under-I. Ancient History. II. Medieval History. III. Modern History. The latter is given-Fi teenth Century to.American Revolution. Second. From the birth of the United States to the present time by countries. iISTOR Y vorld free from unnecessary details. rst. From the beginning of the Six Ande- nt.'History B. C: 4004 Biblical acdcount of the creation. 3800 Sargon I. King. of Babylon. 3200 *The first Egyptian dynasty under Mene 2800 Snefru, 3d Egyptian dynasty. Egyptian inscriptions begin. Phenicia said to have been peopled I the "sons of Anak." 2750 Tyre and Sidon founded. 2700 The 4th Egyptian dynasty begins. The Pyramid Tombs erected. 2539 Meria" Pepi I., Sixth Egyptian dynast: 2458 Chaldea said to have been conquered b Medes or Armenians. 2448 The deluge. 2300 The Elamitic Conquest. The Hittites in Cappadocia. Rise of Assyria. 2280 Thebes, Egypt, founded. 2231 Alleged beginning of Chaldean astronor ical observations sent by Callisthenc to Aristotle; the earliest extant is c 720 B. C. 2200 The Hia dynasty in China founded. Cuneiform writing probably in use. 2180 Nineveh built. 2160 First Persian dynasty founded. 2130 Amen-em-hat I. founds 12th Egyptiai dynasty. 2120 Pyramids built north of Memphis. 2100 The Obelisk of On erected. 2093 Reign of Urich of Chaldea. 2042 Uranus arrives in Greece. 2008 Sicyon, Greece founded. 1996 Birth of Abraham. 1921 Call of Abraham. 1920 Abraham arrives in Syria. 1896 Isaac born. 1882 Death of Abraham. 1856 Kingdom of Argus founded. 1850 Reign of Ismi-dagon, who conquers As syria. 1837 Birth of Jacob and Fsau. 1822 Memnon invents the Egyptian alphabet 1800 HIykos in Egypt. 1729 Joseph sold into Egypt. 1710 Arcadians emigrate to Italy and found colony. 1706 Jacob and his family settle in Egypt. 1618 Sesostris conquers Asia and Ethiopia. 1582 Beginning of the chronology of the Arun delian marbles, which were broughi S to England, in A. D. 1627. 1571 Mioses born. Male infants in Egypt destroyed. 1556 Athens founded. 1516 Kingdom of Sparta formed. 1530 Expulsion of the Hykos from Egypt. Aahmes I. founds 18th Egyptian dynasty 1500 The Kossean conquest of Babylon. ' Rameses I. founds 19th Egyptian dynasty. Arabians subdue Chaldea and establish a new dynasty. 1497 Reign of Agenor, 1st king of Phenicia, 1493 Cadmus founds Thebes. Discovery of brass. Introduction of the alphabet into Greece. 1491 The passover instituted. Departure of the Israelites from Egypt. The law given from Mount Sinai. 1490 Tabernacle established in the wilderness. 1451 Death of Moses and Aaron. Joshua leads the Israelites into Canaan. 1445 Joshua divides Canaan. 1413to 1136 Hebrews subject to six periods of bondage. 1402 Othniel, first judge in Israel. 1400 King. of Babylon marries the daughter of the Assyrian King. 1394 Ehud, second judge of Israel. 1384 Corinth built. 1380 Kurigalzui King of Babylon. 1355 Eglon, King of Moab. 1350 Israel wars with her neighbors. 1326 Eleusinian monasteries instituted.,1321 King Thothmosis changes the Egyptian: calendar. 1320 Egyptian Obelisks erected. Ruth the Moabitess marries Boaz. 1313 Kingdom of Myacena created. 1308 Lethos builds temple of Vulcan at Memphis. 1296 Borak and Deborah in Israel. 1280 Pelops settles in South Greece. 1273 Rise of the Assyrian Empire. 1250 Babylon conquered by the Assyrians. 1249 Gideon, the greatest of the judges of Israel. 1.240 Ilamses-Sesostris reigns in Egypt. 1209 Abimelech King of Israel. 1200 Proetus in Egypt. 1198.Helen carried off by Paris. 1193 Trojan war begins. 1184 Troy destroyed by Greeks. 1180 Rameses III. the last Egyptian native hero. 1171 Eli, High. Priest of Israel. 1161 Israel wars against Amorites. 1152 Alba Longs founded. 1150 Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon invades Syria. 1143 Jepthah judge over Israel. 1136 Samson defeats the Philistines. 1130 Tiglath Pileser I. invades Babylonia. 1123 Samuel, judge and first prophet in Israel. 1112 Death of Samson. 1110 Tiglath Pileser seizes Babylon but is soon overcome. 1103 Eolians settle in Asia Minor. 1100 (circa) The Chow dynasty in China i founded. 1095 Saul made first King of Israel 1093 Saul defeats the Philistines. 1081 Birth of David. 1075 'Death of Samuel. 1056 Death of Saul and Jonathan, and accession of David. 1050 Tyre becomes the leading city. Hirhor seizes the Egyptian throne. 1048 David takes Jerusalem. 1047 King' Hiram, of Tyre, aids the Israelites. 1044 lonians settle in Asia Minor. 1040 David defeats the Philistines and recovers the Ark. The Ark removed to Jerusalem. David, of Israel, subdues the Syrians. 1023 The revolt and death of Absalom. 1015 Death of David. Solomon becomes King. 1011 Solomon's Temple begun. 1004 Completion and dedication of Solomon's Temple. 990 The Queen of Sheba visits King Solomon. *Egyptian History is in a state of almost hopeless obscurity, the estimates of the great Egyptologers differing more than 3,000 years. The dates here given are generally accepted by the greater part of Chronologists. B. C. 975 Death of Solomon. Revolt of the Ten Tribes. Division into kingdoms of Israel and Judiah. The kingdom of Israel established under Jeroboam. s. Syria recovers independence. 971 Shishak, King of Egypt, captures and phlnders Jerusalem. )y 957 Abijah, King of Judah, defeats the King of Israel. 950 The decline of Thebes, Egypt. Assur-dayan II., King of. Assyria. 916 Rhodians found navigation laws. S 906 Israel is afflicted with famine predicted y by the Prophet Elijah. 901 Syria makes war upon Israel and is defeated. 900 Erection of the northwest palace of Nim8 rod. 897 Elijah translated to heaven. 896 Jehoshaphat defeats the Ammonites. S Death of Ahab, King of Israel. as 895 Miracles of Elisha the Prophet. 892 Samaria besieged by the Syrians. 884 Lacedemon settled. Legislation of Lycurgus at Sparta. Assur-natsir-pal King or Assyria. 880 The Assyrians again invade Baibylonia. 878 Carthage founded by Dido the Tyrian. 875 Sardanapalus I. of Assyria. 870 The Assyrians conquer Phenicia. 860 Assyrian conquest under Shalmnaneser. Hazael attacks Israel. 846 Lycurgus flourishes. Olympic games revived in. Elis, Greece. 834 Assyria conquers Tarsus. 820 Babylon becomes subject to Assyria. 800 The Egyptians the most powerful nation on the sea. Eolian colonies established. 794 Ionian colonies established. 776 Conmmencement of the Olympiads. First authentic date in Greek history. 760 The Etruscans in, Campania. 753 Rome founded by Romulus. 752 Athens establishes decennial instead of perpetual Archons. 750 Sabine war follows the abduction of the Sabine women. Ethiopia independent. 747 Babylon independent of Nineveh. League between Romans and Sabines. t 745 Pul assumes the name of Tiglath Pileser and founds the 2nd Assyrian Empire. Assyria invades Palestine. 748 Messenian wars. Sparta victorious. 741 Pekah, King of Israel, besieges Jerusalem. S 740 Tiglath Pileser destroys Syria. Israel forms an alliance with Syria against Judah. Syria becomes subject to Assyria. S 730 Shalnmaneser subdues Israel. 726 Hezekiah abolishes idolatry in Judah. 723 Shalhnaneser IV. invades Phenicia. 721 Assyrians invest Samaria and carry the 0 Ten Tribes into captivity. The Kingdom of Israel destroyed. "717' Assyrians totally defeat the Hittites. 716 Assassination of Romulus. 715 Numa Pompilius, King of Rome., 713 Sennacherib, the Assyrian, invades Egypt. 710 Sinnaeherib invades Judah. 185,000 Assyrians destroyed in one night by an angel. 709 Sargon of Assyria conquers Babylon. 698 Manasseh, King of Judah. Gross idolatry in Judah. 690 Gyges founds the 3rd Lydian dynasty. 686 Egypt divided between 12 Kings. 685-668 Second Messenian War, under Aristonenes. 684 Arehonship at Athens made annual. 681 E1-"rdhaddon King of Assyria. Babylon becomes the second capital. 683 Creon becomes first annual archon of Athens. 678 Samaria colonized by Assyrians. 672 Assyria conquers Egypt. 671 Psammeticus reigns in Egypt and en~ courages intercourse with the Greeks. 670 Alban invasion and battles of the Horath and Curiatii. Rise of Magaria, Greece. 667-625 Reign of Assur-bani-pal, King of Assyria. 665 Sea fight between Corinth and Corcyra. Tullius Hostillius defeats the Albans and destroys Alba Longs. 602 Thebes destroyed by Assyrians. 660 5tessany, Italy founded. Buddha. 659 Byzantium founded by Megarians under Bysas. 6.5 Bacehiadac expelled from Greece. 650 Median Monarchy founded. 645 Egypt independent of Assyria. 642 Kaianite dynasty, Media, founded by Cyaxzares. 641 Cyrene founded. 640 Aneus Martius reignls in Romne. Invasion of Scythians who subjugate Persia. Ostia, Italy, founded. Religious reformation snder Josiah, King of Judah. 632 Invasion of Assyria by the Scythian. 625 Babylon independent under Nabopolassar. Nineveh taken by the Medes. Assyrian Empire ends. Periander at Corinth. 624 Legislation of Draco, Archon at Athens. In renairing the temple at Jerusalem. -hilkish discovers the Book of the law, and Josiah keeps a solemn passover. Jeremiah prophet. 623 Passover. "The Arkl restored. 616 Tarquinius Priscus begins to reign in Rome. 615 The Capitol, Rome, begn in honor of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva. Pharaoh Necho II. Egypt, circumnavigates Africa. 610 Battle of Megiddo. Death of Josiah. Necho II. Egypt, attempts to cut a canal across the' Isthmus of Suez. Failure after a loss of 100,000 men. 605 The Circus Maximus, Rome, is erected. Neeho II. of Egypt defeated by Nebuchadnezzar. Jeremiah's prophecy of the seventy years' captivity. Nebuchadnezzar takes Jerusalem. Jehoiakim, his vassal. 603 Daniel prophesies at Babylon. 602 Jehoiakim revolts from Babylon. 600 The Cloace Maxime (great sewers) of, Rome are built. B. C. 598 Capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar. Second captivity. 597 Zedekiah made King over the remnant of Judah. 596 Persians invade Syria, and Syria continues a subject of Persia for three Scenturies. 594 Code of Solon at Athens published. 590 The seven wise men of Greece flourish, Solon, Periander, Pittacus, Chilon, Thales, Cleobulus and Bias. War between Media and Lydia. 588 The Pythian games begin to be celebrated every five years. Jerusalem, having rebelled against Baby-. Ion, is besieged, by Nebuchadnezzar. 587 Nebuchadnezzar invades Phenicia. Golden image set up. Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego thrown into a furnace. Prophecies of Obadiah. 586 Jerusalem taken and destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar. End of the Kingdom of Judah. 585 Death of Periander, tyrant of Athens forty years. Treaty between Media and Lydia. 580 Copper money coined at Rome. 579 Nebuchadnezzar takes Tyre. 578 Accession of Servius Tullius, Rome. 575 Civil war in Egypt. 570 Amasis reigns in Egypt. 569 Egypt conquered by Nebuchadnezzar. 566 The first census of Rome taken-84,700 inhabitants. 562 Death of Nebuchadnezzar. Nabonidos King of Babylon. 560 Pisistratus becomes tyrant of Athens. Confucius and Zoroaster. Esop's fables. 559 Anacreon begins to be known. Persian Empire founded by Cyrus. 556 Birth of Simonides (died B. C. 467). 554 Conquest of Lydia and capture of Cresus by Cyrus. 549 Death of Phalaris, tyrant of Agrigentum. 546 Fall of Lydian Empire. 543 Cyrus annexes Asia Minor to Persia. 540-510 Era of Pythagoras. 539 (circa) Marseilles founded by Phenicians. 538 Daniel interprets handwriting on the wall. Cyrus conquers Babylon. Belshazzar, King of Babylon, is slain. 536 Cyrus ends the captivity of the Jews. Return of the first caravan to Jerusalem under Zerubbabel and Joshua. Cyrus also subdues Phenicia. 535 Rebuilding of the Temple commenced. Thespis first exhibits tragedy. * 534 Servius assassinated by Tulla, his daughter. Her husband, Tarquinius Superbus, becomes King of Rome. 532 Polycrates, tyrant of Samos (put to death B. C. 522). 531 Reign of Darius I. begins after assassination of Smerdis, the Magian. 529 Death of Cyrus. Accession of Cambyses. 525 Conquest of Egypt by Cambyses. Birth of Esehylus (died B. C. 456). The temple of Isis, Egypt, comnpleted. Smerdis usurps the Persian throne, defeated by Darius, 522. 522 Death of Cambyses. Greeks colonize the Thracian Chersonese. Lestos founded. 521-485 Reign of Darius I. (HIystaspis) King S of Persia. 520 Sibylline books brought from Cume. Decree of Darius for re-building the Temple at Jerusalem. 518 Birth of Pindar (died B. C. 439). 515 The Temple rebuilt and dedicated. 514 Insurrection in Athens. Hipparchus slain. Hippias rules in Athens. 510 Croton destroys Sybaris. Expulsion of the Tarquins from Rome. Foundation of the Republic. Junius Brutus and Tarquinius Collatinus consuls: The Pisistride expelled from Athens. Athens a republic. 509 Commercial treaty between Carthage and Rome. 508 First treaty between Rome and Carthage. First Valerian Laws. The Scythian Expedition of Darius. 507 Capitol at Rome completed and dedicated. 504 Sardis burned by the Greeks. 501 Siege of Naxos by Aristagoras. Titus Lartius mnade Dictator of Rome. Ionian revolt in Asia Minor. 500 Burning of Sardis by the Ionians and Athenians. 499 The revolt of the lonians (Greece). 498 Persia recovers Cyprus. 497 Battle of Lake Regillus. Tarquin and his Latin allies defeated by Romans. First authentic, date in Roman history. 496 Ristieus, the Persian, sent to the coast by Darius. 495 Birth of Sophocles (died B. C. 406). Revolt of the lonians, aided by Athens, suppressed. 494 Tribunes at Rome appointed. Patricians secede. 493 Independence of the Latins recognized. Corioli taken by Caius Martins (Coriolanus). The Latin League. 492 First Persian expedition, under Mardonius against Greece, is defeated and fleet destroyed near Mt. Athos. 491 * Coriolanus banished fronm Rome. He is received by the Volscians. 490 Second Persian expedition, under Datis and Artaphernes. Their defeat, and victory of Miltiades at the battle of Marathon. 489 Coriolanus and the Volscians besiege Rome. 488 Coriolanus withdraws fromn siege of Ronme at his mother's entreaty and is slain by the Volscians. 486 Egyptian revolt. First Agrarian Law of Cassius proposed. 485 Accession of Xerxes I., King of Persia. Gelon tyrant of- Syracuse. 485 Recovery of Egypt by the Persians. Birth of Herodotus (died after B. C. 409). 483 Banishment of Aristides the Just by the Athenians. 481 Athenian fleet built. Third and gveatest invasion of Greece by the Persians, led by Xerxes. 480 Battle of Thermopyle-fall of Leonidas. B. C. 480 Battle of Salamis-victory of Themistoeles. Xerxes destroys Athens. First invasion of Sicily by Carthage. Defeat of the Carthaginians by Gelon at Himera. Birth of Euripides (died B. C. 406). 479-450 Anaxagorus (b. 500, d. 428) teaches philosophy at Athens. 479 Occupation of Athens by Mardonius. Persians defeated at Platea and Mycale and retreat from Greece. Siege of Sestos. 477 Beginning of the supremacey of Athens. The Fabii perish in battle with the Veientes. 475-478 Heiro I-at Syracuse. 474 Esther and Mordecai. 471 *Banishment of Themistocles. 471 Birth of Thucydides (died after B. C. 403). First Pubillian Laws. Election of plebeian magistrates given to the Comnitia Tributa-Romne. 470' Victory of Cimnon over the Persians at the Eurymedon. Antium (Romne) taken. Suicide of Appius Claudius. 469 Pericles begins to take part in the public affairs of Athens. 468 Birth of Socrates. Destruction of Mycene by the Argives. Diogenes of Appolonio flourishes. 466 Flight of Themistocles to Persia. Siege of Naxos. Battles at the Eurymedon. Phenicians aiding Persia are defeated by the Greeks under Cimon. 465 Xerxes I. assassinated. Reign of Artaxerxes I. in Persia. Revolt of Thasos. 464 Revolt of the Helots at Sparta. Third Messenian War. Sparta defeats Messenia. 460 Egypt revolts against Persia. (The revolt is suppressed in 455.) Birth of Demnocritus and Hippocrates (both died in B. C. 357). The Athenian in Egypt. 459 Gorgias flourished. 458 Commission of Ezra to rebuild Jerusalem. Birth of Lysias the orator (died 378). Cincinnatus made dictator at Rome. Defeats the Equi. 457 Battle of Tanagra. 456 The Long Walls of Athens completed. 451 The first Decemvirate or council of ten at Rome. Laws of the Twelve Tables or code of laws instituted. 449 The Greeks defeat the Persians at Salamnus in Cyprus. Virginius kills his daughter to save her from Appius Claudius. First Decemvirate abolished. Appius Claudius, Rome. 448 Valerian and Horatian Laws. Tyranny of the second Decemvirate. Secession of the Plebs from Rome. Abdication of the Decemnvirs. Second' Sacred War in Greece. 447 Battle of Coronea, defeat of Athens. 446 Syracuse subdues Agrigentum and defeats the Etruscans. 445 Thirty years' truce between Athens and Sparta concluded. Decline of the Athenian Empire. Revolt of Eubea and Megara. Canuleian Laws, Rome. Nehemiah governor of Judea. 444 Athenian Colony to Thurii. Pericles becomes supreme at Athens. Birth of Xenophon about this time (died 359). Conmmnission of Nehemiah. The walls of Jerusalem rebuilt. Roman Consular Tribunes established. 443-328 The Parthenon at Athens built by Phidias. 443 Herodotus flourishes in Greece. 442 New constitution at Rome-censors and military tribunes appointed instead of consuls. 440 Rome visited by a terrible famine. 440-439 The Samian war. Siege and reduction of Samnos by Pericles. Death of Spurius Melius-Raome. 437 Cornelius Cossus and Lars Tolumnius. Second Spulls Osima, Rome. 436 Birth of Isoerates (died 338). 434 Rome declares war against the Etruscans. 433 Treaty between Athens and Corcyra. Meton, astronomer, flourished. 431 Peloponnesian War begins between Athens and a confederacy with Sparta at the head, lasting twenty-seven years and ending in the defeat of Athens. Potidea besieged by the Athenians (taken in 429). Death of Pericles. Rise of Cleon. Battle of Mt. Aigidus; the Equi and Volsei defeated. 430 The plague at Athens. 429 Plato born (died 347). Siege of Platea. Naval victories of Phormio. 428 Revolt and fall of Mytilene. 427 Reduction of Mytilene. First Athenian expedition to Sicily. First comedy of Aristophanes exhibited. Corcyreara massacre. 426 Demosthenes in Etolia. Destruction in Fidene. 425 Reign of Xerxes II. followed by Logdianus. Sphacteria taken. 424 Darius II. reigns in Persia. Congress of Sicilians at Gela. 423 Alcibiades begins to act in Athenian affairs. The Samanites (Rome) capture Valterniumn. 423 Capua taken by the Sasmanites. 419 Birth of Diogones the Cynic, (died 324). 418 Battle of Mantinea. Spartans defeated by Athens. 415 The Hebrew, Malachi, prophesies. Invasion of Sicily by the Athenians under Nicias. 414 Siege of Syracuse. 413 Defeat and surrender of Nicias to Gelippus. 412 First treaty between Sparta and Persia. Constitution of the Four Hundred at Athens. Intrigues of Aleibiades with the Persians. 410 Beginning of the wars of Syracuse and Carthage. They continue seventy years. 409 Three plebeian questers of Rome elected. B. C. 409 Second invasion of Sicily by the Carthaginians. 407 The Volscians defeat the Romans. Rhodes founded. 406 Battle of Arginuse. Condemnation of the ten generals. Dionysius tyrant of Syracuse; reigns thirty-eight years. 405 The siege of Veili, Rome. Battle of Egospotami. Dionysius I. reigns in Syracuse. 404 Athens taken by Lysander. End of the Peloponnesian War. Government of the Thirty Tyrants at Athens. Spartan supremacy. Death of Alcibiades. 403 Thrasybulus restores democratic government at Athens. 402 Birth of Phocion (died 317). 401 Expedition of Cyrus the younger who rebels; at the battle of Cunaxa he is defeated and slain and the "Retreat of ten thousand" Greeks under Xenophon begins. 401-384 Ctesias flourished. 400 Malachi. 399 Death of Socrates. 398 Campaign and peace of Dercyllidas. 396 First Campaign of Agesilaus in Asia. The Roman dictator Camillos captures Veil. 395 Greecian coalition against Sparta; Lysander slain. 394 Persians assist the Athenians and defeat the Spartans at the naval battle of the Cnidus. The Corinthian War begins. The second battle of Coronea. 393 The Long Walls of Athens restored by Corion. 392 Veil stormed by Hamillus. 391 Camillus impeached and exiled. 390 Battle of Allia. The Romans defeated by Brennus and the' Gauls. Rome burnt. Siege of the Capitol. 389 Victory of Dionysius at Helorus. Birth of Esehines. The Gauls expelled from Rome and city rebuilt. 387 Peace of Antalcidas, Persia. ' Greek cities in Asia subjected to Persia. End of the Corinthian War. Capitoline games established in Rome. 385 Defeat of the Persians under Evagoras. 384 Birth of Aristotle. Manlius hurled from Tarpeian rock for having aimned at sovereignty. 383 Battle of Lecheum. The Olynthian war begins, and ends 379. 382 Seizure of the Cadmea at Thebes by Phedibas. Birth of Demosthenes (died 322). 380 Death of Aristophanes. I-Height of Spartan power. 379 Recovery of the Cadmea by Pelopidas. 378 The Athenians allied with Thebes. 376 Roman civil war between patricians and plebeians. Law passed that one consul shall 'be a plebeian. 375 Battle of Leuctra, Greece. 372 Peace between Athens and Sparta. 371 Victory of Epaminondas over the Spartans at Leuctra. Foundation of Megapolis. 370 Jason of Phere assassinated. Alexander of Phere in Thessaly. 367 Embassy of Pelopidas, the Greek to Persia. Aristotle goes to Athens, and remains wvith Plato twenty years. Lieinian laws passed at Rome. 366 Joshua slain by the High Priest. Birth of Zeno, the Stoic (died 264). Institution of pretorship and curule edileship at Rome. First Plebeian consul elected. 365 Great Plague at Rome. Legend of Si. Curtius. 362-346 Rome wars with the Gauls, Etruscans and Hernicans. Battle of Mantinea (circa). Victory and death of Epaminondas. 360 The Samaritans build the Temple at Gerizim. Kingdom of Pontus founded. 358 Beginning of the Social War in Greece. Siege of Chios and Byzantium. Amphipolis taken by Philip II. 357-352-347 Roman laws of debt. Phocian (or Sacred) War begins. Expedition of Dion to Sicily. 356 Second Sacred War, the Phoeians having seized the Temple of Delphi. Birth of Alexander the Great. Temple of Diana, at Ephesus, burned. Dion expels Dionysius from Syracuse. Caius Marcius Ratilus first Plebeian Dictator at Rome. 355 End of the Social War in Greece. Independence of Rhodes, Cos, Chios and Byzantium acknowledged by Athens. 354 Revolt of Artabazus, the Persian. 353 Siege of Methone, Greece. 352 Demosthenes delivers his first Philippic. Phenicia revolts from the Persian monarchy. 351 C. Marcius Rutilus first Plebeian censor, Rome. Sidonians revolt and destroy Sidon. 350 The Roman Popilius defeats the Gauls. 348 Olynthus taken by Philip of Macedon. Treaty between Carthage and Rome. 346 Surrender of Phocis to Philip. End of the Sacred War. Philip admitted to the Amphyctionio Council. Dionysius recovers the tyranny. 343 First Samnite war begins. Battle of Mt. Gaurus. Conquest of Syracuse by Timoleon. Expulsion of Dionysius. Embassy of Demosthenes and others to Philip. 342 Roman Genucian laws. Mutiny at Lantule, Rome. 342-341 Philip of Macedon's expedition to Thrace. Birth of Epicurus (died 270). 840 Perinthus and Byzantiumn besieged by Philip. Victory of Timnoleon over the Carthaginians at the Crimisus. Battle of Mt. Vesuvius, Rome. 339 Second Roman Pubilian laws. Third Sacred War begins between Philip and the Athenians. 338 Philip general of the Amphyctionic League. Battle of Cheronea. Philip subjugates Greece. - I C

Page  94 SUPPLEMENT XI. ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. B. C. 337 First Roman Plebeian pretor. 337-335 The Latin War begins; after two years the Romans are victorious. 836 Murder of Philip. Accession of Alexander III. the Great. Accession of Darius Codomanus. 335 Alexander destroys Thebes; is chosen generalissimo of the Greeks, Athens having submitted. 334 Battle of the Granicus. Macedonian Empire formed. Alexander invades Persia. 833 Battle of Issus. Damascus taken and Tyre besieged by Alexander. 332 Capture of Tyre and conquest of Egypt by Alexander. Alexandria, Egypt, founded on the Egyptian village Rhacotis. Treaty between Alexander and Rome. Alexander visits Jerusalem and worships at the Temple. 831 Phenicia subdued by Alexander. Battle of.Arbela. Subjugation of Persia. Settlement of the Jews at Alexandria. 330 Darius III. assassinated. Demosthenes' oration for the crown. Persia becomes a part of the Macedonian Empire. 327-325 Campaigns of Alexander in India. Voyage of Nearchusi from the Indus to the Euphrates. 32.6 Roman servitude for debt abolished. 324 Exile of Demosthenes. 323 Death of Alexander at Babylon. Alexander succeeded by Perdiccas as Regent. Antipater in Macedonia. Lysimachus in Thrace. Cassander in Greece. Antigonus in Syria. Eumenes in Cappadocia. Seleucus at Babylon. Second Samnite War, lasts twenty-one years. Antipater, a Macedonian general, defeats Athens and allies. 322 Ptolemy I., surnamed Soter, receives the Egyptian Kingdom. Phenicia annexed to Egypt by Ptolemy Soter I. 321 First war among the "successors of Alexander." Battle of the Caudine Forks. Romans terribly defeated by Pontius and pass under the Samnite yoke. 320 Ptolemy Soter takes Jerusalem. Revolt of Phenicia. Jewish settlements in Egypt and Cyrene. 317 Agathocles at Syracuse. 315 Thebes rebuilt by Cassander. Conquest of Antigonus of Phrygia. 314 Palestine under Antigonus. Roman victory at Cinna. 313 Samnite victory at Lantule. 312 Battle of Gaza. Victory of Ptolemy and Seleucus over Demetrius Polioreetes. Pyrrhus King of Epirus. Appius Claudius censor. Appian Way and aqueduct. The great Roman military road completed. 312-160 Sandracottus, Indian empire. 311-309 The Etruscan War. 310 L. Papirius Cursor, Roman Dictator. Agathocles defeated at Himera. 308 Fabius crosses Ciminian Hills; defeats the Tuscans at Vadimon. 307-305 Naval war at Cyprus and Rhodes. 304 Siege of Rhodes by Demetrius. 301 Battle of Ipsis between Ptolemy Soter and Antis'onus. Final division of Alexander's dominions. 300 Athenian democracy restored. Chandrogupta (Sandracottus) reigns in India; makes a treaty with Seleucus. Foundation of Antioch by Seleucus. Light-house on island of Pharos erected. 299 Athens besieged and taken by Demetrius. 298 Third Samnite War. (Samnites, Etruscans, Umbrians and Gauls). Gellius Egnatius, leader of the Samnites. 296 The Capitoline wolf. 295 Quintus Fabius defeats the Samnites, Etruscans and Gauls at Sentinum. 292 Execution of C. Pontius. 290 The Third Samnite War ends in subjugation to Rome. 287 Birth of Archimedes (died 212). 286 The Hortensian Law passed at Rome; plebiscita declared binding on all the people. 285 Ptolemy abdicates in favor of his son, Philadelphus, who becomes Ptolemy II. Under his reign Egypt rose to a high rank among the nations in power and wealth. 284 Alexandrian Library founded by Ptolemy Soter. 284 The Etolian League formed. 283 Kingdom of Pergamus founded. Renewed Gallic and Etruscan War. Second battle of Lake Vadimon. 281 Rome wars with Pyrrhus, king of Epirus. Rome at war with Tarentum. Lysimachus defeated and slain by Seleucus at Corupedion. 280 Achean League between twelve cities of Achea established. Battle of Pandosia. Romans defeated by Pyrrhus. Birth of Chryssippus (died 207). 279 Irruption of the Gauls into Greece. First Plebeian censor at Rome. Romans again defeated by Pyrrhus at Asculum. Rome and Carthage allied. 277 League between Athens, Sparta and Egypt. The Septuagint written. The Gauls settle in Galatia. 276 Birth of Eratosthenes-died 196. The great wall of China built (?).274 Battle of Beneventum. Rome victorious and Pyrrhus leaves Italy. 273 Egyptian embassy to Rome. 272 Antigonus Gonatus recovers Macedon. 269 Silver money first coined at Rome. Hiero II. of Syracuse. 268 Berosus flourished. Antigonus of Macedon takes Athens. "Rome supreme over all Italy. First Punic War begins. Carthage disputes Rome's Empire. Chronology of Arundelian (Parian) marble ends. 260 First Roman fleet launched. Victory of Duilius off Myle. Rise of Parthia. 260-230 Reign of Asoka in India. 256 Naval victory of Regulus over the Carthaginians at Ecnomos. Invasion of Africa. The Arsacide. 255 Defeat and capture of Regulus by the Cartha ginians. Evacuation of Africa. 254 The Kingdom of Dactia. 250 Parthia becomes an independent kingdom under Arsaces. Dynasty of Tsin in China founded. 247 Ptolemy III. makes war on Syria. Restores the Egyptian gods carried off by Cambyses, 525 B. C. Birth of Hannibal-died 183. 245 Aratus of Sicyon, general of the Achean Leagues. - 241 Defeat of Carthaginians by Catulus at the Egates insule. End of the First Punic War. Sicily made a Romnan Province. Atalus, King of Pergamus. Agis IV. killed at Sparta. I B. C. 240 The plays of Livius Andronicus exhibited (the first tragedies) at Rome. 238 Date of the decree of Canopus; tablet of San. 237 Conquest of Spain attempted by the Carthaginians. Seizure of Sardinia and Corsica by the Romans. 235 The gates of the Temple of Janus at Rome shut for the first time since Numa. No war existing at the time. 234 Birth of M. Porcius Cato-died 149. 233 Antigonus Doson in Macedon. 229 Athens joins the Achean League. 227 Cleomenic War with Achean League begins. 226 Reforms of Cleomenes at Sparta. 225 Invasion of Cisalpine Gaul and battle of Clusium. Rome victorious. 222 Ptolemy IV. reigns in Egypt. Defeats Antiochus III. of Syria at RaSphia. Gallia Cisalpina becomes a Roman Province. 221 Battle of Sellasia. Aratus and Antigonus take Sparta. Philip V. of Macedon. Alliance between Philip and Acheans against Etolians. 220 Hasdrubal assassinated in Spain. 219 Antiochus overruns Palestine. Siege of Saguntum by Hannibal. Second Illyrian war. 218 Second Punic War begins. Hannibal marches from Spain across the Pyrenees and the Alps into Italy. Battles of the Ticinius and the Trebia, and defeat of Scipio. 217 Hannibal passes the Apennines. Battle of Lake Trasimene. Flaminius defeated. 217 The two Scipios sent to Spain. 216 Battle of Canne. Romans defeated with immense loss. Revolt of Capua. Alliance of Hannibal with Philip V. of Macedon. 214-212 Siege and capture of Syracuse by Marcellus. 214 First Commercial War. Byzantium and Rhodes. S212 Battle of Anitorgis. Greek works of art brought to Rome. 211 Greece concludes treaty with the Romans against Philip V. of Macedon. Defeat and death of the two Scipios in Spain by Hasdrubal. Capua recovered by Rome. Conquest of Judea by Antiochus. Hannibal before Rome. 208 Battle of Metaurus. Battle of Elinga. 207 Battle of the Metaurus; Hasdrubal defeated and slain by the Romans. Gold money first coined in Rome. 205 Ptolemy V. The decline of Egypt. 204 P. Cornelius Scipio conducts the wvar in Africa. Siege of Utica. 203 Hannibal leaves Italy. Attalus and Rhodians war with Philip. 202 Defeat of Hannibal at Zama, in Africa, by Scipio Africanus. 201 Treaty of peace between Rome and Carthage; end of the Second Punic War. 200-197 First Macedonian War. Allies attack Macedon and defeat Philip. 198 T. Quintus Flaminius proclaims liberty to the Greeks. Syria becomes independent of Egypt. 197 Battle of Cynocephale. Philip defeated by Flaminius. Palestine and Cele-Syria conquered by Antiochus the Great, and confirmed to "him by the peace with Rome. The Rosetta Stone written. 196 Dynasty of Han, China, founded. Hannibal joins Antiochus. 195 Birth of Hipparchus, first systematic astronomer. 192-188 War between the Romans and Antiochus the Great. Philopemen pretor of the Achean League. Greece declared free from Macedon by Flaminius. Philopemen defeats Nabis, of Sparta. Sparta joins the Achean League. 190 Battle of Magnesia. 188 The laws and discipline of Lycurgus abrogated by Philopemen. 184 Death of Plautus. 183 Death of Hannibal and Scipio. Lycortas, general of the Achean League>; 182-174 Encroachments of Massinissa. 181 Ptolemy VI. reigns in Egypt. The Villian Law, Romne. - 179 Perseus King of Macedonia. Embassy of Callicrates to Greece. Pharnaces, of Pontus, cedes Paphlagonia to Rome. 176 Antiochus makes war on Egypt. 171-168 Second Mlacedonian War. 170 Antiochus takes Jerusalem. 40,000 Jews slain and Temple pillaged. Birth of Attius, Roman dramatist (died 76). 168 Battle of Pydna; victory of Emilius Paulus over "Perseus; Macedonia made a Roman province. Eumenes II. visits Rome. Antiochus Epiphanes takes Jerusalem. Beginning of the Maccabean war of independence. Athenians attack Oropus. 167 Judas Maccabeus defeats the Syrians and occupies Jerusalem, except the Citadel. Romans ravage Epirus and Achea. 166 Rededication of the Temple. One thousand. Acheans imprisoned at Rome. First comedy of Terence performed at Rome. 156-145 Hipparehuis flourishes. 165 Rise of the Pharisees and Sadducees. 164 Death of Antiochus. He is succeeded by Antiochus V. Eupator, who takes Bethoura, and besieges Jerusalem, but makes peace with the Jews. Cyrene and Libya separate from Egypt. 163 Birth of MI. Emilius Scaurus, Roman orator (died 90). 161 Victory of Judas Maccabeus at Adosa. Embassy of Cameades, Diogenes and Critolans to Rome. Death of Judas. Alliance between Rome and Judea. Jonathan Miaccabeus succeeds Judas. 160 Bactrians in India. 159 Death of Terence. 155 Athenians fined by Rome. 153 War in Spain.. 150-138 Lusitanian War. Viriathus commands the Lusitanians. 149 Third Punic War begins. Scipio invades Africa. Andriscus in Macedonia. 148 Birth of Lucilius-died 103. 147 The Achean war with Rome begins. 146 Ptolemy VI. killed in battle. Carthage taken by Scipio and destroyed by order of the Roman Senate. Corinth taken and destroyed by Mummius. Province of Africa constituted. Greece becomes a Roman province. 145 Ptolemy VII. reigns, marries Cleopatra, widow of Ptolemy VI. Polybius legislates for the Achean cities. Demetrius Nicator in Syria. 144 The Tower of Zion taken by the Jews. Jidea becomes independent. Rise of the Asmonean dynasty. IUPEIN I B.C. 143 Birth of Antonius, Roman orator (died 70). 142 Scipio Africanus (Minor) Roman Censor. 140 Birth of Crassus, Roman orator (died 91). Simon made hereditary prince of the Jews. Death of Viriathus-Rome. Macedon formally absorbed by Rome. 138 Birth of L. Cornelius Sulla (died 78). 136 Hycanus Governor of Judea. 134-132 Servile War in Sicily. Sicilian slaves rebel, are conquered and slain. 133 Laws of Tiberias Gracchus passed at Rome. Gracchus murdered. Kingdom of Pergamus bequeathed to Rome. 130 Demetrius Nicator, Syria, restored. 129 Hycranus subdues Idumea and Samaria and destroys Temple at Gerizim. 125 Rise of the Essenes. Fluvius Flaccus and L. Drusus popular Roman leaders. L. Caelius Antipater, Roman jurist, flourished. 123 Scipio takes and destroys Numantia. Roman Colony sent to Carthage. 121 Civil war in Rome arising from Agrarian troubles-Caius Gracchus is murdered. Metullius leader of Roman Senate. 120 Parthians subdue Bactria. 117 Ptolemy VIII. reigns jointly with his mother, Cleopatra. 116 Birth of Varro (died 28). 113 The Teutones and Cimbra invade Gaul. 111-106 The Jugurthine War-peace concluded. War renewed two years later. Mietellus and Marius defeat Jugurtha and subject Numidia. 109-101 War of Rome with the Cimbri and Teutones. 109 Hyrcanus destroys the Samaritan temple on Mount Gerizim. Atricus born (died B. C. 32). 106 Birth of Pompey and of Cicero. 102 Victory of MIarius over the Teutones at Aque Sexte (Aix). Second Servile war breaks out in Sicily. 101 Victory of Marius over the Cimbri at Vercelle and end of the war. Battle of Campus Raudius. 100 -Birth of Julius GCesar. C. Marius born 157 (died 86). Sixth Roman Consul. L. App. Saturnius Tribune (Rome). 96 Ptolemy Apion leaves Cyrene. 95 Birth of Lucretius (died 55). 92 Sulla on the Euphrates. 90-88 The Social or Marsic War in Italy. The Marsians, at first successful, are finally defeated. 88-84 First Mithridatic War. Mithridates seizes Athens. Civil War of Marius and Sulla and expulsion of Marius. Sulla occupies Rome. 87 Marius retakes Rome. SProscription. 86 Revolt and siege of Egyptian Thebas. Death of Marius and return of Sulla. Athens stormed by Sulla. Birth of Sallust (died 34). 85 Tigranes at war with Rome. 84 Sulla makes peace with Pontus, King of the Iithridates. 83 War with Marian party in Italy. Tigranes I. -of Armenia annexes Phrygia. 83 Birth of Marcus Antonius (died 30). 82 Thebes destroyed. Second Civil War. Victory at the Golline gate. Occupation of Rome. Sulla becomes Dictator. 79 Abdication of Suila. Dies in 78. The Cornelian Laws of Rome. 79-72 Civil war of Sertorius in Spain; and of Lepidus and Catulus in Italy. 78 Alexandra Queen of Judea. 75 Nicomedes 3I1. leaves Bithnia to Rome. 74-65 Third Mithridatic War. 74-66 e i cteories of Luctlls in Asia. 73-71 Servile war in Italy, 3'd by Spartacus, who is defeated and slain by Cerassus. 70 Consulship of Pompey and- Crassus. Birth of Virgil (died 19). Scythians expelled from India. 69 Victory of Lucullua over Tigranes. 67 Cesar begins to take part in- public af fairs. Pompey sibdues the pirates. 66 Lucullus recalled. Pompey sent into Asia and war ended. Birth of Strabo, geographer (died A. D..22). 65 Birth of Horace (died B. C. 8). Antiochus Asiaticus dethroned by Pompey. 64 Birth of Messalla (died 4). Pompey reduces Syria to a Roman province. 63 Jerusalem taken by the Romans under Pompey. Birth of Augmstus. Second conspiracy of Cataline suppressed by Cicero. Orations of Cicero. Lucullus founds Library at Rome. Phenicia absorbed in the province of Syria. 60 Pompey, Cesar and Crassus form the first Roman Triumvirate. Birth of Seneca (died 30). 59 Birth of Livy (died A. D. 17). 58 The Gallic War begins. Cicero banished. Cesar invades Gaul. Helvetii and Ariovistus defeated. 57 Cyprus becomes a Roman province. End of the Seleucide. Cesar defeats the Beige and Nervii. 55-54 Cesar invades Britain. Crassus plunders the Temple at Jerusalenm; is defeated and killed by the Parthians at Carrhe, 53. 54 Cesar defeats Treviri and crosses the Rhine. Birth of Tibullus (died 18). 52-51 Cesar conquers Vercingetorix and Alesia. Murder of Claudius by Milo. 51 Subjugation of Gaul comnpleted, and becomes a Romnan province. 50 Quintus Sextius (Stoic) flourished. 49 Civil war between Cesar and Pompey. Pompey driven from Italy. The Pompeians defeated in Spain. Cesar dictator. 48 Battle of Pharsalia. Cesar defeats Pompey. Murder of Pompey in Egypt. Ptolemy Dionysus and Cleopatra inherit Egyptian throne. 47 Cesar again dictator. War in Egypt. Partial destruction of the.library of Alexandria during the siege of Alexandria. Cesar defeats Pharnaces at Zela. 46 The African War. Battle of Thapsus. Suicide of Cato. Reformation of the calendar by GCesar. His triumphs. 45 War in Spain. Battle of Mlunda; defeat of the Pompeians. Cesar Pater Patrie Imperator, for life, Dictator. First year of Julian calendar. 44 Assassination of Cesar by Brutus, Cassius and others. Flight of the assassins. Antony becomes master of Rome. B. C. 44 Corinth and Carthage rebuilt. 43 Cleopatra poisons her brother Ptolemy and reigns alone. Battle of Mutina. Second Triumvirate-C. Octavius, M. Antony, A. Lepidus. Cicero put to death. Birth of Ovid (died A. D. 18). End of the Ragida. 42 Battle of Philippi. 42 Defeat and death of Brutus and Cassius. The Triumviri masters of the Roman world. 41 Meeting of Antony and Cleopatra at Tarsus. 40 Herod the Great made king of the Jews. Library of Pergamus to Alexandria.37 Jerusalem taken by Herod and the Romans. Agrippa crosses the Rhine. 36 Sextus Pompeius driven from Sicily (put to death 35). Lepidus deprived of power., Defeat of Antony in Parthia. 34 Antony invades Armenia. 32 War between Octavius and Antony. 31 Battle of Actium. Establishment of the Roman Empire. 30 Battle of Actiun. Octavius successful. Suicide of Antony and Cleopatra. Criticism of the best Attic Literature at Rome. 29 The Gates of Janus shut. 27 Cesar Octavius is made Emperor under the title of Augustus Cesar. Pantheon dedicated by Agrippa. 25 Tiridates seeks Roman court. 24 Defeat of Romans in Arabia. "23 Death of Marcellus. 21 Augustus Cesar founds Confederacy of Raconian cities. 20 Roman standards restored by Parthia. India embassy to Rome. 18 Death of Dionysus of Halicarnassus. 17-7 Temple at Jerusalem rebuilt by Herod. Agrippa invades Asia. Cappadocia created a province of Rome. 16 German war; Roman defeat under Lol-.lius. 15 Victories of Drusus over the Rheti. 12 Invasion of Germany by Drusus. 11-9 Campaigns of Tiberias in Pannonia and Dalmatia. 9' Death of Drusus. 8 Tiberius defeats the Germans. Diodorus Siculus, historian, flourished. 4 Birth of Jesus Christ, according to Usher's system. Death of Herod, king of Judea. A.D. 1 Tiberius commands on the Rhine. 3 Birth of Seneca (died A. D. 65). 6 Judea a Roman province under Syria. 9 Destruction of the Romans under Varus and three legions by the Germans under Hermann. Romans defeated by Charusci under Arminius. Banishment of Ovid. 14 Death of Augmustus Cesar. Accession of Tiberius Cesar. Accession of Artatanus in Parthia. 14-16 Campaigns of Germanicus in Germany. 17 Germanicus in Parthia and the East. 19 Death of Germnanicus. War between Artabarus and Marbad. 20 Valerius Maximnus. M. Elino Sejanus dominant at Rome. 23 Pretorian camp at Rome. 25 Pontius Pilate governor of Judea. 26-37 "Tiberius retires to Capre. 30 The Crucifixion, according to Eusebius. Lactantius, Augustine, Origen and other authorities give A. D. 29 as the proper year. Agrippina I. banished. 31 Marco, Prefect of Pretorians, upon fall of Sejanus. 37 Accession of Caligula, Rome. Birth of Josephus (died 97). 40 Philo Senior ambassador to Rome. Birth of Plutarch-died 120. 41 Claudius Emperor of Rome. 42 Claudius conquers iMauretania. Birth of Quintilian-died 118. 43 Expedition of Ciaudius to Britain. Successes of Aulus Plautius. Birth of Martial-died 104. Lycia becomes a Roman province. 44 Judea and Samaria directly Roman. 47 London founded by the Romans. Birth of Jmuvrnel-died 130 (?). Thrace directly Roman. The Frisians subdued by Rome. 50 Defeat and capture of Garactacus; taken prisoner to Rome. Claudius marries Agrippiana II., and adopts Nero. 51 South Britain a Roman province. 54 Agrippiana poisons Claudius and Nero beconmes emperor. 55 Birth of Tacitus; died 117 (?). S56 Corbulo in Paithia. - 59 Britannicus poisoned by Agrippiana. Agrippiana murdered by Nero. Parthia and Armenia at war. 60 St. Paul at Malta. 61 Insurrection of the Britons under Boadices. Victory of Suetonius Paulinus. Birth of Papinius Statius, poet; died 96. Birth of Pliny the Minor; died 105. 64 Rome on fire six days. Persecution of the Christians. 65 Deaths of St. Peter and St. Paul (?). Deaths of Seneca and Luscan. Conspiracy of Piso. Revolt of the Jews. 66 Josephus governor of Gallilee. 67 Nero at the Olympic games. 68 Death of Nero. Galba becomes emperor. 69 Civil war at R niome. Otho kills himself. Vimelhius killed. 70 Jerusalem taken and destroyed by Titus. Civilis leads a Batavian revolt. Vespasian emperor at Romne. 70-80 Colosseum at Ron-me built. 71 The Gates of Janus closed. Triumph of Vespasean and Titus. Philosophers expelled fromn Rome. Reform of Treasury, Rome. 71-75 The Stoic philosophers expelled from Rome by Vespasian. 78 Agricola commands in Britain. Titus becomes Roman emperor. 79 Herculaneum and Pompeii destroyed by an eruption of Vesuvius. 79 Death of Pliny, the Elder. The Laocoon group sculptured. 80 Advance of Agricola to the Tay. Amphitheatre of Verona built. 81 Domitian emperor of Rome. 82 Romie wars with Chatti. 83 Paris (Pantomime) killed. 84 Agricola defeats the Caledonians, and sails around and subdues Britain. 85 Agricola recalled to Rome. 86 Rome wages an unsuccessful war against Gate or Dalia. Quadi and Marcomanni. 91 Insurrection of Antonius suppressed. 95 Rome persecutes Jews and Christians. St. John banished to Patmos. 96 Domitian killed. Nerva becomes emperor. Polyearp, Bishop of Smyrna, born (died 166). 96-98 Pelief of taxes and distribution of lands. 98 Trajan emperor of Rome. Plutarch flourishes. 103 Birth of Justin Martyr (died 166). 103-107 Subjugation of Dacia. A. D. 104 Birth of Herodes Atticus,. antiquarian (died 180). 114-117 Trajan's expedition to the East. 117 Hadrian emperor. He abandons the conquests of Trajan. The Euphrates made the eastern bound-ary of the empire. 120 Hadrian visits Gaul and Britain. Statues of Antonous (Hadrian's page). Birth of Ireneus, Bishop of Lyons; died 200. Birth of Lucias; died 200. 121 Hadrian's wvalls built-Newcastle to Carlisle-Rhine to the Danube. Birth of Marcus Aurelius; died 180. 125 First apology for the Christians presented at Athens by Quadratus and Aristides. 130 Birth of Appuleius. Birth of Galen; died 200. Hadrian rebuilds Jerusalem. 132 Second Jewish War. Barehochebas, leader of the Jews. Edictum perpetumn of Hadrian. 135 Dispersion of the Jews. 138 Antonius Pius, emperor. The empire at peace. Faustina I. flourishes. WVall of Antoninus (Graham's Dyke) built. 139 Conquests of Lollius Urbicus in Britain. 140 Vallum Antonio in Britain. 145-175 Fustiana II. flourishes. 147 Development of Roman civil laws. 150 Establishment of schools in Romnan provinces. 161 Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus joint emperors. 161-166 Pestilence and famine at Rome. 162 Rome wars with Parthia. 163 Persecution of Christians. 166 Polycarp suffers martyrdom. 167-180 War with the Marcomanni, Quadi, etc. Greek philosophers patronized by Rome. 169 Death of L. Verus. Miarcus Aurelius sole emperor. 175 Rome quells rebellion in Syria. 177 Christians in Gaul persecuted. Advance of the Goths. 178 Goths attack Dacia. 180 Commodus emperor of Rome. Statue of Aurelius erected. Perennis prefect of Pretorians. 183 S'ccesses of Ulpius Marcellus in Britain. 184 Commodus takes the name of Britanicus. 185 lB irth of Origen (died 258). 186 Oleander prefect of Pretorians. 190 Birth of Tertullian (died 240). 192 Britanicus, as gladiator, killed. 193 Pertmax, emperor of Rome, is murdered. Didius Julianus buys the. empire. Is opposed by Pescennius Niger and Septimus Severus and killed. 194 Septimius Severus sole emperor. Defeat and death of Niger. 196 Severus captures Byzantium after a siege of three years. 197 Temple of the Sun at Baalbec. Battle of Lyons. Death of Albinus. 198 Caracalla named Augustus. Defeat of Parthians by Romans. 202 Persecution of the Christians. 204 Birth of Plotinus, philosopher (died 274). 209 Invasion of Britain by Severus. His wall completed, 220. 211 Death of Severus at York. Caracalla and Geta emperors. Roman citizenship extended to the whole empire. 212 Geta murdered. Caracalla, sole emperor. 213 Death of Clement of Alexandria. 214 First contact of the Romans with the Alamanni German tribes on the upper Rhine.217 Macrinus emperor. 218 Heliogabalus emperor. 222 Alexander Severus emperor. 225 Sextus Empiricus, philosopher, flourishes. 226 Dissolution of the Parthian Empire and end of Arecide. Foundation of the new Persian Kingdom of the Sassanide by Ardshir (Artaxerxes). 228 Ulpian (lawyer) died. 231 Persian War begins. 233 Triumph of Severus. 235 liaximin murders Severus and succeeds to the throne. 236 Persecution of the Christians. 238 The Gordiani, "Pupienus and Balbinu (jointly) and Gordianus III., emperors. 242 Gordianus defeats Sapor, King of Persia. 244 Gordianus murdered and succeeded by, Philip the Arabian. 249 Decius emperor of Rome. 250 Decius orders a persecution of the Christians. First invasion of the empire by the Goths. 251 Death of Decius and his son. Gallus emperor. 252 A pestilence breaks out in the empire and lasts fifteen years. 253 Irruption of the Goths and Burgmundians into liesia and Pannonia. First appearance of. the Franks in Gaul about this time. 254 Valerian emperor. His son Gallienus associated with him. Persecution of the Christians. 258 Trapezus taken by the Goths. 259 Sapor ravages Syria. - Valerian taken prisoner. " 260 Gallienus sole emperor. The Thirty Tyrants between 260 and 268. 262 The Goths in Macedonia and Asia Minor. They destroy the Temple of Ephesus. Antioch taken by Sapor. 263 The Franks invade Gaul. 267 The I-eruli invade Greece, and are repulsed by Dexippums. 268 Claudius emperor. 269 Claudius defeats the Goths in Mesia. 270 Aurelian emperor of Rome. Victories over the Goths and the Alamanni. Zenobia queen of Palmyra. 272 Expedition of Aurelian to Palmyra. 273 Capture of Palmyra and of Queen Zenobia. 274 Birth of Constantine (died 337). 275 Tacitus emperor. 276 Probus emperor. 277 Probus drives the Alamanni from Gaul. 282 Carus emperor. Expedition to the East. 284 Diocletian emperor of Rome. 286 Maximian joint emperor with Diocletian. Revolt of Carausius in Britain. 289 Victory of Carausius over Maximian. 292 Constantius and Galerius named Cesars. Division of the empire. 296 Britain recovered by Constantius. 297 Siege of Alexandria by Diocletian. Persian War. 298 Constantius defeats the Alamanni near Langres. Defeat of Narses. 303 Persecution of the Christians by Diocletian. 305 Abdication of Diocletian and Maximian. Constantius and Galerius emperors. Beginning of monasticism in Egypt under St. Anthony. 306 Death of Constantius at York. Constantine (the Great) proclaimed emperor by the troops. 307 Revolt of Maxentius. Six emperors. Elevation of Licinius. ] -'4........................... " I I

