Atlas and plat book of Lapeer County, Michigan.
Kenyon Company (Des Moines, Iowa), Lapeer County Press (Firm)

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Page  [unnumbered] CA EPISTEMIA 7935 Bentley Historical Library The University of Michigan e Ann Arbor Rebound through the generosity of Marguerite N. Lambert

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Page  [unnumbered] AlrLAS.an. 11 Ir F11:11( Of Containing Outline Map of the County, Plats of -all the Townships.with -Owners'Nae State Map, Map of the United States, Map of the World Map of New Europe Also History and Atlas of the World War AND LAPEER COUNTY HONOR ROLL Published by THE LAPEER COUNTY PRESS LAPEER,' MICHIGAN Compiled From Latest Data on Record Published July, 1921 ~ Copyright 1921 The Kenyon Company, Inc., Map Makers, Des Moines, Ia. INDEX Page. Almont Township........................................ A rcadia T ow nship ---------------------------------------- Attica- Township ---------------------- Burlington Tow~nship ---------------------------------- Burnside Township -------------------------------------- Deerfield Township -------------------------------------- Dryden Township ---------------------------------------- Goodland Township --------------------------------------. 43 25 33 11 19 15 41 27 Page. -E lba T ow nship ------------------------------------------------ 29 H adley Tow nship...........----............................. 37 Honor Roll of Lapeer County ------------------ 1- 2 Im lay T o~w nship -------------------------------------------- 35 Lapeer County, Outline Map of -------------- 6- 7 Lapeer Tow nship ------------------------------------------ 31 Marathon Township --------.....................13 Mayfield Township...................................... 23 Metamora Township...........................~ Michigan St~ate' Map -------------- Michigan State Index ------..........45J-,North Branch Township.-------------- Oregon Toyreship ------------------------ R ich T ow n ship -----.; --------------------. --------- - World War History and Ata--....iiiii9

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Page  1 - 4 II:------ - - - 1 1 LAPEER COUNTY...\-EN AND NURSES Who Served in the U. S.-Naval and Military Forces During the War The official records of the War Board having been forwarded to Washington, this list has been compiled from unofficial sources, but every reasonable effort has been made to have the list complete. Any omission is not intentional, but due entirely to lack of information. Albrecht, Gus Lapeer Albrecht, )m. C. Lapeer Allen, Frank Drydeii Allen, -Ralph Jason Dryden Allison, George C. 'Mayfield Anderson, Bert Mayfield Anderson, H. Cuthbert Lapeer Andersion, Lester Metamora Andrews, James B. Lapeer Arms, Jean Lapeer Arndt, Wnt. Clifford Arnold, Louis C. Oxford Baker, Wm. Lapeer Baldwin, Robert E. North Branch Balkwell. Barton A. Almont Baier; Carl Lapeer Bannister, Ira Hill Dryden Barber, Clarence Lapeer Barber, Grant Ietamora Barber, Robert Lapeer Barrnes, Glenn Alniont Barton, Clyde Laneer Bates, 11ollaid R. Hadley Beariager, Lee Imlay City Betker, Albert A11ont Betker, Lew Almont Black, McKinley A. Bro-wn City l1ackburn, Stanley D- North Branch Block, Lewis ImIczav City Blo.'de, Clarence B. Burnside 1"lojide, Da-vid Burnside Blutecker, George S. 4etantora Boque, James North Branch Bohnstrck, William Lapeer Bostick, Verne E. Almont Bottoinley, Earl D. Imlay it l 1B31ozzard, John W. Brown city BradenfelIder, iMPark Hadley Bradenfelder, Perry S. H-adley llradleyý Lewis E. Silverwood Bradshbawq Al Lapeer Bradshaw9 Lorenzo Lapeer Bradshaw, Stephen Lapeer Brady, Earl ()tter Lake Braijer, F'red '14etamora Braner, Albert A. Metamora Brawn, Tolly setamora Brazer, Paul Lumn Bristol, Willette K. Alijont Brocker, Carl W. Hadley Brocker, Lorenzo - -etamora: Brocker, Walter Metaniora Brooks, Alfred Kings Mills Brooks, Harold Attica Brown, Francis C. -Metaniora Brown- Earl Imlay City Brown, John J. fLa-neer Brown, William Es ILapeer Blck, Rush 'Rich Bullis, Nelson A. Lapeer Burke, Tom Lapeer ljjrlingame, -M.a rsh1 a I IAlmont Burnette, Clarke F. Dryden Buritette, Edward R. Dr-Mden Burr, Asa Elba Bvsh. James H. Lapeer btaer, FrVnT Imlay Cityo BFe~r, Al~bert Mvnzsfield Byer, WlliIm ayfield Ryers, Adolplz ELipee~r Calelv, Thomas G. Metalnorn Cargill, BoB Rlarnfide Csrgill, TWalter 7W. IBlrnside Carhcart, 4)wen 3letazmora Carls, John Lapeer QCarpenber, Clarence_ Mtayfield Larpent~er, Glenn Ma$~field CarS, G~eorge H., Jr. Zspeer Cntlinl, rhnral A, Columbiatville Cat~lin, Leon Gleorge Colulnbiavil~le Catlin, William F. Columbia-ille Chapin, Clarence D. Dr-Columbbiaville Chappel, Francis J. E. 31arlette Chappel, Simon S. Marlette Chapman, Riley T. Lapeer Ch-evris, Joseph Almont Chrisinske, Albert E. Imlay Chrysler, Alfred J. Imlay City Church, Merle Dryden Churchill, Howard Imlay City Clark, George Dryden Clark, Teron Dryden Clemens, Harry Brown City Cofforn, Stewart R. North Branch Cofferon* Robert 'N-orth Brancli Coiner, Ray North Branch Cole, Reuben Colunibiaville Cole, Charles Otter Lake Collins, Henry J. Columbiaville Cornell, J. Ralph Imnlay Cottin, Aural Columbiaville Covey, Harold H. Imlay Covey, Clyde Imlay City Crandall, Ralph E. Imlay Croff, H. W. Lapeer Cunningham, Floyd ]Lapeer Currey, Jame-s M. Almout 'Currier, Hale Aln1o1lt Curtis, Harry Dryden Curtis, Sumner Lapeer Cyril, Moss Dryden Daley, William L11m. Daniron, Edward Marlette Da.vid, Alan T. Lapeer" Davis, Edgar A. Imlay Davis, Clare R. Dryden Day, Leo A, North Branch Deacons, Joseph Attica Deary, Clarence 1Lapeer Deline, Charles J. Columbiaville Deline, George Columbiavilie Demrow, Edward J. Wa-terto-v~It Dennis, Guy Imlay Dennis, Herbert Imlay Dennis, Ezra Imlay DesJardins* George W. Lapeer DesJardins, Paul E. Lapeer DesJtrdins, Trudeau Lapeer Desk, Susie Miss (R.N.) Imlay Detweiler, Claud Burnside Detweiler, Clare Burnside Dickerson, J. C. Clifford Dittmar, Walter Dryden Docherty, Leo E. North Branch Dodds, Arthur North Branch Donaldson, Gerald R. Dryden Doty, George Otter Lake Draper, Frank W. North Branch Drinkhorn, Chris Almout Dulmage, Ray E. Almont Earhart, Owen D. Hadley Eckfield, Henry F. Clifford Eineder, Oscar Imla~y City Elliott, Arthur Lapeer Erwin, Thomas O. North Branch Erwin, Edward North- Branch Erigson, Carl Lapeer Farley, Keith M. -31etamora Farley, Howard C. Aliont Faxnsworth, Arthur Mayfield Farrar, Mark H. Lapeer Fenner, Earl G. Imlay City Fenner, Jacob E. 1etaniora, Fenner, Ellsworth Metaiora Fenner, John Imlay City Ferguson, John S. Imlay Ferguson, Lawrance Imlay Ferns, Earl Attica Ferrier, George E. Druden Ferrier, Hazen North Branch Fields, Harold A. Lapeer Fields, Wilmot Lapeer Finch, George Columbiaville Finch, Roy Lapeer FirmW1- -, Ivy AlmontFischer, _hlbert C. Attics Fleetswood, Willia~m T. nichfield Foe, Frank Dryden Ford, Rruce Silvcerwood Forsythe, Eeon Imla~y Foster, Walber Ncorth Branch Fowler, William~ IrTwin ~Laeer Frenoh, Dan ZHunters Creek Garbutt~, Georg~e S, llorth Rralch Gaynon, George C. PNort]h Bpa~nch CGaynor, Leo Norta Rr~azch (IGee, alt-aa F. MIetramora Gee, IF. 1R. BHadley Geiger, Floyd A. Fostoria Giraidin, William North Branch Gleason, Milton E. Hadley Gleason, Paul L. Hadley Glover, Hugh North Branch Goodell, Weldon Be Columbiaville Goodell, Lyman Hutnters Creek Goudy, Walter Otter Lake Gordon, Roy 1. Metamora (;raham, Glenn A. (Dr.)Lapee~r Graves, Floyd V. Lapeer Graves, Sam S. Lapeer Greene, Royal JI Hadley Green, Duane Hadley Green, Russell Burnside Griffith, Philip R. North Branch Groner, Wallace F. Clifford Grover, Clyde W. Lapeer Grover, Floyd Metamora Gro-ves, Clyde W. Elba Gutcliess, Walter.1lmont Haak, William Goodrich Hagemeister, Frank Dryden Haire., John L. North Branch Hall, Roy Imlay Hall, George B. Lapeer Hallock, Watson Almont Hamblin, Jerome 1etainora Hamilton, Frank Almont Hamitcon, William J. Almont Hammond, Charles North Branch Hampshire, Edward Brown City 11art, Robert 1K. Almont - Harris, John L. North Branch Harris, Milliani Lum 11aeskill, Ellis Lum Haskill, Heath Lum Hayens, Leslie Ring~ Mills Harvie, William I. Lum Harrington, Paul W. North Branch Hartman, William F. I-rnlay City naiyes, Lloyd Almont Hayes, Lonis Lapeer Heatley, James R. -North Branch Heatley, L-ynn Geo. North Branch neck, Geo. Lapeer Helmke, Harry Geo. Imlay City Hemingway, Dean W. Hadl~e?.Hemingway, Fred Otter Lake Hemingway, George A.,.Otter Lake Henderson, Ross B. Lapeer Hoagland, Geo. Da-vison Hogle, Charles Attica Hollenibeck, Fred Elba Hollenbeck, Lloyd F. M6ný),s 'Iills Hollenbeck, Glenn L. Lapeer Holleman, James E. )etantora Holm, Robert R. Hadley Hosner, George H* Lapeer Hovey, Harry F. I m1ay Howe, Don Imlay City Howell, Leland Otter Lake Hughes, George Lapeer Hughes, Waxren J. Imlay 1-ull, Clarence Dryden 11u,41, George Lapeer Huntley, Ray May-ville HIIntley, ]Lynn North Brancli Mird, Fred.3ayfield H'Mrd, Fraidi C. Lapeer Hutchings, Charles Lapeer Hutchinson, William North Branch Hutchinson, Arthur North Branch Hyslop, Don Leo Clifford Inman, James Melvin North Branch Jens, Fred T. Elba Jens, 'William Hadley Jersey, Darwin Lapeer Johns, Earl North Branch Johnson, Joseph H. May-ville Johnson, 111-oyt Meta-mora Johnson, 1,loyd Metamora Johnson, Lyle North Branch Johnson, F. A. (Rev.) Lapeer Johnso Vt, Y 4il""a x,-.-leyJolaes, EC1Tard Y). Otter Lake Jones, Lloyd E. Otter fake Jones, 31)onrell M.(HP.D.) Pml~ay Ciiy Jones, MauriceP.(MD.) Prmlay City Jostock, Paul Inings 1)3ills Ha~sten, William I;um Halbfleisch, Hemon Rrown Cit~y Kalbogeiseh, Earl Imlcy Cit~y Htarney, Thgmas Lapeer fKelch, Eczrl Silvrerwrood Kellogg, Lleo Hnnters CreeB HellobgCg, Clsytoa P-lnt~ers Creek Hellogff, JEdwttri Lapeer Kellogg, Bert Lapeer Kellogg, Harry Lapeer Kelly, Charles W. Clifford Kennedy, Charles Otter Lake Kern, Jay F. Fostoria. Kesselring, Martin North Branch Key, Joseph F. In lay City Kiehle, Lloyd Lapeer Kiehle, Cyril Lapeer Miels, Otto C. Almont Kitchenmaster, Herman 4ay-field Ritchenmaster, Charles Lapeer Kite, Farley Ifetamora Kipp. Claude Imlay Kotalba, John North Branch Knight, George Y. 3fetamora Koyl, Ray J. Lum Kreiner, Henry C. North Branch Kreiner, George North Branch -Kreiner, Dominic North Branch Kreiner, Harry North Branch Kreiner, Oliver N. North Branch Kruse, Arthur Dryden Kudner, Arthur Lapeer Kudner, Don Lapeer Kudner, Schuyler Lapeer ]Kuehn, Arthur B. Imlay Kunkle, John North Brancb LaForge, Peter Imlay LaForge, Albert Imlay Lake, Albert E. North Branch Lambert, Bruce Colunibia-ville Lambertson, Lawrance Lapeer Lameraux, Hollis Lapeer Lassen, Frank Lapeer Laur, Glenn North Branch Lawrance, Bert Columbia.-ville Lehman, Frank Otter Lake Lermon, Harvey 33ayville Lindsteadt, Walter Imlay Linndsteadt, Otto Imlay Lindstetadt, Walter A. Intlaiy Lister, George H. Lun. Little, William T. Almont Ltckwood, Ralph V. Lapeer Ldjucks, Clarlton Lapeer Louclis, William V. Lapeer Ludwig, Edward Metamora Langdon, Floyd Columbia-ville Hack, Zeno North Branch Maerak, Anthony Ortonville,-4aer, Cyril Drydein NMaisoln, James Imlay Hann, Ray Ijtapeer 3annhig, Harold M. Almou t Marr, Ora D. Lapeer Jfarr, Jack i Lapeer Mark, William I1Plity City Marshall, Lester Imlay 11arshall, Earl I jlar Marshall, Clare, ImlayMartin, Beriiard Iffla y Mathews, Leslie Imlay City 4athews. Xbsolom Imlay Maul, Ha.lis Lapeer, McArthur, Arthur (Dr.) Lapeer XcBaid~e, Donald Lapeer tcCorinack, Merle Otter Lake 31eCornae, Louis Mayfield McDermid, John Colujbilbaville 'McDonald, Reginald Lapeer McDonnell, Joseph La.-neer McDougal, John Hadley McGillis, Tern Imlay 3tcGillis, Grover Imlay McHenn-, Charles Lum Mclillop, Don A. North Branch 31cRullen, John Dryden M1cNabb, Da.-vid Lapeer McCready, 'Earl Clifford McTaggart, Da-vid Flint McVean, Alex North Branch Merritt, Miss Nina Dryden Messenger, Albert Lapeer IRichael, Lej IMayvfielcl 4lichiklHz MQelrV Lape~er Jaindleton, EapSI North Braac'h Miiddledi2-ch, Hoiward NEorth Braplch MillerRalpT apeer Itiller, 'Lcslazncl KinFgs Tills ]Milldglil, Frcd Clifford IHlisener, Elrserson Mazyfielcl I4Pisenetr, Garl~eton Layeer RHisener; Georffe Lapect~1 Mitchell, B1~chie Erorth Branch SMitchell, H~arold La-ieer Muore, Earl Elbra Iorsn, Lew I-fetamora Morey, Hugh Lapeer Mork. Will Imlay.1orrison, Clyde Otter Lake Morton, Harold Hadley Mowatt, Roy North Branch Muma, Willard Lapeer Murdock, Richard Lapeer Mlurray, John North Branch Muxlow, Ernest Broivn City Myers, Claude Elba, Nfyus, RaY A. Lapeer Naylor, William C. Lapeer Newberrv. Edgar Lapeer Nettle, Milton Lapeer Nettle, Wesley Lapeer Newman, Grant Dryden Obekli, Lewis Clifford O'Brien. Frank Columbiaville MmEmb Il moom I Aý Continued on Next Page................

Page  2 _ _ I I 'I - - - Lapeer County Men and Nurses, Who Served in the U. S. Naval and Military Forces During the War---Continued O'Halloran, James Lapeer Olds, Floyd Metaniora Olmstead, Calvin Lapeer Ormes, Lester Clifford Ostrander, George Lapeer Pace, Hallie Attica Palmer, Charles Lapeer Park, Collin 3tetamora Patrick, Val A-,orth Branch Paton, Clyde Almont Pailltz, James Clifford 'Peck, Dean 11eta niora. Penney, Veriion Metainora Perkins, William Lapeer Pettitt, Maynard Columbiaville Phillips, F. J. Lapeer Phillips, Stephen Lapeer Pierson, Floyd Otter Lake Pinkerton, It. Carson Lapeer Pinkerton, Don Lapeer Pittenger, Floyd Lum Plumb, George Almont Plummer, Jerome Hadley Plummer, Basil fadley Potter, Otis P. Elbaa Price, Neal Almont Promenchenkee, Frank Lapeer Purdy, Fred C~ol timbiaville Quirk, Miss Grace R. N. Imlay City Ragatz, Floyd Imlay City Recknall, Floyd Imlay Redwood, Arthur J. Lapeer Revoldt, George Imlay City Revoldt, Ernest Imlay City Rhead, Ronald D. Lapeer Rhodes, Ralph -Metamora Rice, Lester Lapeer Richards, Lorenzo Lapeer Richards, Harold Lapeer Robb, George Kings Mills Roberts,, Lyle Almont Robnet, Joseph Imla.y Robinet, Jacob Kings mills Robinson, Dayton Lum Rood, Galen Lapeer Rose, Arthur J. Almont Ross, Clayton Columbiaville Rowden, Wellington Lapeer Rowley, Allen Lapeer Rugg, H. G. Lapeer Russell, George Metamora Rutherford, Melvin Almont Rutledge, Willic1nz North Branch Rutledge, S. North Branch nawyer, William T. Scates, Lee J. Scharf, August Scharf, John Schoof, Irvine Schreinert, ]Elmer Schroeder, Albert Schwerin, Elmer Schriber, Floyd Schrimegeon, George Seames, Ernest Secor, Earl. Secord, Harold Sharp, William Sharp, Edwin Sharp, Harry Shea, James Shepard, William Shingler-, Cornelius Shoenals, Fred. Sicklesteel, Horton Sidebotham, Alfred Sigsbee, Levey Singles, Sanford Singles, Samson SkiiInrer, Lewis Slattery, Lawrance Smith, Clyde Smith, Clarence Smith, Eldred Smith, Gilbert Smith, Harold A. Smith, Herman Smith, Howard Smith, John R. Smith, James E. Smith, Melmin E. Smith, Myron Smith, Ray H. Smith, Roy F. Smith, H. Reed Smith, Russell Smith, William Smith, Warren L. Sohn, Henry Somerville, Homer E. Sorenson, Carl Sorenson, The-odore Spangler, Fred Starking, Gordon Sternbergh, Harley Stepheson, S. E. Stewart, Lewis Ste-vvart, Glenn Almo ut Imlay Norti Branch -,North Branch Imlay Lapeer Almon. t Rings mills Burnside X orth Branch Lapeer Imlay City Lum Imlay Imlay Burnside Imlay Lapeer Otter take Brown City North Branch Lapeer Lapeer Imlay Imlay Metamora North Branuch Brown City North Branch -May-ville Hadley Lapeer Burnside Detroit Rings -ills Brown- City North Branch Lapeer Dryden Burnside Lapeer Columbiavile North Branch Lapeer rorth Branch Brown. City Lapeer Lapeer Almont Lapeer Imlay Columbiaville Hadley Hadley Stimson, Clifford Stimson, lWinfred Stinle, Alb-,ýrt Mock, Roland Stocker, Donald Stone, C-tarles O..,-5o-ver, Cliarles Sto-ver, Daniel Stover, Arthur J. Stratton, Leon Strue, tawraint e Strue, Albert Stuhr, George Summers, Kepp Summerville, Arthur Summerville, George Swain, Earl H. Swain, Lee D. Sivape, Harvey S-wa.yze., Hiram Sweeney, James Tard, Otto Tay~lor, Albion Taylor, Earl Taylor, Alfred Jason Taylor, Walter Isaac Templeton, Lloyd Terpening, Delbert 'ferry, Daniel Tibbits, Harold Tinker, Harold Titus, Frank H. Townsend, Leo Traver, Frank Traver, Harold Travis, Stimson Trepto, Stephen Trumble, I1onald Trumball, Leo Tuttle, Harold Tyler, Ernest Upleger, August Utley, Ornaldo Tandecar, Francis Van Dyke, Albert VanGilder, S. Vincent, Don S. Vosberg, Jess Wagner, Albert Wagner, John H. Walker, Allison Walker, Carl Walker, Glenn Walker, Murray Detroit Hadley -North Branch Alet-amora, Dryden Lapeer Kings 3ills Kiligs Mills Hunters Creek -,North Branch Lapeer North Branch Kings 3fills Imlay,Marlette Marlette Rings 14ills Lum Metamora, Lapeer Hadley Otter Lake Imlay Brown City Elba Lapeer Deerfield Imlay City Dryden Lapeer Lapeer Imlay Cliff ord Col-urnbiaville Columbia-ville Dryden Oxford Hadley.Almnont Lapeer Metanmora, Imlay City Dryden Lapeer Kings Mills Meta-mora Lu711 Lum Imlay Elba Imlay Lapeer Lapeer Imlay walker, oliver C. Watkins, Cyrus D. Watkin s, Lewis Watson, Robert Watz, John Webb, Dan Webster, John W11righti Roy Weir, Clyde Weir, Donald Weir, Louis Wellington, John Wellington, Gordon Wells, Lester 'Wells, Lee Wertz, Johbn West, Fred West, Nathan Weston, John Weston, Marshall Weston, Harry Weyer, Otto Wheatley, Paul Whetcopp, William White, Enoch T. White, Ralph Whitehead, 'Rod ney Whittkopl, Wm. H. Wilbur, Ir-vin A. wilde, George Wilcox, Ir-vine W. Williams, Raymon4d Willis, Alvin Wilson, Marshall Wilson, George Winn, Dan Winslow, Roy Wirth, Ray H. Wolfe, Townsend Woodrow Worthy, Leo Wright, Tern Za~strow, Adolph Zastrow, Jo-, Zastrow, Frank A. Zastrow, Leo -B. Zavitz, Pearl Zemmer, ]dward Zuhlke, Anios Zuhlke, Arthur Zenworn Imlay Hadley Lapeer 'Lapeer Lum Ifnlaty City Metamivora North Branch. Lapeer Lapeer Lapi. er May-ville.X-rty-ville Dryden Im, ay Lapeer Lapeer Iiings Mills I apeer 'ýorth 1Branch Alavfield Almont Lapeer Imlay City Lapeer Lapeer Almojit Imlay Iml.-cly City Hadley Imlay City Lapeer Burnside North Branch Dryden Kiligs Mills Imlay City Lapeer Hunters Creek Deerfield Imlay City Columbia-ville Lapee-r Lapeer Lapeer Lapeer Imlay Coulmbiaville Lapeer Lapeer Columbiaville BACK TO GOD'S COUNTRY _ _ jl _ I;_ _ ___

Page  3 -I 3 The -Iapeer Countyy Press is acknowledged by Auc*tioneers, Bankers, Leading Stockmen and Farmers to be the Auctlion Sale' Advertising A-\-edlum inthis section of the State. 0 Over last year 90 in per cent Lof the County auction sales were adverm Lapeer PR SS. tised in THE ie5 Woe give Complete Auction Sale Il I I, I II L I ~,, I, r C1 I I Advertising Service I II L, I L, II ~ i II I I~- I LU 1w~~~ ILa eer.0 unty I- ress I.J afeer I _ i _ - __ _ ~ ~ ~ -~

Page  4 You read it first in---l COFJ PR Lapeer County Folks' Favorite Newspaper ----H. 0. Myers, Publisher I

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Page  6-7 T U S C. 0 L A 0 U N T Y __ ~, ~ _____ B~~. 10 E.__ _ ^ __.. - 10 Outline Map of i^k | ||.\lvewT fe ^ I ^, ~6 4J OF 2 ^ -ie^^ Michigan M -_;U cII T-,0- - -^ - - 12 Scale 5/ Inch to I Mile t18 M7 /.> s- 14 [ 3 Improved County Roads and State Trunk Lines Z -' Jl>,_A L ^^ y N C^ [ L^_s^ ^ iE0CO are shown, by heavy black Line. State Trunks ^ ^j ^ ^ ^' 'TJ -! c | S ^ are further designated by number,'thus: 21 1^ 20 21 qu^^"wL 22 23 4H ~ 2A 21*| 2 (/ 3 24IS" 29 ' 2!223( 4 Schools Churches *(^ Cemeteriest == =J=== == =, " =. = ^ - -- "= = = -- j - -- -- ^ -- - ^ < = ~ - - 30 29 28 \ 2T 26 265 | a ^ =2=; 2T " ^ 2! 0 2 8 2 ^ S_ 2 T U 8 C 0 L AC 0-./ 31 32 3^=^^^ 340_^ 3,4^^ ^v North^ ^ L.^^^^ R. E.: _ _- _ / l1 k^ ^ ' * ^ V 12 7, 8 9 10 ".12^ ' ^ ^= = i - -H 7' 10F'3^ ==? 3 i'- ^^^,S3^ 3 =~ k 6p ^| -i'^ __ _j/ - -^^ _. __ JL,^ |LVi0!.11.v A ^ ^*-- ^^ --^so^ 18abe 17^:=~ -- 16 14 7^^ 16"T" 13. ) * - ^^!L ] 2 ~ os ^ ^ ' ^ )' ^ i^\ ^~]\~222 D 20y^ A ^ ^A - ^--^.,^r:: F ^ ^ ^ 1 ^ ^ ^;-^ B==2T====i = -1T12 ^. arnesa ^; )a 2 1- - J 11/ C= f 2 ~ ^ " * 19 ^ - 21 =^= = ^^^^^ lit 23 24T = = 2 19 21 22 r) 2.3 242 7 6 UJ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i r>^^ Lr_ ^_^n i _ _ \^Ie____ U^ ) -^: ^-\~*^"^ / *^ ^- -- ll~J --- ' 'VSE^^ -- ^ '' W ~^~ -- v ^k 21iiQ, ~ n/ -a- 1f ^ Q -,? ~ ~ " -;" ~ PondJ~~~~~ij~~i1-. ---- I B 5(~/N;>^ - *' ^ j^ - ^

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Page  9 li~llllllll- 111[=11 11= 1111~1111~~1111 =11111 111-1111~ll~ll!!ls~~flli~illl FIiill-~--lllll~'lll llll~1j~l~ll~~llll=llli~llll~lrlE11111111"1 R- 1i -A-It- 11 11 7 =- ii- 11 11-17 1 11 -IF-11 1111or TOWNSHIPI Scale: 11/2 Inch t, r~l IIIZ es'LA-PEER~I COUNTYgP, _311CH~IGAN~ Tow~nship 10 North, Range 10 East of Micehigan Mneridian tlllll Stante Trunk 1-Lines anld Imnprovedl County Iftoads ~Shown thus: Schools Shown thus: hre SoP ns II ~Rural Routes Shown thus:. ~ Cemeteries Shown thus: W~here Rural Routes run over Improved Roads, they are denoted by arrows thus: TU S 0 0 OU,.rai~ M e 0 L7NaH 7n 0 7 L7- h7z- 57 Ceý C~~ C3 prae n072 7-7 0 W 7Z., Q i'h ~i~~ ~8 t!; 2/ 78 -1, (4 k N4 L ~ 1Lf~ ~~~f W tlý%N n 121 11715- /32ff Y.P2. ha4 4 L e W jq _ JTy e nry ~Y ~ ~ i Son a 40,-I -I S+ C,4 4t 4 z 40 T7( 2 os --50 Q 0 80-,g! L D P - 40 4 N 0 %.7-0 77,-9 ~i ~ e 4? 7z Aa5: -e h O e 277- a 7C_ Ii.7 80.Lev ir~n go 40 ýh_ -f.i 11111 ~ 7~v.40 EirM'~~C, yQ O 3 'i L~~71p 0 ve r -.7'r 0 rr ý2_tt A 7_ 5'A 0 11t, a 1ý I 7= iý 2 % ýI jli~7Z 4 ~ L 111[;1111% _ _ II lltlIr9 9 Iltllf 111111 I 111111 111111 , 111111 Illltl llI111 -- I 111111 I I I 11118 -- i-90 111111 rwo d Illlfl 1. - I erZ 92 T DIllltl ztT I -= Emer O111111 I I ~ zZ 111111 70 I serrj 3Eru 111111 I PO, I -- ""'1 111111 o fam 111111 -- I 111111 I rCId I -- illltl -- 11[111 iard IPI T3tdp FL' - I 1[1111 Gadi-e 30 111111 I I ~t7: 'L 111111 oc I - - O Illlfl I c 111111 -- o I CO - rl1lll so U n IV) ý FIT i~t -17,421 k 9 MI I H -e~zzz-ný7 0?-a?zFz 7-2,h Z, 7110 ý 7- z*-- z Z z'a- n Cir 'ýP2- -y'c -711-o- VV7 Z n, Z'"D ~;n e~~ SO.80ar A7Z C 10 e le ( 8 X,%JV 29 Z K? 5y 'jp ilh Clza /8ah ne i/z )a,~et i er~,c,6 y 3a '9K. j -6rsz qj q 00 %'týQQ tCLQ B ILI I 1 %7. -M. Pý 03r --77 6r Ceo50 ~ Ce or i 49a LOz' a ~ ~9 '70 C'vo 50c;Z c 7er- C7 11111 ~be r5SýZ 40 C~icrzs. W -t" A ~a r~j t ~ -Do?'Z~ 7, 7ca z ' z~~f Q~~ 11111 tj tec~l 1 40 1 V,~ X -71Z-o- 21A z SO 7Z, '120 40 ~ ~ u L j- h. S i~tt b g W N N' tq -,41 z rg ~lV~n /C 40 4 bL 40 40~ RIA ~ B D E E R E L 8 i p Li~st of Small Pr~opert), owliersi this Tow~nsl-Ap S11-0sui ol Ma ~tp by Numbm~srs MINo Nme Are. ISc(. No~,.~~ ile. Acres. -Soc. No. TNT a I I Icrs.Be~ 1. F'ranki Blair ------------------- 0 11, W. R w ll st...........3 L. N e -NA- t o nl I~ 2.11, Josephi Baniberry.. ------ -......... 10 10 6. Do i T bb s, Eisl -- --------------- 5 10 10. Oscar Rcbiio 3. Aios L. Iiinine i........................; 10 1. X. lubb s...................................... 5 1 11. Ose,,ir Rcbl SO 13 4. Wiilber~ t M awda-sh~~.~...................1.0 1 8. J. Ilainbo r- --------------------------- 10 10 1. Mrs. Da -- - - - - -- - - - - - - -..................... 0 t 1 111111 Ibl C 91 111111 I 111111 7dS lip 111111 I" ~ztzT-l II1III I 1 1. 111111 I I s UUII -- -- 111111 m a rF I1llI1 -- II;hhgr o I 111111 --I ~--I 111111 ]11111 I ~cl 1111111 I 11111 ri-~ 1~~11~ 11111 ~~1~111 111111:111111--1111111"~~~81 1111 111111PIIII,, 1. 111111111111 rrr~ri 111111=111111'111[1I liilflIIIII: 11111 1111111IllltHIEI= l1118sII111IJ1111 IIi1==I11lllI lI111 Iltlll 1lllI1,,illfil I __ I _ __ -- 1 III a 4il LI Irillllll "",,,, ~rrra p- ~ -- - I II rrac -- S-111111-M

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Page  11 FI ur-r-M IIIIH -- 11111'" " 11111-111111 111111 II II 111M il lll l llll i ll illll l llll lllll llll Nillllli!11111 i1111 IIIill MillA M~il Mil 01111 llIIA HIM IIiillI Township 10 North, Range 11 East of Michigan Meridian State Trunk Lines and Impro County Roads Shown thus: Rural Routes Shown thus: Where Rural I T U 8 O LL <rc c arre eor y re 6ýP e 07e V 7_6 "72./0s /zo 7/ 40 /~ )ved ~ ~. Schools Shown thus: Churches Shown thus:,. *** Cemeteries Shown thus: Routes run over Improved Roads, they are denoted by arrows thus: n IZYfo 200o A C, Y t l o' C,+ ez. 07 K II -_ W. -" I r.7- 1, orn... -n -L I g,(OaV7?,XMo I - - 4-- 1 Y14Nht TZ V7L1/ 40oge. Ir w ri -r adp 45e iere, -q Z eX. CZ~grA oa ear t" E ~ -- "Ji'eftm I - / V, -n, U21,%o 'W, N C: "YtI 7"TO -Xvnu-s5 0" I 7 _C_ 0 L c AP -:- - v Z'e,'czI @ 4Z e. r.4vs 774" -I'tu. o 11 - I I m I MMM D 0 if i| obe: r. , d a Yff a LVPdra t if Mt PW r -qN. ii,I I II oil!* 1 "- go III 'IFV-CLFD.)VP 0 I Q) 'ki "5. i 4f l- * Iw- " t," 11 - - _" <"W-". z 7- 1- -I4"0 t_.,_ -",-I % I I -w I V.7ý7.1 1 - A -- -- I r NN:<" V _(.6 - i i i vo. - 7 el Ab e z'yoberi ~ aa o y".. 7 hernfr va mpIs"//! -j -I LLi 494-1- ..I_ --_ -11W.-r-- _- -I I o 14 erI:,A9.,q z,.. et I C'ZerT z 0 ' /or /160 A CR Gz tz. i -,_,"1m Son 7 I1.,+ o a_.l-,z--.o,.,>,.-- _, -e4 Z eelc C~ae Z'7Z 1507 i J7! Fe7 6eo, 91 _2 _ r'-"ap TeiA e I I e *r C2I '.6. o o " g 6 -,., 7, H4-b a z wa i"a i I" ",,. 1 5- I.4k,........,..... 4115-91,/ --. l!] - ...ir",.... - ---- -,4 Z.....r 111111 Hill IIIIII - N HIM 11 11 ' IlllJl H I IIIIII IlM iIII!1 - g-/ 49 A.;e\. t I I t5e eo .c V &n a -2.7w a1o SZ -p 14d o Tz - V4ý "o / oe 7 m 1 AFT323hL ( cz) X. -E I 01 I "Cu -r 4ýýnal,f-40 -i T I "Ir ~ r 4f."t 00 o1 N S II i?too -7:: . ~s /owe _F. en -via Icý." r t20,la ~e'.. I, -:1 34" I Co'o iA ie 7 -160,fl ýA, A. 3. Co 7/rory, a fz C l. O ý Its 00 q-)r00 n t" 0 7,.ý7 m PýW' - I. a I I I w -orlw- K c;'r- NJ zmammm. - I a NZ Isom= q low= p ma - Ian= 7AjO'--10ý /3/.277 tQ R ýIlj dvy -IrC-7 4. _!.- -.A' H n 'Ose 77,,.S-r -Z.e. SzZZ e-, S7eo, O'7ambers Z'mi s A l.. o Col' Is! B. 9 troAnA JAol7 //9 a NO T ta 2 c: cj qýo flu 49.0) A U, IV AM-, roey Jw qj _N 40 4a 7-mm _Z 1ý -,z Sý ras f& C4 -!?, - e ro /V', eiv-z 110'144 ýs /Ars le I z e" 120 -=ROME=;F N O R T H B 1 t A N F H T ' P. List of Small Property Owners in this Township Shown on Map by Numbers. No. Name. Acres. See. 1. M. Geo. & Carl N. Rasm us s n...................................... 10 1 2. NVm. S. Blackmer and wife..10 4 3. H. L. Pearson........................... 4 No. Name. Acres. -Sec. 4. F rank Snay................................ 10 10 5. Uni Thompson.......................... 10 33 6. Ray Clothier.............................. 1.50 33 7. Caro Sugar Co......................... 1 2S I!1111-1 @@--N-----@---N=-=N-N-N-----.---l~ll~lil lll~illlillllll~illlllllill~illlillM

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Page  13 .H]flilllUllllllllll--'---'nllrl'---JNill--__llllllllllllilllll------llllll lllilllIHll lllllI--'--'llllll--'llllH'--"'llllll'='l'llllll -.'--'-'--m'-|'-I|||||||---- I11111------i M1111 1 LAPEER COUNTY, MICHIGAN Township 9 North, Range 9 East of Michigan Meridian State Trunk Lines and Improved County Roads Shown thus:...dmmzpmm Schools Shown thus: Churches Shown thus:I Rural Routes Shown thus: - Cemeteries Shown thus: Where Rural Routes run over Improved Roads., they are denoted by arrows thus: 4"-wi S T US 0 J- A- C 0 U N T Y _ T ^ J..t | n^ <" fr ^ ^ ^^^w^1 T Gla varrs__5 en j -4.72ý E 677 he Chc c~i o 4 -Fe Inyo r50 -V 04 / _,wy c ar1,7Zo-w Ce 4 -4Zr er 7br 97 -I 14 9 3 A Z r 40 e *Im IHIII ^.^^ ^?'Z tjG ^ -Joe A1^ A' 4;. --J?^-,t C C,^^ ^ 1-5 -1 -7ve; "B) ^^ZA ^ >.rZ. e. ^^ ' Z1. Re,> b5 2' <~ r er ^ s r 6?& s %o 7 411609111z~y ' - &0 1 a of er e rr tod *a?CA 20ý (90 'ý'N **, ^, S ^ I- ^ -l'A _ ^ _ eCý 8 l~ - l ^ \ ~^r * -> ^^^^~^V ^ > ^ y^Zf ^^ ae ^r ncr ^\ Cae ^\^ /^ wi Ir a^ A- 7 0 P ^^ ^ -Z^^ e o oe. e, cio e 01111 z'de A Illlli ~~~~en '542^, ^' OO k, 11 1^._ 17r -IVY Jr nto,<^\ ^ -/ 2 * ^ *~~ ~ 4 oV -00s-^-^ ^^^ ' m ^^ S~~~~a-olser 4. 0 11r 410\C^ a^ i d ^a ^ ^ \ - iii A- j~r \\=^r^^T j^^'fT s ~ 'r,0 e- IF01 ^.To s.^ - ^ I~'' rý Ib^ ^ -- X 03H ^ B ^?^i"'0 7;1',-r^ X-A.^-. 1P 'Ar i Lk i ) * *z ij itJ'0! ^ " lA 0 r, 1/ C^~ r.,5 eh n Z'0? e 16K ~ *? *o w z' 7- 3?zf^ ^-^^ ^ 'shop 40 -ff Xeenp ~^!7 ek^ M == ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ycrr?-.oPoc" ^^ 7,?\" ^7^ ^^ tS^' 05 r ^ T---s o- fl ^ i i! ~ ~ ~ 7s n y-^^^ ^ eo /00^,.A.^ =jl2,*~| j^' 3' l^^2 a ^W Wk? 40-; tr^^^^^J ^^0c.l^ -^ Ill-A9 -0,2!V~r.' ^ -~ -xr- a'6-, - "^ r-l^^ ^ ^ ^ *w /e ' !llllll==lll 13 _ i I IIIiI IIiIll.-IUI* ElJ~l * --*-. BN N IIII!11111 ~ * i| 0i V A < -,-- carE 26 3 OZ IVP,. 13 *i.,1A, -... - _.Da, B. _,1Nj: ^K.j.99*.'- rrg *S z-.___ a _ --._o~ J20 iZ ^S5 __I*l V eil- l l C, ell 11 Coc * ^ -.:'; ^ I ^ i^J r^^^ mbia le S^g-^^ o ---.1--wf. ': ^3v S "r ff -,,F't fr SSS, S^o' r" ,v 36 ^' - IIii.',, 'Tohn k ý t, L7 Ira Z-0 f a I - a( O-E 0 O N T W P List of Small Property Owners in this Township Shown on MIap by Numbers. _ No. Name. Acres. See. No. Name. Acres. Sec. No. Name. Acres.,See No. Name. Acre s= 3. Samuel Hanaran.................. 4 7 6. D. S. Davis and wife...........10 8 10. Chas. Albertus........... 11 19 16. G. W. Hallenbeck............ 20 111 "2l Jerome W illiams... 10 7 7. I).S. avis and,wife-............10 8 11. Urban Grit-tendon. -.... 150 22 17. Johin o..........10o IIl 3. M rs. E. Etoard......... 5 7 8. W. S. K ennedy '.................... 5 8 12. F red C. P ohl 7 27 IS. John B lackm ere...... 20. 1 - 4. 'Roman Leaman..... 1 8 D. W. C. Larkins and Victor 13. J. H. & Eliza W het stone....20 32 19. Charles Martin....... 4 S5. N. Jones.............13 *S H ow ell............................... 3 9 14. H arriet M. Youngs........... 5 33 20. Cam pbell Bros.......... 4 IN N N N -N - - ------ --N N .--N. M il II ll Ill:~Il ll ll|ll--IIII- IIII III II IIIII--IIIII IIII N iliiii--IIIIlIIIIIN IIIlllIN IIIIIIN IilII _NIIII_-- Alllll-------l@ll _ Klilli HI SIM,s. Sec. 35 21 3I SIIII

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Page  15 MR-PHIM 111111 ll: ll l ~ ll llll~lll =IIII1II=1I1-111~~ 111111 c c 111111 Illfll sllIll 111111 111111 I 111111 111111 111111 I I Irrr I 111111 I I 111111 I 111111 I IHIII ~ I -- - - 111111 11111 I ~.I 111111 ~I I '3 P ~ ~ 111111 ~, ~- I-. 111111 I 111111 ~~ nl1ll I 1 ~ 111111 ~ 811111 I 111111 I Tiiiii I HI HI HI I I ME a: 7Y LAPEERE ~ COUNTYI~L, IMICLIIGAN Tow~nship 9 Ni~orth, Ranlge 10 East of Maichigan Mer~nidian State Trunk Lines and Improvedl County Roadss Shownu thus: e~~:Schools Shown thus: Churches Shown thus: B Rural Routes Shown thus: ' Cemeteries Shown thus: Wyhere Rural. Routes runP over Ilmproved Roads, they are denoted by arrows thus: -cL B ~fl li $ BB~ I - -'- )Co I - IVp -44 -41 Al 23 IVP 4. I ~ _ ` rSol N IRS~~P Posi ~C"z ~ -R ~I~ ~Z Z /46~~ wt'z Z 24 ~eol CZ~LT j~ -n a~ rv7 Pr rl~t 2 e~ d d EZ:h ~i~Lrzpzn~3r, '37s21 FN d L, h N tj ~-~ ~5~32/ IN1 A.. ib ~: ~s~o Z7 Vol ~fS~ ~cn ~S'c, t~ 8. ~~e P" L70 lk I Geo;,-y9 ---Arewhf~yz~z.n o her -le--n o IeCA~8 15 V: It~ 1 (Im 4f ýý6 4- 1e ~. 1 Ur a-a i I OL - I 9~2 c3oo b ry CS.Ozz -r 20/ Fo tso n Z. 40 apo,roh 7?- 3,9o t cziih -0a, 7-2~ OX a s ýz 0-12C e e~boY~r e eri a e;b::v A e-,* 0 pv~, r A[ I,-__r-ý we -Vt I H-t I I -ý c, d I I MIrJP I t-9 D.4,7-a rn~ ý _rm2a7 (0.:In.00 f E,iZe 2z, Smz 804 0 1191z ý- '7 7 - ps WY I 111111~111%~ -- 'I 15 ]11111 111111 111111 3 111111 ~ 111111 ~1 ~ I 111111 111111 ~ II ~11111 9 liil~111 ~' 111111 111111 Ir? BN ~s~ iWB ~ j 11118 ~ I 3 111111 ~ J -I 3 111111 o ~I ~ I 111111 B I I 111111,, I c ---- -I ob ~au! __ le ~ II~ I s 111111 a i - I I -- p 3lle 14e ~BII - -- c~L -- I~ ~ O Iru I S-- Z 111111 I ~ t I BB~ j, BabI Li IýEý l I MESA a;7: ~P*Nab/~'~BC w - 1 Pm IN--P-- ~-~""~"~" CLL~b ~ yu~v- I~ ~1 1 l l Cv- RPMr.W -7pra- Z,*?t 01 C2- 197 fi+ý xqatt i3Zz'n GZ Y.CV)-P,Eni-ý,dot 0,6 -rprZ lt 40S J4te, 6 AW~ t I kt. " '"~l~~Zh-G-:eo~ V i d ~oi n~as ~o " ~a~ 4ýj (ý 1,ký c~ oo (.: u 4- It Zrr.5,on9 ev;tlc G~b. Idd - -z~m~s ~:l'~'f"" r6172 c yya ZZ a) "fi o ~ Es~ t-70- sepki, fi P ~Cf~~ N hj N ýrcoor I Im w I ~ -- ~-. ~ _~ ~ ~ ~ - _- _ 1 7X ~L~..1 _- ~~~aA I O 91 rJ aj~ A I ~LF~4 --7w rucbb -.4100 sa. ~-~lca i J; iZZ aPet ~~ e'c ~G /20 I 80 7, ~ 90 - T"4~"i:m -grcrwa 7-d.swatytipzp Eo, '?~r Re75 IF a$` ~5~ -r IJPro2h KYOZ f C aeo~ex A-re aff -ýFdo?- L ~f~aiR4. 5ýL it e I I R 1 II tz, I I - I 'ýl R I - - -7 w ~ ~JnI~L~ - I ~Pa--r1 NJ~ ~ieseaa paaa ~~n~L~ ~8nrtr ~a 0P-l8 15"o"~ \6f O r Y~ D ~ ~yd 0. C: 120O c z -~~ -CIIIII 402*r~ 1a P ZL-~L ~3 & rcH ~so ~P i~j~ e(T ~a )J$arpzonS r, > 09 20 e-e 6wilre 20t 75, CLj~ Cn rm 40Pi~ mifo7 to t~ ai O i n ~ ao 'H Izz,00 ~ ~ -04 I A %9 ~U N 2V7~ 7-127z/z: k I - 1- ' 01 G~ V: I -K r \ __a ~e ~~IP ~ I_ 9 m - i m * 1 21 ýrA I Nb -4w-I ~ier I4~t Fo,;-3 -r nkayz 60P~ 11 -3 a kr _ ~1 ~ __ ~_ cha,% oz,M~an-. Ye77O 40O wg~ ~r'Z Z?n Pret'l 240._;E ý (I I " I us~' llý 1--.-P i i - - - - -.- - - go~. - -... -!ij-;; dpi I:r 'NIZO 4/7ý = ----= 1 "7ý 1 "h,-=";::h:ý_ 1 161 _,r _I I, -lr-P ~ A ~ O LZ~ oEF: c3 a e ~G ~a 'Vy /c~a. 33 r FF -- - Ij~~n ~--------1 ~ I~ rS~ ~ a~ ~ ~ca PI O; k; taJr~~ CijZ L;r.Za Ze3~~ ý riz I 1670PZ e"r Aam i--Fdk Ito~pr U~. X Or. arPr D t ch LTCZ,4 14, U 7 V 71- I rc3o ~ -Y,6d /Y O W-17zeo I-- - - =41 'ý -ymmvr4K ý. Nama IN 1 9= i -- 0- f.-- /-Co.7a X ýpl mmlwý W RI - 0.. "ý- 1-9 091C I Vr ýTzlgl) I &-o e IIZoe V`3gcH. 410 Mcls~~2 hP -fr 80 Lawzvttz e 9 Ir %fx - I I I I F-W -1 - - -,g I I- a %-1- -. MIR- - #mm o--4A A 1 am-- Aab.- ~ q~a 1 11 J e 2 - 401 A-Zinp EotP 2: TYD~/ ~qp~S. L ~pli~leA ~arPe~t 7 -i too i 2;,W r eZ /4674 ep-,5onpS -.-/Food I 6ýeo. 2 o,:Fel'o vo7-14ief ~Zrc7~i~m es~ lo -)o r.1 96 J*ct q, -80 -s!, ý II B u 7:gei5 o s -5 z I/-80 tr 44 'o -70 J 8 1 I"W /- 7-ohii,1' eo~l ~~K~r 7- o Zrd N-1 k8 /r ~F, F 80 2 12,3 eC.0 Cha S. CM t ~ ocdC --, 44C n,40d ~rw ~ o 3 N~;p'Bh cO' ~1'4 Vo3~;t~g CcQ I-9. 7 PONa; 6.0 Xx;,vo1 tol 3~Zz ~l ~ ci 'Era u Ik. u 17 16071:, 40 40 5ýt,5 -d 9. (Ze -- itV e w a 7 tr]ý ~tr 0 0 ý E 7f z I 111 I fI I I HIM 111111 lqý u F1;~ L ~~FL A JVP-5-- ~f ~% P List of Smlall Property Owmners in~ this TowoTnship Shownl on Rap~3 by Numberus, N 0. N~ame. Acrecs. -1. ToSep~h Wilsoni...... ------------------- 5 2. Lydia Bu~lrch ----------- * ----------------- 4 3. Lydia B3urch~.~......... ~..............~..... 4. C. Ross..................,...................... 3) 5>. Roy 21fabery......,................,........... 2 5 9 No. 6. 7. 10. Name. Acres.,Taoob Wilson -.......~.......~..... --------10~ Cllarepce FC~alkenblaryr~.............. 15 Albert an~d Ella Burley........ Antlion-y Most....,........................ C. Falkeil~~bnar.................~........... 5 See. 16 16i 111, N0. Nanlle. Ares. II. A mly Sk~ellinger ~..................... t'7 12~. - Charules C~urrell.......................... 1 13. Frank E. Butle r............~......... '7.50 14. Hiram Avis.............~.....~.............. 3.50 1.5. Pk,,iY Snaith........................~.....:..... '7. D 17 36 =- IIII - III --IIII --- I I 1 1111 111 -111-I111- ii~t ~ 1 I1I~~~l~- 1111~11 1-; a 'li:I1B;-lI C~ 111-lll l8-blsfllIf AH0 Ir= -~llllf illlll 1;11118 =111~19 Illlll~illlli --'I1I1I~ ";lllll~tllltl- -~1I1~~;IIIII1I~~M1IE -IlltClle~srSllal~ I1Eilll= IIIlal~~CIIII=~;;;IIs118 ~BBlll!~fE~sfBlil IHIH~= I-1II1I1- U111!~--111118 111311~111111; 1-I11111;1~1 111111= -111111ý9 -

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Page  17 Illllr~iltlll~llllll ~111111~111111 -Illlll-lillll- -IIIII1IIIIII-IIIIIII -- I[IIllllllll~IIUI~ 1111 1111111111111~11111 111 sllllll~lIl 1111111 1111[1 111111 IUIU~illlll 11l1 ~ ~ _,, ill It~_Illlli~i~il ~llltl I111111 ~ 111111 111111 I 111111 111111 11111 Illlfl 111111 I c slllll ~ I 111111 I - I 111111 c 111111 ~I ~I a: 111111 I 9 111111 111111 ~-- 111111 ~ 1 IIIUI 1111l1 111111 111111 111111 "; ~ I 111111 qi ~ c j 111111 811111 p~I -- IIUII 111111 -- 111111-- I II11111 HIM1 a Tow6nship 9 North, RRange 11 East of MZichigan Meridian State Trunk L~ines an~d Im~proved County Roads Shown thus: Rural Routes Shown thus: ~wSchools Shown tfhus-, i Churches Shown thlus: L~ Cemeteries Shown thus: th - Wahere Ruralk Routes run over Improved Roads, they are denoted by arrows thus: -6-19 B U RI /V'ýa /V 9-4 - _IT, Aq. N-O)N. N~B: No/ _3-_T P, AIV - I" Y' ry, C c /Li 8. doczy 6-,3 6 NS?J 2 3/0 /L SI as Z ZL 76.1j.ý& Iss 94P~e,oa~'k rheb91.x? 9) 9 PU ~6 XFQ: ~d 9 /V: t~ cj~.Ba~' Fl E q ~ ~B~ec89"e~ --'i~BC~ ~i~ B 2 1I ///////////llVl/~~R;a~~~~'au n/nl-IY;! ~--- -~ ~r~ ~ r r- '////1//////////1~781?[r/SL r -3~ 8 h~/ I r 100r ~a ~p~~ y P~ d A5'dje~b Dua~s eo~7i /37 $) jl= ~j~~ q SdH: prh~ ee 7z~Ls~ ~sZ: ~s~ B. ~Yi4o pjb ýr)7t at ~N J-y tol tp, ýOz I 7."*-H -~,4-f /i k4 I-, 77 ýýim -11 40 /10:FPeSof~'~/ I~irie-rz er0 ~zo zc~ Fa sgg scN. r- - - I - - i Z/VI ~ Ix Ca- 7-Wn ~er tI 7Sar77 7. RZ o tsi2dFti3 I te ~$ t ~rt t~u M IWls PIT JV'ý W" ^ 19 1 - 7 ohn OPc~l Z 60 g A j p 00~a 79 Z5 Y) I 1a 7 owzl O ~SB~mm~L I dBrc~Eerh~lrl J-~e 38.50/ JTa r~e~r r7ia ~s. _r; z's ~qy I Fer z e L PAO te;n a 7T. Gzav e7 -soý-ý tý4"* CUd qu 00 P -Z -?ýrl.. _Ira_ A; ý son Z /Y 120a ~~7-~t7Z~ZL~ ~z~'Z son, 8o. iw;is~iflptord T~4mpSOP2~ ~O a -W2:.v 'I L4i'1-77d7'h~o-MPS07Z, 7-,Z:4;-n 90 1Wi. go C. r~ cra-,y~zor 60ey -14re s l umm. 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" - isis - - -a~e rL- 4o AjZ ae a-.,t Sri ci.c; ~~ ~to ci P A99 Cb - ea 404 C//,A~ clay-eceZ" T Ae- Z,,7zec.A x,ýý-e.: go e I ZenhecX Gis 21 ve60.~ n 803 1 - ____~~ -- ~I -~-TI 4, as~ py;~~ ~c3 1., -X7~-~ c 77L~PZZ -lA9 6 - - t - j N iQ '~r IO to r 9~0 ~ ft~* 1ý zz $ -7ne,%8 F4 A8- 7ZA ZZ CA-~ eofLt7i A547- M V Kneo" _ __ _I _____~ (D I r4 ~ 2. msRo,6 tM~~~ t~~t 80 S 805Ce H. 9 I -ýh L-B~~u~_~~ -a -- ~ ~ ~ a~~ h.~~;I L~ist of Small Property Owners in. this Tow-nship Shown on Map by Numbenbrs, No. Nqn e cres. See. N~o. Name. Acres. See. 1. John G. Slattery.................... 3 5 5. C. M~ongval.................................. 10 24f 2. E~T. Ervin..........~..........,.................. 3.50 8 3. (Gracvel ~Pit)..................3 1. Melvin Lew~is........................ 9. 283 4. IStellat Porte~r................ 9;o ~7. J. Lobstine.................. 3 ~jL M-S~F~E(OZ 111111 111~11 11~1 111111 111111iUtll Illli IIIlll~lrUII~ 111111~111111~ 111111 111111~111111 rr~rllllll=llllll= 1HIIIL~lf 111~illllI=111111~ 111111 111111 -_ ~,,_ __ __ 111111 111111U-111111 111111 LL~L~ ~ - s =011111ME-119