Page  95 SSUPPLEMENT XII. ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. A. D. 311 Rome proclaims Christianity. Edict of Nicomedia to stop the persecution of the Christians. 812 Defeat and death of Maxentius. 313 Defeat and deam of -Maximian. Edict of Milan, by Constantine and Licinius, for general religious toleration. Britain subdued. 814 War between the two emperors. 316 Birth of St. -Martin, Bishop of Tours. 323 Constantine sole emperor. 324 Constantinople founded; dedicated as the capital of the empire, 330 (or 334). 825 First General Council of the Church meets at Nicea. 826 Athanasius Patriarch of Alexandria. Controversy with Arius. 326 Death of Arius. 337 Constantine II., Constans and Constantius II. joint emperors. Nephilas Meso-Gothic gospels. 838 Death of Eusebius. 840 Birth of St. Jerome-died 420. 347 Synod of Sardica. 348 Ulfilas Bishop of the Goths (died 388). 350-'52 Revolt of Magentius. ~Defeated by Constantius. 354 Birth of St.. Augustine (died 430)'. 857 Victory of Julian over the Alamanni at Argentoratum (Strasburg). 361 Julian emperor. 362 Julian recalls the banished bishops, and proclaims general religious toleration. 063 Persian War. Julian killed. Jovian emperor. 364 Valentinian and Valens joint emperors. Final division of the empire. 867-'69 Theodosius in Britain; aids Britons against Picts and Scots. 870 The Saxons land on the coasts of Gaul. 373 Death of Athanasius. 375 War with the Quadi. Gratian emperor of the West with Valentinian II. Invasion of the Huns. 876 Valens allows the Huns to settle in Thrace. 377 Birth of St. Patrick (died 493?). 878 Constantinople threatened by the, Goths. *379 Theodosius the Great, Emperor of the East. 881 Second General Council held at Constantinople. Pagan rites prohibited. 382 Alaric King of the Goths. 383 Revolt of Maximus in Britain. 390 Final suppression of Paganism. Massacre at Thessalonica. Death of Gregory at Nazianzus. 893 Honorius Emperor of the West. 394 Theodosius master of the whole Roman world. 395 Death of Theodosius. Areadius emperor of the East; The Huns invade the eastern provinces. 395 Augustine made Bishop of Hippo (died 430). Alaric in Greece. Stilicho attains chief power under Hono"rius. 396 The Britons ask aid of Honorius against the Picts and Scots. 397 Deaths of Martin of Tours and Ambrose of Milan. 398 Chrysostom Bishop of Constantinople (died 407). 400 Alaric ravages Italy. 403 Battle of Pollentia. Defeat of Alaric by Stilicho. 406 The Vandals, Alani and Suevi invade Spain. 409 The Roman legions recalled from Britain; final withdrawal about 418. 410 Sack of Rome by Alaric. Death of Alaric. Pelagius begins to preach about this time. 412 Proclus, the philosopher, born (died 485). 414 Marriage of Ataulphus, King of the Goths, to Placida, daughter of Theodosius the Great; Persecution of the Christians in Persia begins; lasts thirty years. 420 Death of St. Jerome. Orosius, the Spanish presbyter and historian, flourished. 423 Death of Honorius at Ravenna. 425 Administration -of Etius begins, lasting about thirty years. The Traveler's Song published. 428 Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople, banished (435). 429 The Vandals under Genseric invade Africa. S Death of Theodore, Bishop of Mopsues tin. "431 Third General Council held at Ephesus, A22 St. Patrick arrives in Ireland. 433 itia King of the Huns. 438 Theodos-an code published. 439 The Vanaalt surprise Carthage. 440 Leo I. (the Groat" Bishop of Rome. 442 Treaty of peace betwet-r Valentinian and Genseric. 447 Attila in Thrace and Macedev.. 446 Messages of the Britons to Erin for aid against the Saxons. 447 Attila ravages the Eastern Fmpirt. Theodosius concludes a treaty witn Attila. 449 The Robber Council of Ephesus. Landing of the English in Britain. Hengist and Horsa in Kent. 450 Death of Theodosius 11. 451 Invasion of Gaul by Attila. Victory of Etius at Chalons. Fourth General Council held at Chalcedon. Monophysite controversy begins. 452 Invasion of Italy by Attila. Venice founded. 453 Death of Attila. Dissolution of his em. pire. 454' St. Patrick fixes This see at Armagh. 455 Sack of Rome by Genseric. Intercession of *Leo. 457 Hengist founds the Kingdom of Kent. 460 The epic poem of Beowulf (?). 461--'67 Rule of Ricimer. ) Severus nominal emperor. 462-1'72 Conquests of the Visigoths in Spain and Gaul. 465 Great fire at Constantinople. 470 Birth of Boethius (died' 526). 475 Romulus Augustulus Emperor of the West (banished 476). 476 Odoacer captures and sacks Rome and becomes King of Italy. Succession of Western Emnerors ends. Close of the period of Ancient History. A. D. 493 Theodoric establishes the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy, South Germany and Hungary, capital at Ravenna. 495 Third Saxon -invasion of Britain. Cerdic founds the Kingdom of Wessex. 496 Clovis of France embraces Christianity. 501 Laws of Burgundy published. 502 Charbades, the Persian, ravages the Greek Empire. 503 Fergus lands in Scotland from Ireland. 506-'42 The famous King Arthur said to reign in England. 507 Clovis, having conquered the country from the Pyrenees to the Loire, founds the Kingdom of all Franks. 510 Clovis makes Paris the capital of the Franks. 511 Salic Law established by Clovis in France. Division of the monarchy between Clovis' four sons. 514 Vitalianus, the Goth,. besieges Constantinople. 519 Cerdic founds the Kingdom of Wessex in Britain. 527 Justinian I. becomes Emperor of Rome. Fourth Saxon invasion of Britain. Essex founded. 529 Justinian Code published. 534 Belisarius conquers Africa. 538 The Franks appear in Italy. 539 Italy made subject to Belisarius. Goths ravage Milan. 544 Birth of Gregory of Tours (died 590). 545 The Turks enter Asia.. 547 Northumbria founded in Britain. 550 The Angles form the Heptarchy-Anglia, ' Deira, Mercia, etc. 552 Totila, the Ostrogoth, defeated in. Italy by the -imperial generals Narses and Belisarius. 554 Narses overthrows Gothic power in Italy. 558 Clotaire sole ruler in France. 560 Fergus Moor II. of Scotland (?). 561 Death of Clotaire. His four sons divide the kingdom between them. 562 St. Colomba lands in Scotland. 563 Constantinople destroyed by fire. 564 History of Gildas (?). 565 Death of Justinian I. Ethelbert becomes King of Kent., 568 Italy invaded by the Longobardi from Germany, who found. the Kingdom of Lombardy. Narses governor of Italy. 570 Birth of Mohammed (died 632). 577 Battle of Durham; West-Saxons defeat the Britons. 581 Paris mostly destroyed by fire. Sclavonians ravage Thrace. 584 Franks invade Italy and are repelled. The Mayors of the palace the real rulers in France. 586 Kingdom of Mercia founded in Britain. 587 Franks expelled from Spain by Recared I. 590 Gregory I., the Great, becomes Pope. 595 The Lombards besiege Rome and overrun Italy. 597 St. Augustine arrives in England. 598 Ethelbert, King of Kent, embraces Christianity. 600 Italy ravaged by Sclavonians. 603 Scots invade Bernicia; are driven back. 611 The Persians make conquests in Syria, Egypt, and Asia Minor, and besiege Rome. 612 Jews persecuted in Spain. 613 Clotaire II. King of France. 614 Jerusalem captured by Persians. 622 Mohammed secretly leaves Mecca and enters Medina. The Hegira or Arab emigration-not flight as commonly translated. - 628 Dagobert, the "Solomon of the Franks," becomes King. Revises and publishes the Salie and Riparian Laws. 6SO Mohammed re-enters Mgecca; installed as prince and prophet. 632 Death of Mohammed. His religion spreads through, Persia. 634 The Koran published. 638 Syria occupied by Saracens. Clovis II., son of Dagobert, King of France. 639 Omar institutes the new MIoslem Calendar. 640 Alexandrian Library burnt. 642 In Britain the Mercians defeat the Berniclans. 653 Rhodes taken by the Saracens. 656 Clotaire III. becomes King of France. 662 In Italy, Constans II., Emperor of the East, is defeated by the Lombards. 668 Constantinople besieged by Saracens. 672 Saracens driven from Spain. 672-'77 Wamba's "good reign" in Spain. 678 Cadwallader, the last king of the Britons, reigns. Bulgarians occupy Bulgaria, in Northern Greece. 68M Mebromn, last of the Merovingians, assassinated. 685 Saxons drive Britons into Wales and Cornwall. 687 Sussex united to Wessex. In France, Pepin defeats Thierry. 694 Rent devastated by West Saxons. 697 Anaiesto becomes the first doge of Venice. 709 The Saracens invited into Spain to overthrow King Roderick. 711 The Saracens cross from Africa to Spain. The Bulgarians ravage the Eastern Empire. 712 The Gothic Kingdom of Spain overthrown by the Arabs. Establishment of the Saracen kingdom of Cordova. 714 Charles Martel, mayor of the palace and real ruler of France. 716 Independent Gothic Monarchy founded in the Asturias. 718 Leon and Asturias formed into a Kingdom by Pelays, wjho checks the conquests of the Saracens in Spain. 720 The Saracens are defeated at Constantinople. Charles Martel created Duke of France. The Saracens inv-,de France. 730 Pope Gregory excommunicates the Emperor Leo. 732 Battle of Tours, or Poitiers; crushing defeat of the Saracens by the Franks. 739 Charles Martel conquers Provence. 746 Slavic settlements in Grecian Peloponnesus. 747 Carloman of France-abdicates. 752 Pepin, the Short, son of Charles Martel, becomes King of France. 754 Pepin gives Ravenna to the Pope. 755 Insurrection in Mercia, Britain. Abderahman I. becomes King of Cordova. 756 Pepin annexes Ravenna to the See of Rome. 760 Insurrection of Toledo. 768 Death of Pepin, who is succeeded by his two sons, Charlemagne and Carloman, who rule in France and Germany. 771 Charlemagne rules alone. 772-'85 Charlemagne, after a severe struggle, conquers the Saxons; they embrace Christianity. 774 Charlemagne annexes Italy after conquering the Lombards. 778 Battle of Roncesvalles. Beginning of the age of chivalry. Charlemagne unsuccessfully invades Spain. 785 Saxons, subdued by Charlemagne, become Christians. 787 The Danes land in England. 791-'96 Charlemagne establishes the Margraviate of Austria. Reign of Alfonso. the Cla.te, in Snain; independence of Christians established. A. D. 799 The Avars subdued by Charlemagne. 800 Charlemagne crowned at Rome; becomes Emperor of the West by Pope Leo III. 802 Ruric, the Norman, establishes the first regular government in Russia at Novgorod, and becomes grand duke. 807 War between Slavs and Polyponnesian Greeks. 814 Louis I., Emperor, dethroned, but restored to his dominions. 817 Louis, the German (France), conquers Austria. 820 Michael II., of the Byzantine Empire, founds the Armorian dynasty. 823 In Lngland, Essex (and,; two years later, Kent and Northumbria) are annexed to Wessex. 825 The Servians occupy Dalmatia. 827. The Saxon Heptarchy ends and Egbert, king of Wessex, becomes king of all England. 830 Louis the Debonair imprisoned in France. 839-'40 Louis separates Germany from France. 840 Charles the Bald King of France. 841 German princes assert their independence. 844 Treaty of Verdun; the sons of Louis divide the empire. Spain ravaged by the Northmen. 846 Tne Saracens sack Rome. 848 Brittany becomes independent. 850 Russian monarchy established by Ruric. 850(?) Scots and Picts united under Kenneth. 851 Northmen pillage France. 865 Russians attack Constantinople. 867 Bassillian Dynasty founded at Constantinople. 869 Ecumenical Council of Constantinople. (Latin Church.) . 871 The Danes defeat Alfred at battle of Merton. 873 Kingdom. of Navarre founded by Sancho Iuigo. 875 Charles, the Bald, becomes Emperor; is poisoned by Zedechias, a Jewish physician. 875-1154 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 877 Louis Ii. King of France. 878 Alfred the Great driven from England. 879 Ecumenical Council of Constantinople. (Greek Church.) 881 Danes ravage Scotland. 888 Paris attacked by Northmen. 890 Italy subjected to the Eastern Empire. Alfred of England founds Oxford, and establishes a code of laws; organizes militia and a navy; subdivides the country and causes surveys of the Kingdom..895 Alfred's translations. 896 The Germans, under Arnold, seize Rome. Alfred of England vanquishes the Danes. 901 Death of Alfred the Great. 904 Russia invades Greek Empire under Oleg. 907 The Russians receive tribute, from Constantinople. 910 Asser's life of Alfred written. 911 Death of Louis the Child, last of the German Caiolingians. 912 Rollo the Northman becomes Robert, Duke of Normandy. 918-'34 Henry I., the Fowler, reigns in Germany; conquers the Huns, Danes, Vandals and Bohemians. 921 Italy invaded by the Burgundians. 928 Five Emperors rule the Byzantine Empire. 933 Athelstan ravages Scotland. 934 Henry I. of Germany defeats the Danes. 936 Otho the Great, in Germany. 937 Athelstan wins a great victory over the Danes, Scots, - etc., and becomes first King of England. 939 Louis IV. of France subdues Hugh Capet, Count of Paris. 944 Malcolm I. in Scotland..951 Otho invades Italy. 962 Otho the Great becomes Emperor of the West; Italy and Germany united. 978 Otho II. invades France. 979 Assassination of Edward, the Miartyr, of England. 982 Battle of Basientello; Otho III. of Germany defeated by Greeks and Saracens. 987 Hugh Capet becomes King of France. 988 ~ladimir marries Annie, sister of Basil II. of Russia, and embraces Christianity. 995 Elfric's Homilies. 996 Otho III. makes the German Emperor elective. Paris made the capital of all France. 997 Death of St. Adelbert, who first introduced Christianity into Prussia. 999 Gerbert, Silvester II., Pope. 1000 Genoa, Italy, becomes rich and powerful. 1002 Massacre of Danes in England by Ethelred. Reign of Robert II. in Burgundy. 1003 Sweyn, King of Denmark, avenges the massacre. Ethelred flees to 'Normandy. Malcolm II. King of Scotland. 1013 Sweyn conquers England. 1014 Battle of Zetunium; Basil II. of Constantinople defeats the Bulgarians. 1015 Vladimir I. dies; Russia is divided. 1016 Ethelred dies; Edmund Ironsides and Canute divide England. Italy invaded by Northmen. Expulsion of Saracens. 1017 Canute, the Dane, becomes King of all England.. 1019 The Moors enter Spain. 1026 Sancho II. of Navarre founds the Kingdom of Castile. 1035 Arragon becomes a Kingdom under Ramirez I. 1037 Union of Leon and Austria with Castile. 1039 Duncan I. of Scotland murdered by Macbeth. 1040 Sicily restored and Servia lost to the Eastern Empire. The Cid (Ruy Diaz) in Spain. 1041 Danes driven from Scotland. 1042 The Saxon Dynasty restored. Edward the Confessor, King of England. Conquest of Bohemia by Henry III. 1043 Russians defeated before Constantinople. 1051 Rebellion of Godfrey in Kent. 1052 War of Roderigo, the Cid, with the Moors. 1058 Moors expelled from Italy. Macbeth defeated and slain. Malcolm III. of Scotland. 1060 Philip I., the Fair, King of France. Lambert of Herzfeld. 1065 Jerusalem captured by the Turks. 1066 William of Normandy invades England, Sand wins the battle of Hastings. Harold defeats the Norwegians, and is crowned King of England, January 6. Death of Harold. William I., the Norman, crowned King, December 25. 1070 The feudal system introduced in England. 1071 Norman Kingdom of the two Sicilies. Hereward in the Isle of Ely. 1073 Hildebrand made Pope Gregory VII. Gregory VII. establishes universal sovereignty of the papacy, and reforms abuses in the Church. Henry VI. of Germany disputes his title. 1075 Odericus Vitalis. 1076 Justice of the Peace appointed. 1077 Henry IV. submits and does penance. 1081 Italy invaded by the Germans. 1084 Henry IV. takes Rome. The Pope flies to Salerno and dies there, in 1085. Clement III. made Pope by Henry IV. A. D. 1086 Domesday Book completed in England; commenced in 1077. Burno founds Carthusians. 1087 William II. crowned King of England. 1088 Urban II. Pope. 1090 Mantua taken by Henry IV. 1091 The Saracens of Spain invite the African Moors to their aid in driving back the Christians. The Moors defeat the Christians and seize the Saracen possessions. 1095 Portugal becomes a separate principality under Henry of Besancon. William of Malmesbury. 1096 First Crusade begim. Verse Edda compiled (?). 1098 War between France and England. 1099 Death of the Cid. Jerusalem captured by Godfrey de Bouillon. 1100 Henry I. crowned King of England. Grants a charter restoring the Saxon laws. 1104 Crusaders capture Acre. 1106 Milan becomes a free republic. Henry I. defeats his brother Robert, and gains Normandy. 1107 Alexander I., Scotland. 1108 Louis VI. le Gros (the Lusty), King of France. 1110 Henry V. of Germany invades Italy. 1114 Henry V. marries Matilda of England. 1116 University of Bologna founded. Euclid translated into English. 1119 Play of St. Catherine at Dunstable. 1120 Rise of the Lombard (Italy) cities. Shipwreck of Prince lWilliam. 1122 Treaty of Worms, between the Emperor and Pope. 1124 David I. King of Scotland. 1125 Era of the glory of Venice. Victories over the Eastern Empire. 1132 Arnold of Brescia. 1135 Stephen becomes King of England. Henry's daugher, Maud, disputes the crown; civil war ensues. Louis VI. grants letters of franchise to cities and towns. 1138 Empress Maud's partisans defeated at. the battle of the Standard, Aug. 22. 1139 Portugal becomes a kingdom. Maud lands in England, and defeats Stephen: is crowned at Winchester, March 3, 1141. 1143 Moors rebel in Spain. 1144 Alphonso of Leon defeats the Mloors. Wars of the Lombard cities. 1146 Second Crusade; Louis VIT. of France and Conrad III. of Germany are defeated by Greek treachery, A. D. 1148. Greece plundered by Roger of Sicily. 1147 Maud is defeated by Stephen, and retires to France. 1150 Arthurian Legends published. 1152 Frederick Barbarossa made Emperor of Germany. 1153 Maud concludes a peace with Stephen. Malcolm IV. King of Scotland. 1154 Frederick Barbarossa invades Italy. Henry II., King of England, the first Phantagenet, crowned December 19. Adrian IV. Pope. Constitutions of Clarendon enacted in England. 1156 Margraviate, Austria, made a hereditary duchy by Frederic I. 1161 War of Guelphs and Ghibellines. 1162 Barbarossa destroys Milan. 1163 Berlin founded by a colony from the Netherlands. 1165 William the Lion, King of Scotland. 1166 Assizes of Clarendon and Northampton. 1167 Frederick Barbarossa takes Rome. The Lombard League formed against the Emperor. 1169 University of Paris founded. 1170 Thomas a Becket murdered in England December 29. 1172 The Sultan Saladin makes great conquests in Asia. Ireland conquered by the English. 1176 Battle of Legnano. Barbarossa defeated Sby the Lombard League. Six circuits for the administration of justice established in England. 1180 Ghanvil Chief Justice of England. Philip II. (Augustus) King of France. 1181 Glanvil makes a digest of English law. 1183 Peace of Constance establishes the free cities of Italy. 118'5 Provinces of Amiens and Yalois annexed to France. 1187 Saladin seizes Jerusalem. 1189 Third Crusade by England, France and Germany. Siege of Acre begun. Richard I. crowned in England, Sept. 3. Terrible massacre of Jews in London. 1190 Frederick I. (Barbarossa), drowned. Order of Teutonic Knights established. Henry V. invades Italy. University of Oxford founded. 1191 Richard I. joins the Crusades. Acre captured. Jerusalem opened to pilgrim. Kingdom of Cyprus founded. Artois annexed to France. 1192 Richard I., Coeur de Lion, made prisoner in Germany by Henry IV.; ransomed (1194) for ~400,000. Richard defeats Saladin. 1198 Innocent III. Pope. 1199 John becomes King of England, May 27. 1200 University of Salamanca founded. 1202 Fourth Crusade; capture of Zora. 1203 Constantinople besieged and captured by the Crusaders. 1204 Normandy lost to England. Latins possess and divide Greece. 1207 Albigensian Crusade. i 1208 Ocho crowned Emperor of Germany at Rome. England interdicted by the Pope.' 1209 French Crusade against the Albegeoise. Inquisition established. 1210 War between Venice and Genoa. 1213 Battle of _Muret; defeat of Albigenses. Interdict of England removed. 1214 Alexander II. of Scotland. French defeat Germans at Bouvines. 1215 Magna Charta signed at Runnymede, June 15; confirmed and renewed 80 times. - Birth of Roger Bacon (died 1292). 1216 Henry I1. becomes King of England, October 28. 1217 Fifth crusade by Germans and Hungarians. 1220 Frederick II. becomes Emperor of Italy. 1222 Matthew Paris born. The Teutonic Knights undertake the conquest of Poland. 1223 Tartars conquer a large-part of Russia. Louis VIII. King of France. 1224 Louis frees his serfs. 1226 St. Louis becomes King. Louis IX. of France. 1227 Gregory IX. Pope. 1228 Sixth Crusade; Frederick II. at Acre. 1229 The Inquisition begun. 1229 Ten years' truce with the Sultan. Jerusalem restored to the Christians. -Frederick crowned King of Jerusalem. Albigenses defeated in France. 1231 University of Cambridge founded, 1232 Fall of Hubert de Burgh. 1233 Wars between Castile and Mloors, and capture of Cordova, Seville, Toledo, and other cities by Ferdinand III. 1235 The Mongolians invade Russia. 1236 War between the Emperor and the Lombard League. 1237 The Grand Duke Juric (Russia) slain in battle. A. D..238 Moorish Kingdom of Grenada founded by Mohammed I. 1239 Seventh Crusade, by Thibaud, Count of Champagne. 1241 Prose Edda. 1242 Tartars establish the empire of Kahn of. Kaptschak. 1244 Jerusalem seized by the Carismians. Danes invade Russia, and are defeated by Alexander Newski. 1245 The Hanseatic League formed. 1246 Frederick II. of Austria killed in battle with the Hu-izarians. 1250 Louis defeats Ring Henry of England. Louis captured by the Saracens; truce for ten years. Mamelukes rule Egypt. 1251 Rise of M~edica family in Italy. 1252 Alexander Newski is made Grand Duke of Russia, and reigns as Alexander I. 1254 Ottocar of Bohemia acquires the Austrian Provinces. 1259 Kubla Kahn builds Pekin. 1260 Ottocar wars with Hungary over Styria. 1262-'68 Barons' War in England. 1263 Ottocar inherits Corinthia. 1265 The first regular Parliament of England meets. Birth of Dante; died 1321. 1266 Naples and Sicily conquered by Charles of Anjou. 1268 Ninth Crusade, by Louis IX. and Edward, Prince of Wales. 1270 Louis IX. dies at Carthage. Philip III. (the Hardy) King of France. 1271 The English quit Palestine. 1272 Reign of Edward I. of England; Crowned Nov. 20. Ottocar declines the Imperial Crown of Germany. 1273 Randolph, Count of Hapsburg, chosen Emperor of Germany; Ottocar refuses to acknowledge him. 1274 Navarre passes to the royal family of France. Rudolph makes war upon Ottocar, and gains Austria,- Corinthia and Styria. 1275 Wars of Robert Bruce and John Baliol for the crown of Scotland. 1276 House of Hapsburg, of Austria, founded. 1277 Rule of the Visconti, Milan. 1278 Ottocar slain at the battle of Marshfeld. 1282 Sicilian Vespers, massacre of Sicilians by the French. Crusade against Aragon; the French expelled. 1283 Wales subjected to. England. 1285 Philip IV. (the Fair) King of France. 1286 Kenigsberg made the capital of Prussia. 1287 Jews banished from England. 1288 Nicholas IV. Pope. 1289 Second invasion of the Mongols. 1291 Mamelukes take Acre. Christian power in Syria destroyed. 1296 Scotland subdued by England. 1297 Sir William Wallace fights for the independence of Scotland. Revolt of Scotland. 1299 Battle of Falkirk; Bruce and Douglas defeated by Edward I. Osman I. establishes the Turkish Empire. 1300 Moscow becomes the capital of Russia. 1301 Philip IV. quarrels with the Pope., Charles of Valois in Italy. 1302 First convocation of States-General in France. 1303 Edward I. invades Scotland. 1305 William Wallace executed. 1306 Robert Bruce crowned as King of Scotland. 1307 Edward II. crowned, July 8, King of England. 1307-'14 Philip suppresses the Knights Templar, and burns the Grand Master at Paris. 1308 Pope Clement V. removes to Avignon, in, France. Albert I., of Austria, attempts to subdue the Swiss, who have revolted under William Tell. (?) 1309 The Swiss revolt successful. 1310 Henry VII. subdues the Lombards. 1318 Louis V. and Frederick of Austria contend for the German Empire. Birth of Boccaccio; died 1375.-* 1314 Battte of Bannoekburn; the Secots, under Robert Bruce, defeat the English under Edward. Louis IV. King of Germany. Union of France and Navarre. 1315--'25 Insurrection of English Barons. The Swiss totally defeat the Austrians at Morga rten. 1316 John I., a posthumous son of Louis X., King, dies at the age of four days. Philip II. (the Long) King of France.. 1321 Death of Dante. 1322 Battle of kMuehldorf; Louis V. defeats Frederick. Charles IV. King of France. 1324 Birth of John Wickliffe; died 1384. 1326 Germany invaded by Turks. 1327 Edward III. crowned, Jan. 25, King of England. Independence of Scotland. 200,000 Moors brought from Africa by the King of Grenada. 1328 Charles the Fair, of France, dies; Philip VI., of the House of Valois, reigns. Ivan I. rules Russia. 1329 David I. King of - Scotland. 1333 The Scots defeated by Edward at Halidon Hill. 1337 War between France and Flanders. Birth of Froissart; died 1401. 1339 First Doge of Genoa appointed. 1340 Birth of Gerhard Groot; died 1380. Battle of Tarifa in Spain; Moors terribly defeated by Alphonso XT., of Castile. 1M46 Battle of Crecy; French, under Philip, routed by the English, under Edward III., and the Black Prince. Battle of Durban, in Scotland. Battle of Neville's Cross. 1347 The English take Calais. Rienzi, last of the Tribunes, establishes a democracy in Rome. 1348 University of Prague founded. 1349 Dauphiny annexed to France. The black death in England. 1350 Order of the Garter instituted by Edward and John II., King of France. 1852 Marino Faliero at Venice. 1353 Turks enter Greece. 1354 Rienzi slain at Rome. 1356 Battle of Poitiers, September 19; 8,000 English defeat 60,000 French; the Black Prince takes John II. captive to London, where he dies. Charles IV., of Germany, signs the Golden Bull, the basis of the German Constitution until 1806. 1358 Insurrection of the Jacquerie in France. 1360 Peace of Bretigny, between English and French. 1361 Italy overrun by the Free Lances. Turks enter Greece. 1362 The English language ordered to be used in legal proceedings, England. 1363 Austria acquires the Tyrol. 1364 Charles V. (the Wise) King of France. Philip, the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. Treaty between Austria and Bohemia. 1366 H. Van Eyck, painter, born. 1367 The Mamelukes conquer Armenia. 1369 Empire of Tamerlane founded. Langland's "Piers Plowman." 1370 Pope Gregory XI. goes to Avignon. 1371 Stuart line begins with Robert I. of Scotland. 1374 Death of Petrarch. Rebellion against the Pope. 1375 Death of Boccaccio..-. Medieval History 476 Establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks. 477 Second Saxon invasion of Britain. 480 Birth of St. Benedict (died 543). 481 Clovis I. (Merovingian) reigns in Belgic Gaul. 485 Proclus, philosopher, died. 48.6 Battle of Soissons. Clovis I. defeats the Gauls. 489 Ostrogoths invade Italy. 491 Ella founds the Kingdom of Sussex. N m

Page  96 SUPPLEMENT XIII. ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. m I A. D. 1377 Richard IT. King of England, June 22. Papacy restored to Rome. 1380 Battle of the Don; Dimitri II., of Russia, defeats the Tartars. W~yckliffe's translation of the Bible published. Thomas A. Kempis born. Russia wars with the Tartars. Charles VI., King of France. 1381 Watt Tyler's insurrection in London crushed. Ghiberti, artist, born; died 14055. 1382 "Legend of Good Women," England. 1883 The Tartars burn Moscow. 1385 Death of John Wyckliffe. 1386 John of Chaunt in Spain. Battle of Lempaeh; defeat of the Austrians by the Swiss, and death of Duke Leopold. 1387 German Empire divided. Fra Angelico, painter, born; died 1448. 1388 Battle- of ~Chevy Chase, or Otterburne, between Scots and English. 1389 Marg~aret of Norway. 1390 The Eastern Empire loses power in Asia. Robert Ill. King of Scotland. The Canterbury Tales published. J. Van Eyck, painter, born. 1392 The Portuguese discover the Cape of Good tHope. 1395 Tamerlane, the Tartar, invades Russia. The Walkefield and Towneley mysteries. 1396 Battle of Nicopolis, the Turks, under Bajazet I., defeat the Hungarian Christians. 13 97 Persecution of the Wycklifites or Lollards. Union of Calmar. 1399 Henry IV. crowned King of England, Sept. 30th; Order of the Bath founded. 1400 Birth of Della Robbia, architect a~d sculptor. Death of Chaucer and Froissart. 1401 Rebellion in WNales; Glendower and the Percies defeated. 1402 Batule of Angora; Timiour the Tartar defeats the Turlks and captures Bajazet I. Masaccio, painter, born.. 1405 Prince James of Scotland captured. 1406 Albany, regent, in Scotland. 1407 France interdicted. by the Pope. 1409 Council of Pisa. Alexander V. made Pope by council of Pisa. 1410 Sigismnund of Hungary becomes Emperor 'of Germany. 1411 'University of St. Andrews founded. S Battle of Harlaw; the Lowland defeat the HiQ~hland Scots. 1412' Birth of Fra Filippo Lippi, painter. 1413 Henry V. crowned'. March 21, King" of England. 1414 Council of Constance; Pope John XXIII..deposed. Sigismund, King of Bohemia, Emperor of Germany. 1415 Battle of Agincourt; 10,000 English, under Henry V., defeat 50,000 French. John Huss and Jerome of Prague burned at the stake, betrayed by Sigismund. 1416 The partisans of Huss take up arms; a severe war ensues. 1417 Cobham burnt. 1419 The Hussites take Prague. 1420 Paris captured by the English; Treaty of Troyes; Henry wins the French crown;. birth of John Wessel. 1422 Henry VI. proclaimed King of France and England. Ottoman Empire reunited by Amurath II. 1423 James I. reigns in Scotland. 1425 War between Milan and Venice. The Paston Letters. 1429 Joan of Are raises siege of Orleans, defeats the English at Patay, and drives them from a nll hircnqets James IT. becomes King. Albert V., Duke of Austria, obtains Bohemia and Hungary, and! is made Emperor (if Germany. 1438 University of Florence founded. The Pragmatic Sanction; Albert V., of Austria, becomes Emperor - of Germany. 1439 Council of Florence. Title of Emperor limited to the Austrian Hapsburgs. 1442 Battle of Vasag; Turks routed by Hungarians. 1443 Battle of Nissa; Turks again defeated. 1445 Birth of Leonardo da Vinci. The Arabian Knights issued () 1447 Nicholas V. Pope. Duke of Gloucester murdered. 1449 The Cforzas at Milan. Alphonso V. at Aragon. Peacock's "Repressor." 1450 Jack Cade's insurrection. Early English Ballads. Birth of Dunbar; died 10530. 1451 University of Glasgow founded. 1452 Earl Douglas murdered by James IT. The Archduchy of Austria created, with sovereign power, by Frederick Il. 1453 Constantinople captured by Mohammed IT.; end of the Eastern Empire. End of. the French and English wars. The Mazarin Bible issued. 1455--'71 War of the Roses, between Henry VT. and the Duke of York, afterwards Edward IV. Battle of St. Albans. 1456 Battle of Belgrade; Turks repulsed by Hungarians. 1457 Frederick 111. divides Austria with his relatives. 1458 Pius 11. Pope at Romne. 1460 Birth of Skelton; died 1528, The Turks conquer Greece. 1461 Edward IV. deposes Henry VI. of England. Louis XI. King _'of. France. 1462 Ivan, the Great, of Russia, founds the modern Russian Empire. 1463 Turkish war with Venice. Close of Austria's war with Frederick Ill.1 1464 "League of the Public Good," formed by the nobles, against Louis. 1467 Birth of Erasmuis; died 1536. 1468 The Coventary mysteries. 1470-192 Lorenzo de Medici flourished. 1471 League of Italian cities against the Turks. William Caxton establis'hest first English printing-press. Battle of Tewlkesbury. Warwick, k-ng-maker. Birth of Durer, painter; died 152S. 1473 Birth of Copernicus. Birth of Mirhael Angelo, architect and sculptor; died 1556. 1474 Birth of Ariosto; died 1533.,Ferdinand IT., of Aragon, marries Isabella, of Leon and Castile. 1475 Edward* IV. invades France. Ivan introduces cannon and firearms into Russia. A. D. 1475 Birth of Sir John Fortescue. 1476 Battle of Murten. 1477 Russian war with Tartars. Artois and Burgundy united to France by Maximillian's marriage. Birth of Titian, painter; died 1576. 1478 Duke of Clarence murdered. 3.479 Union of Aragon and Castile, under Ferdinand and Isabella. Great invasion of Russia by Tartars. 1480 Mongolian power in Russia destroyed. Mohammed Il. takes Otranto. 1481 Frederick IV., of Nurenberg, purchases Brandenburg from Sigismund. 1482 Ivan assumes the title of the Czar of Russia. Birth of Raphael, painter; died 1520. 1483 Birth of Stephen Hlawes; died 1512. Edward V. made King. of England; April 8 murdered in the Tower. Richard III. usurps the throne, June 25. Charles VIII. King of France. Birth of Luther; died 1546. -4-84 Spain invaded by Turks; first auto da fe at Seville. 1485 Bosworth Field. August 22, death of Richard I. Henry VII. crowned. 1486 Henry marries Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV. B. Diaz rounds Cape of Good Hope. 1487 The Court of the Star Chamber instituted in England. Province joined to France. 14S8 W~ar between Russia and Sweden. The Yeoman of the Guard organized in England. 1490 Leonardo da Vinci, painter, flourished. 1491 Charles VIIII. marries Anne of Brittany~ Alexander V1. Pope. Sevnig- orod defeats and annihilates the. Tartars. 1,192 Columbus sails from, Spain, Augoust 3, and discovers America, October 12; discovers Cuba, October 28; Hayti, December 6. Ferdinand conquers Gre 'nada and destroys the Moorish~ power in Spain. Cesar Borgia poisons Pope Alexander VII. Henry sells the sovereignty of France. Warbeck's insurrection; quelled in 1498. Spanish persecution of the Jews. 1493 Treaty of Barcelona, between France and Spain. League between Russia and Denmark. Birth of Correggio, painter; died 1534. 1494 Charles VII. invades Italy. and conquers Naples. Lollards persecuted in England. 1495 Poynings' Act in Ireland. 1496 Naples lost to Charles. Spain accrues to Austria by the marriage of Philip 1. with the heiress of Aragon and Castile. 1497 Cabot discovers Labrador, June 26; and surveys Hudson's Bay, July 3. 1498 Louis XII. King of France. 1499 The French unite with Venice and seize Milan. Battle of Lepanto; victory of the Turks. Mohammedans expelled from Spain. Swiss Confederacy independent. Perkin Warbeek. executed. 1500 Pinzon discovers Brazil, January 26. Cabral, the Portuguese, lands in Brazil, May 3. ~ 1501 Brasle and Schaffhausen join the Swiss Confederation. Negro slaves imported into Hispaniola., 10502 Spanish Moors compelled to adopt Christianity. Columbus sails on his fourth voyage and discovers various isles on the coast of Honduras, and explores the coasts of 1508 League of Cambray, between Louis XII. and Maximillian, against Venice. 1509 Henry VIII. King of England; he rnarries Catherine of Aragon. Venice stripped of its Italian possessions. 1510 Russia again invaded by Tartars. Execution of Dudley and Empson. Ojedo founds San Sebastian. 1511 Pope Julius 11. forms the Holy LeaguLe with Ferdinand and Venice. Velasquez subdues Cuba. 1512 Selim I. made King of Turkey by Janissaries. Ponce de Leon discovers the Florida coast. Birth of Vasari, painter; died 1571. Birth of Tintoretto, painter; died 1594. Navarre annexed to Spain. 1513 England invades France. Battle of Guinegate or Spurs; French defeat. Scotland invades England. Battle of Flodden Field; Scots defeated. Balboa crosses the Isthmus of Darien, and discovers the Pacific ocean. Leo X., Pope, encourages literature and the arts. 1514 Wolsey's power begins in England. 1515 Battle of M~arignano. Francis I. defeats the Italians, Swiss and Germans. Maximillian I. secures the Hungarian succession. Francis 1. becomes King of France. First English prose history. Birth of St. Theresa; died 1582. 151.6 Death of Ferdinand, King of Spain. Rule of Cardinal Ximenes. Charles 1. King of Spain. Accession of the House of Austria. Turks gain Egypt. 1517 Europeans first obtain a footing in China. Selim, 1. defeats Miameluhes and adds Egypt to the Ottoman Empire. SLuther begins the work of reformation in Germany. Fernando de Cordova discovers the Mexican coast. Luther translates and publishes the Bible and Liturgy in German. Birth of Surrey; died 1547. 1518 Grijalva penetrateg into -Yucatan,* and names it New Spain. 1519 Cortez lands in Mexico. Charles I., of Spain, elected Emperor of Germany as Charles V. 1520 "Field of the Cloth of Cold" meeting of ' Francis 1. with Henry VIII. Balboa passes through Magellen's Straits. 1521. Battle of Razau; ]Russia defeats Poland. Martin Luther excommunicated at the Diet of W1orms. Conquest of Mexico by Cortez. Henry VIII., styled the "Defender of the Faith" by the Pope. France and Spiin at war. 1522 Cortez mhade governor of. Mexico by Charles 1'. SUPPLIENTXIII A. D. 1522 First Scotch ini'asion of England. The Louvre, Paris, commenced. 1523 Italian League against Francis I. Clement V'Il. Pope at Rome. Berner's Froissart. Honduras conquered by the Spaniards. Verazzani's discoveries in North America. Birth of Rousard; died 1586. 1524 Settlement of New France (Canada). 1525 Battle of Pavia. Francis I. defeated and taken prisoner by Charles V. Peasants' War in Germany. Albert of Brandenburg embraces Lutheranism and becomes Duke of East ~ Prussia and Fief of Poland. 1526 Ferdinand 1. unites Bohemia and Hungary to Austria. Pizarro discovers the coast of Quito. Selim. I. defeats the Hungarians. Mongol dynasty founded in India. Tyndale's new Testament published. 1527 Germans' capture Rome. Papal war. Insurrection of Moriscoes suppressed., in. Spain. Death of M~achiavelli. Birth of Camoens; died 1-579. Saekville, earliest dramatist, born. 1-528 Narvaez'-s expedition to Florida coast. Constable Bourbon at Rome. James V., of Scotland, reigns. Birth of P. Veronese, painter; died 1588. 1529 Diet at Spiers, Germany. Turks invade Austria. France and Spain sign treaty of peace at Cambria. Sir Thomas More, Chancellor. 1530 The Augsburg Confession published. Persecution of Protestants begun in France. Fall and death of Cardinal Wolsey. Reformation makes great prog-ress in Switzerland. Italy conquered by Charles V. Russia makes peace with the, Tartars. 1531 League of Smalkald formed by Protestant princes. First European Colony in South America. San Vincente founded. Royal printing press established in France. Elliot's "Governor" issued. Death of Zwingle; born 1484. 1532 France annexes Brittany. Conquest of Peru begins. ýCalvi-n at Geneva. 1533 Ivan L., Czar, noted for his cruelty. Henry divorces Catherine, and marries Anne Boleyn. Birth of Montague; died 1592. The Hotel de Ville, Paris, founded. 1534 The Anabaptist war; they capture Munster. Henry VIII. is styled "Head of the Church"; authority of the Pope of. Rome abolished in the kingdom. Carter's expedition to the Gulf of the St. Lawrence. Rebellion of Fitzgerald in Ireland. Foundation of Jesuit order. Comeggio died; born. 1493. 