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Page  19 Mapof "UEPINSIDE Toswnship Scale: 11/2 Inch to I. Mile 3LA~PEER~ CO JNTY, 31111CHIGANi~a Township 9 and, 10 North, Rang~e 12 East of Michig'an IMeridian State Trun.], Lines and Imp~roved ~ Rural Routes Shown thus: 0 Cemneteries Shown~ thus: 11[1 111111 I I ii[T[i s I111111 111111 I 111111 111111 p B I - - -- 811111 c II I 111111 111111 a 111111 - II ~ - 11111 ~ ___ 111111 ' 111111 a 111111 Y c 11111 ~ 1. la111 I 111111 ~ I Q 111111 -- Illlfl ~ I B 111111 ~ I 111111 'u -- I I e111 Btall ltll I iiiiii I 111111 311111 I 111111 - I 1111[1 4 111111 -- d 111111 ct -- 111111 1 I t 111111 --- -I 111111 __ 111111 i 1 I 111111 111111 - I 111111 111111 I 11111-- ~~ II-- _ r List of Small Property Owners in this Township Shown on Mlap by Numbers T. 10 N'., R. 12 E. 1. Citizeiis State Savings Bk..... 5 T'. 9 -N,,R. 12 E. 9 HE3ermqui't -'ffimoiis.........~..... -----.50 3. Catholic ChurchlL....,.................... 0 U N T Y /k74R1 F- 7 7-,C /V c 24 17 1 IQ W~here ]Rural Routes run overP Improsved Roads, they are denoted by arrows thus; MMMMM= 9 a `N L A 1V,4 8L E._ T T,5 N.-I a:b I y d Ip is U 40S~rj.40ef r~~ 2 40~T2 ý- I z 0 0 dworz'ihi 73 I I t 3, t I Ba ih Z,5> C.A a 7- 7 Win.car 7/83 L hose x -r "74/-i 1a ~~~r~ e 7,0_ 80 ý I AL - cc~ iLý 160 a &---z1e,36-" ~ - 440r~g 7aft Zson cSPa tc772 //B I -~ t sl F, ri r3 ýc Z O -FJ ] 80 Y P O oo,I 2 1~ 3 r 1 a t e t h i Z 1 ry) "ah-, F l:;:ý - eo 5ý sls b,!5'0 7-Z e.~.Z 7-,3Z o 3 ~ ~ZZ e-'j IY20 7v P 4 e,7 e,? 9 77 r--T----- o, Ot3hrramF 'i /z O D Zcu X if~ y MA LErT-F/ZO va~, 0ý7-zr e I -- Z;P-SjY--Zf _ u Z 23 s.% c. hz-C,1-C- e Ge a Z 1.5 o Yz ksz a- ckrir t~sl r, 95 ?zc ya 7-L 43 r 1 r r C 1 Y Y d P C t: 5r% 33 t 1 r I 7 F: b r -e 7 r 7t 1 3 oP; =7 r ~a zz 7 -14 80 -tv-e a il-er 2ý:>a Z &Cei ezzh re 160~nicn~ 80 czar re -4re 7~ L hi y;t`r F~i K) "Q a a:5;ý9 90 80 sd 5 c H. 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IIIIR 111111 I I 111111 -- I z Itllll e3 I -- LI 111 111111 rrra IPL p, 13 11111[ 8 19-e 111111 I c I 111111 I, c 11111 s 111111 111111 II -- c --,, I - 111[11 I 111111 I 111111 -u c 111111 111111 II _ _ I 1111[1 3 a INIII I 111111 I 111111 C C111111 11111 111111 c iiiiii 'I a: IIIIII I - I I a IIIIII I ' r 5 111111 L, I r -- Imll I 111111 Illnr u) -- I e: 111111 111111 I sp. -- 111111 L 1111111 a6 /V, Q) C*O u Lo z~ 7e.--o rn C M/k z Z,, er j 7-oh 120 -DO -7- Z ZiL~) ~ ~ r~ ~Zn q r9 hZe 1t c 60 DO lcza z. 0 u ~z uZ T~e co e 6ýo 7d, Z*'r~' ~ 4 z 4~~1~~'71P j32a ~u ~S"S e 7ea'* Z - 625wte Z7~ Z C~~~ 80 ~~ Z 9 -'B 880 ~B 80 9.-,z If " " ijgo N f ~z if - - - I - -"& -T'- 7- - 0 JLL s m rZu 75 J f/R? 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Page  21 I 111111.Y 111111 111111 111111 I ' cll 111111 I I '-" I I 1IIIH ~ ~ 111111 I ~11111 111111 I -- 111111 11111 I %1111 I I 111111 ~ IlM! 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Sun e.e A1uy 9~ ~\9 ~p~p~ J-9 so~~ e a -T r/ CLdI -l e~bllC~jlAnr: L7-a~ co j a 725 120 A 4Q I 17e~: 6: ~t~3~t ~e ~ arrc~ ~:ZLO ft ~L/1 C37~ r I tl r 1 'II I I L r r d I Z 40 ~f j2c S 2 ýFred 1-93-SOO ~UZa Ic c tJ~olf 7Z~ "ake.. Lr Tkrx i 9~ Sz) e~ N ove cc)P~n 7T 7L 0L~- Che d ~to Kr ce St ~Bo Ca Y-A5 o n, Ko Z-Y Rý 7har a:S t:3 Powell Q rrptPe4 ~r ~38~8~ ~~B~I~ ~w~A ~WJBP~;l~a~g~ 21 Islrl ~ 111111 I I 111111 11%11 ~,, ~ 111111 ~ 111111 __ ~11111 ~ I 1111111 I ~ lllI11 ~ Illlfl I 1 ~ ts -3 I Illltl,, B: ~111 111111I PI ~ ~ 111111 I 11111( ~, 11l11! 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F! Di3_kjD 3 A e c. A nT'~ e., go Dalz7 cT~ ~ yL~F~r=W~-~-----E~-~-- ~1- h I _ ~I~~ ~qe~k p~La O P~l~il~la r=e~\ll[l~U 8o r zn~t/z s crBg B~Q1 jYa.m ~ ~u iS L L. /s Z~ vt' S c. ~40 AJ D ~h D ly ly~I~y ~PD~l"z - I -La k' K, W~-r,,,, 7?ea 7n e?" 8 IL -I -;ýýj. I $i Clore 2 0 2-9 2 z e?"S 60TPS r'T.S. 2'ac mar ca2 - V7-l-~e?' e r 5-eihn -- 10 1,40"13 00i~~T r40ro~~ ý-7ohn w 4e wl tszi Lj O ~e~t~--6 ~Sa O7t 0%~ ~~ I$V~RL~B_ 1 II_ ~1 I _2 Z'-V 7t t e 101 t. 200 loo ~ e'~?~ 1ý3 ~ L lr4 40~ 200 eteP so h aer Are Zon /70GsZ t Zj~%Lo -.-/0 siep5n Smi2Zi ~SB ~rs. e. Sm i2~e 30 p -1/y ~C -~C~;'Pe~-4 ~Em ~igpcý. F 1. ~ Grayau MA 80t wyer Oo R D C1 F; gi D m ~er E~ sI 1fo /20O 2?.' r Oz??eai.4041*23 N ~ 117 6race ~t C,- Q Ci II '~ W / 8 I7 li pu r c ~ ~ 1 ` f _. V ) L~L vv r I,1,~ C~i~hE-UI~ E k' 1- 0- /> /YP C. d ----ja" ~B~B~ P~ List of Small~ Property 0-vners in t~ds..., Towii shi Show-rn on-31ap by Numb'fers, No. Name. Acres. S~ec. 1. Ka~te Thom~as............................ 20 6 2. X. C. H a n, i s.........................~..~....14 6 3. Cha~rles Eflliot............................ 10 9 4. Win.m Tophan-i1..................:........... IS 1 5. David Vaughin............................. 2.25 1 14 No. Nzamle. 67. Gus Herfor th ~..............~........~... S. TI. NV~. C(,nkrigdit................ 9. Win. KIesslig.ffig...~...~. 1.0. Newnrton Smnit h ------------- ----------- I.I. AIlbert Sk~innec-r, Est. ~...~~........ Acres. See. IN. Namze. Acres. See. 20 24 12. A~delbert Jonee s.,..... ~......~..............40 13. G. D alvis -------------------------------------- 15 14. Gleamier Hall I............. ~...............5 0 35. G ra nge H iall --------------------------------- 50 16G. C. E. Aloore.......~.........~............... 9 1.7. E. F. Refuner~......~..~~.................. 1 213' L) IU~L ~111111 ~--111111----1111111 ~-1111111~=111111-;;E1(IJI1 ~~I1I1II~1I1JII--Ill111-~~~111118 ----,~lf 811= -lllllr-~-~~(1l1s1-~:1EI1B1 ~11111~~~1(11112-;11allll~gslllll~----~l 181911~111111- --I~jlll~ IIIIIIP~~IIIIIF~III1PI~:~l 1111ýIlllylll ~14111118 ~ ~111~1~ 111111 - 111111~;;~1111~~~:111111 --'11111'----111111 1111111- -1111111~-~-~111111-1111111 ---111111. -111111~~1111111 ~IIIII[PII~:Blltl~~lIIIII~:ICBCII~--ICII -=~I~E~BI~IIBIP=-. IIIIPl~lslll~ ---111181 rlllll= Illlsla -II 11111 --811111~1~

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Page  23 Ill I g111 311,1 5 I ' * B | Ip * * =11= I ====* I I I I 3 i i LAPEER COUNTY, MICHIGAN Township 8 North, Range 10 East of Michigan Meridian State Trunk Lines and Improved County Roads Shown thus: Schools Shown thus: Rural Routes Shown thus: - --Cemeteries Shewn thus: 11 Roads Sh n tSchools Shown thus:. | Churches Stiown thus: Rural Routes Shown thus: Cemeteries Shewn thus: Where Rural Routes run over County Roads, the same are denoted by Arrows thus: E R F E L 4pp, um 23 HIM HIM I111 |111 [ g1 If COLV. /NP E T W P. _ A.o "E' -- -.I. -- R m g..- - - ý m - 4" W,. alf"N. \\ o e^ ^ ^1 ------rr Wh i e e.rol ker-s f7^8/ z z son,, Chri 12 0 40L\ -F ^ c^. ýyyes-.e t.Esg!,40 -^ L. 4n nle z n~> 0 -.0I ^ratm ^0at -M Tte ytie ria *^?Z3<5^< - - _4Z Zr ^^ ^* <?z I ng Cny ^0 _ / laskizi CT 40Sil7^ z -cj,. 3 5 Cv 20 bZrze u Je n. (r~eer / Q^, -Ir c e r ^o Zer - ^~ir,27.34Xen. 2 07 J,"rc.Sa rnt-VO- 77-?r1 Ot/d;^ -i ^r~an7c j -Irr juCAz \Frec! \sa 0. Se. ynP - d or roeo^Tc 40 P/4 -t/o. 4 I: o=_=-= =1 ^ h?^0 <r i;mmuJ m mý 1ý3, I. FT, 9 ý.- 16 CA ^ rfisi,*3 1^ ^ ^Wi ykl i8' -17 7F k 5^ afyer.5 f}ros.,, i 7, 1.I. 1F I I i ^. IF, Y, 1.:,!!l. 0c 1 ^ar ASff ^-^ t "ya7 -5 ^o Frr^ ^3W2 -A ^ \ rArm sy S^ ^. > ^ronsont, /6f F7'ed^*^ni'S ^t v /60\ ^ ^^fr/0^ 40 80 40 z I e s tý X/ ^ so ^ _, -j;yAA'? u a i 4 h w 7, nL!1 9 H 20noenef i conco ýv cmae'ov rer S& LCharte1 -?? "7^ i e ^ / ce 40,v -? e i ^" n c aAr ^ ' a V. 23 HIM IL MI Sec. 32.3234 34 34 34 34 '" "= HIM No. 2. 4. 5. 1 7. E ~ 7 *70.75, 3s?~ < M illvill 61r, en-.se - v- e 01 e^ Wý~~v be 7)r'LI 8. /^^ ^a t? 1 s Az^^ JL 1 2, z. I " 1703 1 L;: =-k.-4 Nit ILv A i) 11.21 J < ( \J Y\ _W1 IT 7(e~ ra n.-.6'0 43 t$4 Cox_ e O a u ý/ Y. -Z -N~an~son,,go ~Ese. t7-o G-,r-Z'ei7L - %ri 7o 17 F. rl wyi c ii se ire3ie e /2.0 qM 44 <5 N^ ^ 's^ 2oo \ ( 2. wzml aa tes e zo.co Co-e - Qý Cb w ' u ZI.. I 7q-z crTeA 8o_ 27 pc 51 C" _^. '^r It: ----.l^ *J^-.^ " ^ I^ i.^ fZ L^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ 7^^.^ / B) ltW~m. ^ I -Ed now 'jr 'n 7?ocoe inTs oot^,24 J-7)'7 9NL 44e ateam,&T' i; S?ý ^^fO/r Z -tw^.V,0^-. 0 7-4% ZO.7 4~ 17 oa n Yl^rW FUL W 12ý - z^e I'ec^t~'1, vw 71 ^5xirnyr *ze ^ %r- e 191?'ft4 7- "-a 103 2y\fiZi) <FJEW77Wi2 LcrO, 7Ze, - I., k4 RA 10 JS4,,0 Cht 60yty j 2!ý ýf i. - I N -4ýý ý AN0 -1 jY7 r -a-P NO^ Z>en ithaer 7tn WaL/ F 20J Ix -^a I ri eny T^..^.. I^WZ^TzL/^ ^ W^i ^^3^??\ g^ ^ ^^. t""^ ^^^F^^SS^ ^e ^,S v^ ^ g^/S ^^^^ ^ ^^ v.^ r',IN,$>so a ýrv tfc le2\ 2.^Z% I-L., ul 1 IN,!ý!Llr.71 v-;' V- -rv-' w --A71/ IL.11 U "N I ý 40 JAN ý m -IrAfm f I P, I n Afiamm, Mona IN!. 1 -0 23 Ble 7-Z 40^^^ Sc^ H. FA RM. 00f r r. w rrt |1 -9. S? <o %.'OW n 1 *^To S* p 3 1 Z5 _ j z\ J^ ~,,^1 09 04 q>t^*S f' ya a "y ^^" *n ^ ii'^la' 'BIt s / ^ f ^ t L if v.f /V^?of^ 6 g^^~^ 4 - I. 11 HIM Milli Gum cc Sec. 32.* 23 4 34 _70 n '\.Qro.n S. I^ N fa.^ 25 b^o A,7h nSon,. jWIn284140 Sonl I 'r. ^IN tQ; 14 IG '~,> tt <u -^-'-I'^Q Lf ^ ~ ~5 r y ^ ^ ^ VAV Zr-er 60 2F. Z.0 Ovv-e.. ~1 ~w r 6CH A-- r - n^ jr Groo-^S 40,^ 4,- n OX Se. 3 '; I we-% T A V4 I I 16g^ aafa~a^ y I!./I ^ Name. Acres. John Patrix........................... 5 Chas. Dickerson..................... 9.50 W ill W altz............ ----------------- 10 -Hiram Depero -------- ------ -- -10 Ray Huntsburger.....................28 A. Grooms....---.-............-.14 L A P E E R List of Small Property Owners in this Acres. Sec. No. Name. Acres. Sec. ' 8. Sylvester Howard....... 1.50 12. 9.50 0. Wm. J. Herrand...........14 17 "1) 10. George Ilazelvood............. 1 19 -.10 1- 11. Henry McGuneagle...........20 22 ----- 12 12. F. Weir.......---- *"-- 1 24 -....... 12 3-3. Thom as Prout................. 13 24 12 14. C. C, Plalt............ 5 27 15. Mayfield Grana--e -.......... 2 -28 R ' t H Township Shown on Map by Numbers. No. Name. Acres. Sec. p. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 2L. 23. Mirs. Salem Misner....10 A. J. Opperm an -..................... 4 A. J. Opperman....... 4. Henry Roberts.............. 15 Noah Bruce, Est...............15 John Beals -.--....---- --.... 4 R. Bayless.........----- 18 Lottie Holcomb ------ 19.50 28 28 29 30 30.30 30 31 No. Name. Acres. 24. Jay Duncan........--....... 5 25. Thomas W. Weir ------ 8.80 26. John Stone.. 10 27. C. Hatch.----------.............10 28. Ben Brown, Est....... 10 29. Louis Carpenter -- -........... 10 30. Marhin Carpenter.........0 31. G. W. Rood..........-.. 5!ia^ ^" IIIllnIll=EI^!IE ilSE ni ir ini ^!flll"EiliE~lfl""IIII El[^=UII-t^=ni!I1lin-i^ I~ IIini!=!InI ~li!Si= ^1)I= -IIl[!^ l{l== l in:--IIn^=![II~I = siin= = iiiii= n= ^m u = nm n n n n = un e-iTill *.-.s tiiiiniiiiisu iiiiiii-==iiiiii,==iii--11i===iii11ii=^iiiin===i]1| ii111111= HIM = 1111 Ifi=^:=- II ý- Eu

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Page  25 rfsr - I I 11111 111111 ~ 111111 11111 11111 Iltlli 111111--I I IIri 1111 11111~1811II11111~1[1111 llIlI1=111111~11111~1lI1 1111 Illlll~lfllll 1111~11111 1111~111111~~I1[111~111[11~ __ ~ - I 11111 I - I 'I ~ITI 111 --~ Illtll 111111 111111 ~ __ 111111 111111 111111 111111 lllI11 111111 ~11111 111111 c 111111 I 111111 11[111 I 111111I 111111 I 111111 I I 11111 3 ~ 111111 ~I 11IHI ~ I 3 ~ 111111 ~,, ~. 111111 ~ I 111111 I ~I I 111111 ~ 11181 I I 1111 111111 1111 _ I lillil ~ 1 I ~ HIII1 -- - 111111 ~ r 111111 -- nrHI - -- ~ 111111 _ __ 11111 -I 11[111 I 111111 111111 -- 111111 ~I 111111 dl Q L;APEER COUNTYP MICHIGAN;A Town~ship- 8 Nor~th, Range 11. East of Myichig~an M~eridian' State TCrunk Uineis amd In-talprovred County IRoads Shown thus: S chools Shoviwn thus: Churches Shown thus: Riural Routes Shown thus: "o Cemeteries Shown thus: Where Rural Routes run over Improved Roads, they are denoted by arrows thus: w, 74p Wrn _r dw so n~ I 3-7S:f)r 4-7-a. c?n;?iioPh-40 'L 6 12 ý B R A~ NW. aw 1 1 SME'AA J~ N, O Y -oxiP' Nfl 0 Ha hlQý L**4 % Vj-)N F; ~ 9 A, ~C3 ~c~ ~ ~o ~,"f ~s "i'e~ 09 98rm~u -~I~~~ ~E&~&~ra ~u~i~P ~pl~n - - I I ';yNY ru b)' Id I- I - I I ---f x ocý ~I Ai a 6~';S I I 10-4 1. & b " Y_ *~4 -1 1 Is 1-i F -7CeZ 6 f-Z 7 -ZrL Y~Z -40 es H'4 ý-l Z f7-aE I I "s. parw~e I e b oC c~O )r -T tooc I -.1. I -1 A UY~i;;Z e ~1-~ 7~ erS a 7~L.sa,,7o- Anc Geo.;Tobi'nv 00 -res z, - - Jfe. Ve rz S %5-7~)B LI~CL~C~n H, r- - - - 9 ýJ 13 ~J ~~k u '~Or:~ rp~ 0 er 4ýP 4 0-.-- i 3 3 'I C < IZ 'Ki \4D X-4 i i j Ti-', W OFT '5 eAeA AeZ % ",X W I I -M I N ý19 - i:1 4 '.Y -:1 i AA \I " p: t, I l I-,T-, T- - 7TB7 I,,, I. I I r "I I.;,1.-S I 9, 5~J~t~ K/N~ "~rf;,chb Lý/-I IPO~d~ F -E.e 5Mpw Pefer 5ý011-m~ 40ni' e t C~pl t,63 sn o t9:.1 " 0 Vc - 8 --16-, mim Ie~ e~a~ 2St2s 172,50 -goO ~ Pe fri'e errr T~N~1 o ~ Do' I -.;.. M [,!,7 L-- 11 9 B 6, 103 w m~ili tnLex. 40O vi~rztz*& 4 li e" I Ze eel 20 P yb Pu L -4 ý.-I I I- A I A 7& 7 n a snR 0 0?7z~n 60~ 7; C -L raiwerh-e~.'-5 zo on2 rz I s n ii L~- Ll I I - --, Jf"- I -rZ 4ý7ZP Tly' I_.I - I li IN m i - - 0-7 I -e47Zdre -Scha aya eo n/P r Ca Z~ewar~t 00O 711 -01 l~~~ ~~ ~r~-~arnc w~~r~;ag~ [29'2ztZ'w 7_ icp,3z.,6 32 -40uz9s 0 A54 r -re' 04 tr~ILcames.S~ 80'ro~ r 'S -r I C I I M ý~lan 72eR p eo Fl. 41 440 5r! 4e rlr AT Pd ~gY -L - I __ ~ 025.,e_ 2CJ~er_.17Z J70 ~ Z ~er iY;un. ~er 80iu Il-q -. P C ~~ m -------- ---~I' ~II-4-C~ - -C I -L -UI-Y - - -_ I -.i -- -Lont a-------------------- I ~a~~L ~769ZOCj SLO;ttr~j~L ~LS5 TA, Meas, 0~~S"~ hillr Es~ F 40 6reo -F -711r I 7F x~ch 7-z e-qoze fm 16 A 6ý 7WB kSc o FZ-7):f ZZ 77 - Ir Ar -j% I ~-~ rP~ r- -T I ______ II L __ _ ~S~RP~FSasll~~pJ~a~-Tfi~ans~~ -71- -D 6:oo~f7-jtc~ ~a; e-00c I.0IM E ~c~i~ask~B~ i h~~ I - Ia- -ft -M -., 1 isF" Mx M smaj~Lm *MMMsEý Z506,10- w. i l SaZd-l inTL;R~ose. cz.80.Ta77a ewzzj..111A or -Denz77z OZ9 70 --- c72z 7n Id.. IE~n rma 0, 80. Illltl ~ 25 111111 ~ ~ 111111 lllI11 I 111111 111111 I~ 111111 111111 111111 111111 11111 ~ 111111 111111 B c 111111 ~II 111111 I c I 111111 i 111111 1111 ~ I ~ ~im 11111[ ~I 111111 ----. 111111 ~ I I 111111 ~ 111111 I I -I 1 I ~ 111111 I c D 11111[ I z IIIIU s 1 111111 ~c c, I 111111,I 111111 I 1[1111 Ir -I - I 111111 I _ g ~s IIIIII ~sl ~II -- ~c~ cs UUII I 1111[1 I I111111 111111 c. 111111 2727 1IIHI 111111 ý ~~$~ Q ey -t t F i 1.6 1 /Kczrrr ~Ya ~S072 C~p~l /20 ~a4aa~t 40 1 S) 06p /Zo G~aosZechi 00g ertSZt lea -EWc CZ4 %704 7Zj7 -23f'Sý N 121 b4~~ CA~j3 hg Goolrtc L rJ 76~~~7717-7 er %)~e~7 3 5,p _30.7 4 ~Z 40 % U PbP=so.7L -o ~n~f 40~;/(r ~Qmcoo h_ 1 149 M/z er Lu )qe _,4? u s o 7-, 7 -12, S W~19 -;e r, CY t4ý 30 45 10 -T-9.777Z 014 kv.5 so 80 2- 0 "_'s Yfaz 71az m Q rFl q 7 0?zs 40 - 1, 7-4n e &-~I e-, Otto U i, ctlt rea et ~~i~~z e nl < 6r ~ C c~S leor z mZIZ qa 2 m 3 14" Tze. I' ~pYZ' ate 741z'Z m er IZ6P 2 3 a%3 1 ý6 0~ iS ~e. / I S e 2 0 0 -P a x 'Z0 ~ p K e z v-'a -B 7- "nJ~ i yb t__ Zts~' * F~i p~8- Ja~e e _/K.CZ % F. a l LJL 'ýi ý4 a at6_29 e a rm~, r 7.,, e, 170,6,e N 7, ýz z 70 r l W-4 ZZ z a 7 n* 49.40 7 ez i I lia Ni cc L 8 ifo~o Xtra P;p"er;andeo k' 20 ~L Sg ~ti'~ - (:).., 2='e a s Zey & I " iý Eziza-' iza- L rYC3Za O Jo \I~hL~8 d, o k da Ce~h P6Pe wO pCe W, af 0 0 ~~~~SZp~,R ~ s$$:b -z s6 ~ z 2FS z ny W,2 4ea TPQ ~-~$.;Y6er / 410 30.0 esf 4 EWMMMOMM Smmm on= No. 3. 4. 5.. Ir ~. ~ I l~c N~ame. Aeres. Wm.nl Frain -------------------------------- 33 Frank Dav~-is............................. - 5i Frarnk Davis ~.......................,....~.. 6~ Fred and -Willhftim Ironsý........ 4 Por~ter Lamiphier......~............... 40 See. 15 15 List of Sm~all Property Ownerss in this No. Nanie. Acres. Sec. 6. Por~te r Laiup hie - ---------------------- a 2 Z 7i. - -\V m. Branil t............,....~........ * ----- r- 9.) 3. Johnl Vincent............~..................21~ 9. Marry Baldwin ------------------------ 9~ 2~t 10. S. Elliott;....~......._.....................~...... IS Towvnship Shown~ar on Mbap by NuEmbers. No. Name. Acres. Sec. 11. ~ Michael Simiuonns;.........-........... 241 12 as. M~itchell and Isanbelle Wta ters.................................~......So 2 13. Mafry C-11pason............~..-.......... -10 27 1.4. Aison a~nd Bterthla Livermore20~ 27 No. 15. 16. 17. Name.. Acres. Jn:s. A'lit-choll & 1,-, a e Ile NN-?atersl........................................ 1 Parlm E. Have'nsi...................... 16 Clem Haxrtman11........... -.............. 100 N11m. Butter...........................~....10 Se 11 ILL:liIl~l~rill~ll I~Illill ll(l[ I~III~lll~lll~lll~li~1sll: lllll~lllI~lli~lll 1111 ~~I

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Page  27 ~-lf 111 ' lni 11 11 nr ~ n 1n~ 1111~11- 1111 1111 1111 111 llf -111~11- 111- lli 11n -fllllllE 111 -111 111 111 Illt---II( 111111- -1 r-- 1n1 1 1 1-llll i ll II1C'11111 1n111-i rRII lll Illl I11- 111111 illll~ ll~ ll ll~ l|Mln1 11 il~ lll lll llll lll lll 11@ il 21 IM7 UUVDLANV T r-- 1n111 ~1 1 1U111 -tlllll IIIIC '11u 1 - it- 1 - rI1- I11 -T - =- 1 -1 Tr= ll 11 -TOWNSHIP ~Scale: 11/ Inch Iil I~lllLAPEER COUNTY., MICHIGAN Township 8 North, Range 12 East -of Michigan' Merida State Trunk Lines and Improved County Roads Shown thus: -....... Schools Shown thus: ChirhsSow hs Rural Routes Shown thus: *=*-* Cemeteries Shown thus: Where Rural Routes run over Improved Roads, they are denoted by arrows ths 8 U R N' S D E 96 sa 1T W P CVev e- /{Zeona,*-d temn_?ae c 70ý 7.rd?hre < aA cA r y Zmon a an. -92 la.92. tv 0j 4-7 309 (f.70 v's ý' g. N Fýarcce or "C'- Zi 7n 7_&C7eP Q) 0. 2?. Zwa 7 A 16ýO 12 kk 7*erwenz& o 0,30 90 e osV OZr o dc ht ns 47a co-le >_ e allc /o Rý eo 12~/0 0 V'1eeo5 -er s o 70a 00 -IFs. 6 6 cNF 0 a ~ ~ ~ ~ e 716 e_ 7r- R- yocSy 7e 4 e v i.1 _" e0 n -ý 4 0& 0,5r CCL?, W2 x a 2- S t UC -11 -/Y11 1- 1~ e f 1a A n 11?r e wII j- -H-0 Z' e- CO werrr -- C.0 W h 1, t~1~- -~1~ i~~i ZV7'7L q,70- S e a c o e S/ b --r. _E Apo_ ei - _2> -a ve S W- 7 z ia mn Ide t 40 t4)Te 0 ý t4k 1 "1 - 7 - 0 5 i 7 Z - _4 10 2 7 z clte 8 0i~il - - I -,M 275- a 7-& -ý--\7'07km 0. rha5' -47 2Ghow thus Wea, eh Cp7 -, P " "7 1g. e d _ 7Zý r 7r ýz JY L.~P~k6a%513 o.10 _H_.2 CO ~i 7All n Aic, 1 er / C. -F 8l UI~alll~ll I1111--E1 tll~ll 27 S1111~ to ýu 60 mere NC 1.2o 2er /2 z 111 ho~ 0 ý0 0-40 o~~ /6 A ri 0, W ruiz n S Za C7 aBZ ~ d ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Ca i N C Mf' 2 73 a Qetflllll ~ a3 erv re or e de rT r S 40 C4 H. 0 80 8111 E 9: oS.S~v nT CH ca C0;r- Lo Yf eN S P ' rr f r za ny Beso zaelu S e er ~ flllH r -s 0, zc 71- ---If Z AerSo Et &.%. 2 7n In z' I Zz I go no HIM -'i~ ~r, 27 -a n- Q,ýe2 7at q) C f o0 ~~reNo Nas!.tcTer. S;Bttc. c cc -Ca IdweZZ Cz Ca ZZweZ,Sp a Ana 4!;b k (SSO 1 QJ9 /2 40 A ý*z welg 00. 7.5aci 12-/ I - -47/ ~c 10 /- f- z Nes *0 C iny V). Lo;zte ez2b n 3 g 80 er ( t5 u 6 tllt o %7oh n -A9 Jvt f e -s a, Lý9 n,, tn; u -4 XT D.0 vi.ON: IL L 11nzi -r" r e, CT r~ e HIM m L A Y A c~~'d~ 1 No. Name. Acres. See.~ A, B. S 19 3).;-. Georze Tibbenham...................... 20 28 1 Q3 Q Q "a o 1111 cyll~ll== 111M 1 1 MllliMlIliM 111 1 111111 -

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Page  29 111111~111111 11111~111111~~11111I II~IILlU III 111111=~111111~~1111II- ~ I I -- I I I ~. 111111~~1111111111111111~11111111111 I I I I Illlll~i~il P I.II1I 111111 111111 tijli] c 111111 11111 -- 111111 -- ~ 111111 I I I 111111 I" Ulfll _. I 111111 ~ I II 111111 SL14 HIIII I ~ 111111 slllll II 111111 111111 I I 111111 - -- I llee Illlfl 1IIU1 111111 ~ -I 111111 111111 ~II I ~ ~11111 I 111111 Illtll I 111111 pi 111111 ~I Illltl 111111 I 111111 111111 II 1111% I, -- Illllt 111111 111111 I, I ~cl 1IU11 ~ 111111 111111 i, I -r--~Illlfl 111 ~ 111111 TOWNSHIP Ia r LAPEER COUNTY~I, 3ITC111GANA Township 7 No~rth, Range 9.,.East of Michigan Maeridian Stalte Trunk Lines anld Imllproved 1 County Roads Shown t~hus CIIIB Schools Shown thus: Ah Churches Shown thus: Q Rural Ro~utes Shown thus: Cemeteries Shown thus: W~here Rural Routes run over Improved Roads, thiey are denoted by arrows thus: 44" r.w ~g,Bb~ ~ae ~ s ~P ~WON erYC~ C- r c f~~Z /Ob~ C. 7/. 4 4 1 IV crft---AýWýMll r? - 4-- ý:ý. '. - -- -I i I tL V' jr a/t~a e-* t~ 6 e1 07 - 88 tý4 A. Z zeS-& 7rnc~Y~9 -Ara T~I//IY~// Pt ke~pp~~-i~ z c 711 S~~Z 1-"9-~s st~\oo t~s~v, 01 'E rFt ~f~~ ~ a7.s3 I ~Y zZZ~~ 90 1 v r r r r r r ~ QI LQ~ e r.E41ba 14 o" &P Z P~ _BB~B~ ~6~n~PY 3R1~, _. U 77r 40~~$~~"L _9 77;,ea4ýWayh60 72e. i'vel 20 ~1$-- ~iil -1, c I wl f I Vrýý A- I _gEmpoRmpop- row ~LYla ~CLVY~-~ ~ -i 7,7e6z?L21 C3 P)ks ii~ /e` L~T I T 2~ E4~ ~calz S~p A do Zp~. =Za si~ r~ yv ~7~ 3r ~z ~i9ic 7i 9 ~=L 11~ c~a o. 1/40X p r 1. Y4 1 i tr t p L, r I F h b r P I - -~ ~r ~ ~ 25,9 to - Z7 Y t*7Z 9ý 7-Ct NOS~ 30;w -.- - a 77- 0,0 80 i334 r r z~~rtv j r~Z/~ 0.0 I Go ea e Zewz'5 -6-3 10??.. /0 7ýea. 16 Fr, c OU46 1P.M. I I -L -L A 7Ifi -1z rezen - ~C ~9- ---r-- 4 F O 4 A --6 -I v 2:2z: n~qe 490S~d~ -Fof vie, t a 5r 80 i d~s~ ~O as'f? ~e~f rj I~CI~' F~o d fiD3 k t)r3 I~a 9F owb IV 00:3 0~a n7 -M G Pi~zi2~il3$;e O L70 CjOO H. \To&n ae~~-~ jrzt~S~ 2~-~e ~O A7~&~ius~D~ -T,Iwo 1.4zr - 1 N 0, I ff to~ rj::. - 6-- e 07 O'/bv\ I e't "C 07Z-ef 0, A 240res kkw I. ~i~e~ B go 6 w i i P4, 1 4_7 1 AN 7_% 110 1 1 1 ýý~ PL e leo;S~z~~ I 4 --p;LZ~, ~ePffr,,,, 00 ~f~z'~ ~ rb 6. /bo ~p-n e st C 7i a ~ 'e y 8d.2 A'2 1 9 41 1 SiZoc~ (~~~j~5: 1 d k~ b 4 3 ~P r r C,-r-7K* 320' hTg 'n. ~2~"Y ~ts~t. - =~g ~stP O ~~h4e9.O)R/ ~P, H I1 - A r fi~c4/ ~e~S~ ~a~sa 3~ C~. K~5~5~ %-7a- "t &JI-e* ume~ -60 jJ II ~--~-- 1_ ~ ~ ea3. III I o -.,,,4. -)Yýt %70- A -r C 309 -3---;16 3t Q'Zd p~Ul/i3 p~ri~ 00 --I wag &P- lm 1 i~p ý.1. I'- k =Md rtr r. If 00P oo Iri I! i. i L 00F 5'o Fosj a d, Y" I W-70 "- e- 'T akE ssing A2 Zan~ ^50 1 1 1 X; JLI 4lbfuJ~1_-rs~pr\~ql~,, ~, -AI~ri i-z all 191 ti r" vz Z e Z 147 ~' -71777~L2 C Z -~itnie;i~ C~taLs:;/60 ~nnt 40 ~1~Cdn~ "' f kf/7?rg S~e~ R z Brct~ r a reZ tl~iOt ~s /60 ~o III A5 FIC-1- F Yo G 6 t 111111 29 ~ I ~ 111111 ~ I 9 111111 I ~ I ~ 111111 I 111111 I 111111 1 ~ - -- -I 111111 I I I 111111 ~ I -I 1111 I 111111 ~, ~ ~ 111111 ~ 111111 ~k ~ I I1IHI - I -- 111111 I 111111 e- -- ~ 111111. ~ ~ 111111 I ~ 111111 "~ 111111,I HIIII ~ I 1HIII I 3e 111111 ~ itlll I 111111 -" ~L. ~.. 1IIUI I -- 111111 rpl 111111 ~ Ph111111 ~ - I 111111 I 1IIHI I, II -1 111111 r ~IIHI 111111 11111 I ~ 111111 -IIR UIIII. Sec. 1111111 -- 33 II 3r, fj 111111 2S "-"-! I I 11~111 4-0 1 5 6ý 24 9 ~7~ d 80. L -3~ 00~ g ~;r~iad C A CL- %T 2-0IZ ~Z r:2 * ýýro%,7' -40r vN H A -, _Z,ýroLo W rzC ZA 6ayat I~rdner ~~~120 40 6~1p~17r- o,(-z ~;~" ~~ /0 e-2-0 zl% Z/ Z *J rZb 1~~32 tt ~ cp 7 3 t ZL HaE Pal ~~ ~ nZ ~ ~ B-F Se-2 7- 72 IS90 06 4t SB O j7 97 0 Laj IV?2. Roam SCH. ~Yd 9~Z e Ump,,f,~ i n J 40 ZA C43u'g34 '6I 0- 40;;z rvon a C?/ -984 o we 7z 19.,.0 Y, 7e7," 30 -- - - -- - - C.4 'n~e V I ý i - mi i Cron Zý";X0 Su~i Z/a~ ~ CCA~ ~ f~ p~ 'hdtl i tG Kh0~ ~Ekl o tS-~ ru ~~,ld~J r 0k,54f~ - 7 ~.h]0 fit~b c~n 2 7~- "A 60~e Z111-ley Rff3~ 80o S ýQ C7S 7"72t 7 80 *2A5 35 - "Illý soel.a ~Me ic Fe n h '4,,mo ývo~ ~ IL2? o w rf 2- C)b 2 40 PC;; A ~k ";r ~u b I"r - Aes a vvY~Tt 0 At r e4x~Z wn~send toee E-7- Aý90-F 1. - I t; 006W - I XPl e~br -9E~~b wjf -Z~se ig lo /80 r Cop= b 6.r%10 V ~wl~B~--. 'Z F' Db I a List of Small Property OwF~ners in this Tow~nsldp Shown on Ma~M~ap by Numbecrs, No. Name. Alcres. 1. HaIftty Bsentliey.....~..................... I v. l'alfer -1). Reani~ner --------- 10 3. Jamnes 0. W~elch~.....,,............. 40 A4. J. S. Smith................................11 5. Fritz TJhatinhauser.................. 6.33 Alcres. See. No. 10 1 7. ----4 6 8.... 6. 3 Namne. Acres. Sec. NIo. Name. Acres. See. No. Name. 6. A. Tr~ombley& L. Shoemzaker.30 17. Rroy Hodge.......................~... --.- I S. Elisha Rnymond ---------------------- 2.. 9. Frecd Truax................~............ -,-.25 13 21 10. MTilo Gibson.........-....................... 5 1-1 ~n. W 'i,. Kay ------------------------- ~......14 12. Hlrnma LZyle..........................~.... -.1 13. George Lyle, Est..................... 12 23 23j 23 1.4. W m.z Schrader'............................ 13.75 1-5. Rnichard Wi nn...... --------------------- 2 17. Tas. A. WCelch.................~.....~...... 6 I.S. School H~ouse.....................~.... - 1Z Acr~es. Se-e........13.75 33..~.... 2 35 ------- 6 6....... 1 28 ~=111111~111111 111111~~111111~11111i 111111~111111~~lrlllI 111111=111111 111111 111111 111111 111111 111111 111111- 111111=111111 111111 111111 111111 111111~111111 111~~111111~~11111I 11111 ~~I~~~ 111111 ~ --rru a 111 LI1 I ~II

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Page  31 li~llllll 1lI1Ilii: 111111,, 111111~~111111 1~lllI~ 111111 1111 111 11111 I - ' I I -; Illll~~llllb=llllfI I ' -- ~ ~1~11 ra~ -~ I ' I III~I1 t 111111 ~ I'' I ~I 111111 I Illtll ~ - i 111111 ~ 111111 111 ~ 111~11 ~-- rrmr -- ~ 111111 Illt[l 111111 I" 111111 111l11 111111 Illtll IIUII 111ili 1111 111111 "1 111111 1llI11 ~ F 11111~ 0. II I111 r 111111 - -" 111111 111111 111111-- 111111,, I I I 111111 gs 111111 I I -- 'I Illfll -- - r IIII[ u I 5 ~ 111111 - --- J 111111 111111 -- 5 111111 11111 ~ -- I 111111 LAPE'ER Err- IE-Ir - H _D~l 01 -I TOWNSHIP sdI Scale: 11/2 InchC to I Mile rHT - lil,t - ILAPEEIR C OUNTY, -MICHIGAN;Gh Township 7 North, Range 10 East of M~ichigan ~Meridiana Stat~e Trurnk L~ines and Imuproved County Roads Shiown t~hus: RQural Routes Shown thuas: Schools Shown thus:.b~4 Churches Shown thus: ~f~c~t~ICemeteries Shown thus: Xdb Wihere Rural Routes run over Improved Roads, they are denoted by arrows thus:;-L LA b gr I n / r k /,~ \hl ~ /.- llf/tP-r IR LA.P. /V y tp N I - -Uh ---"g ~-p _ ar rre nZBo a /315-.17 0. ae / 93: A60 27, Ora-r7~i /2 3 JO19~o AE ~a~b:~ 4~2. SZeM/a ~ do ~e~cr a 40 j r) YVA YYVA I r: LU." ' A Ir _.~ r 1 ir tiobi~oTln i jr/ ýLL L~r~e 9///////////////////m/AB~W~~iesaa4"viý~ t __ i 1 1- M;zasez e e7?s 1.9 (17s 40e h, O n qoor; r~ sj, ~4~,''~;9 b~0 It3" N Or~ert JY *S~t dta~~f ~jg -1 -L,ai h`~s"~ FF I L I f e) 0 A, c I - F-;.1i 00 00 r 3F e nit~ B c30 L 7 r e sway I gl 1 ~i~s5 ~sdur~I M~fl~i ~lq~L~~~S 30 V I ----ss~--~ -~T.25 oiuer err rr TzT r 1,31,6-7 C E M. 5c M &L ~////////////~'~V //N111W~ y~//_L~/~///~/v////c///A~///~I Ta Ach~as. -4- -.90 fff4ays I b O.- Luerl PO I rr "77 eot~ S: 127 MrEf p Sý 14. &-'.., ooks J Z, od cr) 40 142 ciFi 11 73zone a rb rl ~aY?~~ T"~f~i~OP f~~f~ vy - b cAN iý ~6 68 Sh~~L79 ~r rZoo~f~t 230 a Ak rowe _Pea, ý-c G Kad oc 197om s ~,raku MrS IV ji I -+F he~ tj? vr ie,-~s 2 67 z' r;,L 3 Z eZ /20D F;t Ze0 i -i 01~ ~l+e~;a~~P~m;an~p--I21~12~ -, qk6-~;s, 8e ýwask;-en IFI Lr 40. vi 91, re I C* eo. C. O4SSell. I -r Ic ý ý ý11.1, 5se Pe?we- s~ s8;rar--~---a~~a 1~P~3~P~a~ ~b~s~u ~Pk~ r~e~-~~P~ -- I, 0=3box--mood % - I I-I'AWW% I IT Z I I or P-.r I ty I I ~10ý rt '3' A171-4-17zlyu -211 l3~z. 'en er Z2 o n q4 - C/a r teA5 60 e ~n e'r I ~ ~Al, jE~~b -F;e -ý A argZ72,'i 57-t FZO Cb E;Ira 5 '~. jzý 3-9z' r t' 2ýi i ZJ qj r ~I s '1 3 P L 1 I I t i F t, Illlll~ill~ I I -- 3rl 111111 ~ 111111 111111 rlrl llIlI1 111111 I 111111 111111 I I 111111 ~ 111111 I ~ I~lrll I II cl 111111 n: - - -- 111111 I IIIIII ~I 11111 I ~ 111111 Illtll 111111U 111g 111111 ~IIEll 111111 IlltU I ~11111 I Illtll 111111 I ~PI 111111 111111 -W -r---qK F.r in I I I II.- -.I L -ML r -~-'I11I IP LY~ I I Wa6"" ~BlFI-~~ %M - I I limm, ý WM6 -. --..I~ ýW ' 1 1 a- p I;mcmu-mw o e; ' Z a- p 11? W W -. ~r III ei~z, 80.F/Lo e -Alf Z'c A~t~ 1-0s 2 -;7 z,! I ~ cj is ~ P4o N -r --- ~J~f~iva sek~er4 80 A1Splvz, 7-e 4 erealziT A Z" ýw I II r -~r r~ --- ur-6 96' Zep,6a fes11 -A9;ýZ nirc~u n~ khai V~ i~ 0z~iat 25 7.)r'L-) 7 - 7 I'S A50?1"5 N~ t so~ s~~irtSt4ý cu ~j.~? O o"SQ 60 L~~C~rT/v~c~F -u I-- 3 1 "T 14 7 I I r n~wlr 3.F? hr s ~s c tO sc\ F: 0 40 a. r7 ~7~32es mo ERL.~5 ý%l I oo(3C MQ 7r, e 7- s A N~e n ch~ K~unes 113 er: shury 40Y0 13 [f5 ry~ A r r '0 ~s O t3 ~~c rC~~ c-, lz"oo 1 Il -- i I!t Am 1 "'' ZM 4 f 1r f hPp ca U 0. P 4 k' r )P" an n ~4~ \(el " 0 80nz ~Y"~ Z'Z~L 6~a /2 ir~ Xo 33 J Th -s 1 v". ZS 32 a,;" NJM~- ~ 00~ ~ SCT.~27E Z Ul~ 2.oa J -vri I eor U IQ ý'e r -L, 40t/'f e.,e ae-o 'r r?-a n At rz*,T~zel 4 0""""""""" V Zpr~ N 9, I Ch~a, re eS,re, beBeck J a-y~ 2 o cb ct `r rZ S~r~os ~B~u er /dd ~I ~I I Y ~I A~ - ~ b~dSt. e2? e ed,cz LCcso 0-0; I;Z S Cd 140 19,3 rP eýe e 4 ~~t3 c~ tar~f CEM~. tj r,~ oa~/~ r. FZa.edwara t 7T. CA Z,9;.,v 160 11.6 Se h ~fz ~ e 12-0 ko M &0 ~ SWAM T A M 0 "'A Idst of Small Froperty Owners in this Towrnship Shown on Map, by Numbmers, T ~Al P. No. Namie. A cres. 1. M'~rrs. Ch-arles Forth.........~.... -10 2. M cilcllis te ' ---------------- 3. Johin W. Dennnis:.~.................... 2.50 4. MIrs. E~. H. Edwa~rds................ 9 C. F. Kin~gsbu r3................... 6 See. 10. No. 6. '7. 8. 9. Nam~e. Acres.eS See.C Lewijs Sch~lockr....~~.......,..~............ 9.49 7 Mar~rar retx Moore ----------------- -. 3 8 Garfilan Conarrow.................... 3 8 Adani T. Mioore....~................... '2 S George Lt. H~ighley................ 15 Iu iii~lllll~lllll~1111~~11111=I M1 Ilr t ~111 rrll I -1 11111-I. 1111 - I

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Page  33 5 111111 lillM illllM i M MilliMlllll lliR ^ l -l| =ll -I-llll^ J||lt =llil =lll^=lll== lllss-ii = l='iiii =iiii== ii---=ii ts^ lu= nim`--=~ = iiilii=;i~ii;<^= i)tiii==siir--i iii niif-n=-==l~ = t~ Im --.u Illii lI=----Iil|I.,-li 1O!111111 i11111 illll Mlilll =3. Iii ii,1 IIgi,-. Il IIIIl.... lBll * TOW N SHIP. sa.e:,2 Inc] LAPEER COUNTY, MICHIGAN North, Range 11 East of Michigan Meridian 3y State Trunk Lines and Improved County Roads Shown thu:.. __. Schools Shown thus: Churches Shown thus: 1L Rural Routes Shown thus:.. =- Cemeteries Shown thus: Where Rural Routes run over Improved Roads, they are denoted by arrows thus: A ~ n A n I A. T W P. A ý -, -. i i /0 / log - - I I - - T.1-141 11I -_ -I -% II %I I -& l'-+-" m' I ED )\m -fY. X..,,5077, 48.~1 - Idaýcob!. I V,-,<-oL. iQnefý 40T! ar.ris'n4 "9-9.. -T. ^^ s Afe Seo Sa ra^n Ge -.Aý V'. l V I, /6 D I b 6 -, Nrr z. I C 7 y ' ti-i?^ 4o I.- J A. f ' - ~- F _n 7F - r | t:_ S e e i 62 7 - M r~ ~ 44 * vo r i Po, 1. 1 /TV Z l,- ll - - -... e7 I _T. I r Nll.1 1 "1 1'1 - n. 1/o.0Q40 s5V'&okz. " 0T1ý ON 0 7 s03 ,, _' A - - kc -4 kz AM. 4 - Ch aZe ~e 3z0^ -W 917 9ý_ to ffeo -I -\ch.12~t 14C V1-'.N y --j -1-e. -r^ I ^. ^B^ NJ -1^j Xj e a, is% Q;7--.,?o-. '/ ~ --, 4T v,. -C,.<. ~ A.o ,z. '^ ^,1. ey --^P"g /^ /. 1 Z /? - ~ A: i 137^^S- -- -a& -- e i'7g "160 i. _ 1? 0 e., "^ - <-T -l,?? - -f Hi.. No I...<-] ae I-? -^ ~ j ^ (^^ ^y -Benzz G rz eoA56 1 '14&. o- I 0 PI E. HI L ^n ^^ ^ f I -n^T '!"l, 21 --IT,<1 o. "- &CT / momi __?m la.a Q. J~e I-Itr id- _? ^ 5L4G* fu5S^o W ^-5-ee5^e l ^ll, i s rcris cA S^7 "* T^^ea/.5 0t; We f -c - 19k I K\ 7,^ ^.^ J - ~ 3e^--bfi ^ f ~ e; ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ' Z7.y e-a 4V 3, 410 i., A _____ _ - f \'-^ ^'v--~- n,, ^ _ < Hm j.^ g _ (^U C ce^^ ~^^ ^ - p ^- ^ ^ S ^ F t. /~ cril 12 |7g1F^i ~^ fe^ --A^ ^^^^ f^ 3'm' 2r týNL J. ja'"' 7LL^ e3 cx- ^ r ^^ri^^^^^^ii"^'50, r,^p i^^ ^AN"^^,~~~~~~~ 5<:ý'~l~j^^ ^^|l~ ~ Mllll -191ll- '. IM I | B =5 ~ l l Ilil Blll *lll Blli N Imill " IM 7 5 I 7 IlIi 3L D R Y D E N "T z W P List of Small Property Owners in this Township Shown on Map by Numbers. No. 1. 2. 9. 9'. Name. Acres. Charles B all, E st. --...-..-.......- 2 W illiam W illet........................ 6 Ernest Force........................ - 7 Clarence Hamilton, Est........ 2 Herman Springer..................-.34 30 Elden S. Schirmer....................10 Emma Sumner.........................10 W im. G. Evens...........................10 Nicolous Scheftschuk............ 10 Sec. 4 10 10 10 10 10 12 12 No. 10. 11. 12. 13. 34. 35. 16. 17. 18. Name. Acres. Along-o Dailey............-........- 3 50 Charles McCabe.........-........-- 5 Mrs. Lewis Bade....................10 William S pencer........................ 5 "William Spencer........................ 625 Henry Knapp, Est................. 6 Mrs. S. McConrmick.........-- 1 A. C. R eed.................................. 10 A. S. Ktnapp.............................. 4 Sec. 1.5 15 15 15 1.5 16 16 l1i 1R No. 19. 20. 91. 22. zj. 24. 25. 26. 27. Name. Acres. F. E. WaNtkins, Est........0........ F r a n k S a n d e r s o n..........- ---. --- Oeorese Russell......................10 Jonithan Sholes ---.--. ---..--....10 P. Carrer.......-.......................----..--30 Thomas McMullen.....................'20 F. C. M adgw ick.........................20 Fred Thiem ke............................ 2 Trec Tl Thiem ke............................ 10 Sec. 19 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 No. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. Name. Acres. Ellis Spencer............................. 4.25 B-onson Rowe..............................10 William Reed, Est...................10 John K. Payl........................5 Tames Thomas............................10 Herbert West..-....................... 5 Chester Woodbeck...................12.09 T. C. K eeler................................ 6 See 2i 2 3! 3 3 3 -3, mI lul= 111m lia il 111 llia il lil il lll l 11 i ilm lum li li, I __i ilis 11 nlm l al llli lll ill -