153 5 Execution of Sir Thomas More, in En'-CD land. Cartier's second - Voyage,~ enters and names th-e St. Lawrence, ascends the river as far as present site of Montreal. Mendoza founds Buenos Ayres, and con. quers adjacent country. California supposed to have been discovered by an expedition fitted out by Cortez under Grijalva. Cromwell, vicar-general in England. pire. Henry VIII. marries Annie of Cleves, January 6; divorced July 9; marries Catherine Howard, August 8. James V., of Scotland, dies. Mary proclaimed Queen of Scots; regency of Cardinal Beaton. Birth of Gascoigne; died 1577. Birth of Gilbert (magnetism); died 1603. Orellana sails down the Amazon to the sea. 1541 Great Tartar invasion of Russia repelled. De Soto discovers the Mississippi River. 1542 Catherine Howard executed. Henry VIII. takes the title of King of Ireland. Roberval's expedition to the St. Lawrence. 1543 Ivan IV., the Terrible, reigns, at tihe age of fourteen. ~Henry VIII. -marries Catlherine Parr. Death of Copernicus; born 1473. 1544 Grison League joins Swiss Confederacy. France at war with England and Spain. English invasion of France under Henry VIII. Birth of Tasso; died 1595. University ot Konigsberg. founded by Duke Albeit. 1545 Ivan IV. crowned by the Patriarch. Pope Paul III. erects Parma and Placentia into a Duchy,. Aseham "Toxophilus." Council of Trent. 1-546 Death of Martin Luther. France concludes peace with England. Assassination 'of Beaton, regent of Scotland. 1546--'52 Charles V., of Germany, makes war on the Protestants, who are assisted later by Henry 11. 1547 Earl of Surrey, England, executed. Death of Henry VIII. Edward VI. reigns under protectorship of the Duke of Somerset. Henry II. King of France. Battle of Pinkey. Death of Victoria Colonna; born 14 The Smalcadic war. Birth of Cervantes; died 1616 1548 Hall's Chronicle issued. 1549 -Execution of Lord Seymour, England; arrest of his brother, the Duke of Somerset. 1550 John Knox's Scotch reformation. Udal., earliest English comedy. Birth of Coke; died 1634. 1551 Wilson's Art of Rhetoric published. 1552 The Book of Commnon Prayer published in England. Duke of Somierset beheaded. Metz successfully'ý defended by the Duke of Guise. Close of religious war in Germany by the Peace of Passan. 11assacre of Cazan, Russia. Birth of Sir Walter Raleigh; died 1618. 1553 Mary Tudor, daughter of Catherine of Aragon, succeeds Edward, July 6. Lady Jane Gray proclaimed Queen of ]Fngland, July 10, but relinquishes the title..A. D. 1553 Restores the Roman Catholic religion in England.. Trade between England and Russia begun by the "Russian Company." Servetus burnt by Calvin. Birth of Hooker; died 1600. Birth of Spenser; died 1599. 1554 Lady Jane Gray and Lord Guilford Dudleyr beheaded. Mary marries Philip of Spain. Birth of Sir Philip Sydney; died 1586. Persecution of Protestants in England. Siberia discovered. Wyatt's insurrection suppressed -in England. 1555 The English martyrs, Latimer, Ridley, Rogers, and Cranmer burned at the stake. Philip 11. rules in Holland. Religious peace of Augsburg. Bale's "King John" issued. 1556. Charles, of Spain and Germany, retires to a monastery. Philip II. King of Spain. Ferdinand, his brother, succeeds in Germany. Reign of Akbar, the greatest sovereigna of Hindoostan. 15-57 Spain at war with France. Battle of St. Quentin; Philip gains a decisive victory. Alva takes Rome. 1558 Calais retaken by the French. Mary, of Guise, in Scotland, marries the Dauphine. Elizabeth accedes to English throne, November 17. Re-establishes the Church of England. 1559 Francis 11. King of France. Treaty of Cateau-Cambreris sig'ned. William Cecil Secretary in England.:1560 Charles IX. King of France; regency of.Catherine.- de Medici. The Geneva Bible issued. Birth of Southwell; died 10596. Persecution of Protestants begun in Spain. 1561 Birth of Bacon; died 1626. Mary Stuart reig,,ns in.Scotland. Religious wars in France. 1L562 Massacre of Protestants at Vassy.. Huguenots defeated at Dreux by Guise. Russia and Sweden unite against Poland. Port Royal, Carolinas, founded by Huguenots. 1563 Guise killed at the siege of Orleans. Temporary peace with the Huguenots. The Escurial Palace of Spain founded. Tusser's Bueolics issued. Birth of Drayton; died 1631. 1564 Maximillian II. King of Germany. Florida colonized by Huguenots. Birth of 'Shakespeare; died 1616. Birth of Galileo; died 1640. ~Th 'e Tuileries, Paris, begun. 1565 Philip establishes the Inquisition in Hol]and. Mary Queen of Scots marries Lord Darnley. "St. Augustine, Florida, founded by Melendez. 1[566 Confederacy of "'Guenx" (beggars) against Philip's cruelty. Murder of Rizzio, by Darnley, March 9. 3-567 Religiou's wars resumed in France; Huguenots defeated at St. Denis. Alva enters the Netherlands. Assassination of Darnley, Feb. 10; Miary _" accused of connivance. Mary marries BrothwelI, May "15; abdicates in f avor of her son. James VI., Earl of Murray, regent. 1[568 Mary escapes from prison, is defeated by Murray, at Langside, May 13, and seeks shelter in England. August 24. Henry of Navarre marries Marguerite., of Valois. Birth of Inigo Jones; died 1[652. 1574 Accession of Henry III., of France, the last of the Valois. Birth of Ben Jonson;, died 1637. 1575' Elizabeth, of England, declines the sovereignty of Holland. Birth of -Guido Reni, painter; died 1642. 1576 Ghent pacified. Provinces' in Holland unite against Spa'in. Accessi on of Rudolph II., of Germany. Frobisher enters San Francisco Bay. The Holy Catholic League organized. 1576 Birth of Burton; died 1640. Birth of Fletcher; died 1625. 1577 Birth of Rubens, painter; died 1[626. 1579 -League of Utrecht. Northern provinces of Holland declare their independence. Fitzgerald's Irish rebellion suppressed. Sir Francis Drake lands in the Moluccas. 1580 Alva, of Spain, conquers Portugal; the united provinces renounce their allegiance. English take fortress of Smerwick, in Ireland, from Italians, and butcher 700 prisoners. Birth of Alexander, of Sterling; died 1640. 1581 Campian's Jesuit conspiracy -suppressed. 1582 Sante Fe, New Mexico, founded by Espejo. 1583 Birth of Hugo Grotius; died 1[645. 1584 William of Orange assassinated. Henry 111. killed by Jacques Clement; accession of Henry IV., of Navarre, first of Bourbon line. Expedition of Amidas, and Barlow to America.1 10585 Southern provinces- of Holland subdued by the Duke of Parma. Treaty of Peace between Holland and - England. Failure of Raleigh's Roanoke Island settlemnents.Davis Strait discovered by Davis. 15S6 Battle of Zutphen. Sir Philip Sydney killed. Birth of Beaumont; died 1616. 1587 Prince Maurice. becomes Stadtholder of Holland. Execution of Mary Queen of Scots at Frotheringay Castle. 1588 Assassination of the Duke of Guise and his brother, by order of the King. Destruction of the Spanish- Armada off the English coast. 1590 Battle of Ivry. Henry IV. defeats the League. Barnevaldt, grand Pensionary of Holland. 1591 Birth of Herrick; died 1674. 1592 Sigism-und, of Poland, in Sweden. ~Birth of Quarles; died 1644. Birth of Gassendi; died 1655. 1593 Henry IV. adopts the Catholic faith. 1594 Birth of Shirley; died 1666. I A. D. 1.595 Shakespeare's poems first issued. 1596 Capture of Cadiz by Essex. University of Barcellona founded. Birth of Descartes;, died 1650. 1597 Bacon's essays published. 159S Death of Philip II., of Spain. Philip III. King; he banishes 300,000 MIoors from Spain byT A. D. 1610. The Netherlands ceded to Austria. ~ Edict of Nantes in favor of Protestants, by Henry IV. Irishi rebellion of O'Niel, or Tyrone; defeat of the English at Blackwater. Henry IV. commissions De ]a Roche to conquer Canada, in which he fails. The race of Rurie, who had governed Russia for 700 years, becomes extinct. Bodleian f ounded. 1[599 Appenzel joins the Swiss Cantons. Birth of Vandyck, painter; died 1641. Birth of Velasquez, painter; died 1660. Modern Hist ory. 1600 Maurice, of Holland, invadeg Flanders. The Dutch East India Company chartered with a capital of $360,000. Chauvin's trading voyages to Tadoussae, Canada. Birth of the painter, Rembrandt; died 1669. Birth of Claude Lorraine, painter; died 1682. Portuguese introduce tobacco into India. 1601 Execution of the Earl of Essex, February 25. Alleged discovery of Australia by Portuguese. 1602 Siege of Geneva, Switzerland; Charles of Savoy defeated. Champlain's first expedition to. the St..Lawrence. 1603 Death of Queen Elizabeth; accession of James IV., of Scotland, to English Crown, as James. 1 Union of England and Scotland, March 4. 1604 First settlements in Nova Scotia by Aeadians. Port Royal, on Bay of Fundy, founded. Hampton Court Conference. 1[605 Discovery of the Gunpowder Plot to blow up Parliament. 1606 Great fire in Constantinople. Matins. at Moscow. Demetrius, a pretended son of Ivan, and many Poles- massacred. ' Liberty of worship given to Protestants, in Austria, by peace of Vienna. Australia observed by the Dutch. Silk and other madufaetures introduced into France. Mantua ceded to the Emperor of Austria. Birth of Corneille; died 1.684. 1607 Settlement of Jamestown, Va., by Lord de la Warr. 160S Quebec founded by Champlain. John Sigism-und created Elector of Bran-, denburg and Duke of Prussia. Ulster settlements made by the English. Birth of John Milton; died 1674. 1609 Truce of Antwerp; independence. of united provinces of Holland. M oriscoes expelled from Spain by Philip Ill. The Douay Bible first issued. Version." SCarr, afterwards Somerset3, favorite in England. 1612 Mathias becomes Emperor of Germany. English factories established in India. Virginia receives a third charter. Death: of Prince Henry. 1613 Accession of the Romanoff Dynasty in Russia.M{ichael Fedorvoitz Czar. Champlain explores the Ottawa River, Canada. The Overbury murder, England. Louis- XIII. assumes the exercise of the Government.. -Princess Elizabeth, of England, marries Frederic, Elector of Palatine. 1614 English defeat Portuguese in Bombay. New Amsterdam, now New York, built; by the Dutch. Smith explores the New England coast. Dutch settlements in New Jersey. Napier's Logarithms. 161-5 Villier's -Duke of Buckingham, favorite. 1616 The present Tsing Dynasty in China established by Mantchou Tartars. Death of Cervantes and Shakespeare. Harvey discovers circulation of blood. 3.617 Ladislaus, of Poland, marches on Moscow. Finland ceded to Sweden. 1618 The thirty years' war- begins in Bohemia, between the Protestants, under the Elector Palatine, and the Catholic Bavarian League. Sir Walter Raleigh executed. MIatthias IL, of Hungary, abdicates; accession of Ferdinand II. Australian coast surveyed by Zeachen and others. Kepler's Laws published.: 1619 Execution of Barneveldt, Holland. The Dutch visit India and establish a united East India Company.\, 1620 -Battle of Prague; defeat. of Htungarian Protestants. Puritans arrive at Plymouth. "Great Patent" to Virginia company issued. Dutch vessels with first negro liaves enter James River. Navarre annexed to France. 1621 Spain and Holland at War. Philip IV. King of Spain. The Dutch West India Company formed. Lord Bacon impeached and overthrown. 1622 Seldom and Pymn imprisoned. Birth of Moliere; died 1673. 1-623 New Hampshire first settled. First edition of Shakespeare's workEL 1624 Richelieu's reforms, begins with Um finance's. England declares war with Spain. 1[625 Prince Frederick Henry reigns in Hoal. Sland. Accession of Ferdinand III., of Hungary. Accession of King Charles I., of England; -he marries Princess Henrietta Maria, of France. Huguenot uprising. 1626 Death of Lord Bacon. I I Li I B u

Page  97 I SUPPLEMENT XIV. ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN I IC HISTORY. HISTORY. 1627 War of the Mantuan succession, in Italy. Delaware settled by Swedes and Finns. Cardinal Richelieu's scheme for colonizing Canada. The company of one -hundred associates formed. "War between England and France. Birth of Brossnet; died 1704. 1628 The Duke of Buckingham assassinated. Rochelle surrenders after a memorable siege. Petition of Right, England. Massachusetts Bay settled. Elliot sent to the Tower of London. Birth of John Bunyan; died 1688. 1629 English seize French possessionis in Canada. Champlain made prisoner and sent to England. Charter granted to Massachusetts Bay Company. Edict of Restitution. 1630 The city of Boston founded. Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, invades Germany. 1631 Treaty of Cherasco, between Louis of France and Vidtor Amadeus I., of Savoy. SBirth of.Dryden; died 1700. 1632 Charter of Maryland granted to Lord Baltimore, and 'settled by Irish Catholics. Canada restored to the French by treaty of St. Germain. The Cavalier Poets. Birth of Lock; died 1704. 1633 Champlain returns to Canada with new settlers. Battle of Lutzen; victory and death of Gustavus Adolphus. 1634 French Academy established by Richelieu. Spain at war with France, which is invaded. Assassination of Wallenstein. Ship money levied in England. 1635 Connecticut settlements at Hartford, Windsor and Weathersfleld. Rogers Williams driven from Massachusetts, settles in Rhode Island. Death of Champlain. The "Tulip mania" prevails in Holland. 1636 University of Utrecht founded. Claius' play of Creation. 1637 Pequod Indian war in Connecticut. Gov. De Montmagny arrives in Canada. The Island of Montreal settled. Hampden's trial in England respecting "ship money." Prynne fined by Star Chamber. Harvard College founded. First settlement at Brooklyn, Long Island. 1638 New Haven colony founded. First peace between the Iroquois and Canada. Turks defeat Persians, and take Bagdad. Solemn League ~ and Covenant between England and Scotland. 1639 Van Tromp, of Holland, captures two Spanish fleets. Pacification of Dunse. "Withdrawal of English army from Scotland. First printing press in America. Birth of Racine; died 1699. 1640 John of Braganza drives Spaniards from Portugal. Portugal wins its independence. Beginning of the Long Parliament. First American book issued. 1641 Earl of Stafford beheaded. Judgment against Hampden annulled. Ulster rebellion in Ireland; massacre of English. Fort St. George built at Madras. 1642 Death of Galileo and Richelieu. Charles I. attempts to seize members in the House. Civil war in England. Battle of Edgehill, Oct. 23. Tasman coasts, South Australia and Van Diemans Land explored. Hobb's Leviathan published. Birth of Newton; died 1727. First ferry between New York and Brooklyn established. 1643 Accession of Louis XIV., the Great, in France. Regency of Anne of Austria, and ascendency of Mazarin. Battle of Chalgrove, June 18, and Newbury, Sept. 20. Covenant approved by Parliament. Turrene on the Rhine. STorricelli's Barometer. 1644 Battle of Marston Moor; victory of Cromwell. Second battle of Newbury, Oct. 27. Charter granted to Rhode Island. Indian massacre in Virginia. Self-denying ordinance, England. Birth of William Penn; died 1718. 1645 Archbishop Land beheaded, Jan. 10. Battle of Naseby, June 14; decisive defeat of royalists. Battle of Philiphaugh; Montrose defeated by Cromwell. Alexis, called the Father of his country, Czar of Russia. Royal Society of England founded. 1646 Charles I. seeks refuge in Scotland, and is surrendered to the Parliament. Birth of Leibnitz; died 1716. 164" Conversion of Indians in Canada to Christianity. 1648 Treaty of Westphalia. Switzerland's independence acknowledged. J Holland given up by Spain, becomes a republic. End of the thirty years' war between Catholics and Protestants. Pomerania, and other territory, annexed to Prussia. Civil wars of the Froude. 1648 Canadians at war with the Indians. The House of Brandenburg sacquire Halberstadt and Minden. New Amsterdam contains about 1,000 inhabitants. 1649 Trial and execution of Charles I. Massacre and capture of Drogheda, Ireland, by Cromwell. Confession of Faith. 1650 Marquis of Montrose beheaded in Scotland. 1651. Leopold I. made King of Hungary. Charles II. crowned at Scone, Scotland. Jan. 1. Battle of Worcester, Sept. 8, and defeat of Royalists. Charles II. flees to France. "Barebones" Parliament. Birth of Fenelon; died 1715. English Navigation Act. 1652 England at war with Holland. The Dutch, under Van Tromp, "sweep the Channel." De Ruyter defeated by Blake. 1653 Negro insurrection suppressed in Mexico. Peace between England and Holland. Death of Van Tromp. Long Parliament dissolved by Cromwell, April 20. He becomes Lord Protector, Dec. 16. 1654 Jesuits establish themselves among the Onondaga Iroquois. Russian victories in Poland. 1655 Spain and Englan. at war, which lasts five years. 1656 Russian Truce of N.emetz, or Wilma, with Poland. Prussia declared independent of Poland. Frederic William, the Great Elector. I 1( 16 If 16 16 16 16 16 16C 16( 16C 166 167 167 167 1671 1674 167l 1675 1671 1678 1680 1681 1682 1683 1684 1685 1685 1686 1687 1688 1689 656 Jamaica conquered. 357 Convention gives Cromwell power to ap point his successor. Death of Admiral Blake. i58 Accession of Leopold I. in Germany. Death of Oliver Cromwell; ' Richard Cromwell, his son, succeeds him. 359 Auto de fa, of the Inquisition, Mexico. Richard Cromwell resigns title, of Lord Protector. Peace of the Pyrenees. 360 The restoration. Charles II. returns to England; the monarchy re-established. Birth of Stahl; died 1734. 61 Death of Mazarin. Colbert, Minister of Finance, in France. Execution of the Marquis' of Argyle, in Scotland. Birth of De Foe; died 1731. The Royal Palace at Versailles commenced; court opened there in 1672. 62 Terrible earthquake in Pekin; 300,000 lives lost. Act of Uniformity, May 19. The Church of England restored. Charles marries Catherine.of Braganza, May 20. 63 Canada becomes a royal government under Lbuis XIV. Earthquake in Canada. Birth of Cotton Mather; died 1728. 64 France begins war with Holland. New Jersey sold to Lord Berkeley; settled at Elizabethtown. The English take New Amsterdam and name it New York. North Carolina settled. De Courcelles governor in Canada. War with the Mohawks. 35 Second Dutch war with England. SDeath of Philip II.; regency of Anne. The Great Plageue in London. Western Australia named New Holland, by. Dutch. Canada granted to French West India Company. 36 De Ruyter defeated by Monk. Mohawk villages destroyed by the French. Great fire in London. The French Academy of Sciences founded. 37 Perpetual edict abolishes office of stadtholder in Holland. First Russian vessel built. Birth of Swift; died 1745. New York City; 384 houses. 8 Triple Alliance; England, Holland and Sweden united against France. Treaty of Lisbon. Spain recognizes. Portugal's independence. Russian ambassador sent to France and Spain. 0 France and Sweden break the triple Alliance, and declare war against lolland. First settlements of English in South Carolina. Champs Elysees, Paris, planted. 1 Birth of Steele; died 1729. 2 Coude and Turenne overrun Holland. Perpetual 'edict of 1667 revoked. William of Orange, stadtholder. The De Witts assassinated in Holland. The Holland dikes opened, and French driven out. The French acquire Pondicherry, India. Count de Frontenac, Governor of Can-. ada. Paris Academy of Music founded. Birth of Addison; died 1719. 3 Virginia granted to Arlington and Culpepper. Discoveries of Marquette and Joliet in the northwest. SDeath of the poet John Milton. Discovery of the Mississippi. 5 King Philip's war in New England. Birth of Clarke; died 1729. 7 William of Orange marries Mary. "Paradise Lost" first published. SRussia begins war with the Turks. Peace of Nimeguen, France. England alarmed by Titus Oates, stories of a false "Popish plot." Sir Edward Berry Godfrey found murdered. Expedition of La Salle. Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress" published. Birth of Bolinbroke; died 1751. i Habeas Corpus- Act passes parliament. Archbishop Sharpe murdered by covenanters, who defeat Cloverhouse at London Hill, but are routed at Both well Bridge. SEast India Company begins trading in China. Execution of Lord Stafford, Dec. 29. Mississippi river explored by Hennepin. Charleston, South Carolina, founded. The Exclusion Bill, England. Origin of the Whig and Tory. Mahratta power begins in India. La Salle sails down the Mississippi, and names Louisiana. De Frontenac recalled from Canada. Reign of Ivan and Peter I., the Great, in Russia. Murder of La Salle, in Louisiana. The Cossacks subdued by Russia. William Penn settles in Pennsylvania. Delaware granted to Penn. Sobieski, of Poland, raises the siege of Vienna. Discovery of Rye House plot, to secure succession for Duke of Monmouth. Execution of Lord Russell, July 21, and Algernon Sydney, Dec. 7. Canada renews war with the Iroquois. Mahomet I. besieges Vienna, but fails. Greece invaded by the Venetians. Birth of Berkeley; died 1753. Revocation of Edict of Nantes; terrible persecutions of French and Protestants follow. Accession of James II. of England. Argyle's rebellion suppressed, and his execution. Duke of Monmouth, natural son of Charles 11., lands at Lyme, June 11; proclaimed king at Taunton, Jumne 20. Battle of Segemoor, July 6; defeat and execution of Monmouth. Texas colonized by Spaniards. Birth of Handel; died 1759. Birth of Bach; died 1750. William Dampier lands in Australia. Louis marries Madame de Maintenon. Alliance between Russia and Poland against the Turks. Birth of Allan Ramsay; died 1757. Birth of Young; died 1765. Athens captured by the Venetians. Hungarian crown declared to be in th2 Austrian male line. Accession of Joseph I. Madame Guyon, and the "Quietists," persecuted. Trial and acquittal of the seven bishops, June 30. Abdication and flight of James II., Dec. 23; Landing of the Prince of Orange on English soil. Bonsset's Variations issued. Birth of Pope; died 1744. William and Mary proclaimed King and Queen, Feb. 13. James II. lands in Ireland. Peter the Great, sole sovereign in Russia. Cloverhouse's rebellion in Scotland suppressed. King William's war. I French and Indians ravage New England frontier. Canadian expedition fails. The Toleration Act passes Parliament. Iroquois lay waste the Island of Mon1 treal. Frontenae again made Governor of Canada. S France at war with England. Birth of Montesquieu; died 1755. 1690 French and Indians destroy Schenectady, New York. Massacre of Salmnon Falls. Siege of Londonderry. British colonies in America resolve to invade Canada. Unsuccessful attack made on Quebec by Sthe British fleet. Spain joins the "Grand Alliance" against France. William III. lands in Ireland, June 10. Battle of the Boyne, July 1; James defeated. 1C91 French invasion of Spain. Aragon and Catalonia ravaged. Treaty of Limerick deprives James of power in Ireland, and grants amnesty to rebels. ' 1692 Beginning of the English national debt. Insurrection in the City of Mexico. Massacre of Glencoe. Battles in Steinkirk and Landen. Birth of Bradley; died 1762. 1693 Battle of Marsaglia; the Duke of Savoy defeated by the French under Catinat. 1694 Bank of England established. Mary, Queen of England, dies. Dictionary of French Academy issued. University of Halle founded. Birth of Bishop Butler; died 1752. Birth of Voltaire; died 1778. Birth of Chesterfield; died 1773. 1695 Turks again invade Hungary. Bayle's Dictionary published. Abolition of censorship of the English press. Namur falls. 1696 Trinity Church, New York, founded. 1697 Peace of Ryswick. Treaty between England, France, Spain and Holland. Peter, Czar of Russia, visits Holland and England, and learns -useful trades. Peter suppresses the conspiracy of the Strelitz, and punishes its members with barbarous cruelty. End of King William's war. Birth of Hogarth, painter; died 1774. 1698 Death of Frontenac. First Partition treaty, regulates Spanish succession, and cedes territory to France. The Darien expedition sails. Second East India Company formed. Birth of Savage; died 1743. Birth of Warburton; died 1779. 1699 Peace of Carlowitz, between Turks and the Allies. The Morea ceded to Venice. Further explorations of the Mississippi. Fenelon's "Telemaque" issued. 1700 The French in Canada make peace with the Iroquois. Second Partition treaty in Spain, declares the Arch Duke Charles next in succession. Charles II., of Spain, the last of the House of Austria, dies, and is succeeded by Philip V., of the House of Bourbon. 1701 War of the Spanish succession begins in Italy and continues until 1713. Death of James II., in exile, at St. Germain, Sept. 16. Spain allied with France and Mantua. The French found Detroit. The Prussian monarchy established by Frederick, and recognized by Leopold, of Germany. Russia at war with Sweden. Total defeat of Peter at the battle of Nerve, by Charles XII. Census of New York gave 6,000 inhabitants. 1702 Death of William III. of England. 'Anne succeeds to the English throne, March 8. Beginning of "Queen Anne's War." Prussia takes Guelders from the Dutch. Holland, Austria and England declare war with France and Spain. Treaty of French with the Five Nations. Massachusetts frontier: ravaged by Indians. 1703 Peter founds St. Petersburgh, and makes it the capital of the empire. Portugal joins alliance against Spain and France. Irish parliament petitions for union. Birth of Jonathan Edwards; died 1758. Birth of John Wesley; died 1794. 1704 Battle of Blenheim; English and their allies, under Marlborough, victorious over the French. The English capture Gibraltar. Peter abolishes the Strelitz, or royal body guard. England passes the Irish "Popery Act." Battle of Donanwerth. 1705 Charles acknowledged King of Spain at Barcelona. Joseph I. becomes Emperor of Germany. 1706 Defeat of the French at Ramilles. Battle of Turin. The French raise the siege and surrender Naples and Lombardy. Birth of Ben Franklin; died 1790. 1707 Union of England and Scotland as the Kingdom of Great Britain. Nuenburg seized and Lecklenburg purchased by Frederick I. Holland, Germany and England at war against France. First expedition against Port Royal, Nova Scotia, fails. Defeat of the allies, at Almauze. Death of Aurungzebe. Birth of Fielding; died 1754. Birth of Buffon; died 1788. 1708 Mantua ceded to Joseph I., of Austria. The French squadron routed by the English, under Admiral Byng. Discovery of Herculaneum. 1709 England determines upon the conquest of Canada. Battle of Pultowa; Peter totally defeats Charles XII., of Sweden, who flies to Turkey. 14,000 Swedish prisoners sent by Peter to colonize Siberia. 1709 Battle of Malplaquet; Marlborough again defeats the French. Birth of Samuel Johnson; died 1784. 1710 Capture of Port Royal, Nova Scotia, by the English, and name changed to Annapolis. Rout of Spaniards, under Philip V., at battle of Almnenava.' Sacheverell's riots in Great Britain; dissenting meeting houses destroyed. The "Tattler" first published. 1711 Attack and repulse of English fleet on Quebec. Russia at war with Turkey. Accession of Charles VI., of Germany. A slave market opened in Wall Street, New York. Birth of Hume; died 1776. 1712 The principality of Meurs acquired by Prussia. Peace of Aargau; end of the religious war in Switzerland. Accession of Charles as Emperor cf Austria. Birth of Rosseau; died 1779. I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1' 11 17 17 17 '7 - 1 17 17 17 17' 17: 171 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 172 1721 L72.).73: [731.739 *73~ 737 738 739 713 Treaty of Utrecht between the great powers, and terminates the wars of Queen Anne. Newfoundland and Nova Scotia ceded to England. Italy divided; a part of the Duchy of Milan given to the Emperor of Austria. Barcelona, Spain, besieged. Frederick William I. becomes King of Prussia. Peter takes the title of Emperor of Russia. Birth of Sterne; died 1768. '14 Death of Queen Anne. George I. becomes King of England, Aug. 1. Hanovarian succession begins. Treaty of Rastadt; Austria acquires the Netherlands. Birth of Whitefield; died 1770. Birth of Gluck; died 1787. F15 Rebellion in Scotland under the Earl of Mar. Battles of Preston and Sheriffmuir and defeat of the rebels. Landing of the Chevilier at Peterhead, December 22. Louis XV., King of France, with the Duke of Orleans Regent. Austria acquires Naples, Milan, etc. Russia adds Esthonia, Levonia, and a large part of Finland to the Empire. Peter visits Germany, Holland and France. Occupation of the Morea by Turkey. Rule of Cardinal Alberoni in Spain. Prussia and Sweden at wai. Death of Louis the Great; accession of Louis XV., his grandson. 16 Great era of speculation. George Law's financial schemes. The village charter of Brooklyn first issued. The Septennial Bill passed in England. Birth of Garrick, actor; died 1779. 17 New Orleans founded. Belgrade abandoned by Turkey. 18 The Duke of Savoy becomes King of Sardinia. Peace of Passavowitz. Austria gains additional territory. Russia expels the Jesuits. Turkey re-establishes supremacy in Greece. Arch of St. Denis, Paris, completed. 19 Battle of Glenshiel. Ostend East India Company founded. Mohammed Shalh ascends the throne of India. Robinson Crusoe published. 20 Sardinia is made a kingdom. Law's Mississippi South Sea Bubble, and other schemes, collapse. Widespread financial distress.!1 Birth of Smollet; died 1771. Birth of Foote, actor; died 1777. 22 The Pragmatic Sanction settles the Imperial Crown of Germany on Maria Theresa. Death of the Duke of Marlborough.!3 The Jesuits expelled from China. Birth of Reynolds, painter; died 1792. Birth of Adam Smith; died 1790. Birth of Blackstone, jurist; died 1780. 4 Philip V., of Spain, abdicates, but resumnes power upon the death of Louis, his son. "Wood's half-pence." Great excitement in Ireland. Modern History at Oxford University. Guy's Hospital founded. 5 ' Death of Peter the Great. Catherine I. becomes Empress of Russia. The New York Gazette founded. Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, established. 6 Prussia concludes a lea,,e with Germany. Birth of Hutton; died 1797. 7 Death of George I., and accession of George II., in England, June 11. Death of Sir Isaac Newton. 3 Birth of Goldsmith; died 1774: 9 A city library founded in New York. Birth of Lessing; died 1781. 0 Peter II., the last of the Romanoffs, deposed. Anne, Duchess of Courland and daughter of Ivan IV., becomes Empress of Russia. Birth of J. Watt; died 1819. 1 Birth of Cavendish; died 1810. Birth of Cowper; died 1800. 2 Birth of George Washington, Feby. 22. 3 Georgia settled by Oglethorpe. Birth of Wieland; died 1813. "4 "Lettres Philosophiques" burnt" by the hangman. Birth of Priestly; died 1804. 5 Charles, the son of Philip V., conquers Naples and crowned king of the two Sicilies. Birth of John Adams; died 1826. 3 Marriage of Maria Theresa to Francis I., Duke of Lorraine. War between Spain and Portugal. Birth of Mozart, musician; died 1792. SHungary again at war with the Turks. ] Birth of Gibbon, historian; died 1794. SBirth of Benjamin West, painter; died 1820. Birth of Sir William Herschel; died 1822. SEngland again declares war with Spain. Treaty of Belgrade between Russia, Austria and Turkey. Russia renounces her rights on the Black Sea. Invasion of India by Persia. Delhi sacked by Nadir Shah. Methodism begins in Englind. Prohibition of the publication of Debates in England. Death of the Emperor Charles VI., of Germany, last of the male line of th, 1 House of Hapsburg. Maria Theresa, his daughter, becomes Queen of Hungary and Empress of Germany. Frederick the Great, King of Prussia. Prussia advanced to the rank of a firstclass power. Ivan VI., an infant, emperor of Russia. New York Society Library founded. Swedenborg flourishes. Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony and France make war upon Maria Theresa, who receives support from Great Britain. Prussian victory at Molwitz. Breslau ceded to Prussia. Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the Great, imprisons Ivan VI. for life and reigns in his stead. Russia at war with Sweden. The Elector of Bavaria elected Emperor of Germany as Charles VII. The French defeated at Dettingn by the English. Birth of Thomas Jefferson; died 1826. Hostilities renewed in America between France and England, known as King George's War. 13 Friesland annexed to Prussia. Capture of Louisburg by Massachusetts militia, under Pepperell. Francis I., Duke of Lorraine, consort of Maria Theresa, elected Emperor of Germany. 17 The young pretender lands at Moidart, Scotland. Defeat of the Royalists at Preston Pans, Jan. 17, and invasion of England. Birth of Hannah More; died - Birth of John Jay; died 1829. Birth of B6njamin Rush; died 1813. Royalists again defeated at Falkirk, Jan. 17. 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 175 175 175 17Sf 1759 1760 1 746 Total defeat of the Pretender, at Culloden, April 16. Victories of Marshal Saxe. Invasion of Shirley, Nova Scotia. French and English struggle for possession of India. Capture of Madras by the French. 747 The French invade Flanders. Statdholdership revived in Holland. Execution of Lord Lovat in England. Klopstock's Messiah issued. Birth of David, painter; died 1825. 748 The Peace of Aix la Chapelle. The House of Austria confirmed in the possession of Milan. France takes a part of Flanders. '49 De La Jouquille becomes governor of Canada. French encroach upon Nova Scotia.Birth of Goethe; died 1832. Birth of Laplace; died 1827. Birth of Playfair; died - '50 Treaty of Madrid, between England and Spain. The first theater in New York opened. Discovery of Pompeii. Paoli's Corsican revolt, 1819. "51 Lord Clive takes Arcot, India. Diderot and D'Alembert French Encyclopedic. Birth of Sheridan; died 1817. Birth of James Madison; died 1836. 52 The Marquis Duquesne Governor of Canada; he prepares for war with Great Britain and her colonies. The French dispute the claim of Virginia to the valley of the Ohio. New style of year introduced into England; Sept. 3 counted as Sept. 14. The Journals ordered to be printed by the British Parliament. 53 Hostilities begin in the American colonies; French seize Hudson Bay Company's trading posts; George Washington sent to St. Pierre. Charles III. King of Spain. 54 Kentucky settled by Daniel Boone. Peace between France and England in India. Fort Necessity built at Great Meadows; Washington surrenders it to De Villiere with honors of war. Kings, now Columbia, College, New York,' chartered. 55 Braddock and his army defeated by the French and Indians. Defeat of Dieskau at Lake George. French Acadians taken from their homes. Frontier settlements in New York and Pennsylvania harassed by the French and Indians. Niagara expedition fails. Lisbon destroyed by an earthquake. Birth of Dr. Hahnemann; died 1843. Birth of Mrs. Siddons, actress; died 1831. 56 War declared between France and England. Beginning of the Seven Years' War. Austria, Russia and France allied against Prussia. Frederick invades Saxony and captures Saxon army. Montcalm sent to Canada and seizes Oswego, New York. The conquest of India begun by Great Britain. Admiral Byng executed, March 14. Dowlah, Viceroy of Bengal, captures Calcutta after a heroic defense by Holwell. The Black Hole tragedy, June 20. 7 Fort William Henry, orn Lake George, captured by Montcalm. Lord dClive's victories in India; takes Calcutta, January 2; Chanderuagore, March 23. Battle of Plassey, June 23, establishes English power in India. Battle of the Prague, May 6, victory of Frederick. Frederick defeated in the battle of Kolin, May 18. Defeat of Prussians at Battle of Breslau. Austria concludes treaty with France for division of Prussia. Victory of Frederick in the battles of Rosbach, Nov. 5, and Lissa, Dec. 5. Attempted assassination of King Louis of France by Damiens. Birth of Jonathan Trumbull; died 1804. Birth of Alexander Hamilton; died 1804. Birth of J. P. Kemble, actor; died 1823. Birth of Canova, sculptor; died 1822. SLouisburg captured by the English, under Wolfe. Cape Breton Island and Prince Edward's Island captured. Abercrombie defeated by Montcalm, at Ticonderoga. Fort Frontenae capitulates to Bradstreet; Fort George built. General Forbes captures Fort Duquesne from the French. Prussians defeated at the Battle of Hochkerchau. The French seize Forts St. David and Ascot, India. SFort Niagara captured by the British, July 23. The French abandon Ticonderoga. and Crown Point. Battle of the Plains of Abraham. Death of the French and English com' manders, Montcalm and Wolfe, Sept. 13. Quebec surrenders to the English. Charles III., King of the two Sicilies, becomes King of Spain. The Prussians defeated in the battles of Minders, Cunersdorf and Maxen. The French driven back in India. England obtains much territory from Subadhar, of Deccan. Birth of Robert Burns; died 1796. Birth of Schiller; died 1805. Quebec attacked by the French under De Levi. Montreal captured by the English. Surrender of Canada to Great Britain. Death of George II., of England, and succession of George III., Oct. 25. Berlin captured by the Austrians and Russians. Battle of Torgan; defeat of the Austrians. Thurot's invasion of Ireland. Coote retakes Arcot, India. George III. marries Charlotte Sophia, of Mecklenburg, Strelitz. The French surrender Pondicherry, in India. Revolution at St. Petersburg. Peter III. murdered, and Catherine II., called the Great, becomes Empress of Russia. Spain -again declares war against England and Portugal and invades the latter country. Battles of ' Freiburg and Burkersdorf; Austrians defeated in Silesia, by Fredcrick. Jesuits banished from France. Lord Rute, Prime Minister, England. Peace of Paris. Canada ceded to Great Britain. Pondicherry restored to France. Governor Murray appointed governor of Canada, and first introduces English laws. Close of the Seven Years' War. Treaty of Hubertsburg; Silesia added to Prussia. Treaty of Madrid restores peace between Spain, Portugal and England. John Wilkes aftested for sedition. Explorations of Willis and Carteret in Australia. Great defeat of hative.princes, at battle of Buxar, IAndta, Oct. 23. r 740 741 761 762 '42 '43 "44 45 463 '63 i46 l/. I Il a