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Page  35 ~n11111-3 ItP~~~I~:t~l~ll~:"'""-= IIIIII~IllflllP II1II1~P"-- 1I~1II"' ~1~IU~ Illllll~lllllt~ IIIIII~IC~IF~--- Illlll~llllllll~~llr~CIP"IIIIII =~=lrrrall"lrrlrlt===~~rsrrlr Irtrlllr - M!7r.-l Ilrur~lIlrlr~ I~I1I1--- tlIIII~-1111II~ Iltlll~ III11I~ Illsl~~l~lf~i~ IlllliC~ltlllt~ 1~1811===tilllE--=!aIll~~latlf 1 ~T~~tlllfl~~lllll~c~Illltt~~lellljl IIHII ~,,,, ]~11118111111~~1111~lllllllllll[~fHII 111111 I 111111 u 1 IUII 811111 s -- "Hltll 4 111111 pt L 111111 811111 I 811111 ~ ~11111 111111 111111 I I IIII1I o: -i ---- LI, ~ ~ 111111 I ~111111 -- ~ ~ar tS 111111 - i 111111 I 811111 I I' Illtll i 81111 " I 11181 - - I 1 I b I ]11111 311111 I -Y 4 111111 s ~ Bllfll 1 111111 Illlilo c I 1111 -- IlliU -- 311111 -- 111111 11111 -- I 111111 111111 I I 111111 JI1III ~ No. 1. 111111 -~ 3. -- -- 811111 --- -- 6. --- '7. --- 111111S. 30. - r. 11. 1 0 11 il. 1 a ll 7 7 r = o MLA c~i~f~c~ T~lr a _H -II -II-Y ~ It I - I I - if.- g-_1 I --TOWNSHIP Scale: 11/2 Inch to I Mile 4LIN, 9 1 4"I'd 16 1,APEERE COUNTY, MICHIGANA Township 7 North, Rtang~e 12 East..of Mi~chigan Meridianm State Trunk 1Lines and Improved County Rloads Shown tthus: Shools Showna thus: Chu~rches Shownslr thus:= Rurat'Routes Show~n thus: Cemeteries Shown thus: FWhere Riural Routes run over Improved Roads, they are denoted by arrows thus: i a a,UI 1 c E r 4 1 r a g r: rrp ~7n I IS~ack~ 2";-a?z~ JO Q. D~b A N.n 3 -i fob_ o~~ c~ ~ d LP~ f;Iski j? I.Sze 7-ne-r. -L 6 e C6 ~8~BgIB~O~~nAn ý19 Ft 02 I IN,-- L7S~ N 1 t" 3.-I -M/blo-z y 114.5, Zý e- I a 177 uf hhS vo 17 0 CEM' ZZz`2 ia TnL -7)'rj Zb 13 16 (0 qh ~(Pl~aglPB BIPI BB~(L ~ Ldq IIýý4 ýIZI// 7 L b q 2 a, R i 5. qx.;03~ mu~pEI -lr aa Spenee 6,52 - N?7tm 4O q3ao.3z - If CA n'.T 9-a -Lee',4o 5ý. 40 e rye 0 r~j R z~ce6 4msZi 66 a, m ~S ~e Z. ~S o n/ r ~g~F~8i~e~eF~ O/ r 7 r0 3 I r C r c 1 j12 r r J; f r ZI 2 r ___ I ~IY ' `IU - ~ar -Tf' 171' -cl ~Sdmu~P a Fu 1~071~ * N il:G~pe c~3 i t7rOi~ 72 ~5cag~P~~ __ amp7 40x: -1c u om "Y en x~amerzz I&J,, ~3~0 O i P9 nxn W-heel-l 7.77 40 yE7 /00O F V45r "Ic~':t 3 -Ei ~rezlhýc voo y V" l I. Zetlz 2imenzý c~4 ~z r~ _hTi-e ~zIZ~UY sl3 ~R~E-.ZiPa M Fr'a t zonj -91ýz15-s Nu -W nzz(-z 1< ( +10 47z ~I~ c 4,3 rne?" lay it~ ýj Ir 7 Ee,~ a d 7,co t Qj~SO e5 ýN ~49~ Ch a pt p I - - -C-- I Ki I - r,-IT Fr - MM -40!d C.,are-r.,4P ~ ~ AYC6z,ýo 7z ri, Z's so -,rL 4ro 5! Z h --/39. 60 i 'ZCiZ OX 40 39.10 d,ý I, - 1 X; ý %. -ri- lqo I -.. - L GQ7_47L 07-1I yZntUwe= SPz'de~,. Gs~. ~Y~i~-tC~K St~r an L---~L~-~-~ ýwr-r-,T 5v 25- a"& -ROY,5 wi tSoj pn-'5..T N/F Z 5 o I &3. -%-,; ~iB~~3 b~f e iP$6cst~~I e 3 3 LI Y L, I S b!3 ~tyz~tZ z's m/ ~jd vz/e r~ i 80 a. ~---~---- ~~.IC~B~;~-C~-3~1J~t~ ih~S, 3reliZ H#ý5~.Si Fi3 O P eoA IN L 7r -~L zvrrs..P 40 000~ 0,er zr~~~s cic O'k i -: Ik;imý mamm - I sc 1-,Ma.217 V. - -,,?zzf Z I-- w w - - ýl 4 - I, - --m- - I B V- 7 11 ~ g''~ ý, - i -A Z a t, 2 3 S S I 3 Z 3 I r '9 )I 9 - 2-~a ni -t aý Ce e-,e k~ ~JJ I 8, 2red 4 IE 4 - - - - - --- 40;22~; Nrd~l F~E? N ~~~$ I l a Pam I-~isp, 40 470 i~,4z e~re c~ q I I v 6. 00o 1 /20 r'I -. sr i A!I% IA iul r. I" I --" I - I- W m "r~7-~ I, -" I I a JLI ru ~J~QI ~a~0191 Ft IL/; /o ~Y _AugZI s~ yyagner ~sl~-Jr ~t~-~s~o ~ I~. ~s~ C.G IZ~3Ci~~unr~~ ct ts 'It k3J ýPefe~P??!-,& V~ C. 4T. F, ~~h~ E3 X~ ~t ~c~ Mr~t cB 9 F 1~1 O z 1 I - 0.9 F-7946 6ýeo. - Y,,Se i6?e 4Z eoo C'Aa ý-Ze,7 -Z2po vv 7- Z,? L~~& ~ L 'Be 22 -A ze r I I -I -I k4P -3 IN lrl IWIA Y 3 -IZ-en -ry ZoeZZ~ bj~~j ~5 u PS~Y ~d~rt*Sreirs~ N 40 1 Y.40 ZrcKzlz-~r rz ~ca 3 r. ~_ ~___.__ 35 II 111111 111111 I, 1HRI 1. 1IH1I Illlfl I I ~[1111 I I 111111 ~ 111111 c '3ta rZ~~r owZ ~tZq 111111 as ~-sZ. ~r ~i u~ 7wzzns IIIIII ED I I" K""ry ~ 111111 'e 'Z ~"3/ 60:m z;so ~Illm1 ~s~ ~D ~ ~1 111111 s I D 80O 11111 4~ 5: Y -- 11[111 'O ~ 37 0 111[11 '0, I ~ u 111111 ~ ~ I h CEsl~fl[ll elru n, ~I ~ 111 ~ -111Ilt i`l Zer 11[111 -I 80 I 111111 ~~2;1 403 1~ h,`s P 1111 ~is~o~ 1IIIII OK I F' a, 1!1 ~;1~" c, r, r~t~ c _ - R. IIIIII r> ~ ~3 ~J ~ 111111 I HI P.,,9e r i ork Co Q3er 04 N--- -- --- 1 3 --- --- -- 1 - 3 -- - - - - - - - -1 0 3.......... L O 3..... 9 3.-.. 3 '3.......... 3 r; o C. a3 -eY~s~ 5-'~ / Park ~Q),RI bO,nF~ tj 102 -~4rZ'Olt. I.O~'17tY&i~Z N a Rl - - plu I. - I'R 77 Qjý, 5ýh -,zde A. Ge zqp, V6. 1ý 1,9 ~T~YB~Z /7 ~ZCc~ F~L~C;i~ 40,NI;P~ek;rc~Zpr yy-,,rs~ Z-Z ~Po d~-~L~ Gm~~ ~Fr-an~ B~o ZZI i~aatez SCb~,Z?a- n soo ýie 7, 840 24 t3 ru O L" Y C~c~_ eo~ 2'~me //7 J8 a\Do d ~n ~ti 78 B O ~6k ~ru r 21 9t~i Q, flc -B h ~eo. Z~~~i~o r~p: e 40 fT era ~;r, ~ear2 4~6; unnezý -Z,2rz or.40 -i % 1 1 ý:, ýT d- 7-, -1 -! Fzg: - deý Iz fy "I d~~j` fi' tr)' yoz Z! arz-i geeck E-= I-C($R-~~t~~ b~B-IC I~P-8~~~~~~L -P~~~~~i ba 7, v, I,J-VI L 1I11I o ~ ~ Z~ P V~H3 i~c~ Cai ~4 A ýd ~ t 4; Ch aIrLLY 80U O j 40 rt ~. ~ O a sic~ u~s2 e e-, 120ta r Z J9z v/v'~' ~ iSi z 30rk CYc ~ r3ZOa.'6 60 80W71Vý 41 0%0-1 rI Q I jl aý? 7z & W j nh n L. -f 2 ~1111 u ~h Y-~y~v~i Z~~ t ~e~i f, Vfi 7- z C. Vr_ T 41 rr-aZya 71, 1Q W1) A. JR 0 ' D ~s- ~ znY er e 1IIIII /'oP,;tia 35 o~gonveqo e r so arr Q C\ jxzy Levvz ý,T z Z a 77t- Ci 11,W4ýM Fý' 30 Ia. ~ ~3 OS/ r 40 rj re n h hU 6 ~ Va n,?n~ 140 1 4 e O Qc3;"d eN,0 Are -D - r. 31111 11 2 ~F~reen EyeP3 ~9~ /2 (a n, 4ý e. 4,CP~c Na ~1III i~~e b M' N 1" 'b\ay 0/ 44) 11V.60 Z/'OZ 7- i W'-4>- 7- n e rn o ~ap 'eS unr~befs No. Nne.Be~s. Xc. o. Nae.12-8 F/ 71 0 eke),;!.Se. o. p~Tme. c e 2-8 v nlý t',..ý.....,.... ) R. F F Celign S...~~....1 I. ~~t~oa, J,1............. 45 O 33 Iale tp esc..:.....1 I;TI-. reler..................~1 2.~. f~s ~.........~..,.......... f0 3. bi~s oh hil, l t...it..1 'T.. Levcls,'st. 3' 1.8 L i st of S m all P r op e rt y O w n eirs i n t hi s T o w n ship S h o w n o n H ap b y N u m b e rs.c r,. Ii:s t.............:1 No. Name. Acres. See. N o. Nam. Acres -Se. NT0. Name. Acres. See.e S ece, lia..~....... 3. Atnes Itogersy............................ 1 5 134G 3 2. Wi),L'. Kelley....................~........... 3.7, 18 94 Ch,,is. Cook.................................. 10 2...;.. M. P ), e t c h e r.............................. 1 50 1 1 1 5. k. D. S c h e n k y........................~.... 4 i s 2 6. A. F r i t c h ý............,.... ~.... ~4. J h p n e.......................... 1,15 02 Lowis Snyder ----------------_----_---- 6.46 14!6. T,-ts. E. Travis........................ 7 is 27. W. N. Bennett and wife........ 19.52.3111~ 11111 ~11111~ 11111~ 1 3

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Page  37 '111 111 1111 111~ 11 111111 111 11111- 111 HE 11111 'M III I I I I II= I I II H I I M 11111 1111 I I II I111110 11 HIM IIII HE I I I II IRM II II IH III Mrfi,~i I~Y I ]11111 111111 111111 111111 ~1 c~i 111111 I I tlllll ~ IrlR1 ~ I I I 11111 111111 ~ __ 111111 ~ ~II P11111 111111 1 I ~1111 ~ I tllfll ~ I ~ I fllfll ~ ~ ~ ~ 111111 II ~, 111111 111111 ~,, 1111111 ~ - I c _ _ 111111 I )1111( ~ I ~ I - ~ II 1;311111 U ~ I i; ~ 5*1 r:!f ~ i 1HIII,, i 'i; '' -- - 111111 I 111111 ~I ]Jllti ~ ~-Lb* -~ QII 111111 ~ ~cl 1Hllr - - - 1. 111111 I ~ ~ ~ -- 111111 I ~ iii u ~11111 i -I 111111 'II 3~3 111111 I tllill 111111 'II IltlL!11 II c - -- 11!111 ~ 111111 111111 I 11111 IHr~ _~r ~ o 11 oU b~~I~o II -&]Otte H Hllc I I I ~ 1 H A"3 U4" L JwrusAo '.TOWNSHIP Scale: ll/-, Inch to I Mile C~,~,~CF~,~-=~-uamrf~lT~-~-i~;~~ LAPEER COUN'ýY, MICHPIGANT TSown~ship 6 Norteh, Range 9 East of Micihigan Mleeridian ines anid Improved Shown tl hus: ~ s Schools Shown thus: ft Churches Shown thus: Shown thus: BeCLI Cemeteries Shown thus-,~ W~here Rural R Poutes run over Imlproved Roads, they are denoted by arrows thus: ~~ State Trunk IrJ County RoRads ~Rural Raoutes 'r 6 I Gep rpe' Zec=e\s~ori~ ~20~ 5;j' tiEiat~ez'ei! ~7~0 ~~FE~ o. II, _ ~ ~ BrComm -- s ~-B~~LI~ YB~F I I TIN nit '~C3 AK PQ~"rs oB, B ~S~F~ A 0)O I~ Ir Q3 a ret AP Wan.76. ffil-7 8 - 9" 11 B j'~0 p-~Y E/OIC 472 80sa~x a -Tf s t i ' 9Oa b I t I ~~mnarr~ P?' 01 pj n ~Ci Tj - - I 30 V-er7Z z;- vy- 47yc& 200 1685 t IN q)F AL na~ s 1~t~2~~ ~ I] s ~e 12 ~,08 ýE 1791 i I IK 7 - 3 i INA r (B A V)d`~) `r ~l"nl"i rc~n~ Oi~ copenr.E ~~ fe. 00i Al rl 4 I N6!/r SH.~ T'~La-IILP~ --L-~--' = N- -T, i r ~p-~plLq ~-I~e~P~4lt~l 6ai-b.-ar Jfd6 L ~i~a~i fdý Lit ~,u:~ I -AI I X4. %P -1. ` m-t tI~P lf aaln At- -IC7Sct. A07. 7-)1 /o~a~5~d 2~ re ~s zu o! SQ ~s.o ~70 wl- -v' -r - - - I.. Q) F, ycS~g d ~ii 4i I lwrll~j II I L /0 V Nit I h"tj~eo k ~5 ~o w I io~ers on i,319 --Z;>e w Z r~ew Z,~ 7z 9O~~T2e~~v7~ 11 -AD era~ t ýVa 7n:6b/ -el za - 1,e 6 C?- ad 77z-? 1 - I I I I -... L. - -- I I 40 Q i I - i I.. Rd -, I -~ -t I yeb t e IR~P 80o I Harir v z Yc AROrS EO 60 ILe ~ ~h-~4c- LI)~t 7 i -k 7.r~ L S O c p WOO j O 7:Z to 7yz0 ~s~dl00 N CS,'3 la 0 00 Gee ~h Ch rj e.5 15- Ljo-,I b6 rj '5,3 70- I n" al qu-a V an Yo 7,%5de a: ~~Z~Y e- 753 s e, -,7-,e n Sod~crn. hu irn - 915ý49 491 70 460'" -r. t~ ~P k ~ svaC d) 49 7. i4 0% Ba L e 2..*, 00 4. % fl, 30 er W P: I F 37111111 111111 I 111111 11111 c 111111 I-I 111111 I 111111 111111 I 111111 111111 111111 ~ c3 ~ 111111 I I ~cl 111111; __I 111111 ~ 1111111 I ~ ~ = p.111111 I ~ 111111 c I 111111 -3 ~ 11111[ ~II. ~pl 111111 I,YI c 111111 c 11181 ~ I i cl. 111[11 U 111111 -I 111111 ~ -- 111111 ~ ~ 1[111 ~ E 11[111 ~ II HIM '? 2 0 111111........ OO~D--fNP A T4t7ca.4o 12 71.5-0..~c~t &Y7ý -Z. Zyo!Pl aý. ewznd e & 9 2 12.1rv~ 19-- coit Qj s,R z Ss~ a c CB~ ~" N 99..523 3 ~ - - ~ I o7 6 P,~~ Fo0. 470 ir I ML -M -~I~T~3~~CI ---.Fr coke?niz 02 e tQT cz (4.20 -1 JiLCHzazo /0 0F~ ta., 'YA~ h~ F~ol ~t N Q) t) 2Pre r ~-~ZZ1 40 -7V-,: A n~, F~tb ~4/i'~ i~aX t_ 240 /'010 ra % N 16 ~a 25- ~~ 1 F4. ý5 1 b i I I I FI I-, X&P II -C J.r - --~ r6-~s~n~n~sF~' ~fllC~ Mow- I -11 SrH V, qj QQo '90. W. 74/---, (r noomPei~a7 r -~:..t~ (U o ~z~t~a) ~1 3 hO 0) hj O ~luh~ ~ F440 I~ o 7Yrsi9rrr~~ a C '77J ý4-es - j i:?2der~ 7'tzc - 401 I e7ýa '4'0'Pi ism ~ tj V4 I Iwo --Z-12 P I Ivar y ~ 't~ o ISJ ~3d0' ~1 10Ea prt~~e ro c;t~ 9 Cf~B~ 5*I tbz T44 zr ý- / IF catyZ <Z p~~~, p -Ar7- 16 -~ -- -- ý5r 1 L Cý IL L-. I- -P IL-1I I A IFir- V7 s~l s z 71 ~39 a t~~a c X F*~ 3~-~s. 19~lirn, P~ ST empl i L1BKESt 60 s~0~ d f -Lews d~ e r /3r2 ~z` e 7-v -Z;,2ZR 80 6'0 3 Aces 5t,~...... 1 2 9C 9........ 1 A aI I I IA_ I ~d -~s2~a r --l~--u ~ ~lm~P~f ~s -n~81~ -rrrr~ --~i~ f~~l~6~5yse~k~c3%~ar~aap~i~s~~~ O% R. NP. P r~ _77. IV91/ 1A ~ff~A %Tf zudpiv-10jurv, ~aB IVY ~D- bP List of Sinaall Pr~operty ()wners in thhis To-vviiship Sho-wn on 31ap by Numrabers, Nuo. 1. 2. 3. 4. 6. Namane. AQcre-s. Sec. L.-~ G. Copeman........................ 12 1 Yuill Brothlers..................~...~...... -0 2 Rifchard WhiTin,, Est................. 63 - E,ý. J. HFemingwayy.................~...10 4,C. P. Joh~nson and wTife......... 1 4 C. P. Johnson,And w-ife -------- 5 4 No. NamTae. Acres. 7. Fr.-nk B3enneett...............~.......... t. 1.6.25 S.' Tohn 0. Stone.....-.......................16.25; 9l. Ashley Hartwelll, Elst. ---. 9.... 10. Wna. WVild~e.....~......~................-... 3 IL. Cla~ud BuckiIi-han-iz............. -.1-0 12". Ed-%var' d Pal~r---........... -.ý See. No. N~ame. 'Acres. 17ý. lv~~illnani Greenl........................ $.50 -14.H,,dley Dist. Dairy A~ss'u-- I. 15. h al ~ ilereill....................~..~.......... 2.50 16. -Mrsr. Greorcr e Bush..............~...... 1-7. W i. C r n in t o...........~.................18. Art hur HEurd ---------------------------- 10 Sec. N~o. Nama~e. 11.U 19). Dav7id Hamsblin..------- 20. John Irelan ------------- 21.. a l M r il............. 22. Isa tic Haddcrill,.........~............ 2l3. Wi~n. and l s-Terixltan Jens... 111111~lllll~1lll g ~211111~111111IIIIB~BPIII II n 1111111~9~A-111111 111111 -3.. I. I 1. I _ m~ - Illlll~nlll"~URt~'~lIIII~~IIIIU~~IIIIIII aar Ilrr -- 3C I~L ~IIElll --~IPI 111111 ~irur II --~ rr~~l Pb~~ -- "I II - Ir~a ~ar

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Page  39 111111111111111111111111111111111 111111 111111 11 111111 1111 11111 1111 tllllllllll II I ' - c lg - I I I Ifllll111 ' I _ -- __ ~ru, 1. I 11111MIIIIIR15 flllH 111111 Iltlll II~ Illltl I [111 111111 111111 - I 111111 I-I 111111 I 111111 I Illlfl 111111 itilit c 111111 lilnlrrll'll 11111 rI Itltlll '-" II-U II 111111 -- I Illtll I _ _ 111111 111111 cl sli lllI11 I 1[1111 111111 111111 ___ 111111 111111 I 1~ g 111111 - - - - 111111 -- Allll _ I L~rTC 111111 ~, %111 II II Illfll Liij NIHI -- I1IR1 I I 111111 111111 t111111 """ 111111 I - 111111 111111 I ""'" 111111 111111 LAPEER3~ COUTNTY, MICHIGAN~r.i~ Township 6 North, Range, 10 East, of MRichigan MNeridhian Stat~e Trunkll Lines andc Implroved County Roads: Shown thus: e~_~;Schools Shown~thus. 1 Churches Shown thus: Rural Routes Shown thus: ~er~Cemeteries Shown thus: Wh~7ere RuraA Ioutes run over Improved Ro~ads, the-y are d~enoted by arrows thus: -0 - 11 t T Bb P -- Ll I lvvý1 ya 25y-o I 9 "a sor -,m m c r ~ i -11 -Zl~ Z-,2 t 7z6 ze 1411,03 3F -L-~o3 h fluf /70 Cý5h 7z. Wal ~kerr 177622 14. C. Lee -WaZker / 77. &Z /Yf// J; uOo 91cl ---- d aj;. I, ý Af3 I P t II ~ R~I C----L'k - m 'm-- Bw ý -I vu - ll&A Jt -7 ~~;~ 190 -r 22 CZnr _cc J2.Jp w -r ~~ ~s;~q A Ire i?li -7 CAi P W J;a i r r.. /60 i qn-F -AfCca r 0)", wz c I I C.T ~eo - ' "I1 z/lJzp;z s /:O an, A" Qý Ou ice-Y B ~ O: tL /;z eQ1~~ Go Zi P/ y Q I-rz- 77M1 4C a ee. V~ d.ea to, t16ý 00 'd ~ irJ CdCE am ra 7ýzy I ~ I 5~ 0T bo ~ t,< jg~~Vl 8~ - v (x e- kt- $",0s ~ OU4 Cd Zi~Y > 6 1 B ~ G ~. h ao d CU 0 /t wk.., CV C4h~ l 1 ~) "L:m f0 ue ~~4 9 ao~9!Q ~ J~~S f no v e-~F* 6 Z~e" ~RA CO O 40 OS.0 6 6?arý-n & ti ~~k~u a z Ilr,~...1 r c? 0g "oil do njr hfj 2,34 10'9a~i~ Nose,% -Z Z Yfer -v2.d Vlt kSle. R e- e 6 2;7nMa- ner 3 waý ý,,&Ucs a CIOO 3 1e&~-yjr 9 e.32 40c Orlb tt 3 40/ 3 e 0 - oy sffsz o - 72 e'r I - -- V, c 0? o Is r H.e ~st ' (- sp A 22--, rz, /20~od. /20P 6 719 19 i!:;7,.80 7Z 6 n /iý e n. Le.a -., ýS4- 1.cH /b ~ 3T ~ V Z~ s 6~'~ 1- -ee /20 91~~t\~ I)Z40 0%r T~f~CL~ Oker ~ p~S3 Lit7 qj' ) ff. A, 0 F? F~aN 014 s ZZ -? 3, zee, r.,ZATL'Z2hZ 3 200 ~ q-0 - -^ -9- 12 1 H r 39 111111 ~ I 111111 3 111111 -I 111111 -- 111111 1 111111 Illllt 111111 -- 111111 I" I 9 111111 -- "Ilflll I 111111 111111 I-- 111111 '" 111111 II, 111111 -I 3 111111 I -- 111111 lI1111 IHII lilr 111 -c 111111 I 111111 -I 111111 ilIllil -" I 111111 111111 - --~R II LLII C1 111111 Ilflll ~ I Ililll 111111 cl lillli --- -- HII11 YI 111[11 -- lillll 111111 111111 -- -- 111111 U 1111 111 er:. I".I - ---, 1)C) 111111 35 -- 3 111111 lilfll 3r 36 g. /V q. -3A -r --;p rg g DE Q /VolP List Of Sm,"ll Property Owno~ers in this Tow'nshrip Sho-wil oil Napl~ byS Numbers.s N 0. Naine. A cres, 1. M~irs. Eva Stone.............1 2. Flenry Judd.........~..................... 3. Datniel Bir3;1ber............................ 2.7-5~ 4. Henry Oldrs.................................. 5.5 0 r5. Dimiel Barbelber................~.............. - 6. Isaacic Ribble, E,-zt..................... 1 7. Js. Churchl Est........... 6ec 10. No. Name.Ac-os 8. Le~on Si lil,A.................1, A5 9. A. aurchlll................~................~ 2,~1.10. A1. Fl. Smith, E st...................... 5.05 1 L. A. Francls~li...........~....~...~.............. 1. A lberlt Sn ds ------------------ 13.. C1. h em~l oll ---------- -.....1 14. Mrils. I-Jenietl- I'm-ch........ A 244 No. Naine. 16. C'. Plaxtter ----------- 1'7. C. Baxter.......... 18. FrankI11 Lortz ------------------ 15. Annelia Foi~sketi ------ 19). Jas. nndt A. Flerry. 20. Sohn Aloore.--------- 91.. George Penneyy............ Acres.s ------ 3.666...... 10 Sec 31 341 24.. 25, 26. Nftmo. Acres E'div~. Beek -.........--------~----------------10 IA. S. Murry~......;.........-----------------10 0 8-ar slpte!t~................................. 5~ John. J. -Schwidtid............-..-.........10 John TJ. Schmidt~l...................... 1.0 Earl D3. IPchwo~............. -............... -10 Jas. anld --Notle Willis.....~.......1 - 111!IIII i.llll'-~~Illlll~=Hrll--11111!- Illltlilllrlt - ~ILIIIIILII~P c sllIll rdllll Utllll Irlll Iriiir -ilr 111111 ---:1111118;;111sIB;;111111 --111111- --illllll' --l1r1sr 111111 11111[=-~=18111111111~ =111111 1n1111111111 illlal- lllllf ----118111 1: 111 1 611~~11 11~111:1111 -ý I I f Il -=Il 11 ~' ll -= Hill I I ill11 111111=-- ýl--ljll- j

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Page  41 1111n1 Ilflflilltlll """' """ 1""'1 If Illt ---ls" 111111:111 11 -Nnll -111111 """'llsl1~~~I11111~111111111 U1IA ' 111111~~ '11111 1n111- NllfllllllP lll1lr flflll- """ -111111 111111111111 ' 111n1 lr I IIIP --IIIII, I-II1IIII IIIIN III1I - LI11111 11111 1111 11 11.= 1111112-29 - """ 111111 lnl1l """ '""" """- '""'""" """ ""mi~ =Ilriiru riirir -1I1III IIIUI -IltlIZ tlllll-- ""II- 1"'"' lil1li-- """- ''1 'Liiiiiiilllll 1111111. 111111 11111.- 1 InMI - rHIII IIIIII CI - --111111' 111111 111111 -- 111111-- -- rriiir ~....~' Illlllraal(%lll IlllllrllM11 ~IIYU -u LIII -LIHII 111(11 1111~~ 11 11,--,6 IIHM-1111 111111111 I" 111l11 Illtll 111111 `3 111111 I 111111 111111 I 111111 I - - I 111111 I I 111111 111111 I 11111 111111 111111 111111 111 -- 111111 -- 11111 1. I 111111 111111 111111 I I II1IU .I 11111 I I 1UIII I 111111 I I 11111 UI111 C 111111 111111 ix- mr -~- 111111 "' I r-e-~ ~. AU.; ~....... I ~`~"'`:..;. 111111 I 111111 111111 I 11111 111111 1111 I Z Qd n,, TCownship 6 Nort~h, Rang~e 11 East of Mic~higan Meridaian S'L,-ece Trunli-, Lines and Imnprovedc County Rtoadls Shovvn thus: Schools Shown thus: Churches Shown thus: Rural Routes Shown thus:. ~C Cemeteries Shown thus: 4 WVhere Rural Routes run over Improved Roads, they are denoted by. arrows thus: ~ 11 0 V AA~ _ Ip I Lk$8 T-7 4t _Y"~ V'' ~nra~imp- - -M E- REMMl-!AscH" 44 0it Pro-~nil t/, d "f^p'k/ C;rd F:;9 d \ a'il C 4 Zlr*rct 2 r'7 zoz vv/ 293 --f W e aep .IFPILa -QB= I Xped I oj. 415 I C Q J U ca i n i s I r c- -~ 40M -zY. vv--,yi 5~LLU kA~7es.k3 in E(ocs I 7- ez -pe SI 9 S' 31s 1 - I,l C? nb, t QJb Vk 0) FE;b r3 Y L, ~ D I d 7/ v. 7a-d 12: cree. E,eS z. -A zz' KEe.~ Q %) 67r Ve- r ou 5r4-r rý - l - a ý I ---- --I-- - W Ighlb scli Pat. 40 Atex ýazar 40ar _,c`s ~ 470 nez. 41ZJn 9w Fli 56 in- mm-:Un - ": mU ý P, JSP~ ae irssPEl IFi nIA aI 1. GF-3 pfia 86fil " 6mm i mum=-~~Ld~ _s~P~~Pr I - B r 5 I r 5 I 'sc "je S23,9 44 - 1 I - - 1 b r _1 Wr ~eZZ /ýIz IF I-~ ~~ IZ 140di. -25'o- r Z:.Are?, A ii ylr t.-25t. IL "~ I---- LF --47 - 111 t Em. Q - 06 t~ -7 4Tdof) 9 son i Irvir~~ r3rr ~a Ab o0~ ol 11 'ZPk S~ t, i, a) a, h, eh -I-.. r\ jQ Og -f O e'ok sr- e_ i ~ ~ L ~ -r 1_~OF s a 1 m - p_:Z N rJ N lu "" h I a ROY A evy rik. Lz~f ýc~a AZ 1 1 I I ff V 2ZZP'ami Lac -Yir E! he t4ýy Dri1 m denS*k - W-cm a i m 17-, i I,c3 4.9ri dnl ýuh d ~~hN L I sort S sip u /. IB - IT W- = 1. Z, //7.771 ZZ njo.77.,570 ~~-~;evabaa ~ ~:~b-?- I &.w B Lý! AI i-~r~~ ~~~k///// I C b 6' -Ros OZAlsi S`C fl. cib r Ij N~ ~ IPjq V- wp 2 - C'Aal e 4 1 I ~els 7 8Q - Cozey.L LIP~~~U 4ýýyt 2;;ýa- 77 a9 G t~j Ugr F~; wezz Esj 2 v LZST 3a OL 160~t~. J; Ti u15:e t6 i i r7? I n haaP o Srizad 1 -- I fi1" I;I cs 9 i VrA a ý El T ' 0 i. Cha -rlw ~ SSzo ine-k~ag I - ~a tol d3 34 t4~ 3 I I sertliF~r~t/C F- f qje I, ks 2 2 to %7 ~2 e ZJB~ lea, 4A e. 3,7 Ri e~L 7 Fl"Io ~ ijr, z -A~rf /zs st"s 0 rert ca 'V' O Ir -An ver /~~s: 0ele - 2 6 3 z9Z,;oC 3 'PS ~ w Pý u Q 9 14 ~i04 jW7., 7-9 -7 Sý,S 3,C tia in c r'C C10 ~I ~ OY. ki d ~~3 d-:z dOc Ga 7, e 7 Z3- 2/nriz O QJ IV rO Z t; NQI ~32 g 22 ~ ffm yn a "?-a O v 11, ~sb zAuus CHAS CEM Is I" e ft I 41 111111 111111 111111 111111 -I lllI11 I 111111 31f11 I 111111 -- 111111 1llr1 111111 111111 n: --- __ 111111 I -i 111111 t1llI11 1llI11 111111 I c 111111 I 111111 c 111111 I IliMI 111111 I 11118 IIIHI 111111 g 111111 111111 0111111 HI < I Hil....... 11111 r-e-~ fifTI ---.111111.. 81111 I 111111 I 111111 I 111111 111111 ' 111111 pi.lrcrrma.Bg uL 13vy;a uZ~ GB ~L F'c.h k., Gb ZtGL 3:7s; BD so ý77-8 ->ous dC tlu Lao NNP) CK iN. C;rS;tE Cra rZls Ca yr r, LPO 8Q r e c Ptc- Zwan r a F t qj kY 0) rl II ~ Tr/y un3 /b h34, PP tý A~r. u o Po -- 7 w, ýkt 7 Fr7- -S. C?,Zr12 j II U gC w9-- XAV4J4L- -,fA'%) -. I -M I: -%0- - fi 6 a. I k mm_ ___ SOV! Pt 'Zo 252~~~n * b~EJ R II FJ Q;~ 80 01, ~ L~~n CA -M y 1~;ha, sk N v 0-S-' 7-e "T,~~C~7 f~O O"Tz lei:f 7 oqrr I Zurs~ 4ý7- ý -91 k~ r( LD Frd / uZY1 40 %JU rh~~tr 4T0e z',T ~ N Iri _ Xrata - ~ h~-~ plla- b~4-bw-"Ce &- - AL ummag mm i~as l c-cE U I~ List of Small Property Owaners in This Towftsh~ip $hown on Map~ by Numbers. No. Name. Acres. 1. Mr1s. HXorace Triptp................ 6 2~. John Bohb nian....................~..... 2 3. Ronuiine Fanchier.........~........ 10 4. Perry Coleman, Est.............. 1.50 5. Henry Floff..........~.......~..~.......~....... 6. JTesse Gr~inell.............~........~..~...-- 4 See. 4 4 4 No. Name. Acres. 7. Sesse Grinell...;...................... 10 8. Peter Lemon............. 2.02 9. Robert 'Booih ~.................... 4 10. P. TNL. a nd -Fý.4rl Ulrich.~-.......... 11. H~eber H~-arriý.........~.......~...~........ 1. Jesse! Freer..~.,.......................... 5 Sec. No. Nq u P, Aors. 41 13. L. D. Cli,,imberlain...,................40 11 1-4~1. Aug.. Scholtz............... 1---t-15. F~rank Hafvens............................. 4.08 14 36. A ug. Scholtz................1 15 17. MLIrs. Schyler Clarki.........~........ 1 1-8 18. Frank Havens........................... 9' 20 21,29 34 ELLllllll~BI-111'11111 Illtll

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Page  43 43 M8iap of ALMONT TOW7NSHIP Scale: 11/2 Inch to 1 'Mtile LAPEER~I~ COUNTYr, INI[CHIGzlXI Township 6 NJorth, ]Rang~e 12 East of MI~ichig~an MYeridiann State Trunk Lr ines and Imlrproved County Roads Shown tthus: Schools Shown th~us: 6~Churcthes Shown thuas: ~iii~BCemeteries Shown thus: ml Rua~ral Routes Showii thus: Wherez Rural Rotites run over Improved Roads, they are denoted by arro~ws thus: -6; F 77he ec N 5j _L ea'"em LapCee 3.6.6- Ow 72ý eS a POX q"od k 4 4)~h 4!?0 -D-0a < 6 c"'h a-73e nva % AZ z Q1 0_0 9 u 7)1 rý? N '\4 tj Itj It cj c 7 7 IV,?-. 6L;Z) 5,(S'- 71 FC_> 245 Q 6-0az ~ rj9 r. \7. 0 x ( 3: A7 9A AL 2wZ CS 79 Wz2;1- 07- aZa Mbe O C~b Ch,, eT0 Z bP;1 4 rz'v at 7ýlr? %5 t.) 77;rz 0 um re 8012-0 M_~ L~el LT ~ 9 e. ~ L. FU "'I- J*r Ir~F ~Z" a5 C;l 3 e;,. N-19 if~ ~~1 Ivznr, d at eR U ti4 A _7L_7V dw kd c /ss.gfr N D 1~ mm 11 tt 111111 I[U1P III 111111 -- I -- 111111 --,E 111111 - - 111111 111111 I -- 111111 I Ifiul 1IIB I s3t 111111 11111 -- HIIII Inm 111 1~ IIIUI 1IIUI la II1R1 I I I I 111111 -- 111111 IHIII.I 111111 '--1 811111 --,, 111111 111111 I.90 3.10 7W4 4,* sel C7C n.-.40' P. 3 3 rC~ tsa po rr r;n7 na _Are Ze-9 tkef ý 131 00 OOPt eyr~i~coch 7ý IVpPW IrraBC~~~b~ yrLT:v' k 27iari? B at STop 322.cO_ I ~ Crj O r c2b iTP. % //t`ns 3r Se,/ Pt =30 3cb 5-6L,0-C~ orVB I~: ~Gt /-,4a pz es 16'X I I As A_ 7~ 1840 VVL 8~B- her 357 Pt~ -rT..E '"4nn Rd I 1 J 1 n Jp 3i,qzep ~ Spin r AY r.,Af-,r-so 125-e7 z-(Ldo,ýker31 4 65A IIL I - 3 L I 230neZ;!' O vefl, i j ný-r 'n LT;1"-Z, c ox ~72 2afL e-la u el~ Almont ae o. 4, ý prl 80 F If IN (St5 -P -Il~f a '0 i~ Gj tctz f Z'' o.1 ~ 3 J~77~ ed /btIu N 2~p~e n. t e /21 z leo Ceor ~~Zi e 77 ui -Z 7t zeff er zza Itz-~ Ta-~ 2~rw c. E. r4.t 9 73 e~m ~~39 28 PW42 7% ee~~ C. l 73 7- 0 345--- --75h P~c zin 27C rF i Q c,) Lu -K/.7? 38 lw ýý:. 'ý ' taa-:n eh S) Tý to Ag; -n z,r\ Iyp r 'R 111111 111111 IIIH 111111 lc -~ 11[1 111111 Illf[l II ---- -- 111111 II. -. -- 111111 111111 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. '7. S. 9. 10. LIist of Small. Property Owneirs in this Towvnship Shownn on Mi~ap by Numbers. Name. Acres. -Sec. Roy Cunningh ain.....,............... 28- 4 Clha~s. WT. Elsworti h................. 2 4 G. Hrlodg~e...................................-....36 4 Earl Fisher.............................~.... 15 6 Chass. Shaw --------------_-................. 5 9 Mrls. Wmrn. Mur~dock...~......... __ 9 10 Rudolph Perlburg,.................... 10 10 WTesley Shumacr ----_--------_----_ 10.1 1.0 FIrank Tho rnina n ---------------........ 7 10O W5Ti. Rcidder................................ 7i 10 L;. Pline -__.........~........................-. 2 10 N o Name. Acres. 12. Lafaye~y t te Greeninan, Est. -.10L 13. TWt'i. R~utherf ord...........~............. 10 14. AViu C. Glover, Jr.............. -14~ 15. Wm~n. Tfhomzpson.............~........... 3 16. Ivy HI. WYills ------------................. -1 -1'7. Almon Al llen...........~..........~........... 5 18. F~irank Brisho p.......................... -. 5 19, HE. D. Gutchess...~............~......... 20. Oregan Gr~eenman ~.................... 1 21. Allen R~utherf ord.................... 7.50 22. John Rlutherfo rd...................... 1 - 1Sec. 12 12::14 1-4 111 14 - No. Naine. Acres. 93. Mrs. A i. Townsend --------------------~ 5 541. John Ranttray ---------------------------- ) 95. Mr. AIIni. Murdock~............... 10 26. WITm. G. Schenck........................ 10 27. John A. M~iilliken...~................. 28. 0, W~. Schr~oeder..................... 2; 11. EI. Burling ame -................ 10 3 Gare 13~dT0d............... --1. 31. AI. FTI. Thomso n........~..~....~...~......9 012. M~rs. John Bowman ---------------- 10.1 3. Albert T~e~ullen ---------------------- 10 ~See 16 21 21. 21. 22 22 No. Nar~ne. ' Acres. 3. Joh~n It. Reed............................. 4.95,95 Charles IV. S'nifth.................... 36. Jamzes Rteid............................~... 10 3. John NCV. SculleyFT........................ 1_.5() 38. Mlrs. Alnna Hilln-ian ---------------- 20,ý9. Aungus t- Hillman ------------------------ 10 40. Tas. AV~. B~orland.................... 10 41~. Win.. Gee......................~................ 7~ See. 260) 27 34 -4 " IIIIIEl 111111=111(11111-111111=llillImI piIf

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Page  45 <i " --u -- --- - LOCATION AND POPULATION OF TOWNS IN MICHIGAN ACCORDING TO OFFICIAL 1920 CENSUS. EXPLANATION OF INDEX S 41 Key numbers are shown thus D6. County seats in capitals, thus AUDUBON. The letter and numeral directly following the name of the town correspond to the letters and numerals on the margin of the map. To locate a given town trace a line between the given letter on opposite side of the map and one between the given numeral on opposite sides of the map and at or very near the junction of these lines will be found\ the town desired. ' 'own Index Pop. Abitosse, C7... Abronia, H12... Acme, H7.... 75 Ada, Hll...... 440 Adair, Nil..... 150 Addison, K13.. 416 ADRIAN, L12..11878 Adventure, C2.. Afton, K6..... 95 Agnew, Gl.... 100 Ahnapee, E7.. Akron, L9.:... 505 Alabaster, L8... Alamo, H12.... 150 Alanson, J5.. 332 Alba, J6..... 500 Albion, J12... 8354 Alcona, M7... 100 Alden, J6.... 350 Alembic, K9... 45 Alexander, K7. Alfred, E4.... Alger, L8....... 200.Algonquin, H3. Alicia, L10.... 100 ALLEGAN, H12 3687 Allen, J13...... 560 Allen Cr., G9.. Allenville, J4.. 170 Allis, H5..... Allouez, D1.... 1000 Alma, K10.... 7542 Almont, Ml.. 789 Aloha, H5.... 40 ALPENA, M6.11011 Alpine, Hll.... Alston, C2..... Alto, Hll...... 400 Altona, J10.... 152 Alverton, H5 Amadore, N10.. 127 Amasa, D3.... 375 Amber, G9..... 55 Amble, Hl10.... 160 Amboy, K14... Ames, E5...... Amy, Mil..... 192 Anderson, L12. 100 Angell, H7.... 45 Angling, J7.... ANN ARBOR, L12......... 19516 Anthony, C3... Antrim, J7... Antlers, E2... Applegate, N10 177 Arbela, L10... 75 Arcadia, G7.... 450 Arcadian Mine, D l........... Ardis, J8....... Arendal, G8.... 25 Argyle, N9.... 300 Arland, K12... Armada, Nil... 711 Armstrong, D4:. Arnheim, D2.. Arnold, E5.... Arnold Lake, K8 Arthur, L10... 35 Arthur Bay, E6 50 Ashley, K10.... 596 Ashmore, M9.. 25 Ashton, H9..... 170 Assinius, D2.. 100 Athens; J13.... 553 Atkins, N11.... 50 Atkinson, C3.. Atlas, M11.... 200 ATLANTA, K6 200 Atlantic Mine, Cl............ Atwood, J6... 50 Attica, M11,. 342 Auburn, L9....- 400 Au Gres. L8... 199 Augusta, H12.. 651 Aurelius, K12.. 178 Au Sable, L8... 171 Austa, J8....... Au Train, F3.. 50 Avoca, N11...... Axin, H8....... Ayr, J5....... Azalia, L12.... 186 Bachelor,G8.. BAD AXE, M9.. 2140 Bagley, E5.... 75; Bagnall, H8... 100 Bailey, H10.... 306 BALDWIN, H9 471 Ballentine, C7. Balsam. D4.... Bamfield, L7... Bancroft, Lll.. 529 Banfield, J12.. 50 Bangor, G12... 1243 Bankers. K13.. 80 Bannister, K1O.. 469 Baraga, C2.... 942 Bard, K9..... Barbeau. K3.. 80 Bark River. E5 7',n Barnes, K9.... Baroda, G13... 223 Barryton, K9.. 364 Bart, M9...... Bass River. Gil 50 Basswood, C3.. Bath, Kll..... 26 Batavia. J13... 100 Battle Cr. J12..36164 Baxter, H7.... BAY CITY, L9.47554 Bay Mills, K3.. Bay Port, M9.. 275 Bayside, L9.... Town Index Pop. Bay Spgs, J6... Bay View, J5.. Beacon, D3... 1200 Beadle, J12.... 25 Bear Cr., G8.. Bear Lake, G8. Beaver, F4..... Beaver, G3.... Beaver Lake, K8 50 Beaverton, K9.. Bedford, J12... 275 Beebe, K10.... 60 Beechwood, C4. 32 Beeson's Spur,G4 Belding, Jll.. 3911 Bell, M6....... BELLAIRE, J6. 624 Bellevue, J12.. 1035 Belmont, Hll.. 90 Belsay, L11... Bendon, H7.... 100 Bennett, H3... Bennington, Kll 125 Benson, H8.... 30 Bentley, K9... 200 Benton Harbor G13......... 12233 Benzonia, G7.. 543 Berlin, H.1.... 300 Berne, M9..... 70 Berrien Cen., G13 150 Berrien Sprs. G13 918 Berry, G10.. Berryville, K6.. BESSEMER, C7. 5482 Bethel, J13... 50 Biggs, K7..... 20 Big. Paw, E2.... BIG RAPIDS,H9 4458 Big Rock, K6.. 70 Bimo, L13..... Birch Cr., E6... Birch Run, E2.. 250 Birmingham,M12 3694 Bisonette, L7.. Biteley, H9... 75 Blackmar, L10. 66 Black River M7 Blaine, N10... 115 Blaney, H4... 100 Blanchard, J10. 300 Blemers, C3... Blissfield, L13. 1966 Bloomingdale,H12 486 Blue, J7....... Blue Lake Jc K6 Bogardus, J5.. Bois Blanc, K4. Bolton, L6.... 150 Bonard, L6.... Boon, H8...... 275 Borculo, G11.. 85 Borland, H10.. Boston, DI.... Boyden, J9... 2!j Boyne City, J6 -4284 Boyne Falls, J6. 241 Brampton, F4. 102 Branch, G9..... 100 Brant, K10.... 17.5 Bravo, G12... 100 Bradley, H12.. 140 Breckenridge, KlO........ 698 Breedsville, G12 140 Brent Gr., L10. 40 Brest, M1 3.... 100 Brevort, J4.... 50. Bridgeman, G13 230 Bridgewater, L13 118 Brier, K9..... Brice, J10.... 35 Brighton, L12.. 800 Brimley, K3... 250 Brinton. K9... 383 Bristol, H8..... 40 Britton, L13... 406 Brockway, N1. 150 Bronson, J13.. 1257 Brooklyn, K13. 611 Brooks, E5.... Broomfield, J9.. 25 Brown City. M10 828 Bruce.Cr., C3... 85 Brule, D4..... Brunswick, GIl1. 100 Brutus, J5.... 140 Bryan, H4.... Bryant, K5.... Bryant, L7.... Buchanan, G13. 3187 Buckley, H7.... 352 Buckroe, E2.. Bucks, K7...... Bunton, L6.... Burden, N10.. 25 Burgess, J5... 40 Burlington, J13 2b7 Burns, N11.... 50 Burnside. M10... 100 Burr Oak, J13.. 589 Burt, L10..... 300 Burt Lake, J5.. 75 Burton. Kll.. 130 Bushnell, J10.. 25 Butler, J13.... 75 Butman, K8... 75 Butterfield, J8. 45 Butternut. J10.. 300 Buttersville, G9. 200 Byers, L7...... Byers, H9..... Byron, L11.... 427 Byron Cen., Hll 375 Byrdickville, 1H7 50 Town Index Pop. CADILLAC, H8 9734 Cadmus, L13.. 100 Caffey, J4..... Caldenwood, C3 Caledonia, H11. 432 California, J13. 165 Calumet, D1..20000 Cambria, K14. 300 Camden, K13.. 398 Camp 6, E4.... Camp 7, G3.... Canby, J5..... Canton, M12... 40 Capac, M11.,. 791 CARO, M10... 2704 Carbon, L10... Carbondale, Eq. Carland, J11.. 90 Carleton, M13.. 700 Carlshend, F3. 75 Carney, E5,... 310 Carpenter, J5.. Carp Lake, J5.. 100 Carrollton. L10. 1500 Carson City, J10 973 Carsonville, N10 536 Casco Jc., E7.. Case, K5...... Caseville, M9.. 385 Cash, N10..... 66 Casnovia, H11.. 333 Cass City, M9.. 1228 CASSOPOLIS, G13......... 1385 Cathro, L6.... 65 Cecil, J5...... Cedar, H7.... 600 Cedardale, Ng9.. 50 Cedar Lake, J10 100 Cedar River, E5 150 Cedar Spgs.,H10 1020 Cedarville, K4.. 140 Center Line, M12 125 CENTREVILLE, H13......... 701 Central, D1.... Central Lake, J6 676 Ceresco, J12... 250 Ceylon, J12... Champion, D3.. 700 Chandler, J11.. Chaifning. D4.. 325 Charles, K4.... Charlesworth, K12 CHARLEVOIX, J6...... 2218 CHAR.LOTTE, J12......... 5126 Chase, H9..... 298 Chassel, D2.... 700 Chatham, F3.. 200 CHEBOYGAN, K5.......... 5642 Chelsea, L12.... 2079 Cherry Valley, G 4.......... Chesaning, K10. 1387 Chester. J12... 142 Chesterfield, N11 50 Chestonia. J6.. 75 Chief, G8..... Chippewa Lake, H9.......... 391 Chippewa Sta., J9.......... 55 Choate, C3..... Chocolay, E3.. Circle, N12.. Clare, J9..... 1426 Clarendon, J13. 7.5 Clarion, J6.... 100 Clarksburg, E3. Clarkston, Mil. 419 Clarksville, J11 450 Clayton, Kl3... 306 Clawson, M12.. 100 Clear Lake Jc., K 7.......... Clifforid, M10.. 327 Climax, J13.... 961 Clinton. L13... 1'011 Clio, L10...... 1256 Cloverdale. J12. 84 Clyde, Lll.... 200 Coalwood, F3. 100 Coats Grove, J12 -90 Coe, K10...... 24 Cohoctah, Lll. -100 Colby, JO10..... COLDWATER, J13......... 6114 Cole, M11I..... 25 Colemal, J9.. 769 Collins, J11.... 70 Colomna, G13... 663 Colon, J13..... 745 Columbia, Nil. 80 Columbia, M9.. 656 Columbiaville,M10 656 Columbus,. 11. 65 Comins, L7.... 50 Comm onwealth D 4.......... Comstock, H12. 250 Concord, K13.. 535 Cone, L13..... 80 Conklin, H1l.. 400 Conners Cr., M112 800 Conover, C4... Constantine,H13 1277 Conway. J5... 100 Cooks, G4..... Cooper, H12... 126 Coopersville, Hll 914 Coral, HIO.... 385 Cordell, J3.... Cornell. E4... 45 Cornwell, K6.. COR'TNNA, Lll 1571 Corwin, G13... 26 Copemish. H7.. 284 Copper.Falls Mine, D1..... Covert, G12... 375 Covington, D3.. 100 Craigsmere, C3. Crapo, H9..... 25 Crawford, JlO.. S5 Creighton. G3.. Cressey. H12.. Greswell, H6.. Town Index Pop. Crisp, G11..... 40 Crooked Lake, J9 Crosby, Hll.... Cross Village, J5 200 Croswell, N10.. 1678 Croton, H10... 37 Crump, L9.... 300 CRYSTAL FALLS, D4.. 3394 Crystal Spgs., J5 Cumber, M9. Curran, L7.... 20 Cusino, G3.... Cushing, G13.. Cushman, J6.. Custer, G9.... 269 Cutcheon, J8.. 20 Dafter, K3.... 60 Dafoe, L6.... 80 Daggett, E5... 321 Dailey, G13... Dallas, HI2... Dale, K9...... 50 Dalton, G10... 50 Damon, K7.... Dana, K6.. Danoher, H3.. Dansville, K12. 299 Davisburgh. M11 225 Davison, M11. 811 Davies, G3.... Dayton, G14... Dearborn, M12. 2470 Deckerville, N10 782 Decatur, H13. 1270 Deer Cr., L11.. Deerfield, L13.. 442 Deer Lake, E3. Dearton, F3.. Defiance, F4... 66 Denton, L12... 112 Derby, G13... 100 Detour, L4.... 612 Detroit, M112.. 993730 Devereaux.... 90 Dew, L7....... Dewin. K9.... De Witt, Kll... 450 Dexter, L12... 587 Delaware, D1.. Delhi Mills, L12 Delray, M12... Delton, H12... 225 Diamondloch, H9 Diana, D3..... Diberts, J7.... Dick, J4...... Diffin, F3..... Dighton, J8... 550 Dildine, Jll... 25 Dimondale, K12. 360 Dishno, D3.... Dixon, F3..... Dixboro, L12... 2.5 Doan, L7...... Dodge, K8..... 40 Dollar Bay, Dl 578 Dollarville, H3. Dolans, H8.... Dolph, J8..... Dorr, H11..... 350 Dorsey, F3.... Douglas, G12.. 485 Dover, K9..... 100 Dow, K5...... Downington, NIO 280 Dowagiac, G13. 5440 Dowling, J12.. 100 Doyle, N11.... Drake, M-0.... 22 Drew, J9....... 25 Driggs, G3.... Dryburg, K3.. Dryden, Mil..: 359 Dublin. H8:.... 50 Duffield, Lll.. 75 Dundee, L13.. 1108 Dunham, C7... 25 Duriham. L8..: 25 Dunn, D4..... Duninigville, H12......... 126 Durand, Lll.. 2672 Dultton, Hll... 150 Eagle, Kll.... 100 Eagle Harbor, D l........;. 100 Eagle Mmls. E3. EAGLE RIVER, Di.......... 200 Eames, M11... 65 East Jordan, J6 2428 Eastlake, G8.. 675 Eastman, J7... Eastport, J6... 75 Easton, L11... T75 East Tawas. M8 1398 Eaton Rapids, K12......... 2379 Eau Claire, G13 293 Eben Jc., F3... Eckerman, J3. 50 Eckford. K13.. 100 Ecorse. M12... Eden, K12..... 100 Edenville, K9. 115 Edgetts, H8... Edgewater, G7. Edmore, JlO... 77 Edson, Ls.... Edward, K8... 60 Edwardsburgh, G14......... 392 Elba, Mil.... 91 Eldred; K13... Eleanor, H8.. Elgin, Hll... Elk Rapids, H6. 684 Elkton, M9.... 4500 Elliott, M10... 50 Ellison Bay, F6. Elm, M12...... Elmer, M10.... Elmira, J6.... 450 Elm Hall, J10. 350 Elm River, C2. EhInton, G8... Elmwood, C3.. Eloise, M12... Elsie, Kll..... 680 Elton, H8.... 30 Elwell, J10.... 200 Town Index Pop. Emerson, J3... 85 Emery Jc., L8. Emmett, N1l... 175 Empire, G7.... 298 Engadine, H4.. 250 Englishville, Hll 51 Ensign, F4.... E. Paris, Hll.. 48 Ephraim, F6... Eponfette, J4.. 76 Erie, M13..... 400 Erie Mine, D3. E. Saugatuck, G12......... 175 ESCANABA,F5 13103 Esmond, L8... Essex, J6...... Essexville, L9.. 1538 Estey, K9..... 150 Ethel, G3...... Evans, H10.... 60 Evart, J9...... 132 Evelyn, G3.... Everett, E5.... Evergreen, C2.. Ewen, C3..... 400 Excelsior, J7.. Fabius, H13... Fair Gr., Lg..Fairfax, H13... 75 Fair Haven, Nil 320 Fairview, L7.. Faithorn Jc., E5 Falmouth, J8.. 200 Fargo, N10.... 260 Farin, G3.. Farmington, M12 853 Farrell, G4... Farnham, E5.. Farwell, J9..... 449 Faunus, E4.... Fayette, F5.... Federman, L13. Fennville, G12.. 547 Fenton, L11... 2507 Fenwick, J10.. 350 Fergus, L10... 50 Fern, G9...... 25 Ferris, JlO.... 35 Ferry, G9.... 165 Ferrysburgh, Gil......... 350 Fiborn Jc., J3.. Fibre, K3..... 35 Fife Lake, H7. 215 Filer City, G8.. 400 Filion, M9.... 150 Filmore Cen., Gil......... 150 Findlay, H13... 40 Findley, C2... 40 Fitch, L1O..... Flanders, L6.. 60 Flatrock, M13.. 525 Flat Rock, L7.. 525 Fleming, L12.. Fletcher, J7... FLINT, Lll...91599 Flint Steel, C2. Floodwood, D3. 55 Florence, H8.. Florence, H13.. Floyd, K9..... 87 Flushing, Lll. 1169 Flynn, MIO... Fordney, K10.. Forest Hill, K10 120 Forest, K9.... Forester, N10.. Forestville, N9. 140 Forman, H9.... Fork, J8...... Forsythe. E3... Foster City, E4. 115 Fosters, 10O... 150 Fostoria, M10. 450 Fountain, G8... 222 Fowler, Kll... 472 Fowlerville, Lll 1057 Fox, E5...... Francisco, L12. 100 Frankfort, G7. 1244 Fraser, M12.... 247 Freda, C1..... Frederic, H7.. 400 Freedom, J5... Free Soil, G8.... 210 Freeport, J13.. 400 Fremont, H10.. 2180 Frey, J8...... Friday, F4.... Frost, L10.... 25 Frost Jc., C3.. Fruitport, Gl0. 321 Ft. Gratiot, Nil Fulton, Hi3... 300 Gagetown, M9. 440 Gaines Sta., Lll 260 Gale, G9..... Galesburah. H12 6,92 Galien, G13... 460 Galloway. K10.. 30 Ganges, G12... 87 Gardendale, Nil Gardner, F.. Garnet, J.... 46 G'irfield. J9.. 50 Garth, F4..... Gates'/ile, K4.. 100 G1y, DI....... GAYLORD, K6. 1701 Genesee,.ll. 101 Gera, LO1.... 7O Germania, M10. 35 GPrmfask. H3. 250 Gibson, Gil... 22 Gilbert, H8.... 30 Gilead. J14... 50 Gilford, L10... 200 Gills Pier, H4.. 50 Gilmore, J9... 70 Girard, J13.... 150 GLADWIN, K9 1225 Gladstone. F4.. 4953 Gleason, E4.... ('!endora,, G13.. 100 Glen Haven, G6 72 Glen Lord. G13 50 Glenn, G12... 116 Glennie, L7.... 65 GCenwood. G13 100 Glover, L9... 12 Town Index Pop. Holly, Lll.... 1888 Gobleville, H12. 491 Holmdale, H10. Godfrey, L6.... 24 Holt, K12...... Gogebic, D7.... Holton, Glo... 350 Golden, D4.... Homer, J13... 1076 Good Hart, J5. Hontho, G3.... Goodison, M1l. 50 Hooper, Hl12... Goodrich, Mll.. 400 Hooperstown, Goodwell, H10. G12......... Goose Lake, E3 Hoop Spur, F4. Gordon, F3... Hope, K9..... 60 Gotts, M9..... 26 Hopkins, H12. 550 Gould City, H4. 200 Horrigan, K7.. Gowen, J10... 310 Horton, K13... 398 Grace, K5..... 118 HOUGHTON, Cl 4456 Grand Blanc, Lll 350 Houghton Lake, Grand Marais,G2 1000 K8.......... 106 GRAND HAVEN, Houles, E5.... Gil......... 7205 Houte, E5..... Grand Jc., G12 275 Howard City, Grandon, J8.. Hio......... 913 Grand Ledge, HOWELL, L12. 2951 Kll......... 3043 Howry, K9.... GRAND RAPIDS, Hubbard Lake, Hll....... 137634 L6.......... 90 Grandville, Hll 799 Hubbardston, Jll 368 Grant, H10... 473 Hubbell, D1... 1004 Grass Lake, L13 744 Hudson, K13.. 2464 Grass Lake, K13 744 Hume, J12.... Grassinere, M9. 12 Humphrey, G7. Grattan, Hll.. 138 Hungerford, H9 102 Grawn, H7... 225 Hunters Cr., Mil 100 GRAYLING, K7 2450 Hunt Spur, H4 30 Green, D6..... Hurley, C7.... Greenbush, M7. 160 Huron, N8..... Green Garden, Hurst, L6. F3.......... 30 Hyde, F5...... Greenland, C2.. 400 HylS, E4 Green Oak, L12 50 Ida. M13..... 700 Greenville, H10 4304 Imlay City, Mil 1211 Greenwood, J8. Ina, J8........ 17 Greylock, H4.. Index, M10.... Grind Stone Indian River, K5 400 City M8.... 462 Ingalls, E5.... 300 Gridley, H4..,. 20 Interlochen, H7. 275 Gros Cap, J4... 25 Interior, C3... Gross, F4...... 100 Interior Jc., C3. Grosse Isle, M13 Inwood, J6.... Grosse Pt., M12 2084 IONIA, Jll.... 6935 Grosse Pt. Farms, losco, L12..... M12......... 1649 IRON MOUNGrove, H10.... 100 TAIN, D4... 8251 Gulliver, G5.... 100 Irons. H8...... Gun Lake, H12 22 Ironton, J6.... 100 Gustin, M7 28 Iron River, C4. 4295 Haakwood, K6. Iroquois, J3... Hadley, Mil.. 350 Ironwood, C7..15739 Haff, J4....... Ishpeming, E3.10500 Hagar, G13.... ITHACA, K10. 1929 Haggensville, L5 75 Ivan, J7....... Haire, H7.... 37 Ivon, Jll...... Hale, L8...... 375 JACKSON, K13.48374 Halsted, J7 Jacobsville, D2. 500 Hamby, K5... Jasper, L13... 375 Hamburg, L12.. 225 Jeddo. N10.... 75 Hamilton, G12.. 450 Jeffery, Jll... 25 Hamlin, G8.... Jenison, Hli.. 148 Hammond, Y5. 60 Jennings, H8. 450 Hancock, Cl... 7627 Jeromnie, K13... 200 Handy, M7.... essie, Kll.... 25 Hanover, K13.. 350 Johannesburg. Hanson, K7. K6..........275 Harbor Beach, Jonesville, K13. 1274 N9.......... 1927 Jones, Hl3... 328 Harbor Sprs., J5 1600 Juhl, Mio.... 22 Hardgrove, K7.. 50 Juniata, M10.. 71 Hardwood, E4. 75 KALAMAZOO, Hardy, L7.... H12........48481 Harian, H7.... 40 KALKASKA, J7 866 Harrietta, H8.. 226 Kaleva, G8.... 200 Harris, E5.....50 Karlin, H7.... 24 HARRISON, J9 399 Karr, M9..... HARRISVILLE, Kates, E3..... M7.......... 460 Kawkawlin, L9. 400 HART, G9.. 590.Kearsarge, Dl. Hartland, Lll.. 225 Keeler, G13.... 150 Hartford, G13. 1361 Kegomic, J5... Hartleys, C7... Kellogg, H12... 41 Hartwick, J8.. 85 Kells, E5...... Harvard, H10. 250 Kelso, D4...... Harvey, E3... 120 Kelden, K4.... 45 Haslett, Kll.. 100 Kendall, H12... 150 HASTINGS, J12 5132 Kenneth, J4... Hatches Cr., H7 Kenton, C3.... 260 Hatton, J.... Keswick, H6.. 40 Hauptman. K, Kewaunee, E7.. Havnor, J,11... Kew, E6...... Hawes, M7.... Keweenaw Bay, Hawks, L6. D2.......... 35 Hayes, G7..... Keystone, H7.. Hayes, H7..... Kibbie, G12.... 44 Hazel, C2..... Killmaster. L7.. Hazel, C4..... Kingsland, K12. Hazelton. L11. 100 Kinde, M9.... 420 Hebard, D1.... Kinney, Hll.. 52 Hebron, K5.... King's Millr, M10 63 Helena, E3.... 25 Kingston, M10.. 321 Helena, N9.... 25 Kinross, K3... 40 Helps, E4 Kingsley, 117... 350 Helmer, H3... 40 Kingsley, F4... Hematite, D4. Kirkland, K8. Hemlock, K10.. 475 Kirk, G9...... 36 Henderson. E4. Hendrie, J3... Kirby, L11.... Hendricks, E4. Kitch, C3..... Herman, D2...Klein, L6..... Hermnansville,E5 1500 Klingers, H14.. 32 HERSEY, H9.. 284 Klondike, G9.. 24 Hessell, K4... 210 Klondike, G3.. Hesperia, G9... 639 Kneeland, K7.. Hetherton: K6.. 75 Koss Sta., ES... Hiawatha, G4. 37 Kunze, M8..... Hia.watha Sta., La Branch, E4. G4.......... Lac La Bell, D1 Higgins. J7.... Lagoda, F3.... Highla'nd, Lll. 308 Laingsburgh, K11 693 Highland Cor- Laing, M10... 1 ners, L.... Lake Shore. M12 15 Highland Park, Lakeport, N10.. M12......... 46599 Lake Harbor,G10 Highwood, K9.. 60 Lake Side, F13 Hill, J9........ Lake, H10..... Hilliards, H12.. 113 Lakeview, J10.. 886 HILLSDALE, LAKE CITY, H8 582 K13........ 5476 Lake Jc., J8... Hillside, D4... Lake George, J9 55 Hoags, G8.... Lake Odessa, Hobart, H8... 75 11l 1246 Hobson, L6.... Lake Linden,DI 2175 Hofeyville, H8. Laketon, H3.. Holland, Gl..12166 Lake Ann, H7.. 67 Hollister, D4.. Lakewood, J5.. Continued fourth page forward I I - - -- I ~ - - L ~ - ---- --

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Page  48 _ = LOCATION AND POPULATION OF TOWNS IN MICHIGAN ACCORDING TO OFFICIAL 1920 CENSUS--Continued. s 41 Town Index Pop. Lake Harold, J6 Lakeside, K5.. 40 Lamb, Nil.... 125 Lament, Hll.. 203 Langworthy, H8 LANSING, Kll 57327 L'ANSE, D2... 1013 LAPEER, Mll. 4723 Laporte, KO10.. 102 Laredo, L9.... Larium, Dl... 6696 Larch, K3..... La Salle, M13.. 90 Lathrop, F4.... 127 Lawrence, G13. Lawton, H13... 1073 Lawson, F3.... Lawndale, L10. 54 Leaper, E4.... Leaton, K9.... 64 Leetsville," J7... Leer, L6...... Lee, G12...... 75 Leesburgh, H13 23 Legrand, K5.. 350 Leitch, N10.... LELAND, H6. 350 Lenox, Nil... 380 Leoni, K13.... 152 Leota, J8..... 80 Leonidas, H13. 300 Leonard, M1l.. 264 LeRoy, H8.... 642 Les Chenaux, K4 80 Leslie, K12... 1089 Lester, J13... 45 Levering, J5... 350 Lewiston, K6...350 Lewis, L11.... 26 Lexington, N10. 378 Liberty, K13... 60 Lighten, G13... 24 Limestone, F3. 40 Lindsley, E4.. Lincoln, M7... 178 Linden, Lll... 579 Lincoln, G9... 178 Lincoln Mill, H 10......... Lincoln Jc., M7 Linwood, L9.',:. 200 Linkville, M9.. 96 Liston, H3..... Lisbon, HO1... 19 Little Lake, E3 Little River, E6 Little Harbor, G4 40 Litchfield, J13.. 660 Livingston, G13 45 Lodge, M7.....,Logan, J11... Long, L8...... Long Lake, C4 Longrie, E5.... Long Rapids, L6 178 Long Lake, J8. Loomis, K9.... Loretto, E4... 200 Loranger, K8.. Lott, L7...... 40 Lovells, K7.... Lowe, E6.. Lowell, Jll.... 1730 Loxley, J8..... Lucas, J8..... 100 Luce, L10..... Ludington, G9.. 8810 Lull, J6....... Lulu, L13..... 50 Lum, M,11..... 300 Luman, K9... 25 Lupton, L8... 150 Luther, H8... 396 Luzerne, K7... 42 Lyons, Jll.... 574 Macatawa, Gll. Mackinac, K4.. 493 Maclninaw, J4.. Macon, L13.... 165 MacRae, E4... Madison, Lll.. 52 Malacca, E5... Maltby, L7.... 30 Mancelona, J6.. 1214 Manchester, L13.1024 Mandan, D1... Mangum Sands, E 3.......... MANISTEE, G8 9690 MANISTIQUE, G4.......... 6380 Manning, K5.. 20 Mansfield, D4.. Maple City, H7 132 Maple Rnpids,Kll 466 Maple Ridge, F4 Marblehead Spur, G4.... Marcellus, H13 9666 Marengo, J12.. 125 Marenisco, C7.. 55 Marlette. M10.. 969 Marine City,N11 3731 Marks, L8.... MARQUETTE, E3..........12718 Marsh, L7..... MARSHALL,J12 4270 Martin, H12... 400 MARYSVILLE, N1l......... 941 Mashek, E4... MASON, K12.. 1879 Mass, C2...... 750 Masters, G3... Mastodon, D4.. Matchwood, D7. 65 Mattawan, HI13. 312 Maybee, L13.... 290 May LakeM Jc.L6 Mayville, M10. 652 McBain, J8.... 547 McBrides, J10.. 220 McCarron, K3. McClure, K8.. 16 McCords, Hil.. 27 McCollum, L7.. McGregor, N10. 200 Town Index Pop. McIvor, L8.... 30 McKeever, C2.. McKinley, L7.. McLeans, Gil.. 32 McMillan, H3.. 75 McVille, K4... Mears, G9..... 250 Mecosta, J9.... 297 Melita, L8..... 50 Melva, H7. Melvin, N10... 169 Memphis, Nil. 451 MENOMINEE, E6.......... 8951 Mendon, J13... 625 Mendota Jc., D1 Meridan, K12. 70 Merrill, K10.. 636 Merson, H12... 41 Metamora, Mil. 271 Metropolitan,E4 Metser, G3... Metz, L6...... 150 Meyers, N13.... Michelson, Mill, J8.......... Michie, L9.. Michigamme,D3 1000 Middleville, Hll 833 MIDLAND, K9. 5483 Mikado, M7... 95 Milan, L13.... 1557 Milford, L12.. 1088 Milton, Nil... Millbrook, J9.. 300 Millburg, G13. 164 Mill Cr., Hll... Millersburg, L5 243 Millerton, G8. 42 Miller, J10.... 36 Millett, Kll... 100 Mill Grove, H12 Millington, M10 689 Mills, L8...... Mills, N9...... Milo, H13...'... 20 Minden City, N9 283 Mines, L9...... Mint, H13..... MIO, K7..... 200 Missaukee Jc., J8........ 60 Mitchell, J6.... Mohawk, Dl... Moline, Hll... 150 Monitor, L9.. 100 MONROE, M13.11578 Montague, G10. 845 Montieth, H12.. Montgomery.J 14 354 Montreal, C7... Montrose, L10. 522 Moore, K8.. Moorepark, H13 110 Moores Sid., K9 Mooreville, -H.. Moorland,. Gl0. 52 Moran, J4...... Morenci, K14., 1697 Morley, H10... 336 Morgan, J12.. 75 Morrice, Kll.. 372 Moscow, K13... 175 Motley, C2.... MT. CLEMENS, N12......... 9488 Mt Morris, L10. 1174 MT. PLEASANT, J9........... 4819 Mud Lake, L7. 40 Mullett Lake,K5 Mulliken, Jll. 290 MUNISING, F3.5037 Munith, K12... 300 Munger, L10... 200,Munsing Jc., F3 MUSKEGON, G10......... 36570 MWuskegon Hts., G O...:.'.... 9514 Munson, K14.. 65 Muir, Jll.... 363 Mynnings, J8.. " 15 N. Adams, K13. 414 Nadeau, E5 ~... 325 Nahma, F4... 300 Namur, E7.... Naples, J7.... Narenth, E5.. Nashville, J12. 1376 National Mine, E3.......... Nathan, E5.... 56 Negaunee, E3.. 7419 Nelson, K10.., 18 Nerrisville, H7. 115 Nessen, H7... 115 Nestoria, D3.. 26 Net River, D3.. Newark, K10.. 50 Newark, Lll... NEWAYGO,H10 1160 New Baltimore, N11......... 974 NEWBERRY,H3 2172 New Boston,M13 400 New Buffalo, F14 496 New Era, G9... 400 Newhall, F4... 100 New Haven, Nil 535 New -Hudson, L12 123 Newport, M13.. 450 New Richmond, G12......... 62 Newton, J10... Newton, E6.... 'Niagara, D4.. Niles, G13..... 7311 Nirvance, H9. 100 Nogi, J4....... Noko, M10.... Nolan, K8.... 70 Nonesuch, C6.. Noresta, M10.. North St., N11 20 N. Bradley, K9. 140 N. Branch, M10 645 N. Byron, Hll.. 56 Town Index Pop. Northland, E4. N. Muskegon, GlO 630 Northport, H6.. N. Star, K10.... 253 Northville, M12 1738 Norvell, K13... 160 Norwalk, G8... Norway, D4... 4533 N. Windsor,K12 Norwood, H6.. Novi, M12..... 212 Nunica, Gil... 200 Oak, M12..... 50 Oak Grove, Lll. 156 Oak Hill, G8.. 150 Oakland, Gil.. 27 Oakley, K10... 201 Ocqueoc, L5.. 26 Ogden, L8..... 75 Ogden, L13.... 75 Ogden, J5..... 46 Ogontz, F4.... Okemos, Kll.. 300 Ola, KlO...... 68 Old Mission, H6 175 Olive, J12..... Oliver, H9..... OIney, Kll.... 16 Olsen, K9..... 20 Omena, H6... 86 Omer, L8...... 266 Onaway, K5... 2789 Onekama Jc., G8 Onekama, G8.. 252 O'Neil. J7..... Onota, F3..... 50 ONTONAGON,C2 1406 Oral, Kll..... Orange, Jll... Ora, E4....... Ora, E3..... Orchard Lake, L12......... 100 Orchard Hill, L6 Oregon, Mll... Orient, J9..... 102 Orion, Mll.... 929 Orono, H9.... 110 Orr, K10...... 20 Ortonville, Mll. 445 Oscar, C1..... 30 Osceola, H8... Ossea, K13..... Oshtemo, H12.. 125 Osier, F4...... 20 Ossineke, M6.. 100 Ostego Lake, K6 Ottawa Lake, L14.......... 200 Ottawa Beach, Gil......... Otter, C2...... Otter Lake, M10 325 Otia, H9...... Otisville, L10. 364, Otsego, H12... 3168 Otto, N10..... Ovid, Kll..... 1067 Oviatt, H7..... Orleans, Jll... 175 Owendale, M9.. 244 Owosso, Kll...12575 Oxford, Mil.... 1668 Ozark, J4..... 33 Packard, E5... 30 Pack Pine, K7. Packard, G12.. Paines, LO10... 125 Painesdale, C2. Palatka, C4... Palmer, E3... 799 Palmyra, L13... 200 Palisade Park,. G12. Pahls, N9..... 200 Panola, D4.... Parks Sid., C3. Parkington; G4. Parmelee, H12.. 36 Parklake, J8.. 150 Paris, H9..... 200 Parks, H9..... 22 Parnell, H12... 26 ' Parma, K12... 564 Partello, J12.. 120 Paulding, C3... Paw Paw, H13. 1556 Paw Paw Lake, G12. Pavilion, H13.. 31 Paynesville, C3. 40 Payment, K3.. 24 Peachville, G9.. Pearl, G12.... 20 Peacock, H8... 25 Peck, N10..... 341 Pelkie, D2..... Pellston, J5... 915 Pembina, E5... Pentwater, G9.. 956 Pen: Yann, G13 20 Pennock, J8.... Pennfield, J12. 31 Peppard, C2.. Pequaming, D2. Perch, C3...... Perronvile, E4. 36 Perkins, F4.... Peroid, H3... Pere Cheney, K7 Perrington, K10 419 Perry, Kll... 734 Peshtigo, E6... Peters, Nl1... 97 PETOSKEY, J5. 5064 Petersburg, L13 514 Peters, H8.... Pewamo, Jll.. 316 Phee, E5..... Phoenix, Dl... Pickerel Lake, E3.......... Pickford, K4.. 400 Pierport, G8... 100 Pierson, H10... 164 Pigeon, M9.... 780 Pike Lake, H4. Pine Cr., J13... 76 Town Index Pop. Pinconning, L9. 769 Pine River, LO9 31 Pioneer, J7.... 13 Pine Run, L10. 175 Pintoga, D4... Pine Ridge, F5 Pinckney, L13.. 384 Pittsford, K13. 600 Pittsfield, L13.. 14 Plains, E3.... Plainwell, H12. 2049 Platte, G7..... Plymouth, M12. 285 Pt. Charities,M9 Pogy, J9...... Ponca, D4..... PORT HURON, N11......... 25944 Point Mills, D7. 50 Point aux Pins, K5.......... Pt. Crescent, M8 Pt. Aux Barques, M8.......... Pokegon, G13.. 225 Polaski, L6.... Pompeii, K10.. 400 PONTIAC, M11.34273 Popple, D4.... 30 Port Sanilac, N10 135 Pori, C2...... Port Oneida, H6 Port Sheldon, Gil......... Portage, H13.. 53 Port Hope, N9. 344 Port Austin, N8 533 Porter, K10... 27 Portland, J10.. 1899 Portage, K12.. 53 Posyville, K10.. 25 Posen, L6.... 190 Pottersville, K12 120 Purdy, M9.... Pulu, D4..... Powell, E2..... Powers, E5.... 244 Prattville, K14. 200 Pratts, K6..... Preston, M13... 18 Presque Isle, E3 Presque Isle, L5 Prescott, L8.. 300 Princeton, E3.. 40 Project, J6.... Provemont, H6. 150 Prudenville, K8. Quimby, J12... 35 Quincy, J13... 1251 Quinn, L8.... Quinnesec, D4. 332 Raber, K4..... Racey, K10..... 16 Radford, C7... Raisin Cen., L13 Ralph, E4..... Randville, D4.. 20 Ransom, E2... Rapid City, J7. 200 Rapid River, F4 600 Rapids, K8.... Rapinville, H4. Rapson, N9... 32 Ravenna, H10.. 600 Rea, L13..... 33 Reade, E4..... 1803 Reading, J13.. 1036 Readmond, J5.. 28 Red Jacket, D1. 2390 Redman, N9.. 40 Red Oak, K7... Redridge, C1.. 300 Redruth, D3... Redstone, K10.. 15 Reed City, H9.. 1690 Reeds, H101.... 30 Reeman, G10... 100 Reese, LO10.... 459 Republic, D3.. 1275 Remus, J9.... 600 Reno, H9...... Reno, Hll..... 42 Rescue, M9.... Rexford, J3... Rexton, J4.... 200 Rhodes, K9.... 47 Ribble, M9.... Rice Cr.,.112... Ricedale, C2... Richland, H12.. 278 Richmond, N11. 1303 Richmondville, N 9.......... 25 Richville, L10.. 300 Riddle Jc., C2.. Ridge, F3.... Ridgetop, D4.. Riley, Kll.... Ritchie, M7.... River Raisin, L13 River Rouge, M12......... 9822 Riverside, D4. 125 Riverside, G13.. 125 Riverton, G.9.. 32 Riverview, J7.. Rives Jc., K12.. 200 Robbins, C3... Robinson, G1l.. 48 Rochester, MI 1. 2549 Rockford, HI-.... 1143 Rockland, C2.. 600 Rock River, F3. Rockview, K4.. Rockwood, M13. 475 Rodney, J9.... 199 Rogersvile, L10 70 Rollin, K13... 100 Rondo, K6......' 52 ROGERS, L5... 2109 Romeo, Mll... 2102 Romulus, M13.. 300 Root, K12..... 27 ROSCOMMON, K7........ 357 Rose, L11..... Rose City, L8... 331 Rosedale, K3.. 35 Town Index Pop. Rosina, Jil... 32 Ross, C4....... Ross, E4...... R(tss, Hll..... 28 Roseville, M12. '350 Rothbury, G10.. 125 Rowley, J7.... Royal Oak, M12 6007 Royston, L6... Rudyard, K3.. 400 Rugg, J7...... 21 Ruimely, F3... Rushton, L12.. Russell, E4... Russell, L7.... Russell, J9.... Ruth, N9...... 300 SAGINAW,L10 61908 Sagola, D4.... 450 Sage, J3....... Saile, G7...... Sailor, H13.... Sailings, K6... Salmon Island, L4. Salem, L12.... 200 Saline, L13.... 880 Samaria. L13.. 123 Sands, J7..... Sandhurst, C3. SANDUSKY,N10 1228 Sandstone, K12. Sand River, F3. 22 Sand Lake, Hll 366 Sandy, H10.... Sanford, K9... 200 Santiago, L8.. Sarnia, N1l. Saranac, J11... 750 Sault Ste Marie, K3.......... 12096 Saunders Sta.,C4 34 Saugatuck, G12 526 Sawyer, F13... 100 S. Bay City, L9. Scamnimon L4.. S. Camden, K13 Scllesser, K4.. Schoolcraft, H13 731 Scofleld, M13.. 115 Scotts, H13.... 40( Scotts, G3...... 400 Seager, C2..... Sears, J8...... 96 Sebewaing, M9. 1446 Seganing, L9.. Selva, F4..... Selkirk, L8.... 14 Seneca, K13... Seney, G3..... Setif, F4...... Seven Mile Hill, L 7.......... S. Frankfort, G7 S. Grand Rapids, H ll......... Sharon, J7.... 40 Shabbona, M9. 200 Shaftsburgh,K1 130 Shelbyville, H12 15) Shelby, G9... 1260 Shelldrake, J2.. 28 Shetland, H6.. Sherman, H8.. 200 Sheridan, J10.. 489 Shepherd, K10.. 823 Sherwood, J13.. 250 Shingleton, G3.. Shiloh, J11.....87 Shultz, J12... 30 Sidnaw, C3.. 200 Siddons, G8... Sidney, JlO... 100 Siemens, C7... Sigma, J7..... Sigsbee, K7.... Sigel, N9..... 28 Silverwood, M10 250 Silver, C2...... Silver Cr., H12 Siloam, L8..... Simar, C2..... Simmons, H4.. Sister Bay, F6.. Six Lakes, J10. 247 Skandia, E3... 100 Skance, D2..,. 299 Skeels, K8..... 40 Slocums, GlO... Smith Jc., L7.. 35 Smiths Cross.,K9 t35 Smniiths Cr., NIl1 200 Smith, Mil.... Smyrna, J11.. 204 Snow Shoe, D1. Snyder, Kl13... Sodus, G13..... 150 Solon, H7..... 25 Sonoma, J13... 46 Soo Jc., J3.... 15 So. Manitou, G6 Soule, J7...... 64 South Rogers,L6 So. Manistique, G 4.......... South Lyon, L12 615 So. Haven, G12. 3829 Soule, M9..... 64 Spalding, E5... Sparta, Hll... 1502 Spencer, J7... 27 Spring Lake,G11 978 Spruce, E4.... Spread Eagle.D4 Springport, K12 585 Spruce, M7... 100 Spratt, L6..... 12 Springfield, J7. Spring Vale, J6 60 Squireville, G9. Starr City, J8. 24 Stanwood, H9. 278 STANDISH, L9. 795 STANTON, J10. 862 Stalwart, K4... 80 Stackpole, C2.. State Line, K14 Town Index Pop. State Line, C3.. Stambaugh, C4. 2268 Stager, D4..... St. Charles, K10 1469 St. Clair, Nil.. 3204 St. Collins, C3.. Stearns, K9.... Sterling, L8.-.. 250 Stephenson, ES. 550 Steuben, G4..., Steiner, M13... 22 Stevensville, G13 206 St. Helen, K8... Stittsville, J7.. 175 ST. IGNACE, J4 1852 Stillman, F3.. St. Joseph, G13 7251 ST. JOHNS, Kll 3025 St. Louis, K10. 3036 Stonington, C2. Stockbridge,K12 699 Stonington, F5. Stratford, J7.. Strongville, K4. Strongs, J3.... 75 Stronach, G8.. 250 Sturgeon R., F4 State Road, H3. Sturgis, H14.. 599,6 Sturgeon Bay,J5 100 Sturgeon Bay,E7 Sugar, K8..... Sullivan, GO 10.. Summer, J10.. 350 Sununit, H3.... Summit, D2.... Summit, J9.... Sunfield, Jll... 385 Sun, Hll...... Suttons Bay, H6 392 Swanson, E5... Swanzy, E3.... Swartz Cr., Lll 250 Sylvan, L12... Taft, L8....... Talbot, E5.... Talliman, G9... 81 Tamarack, C3. Tarry, M9..... TAWAS CITY, L8.......... 1018 Tecumseh, L13. 2432 Tekonsha, J13. 569 Temperance, L13 250 Temple, J8.... 275 Tierney, J8.... Tigris, G9.... 20 Titus, J9...... 20 Thayer, D7... Thomas, Mll... 150 Thomaston, C7. - 20 Thompson, G4. Thompsonville, G7.......... 410 Three Oaks, F14 1362 Three Rivers, H13........ 5209 Tone, K3...... 18 Tonquish, M12. Topaz, C7.... Topinabee, K5... 100 Toquin, G12.. 37 Torch Lake, H6 Tower, K5...... 545 Town House,K13 TRAVERSE CITY, H7...10925 Trenary, F4... 200 Trent; H1.0.... 45 Trenton, M13... 1682 Trimountain, C2 Trowbridge,! K6 53 Trout Lake, J4. 150 Trout Cr., C3.. 60 Trufart, J10.. 400 Tunis, D3..... Turin, F4..... Turner, L8.... 236 Turtle, C3.... Turtle, L8..... Tustin, H8.... 281 Tuscola, L10... Twining, L8... 221 Twin LCke, G1O 100 Tyre, M9...... 125 Ubly, M9..... 455 Umstead, L8.. Ungers, H9... Union City, J13 1256 Union Mine, D4 Unionville, M9. 488 Uno, G4...... Upton Works, N il......... Urania, L13... Utica, M12.... 588 Valentine, K6..' Valley Cen.,ý N10 Van, J5...... 4 5 Vandalia. HK13. 331 Vanderbilt, K6. 394 Vassar, LO.... 1458 Vega, E4...... Ventura, Gil.. Vermilac, C3 Vermilion, J2.. Vermontville, J12......... 650 Verne, L10.... 42 Vernon, Lll... 417 Vestaburgh, J10 400 Vicksburg, H13 1946 Victor, Kll... Victoria, C2... 50 Vienna, K6.... 47 Viola, H4.... 75 Volinia, G13.. 90 Volney, G9..... 40 Town Index Pop. Von Platen, K6. Vriesland, Hll. 200 Wabiki, D3.... Wadhams, Nil. 28 Wadsworth, M9 25 Wagar, G9.... Wagner, E6.... Wait, M10..... Wakefield, C7.. 4151 Wakelee, H13.. 143 Walburg, L6... Walcott, J6.... Walhalla, G9.. Walkerville, G9. 252 Wallace, E6... 22 Wallin, H7.... 75 Walkers Pt., K4 Walton, H7.... Walton, D4.... Waltz, M13.... 210 Ward, E4..... Wards, J6..... Warren, M12.. 826 Wasepi, H13... 95 Washington, Mll 208 Washington Harbor, F5.. Waterfotd, M11 225 Waters, K6.... 160 Watervliet, G13 1072 Watersmet, C3. 100 Watson, E4... Waucedah, E4. Waveland, K5.. 'Wayland, H12.. 853 Wayne, M12.. 1899 Weadock, K5. 100 Weare, G9..... 40 Webberville, K12 465 Welch, J4..... Weldon, G7.. Wellington, C7. Wellington, J7. Wells, F4..... Wellsburg, J3. Wellston, H8.. Wesley, G9.... 40 W. Bay City, L9 WEST BRANCH, K8.......... 1276 W. Campbell,J11 West Casco, G12 Westmore, G3. 'West Olive, Gil 35 Weston, L14... 275 Westphalia, Jll 325 Westwood, J7. 72 Wetzell, J6.... 210 Wexford, H7.. 105 Wheatley, K9.. 30 Wheeler. K10.. White, C2..... White Cloud, H1O......... 618 White Feather, L 9........... WChite Fish Pt., J2.......... White Hall, G10 White Oak, K12 75 White Pigeon, H13......... 887 White Rock, N9 Whiteville, J8.. Whiting, M10.. Whitmore Lake, L 12......... Whitney, E4.. 103 Whittemore, L8. 218 Wilber, L8.... 20 Wilcox, G10... Wildwood, K5.,. Wiley,. G9.... Williamsburg, H7 150 Williamston,K11 1060 Willis, L13.... 100 Willow, M13... 62 Wilmot, M10.. 116 'Wilson, E5... 150 W Winde, F4..... SWinegars, K9. Winfield, K12.. WVingleton, H9. Winn. J10..... 250 Winona, C2... 145 Winters, F4.. Winthrop Jc., E 3......... Wise,' K9...... 26 Wisner, L9.... Witbeck, D3... Witch Lake, D3 Wixom. M12.. 200 Wolfton, M9.. Wolverine, K6. 413 W"olverine, L9. 413 Woodbridge,K13 Woodbury, Jll. 150 Woodland. J1l. 356 Woodlawn. E4. Woods Cors.,J11 35 Woodville, H9. Woodville. L9.. Wooster, H10.. Worth, L9..... 45 Wyandotte.M13 12851 Wyoming, D.. Yale, N10..... 1225 Yalmar, F3... 28 Yalmar Sta., F3 Yates, H7..... Yates, MlJ.... Ypsilanti, L12. 7413 Yuma, H8.... 190 Zeeland, Gil.. 2275 Zilwankee, L-10. 1060 Zion, N11...... I NOTE.-In this Index, the Official 1920 Census of the United States is.used for all incorporated cities and villages. On such small places as were not enumerated by the Census Bureau, and for which there are, therefore, no Government figures to be had, the latest estimates of population as given by local officials and other reliable authority are. used. atlas miichigan 15x18 s41 v iclihamnscotch __ _' ~ ~, __ = - I ' --- 3 r T --- -- -1 I

Page  I I I I

Page  II President Wilson Delivering His Great Address at- the Joint Session of Congress at Washington, April 2, 1917 The Closing Paragraphs of the President's Great Address to Congress, April 2, 119117 " It is a distressing and o~ppre~ssive duty, gentlemen of the Congress, -which I have performed in thus addressing yo'u. There are, it may be, many months of fiery trial and sacrifice ahead of us. It is a f earful thing to lead this greiat, peaceful peo~ple into war, into the mos't terrible and disastrous of all wars, civilization itself seeming to be in the balance. "But the right is -more precious than pelace, and we shall fight for the things which we 'have always carried nearest our hearts--for democracy, for the right of t~hose w~ho submit to authority to have a voice of their own governments, for the rights and liberties of small n~ations, for a universal dominion of right by such a concert of free peoples as shall bring peace -and safety to all nations and make the world itself at last free. "To such a task we can dedicate our lives and o~ur fortunes, everrything that we are and everything that we have, with the pride of those who know that the day 'has come when America is privileged to spend her blood and her inight for the principles that gave her birth and happiness and the peace which she has treasured. "God helping her, she can do no other." OuR 1u LWA R KAGAI NS-r lvAsIO

Page  1 A BRIEF, HIST.0RY Of THE GRE W LR CHAPTER~P`3R Is.ETENTS LEADINGQ UP TO THTE WARL-On the morning of Monday, November 11, 1918, an armistice was signed which brought to an end the greatest war in the history of the world ' a war which cost millions of human lives and many billions of dollars, in which twenty-six nations were more or less directly engaged, which lasted over 1,500 days and which was terminated by the most abject surrender ever imposed upon any great nation. On that day representatives of Germanyy signed at Senlis an armistice in the presence of Marshal P~och, of France, and re~presentatives of Great Britain, by the terms of which they agreed to withdraw from Belgium and France, to relinquish Alsace-Lorraine (which they had held for fortyseven years, ever since the Firanco-Prussian war), to surrender all ~of their submarines, practically all of thei *r air fleet, -the greater part of their navy and immense quantities of munitions of war, and to withdraw from their own frontier so as to permit the armies of the United States, Great Britain and F'rance to stand guard on the* Rhine against any possible treachery. After such suffering and sa~crifice, such c~ou~age and struggle, as had never before been seen, the world was at last made safe for democracy through victory on the field of battle. With kevolution stalking through "the Fatherland," with its armies in the field' defeated and battling for their lives as they retreated in what order they could, and thoroughly discredited throughout the entire world, Germany was glad to accept the severe peace terms agreed upon by the allied supreme war council at Versailles and transmitted to their representatives by Marshal Pioch in the shell-shattered town of Senlis. The abdication of the Kaiser and the Crown Prince and thneir flight from Germany into Holland confirmed the victory. The Kaiser had not only found his dream of world empire shattered, he had lost his throne and had been driven from the land of his fathers, an outcast some day to be brought before the bar of justice to answer for his many crimes. The German surrender followed close upon the heels of that of Austria-Hungary, upon which almost equally severe terms were imposed by the Allies. It in turn followed the- surrender of Turkey and Bulgaria. One by one the allies of Germany deserted, as defeat after defeat was administered to them. Finally, in sheer despair, Germany terminated the war by accepting the stringent terms of the victorious allies. What were the causes of this greatest of all wars? They may be divided into two classes; 'remote and direct.. They might equally well be classified as real and assumed. They were political, military and commercial. It is difficult, if not impossible, to say, which one, or which group, the future Will declare the real one. THE CAUSES O)F THE WAR-oOstensibly the fact that on June 28, 1914., the Archduke Fcrancis Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the Austrian emp'ire, was assassinated, together with his wife, while making a state visit to SarajevoP (capital of the province of Bosnia, which the Berlin treaty of 1878 put under the ad-.ministration of Austria-Hungary) was the direct cause of the great war. Back of that, however, was a long story of political intrigue and international complications. The political balance of the great powers of Europe was so delicately adjusted., before the war, that any weakening of one meant the vibration of all. Germany had taken advantage of the defeat of Russia in eastern Asia, in its struggle with Japan in 1904 and 1905, to bully France over Morocco. In 1908, judging correctly that Russia was still unfit for war, Austria, with the connivance and help of Germany, tore up the treaty of Berlin and annexed the Turkish provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was while on a visit to these newly annexed provinces that the Austrian archduke was assassinated. The immediate criminal was a youth named Gavrio Prinzip, but whether he acted on his own initiative or merely the tool of others higher up, perhaps a part of a great political plot, has never been disclosed. Germany and Austria did not care. They seized upon the murder as the excuse for the wal- for which they had long been preparing. of Napoleon III and the siege and surreihder of Paris. Prussia had demanded the payment by F~rance of an immense indemnity and the cession of the splendid provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. Victor though she was, Germany still lookred longingly at the remaining provinces of the country it had defeated and yearned for the day when the remaining valuable coal and iron deposits of Firance would be hers. She needed them for ful~filling her dreams of world power, for "made in Germany" was a commercial trademark to which the world was rapidly~being forced to pay homage. Without coal and iron Germany could neither manufacture those things which would ensure her world-wide commercial domination nor send them abroad to 'bring the world to Germany's feet. GERMANY'S DREAM~ OF CONQUEST--Great Britain stood between Germany and that world-empire of which she dreamed. Through her maritime power and the energy of her merchants, Britain had become a great world power while Germany was still a collection of petty states. When Germany became a powerful empire, with an increasing population and an immense commerce, she found that England had preceded her to those choice spots of the world where her eyes fondly turned. "Gott strafe England" (Imeaning "God strike England"). was in the hearts of those who ruled over the German people long before the Au~r43zn Archduke was killed. "There are a score of considerations which show that a European war had long been planned and that finally the very date, determined by the completion of the broadened Kiel canal, had been approximately fixed," says A. Conan T~v%-1e, the noted British writer, adding: "The importations of corn, the secret prep& -e ations of giant guns, the preparations of concrete gun-platforms, the early distribuGocn of mobilization papers, the sending out of guns for auxilliary cruisers, the arming of the German colonies, all point to a predetermined rupture. If it could not be effected on one pretext, it certainly would on another."' Twice Germany believed the time had come when war might be precipitated, without the open hand of -intrigue and desire being seen- The first time, wag In 19KFi the second in 191`1. Both times the commercial development and the government of Morocco were the ostensible excuses. Both times Germany was thwarted in its efforts to precipitate a general European war. Still eyeing~covetously the great iron and coal fields of Firance, she impatiently awa~ited the day.when the mailed fist might strike, quickly and victoriously. The murder of the Austrian Archduke was seized as the final excuse. Working as an ally--a vassal, rather--of Germany, Austria.held' an Inquiry in connection with the trial of the assassins which was reported to ýhave implicated individual Serbians in the plot, althoug~h no charge was made against the Serbaian government. A demand was immediately made, however, containing such severe and impossible conditions. that Serbia could not have remained a nation and grant them. ALustria rightfully demzand~ed the immediate trial and conviction of the assassins, but it did not stop there. It. demanded that Austrian judges should sit in Serbia to hear the case and that Austrian deilegates" should.have partial administrative control 'in the Serbian kingdom. 'Serbia was asked to turn over its courts, even its government, to Austria, because certain of its citizens were Implicated in a murder not even committed within its borders'. It turned to the nearest friend it had and asked for help. That friend was Russia, bound ~to Serbia by ties of diplomatic alliance and'the kinship of blood and race. Russia was willing that the murderers should 'be p unished; it was not willing that Serbia should be humbled to the extent which Austria demanded. The Austrian armyi was already mobilizing--Russia began to mobilize in the south. Austria s~ems to have instantly made up her mind to push the 'matter to an extreme conclýsi on., as is shown by the fact that msobilization papers were received by Austrians abroad.a bearing the date of June 30, only two days after the Sarajevo murde~r. Events crowded rapidly upon each other. On July 28, 1914, Austria declared war upon Serbia. Three days later Germany, as Austria's ally, declared war upon.Rl~ussla. T'wo days later, Germany declared war upon F'rance, which was Russ~ia s 9,11yv. The sparks of war were falling all over Europe. Every eye was turned,toward England, to see what that kingdom would do in the crisis. England remained aloof at first from the diplomatic negotiations and thee,military. preparations. The attitude of Firance was never in doubt. Russia was 'her ally; France took her stand beside Russia at once. Aa strong bid for British npiitrality was made by Germany, on July 29, the day after Austria declared war upon~ Serbia. In an official conversation, the German.Chancellor declared that she was no t~rai~tor to her ally and to hum~anity in the hkour of nreed. THWE RAP'E O9F BELGIUT-31-ItT was in this crisis, with England valiantly refusing to desert France, but not proposing to enter~ the war, that Germany precip", tated matters once and for all by violating the neutrality of Belgiunm and rushinew her armies across that fair land in order the sooner and more powerfully to strike at France. The neutrality of Belgium was solemnly guaranteed by France, Prussia (the dominant kino-dom in the federation of Germany) and Great Britain, in 1831 ~and 1839. On the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian war, in 1870, both France and Prussia recognized anew the neutrality of Belgium, in a special treaty arranged by Great Britain. SolemDly pledged to regard Belgium as a neutral nation, and knowing full well that to send a single armed man over the frontier without permission constituted a violation of that treaty of neutrality and a virtual declaration of war, Germany lost no time in sending its armed hordes across the Belgian frontier, insultingly promising not to destroy Belgian property in the event the government allowed its millions to march through the land. Others had faithfully lived up to the treaty of Belgian neutrality. Germany broke it without any warning. On July 31, the British government asked France and Germany 'if they were still prepared to stand by their pledge to Belgium. France answered promptly that she was, and added that she had withdrawn hier arrmies six miles from the Belgian frontier as anm evidence of goo~d faith. Germany failed, or refused, to answer. She was too busy mobilizing her immense armies close to the BelgiIan frontier, prepared to march across Belgiuilm the very pgqm hehurt -strike had arxifved. GERMAN~B~PI OBSERBVATION BALLOON HOVE-111IN~el G OVER VERG~tJ'DUNa Such are the facts of history. Back of them, however, are certain economic developments and aspirations, certain dreams of German domination the. world over, which make the murder of the Austrian Crown Prince take second place amnong the war causes. Germany dreamed of the day ("'Der Tag" they called it) when there would be German domination from Berlin-to Bagdad; when the German flag would rule over the seas; when German capital would develop, the richest parts of the world; when German colonies would form a vast ring of wealth.around the eart~h. The Kaiser was ambitious to be the modern Alexansder; he had been for years preparing a vast war machine. H-e looked about to see where and how best he could utilizae that terrible, death-dealing machine. There had been bad blood betw 'een Germany and F'rance ever since the F'rancoPr~aussian war, brought to a conclusion Lu the swring of 1871 bv the surrender

Page  2 Page Two A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE_ GREAT WAR Great Britain looked on, alarmed and suspicious. Having received no reply to its request for a definite assurance about Belgium, the British government Instructed its ambassador to ask for an immediate answer, on August 4th. The startling reply came from the German secretary of foreign affairs that the German troops had already crossed the Belgian frontier. It was in this conversation that the German official referred to the Belgian neutrality treaty as "a scrap of paper"; an historic scrap of paper, indeed, which thrust Great Britain into a war from which it might otherwise have held aloof and which, in the end, brought to Germanv the most crushing defeat ever administered to anv nation in the history of the world. On that day, Aug-Lst ý, 1914,, war was declared between Great Britain and Germany. Up to that time Great Britain had taken but one step beyond the path of strict neutrality. That step consisted in the announcement on August 2, subject to Parliamentary approval, that "if the German fleet comes into the Channel or through the North Sea to undertake hostile operations against the French coasts or shipping, the British fleet will give all the protection in its power." This did not mean war, but two'days later Germany's action in invading Belgium brought it about. There still remained one other nation, the position and attitude of which were In doubt. That nation was Italy. Prior to the outbreak of the warI Italy was an ally of Germany and AustriaHungary. The terms of the alliance did not bind Italy to take up war on account of any war being waged by its allies; it w as only called upon to assist if the land of either Germany or Austria-Hungary were invaded by an enemy. This was not the situation in August, 1914. Italy canvassed the situation thoroughly anid at la~st decided on a policy of strict neutrality. This not only relieved France of a 11wave peril., but afforded the simplest and most conclusive exhibition of the aggresoive character of Germany's action. It was not until the following May (1915) that Italy definitely decided to cast its fortunes with Britain, France, Russia and Belgium against her former allies: Germany and Austro-Hungary. Long before that (October 29,, 1914) Turkey had declared war against Russia. Twelve months later (October, 1915) Bulgaria also joined forces with the Central Empires. The outbreak of actual hostilities found Russia, France, Serbia, Montenegro, Belgium and Great Britain allied against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Within a year Germany and Austria had the support of Bulgaria and Turkey, while the allies Vound themselves supported by Italy, Roumania and Japan. Eventually twentysix nations became embroiled in the struggle, the list being as follows: THE NATIONS ENGAGED--The Central Empires: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria. The Allies: Belgium, Serbia, France., Great Britain.. Montenegro, Italy., Greece., Brazil, Japan, China, Cuba, Portugal, Liberia, Panama, San Marino, Siam, Roumania, Russia, the United States, Nicaragua.. Uruguay and Guatemala. The greatest war in the history of the world found at its close almost 100.,000,000 men under arms or available for military service. It was fought out at a cost of almost $200,000,000,000. Such figures are appalling. Never before had the world known such a holocaust,, such a tragedy. Never before had it seen so many men- clutching so fiercely at each others throats.. engaged in so titanic a struggle. CHAPTER 110 THE CAMPAIGN OF 1914--The war began'with the over~runing., by the German armies, of the neutral kingdom of Belgium and the neutral duchy of Luxemburg. Had it not been. for the courageous and determined resistance of the Belgian troops., under command of King Albert., who held back the German hordes until France could prepare, -1n a measure, for the unexpected invasion, the war might have ended in a few months, with a victory for the Central Empires,, instead of in their decisive defeat. "'Time was the precious gift which little Belgium gave to the Allies; she gave them days and days, and every day worth an army corps." THE INTASION OF BEILGIUM-The army which came pouring over the Belgian frontier was the most efficient and the best armed and equipped ever gathered in the field up to that time. The Germans considered it invincible. There was not a thing which had not been provided, either to assist the soldiers in carry entrenched infantry. The Germans expected to sweep them away, but the Belgians held on. The Germans fell by the thousands. Eighty thousand other Germans were brought up and on August 7 the attack was renewed, but with no better result. A garrison of 25,000 Belgians held off the attacking army of 120.,000 ten days, giving France the precious time which she needed so badly. The Liege garrison fought well, but it fought against too heavy odds. With twelve forts., three miles apart, it was impossible to guard all the avenues of attack,and approach with the small force at command. The Germans entered the towht of Liege on the 8th, but the forts still held out. Day followed day,, and still the forts held. The Germans had expected to be in France before Liege was finally conquered. On August 14 the last Liegeý fort fell and the Germans were permitted to press forward. By that time the French were pouring into Alsace and Lorraine, in a courageous,. but ill-timed attempt to regain these "lost provinces." Had the Liege forts fallen as quickly as the Germans confidently expected, the.German dream of world empire might have come to pass. But when the Liege forts held back the onrushing invaders, the history of the war and of the world has changed. GERMAN BARBARITY-The Germans poured into Belgium, in a seemingly iiever-ending stream. They ravished the once-fair land, the neutrality of which they had solemnly guaranteed. They perpetrated untold atrocities on the people. The great university of Louvain was sacked and destroyed. Belgian men were arrested and shot down on little or no excuse. Women were torn from their hus 'bands, daughters from their parents, and compelled to submit themselves to the lustful desires of the brutal invaders. Children were bayonleted, apparently merely to satisfy the blood lust of the conquerors. Brutality ran riot. Immense indemnities were demanded for the smallest overt acts; ho~stages were held without reason or warrant of law. The German hand was at the throat of Belgium and Germany knew no mercy. After Liege came Namur,. another Belgian stronghold, of which much was expected. But Namur was a disappointment. The German invasion, by now, was sweeping everything before it. It had spread into Brussels, the Belgian capital. Namutr was believed to be stronger than Liege, yet it held back the German tide only a few days. On August 22 the garrison surrendered, a considerable portion effecting a retreat to the French army, which by that time had come up to the support of the town. The tide had been held back a little, however, so that it was the third week of August before the ranks of the Belgian army had taken refuge in 'ýntwerp,, and the Germans, at last victorious over their puny foe.. were finally sweeping down upon northern France in a 200-mile line. By that time 100,000 British had crossed the chann6-1, coming to the rescue of the Belgians, a handful compared with the hordes of Huns., but heroes every one of them, destined to fall before the Teutonic conqueror, but in falling to pull the enemy down with them. Na braver body of troops ever entered a battle than these British "Tommies," fighting against overwhelming. odds with a courage which thrilled the world. "A thin red line of heroes," they added undying glory to the brilhiant military page of Britain. The first real battles between the Germans and the French were at Dinant, where the French were victorious, and at Charleroi, which the Germans carried on' August 22, pushing the French back with considerable loss of guns and prisoners along the whole line. There was a defeat, but nothing approaching a rout or an envelopment, so the hearts of the French beat high. The line fell back, fighting determinedly, but northern France was thrown open to the invaders. This retirement resuffed in the battle of the Mons, August 23, the first encounter in which the British army engaged. BRITAIN TO THE RESCUE-The bulk of the British expeditionary force passed over to France -under cover of darkness on the nights of August 12 and 13, 1914. A. Conan Doyle has deseribed the embarkation in this manner: "It is doubtful if so large a host has ever been moved by water in so short a time in all the annals of military history. There was drama in the secrecy and celerity of the affair. Two canvas walls converging into a funnel screened the approaches to, Southampton Dock. All beyond was darkness and mystery. Down this fatal funnel passed the flower of the youth of Britain., and their. folk saw them -no more. They had embarked upon the great adventure of the German war. The crowds in the street saw the last serried files vanish into the darkness of the docks, heard the measured tramp upon the stone quays further away in the silence -0 L11- - __- -A- ýL I V I V I a tilan ratse mes weep shn utit good order. Step by step the British retreated, hard pressed by the Germans, who felt, three days after the Mons defeat, that complete victory was at last theirs. On August 26 the German general, Von Kluck, sent an exultant telegram to Berlin declaring that he had the enemy surrounded, a telegram which set Berlin fluttering with flags. But the end was. not yet. Sir John French and General Joffre.(the latter in command of the French army and eventually to become Marshal of France) had other plans, daring plans, which it took courageous minds to conceive and brave men to execute. What history records as the "Retreat to the Marne" was begun, a retirement which was to end in an "about face" and the retreat., in turn,, of the invaders..THE BITTLE OF THE MARNE-It was apparent from a very early date that General Joffre had determined upon a retreat of the Allied armies to the line of the Marne river, where lay strong fortifications. To all appearances the French and British were in rapid retreat before an overwhelming foe. In fact, however, they were luring their enemy along, farther and farther away from his base of supplies, awaiting the time when they might turn and fall upon him with sledge-hammer blows which his exhausted vanguard could not withstand. "'Whatever may be said of the first French advances into Alsace and Lorraine, the plan ofecpefo henrhenprl rvs htte tctriyo Jsp aqe PLAYING CARDS IN A SHELTER ON THE FRENCH FRONT ing on their off ensive, or to frighten the people of the conquered territory into passiveness. The army moved forward with the precision of clockwork; everything seemed to have been arranged long in advance. Only the little Belgian army, mobilized with great speed, stood between the Germans and their long-held dreams of a Middle Europe empire, stretching from the Baltic to the Black Sea. Never was there a more gallant, determined resistance; never did soldiers give up their lives more willingly for others. The Belgians fought not only for their own ravished land,, but also for France, f or Europe, for civilization itself. Their courageous self-sacrifice cannot be overestimated. There was little time to prepare to repel the invaders. On July 31, before any declaration of war, a German army of 125,000 men was moving close to the Belgian border. On the night of Saturday, August 1, the vanguard of the German armies, using motor trucks followed by trains, burst through the neutral duchy of Luxemburg, and on August 3 they were over the Belgian line. They swept everything before them for the first f ew days. Irresistibly they swung along, beating back the little handful of brave Belgian defenders (Belgium's army, on a war footing, was only 200,000), while France., England and Russia made frantic efforts to call, train, arm and equip great armies overnight-an impossible task. But. the Germans met with an unexpected setback. They approached the forts of Liege, Belgium, expecting them to fall quick and easy victims to their powerful guns, the like of which the world, had never seen before. Here was where the Kaiser made his first mistake. On August 5 the Huns attempted to rush the gaps between the Liege forts. These gaDS were three miles wide and fille'd with