Page  98 [ SUPPLEMENT XV. ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODEIRN HISTOY 1763 Pontiac's war; Indians capture English forts and massacre inhabitants. The Sandy Hook lighthouse first lighted. G. Granville, English Prime Minister. Birth of J. Paul Richter; died 1825. 1764 Murder of Ivan VI., by order of the Empress. Indians sue for peace. End of Pontiac's war. British parliament decrees heavy duties on imports. %bhe Pantheon, St. Genevieve, Paris, founded. Modern History. From A. D. 1765 to the present time, by Countries. CHINA. 1793 Reception of the English Embassy at Pekin. 1812 Edict against Christianity because of Jesuits. 1816 Failure of Lord Ambert's Embassy. 1832 Kingdom of Korea established. 1834 Opium trade prohibited. 1839 Opium seized, causing trouble with British. Chinese outrages in Canton. Hong Kong captured. Naval battles. 1840 Trade with England forbidden by the Emperor. Canton and coast blockaded. War ends in a truce. 1841 War renewed owing to. China's bad faith. Victory of the British. Treaty giving England Hong Kong and $6,000,000, repudiated by Emperor. 1842 Treaty of peace, at Nankin, with England, August 29. Hong Kong ceded to England. The Chinese cities of Canton, Amoy, Foochoofoo, Ningpo and Shanghae opened to British. China pays $2'1,000,000. 1843 Treaty ratified by Queen Victoria and the Emperor Taou-Kwang. Hong Kong charter issued, April 5. 1850 Rebellion in Quang-Si successful. 1853 Nankin and Shanghae taken by rebels. 1856 Renewal of war owing, to Chinese outrages on Europeans. Commodore Elliott, U. S. N., destroys Chinese fleet. 1857 Blockade of Canton. 1858 Capture of Canton by English and French. Treaty of Lord Elgin. Chinese pirates destroyed. 1859 Commercial treaty with United States. English Envoy attacked by Chinese. 1860 England and France at war with China. European allies victorious. Treaty of peace signed October 24. Surrender of Pekin, Oct. 12. Ratification of treaty with Russia. China forced to pay indemnity, and to apologize. "Former treaty ratified. 1861 Allies restore Canton to the Chinese. Rebels defeated by French and English aid. 1864 Suicide of Tien-wang, the rebel emperor. 1865 Prince Kung becomes regent during minority of emperor. 1868 Burlingame Embassy visit United States and sign treaty. 1869 Burlingame, Chinese Embassy, received at Paris. 1870 French consul and many priests massacred at Tien-tsin. 1871 Chinese apologize and give indemnities. Marriage of Emperor. 1873 Ki-Tsiang of age; becomes Emperor as:Tung-chi, Jan. 22. 1875 Death of the Emperor Tung-Chi, Jan. 22; accession of Tsai-Tien, born 1871,:son of Prince Chan. First Chinese railway from Shanghae to Woosung opened. 1877 Terrible famine throughout the Empire. Edict forbidding opium smoking.:1880 Serious troubles with Russia. 1881 Treaty of peace concluded with Russia. 1883 Sacking of European quarter in Canton. 1884 Treaty of peace with France, May 11. The Imperial Government sanctions the introduction of railways, June 20. The Chinese Government declares war against France, Aug. 15. French destroy Kinpai Forts at Foochow, Aug. 28. Repulse of the French at Tamsui. French admiral declares all the Formorsan ports to be blockaded. Insurrection in Korea. Assassination of the King's son, Dec. 4. Bhamo, Korea, captured by the Chinese, Dec. 8. 1885 Langson, in Cochin China, captured by the French, Feb. 12; evacuated March 28. Peace concluded with France, April 6; signed at Tien-tsin, June 9. 1885 Admiralty Board created, Dec. 15. 1888 Marriage of the Emperor, Feb. 25. 1890 British Consulate at Ching-Kung-Foo wrecked, Feb. 6. 1891 Floods and famine in Northern Districts, April. 1894-5 War with Japan and continued defeats of the Chinese armies and navies. 1 895 Peace concluded with Japan, China paying a large indemnity and relinquishing her claims on Corea. Massacre of missionaries in the interior. * 1900 "Boxer" uprising in China. 1901 Chinese government agrees to terms demanded by the powers. 1908 Death of Kwang-Hsu, emperor, and TsuHsi, dowager empress, Nov. 14-15.. Edict issued appointing Prince Chun to regency and his son, Pu-Yi, heir presumptive. 1909 International opium conference held at Shanghai, February. 1911 Revolution, and. general uprising. Republic of China proclaimed. 1912 Manchu dynasty abdicates. INDIA. 1675 Nabob of Oudh becomes tributary to British. East India Company made receiver of Bengal, Bahar and Orissa. 1766 Treaty with Nizam of the Deccan. 1767 Alliance of Nizam and Hyder Ali, who attack the British and are defeated at Vellore. 1769 Hyder Ali, a Musselman adventurer, marches on Madras and compels English to form alliance. 1770 Terrible famine in Bengal. S1771 The Mahrattas enter Delhi. I 1772 Warren Hastings becomes governor of Bengal. 1774 Offce of Governor General created. Rohilla army defeated. 1775 Benares ceded to the East Indian Company; charges of bribery against Warren Hastings. 1778 Pondicherry captured by the British. 1780 Arcot taken by Hyder Ali. Hastings defeats Hyder Ali's invasion of Carnatic. 1781 Defeat of the triple alliance of the Nizam, the Mahrattas and Hyder Ali. Battle of Novo Porto, July 1. Treaty of Chunar, between Hastings and the Subadhar of Oudh. 1782 Tippoo Saib, son of Haydes Ali, secures the assistance of the French against the English. Trincomlee lost by the British. Hyder Ali succeeded by Tippoo Saib. 1783 French troops under Bussy arrive. Tippoo Saib captures Bedmore. 1784 Treaty of peace concluded with Tippoo Saib. ' Pitt's India bill passes Parliament. 1785 Return of Warren Hastings to England. Succeeded by Sir John Macpherson. 1786 Lord Cornwallis appointed Governor General of India., Reform of the Company's Civil Service. 1788 Declaratory Act passes Parliament. Trial of Warren Hastings begins in Westminster Hall; Burke opens, Feb. 15-19; Sheridan presents charges in relation to the Begums, June 3-13. 1789 Tippoo Saib attacks Travancore, Dec. 24, and is' defeated. 1790 Travancore captured and plundered by Tippoo Saib. Treaty with Mahrattas concluded. 1791 Lord Cornwallis takes Bengalore. Tippoo routed at the battle of Arikera, May 14; Hastings begins his admirable defense. 1792 Peace concluded with Tippoo Saib. 1793 Renewal of charter of East India Company for twenty years. Pondicherry taken by the British. 1795 Warren Hastings acquitted. 1798 Marquis of Wellesley appointed Governor General. 1799 British take Seringapatam. Tippoo Saib killed, May 4. Restoration of the Mysore to the rightful Hindoo sovereign. Rajah of Tangore surrenders his power to the English. 1800 Surrender of Surat to the British. Nizam cedes Mysore to the British. 1802 Pondicherry given to France at the treaty of Amiens. The British receive further concessions. Treaty of Bassein, between the East India Company and the Peishwa, breaks up the Mahratta confederacy. 1803 The third Mahratta war; the British, under General Lake, defeat French and Mahrattas at the battle of Delhi, Sept. 11. Battle of Assaye; Marquis of Wellesley, with 4,500 men, defeats 50,000 natives, Sept. 23. General Lake takes Agra, Oct. 17. Treaty of Peace with Scindia, Dec. 30. 1804 Holkar lays siege to Delhi. Gen. Frazer defeats Holkar at battle of Deeg, No. 13. 1805 Treaty of peace with Holkar, who cedes Bundelcund and other territory. 1806 Mutiny among Sepoys. 1807 Lord Minto, Governor General. 1808 War with Travancore. 1809 Travancore subdued; mutiny at Seringapatam. 1813 Ecclesiastical establishment formed. India trade thrown open to any British subject. 1814 Marquis of Hastings, Governor General. 1817 Mahratta confederacy dissolved. Ahmednuggur ceded to English. Defeat of Holkar at 5ehudpore. Pindarrie war. 1818 End of Pindarrie war; peace with Holkar. The Peiswa surrenders and cedes the Deccan. 1818 Oudh becomes independent..1823 Lord Amherst, Governor General. 1824 Burmese war begins; British take Rangoon, May 5. 1825 British capture Assam, Feb.:1. Burmese defeated at the battle of Promse. 1826 Battle of Pagham Mew ends Burmese war. Peace declared Feb. 24; Burmah pays $1,000,000 and cedes large territory. English take Bhurtpore. 1828 Lord Bentinck, Governor General. 1833 The northwest provinces made a separate administration. 1835 Steam communication introduced into India. 1838 Slavery abolished in the East. 1838 Afghan war declared; Cabul captured by the British, Aug. 7. 1842 Lord Ellenborough Governor General. 1843 Ameers of Scind defeated by Sir Charles Napier, Feb. 17. 1844 Lord Hardinge Governor General. 1845 Danish possessions in India purchased by England. England at war with Sikhs; battle of Moodkee, Sept. 6. 1846 British victory over Sikhs at Sobraon, February. Treaty of Lasore. 1848 Lord Dalhousie Governor General. Second Sikh war begun; Ramnuggur taken by General Gough; again defeated at Vyseerabad. 1849 The Sikh war ended with battle of Goojerat, Feb. 21. Sir Charles Napier becomes Commanderin-chief. Annexation of the Rajah to British dominions. 1850 Mutiny of native infantry in Bengal. 1851 Beginning" of the Second Burmese war. 1852 Pegu annexed to British Empire. 1853 Close of the Second Burmese war. Burmah deprived of its seaboard provinces. First Indian railway and telegraph opened, Bombay to Tannah. Renewal, for the last time, of East India Company's charter. Bengal put under a Lieutenant-Governor. Indian Civil Service thrown open to competition. 1854 Ganges Canal opened. 1855 Calcutta Railway opened. Annexation of Oudh. 1856 Lord Canning appointed Governor General. 1857 Mutiny among native regiments at Barrackpore, Burhampore and Lucknow, May 6. The-great Sepoy rebellion commenced at Meerut, May 10; Delhi seized by 40,000 rebels and the King proclaimed Emperor; mutinies at Cawnpore and Allahabad. Cawnpore surrenderd by the British to Nana ',ahib, June 25. Siege of" Lucknow begins July 1; General Havelock enters Cawnpore, July 17: victory over Nana Sahib, at Bitboor, July 19. Capture of Delhi from the rebels, Sept'. 20; Lucknow relieved by Havelock, Sept. 25. Rebels routed at Battle of Cawnpore, Dec. 6. 1858 Battle of Futteghur, Jan 2. Sir Colin Camrpbell captures Lucknow, March 21. Rebels defeated at Kotara, J,?ly 14; at other points subdues the rebels. 1858 An Act for the better government of India received royal assent, Aug. 2. Government takes control of India from the East India Company, Sept. 1. Lord Canning made first Viceroy of India. 1859 Thanksgiving day in India for peace restored. The Punjaub is made a presidency. Pacification of Oude announced, Jan. 25. 1862 Lord Elgin appointed Viceroy of India. 1863 Death of Lord Elgin. Sir John Lawrence made Viceroy..1866 Bengal visited by a severe famine. 1868 Earl of Mayo becomes Viceroy of India. 1870 Railway between Calcutta and Bombay opened. 1872 Assassination of Lord Mayo, Feb. 8. Lord Northbrook becomes Viceroy. 1874 Terrible famine throughout Bengal. 1875 Tour of the Prince of Wales through India; arrives at Bombay, Nov. 8. 1876 Prince of Wales sails for home, March 13. Lord Lytton appointed Governor General. A terrible cyclone causes loss of 220,000 lives. Queen Victoria proclaimed, in London, Empress of India, May 1. Great famine in India, continuing nearly a year. 1877 Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress of India, at Delhi, and other great cities, Jan. 1. 1879 Massacres at Cabul. 1880 Marquis of Ripon made Governor General of India. 1882 Riot, between Hindoos and * Mohammedans in the presidency of Madras. 1883 International exhibition at Calcutta opened, Dec. 4. Death of Maj. Gen. Francis Mardall. 1884 Death of Keshut Chunder Sen, head of the reformed theistic sect of H1indoos, Jan. 8. Formal installation of Mir Mahbub AlL, Nizam of Hyderabad, by Lord Ripon. The Calcutta exhibition closed, March 10. Terrible epidemic of small pox," at Madras, March 30. The Ilbert bill' passes the legislative council, Calcutta, Jan. 25. Earl of Dufferin nominated to the Viceroyalty of India, Sept. 10. Lord Reay appointed governor of Bombay, Dec. 13. 1885 Indian Parcel Post inaugurated, July 7. Burmese expedition, from Calcutta, for Rangoon, Nov. 1. Hostilities against Burmese begun by Lieut. Gen. Prendergast, Nov. 16. King of Burmah unconditionally surrenders, Nov. 30. India gives prompt aid to England during Afghan war. India tenders assistance to England during Russian controversy. 1888 Marouis of Lansdowne appointed Governor General, Dec. 11. 1891 Massacre of native troops and English officers at Manifur, March 27. Defeat of the Manifurans by the English, May 5. 1893 Mints closed as to free silver by order of the Indian Council. 1899 Lord Curzon inaugurated Governor General, Jan. 9. 1905 Great earthquake, April 4. 1912 King George visited India, and received royal ovation. RUSSIA. 1768 War declared against Russia by Turkey. 1769-'84 Conquest of the Crimea. 1772 Catherine I. commences the dismembermeat of Poland. 1[774 Rebellion of the Cossacks. 1775 Cossacks' rebellion suppressed. 1778 Prince Potemkin becomes prime minister. 1780 Army neutrality. Russia, Sweden and Denmark declare that "^free ships make free goods.'" 1784 Acquisition of the Crimea. 1787 War with Turkey renewed. 1788 War with Sweden. Treaty of Warelow. 1793 Second partition of Poland. Alliance with England. 1795 Final partition of Poland between Russia, Prussia and Austria. The partition of Poland -ompleted. 1796 Death of Catherine the Great. War with Persia. 1798 Russia joins the alliance of England and Austria against France. 1799 Suwarrow assists Austrians and checks the French in Italy. Russia forms an alliance with France. 1800 Insanity - of the Emperor Paul. 1801 He is assassinated. Alexander I. becomes emperor; he makes peace with England. 1805 Russia joins the coalition against France, April. Battle of Austerlitz; Napoleon defeats the allies, Dec. 2. 1807 Treaty of Tilsit; peace with France., 1809 The Turks defeat the Russians near Silistria. 1812 War with France. Napoleon invades Russia. Battle of Smolensko, Aug. 17; Russians defeated. Battle of the Borodino, Sept. 7; Russians defeated. Burning of Moscow by the Russians, Sept. 14. Retreat of the French. 1813 Battle of Leipzig, and defeat of Napoleon. 1814- Downfall of Napoleon. The Emperor Alexander enters Paris, with the allies, in triumph. 1815 The Emperor Alexander organizes the "Holy Alliance," between Russia, Austria and Prussia. Alexander proclaimed King of Poland. 1822 The Grand Duke Constantine renounces his right'-to the throne. 1825 Death of the Emperor Alexander. Insurrection of troops at Moscow. 1826 The Emperor Nicholas crowned at Moscow. War with Persia. 1827 The Emperor Nicholas visits England. 1828 Peace with Persia. War with Turkey, Russians generally victorious, begins April 26. - 1829 Peace of Adrianople with Turkey. 1830 Polish war of independence begins. 1831 Warsaw taken by the Russians, and the insurrection crushed, Sept., Oct. 1832 The emperor decrees that Poland shall henceforth form an intergral part- of the Russian Empire. 1840 Failure of the Khivan Expedition. Treaty of London signed by Russia. 1841 War with Circassians. 1848 Russia aids Austria. in suppressing the Hungarian Revolution. 1849 Russia demands that Polish and Hungarian exiles -be expelled from Turkey. 1850 Conspiracy against the life of the emperor detected. Harbor of Sebastopol completed. Exiles sent. to Kouish, Asia Minor. 1852 Visit of the emperor to Vienna. 1853 Commencement of the quarrel with Turkey about the "Holy Places." SUIEEN V 1853 Army sent to Turkish frontier. Conference of the great powers. War declared by Turkey, Oct. 5. English and French fleets enter the Bosphorus, Nov. 2. 1854 Allies enter the Black Sea. Battle of Citate, Jan. 6; Russians defeated. Ultimatum of France and England unanswered by Russia. Treaty between England, France and Turkey, March 12. Bombardment of Odessa, April 22. Siege'of Silistria, May 17. Siege of Silistria raised, June 26. Capture.of Bomarsund, Aug. 16. Russia evacuates the principalities. Battle of. the Alma, Sept. 20; victory of the allies. Siege of Sebastopol begins, Oct. 17. 1854 Battle of Balaklava, Oct. 25. Battle of Inkermann, Nov. 5. Death of the Emperor Nicholas, March 2. Alexander II. Emperor. 1855 Sortie of Malakoff tower, March 22. Russians evacuate Anapa, June 5. Kars invested, July 15. Capture of Malakoff tower by the French, Sept. 8. Death of Lord Raglan. The Russians evacuate Sebastopol and retire to their works on the north side " of the harbor; destruction of the Russian fleet, Sept. Russian assault on Kars fails. Battle of the Ingour; defeat of Russians by Turks, Nov. 6. Kars surrendered to Russians, Nov. 26. 1856 Council of war at Paris, Jan. 11.. Amnesty granted to Poles, Miay 27; to political offenders, Sept. 7. Suspension of hostilities in the Crimea, Feb. 29. Treaty of peace at Paris, March 30. Close of the war. Crimea evacuated, July 9. Alexander II. crowned at Moscow, Sept. 2. 1858 Partial emancipation of the serfs on the imperial domains. 1857 Meeting of the Emperors at Stuttgardt and Weimar. 1859 Russia censures the warlike movements of the Germanic Confederation during the Franco-Italian war. Treaty with Great Britain. 1860 Commercial treaty with China. 1861 Insurrection in Poland begins. The Emperor issues a decree providing for the total emancipation of the serfs throughout the empire in two years; 23,000,000 serfs freed. Students' riots throughout the empire. 1862 The insurrection in Poland becomes general; it is quelled with great severity. Trial by jury granted. Increased privileges granted to the Jews. Serfdom in the emnire ended. War with Asiatic nations. 1864 The war in the Caucasis ended. 1865 Death of the Czarowitch Nicholas, at Nice, April 24. New province of Turkestan in Central Asia created. 1866 Attempt by Karakosoff to assassinate the Czar, Sept. 15. Diplomatic quarrel with Rome..Marriage of Prince Alexander. 1867 Russian America, Alaska, sold to the United. States for $7,000,000. Attempted assassination of the Czar, in Paris, by a Pole. 1868 Amnesty granted for political offenses. Poland disappears from map of empire. 1869 Socialistic conspiracies among Prussian students. 1870 Neutrality in Franco-Prussian war declared. Gortschakoff repudiates treaty of 1856,. as regards the Black Sea. 1871 Conference of the powers, at London, abrogates the Black Sea clauses. Many socialists imprisoned throughout the empire. 1873 Expedition against Khiva, which surrenders June 10. Visit of the Emperor of Germany to Russia. Visit of the Shah of Persia. New treaty with the Khan of Bokhara. 1874 Marriage of the Emperor's daughter to the Duke of Edinburgh. Visit of the Emperor to Germany and England. 1875 The island of Saghalien ceded to Russia by Japan. Japan cedes the Kurile Isles to Russia. War with Kholand. Baltic provinces incorporated into the empire. 1876 Russia encourages the insurgents in the Turkish provinces cf Servia and Bulgaria. Capture of Khokan. Conquest of Khiva completed. 1877 Russia declares war against Turkey, April 24. Melikoff enters Armenia and seizes Bay azid, April 30. Russians defeated at Batoumn, May 4. Melikoff storms Ardaban, May 17. Investment of Kars, June 3. Passage of the Danube by the Grand Duke Nicholas, June 22-27. Capture of Tirnova, July 8. Plevna occupied, July 6; retaken by Turks, July 30; great defeat of Russians by Mukhtar Pasha. 1877 The capture of Nicopolis by the Russians, July 15. The Russians occupy the Shipka Pas0 -July 19. Severe fighting in the Shipka Pass, Tuly 19, Dec. 31. Russian attack on Plevna partly successful Sept. 7-11. Great Russian victory at Aladja Dagh. Capture of Kars by the Russians, with great slaughter, Nov. 18. Capture of Etropol by the Russians. Capture of Plevna and Osman Pasha's army, by the Russians, Dec. 10. Emperor returns to St. Petersburg, Dec. 22. Erzeroum invested, Dec. 24. Gen. Gourko crosses the Balkans, Dec. 31. 1878 Russians occupy Sofia, Jan. 4. Servians defeated, Jan. 7. Capture of the Shipka Pass, by the Russians, Jan 8, 9. Batoum attacked without success by the Russians. Russians occupy Philippolis, Jan. 16. Russian occupation of Adrianople, Jan. 20. British fleet enters the Dardanelles, Jan. 25. Erzeroum evacuated by the Turks, Feb. 21. Treaty of peace signed at San Stefano. Skobeleff and Radetzky capture Turkish army in Asia.Minor. Conference of powers at Berlin, June. 13. Treaty of Berlin signed, July 13. 1879 Final treaty with Turkey, signed Feb. 8. Solovieff attempts to assassinate the Czar, April 14. Nihilists at Kieff and Odessa convicted. Attempt on the Czar's life by mining railway, Dec. 1. Discovery of plot to blow up the Winter Palace, Dec. 12. 1880 Explosion under diningroom of Winter Palace. I: 1880 Several soldiers killed and wounded, Feb. 17. Arrest of Hartmann, at Paris, Feb. 20. Gen. Melikoff made virtual dictator, Feb. 24. France refuses extradition of Hartmann. Nihilists convicted at St. Petersburg and Keiff. 1881 Assassination of Alexander II., by bombs thrown at his carriage, March 13; one assassin killed by explosion, another seized. Accession of Alexander III., who was not, crowned until 1882, on account of fear of assassination. Trial of Nihilists, April 8. Russakoff, Sophie Pieoffsky, Jelaboff and others, condemned to death. Treaty of peace with China. Resignation of Gen. Melikoff, May 13. Manifesto of Gen. Ignatieff, May 23. Counter manifesto of Nihilists. New Nihilist plot discovered, November. 1882 Retirement of Prince Gortschakoff. Anti-Jewish riots. Pan-Slavist speech of Gen. Skebeleff, at Paris. Death of Gen. Skobeleff, July' 6. 1883 Accident to the Czar while hunting, Dec. 10. Col. Souderkin, chief of Police, assassinated by Nihilists, Dec. 28. Coronation of Alexander III., Czar of all the Russias, Aug. 27. IS84 Anti-Jewish riot, resulting in the death of many persons, June 19. Great fire in Moscow, Oct. 29. Marriage of Duke Sergius to Princess Elizabeth of Hesse, June 15. 18S5 Attack of the Russians, under Gen. Komaroff, on Afghan positions near Murghat. 1893 Jews expelled from the Asiatic provinces. Prince Korsakoff, an eminent statesman, died, April 28. 1894- Alexander III., Czar of all Russia, diedand was succeeded by Nicholas Ii., 1895 Russia assists China in procuring money to pay war indemnity to Japan and secures considerable advantages on the Pacific coast. 1905 Labor riots at St. Petersburg, 1,500 killed Jan. 22. Gen. Stoessel surrendered Port Arthur to Gen. Nogi, Jan. 2.. 1905 Russia-Japan war begun, Feb. 7, 1904; ended Sept. 5, 1905. 1907-1909 Peace Conferences held at The Hague. 1 1910 Epidemic of cholera rages over many provinces; 83,613 deaths reported.. 1911 Premier. Stolypin was assassinated. 1912 Fire holocaust near Tambov; 59 lives lost. TURKEY. 1770 Rebellion of Ali Bey suppressed, in Egypt. 1774 Abdul Hamid becomes Sultan. 1784 Crimea ceded to- Russia. 1787 War with Russia and Austria; defeat of the Turks. 1788 Selim III., Sultan of Turkey. 1798 The French, under Napoleon, invade Egypt. 1799 Battle of Aboukir; French victorious. 1801 The English aid the Turks; Napoleon forced to retreat. 1803 Insurrection of Mamelukes at Cairo. 1806 Mehemet Ali becomes Pasha in Egypt.: 1807 War with England and Russia. British fleet passes the Dardanelles. Mlustapha IV., Sultan. 1808 Mahmoud IL., Sultan. 1811 Massacre of MIamelukes; Mehemet becomes supreme. 1812 Treaty of Bucharest; Pruth made irontier of Turkey and Russia. 1815 Discoveries of Belzonia, in Egypt. 1821 Insurrection in Moldavia and Wallachia; independence of Greece secured.;**1824 Turks defeated at 1Mitylene. 1827 Battle of Navarino; ~Turkish fleet destroyed. 1828 War with Russia; surrender at Anapa, June 23. Bajazet taken, Sept. 9. Varna occupied by Russians, Oct. 11. 1829 Battle of Shumla. Russians take Erzeroum and enter Adrianople; treaty of peace,: Sept. 14. 1831 Revolt of Mehemet Ali.-`' Battle of Konieh~ Egyptians defeat Turks. Egypt invades Syria. 1832 Battle of Konieh; disastrous defeat of Turks. 1833 Russians enter Constantinople; offensive and defensive treaty with Russia. Treaty of Kutayah. Rebellion in Egypt suppressed. 1839 Abdul Medjid becomes Sultan. A second revolt of Mehemet Ali. Battle of Nezib; Ibrahim Mehemet, Ali's son, defejts the Turks. * 1840.England, Russia, Austria, and Prussia aid Turkey. Battle of Beyrout; Egyptians defeated. 1841 Treaty with Egypt. Mehemet Ali made Viceroy, but deprivedof Syria. 1847 New system of education introduced. 1849 Turkey refuses to surrender Polish refugees' refusal sustained by England. 1851 Rebellion of Croatia. 1652 Treaty with France regarding the "Holy Places." 1853 A large Russian army crosses the Pruth. Turkey declares war; approved by the great powers, England, France, Aiistria and Prussia, 1854 Crimean war; allied fleets enter the Black Sea, Jan. 4. Russia refuses intervention, ''March 19. Treaty with England and France. The allied powers guarantee 'Turkish integrity. Allied fleets bombard Odessa, and blockade the Danube. Allies overcome Russians at Giu'rgero. Turks defeated at Bayazid; see Russia.,1855 Battle at Kars, Russians defeated; Turks, * under Omar Pasha, win a great victory at the Ingour, Nov. 6; allies take Kars, Nov. 26. 1856 Suspension of hostilities, awaiting negotiations for peace, Feb. 29. Treaty of peace signed, at Paris, April 29. The Crimea evacuated, July 9. Independence of Turkey guaranteed. 1858 Conflict with Montenegrins. Christians massacred at Jedda. Montenegrin boundaries determined. Suez Canal begun by De Lesseps. 1859 Great fire at Constantinople. Conspiracy against the Sultan.. 1860 Druse and Maronite War. Massacre of Christians at Damascus. Convention of Great Powers. 1861 Abdul-Aziz Sultan. Insurrection in Herzegovina and Montenegro. 1862 Omar Pasha invades Montenegro. Servians demand their independence. 1863 Death of Said Pasha; Ismail Pasha be-" comes Viceroy of Egypt. 1864 Arabian rebellion suppressed by Egypt. 7: I I |1

Page  99 I. SUPPLEMENT XVI. ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. BX I SUPPLEMENT XVI. ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. 1865 Suez Canal opened in part. 1866 Revolt in Candia. Cretan Greeks revolt against the Turks. 1867 The Khedive of Egypt, Viceroy, visits France and England. 1869 Suez Canal inaugurated. 1870 Sir Samuel Baker sent to suppress slave trade. 1872 Baker returns, after considerable success. 1873 By the Sultan's firman the Khedive of Egypt becomes independent in most points. 1874 Circular letter to the Powers, protesting against treaties with Turkish tributaries. 1875 Insurrection in Herzegovina and. Bosnia. Bosnians victorious at the battle of Gatschko. Unsuccessful Abyssinian expedition. British government purchases Suez Canal stock. 1876 War with Abyssinia; the Egyptian debt consolidated. Battle of Trebinge, indecisive. Germany, Austria and Russia demand reform in Turkish tributaries. Bulgaria revolts against Turkish rule. Suicide or murder of Sultan Abdul-Aziz. Montenegro and Servia declare war against Turkey. Murad V., Sultan, May 30th; accession of Abdul-Hamid II. Defeat of the Servians at Alexinatz. Conference of Great Powers about Turkish affairs. 1877 Treaty of peace with Abyssinia, made by Col. Gordon. Turkey rejects proposals of the Great SPowers. Midhat Pasha banished. War with Russia declared. Hostilities with Montenegro. Russians cross the Danube, June 23; Nicopolis surrendered to Russia; slight Turkish success in Armenia; Plevna abandoned, July 6; recaptured, July 28; terrific battles in the Shipka Pass, August 21-28; Russians repulsed at Plevna, Sept. 7-11; immense losses on both sides; relief of Plevna, Sept. 22, by Chefket Pasha; retreat of Turks, Sept. 24; removal of Mehemet Alt as Commander-in-chief; Suleimian Pasha appointed; Mukhtar Pasha gains Turkish victories in Armenia; total defeat of Mukhtar Pasha at battle. of AladjaDagh, Oct. 15; Russians take Kars by storm, Nov. 18; surrender of Plevna, Dec. 10. 1878 Erzeroum evacuated, Sept. 17; complete defeat of Turkey; preliminary treaty of peace signed, March 3. Conference by the Powers at Berlin, to settle Turkish question. Treaty of Berlin ratified, Aug. 3. Great Britain, July 3, secures Cyprus. 1879 Final treaty with Russia.signed, Feb. 8. Russians evacuate Turkey. England demands reforms in Turkey. Nubar Pasha resigns. The Khedive deposed by the Sultan, June 26. His son Tewfik succeeds him. 1880 The Powers protest regarding delay in executing provisions of Berlin treaty. Great naval* demonstration. Cession of Dulcigno, Nov. 26. 1881 Conference of the Powers at Constantinople. Midhat Pasha, and others, tried for murder of Abdul-Aziz; and condemned to death; their sentence commuted to exile. Decree of abolition of slavery in Egypt. 1882 The Porte declines to enter conference of Powers regarding Egypt, but subsequently yields. Remonstrates with England for intended bombardment of Alexandria. Dervish Pasha sent as envoy to Egypt. Turkey declines to send troops to Egypt, but, after the bombardment, consents. Arabi Pasha sentenced to banishment to Ceylon for life, Dec. 3. Prayers offered in Mosques of Cairo for the Queen of England as the "Mirror of Justice," Dec. 13. Arabi Pasha, Egyptian Minister of War, heads opposition to the Khedive. 'Alleged conspiracy against Arabi Pasha, Minister of War, leads to international complications. English and French fleets appear at Alexandria, May. On June 11, a riot breaks out in Alexandria, the natives killing 340 Europeans. The powers called upon to aid the Khedive. Arabi erects fortifications, and threatens to blow up the Suez Canal. Admiral Seymour takes command of English forces, and orders Arabi to. cease fortifying; he refuses. Bombardment of Alexandrian forts, July 12; they are destroyed by the English fleets. Arabi Pasha retreats into the country under cover of a flag of truce. The Khedive declares him a rebel. Gen. Sir Garnet Wolsley arrives at Alexandria, Aug. 15, with English troops. Ramleh fortified. Skirmish between Egyptians and the English. The joint fleet sails to Aboukir under sealed orders; then proceeds to Port Said; reached Ismailia. The English occupy the Suez Canal. Arabs attack the British at Kassassin, and are repulsed with heavy loss. Battle of Tel-el-Kebir in which the whole Egyptian army is routed, Sept. 13. Zagazig occupied. Kafre-el-Dwar surrenders. Cairo opens its gates. Arabi Pasha and 10,000 troops surrender unconditionally. End of the war, Sept. 155. 1883 Total destruction of Hicks Pasha and his army in the Soudan, Nov. 3. 1884 Resignation of Egyptian ministry of Sherif Pasha, Jan. 7. Gen. C. G. Gordon leaves England for Egypt en route for Kartoum, Jan. 18. Defeat of Baker Pasha near Tokar, Feb. 4. Gen. Gordon arrives at Kartoum, Feb. 18. Surrender of Tokar to the rebels under. Osman Digna, Feb. 22. Defeat of the rebels at Tet, by Gen. Graham, Feb. 29. Tokar relieved by Gen. Graham, March 2. Osman Pasha defeated by Gen. Graham at Tamasi, March 13. Egyptian troops meet with reverse at Kartoum, March 16. Third conference of the Greht Powers upon Egyptian finances, Aug. 2. 1885 General Stewart's forces reach Gakdul, Egypt, Jan 12. Battle of Abu Klea, victory of British forces, Jan. 17. British victory near Metamnmeh. Gen. Stewart wounded, Jan. 19. Fall of Kartoum, Jan. 26. Death of Gen. Gordon, Jan. 26, produces intense excitement in London. The Italian flag hoisted with that of Egypt, at Massowah, -Feb. 8. British victory near Dulka Island; death of Gen. Earl, Feb. 10. The muder of Dongola decorated by Lord Wolseley. 1885 Terrific fighting near Suakim, March 22. Death of Mahdi Mohammed Achmed, June 29. Revolution in Eastern Roumnelia. Prince Alexander of Bulgaria, Governor, Sept. 18. Meeting of Ambassadors, at Constantinople, on the Eastern crisis, Oct. 4. 1888 First through train from Paris to Constantinople, Aug. 3. 1889 Egyptian Dervish Army routed, Aug. 8. STurkish forces occupy Crete, Aug. 30. 1890 Turkish man-of-war Ertogroul founders at sea, 500 lives lost, Sept. 19. 1894 Insurrection in Armenia, and great massacre of Christians at Sassoun. 1895 Riot in Constantinople and massacre of Armenian Christians in that city. Great powers of Europe demand reforms from the Sultan and protection for his Christian subjects. Change in the Ministry, Nov. 7. 1897 Greco-Turkish war began April 16; ended May 17, 1897; peace treaty signed Sept. 18, 1897. 1905 The Porte refused to authorize street sales of Bibles, Jan. 2. 1908 Sultan proclaimed constitution, July 15. 1909 Sultan Abdul Hamid deposed and Meh- - med V. proclaimed Sultan, April 27. 1912 War with Italy. GREECE. 1770 dreek insurgents assisted by Russia. They are defeated by the Turks. Rebellion of Suliot suppressed. 1803 Turks put down second Suliot rebellion, which was incited by the French. 1821 Revolt of Ipsylanti; Peloponnesus gained by the Greeks. 1822 Independence of Greece. Terrible massacre at Scio. 1823 National Congress at Argos. Death of Marco Bozzaris. ' 1824 Death of Lord Byron at Missolonghi. Ipsara destroyed by the Turks. 1826 Siege of Missolonghi; capitulates to the Turks. 1827 Turkish army takes Athens. Interference of foreign powers rejected by Turkey. Battle of Navarino; the allied British, French and Russian fleets defeat the Turks and Egyptians. Independence of Greece established. 1828 The Turks evacuate the Morea. 1829 Turkey surrenders Missolonghi. Treaty of Hadrianople. 1831 President D'Istria assassinated. 1833 Accession of Otho I. 1843 Insurrection in ~ Athens; National Assembly; new constitution adopted. 1850 Pireus blocaded by a British fleet. England demands indemnity for injury to British subjects.. French' intervention sought. Greece forced to yield. 1854 Revolt of Albanians. English and French occupy Greece. Neutrality in Russo-Turkish war de- clared. 1857 Greece evacuated by the French and English. 1862 Serious insurrections in Greece. Otho I. forced to leave Greece. Prince Alfred, of England, declared King. Austria declares for Otho I. 1863 National Assembly declares Alfred elected King. England refuses to allow his accession. Prince William, of Denmark, elected King, March 18, and becomes King George I., Nov. 2, 1863; new Constitution adopted. ""867 King George I. married to Princess Olga, of Russia. 1870 Trouble with the brigands, who kill many English prisoners. 1875 Neutrality observed in Herzegovinian insurrection. 1876 Declares for neutrality in Servian war. 1878 Thessalians aided by Greeks against the Turks. 1880 Berlin conference considers question of Greek and Turkish frontiers. 1881 Convention with Turkey, July 2. Thessaly ceded to Greece. 1884 Serious fire at royal palace, Athens, Aug. 5. 1889 Princess Sophie of Russia. and the Crown Prince married, October 27. 1890 Greek Ministry resigns, October 28. 1891 Prof. Waldstein discovers rare jewels in the ruins of Eretria, March. 1893 Ministry resigned May 10, and succeeded by a new cabinet, with M. Tricoupis as premier, Nov. 11. 1897 Greco-Turkish war began April 16; ended May 17, 1897; peace treaty signed Sept. 18, 1897. 1910 King George called National Assembly for purpose of introducing reforms. 1912 Revival of interest in old Olympian games. ITALY. 1775 Death of Pope Clement XIV. and elevation of Pio VI. 1796-'97 Bonaparte's first victories in Italy. 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio. France and Austria divide the Venetian States. The' Cis-Alpine republic founded. 1798 Second invasion of the French. Pope Pius VI. deposed by Bonaparte. 1799 Defeat of the French at Trebia, by the Russians, under Suwarrow. 1800 Death of Pie VI.; Pie VII. Pope. Bonaparte crosses the Alps. Battle of Marengo, June 24; total defeat of Austrians. 1802 The Cis-Alpine republic remodeled as the Italian republic; Bonaparte President. 1805 Napoleon crowned King of Italy, May 26. Eugene Beauharnois made Viceroy of Italy. 1806 The, Treaty of Presburg deprives Austria of her Italian possessions. 1814 Downfall of Napoleon. Overthrow of the Kingdom of Italy. 1815 Establishment.of -the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom for Austria. Genoa added to the Sardinian crown. 1823 Death of Pope Pie VII.; Leo XII. becomes Pope. 1829 Death of Leo XII.; Pie VIII. becomes Pope. 1831- Death of Pope Pio VIII., and elevation of ~ Gregorio XVI. Death of Carlo Felix, and extinguishment of the direct male line of the House of Savoy. The crown falls to Prince Carlo Alberto. The "Young State Party" formed by Mazzini. Insurrection in Central Italy. 1837 King Charles Albert of Sardinia promulgates a new Code. 1846 Death of Pope Gregorio XVI.; Pius IX. becomes Pope. 1848 The King of Sardinia grants a Constitution and openly espouses the cause of Italian regeneration against Austria. 1848 Insurrection in Lombardy and Venice against Austrian power; revolt is supported by the King of Sardinia. The Pope supports the movement for Italian independence, June. War between Sardinia and Austria. Lombardy annexed to Sardinia, June 29. Revolution at Rome; flight of the Pope to Gaeta. 1849 The Sardinians, after repeated reverses, are totally defeated by the Austrians at Novara, March 23. Close of the war, and recovery of Lombardy by Austria. Carlo Alberto abdicates in favor of his son, Victor Emmanuel II., March 23 dies July 28. The Roman republic formed. Rome captured by the French army, under Marshal Oudinot. The republic overthrown, and the Pope restored. 1850 Ecclesiastical jurisdictions abolished in Sardinia. Arrest of the Archbishop of Turin. 1851 Count Cavour Minister of Foreign Affairs. 1853 Revolt in Milan subdued. 1855 Sardinia joins the alliance of France, England and Turkey against Russia, and takes part in the Crimean war. 1856 Unsuccessful revolt in Sicily. 1857 Diplomatic rupture between Sardinia and Austria. 1859 Quarrel between Sardinia and Austria, caused by former power refusing to disarm. France espouses the cause of Sardinia, and sends an army to her assistance. The Austrians cross the Ticino, April 27. The French army reaches Genoa, May 3. Battles of Montebello, May 20; Palestro, May 30, 31; Magenta, June 4; Malegnano, June 8; Solferino, June 24. Total defeat of Austrians. Revolution in Tuscany, Parma, Modena, Bologna, Ferrara, etc. Peace of Villefranca, July 11. Western Lombardy annexed to Sardinia. Protest of Tuscany, and declaration for a United Kingdom. The people incited to arms by Garibaldi. The Pope appeals to Europe against the King of Sardinia, July 12. The Italian Duchies declare in favor of annexation to Sardinia. New constitution for Sardinia. Alliance between Tuscany, Modena, Parma and the Romagna formed, Oct. 10. Peace of Zurich, Nov. 10; part of the Papal States and the Duchies of Parma and Modena ceded to Sardinia. The Emperor Napoleon advises the Pope to give up his revolted States, Dec. 31. 1860 The Pope refuses the Emperor's proposal and denounces him, Jan. 8. A new ministry formed by Cavour, Jan. 16. Tuscany, Parma, Modena and the Romagna vote for annexation to Sardinia, March 9. Savoy and Nice ceded to France by Sardinia. The French troops leave Italy in May. Garibaldi lands in Sicily, May 11. Declares himself Dictator, and drives the Neapolitans from Sicily in the battles of Calatifinni and Melazzo, July 20. He invades Naples' with his little army, Sept. 7. Insurrection in the Papal States in September. Sardinian army enters them, and defeats the Papal troops, Sept. 18, and takes Ancona, Sept. 29. The Sardinian army, under the King, enters the Neapolitan territory; defeats the Neapolitans, at Iseraia, Oct. 17. Garibaldi defeats the Neapolitans, at the Volturna, Oct. 1. Meets Victor Emmanuel, Oot. 26, and salutes him as "Iting of Italy." Sicily and Naples vote for annexation to Sardinia, Oct. 21. Victor Emmanuel enters Naples as King, Nov. 7. Garibaldi resigns the Dictatorship and retires to Caprera. 1861 The first Italianr Parliament assembles Feb. 15. Parliament decrees Victor Emmanuel "King of Italy," Feb. 26. The new kingdom recognized by England, March 31. The Pope protests against the new kingdom, April 15. Death of Cavour, June 6. Unsuccessful revolt in Calabria, by Jose Borges, in the interest, of Francis II. 1862 Ratazzi forms a new ministry. Naples declared in a state of siege. Ratazzi's ministry overthrown and a new one formed by Farina. Garibaldi endeavors to wrest Rome from the Pope. He is made prisoner at Aspromonte, by the Italian army. 1863 Commercial treaties with France and Great Britain. 1864 Treaty with France for the evacuation of Rome by the French in February, 1867. Transfer of the Capital from Turin to Florence. 1865 Bank of Italy established. New Parliament meets at Florence. The insurrections at Turin suppressed. Brigands cause much trouble. 1866 The Austro-Italian war begins. Alliance with Prussia. Italy declares war against Austria, June 20. Italians cross the Mincio, June 23. Battle of Custoza, June.24, and defeat of the Italians by the Archduke Albrecht. Battle of Lissa. Defeat of the Italian fleet, July 20. Peace of Prague, Aug. 23; Eastern Lombardy and Venetia added to the Kingdom. Treaty of Nicholsburg, Aug. 26; close of the war. Cession of Venetia to the Italian kingdom. King Victor Emmanuel enters Venice, Nov. 7. 1867 Insurrection in the Papal States. Garibaldi placed under arrest. The French enter Rome. Garibaldi defeated at Mentana. 1868 Railwvay over Mont Cents opened. Crown Prince Humbert marries Princess Margherita. 1869 Ecumenical Council held at Rome. Severe earthquake at Florence. 1870 Dogma of Infallibility proclaimed by the Council. Arrest of Mazzini at Palermo. The Papal States entered by the Italian army, and Rome occupied, Sept. 20. Papal States a part of the Kingdom of Italy, Oct. 9. Pope Pius IX. issues bull of excommunication against the government, Nov. 1. Rome evacuated by the French, Aug. 11. Revolution in Rome imminent. The Pope takes refuge in the castle of St. Angelo.. Rome annexed to Italy, and made the Capital of the kingdom by royal decree, Oct. 9. The Italian Duke of Acosta elected King of Spain. 1871 The government transferred from Florence to Rome, July. I 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1889 1890 1891 1893 1900 1902 1904 1910. 1911 1912 Opening of the Mt. Cenis Tunnel. Death of Mazzini. Great eruption of Mount Vesuvius. Serious inundations throughout the peninsula. Suppression of the convents at Rome. Expulsion of Jesuits from Italy. General assembly of free Christian churches in Italy. Brigands cause great trouble. The government suppresses the Camorra's. Visit of the Emperors of Austria and Germany to the King of Italy. Garibaldi takes oath of allegiance to the government, and becomes a member of the Chamber of Deputies. Ratification of a treaty of commerce with Great Britain. Six new cardinals appointed. Italy and anti-Turkish in the eastern question. Attempted assassination of King Humbert, Nov. 7. The celebrated "Antonelli" case dismissed. Death of' Victor Emmanuel, Jan. 9. Attempted assassination of King Humbert I., Nov. 17. Death of Pope Pius IX., Feb. 7. Leo XIII. elected Pope, Feb. 20. Elections favorable to the ministry of Cairoli. The monster ironclad Italia successfully launched. Resignation of Garibaldi as Deputy, and retirement to Genoa. Cairoli ministry overthrown and a new one founded by Depretio. Reform Bill passed by the Senate, Dec. 21. Electoral Law passed. Death of Garibaldi, June 2. Discovery of site of the celebrated Antrium, at Rome, Nov. 6. The cholera rages in Naples. Statue of Bruno unveiled at Rome, June 9. Statue of Victor Emmanuel unveiled, Sept. 20. Crispi resigns the Premiership and Rudini appointed, Feb. 9. Baron Fava, Minister to the United States, recalled, March 30. Pope Leo XIII. celebrates his 83d birthday. King Humbert and Queen Mlargaret celebrate their silver wedding. King Humbert assassinated, July 20. Coronation of King Victor Emmanuel III. Aug. 11. Emmanuel III., King of Italy, crowned, Aug. 11. Death of Pope Leo XIII. Pius X. elected Pope. Hurricane near Mt. Vesuvius, Oct. 23; nearly 200 lives lost. War with Turkey. Italian parliament votes annexation of Tripoli. Attemipt to assassinate Victor Emmanuel III. r^~ ifinA 'V597' ~ioo SPAIN. 1767 Jesuits expelled from the kingdom. 1771 Falkland Islands ceded to England. 1775 War with Portugal resumed. 1777 War with England renewed. France and Spain besiege Gibraltar. 1783 England cedes Balsaric Isles to Spain at peace of Versailles. 1794 French invade Spain. 1796 War again with England. 1797 Battle of Cape St. Vincent; defeat of the Spanish -fleet, Feb. 14. 1800 Spain cedes Parma to France. 1801 Treaty with Portugal at Badajos. Treaty of Madrid with France. 1802 Treaty with England at Amiens. 1804 Renewed war with England. 1805 Battle of Trafalgar, Oct. 21; total defeat of French and Spanish fleets by English, under Nelson. 1807 Invasion of Spain by the French. Treaty of Fountainebleau. 1808 Territory demanded by France. Spanish fortress seized. The French take Madrid. Charles IV. abdicates in favor of Napoleon, May 1. Massacre of 200 French in Madrid, May 2. Napoleon assembles the notables at Bayonne, May 25. Ferdinand VII. abdicates. Napoleon I. gives crown to his brother Joseph Bonaparte, who enters Madrid, July 12, but is driven out, July 29. The French defeated at Vimiera, Aug. 21, by the English. Battle of Logrono; defeat of the patriots. Battle of Durange; the French victorious. The French retake Madrid, and restore King Joseph Bonaparte, Dec. 2. Napoleon enters 'Madrid, Dec. 4. 1809 Battle of Corunna and death of Moore, Jan. 16. Surrender of Saragossa. Spain entered by Sir Arthur Wellesley, who crosses the Douro. Defeat of the French at Tulavera, July 28. Spanish defeated at Ocana, Nov. 12. Severe battle of Molinos del Ray, Dec. 21. 1810 Granada, Seville and Atsorga seized by the French. Capture of Ciudad-Rodrigo by Marshal Ney, July 10. 1811 Wellington defeats the French at Fuentes d'Onoro, May 6, and at Albuera, May 16. Tarragora taken by Suehet. King Joseph returns to Madrid. Spanish defeated by Soult at Lorca. 1812 Wellington victorious at Ciudad-Rodrigo, Jan. 19. Badajoz stormed and carried, April 6. Defeat of the French at Salamanca, July 22. 1813 English, under Wellington, occupy MTadrid. English successful at Castella, April 13; Vittoria, June 21, and Pyrenees, July 28. The French driven out of Spain, Wellington crossing the Bidasoa and follows them into France. 1814 Ferdinand VII. restored. 1817 The slave trade abolished for a compen- sation. 1820 Revolution under Nunez del Riego begins in January. Ferdinand swvears to the constitutionr of the Cortes. 1823 The Cortes remove the king to Seville, and thence to Cadiz, March. Intervention of France in behalf of the king. French army enters Spain, April 7. Cadiz invested, June 25. Battle of the Trocadero, Aug. 31. Rebels defeated and the revolution crushed. The king again restored. Execution of Riego and the patriot leaders. 1828 The French evacuate Cadiz. 1829 Cadiz proclaimed a free port. 1830 The Salique law abolished. 1833 Death of Ferdinand VII.; his queen assumes the government as Regent during the minority of her daughter, Isabella II. Don Carlos claims the throne. 1834 The Quadruple Treaty of France, England, Spain and Portugal guarantees the right of Queen Isabella to the throne. Don Carlos enters Spain and claims the crown. Beginning of the Carlist war. 1836 Defeat of Carlists at battle of Bilbao. 1837 Dissolution of monasteries. 1839 Success of the government forces. Don Carlos takes refuge in England. 1840 Espartero, commander of the royal forces, becomes the real ruler of Spain. The Queen Regent Christina abdicates and leaves Spain. Espartero expels the Papal Nuncio..1841 Espartero declared, by the Cortes, Regent during the young Queen's minority. Insurrection in favor of Christina quelled. 1842 Insurrection at Barcelona against Espartero; he bombards the city, Dec. 3, and receives its surrender, Dee. 4. 1843 Uprising against Espartero at Barcelona, Corunna, Seville and other points. Bombardment of Seville, July 21. Defeat of Espartero. 1845 Don Carlos assigns his claims to his son. Isabella II., 13 years old, is declared, by the Cortes, to be of age. Narvaez, a friend of Queen Christina, is made commander of the army. 1846 Marriage of Queen Isabella to her cousin, Don Francisco d' Assiz, Duke of Cadiz. Marriage of the Infanta to the Duke de Montpensier, son of the King of France. Protest of England against these marriages. 1847 Attempt by La Riva to assassinate the Queen. Espartero restored to power. 1848 The British Envoy ordered to quit Madrid within 48 hours. 1850 Birth of the Queen's first child; it dies immediately. Attempt of Lopez to wrest Cuba from Spain. 1851 Opening of the Madrid-Aranjuez railway. 1852 Merino, a Franciscan monk, attempts to kill the Queen, and slightly wounds her with a dagger. 1853 Narvaez exiled to Vienna. 1854 Espartero organizes a military insurrection at Saragossa and succeeds in making himself prime minister. The queen-mother impeached, and compelled to quit Spain. 1855 Death of Don Carlos. 1856 Insurrection at Valencia. Espartero resigns. A new cabinet formed, headed by Marshal O'Donnell. Insurrection in Madrid quelled by the government. Disbandment of the national guard. Insurrection at Barcelona and Saragossa quelled by O'Donnell, as Dictator. O'Donnell forced to resign. Narvaez made prime minister. 1857 Birth of the prince royal. 1859 War with Morocco. 6 O'Donnell commands the army in Africa. 1860 Moors defeated at Tetuan and Guadelras. Treaty of peace signed, March 26. Unsuccessful efforts of Ortega to overthrow the Queen and make the Count de Mlontemolin king, as Charles VI. Ortega shot, April 19. The Emperor Napoleon III. proposes to recognize Spain as a first-class power. The project abandoned, owing to the refusal of England. 1861 The annexation of St. Domingo to Spain ratified. Spain joins England and France in the Mexican expedition. 1863 Don Juan de Bourbon renounces his right to the throne. O'Donnell resigns the premiership. Insurrection in St. Domingo. 1864 Spanish qunrrels with Peru. General Prim exiled for conspiracy. 1864 Narvaez again becomes prime minister. He advises the relinquishment of St. Domingo; Queen Isabella refuses. Christina returns to Spain. 1865 Peace with Peru, which is compelled to pay a heavy indemnity. Queen Isabella orders the sale of the crown lands, and gives three-fourths to the nation. Spain relinquishes St. Domingo. Quarrel with Chili, followed by war. Kingdom of Italy recognized by Spain; insurrection, headed by General Prim. 1866 General Prim lays down his arms, and insurgents enter Portugal. O'Donnell resigns, and Narvaez forms a new ministry. The Cortes dismissed by the Queen. Spain formally recognizes and forms a treaty with the republics of Guatemala, Honduras, Salvador, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. 1867 Revolt in Catalonia and Aragon suppressed. 1868 The Queen grants general amnesty. Death of Narvaez. Murrillo becomes prime minister. Revolution led by Prim and Serrano, Sept. 17; revolution successful, and ministry resigns. Queen Isabella takes refuge in France, and is deposed. Provisional government organized at Miadrid, by Prim, Serrano and Olozaga, Oct. 8. Religious freedom, liberty of the press, and universal suffrage granted by new government, Oct. 26. Revolts at different points suppressed. The United States government recognizes the provisional government. 1869 Efforts to find a king for Spain. Serrano elected Regent, June 15. Prim becomes prime minister. Outbreaks of the Carlists and republicans suppressed.. 1870 Espartero declines the Spanish crown. Isabella abdicates in favor of her son Alfonso; it is offered to Prince Leopold, of Germany, who refuses it. Amadeus, son of the King of Italy, elected king by the Cortes, Nov. 16. Amadeus lands at Carthagena, Dec. 30. "itIarshal Prim assassinated, Dec. '29. 1871 Amadeus enters Madrid, Jan. 2. Serrano forms a new ministry, Jan. 5. The Cortes dissolved, Nov. 25. Insurrection in Cuba. 1872 Resignation of the ministry. Carlist war begins. *Serrano enters Navarre; defeats the Carlists at Oroquita. Attempt to assassinate the King and Queen, July 19. Suppression of Carlist and republican uprisings. - 1873 Abdication of King Amadeus. Republic proclaimed. Defeat of the Carlists at various points. Don Carlos enters Spain, July 13. Cadiz surrenders to him, July 31. Castelar President of the Cortes. The "Virginius" affair. 1874 Coup d'Etat. Marshal Serrano President and Commander of the army. Overthrow of the republic. Alfonso XIII. proclaimed king by troops, Dec. 30. I j