Page  3 A BRIEF HIfSTORYP OF THE GREAhT WAR~ Page Three II_ - ~-CIC -- ' - i_-_ ~ ~_ -r - - Z I-- held in front by the F~rench and in danger of being cut off by the British to the east. On the 13th the advance guard of the Allies, pursuing the retreating Huns, crossed the Aisne river, which runs parallel to the Marne, some thirty miles distant. Only ore bridge remained and it was partly demolished,, still. 25,000 British troops, under command of General Haig, were across before the evening of that day. Step by step, the Germans were pushed back over the country they had invaded so rapidly, and apparently so successfully. About two million men were engaged on both sides. The battle of the Marne will go down in history as' one of the greatest of all time. 'Had not -the Germans been checked, Paris would shortly have fallen and eventually all France with it. But Maubeuge resisted till September 7. thus keeping back the heavy siege guns, without which the forts around Paris could not be laid low. The long retreat turned into anr offensive operation, which slowly., but surely, pushed the invaders back. The moral effect of the victory was even greater than the military and material. The mere fact that a great German army (commanded by the Crown Prince and two of Germany's best generals, Von Kluck and Von Bulow) had been pushed back across thirty miles of country, and finally tak.en refuge in trenches in order to hold their ground, was a great encouragement ~to the Allies. It was the first time since the days of Napoleon I that a Prussian army had been turned and driven. From that day on, the Allies felt that with any~thing -like equal numbers they were superior to their opponents. Both sides dug themselves in and trench warf are ensued throughout the fall and winter months. Gigantic artillery duels and infantry sorties occupied the time until heavier fighting could be resumed in the spring. BATTLE OF YPRtES--After digging in, the Germans had time to prepare reserve formations which might suddenly be thrown against any chosen spot in the allied line. A half million reserves were quickly made ready. The bloody but indecisive battle of Ypres followed, opening October 16. Victory perched first on one banner, then on the other, f rom. October 16 to 3'1. Looking back at the closing days of the struggle, it is now apparent th at Ypres bade fair., for a time, to be the most serious defeat the British army had experienced, since the very ~first days of the fighting, at Le Cateau. If the Germans had been able~ to.push home their attack once more, it is probable that they would have taken Ypr',es and that the results would have been serious, wiping out the first British'army eastern ally, had succeeded in engaging,, and frequently defeating, great masses of Austrian troops, preventing them from going to the relief of the Germans in France. Always an unknown quantity., Russia proved herself of inestimable value to the Allies in the opening engagements of the war. Mobilizing his army witli surprising promptness.. the Czar succeeded in throwing into East Prussia two large armies, one under General Rennenkampff, the other under General Samsonoff. They broke through all opposition on the frontier, and advanced unchecked, straight toward the heart of Prussia. 'The Prussian opposition wavered, and for a time it appeared as though Russia was to win a great and decisive victory. Then Germany summoned two commanders, who -were destined to lead its great armies throughout the remainder of the war-Von Hindenburg and Ludendorff. The first was appointed to supreme command, the second was made chief of staff. Within a few days after he had been given command, Von Hindenburg lured General Samsonoff and his Russian army into a trap at Tannenberg, East Prussia, on September 1, and cut his army to pieces. Thousands drowned in the lakes of the region. The total of prisoners, it is said, ran almost to one hundred thousand. W~ith Samsonoff done for, Hindenburg turned on Rennenkampff,, but that Russian chieftain saw a light just in time and raced for the frontier. Hindenburg caught him at Lycik, routed him, and captured 30,000 of his men, but Rennenkampff escaped with a good part of his forces. AUSTRIA A POOR ALLYP-On the same day that the Russians were defeated at Tannenberg, another Russian army entered Lemberg, capital of the Austrian crown-lands of Galicia, aftek a week of desperate fighting. The fall of Lemberg, moreover, was simply the prelude to three weeks of uninterrupted Austrian disaster, which was to end in the almost complete conquest of Galicia by the Czar. The latter half of September the Russians occupied one important town after another, until they surrounded Przemysl, the last Austrian foothold east of the Dunajec river. At the same time, other Russian forces pushed the broken Austrian armies behind the foothills of the Carpathian mountains and began to climb the eastern slopes of the passes into Hunga~ry. By September 30., not less than 25,000 of the 30,000 square miles of the Galician province, with about 8,000,000 inhabitants,, were in Russi~an hands and a Russian army was threatening the Austrian province of Bukowina to the south. "It had been the mission of the Austrian army to hold the Russians in play until Germany should have 'dealt with France,")' comments Firank H. Simonds. "'Now, October come., Germany had failed to dispose of F~rance and Austria had broken down under the great burden -that had been imposed upon her. If the Russian dash into East Prussia in August, which had proved so disastrous to German plans in FErance, had been a first indication of the fact that Russian mobilization had gone forward far more rapidly than had been expected, the conquest of Galicia had demonstrated to the satisfaction of Russia's enemies., at the least,, that Russia had been fairly well mobilized before the war opened." Austria turned to Germany for aid. The situation was critical. Whole regiments were desertinlg. High commanders were in disgrace. Nor was the situation made any better by the fac~t that in the south the Serbians had defeated the Austrians decisively in the battle of the Jedar and were advancing in Bosnia toward Sarajevo, where the Austrian Archduke had been murdered. Such were the circumstances which led to the first German invasion of Russian Poland. TON HINDENBURGe TO THQE RESCUE--This German invasion began about October 1. It was led by Von Hindenburg. Relyingf upon their great mobility, their great number of automobiles and the better training of their troops, the Germans hoped to reach Waisaw,, capital of Russian Poland, before the Russians could concentrate against them. F'or nearly three weeks the great German advance continued. The crack Hun troops actu~ally reached the suburbs of WParsaw and German aeroplanes dropped bombs on the city. Its early fall was believed certain. As a result, the Ruissians were compelled to dr~aw back in Galicia, to give up the siege of Przemysl and to relinquish all hopes of besieging Cracow. Concentrating their reserves, they were able at the critical moment to rush fr'esh masses of troops through W~arsaw, in whose suburbs German shells were falling, and strike the unprotected German le~ft wing. By October 20 the entire German army was in retreat. As they retired they destroyed railroads and roads, quickly threw off the Russian pursuit, and reached their own frontier of East Prurssia in good order. Far less fortunate were the Austriaens, who had endeavored to redeem Galicia.. skill met the crisis, the gravest for Germany in the war to that time. New troops were rushed from Belgium and France. Some of the most desperate and costly fighting of the war took place. Wmhen it terminated, Russians and Germans faced eac~h other in -a double line across Poland, from the Vistula river to Galicia, and the campaign resolved itself into a deadlock. THE WYAR IN TILHE BALKLAN STATES--The fighting had not been confined to Poland,- Galicia, France and Belgium. The Balkan states had likewise seen great armies in confict. In the opening days of the war, Serbia was the first of the Allies to win a great victory. In the third week of August.. 1914., 175.,000 Austrians were routed and driven home across the Drina river. In the weeks that followed, Serbian and Montenegrin troops invaded Bosnia and approached the capital, Sarajevo, where the M'urder of the Austrian Archduke had occurred in June' The Serbians made steady progress for some weeks., the Bosnian Serbs rallying to their support. By October., however, the Serbian invasion of Bosnia was checked. Little by little, Austria had gathered together a great army, reinforced by Germans, and had beaten down Serbian resistance. Austrian armies crushed their way through the frontier districts on the Serbian side of the Drina river, until they reached the line of the Orient railway, which runs south from Belgrade to Cons~tantinople, Turkey. Once this line was reached the defense of Belgrade*, the Serbian capital., was impossible. Its garrison was compelled to retreat to escape capture, and on December 1, Belgrade fell to Austria. The Serbian army was. shaken, but still defiant. With the ultimate weakening of the Austrian forces., through need of hurrying troops to H~ungary and to Galicia, where the big Rus-I sian drive was in full swing, the Serbs swung around and retook Belgrade, after it had been in Austrian hands but a for~tnight. TURKEYIIE ENTERS THE WARG-On November 17 the "Holy War" was proclaimed by Turkey, thus bringing another country into the fighting. Turkey was doomed to early defeat, however. It had counted on Mohammedan support In India,, the Philippines., Egypt, F(rench Africa, wherever Allah was worshipped. But this support was not forthcoming; these provinces remained loyal. On January 4y 1915, three Turkish corps were overwhelmed and well-nigh destroyed by the Russian armies in the Caucasus. German diplomatic intrigue had brought Turkey into the war; Turkey was to rue its decision before many weeks had passed and to be but a por ally. SUMMrARY OF THE CAM~PAIG~NS OF 1914--The war had begun with the Germanls rushing through Belgium, confident of the destruction of France by. one quick, powerful blow, as had been done in the Franco-Prussian war. The year ended with Germany pushed back from its point of farthest French advance., digging in for the winter,, with Russia holding the Austrian armies and making at necessary for Germany to carry troops back and forth from the western to the eastemn fronts as the pressure grew strong or relaxed. G;ermany had failed in its large and well-laid plans,, thouagh at the end of the year It hold a quarter og GEORGES W. CLE"MENCEAU President of the Peace Conference and inflicting such a defeat as would have taken Britain long to recover from Sir John French, the British commander, is reported as having said that there was no time in the Marne retreat when he did not see his way through, but that on October 31, just before French reinforcements came up in the battle of Ypres, he seemed to be at the end of his resources. His command suffered heavily, At the famous battle of Waterloo, which decided the fate and world ambitions of Napoleon I, the English losses were under 10,000. At Ypres they were little short of 50,000. A German force of 500,000 men had set about to reach the Channel coast, but they did not advance five miles in a month, and that advance was made at a sacrifice of 150,000 men. "The struggle was over.," says A. Conan Doyle. "For a fortnight still to come it wars close and desperate, but never again would it be quite so perlious as on that immortal last day of October, when over the green_ Flemish meadows, besides the sluggish water courses, on the fringes of the oldworld villages, and in the heart of the autumn-tinted woods, two great empires fough~t for the mastery." While the British and Fr~ench were thus engaged, the Belgians had been doing their bit fully as well, proportionate to their strength. After the evacuation of Brussels, in August, they had withdrawn their army to Antwerp, from which they made frequent sallies upon the Germans, who were garrisoning their country. Toward the close of September, the Germans turned their attention seriously to the reduction of' Antwerp. They drove the garrison within the line's. and earty in October'began a bombardment upon the outer forts with such result that it was evidently only a matter of days before they would fall, and the city with them. On the 8th it was clear that the forts could no longe~r hold. The next day the Belgian and British forces made their way successfully out of the city. Unfortunately, however, a part of the British wandered across the Holland boundary line and were interned for the remainder of the war. The balance of the command joined the main allied forces and continued to fight valiantly "'for God and country." THE RtUSSIAN C A A GN[;)r-While this was going on In the western thea tre of the war, great events had been occurringp on the eastern front. Ruslsia., the great

Page  4 Page Four A BRI~EF HISTORYY OF THE GREAT WAR _ Russian Poland, practically all of Belgium *and 8,000 square miles of northern France, the home of some 2,500,000 Frenchmen. Against this must be reckoned Russiaan occupation of a corner of East Prussia, and Firench occupation of a small portion of Alsace. Provinces containing at least 12,000,000 people, having an area of at least 30,,000 square miles, towns such as Brussels, Antwerp, Lille, Lodz, St. Quentin and Liege were held by the Germans, who had reached the English Channel at Ostende, and approached W'arsaw, Poland., on the east. Only Russia, among the Allies, had made progress in invasion. - The armies of the Czar held at least 30,000 square miles of Austrian territory, with a population of 9,000,000.. and East their comrades, absolutely helpless against this diabolical agenc~y,. rushed madly Prussian lands having an area of 5,000 square miles and a population of perhaps 1,50'0,000. Germany held more territory than she had~annexed in 1871. In.China, however, her great port of Kiao-Chau had been taken by the English and Japanese. In the Pacific her island holdings had vanished. In Africa her colonies were being won away from her. Her flag had disappeared from the ocean. So the year came to an end. CHAPTER~j~ Hie, TH3E CAMPAIHGN OF 1915i-The first three years of the war have been aptly characterized as "'the year of defense, the year* of equilibrium and the year of attack." Following the overrunning of Belgium and northern France, and the surging back and forth of Russians, Austrians and Germans in Poland and Galicia, 1915 found both sides endeavoring to regain their equilibrium, poising themselves for th~e still greater blows which were to be delivered in 1916. Not that 1915 did not see much terrific and costly fighting. Little of this fighting was decisive, however. The Allies were holding their own, until armies could be raised and the even more serious problems of war munitions be solved. From every part of the world troops were being rushed to the aid of the mother countries--France and England--and the tread of armed millions made Europe shake as it had never shaken before. The year was an active one on every f ront, but it was not a decisive one. The Allies settled down to a campaign of "'nibbling," doing what damage they could at various points in the long battle line from the North Sea to Switzerland.~B From the Allies' standpoint, it was becoming a war of attrition.. They did not care so much for territorial gains and losses 'as for a campaign of incessant hammering upon the Germans' lines with a steady attendant loss of life among the enemy. Man power was to be the deciding factor; the more men that could be killed, the sooner would victory result. So the Allies dug themselves in and trench warfare ensued all along: the 200-mile fighting front in France and Flanders. The dawn of the year-~found all eyes turning to the sea. Would the deciding battle be fought there? W`Oould Britain be able to hold its mastery of the seven seas? W~aould t~he Germany navy come out of its base and ~fig~ht the Allied fleets? WCould the growing menace of the submarine eventually makze it impossible for the Allies to move men and supplies? THPE SUBMARINE BE ~LOCKADE--In September, 1914, (the second month of the war) the loss of three vessels by German submarine attack warned the British publie of what was to come. Thereafter, in a long procession, the Audacious, the Hawke, the Bulwark and the Formidable-all British battle ships--were lost through mines, submarines or other attack. These disasters were amply avenged. On December 8, off the Falkland islands, in the South Atlantic ocean, the Gneisenau, the Scharnhorst, the Nurnberg and the Leipzig--all German war ships-were sunk, with their commander, Admiral von Spee, while the Dresden (anocther German battleship) escaped, only to fall a prey to her pursuers several months later. On December 16 a squadron of German cruisers appeared off Scarborough, Hartlepol and Whitby, England,, and swept the shore with their guns, destroyring many buildings and killing more than 100 men, women and children. For centuries the attack of a hostile fleet had been unknown to England's shores. The war was brought home to Britain as never before. England, however, retained her Mastery of the seas. Into England and France there flowed an ever increasing flood of arms and ammunition made in neutral countries, chiefly the United States. German ships and products were shut off from the world market. In January the German government adopted a policy which amounted to the seizure by the govPrnmpnt of all t'hp w'hpat in tbcý enintrv qanf thp. issmanea nf wppklv q.11nqne.P.. for the sinking of the F~alaba, a passenger steamer carrying women and children, who were lost, along with one American citizen. The reign of piracy on the higb seas had begun; the future was to disclose that there was no limit to its fright-. fulness. REUSSIAh IN 191g--In the second week of February, Russia suffered a defeat comparable only with that of Tannenberg, in the early days of the war. The victorious Russian army had pushed ahead steadily in East Prussia from November, 1914, to February, 1915. Along its front were the famous Mazurian Lakes, impenetrable in spring, summer and fall, but, in winter., when the lakes and water courses were frozen, open to attack. Von Hindenburg, gathering up all his available forces from Poland, suddenly descended upon the Russian armies in this lake region and inflicted a defeat which became a massacre. Accepting the German figures, the Russians suffered the loss of 100,000 prisoners and 150,000 killed and wounded. F'or the time being, by the battle of the Mazurian Lakes, Germany cleared her frontiers.; she was able to divert her soldiers to France once more. Three times, aided by the splendid system of strategic railways and in the marching power of her soldiers, the Germans had forced back the invaders and termInated the campaign far in Russian territory. In all, the Germans claimed over 1,000,000 Russian prisoners, thousands of guns and fabulous quantities of military stores as a result of their victorious c~ampaigns. Russia, however, was undismayed. No country had greater man resources. She was tnt remain a vigorous ally for the greater part of another year, THE FIG~HT FOR HUNGARYGP-On March 22 the Austri~an citadel, Przemysl, in Galicia, facing starvation, surrendered to the Russians. 117,000 men., 3,000 officers, including nine generals, ýand one of the great strongholds of Europe were.the Russian booty. In addition, nearly 30,QOO Austro-Hungarian troops had perished in the long defense. Four army corps were thus accounted for in a surrender unequalled in Europe since Sedan and Metz deprived France in 1870 of her two field armies. In taking Przemysl the Russians achieved by far the greatest allied triumph on the off~ensive side of the war up to that time. Only the earlier Russian victories before Lemberg, and the Servian successes at Jedar, could compare with this, and Przemysl surpassed them all. Against 10.,000 square miles of conquered Belgium was now to be set more than twice as large an area in G~alicia. In February new German troops appeared in Hungary and the Russian advance through the Carpathian passes was halted and finally thrown back. The Russians gave ground and retreated to well-selected and strongly~-fortified positions. Henceforth.. for many weeks, a terrific struggle went on in the Carpathian mountains. WChen March came the situation changed. Despite German successes at the Mazurian IA~Lkes, Russia still sent hosts of fresh troops to the Carpathians,, her armies slowly pushed ahead toward the crests of the passes. The surrender of Przemyel (w8ith 120,000 Austrians) wholly changed the face of the eastern campaign by releasing at least 125,000 Russians, removing all threat of an attack in the rear and freeing the Czar's forces for a new drive at Hungary. The long promised advance through the Carpathians resulted. Immediately new demands were made upon the Germans for help, by the Austrians, and still more-German troops were hurried to the threatened Hungarian frontier., to hold the narrow ridge of the Carpathians separating the Hungarians from the triumphant Russians. By the.second week of April the Russians had captured 70,000 more Austrians, had passed the summit and had approached Bartfeld, in Hungary, the terminus of an important railroad leading to Budapest, capital of Hungary, 210 miles away. In four columns, following three railroads and one national highway, the Russians were seeking to drive through Hungary. The battle for the Carpathian passes had become one of the most important of the war. Reports were rife that Austria-]Hungary would sue for a separate peace with the Allies. Once more German aid was sought, and given. By the third week of April the Russian advance, after having made notable progress, passed down the slopes and overrun the edge of the Hungarian plains, came to a halt. Germans and Austrians claimed that the Russians had been defeated. Russia attributed the deadlock to the weather; rains and flood having made the roads impassable. A deadlock ensued. Once more Russia had been on the verge of a great and decisive victory; once more it was unable to carry on till that victory was achieved. It had exacted a terrible toll from the enemy, however, and had caused many Germanl troops to be taken away from the French front at the very time when English and F~rench "nibbling" operations, at widely-separated and unexpected points, had made the sttability of the whole German line most precarious. Russia was a good ally in the first two years of the- fighting, no matter how great a disappointment she was to prove later. Beyond question German money rather than German arms, was the basic cause of the Russian failure to push their drive. There seems no doubt that the extensive bribery of many Russian officials lies at the base of the strange pause in their victorious advance in May.. 19i5. THEE FIGHTING IG; N FLANDERSThe--Th long period of petty and desultory warfare-trench raiding and the like--in France---came to an end with the advent of spring. TIhe F'rench had attempted to break through the German entrenched lines in the Champagne district of eastern F~ranzce (between Rheims and Verdun) late in January, but were unsuccessful. Slight progress east of Rheimas was off~set by ground lost in other sections. German lines still held, the German artillery still bombarded Rheims at will. BATTPLE ObF NEUTE CHAPELL;E.--The first real blow of the Allies, on March 10, was directed against the village of Neuve Chappelle, near the western end of the far-flung battle line, in Flanders. This village had already changed hands several times the fall before, eventually remaining with the Germans. The obstacle in front of the allied army was a most serious one. The barbed wire entanglements were on an immense scale, the trenches were bristling with machine guns and the village in the rear contained several large houses surrounded with orc~hards, both houses anad orchards being converted into fortresses. It took a GERMtAN GOTHASB BROUGHIT DOWN BY WIDE RANGP~GE GUNPS OF ILONDON.. high grade of courage to attack in the face of such obstacles, but the British and F~rench set about it. The allied attack: was made over a front of a little more than four miles. It was preceded by the heaviest artillery bomb~ardment known up to that time. Miore than 300 British cannon suddenly'opened up on the narrow front. The village of Neuve Chappelle disappeared as if by an earthquake. The German trenches were leveled by the terrific. blast. Thousands of allied troops pressed forward, carrying the German trenches and pressing on for more than a mile from their starting point. For the first time the superiority of the allied artillery was definitely established. For the first time in many months, too, a real gain had been made by the Allies. On the other hand, the casualty list of the victors was heavy. It cost Britain alone 13,000 men to make this small gain. The conclusion was being forced home that the Germans, in their trenches and strongly-fortified positions, could not be rushed by any frontal attack, except at such a loss of lif e as no nation or group of nations could well stand. This conclusion was strengthened by the fighting around Hill 60.. a low ridge about fifty feet high and 750 f eet long, which faced the allied trenches southwest of Ypres. This fighting began April 17 and lasted for several weeks. Gains could be made, but only at a terrific price in human life. There followed shortly a battle, or rather a series of battles, which stand out prominently in the history of the war because of the introduction of new and brutal methods by the Germans. For the first time in civilized warfare, poisonous gas was used., with terrible effectiveness. This occurred at Langemarck, in what is generally called the second battle of Ypres., on April 22, 1915. A. Conan Doyle describes the scene thus: "F'rom the base of the German trenches over a considerable length, there appeared jets of whitish vapor, which gathered and swirled until they settled into a definite, low cloud-bank, greenish-brown below, and yellow above, where it reflected the rays of the sinking sun. This ominous bank of vapor, impelled by a northern breeze, drifted swiftly across the space which separated the two lines. The French troops, staring over the top of the parapet at this curious screen which ensured them a temporary relief from fire. were observed suddenly to throw up their hands, to clutch at their throats and to fall' to the

Page  5 A B~RIEF HISTOBRY OF THE (GREAT WAR~E Page Five ground in the agontes of asphyxiation. Many lay where they had fallen., while their comrades, absolutely helpless against this diabolical agency, rushed madly out of the mist and made for the rear, overrunning the line of trenches behind them. The Germans meanwhile advanced and took possession of the successive lines of trenches, tenanted only by the dead garrisons, whose blackened faces, contorted figures and lips fringed with the blood and foam from their bursting lungs, showed the agonies in which they had died." Thousands of stupefied prisoners, eight batteries of F(rench field guns and. four British batteries of heavies, were the trophies won by the Germans in this introeduction of barbaric and unwarranted war methods. After four days of fighting they had advanced some two miles nearer to Ypres on a five-mile front. The Allies' loss was heavy, perhaps 30,000 to 35,000 men by the end of the month. Continuation of the operations, late in April and throughout much of M~ay, resulted in a wedge being driven into the allied lines which might have had serious results had the Germans been quic~k to follow up their advantage. The opportunity passed, however, and the allied line held. Thereafter came a prolonged lull, during which the Germans were content to remain upon the defensive upon the west, while they silncessfully attacked the Russians in the east. BATTLE OF THEE DUNAJEC-The Germans and -Austrians concentrated with surprising swiftness and secrecy upon the Dunajec river, a short distance east of Cracow. General Von Mackensen, in charge of the German forces, opened battle along the Dunajec river in Hungary. On May 1, 1915, he struck the -Russian army with cyclonic force. The Germans here used for the first time the noted "Pincer method"--of driving two irresistible "wedges" among the opposing force and"'inching it off" from its support. His plan was most successful. Most of the Russians in his front were simply obliterated. Those w'ho were left could only fall back, fighting desperately. Macken'sen had dealt Russia a terrible blow on the Dunajec. Despite desperate bravery, the Russians could not withstand him. Przemysl was recaptured by the Central Powers; Lemqberg soon shared its fate. Then Mackensen, acting in co-ordination with Hindenburg, swept northward, fortress after fortress falling before the German armies., Soon W~arsaw, capital of Poland, was in German hands. The Russians, under Grand Duke Nicholas, were forced eastward. Brest-Litovsk fell. Vilna opened her gates to the invaders, who ~claimed over 300,000 prisoners, thousands of guns and fabulous quantities of stores. Winfter alone put an end to the Russian rout. THE GAL~dLIPOLIL CAMPAIGN-Entranceranc to the Black Sea is secured from the Aegean Sea throug~h the Dardanelles, which widens into the Sea of Marmora and then narrows into the Bosphorus straits, about twenty miles long, separating European and Asiatic Turkey. The Allies attempted to force this water-way in order to destroy the Turkish and German fleets in the Black Sea and gain entrancee to Austria-Hungary through either Bulgajria or Roumania. The attempt forms one of the most disastrous chapters of the entire war. In the middle of Fiebruary, 1915, the British and F'rench fleets bombarded the,Dardanelles forts. In the early days of the operation easy and rapid progress was made. Headed by the Queen Elizabeth, one of the newest British battleships, the allied fleets forced the entrance to the straits anid leveled the forts at the mouth. Preceded by mine sweepers they penetrated some ten miles inside the straits. In the meantime other ships bombarded the narrow Gallipoli peninsula, to the west of the straits, reaching the Turkish forts by indirect fire. This was only the first and easiest step'in forcing a road to Constantinople. After -a:-month of -heavy bomb -ardment-the allied fleet attempted to force the channel, relying upon the apparent success of'their guns in silencing the Turkish forts. The result was an..immediate disaster. The French battleship Bouvet, with more than 600 offcers and men, was sunk by a mine. Two British battleships, the Irresistible and the Ocean, shared a similar fate, though~ most of their c~rews were saved. Other ships were put out of commission. By April 1st the bombardment had stopped and all hope of forcing the straits without the aid of land forces had disappeared. The operation of the " land forces-composed mainly of colonials from New Zealand and Australia, called Anzaes--ca~lled for the utmost courage and sacrifice. It is doubtful if military annals contain a more heroic chapter. The Anzacs were landed upon the peninsula on April 25 in the fac~e of the most withering fire from concealed Turkish guns, with hardly one chance of a thousand of living _ _ A.32 - _2 - - 2 - e4 - - -j- IV,% V th -1 A I ý j It I,..,... o Turks did not fire on us until we got to the zone which they had so prepared that all might perish there. W~as there ever a more favorable setting for a massacre?" Notwithstanding this setting, however, a handful of Anzacs grabbed a foothold and the little force hung on, fighting for their lives, throughout the entire summer and fall. By the end of May the British casualties amounted to 38,636. It was impossible to make anly progress toward Constantinople; all the British coald hope for was to hang on like grim death to what little footing they had. Only when winter settled down and supplies were not to be had was Gallipoli abandoned, the last position being given up on January 9, 1916. W~ith the abandonment of the Gallipoli peninsula went all hopes of the Allies forcing the Dardanelles and reaching the Central Empires through the back door. In Firance and Filanders while the Firench and British armies had lain in apparent idleness during the summer of 1915--an idleness which was only broken by occasional trench raiding and a few minor engagements-great preparations for a con~siderable attack had been going forward. These culmin~ated in the big drive of the Firench in the Champagne district and the engagements of the British at Loos. The latter battle started September 25 and ended October 13. The net result was a gain to the British of nearly 7,000 yards of front and 4,000 yards of depth. Had the gain gone to that farther distance, which was hoped for, and aimed -at, the battle might, as in the case of the French in Champagne, have been a considerable victory. It proved, however, that the German lines could be pierced and that the German troops were not inviri,-.ible. The French accomplished more. They attacked in the Champagne district with at least three times as many men as the British, upon a threefold broader front. Their best results were gained in the first jump. They were able to continue their gainzs for several days, until, like the British, they found that the consolidating defense was too strong -for their attack. Their victory was none the less a gre~at one, yielding 25,000 prisoners, and 1_25 captured cannon. FO)RMAATION OF ALLIED WAR COUNCIL--The Allied Supreme War Council was organized in NJovember, 1917, and consisted of the commander-in-chief'. and the chief-of-staff of, the armies of "Great Britain, F~ranlce and Italy, together with the.Prime Ministers 'and the Foreign MIIinisters of these three nations. The United States -approved of the' idea and has worked in conjunction with the Council. The idea of 'an allied central source of power was first suggested by Lord Kitchener,.co.mmander-in-chief of the Brit~ish armies, in 1915. Two years later it was rbailized.that if the Allies were to be victorious over the Central Powers all the armies and all the branches of the war work must be co-ordinated. The Central Powers.Were,working under a sup reme command, the Allies were diffusing their efforts..3-ence. the necessity of a ceiatral body, the decrees of which should be -final. thus.the Supremlie Warr Council came'into being, its sessions being held at IVersailles, Fralnce'..iL few miles of Paris. QFrom that time on there wats -unity of aetion.., armong ~the ABllies And the tide of victory wa's turnesd. SU-NXARY OP F lb-8 for a second time, wet, foggy winter settlers down upon the water-logged,, clay-bottom trenches," says a British historian. "'I.ttle did those who manned them at Christmas of 1914 imagine that Christmas of 1915 would find them in the same position. Even their brave hearts would have sunk at the thought. And yet a move back of a couple of miles at Ypres and a move forward of the same extent in the south, were all that either side could show for. a year's hard work and the loss of so many thousand lives. Far off, where armies could move, the year had seen great fluctuations. The Russians had been pushed out of Poland and far over their own borders. Serbia had been overrun. Mlontenegro was on the verge of utter destruction. The great attempt upon the Dardanelles had been made and had failed, after an epic of heroism which will surely live forever in our history and in that of our brave Australian and New Zealand brothers. The one gleam of light in the whole year had been the adhesion of Italy to the cause of freedom. Here, on the long western ~line, motionless, but not passive, locked in a vast strain ' which grew ever Imore tense, was the real war. All others were subsidiary. The close of 1915 found the Empires somewhat disappointed at the past, but full of grim resolution for the future." CHAPTER ITO 3[V THE CAMQPAIGN O(F 1916--Inh a year marked by the fierc~est fighting the world had ever known, two names stand out pre-eminent: Verdun and Somme. The campaign of 1916 revolved around these two extended battles. There was activity on every. front, but Verdun and Somme are the names to remember. Chief ýtown in the French department of the Meuse, Verdun before the war.was.a fortress with a circumference of thir'ty miles, connected with Toul, France, by a line of forts along the heights of the Meuse river. It dominated the crossing of the river and the great historic highway~from Rheims, France, to Metz, the principal fortress of German Ltorraine. It formed the eastern pivot of the entrenched line of the allied troops after the battle of the Marne river had established the position of opposing forces. It was against Verdun that the German Crown Prince launched his army at the beginning of the 1916 campaign. His choice at first produced universal astonlishament. There were ample reasons for it, however. Verdun was regarded by the German military heads as an open gate to the province of Lorraine and a permanent menace to Metz-the strongest fortress of Lorraine. It was coveted by Germany in order to safeguard the mining region of Briey, France, indispensable to the Kaiser if he were to have the coal and iron necessary to carry on the war. If the co~al production of Germany, Belgium, northern Firance and Lorraine were at Germany's dispos~al she -would be able to hold her own in the economic conflict, even against America. The importance of the~ Briey Basin, France's richest. mineral field * and Verdun, its key, may be regarded as the outstanding motive of the Crown Prince's:attack. Furthermore, the fall of Verdun, by uncovering the Argonne forest, would have opened the way for a direct drive on Paris. Both sides realized full well the importance of the struggle. From the beginning of the war, the Verdun forts had protruded as a salient far into the German lines. Against these forts the German Crown Prince hurled a force of between 300,000 and 400,000 men with a fierceness and perseverence matched only by the courage and deadly gun work of the F~rench defenders under F'ield ~Marshal Joffre.and General Petain. As an artillery c~ombat Verdun stands absolutely witholit a precedent. More than 4.,000,000 high explosive shells were fired in the first four days, uprooting forests, shattering trenches and plowing up every foot of earth over large areas. THE BATTLE OF TERDbUN--The battle began eight miles northeast of Verdun on the morning of February 21, 1916, with a German artillery "drumfire'' of an intensity never known before. The noise was so deafening as to stun the men who heard it. The roar of the guns is said to have been heard more than a hundred miles away. Aeroplanes added to the terror of the combat, and even in underground caverns men fought by the light of liquid fire used in the German attack. The first phase of the battle reached its climax around Fort Douaumont, on February 25-27, when the ground changed hands three times and was finally held by the Germans. The German barrage fire prevented many Firench regiments from retreating and caused the capture in one night of 10,000 prisoners. The second phase of the battle consisted of a record German drive in the flat Woevre region, southeast of Verdun, resultingmi the capture of the village of ting 'off the garrison and forcing the surrender of the fort, on June 10. Siiortly 'thereafter they opened an attack along a front of three miles, threw 100,000 men against Ridge 221, 'Thiaumont works and Fileury, and on June 23 captured -the -Thiaumont position. Two days later they were also successful at'Fleury, b~ut a vigorous French counter offensive held them in check. On June -30 the French recovered Fleury and the Thiaumont works. At this stage the offensive battle of Verdun ended for a time, as the British had already begun their terrific bombardment on the Somme river and the Germans needed all the men and guns they could spare to resist the "big push" in that region. From then on, German activities at Verdun were mainly designed to conceal the fact that the initiative had passed from them. Throughout July they made a brave show, but in August it was plain that they desired nothing so much as to be left alone. This -the French refused to do. On Oc~tober 25 occurred one of the most dramatic episodes of the war. The French attacked and at one swoop recovered the Haudromont quarries, the village and fort of Douaumont and Caillette Woods, all being forts of~the Verdun battlefield. They made 6,000 prisoners and their own losses were considerable less than that figure. The German campaign of over six months, the sacrifice of hundreds of thousands of German lives, had been in vain. Ten days later the Germans evacuated FEort Vaux. The end o'f the year found the two armies.exactly as they had been at the end of February, except that the French had suffered incomparably less th~an their opponents. On December 15, the French regained 'the Louvemnont ridge on a front of over six~miles. They penetrated two miles into the enemy positions and pushed the Germans back to where they had been earier in the year. Ten thousand prisoners and a large number of guns.were captured. "They shall not pass," was the historic declaration of the French commander when he saw the hordes of the Kaiser bearing down upon Verdun, and h~e kept his word. T2he world never saw fiercer or more heroic fighting than at Verdun. Its name and fame will last as long as France. H~ere is a description of a bit of the battle, written by an eyewitness: "At: the top of the ravine, on the edge of the plateau, was a great heap of Giermans. They looked like, a swarm of bees crawling over one another; not one was standing. Every minute shells threw bodies andd~ebris into the air. The whole ravine slope was gray with corpses; one could 1-iot,.see the ground, they were so numerous, and the snow was no longer white..ýWq.,ýC41culatedd that there were fully 10,000 dead at that point alone, and the river.yau. past-,. dappled with patches and streaks of blood." At such a cost was Verdun.stprmed--.and saved. TH ~E BATTL;E OF1 THEE SOMME--The battle of the Somme actually began on J.;une- -27,.when` the Allies 'Opened artillery fire along the French front from the 86mmme-'_- I iver to the Yser river. By this date the English had a vast army In -prirnce.' Througb voluhtaryL~ enlistmenPt their forces had grown from only 100.,00O

Page  6 Page Six A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE GREAT WAR........... i..Wo IL 1914, to 4,000,000 in 1916. The battle was fought by both British and French armies, the largest ever assembled. On July 1 the movement forward began, the British aiming at the town of Bapaume and the French at Peronne, fifteen miles distant. The British succeeded, on the opening day of the drive, in breaking through on a twenty-mile front and capturing a number of positions on both banks of the Ancre river, to the north of the Somme. The French a!fs6 had a force on the north side of the Somme, where they rapidly forged ahead three miles on a six-mile front. From July 1 to July 10 the fighting was almost continuous, day and night. The Allies had great advantages in superior artillery, an enormous supply of ammunition, and greater number of troops. The British captured a considerable number of guns and 7,500 prisoners. The French also -captured several thousand prisoners. The second phase of the battle began on July 14, with an attack by the Allies on the German second-line trenches. Both the British and French made headway, taking many guns and several thousand more prisoners. On July 22 occurred the great fight for Pozieres. The British attacked from that village to Guillemont, taking Pozieres on July 26. German second-line trenches along a five-mile front were now in the possession of the British. The German lines were badly bent back by the Allies, Who kept extending the line of attack. The fighting was frequently as deadly as the terrible struggle at Verdun. Both sides lost men by the thousands from day to day. The beginning of August saw the British gaining possession of more of the German second-line trenches north of Pozieres and the French advancing north of the Somme.:The'Germans were in very strong posi, tions at Thiepval, Guillemont and Maurepas, and furious battles were fought by the* Allies for the possession of all of the'se. On August 11 and 12 Maurepas was attacked by the British and French, but it was not until August 24 that the.Germans were finally forced. Meanwhile, on- August 12, the French had attacked the P-erman third-line trenches on a four-mile front east of Hardecourt to the Somme, Kovel, in the same province, one of the chief objectives of the advance. By June 16, the Russians had pushed into the Austro-German lines a new salient with a radius of forty-five miles. Meantime, the Russians had also been pressing forward south of the Dniester river, forcing the Austrians to fall back on the Carpathian passes. On June 17 the Russians captured Czernowitz, in the duchy of Bukowina, Austria, after which they overran practically all of the duchy. In all this fighting the Russians were daily taking thousands of Austrian prisoners and vast quantities of artillery, ammunition and war material of all kinds. The Austrian crownland of Galicia next became the principal battle area. On July 16 the Russians commenced a great advance, which resulted in the fall of town after town and the capture of many thousands of prisoners. The Austrian army retreated rapidly' and the Russians turned their attention to the German army; in Galicia. They were defeating it decisively, when once more General von Hindenburg arrived to save the situation. The Russians began to encounter a far more determined defensive, which had for its purpose the protection of Lemberg, capital of Galicia, and the holding of the Carpathians. A deadlock ensued, followed by an -intermission in the hostilities. When this eastern campaign came to a standstill, at the end of August, the Russians had taken, during the three months, 400,000 prisoners and occupied 7,000 square miles of Austrian territory. The effect on the Central Empires was a great deal more damaging than the Somme battle on the west front. The military power of Austria-Hungary had suffered a serious decline. ROUMANIA ENTERS THE WAR--Events on the eastern front were affected by the entrance of Roumania into the war on the side of the Allies, on August 27. At the beginning of September the Russian general attack was being aimed at Lemberg from the south. The German-Austrian lines were bent back, but the Russians were unable to attain their objective. On November 9 the Teutons scored an important local success by smashing the Russian front along two and onehalf miles, southwest of Minsk, Russia. The Russian advance was stopped, the Germans having the better, of the position. In the meantime, actuated by political motives, rather than by military expediency, Roumania began its operations by a campaign to win back Transylvania, the easternmost part of Hungary, where the population is largely of the Roumanian race and speaks the Roumanian language. Military authorities agree that Roumania's wise course of action would have been to invade Bulgaria, the ally of Germany and Austria, but this policy was not adopted. When the Roumanians opened their attack by advancing over the Transylvania Alps, a Russo-Roumanian army attacked the Austro-Hungarian front in the southeast Carpathians. The forces of the Central Empires fell back, while the Roumanians gained temporary advantages. These successes were more than offset, however, by the advance of the Germans, Bulgarians and Turks, who entered Roumania at three points. Within two weeks after the opening of hostilities, the Russo-Roumanian forces were falling back severely defeated. Reverses overtook the Roumanians on every side. Finally the entire Roumanian army which had invaded Hungary was forced back across the Danube. There followed a campaign in Roumania in which the German troops were constantly victorious, under the leadership of two noted generals: Falkenhayn and Mackensen. These two generals effected a junction on November 25 at Alexandria, fifty miles southwest of Bucharest, capital of Roumania. The Russians attempted to come to the rescue of the Roumanians, but their efforts were futile. On December 1 a great Teuton offensive was launched. The Russians also launched an offensive in the Riga district, but were unable to divert enough Teutons to save Roumania from its impending doom. Bucharest fell on December 6, the Roumanians moving their capital to Jassy. They had entered the war with high hopes, but proved to be a weak ally, quickly put out of the fighting. They had a fairly well trained and equipped army of about 500,000 men. But a poor plan of campaign on their part, and the overwhelming forces brought against them, proved their downfall. The Allies have been severely criticised also for failure to more adequately support Roumania. They depended upon Russia, and Russia could not, unaided, do the work. THE ITALIAN CAMPAIGN--The Austrian-Italian campaign was one of the major operations of 1916. Italy had declared war on Austria on May 23, 1915. On June 28 Italy invaded Austrian territory south of Riva (Austria), on the western shore of Lake Garda. Other successes followed, but Italy did not take a prominent part in the war until the following year. The Austro-Italian campaign of 1916 was influenced by the events at Verdun, for the offensive begun by the Itali-4c1s, on March 14, when they began shelling the Austrian positions on the Isonzo river, was undertaken for the purpose of preventing Teutonic reinforcements being sent to Verdun. The Italians made some headway during March and April, but the main campaign was to come later. About the middle of April the Austrians began to concentrate in great force in the Trentino (lying between Italy and Austria), in preparation for an offensive on a large scale. This was initiated on May 14, with a heavy bombardment of the Italian positions. The Italians were caught napping by the Austrians, wrho had 350,000 men and a great quantity of artillery, and in consequence were soon forced back. The purpose of the Austrian campaign was to isolate the Italian army on the Isonzo River, cause it to capitulate and then force Italy out of the war, leaving the Firance-Italian frontier open to Austrian offensive all al-ong the line. The Austrians were forced to withdraw troops to serve against the Russians and, between June 2 and 17, to cease their offensive altogether. The Italians were now ready to go forward once more, and by June 25, the Austrians were in retreat, losing large numbers of men and guns. Italian efforts to secure a foothold on the Carso Plateau, which blocks the way to Trieste, the most important Austrian town on the Adriatic Sea, were carried on determinedly, but the obstacles were many and the progress slow. Italy was handicapped by' lack of adequate shells, though no army fought more bravely than hers. The Carso is a great upstanding bank of stone. The Austrians had mined it and tunnelled it until it was well-nigh impregnable. Here is a vivid description of the fighting there: "The upward path was gained in a succession of mines and deep galleries, protected by stone-built breastworks. The enemy's shrapnel and high explosive broke with deadly effect on the bare rock, and scattered flakes and splinters of stone which were more dangerous than the flying bullets and fragments of shell. Earthworks could not be made, for there was no earth except what the Italians brought with them in sandbags and handcart. Slowly and at a heavy cost of life and limb, the Italian troops pushed on, and by yards and inches drew close enough to assault, one after another, the armored caverns and the labyrinth of fortified passages which the Austrians, long before the war and in preparation for it, had constructed." The determined courage of the Italians won out. On August 9 the C"arso Plateau fell and with it the city of Gorizia. Nearly 19,000 prisoners were taken by the Italians and a serious blow had been dealt to Austrian prestige. The Italians had opened the way to Trieste. NJAVAL BATTLE OF JUTLAND-The naval battle off the coast of JutIand, a province of Denmark, was another notable event of 1916. It was the greatest naval engagement of modern times, both on account of the number and size of the ships which took part in it, and of the tremendous power and skill with which science and invention had equipped the fleets. On the afternoon of May 31, the British grand fleet, under the command of Sir John Jellicoe, was patroling the North Sea, when the cruiser division, commanded by Admiral Beatty, sighted a division of German cruisers in advance of the German grand fleet. Beatty at once proceeded to attack the enemy,- while the British main fleet (informed by wireless that the German navy had at last come out of its safe quarters behind the mine fields and coast defenses of Helgoland and the Kiel canal) rapidly steamed co Beatty's assistance. The greater part of the battle had been fought before the British dreadnaughts arrived. The five German battle cruisers, being attacked by the six heavier British cruisers, steamed southw'ard toward the main body of the German fleet. The British immediately pursued. At a separating distance of nearly eleven miles the action began. The British lost an important ship almost at once. This was the battle cruiser Indefatigable, which went down with all its crew of 900 officers and men, except two survivors. Another British cruiser. the Queen Mary, sank from a terrific explosion. Out of a crew of 1,000, only a score or so were saved. The first part of.the battle lasted about an hour. A new phase began with the arrival" of a large part of the German grand fleet. The M[ACHINE GUNNERCS IN A GUN PIT ON TIHE FRONT and had reached positions nearly three-fourths of a mile beyond. The British also moved forward past the German third lines on a six-mile front. At the end of August the British had taken nearly 16,000 prisoners, nearly 100 field guns and over 150 machine guns. During this month alone the British losses in killed, wounded and missing were 4,711 officers and 123,234 men--a fearful payment for so small a gain. On August 3 occurred an eventful battle which wrested Guillemont from the Germans on the British sector and gave the French near Clery the most important victory since the opening of the Somme drive. It is estimated that the Germans threw 100,000 gas shells at the British in the One day at Guillemont. The machinegun fire directed at the British was frightful. Twice it stopped them, but the third time they went ahead. Day after day the Allies pushed ahead, sometimes making a gain of a few hundred yards, again of a few thousand. The battle of September 15, when the British broke the third German line, was memorable for the first appearance of the "tanks," the huge armored motor cars, traveling on caterpillar feet, crushing all obstacles beneath them. On September 25 the Allies captured Combles and on September 26 and 27 they took Thiepval. With the exception of Peronne, Combles was the largest town in this section of the front and the most important point that remained in the German hands between the Allies' lines and Bapaume. The Allies had been endeavoring to take Combles and Thiep7al ever since the opening of the Somme offensive in July. The British made another push on October 7, thereby gaining a mile on the way to Bapaume, while the French straightened their line by wiping out the German salient between the Chaulnes Wood and Hill 91. The Allies now attempted to push on and capture Peronne and Bapaume. The advance was.impeded by bad weather, however, so that about the middle of November it came to a close. Throughout December there were artillery duels and trench raids, but the lines remained virtually where they were until the end of the year. THE 0UTCOKE--The final results of this long drawn out and most bloody contest were not decisive. While the Germans were pushed back along their whole front, the Allies were far from obtaining the results for which they had so freely spilt heroic blood. All the fighting of this year was characterized by the unparalled sacrifice of men. Over 1,000,000 of French and Germans in killed and wounded together fell around Verdun. The fierce and long continued battle of the Somme, lasting from June 27 to mid-November, was probably equally fatal in its toll-taking of human life. The Allies learned from these two frightful battles-each in reality a series of great battles--to henceforth conserve their forces. In the great battles of 1917 and 1918 they largely abandoned the heavy attacks of masses of infantry which distinguished the battles of 1915 and 1916. Henceforth, an enormous and long continued artillery bombardment opened their battles; and not until the opposing lines were torn to pieces and thoroughly demoralized by this irresistible shell fire, were the men sent "over the top.'" The German commanders were much slower in lear.ning this vital lesson. They continued well into 1918 their great frontal attacks by massed bodies of "shock troops." While frequently gaining the desired objective by such tactics, they thereby rapidly reduced their man power, and the morale of a remarkably well trained and disciplined army. THE RUSSIAN DRIVE OF 1916--The Russian drive, which began on the eastern front on June 4, was one of the.0st remarkable successes of the Allies up to that time. It was part of the allie-dgeneral program to carry on simultaneous olffensives in all theatres of the war.:The Russian forces were-now nominally under the supreme command of the Czar in place of the Grand Duke Nicholas, who had been sent to the Caucasus. The Russians attacked on the whole eastern front from the Gulf of Riga (a part of the Baltic Sea) to the. Roumanian frontier, but the main offensive was that led by General Brusiloff along a sector of 260 miles. The drive was immediately successful. Lutsk, in the Russian province of Volhynia, was taken on June 6, and the Russians began to liress forward on

Page  7 A BRIEF H~ISTORY OF THE GREAT WA.;.% Page Seven _ ~ __ _~ _ _ __ __ _U~ ~__ ___ odds were now heavily against Admiral Beatty. He withdrew to the northwest, his object being to draw on the German main fleet so that it would have to fight the British dreadnaughts under Admiral Jellicoe. He succeeded in sinking a German cruiser just before Jellicoe arrived with the main fleet. Now came what promised to be the most terrible of all naval battles. Admiral Jellicoe arrived and prepared to throw the weight of the greatest navy the world has ever seen against the German fleet. But at this dramatic point the mists blotted the German navy from sight, thus giving the German ships a chance to escape, which they did in all haste. The German ships reached their base before the British reached theirs, and startled the world with a report of a great German navy victory. Later on., the British admiralty report gave the real facts. The British lost three battle cruisers, three armored cruisers and eight destroyers., the total tonnage amounting to 114,100 tons, while the officers and men who perished numbered 5,613. Though no British battleship was lost, the, Marlborough was torpedoed., but continued in action. The Warspite was hit, but succeeded in getting back to port. The Germans admitted losing one battleship, one battle cruiser, four light cruisers and five destroyers, the total tonnage lost being 63,015, and the loss in offticers and men 3,866. According to the British admirality, however, the Germans lost four battleships, three of which were seen to sink, while the total number of vessels of all kinds lost was eighteen,, with a total tonnage of 113,435. Only the haze and mist saved the German fleet from the ordeal of fac~ing Britain's superior forces and prevented the crowning of Admiral Beatty's efforts with complete success. The battle again proved that Britain was still mistress of the seas. Thereafter., for the duration of the war., the German fleet did not venture from port; it was practically out of commission until the armistice, signed November 11, 1918, compelled the surrender of the greater part of the vessels to the British. BULGSARIA ENTERS THE WARR ON SIDE OF CENTRAL rOWERS-While German armies were winning in western Russia, in the summer of 1915, German diplomats were secretly scoring a notable victory in the Balkans. Bulgaria,, the most warlike of the three small kindoms--Serbia, Bulgaria and Roumania--which separated the Teutons from Turkey, was won to the side of the Central Empires.. and September 20., 1915, a treaty was signed between Turkey and Bulgaria, both now allies of Germany and Austria. About the same day Mield Marshal Von Mackensen., Germany's able soldier, appeared at -the head of a new German army opposite Belgrade, the Serbian capital. The Serb and Greek armies were mobilized and: the Greeks were anxious to attac~k Bulgaria without waiting for a declaration of war. England persuaded them to wait, still believing that Bulgaria would remain neutral.- On October 4 diplomatic relations between Bulgaria and Russia were broken in consequence of an ultimatum which demanded that Bulgaria should definitely break with the Central Powers. On October 11, 1915, Bulgaria declared war on Serbia and four days later England declared war on Billgaria. Bulgaria immediately mobilized every availablle man, down to the youngest class, and enrolled about 750,000, leaving only the women and old men to work the farms. She attacked the Serbian army in October and made possible the Austro-German advance into Serbia under General von Mackensen. Thereafter the Bulgarians advanced rapidly, meeting with little opposition, for they entered the war when it seemed most likely that the Central Empires would win. The troops of King Ferdinand, of Bulgaria, overran all Macedonia and captured Monastir, 136 miles northwest of Salonic~a, a place of 60,000 population. The victorious Bulgarians settled down to enjoy their triumph, cherishing the delusion that Greater Bulgaria--which they had fought to accomplish in the preceding Balkan wars (1912 and 1913)--had at last been brought about and that their ancient enemies, the Serbs, were effectually disposed of. The campaign of 1916 bolstered up this delusion' of the Bulgarians. Von Mackensen led an army of Germans, Turks and Bulgarians into the Dobrudja, the southeastern portion of Roumania, between the lower Danube and the Black Sea. 'As a result of an active campaign, Roumania was put out of the war and the Bulgarians were in undisputed possession of the entire Dobrudja, another part of the Greater Bulaaria of their dreams. This was in October, 191~6. The year closed with Bulgaria apparently nearer to her dreams of empire than anly of her Teutonic allies. G)ERMAN SUBMARINE WARBFARtE--March 1 was the date set by the German government for unrestricted submarine warfare on a frightful scale. The new gol* +Vlet+ of P C44 ng %I7- s r" rY% r7 wrnT-iinrr whan4,nkvrn nnrd mrna7inrr " inpr%_ sinkings was that of the channel steamer Sussex, unarmed and with Americans on board, March 10. This was the beginning of serious controversy between the American and German governments, culminating in the severing of diplomatic relations. The Sussex was doing its regular work of conveying passengers across the English channel., was unarmed and received absolutely no warning. The United States ambassador, on first taking up the matter with the German government.. was assured that no German submarine was responsible for the deed. In a note dated April 10, however, the German government admitted having sunk a vessel in the channel at almost the same time and place as the Sussex was sunk, but denied tha~t it sunk the Sussex. In a note dated April 18, the United States asserted that it was "conclusively established"' that the Sussex had been sunk by a German submarine. The German reply, dated -May 8, admitted that one of its submarines had sunk the Sussex, declared its readiness to pay an adequate indemnity to the injured American citizens, and stated that the submarine commander had been properly punished. The German submarine campaign during June, July and August was responsible for the destruction of 237 merch~ant ships belonging to the Allies and 52 belonging to the neutrals, a total of 289, representing nearly 300,000 tons. No lives were lost.. care having been taken by the German submarine commanders to respect the pledge given by their government to the United States after the sinking of the Sussex. The German submarine campaign during September, October and November was responsible for the sinking of over a million tons of shipping belonging to the Allies and neutral nations. The allied loss was 439 vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of 778,500; the neutral nations lost 179 vessels, representing 241,600 tons. One of the sensational episodes of the underseas campaign was sending a submarine within sight and sound of the American coast. The U-53 made- an unexpected appearance at Newport.. R. I., October 7. After a few hours she put to sea. The next day she sunk five ships off Nantucket, three British, one Norwegian and one Dutch. The war was being brought home to the United States as never before, a nd American participation was drawing closer day by day. SUM31ARY OF THE 1916 CAMIIPAIGNN-The end of this year saw the Central Powers at the height of their success. Russia had been driven back within her own boundaries, and Russian Poland, over 1,000,000 prisoners and immense booty had been taken. Turkey and Bulgaria were subservient allies, and the Germans held supreme power from the English channel to the Euphrates, and from the Baltic to the Adriatic. Belgium and -northern Firance were firmly held and the Allies, in spite of vast sacrifices of brave lives., had moved them scarcely at all. Fruthermore, their deadly submarines were rapidly destroying the shipping of the world, and bringing starvation daily closer to England. Things looked dark, tvdeed, for the Allies,; but with a courage beyond pralse, they fought on. CHAPTER T.THIE CAMIPAIG;N OF 1917 The entrance of the United States into the world war was one of the great happenings of 1917. The declaration of war by the United States against Germany was inevitable in the face of the long-continued abuses of the rights of humanity and the disregard of all international law.. THE LUSITANIA AND OTHER O (UTRAGES-TheTh American people had been first aroused against Germany by the sinking of the steamship Lusitania on May 7, 1915, with a loss of 1,198 lives, over 1030 being American. There had appeared at the end of April, in American newspapers, an advertisement issued by the German Embassy at W~ashington, warning Americans not to sail on belligerent passenger liners bound for England, inasmuch as they were liable to destruction in the submarine war zone.which Germany had established. When the Lusitania sailed, a few days later, this warning was disregarded and over 2,000 men, women and children embarked. On May 7, off the coast of Ireland, the liner was struck by a, torpedo, fired without warning, and sunk within twenty minutes. Many Americans clamored for war against Germany at that time, but President Wrilson began a series of diplomatic note exchanges which continued intermittently until the actual declaration of war on April 6, 1917. Germany attempted to sidestep responsibility for the mlurder of the noncombatants on the Lusitania by asserting that it was a war v~essel, carrying war munitions, but this was disproved. The sinking of the Lusitania followed Other German acts of piracy on the seas. On April 15,, 1915., the American steamer, Cushing, was attacked by a German airplane. On May 1, 1915, the American steamer Gulflight was torpedoed and sunk. Then came the Lusitania outrage. In a speech delivered three days later President W~ilson made it plain that the United States would not go to war on that account. Nevertheless, the government, on May 13, dispatched a strongly worded protest to Germany covering the whole subject of German submarine warfare. Germany's answer was evasive, but sufficed the American government for the time being. The next two years matters went from bad to worse. Ships were sunk by German submarines without warning and without time being granted for the crew and passengers to leave on lifeboats. L-ifeboats which were launched were sunk, and men, women and children foully murdered. - Germany put into practice a policy of ruthless piracy on the high seas which disregarded every dictate and principle of law and humanity. At least 200O Americans went to their deaths through German and Austrian submarines up to February 1,, 1917. Most of the Americans lost were traveling on unarmed merchant ships. More than 2,000 citizens of other nationalities lost their lives in the attacks. Twenty American negro muleteers on the Leyland liner Armenian were killed June 28, 1915,. by shellfire and drowning when the Armenian failed to escape with her cargo of army mules from a submersible near the Cornwall coast. On July 25, 1915, came the first complete destruction of an American ship by a submarine. It was the Leelanaw of New York, bound from Archangel, Russia, to Belfast, Ireland, with flax. Finally, on January 31,,1917, the German government issued a notice to the neutral nations that, beginning with the next day, merchant ships bound to and from allied ports would be sunk without warning, and that the danger zone had been extended over a muc~h larger area. This was giving official sanction to a practice that had been in vogue for two years, but which Germany officially claimed to have dis countenanced. It came at the very time that President W~ilson was using his high office in an attempt to bring about peace between the warring nations, in fact, when peace seemed imminent. W;AR DECLARED BY UNITED STATES-The president studied the situation for three days. On the morning of February 3, he determined to break off relations with Germany. Congress was assembled in joint session that afternoon and addressed by the president. In his address President W~ilson recalled the warning he had given Ger~many on April 18, 1916, after the sinking of the Sussex, with the loss of American life, that if relentless and indiscriminate submarine warfare were persisted in, the United States could have no choice but to sever diplomatic relations. The German government had given a "solemn assurance," but now that this pledge had been deliberately withdrawn, the United States government had no alternative consistent with American honor and dignity but to suspend diplomatic relations. Count Bernstorff, the German ambassador, left America on February 14. About the same time, James WV. Gerard, the United States ambassador, left Germany. GENERAL HUNTER LIGGETT Commander of American Firmt Army. of fifteen sailors shattered this hope.;The following day, March 20, war preparations were begun by the United States. ' The special session of Congress, originally set for April 16, was advancedrto Apr.il 2. On the evening of April 2, President WVilson delivered to the two houses. ' o Congress, in joint ses~sion, an address in which he recommended that Congress 'declare "the recent course of the Imperial German government to be in fact nothing less than war against the government and people of the United States," and-:hat Congress "formally ac~cept the status of belligerent which has thus beeni thrtist upon it." The president deflnedý the issues to be those of democracy against autocracy. "The world," he asserted, 'must be made safe for democracy.'! Resolutions embodying the presidentss recommendartionss were at once introdluced in both houses of Congress. Theg

Page  8 Pagee Eight A BRIEF HIISTORY OF THPiE GREC~AT WARe~ - -- s- --I -~I _I__~ ___Y Senate passed them on the night of April 4 by a vote of 82 to 6. The H~ouse adopted them on the morning of April 6 by a vote of 373 to 50. On Friday aflternoon, April 6, President Wilson signed the joint resolution. By this act the United States and Germany vere officially at war. The first hostile C,.t on the part of the United States was the seizure., on April 6, of all German;:Iips in American ports. These had an aggregate tonnage of 600,000. Wireless sta~tions were also seized or ordered to be dismantled, so as to shut off communication with Germany. Recruiting for the army, navy andmarines was speeded up. Certain national guard regiments were called into the federal service. The work of mobilizing and training a great army to send overseas began without delay. Recruiting for the navy and marines was satisfactory. Recruiting for the army was slow. The president asked Congress to pass a conscription act. After some opposition a bill empowering the president to raise an army by selective draft was passed on May 18. All male residents who were 2JL, but not yet 31 years of age, were called upon to register June 5, for classification and conscription into the army. The registration of over 9,500,000 young men took place on that date, and the drawing to decide the first 687,000 men to, b6 called to the c~olors occurred on July 20. A31ERICAN TROOPS SE~NT TCO FRANCE-CfEThe first intimation that the United States meant to fight on the battlefields of Europ~e was.the announcement that a division of the regular army was to proceed without delay to the French front. The position of commander-in-chief was given to MPuajor General John J. Pershing. With his staff, General Pershing arrived in England on June 8. Five days later the party landed in France. The first contingent of United States troops to fight in Europe arrived in France on June 26. Toward the end of July trenches began MAJOR GENPL. ROBERT L. BULLARD Commander of American Second Army. to be dug in and near the American camps established in France, and a start was made toward training the new American army in the new methods of fighting. After Generl Pershing had inspected these camps, on August 1 and 2, he announced that the United States was making good-progress and would shortly be in the fighting. In ihe meantime., the first ships of the United States navy had anchored off the French coast, June 6. Immediately they began to do their share in convoying troop ships and keeping the English channel and North Sea clear of submarines and sweeping mines which the Germans had laid. FINANCING THTE WAR-The United States now set about raising the necessary money for the war. On May 18 the government offeredlo the people bonds amounting to $2,000,000,000. This was the first Liberty Loan, followed by three others before peace was finally secured. The United States was raising money not only for its own war needs, but to loan to its allies. On August 27., Chairman K~itchin of the House ways and means committee, estimated the war expenses of the 'United States to -June 30, 1918, at $19,300,:000,000. This -included actual expenses of $10,000,000,000, and loans to the allied governments amo~unting to $7,000,000,000. Congress set about to raise this- amount through increased taxes and bond issuances.,On October 27 it was officially announced that the American troops in Firance had begun to finish their intensive training in the trenches "in a quiet srector on the FErench front." A few days later, just as the Germans were c~ompleting their rettreat ac~ross the Ailette river, they announced the capture of some American patrols on the Marne canal. F(rom that day onward casualty lists told of Americans killed or wounded in action or by German shell fire. The Americans had entered the war and from then on were de~stined to play a large and important part. Meantime, at home, the government was busily engaged in preparing an army and navy, which should turn the tide to the Allies and bring the war to a conclusion much more quickly than any one hoped or believed possible. The progress made by November 7 was shown by the figures made public, by the Secretary of War on that date. The army was then distributed as follows: National (draft) army, 616,820; national guard called into federal service, 469,000; regular army, 370,000; special branches, 200,000; reserves, 80,000; officers, 80,000; total, 1,81.5,820. The growth of the navy was no less satisfactory. - At the end of November the personnel had increased since the beginning of the year from 4,500 officers and 68,000 men, to 15,000 officers and 254,000 men; the number of ships in commission. from a little more than 300 to 1,000. On the assembling of Congress, on December 4, President Wilson read a messaae in which he recommended a declaration of war against Austria-Hungary, chief ally of Germany. Congress took this important step thr'ee days later, on December 7. The year closed with the United States having an army of 2,000,ooo men and having declared war against both Germany and Austria-Hungary, making~ every effort to take an active part in the fighting in France with the opening up of a new campaign in the spring of 1918. The Germans were reported as not believing the United States would actively attack them; and the vigor and amazing speed with which a vast army was raised and started overseas was unquestionably a great surprise to the Central Powers. They had believed their submarines would render perilous and slow transfer of troops over the Atlantic, but: within twelve months of our entering the war..they were going across at the rate of nearly 300,000 each month. FIGHTING ON THE SOMMrI~E--In January, 1'917, fighting was resumed along the River Somme, in France, where the "big push" had occurred the year before. The British (who now had over 1,500,000 men in France) began advancing on both sides of the Ancre river, in the direction of Bapaume. In the last four days of Fiebruary they occupied Serre,, Miraumont, Ligny and numerous other towns. The Germans began to fall back to new defensive positions behind the BapaumePeronne highway, in a retreat which was to establish them on the "Hindenburg.Une," a Dreviously pre~pared series of fortifications and entrenchmentx which was considered impregnable (see maps of western France in this atlas). The British advanced warily. The important towns of Bapaume and Peronne were taken, in addition to sixty villages. On the line between the towns of Roye and Noyon, adjoining the Somme front, the Germans abandoned considerable territory to the Fr ench. North of the Ancre the Germans fell bac~k as far as Arras. In their retirement they destroyed the countryside systematically, chopping down forests, poisoning wells and razing every building. With a belt of twenty miles of devastated territory between 'th~em and the allied position, the Germans, early in April, entrenched themselves on the Hindenburg line. The British., on April 9_, and the French, on April 16, initiated their forward movements by attacking the terminal positions of the Hindenburg line: Vimny Ridge, north of Arras, and the Craonne Plateau, east of Soissons. The British off ensive was on a front of forty-five miles between Lens and St. Quentin,* including Vimy Ridge, which dominated the plain of Douai, the coal fields, of Lens, and the German positions around Arras..BATTLE OF TINY~ RIDGE--The most important episode in the opening of this offensive was the taking of Vimy Ridge by the Canadians. Along a twelvemile front the Canadians penetrated the German positions to a depth of from two to three miles, capturing many important fortified positions. The number of German prisoners at the end of the first five days -reached 13,000. The British commander announeced that his'men were astride the vaunted Hindenburg line. The French opened their offensive on April 16 on an eleven-mile front east of Rh'eims, between that city and Soissons. They sought to capture the southern pivot of the Hindenburg line, the principal attacks being against the heights of the Aisne river. They were successful, capturing many thousands of Germans, and occupying Craonne. At this point the Germans brought up large numbers of fresh troops. By the end of May the Franco-British offensive had been stopped and vigorous counter attacks were being launched by the Germans. BLOWINGW UIP NESSINE RIDGHDE--Early in June it became apparent that the British proposed to resume hostilities on the front near Ypres, where some of the earliest fighting of the war had occurred in 1914. One of the problems that demanded solution was Messines Ridge, held by the Germans, from which their guns were abl~e constantly to sweep the British positions in the low lands near the Ypres salient. Britain proposed to take this ridge. For more than a year engineers and sappers had been tunneling and mining below it, unknown to the Germans above. At last nineteen mines, containing over 1,000,000 pounds of explosive, were ready for the blasting operations. The British proposed to blow off the whole top of Messines Ridge and with it all the Germans and their fortifications. The plan succeeded. The signal for exploding the mines was given on June 7, and in a moment the German positions on a ten-mile front were shattered to pieces.Ac cording to witnesses the concussion was so great that the sound could be heard 100 miles away. "Woods were swept out of existence, hill slopes were stripped and laid bare and villages disappeared beneath piles of ruin and debris." The British soldiers swept forward. A brief struggle won them the village of Messines. By noon the whole ridge was in their possession and they swept down the further side and attacked the German rear defenses. The British took 7,000 German prisoners and many guns, while many thousands of Hunls were killed. In the last days of July the third battle of Ypres began. The preliminary~ bombardmentt reached its height on the night of July,.30, and the following day the offensive was launched along a front of fifteen miles between the Lys and the Yserr rivers. The German positions were penetrated to a depth of two miles. The second phase of the battle opened August 16. Between then and ALugust 22 the French consolidated their positions and swept on. The French won several brilliant successes along the Aisne and Meuse rivers at this time. On August 20, after a three days' bombardment, they went forward along the Meuse on an eleven-mile f ront, taking almost all the fortifications and positions adjacent to Verdun for which the Germans had struggled the year before. By the time the drive came to an end, nearly 100 of the 120 square miles originally. lost to the Germans had been recovered, thus setting at naught the whole of the operations of the German Crown Prince in which he had sacrificed nearly a million men. THI~E TERRIFIC SMASHES AT YPRES--As a result of terrific attacks by the French and British, beginning September 20, on an eight-mile front in the region of Ypres and continuing until OctQober 12, the Allies came within long-range gunshot of Roulers and gained the principal heights commanding the plain of Flan British became necessary. On January 4,1~918, the Germans drove the British from their positions on the Hindenburg line east of Bellecourt. On January 8 the British recovered most of these positions., but the Cambrai drive, which had started so auspiciously for the British, was practically a failure, and the lives of over 1,000,000 English., Canadian and Australians had been paid in vain. THIE ENGILISH CA31PAIG~N IN TPURKEY I N ASIAll-England declared war on Turkey (which had allied itself with Germany) in November, 1914. On the 15th of that month a British force of 5,000 from India (mostly native troops) captured the Turkish fort at Fao, a little town in Mesopotamia (a province of Turkey) at the head of the Persian gulf. -The victorious troops proceeded to the important city of Basra, which was easily captured on November 23. Early in Decembel the fortified town of Kurna, fifty miles above Basra, was captured, leaving the British in undisputed possession of a region from which a Turkish force, under German direction, might have threatened India, over which Britain exerts a guiding hand. On June 3, 1915, the British captured Amara, 75 miles above Kurna. W~hat was -left of the Turkish force retreated 150 miles up the Tigris river to Kut-el-Amara. General Townshend was sent up the Tigris in command of a small British army. He found 10,000 Turks a short distance below Kut-el-Amara and on September 24, 1915, the British decisively defeated the Turks. The next day the Turks were in full retreat toward Bagdad and the British were in Kut-elAmara. Firom Kut-el-Amara, General Townshend pushed up the Tigris to attack Bagdad, 573 miles from the Persian gulf. The British forc~es numbered 15,000, of whom only one-third were Englishmen. The campaign was ill advised and disastrous. By November 24 the British casualties amounted to 4,500, one third of the force. The Turks received further reinforcements,, and the British retreated to Kut-el-Amara. Here the Turks surrounded them and began a long siege. On April 29, 1916, General Townshend's troops could hold out no longer and although a relieving army was but 25 miles away the entire forc~e at Kut-el-Amara surrendered, after a brave defense lasting 143 days. The Turks claimed to have captured 13,000 men. The British placed the number at 9,000, of which 6,000 were native Indians. In January, 1915, both Turkey and Russia had armies in northern Persia, where on January 30 the Tur!:s lost Tabriz. Meanwhile, a Russian army, numbering 100.,000 began an advance toward Erzerum, the strongly fortified Turkish base in Armenia. - The Turkish commander made the mistake of separating his forces into small bodies, to attack the Russians in various places. One after the other the separated Turkish troops were defeated and by the middle of January the rem~Yains of the Turkish army were in full retreat upon Erzerum. This disaster denied to Austria a successful Turkish diversion against southeastern Russia. A strong British force was organized, under Lieut.-Gen. F. S. Maude, to meet the anticipated attack of the Turks upon the Suez canal,, connecting the Mediterr"'T C~ontinued on Page Nine

Page  [unnumbered] "THP4E MEN ]BEHIND THE GUNS"~II: (llJ~~' The United States Military Academy is a school for the practical and theoretical training of cadets for the military service of h United States. After a 4-year course, the cadet is eligible for promotion and commission as a second lieutenannt in any arm',o corps of the army. Each congressional district is entitled to have two cadets at the Academy. No candidate can be admite under 17 or over 22 years of age. Must be 5.5 inches in height and unmarried. The pay, of a cadet is $600 a year and n ration a day. No cadet is allowed to receive money or othe-r supplies from his parents or anly other person without the s',c tion of the Superintendent. NEWTON D. BAKI~ER, Seely of War The United States Naval Academy is a school for the practical an d theoretical training of young men for the naval service ofth United States. The students are styled midshipmen. The course of study is six years. FEiour years at the Academy and w years at sea. Three midshipmen are allowed for each senator, representative and delegate in congress. All candidates Dus be between the ages of 16 and 20 years. Height must not be less than 5 ft. 3 inches. Minimum weight is 105 pounds. Ca:di dates must be unmarried. The pay of a midshipman is $600 a year. They must supply themselves with clothes, books, t. amounting to $280.00 per year. V., Great Britain )PAUL DESCHANIAN EM, President of France VICTOR E31ANUE~u L 111,, Jtaaly

Page  [unnumbered] Map THE WORLD of Týiý:WOý L on MERCATORS PROJECTION OCEAN ROUTES and RAILROADS are shown in RED OCEAN CURRENTS are shown in BLUE. CLOCKS aeross head of map show TIME in different parts of the World when Noon at Washington. WORLD WAR CHANGES Map of Asia Kiiao Chalu and Shantung IPeninsult (All German interests ceded to Japan.) Tientsin (All German rights ceded to China.) Hankau (All German rights ceded to China.) Trans- Siberian Railroad f r o m Vladivostok t o Petrograd. Palestine, to be self governing under a protectorate of one of the Great Powers. Syria, to be self governing under French Protectorate. Armenia to be self governing under the protectorate of one of the Great Powers. I WORLD WAR CHANGES Map OF Europe Province of Alsace and Lorraine ceded to France by Germany. Poland, formed out of German, AustriaHungary and Russian Polands. City of Fiume to be a free seaport. Province of Schleswig, to determine by plebiscite whether to remain in Germany or go to Denmark. East Prussia which remains part of Germany, tho separated from her by Poland. Portion of East Prussia to decide by plebiscite whether it goes to Poland or Germany. City and territory of Danzig,, permanently inter-nationalized. The Republic of Finland formerly part of the Russian Empire. The Republic of Czecho-Slovakia. The Republic of Hungary. The Republic of Jugoslavia. The Republic of Ukrane. Map of Australia German New Guinea - 70,000 square miles (to Australia.) Bismark Archipelago - 20,000 square mlies (to Australia.) Solomon Islands - 4,200 square miles. Caroline Islands -560 sq. miles. Marshall I s. - lands - 150 sq. miles. Samoan Islands -1,000 sq. miles. (Note) - All rights to these Islands ceded to the Allied Governments. Total population 600,000. Area about 96,000 sq. miles. Map OF Africa German Southwest Africa-area 322,450 square miles. Population 400,000. German East Afri. ca - area 384,180 square miles. Population 7,000,000. German Kamerun -area 191,130 square miles. Population 4,000,000. German Togo Land -area 33,660 square miles. All these German Colonies with an area of over 900,000 square miles and population -of about 3,000,000 people ceded to Allied Powers. Location with Population of Principal Cities of the World. Pop. Key 180000 Adelaide, Australia, SN7 195183 Ahmadabad, India 335754 Alexandria, Egypt, G32 5789851 Amsterdam, Netherlands 305706 Antwerp, Belgium 188089 Baku, Russia 630000 Bankok, Siam H4 555000 Barcelona, Spain 364145 Belfast,IrelandD29 219797 Benares, India 2070695 Berlin, Germany D30 545706 Birmingham, Eng. 186900 Bolton, England 979445 Bombay, India HI 270519 Bordeaux,FranceE29 301138 Bradford, England 443840 Breslau GermanyD31 376440 Bristol, England 628528 Brussels, Belgium D30 880271 Budapest, Hungary 1329627 Buenos Aires, Argentine, N24 296074 Bukharest, Roumania E32 598365 Cairo, Egypt, F-G32 1222313 Calcutta, India G2 945000 Canton, China G6 224731 Chemnitz, Germany 2381700 Chicago, Ill. E21 1545000 Chingtu, China G4 634241 Chungking, China 391155 Cologne, Germany 1200000 Constantinople, Turkey E32 525502 Copenhagen, Denmark D31 236250 Damascus, Turkey in Asia F33 219003 Delhi, India G1 504690 Dresden, Germany D31 391828 Dublin, Ireland D29 353398 Edinburgh, Scotland D29 240733 Essen, Germany 215888 Florence, Italy 303429 Frankfort-on-Main, Germany D30 656250 Fuchau, China G5 245700 Genoa, Italy E30 171071 Ghent, Belgium 849500 Glasgow, Scotland D29 245700 Hague, Netherlands D30 470400 Haidarabad, IndiaG1 932166 Hamburg, Ger. D30 185000 Hangchau, China 'T5 250125 Hanover, Germany 275200 Havana, Cuba G21 270900 Hull, England D29 207275 Kharkof, Russia E33 409000 Kiota, Japan F7 262500 Kirin, China E6 300000 Kobe, Japan 525000 Lanchau, China 479619 Leeds, England D29 478926 Leipsic GermanyD31 375800 Lisbon, PortugalF28 766700 Liverpool, Eng. D29 370150 Lodz, Russia 7252963 London, Eng. D29 278250 Lucknow, India 482053 Lyon, Prance 535800 Madras, India H2 566826 Madrid, Spain F29 662744 Manchester, England 193006 Mandalay, India G3 515720 Marseilles, France E30 533872 Melbourne, Australia 157266 Messina, Italy F31 387215 Mexico, Mexico H20 516033 Milan, Italy E30 289800 Montevideo, Uraguay N24 281110 Montreal, CanadaE22 1481200 Moscow, Russia D33 168000 Mukden, China E6 524926 Munich GermanyE31 303070 Nagoya, Japan 276736 Newcastle, Eng. D29 4766883 New York, N.Y. E22 273000 Ningpo, China 265300 Nottingham, Eng. 275100 Nuremberg, Ger. 472156 Odessa, Russia E33 182000 Oporto, Portugal E29 1226590 Osaka, Japan F7 325178 Palermo, Italy F31 2888110 Paris, France E30 1549008 Philadelphia, Pa. F22 1680000 Pekin, China E5 246625 Rangoon, India 297090 Riga, Russia D32 1000000 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil M25 485922 Rome, Italy E31 389909 Rotterdam, Netherlands 1907708!St. Petersburg, Russia C33 351254 Santiago, Chile N22 155730 Seville, Spain F29 683550 Shanghai, China F4rea in Square Miles of 462435 Sheffield, England Principal Countries of 892500 Siangtan, China the World. 918750 Singanfu, China krea Country 332862 Stockholm, Sweden I 150000 Abyssinia E31I 215400 Affghanistan S de "... J520000 Africa 533926 Sydney, AustraliaN aska 294000 Teheran, Persia N9 184474 Algeria 787500 Tientsin, China 845000 Arabia 187435 Trieste, Australia, 11319247 Argentina 2186079 Tokyo, Japan F8 6550000 Asia & Palestine 185325 Tunis, Tunis F30 251300 Assiniboia i 115903 Austria 352438 Turin, Italy 1503 Austria.- ' 240942 Austria-Hungary 2031498 Vienna, Austria E3 130000 Baluchistan 315000 Nanchang, China Gi 11373 Belgium 92000 Bakhara 723208 Naples, Italy E31 9 0 Bakiha 794247 Warsaw, Russia D3 5296700 Borneo 183784 Zurich, Switzerland 3209878 Brazil 840000 Wuchang, China, d 42217 British Cen. Africa. i 1000000 British Africa 7562 British Honduras 31106 British N. Borneo 68000 British Somali 15000 Brunei 4035 Bukourina 38080 Bulgaria 168550 Burma 37400 Cambodia 36653946 Canada 2808 Canary Isles 276775 Cape Colony 560 Caroline Isles (with Palaos) 71470 Celebes Isl. 181527 Central America 26365 Ceylon 75 Channel Isles 375 Chatham Isles 290829 Chile 4218401 Chinese Empire 22000 Cochin China 504773 Columbia 3377 Corsica Isl. 23000 Costa Rica 3326 Crete (Candia) 44000 Cuba 60000 Dahomey 14848 Denmark 950000 Egyptian Sudan " 50867 England 3750000 Europe 204092 France 45000 French E. Africa 400 Galapagos Isl. 208780 Germany 187 Gibraltar 88396 Great Britain 25014 Greece 512000 Greenland 48290 Guatemala 109000 Guiana, British 46040 Guiana, Dutch. 30500 Guiana, French 185540 Guianas, The 10204 Haiti 6449 Hawaiian Islands 46250 Honduras 7562 Honduras, British... 405 Honkong Colony 125039 Hungary 39756 Iceland 1560160 India 255900 Indo China 32583 Ireland 1000000 Italian Somaliland 110646 Italy 4200 Jamaica 162655 Japan Empire 50554 Java (& Madura) 191130 Kamerun 22320 Khiva 900000 Kongo Free -State 450000 Kongo, French 82000 Korea 3460 Lagos Colony 52000 Liberia 998 Luxemburg 227750 Madagascar Island 35500 Malay States 73956 Manitoba 767005 Mexico 3630 Montenegro 219000 Morocco 54000 Nepal 12648 Netherlands 42200 Newfoundland 5300 New Hebrides Isls. 310700 New South Wales 104471 New Zealand 49200 Nicaragua 729000 North America 124445 Norway 20550 Nova Scotia 82000 Oman 312329 Papua 157000 Paraguay 628000 Persia 695733 Peru 114326 Philippine Islands 3606 Porto Rico 36038 Portugal 301000 PortugueseE Africa 7458 PortugueseE Indies 134603 Prussia 668497 Queensland 48307 Roumania 13700 Roumelia, Eastern 6564778 Russia in Asia 2095616 Russia in Europe 8660394 Russian Empire 471371 Russian Turkestan 1800000 Sahara 7225 Salvador 18045 Santo Domingo 50000 Sarawak 5787 Saxony 29785 Scotland 96000 Senegal 19050 Servia 300000 Siam 4833496 Siberia 4000 Sierra LeoneColony 6950000 South America 197670 Spain 950000 Sudan (Egyptian) 300000 Sudan (French) 161612 Sumatra 172876 Sweden 15967 Switzerland 26385 Tasmania 651500 Tibet 33700 Togoland 374 Tonga Islands 46400 Tonkin 119139 Transvaal Colony 398739 Tripoli & Benghazi 50840 Tunis 431800 Turkestan, Chinese 120979 United Kingdom 3025600 United States 72210 Uruguay 593943 Venzuela 87884 Victoria 7442 Wales 198300 Yukon 1020 Zanzibar 1045 Zululand

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered] "SOMEWHERE IN FRANCE99.OUR BOYS "OVER THERE" IN REVIEW BEFORE GOING TO THE FRONT UNITED STATES MARINES MARCHING FROM BAR RACKS TO TRANSPORT ON THEIR WAY TO FRANCE

Page  [unnumbered] "SOMEWHERE IN FRANCE" SETTING BIG GUNS INTO PLACE IN THE WTOODS NEAR SOISSONS, FRANCE ALLIED TROOPS MARCHING TO THE FRONT Number of Soldiers in American Expeditionary Force by States Arizona -------------- 10,000 Alabama..---....... 67,000 Arkansas............ 59,000 Connecticut -..... 44,000 California -.---------102,000 Colorado ------------ 31,0M00 Florida -------------- 31,000 Georgia -.---.... --... 79,000 Idaho ------------------ 17,000 Illinois -.-...-..........232,000 Iow a.--....-..-......... 92,000 Kansas.----..---...... 59,000 Louisiana ---------- 62,000 Minnesota ---------- 86,000 Missouri.......... 115,000~ Mississippi........ 58,000 Maryland ---------- 43,0.00 Delaware.-........ 7,000 Massachusetts.. 114,000 Montana..-......... 34,000 Kentucky.......... 72,000 Nevada.-............ 5,000 Nebraska -......... 43,000 New Mexico -... 12,000 Michigan.-.---.......123,000 N. Dakota.-........ 25,000 N. Carolina -------- 71,000 New York ------....328,000 New Jersey -------- 95,000 New * Hampshire- 12,000 M aine --.--..-.-........ 22,000 Indiana....--........ 93,000 Oklahoma.......... 76,000 O hio -------------------- 185,00.0 Oregon -............. 26,000 Pennsylvania....-275,000 S. Dakota ---------- 28,000 S. Carolina..-..... 49,000 Rhode Island ---- 7,000 Texas --....-...........155,000 Utah - -...........-.... 16,000 Virginia ---...-..... 67,000 D. of C-....--.......... 13,000 W. Virginia ------ 52,000 Wisconsin ---.-..... 87,000 Washington ------ 39,00.0 Wyoming.--....... 11,000 Tennessee --...-.... 70,000 Vermont............. 9,000 Total 3,417,000 Town Index. Pop. AUSTRIA Gratz, (H 9)......-.---.-........... 138080 Vienna, (H8) -----...............-1999912 BELGIU31 Antwerp, (F7).....--........... 310903 Brussels, (F7).-................ 629917 Ghent, (F7) --.-... --............... 164117.Liege, (F7).-..-....... --.......... 180000 CZECHOSLOVAKIA Brunn, (H8) ------.--... --........ 109346 Prague, (H8)..--..-...-......... 228645 DENMVIARK Copenhagen, (H6) -......... 426540 ENGLAND Birkenhead, (D6) ----.--..... 110915 Birmingham, (E6) -...-..--... 522204 Blackburn, (E6) -------------- 129216 Bolton, (E 6) ------.---------...... 168215 Bradford, (E6) ------------------ 279767 Brighton, (E7) -.--.............. 123478 Bristol, (D 6).................... 330380 Cardiff, (D 6) -------------------- 164333 D erby, (E 6) ---------------------- 114848 Gateshead, (E6) -------._..----- 109888 Halifax, (E6) ---.-.-.-.---------- 104936 Leeds, (E 6).----------------------- 428968 Leicester, (E6) --.---------------- 211579 Liverpool, (D6) --.------------- 760803 London, (E7) -------------------- 7323327 Manchester, (E6) --.--------- 846800 Newcastle, (E5) ----.--.-----... 246980 Norwich, (E6) --.--.-..-.------- 111733 Nottingham, (E6) ------------ 239743 Plymouth, (D7) --...---........ 107636 Portsmouth, (E7) --.--.-..... 188133 Preston, (E6)...---..-.-......... 112989 Rhondda, (D6).--..-..-.......... 113735 Sheffield, (E6) -.-.-..-.......... 409070 Southampton, (E7).-........ 104824 South Shields, (E5) -....... 100853 Sunderland, (E5) -.---------- 146077 Location and Population FINLAND Helsingfors, (K4).-.......... 117317 FRANCE Bordeaux, (D9).......-........ 251997 Lille, (E7)........--...............-. 210696 Lyons, (E9) -.--.--.... ----....... 472114 Marseilles, (E9)........-....... 517498 Nancy, (F8).-.-.--.-........-.... 110570 Nantes, (D8) --.---...............- 133247 Nice,.(H 9) - -.......---....--...... -- 134232 Paris, (E8).-......-...-............2763393 Rheims, (E7)....-----..-.--.-... 109859 Rouen, (E7) - -..... --............. 118459 St Etienne, (E9) --............ 146788 Strassburg, (F8) -............. 167678 Toulon, (E10) --..-----.-.-------- 103549 Toulouse, (D9) ---------------- 149438 GERMANY Altona, (G6)..--...--. ----........ 168320 Berlin, (H7) --.--.................-2040148 Bochum, (F7).........-.-...-.... 118464 Bremen, (G6)..-..-............ 214861 Breslau, (H7) -..-.......--..... 422738. Brunswick, (G7) -------------- 136397 Charlottenburg, (H7) ------ 239559 Chemnitz, (H7)................ 428722 Dortmund, (F7)..-............. 175577 Dresden, (H7)..-.-.-........... 516966 Duisburg, (F7)...-.-............ -192346 Dusseldorf, (F7) -.....-------- 253274 Elberfeld, (F7)..-...-......-.. 162853 Frankfurt, (H7)................ 334978 Hamburg, (G6)................ 802793 Hanover, (G7).................. 250024 Karlsruhe, (F8)................ 111249 Kassel, (G7).................... 120467 Kiel, (G6).......................... 16'3772 Konigsberg, (J6)............ 223770 Krefeld, -(F7).................... 110344 Leipzig, (G7).................... 503672 Madgeburg, (G7).............. 240633 Mannheim, (F8).............. 163693 Munich, (G8).....r,............ 538933 CHATEAU THIERRY WHERE THE AMERICAN FORCES DEFEATED THE CRACK PRUSSIAN GUARDS. of the Principal Cities of Europe. Nuremberg, (G8).....-.-..... 294426 RU31 1 Stettin, (H6).--------------------- 224119 Bukharest, (K9) Stuttgart, (G8) - -.............. 249286 Kichenef, (L8)..... Wiesbaden, (F7).............. 100953.RUSS] GREECE Astrakhan, '(P8)... Athens, (K12)....-...-......... 167479 Kazan,.(05).......... Salonica, (K11) --.-............ 150000 Moscow, (M5)..... HOLLAND Petrograd, (L4)... Amsterdam, (F7)..-.-.-..... 565656 Riga, (K5) -....-------- Rotterdam, (F7) -------------- 403356 Rostof, (N8) ---------- The Hague, (F7).............. 254504 Saratov, - (06) ------. - HUNGARY Budapest, (J8).-................ 732322 SCOTLA Szegedin, (J9).-................ 102991 Aberdeen; (E5)... IRELAND Dundee, (E5) ------- IREANDEdinburgh, (E5). Belfast, (D5).......-....-..-.... 349180 Glasgow, (D5) -.... Dublin, (D 6)........--............ 290638 ITALY SPAI: Bologna, (G9) -.--...-..-......... 152009 Barcelona, (D10). Catania, (H12).-.............. 149295 Madrid, (C10) ------- Florence, (G10)...--........... 205589 Malaga, (C11)..... Genoa, (F9)........--............ 234710 Murcia, (C11)..... M essina, (H 11) -.........-..... 149778 Seville, (B11)....... Milan, (F9)................-------- 493241 Valencia, (D10) --- Naples, (Gl ).-.............-.... 563540 SW ED] Palermo, (G11) ------------ 309694 Goteborg, (H5)... Rome, (G10).....-.--....-..-..... 462743 Stockholm, (J4) Turin, (F9) --..-....-.............. 335656 SWITZER Venice, (G9)..........-..-..-..... 151840 Basel, (F8)........... NORWAY Geneva, (F8-9)..-.. Kristiania, (G4).........-..... 227626 Zurich, (F8)....-.... POLAND UKRAI Krakow, (JS)........-.--.-..-... 104836 Ekaterinoslaf, (MI Lemberg, (K8)..-.-....-........ 159877 Kharkof, (M7)...-. Lodz, (J7) -------------- I --------- 351370 K ief, (L7) -" ---------- Posen, (H7) ---------------------- 136806 Odessa, (L9)....... Vilna, (K6).-..........-....-...... 162633 Warsaw, (J7) ---------------------756426 INDEPENDEN PORTUGAL Constantinople, (I Lisbon, (B10)......-.-........... 356009 Danzig, (J6)...-..... Oporto, (B9)...................... 167955 Trieste, (H9)....... NIA -..----------- 276178.............. 125787 [A-............. 121.580.-------...... 143707..-..........-1359254 --.----------- 1678000.............. 282230 ---.----.------ 119476.............-- 137147 -....-....... 114733 tND.--..:------.- 1535003.............. 16298'2..........-... 317459..---..------- 789413.N.----... -----. 533000 -------------... 539835 -------. --..... 130109 ------------.- 111539.............. 148315............ 213530 EN.............. 160523 -.------------ 337460 LAND.............. --------------.............. INE '8)...................... 129370 118256 180999 135552 173989 319000 449673 fT CITIES L10.) --..-1106000.--...----.--. 159648..............- 205136

Page  [unnumbered] ---- -- - - --- --- 9 --- - mmlzmm - - I ' I Al 725 f: ton 11B, -PT ~ ~ j. 7 ,'a I II io C I.?. r 1 85 1B0 7Q t~. ~76 Ito.L-m I a: 'y =idl.* " '.J J.LMY.- 0 -; N *- -.- K 0 9 f/i K '~\ N ' ~ ~ >~K bw~~ae~oS~~'o%? y~s(ELake~ 0 Tr'%in0Ootipeg1 0.- N e > W %,N-7x is ex R*gina i K0XGolThI Hi '11'2-NO 414 <N ~ ~ ~ ~ Ie 0llxstonrfal.lU Q ~SouthernAN itioi iHgwa.'51 0 K..efisnDvis lemoa a3. ~ ' 27C~~~a~ Ooos/-1110 a.. el w tl r..J effcerson - Daol 1eb -1 / A%2-a)s \2;;a.. I ýgjyi(. riIit ~V in r 1ails f~ NK~ ~ Gnia A~'< / ýjil its TI ýhsc o jiit 11eI Iicita.4? * Dixie RIM a IBlack c& v Tri v t Jt' P0 N< ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ vy 7 x 4>>-1 (j \t~>*-/ ~ akes -thtnr ic l'flH4 ~0 ~ ~ Ooa P04kes, Peak ioli0a,1ra1X-V~ ~ hh&N pxsN< ' ~ tit>__ ails Road. %tnniel B One aialAtar okt h~~~7' - I ~>7 l1 4 7;z N lflbbrs 16 L1A0U 9010 ~t' li NI Cha o r' al'Anto T Ac 7,0 45 olaalra 4' 05101W109t ' g440106 swrttt -F oad 7- V I ", w -,E-* 6t~au1 'I-T '7fl fb 0 t ' N a* s42 C G QooLagoos 01- Qj-o 01,i, Stv 35 N ~G a 0 IC 301 12 2a. Burlinigton 'Wi 3. Chicago,IKaLn, > ~ City, and bil 4, 'Great North ' 9K al City.)R ~0Red BalhR 6. LInterstate Tra. 14 it 7. Omaha, Lincoli &-De'1ýy 8. Canada, Kan~sas iya and Cameron.) 9. Wanbonsie, Trail (K Un t ~ N ý10. Huntchinson and Liberale Liberal and IEl Paso Ratoni, New -Mexico.)(( N, 0 T'Dlt Frisc BVar'ti 0 I190 a C~Arthaga o6At:3a1 a Qoyotg Clyde 110901 IW Its Jtay B, "erGa- vuldt A0,0 ELOu90o p or 2900doLuaa. alul 30 I-sb T4 \., 7 'Willi4 oVP I\ f FUR Ak ~ r~t~~ ~ a~~ & ~!2C~da~ N ' j~~'''~i t '~~ ~ ''' Y~Ior S 08J0,r8 c ----- f t~n~asI~ (( s, ~. ' i';'1't ~,,~,j If'K b dm a T0 e Ca8; ifld G ~ NewSataFp e r cloa' ISO toRV,:AiMIles) & gtei 1ow-q gw Toou i stll IO~~) as I.LluaIiyerrerooadaap acf [ " n f U *!jl A /; XNN CalK 5 MAP OF THE -C~--gt1920 n~y o:6- ornn!n7, Inc., Miap Makers i I/ /i, (Auou~tes shown in Hmlavy Red Lines, thus= / V inor Routes insTinl Lines, thus 1.21 ROO C x.0L 25 LT'114 F 13 1160 1 Cl I 2~~,0 0 looioa ~ ~ ~; ~ j 101B0a ' N " Lo U PACEPOTm WALE 7th. Zone ZONjES ISt.LU.B, j60 la It. Ib. 70 d bc41 Ist-lb.80 AdIs6~~ItI.$ ADD. LBS.1 0 1.Ad.Ib. MILES 6!2.i1o0300 oo100 QTANDARD 2 L11. it q 5A.-7- t61 1A8 RULE 0' -A I6N. 1%~ING 2%~I-1XIN 7k~1NO When the postage on a package amiounts to twenty,-five cents, a one cent revenue stamp i eurd;oecn Add.Ibs.80 I IaT.iU. Iso Adcidbs. lOf _Z1 1400 18001 loX iN, 1-3X IN. )r each additional twenty-five cents or fraction thereofa 'TO FIND.THE. RATE - FOR A, PACKiAGE.. Measure the. distance -in a. straight line- from' the town from which the package is sent, to the, town to wvhich package goes. Then use the Rate Scale and standard inch rule to fit! Zona and rate. EXAMPL~E.-To find the rate' on a four pound package. sent fromn Clevelancd, Ohio, to Houston, Tex. By layin -rlIn h mpyU ii ill find that the! distance is S. i-8 inches. The rate scale, shows this number of inches to come within the 61th Zone. For that Zone. the first pound costs 9 cents, each additional poimud is 8 cents; therefore the rate for *: lbs. is 33 cents.

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Page  [unnumbered] VIEWS TAKEN ALONG WESTERN BATTLE FRONT DUG-OUT IN A FRENCH TRENCH AT THE FRONT The four French Officers shown in this picture are playing a game of "Bridge," but a re compelled to wear "Gas Masks" because at any time the Gernans ma fumes that mea n certain death. ly loose the AMERICAN TROOPS MARCHING THROUGH LONDON This picture shlows "a halt in Cockspur street, London," during one of the famous parades of American troops through the streets of London. These American I reviewed by King George, Premier Lloyd George and other English Notables. NATIONAL CHANGES IN RECONSTRUCTED EUROPE SHOWN IN RED troops were (1) PROVINCES OF ALSACE & LORRAINE-ceded to France by Germany. (2) THE BASIN OF THE SAAR VALLEY-ceded to France for fifteen years, then subject to Plebiscite. (3) PORTION OF POLAND, formerly part of Germany. (4) THE PORTION OF POLAND that formerly belonged to Austria-Hungary, being the Province of Galicia. (5) PORTION OF POLAND, formerly part of Russia. (6) THE CITY OR FlUME-to be a free Seaport under protection of the Allies. (7) THE PROVINCE OF SCHLESWIG-Owned and governed by Germany prior to the Armistice. On Feb. 10th, 1920, a majority vote gave the portion north of Flensburg to Denmark. On March 15th, a vote gave the southern portion (including the City of Flensburg) to Germany. (8) EAST PRUSSIA-which remains part of Germany, although separated from her by Poland. (9) PORTION OF EAST PRUSSIA to decide by Plebis. cite whether it goes to Poland or Germany. (10) CITY AND TERRITORY OF DANZIG-permanently Internationalized under the protection of the Allies. (Territory 729 square miles,) (11) MEMEL-to be a free Seaport under the protection of the Allies. (Territory 40 square miles.) (12) THE WEST BANAT-claimed by both Jugo.Slavia and Rumania. (13) THE PROVINCE OF UKRAINE-fighting for Inde. pendence from Russia. (15) THE PART OF AUSTRIA.HUNGARY CEDED TO ITALY consisting of the provinces of Trieste, Goritz and part of the Tyrol. 1 ON NEXT PAGE (16) TWO SMALL DISTRICTS between Holland and Luxemburg-ceded to Belgium, (328 square miles.) (17) THE STRONG GERMAN FORTRESS OF HELGOLAND, which is to be dismantled, entirely. (18) THE PROVINCE OF BOHEMIA, formerly part of Austria.Hungary. (19) THE PROVINCE OF MORAVIA, formerly part of Austria.Hungary. These two Provinces form the principal part of the Republic of Czecho.Slovakia. (20) THE REPUBLIC OR FINLAND, formerly part of the Empire of Russia. (21) THE SOVIET REPUBLIC of Russia. (22) THE FORMER KINGDOM OF MONTENEGRO now part of Jugoslavia. (23) THE KINGDOM OF SERBIA, united with Montenegro and several former Austrian Provinces to form the new Nation of Jugoslavia. (24) THE PORTION OF THRACE ceded to Greece under the Peace Terms. (25) THE NOTED KIEL CANAL opened to the comminerce of all nations under the German Peace Terms. (See map in upper right corner.) (26) THE REPUBLIC OF POLAND-formed from portions of Russia, Austria, and Germany. These three countries crushed Poland in 1781 until which time she had been one of the leading nations of Europe. 107Nl TV-lflV DVV1)liT1DT Fl [ -V 01 V'1rTl; d1 QlrA 1'YT A'T 2r ~ - 1-,_ILiL4,i-ii (28) THE REPUBLIC OF HUNGARY. Hungary was at one time an independent nation, but since the fourteenth century has formed part of the former Empire of Austria.Hungary. (29) THE REPUBLIC OF JUGOSLAVIA. This new na. tion is formed of several former Austrian Provinces and the former Kingdoms of Montenegro and Serbia. Albania may also join her. (30) PALESTINE-to be self.governing under a protectorate of one of the Great Powers. (31) SYRIA-to be self-governing under France. (32) MIIESOPOTAMIA-to be self-governing under English protection. (33) ARMENIA-to be self-governing under Protectorate. (34) CONSTANTINOPLE-the former Capital of Turkey and adjacent territory to be permanently internationalized. (35) PROVINCE OF ANATOLIA-which is all that is left of the former Great Turkish Empire. (36) A SM1ALL FREE STATE CUT OUT OF TURKEY and under the League of Nations. (37) PROVINCE OF LITHUANIA, struggling for freedom from Russia. \L') THESEJYLSrU LIU Y Ur LLU-IIU-SiLuVAhIA inhabitea by the Czechs and formed from parts of the former (38) PROVINCE OF LATVIA, struggling for freedom Empire of Austria-Hungary. from Russia. "NOT DEAD BUT SLEEPING" German Prisoners of War Lying Behind Barbe d Wire Fence Enclosure, Somewhere in France.