Page  100 SUPPLEMENT XVII. ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. 1875 King Alfonso lands at Barcelona, Jan. 9. Vittoria taken from Carlists, July. 1S76 Surrender of Bilbao, Feb. 5. Defeat of Carlists at Durango, and surrender at Pamplona, Feb. 26. Don Carlos flees to France. Triumphal entry of Alfonso into Madrid. 1877 Extradition treaty with the United States. General amnesty to Carlists. Queen Isabella visits Spain. 1878 M-arriage of King Alfonso to Mercedes, daughter of. the Due de Montpensier, Jan. 23. Death of Queen Mercedes, June 26. Attempted assassination of Alfonso, Oct. 25. 1879 Inundations in Seville, Granada and elsewhere. Alfonso marries the Archduchess Maria Christina, of Austria, Nov. 29. Attempted assassination of king and queen, Dec. 30. I880" Law for gradual abolition of slavery in Cuba, Feb. 18. Execution of the assassin Otero, April 14. 1881 Expulsion of Don Carlos from France, July 17. 1882 Franco-Spanish commercial treaty approved by the Cortes, April 23. Introduction of a bill to abolish slavery in Cuba, June 10. Heavy snow storm at Madrid, Dec. 10. 1883 Marriage ol Tnfanta della Paz to Prince Louis, of Bavaria, April 2. King Alfonso visits Frankfort to witness German military maneuvers, Sept. 20. King Alfonso appointed conmnander of the Schleswig-Holstein Uhlan regiment by German Emperor, Sept. 23. Return of Alfonso to Madrid, Oct. 2. Resignation of Spanish ministry, Oct. 11. Hervera becomes Prime 'Minister. 1884 Severe earthqutakes in Spain; over 1,000 lives lost, Dec. 25-28. 1885 Resignation 'of thle lministry, in consequence of the determination of the king to visit cholera-stricken districts, June 20. Terrible ravages of cholera in Valencia and other points. Spain greatly excited over the occupation of the Caroline Islands by Germany. Announcement that of 223,546 persons attacked by cholera 82,619 had died, Aug. 31. 1886 Alfonso XIII. King, with Maria Christina as Regent, May 17. 1891 Reciprocity between Cuba and the United States, May. 1893 Riotous demonstrations of Republicans suppressed by the police. Cargo of dynamite explodes at Santander, killing and wounding several hundreds of people. 1895 Cuban patriots rise again in arms to free their native land. Marshal Campos sent with a large army to suppress the insurrection. 1898 War with United States; Spanish fleet destroyed in Manila Bay, May 1, by Commodore Dewey's fleet. Cevera's Spanish fleet destroyed off Santiago de Cuba, July 3. 1.899 Peace treaty with U. S. ratified, Feb. 6. 1906 King Alphonso married. 1907 Heir to throne born. 1910 June 11 the government issued an imperial decree of ecclesiastical reform placing all religions on practically equal footing. FRANCE. 1769 Beginning of the power of Madame du Barry. 1770 Tihe Dauphine marries Marie Antoinette, of Austria. 1774 Death of Louis XV." accession of Louis XVI. 1776 Dismissal of Turgot from office. 1777 Necker becomes Minister of Finance. 1781 Necker resigns as Minister of Finance. The torture abolished in legal proceedings. 1783 Treaty of Versailles; peace with England and Spain. 1785 "Diamond necklace affair" occasions intense excitement. 1787 Meeting of the Assembly of Notables; controversy over taxes. 1788 The Second Assembly of Notables. Reappointment of Necker. 1789 Meeting of the States General, May 5. The Deputies of the Tiers Etat organize themselves as the National Assembly, June 17. 1789 Destruction of the Bastile, July 14. The beginning of the French revolution. The king and queen compelled by a mob at Versailles, to go to Paris, Oct. 6. The National Assembly meets at Paris, Oct. 9. The National Assembly change the royal title to "King of-the French," Oct. 16. Clerical property confiscated. The division of France into 83,departments, Dec. 22. 1790 King Louis accepts the work of the revolution, Feb. 4. Titles of honor and hereditary nobility abolished. Confederation of the Champs de Mars; the king takes. the oath to the constitution, July 14. 1791 Flight of the king and queen from Paris, June 20. Imprisonment of the king and queen in the Tuileries; they are arrested at Varennes, June 21., Louis sanctions the National constitution Sept. 15. Dissolution of the National Assembly, Sept. 29. 1792 First coalition against France. Commencement of the great wars. "War with Austria declared April 20. Battle of Valmy; the Prussians defeated, and France saved from invasion, Sept. 20. Attack and capture of the Tuileries by a mob; the royal family imprisoned in the Temple, Aug. 10. Massacre in the prisons of Paris, Sept. 2-5. Opening of the National Convention, Sept. 17. The Convention abolishes royalty, Sept. 21. Meeting of the Legislative Assembly, Oct. 1. France declared a republic, Sept. 22. Trial and condemnation of King Louis, Nov. 12 to Dec. 13. 1793 Louis XVI. beheaded, Jan. 21. War against England, Spain and Holland, declared Feb. 1. Insurrection in La Vendee begins, March. Proscription of the Girondists. Robespierre becomes Dictator March 25. Beginning of the Reign of Terror, May 31. Charlotte Corday assassinates Marat, July lo. Execution of Marie Antoinette, Oct. 16. Siege of Toulon; first victory of Bonaparte. The Duke of Orleans, Phillipe Egalite, beheaded, Nov. 6. Madame Roland executed, Nov. 8. Vendee revolt suppressed, Dec. 12. 1794 Danton and others guillotined, April 5. Elizabeth, sister of Louis XVI., executed. Robespierre becomes president, June. Fall of Robespierre, July 27. Robespierre, St. Just and seventy others guillotined, July 28. Close of the Reign of Terror. 1795 The Dauphin (Louis XVII) dies in prison. Napoleon suppresses rebellion of royalists Oct. 5. The Directory established Nov. 1. 1796 Bonaparte wins the victories of Monte" notte, April 12; Mondivi, April 22, and Lodi, May 10. Attehkirchen, June 1, Radstadt, July 5, in Italy. The conspiracy of Baboeuf suppressed. 1797 Pichegru's conspiracy fails. Return of Napoleon into Paris. Bonaparte's Egyptian expedition embarks. Battle of the Pyramid, July 13-21. Destruction of the French fleet, near Alexandria, by Nelson, Aug. 1. 1799 England, Germany, Russia, Turkey, Portugal and Naples coalesce against NaSpoleon, June 22. Bonaparte returns from Egypt; deposes the Council of Five Hundred, Nov. 10, and Napoleon is declared First Consul Dec. 13. 1800 Battle of Marengo, June 14. Great victory by Bonaparte over the Austrians. Attempt to kill the Council by means of an infernal machine, Dec. 24. 1801 Treaty with Germany. The Rhine made the French boundary. Peace with Russia, Oct. 8, and with Turkey, Oct. 9. 1802 Defeat of the French at Aboukin, March 8. Peace with England, Spain and Holland signed at Amiens, March 27. Legion of Honor instituted. Bonaparte made "Consul for Life," Aug. 2. 1803 Bank of France established. War with England declared, May 22. 1S04 Conspiracy of Moreau and Pichegru against Bonaparte fails. Execution of the Duke d'Enghien, March 21. The empire formed and Napoleon proclaimed Emperor, May 18. Crowned by the Pope, Dec. 30. 1805 Napoleon crowned King of Italy, May 26. Destruction of the French fleet, Oct. 21, by Nelson at the battle of Trafalgar. Battle of Austerlitz. Austria totally defeated, Dec. 2. Treaty of Presburg, Dec. 26. 1806 Confederation of the Rhine ratified at Paris, July 12. Fourth coalition of the Great Powers against France; Prussia declares war, Oct. 8. Defeat of the Prussians at Jena, Oct. 14. Capture of Erfurt by the French, Oct. 15. 1807 Russians defeated at battle- of Eylau, Feb. 8. Alexander and Napoleon meet at Tilsit, June 26. Treaty of peace signed, July 7. The Milan decree published, Dec. 17. 1808 New nobility of France created. The beginning of the Peninsular war. Abdication of Charles IV. of Spain. 1809 Napoleon defeated at Aspern and Essling. Victorious at Wagram. Entry of Napoleon into Vienna, May. Treaty of Vienna, Oct. 14. Divorce of the Empress Josephine, Dec. 15. 1810 Napoleon marries Marie Louise of Austria, April 1. Union of Holland with France. 1811 Birth of the King of Rome, afterward Napoleon Ii. 1812 War declared with Russia. Napoleon invades Russia. Great victory of the French at Borodino, Sept.~ 7. Disastrous retreat of the French from MKoscow, October. 1813 The Concordat treaty with the Pope. Alliance of Austria, Russia and Prussia against Napoleon, March. 16. Battle of Leipzig. Napoleon defeated, Oct. 16-18. The Allies invade France from the Rhine; the English from Spain, under Wellington, Oct. 7. 1814 Surrender of Paris to the Allies, March 30. Abdication of Napoleon I. in favor of his son, Napoleon II., April 5.:Napoleon goes to the Island of Elba, M~ay 3. Louis XVIII. enters Paris, May 3. The Bourbon dynasty restored. The Constitutional Charter established, June 4-10. 1815 Napoleon leaves Elba and lands at Cannes, March 1, and proceeds to Paris, where he is joined by all the army., Louis XVIII. leaves Paris; restoration of the empire. The Allies form a league for his destruction, March 25. 1815 Napoleon abolishes the slave trade, March 29. Leaves Paris for the army, June 12. He invades Belgium, June 15. Final overthrow of Napoleon at battle of! Waterloo, June 18. Napoleon reaches Paris, June 20. Abdicates in favor of his son, June 22. He reaches Rochefort, where he intends ' to embark for America, July 3. Entry of Louis XVIII. into Paris, July 3. Napoleon, goes on board the "Bellerophon" and claims the "hospitality" of England, July 15. Upon reaching England he is transferred to the "Northumberland" and sent a prisoner to St. Helena, Aug. 8, where he arrives Oct. 15. Execution of Marshal Ney, Dec. 7. 1816 The family of Napoleon forever excluded from the throne of France. 1820 Assassination of the Duke de Berri, Feb. 13. 1821 Death of Napoleon I. at St. Helena, May 5. 1824 Death of Louis XVIII., Sept. 16. Charles X. becomes king. 1827 National Guard disbanded. War with Algiers. SSerious riots in Paris. Seventy-six new peers created. 1829 The Polignac administration organized. 1830 Chamber of Deputies dissolved, May 16. Capture of Algiers by the French, July 5. Revolution and barricade of streets in Paris, July 27. Flight and abdication of Charles X., July 31. Unpopular ordinances passed regarding the election of deputies and the press, July 26. Duke of Orleans becomes King Louis Phillipe I. Polignac and the ministers of Charles X. sentenced to perpetual imprisonment. 1831 Great riots in Paris, Feb. 14 and 15. The hereditary peerage abolished. 1832 Insurrection in Paris suppressed. Death of Napoleon II., Duke of Reichstadt, July 22. Attempted assassination of the King, Dec. 27. 1834 Death of Lafayette, May 20. 1835 Fieschi attempts, with an infernal machine, to kill the King, July 28, and is executed, Feb. 6, 1836. 1836 Louis Alibaud fires at the King, June 25; is guillotined, July 11. Death of Charles X., Nov. 6. Prince Louis Napoleon attempts an insurrection at Strasbourg, Oct. 30; is banished to America, Nov. 13. The ministers of Charles X. set at- liberty and sent out of France. Meunier. attempts to kill the King. 1838 Death of Tallyrand, May 14. War with Mexico. 1839 Insurrections in Paris. 1840 M. Thiers becomes Prime Minister. Prince Louis Napoleon, General Montholon, and others, attempt an insurrection at Boulogne, Aug. 6. Prince Louis Napoleon sentenced to imprisonment for life, and confined in the castle of Ham, Oct. 6. Darmes attempts to shoot the king, Oct. 15. Removal of the remains of the Emperor Napoleon I. from St. Helena to Paris, Dec. 15. 1842 The Duke of Orleans, the heir to the throne, dies from the effect of a fall, July 13. 1843 Queen Victoria, of England, visits the royal family at the Chateau d'Eu. Extradition treaty with England. 1846 Lecompte attempts to assassinate the king at Fontainebleau, April 16. Louis Napoleon escapes from Ham, May 25. Joseph Henri attempts to kill the king, July 29. 1847 Jerome Bonaparte returns to France after an exile of thirty-two years. Death of the ex-Empress Marie Louise. Surrender of Abd-el-Kader to the French. 1848 "Reform banquet" prohibited. Revolution of February 22, and barricade of the streets of Paris. Flight and abdication of the King, Feb. 21. The second republic proclaimed, Feb. 26. The provisional government succeeded by an executive commission, named by the Assembly, 2May 7. Louis Napoleon elected to the National Assembly from the Seine and three other departments, June 13. Outbreak of the Red Republicans in Paris, June 23. 1849 Severe fighting in Paris, June 23 to 26; 16,000 persons killed, including the Archbishop of Paris. Surrender of the insurgents, June 26. Gen. Cavaignac at the head of the government, June 28. Louis Napoleon takes his seat in the Assembly, Sept. 26. The Constitution of the republic solemnly proclaimed, Nov. 12. Louis Napoleon elected president of the French Republic, Dec. 11. He takes the oath of office, Dec. 20. 1850 Death of Louis Philippe, at Claremont, in England, Aug. 26. Freedom of the press curtailed. 1851 Electric telegraph between England and France opened. The Coup d'Etat. Napoleon dissolves the Assembly and proclaims universal suffrage. Calls for an election of President for ten years. Declares Paris in a state of siege. Arrest of the prime minister, Thiers, and 180 members of the Assembly. The President crushes the opposition, with great loss. of life, Dec. 3, 4. The Coup d'Etat sustained by the people at the polls, and Louis Napoleon reelected President for ten years, Dec. 21, 22; affirmative votes, 7,473,431; negative, 644,351. 1852 Presid~ent Louis Napoleon occupies the Tuileries, Jan. 1. The new constitution published, Jan. 14. Banishment of 83 members of the Assembly, and transportation of nearly 600 persons for resisting coup d'etat. The property of the Orleans family confiscated. The birthday of Napoleon I., Aug. 15, declared the only national holiday. Organization of the Legislative Chambers, the Senate and Corps Legislatif, March 29. The President visits Strasbourg. M. Thiers and the exiles permitted to return to France, Aug. 8. The Senate petitions the President for "the re-establishment of the hereditary sovereign power in the Bonaparte family," Sept. 13. The President visits the Southern and Western Departments, September and October; at Bordeaux utters his famous expression, "The Empire is Peace." The President releases Abd-el-Kader, Oct. 16. Measures for the re-establishment of the empire inaugurated, October and November. The empire re-established by the popular vote, Nov. 21; yeas, 7,839,552; nays, 254,501; the President declared Emperor, and assumes the title of Napoleon III., Dec. 2. 1853 Napoleon marries Eugenie de Montigo, Countess of Teba, Jan. 29. The Emperor releases 4,312 political offenders, Feb. 2. Bread riots in Paris, and other cities. 1853 Death of F. Arago, the astronomer, Oct. 2. Attempt to assassinate the Emperor. 1854 Beginning or the Crimean war. Treaty of Constantinople, March 12. War declared with Russia, March 27. 1855 Emperor and Empress visit England, April. Industrial exhibition opened at Paris, May 15. Pianori attempts to assassinate the Emperor, April 28. Bellemarre attempts to assassinate the Emperor, Sept. 8. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert visit" France, August. 1856 Birth of the Prince Imperial, March 16. Close of the Crimean wai,, and the treaty of Paris, March 30. Terrible inundations in the Southern Departments. 1857 The Archbishop of Paris (Sibour) assassinated by a priest named Merger, June 3. Conference on Neuchatel difficulty, March 15. Conspiracy to assassinate, the Emperor detected, July 11. Visit of the Emperor and Empress to England. Death of Gen. Cavaignac, Oct. 28. The Emperor Napoleon meets the Emperor of Russia, at Stuttgart, Sept. 25. 1858 Orsini and others attempt to kill the Emperor by the explosion of three shells; two persons killed and several wounded, Jan. 24. Passage of the Public Safety Bill. Trial of the Count de Montalembert. The Empire divided into five military departments. Republican outbreak at Chalons crushed. Orsini and Pietri executed for attempting to assassinate the Emperor. Visit of the Queen of England to Cherbourg. Conference, at Paris, respecting the condition of the Danubian principalities. 1859 France declares war against Austria, and sends an army to the aid of Italy, May. 1859 The Empress declared Regent. The Emperor takes command of the army in Italy. Arrives at Genoa, May 12. Battles of Montebello, May 20; Palestro, May 30, 31; Magenta, June 4; Maleghano, June 8, and Solferino, June 24; the allies victorious in each. Armistice arranged, July 6. Meeting of. the Emperors of France and Austria, at Villa Franca, July 11. Preliminary peace effected, July 12. The Emperor Napoleon returns to France, July 17. Peace conference meets at Zurich, for arrangement of treaty between -France and Sardinia and Austria. Peace signed, Nov. 12. I860 France adopts a free trade policy. Commercial treaty with - England signed Jan. 23. Annexation of Savoy and Nice to France. Meeting of the Emperor with the German sovereigns at Baden, June 15-17. Visit of the Emperor and Empress to Savoy, Corsica, and Algiers. The public levying of Peter's pence forbidden, and restrictions placed upon the issuing of pastoral letters. Napoleon makes concessions to the Chambers in favor of freedom of speech. The Pope advised by the Emperor to give up his temporal possessions. 1861 The principality of Monaco purchased for 4,000,000 francs by France. Troubles with the church about the Roman question. Sardinian Boundary treaty, March 7. The government issues a circular forbidding priests to meddle in politics, April 11. Commercial treaty with Belgium ratified. Neutrality declared in the American conflict. France recognizes the kingdom of Italy, June 24. Meeting of the iEmperor and King of Prussia, at Compiegne, Oct. 6. Convention between France, Great Britain and Spain concerning intervention in Mexico. Embarrassment in the Government finances. Achille Fould made minister of finance. 1862 The Mexican expedition begun. The French conquer the province of Bienhoa, in Annam. Six provinces in Cochin China conquered. and ceded to France. The British and Spanish forces withdraw. from the Mexican expedition. War declared against Mexico. Peace effected with Annam. New commercial treaty with Prussia, Aug. 2. Great distress in the manufacturing districts in consequence of the civil war in the United States. 1863 Commercial treaty with Italy. Convention.with Spain for the rectification of the frontier. Growing power of the opposition in the Chambers and throughout the country. The 'elections result in the choice of many opposition deputies, including Thiers, Favre, Ollivier and others. Napoleon proposes a European Conference for the settlement of the questions of the day, Nov. 9. England declines to join the proposed Conference, Nov. 25. The French army conquer Mexico and occupy the capital. 1864 Treaty between France and Japan. Commercial treaty with Switzerland. Convention with Italy respecting the evacuation of Rome, Sent. 15. Establishment of the Mexican empire, with Maximilian, of Austria, as Emperor. Death of Marshal Pelissier, Duke of Malakoff. 1865 The clergy prohibited from reading the Pope's Encyclical in the churches.~ Treaty with Sweden signed. The plan of Minister Duruy, for compulsory education, rejected by the Assembly. Death of the Duke de Mgorny. Visit of the Emperor to Algeria. The English fleet visits Cherbourg and Brest. The French fleet visits Portsmouth. The Queen of Spain visits the Emperor at Biarritz. Students' riot in Paris. Napoleon expresses his detestation of the treaties of 1815, May 6. Proposed peace conference in conjunction with England and Russia for the settlement of the troubles between Prussia, Italy and Austria. Austria refuses to join in it. France declares a "Watchful Neutrality" as to the German-Italian war. Napoleon demands of Prussia a cession of a part of the Rhine provinces. His demand is refused. Austria cedes Venetia to France, who transfers it to Italy. The French occupation of Rome terminated, Dec. 11. Congress at Paris on Roumanian affairs. 1867 Settlement of the Luxemburg question by the London Conference. The great international exposition at- Paris opened April 1. Visit of many crowned heads. Attempted assassination of the Czar of Russia, June 6. 1868 Riots in Bordeaux and Paris, in March and June. 1868 Treaties with Italy, Prussia and Mecklenburg signed. 1869 Serious election riots in Paris. Great radical successes in the elections. The Emperor makes new concessions in favor of the constitutional government. Celebration of the one hundredth birthday of Napoleon the Great. Death of Lamartine, Feb. 28. Resignation of ministry, Dec. 27. 1870 Victor Noir shot by Prince Pierre Bonaparte, Jan. 10. Great riots in Paris, Feb. 8, 9. Discovery of plots against the Emperor's life. Trial and acquittal of Prince Pierre Bonaparte. The Plebiscitum on change of Constitution; affirmative vote secured for Plebiscite, May 8. Nomination of Prince Leopold for Spanish throne creates warlike feeling. Prince Leopold withdraws. Refusal of Prussia to give guarantees to France. War with Prussia declared, July 15. English mediation refused, July 20. Prussians blow up bridge of Kehl. The Emperor takes command of the army. Severe and undecisive engagement at Saarbuck, Aug. 2-4. Defeat of the French at Woerth and Forbach, Aug. 6. Strasburg invested, Aug. 10. Battle of Courcelles, Aug. 14. Decisive victory at Gravelotte, Aug. 18. Bazaine's army shut up in Metz, Aug. '21. Repulse of Germans at Verdun, Aug. 25. Great victory of Prussians at battle of Sedan, Sept. 1. The Emperor Napoleon and the French "0 army made prisoners of war, Sept. 2. Revolution in Paris, and fall of the Empire. Flight of the Empress Eugenie, Sept. 7. 1870 The Republic proclaimed, in Paris, and the Provisional Government] organized, Sept. 7. Paris invested by the Prussians, Sept. 19. Strasburg surrendered, Sept. 27. Metz and French army, under Bazaine, surrender, Oct. 27. Defeat of the French army of the North, Dec. 23. 1871 Rocroy capitulates, Jan. 6. Alencon surrendered, Jan. 17. Paris bombarded by the Prussians. King William of Prussia proclaimed Emperor of Germany, at Versailles, Jan. 18. The armistice and peace signed, Feb. 27. France agrees to give up Alsace, a fifth of Lorraine, with Metz and Thionville, and to pay five millards of francs. Meeting of the Assembly at Bordeaux. Formation of a provisional government. Prussians enter France, March 1. Peace with Germany. Revolt of the Commune, March 18.' The second siege and capture of Paris, March 28. Thiers elected President of the Third Republic. 1872 Reorganization of the government. in France. A large part of the war indemnity paid. Death of the Duke de Persigny, Jan. 12. Commercial treaty with Belgium and England abrogated, Feb. 2. 1873 Death of Napoleon III., at Chiselhurst, England, Jan. 9. New treaty of evacuation signed with Germany, March 15. M. Thiers resigns the presidency, May 24. Marshal MacMahon chosen President of the Republic, May 25. War indemnity paid in full, Sept. 5. Germans evacuate Verdun, Sept. 15. Presidential term fixed at seven years. Bazaine sentenced to twenty years imprisonment for surrender of Metz, Dec. 12. 1874 Execution of communists. Escape of General Bazaine, Aug. 11. Paymnent of the German debt, September. 1875 The legislative body reorganized, and two Chambers created. Passage of a bill for the construction of a tunnel under the English channel. 1876 Meeting of the new Chambers, March 7. Amnesty for communists. New ministry formed by Jules Simon. 1877 Death of M. Thiers, Sept. 8. MacMahon dissolves Chamber of Deputies, June 25. Gambetta prosecuted, Aug. 25. 1878 International Exposition at Paris opened May 1..1879 Resignation of President MacMahon, Jan. 2. M. Jules Grevy elected President by the Senate, Jan. 30. Gambetta becomes President of the Chamber. Waddington forms a new ministry. Communist amnesty bill passed, Feb. 21. Bill to abolish Jesuit colleges introduced by M. Ferry. Prince Louis Napoleon killed in Zululand, Africa, June 1. M. De Freycinet -forms new ministry, to succeed Waddington's, Dec. 21. 1880 Rejection of educational bills of'M. Ferry, March 9. Jesuit, and other orders, dissolved by national decree.. General amnesty bill passed, July 3. New ministry formed by Jules Ferry, Sept. 20. 1881 Elections favorable to the government. $200,000,000 loan taken up three times ~ over. France invades Tunis, and treaty with Bey signed, May 12, by which the republic gains virtual suzerainty. Ratification by Senate, May 23. Great excitement' produced in Italy. Gambetta enthusiastically received at Cahors, May 25. Rejection of semtin de liste, May. 9. Gambetta. premier on resignation of Ferry's cabinet. 1882 Resignation of Gambetta's ministry, Jan. 30. Freycinet Prime Minister; resigns, July 29. Rejection of vote of credit to protect Suez Canal. Disastrous floods in France, Aug. 6. Duclere succeeds in forming a new ministry, Aug. 7. Death of Louis Blanc, aged 71, Dec. 6. Death of Leon Gambetta, aged 42, Dec. 24. 1883 Arrest of Prince Napoleon charged with sedition, Jan. 16; released, Feb. 9. Resignation of the Duclerc ministry. M. Faillieres Prime Minister, Jan. 29. Death of Gustave Dore, aged 50, Jan. 23. Passage of the expulsion bill, Feb. 1. Jules Ferry forms a new ministry, Feb. 21. Commencement of hostilities with Madagascar; bombardment of Majunga, May 16; bombardment of Tamatave, Madagascar, June 13. Blockade of Tonquin by. French fleet, September. Apology offered by President Grevy to King Alfonso, Sept. 30. Gen. Thibaudin resigns office of Minister of War, Oct. 5. 1884 Treaty between France and China signed, May 11. France commences hostilities by bombardment and capture of Kelung, Aug. 6. Serious outbreak of cholera at Toulon. 1885 Langson, China, captured by the French, Feb. 12. ( Peace concluded with China, April 6, and treaty signed of Tientsin, June 9. 1885 Death of Victor Hugo, aged 83, March 22. 1887 Burning of the Theatre Comique, 100 lives lost, May 25. Fall of President Grevy, Dec. 2. M. Sadi Carnot elected President, Ded.. 3. 1888 Remains of Napoleon III. and the Prince Imperial removed to Farmsborough. 1889 Centennial of French revolution celebrated, May 5. Paris Exposition opened, May 6. 1890 Cabinet, with M. de Freyeinet, March 16. 1891 Russia bestows decoration on President Carnot, March. 1893 Panama Canal frauds exposed, many prominent men imprisoned. Court of Cassation quashed the sent enc" of the Panama Canal swindlers, and all released from jail, except Chas. de Lesseps. France gives Siam an ultimatum, which was accepted, June 29. M.arshal MacMahon, ex-president, died, Oct. 17. 1894 -President Sadi Carnot assassinated at Lyons by an anarchist. Casimir-Perier elected president, bit resigned shortly after and was succeeded by Felix Fa,.-(. 1895 French army succeeds in capturing Madagascar. 1899 Dreyfus case creates great excitement. Capt. Dreyfus pardoned, Sept. 19. Emile Loubet elected President, Feb. IS. J000 Theatre Francais, Paris, btrned, March 8. 1901 Santos-Dumont wins prize for steerable balloon, November. 1906 C. A. Falliers elected President of Fijrance. F I

Page  101 m SUPPLEMENT XVIII. ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTOY L JL 1910 French steamer "General Chanzy" wrecked, 156 persons drowned. The Seine river flood at Paris; damage Sestimated at over $200,000,000. 1912 French senate adopted military aviation program. to cost $5,000-,000 a year. AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 1772 Austria acquires Galicia, and other provinces, from Poland. 17S5 Vassalage abolished in Hungary. 17 92 War with France beg~ins. 1-793 The Austrians victorious at the battles of Neerwinden and Quesnoy.. 1795 The Austrians defeated at the battle of Loano. 17'96 Disastrous defeats sustained. against Bonaparte at Monte-notte, Lodi, Badstadt, Roseredo, and else-where. 2797 Treaty of Campo Formio. The Emperor- surrenders Lombardy to Napoleon, and obtains Venice. 1799 Additional defeats at Zurich and Bergen. 1800} Defeat of Austrians by the French at the battles of Engen, May 3.; Montebhello, June 9; Marengo, June 14; Hochstadt, June 19; fHoh~enlinden, Dec. 3; and Mineio, 1801 Treaty of Luneville; loss of more Austrian territory. 1.804 Francis 11. of Germany becomes Francis 1. of Austria. 1805 War with France declared by Francis. General Ney defeats Austrians at Elehin-. gen and Ulm. S Capture of Vienna by Napoleon. Battle of Austerlitz. Complete defeat of Austrians and Rus-" sians. '1805 Treaty of Presburg. Austria surrenders the Tyrol and Venice. The French evacuate Vienna. The Germanic Confederation dissolved. The Austrian King abdicates. 1809 Battle of Ahensberg; defeat of Austrians. Second capture of Vienna, by the French; the city restored Oct. 24. 1810, Marriage of the Archduchess Maria. Louise, daughter of Francis IL., to Napoleon L., April 1. 1814 Downfall of Napoleon. Congress of sovereigns at Vienna. 1815' Treaty of Vienna. Austria regains her Italian provinces, - with additions.. The Lomnbardo-Venetian' kingdom established. 182.5 Hungarian Diet assembles. 1835 Death of Francis I.; Ferdinand 1. succeeds him. 1838 Treaty of comnmerce with England. Ferdinand 1. crowned Emperor at Milan. IL848 Insurrection at Vienna. Flight of Prince Metternich, March 1-3. Insurrections in Italy, which are crushed. Another insurrection at Vienna. The Emperor flees to Inspruck, May 15 -17. The Archduke John appointed Vicar-General of the Empire, May 29. A Constitutional Assembly meets at Vienna,- July 22.. Third insurrection in Vienna. Count Latour murdered, Oct. 6. S War with Sardinia. Revolution in Hungary. Imperial troops capture Raab and defeat Hungarians, at Szikiszo and Mohr. The Emperor Ferdinand abdicates in fa Emperor. 1857 Quarrel with Sardinia, and diplomatic relations suspended. The Danubian provinces evacuated. Visit of the Emperor and Empress to.Hungary. 1859 War with France and Sardinia. Austrians cross the.Ticino and enter Piedmont. Austrians defeated at Montebello, May 20,ý Palestro, May 30, 31. Napoleon III. declares war with Austria, Ma y 3 1. Battles of Magenta, June 4;" elegnano, June 8, and Solferino, June 24, in all of which Austria suffers defeat. Death of Prince Metternich. Armistice between the Austrians and the allies agreed upon, July 6. Meeting of the Emperors of France and Austria, July 11. Peace of Villa Franca, July 12. Austria surrenders Lombardy to Sardinia. Further troubles in Hungary; fears of a revolution. The Emperor grants increased privileges to the Protestants. Treaty of Zurich, Nov. 10; permanent peace with France and Sardinia. 1860 The Emperor removes the disabilities of the Jews. The meeting of the Reichsrath, the great imperial council or diet, May 31. Austria protests against the annexation of the Italian duchies by the King of Sardinia. The liberty of the pres's further retained; renewed troubles in Hungary. The Reiehsrath granted legislative powers, the control of the finances, etc. 1861 Amnesty granted for political offenses in Hungary, Croatia, etc. Great disaffection throughout the Empire caused by the reactionary policy of the court. The new Constitution for the Austrian monarchy published. Civil and political rights granted to Protestants thlroughout the Empire, except in Hungary and Venice. 1861 No deputies present from Hungary, Croatia, Transylvania, Venice, or Istria, at meeting of the Reiehsrath, April 29. The Hungarians demand the restoration of the Constitution of 1848. The new liberal Constitution for the empire fails to satisfy Hungary. Military levy taxes in Hungary. Entire independence refused Hungary by the Emperor, July 21. The Diet of Hungary protests, Aug. 20, and -is dissolved, Aug. 2.1. The magistrates at Pesth resign. Military government established in Hungary' in December. 1862. Amnesty granted to Hungarian re~voluStionists. Cessation of prosecutions, Nov. 19. Ministry of Marine created. 1862 The principle -njinisteriaI responsibility adopted in the imperial government. Great reduction of the armny. A personal liberty (a kind of habeas corpus) bill passed. Serious inudations throughout the empire.. 1863 Unsuccessful insurrection in Poland. Transylvania accepts the constitution and sends deputies to the Reichsrath. German sovereigns meet at Frankfort. Federal Constitution reformed. 1864 Galicia and Cracow declared in a state of siege. War with Denmark, about SchleswigHolstein; meeting of the Emperor with King of Prussia, June 22; peace with Denmark, Oct. 30. Austria supports the German Confederation in the dispute respecting the duchies. 1865 Great financial difficulties in the empire; reforms resolved upon. Concessions made to Hungary, and a more liberal manner of governing the empire introduced. Convention of. Gastein with Prussia for the disposal of the Danish duchies. Austria receives the temporary government of Holstein, and the. promise of 2.,500,000 Danish dollars from Prussia. Rescript of the Emperor suppressing the Constitution for the purpose of grantSin- independence to Hungary. The Emperor -visits Pesth, Hungary. Dissatisfaction in the rest of the emnpire. 1866 Quarrel with Prussia, Bavaria, HesseCassel, Saxony, Hanover, Wurtemnburg, and Hesse-Darmstadt on the Holstein question. Nassau and Frankfort allied with Austria. The German-Italian war between Austria enters. Silesia. The Italians defeated by the Archduke Albrecht, June 2.4, at battle of Custova. The Prussians occupy Saxony and invade Bohemia. Defeat of the Austrians at battle of Nachos,. June 27. Battle of SRaiitz; -decisive defeat; of the Austrian army, under Benedek, at Sadown, July 3. Venetia ceded to France,- July 4, and intervention, requested. Great victory by the Austrian fleet over the Italian fleet, at Lissa, July 20. An armistice agreed upon between Austria. and Prussia, July 22; peace of Nicholsburg, Aug. 30. Hanover., Hesse-Cassel, Nassau and Frankfort gained by Prussia. Austria retires from the German Confederation. Baron Von Beust made prime minister. The Emperor makes great concessions to Galicia. 1867 A new and very liberal Constitution for the empire adopted. Hungary constituted an Independent kingdom. Andrassy elected President of Hungarian Diet. The Emperor and Empress of Austria crowned King and Queen of H.ungary, at Pesth, June S. 1868 The clergy of the Roman Catholic church made amenable to the civil law. Civil marriage authorized. The State assumes the control of secular education. 1-869 Serious outbreaks in Dalmatia against conscription. 1870 The Concordat -repealed. Neutrality declared in the Franco-Prussian war. Bitter contest between national and fed 1874 Reforms in the empire. Visit of the Emperor to Russia. Ecclesiastical laws of Austria condemned by' the Pope. Death of Ferdinand -, ex-Emperor. 1875 Visit of the Emperor to 'Italy. Great financial crisis. Change in the bed of the Danube. 1876 New marriage law proclaimed. Austria takes. a leading part in the eastern question. Neutrality declared in Servian.war. 1877 Austria remains neutral in the Turkish war. 1878 Andrassy represents Austria in the Berlin Conference. Occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and war with the former. 1879 Resign ation of Count Andrassy. 1881 The Archduk~e Rudolph mna rries the Princess Stephanie, Belgium. 1883 Raab, Hungary, inundated by the rising. of the Danube; many lives lost, Jan. 9. 1884 Burning of the Stadt Theatre, Vienna, May 16. 1885 Meeting of the Emperor and the Czar of Russia at Kremsier, Aug. 925. Meeting of the Emperor with the Eraperor of Germany at Gastein, Aug. 6. 1889 Crown Prince suicides,' Jan. 30. Emperor Franceis Joseph visits Berlin, Aug. 12. 1890 The Rothsehilds protest against the persecution of the Jews, May 11. 1891 Austro-German new comm-ercial treaty, April 2. 1904 Members Hungarian House wrecked Chamber in riot, Dec. 13. 1898 Elizabeth, Empress of Austria, assassinated, Sept. 10.' 1908- Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary, October. 1909 Threatened war with Servia, averted after war preparations had been made. SCANDINAVIA. Most of Norway was united under Harold Haarfager about the end of the ninth century. 1365 Albert of Mecklenburg became king of Sweden. 1385 Margaret ' the Semiramis of the North,' become Queen of Denmark. This great princess died in 1412. 1387 Norway and Denmark became confederate kingdoms, under one ruler, and remained so until 1814. 1407 By the Treaty of Calmar, Sweden joined ~ the confederacy or Scandinavian kingdom. 1.448 Christian 1. of Oldenburg became king and added Schleswig and Holstein to the kingdom. 1520 Sweden revolted from- the foreign yoke and under Gustavus Vasa, her future king-, became in~lependent in 1523. Gustavus Vasa. died in 1560. 152.3 Lutheran religion established in Denmark. 1537 Catholoeism suppressed and church landýs annexed to the crown..1611 Gustavus Adolphus, the Lion King of the North and Bulwark of Protestantism in Germany, became king of Sweden. He was an important factor in the Thirty Years' War and was- killed at the battle of Lutzen in 1-632. 1[664 Charles XII. became king of Sweden. After engaging in successful war with Russia he was defeated by Peter the Great at Pultowa in 1709 and became a f ugitive. 1792 Gustavus 111. assassinated and succeeded by Gustavus IV. The latter being insane, was dethroned. 1809 Charles XIII. succeeded to the throne of Sweden. 1810 For want of a legitimate heir, Bernadotte, prince of Ponte Corvo, one of N~apoleon's marshals, was elected' crown prince of Sweden. ILS14 Norway taken from Denmark and given to Sweden as indemnity for her losses in, Finland by the, allies, anid Laurenberg was given to Denmark in exchange. 1.818 Bernadotte ascended the throne of Sweden and Norway, where his descendants are still seated. 1863 Insurrection- in -Schleswig-Holstein and Laurenberg, assisted by Prussia and Austria, resulted in the loss of these provinces to Denmark.. Christian IX. crowned king of Denmark. '-8L72 Oscar II. ascended the throne of Sweden and Norway. 1893 Viking ship built at Christiana, Sw~eden, and sailed for the World's Fair at Chicago, April 9. Dr. Nansen, the Are-. tic explorer, sailed from Christiana, June 24. 1906 Frederick VITI succeeded to the throne of Denmark, Jan. 29. 1911 Discovery of South Pole by Capt. Roald Amundsen. 191[2 Frederick VIII. died; and Christian X. proclaimed kding of Denmark, May 15, at Copenhagen....... GERMANY._ _ 1765 Joseph IT. becomes Emperor. 1766 Lorraine ceded to France. 1769 Convention between Prussia and Austria. 1772 Germany shares in the partition of Poland. 17S8 War with Turkey. 1790 Leopold 11. becomes Emperor. 1-791 Conference between the Emperor and Frederick of Prussia. 1792 Accession of Francis IT. of Austria. 1793 Revolt in the. Rhenish provinces. Prussians seize Dantzic and acquire Posen. 1795 Warsaw ceded to Prussia in the division of Poland. War with France. 1797' Accession of Frederick William III., of.Prussia. 1801 Prussians seize Hanover. Treaty of Luneville; Germany loses the Netherlands, the Italian states and tera ritories west of the Rhine. 1804 Francis IT. renounces the title of Emperor of Germany, and assumes that of Emperor of Austria. IS05 Treaty of Vienna. Napoleon establishes the kingdoms of Wurtemburg and Bavaria. 1806 Dissolution of the German Empire. Formation of the Confederation of the Rhine. Prussians seize Hanover. War declared against Napoleon, Sept. 24. Battles of Auerstadt and Jena; French enter Berlin, Oct. 21. 1807 The kingdom of Westphalia established by Napoleon. Treaty of Tilsit between France and Prussia. 1808 Serfdom abolished in Prussia. 1810 North Germany annexed to France. 1812 An alliance concluded with Austria and Russia. 1813 The War of Liberation, against Napoleon, begins. The French evacuate Berlin, March 4. War declared against France, March 16. Silesia invaded by Napoleon,. May 31.' N/ey defeated by Blucher at Katzbaeh, Aug. 16. Allies completely defeat Napoleon at Leipsie, Oct. 16. 1814 France invaded by the allies. Battles of Brienne, Creon, 'and Laon. 1815 Congress of Vienna. Final overthrow of Napoleon, Formation of the Germanic Confederation. 1817 Insurrection in Breslau put down. ISIS The Zollverein (commercial union) f ormed. 1819 Anti -revolutionary Congress of Carlsbad. 1832 Death of Goethe, German poet. 1833 Other German states join the Zollverein. 1834 Thuringia and Saxony join the Zoll-. verein., 1840 Accession of Frederick William IV., of Prussia. IS44 Attempted assassination of the Prussian King. 1848 Insurrection in Berlin, and revolutionary movements throughout Germ~any. German National Assembly meets in Frankfort. 1849 The German National Assembly elects the King of Prussia Emperor of Germany, March 28. Be declines the honor, and recalls the Prussian members of the Assembly. Frankfort Assemnbly removes to StutUtgart. Austria protests against alliance of Prussia and smaller German States, 1850. stitution against Prussia. Hol stein -Seh leswig dispute with Denmark. 1861 Death of Frederick William IV.; accession of William I.L National Assembly meets at Heidelberg. Attempted assassination of the King' 1862 The National Assembly, at Berlin, declares in favor of unification. Bismarck becomes Prime Minister. I 1863 The Lower House closed, for the second time, by Williamn I. German states, except Prussia, meet at Frankfort, and approve a plan of federal reform. 1864 The quarrel with Denmark results in war with that kingdom. The Danes are defeated and forced to surrender the duchies. Peace restored, Oct. 30. 1865 The Gastein convention. It gives great offence to the German Diet. Prussia and Austria called upon to give up Holstein, which they refuse. 1866 War between Prussia and Austria, and their respective allies. Austria defeated. Saxony and Holstein invaded by Prussia. Prussia mnahes peace with the several German states. North German Confederation formed, Aug. IS. 1867 Formation of the new Zollverein includes (I Bavaria, Wurtemburg-, Baden, Hesse,,86 Darmstadt,- and Prussia. 18" outh German military commission appointed..1870 France declares war against Germany. Munich, Stuttgart, and other cities, declare for union with North Germany. Bavaria, Wurtemburg, Hesse, Darmistadt and Baden support Prussia. Invasion of France by the Germnans. Unparalleled success of the German troops. The Emperor Napoleon Ill. and two French armies made prisoners by the Germans. North German Parliament opens at Berlin, Nov. 24. The German empire formed. The Imperial- Crown offered to the King of Prussia, Dec. 10. 1871 King William L., of Prussia, proclaimed Emperor of Germany at Versailles. Prince Bismarck becoides Chancellor. Successful close of the French war. The Germans occupy Paris, and deprive France of Alsace and Lorraine. Treaty of peace with France 'ratified, May 16. Triumphal entry of the victorious German army into Berlin, June 16. German Parliament opened by- the Emperor, Oct. 16. 1872. The Jesuits expelled from the empire, July 5. MIeeting of the Emperors of Germany, Russia, and Austria, at Berlin, Sept. 6. Bismarck resigns the premiership of Prussia. IS73 National Liberals succeed in the elections. Troubles with the Roman Catholic church. Monetary reform law passed, June 23. Germany receives the'last payment of the French indemnity, Sept. 5. IS74 Civil marriage bill passed. New military and press laws.' Attempt to assassinate Prince Von Bismarck, July 13. Bismarck resigns chancellorship, Dec. 16. Resignation -withdrawn upon receiving a vote of cohfidenee. 1-875' The Imperial Bank bill adopted. Visit of the Emperor to Italy, Aug. 17. Government aid withdrawn from Catholic clergy. 1876 Germany takes part in the Eastern question. Visit of Queen Victoria to Berlin. Trouble with Roman Catholic Church. Inundations in Prussia. The Czar of Russia visits Germany. 1880 Small states outvote Prussia, Saxony and Bavaria on stamp duties. Bismarck resigns a third time, and the states yield. "New Liberal" party formed, August. 1881 German Reichstag opened, Feb. 16. The -Liberals successful in the October.elections. 1S82 Imperial rescript of Jan. 4 asserts extreme rights of the Emperor, and slight constitutional restraints; rescript modified by explanation. Disastrous floods in Germany, Dec. 6. 1883 Grand celebration in Berlin upon the twenty-fifth anniversary of the marriage of the Crown Prince and Princess. The Emperor appoints the King of Spain to the command of the Schleswig-Holstein Uhlan regiment, Sept. 27. Death of William R. Wagner, German composer, aged 69, Feb. 1-3. 1884 Conference of the Great Powers upon Egyptian finances, Aug. 2.. Germany occupies the Caroline Islands'. Aug. 20. Death of Prince Frederick ChAsles of Prussia, aged 57, June 15. Convention between Prussia and Austria. 1887 Septennate army bill passed, MVarch 11. Ecclesiasotical bill passed, April 27. 1888 Death of Emperor William, March 9. Frederick III. becomes Emperor, March 11. Wilhelm II., Emperor, June 18. 1889 Samoan Agreement signed, June 14. IS90 Von Caprivi succeeds Bismarck as chancellor, March 19. Heligoland transferred to Germany by England, Aug. 9. 1891[ The Empress Friedrich visits Paris, Feb. Rigid passport regomlations enforced in Alsace Lorraine. Death of Gen. Von Moltkie, April 24. 1893 Princess Margaret, sister of the Emperor, weds Prince Charles Frederick of Hesse, Jan. 2.5. U~nveiling of the statue of. William 1. at Bremen. 1894 Caprivi resig-ns the' chancellorship of the Empire and is succeeded by Prince. von Hohenlohe. 1895 Grand celebration by Germhan veterans of the twenty-fifth, anniversaries. of Gravelotte, Sedan, etc. ~ Celebration and naval demonstration' at Kiel on account of the openin~g of the great canal connecting the Baltic with the North Sea. 189S Prince Bismarck died, July 30. 1905 Great coal strike, January. a910 Great flood in Ahr valley, June 12; 200 lives lost. 1912 German fleet made friendly visit to United States. Greater Berlin's first mayor elected.. Great coal strike. PRUSSIA. 1780 Death of Frederick the Great, Aug. 17. 1792 War with France in consequence of the French revolution. Battle of Vahrny, Sept. 20. Decisive defeat of the Prussian army. of invasion, 1793 Prussia seizes Dantzic and acquires Posen.:1795 Warsaw ceded to Prussia. in the partition of Poland. 1797 Frederick William III., of Prussia,. becomes Emperor of Germany. 1801 Prussians seize Hanover. 1805 Treaty of Vienna. Downfall of the' German Empire. 1806 Prussia seizes Hanover) Posen. Prussia joins the alliance against France. Battles of Jena and Auerstadt. Prussia succumbs' to Napoleon. Napoleon issues the Berlin decree. 1807[ Peace of Tilsit. Napoleon restores one-half of his dominions to the King of Prussia. I808 Convention of Berlin. Serfdom abolished in Prussia. 1812 Prussia concludes an alliance with Russia and Austria. 1813 The French evacuate Berlin, March 4. The War of Liberation beguan. Uprising of the people. The "Landwehr" formied. Battle of Leipsie, Oct. 16. 1814 The allies invade France. Complete defeat of Napoleon. The Prussians oeccupy the French capital. Treaty of Paris. 1815 Congress of Vienna; Germanic C~onfederation formed. Prussia enters, the Holy Alliance. 1817 Establishment of the Ministry of Education. 1818 Formation of the Prussian Zollverein. 1819 Congress of Carlsbad. Death of Marshal Blucher, Sept. 12. 1840 Accession of Frederick William IV., of Prussia. 1844 Attempt to assassinate the King of Prussia. 1848 Revolution of 1848. Berlin declared in a stage of siege, Nov. 12. The Constituent Akssernbly meets in Brandenburgh Castle, Nov. 29. The King dissolves the Assembly, and. issues a new Constitution, Dec. 5. 1849 The German National Assembly offer the Imperial Crown of Germany to the King of Prussia, March 2S.8. He declines -it, April 29. Martial law declared throughout the kingdom, May 10. Occupation of Carlsruhe by the Prussians, June 23. The revolution in Baden completely crushed. IS50 The King takes the oath to the new Constitution, Feb..6. Attempt to assassinate the King, May 22.. Treaty of peace with Denmark. Prussia refuses to join the restricted Diet of Frankfort. P'russia warns Austria of her intention to uphold the Constitution in HesseCassel, Sept. 21. The Prussian army occupies Hesse, Nov. 12. The Prussian troops withdraw from Baden, Nov. 14. The Convention of Olmutz removes the cause of the trouble, and restores peace to Germany, Nov. 29.9 1851 Visit of the King to Russia. 1852 The King re-establishes the Council of Royal of England. 1859 Franco-Italian war. Prussia remains neutral, but threatening. 1860 Federal Diet maintains Hesse-Cassel Constitution against Prussia. 1861 William I. becomes King upon the death, of his brother, Frederick William IV., inan. 2. National Association meets at Heidelberg. S Becher,' a Leipzig student, attempts to assassinate the King. The King and Queen crowned at Konigsberg., 1862 The National Asembly at Berlin declares in favor of unification. The government defeated in the" elections. Count Bismarck Sehonhausen made Premier. The Chamber informed by him, that the Budget is deferred until 1863; protest of the deputies against this as unconstitutional, Sept. 30. The Budget passed by the Chamber of Peers without the amendment of the Chamber The Chamber declares the act of the Peers -unconstitutional, Oct. 11[. Close of the session of the Chambers by the King, Oct. 13. 1863 Continuation of the quarrel between the Government and the Chamber. The King closes the session a second time, and resolves to govern without a Parliament, May 27. 1-863 Severe, restrictions imposed upon the press, June 1. The Crown Prince disavows participation in the recent action of the min-, istry, June ~5 decree recalled. IS64 War with Denmark about the Danish duchies, Holstein invaded by Prussia. Denm~ark ports blockaded. Denmiark forced to give up the duchies, and make peace. Treaty signed, Oct. 80. 1865 Quarrel between the government and the Chamber of Deputies over the army budget. The budget being rejected the king proroggiies the parliament, and declares he will ridoe without it. The King arbitrarily seizes and disposes of the revenue, July 5. Convention. of Gastein. Bismarck visits Napoleon III., at Paris. 1866, The Diet demands the surrender of Hblstein by. Prussia and Austria, which they refuse. Prussian treaty with Belgium. Attempt on Bismarck's life, May 7. War with Austria and her allies. Battle of Sadowa, total defeat of Austrians. ý 4 m

Page  102 I SUPPLEMENT XIX. ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. I I 1866 Treaty of peace with several German states and Austria. Formation of the North German Confederation, under the leadership of Prussia. Hanover annexed to Prussia. 1867 Extraordinary session of the Prussian Diet. First meeting of the new German Parliament. 1868 Prussia passes the Rhine navigation treaty. 1870 France declares war against Prussia. Prussia receives the support of German States. France invaded by the German army under command of Ring William, of Prussia. (See Germany and France.) The King of Prussia elected Emperor of Gernimany. 1871 King William proclaimed Emperor of Germany and crowned at Versailles, Jan. 18. Trouble with the Roman Catholic clergy. 1872 Creation of the nev, peers by the government to carry its measures in parliamenict. 1873 Troubles with the Roman Catholic bishops. The stamp tax. 1874 Troubles with the Roman Catholic bishops. S The Old Catholic bishops given salaries by the government. Attempt to assassinate Bismarck, -July 13. 1875 Conference of the Roman Catholic bishops at Fulda. Religious agitation in Prussia. Government aid withdrawn from Catholic clergy. New Constitution adopted by the Protestant State Church. 1876 The German made the official language in Prussian Poland. Deposition of Catholic bishops in Munster and Cologne. Great inundations in Prussia. (See Germany.) GREAT BRITAIN and IRELAND 1765 American Stamp Act passed, March 22. Death of the Pretender, at Rome. Percy's Reliques published. 1766 Birth of Isaac Disraeli; died 1848. 1768 Bruce's travels. Academy of arts founded. 1769 Letters of Junius. Watt's engine. Arkwright's Jenny. Birth of the painter, Lawrence; died 1830. 1770 Lord North's ministry. Cook's voyages in the South Sea. 1771 English debates reported. Birth of Sir Walter Scott; died 1832. 1772 Warren Hastings in India. 1774 Suicide of Lord Clive. 1775 Commencement of the American Revolution (see United States). Birth of Charles Lamb; died 1835. 1776 "Wealth of Nations" decline and fall. 1777 Royal Marriage Act. Birth of T. Campbell; died 1844.. 1778 Death of the Earl of Chatham. Relief bill for Irish Catholics passed. Birth of H. Hallam; died 1859. 1779 Rodney's victories. Eliot at Gibraltar. 1780 Lord George Gordon's "No Popery" riots, in London. Birth of Channing; died 1842. 1781 Trial and acquittal of Gordon. 1782 England acknowledges the independence of the United States, Nov. 30. Lord Rockingham's second ministry. Grattan's Irish. Constitution. 1783 Coalition ministry. England wars with Tippoo-Saib. 1784 Settlement of Upper Canada. Birth of Sheridan Knowles; died 1862. 1785 Birth of De Quincy; died 1860. 1786 Attempted assassination of the King by Margaret Nicholson (insane). Birth of Dr. Chalmers; died 1842. 1788 Trial of Warren Hastings. Birth of Lord Byron; died 1824. j London Times founded. Birth of Sir H. Davy; died 1829., 1790 Boswell's Johnson published. 1791 Birmingham riots. Paine and "People's Friend." 1792 First coalition against France. 1793 England begins war -with France. 1794 Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act. English expedition to Dunkirk; Lord Howe's victory over the French fleet. 1795 Acquittal of Warren Hastings, April 23. Birth of Carlisle; died 1881. Cape of Good Hope doubled. Prince of Wales marries Caroline of Brunswick. Orange clubs formed in London. 1796 England takes the Spice Islands. Birth of Princess Charlotte. 1797 Cash payments suspended, Feb. 27.' Death of Edmund Burke, July 29. "The Anti-Jacobin." 1798 Battle of the Nile; great victory of Lord Nelson over the French fleet. Habeas Corpus Act again suspended. Sidney Smith at Acre. Great Irish rebellion; defeat of the Irish. Battle of Kilcullen, May 23. Battle of Antrim; victory of the English. 1799 Irish rebellion completely suppressed. 1800 Hatfield attempts to assassinate the King. Malta taken. Birth of Lord Macaulay; died 1859. 1801 Union of Great Britain and Ireland. Nelson's victory at Copenhagen. Habeas Corpus again suspended, April 19. Peace of Amiens, Oct. 1. 1802 Birth of Landseer, painter; died 1873. 1803 War declared against France. Mahratta India War. Emmet's insurrection in Ireland. Execution of Emmet, Sept. 20. 1805 Battle of Trafalgar, Oct. 21; victory and death of Nelson. Birth of Lord Beaconsfield. 1806 Birth of William E. Gladstone. ] Deaths of William Pitt and Charles James Fox. 1807 Orders in Council against the Berlin Decree, Jan. 7. The African slave trade abolished, March 25. Death of Cardinal Henry Stuart, claimant of the English Crown. ] 1809 Wellesley passes the Duro. Battle of Corunna, Jan. 16. "Quarterly Review" founded. Impeachment of the Duke of York. Walcheren expedition, August. Death of Sir John Moore. Investigation into conduct of Princess Caroline. Birth of C. Darwin; died 1882. Birth of Alfred Tennyson. 1810 The King declared insane, Nov. 3. Great financial crisis. 1 Irish agitation for repeal of the union. 1811 The Prince of Wales declared Regent, Feb. 5. Suddite riots, Nov. - The Roman Catholic Board formed by Daniel O'Connell, Dec. 26. 1, 1l 18 18: IS: 18] IS: 18] 182 182 182 182 182 182' 1829 1821 18S3 1831 1832 1834 1835 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856.857 858 811 Birth of William M. Thackeray; died 1863. 812 English storm Ciudad, Redirgo and Badajos. Lord Liverpool Premier. Assassination of Mr. Percival, the Prime Minister, by Bellingham, in the House. Beginning of the second war with the United States, June 18. Birth of Charles Dickens; died 1870. Birth of Robert Browning. 314 Peace with France. Peace with the United States. Birth of Charles Reade. Treaty of Ghent, Dec. 14. 15 France renews war with the allies. Battle of Waterloo, and final overthrow of Napoleon I., June 18. Peace with France. Insurrection in Tipperary, Ireland. Princess Charlotte marries Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg. 16 Agricultural and Weaver riots. 17 Specie payments resumed. IHabeas Corpus act again suspended. Death of Princess Charlotte, Nov. 6. Trial of Lord Howe and acquittal. [8 Birth of J. Anthony Froude. 19 Queen Victoria born, May 24. Peel's Currency Act. Birth of Ruskin. 20 Death of George III., Jan. 29. Cato Street conspiracy discovered, Feb. 20. Trial of Queen Caroline. Birth of Herbert Spencer. Birth of George McDonald. Death of Queen Caroline, Aug. 7. Great outrages in Ireland.:1 George IV. crowned, July 19. 2 King George IV. visits Scotland., "Whiteboy" outrages in Ireland. Suicide of Castlereagh. 3 First Mechanics' Institute held. Agitation about tests and corporation acts. 4 English-Burmese war. Death of Lord Byron in Greece. 5 The great commercial crisis. First railroad in England. Thames tunnel commenced. Birth of Wilkie Collins. 7 Lord Canning Prime Minister. Lord Palmerston Foreign Secretary. 8 Battle of Navarino. The allies defeat the Turkish and Egyptian fleets. 9 Roman Catholic Relief Bill passed, April 13. Great riots in London. 0 Death of George IV. William IV. mounts the throne, June 26. Mlinistry of the Duke of Wellington. Opening of the Liverpool and Manchester railway. I The new London bridge opened. The reform bill rejected by the Lords,' Oct. 7. Riots in Bristol, Oct. 29. Earl Grey's ministry. 2 Passage of the English Reform Bill, June 1. Death of Sir Walter Scott, Sept. 2. Passage of the Irish Reform Bill, Aug. 7. SSlavery ceases in the colonies. Trades union and repeal riots. Lord Melbourne's ministry.. Corporation Reform Act passed, Sept. 9. Sir Walter Peel Prime Minister. SDeath of William IV. Victoria succeeds to the throne, June 20. Hanover separated from Great Britain. SQueen Victoria crowned, June 28. Irish Poor Law bill passed, July 81. Viscount Melbourne's ministry. ) England at war with China. Assassination of Lord Northbury in Ireland. ) Pemny postage inaugurated. The Queen marries Prince Albert of SaxeCoburg, Feb. 10. Oxford's assault on the Queen, June 10. Birth of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, Nov. 10. Ministry of Sir Robert Peel. John Francis attempts to kill the Queen, May 20; a second attempt by Bean, June 3. Income tax established, August. Peace with China, December. Queen Victoria visits France. The Emperor of Russia and King of the French visit England. Trial of O'DonnelI, at Dublin, for sedition; his conviction, fine and imprisonment, and subsequent release from prison, September. Sir Robert Peel's new tariff. ] Great famine in Ireland. Puseyite or Tractarian controversy. Anti-corn law agitation. Great railroad speculations. Repeal of the corn laws, June 26. Great commercial panic. Food riots in Tipperary. Russell forms new ministry. Death of O'Connell, May 15. $50,000,000 expended by the government for relief of Irish sufferers. Chartist demonstrations in London. Irish rebellion, headed by Smith, O'Brien, Meagher, and others, suppressed, and the leaders condemned to death, Oct. 9. Cholera in Ireland. Sentence of Irish insurgents commuted to transportation. Irish Encumbered Estates Act passed. Cholera reappears in England. The Queen visits Ireland. Death of Sir Robert Peel, and the Duke of Cambridge. Pate assaults the Queen. The first "Great Exhibition" opened, May 1. 1 First gold arrives from Australia. Death of Wellington, Sept. 14. Great riots in Belfast. Aberdeen becomes Prime Minister. English and French fleets enter the Bosphorus, Oct. 22. Protocol between England, Austria, France and Prussia signed, Dec. 5. Alliance between England, France, and Turkey, March 12. War declared against Russia, March 28. Crystal Palace opened by the Queen, June 10. Treaty with the United States, regarding fishery claims. Resignation of the Aberdeen ministry, Jan. 2. Lord Palmerston appointed Prime Minis- I ter. Visit of the Emperor and Empress of France to England. The Queen and Prince Albert visit 1 France. Peace with Russia proclaimed, April 19. War with China (q. v.) England at war with Persia. Herat taken by Persians, Oct. 25. English take Bushire, Dec. 10. Beginning of the Indian mutiny (see India). Great commercial panic; it is relieved by the suspension of the Bank Charter Act of 1844. Persian war closed by treaty of Teheran. Herat restored. Marriage of the Princess Royal to Prince Frederick William of Prussia, Jan. 25. Derby-Disraeli ministry formed, Feb. 26. Jewish disabilities removed, July 23. The Conspiracy and Volunteer bills passed. 11 The India Bill passed,. Aug. 2. 1i 18 18 18( 18f 186 186 1861 1861 1867 1869 1870 [871 1872 1873 874 875 876 i58 The government of the East India Company ceases, Sept. 1. 359 England declares her neutrality in the Austro-Italian war. Derby ministry defeated on the reform bill. Organization of volunteer forces. Palmnerston-Russell ministry formed June 18. Lord Palmnerston resigns and returns. Lord Stanley Secretary for India. 60 Commercial treaty with France. Peace effected with China, Oct. 24. The Prince of Wales visits the United States and Canada. 61 Death of the Duchess of Kent, the Queen's mother. Complications with the United States over the seizure of IMessrs. Mason and Slidell, from a British mail steamer, by the U. S. steamer "San Jacinto," Nov. 8. They are released by the U. S. government, Dec. 28. Death of Albert, the Prince Consort, Dec. 14. The Queen proclaimis neutrality in American war. 2 Great distress in the cotton manufacturing districts in consequence of the civil war in America. Confederate "Alabama" sails from England. Second international exhibition, May 1. Marriage of Princess Alice to Louis of Hesse, July 1. Prince Alfred declines the throne of Greece, Oct. 23. Serious riots in Ireland. 3 Continued distress in cotton districts. SMarriage of the Prince of Wales to Princess Alexandra, of Denmark, March 10. i Birth of a son to the Prince of Wales. Visit of Garibaldi. The Ionian Islands ceded to Greece. Powers as to Confederate privateers discussed. European Conference, at London, on the Schleswig-Holstein question. 3 Cattle plague in England and Ireland. Fenian troubles in Ireland; arrest 'of James Stephens, "Head Center," Nov. 11; escape of Stephens, Nov. 24. Russell-Gladstone ministry. Death of Richard Cobden, April 2. Death of Lord 'Palmerston, Oct. 18. Important commercial treaty with Austria, Dec. 16. SDefeat of Lord Russell's reform bill, June 18. Resignation of Russell ministry, June 26. Derby forms his third cabinet, July 6. Cattle plague continues, causing great loss. Princess Helena marries Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein, July 5. Atlantic cable pronounced a success. Habeas corpus suspended in Ireland. Fenian invasion of Canada. New reform act passed. War with Abyssinia begins, caused by imprisonment of British subjects. Sir Robert Napier commands expedition. Fenian outbreaks in Ireland. Disraeli's reform bill. The Dominion of Canada formed. Derby ministry resigns, Feb. 25. Disraeli forms new ministry, Feb. 25. Gladstone's bill for disestablishment of Irish Church passes the House, April 30. Scotch and Irish reform acts passed, July 13. Dissolution of Parliament, Dec. 10. Resignation of Disraeli ministry. Gladstone forms new ministry, Dec. 9. Successful termnination of the Abyssinian war. The suicide of Theodore, King of Abyssinia, April 13. Convention on "Alabama Claims" signed; it is rejected by the United States. Earl Spencer appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. Irish Church bill receives the royal assent, July 26. Death of the Earl of Derby, Oct. 23. Measures adopted for the spread of primary education. Land bill of Ireland receives royal assent, July 8. Education bill. Neutrality in Franco-Prussian war proclaimed, July 19. Neutrality of Belgium guaranteed, Aug. 11. Resignation of John Bright, Dec. 20. Death of the Earl of Clarendon, June 26. Princess Louise marries the Marquis of Lorne, March 20. Black Sea Conference, March 13. Treaty with the United States regarding Alabama claims, May 8. The Irish Church Disestablishment bill goes into effect. Meeting of the Alabama Claims Commission at Geneva. University tests abolished; army purchase abolished. The Ballot Act passed. Serious illness of the Prince of Wales. Scott centenary at Edinburgh. Great riots in Dublin. Supplemental treaty with the United States concerning Alabama claims, Feb. 3. A national thanksgiving for recovery of the Prince of Wales, Feb. 27. O'Connor threatens the Queen, Feb. 29. Settlement of the Alabama claims, Sept. 14. Scotch educational bill. Commercial treaty wina France, Nov. 5. Serious riots in Belfast. Abolition of tests in the Irish Universities. Payment of the Geneva award. Death of Lord Lytton, Jan. 18. Defeat. of the Dublin University bill. Resignation of the Gladstone ministry, March 13; ministry resumes office,.March 17. The Shah of Persia visits England. Passage of the Judicature bill, Aug. 5. War with the Ashantees; Sir Garnet Wolseley placed in command. Irish educational bill fails. Marriage of the Duke of Edinburgh to Marie Alexandrovna of Russia, Jan. 23. Celebrated Tichborne trial, Feb. 28. Defeat of Ashantees, Jan. 31, and treaty of peace signed, Feb. 13. Disraeli becomes Prime Minister. Reopening of the Eastern question. The Prince of Wales visits India. France passes the English Channel Tunnel bill. Great revival under Moody and Sankey. England purchases the Suez canal. O'Connell centenary in Ireland. Queen of England proclaimed Empress of India, March 1. Bulgarian atrocities produce intense excitement in England. Defeat of "Home Rule" for Ireland. Disraeli raised to the peerage as the Earl of Beaconsfield. England takes part in the Eastern question. Great Britain expresses her disapproval of the Russo-Turkish war, but decides to remain neutral. Duke of Marlborough made Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. Rejection of Gladstone's resolutions in regard to Tuirkey. Russian advance on Constantinople produces great excitement in England. 1878 Several changes in the mninistry. Earl of Leitrim shot in Ireland. S Beaconsfield and Salisbury represent England in the Berlin Conference. Great commercial depression in England. British Afghanistan war. General Roberts' victory at Piewas Pass, Dec. 2. Jellalabad occupied by the British, Dec. 20. 1879 Yakoob Khan recog-nized as Ameer of Afghan, May 9; retirement of British troops; treaty of peace signed, May 30; British residents at Cabul massacred, Sept. 3; Gen. Roberts reaches Cabul, Sept. 28; abdication of Yakoob Khan, Oct. 19; British defeat Afghans at Sherpur, Dec. 23. Zulu, South Africa, war; British troops enter Zululand, Jan. 12; massacre of Isandula, Jan. 22. Victory at aminbula, March 29; Prince Louis Napoleon, son of Emperor Napoleon III., killed by Zulus, June 1; Sir Garnet Wolseley takes command, June 23; battle of Ulundi, total defeat of the Zulu king, Cetewayo, July 4; capture of Cetewayo, Aug. 28. Great distress and fan-mine in Ireland. Parnell visits the United States in behalf of the Land League. Anti-rent agitation in Ireland. 1880 Continued fighting in Afghan; Shere All made Governor of Candahar; Yakoob Khan attacks Candahar and repulses Gen. Burrows, July 27; sortie from Candahar fails, Aug. 16; Gen. Roberts relieves Candahar, Aug. 31; defeats Yakoob Khan, Sept. 1. Resignation of the Beaconsfield Ministry, April 22; Gladstone forms a new ministry, April 29. Compensation for Disturbance Bill rejected. Lord Montm'orris shot, Sept. 25. "Boycotting" practiced. Arrest of Parnell, Healy and others on charge of conspiracy to prevent payment of rent. 1881 Duke of Argyle resigns from cabinet, April 8. Death of Lord Beaconsfield. Lord Salisbury the Conservative Leader. Bradlaugh excluded from House of Commons. Coercion Act for Ireland passed, March 21. Irish Land Bill passed, Aug. 16. Yakoob Khan routes the Ameer and enters Candahar. Parnell arrested under Coercion Act. Oct. 13. Land League declared illegal, Oct. 20. Yakoob Khan defeated by the Ameer, Sept. 22. Agrarian outrages in Ireland. 1882 Attempt on the Queen's life by McLean, March 2. State trial of McLean, who is adjudged insane. Prince Leopold married to Princess Helena of Waldeck, April 27. Earl Spencer appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. Lord Frederick Cavendish appointed Chief Secretary of Ireland. Lord Cavendish and Mr. Burke, Under Secretary, assassinated, in Dublin, May 6. Otto Trevelyan succeeds Lord Cavendish. The Repression of Crime bill passed, July 11. John Bright resigns, July 15, as a member of Gladstone's Cabinet, owing to Egyptian policy. The "Cloture" bill passed, permitting closing of debate by majority vote. Fiftieth anniversary of Gladstone's entry into public life, Dec. 13. Prayers offered in the Mosques of Cairo for the Queen, Dec. 13. Fire in Hampton Court Palace, Dec. 14. Arrears of Rent bill passed. Married woman's property assessed. Anglo-Turkish Military Convention informally signed, Sept. 6. War in Egypt (q. v.). 1883 The assassins of Mr. Burke and Lord Cavendish identified, Feb. 10. Opening of the Royal College of Music, May 1. The Marquis of Lansdowne appointed Governor-General of Canada. New 'Parcel Post first in operation, Aug. 1. Annexation of territory on African west coast proclaimed, Aug. 23. Surrender of Cetewayo to the British residents, Oct. 6. Sir J. H. Glover appointed Governor of Newfoundland, Dec. 19. 1884 New Patents Act goes into operation, Jan. 1. Departure of Gen. Gordon for Egypt, Jan. -18. The Queen visits Darmstadt, April 16. Death of Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, March 28, aged 29. Monster reform demonstration in London, July 21. Jubilee of the abolition of Slavery cele-, brated in London, Aug. 1. Serious anti-Salvation riots, at Worthing, Aug. 17. Earl of Dufferin appointed to the ViceRoyalty of India, Sept. 10. SGreenwich adopted as the universal prime meridian, Oct. 13. Portuguese fire upon the British ship Tyburnia, at Madeira, Dec. 3. Anti-Mormon riot in Sheffield, Dec. 7. Attempt to blow up London Bridge, Dec. 13. Lord Rea appointed Governor of Bombay, Dec. 13. 1885 Attempt to blow up the House of Commons, Westminster Hall and Tower of London, Jan. 24. The fall of Khartoum, and death of Gordon, Jan. 26. Opening of the Mersey tunnel, Feb. 13. The reserve forces and militia forces called out, liarcrl 26. The revised Bible published, May 18. Princess Beatrice marries Prince Henry, of Battenburg, July 23. Death of Sir Moses Montefiore, aged 101, July 28. 1885 Grant memorial services at Westminster, Aug. 4. 1886 Parnell's land bill defeated, Sept. 21. 1887 Queen's Jubilee inaugurated, June 21. Irish Crime Bill passed, July 8. Irish National League proclaimed, Aug. 19. 1888 First White Chapel murder, April 2. U. S. Fishery Commission treaty signed. 1889 Marriage of Princess Louise of Wales, S July 27. o 1890 Rejection of overtures from the P ope, A,,g'. 11. Split in the Irish Parliamentary Party, Dec. 6. 1891 Newfoundland fishery dispute, Msarch-a auy. U. S. World's Fair invitation accepted, May. 1893 Battleship "Victoria" sumink by the "Camperdown," off the Syrian coast, 400 mens perished. The Duke of York married Princess Mary of Teek, July 6. Manchester Ship Canal opened, Dec. 7. 1895 Defeat of the Liberal party and fall of the Rosebery Cabinet; is succeeded by the Earl of Salisbury and a new Radical Cabinet. 1899 Beginning of the Boer War in So. Africa, Oct. 11. 1900 Transvaal republic annexed to Great Britain, Sept. 1. 1901 Queen Victoria died, Jan. 22. King Edward "VII. ascends throne. 1902 Boer W-ar, in South Africa, ended in May. 1905 Post Office began- to receive messages for wireless transmnission to ships at sea, Jan. 1 1908 Old age pension act passed Aug. 1. 1910 Death of King Edward, May 6. Accession of King George IV. to the throne, May 7. 1912 Great coal strike 'on; woman suffrage agitation. Asquith introduces Home Rule bill. White Star Line steamer "Titanic" sank after collision with iceberg; 1,635 people drowned; 705 were saved and carried to New York on Cunarder "Carpathia," April. AUSTRALIA. 1770 Captain Cook, Sir Joseph Banks and others land at Botany Bay and name the country New South Wales, April 28. 1773 Explorations of Furneaux. 1774 Capt. Cook explores Australia and New Zealand. 1777 Capt. Cook makes a third voyage of exploration. 1788 First landing of English convicts at Port Jackson. Phillips, first Governor, founds Sydney, with 1,039 persons, Jan. 26. 1789-'92 Voyage of Bligh. 1790 Distress, owing to the loss of the storeship "Guardian." 1793 First house for public worship erected. 1795 First publication of Governmnent Gazette. 1798 Bass' Straits discovered, by Bass and. Flinders. 1800-'05 Explorations and surveys of the coast of Australia, by Grant and Flinders. 1802 First brick church built. 1803 Van Dieman's Land, now Tasmania, established; first settlement made at Port Philip. 1804 Insurrection of Irish convicts repressedA 1808 Gov. Bligh depdsed for tyranny and sent home; succeeded by MacQuarrie. 1817-'23 Explorations into the interior of Australia, by Wentworth, Lawson, Bloxand,_ Oxley and others. 1826 Settlement of King George's Sound formed. 1828 South Australia explored by Stuart. 1829 West Australia made a province; a Legislative Council established and Capt. Sterling appointed Lieutenant-Governor. 1830 Stuart further explores South Australia. Fifty ships, with 2,000 emigrants, arrive in Western Australia. 1831 East Australia explored by Sir T. Mitchell. 1834 Boundaries of the province of South Australia fixed. 1835 First Romam Catholic bishop arrives. Port Philip, now Vietoria, colonized. 1836 South Australia a province. Arrival of first Church of England Bishop. Adelaide founded. Eyre's expedition overland from Adelaide to King George's Sound. Melbourne founded. 1838 Explorations of Capt. Gray in northwest Australia. 1839 New South Wales and Tasmania explored by Count Stizelecki. Alleged discovery of gold in Bathurst kept secret by Gov. Gipps. Suspension of transportation. 1840 Eyre explores West Australia. Stizelecki explores the Australian Alps. 1841 Census, 87,200 males; 43,700 females. 1842 Incorporation of the City of Sydney. Discovery of the Burra-Burra copper mines, in South Australia. 1844-'48 Explorations of Leichhardt, Stuart, Mitchell, Gregory and Kennedy. 1846 Fitzroy made Governor-General. Census, 114,700 males; 74,800 females. 1847 Bishopric of Adelaide founded. 1848 Leichhardt starts on second exploration; party never heard of again. Kennedy killed by natives. Gregory explores the interior. 1849 Great agitation against transportation. 1850 Port Philip erected into the province of Victoria. 1851 Gold discovered, near Bathurst, by Edward Hargreaves; intense excitement in the provinces; great rush to the gold regions. 1854 Sir William Dennison appointed Governor-General. 1855 Gregory's expedition into the interior. 1858-'62 J. McDonald Stuart's expeditions. Death of Archdeacon Cowper, after nearly fifty years' residence, aged 80. 1859 Province of Queensland established, Dec. 4. 1860 Burke and Willis and two others cross the continent, starting from Melbourne Aug. 20; all perish on the return, next year, except John King. Sir John Young, Governor of New South Wales. 1861 Stuart and M'Kinlay cross from sea to sea. 1863 Recovery of the remains of Burke and Willis. 1864 General resistance throughout the provinces against transportation. 1865 Death of Morgan, a desperate bushranger and murderer. Cessation of transportation to Australia in three years announced. Settlement of boundary between New South Wales and Victoria, April 19. 1866 Population of Australia, natives excluded, 1,298,667. 1867 Capt. Cadell explores South Australia; discovers mouth of river Roper. Meeting of Convention from Colonies at Melbourne, to arrange postal comnmunication with Europe. 1871 Delegates from the Colonies meet to protest against imperial interference with their mutual fiscal arrangements, Sept. 27. 1872 Telegraphic communication, with England. Synod of the Church of Australia and Tasmania held at Sydney, Oct. 25. 1876 Willshire explores Daly and Victoria rivers. 1879 International Exhibition at Sydney opened Sept. 17. 1880 Melbourne Exhibition opened Oct. 1. Tahiti annexed to France. The Queensland government authorizes the construction of the trans-continental railway, to bring the colonies within thirty days of England. 1881 Railroad completed from Sydney to Murray River, connecting with Melbourne. Inter-colonial conference at Sydney to consider federal action. Majority vote in favor -of a tariff commission and the establishment of an Australian Court of Appeal. 1882 Terrible mining accident at Creswick T.lbot, Victoria, Dec. 14. 1883 Confederation of the colonies and annexation of Papna, New Guinea. Opening of the New University of South Wales and Monmouthslire, Oct. 24. 1885 New South Walps contingent leaves Sydney for the Soi-dan, March 3. 1890 Fire in Syudney causing a loss of $7,500,000, Oct. 2. 877 378 I I omm

Page  103 I SUPPLEMENT XX. ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. I 1891 Federation Convention draft a Constite tion for the Commonwealth of Au, tralia, April 3. 1893 Serious floods in Queensland, propert and life lost. 1895 Great panic in the money market; man banks and business houses fail. 1901 New Commonwealth of Australia prc claimed at Sydney. 1903 Bombala N. S. W. chosen as capital. 1910 Bill passed providing for a Federal not issue of $85,000,000. 1911 Commonwealth of Australia celebrated it tenth anniversary by approval of sit for federal capital in district of Yass canberra. CANADA. 1767 English Stamp Act accepted by Canadiar provinces. 1768 Sir Guy Carleton Governor. Great fire in Montreal. 1774 Roman Catholic citizens of Canada confirmed in their political rights and property. 1775 Legislative council of 23 members appointed. Commencement of the American War of Independence. Invasion of Canada. by the Americans, under Montgomery and B. Arnold. S Fort St. John taken by Montgomery, Nov. 3. Montreal captured, Nov. 12. Arnold's attack on Quebec repulsed, Nov. 14. Arnold and Montgomery attack Quebec, December 31. Failure of attack and death of Montgomery. 1776 The Americans retreat from Canada, June 18. 1784 Settlement. of Upper Canada. 1791 Canada is given a constitution, and is divided into upper and lower provinces. 1792 First House of Assembly opened. 1794 Toronto made the capital of Upper Canada. 1803 Slavery abolished in Canada. 1812 Second war between the United States and Great Britain. Capture of Detroit by the British, Aug. 15. Surrender of General Wordsworth, Oct. 14. Van Rensselear capitulates, Nov. 27. 1812 Americans carry Queenstown Heights. Death of General Brock. 1813 Americans defeated at Frenchtown. Capture of Toronto, April 27, and Fort George, May 27, by the Americans. Defeat of the British at Sacketts Harbor, May 29. Victory of Americans at Stony Creek, June 6. Indecisive battle of Williamsburg, Nov. 7. Commodore Perry's victory on Lake Erie. Capture of English squadron. Defeat of Proctor at the Thames, and death of Tecumseh. 1814 United States troops successful at battle of Longwood, March 4. Defeat of the British at Chippewa, July 25. Battle of Lundy's Lane. Naval battle on Lake Champlain. Treaty of Ghent closes the war. 1816 Sir George Sherbroke becomes Governor of Lower Canada. 1817 Political agitation in Upper Canada. Career of Robert Gourlay. 1818 Duke of Richmond appointed Governor of Lower Canada. 1822 Antagonism between the French and English inhabitants of Lower Canada. 1824 Welland Canal incorporated. First agitation against the Orangemen. 1825 Agitation in Upper Canada on the alien bill. 1826 Mackenzie's printing office destroyed by a mob. 1828 Petition against misuse of revenues. 1829 First agitation for responsible government in Upper Canada. 1830 Lord Aylmer becomes Governor of Lower Canada. 1832 Imperial duties surrendered to the Canadian Assembly. 1835 The Pupinean party aim at a total separation from Great Britain. 1836 First Canadian railway opened. House of Assembly refuse supplies. 1837 Coercive measure of the British Parliament. House of Assembly of Lower Canada refuses to transact business. "Sons of Liberty" rise in Montreal. Commercial crisis in Canada and the United States. Troops withdrawn from Upper Canada. Rebellion in Upper Canada begins. Attempt the capture of Toronto, Dec. 4. Totally defeated by St. Eustace, Dec. 14. Rebels receive aid from sympathizers in the United States. Affair of the "Caroline." 1838 Sir John Colborne appointed Governor, Jan. 16. Affair of the "Anne" and the "Sir RobSert Peel." End of the rebellion in Upper Canada. Resignation of Sir Francis Head, who is succeeded by Lord Durham. 1839 Union of Upper and Lower Canada. Lord Sydenham -appointed Governor. 1840 Settlement of the clergy reserves quesStion. Responsible government established. Death of Lord Sydenham. Charles P. Thompson Governor. 1843 Sir Charles Metcalf appointed Governor. 1844 Government removed from Kingston to Montreal. 1845 Great fire in Quebec. 1847 Earl Cathcart Governor. Lord Elgin Governor-General, October. Agitation over the Rebellion Losses bill. 1848 Continued agitation over the Rebellion Losses bill. 3849 Annexation to the United States advocated by the opposition. Great riots in Montreal. Destruction of Parliament House, April 26. Attack on Lord Elgin. Subsidence of the agitation. 1850 Reciprocity with United States urged. 1851 Construction of new railways. Cheaper postage rates introduced. 1852 Great fire at Montreal. Government removed to Quebec. 1853 Clergy reserves abolished by English Parliament, May 9. 1854 Clos6 of Lord Elgin's administration. Prosperous condition of Canada. Treaty with the.United States, June 7. 1855 Sir Edmund W. Head Governor-General. 1856 Sir 'John A. Macdonald, the AttorneyGeneral, becomes leader of the Con*servatives. Opening of railway from Quebec to Toronto, Nov. 12. The first railway accident in Canada. Quebec made the seat of government. 1857 Stringency in the money market caused by the mutiny in India..1 S 1858 Ottawa, formerly Bytown, made the seat Sof the provincial government by Queen Victoria; the opposition defeat this y scheme. 1860 Visit of the Prince of Wales to Canada. y 1861 Great fire in Quebec, June 7. Commencement of the civil war in the - United States; fears of hostilities witns that nation. Lord Monek made Governor-General, e Nov. 28. British troops sent to Canada on account 5 of "Trent" affair. e Resignation of ministry; Macdonald Sforms a new cabinet. 1862 Death of Sir Allan M'Nab. 1864 Delegates assemble at Quebec to discuss confederation of American colonies, Oct. 10. Confederate refugees make a raid from Canada on St. Albans, Vt., Oct. 19; Canadians arrest them upon their return, followed by their discharge, Dec. 14; General Dix proclaims reprisals; order rescinded by President Lincoln. 1865 Parliament agrees to a confederation. Great fire at Quebec. Canada Parliament vote ~50,000 for defense of the Dominion, March 23. Canada consents to union of the provinces, April 1. " 1866 First Parliament of the Dominion meets at Ottawa, June 7. Discovery of gold in Hastings County, "November. Termination of the Reciprocity Treaty with the United States. Fenian invasion threatened. " Fenians, under O'Neill, cross into CanS ada; Canadian volunteers drive them back and disperse them. Habeas Corpus suspended. Mr. Galt's new tariff. 1867 Formation of the "Dominion of Canada by the confederation of Canada, New Br.unswick and Nova Scotia, March 29. Lord Monek appointed Viceroy, July 2. Canadian Railway Loan act passed, April 12, 1868 Sir John Young becomes Governor-General, Nov. 27. 1869 Hudson Bay territories purchased for ~300,000. 1870 Second Fenian raid repelled by militia; the leader, O'Neill, captured by United States troops. Manitoba, formerly Rupert's Land, formed and becomes a part of the Dominion of Canada. Prince Alfred visits Canada. 1871 British Columbia joins the Dominion of Canada. Discussion of the Fisheries question. 1872 Prince Edward's Island becomes a part of the Dominion of Canada. Earl of Dufferin becomes Governor-General. 1873 Macdonald's ministry charged with corruption, and forced to resign; new ministry formed by Mackenzie. 1875 Rejection of Reciprocity Treaty by United States. 1876 Destruction of St. Hyacinthe by fire, Sept. 3. 1877 United States and Canada Fishery Commission, at Halifax, award Canada $5,500,000. 1878 The Marquis of Lorne, son-in-law of Queen Victoria, appointed Viceroy, Oct. 14. Fortune Bay outrages. United States pay Fishery award, Nov. 21. Arrival of Marquis of Lorne and Princess Louise, Nov. 25. 1879 Industrial Exposition at Ottawa. 1880 Earl of Salisbury refuses compensation for Fortune Bay affair; Lord Granville grants it. 1881 $75,000 award for Fortune Bay outrages. Bill to construct railroad from Halifax to Buzzard Inlet passed, June 81. Patents issued to Canadian Pacific Railway Company, Feb. 16. 