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Page  [unnumbered] V _ - I v - I. J(f - L a 3 S taI T!Io-tg V~esterin 'a0 'i O Flen 5 8 ' a 4PZ ers g e 1",eD eg, eu~ ellie s-ti One '4 t eaLn e N"-A _ jPjj O e bAtj Beýtek 0e ýe ia Oaka); Sr. a eeL td ~! ~ *: 9: t ~-A4~ Q Okeeat Li b yc fl g~aau Vt: SINAL Al RED-NUMBERS SHOW. NATIONAL BOUNDARY CHANGES.& FOR EXPLANATION OF NUMBERS, SEEPCDIGAE

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Page  [unnumbered] "OUR FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE" The Pennsylvania is the very latest type of naval efficiency. It is the largest war vessel in the United States navy, having a tonnage of 31,400. It is 600 feet long. and has a draft of 28 feet Her engines are of the Turbine type and her speed is 21 knots an hour. She carries 12 14-inch guns and 25 5-inch guns, Her coal supply is 2,400 tons. * 95 feet wide The United States Navy has at present 12 fine armored cruisers of the type and armament of the Maryland, as shown above. They average 14,000 tons, 500 feet 1, wide and have a draft of 24 feet. Their speed is 23 knots an hour and have the twin screw type of engine. Their armament consists of 5 to 8 10-inch guns and about 14 6-inch guns. mng, 70 feet

Page  [unnumbered] "OUR FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE" UNITED STATES SUPER DREADNAUGHTS IN BATTLE FORMATION This remarkable picture was photographed from the deck of the Flagship Pennsylvania. Reading from left to right are the New York, Delaware, Oklahoma, Tex Utah, with the Wyoming, South Carolina, Michigan and Connecticut following just out of the picture. as, Florida, "....GREAT LAKES NAVAL TRAINING STATION About 33 miles north of Chicago. This station contains at present 35,000 men. They have a naval band of 1,000 pieces. The men are styled Apprentice Sea is granted twice a week for visiting nearby cities, but the men are only allowed to draw $4-00 a month, the balance being placed to their credit aen. Leave

Page  [unnumbered] - 10 _ ~ ~ Diedenhafen.0 anw I r es out 12u G I& - ~reo 0 ~u Go er 13~ ~t*za14 ad h a u 0%-4 N ~a,-A.-a P6la m a! La ~ ~.ftc n it e a ~r~&T~F ALSCEbndCoRRa The Line ine 0 (4 0 ITO Me Iw -FdR ~0 Imo en nzo e LC) AL-4~ a $ 'CI 0 UD 0- ~ E0 - CLJ Caz 41 - M TAP 0OF ACE and LORRAINE AND EAST FRANCE Red Show The Final Allied Battle Line November 1-1, 1918. Q L

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Page  [unnumbered] INSIGNIA OF RANK IN THE -UN ITED STATES ARMY ANDNV. -1 MMM. Coast Artillery. Field Artillery Cavalry ~ " Grdnarfice,Infantry Department wre, - -Cazn Ist Lieutenant 2d LieutL (eneral Staff General Stag L0 General, Lieut.Gen-1._ Major 0en't. Brigadier Gen'l. Colonel MaJor (Goai) Chaplain captain Medicatl Signal Adjuitant Genl'e[ Corps Corps Departmeilt Corp of nginers Commissary Var-term-Tl CopsofEgiees Department General's Dept, H Ge~neral- Lieutenant General Major General Brigadier General Colonlcet o Sle)M ',:.Chaplain Captain IS ILVER BAR First Lieutenant lC0tID BAR Second Lieutenant!. Se8teanSergeantsor S A&dmiral Rear. Admiral Captain, Commander Lt. "Commander Lieutenant junior Lieut. Ensign Line Warrant Lne Rgmna ~~~~~~~~~~~~~Officer Corporal Com~meissarytSlrg't.Clo egat(u ot.? )QuEgineSrgHOW TO TELL THE RANK AND SERVICE OF ARMY AND NAVY OFFICER - - -- - - - - jor (Gold):'. _-.- a S::- - Regimental uaz, SergeantCo gat; COLLAR DEVICES showing class of service. In the militia bronze initials of the state are added to the devices shown, in these illustrations. Numerals indicate the regiment of the service. Members of volunteer regiments also wVear the initials U. S. V. Thus, the crossed swords as here shown indicate the 7th regiment of U. S. regular cavalry.; the addition of U. S. V. would indicate 7th Regiment of Volunteer Cavalry, while Ill., would indicate 7th Illinois State Cavalry. iSHOULDER, STRAPS, indicating commissioned officers, are the same in both dress and service uniform, except that in the former the strap is braided. All designs are in silver except that of Major, which is in gold to distinguish it from that of Lieutenant Colonel, which is in silver. The Second Lieutenant, in service uniform, wears a bronze U. S. coat of arms on both hat and belt, and a gold and black braided hat cord. SLEEVE: AND COLLAR DEVICES of the non-commissioned officers are in cloth. Service designs are added to these chevrons to denote the rank of service. A Sergeant of the Corn missary Department, for example, will have added the,' crescent, or of the Signal Corps the design of crossed flags and the torch, in addition to the three chevrons of his rank. NAVAL SLEEVE DESIGNS show the star only in the executive ranks. Other services of the navy are shown by colors between the sleeve stripes as follows: Constructors--purple; Civil Engineers--light blue; Paymasters--white; Medical--dark maroon; Professors of mathematics-olive green. HAT CORDS indicate by' color the branch of service. These are: Cavalry--yellow'; Infantry --light blue; Artillery--red; Medical Corps--maroon; Staff dep artments--b lack; Engineers Corps -red, piped with white; 0Ordnance--b lack, piped with red; Signal Corps--Salmon with white edge; Quartermaster Corps--buff. Gold and black braided hat cords are worn by commissioned officers. THE U. S. COAT OF ARMS is on the hats, caps, and belts of all commissioned officers. Statistics Relating to United States Forces, Casualties, Shipping and Cost of Operations from April 6, 1917, to April 6, 1919. National Guard in Federal service ---- 80,466 Navy -------------------------------------------------- 497,030 R e s e r v e c o r p s in s e r v ic e --------------------- 4,0 0 0 M a r in e C o r p s..................................... 7 8,0 1 7 To~tal of 'soldiers ------------------------------- 212,034 November 11, 1918---. Personnel of Navy ------------------------------ 65,777 Ttlamdfre ------------43914 M arine Corps ------------------------------------ 15, 6 27 o a r e o cea............, 3, 4 April 6, 1917-- Toltal arm ed forces ------------------------- 293,438 Sold ers tra spor edrver eas-----------------------------------------------------------------------3,05,34 A m erican troops in action, N ovem ber 11, 1918.............................................................-1,338,169 Soldiers in camps in the United States, Novem ber 11, 1918 --------------------------------............ 1,700,000 Casu~alties, A rm y -and M arine Corps, A. E. F ------------------------------------------------------------------- 282,311 G e r m a n p riso n erss tta k en.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 4,0 0 0 Americans decorated by French, Britis~h, Belgian and Italian armies, about ---------------- I0,000.Number.of men registered and classified under selective service law ------------------------ 23,700,000 Cost of thirty-two Nat ional Army cantonments and National Guard camps..---------- $179,62 9,49 7 Students enrolled in 500 S. A. T. C. cam ps ------------------------------....................................... 170,000 Officers commissioned fromn training,clamp~s (exclusive -of universities, etc. )................ 80,000 W,om en enga~ged in Governrment war industries -------------------------------------------------------------- 2,000,000 BEHIND THE BATTLE LINES F reig h tt cars: sen t to F ra n ce ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 3,1 7 4 Loc-oinotives of f~oreign origin operated by A. E. F.------................................................. 350 Cars of forei~gn origin operated by A. E. F ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 973 M iles of.standard gau, ge track laid in France ---------------------------------------------------------------- 843 WVareho~u-ses, approxi~m ate area in square 'feet ---------------------------------------------------------------- 23,000,000 M otor vehicleses shiip eed too F rra cee------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 110,000 ARMS AND AMMUNITION Persions employed in a~bout 8,000 ordnance plants in U. S. a~tsigning of armistice -- 4,000,000 Sh oulder rifles M ade durin g w ar ------------------.................................................................... 2,500,000 H ounds of sm all arm s am m unition ------------------------------------.------------------------------------...........,2, 799, 448,000 M achin e gun s an d au to m atic rifles ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 181,662 H ig hh ee xp lo siv e sh e lls........................................................................................................ 4,2 5 0,0 0 0 S h r a p n e l............................................................................................................................-'7,2 5 0,0 0 0 Gas. m asks, -extra canisters and h-orse m asks ----------------------------------------------------------------- 8,500,000 UNITED STATES NAVY AND MERCHANT SHIPPING W a r-sh ip s a t b eg in n in g o f w a r ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1 9 7 W a rsh ip s a t e n d o f w a r ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2,0 0 3 S m all b~oats b u ilt_- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -8 0 0 S u b m a rin e ch a sers b u iltlt---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 5 5 M e rch a n tt sh ip ss a rr e dd -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.------ 2,5 0 0 Naval bases in European waters and the Azores --------------------:---------------54 Shipbuilding yards ('m erchant m arine),increased fro-m 61-to mor~e::than::::--.'-------------- 200 Shipbuilding ways increas~ed from 233 to m ore, than ------------------------------------------------------ 1,000 Ships delivered -to Sh~ipping Board by end of 1918 ---------------------------------------------------------- 592 D eadweightt tonnage. of ships delivered -----------------------------------------------------------------.---------- 3,423,495 UNITED STATES FINAN CES OF THE WAR T otal cost, ap p rox im ately -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.------------ $ 2 4y62 0,0 0 0,0 0 0 C reditss too elee enn n ation ss................................................................................................... 8y8 4 1,65 7,0 0 0 R aisedd byy taxa tioni inn 1 918 ---------------------------.... -------------------------------------------------------.I.----------- 3,6 94,0 0 0,0 00 R aised by L iberty L oan s --------------- ----------------I.-------------- ---------------- ---------------- ---.---.-------- -- 4,0 0 0,0 0 0,0 0 0 W ar Slavings Stam ps,to N ovem ber, 1918 ---------------------------------------- ).-............................... 834,253,000 W arW elr f g ftliest m atdi---s------------------------------------------------------------.I---------000,000yoo FROM 44COMMERCE AND FINANCEs,9 NEWV YORK. ] ) ) ] J ) STEAM VESSELS LOST IN THE WOULD WAR* FROM AUGUST 4, 1914, TO OCTOBER 312 1918. Gross Tons War Marine Total Great Britain............ 7,753.,311 1,032,779 82786)0190 Dominions of Great Britain 169,712 99,866 269,578 Total............... 7,923P923 12132,645 9,055,668 U. S. A. (seagoing)........ 343,090 187P948 531,038 B elgian.............. 900*03. 85 P842 19 P239 10,5,081 B razilian.....--***'......... 20 )328 10 p951 31 P279 Danish..................o 210,880 34,422 245,302 Dutch............. 201,P797 27,244 229)0141 French o........... 722P939 84,138 80:7,077 Greek.............. 349061 65P014 4141675 Italian......... 745,766 115069 861)435 Japanese o.o............. 119p764 1509269 270)033 Morw egian o....... 976)516 195,244 1,171,760 3panish........... o.....o. 157,527 80,)335 327,862 5wedish..............o. o. o 180)415 83,586 264,001 Grand Total........o 121038,4'48 2,186,04 14,3142251 From "Commerce and Fiinanceý" New York City, COST OF THE WORLD WAR IN MO0NEY. G e rm a n y.................-.................................................. $ 2 8,4 0 0,0 0 0,0 6U G rea t B rita in -------------------.* ------------------------------......... 3 1,5 0 0,0 0 0,0 0 0 R u ssiaa ------------------------------------------ ----------------------------.2. 3,420, 0,0,0 00,00 0 0 F ra n cee ------------------------- -------------------------------- -----------.2. 0,0 00 0,0000 00 000 0 U n ite d S ta tes ---------------------------------------------------------- 2 0,0 0 0,0 0 0,0 0 0 A ustria-H un gary ---------------------------------------------------- 12,5 00,0 00,00 0 Ita ly ------------------------------- ------------------------------ -----------. 6,2. 0 0,0000 0,00 0 0 T u r k e yy -------------------------------------- -----------------------------. 1 0.0 100,0 00,0 0 DEBTS OF THE. CHIEF POWERS. J an. 1, 1919 Bfr Allies Great Britain. 1914, A u g. Australia.....1914, June 30 Canada....... 1914, March 31.New Zealand. 1914, March 31 France....... 1914, July 31 Italy......... 1914, June 30 Russ,'a....... 1,914, Jan. I United States. 1917, March 31 Central Po~wers Germany..... 1913,Oct. 1 Austria....... 1914, July 1 Hungary..... J1,913, July I Neutrals Den~mark..... 11914, M[arch 31 Holland...... 11914, Jan. I Norway...... 11914, June 30 Spain...... 191,4, Jan. 1 Sweden... 191,4, Jan. I Switzerland.. 1191,4, Jan. I the War Dollars 34a5S,000,000 93,000,000 33 6.0 00,0 00 44 6,0 00,00 0 6,5 98,0 00,0 00 2,7 92,0 00,0 00 5,09 2a, 0 00, 00 0 1,2 0S, 0 00, 00 0 1,16 5,0 00,00 0 2,640,0 00,000 1,3 45,0 00,00 0 96,716,000 46 9,5 38,00 0 95,782,000 1,88 S, 4 42, 00 0 16 6,8 46,0 00 28,230,000 More Recent Date 19 19 to 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 119 1,9 19 19 Dollars V.S 1o. 33, 0 00,0~0, 0 0 )IS, Alarch 31 1'212,000,000 )18, July 31,.19172,000,000 )17, March 31 611,()00,00 0 )IS, Nov. 1 2 6,0 00,00 0,00 0 )IS, March 31 10,3 28,.0 00, 0 00 )17, Sept. 1 2 5,30S83,'0 00,000 )l-,,April 30 2 8,9 22,0 00,00 0 )IS, July 15,'4 22,00 0, 00 0 )18, July 6, 316,00 0,0 00 )M, arch 31 15 7,8 75,00 0 )1N, Jan. 1 7 62,527,00 0 ý16, June 30 1,33,5 74,0 00 )18, Jan. 1 1,9 87,45 4,00 0 )17, June 30 260,120,000 )17, Nov. 30 187,S76,000 In the case of the United States debt, over $8,000,000,000 in loans to Allies is a partial offset. Great Britain, France and Germany also have made large loans to their allies.

Page  [unnumbered] THE HARBOR OF MANNHEI3M ON THE RIVER RHINE, GERMANY. NORTH AMERICA SOUTH AMERICA

Page  [unnumbered] "OF GERMANY AND THE NEW NATION OF POLAND The Red Lines on This Map Show the Old Boundaries of Germany in 1914 at the Beg-inning of the World War. Pipep fn rld L n A nlo Pldlhiseit- p toe eldoi.l wletlier it shall belona to Germany or Folaud. 0:2 eod- I1 8)7818 e3 g PT. bD,qC fl LS I I I LL cg o ~e tocn w JB~8 O tl PQ: 4) g ~ril O E Pt ga C 4 " QS~ k R" 6 ee o F R. City of Hemel free, under Allied Control. q I: Portion of Schleswig- voted to Denaark Feb. 10, 1920. D.- Portion of Scllleswig voted to Gerimaity March 15, 1920. The dotted lines in Red show the bomndt-Iries be-tiveen the several Couutries.

Page  [unnumbered] NEWNATON OF%. -,L;Ho,.)"SL0VAKHA q AUSTRIA 9 HUNGARY A ND JUGOSLAVIA6 Th~e ]Red Lines on -Tlhis Map Showv the Old 'Boundaries of Aucstria-Hunggary in 1914 be-fore the. Great War 0 I -'D I I Line - tz is~l arsba 'B rerKu' tenberr 0' EI~I~ iofin oCh~u~l loo esch - %%~ Ta or 0r pa USZ y\ se Ala 1114 it k~ udlein'~ i,ý-Audwels tv I ~.I I V OK r e~ na; /IV Turoc 44;00e ren cse no~nbanys tj Ka~ uPPre ~it % 0 -RIA niava.Zho Tyrnau ra;vs Lem ni tz 0 zered,: z 'resobdSalgo T, I.3 V O *Daruvaro 6 7,908~~ a 9 Czechoslovakl',, ustria Hungary and Jugoslavia SCALE OF MILES 0 to 60 11 UopyrIPwht 1.919 The- Kenyorn Compapgny, Des-11ofnnex, lolowA i IC - II~ II~ Iii I I B I1 u~ I F I r, i ~a A. Souathern portionr of Albanmillt in doubt. It mazcy be giye-i to -Greece or staRy wvl;tli Albaida.

Page  [unnumbered] THE GREAT LEADERS GENERAL JOHN J. PERSHING Comnander-in-Chief of the American Forces in France SIR DOUGLAS HAIG Conmnander-in-Chief of pBritish Forces GENERAL FOCH Marshal of France Commanrder in Chief of Allied Armies GENERAL ARMANDE DIAZ Commander-in-Chief of Italian Armies GENERAL PETAIN Commiander-in-Chief of the French Armies REAR ADM. SIR DAVID BE,-!TTY Commander of England's Grand I Weet ADMIRAL WV. S. BENSON Chief of Naval Operations HENRY T. MAYO Admiral the United States Navy MAJOR GEN'L HUGH L. SCOTT National Army

Page  [unnumbered] "PRER~]PAREDNESS"'........CHIEF ARMIES OF T3HE GREAT WNAR Men Enlisted im United States ------------ 3 000ý000 ~I British Empire ------- 71500,000 France ------------------------ 61000,000 Russia ---------------------- 14,000,000 ~(.Italy -------------------------- - 2,500,000..................Belgium, Serbia, Portugal ---------------- IY0001000..... oum ania -------------------- 500,000....................G erm any -------------------- 10,500,000 Entente Allies ------------ 34 500ý000 Auastria-Hungary ------ 7,000,000 Bulgaria ---------------------- 500,000 Turkey ------------------------ 2,000,000 Teutonic Allies ---------- 20,000, 000 AMERICAN TROOPS BREARa~IING CAMPI Total all ------------------ 54p500,000

Page  [unnumbered] MAP OF EUROPE IN 1914 JUST BEFORE THE WAR SHOWING "MITTEL-EUROPA"9 "MITTELt-EUTROPA9" o territory controlled by Germany until the Spring of 1918. SOLID lines show Boundaries of Central Powers. DOTTED lines show outside territory controlled by them. AA 42 I I lelPl - i, _,, I b IIC_ L bL MAP OF ITALY The Red Lines on Italy show the Territory Ceded to Her by Austria at the end of the World War. A-FIUME B-ZARA C-SEBENECO These Three Seaports become Free Cities. F Long. 16* East G from 1 8 Green., r rr 8Psia bl a seas -Q L1Be a m arsdwnnn a sa I-IPI BOQFRIAII 116 s R

Page  [unnumbered] "pF RUM ANIA9 BULG ARIA9 GREECE AND SERBIA The Red Lines on this Map show the Territory ceded to Greece and Bulgaria, They also show the manner in which T9rkey has been divided up. A-New Free -State established by The Peace Congress. B-City and Territory of Constantinople Internationaized. O-Porions ceded to G: reece.. >Mlodmezo kutart, M AP OFV Ru arnia, Bulgaria Greece and Serbia SCALE OF MILEAS tO r) g0 00 GopyrI.ight 1919 Th'lie Xenyon Company, Des Moines, Iowa - - I I I - -- L - -I sPP~ ~ re ~I

Page  [unnumbered] IMPORTANT FACTS CONCERNING PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES OF EUOP I I I mm"7ý 1 1 mmr Countries Area in. Sq. Miles i Albania Andorra Austria Belgium Bulgaria Czecho-Slovakia Denmark Finland France -xermany Greece Holland Hungary Italy Montenegro Norway Poland Portugal RZumania "Russia 3an Marino Servia Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom 24)460.160 37,245 11)373 37Y200 35,261 15,592 145,000 207,054 208,8301 25-,'014 12,648 79,360 110,646 3)630 124,130 85,000 352,490 110,000 8y647,657 I 32 18)650 194,783 172,876 15,976 121,391 Population 1,050,000 6,000 6,429,198 7,074,y910 41284,844 10,ý511,444 2,ý585,660 217502,000 38,961,ý945 64Y9031423 2Y4332806 5,898,429 15Y2321159 321475)253 250,000 2,302,698 22,000,000 5,423,132 14,200,000 160,095,200 2)493y770 19,503,008 5)476y441 3,741,971 45,216,665 Form of Government Kingdom Republic Republic Kingdom Principality Republic Kingdom Republic Republic Republic Kingdom Kingdom Soviet Rep. Kingdom Kingdom Kingdom Republic Republic Kingdom Republic Republic Kingdom Kingdom Kingdom Republic Kingdom Present Consti. Adoptebd 1919. 1831 1878 1918 1849 1919 1875 1919 1864 1815 1919 1848 1905 1814 1918 1910 1866 1918 1889 1876 1809 1848 Present Ruler H. Seitz Albert Ferdinand Thomas G. Masaryk Chri'stian X K. J. Staslberg Raymond Poincare Carl Ebert George Wilhelmina Victor Emanuel III Nichola I Haakon VII Gen'l Jos. Pilsudski Manuel de Arriaga Carol I Nicholos Lenine Peter I Alfonso XIII Gustav V M. Forrer George Title of Ruler King President King Prince President King President President Pres. King Queen President King King King President President King President President King King King President King and Em. Capital Durazzo Andorra Vienna Brussels Sofia Prague Copenhagen Helsingfors Paris Berlin Athens The Hague Budapest Rome Cettinje Christiana Warsaw Lisbon Bukharest Petrograd Borgo Belgrade Madrid Stockholm Bern London National Debt 1914 1,043,675,000 825,518,000 176,5542000 96Y7161000 6,346,129,000 1)194,052,000 206,640,000 461,649,000 2,921,1532000 1,928,000 97,2151000 947,603,000 316,693,000 4,536,939,000 126,232,000 12814,270,000 166,810,000 23,614,000 3,443,799,000 Annual Revenu'e 841897,702 119,5051782 291561,704 25,020,261 852y399,350 678,303308 27,781,064 731'583)688 452)668,984 700,000 38,749,682 661699y631 90,509,232 1,348,613,945 2020032312 205,655,000 55)4141147 28,446,489 737,655)7731 Annual Expenditures Imports R. R. Mileage 160,487,000 155,704,000 49,174,000 29,856,000 1,001,987,000 879,6562000 49,014,000 101,845,000 505,841,O000 850,000 42,800,000 80)9097000 1032507,000 1,8602988,000 42,838,000 219Y9411000 73y3621000 2073501000 961,100,000 Exports No. of PostOffices No. of Merchant Ships ARMY Peace War Footing Footing 582,570,000 714,933,000ý 30,963,000 152,993,2000 1,205,500,000 2,152,2952000 29,844,000 261,235,000 600)5601000 1)3051000 103,613,000 69,943,000, 79Y913)000 4701020,000 14,192,000 167,471,000 165M342000 3091213)000 3,040,127,0001 483)1001000 542,277,000 21,507,000 119,740,000 1)10325841000 12866,777,'000 21,368,000 986,8101000 360)3102000 280,000 70,8392000 33,448,000 73,2302000 514,099,000 17Y94520001 162,038,000] 126,7592000 2117849)0001 1,8402415,0001 26,523 2,942 1,269 2)115 30,028 372026: 844! 1,908 10)640 40 1Y912 1,758; 2,207[ 44,950 430 9,020 8,ý451 3,131 23,280ý 15,124 1,519 2,070 1, 073 13,631 40,ý769 1, 147 9, 823 21. 3,y099 3)682 2)968 13)983 1)502 4)845 3)739 1,953 23,925 15,480 101 4,439 17,376 4,658 1,143 729 5,327 8ý552 640 520 3Y419 855 2,938 2111891 397)129 42,800 57;,800 14)000 638,500 622,483 29,000 34;289 238,617 80,000 30M00 113,642 1,2002000 35,605 115,432 69;081 2087726 742,0361 31,000 2)0001000 180,000 2352000 50,000 1,300,000 3,260,000 50,000 68,850 2,000,000 50,000 110,000 300;000 1707000 4,000,000 200,000 250,000 350,000 802,074 I I I ~J ~ Is ýf I JE i a WORLD WAR COSTS OF THE PRINCIPLNAIN! SGreat Britain United States (not including France Russia Italy Japan Portugal Blim Rmna Mneer colonies)anSe;i Population --------_---------- 107,000,000 46,000,000 40,000,000 175,000,000 36,000,000 56,000,000 6,000,000 75000 75.,0,0,0 TREASURE IN.DOLLARS-" National wealth---------------- 300, 000, 000, 000 i120, 000, 000, 000 90, 000, 000, 000 60, 000, 000, 000 40, 000, 000, 000 28, 000, 000, 000 5,00,0,002000, 000, 000 Wealth per capita_---- _ --------- 2,804 2,609 2,250 343 1,111 500 83326_ National income,_---------------- 60,000,000,000 15, 500, 000, 000 12, 000, 000, 000 7,000,000,000 7,500,000,000 2,600,000,000.500,000,00010, 000...... Income per capit~a----- -------- 561 337 3001 40 208 46 83 1 National debt_-------------------- 24,321, 021,951 ~36,183,000,000 36,000,000,000 28,246,000,000 12,600, 000, 000 1,750,00,000-,250,00,000--5,000,00 National debt before war ----------------- 3,448,000,000 6,409,000,000 4,816,000,000 2,815,000,000 1,300,000,000 560,000,00080,000300000120000 Debt per capita,- - - - - -- - - - - - 227.30 786.-59 900.00 161.41 350.00 ---- ---- ------------ --- Debt per capita before wat -------_-- 12.33 73.36 160.23 27.52 78.19 23.21 93.33 166 02 Debt per cent of wealth_------------ 8.11% 30.15% 40.0070 47.08% 31.5070---------.50------ Debt per cent of wealth before war,..... 510/0 3.83 % 9.86 % 8.03 % 9.38 % 4.64 % 11. 20 % 1500 Interest on national debt, ------------- 1,176,500,000 ý1,575,000,000 1,800,000,000 1,558-,000,000 548,000,000 90,000,000--5,000,00--35,000,00 Interest on.national debt before war --------- 24,512,000 122,500,000 257,300,000 212.,200,000 93,300,000 65,000,000 18,000,000 3,0,0 000001,0,0 Interest ratio to national income --------- 1.96% 10.16% 15.000/ 22.260/ 7.310/ ----.75-%------- Interest ratio to national income before war _ 0.0611%! 1.110/ 3.43% 2.120/ 2.070/ 2.50% 3.6010/00....... Total cost in dollars--,--------------35,000,00(0,000 40, 000,000, 000 28,000, 000, 000 25,000,000, 000 10,000, 000, 000,1,000000,000-50,00-,00--65,000,00 Total cost per capita-i 327.10 869.57 700.00 142.86 277.78 ------------1----------- Total cost per cent of wealth_----------- 11.67 % 33.3370 31.11% 41.67 % 25.00 % ----------------- Total cost per cent of annual income_ 58.330/0 258.060/ 233.33 % 357.1470 133.33 % ------------- MEN Original man power ages 18-45 --------- 22,000,000 *12.000.000 9,000,000 34,000,000 8,000,000 10,500,000 1,200,000 15000,0,0,0,0 Mobilized ------------------- 4,272,521 "7,500,000 7,500,000 12,000,000 5,500,000 800,000 100,000 26, 0 75, 0 7734 Men killed -- ---_ ------------- 78,820 *692,065 1,385,300 1,700,000 400,000 300 4,000 2,0 0,0 2,0 Per cent of total enlistments --------- 1,77%, *9.23 % 18.47% 14.17% 7,270/.04% 4.00% 7.92.6 491 Wounded ----------------.I---- 201,847 *2,037,325 2,675,000 4,950,005 947,000 907 15, 00060 00 1,00 3 00 Percent of total enlistments -----------4.7270 " *27.167c, 35.6770 41.250/0 17.22,70.110/0 15.000/047 6.0 f.2 Captured or missing----------- 8,668 *360,367 446,200, 2,500,000 1,293,000 3 200 1000 8,0 17,0 Per cent of total enlistments_.20 % *4.80 % 5.950/0 20.830/0, 25.330/0.00040/(,.200/30 % 1.7 41 IN TREASURE AND MEN Grand Total 0 Greece Germany Austria- Bulgaria Turkey Entente Central Entente Allies Hungary Allies Powers & Con. Powers 10 5,000,000 65,000,000 53,000,000 4,755,000 21,274,000 491,000,000 14.4,029, 000 635,029,000 -------SO, 000, 000, 000 40, 000, 000, 000 4, 000, 000, 000 8, 000, 000, 000 645, 000, 000, 000 132, 000 000, 000 777, 000, 000, 000 1,231 755 '841 376 1,314 ~.917 1,224 _58,000,000 10,000,000,000 5,000,000,000 400,000,000- 900,0007000 1057258,000,000 16,300,000,000 121,558,000,000 12 154 94 84 42 214 113 191 0404, 000, 000 39, 000, 000, 000 24, 000, 000, 000 545,000,000 1,928,000,000 14'1,504,021,951 65,473,000,000 206,7977,021,951 0213,000,000 5,200,000,000 3,989,000,000 171,000,000 667,000,000. 22,068,044,346 10,027,000,000 32,095,044,346 0 80.80 600.00 452.83 146 90.63 288.20 454.5E' 325.93 5 42.60 76.47 75.26 35.96 31.35 45.13 6S.2C 50.46 48.75% 60.00% 13.63% 24.10% 21.94% 49.60% 26.64% ------6.50% 9.98 O/ 4.27% 8.34% 4.16% 7.32%! 4.81% D 18,000,000 17950,000,000 950,000,000 33,000,000 119,000,000 6,874,500,000 3,.0529,000,000 9,926,5007000 D 8,000,000 200,000,000 165,700,000 8,000,000 50,000,00(0 8057812,000 423, 700,000 1,289,512,000. 31.03 % 19.50 % 19.00 % 8.25 % 13.220/0 6.48 % 18.72 % 8.12 % _ 13.79% 1.90%t 3.45% 4.00% 5.55% 1.14% 2".55% 1.40% 0------ 40,000,000,000 25,000,000,000 2,000,000,000 4,000,000, 000 140,600,000,00C 71,000,000,000 211,600,000,000 D.---.--- 615.38 471.70 420.61 188.02 286.35 492.74 331.21 ------- 50.00% 62. 50%G/ 50% 50% 21.80% 53.79% 27.23% ------- 400.00% 500.00,0/ 500% 444.44% 133.58% 438.580/ 174.07%7 0 1,000,000 14,000,000 12,000,000 1,000,000. 4,0007000 101,700,000 31,000,000! 132,700,000 31 230,000 11,000,000 6,500,0001 400,000 1,600,000 39,6767864 19,500,000] 59,176,860ý o0 15,000 1,611,104 800,0001 101,224 300,000 4,817,485 2,812,328 7,629,813 -0 6.52% 14.65% 12.31% 25.31% 18.75% 12. 14 % 14.42% 12.89% 0 40,000 3,683,143 3,2007000 152,399 570,9000 11,085,084 77605,542 18, 690762&. 0 17.39% 33.48% 49.23% 38.10,7 35.62%, 27.94% 39.00% 31.58% 0 45,000 772,522 17211,0001 10,825 130,000 4,859,438 2,124,347; 6,983,785; 1_0 19-57%1 7.02% 18.63% 2.71% S. 12%L7 12.25% 10.89%10 11.80% 2 qinciucLes j:sritisn uoioiales.Reproduce dby permissionfrom -'Peace and t1)s Price', copyright 1919 by Fire Cfompanies Building CJorporationl -issued for distribution by American Eagle, The Continental and Fidelity-Phenix Insurance Companies

Page  [unnumbered] VIEWS IN RUSSIA IN THTE COUNCIL CHAMBER{. AT BREST-LITOVSK., WHERE PEACE NEGOTIATIONS BE;TW;EEN RUSSIA AND THE CE:NTRAL POWVERS WVERE DISCUSSED fl-ROWD OF BOLSHEVIK, SYM]PATHIZERS MARCHING THROUGH THE STREETS OF PETROGRAD. IN THE RIGHT HAND UPPER CORNER ARE PICTURES OF PREMIER LENINE, AND TROTSKY, LATE FOREIGN MINISTE~R OF THE BOLSHEVIKI GOVERNMIENT DIVISIONAL INSIGNIA OF EACH UNITED STATES ARMY CORPS (FURNISHED BY THE ADJUTANT GENERAL OF THE WAR DEPARTMENT) NO. OF DIVISION NAME NO. OF DIVISION NAME DESIGN DESIGN 1st 2n.d "First Division" 3rd "AMarne Division" 4th 5th 6th 7th "Red Diaimond" None None 8th "Path-finder" 9th None 10th None 11th "Lafayette Division" 12th "Plymouth Division" 13th None 14th "Wolverine Division" 15th None 16th None 17th None 18th "Cactus" 19th "Twilight Division" 20th None 26th "Yankee Division" 27th "New York" 28th "Keystone Di-dsion" 29th "Blue & Gray" 30th "Old Hickory Division"l 31st "Dixie. Division" 82nd "Iron Jaws" Crimson figure "1" on khaki background. Indian head, with background, star and shield; colors varying according to unit. Three white stripes diagonally superimposed upon a square field of royal blue. Four green leaves of ivy superimposed upon a diamond of olive drab. Red diamond. Six pointed star of bright red. Two black equilateral triangles with a base of three centimeters superimposed upon a red circle with a diameter of six centimeters. Dark blue shield on which is superimposed a silver figure "8" pierced by a gold arrow. None. Roman numeral X, in gold, centered in and enclosed by, but not in contact with a circular ring of the same color, both imposed upon a field of marine blue contained in a square. Head of Lafayette in circle. Figure "12" in red on blue ground, pierced by bayonet. Gold border and two gold stars. Circular disc of blue cloth '31/2" in diameter on which is superimposed a red horseshoe with the opening to the top, in said opening the figure. of a cat in black and underneath such figures the numerals 13 in white block figures. Shield shaped panel of deep green upon which is superimposed a disk of yellow with black rim, containing a black silhouette of the head, shoulders and paw of a wolverine. Across the shield above the disk is the word "WOLVERINE" in yellow block letters. None. None. None. Figure "18" in white superimposed on green cactus plant, with motto--"Noli me tangere." None. None. Diamond of khaki cloth with monogram "YD" of dark blue superimposed. Circle of black with band of red inside of which on a black field are seven stars and "N. Y." in monogram. The seven stars represent the constellation of Orion which was adopted in honor of the commander, Gen. J. F. O'Ryan. Red keystone. Korean symbol of good luck in blue and gray. The colors represent union in arms of North arnd South. Monogram in blue, the letter "0" surrounding the letter "H" with three "X's" (Roman numerals for 30) forming the cross bar of the letter "H," all on a maroon background Letters "D. D." superimposed on a triangle of red and blue. Barred arrow of red. 33rd 34th "Sandstorm Division" 35th None 36th "Lone Star Division" 37th 38th 39th 40th None Yellow cross on black circle. Black circle encircling a red bovine skull, reminiscent of Camp Cody, New Mexico, where division trained. Santa Fe Cross within two circles of varying colors, the outer one divided into four arcs. Circular disk of olive drab cloth upon which is superimposed an arrow head of cobalt blue and within the arrow head is an olive drab block letter "T." The block letter "T" represents Texas and the arrowhead Oklahoma. Red circle with a white border. Shield of blue and red upon which is superimposed the monogram "C. Y." "Sunshine Division" 41st "Sunset Division" 42nd "Rainbow Di-vision" 76th 77th "Metropolitan Division" 78th 79th "Liberty Division" 80th "The Blue Ridge Division" 81st "Stonewall Division" S2nd "All American Division" 83rd None 84th "Lincoln Division'"' 85th "Custer Division" 86th "Black Hawk" 87th None 88th None 89th "M3iddle West Division"l 90th "Alamo Division" 9out 92nd 93rd Golden sun superimposed on field of red setting behind blue hills. Parti-colored quadrant, suggesting, in conventional design, the are of a rainbow. Gold Statue of Liberty on blue background. Red cloth semicircle 3" in diameter crossed diagonally from upper right hand edge of circumference down to opposite corner by a white bolt of lightning. Gray Lorraine Cross on blue shield. Symbol of liberty, justice and freedom. Shield of olive drab cloth upon which are superimposed three blue hills, representing the Blue Ridge Mountains. Wildcat of varying color. Red square with blue circle superimposed. With the letters "A. A." embroidered in the circle, gold for officers and white for enlisted men. Golden monogram "0. H. I. O." on black triangle. Red hatchet with blue handle inside red circle. Word "Lincoln" in blue letters and numerals "84" also in blue. Scarlet letters "C. D." mounted on circle of khaki cloth. A red shield upon which is superimposed a black hawk with spread wings and the letters "BH" in black on a small red shield on its breast. Acorn superimposed on dark green circle. Two figures "8" crossing at right angles to each other giving the appearance of Maltese cross made of loops. Colors varying. Black letters "M. W." surrounded by circle of black. Conventionalized "TO" in red-Texas and Oklahoma. Green.fir tree. Buffalo, Color varying. Blue helmet on black circle. _ __ __

Page  [unnumbered] WORLD WAR CHANGES IN THREE CONTINENTS Map OF Australia On the Map of Australia the Letters in Red show former German Posse'ssions. (A) German New Guinea-70,000, square miles (to Australia). (B) Bismark Archipelago -20,000 square miles (to Australia). (C) Solomon Islands-4,200 square miles. (D) Caroline Islands-560 square miles. (E) Marshall Islands-150 square miles. (.F) Samoan Islands-1,000 square mileos. (Note)--All rights to these Islands ceded to the Allied Governments. Total Population 600,000. Area about 96,000 square miles. I I (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Map of Asia (With special Map of PALESTINE) On the above Map Letters in Red show changes as follows: Kiao Chau and Shantung Peninsula (All German interests ceded to Japan). Tiensin (All German rights ceded to China). Hankau (All German rights ceded to China). Solid Red Line through Palestine shows course of British Army on its route from Suez to Beirut. Trans-Siberian Railroad from Vladivostok to Petrograd. Map of Africa (Former German Possessions are Shown in Green) (A) German Southwest Africa--aea 322,450 square miles. Population 400,000. (B) German East Africa--area 384,180 square miles. Population 7,000,000. (C) German Kamerun-area 191,130 square miles. Population 4,000,000. (D) German Togo Land-area 38,660 square miles. All these German Colonies with an area of over 900,000 square miles and population of about 9,000,000 people ceded to Allied Powers.

Page  [unnumbered] HTWESTERN RUSSIA AND THE UKRAINE -REPUBIC SCALE 75 MILES TO I INCH. AKEa aerko o od opý a L.I L A1 Ta o e hoi s 0 Iteshit0 r l 1. si en r a s n a o o B O T O -n ' t met 0 hagn Valoluovc, gW0 ors o. o s IskAlaum 0 - o (y 2ov az K asnoeste o s Yer o 4 E 13KOFSlb a o E Cro 1_0 e zobeni M, 7 7 o PnceD --- -1. S evg.4 7 rfttid= r A4~ V 77Y.INova rje % gormv.d po.0ao JTOMRi II u vsKo \77, T 3 f eo h 4,ý ati g ztat A S o In W -.30 r A-Ym po a e r ISP uu-WiE, 4 Al g qc 0 Sav }T ai 4.P CAOt rn 3 nd v~

Page  [unnumbered] AIRSHIP FLIGHTS OVER THE ATLANTIC AN AMERICAN MADE THE FIRST SUCCESSFUL FLIGHT IN AN AIRSHIP ACROSS THE ATLANTIC OCEAN An American made the first suceces~sful flightil narsi a!cross h tatcOcen omni rA.R can Navy, with five companions, started May 8th rmRcaa Beach, New York, landed at Plymouth, EnglandMy3st 99 X, in the sea-plane N. C. 4. His course as shownonteapws....1. Rockaway Beach. 2. Halifax 1st stopping place. 3. Trepassy Bay 2nd stopping place. 4. Ponta Delgado 3rd stopping place.............5. Lisbon 4th stopping place, 6. Half way between Lisbon and rlymouth.......... Plymouth.......May 18th, 1919. Harry Hawker, an Australian copne by Lt. Com. Grieve of the British Air Service, satdfo t John, Newfoundland, for The Coast of Ireland. Te lwoe 800 miles when engine trouble compelled them todsen.Te were picked up on May 19th and landed in ScotladnMy26h A. St. John, Newfoundland. X B. Spot where Hawker descended..........C. Thurso, where Hawker was landed. England's succes'sful attempt was made by CpanJh 1 cock and Lt. A. W. Brown of the English Air Serie( womd........EM........ the first non-stop flight across the Atlantic, June 4ad15 99 KX.WIMM-.in sixteen hours and twelve minutes. They satdfo t -------Johin, Newfoundland, and landed at Clifden, Ireln,,60mie...........jij........... as shown by E on the m ap. The seco-nd,,succ~essful attempt was made by theEgihdri ble R-34,_ which completed the longest voyage ofisininhtory. The distance covered was 3,200 miles in 18hus h carried 31 persons. The air craft started from Eibrh ct N. C. 49 READY TO START ON ITS TRIP ACROSS THE ATLANTIC OCEAN land on July 2nd, 1919, and landed at Roosevelt ilMnoa N. Y., July 6th. She left on her return journeyJl t n reached England July 13th. Route shown on mapb etrF THE NATAL SEAPLANE T VICKER'S IMY AIRPLANE, USED BY CAPTAIN ALCOCK IN HIS NON-STOP FLIGHT ACROSS THE ATLANTIC COMMANDER A. C. REED Of the American Airship NC-4. The first man to cros's the Atlantic in the race between the Americans and English.

Page  9 A-- ]BRI~EF ~HISTORY OF THBE GREAT WlSAR.Pagee Ninee ---~ - --- -- ---lh-- - I--- _ _I ____ - C Continued Froml Page Eiglat ean and Red Seas. In the first week of Fiebruary, 1916, a Turkish force of about 15,000 attempted to attack the canal. The British troops were helped by the gunfire of British and French war ships in the canal: and the Turks were soon in full retreat. In December, 1916, -after a period of preparation, the British began a new advance along the Tigris. Lieut.-General F. S. Maude, with 120,000 men and a large flotilla of river war craft, did not meet with any serious resistance -until January 9, 1917, when there was Itwo days' sharp ~fighting with the Turk~s intrenched northeastt of Kut-el-Amara. During the next seven weeks a series of eng~agements took place for the possession of the different positions on -the two sides of the Tigris, river and in the bends, where the Turks had many ~excellent vantage po~ints. But one by one the British succeeded in driv~ing the Turkss out, and on Feebruary 26 they had the satisfaction of again occupying Ku~t-el-Ahmara. They continued to make rapid headway, and on March 11, 1917, occupied the historic city of Bagdad. A-n important result of their success was that Turkish resistance to the Russians collapsed, and with small opposition the Russians advanced into Mesopotamia and effec~ted.a junction with the British. In the process a considerable portion of the Turkish army was cut off. That Palestine should once more be the scene of great events- was another surprise produced by the war, but since the dismemberment of. the Turkish Empire was one of the aims of the Allies, it seemed a matter of course that a British army from EgyTpt, under the command of General Sir Archibald Murray, should march into ancient Judea. Having laid down a military railway from Suez across the Sinai Desert to Rafa, on the Turkish border, the British began the invasion of Palestine, where heavy but indecisive fighting occurred during the summer of 1917. In June, 1917, Gen'l Sir E. H. H. Allenby took command of the expeditionary force. After a long postponement, their advance was resumed in October, 1917. Under cover of heavy artillery fire the British took Beersheba on October -6. An advance on Jerusalem now followed. On the 11th of December, Jerusalem itself fell, the Holy City passing from the domination of the MIoham~mendan Turks to the Christian British. The Turks fled with the British in close pursuit, and the year ended with the important places of the Holy Land wrested from "the unspeakable Turk." THE' ITALIAN RE.BE4ESE--In the middle of May the Italians. initiated an ex-- ceedingly fierce offensive. It lasted eighteen days, despite the fact that the Austrians, against whom it was direc~ted, had been able to strengthen their lines with troops drawn from th 'e Russian front. The Italian drive was made on a f ront extending from Tolmino, just across the frontier in Austria, to the Adriatic sea. A foothold had been gained on the Carso Plateau, in 1916, after the capture of Gorizia. By attacking unexpectedly the Italians succeeded in gaining considerable ground in May, 1917. They were handic~apped, however, by lack of shells, and the advance was soon halted by the reinforced Austrians. On August 19 the Italians l~aunched another great off~ensive, along a thirtyseven-mile f ront,- from. the region of Tolmino to near the head of the Adriatic sea. On August 24 they gained a great success by occupying Monte Santo, one of the great mountain defenses. A week later they had pushed ahead seven and onehalf miles on a front of eleven miles, occupying more than forty Aaustrian towns and villages. Here their advance was held and the Atustrians, strongly reinforced by German veterans from the western front, m~ade a fierce attack on October 24 upon the Italian lines along the Isonzo river. The Italian line broke. On1 October 28 the Huns entered Gorizia. The Italians fell back in disorderly retreat to northern Italy. Their first attempt to hold the onrushing invaders was made, behind lines along the Tagliamento river in Venetia. On November 4 this river was reached by the Austrians and, Germans, who swept over the new defenses. T~he Italians. wiere pushed b~ac~k to the Piave river by November 9. Here a real stand was made. The Teutons eff~ected several crossingfs and bade fair to sweep down upon the famous city of Venaice, which was especially forti~fied for the anticipated attack. On November 19 the Central Powers reached the line on Monte Tamba and Monte Monf enera, the last defensive positions before the Venetian plain, only eight miles distant. The Italians made one final, desperate stand and held the invaders there for the balance of the year. Venice was imperiled, but it had not fallen,-and win not longer propose to support the old -despotism~. The workingmen and the soldiers united against the Czar. On Mlcarch 15 the Duma and the W~orkmen's. Council appointed a provisional government, selecting two of their number to demand of the Czar that he abdicate, along with his son and heir. The,Czar signed the decree of abdication and autocracy was at an end in Russia. Anarchy supplanted it. The first great issue whzich divided the Russian nation was the question of peace. The split came when the new foreign minister,. in a note to the Allies on May t, tried to commit the provisional Russian -government to a continuance of the war policy of the Czar. His resignation was demanded. The socialists were in the rnaddle. They secured the adoption of their "peace at any price" ideas. Alexander Kerensky became the manl of the hour, as minister of war. The United States recognized the provisional govern Iment; other allies followed. Kerensky was magnetic; he became the military leader of his country as well as the political. He rallied the remnants of the Russian armies to him and proposed an offensive against the Central Emlpires. It was a great effort, but not destined to last moree than a couple of weeks. Soon there was a complete reversal of fortune and the advancing Russian troops mutinied, retreated and finally fled in a rout. F~rom that time on the Russian army was no longer a ~fighting force. The object of the Russian offensive, which was launched on July 1,, with Kerensky leading, was Le~mberg, the capital of Galicia. By July 11, Halioz, the. strategic key to Lemberg, was occupied by the Russians, and a week later the! d~riv~e reac~hed its farthest point, forty miles e~ast of Lemberg. On July 21 the Russian army was in a mutinous condition and the retreat in Galicia was in full swing, extending in a couple of days to the whole 150-mile front. The pursuing Austro-German armies swept everything before them. But this was not thne last of Russia's misfortunes. Toward the end of August the Germans began to make a thrust at Riga, in western Russia. The Russians abandoned Riga and fled in a rout. Thereafter they were to make no serious stand against any of the Teutonic forces, but either fled, surrendered or fraternized with the enemy. Russia was definitely out of the war. German diplomatic intrigue and German force of arms had broken down the great Russian monarchy and army. Russi'a sued for peace, and a humiliating treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk, March 3, 1918. Germany had won, the greatest victory of the war by removing Russia from the ranks of the Allies. SUMMARYtaR O~F 1917 CAIVEPAIGNS-~S Neither side could consider with unmixred satisfaction the results of 1917. The Allies saw with deep sorrow the disastrous defeat of Italy, who only by the most strenuous exertions was holding the foe away frbm her richest provinces. The loss of Russia and her vast man power and great resources-all now open to Germany-wa~s another and most severe blow. Thei expendi~ture of tensr of thousands of brave men on the west front had made little change there. France was war weary and bled white, yet the G(erman fo-e still ýeld tenaciously to their lines. The entrance into the war on the side of -the Allies of the United State's of America was, however, as staggering to the Central Powers as the defeat of Italy and defection of Russia had proved to their opponents. The vast resources, abounding energy and militant man power of the great Republic was being rapidlymobilized for the great work to which she had 'set her hand; and Germany waited with ill-disguised dread the opening of the campaign of 1918, when this new, fresh and most powerful of foes would show her real metal. CHAPATER Ti. THE CA31PAIGNP OF 1918--The first three months of the closing,".ýear of the war saw little actual fighting. They were important months, however. Two of the nations which had been aligned with the Allies 'Russia since the very beginning of the war, Roumania, the other, since the, late summer of 1916--were decisively defeated; and were- suing for a separate peac~e. The opposing arm~ies were apparently deadlocked in Flanders, northern F~rance and northern Italy. The,_ armies and the generals had been trying each other out' for' four years. Each knew the metal of the other. Each hoped for a strategic advantage, but both realized that this might not come. soon. The Allies-,were pinning their faith to the United States, whence a steady stream of well-trained and finely-officered troops was flowing across the Atlantic ocean. The manner of warfare was new to the se Americans.; the United States troops must be trained to the minute before they AMERICAN RE BED CROSS NURSES3 MARCHING THROUGH THE: STREETS OF PARIS ON JULY 4TH. entered the fray. Germany pretended to look contemptuously upon the men from overseas. But they had looked contemptuously on Britain's first hundred thousand, an *d Britain was now represented by four million men, as good soldiers as' the sun ever shone on. America was shortly to give Germany another great lesson in what; an aroused democracy could do. Russia and Roumania were put out of~the fighting in the first quarter of the Snew year. With the downfall of the Czar in 1917, a condition approaching anarchy resulted. In an offcial proclamation issued on February 10, 1918, the Russian government announced its decisioan to withdraw from the war. The declaration was 69no war, but no peace"-Russia simply proposed to dr~op out of actual hostilities. This declaration did not meet with Germany's appr~oval. Accordingly, on February 15.. Germany announced that it had dec~ided to resume military operations against Russia. On. February, 18 this drive began, the Germans crossing the bridges over the Dvina river, which the retreating Russians had failed to blow up. SAll along a front stretching from the Baltic coast to Volhynia the invading German troops marched eastward..The Russian forces were demoralized and fled in complete rout. On March 3 a preliminary peace treaty was signed at -BrestLitovsk by the thoroughly whipped Russians and the victorious Germans. At that time the Germans reported the capture of 6,800 Russian officers, 57,,000 men, 2,400 guns, innumerable machine guns and motor vehicles, 800 locomotives. and enormous quantities of munitions and supplies. Russia was obliged to surrender ter~ritory in the western part of the empire equ~al in area to all of Germany and AustriaHungary. In addition it was obliged to agree to pay an indemnity of over $4.,500,000,000. Because of the collapse of Russia, Roumania found itself obliged to sue for peac~e. It was completely hemmed in by the Central Powers. Field Marshal von Mackensen, of the German army, sent an ultimatum to the Roumanian government, on February 6. He demanded an immediate surrender. On M~arch 5. at Bucharest, a preliminary peace treaty was signed by Germany and, Roumania. Within two days (March 3 and March 5) Germany had signed peace treaties with two of the enemy: Russia and Roumania. The Allied war conference, consisting of the prime ministers and foreign ministers of Great Britain, France and Italy issued a declaration, on March 19, refusing to recognize these peace treaties and pledging their countries to continue, fighting until they had "finished once for all the Germany policy of plunder and established in its place the peaceful reign of.organized justice."' CZECH-SLOTAKIA DECLARES IND~EPENDPENCE--In the me~antime, importanrt political events had been occurring in~ other parts of the war-stricken area. 1A declaration in favor of complete independence for Bohemia, Moravia and -Silesia (provine,'es of the Austrio -Hungarian monarchy) and forming them into a unified Czech-Slovak state was adopted at Prague., Bohemia, on January 6, 1918. -It created a new nation, unified ac~cording to language, rather than geographical lines. The Austro-Hungarian. empire was beginning to crumble. No important military events occurred on any of the battle fronts-in January. In F'rance and Filanders there were frequent isolated raids in ma~ny'sectors., but no general engagements. In Palestine the British advanced several miles beyond Jerusalem and firmly secured their conquest of that city. On'the Italian front the Austrians were driven back across the lower Piave river, strengthening Sthe belief that the Venetian plain would be safe from further invasion. The chief military engagement in F(ebruary occurred in the invaded region of Italy. In co-op~eration with British and French batteries, the Italians drove the Austrians. from the positions -rthich threatened the Venetian plains and captured several thousand prisoners. The pressure by the Teutonic invaders. on the critical fronts was relieved and immediate danger of a further off~ensive by the Austrians was removed. The British made further advances beyond Jerusalem. On the western front., in France, there were numerous skirmishes and trench raids, but no operations of consequence. The movement of *troops by Germany from the,east to the west deepened the conviction that this concentration was preliminary to an offensive on a: wider scale than any since the flrst invasion. American troops were flowing steadily into France. The embarkatifon of ALmerJoan troops, since the declaration of war on April 6. 1917, and prior to the opening

Page  10 Pag~e Ten A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE GREAT WlAR _ II __I I I I C II of, the big drive in March, 1918., was as follows: 1917 November,-------------------~-----,,~-.- 23,,016 M ay............,... -------------............... 12718 D ecem ber -------------------------~_---- ----- ----- 48,840 -T 1in P 19 991 1918 91.U - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- L )1 U. July.....................-,,,.................. 12,988 A ugust............................................ 18323 Septem ber........................................ 32.,523 O ctober.......................................... 38, 259 January -------------------------------------- -.- 46,776 F 'ebruary ------------------------------- - --------- 48pO27 M arch -------------------------------------..... 830811 Total ------------------------------------------- 669542 THE G;REAT GrERMIAN OFFENSITE--The most desperate and bloody battle in history began with the great G~erman off~ensive against the allied lines in northern France on March 21, 1918. No less than 4,000,000 men were engaged along a front of 150 miles. The action is commonly called the battle of Picardy, taking its name from the old French province in which it occurred. General Fierdinand Foch, of France, was made commander-in-chief of the allied armies on March 28, so that the major part' of this great and sanguinary battle found the troops of Great Britain, France and United States acting as one unit under one centralized command. The Germans struck the allied lines from points where their railways allowed them the greatest possible concentration of troops and where the lines of the Allies, owing to the failures at'Lens, St. Quentin and L~aFere the year before, were relatively weak. They were aiming at three objectives: The British channel ports., Amiens and Paris. --They were prepared to sacrifice a million of men to win these objectives. They continued their old time policy of hurling immense 'forces in direct frontal attacks. ITheir men were mowed down, but line succeeded line in a seemingly never-ending stream. After three and one-half years of terrific fighting, Germany still had a vast force of trained men on whom to rely. In September.. 1917, the Allies made this estimate of German man power: Men actually employed in army on the front, behind lines and in interior 5,500,000 Perm anent losses..........................................~.............................. 49000.,000 Perm anently unfit...................................................................... 201O0 pO00 Men in treatment in hospital.....,.....,_~~................................;............ 000000 Men required in interior for life of c~ountry---;........................,...........,,,.,. 500oOOO M iscellaneous............................................................... 12,500..0100 T otal.................................................................................1, 0 P O In the first phase of the battle the enemy swept everything before them down the Somme river and its southern tributary, the Avre, to within six miles of Amiens, and to within forty-six miles of the English Channel. They eliminated the remainder of the Cambrai salient, won by the British the preceding November, at great cost. The Huns then concentrated their attack between St. Quentin and LaE'ere, near where the British and French armies joined. On March 24 the Germans succeeded in crossing the Somme. river,, south of Peronne. On the same day the -towns of Chauny and Ham were captured by them. On March 27 the British began a retreat on a wide, front on both sides of the Somme. On that day the city of Albert was evacuated. On the 29th., the French counte~r attackred and recovered eight square miles between Lassigny and Noyon. West. of this, howev~er, the Germans, operating on a twelve'mile front, penetrated seven miles, enveloping the town of Montdidier. The first phase of the battle was a decided German success. Within four days they had gained an area of about 550 square miles. During this first rush the Germans claimed to have captured 75,000 British soldiers and 600 large guns. The forces operating were enormous., The British troops numbered 675,,000 on the advanced line, the French 1,575.,0OO, the Germans 1,165,000., with heavy reserve forces ready for any emergency., No battle in all history found so many men concentrated in such a small area. The second phase, of this great battle began on April 9. By that time the Germans had concentrated their positions on a front which had expanded from 75 miles to 125 miles. They had r- gained about 700 square miles of ground. The Germans struck between the important British depots of Arras and Ypres,, forty miles apart, concentrating-on a twelve-mile front. During the two following days -the concentration moved forward five miles, penetrating between Armentieres and Messines. After eight days of terrific fighting the Germans had won 825 square miles of territory. THE SECOND BATTLE OF THE MARNE--On May 27, General Ludendorff,, in command of the German armies, began what is known as the second battle of the Marne. The engagement was on a forty-mile front. Ludendorff hurled enormous bodies of troops against the Allied forces in bloody frontal attacks. He forced the Aisne river on an eighteen-mile front on May 28. On May 31 he reached the Marne on a six-mile front aving penetrated thirty miles to the south. He had occupied about 650 square 'Miles of French territory and had reduced his nearest app~roach to Paris from sixty-two to forty-four miles., and from the Forest lished fact. 'On June 15, this failure was ac~knowledged by the sudden launching of an Austrian offensive in Italy. Ludendorff was plainly attempting to divert a large force of the Allies from the French front to the relief of the Italians. His drive toward Paris had come perilously near to success, but the Germans were held at Chateau Thierry, within forty-four miles of the French capital. THE TICTORY AT CHATEAU THIERR'YT-The noble victory gained by the Americans and French in the salient at Chateau Thierry on June 6 undoubtedly. marks the turning point of the 1918 campaign--the date on which the Allies tookr the offensive on a great scale and started the marvelous advance which terminated on November 11 with the unconditional surrender of the Germa~n armies. The credit for the beginning of this great advance at this time belongs unquestionably to the Americans. It wa~s an American division., consisting largely of American marines, that by a magnificent attacki on June 6 halted the German advance and started them back toward their own lines. They drove the Germans back for nearly two miles along a front of several miles, captured over a thousand prisoners and put to rout two crack divisions of Prussian troops that had been pickred especially to oppose the "Dogs of Americans," as the Germans affectionately called our troops.. Up to date the French and British, tired out by four years of warfare and weakened by the tremendous blows of the Germans, had stood strictly on the defensive. Encouraged., however, by this success, and by the constantly increasing number of fresh and vigorous American troops now arriving, they commenced the great offensive which terminated in November in the complete defeat of Germany. 'While we-are not to forget that the vastly greater part of that defeat is attributable to the great French and English armies, yet we may ever remember that the beginning of that defeat., and the fact that it did begin on June 6', is attributable to the splendid courage and dash of the American troops, who 9 almost against the will of, the Allied generals., attacked the Prussian Guards at Chatn~au --Thierry on June 6., 7 and 8, 'and force'd them back. CANTIaENYP-The success at Chateau Thierry was followed up by the Axnerieans, who attacked the German line northwest of the town during the night of June 19. They advanced more than half a mile. Cantigny., on the Montdidier sector, was the scene of another fierce struggle on the morning of June 20, when American t~roops stormed the German trenches and machilne gun nests in front of the villa'e. Most of the German troops, acting under orders to hold their positions at all costs, were killed. By far the most complete operation planned and executed by American troops in the early summer fighting, was the American advance in the Marne valley on July 1, resulting in the capture of Vaux. The advance was on a two-mile front to a depth of about a mile. The Australians in their advance at Hamel of one and one-half miles on a four mile front., on July 4. had the assistance of the Americans. THE GERM~IIANS ARE HELD-W7~hile the Germans had been successful in pushing ahead and capturing F~rench territory, their failure to reach any of their objectives (the Channel ports, Amiens, or Paris), coupled with the frightful price they had paid in killed and wounded, constituted a German defeat almost approaching a disaster. The Germans had lost between 300,000 and 400,000 men and were no nearer victory than they had been when the offensive was begun on M~arch 21. PERtSHING;'S REPO~RT ON THE FIGHPTING-in his report to Secretary of W~ar Baker, General John J. Pershing, in command of the American troops in Firance,, pays high tribute to his men who fought so gallantly at Chateau Thierry, Cantigny, Belleau Wiood and Vaux. General Pershing states that when matters were the most; critical for the Allies, in the first few days of the tremendous German drive, he placed at the disposal of Marshal Fioch all of the American forces, -"to be used as he might decide." This was one of the great turning points of the war. It made practicable the unified command, without which the Allies., fighting enemies under a unified command, could hardly have hoped to win. Marshal Fioch accepted the offer and the American troops were employed to the best advantage, with undying credit to themselves and their country. General Pershing makes this offlcial report of the action of the American troops in the battle of Picardy, and the second battle of the Marne, between April 2 6 and July 4: "'On April 26 the first division of Americans (30,000) had gone into the line in the Montdidier salient on the Picardy battle front. Tactics h~ad been suddenly revolutionized to those of open warfare, and our men,, confident of the results of their training, were eager for the test. This division attacked the commanding' German division in its front, taking with splendid dash the town of Cantigny and all other objectives, which were organized and held steadfastly against vicious counter attacks and galling artillery fire. Although local,, this brilliant action had an electrical effect., as it demonstrated our fighting qualities under extreme battle conditions., and also that the enemy's troops were not altogether invincible." There followed the German thrust across the Aisne river toward Parisknown as "the second battle of the Marne,," and General Pershing continues: "The Allies faced a crisis equally as grave as that of the Picardy offensive in March. Again ever ý available man was placed at Marsh~al F'och's disposal, and the third division., which had just come from its preliminary training in the trenches, was hurried to the Marne., Its motorized machine gun batallion preceded the other units, and successfully held the bridgehead at the Marne opposite Chateau Thierry. "The second division, in reserve near IMontdidier, was sent by motor trucks and other available transport to check the progress of the enemy toward Paris. The division attacked and retook the town and railroad station at Bouresches and sturdily.held its ground against the enemy's best guard divisions. "In the battle of Belleau WVood which followed, our men proved their superiority and gained a strong tactical position, with far greater loss to the enemy than to ourselves. On Jiily 1, before the Second was relieved.. it captured the village,of Vaux with most splendid precision." From this brief recital, it can be seen that the American troops stood between the enemy and his goal--Paris--like the proverbial stone wall. "'They shall not pass" was their watchword, as it was of the F~rench at Verdun. The heroes of Chateau Thierry., of:Cantigny and of Vaux, held up the crack Prussian guards, and autocracy's doom was sounded in the roar of the heavy guns. AMERICA TO THE RESCUE--While these great battles were going on, American soldiers were reaching France in a constantly widening stream. In April, she had been preparing for a month. Save for a costly attempt to carry Rheims by a prodigious assault on June 18, the German armies had been on the defensive for a month on the three fronts--in France, in Italy and in the Balkans. They had lost a total of almost a half million men since March 21. During the same time the loss of the Allies had been around 150.,000. On July 15., General Ludendorff risked everything on one more drive. He opened it up along a sixty-mile 'front from Chateau Thierry on the Marne, up the river beyond Dormans, then northward across the Vesle and around Rheims, then due east to a few miles west of the Argonne forest. For this he had well on toward 800.,000 men. On the 15th he attacked the Americans northwest of Chateau Thierry,, at Vaux. Twenty-five thousand Germans crossed the Marne. The Americans counter attackbed and drove 15,000 back across the river. The rest remained as casualties or prisoners. That night General Foch is reported to have said: "I am content." FOCH OPENS HIS GRIEAT OFFENSITE--It was at this juncture that General Fioch, w~ho had been biding his time with characteristic p~atience, seized the opportunity to deal a crushing blow. He suddenly assumed the offensive. On July 18 he ordered an advance along a twenty-eight mile front between the Marne, neai Chateau Thie~rry, and the Aisne, west of Soissons. It was a complete success. The entire line advanced from four to six miles, thousands of prisoners were taken, and a blow of far-reaching effect was delivered. From that day on the tide never turned; the Ailies swept on to ultimate victory, a victory in which the stars and stripes play~ed a most heroic and important part. The exact numbet of German troops in action when Marshal F'och began his advance can be estimated wjith fair accuracy. On March 21, 1918, when General Ludendorff began his offensive, there were 1,430,0,00 German soldiers, together with.299,000 reserves' a total of 1.,729,000 men. Approximately one half of these men were on the casualty li~sts by the last of May. Reinforced, however.. by troops brought from other:Fre~nch lines and from Russia, it is probable that the Germans had around 1,750,000'men under arms on the French front when Marshal Fioch began his offen sive. With these men the German general was attempting to defend a line 2'50 miles long. This meant an average of 7,180 men to the mile, whereas, with a line only: 175 miles in length and wit~h more men at his command, Ludendorff had an average of 8,666 men to the mile when he launched his spring offensive. For the first time in the four years of the war the Allies were.able to assemble a greater army of men and a larger supply of guns, shells and munitions of all kinds thani their opponents. The Allies' offensive was begun on the morning of July 18. American and French detachments unde~r General Mangin, of the French army, attacked the Germans under the Crown~ Prince. The attack extended from Ambleny, six miles west of Soissons, south to Bouresches, five miles northwest of Chateau Thierry-- a front of about twenty-eight miles. The troops advanced six miles the first day. In two days the AL~les took 17,,000 prisoners and more than 360 large guns. By