1883 The Marquis of Lansdowne appointed Governor-General, May 21. Sir John Hawley Glover appointed Governor of Newfoundland. 1884 Meeting of the British Association, at Montreal, Aug. 27. Dynamite explosions at Quebec, Oct. 11. 1885 Opening conflict at Fish Creek with the half-breed and Indian rebels, under Louis Ried, April 24. Capture, near Batoche, of Louis Riel. 1886 Opening of the Canadian Pacific Rail way. Resolution against the Coercion Bill passed April 26. 1888 Newfoundland refuses to join Canada, April. Lord Stanley made Governor, June 11. 1889 Weldon Extradition Bill passed, April 26. 1890 Toronto University burned, Feb. 14. 1891 Government party sustained at general election, March 6. General census taken April 5. 1893 Earl of Aberdeen appointed GovernorGeneral, May 11. 1895 School war in Manitoba. 1910 Silver agitation and mining development in Porcupine district. 1911 Duke of Connaught appointed GovernorGeneral. 1912 Great land boom and influx of settlers in Northwest provinces. - - i-;-l-"-., f -;iB07" UNITED STATES. 1765 First Medical College established in Philadelphia. The Stamp Act passed, in England, March 22. Virginia resolutions against right of taxation, May 29. A congress of the colonies proposed by Massachusetts, June 26. Congress of 27 delegates meet at New ] York and,publish a declaration of the rights and rules against the Stamp Act, Oct. 7. Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Delaware and Maryland unite in resisting Stamp Act, November. 1766 Dr. Franklin visits England, and is examined before the House of Commons, in February. Stamp Act repealed, March 18. Stage route between Providence and Boston established. Philip Embury and Captain Webb first introduce Methodism in America. 1767 An obnoxious tax imposed on paper, glass, tea and painters' colors imported 1 by the colonies. Colonies adopt a non-importation agree- 1 ment. Mason and Dixon, sent out by the heirs of Wmin. Penn and Lord Baltimore, run a line to define the boundaries of their Spossessions. It afterwards became the acknowledged line between the free and slave states. 1768 Meeting of a convention of delegates 1 called by Massachusetts, at Fanuel Hall, Boston. A military force stationed in Boston by the British government under General 1 Gates. 1 1 17 17 -7i 71.71 78 71 78 1 1 17 17 17 17 17 177 L776 777i 769 The Governor of Virginia dissolves the House oi Burgess. " The assembly of. North Carolina dissolved by the Governor. Goods sent to Boston from Great Britain refused and sent back. First paper mill erected at Milton. 770 Boston massacre, March 5; British soldiers kill three and wound four citizens. Repeal of the duties on tea. 771 Insurrection in North Carolina against the government officers by regulators; rebellion suppressed, May 16, by Governor Tryon and six regulators hanged. "72 The British man-of-war Gaspee burned in Narragansett Bay by Americans from Providence. 773 First American Methodist Conference, consisting of ten ministers, all of foreign birth. Blind Asylum established at Williamsburg, Va., the first in America. The cargoes of the tea-ships in Boston thrown into the harbor by masked men, Dec. 16. 74 Boston Port Bill deprives Boston of its port rights, March 25. Meeting of the First Continental or Second Colonial Congress, at Philadelphia, Sept. 5. Congress issues a Declaration of Rights, Nov. 4. 75 Commencement of the Revolutionary War. Battle of Lexington, April 19; British retreat. Perpetual Union of the Colonies formed, May 20. General Washington Commander-inChief of the Continental forces, June 15. Americans under Ethan Allen take Ticonderoga, May 10. Generals Howe, Clinton and Burgoyne arrive from England. Defeat of the Americans at Bunker Hill -after stubborn resistance, June 17. Washington assumes command at Cambridge, July 3. Continental Fast Day, July 20. Falmnouth burned by the British, Oct. 17. Generals Montgoimery and Arnold invade Canada; capture of St. John, Nov. 3; of Montreal, Nov. 12. Repulse of Arnold at Quebec, Nov. 14; second and joint assault defeated and Montgonmery killed, Dec. 31. 6 Destruction of Norfolk by the British, Jan. 1. Boston evacuated by the British in consequence of the Americans having taken possession of Dorchester Heights, which commanded the harbor, March 17. "Washington arrives at New York, April 14. Declaration of Independence, July 4. Commissioners sent by Congress to solicit a treaty with the French. Battle of Flatbush, or Brooklyn, on Long Island; Howe (loss 400) defeats the American generals, Putnam and Sullivan (loss 2,000), Aug. 27. New York evacuated by the Americans and occupied by the British, Sept. 15. Battle of White Plains; Howe (loss 300 or 400) defeats Washington (loss 300 or 400), Oct. 28. Battle of Lake Champlain; capture of the American fleet, Oct. 11-13. Fort Washington capitulates, Nov. 16. English occupy Rhode Island. Washington retreats beyond the Delaware, Nov. 28. Congress adjourns to Baltimore, Dec. 12. SBattle of Trenton; Washington (loss 9) defeats Rahl and his Hessians (loss 1,000), Dec. 26. SBattle of Princeton; Washington (loss 100) defeats Mawhood (loss 400). Battle of Bennington, Vt.; Stark (loss 100) defeats Baum and Bremen (loss 600). Battle of Brandywine; Howe (loss 500) defeats Washington (loss 1,000), Sept. 11. Arrival of Lafayette, who is made a Major-General in Continental Army. Philadelphia occupied by the British, Sept. 27. Battle of Germantown; Howe (loss 600) defeats Washington (loss 1,200), Oct. 3-4. Second battle, near Stiliwater; Cen. Gates (loss 350) defeats Burgoyne (loss 600), Oct. 7. Surrender of Burgoyne, at Saratoga, with 5,752 men, to Gates, Oct. 17. "Articles of Confederation adopted by Congress, Nov. 15. American independence recognized by V France, Dec. 16. Treaty with France concluded, Feb. 6. Philadelphia evacuated by the British, June 18. Battle of Monmouth; Washington (loss 230) defeats Clinton (loss 400), June 26. Massacre of Wyoming Valley, July 3. Count d'Estaing, with twelve ships of:I the line, six frigates, and French troops, arrives. Battle on Rhode Island; Sullivan (loss 211) defeats Pigot (loss 260), Aug. 29. Americans retreat from -Rhode Island, Aug. 30. Savannah seized by the British, Dec. 29. Repulse of Americans at Briar Creek, March 3. New Haven plundered by the British, July 5. Fairfield and Green Farms, in Connecticut, taken by the British, July 7. Stony Point taken by the Americans, July 16. Charleston, S. C., surrendered to the British, May 12. 1 Battle of Camden, S. C.; Cornwallis (loss 325) defeats General Gates (loss 730), Aug. 16. Benedict Arnold betrays and deserts his country. Major Andre captured, Sept. 23, and hung as a spy, Oct. 2. Battle of Cowpens; American General Morgan (loss 72) defeats Tarleton (loss 800), Jan. 17. Assembling of Congress, March 2, Articles of Confederation having been ratified by all the States. Defeat of General Greene by Cornwallis, at Guilford. Battle of Eutaw Springs; General Greene (loss 555) defeats 'Stewart (loss 1,100), Sept. 8. The traitor, Arnold, burns New London, Sept. 6. Surrender of Lord Cornwallis, at Yorktown, with 7,073 men, to Washington, Oct. 19. Independence of the United States acknowledged by Holland, April 19. Independence acknowledged by Sweden, Denmark, Spain and Prussia. Armistice with Great Britain, Jan. 20. Peace with Great Britain, at Treaty of Paris, Sept. 23. New York evacuated, Nov. 25. Resignation of General Washington, Dec. 23. Treaty of peace ratified by Congress, Jan. 4. 18: John Adams sent to England as first Ambassador from the United States. Cotton introduced *-into Georgia. Shay's rebellion in Massachusetts. 17 ii ITl 17 17 17 17C 17c 179 179 179 187 180 180 180 180, ISO 1804 180( 180* 1807 1807 1807 -808 809 810 1 1 1' 786 Delegates assemble at Annapolis, and recommend a Convention to revise articles of Confederation. 787 Meeting of Convention at Philadelphia, George Washington presiding. Constitution of the United States adopted Sept. 17. 788 Constitution ratified by all the States except Rhode Island and North Carolina. Emancipation of slaves by the Quakers of Philadelphia. 789 First Congress meets at New York. George Washington elected first President of the United States. North Carolina ratifies the Constitution. 90 'Death of Benjamin Franklin, April 17. Rhode Island ratifies the Constitution. Hlamilton's financial schemes proposed. '91 Bank of the United States established, at Philadelphia. Vermont admitted as the fourteenth State. Indians defeat St. Clair. 92 Kentucky" admitted as the fifteenth State. The Columbia river discovered by Captain Grey. Washington City chosen as the capital of the republic. 93 Invention of the cotton gin by Whitney, resulting in the revolutionizing of the culture of cotton. Trouble with the French Ambassador, Genet. 94 Washington's second term as President begins. Whisky rebellion in Pennsylvania. France recalls Genet. Jay's treaty with Great Britain. 95 Congress ratifies Jay's treaty. 96 Tennessee admitted as the sixteenth State. Resignation of George Washington. 17 John Adams inaugurated as President. Treaty with France annulled. )8 War with France threatened. )9 Death of Washington, at Mt. Vernon, Dec. 14. )0 The Government removed from Philadelphia to Washington. Treaty signed with France. General Bankruptcy Law passed. )1 Inauguration of ' Thomas Jefferson as President. New York Evening Post established. War with Tripoli commenced, June 10. Death of Benedict Arnold, June 14. )2 Ohio admitted as the seventeenth State. Port of New Orleans closed by Spain, and American vessels forbidden to pass down Mississippi river. 3 Louisiana purchased from the French; $15,000,000 paid. Pianos first manufactured at Boston. 4 Aaron Burr kills Alexander Hamilton in a duel, July 11. SFrigate "President" destroyed at Tripoli by Decatur, Feb. 4. Fort Dearborn, present site of Chicago, built. Lewis & Clark's expedition starts across the plains. 5 Treaty of peace with Tripoli, Jan. 4. Ice first becomes an article of commerce. Seizure of armed American vessels by England. Lewis and Clark arrive at mouth of the Columbia river. 3 American commerce affected by blockade of French and English coasts. 7 British vessels ordered to leave United States waters. Trouble with England respecting the rights of neutrals. Attack on the American ship "Chesapeake," by the British ship, "Leopard," June 22. Embargo on American ships declared, Dec. 22. Acquittal of Aaron Burr on charge of conspiracy. SThe first coast survey ordered by Congress. Importation of slaves forbidden by Congress. Eli Terry manufactures first wooden clocks. 1 Fulton's first successful steamboat. Abolition of the slave trade, Jan. 1. France orders the seizure and confiscation of American vessels. First printing office west of the Mississippi, established at St. Louis. First Bible Society founded, in Philadelphia. First woolen mills started, in New York. Embargo repealed, March 1. James Madison President. Intercourse between France and England forbidden. 132 confiscated American vessels sold by Napoleon. First manufacture of steel pens begun. First agricultural fair, held at Georgetown. Porcelain clay discovered in Vermont. 1E Hartford Fire Insurance Company incorporated. Engagement between U. S. frigate "President," and British sloop, "Little Belt." Depredations on American vessels by France and England. Stevens devises plan for plating vessels. 1 First manufacture of screws by machinery. Battle of Tippecanoe; Gen. Harrison defeats' Tecumseh, Nov. 7. Reparation made by the British for the attack on the "Chesapeake." Great earthquake at New Madrid, Mo. Astor's fur company establishes post of Astoria. Breech loading rifles invented. Embargo laid for ninety days. 1 Louisiana admitted into the Union. Congress levies a tax of $3,000,000. Additional force of 35,000 men authorized. 18 Detachment of militia, not exceeding 100,000 men, amithorized. War declared against Great Britain, June 12. British orders in council revoked, June 23. Van Homrne defeated, Aug. 5. ' 18 Defeat of Miller, Aug. 8. Gen. Hull invades Canada, July 12; surrenders Mackinaw, July 17. Hull surrenders Detroit with 2,500 men, Aug. 16. The "Alert," a British ship of war, captured by the "Essex," Aug. 13. The "Guerriere," a British frigate, captured by the "Constitution" ("Old Ironsides"), Capt. Hull, Aug. 19. Gen. Harrison takes command of the Northwestern army. Queenstown attacked, unsuccessfully, by 18i the Americans, Oct. 13. The "Frolic," a British ship, captured by the U. S. sloop of war "Wasp." Both vessels afterwards taken by the "Poictiers," a British 74. The "Macedonian," a British frigate, 1K8 captured by the "United States," Commodore Decatur, Oct. 25. The "Java," a British frigate, captured by the "Constitution," Capt. Bainbridge, Dec. 29. At the River Raisin, the British and Indians surprise and defeat Winchester. Most of the Americans were massacred by the Indians, who were left unprotected by Gen. Proctor, July 13. 1, 1813 The "Peacock," a British ship, captured by the "Hornet," Feb. 23. - The inauguration of James Madison as President, March 4. The Creek Indians subdued by Gen. Jackson. The American coast blockaded by the British. Duel between Gen. Jackson and Col. Benton. York (now Toronto) in Upper Canada, taken by the Americans, under Gen. Pike, wvho w-as killed, April 27. The "Chesapeake" frigate taken by the British frigate "Shannon," June 1. First rolling mill at Pittsburgh. Stereotyping first introduced into America. Death of Capt. Lawrence, of the "(hesapeake." Battle of Fort George, May 27. British attack on Sackett's Harbor repulsed, May 28. Forts Meigs and Stephenson attacked by the British and Indians. The U. S. brig "Argus" taken by the British sloop "Pelican," Aug. 14. The British brig "Boxer" captured by the U. S. brig "Enterprise," Sept. 4. The British fleet, 63 guns, on Lake Erie, captured by the American fleet, 56 guns, under Commodore Perry, Sept. 10. Massacre of Fort Mimms, Ala., by the Indians, Aug. 30. Battle of Williamsburg, Nov. 11. Burning of Newark, Canada, Nov. 12. Buffalo burned by the British, Dec. 13. The Britisl capture Fort Niagara, Dec. 29. Niagara frontier ravaged by the British, Dec. 30. Gen. Harrison, after having crossed into SCanada, defeats and disperses the British army under Gen. Proctor, near the River Thames; death of Tecumseh, Oct. 5. 814 The frigate "Essex" captured, at Valparaiso, by two British vessels. Battle of Horse Shoe Bend, March 20. The "Epervier," a British vessel, captured by the "Peacock," April 29. Oswego bombarded and taken by the British, May 6. The "Reindeer," a British vessel, captured, by the "Wasp," June 25. Fort Erie captured by the Americans under Gen. Brown, July 3. Battle of Chippewa. Brown defeats Drummond, July 5. Battle of Bridgewater, Lundy's Lane. Brown and Scott defeat Drummond and Rial, July 25. The British bombard Stonington, Conn., Aug. 9. Battle of Fort Erie, Aug. 15. Battle of Bladensburg. British General, Ross, defeats Winder, Aug. 24. British enter Washington, and burn the public buildings. Alexandria taken by the British, Aug. 29. The "Avon," a British vessel, captured by the "Wasp," Sept. 1. Attack on Fort Bower (now Morgan) Ala., Sept. 5. The British fleet on Lake Champlain, 95 guns, Commodore Downie, captured by the American fleet, of 86 guns, Commnodore MacDonough, and their army defeated at Plattsburg, by Gen. Macomb, Sept. 11. British expelled from Pensacola, by Jackson, Nov. 7. Battle on Lake Borgue, La., Dec. 14. Battle below New Orleans, Dec. 22. Jethro Wood patents his own plow. Perkins makes first steel plates for engraving. Massacre at Fort Dearborn, (Chicago) by Indians. Attack on Baltimore. Bombardment of Fort McHenry. British defeated, and Gem. Ross killed, Sept. 14. Treaty of peace with Great Britain signed, at Ghent, Dec. 24. 15 Battle of New Orleans. Defeat of the British, with the loss of their leader, Gem. Packenham, by Gem. Jackson, Jan. 8. Capture of the frigate "President" by the British squadron, Jan. 15. Treaty of Ghent ratified by the Senate, Feb. 17. "Constitution" captures the "Cyane" and "Levant," Feb, 20. War declared with Algiers. The "Penguin" captured by the "Hornet," March 23. Commodore Decatur sent against Algiers. Decatur captures Algerine frigate, June:17. Hunt first manufactures axes. Terrific gale and flood in New England, Sept. 23. 6 Indiana admitted as a State. Second United States bank chartered. Steam first applied to paper making. Election of James Monroe, President. Mrs. Emma Willard opens her girls' school at Troy. This was known as the year without a summer. 7 Illinois admitted into the Union. Pensions granted revolutionary soldiers. Jackson subdues Indians in Georgia and Alabama. Erie Canal commenced. Mississippi admitted into the Union. Harper Bros. publishing house founded. Clymer invents Columbian printing press. New England Deaf and Dumb Asylum.founded. 8 Foundation of the new Capitol laid, at Washington, Aug. 24. Pensacola, Fla., captured from the Spanish, by Jackson. D The "Savannah," the first steam packet that crosses the Atlantic, makes a voyage to Liverpool. The first permanent Lodge of Odd Fellows founded, in Baltimore, April 26. Alabama admitted into the Union, Dec. 14. I Passage of the Missouri Compromise. Florida ceded to the United States by Spain for $5,000,000. Maine admitted into the Union, March 15. Heated discussion in Congress on the slavery question. Percussion caps for guns first introduced. Re-election of James Monroe as President. Petroleum first discovered in Ohio. Macadamized roads first introduced. Death of Daniel Boone. Missouri admitted into the Union, Aug. 10. Jackson takes possession of Florida, July 21. Burnett first introduces lithography. Straw hats first made from American straw. The United States acknowledge the independence of the South American Republics. First English firm in California opens house at Montrey. Death of Maj.-Gen. Stark. First cotton mill built in Lowell. Elliott makes first platform scales. War with the Cuban pirates. Gas first successfully introduced in Boston..81 778 81 811 8i1 79 812 B18 i1 81 20 82 83 21 22 S4 S5 i6 13 L L lmwmý BJ

Page  104 [ ^^ 'SUPPLEME1NIT XXI. ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY 1K 18 18J 182 182 183 183: 183 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 823 The Monroe doctrine, June 18. First gas company in New York. First teachers' seminary opened in Concord, Vt. 824 The principles of Robert Owen preached. Pins first made by machinery. First reformatory school founded in New York. Act passed to protect and encourage cotton manufacturers. Convention with Great Britain to suppress slave trade, March 13. Convention with Russia in relation to northwest boundary, April 5. Arrival of Lafayette on a visit to the U. S. Election of John Quincy Adams as President. 325 The Capitol at Washington completed. First edge tool manufactory established. Smith, a trapper, performs the first overland journey to California, and found Folsom. Departure of Lafayette for France, Sept. 7. 26 Deaths of Thomas Jefferson and John Adams. Convention with Great Britain concerning indemnities. Fiftieth anniversary of American Independence, July 4. Great anti-mason excitement. Abduction of William Morgan. Baron Von Humboldt visits the United States. Opening of the Erie Canal, Oct. 26. Duel between Henry Clay and John Randolph. Delano's first fire-proof safes. 27 Treaty with. Creek Indians concluded. Treaty with the Kansas Indians, and the great and little Osages. Treaty with the Republic of Colombia. Continued intense excitement over the "Morgan affair." First railroad built at Quincy, Massachusetts, and operated by horse power. 28 Passage of the Protective Tariff Bill. Sandpaper and emery first made. First locomotive introduced from England, by the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company. Baltimore and Ohio railroad commenced. Congress makes provision for officers of the revolutionary war. Democrat and Republican first chosen -by their respective political parties. General Jackson elected President. Treaty of Peace with Brazil and Buenos Ayres. Planing mill first patented. 9 Andrew Jackson, President, opposes the project to recharter the Bank of the United States. Independence of Mexico recognized. Webster's great speech in Congress, Jan. 26. Virginia passes resolution against Tariff bill. First Asylum for the Blind established. First Horticultural Society formed. Removal of 700 officeholders by Jackson. 0 Commercial treaty with Turkey. South Carolina asserts "States Rights." The Mormon church founded by Joseph Smith, April. 6. Building of the South Carolina railhoad. American Institute of Learning founded. Grea debate between Webster and Hayne. 1 Intense Tariff and Free Trade excitement. Garrison starts the "Liberator" anti-slavery paper. Death of James Monroe, July 4. Manning mowing machines patented. Guthrie discovers chloroform. Howe invents first practical pin machine. Buttons first made by machinery. Western College of Teachers established. 2. President Jackson vetoes the Bank Bill. New protective tariff measure passed. South Carolina nullification movement. U. S. frigate "Potomac," attacks Qua!In Batoo, Feb. 6. First case of Asiatic cholera in U. S. June 21. Black Hawk war, and his capture, Aug'. University of New York organized, Sept. 26. Re-election of Andrew Jackson as President. Death of Charles Carroll, last surviving signer of Declaration of Independence. Morse invents electric magnet telegraph. Cholera in New York, 3,400 deaths. Fairbank's Scale first patented. The President removes the public deposits from the Bank of the United States. President Jackson begins his second term, March 4. The Southern States hold a states-right Convention. Clay's Compromise Tariff law passed. Gayler invents first practical safe. Death of John Randolph, May 24. Removal of several Indian tribes west of the Mississippi. Hoe's double-cylinder printing-press constructed. First successful reaper patented. Ericsson invents the caloric engine. Congress (passes a vote of censure against the President for removing bank deposits; subsequently expunged. Lucifer matches first made. Walter Hunt invents first sewing machine, but fails to perfect and patent. Dr. Howe invents raised alphabet for use of the blind. Great fire in New York. Congress establishes branch mints in Georgia, North Carolina, and Louisiana. Government purchase Cherokee bonds for $5,200,000. New York Herald established by Bennett. Death of Chief Justice Marshall, July 6. Roger Brooks Taney, appointed Chief Justice. Seminole Indian war renewed. Gas first introduced into Philadelphia. Brown makes first gold pens with diamond points. Guano becomes an article of commerce in the U. S. Massacre of Maj. Dade and his command in Florida.. The national debt virtually paid. Arkansas admitted into the Union. Battle of San Jacinto, Texas; Santa Anna defeated and a prisoner, April 21. Bequest of James Smithson to the U. S. of $515,169. Smithsonian Institute at Washington founded. Death of James Madison, June 28. Governor Call, of Georgia, invades Seminole country. Sam Houston elected President of Texas, Oct. 22. Martin Van Buren elected President. Burning of the Patent and General Postoffice at Washington. Texas declared independent. Sam Colt invents the revolver. First National Temperance Convention held at Saratoga. Adams' great debate for the right of petition. Death of Aaron Burr. Sioux and Winnebago Indians removed beyond the Mississippi. Scott subdues the Creek Indians. 1837 Great financial crash and panic throughout the country. Harnden originates the express business. Michigan admitted into the Union. 1838 First zinc produced in the country. Wilkes' exploring expedition to the South Pole. United States Bank suspends specie payment, Oct. 5. Mormon war in Missouri. 1840 Intense political excitement. The Log Cabin camnaign. Election of William Henry Harrison. as President. Goodyear invents vulcanized rubber. The first steam fire engine constructed by Ericsson. Sub-Treasury bill becomes a law, June 30. First Washingtonian Society founded. Adams' Express Company organized. Wilkes discovers Antarctic continent. 1841 William H. Harrison inaugurated, March 4, dies April 4; John Tyler, Vice-President, inaugurated President, April 6. McLeod difficulty. Webster's (Noah) Dictionary first published. Sub-Treasury bill repealed, Aug. 9. Bankruptcy Act becomes a law, Aug. 18. Imprisonment for debts due the government abolished. Greeley establishes the New York Tribune. 1842 Kingford produces the first sample of pure corn starch; Mutiny on United States brig of war "Somers" instigated by Midshipman Spencer. The Fourier community excitement. Fremont's expedition to the Rocky Mountains. Ashburton or first Washington Treaty signed, with England, Aug. 9. Bunker Hill monument completed. Termination of war with Seminoles. Lucifer matches first made by machinery. President vetoes bill for National Bank. Dorr rebellion in Rhode Island. Bankrupt Act repealed, March 3. Death of Dr. Channing, Oct. 2. 1843 William Miller and the "Millerites." $30,000 voted by Congress to aid Morse to establish telegraph lines. Fremont explores Columbia River, Willamet Valley, and Klamath Lake. Great comet visible during the day. Death of Noah Webster. Wilder's patent for fire-proof safe. 1844 Explosion of the gun, the "peace-maker," killing the Secretaries of Navy and State. Commercial treaty with China. First telegraph line from Washington to Baltimore. First anti-slavery candidate nominated for the presidency. The "Midas," first American steamboat, rounds Cape of Good Hope. James K. Polk elected President. Mormon war in Illinois, murder of Joseph Smith; Brigham Young selected as his successor. Copper discovered in Michigan. Texas asks for annexation. First telegraph line. 1845 Texas annexed by Act of Congress, Mexico takes offense. Florida and Iowa admitted into the Union. War declared by Mexico, June 4. Naval school at Annapolis opened. Elias Howe produces his first sewing machine. Great fire in Pittsburg. Serious fire in New York, 800 buildings burned. Death of Justice Joseph Story. First manufacture of files. Zachary Taylor, with 4,000 troops, advanced to Corpus Christi, Texas. Negotiations toward purchase of San Domingo. Death of Andrew Jackson, June 8. Free Soil party originated. 1846 Northwestern boundary fixed at 498. Hostilities begin in Mexico. Battles of Pale Alto, May 8, and Resaca de la Palma, May 9; victory of Gen. Taylor. Matamoras taken, MIay "18. New Tariff bill passed, July 928. *President vetoes River Harbor bill, Aug. 3. "Wilson Proviso" against extension of slavery passes the House. Gun-cotton invented. Great fire in Louisville. Ether first used as an anesthetic by Dr. Jackson. 1846 Gen. Kearney takes possession of New Mexico, Aug. 18. Commodore Stockton blockades Mexican ports on Pacific coast. Monterey taken by Gen. Taylor, Sept. 24. Eight days' armistice granted. California expedition, under Stephenson, sails from New York, Sept. 26. Tobasco, Mexico, bombarded by Perry, Oct. 25. Tampico taken by Gen. Connor, Nov. 14. Kearney defeats Mexicans at San Pasqual, Dec. 6. Col. Doniphan defeats Mexicans at Brazito, Dec. 25. Gen. Taylor relieved by Gen. Scott. The Mormons driven from Nauvoo, 111. Iowa admitted as a State. 1847 Kearney victorious at San Gabriel and Mesa, Cal., Jan. 8, 9. Mexican Congress resolves to raise loan of $15,000,000 on property of the clergy, Jan. 9 Revolt of Mexicans in New Mexico against United States, Jan. 14. Defeat of insurgents at 'Canada, New Mexico, Jan. 24. Battle of Buena Vista, Feb. 23; Taylor defeats Santa Anna. Battle of Sacramento; defeat of Mexicans, Feb. 28. Gen. Kearney declares California a part of the United States, March 1. Vera Cruz taken by army and navy, March 28. Alvarado capitulates, April 2. Battle of Cerro Gordo, April 8; Scott defeats Mexicans; also at Contreras, Aug. 20. Molino del Rey taken, Sept. 8. Gen. Scott enters the city of Mexico, Sept. 15. 1848 Death of John Quincy Adams, Feb. 21. Gold discovered in California, March. Oneida Community, New York, established. Wisconsin admitted into the Union, May. 29. Missouri Compromise repealed. Election of Zachary Taylor as President. Corner stone of Washington Monument laid. Oregon Territorial bill passed, Aug. 13. First receipt of California gold at United States mint, Dec. 8. Treaty signed with Mexico, Feb. 2. Upper. California ceded to United States. Mexicans unsuccessfully besiege Pueblo, held by Americans, Sept. 13 to Oct. 12. Huamantia taken by Americans, Oct. 9. Guyannes captured, Oct. 20. Great excitement at Rochester, N. Y., caused by "Snirit rappings." Food sent to starving Ireland. Los Angelns, Cal., taken by Kearney, and a system of government organized. f SUPPLEJIENT XXI. ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. 1848 Great fire in St. Louis. Prof. Webster murders Dr. Parkman, Nov. 23. United States gold dollar first coined. California adopts a constitution prohibiting slavery. Death of James K. Polk, June 15. 1849 Filibustering expeditions against Cuba forbidden by the President. Visit of Father Mathew, the temperance advocate. Capt. Minie -invents the Minie conical bullet. Mason and Dixon's line surveyed. Cholera visits the United States, severe at Cincinnati and St. Louis. California Constitution formed at Monterey. Great riot at Astor Place Opera House,. New York. 1850 Treaty with England for a transit way across Panama. French Ambassador dismissed from Washington. Death of John C. Calhoun, March 31. Congress passes the Oregon Donation Law. Uncle Tom's Cabin first published. Watches first made by machinery. Fugitive Slave Law passed. Death of Zachary Taylor, July 9. Grinnell Arctic Expedition sails. California admitted as a Free State, Sept. 9. New Mexico and Utah organized as territories, Sept. 9. Visit of Jenny Lind to America, Sept. 12. Dahlgren invents the cast-iron gun. 1851 Appearance of the great sea serpent. Completion of Erie railroad. Corner-stone of Capitol extension laid, July 4. First Asylum for Idiots established in New York. California Vigilance Committee formed. American yacht victorious at regatta in London, Eng. Frightful catastrophe at public. school building, New York. Congressional Library destroyed by fire, Dec. 24. I852 Dispute with England about the fisheries. Expedition to Japan, under Com. Perry. First street-railway in New York. Deaths of Henry Clay, June 26, and Daniel Webster, Oct. 24. Treaty of Commerce with Chili. Branch mint established in San Francisco. Franklin Pierce elected President. 1853 Crystal Palace, New York, opened. Treaty with Mexico, for purchase of Arizona. Treaty with Russia. Explorations for a transcontinental railway. Yellow fever in New York. Children's Aid Society, New York, founded. Walker's filibustering expedition to Sonora, Mexico. 1854 Commercial Treaty with Japan signed, March 31. American, or Know-Nothing Society formed. Loss of the steamship Arctic. Cubans seize American mail-steamer Black Warrior, Feb. 28. First railway from Lake Michigan to the Mississippi, the Rock Island. American ship "Cayne" bombards Greytown, Central America, on refusal to pay for property destroyed, June 12. Invention of the Iron Tower for ironclad vessels, by Ericsson. Reciprocity Treaty with England" settlement of the Fishery question, Aug. 2. Bill passed organizing Kansas and Nebraska as Territories, repealing the Compromise of 1820, which excluded slavery from the entire Louisiana purchase, May 24. Massachusetts Aid Society send out settlers to Kansas. A. H. Reader, of Pennsylvania, appointed Governor of Kansas. 1855 Territorial Legislature of Kansas meets at Shawnee, July; great emigration to Kansas. Free State men meet in convention at Topeka and form a Free State constitution. Oct. 23. Hostilities between the Free and Slave State settlers begin, Sioux Indians defeated by Gen. Harney. Paraguayans attack United States steamer, "Water-Witch." Completion of Niagara Suspension Bridge. Court claims established. William Walker unsuccessfully invades Nicaragua. Dispute with Great Britain concerning recruiting for the Crimea army. 1855 British discovery ship "Resolute" abandoned in Arctic sea; brought to New London. 4856 Hoosac Tunnel begun. Victory of John Brown at Ossawatomie, Kan. Republican party formed. Alden invents type-setting machine. Rock Island bridge, across the Mississippi, opened, April 11. Affray at Panama between passengers and natives,- April 15. Page makes first wood type by machinery. President declares creation of free state government in Kansas an act of rebellion. Brooks' assault upon Charles Sumner. Dismissal of British envoy at Washington, May 28. Introduction of sorghum, or Chinese sugarcane. Dudley observatory, Albany, inaugurated, Aug. 28. The government purchases the "Resolute;" refitted and presented to British Government. Loom for weaving Axminster carpets first patented. Election of James Buchanan as President. 1857 Organization 'of the Fenian Brotherhood. Settlement of.the Central American question. Death of Elisha Kent Kane, Arctic explorer, Feb. 16. Robert J. Walker appointed Territorial Governor of Kansas. Taney renders Dred Scott decision, March 6. First attempt to lay Atlantic cable. Alden secures patent for condensed milk. Great financial crash. New York, Boston and Philadelphia banks suspended, Oct. 14, 15. Banks resume specie payments, Dec. 12, 14. Murder of Dr. Burdell; arrest and trial of Mrs. Cunningham,, his mistress. Foundering of the "Central America" off Cape Hatteras; over 400 lives and $2,000,000 lost. Great religious revival throughout the country. Troubles with the Mormons in Utah; Col. Johnson' with a military force' sent out; Brigham Young forbids any armed force entering Salt Lake City; Mormon troops ordered to hold themselves in readiness; martial law declared, Sept. 15. 1858 Dispute with England respecting the right of search. Completion of the first Atlantic telegraph, August. Death of Thomas H. Benton, April 15. Congress passes bill admitting K~ansas under pro-slavery constitution, Aug. 30. Exciting campaign of Lincoln and Douglas in Illinois. Minnesota admitted as a state, May 18. Seward announces his '"irrepressible conflict" doctrine. Kansas rejects the pro-slavery constitution by overwhelming majority, Aug. 3. First message across the Atlantic cable, from Victoria to the President, Aug. 16. Peruvians capture two American vessels. Burning of steamship "Austria," Hamburg to New York; nearly 500 lives lost. 1859 The Island of San Juan, near Vancouver's Island, occupied by United States troops. The Fenian organization perfected. Treaty with Paraguay signed, Feb. 10. Oregon admitted as a State, Feb. 14. Drake bores first oil well at Titusville, Pa. Great storm in the Northern and Southern States. Daniel E. Sickles shoots Philip Barton Key, Feb. 27. Kansas Free State party frames a State constitution at Wyandotte. Vicksburg Convention declares in favor of reopening slave trade, May 11. Publication of Worcester's Unabridged Dictionary. San Juan Island occupied by General Harney, July 9. Appearance of the potato bug. Election of Republican officers in Kansas, Dec. 6. Comstock Great Bonanza Mine purchased for an Indian pony and a quantity of whisky. Treaty with Mexico signed. Grand Embassy from Japan, with treaty of peace, etc. Tour of the Prince of Wales. Hall's expedition to the Polar Sea. Arrival at New York of the Great Eastern, June 28. 1860 Election of Mr. Pennington as Speaker of the House. Abraham Lincoln elected President, Nov. 6. South Carolina passes the "Ordinance of Secession," being the first State of the Union to secede, Dec. 20. Meeting of Senatorial Committee of Thirteen, Dec. 21. Major Anderson transfers his command from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter. The Parrott gun invented by Robert R. Parrott. 1861 Mississippi secedes, Jan. 9. Florida secedes, Jan. 10. Alabama secedes, Jan. 11. South Carolina troops fire upon the "Star of the West." Georgia secedes, Jan. 18. Louisiana secedes, Jan. 26. Texas secedes, Feb. 1. Peace Convention assembled, at Washington, Feb. 4. Provisional Government of Confederate States meets at Montgomery, Ala., Feb. 4. Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, President, Feb. 8. Abraha-! Lincoln inaugurated President of the United States, March 4. Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, bombarded-being commencement of hostilities in the Civil War, April 12. Lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers, April 15. Proclamation announeing blockade of Southern ports, April 1t7. Federal troops attacked in Baltimore, April 19. Destruction of stores at Norfolk Navy Yard by Union commander, April 20. MIaryland refuses to secede, April 27. Ellsworth shot at Alexandria by Jackson, May. Missouri turns over to Confederates entire control of financial and military resources of the State, May 9. Government call for 42,000 three years' volunteers, May 3. Arkansas secedes from the Union, May 6. Capt. Lyon receives surrender of Fort Jackson, May 10. Baltimore occupied by General Butler, May 13. North Carolina secedes from the Union, May 20. Butler in command at Fortress Monroe, May 22. Advance of Union forces into Virginia, May 24. Death of Stephen A. Douglas, June 3. Tennessee secedes from the Union, June 8, East Tennessee opposing it. Battle of Big Bethel,' Va., June 10. Congress meets in extraordinary session, July 4. Battle near Carthage, Mo., July 5. 1861 Privateer "Sumter" escapes to sea, from New Orleans, July 7. Battle of Carrick's Ford, W. Va.; Confederate General Garnett killed. Battle of Romney, Va., June 11. West Virginia admitted as a State, June 11. Battle at Rich Mountain; Confederates, under Pegram, defeated by Rosecrans, July 11. Battle near Centreville, Va., July 18. Destruction of the Confederate "Petrel" by frigate "St. Lawrence." Maryland invaded by Stonewall Jackson, July. Battle of Bull Run; Union forces, under McDowell, defeated; Union killed and wounded, 1,490; Confederates, 1,593 h.illed and wounded, July 21. Gen. McClellan assumes command of army in Virginia and on the Potomac. Battle of Laurel Hill, July 22. Battle. of Drug Spring, Mo., under General Lyon; Southern forces defeated. Battle of Athens, Mo., under Gen. Lyon; Confederates defeated, Aug. 5. Battle of Wilson's Creek, Mo.; 5.200 men, under Gens. Lyon and Sigel, attack 24,000, under Gens. McCulloch, Price, etc.; Lyon killed; defeat of Sigel, Aug. 10. President Lincoln's non-intercourse proclamation, Aug. 16. Gen. Butler and Commodore Stringhain take Forts Hatteras and Clark on North Carolina coast, Aug. 28. Fort Morgan abandoned by Confederates, Aug. 30. Fremont issues proclamation freeing slaves in Missouri, Aug. 31. Battle of Carnifex Ferry, Gens. Rosecrans and Floyd, Sept. 10. Destruction of privateer "Judah," Sept. 13. Repulse of Confederates at Cheat Mountain, W. Va. Battle of Lexington, Mo.; Col. Mulligan defends for four days against 26,000 Confederates, brt is forced to surrender; loss, 2,500 prisoners, and a large amount of gold. Battle at Creenbrier, Va.; success of Union forces, Oct. 3. Confederate "Sqvannah" captured by U. S. brig "Perry." Wi'oTn Zo,'qvVS repulsed at Santa Rosa Island, Oct. 9. 1861 Confederate privateer "Nashville" escapes from Charleston, S. C., Oct. 11. Repulse of Confederate ram and five ships at South West Pass., Oct. 12.~ Escape of Mason and Slidell from Charleston. Battle of Fredericktown, Mo.; flight of Jeff Thompson, Oct. 21. Recapture of Lexington, Mo., by Union troops. Gen. Sherman appointed to the command of Kentucky forces. Battle of Ball's Bluff; Col. Baker killed, Oct. 21. Zagonyi defeats Confederates at Springfield, Mo., Oct. 29. Gen. Scott resigns command of the army. Gen. McClellan succeeds him. Soldiers' Aid Society formed at Detroit, Nov. 1. Commodore Wilkes, of "San Jacinto," takes Southern Commissioners, Mason and Slidell, from British steamer "Trent," in West Indian waters. Port Royal bombarded, Nov. 7. Battle of Belmont; Grant's first fight. Capture of Tybee Island, commanding Savannah, taken Dec. 20. Charleston Harbor shut by sinking stone fleet, Dec. 21. Catling gun invented by J. Gatling. Death of Sam Houston, Oct. 8. Kentucky admitted into Confederate States, Dec. 9. Battle of Martinsburg, Va.; Gen. Pope, Union, captures 1,300 prisoners., Dec. 18. 1862 Indian massacre in Minnesota. Battle of Blue Gap, Va., Jan. 8. Death of John Tyler, Jan. 8. "Ericsson" Monitor launched at Greenpoint, Jan. 30. Edwin M. Stanton, of Pennsylvania, becomes Secretary of War, Simon Cameron, of Pennsylvania, retiring Jan. 13. Battle of Mill Springs, Ky.; Zollicoffer defeated by Union troops, under Gen. George H. Thomas, Jan. 19. Fort Henry, on -Tennessee River, captured by naval forces, under Commodore A. H. Foote, Feb. 6. Roanoke Island, N. C., captured by Gen. Burnside and Commodore Goldsborough, Feb. 8.1 Fort Don lson, Tenn., surrendered to Gen. Grant, Feb. 16. Confederate Congress meets at Richmond, Va., Feb. 18. Jefferson Davis inaugurated President' of Southern Confederacy, for six years, Feb. 22. Battle of Pea Ridge, Ark.; Gen. McCulloch killed, March 8. Confederate ram "Merrimac" sinks "Cumberland" and "Congress," U. S. naval vessels, in Hampton Roads, Va., ~ March 8., "'Monitor," U. S. iron-clad, attacks and drives "Merrimac" back, March 9. Manassas Junction evacuated and occupied by Union forces, March 10. Battle of Winchester, Va.; Union loss, 115 killed, 450 wounded; Confederate loss, 869 killed, wounded and missing, March 13. Battle of Newbern, N. C., March 14. Battle of Pittsburg Landing; Grant, Union commander; Gen. A. Sidney Johhston killed; Union loss, April 6 and 7, 13,573; Confederate loss, 10,699. Capture of Island No. 10, by Union forces, April 8. Raid of Gen. Mitchell; capture of Huntsville, Ala., and Russellville, Tenn. Fort Pulaski, Ga., surrendered after ~three days' bombardment, to Union forces, under Gen. Gilmore, April 11. Slavery abolished in District of Columbia, April 16. Bombardment of Fort Pillow, by Commodore Foote, April 17. Union fleet, under Farragut, passes up the Mississippi river and takes New Orleans, passing.Forts Jackson and Philip, April 24. Gen. Butler in command at New Orleans, May 1. Yorktown evacuated, May 4. Surrender of New Orleans to Commodore Farragut. Battle of Williamsburg, Va., May 5. Battle of West Point, May 7. Norfolk surrendered to Gen. Woo1, May 10. Destruction of the "Merrimac," by the Confederates, May 11. Natchez, Miss., surrenders to Commodore Farragut, May 13. Gen. Banks defeated at Winchester, May 25. Battle of Seven Pines, Va., May 29. Corinth evacuated, May 30. Little Rock captured, May 31. Battle of Fair Oaks; Union loss, heavy; renewal of battle of Fair Oaks; success of Unionists. Unionists lose Brashear City, June 13. Slavery abolished by all the Territories, June 19. Forts Pillow and Randolph evacuated, June 4. Surrender of Memphis, June 6. Repulse of Confederates, at Springfield, Mo., June 8. Seven days' fight before Richmond, under McClellan, June 26; Mechanicsville, June 26; Gaines' Mills, June 27; Savage 'Station and Peach Orchard, June 28; White Oak Swamp, June 30; Malvern Hill, July I1; change of base to James river. President Lincoln calls for 300,000 volunteers, July 1. Murfreesborough captured by Forrest, July 5. Raid of Morgan in Kentucky, July 7. Surrender of Port Hudson, July 8. Death of Martin Van Buren, July 24. Battle of Cedar Mountain, Va., Aug. 9; * Union forces under Banks, lose 1,500 killed, wounded, and missing; Confederates, under "Stonewall" Jackson. Raid of Phillips into Mississippi, Aug. 16. Battle of Sulphur Springs, Va., Aug. 24. Fighting on Rappahannock under Pope; Confederates under Ewell and Jackson, Aug. 27. Gen. Bragg invades Tennessee and Kentucky. Battle of Kettle Run, Va., Aug. 27. Battle, of Groveton, Va., Auig. 29. Defeat of Union forces at Richmond, Ky., Aug. 29. Surrender of Memphis, Aug. 29. Second battle of Bull Run; defeat of Federals, Aug. 30. Battle of Chantilly, Va.; Union Generals Kearney and Stevens killed, Sept. 1. Confederates cross Potomao into Maryland, at Poolsville, 'Md., Sept. 1. Battle of South Mountain, Md.; Union victory; Gen. Jesse L. Reno killed. Harper's Ferry surrendered, -after three days' fighting, by General.Miles, Sept. 15. Battle of Antietam, between Gen. McClellan and Gen. Lee. Retreat of the Confederates, Sept. 17. Battle of luka, Miss., between Gen. Rosecrans and Gen. Price, Sept. 19. Reoccupation of Harper's Ferry by Federals, Sept. 22. President Lincoln issues preliminary Proclamation of Emancipation, Sept. 22. Battle of Corinth, Miss., between Gens. Rosecr.qns and Price; defeat of the latter, Oct. 3, 4. M it ii

Page  105 SUPPLEMENT XXII. P" ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. 1862 Battle of Perryvillc, Ky., between Gens. Buell and Bragg; charge of Phil. Sheridan wins the day, Oct. 8. Raid of Confederates under Stuart into Pennsylvania; Chambersburg seized and looted, Oct. 10-12. Union Gen. 0. M. Mitchel, astronomer, died at Beaufort, S. C., Oct.,30. La Grange, Tenn., occupied by Gen. Grant with Union forces. Battle of Fredericksburg, Va. Union forces under Gen. Burnside defeated. Union losses, 13,771. Battle of Kingston, N. C. Confederates defeated, Dec. 14. Murphy surrenders Holly Springs to Gen. Van Dorn, Dec. 20. Jefferson Davis issues a proclamation outlawing Ben. Butler, Dec. 23. Porter's fleet open fire upon Vicksburg, Dec. 26. Sherman's unsuccessful attack upon Vicksburg, Dee. 27, 28. Iron-clad "Monitor" founders at sea, off Cape Hatteras.4 West Virginia admitted as a State of the Union, Dec. 31. 1863 Battle of Murfreesboro; Rosecrans defeats Bragg, Jan. 1. Emancipation Proclamation of President Lincoln goes into effect, liberating all slaves in Southern States. Death of Lyman Beecher, D. D., aged 87, Jan. 10. U. S. steamer "Hatteras" sunk by Southern privateer "Alabama," off Texas, Jan. 11. Capture of Arkansas Post by Gen. McClernand, Jan. 11. Confederate ram "Atlanta" captured off Savannah, Ga., by Union monitor "Weehawken," Jan. 17. First U. S. colored regiment enrolled in South Carolina, Jan. 25. Act to provide a national currency becomes a law, Feb. 25. Farragut runs batteries at Grand Gulf, Apiil 1. Comn. Porter successfully runs the batteries at Vicksburg, April 16. Port Gibson and Grand Gulf, on Mississippi river, taken by U. S. Grant, May 1. Col. Grierson's raid through Mississippi arrives at Baton Rouge, May 2. Arrest of C. L. V9landigham. Severe fighting between Union forces, under Hooker, and Confederates, under Lee, about Chancell6rsville, Va.; Confederate Gen. "Stonewall" Jackson killed; Hooker defeated, May 2, 3, 4. Battle of Jackson, Miss.; captured by Gen. Grant, May 14. Battle of Baker's Creek; Pemberton routed by Grant, May 16. Battle of Black River Bridge; retreat of Pemberton to Vicksburg, May 17. Vicksburg besieged by Grant, May 21. Colored troops first brought into action at Port Hudson, May 27. Battle at Milliken's Bend, June 6, 7. Retreat of Milroy from Winchester, June 14. Invasion of Pennsylvania by -Lee's entire army, June 15-25. Battle of Gettysburg, Pa..; Gen. Lee defeated by Union forces, under Gen. Meade, July 2, 3. Morgan begins his raid through Indiana and Ohio, July 3. Vicksburg surrendered by Gen. Pemberton to Union forces, under Grant, July 4. Port Hudson surrendered to Gen. Banks, and Natchez occupied by Gen. GrantMississippi river being thus opened to navigation, July 8. Anti-draft riots in New York; 2,000 rioters killed, July 13, 14, 15. Riot in Boston, July 15. Gen. Burnside occupies Knoxville, Tenn., Sept. 3. Confederates evacuate Fort Wagner, Sept. 6. Burnside captures Cumberland Gap, Sept. 9. Battle of Chickamauga; Union forces, under Rosecrans, fall back to Chattanooga, Sept. 19. Quantrell raids Lawrence, Kan., Aug. 21. Gen. Wheeler starts on his raid into Tennessee, destroying much Government property, Oct. 2. Hooker takes Lookout Mountain, Oct. 28. First Fenian Congress held in the United States. Gen. Meade crosses the Rappahannock, Lee retiring, Nov. 7. Longstreet begins the siege of Knoxviile, Nov. 17. Battle of Missionary Ridge; success of Federals, Nov. 24. Repulse of Longstreet at Knoxville, Nov. 28, 29. Banks starts on his expedition into Texas, Nov. 29. Longstreet raises the siege of Knoxville, Dec. 5. President Lincoln issues Proclamation of Amnesty, Dec. 8. 1864 Draft of 500,000 men ordered by President Lincoln, Feb. 1. Colt's armory, at Hartford, destroyed by fire, Feb. 8. Disaster to Union forces in Florida, under Gen. Seymour, Feb. 20. Kilpatrick's raid into Virginia. Gen. Dahlgren killed, Feb. 28. 1864 General Grant made Lieutenant-General, March 2. A Free State government inaugurated in Louisiana, March. Admiral Porter's Red River expedition, March 4. Gen. U. S. Grant appointed Commanderin-Chief of army of United States, March 12; assumes command, March 17. A call for 200,000 more men, March 15. Arkansas votes to become a Free State, March 16. Battle of Jenkins Ferry, Ark.; defeat of Kirby Smith, April 4. New York Sanitary Commission Fair receipts over one million dollars. Union expedition to Mansfield, La., foiled, April 8; Union forces, reinforced, repulse Confederates at Pleasant Hill. Fort Pillow massacre, April 12. Wessels surrenders Plymouth, N. C., to Confederates, April 20. Severe fighting between Confederates, under Lee, and Union forces, under Grant, in Virginia, in advance on Richmond, May 3-11. Battle of the Wilderness, May 5. Occupation of City Point by General Butler, May 4. Sherman begins his march toward Atlanta, May 7. Battle -of Resaca, Ga., between Generals Sherman and Johnston, Mhy 15. Failure of Butler to capture Drury's Bluff, May 16. Death of Nathaniel Hawthorne, May 19. Fighting between Lee and Grant at the North Anna, May 21-24. Battle of Dalton, Ga., May 28; Union victory. Sheridan captures Cold Harbor, May 31. Evacuation of Alltoona Pass, June 1. Battle of Cold Harbor, June 2, 3. Battle of Piedmont, Va., June 5. Hunter attacks Lynchburg; retreats into West Virginia, June 8. Army of the Potomac crosses to south side of James River, June 12-15. r I I I 1864 Assaults on Petersburg; Union forces losing 10,000 men in four days, June 16 -18. Confederate privateer "Alabama" sunk by the United States steamer "Kearsarge," off Cherbourg, France, June 19. Hood attacks Hooker at Kenesaw, and fails, June 22. Emancipation Amendment submitted to the States by Congress, June 22. Butler occupies Deep Bottom, ten miles below Richmond, June 22. Maryland abolishes slavery, June 24. Repulse of Thomas and McPherson at Kenesaw, June 27. Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 repealed by Congress, June 28. Early begins his raid into Maryland, July 2. Wallace defeated by Early at Frederick, Md., July 9. Rosseau's raid into Alabama, July 10. Early's entire army within six miles of Washington, July 12. Gold reaches highest premium, viz., 284 per cent, July 16. Greeley's negotiations with Confederates, at Niagara, July 18. Battle around Atlanta between forces under Hood, Confederate, and under Sherman, Union, July 22. Chimbersbrrg, Pa., burned by General Stuart, July 30. Explosion of a mine under Confederate works, Petersburg, July 30. Farragut captures Mobile, Aug. 3. Great naval victory, under Farragut, at Mobile, Ala., Aug. 5. Atlanta evacuated and occupied by Sherman, Aug. 31. Battle of. Winchester, Va.; Sheridan captures 5,000 prisoners, 5 guns, arid all the wounded, Sept. 19. Defeats of Early, by Sheridan, in Shenandoah, Sept. 19-22. Thirteenth Amendment passed, forever abolishing slavery. Pilot Knob evacuated by Unionists, S Sept. 27. S Death of Chief-Justice Roger Brooks Taney, Oct. 12. Overwhelming defeat of Early at Cedar Creek, Oct. 19. Raid of Confederates on St. Albans, Vt., Oct. 19. Destruction of ram "Albemarle" by a torpedo affixed to her by Lieut. Cushing, Oct. 27. President Lincoln re-elected; Andrew Johnson Vice-President, Nov. 8. Sherman commences his "March to the Sea," from Atlanta, Nov. 16. Incendiarism by Confederates in New York, Nov. 25. Battle of Franklin, Tenn., between Hood and Thomas, Nov. 30. Battle of Nashville, under Gen. Thomas. Great victory. Confederates under Hood retreat; Dec. 15, 16. Savannah, Ga., occupied by Gen. Sherman, completing the "March to the Sea," Dec. 21. President orders a draft for 300,000 more men, Dec. 19. Butler and Porter attack Fort Fisher, N. C., and fail, Dec. 24, 25. 1865 Establishment of the Freedmen's Bureau. Fort Fisher, N. C., captured by Gen. Terry and Commodore Porter, Jan. 15. Sherman, leaves Savannah, and starts northward, Feb. 1. President's Conference with Confederate Commission, Feb. 3. Evacuation of Charleston, S. C., by Confederates, Feb. 17. Its occupation by Union forces, Feb. 18. Re-inauguration of President Lincoln, March 4. Confederate Congress adjourns for the last time, March 18. Desperate fighting commences before Richmond. Battle of Five Forks, April 1. Gen. Grant advances upon Petersburg, April 2. Richmond and Petersburg evacuated during night of April 2. Flight of Davis from Richmond, April 2. Richmond and Petersburg occupied by Union forces, April 3. Selma, Ala., captured with large stores, April 5. Battle of Sailors' Creek; defeat of Ewell and Custis Lee, April 6. Grant demands the surrender of the Southern army, April 7. Lee surrenders to U. S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, Va., April 9. Mobile evacuated by the Confederates, April 10: Montgomery, Ala., surrenders to Wilson, April 11. President issues orders to stop drafting and further purchase of war material, April 13. President Lincoln assassinated, in Washington, by Wilkes Booth, April 14. Attempted assassination of Seward, April 14. President Lincoln dies, April 15. Andrew Johnson, of Tennessee, VicePresident, takes oath of office as President. Macon, Ga., occupied by Union forces; great amount of army stores taken, April 20. Capture and death of Wilkes Booth, April 25. Gen. Johnston's army surrenders to Gen. Sherman, April 26. 1865 Jefferson Davis captured at Irwinsville, Ga., with part of his cabinet, May 10. Engagement at Boco Chico, between 500 Confederates and 400 Union troops, being the last in the "War of the Rebellion," May 12. Grand review of the army, at Washington, May 23, 24. Gen. Kirby Smith surrenders all his command, Trans-Mississippi Army, May 26. Amnesty Proclamation of President Johnson, with fourteen different exceptions, May 29. Georgia declares slavery abolished, etc., Dec. 4. Secretary Seward officially declared slavery abolished throughout the United States, Dec. 18. Mississippi nullified secession ordinance, August. Alabama declared ordinance of secession null and void, Sept. 12. South Carolina repealed the secession ordinance, Sept. 15. Florida annulled secession ordinance, Oct. 25. Proclamation opening all ports in Southern States, and ending blockade, June.23. Execution of assassination conspirators, Harold, Payne, Atzeroth, and Mrs. Surratt, July 7. Rebel Indian chiefs sign treaty of loyalty, Sept. 14. Execution of Capt. Wirz, the Andersonville prison commandant, Nov. 10. 1866 Death of Rufus Choate. Jan. 15. Passage of the Freedmen's Bureau Bill, over the President's veto, Feb. 20. President's proclamation declaring the insurrection ended. Death of Gen. Winfield Scott, May 29. Fenians invade Canada, June 1. Fourteenth Amendment passed the Senate, June 8. Successful laying of the Atlantic Cable, July 27. 1866 Mlassacre in New Orleans, July 30. 1867 Nebraska admitted as the thirty-seventh State. Tenure of Office bill passed, June 4. Confiscation and Amnesty bill passed, Jan. 4. Purchase of Alaska, for $7,200,000, March 3. Jefferson Davis admitted to bail, in the sum of $100,000, May 13. Southern States organized as military districts, January. 1868 Impeachment, trial, and acquittal of -President Johnson. Death of Kit (Christopher) Carson, trapper and guide, May 23. Death of James Buchanan, June 1. Death of Matthew Vassar, June 23; he donates $800,000 for endowment, etc., of Vassar College. Wyoming Territory organized, July 23. Death of Thaddeus Stevens, Aug. 11. Cornell University, at Ithaca, opened, September. Llection of Gen. Grant as President, Nov. 3. 1869 Pacific Railway completed, May 10. Death of Franklin Pierce, January. Nolle prosequi ends prosecution of Jefferson Davis, Feb. 6. Fifteenth Amendment passed, Feb. 25. Supreme Court pronounces Confederate currency to be worthless. Great peace jubilee at Boston, June 15-20. French frontier cabine laid, July 27. Great Wall street panic, "Black Friday," Sept. 24. Death of George Peabody, Nov. 4. Death of Edwin M. Stanton, Dec. 14. 1870 Ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment by the States. Death of Admiral David G. Farragut, Aug. 14. Death of Gen. R. E. Lee, Oct. 12. The Nathan murder, New York, July 28. Proclamation of neutrality in Franco-German war. First narrow-gauge railway built, Denver & Rio Grande. Ku-Klux bill passes Congress. 1871 Treaty of Washington, with Great Britain. Great fire at Chicago; 17,450 buildings destroyed; loss about $196,000,000, Oct. 8. The Yellowstone National Park bill passed. Visit of the Grand Duke Alexis to the United States. The Credit Mobilier scandal. 1872 Settlement of the Alabama Claims. Congress removes the political disability of the Southern people. Re-election of President Grant. Great fire at Boston; loss about $78,000,000, Nov. 9. Death of Horace Greeley, Nov. 29. Death of Samuel F. Morse, inventor of the electric telegraph; Northwestern boundary question settled by the Emperor of Germany. Death of James Gordon Bennett, June 1. Epizootic throughout the United States. National Granges organized. Death of William H. Seward. 1873 Wreck of the Atlantic, 535 lives lost, April 1. Modoc massacre, death of General Canby, April 11. Colfax massacre, La., by White League, April. Death of Salmon P. Chase, Chief Justice, May 7. Beecher and Tilton scandal, Brooklyn, July. The Salary Grab bill. Failure of Jay Cooke & Co.; great financial panic, Sept. 19. Trial and conviction of William. M. Tweed, Nov. 22. Seizure of the "Virginius," and execution of a number of her passengers by the Spanish authorities in Cuba. Surrender of the "Virginius" to the United States by Spain, Dec. 12. Death of Louis Agassiz, Dee. 14. 1874 Woman's Temperance Crusade. Visit of Kalakaua, King of Hawaii. Compromise Currency Bill signed by the President. Death of Charles Sumner, March 11. Grasshopper raid in the Northwest. Abduction of Charley Ross, July 1. A second large fire in Chicago, July 14. Presidential election; result disputed, November 7. 1875 Passage of the Act for the Resumption of Specie Payments in 1879. Colorado admitted into the Union, March 4. Centennial celebration at Lexington, Concord and Bunker Hill. Death of Andrew Johnson, July 31. Trial of Henry Ward Beecher for adultery. Trial of Prof. Swing for heresy, May 5. Death of John C. Breckinridge, May 17. Military rule discontinued in the Southern States. Suspension of the California Bank, and suicide of President Ralston. Death of Henry Wilson, Nov. 22.' Great fire in Virginia City, Nev., Oct. 25. Foundering of steamship "Pacific" between San Francisco and Portland, Nov. 4. Death of William B. Astor, Nov. 24. Escape of Tweed from the custody of the sheriff, Dec. 4. Great revivals, under Moody and Sankey. Great inundation in Texas. 1876 Opening of the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia, May 10; it closes, Nov. 10. Serious difficulties between Americans and Chinese in California. Burst of reservoir -at Worcester, Mass., destroying millions of dollars worth of property, March 3. Death of Alexander T. Stewart, April 10. War with Sitting Bull and the Sioux. Massacre at Hamburg, S. C., June. Massacre of Gen. Custer and his command, by the Sioux Indians, July 2. Completion of the First One Hundred Years of American Independence; great rejoicing throughout the United States, July 4. Castle Garden, N. Y., destroyed by fire, July 9. Younger Brothers and Northfield Bank robbery, Sept. 7. Arrest of W. M. Tweed, at Vigo, Spain, Sept. 0. Yellow fever in Georgia, September. Trial of Molly Maguires, October. Dastardly attempt to rob the grave of President Lincoln, Nov. 7. Burning of the Brooklyn Theater, 276 lives lost, Dec. 5. 0 First furnace for cremation built, at Washington, Pa., Dec. 6. The Ashtabula railroad horror, Dec. 29. 1877 Close of the Indian War. The Electoral Commission Bill passed by Congress, Jan. 25, 26. Rutherford B. Hayes declared President, March 2. Blue Glass mania. Death of Cornelius Vanderbilt, June 4. Great railroad riots, East and West, July and August. 1878 Yellow fever epidemic along the Lower Mississippi. Meeting of the Alabama Claims Commission, Feb. 27. Fenians attempt a second invasion of Canada, May 29. 1878 Death. of Robert Dale Owen, June 24. The Colorado Petrified Giant humbug. Return of Henry M. Stanley from African explorations, August. "Death of Brigham Young, Aug. 29. Death of Oliver P. Morton, Nov. 1. Earthquake shocks in New England and Middle States. Ku-Klux bill passed by Congress. Death of Benjamin F. Wade, March 2. Development of the telephone and phonograph. Bankrupt Repeal Bill passed, May 10. Death of William Cullen Bryant, June 12. Indian outbreak in Washington Territory, July. Chinese Embassy visits the United States. Silver Bill passed by both Houses of Congress. Yellow fever in the South. Gold sold at par-the first time since 1862-Dec. 17. 1879 Resumption of specie payments, Jan. 1. Death of Richard Henry Dana, Feb. 2. Great fire at Reno, Nev., March 2. New Constitution of California adopted, May 2. Death of William Lloyd Garrison, May 24. Terrible tornado in Kansas, Nebraska and Missouri, May 30. Bill to erect a monument on site of Washington's birthplace, passes both I-louses, June 10. Waterspout in Black Hills causes great loss of property and life, June 12. Disastrous storms east and west, July. Great fire at Deadwood, Dak., Sept. 26. Death of Gen. Joseph Hooker, Oct. 31. Death of Zachary Chandler, Oct. 31. Caleb Cushing dies at Madrid. "Exodus" of negroes from South to West. James Russell Lowell made Minister to England. Fall elections favor Republicans. 1880 Death of Frank Leslie, Jan. 10. City Hall, Albany, destroyed by fire, Feb. 10. Terrific tornado sweeps over parts of Western and Southern States, April 8. Great forest fires in Southern New Jersey, April and May. Collision on Long Island Sound destroys the steamers "Narragansett" and "Stonington." Centennial celebration of the capture of Andre, Sept. 23. Garfield and Arthur nominated by Chicago Republican Convention, June 9; Hancock and English by Cincinnati Democratic Convention. At the General Election, the Republican candidates secured 213 out of 369 electoral votes, Nov. 6. 1881 Electoral College vote counted, Feb. 9. Three per cent. funding bill passed, March 2. Steamer "Corwin" sails for the Arctic regions in search of the "Jeannette," March 4. Revised New Testament issued, May 20. Star route frauds exposed, May 26. The great comets of 1881 first seen, June 20. Sitting Bull, chief of the Sioux, surrenders, July 31. James A. Garfield inaugurated, March 4. Contest between Garfield and Senator Conkling (N. Y.) about New York collectorship, May. Commercial treaty with China signed, May 5. Great Britain pays ~15,000 award for damage done to American fisheries in Fortune Bay affair. Assassination of President Garfield by Charles J. Guiteau, at Baltimore' railway depot in Washington, July 2. Death of President Garfield at Elberon, N. J., Sept. 19; burial at Cleveland, Sept. 26. Vice President Arthur becomes President, Sept. 26. Special session of the Senate, Oct. 10. The celebrated Guiteau trial begins, Nov. 14. News of destruction of "Jeannette," Arctic exploring vessel, Dec. 30. 1882 Guiteau convicted, Jan. 25; sentenced Feb. 4; hanged June 30. Anti-Chinese bill (twenty years) passed March 23; vetoed by the President April 4. Senate passes Edmunds Anti-Polygamy Bill, Feb. 16; approved March 23. Apportionment bill passes the House, Feb. 17. Great Mississippi overflow, wide destruction and loss of life. Tariff Commission Bill passes both Houses, May 6-9; approved May 15. Bill extending National Bank charters passed both Houses, May 19. Violent cyclone at Grinnell, Ia., June 8. Second Anti-Chinese bill (ten years) passed; signed by President Arthur, May 6. Collision of the Scioto on Ohio river; 59 persons drowned, July 4. River and Harbor bill passed over the President's veto, Aug. 2. Return of the survivors of the North Pole expedition. Star Route trial ended by verdict of jury, Sept. 11, acquitting Turner, convicting Miner and Rerdell, and disagreeing as to Brady, the Dorsey brothers, and Vail. Steamer "Asia" founders on Lake Huron, 100 lives lost, Sept. 14. Utah Commission completes registration of voters, September. 1882 The Pendleton Civil Service Bill passes Senate, Dec. 27. 1883 Civil Service Reform Bill passes the House, Jan. 4. Presidential Succession Bill passed Senate, Jan. 9; not considered in the House. Burning of Newhall House, Milwaukee;.59 lives lost, Jan. 10. Great flood in Ohio River; 50,000 people homeless, Feb. 10-15. Tariff and Tax Amendment Bill passes both Houses, March 2. Death of Alexander H. Stephens, aged 71, March 4. Death of Peter Cooper, aged 92, April 4. Cyclone at Beauregard, Miss., 83 lives lost; tornadoes in Iowa and Georgia, April 22. Opening of the Brooklyn Suspension Bridge, May 24. Pendleton Civil Service Act passes both Houses, July 16. Steamer "Proteus" of the Greely Relief Expedition crushed by ice in Smith's Sound, July 23. Terrific tornado at Rochester, Minn., many lives lost, Aug. 21. Northern Pacific Railroad formally opened, Sept. -8. Civil Rights Act of March 1, 1875, declared unconstitutional by U. S. Supreme Court, Oct. 15. Gen. Sherman relinquishes command of the army, Nov. 1; Gen. Sheridan succeeding. Two-cent letter postage goes into effect throughout the United States, Oct. 1. Serious riot at Danville, Va., between negroes and white military, Nov. 3. Dakota adopted a constitution erecting Southern Dakota into a State, Nov. 6. Festivals in honor of the 400th anniversary of Luther's birth, Nov. 10-11. 48th Congress organized. 1884 House repeals the iron-clad oath law, Jan. 21. Germany returns resolutions of the House landatory of Ruskin, Feb. 15. United States Supreme Court affirms the constitutionality of Legal Tender Act. March 3. Mexican War pension bill passes House March 3. The Senate ratifies commercial treaty with Mexico, March 11. Defeat of Morrison Tariff bill, May 6. Congress appropriates $1,000,000 for New Orleans Exposition, May 8. Great panic in Wall street; failure of Grant and Ward and others, May 6-14. Relief expedition rescues survivors of the Greely Arctic expedition, at Cape Sabine, June 22. President vetoes the Fitz-John Porter bill, July 2. Corner-stone of the Bartholdi Statue of Liberty laid, Aug. 6. The general election resulted in the election of Grover Cleveland, who carried 20 States, securing 219 electoral votes against 182 for James G. Blaine, Nov. 4. Opening of the 48th Congress, Dec. 1. 1885 Grover Cleveland resigns the New Yorkgovernorship, Jan. 6. Dedication of the Washington Monumnent, the tallest structure known, 555 feet, Feb. 21. Occupation of Aspinwall, S. A., by United States troops. Inauguration of Grover Cleveland as President, March 4. New Orleans Exposition opened, Dec. 16. Treaty with Colombian Government, providing a joint protectorate over the Isthmus, May 5. The Revised Old Testament and complete Bible published, May 18. Death of Gen. U. S. Grant, at Mt. McGregor, N. Y., aged 63, July 23. Grant memorial services held at Westminster Abbey, London, Aug. 4. Death of Vice-President T. A. Hendricks, aged 66, Nov. 25. 1886 The Presidential succession act signed, Jan. 19. Controversy between the Senate and President over reasons for removing public officers, Jan. 25. 400 Chinamen driven from Seattle, W. Ter., by a mob, Feb. 9. Death of General Winfield Scott Hancock, aged 61, Feb. 9. Blair Educational Bill passes the Senate, March 5. Bill for free and unlimited coinage of silver defeated, April 8. Chicago Anarchist riot; 6 police killed and 61 wounded, May 4. Anarchists indicted at Chicago, May 27. President Cleveland married to Miss Frances Folsom, June 2. Oleomargarine bill passes the Senate, June 20. Morrison Tariff Bill defeated, June 17. House of Representatives passed bill repealing the pre-emption, timber culture and desert land laws, June 7. Bill to repeal the Civil Service law indefinitely postponed by the U. S. Senate, June 18. Congress requires the Treasury to issue small denomination silver certificates, July 24. The President warns' office holders against attempts to control political movements, July. Death of Samuel J. Tilden, aged 74, Aug. 4. - Chicago anarchists, to the number of 8, found guilty of murder, Aug. 20. Earthquake at Charleston, S. C., destroying $5,000,000 worth of property and 57 lives, Aug. 30-31. Surrender of the Apache chief Geronimo and his band, Sept. 4. Death of Ex-President Chester A. Arthur, aged 56. Bill to regulate the counting" of electoral votes passed, Dec. 9. 1887 Interstate Commerce Bill signed, Feb. 4. House defeats the Dependent Soldier Pension Bill, Feb. 24. Belmont Retaliation Bill passed, March 2. Bill to redeem trade- dollars passed, March 19. Inter-State Commerce commission appointed, March 22. Mormon convention at Salt Lake City adopts a constitution, July 1. Defeat of the Scotch cutter "Thistle" by the American "Volunteer" in race for "America cup," Sept. 27 and 30. President and Mrs. Cleveland leave Washington for a Western trip. Mormon convention of monogamists petition Congress for admission of Utah as Sa State, Oct. 8. United States Supreme Court refuses to interfere with the finding of Illinois courts in anarchist cases, Nov. 1. Governor Oglesby commutes death sentences of Schwab and Fielden to life imprisonment, Nov. 10. Hanging, at Chicago, of the anarchists Parsons, Spies, Engel and -Fischer, Nov. 11. Republican National Committee select Chicago for National Convention, June 16, 1888. Dec. 8. 1888 Terrible blizzard in Minnesota, Dakota and Iowa; 200 lives lost, Jan. 12. Inter-State Commission confirmed by the U. S. Senate, Jan. 16. Fisheries treaty with Great Britain signed at Washington, Feb. 15. Strike of engineers and firemen on the C., B. & Q. R. R. began Feb. 25. 1888 Deadlock in the House of Representatives over the Direct Tax Bill, April 9. Death of Chief Justice Morrison R. Waite, aged 72 years, March 23. Knights of Labor appeals to Congress for a system of Government telegraph, April 12. Death of Roscoe Conkling, ex-U. S. Senator, aged 60 years, April 18. Daily sales of U. S. bonds began, April 23. Melville W. Fuller, of Illinois, nominated by the President as Chief Justice, April 30; confirmed by the Senate, July 20. Chinese Treaty ratified by U. S. Senate, May 7. Execution of murderers by electricity, after Jan. 1, 1889, passes N. Y. Senate, May 8; approved by the Governor, June 4. The President approves of bill to invite a conference of American States at Washington in 1889, May 24. Lieut.-Gen. Philip H. Sheridan confirmed as General of the Army,'-- June 1. National Democratic Convention at St. Louis renominates President Cleveland, June 6. National Department of Labor bill approved by the President, June 13. The President signed the Chinese Exclusion Bill, forbidding any Chinese laborer who has been, or may now be, or may hereafter be, a resident within the U. S., and may depart therefrom, and who may not have returned before the passage of this act, to return to, or remain in, the U. S., Oct. 1. Death of General Philip H. Sheridan, aged 57 years, August 5. 1

Page  106 LL SUPPLEMENT XXIII. ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. I 1888 Major-Gen. John M. Schofield appointed to the command of the army, August 14. U. S. Senate rejects the Fisheries treaty, August 21. President's message to the U. S. Senate recommending enlarged powers under the Retaliation Act. August 23. Floods at Augusta, Ga., destroyed $1,000,000 worth of property, Sept. 12. Bill prohibiting coming of Chinese laborers approved, Sept. 13. September wheat touched $2 on Chicago Board of Trade, Sept. 29. U. S. Supreme Court sustains the constitutionality of the Iowa "Prohibitory Law," Oct. 22. The "Murchison" decoy letter to Lord Sackville West made public, Oct. 24. Lord Sackville West, British Minister, dismissed by the President, Oct. 20. National Election for President; the Republican candidates elected, Nov. 6. Official yellow fever bulletin gave total number of deaths 412, and of cases 4,705, at Jacksonville, Fla., Dec. 10. U. S. men-of-war, "Galena" and "Yantic" sailed for Hayti to demand release of the Haytian Republican, Dec. 12. 1889 Great storm in Pennsylvania; many lives lost at Pittsburgh and Reading, Jan. 9. Niagara Suspension Bridge blown down at 3 a. m., Jan. 10. Department of Agriculture created, Feb. 4. The States of North and South Dakota, Montana and Washington, created by Congress, Feb. 20. Benjamin Harrison inaugurated President, March 4. Oklahoma proclamation issued, May 27. Opening of the Oklahoma country, April 22. Centennial of Washington's inauguration, April 30. Murder of Dr. Cronin at Chicago, May 4. Destruction by flood of Johnstown, Pa.; 5,000 to 10,000 lives lost; over $20,000,000 worth of property destroyed, May 31. Judge D. S. Terry shot by U. S. Marshal Nagle, defending Justice Field, Aug. 14. International Marine Congress meets at Washington, Oct. 16. North and South Dakota admitted by proclamation, Nov. 2. Trial of Cronin suspects began.Aug. 30, ended Dec. 16., Coughlin, Sullivan and Burke found guilty, and received life sentences; Kunze, imprisonment three years; Beggs found not guilty. 6 David J. Brewer appointed a Supreme Court Justice, Dec. 4. Death of Jefferson Davis, late President of the Confederate States, Dec. 6. 1890 Appointment of Special World's Fair Committee, Jan. 18. La grippe or influenza prevalent throughout the Northern and Western States. Death of Gen. Crook, at Chicago, March 19.e Act approved providing for the World's Columbian Exposition, at Chicago, April 25. Death of Gen. Fremont, at New York City, July 13. First execution by electricity, at Auburn, N. Y., Wm. Kemmler, Aug. 6. First legislature of Oklahoma meets, Aug. 31. Act forbidding the use of the mails for lottery purposes, approved Sept. 19. Thie McKinley tariff bill takes effect, Oct. 6. General election; next House of Representatives Democratic, Nov. 4. The 51st Congress convenes, Dec. 1. Sitting Bull and seven other Indians killed near Standing Rock Agency, Dec. 15. Battle of Wounded Knee, between the 7th Cavalry and hostile Indians, Dec. 28. 1891 Death of George Bancroft, historian, at Washington, Jan. 17. Death of Win. Windom at a banquet in New York, Jan. 29. International Monetary Congress met at Washington, Jan. 7. 1891 Application before the U. S. Supreme Court for a prohibition to the U. S. District Court on its decision in the Behring Sea difficulty by Canadian representatives, Jan. 12. Sioux Indian war ended by submission of the Hostiles, Jan. -15. Reciprocity treaty with Brazil announced, Feb. 5. Death of Admiral David D. Porter, at Washington, Feb. 13. Death of Gen. Wm. T. Sherman, at Washington, Feb. 14. Charles Foster, of Ohio, appointed Secretary of the Treasury, Feb. 21. Copyright bill passed Congress, March 3. Act creating Circuit Court of Appeals, passed March 3. French Spoliation Bill passed, March 8. The Copyright bill becomes a law, March 4. The enlistment of Indians in the U. S. army authorized, March 6. Proposed arbitration of Behring Sea dispute, March 11. Lynching of 11 Italians at New Orleans, March 14. Nicaragua Canal Party sails, March 14. American Society of Authors formed for the protection of writers, March 30. Recall of the Italian Minister, Baron Fava, March 81. 25th anniversary of the founding of the Grand Army of the Republic, April 6. Ground broken for the Grant Monument, New York City, April 27. 1891 Chinese Government refuses to receive the American Minister, H. W. Blair, April 28. Fort Berthold Reservation, N. D., opened Sfor settlement, May 20. "'The People's Party" formed at Cincinnati, May 20. Statue of Abraham Lincoln unveiled at Lincoln Park, Chicago, May 23. Bronze statue of General Grant, at Ga* lena, Ill., unveiled, June 3. The Czar of Russia presents Stanford University with a complete collection of Russian and Siberian minerals, June 12. Surrender of the Chilian ship, Itata, at Iquique, to the U. S., June 4. First shipment of block tin from California mines, June 15. International Postal Congress held at Vienna decides to hold next Congress at Washington, June 25. Commercial treaty with Spain signed, June 26. Transfer of the Weather Bureau to the Agricultural Department, June 30. $500.00 accepted from the Itata for violation of the U. S. Navigation laws, July. Libel filed against the arms and ammunition on the Itata, at San Diego, July 12. Statue of Stonewall Jackson unveiled at Lexington, Va., July 21. Smokeless powder used for the first time by the U. S. Government, July 25. The "Majestic" breaks the ocean record, time being 5d. 18h. 8m., Aug. 5. Cherokee strip in Indian Territory closed to Whites, Aug. 13. Rain-making experiment at Midland, Texas, Aug. 19. The "Teutonic" breaks the trans-Atlantic record of the "Majestic," time 5d. 16h. 31m., Aug. 19. Indian lands of Oklahoma opened, Sept. 22. Dedication of Pope Leo XIII. statue, presented to the Catholic University at Washington, Sept. 28. Leland Stanford, Jr., University at Palo Alto, Cal., opened, Oct. 1. Equestrian statue of General Grant at Lincoln Park, Chicago, unveiled, Oct. 7. Commercial treaty with Germany concluded, Oct. 11. Shoshone and Arapahoe Indians sell one million acres of land to the Government at 55 cents an acre, Oct. 16. U. S. Government demands reparation from Chili for assault on the crew of the Baltimore, Oct. 26. Argument in the Sayward case, to test U. S. jurisdiction over Behring Sea, begun in the U. S. Supreme Court, "Nov. 9. Congress met; Mr. Crisp, of Georgia, chosen Speaker, Dec. 7. 1892 Stevenis County, Ken., war again breaks out, Jan. 5. Inter-State Commerce Commission appointed by the President, Jan. 5. Terrible mine explosion at McAlester, Ind. Ter., nearly 100 lives lost, Jan. 7. Secretary Blaine notifies foreign countries of retaliatory measures, as required by the Tariff Law, Jan. 8. Special message to Congress from the President, recommending financial aid to the World's Columbian Exhibition, Feb. 24. The President submits correspondence with England to Congress, regarding Behring Sea controversy, March 9. Ex-Congressman W. R. Morrison selected as President of the Inter-State Commerce Commission, vice Judge Cooley, resigned, March 21. Free Silver coinage debate -in Congress, March 22-24. French Extradition Treaty signed, March 25. The Silver bill shelved, March 28. The Free Wool bill passed, April 7. Diplomatic intercourse with Italy renewed, April 14. Sisseton Reservation, S. D., opened, April 15. Revenue steamers ordered to Behring Sea, April 16. Copyright agreement with Germany signed, April 16. The President approves Behring Sea modus vivendi, April 18. U. S. Commercial Treaty between Switzerland and Italy, signed April 19. The President invites foreign 'nations to participate in an international Silver Conference, April 21. The President lays Grant monument corner stone, New York City, April 27. Chinese Exclusion bill signed, May 5. Terrible floods in the Mississippi 1alley, May 8-15. Wyoming appoints women to National Republican Convention, May 7. The Alliance party proposes a new currency, May 8. The Pope approves Archbishop Ireland's Educational Policy, May 10. Association of American -authors formed, May 17. Reciprocity with Guatemala goes into effect, May 30. James G. Blaine resigns as Secretary of State, June 4. Republican National Convention held, June 7. Benjamin Harrison and Whitelaw Reid nominated, June 10. 0 Democratic National Convention held, June 21. Grover Cleveland and Adlai Stevenson nominated, June 23. Peary Arctic relief expedition sails, June 27. Homestead, Pa., Steel Works closed, June 30. Prohibitionists nominate John Bidwell for President, July 1. People's Party nominate James B. Weaver for President, July 4. Slaughter of Pinkerton men at Homestead, July 6. National Christian Endeavor S6ciety Convention at New York, July 7. Pennsylvania troops take possession of Homestead, Pa., July 10. Bill to close the World's Fair on Sunday passes both Houses, July 14. Great storms in Minnesota, July 30. The President proclaims Oct. 12 a National holiday, July 21. H. C. Frick, chairman Carnegie Steel Co., shot by Berkman, July 23. George Shiras confirmed by the Senate as Associate Justice U. S. Supreme Court, July 26. Inman Steamer "City of Paris" breaks the Ocean Record, 5d. 15h. 58m., July 27. Central Labor Union rejects anarchistic resolutions, July 30. Congress appropriates $2,500,000 to the World's Fair, Aug. 5. Chinese sailors forbidden employment on American ships, Aug. 5. International Monetary representatives appointed by the President, Aug. 7. Trouble among East Tennessee miners, Aug. 13. 1892 Railroad strike of switchmen at Buffalo, great 'destruction of property, Aug. 14. The President proclaims retaliation against Canada on canals, Aug. 20. Nancy Hanks again breaks the trotting record, 2.051/., Aug. 31. Death of George William Curtis, author and journalist, Aug. 31. Cholera brought to New York City by Hamburg steamer "Monrovia," Aug. 31. Nelson beats the stallion record, 2.1334, Aug. 31. 1892 Death of J. G. Whittier, poet, Sept. 7. Nancy Hanks again breaks the trotting record, 2.04, Sept. 28. Formal opening of the Chicago University, Oct. 1. Dedication of the World's Fair buildings, at Chicago, Oct. 21. Fire at. Milwaukee destroys 315 buildings, with $5,000,000 loss. Anarchist monument dedicated at Waldheim Cemetery, near Chicago, Nov. 6. Great strike at Homestead, Pa., declared off, Nov. 19. Stamboul lowers stallion record at Stockton, Cal., 2.071,4, Nov. 23. Death of Jay Gould, capitalist, Dec. 2. Dr. McGlynn restored as a priest, Dec. 23. Immense gold fields discovered in Utah, Dec. 27. - Prof. Briggs acquitted of heresy; Dec. 29. - Great floods in California, Dec. 29. George W. Vanderbilt gives a costly art gallery to the Fine Arts Society at New York, Dec. 30. 1893 Death of General Benjamin F. Butler, Jan. 11. Senate passes- the Seal Protection Bill, Jan. 13. Death of ex-President R. B. Hayes, Jan. 17. Hawaiian Provisional Government proclaimed, supported by U. S. authori ties, Jan. 17. Death of James G. Blaine, statesman, Jan. 27. Russian Extradition Treaty confirmed, Feb. 8. Conflict of rival Legislatures in Kansas, Feb.. 21-25. Rank of American Ambassador established, March 1. Inauguration of President Cleveland, March 4. Behring Sea arbitration opened at Paris, France, April 10. President Cleveland opens World's Fair at Chicago, May 1. SChinese Exclusion Act goes into effect, May 1. Governor Altgeld pardons Chicago anarchists, June 28. Extra session of Congress called June 30. Great fire at World's Fair, 24 lives lost, July 10. Behring Sea arbitrators award in favor of England, Aug. 15. Great storm on South Atlantic coast, Aug. 28. Wabash railroad accident at Kingsbury, 14 killed, 45 wounded, Sept. 22. Chicago Day at the World's Fair, attendance 716,881, Oct. 9. World's Fair closed at Chicago, Oct. 30. Repeal 'of the Silver Purchase Clause Act. of 1890, Nov. 1. 1894 New York Court of Appeals decides that foreign corporations may hold real estate in New York State, Jan. 16. Wilson Tariff Bill and Income Tax passes the House, Jan. 31. U. S. Warship Kearsarge, famous as the destroyer of the Confederate Alabama, wrecked on Roncador Reef, Feb. 2. Death of George W. Childs, philanthropist and journalist, at Philadelphia, Feb. 3. Greater New York bill signed by the Governor, Feb. 28. President Cleveland vetoes the Bland Silver bill, March 30. Behring Sea -proclamation issued, April 10. Unconstitutionality of the South Carolina Dispensary law declared, April 19. 136,000 coal miners ordered to strike in Ohio, April 20. Coxey's army invaded Washington, D. C., April 29. Dr. Talmage's Tabernacle in Brooklyn destroyed by fire, May 13. 177 buildings burned by fire at Boston, May 15. American Railway Union boycotts Pullman Car Company. Affected 50,000 miles of railroad, June 25. Armor-plate frauds detected, June 29. U. S. Court enjoins strikers from interfering with railroad trains, July 2. Railroad mobs destroy property in and near Chicago, July 6-10. Railroad strike declared off, July 13. Utah Enabling Act signed, July 17. American marines Sooul Corea, July -27. Work resumed at Pullman, Ill., Aug. 2. Hawaiian Republic officially recognized, Aug. 9. 68 factories close at Fall River, 20,000 men idle, Aug. 13. United States recognizes the sovereignty of Nicaragua over the Mosquito Coast, Aug. 26. New Tariff becomes a law, without the.President's signature, Aug. 27. Earthquake with great loss of life at Uvalde, Texas, Aug. 31. Reciprocity Treaty with Cuba cancelled by Spain, Sept. 3. President Cleveland's Hawaiian letter first published, Sept. 5. Amnesty- granted polygamists in Utah, Sept. 27. Death of Prof. David Swing at Chicago, Oct. 3. -Death. of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Oct. 7. Government offers to arbitrate in the Japan-China war, Nov. 6. 1895 Famous Mora case settled with Spain. Cotton States Exposition at Atlanta, Ga., Sopened. 1896 Utah, 45th State, admitted, Jan. 6. William McKinley elected President of the U. S., Nov. 3. 1897 U. S. Senate passed resolution for recognition of belligerency of Cuba, May 20. Great Gold Discoveries of Klondyke, July 15. 1898 U. S. Battleship Maine destroyed by explosion in Havana harbor, Feb. 15. Independence of Cuba recognized by resolution of Congress, April 19; and President's proclamation calling for 125,000 volunteers, April 23. Commodore Dewey destroyed Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, May 1. Squadron under Sehley and Sampson destroyed Spanish fleet under Cervera off Santiago de Cuba, July 3. Peace protocol sig ed, and President's proclamation issued suspending hostilities, Aug. 12. 1899 Beginning of war for suppression of Aguinaldo and his followers; Filipino Insurgents inaugurated general engagement, Feb. 4. Peace Treaty with Spain ratified by the U. S. Senate, Feb. 6. 1900 City of Galveston, Tex., destroyed by hurricane, Sept. 8; 6,000 lives lost. Twelfth Census of U. S. gives population 76,295,220. 1901 President Wm. McKinley inaugurated for second term, March; assassinated, Sept. 6; died, Sept. 14. 1902 Great anthracite coal-miner strike began, May. 1903 Iroquois Theatre, Chicago, burned Dec. 30, 600 lives lost. Panama Canal property bought by U. S., Feb. 16. 1904 Theodore Roosevelt elected President, Nov. 6. 1905 Wireless message sent from Kansas City to Cleveland, a distance of 725 miles, Jan. 15. 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire, April 18-20. 1907 Great financial depression, Oct.. 1908 Boyertown, Pa., theatre burned, 175 lives lost, January. Win. H. Taft elected President, Nov. 3. 1909 Discovery of North Pole by Commodore Peary. Payne-Aldrich tariff law approved, Aug. 5. 1912 Devastating floods in Mississippi Valley; over 200,000 people rendered homeless.

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