Page  11 A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE GREAT WAR Page Eleven - ~I I I mm.mmmý July 23 the Soissons-Chateau Thierry line was almost entirely in the hands of the Americans and French. The Americans had advanced to six miles beyond Chateau Thierry. The booty amounted to nearly 25,000 prisoners, over 400 guns and vast stores of supplies. The Allies for the second time forced the Germans back across the Marne. The end of the first week of Foch's offensivie found the German Crown Prince using every effort to save his armies from being surrounded and his guns and supplies from being captured, by hurrying them to the north. On -August 1, the official French report gave the total number of prisoners taken since July 15 on the Marne and Champagne fronts at 33,400, of whom 674 pere officers. On August 2, the French occupied the important manufacturing and strategic city of Soissons, which the Germans had captured. in their advance on May 29, 191.8. The Crown Prince retreated along three lines: on the River Lys salient north of LaBassee, in the region of Albert, and between the Avre river and the town of Montdidier. While these events were transpiring in the Marne sector, Marshal Foch launched another offensive on the Picardy salient, between Albert and Montdidier. The Allies' objective was the line between Peronne and Roye. The attack was launched as a surprise, the Germans being taken unawares. Americans, British and French pushed determinedly ahead. On August 10 Montdidier was captured, 25,000 prisoners being taken. The total casualties of the Allies were less than 6,000. Over 100,000 German soldiers had been pushed back. By August 12 the region known as the Massif of Lassigny had been taken and the number of prisoners had increased to 40,000. By the 18th, British, under General Rawlinson, were only one mile from Roye. Artillery, infantry and cavalry (used whenever possible in open fighting) were augmented by aeroplanes and tanks. In the first month of Foch's offensive, the Germans were outgeneraled and outfought by the Allies, and had lost much valuable territory previously conquered, which in the spring they had squandered hundreds of thousands of lives in taking. THE BEGINNING OF THE END--The ensuing sixty days were unquestionably the darkest in Germany's history. One defeat followed another, until the whole campaign took on the appearance of a continuous disaster. Every day throughout August and September victory rested with the Allies. Over 200,000 German prisoners and 2,250 big guns were captured; all territory up to the Hindenburg line (established by the German commander and fortified so as generally believed to be impregnable) was taken from the enemy, and at numerous points the line was penetrated to a depth of from five to fifteen miles. On August 29 the American and French troops drove the Germans out of Juvigny, a village of strategic importance. Here, for the following five days, one American division (30,000) fought-four of the best divisions Germany had, beating them decisively. The Americans captured 2,000 prisoners and on a narrow front of two miles made an advance of four miles. Meantime the Allies had taken Lassigny on the 21st, Roye on the 27th, Noyon and Chaulnes on the 29th. The troops were moving eastward and northward in an uninterrupted progress. North of the Somme the British began a drive which gave them the town of Albert on August 22. They pressed ahead and occupied Bapaume the same day that the French and Americans took Noyon. The Hindenburg line was pierced on August 25; it had been found to be vulnerable, and the Allies were well on toward-their goal---France clear of the invader. All these operations were of vital importance. In the north they opened up the Bapaume-Cambrai road as far as Beugny and the Roye-Peronne-Cambrai highway to a point north of Peronne, taken by the British on September 1. In the south they delivered the whole of the Roye-Noyon-Soissons railway into the hands of the Allies. The Allies were securing possession of -the railways and highways the Germans had used so successfully for the moving of troops and supplies. THE A31ERICANS AT ST. MI3HIEL--On September 12 the first American army to be mobilized in France, commanded by General Pershing, began an assault on the famous St. Mihiel salient, which for four years had stood an impenetrable barrier between the Allies and the great iron fields to the north. Its presence, together with the German fortresses around Metz, prevented any attempt to invade German Lorraine from the lines held by the French when they withdrew, in September, 1914, after their short-lived invasion of the "lost provinces" of Alsace and Iorraine. General Pe lshing preceded his attack with a tremendous bombardment, said to have been rtae most scientific-ally concentrated on record. He was aided by 1,000 tanks, which had cleared the way for the infantry and later for the cavalry. in a week the Americans had recovered an area of nearly 200 square miles, menacing the Briey region (which provided the Germans with eighty per cent of their steel) on the north, and the forts of Metz, on the east. They had released the Verdun-Toul-Nancy railroad and were less than fifteen miles from the great German trunk line which runs from Metz to Mezieres. They had captured over 20,000 prisoners and 100 big guns. In the first day of the attack, the Americans overran the new railroad which the Germans had built from Thiaucourt down to St. Mihiel as a branch to that from Metz. In the second day they crossed the angle of the salient, leaving the space within, some 1.00 square miles, to be threshed out by the American cavalry. On September 15 the German guns at Metz opened fire on the Americans. The Americans pushed ahead, regardless of all oppositionh, winning one of the most notable engagements of the war in a decisive manner. In his official report of this battle, General Pershiing tells of the preliminary troop concentration, aided by the French, involving the movement of 600,000 men, mostly at night. -He describes the subsequent fighting of the Americans in this manner: "After four hours' artillery preparation the seven American divisions in the front line (217,000 men) advanced at 5 a. m. on September 12, assisted by a limited number of tanks manned partly by Americans and partly by the French. "Three divisions, accompanied by groups of wire cutters and others armed with bangalore torpedoes, went through the successive bands of barbed wire that protected the enemy's front line and support trenches, in irresistible waves on schedule time, breaking down all defense of an enemy demoralized by the great volume of our artillery fire and our sudden approach out of the fog. "Our First Corps advanced to Thiaucourt, while our Fourth Corps curved back to the southwest through Nonsard. "A rapid march brought reserve regiments to a division of the Fifth Corps into Vigneulles in the early morning, where it linked up with patrols of our Fourth Corps, closing the salient and forming a new line west of Thiaucourt to Vigneulles and beyond Fresnes-en-woerve. "At the cost of only 7,000 casualties, mostly light, we had taken 16,000 prisoners and 443 guns, a great quantity of material, released the inhabitants of many villages from enemy domination, and established our lines in a position to threaten Metz. "This signal success of the American First Army in its first offensive was of prime importance." FOCI0 CHANGES HIS STRATEGY--In the last week of September, Marshal Foch changed his policy of indirect attack and resorted to direct frontal attacks on a large scale, first in Champagne and then in Flanders. He was eminently successful, sweeping everything before him and losing a remarkably small number of men, considering the territory freed, the prisoners and guns captured and the disaster wrought upon German arms and morale. On September 29 the Americans and British pressed forward on a thirty mile front in the neighborhood of St. Quentin, which was occupied on October 1. It was the key to the trunk line between France, Belgium and northern Germany, a position of the utmost strategic importance. Before its capture by the Allies, the Germans deported almost the entire population of 50,000. On October 9, Cambrai, another important city, was captured in an advance over a thirty mile front. Cambrai is thirty-two miles southeast of Lille. toward which the advance was subsequently directed. On October 11 the British made a thrust toward Douai, the Germans evacuating strong positions to the north of the Sensee river. On October 17 the British carried the whole front south of Le Cateau (where they had encountered the Germans in the opening month of the war, in 1914), and established themselves on the railroad beyond the town, taking 3,000 prisoners. In the meantime the French advance upon the important city of Laon was making steady progress. Laon was an important observation post, the junction of two German lines of supplies. It was taken on October 13, after a severe fight. Thus the advancing lines of the Allies, to the east and the west, were connected. After that the advance from the Oise river to the Aisne was rapid. In the Champagne district the American and French attack began on September 26. In the first day the French advanced from three to four miles and the Americans from five to six. By the end of the second day 10,000 Germans had been taken prisoners. The Americans were advancing down the Meuse and the Aire rivers taking town after town. Meantime the Germans were concentrating their forces behind what they called their second, or Kriemhilde line. On October 4 the Americans went over the Kriemhilde line, the last enemy organized line of defense south of the Belgian border, cutting through 30,000 Prussian Guards on their way.. The next day the Germans retreated before the Americans and French. The French immediately took advantage of this retreat and pursued the Germans on a broad front north and northeast of Rheims, driving the enemy back eight miles. On October 12 it was officially announced that the French had taken thirty-six towns and villages, 21,567 prisoners and 600 guns. On October 16 the Americans occupied the important strategic point of Grand Pre, on the northern bank of the Aire river. Between September 26 and November 6 the Americans took 26,059 prisoners and 468 guns on this front. BELGIUM- CLEARED 0OF GERMANS-Still another great offensive was being waged in Flanders at this time. On September 28, while the British fleet bombarded the coastal defenses from Nieuport to Zeebrugge on the North Sea, the Belgian army, under King Albert, and the British army, under General Plumer, went over the German lines on a ten mile front between Dixmude and Passchendaele Ridge, north of Ypres. They advanced five miles and captured 4,000 prisoners and an immense amount of supplies. On the following day the Belgians took Dixmude, Passchendaele and other Flemish towns, adding 1,500 prisoners to the list. On September 30 Roulers was taken by the Belgians. The French army joined this sector on October 2, and a great enveloping movement, with the city of Lille as'its objective, was begun. The remnants of the Lys salient established by the Germans in Flanders were obliterated. The Allies quickly recaptured Armenti'eres, which had been taken by the enemy on April 9. For ten days there was a consolidation of positions by the Allies. Then they began a furious attack from Comines to the sea, in the general direction of Ghent and Courtrai. THE GREAT GERMANI RETREAT--On October 16 the great retreat Of the.Germans from western Belgium began. Belgian infantry, assisted by French. cavalry, attacked all along the line. The British surrounded the large French city of Lille, which the Germans evacuated on October 17. The Germans evacuated Ostend and Zeebrugge, their submarine bases on the Belgian coast. They likewise gave up such towns as Bruges, Thielt, Courtrai and Turcoing, over a front of more than fifty miles. The number of prisoners taken by the Allies on this front was over 15,000. October closed with the German retreat from Belgium being conducted on a vast scale. The Germans retreated so rapidly they did not have time to carry out their usual policy of destruction of all towns. The approaching end was now visible to all; German military power was crushed. On October 6 the Kaiser's government appealed to President Wilson for an immediate armistice and peace on the terms laid down by the president on January 8, 1918. In the meantime, however, important and far-reaching events were occuring elsewhere. BULGARIA BEATEN--Allied operations were actively begun on the Balkan front on September 16, after months of preparation. Bulgaria had sent troops to France. It was under the leadership of General d'Esperey of the French army, who had a force of 350,000 (consisting of British, -French, Serbian, Montenegrin, Italian and Russian forces) and the new army of Greece, numbering around 200,000. From the Greek base at Saloniki the British and Greek troops struck at the enemy in the region of Lake Doiran, while the Serbians and French drove forward along'a twenty-five mile line across the Czerna river, where the enemy's lines extended west into Albania. By September 23 the British held Doiran, tht Serbians had captured Prilep and the First Bulgarian army, cut off from the Second, fled in disorder. On September 24, the Second Bulgarian army was likewise in flight. W~ithin two weeks from opening the campaign, the Bulgarian forc~es had been split in two, the Bulgarian government had been compelled to surr~ender and make a separate peace with the Allies, King Fierdinand had abdicated in favor of hl son, Boris, and Germany, confronted b-y the first break in the Central Powers, saw Turkey isolated and helpless, and her own dream of emPire shattered. Veles, the principal railway center of Serbia, was retaken from the Bulgarians on September 25. The British and Greeks invaded Bulgaria, near the~ fortress. of Strumitza, capturing it handily. This opened a way for the Allies to Sofia, the Bulgarian capital. The Bulgarian ]First army was caught in a trap and its destruction was inevitable. King F'erdinand of Bulgaria appealed frantically to Germany, but the Germans were then in full retreat in F'rance and Flanders and were in no position to give aid to their ally. Nothing remained but for Bulgaria to surrender. King Ferdinand assembled his grand council on September 23. Five days later emissaries were dispatched to the Allies' hieadquarters to sue for peace. On the 29th an armistice was sign'ed. Fighting ceased on the 30th. Under the ferms of the armistice Bulgaria agreed to evacuate all the territory she occupied in Greece and Serbia, to demobilize her army immediately and to surrender all means of transport to the Allies. Bulgaria was immediately occupied by the Allied troops. She had been an ally of Germany three years--lacking nine days. She was the first of the four Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria) to sue for peace, and to acknowledge defeat at the hands of the Allies. Bulgaria's defeat was astonishing in its completeness. Her natural defenses were of the best and the Allies had feared a long and arduous campaign. THE DOWNFALL OF TURKEY--The defeat of Bulgaria was quickly followed by the downfall of Turkey. The campaign against the Turks in Palestine, begun September 18, was a brilliant- success for the Allies, and developed into such a serious disaster for the Turks, that by October 1, it was semi-officially reported that the Turkish government had opened negotiations for peace. The British drive in Palestine was an unbroken succession of victories. In close union with the Arabs, the British advanced rapidly on a line from the Mediterranean to Haifa, extending across Palestine to the Arabian desert. Damascus, the capital of Syria, the most beautiful and (after Bagdad) the most historic city of Asiatic Turkey, was taken on October 1. On October 8 a French naval division entered the important port of Beirut, 160 miles northwest of Damascus. The Allies thereby had an unbroken front from Beirut to the desert and rapidly advanced toward Aleppo, the main base of the Turks in Asia Minor. The capture of Aleppo was inevitable, as the Turkish forces were retreating rapidly and in great disorder. The British forces along the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers, in Mesopotamia, also began a forward movement, with a prospect of soon uniting with their army in Palestine, thus establishing an unbroken and victorious front from the Mediterranean across Mesopotamia to Persia. On October 8 it was reported that Persia was being evacuated by the Turks. The British forces captured more than 71,000 prisoners and 350 guns, while the Arabs captured 8,000 prisoners, between September 18 and October 5. During the advance in Palestine, Nazareth was captured, thus freeing another holy spot from the clutches of the Mohammedan. As a result of the continuous disasters in Palestine and Mesopotamia, Enver Pasha, for years the commanding and controlling figure in Turkey, was overthrown on October 8. Revolution broke out in Turkey and it was evident that the Ottoman empire must soon follow the example of Bulgaria and sue for peace. This was done on October 31, the Allies imposing terms upon Turkey fully as severe as those which had been imposed upon Bulgaria. They were described as "complete and unconditional surrender," and Turkey was at once reduced to military impotence. The Dardanelles and the Bosporus with their fortifications were opened to the Allies, who entered Constantinople a few days later. All allied prisoners were handed over to the Allies without reciprocity; the Turkish army was demobilized and her navy surrendered. Turkish troops were to withdraw from norther_ PFrsia and other occupied non

Page  12 Page Twelve A BRIEF HISTORY OF TIHE GREEAT WART~W _ ____~ __ _~ T'urkis~h territory. The Allies were given the use of all means of transportation and communication; all garrisons in Arabia, SyriaL and Meseopotasmia were at once surrendered. Turkey was to cease all relations with the Central Powers; the Allies were given such rights and facilities as were necessary to enforce all the provisions of the atrmistice. Thus, within the same month (October), two of the four countries fighting the Allies were beaten to their knees. The downfall of the other two was near at hand. ITALY WINSJ OYER AUSTRIAh-Italy decisively defeated Austria shortly after Bulgaria and Turkey had crumbled. The breakdown of Austro-Hungary on the battlefield was complete. Before the Italian offensive came to an end the Aus-trians had lost 300,,000 men in prisoners alone and not less than 5,000, guns. The w.eek between October 26 and November 3 brought about the Austrian undoing. The Italian army was led by General Diaz, a skillful commander. Pretending tozthe enemy that he proposed to advance against the mountain line between the Rivers Piave and Brenta,, where range after range lay before him, Diaz swiftly threw his attack against the line of the Piave river in the Montello region. Complete collapse of so large and well-equipped an army as that of Austria was unprecedented., but it occurred almost immediately. The Austrians were soon in headjong flight back past the Livenza and Tagliamento (where they had pushed the Italians the year before, when they swept down into Italy) toward the boundary line of the Isonzo. Whle this phase of the battle was going on, General -Diaz threw strong forces noirthward from the Piave and Brenta, seized the important mountain passes and was in a position to overrun the whole Trentino (between Italy and Austria-Hungary) as rapidly as the difficulties of transportation in the mountainous region could be overcome. His victories of October 30 and 31 cost the Austrians fully 83,000 men. On the latter date Austrian envoys, carrying the white flag, entered the Italian lines. The dual monarchy realized that the end had come. In the last few days of the terrific drive (which ended November 3) the Italians occupied Trieste and Treat. Italian land and sea forces were landed on the 3d at the former, place. Entire Austrian regiments surrendered in the Itali~an advance on Trent on November 2. On the morning of the 3d the entire Italian front was pushing forward. On that day, the armistice was signed, hostilities to cease the following day. When the terms of surrender were announced they' were found to be severe in the extreme. They included, in addition to the cessation of hostilit~ies, the demobilization of the Austrian army, the withdrawal of all forces on the Italian front, and the surrender of half the Austrian military equipment. Besides evacuating invaded territory, Austria was to withdraw from the Trentino and part of the Tyrol, and from Istria, Dalmatia-and most of the Adriatic islands. The armistice gave the Allies free use of all roads,, railways, and waterways in Austria, and the c~ontrol of all necessary strategic points. As in the case of Turkey, Austria was obliged to give up all allied prisoners without reciprocity. The naval conditions of the armistice included the surrender of most of the Austrian navy and the laying up of the rest, and the freedom of allied navigation in Austrian waters,, without any modification of the allied blockade. GERMANYA~ BEG)S FOR~ PEACE-While Bulgaria, Turkey and Alustria-Hunga.-y were being decisively defeated on the field of battle and were suing for peace., Germany's military pride wasj humbled by the forced retreat of her armies along the whole front in Belgium and France. Fiurther humiliation came when she hurriedly evacuated the entire Belgian coast, oan October 17, to avoid the capture of all her forces there, and quit the important industrial district of northern France, surrendering the cities of Lille, Douai, Cambrai, Roubaix, I.AFere, Laon, St. Quentin and the forest of Argonne, won' by the Americans. On October 6, forced alike by military disasters and domestic revolution, the German governm~ent appealed to President Wilson for an immediate armistice and peace on the terms repeatedly laid down by him. On October 8 President Wilson sent~a reply refusing to grant the armi'stice. A week later (October 15) the British and Belgian,troops cros-sed the Lys river, taking 12,000 prisoners and 100 guns. On October 21 the Allies crossed the Oise and threatened the city of Valenciennes.. On the following -day the British, under General Haig, crossed the Scheldt river, -which flows north past Cambrai and Valenciennes, then through Belgium -past Ghent and.,A-utwerp. IOn October 31 the British, Firench and Belgian armies launched. an attack along a wide front on the Scheldt, pushing their way east of Tournai. The enemy fellbackrapily.Ever objctie wa caried nd,000prisne.3 -1 An^th allied armies had captured 362,355 men, fficluding 7,990 officers., as well as 16,917 cannon., 38,622 machine guns and 3,907 mine throwers.2 S-On November 4 the British broke deeplyl into the enemy positions along a thirty mile front, capturing more than 10,000 prisoners and 200 guns. Clearing the last of the,-wooded defenses west~ of the Meuse, the Americans started a~new attack against the enemy's lines east of the river. The American first army, commanded by General Liggett, struck at Sedan, the historic* city where Napoleon I"II and a Firench army of 86,000 surrendered, on September 2, 1870, to the Germans in the Franco-Prussian war. Of this engagement General Pershing says ~in his official report: "The meeting of the French and Americans at this historic spot signalized the defeat of the German arms, a defeat as decisive and humiliating; as that forced upon France forty-seven years before at the same spot. If there had been question before as to the acceptance of the armistice terms the Allies' advance, culminating.in this meeting at Sedan, left no choice in the matter." On November 5 it was announced that General Pershing had taken over 5,000 prisoners and occupied about forty villages in the country reconquered from the Germans. On the 6th the Germans were retreating on a seveifty-five mile front -from the Scheldt to the Aisne. Two days later, November 7, German emissaries were dispatched to Miarshal Foch to beg for an armistice. Germany had lost the war.' She had lost also in diplomatic encounter, for President W~ilson, while out-lining the terms on which he hoped to see peace made, referred the Kaiser's officials to ~Marshal 1Foch, plainly stating that the peace must be a military and aa decisive one. On, the morning of November 11, in the little village of Senlis, the nearest point to Paris reached by the Germans in their great drive of 1914, the armistice was signed. The Allies fought up to~the last moment. They had driven the enemy practically out of all the cionquered parts of Belgium and France. They were vict'orious on every. front. Germany was beaten to her knees. The great war was over. CHAPTE'R TIL. THE ARIIISTICE--AN AFTER-The' terms of the armistice which ended the war were the most severe. imposed upon a defeated nation by a triumphant one. They puit -an end to Pirussiani militarism.,They took from Germany the weapons with which *it -had be'e nabl 'd to build up its supremacy. The; made a'resump'tion-of the war. by Germrany *imrpossible,, although sub Sequent events dis-.dlosed'that nothingý was further f rom Germany's wishes' than'to carry on a~ losing wirr at a time., whein revo~lution w. s causing the empire to' crumible at home. Under thhe termsr. ofth ai~migtic e Germjany wais obliged to 'Surrender all of the occupiedi portions of Belgium, France and, Luxemburg,, togethet " trth Alsace Lorraine.. the former F~rench provinces which Germany had taken away from France after the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71. They were obliged to sur-.render 5,000 cannon, 30,000 machine guns, 2,000 aeroplanes, 5,000 locomotives, 50 '000 railway cars and 10,000 motor trucks. They were obliged to surrender all their submarines, numbering around 200, fifty destroyers, six battle cruisers, ten battleships and eight light cruisers. All ports of the Black Sea occupied by the Germnans were given up, together with all the Russian vessels captured by the German,s. All merchant vessels in the hands of Germany were surrendered,- without reciproc~ity. The Allies demanded the right to occupy all of the country on the west bank of the Rhine river and the principal crossings, at Mayence, Coblenz and Cologne, the Germans to evacuate within nineteen days. The Germans agreed to withdraw and create a neutral zone on-Ahe east bank of the Rhine, from twenty to thirty miles wide, extending from Holland to the Swiss border. The Germans agreed to retire from all territory held by Russia, Roumania and Turkey before.the war. The treaties of Brest-Litovsk and Bucharest, ending the war with Russia and Roumania, were abrogated. Full restitution must be made for all damage done by German soldiers. All allied prisoners in Germany (military, naval and civilian) were given their liberty at once.,- without reciprocal action by the Allies. The territory west of the Rhine which the Germans evacuated is roughly 20,000 square miles in extent, with a population of about 9,000,000. It includes some of the most important mining and manufacturing districts of Germany, and such great centers as Cologne, Strassburg, Metz, and Essen, home of the Krupp works. The territory consists of Alsace-Lorraine, the Palatinate, the R~hine provinice,, Birkenfeld, and about one-third of Hesse. TH3E KAISER ABDICATES-ByS the time the armistice was signed, on the morning of November 11, 1918, the Kaiser and the Crown Prince of Germany had abdicated. Both fled to Holland, where they were interned as military refugees. Later,,-the Allies united in demanding that Holland surrender the Kaiser to them to stand trial for his many crimes in connection with the war. A British high court has already returned an indictment against him for murder. The peace conference, which will definitely close the war--although the armistice had the -effect of stopping all hostilities--will be held at Paris as early as possible in 1919. In the meantime Allied troops occupy the wesi bank of the Rhine, as agreed upon by the armistice. On December. 4 President W~ilson sailed from New York to attend the preliminary peace conference of the Allies in Paris. THE GREATEST OF ALL WYARS--This, the most frightful of wars was fought out at a cost of approximately $200,000,000,000 and 10,000,,000 lives. In the following table is shown the men in arms, the lives lost, and the total casualties of the-leading nations involved in the war. The totals of the United States, Great Britain, Italy and Germany are official. The others are fromr unofficial return'. Mken in ArmsS Lives Lost Total Casualties United States ------------------------------------------ 3,764j700 48,900 2869000 Great Britain -----------------------7,500,000 900,000 3pO49,991 Fr nc ----------------------------------- 6,000,000 1,385,300, 4,000,000 It ly ---7 ------ ------------------5,000,000 330,000 1,620,000 Russia -----_------------------_ - -----------------_ 12,OOOPOOO 1,700,000 3,800,000 Belgium ----------------- ---------------------------- 350,000 102,000. 300,000 Servia..........~,~~....,......................... 300,000 125,000, 200,000 -Roumania ----------- ---- 600,000 100,000 300pOOO Germ any ----------------------------------------- _...101,000,000 1,600,000 41000P000 Austria-Hungary ------- - ---- - ----- - ----- -- 7,500,000 800,000 3,120,000 Turkey ----------------------------,,,,........... 1,5010,000 250,000 750,000 Bulgaria -------------- ------ ----- - ---- - ------- -- 1,000,000 100,000 300,000 Totals --------------55,514,00:0 7ý4411200 21,725,991 At such a frightful cotwas the world made safe for democracyr. It was a struggle between autocracy and democracy, and the latter was victorious. It was the greatest war in the history of the world, no matter from what angle it wias viewed. On the following pages will be found a complete chronology of the war CHAPTER V1111.iHPI THE PEACE CONiERENCE AND'IT'S WORK-Sinceinc the signing of the duras, Liberia, Nicaragua, Peru, Uruguay, Panama and Montenegro. This pla13 was somewhat changed later, admitting three delegates from Belgium, Serbia and India, and two from the Kingdomm of the Hejaz in Arabia. The list of delegates were as follows: Prles. Wn~oodrow WVilson ----United States Alndrew Bonar Law --------Great Britain Robert Lansing ---------------- United ~Sta~tes -George Nicoll Barnes ------ Grea Britain,-Hon. Henry W~hite ---------- Unite States Roman Dmawsky ------------------------ Polan Edward M.' House - - -------- Unite States M. Van Den Heuvel ---------------- Belgiu General Tasker Bliss ------United State's Emile Vandervelde ------------------Belgium Sir Georoe Foster ------------ Canadaanad Paul Hymans ---------------------------- Belgiu Premier Robt. Bord'en --------------Canada Ante Trumbitch -------------------------- Serbi Premier W7 m. M. Hughes ------Australia M. Zolger --------------------------------- Serbi Sir Joseph Cook ---------------------- Australia ikola a b t h --------------S r i W.. H. Ijuin -------------------------------- Japa D r. M. Vesnitch -------------------------- Serbi Baron M akino ------------------------------ Japa N icolas Politis ----------------------------Gree ce M. K. Matsu li ------------------------------ Japa Eleutherlos Venizelos ------ --------- Greece Viscount Chinda ----------; --------------- Japa Charles Kramar ------------ Czechoslovakia General Jan. C. Smuts ------South Af rica Dr. Edward Benes --------Czechoslovakia General Louis Botha -------- Sout Africa Penha Garcia -------------------------- Portugal Premier Wm. Fi. Massey New Zealand Dr. Egaz Moniz ------------------------- Portuga Sir W;1m. F. Lloyd ---------- Newfoulndlan Jean Bratiano ------------------------ Rumania Chengting Thomas Wing ------------ China.. Nicholas Misu -------------------------- Rumani Vikyuin WVellington Ko ' o -------------- China ntonio B~urgos ------------------------ Panam Sao K~e Alfred Sze ------------------------China Epitacio Pessoa ---------------------------- _Brazi l Lu Chieng Tsang ------------------------ 'China Olyntho De Magalhaes ---------------- Brazi Suntchou W~ei ------------------------------ Chin S.,.A. L'E~m ir Feisal --------------------Arabia Premier Clemenceau ------------------ France Rustem Haidar -------------------------- Arabia Jules iC~am bon --------------------------- France on Y. De Alsua ---------------------- Ecuado Louis Lucien Klotz -------------------- France Sir S. P. Sinha ------------------------------- Indi Andre 'Tardieu -----------_--------------- Franc Edwin Samuel MIi~ontagu ---------------- India Stephen Pichon -------------------------- Franae Maharajah of Bikaner ------------------ Indi Prem ier Ora d ----- --------Ia y Priince Charo on ------------------------------ Sia Baron Sonnin o ------------------------------ Ital Phya, Bieadh K ~h -----------Sa Salvatore B r ia --------------I ly Rafael M art'inez ---------------------------- Cuba Salvago ag ------- -------- tl Antonio Sanchez Bustamante ------ Cub Antonio S ln r --------------Ia y Ism ael M ontes --------------------------- Bolivia Premier ~David Lloyd George ------------ F'rancisco Garcia C~alderon ------------ Per - --------------- ------- ------- -----~-_~ Great Britain Juan ~Carlos Blanzco ---------------- Urugua Arthur 'James Balf our- ---Great Britain C.D- ig-------------- iei Lord Robert Cecil ---------- Great Britain. Certullian Guilbaud ------------------- --,-Hait

Page  13 A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE GREAT WAR Praz Thirteen -- --- -- __ 'b` -- 60 6 L.J6L Wf OJ6 On January 19th it was decided that only delegates from the five principal powers were to be active in all sessions. The smaller allied states were to be represented only when questions in which they were essentially concerned were discussed, the neutrals only when invited for particular reasons. ADVISORIAL GROUPS-In addition to the delegates there were in Paris large groups of advisors--experts in finance, trade, commerce and officers of the army and navy-men of varied and expert knowledge--through its committee system the Conference gave every question the benefit of all the knowledge available. Some dissatisfaction appeared among the smaller states in the beginning, because of their small representation, this, however, put them to no serious disadvantage, as the decisions were not to be made by majority vote, but by Lhe assent of the countries concerned. The question of publicity provoked a storm of comment. Generally speaking, Great Britain and the United States favored publicity, while France, Italy and Japan desired secrecy. The result was a large amount of publicity. Newspaper men were present at most of the sessions and frequent official bulletins were issued. Perhaps the foremost figure at the Conference was President Wilson. To many of his countrymen his departure seemed a doubtful experiment, but the character of his reception abroad has gradually been changing this opinion. The people of Europe welcomed him not only as the representative of the United States, but as a symbol of the promise of peace. "His arrival popularized the work of the conference and helped make it an affair of democracies rather than of prime ministers or ruling classes." THE TASK which the Conference had before it was a gigantic one. No "Conference was ever confronted by- problems of such variety and perplexity. Besides the Americas and Europe, almost every country of Asia and Africa, and even the islands in the southern seas were affected. Questions regarding armament, commerce, trade, labor, international highways and waterways had to be decided. Questions dealing with indemnities, boundaries, the formation of new states, Germany and Russia had to be settled. THE THREE BIG PROBILEMS at the outset had to deal first with peace with Germany and Austria, second with the redrawing of the'Maps of Europe, Asia and Africa, and third, with the forming of some kind of an association of Nations which would dominate international relations and make another world war impossible. The problem of Germany was complicated by the instability of its government following the Armistice. It was of the utmost importance to the Conference that there be formed a stable government with which t-o make peace. which would be able to comply with the peace terms and control the nation it represented. During the first weeks of November, following the Armistice, Germany was torn by a revolution which threatened a repetition of events in Russia. When the Conference assembled in January she seemed a crushed and miserable object. Two months later the elements of disorder were largely crushed and the revolution over. On January 19th a general election provided for a National Assembly which met at Weimar February 6th and apparently was in control of the state. On February 1lth, Ebert, leader of the Majority Socialists, was elected President of Germany, a constitution was adopted, a cabinet selected, and a renewal of the armistice signed. Germany now began to reassert herself, to renew her claims to Alsace-Lorraine, to mobilize an army and to try to destroy the hope of Polish liberation. IN REMAKING THE MAP settlements of old disputes had to be made, and new nations formed. To the first group of questions belonged the question of Alsace-Lorraine, the Italian frontier, the Danes of Schleswig, the Germans in Austria, the frontiers of the Jugo-Slavs and the Latins. The problem of forming the new states was almost beyond measurement. It demanded that a new Poland be created, that Czechoslovakia and a JugoSlavia nation be made out of the Austro-Hungarian territory, that a new Latin state, including Ru~mania and parts of Russia, Austria and Hungary be made, that the question of Albania be settled, that the Greek claims be settled, that the question of German colonies be dealt with and the vexing problem of Turkey be solved..THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS--The third big problem before the Conference was the formation of a League of Nations. President Wilson regarded this as the most: important work of the Conference. On January 25th the Conference declared itself in favor of such a League, and during the first two mon~ths, largely under President ~Wilson's com3puls~ion, the Conference devoted itself to discussions of this matter apparently neglecting the other questions. This caused in February somve temporary m~isunderstanding with France, who, alarmed by the apparent resurgence of Germany felt that the settlement of certain specific questions should come first. She demanded that France be assured of quick aid in case of another war. THE FIRST DRAFT OF LEAGUE SUBMITTED--On February 14th the constitution of the proposed League of Nations plan was read and explained to the Conference by President Wilson. It included 26 articles. It provided for a permanent executive council, a body of delegates from the member nations and a secretarial. President Wilson described it as "a moral force having an armed force in the background." On February 15th President Wilson sailed for the United States and the first phase of the Conference was over. During President Wilson's absence the attention of the Conference was given to work on the preliminary peace treaty. This period was marked by a growing feeling of unrest and dissatisfaction in Paris, and of disorder and the spread of"Bolshevism in the east.,On March 4th President Wilson arrived for the second time in Paris, and found the Conference in the act of completing the preliminary peace terms. His insistence on incorporating the League of Nations covenant in the Peace Treaty caused great excitement and practical paralysis on the peace terms work for a few days. THE ITALIAN WITHDRAwAL--Further trouble was caused by the withdra-wal of the Italian delegates on April 24th, because of disagreement over the Fiume question. Later, the delegation returned and harmony was restored. On April 28th the revised form of the League of Nations Covenant was adopted by the Conference. For the Fhial Form of the League, see the inside back c-over of this History. TREATY HANDED GERMANY--On May Ist the German representatives to the Conference were received and creden~tials were exchanged. The names of the German delegates were as follows: Count Brockdorff-Rantzau, Minister of Foreign Affairs; Herr Landsberg, Minister of Publicity, Arts and Literature; Herr Giesberts, Minister of Posts; Herr Leinert, President of Prussian Assembly; Adolf Mueller, Minister to Berne; Walter Rathenau, Prominent Financier and Economic and Electrical Expert; Max Warburg, Shipbuilder and Financier; Herr Stegerwald, well-known Leader in the labor movement; Eduard David, Minister of State in Scheidemann Cabinet; Dr. Theodor Melchior, Manager of Warburg Bank; Professor Schuecking, International lawyer. On May 7th in a great assembly, the Peace Treaty with the League of Naticns covenant incorporated in it was presented. No oral discussion was allowed but a period of two weeks (later extended.) was given to Germany to make written suggestions and criticisms. FOR THE GERMAN PEACE TERM1S see the inside back cover of this History. The Peace Terms caused a storm of comment and disapproval in Germany. The last weeks in May were devoted by the Conference to the consideration of the German counter proposals and some modifications were made--particularly in the case of reparations. No considerable changes in the terms, however, were made by the Allies. The Allies' final draft of the terms was handed the German delegates at Versailles on June 16. The Delegation, headed by Count Von Brockdorff-Rantzau carried these Final Terms to the German general assembly sitting at Weimar. They were given until June 23 for acceptance or refusal. In case of refusal invasion of Germany was to at once follow. AUSTRIAN TERMS--In the meantime work on other treaties and dealings with other nations have gone oin. On May 8th work on the Peace terms for Austria, Hungary and Bulgaria was begun and by June 25th was practically complete. The Austrian peace terms provide for the reduction of the Austrian army to 15,000 men, the surrender of all war ships and virtually all military supplies, and the payment of an indemnity of one billion dollars. On May 24th the Council of Four took up the consideration of the Bulgarian peace terms. At the same time China authorized her delegates to sign the Peace Treaty, with reservations regarding Shantung. On May 27th a special committee took up the drafting of a series of treaties with the newly created. states. Many questions yet remain to be settled but it is felt that the chiefwork of the Peace Conference is drawing to a close. THE PROBLEM OF TURKEY has practically been settled by dividing it into five or six parts. The chief difficulty is to so distribute the parts as not to cause religious war. THE PROBLE31 OF RUSSIA remains a complex one. Siberia, the Ukraine, the Baltic Provinces and the Caucasus have broken away, and there is no government for the whole country. The Bolsheviki control a large part of the country wh-ile in Siberia and the Caucasus region a government resisting the Bolsheviki is being aided by Allied money and council. It has not been the policy of the Allies to interfere in Russian governmental affairs but to aid the Russians to establish peace and prevent the spread of Bolshevism to other countries. Various attempts were made by the Peace Conference to get the various elements of Russia together but to no avail. On May 26th the Council of Four decided to recognize any non-Bolshevik government which would agree to convene a National Assembly and respect the frontiers determined by the League of Nations. The outcome is doubtful as the country is still in a state of anarchy and confusion. OTHER WAR CHANGES-One of the chief results of the war was the break up of the old Austro-Hungarian Empire and its disintegration into a number of small states. The complete collapse of Austria made it easy to remove the Hapsburg power from Hungary as well as Austria. While Austria was becoming a republic, Hungary was going through a period of revolution. With the abdication of Emperor Charles the government in Hungary came into the hands of Count Karolyi, an ardent defender of liberty and independence. On November 16th Hungary was officially declared a Republic with Karolyi. its President. There followed-a state of political chaos and communist revolt. Food conditions and the protest against the boundaries set by the Conference for Hungary, aggravated the situation. On March 21st the Karolyi government was overthrown by a communist revolutionary element under Russian Bolshevik leadership. By April 1st altho riot and disorder- still continued the Soviet government had been recognized and the Confer;ence had invited it to send dele-~ gates to discuss peace terms. POLAND became a republic on February 9th with Paderewski as President, and on February 21st was recognized as. an independent state by the Peace Conference. It contains about 22,000,000 people and 85,000 square miles. Its rebirth as a nation rights an ancient wrong. JUGO-SLAVIA, or the country of the Southern Slavs, has been formed` o~f the Kingdoms of Servia and Montenegro, together with the for~mer Austrian Provinces of Croatia, Slavonia, Bosnia, Dalmatia and Herzegovina. Its area is about 70,000 square miles; population about 8,000,000. Belgrade the capital of Servia is the capital of the ne'w nation. CZIECHPO-SLOVA~IZA, a new Republic, was formed from the old Austrian Provinces of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia. The Czechs also clairln a portion of Hiungary. The population of this ne~w nation is about 10,511,444 and its area about 35,261 square miles. CAPTURED GERMAN VESSELS SUNK: On June 21st, the German crews of the interned Battle Fleet located at Scapa Flow in the Orkney Islands, sunk the greater part of the Fleet by opening the watercocks in the bottom of, the vessels. The German crews made good their escape from the sinking vessels and are held as prisoners by the British Government. As the Allies had themselves seriously discussed the advisability of the sinking of these War Vessels, the news of their loss was received with a mingled feeling of regret and relief. GERMANS ACCEPT PEACE TERMS: The Final Peace Terms submitted to the German Assembly at Weimar provoked--as of course was expected--a storm of protest. After bitter discussion the German Cabinet, headed by President Ebert and Philipp, Scheidemann resigned on June 21st, declining-to sign the Treaty. A new Cabinet headed by Gustav Bauer as President, and Dr, Hermann Mueller as Minister of Foreign Affairs, took office immediately; and on June 22nd transmitted through their Representatives at Versailles, their agreement to the signing of the Treaty in the form finally presented by the Allies. THE GERMANS SIGN TREATY: On Saturday, June 28th, at 12"00 o'clock noon in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles the Peace Terms were finally signed before an impressive assembly representing all the Allied Powers. The German represntatives were: Dr. Hermann Mueller, Foreign Minister; and Dr. Bell, Chief of Colonial Office. 'Thus finally closes the greatest war of all times. From it emerges a wiser if a sadder world, possessed with the hope and belief that the oceans of blood shed by brave men in the cause of freedom was not shed in vain; and with a League of Nations formed to maintain and perpetuate the liberties so dearly preserved during four and a half years of frightful carnage. FOR SUMMARY OF PEACE TERMS AND RESUME OF THE CONSTITUTION OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS, SEE INSIDE BACK COVER OF TH: iS BOOK,

Page  14 AN HISTORICAL SUMMARY 0] THE WORLD WAR AUG. st, 1914N WITH GAZETEER GIVING PRONUNCIATION OF NAMES OF TOWNS ON THE WESTERN FRO? F NT 1914 June 28--Archduke Ferdinand and wife assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia. July 28-Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia. Aug. 1-Germany declares war on Russia and general mobilizaton is under way in France and Austria-Hungary. Aug. 2--German troops enter France at Cirey; Russian troops enter Germany at Schwidden; German army enters Luxemburg over protest and Germany asks Belgium for free passage of her troops. Aug. 3-British fleet mobilizes; Belgium appeals to Great Britain for diplomatic aid and German ambassador quits Paris. Aug. 4-France declares war on Germany; Germany declares war on Bel"gium; Great Britain senrs Belgium neutrality ultimatum to Germany; British army mobilized and state of war between Great Britain and Ger"many is declared. President Wilson issues neutrality proclamation. Aug. 5--Germans begin fighting on Belgium frontier; Germany asks for Italy's help. Aug. 6--Austria declares war on Russia. Aug. 7--Germans defeated by French at Altkirch. "Aug. 8--Germans capture Liege.. -Portugal announces it wiill support Great Britain; British land troo'ps In France. Aug. 107-France declares war on Austria-Hungary. Aug. 12-Great Britain declares war on Austria-Hungary; Montenegro declares war on Germany. Aug. 15--Japan sends ultimatum to Germany to withdraw from Japanese and Chinese waters and evacuate Kiaochow; Russia offers autonomy to Poland. Aug. 20-German army enters Brussels. Aug. 28---Japan declares war on Germany; Russia victorious in battles In East Prussia. Aug. 24--Japanese warships bombard Tsingtao. Aug. 25--Japan and Austria break off diplomatic relations. Aug. 28-English win naval battle over German fleet near Helgoland. Aug. 29---Germans defeat Russians at Allenstein; occupy Amiens; advance to La Fere, sixty-five miles from Paris. Sept. 1-Germans cross Marne; bombs dropped on Paris. _^ Sept. 2--Government of France transferred to Bordeaux, *,. Sept. 4--Germans cross the Marne. Sept. 5--England, France, and Russia sign pact to make no separate peace. Sept. $--French win battle of Marne; Sept. 7-Germans retreat from the Marne. Sept 14--Battle of Aisne starts; German retreat halted. Sept 16--Flrst battle of Soissons tought Sept. 20--Russians capture Jaroslau and begin siege of Przemysl. Oct. 9-10--Germans capture Antwerp. Oct. 12-Germans take Ghent. Oct. 20--Fighting along Yser river begins. Oct. 29-Turkey begins war on Russia. Nov. 1--British cruiser fleet destroyed in action off coast of Chile. Nov. 7-Tsingtao falls before Japanese troops. Dec. 8---German fleet destroyed in battle off Falkland islands. Dec. 11-German advance on Warsaw checked. Dec. 14---Belgrade recaptured by Serbians. Dec. 16--German cruisers bombard Scarborough, Hartlepool, and Whitby, on English coast, killing fifty or more persons; Austrians said to have lost upwards of 100,000 men in Serbian defeat. Dec. 25--Italy occupies Avlona, Albania. 1915 Jan. I-British battleship Formidable sunk. Jan. 8---Roumania mobilizes 750,000 men; violent fighting in the Argonne. Jan. 11--Germans cross the Rawka, thirty miles from Warsaw. Jan. 24-British win naval battle in North sea. Jan. 29-Russian army invades Hungary; German efforts to cross Aisne repulsed. Feb. 1-British repel strong German attack near La Bassee. Feb. 2---Turks are defeated in attack on Suez canal. Feb. 4---Russians capture Tarnow in Galicia. Feb. 8--Turks along Suez canal in full retreat; Turkish land defenses at the Dardanelles shelled by British torpedo boats. Feb. 11-Germans evacuate Lodz. Feb. 12---Germans drive Russians from positions in East Prussia, taking 26,000 prisoners. Feb. 14-Russians report capture of fortifications at Smolnik. Feb. 16--Germans capture Plock and Bielsk in Poland; French capture two miles of German trenches in Champagne district. Feb. 17-Germans report they have taken 50,000 Russian prisoners in Mazurian lake district. Feb. 18--German blockade of English and French coasts put into effect. Feb. 19-20--British and French fleets bombard Dardanelles forts. Feb. 21--American steamer Evelyn sunk by mine in North sea. Feb. 22---German war office announces capture of 100,000 Russian prisoners in engagements in Mazurian lake region; American steamer Carib sunk by mine in North sea. Feb. 28-Dardanelles entrance forts capitulate to English and French. carch 4---Landing of allied troops on both sides of Dardanelles straits reported; German U-4 sunk by French destroyers. March 10-Battle of Neuve Chapelle begins. March 14--German cruiser Dresden sunk in Pacific by English. March 18-British battleships Irresistible and Ocean and French battleship Bouvet sunk in Dardanelles strait. March 22-Fort of Przemysl surrenders to Russians. March 23--Allies land troops on Gallipoli peninsula. March 25--Russians victorious over Austrians in Carpathians. April 8--German auxilliary cruiser, Prinz Eitel Friederich, interned at Newport News, Va. April 16--Italy has 1,200,000 men mobilized under arms; Austrians report complete defeat of Russians in Carpathian campaign. April 23-Germans force way across Ypres canal and take 1,600 prisoners. April 29-British report regaining of two-thirds of lost ground in Ypres battle. May 7--Liner Lusitania torpedoed and sunk by German submarine off the coast of Ireland with the loss of more than 1,000 lives. 102 Americans. May 9--French advance two and one-half miles against German forces north of Arras, taking 2,000 prisoners. May 28---Italy declares war on Austria. June 3-Germans recapture Przemysl with Austrian help. June 18--British suffer defeat north of La Bassee canal. June 28---Italians enter Austrian territory south of Riva on western shore of Lake Garda. July 3-Tolmino falls into Italian hands. July 18---Germans defeated in the Argonne. July 29-Warsaw evacuated; Lublin captured by Austrians. Aug. 4--Germans occupy Warsaw. Aug. 14--Austrians and Germans concentrate 400,000 soldiers on Serbian frontier. Aug. 21-Italy declares war on Turkey. Sept..1-Ambassador Bernstorff announces Germans will sink no more liners without warning. Sept. 4-German submarine torpedoes liner Hesperian. Sept. 9-Germans make air raid on London, killing twenty persons and wounding 100 others; United States asks Austria to recall Ambassador Dumba. Sept. 20--Germans begin drive on Serbia to open route to Turkey. Sept. 22-Russian army retreating from Vilna, escapes German encircling movement. Sept. 25-80--Battle of Champagne, resulting in great advance for allied armies and causing Kaiser Wilhelm to rush to the west front; German counter attacks repulsed. Oct. a--Russia and Bulgaria sever diplomatic relations; Russian, French, British, Italian, and Serbian diplomatic representatives ask for passports in Solfa. Oct. 10-German forces take Belgrade. Oct. 12-Edith Cavell executed by Germans. Oct. 18--Bulgaria declares war on Serbia. Oct. 15--Great Britain declares war on Bulgaria. Oct. 16-France declares war on Bulgaria. Oct. 19--Russia and Italy declare war on Bulgaria. Oct. 27-Germans join Bulgarians in northeastern Serbia and open way to Constantinople. Oct. 30-Germans defeated at Mitau. Nov. 9-Italian liner Ancona torpedoed. Dec. 1-British retreat from near Bagdad. Dec. 4-Ford "peace party" sails for Europe. Dec. 8-9-Allies defeated in Macedonia. Dec. 15--Sir John Douglas Haig succeeds Sir John French as chief of English armies on west front. 1916 Jan. 8--British troops at Kut-elAmara surrounded. Jan. 9--British evacuate Gallipoli peninsula. Jan. 13-Austrians capture Cetinje, capital of Montenegro. Jan. 23-Scutari, capital of Albania, captured by Austrians. Feb. 22-German crown prince's army begins attack on Verdun. March 8-Germany declares war on Portugal. March 15--Austria-IIungary declares war on Portugal. March 24-Steamer Sussex torpedoed and sunk. April 10-President Wilson speaks to congress, explaining diplomatic situation. April 18--President Wilson sends note to Germany. April 24-Insurrection in Dublin. April 29--British troops at Kut-elAmara surrender to Turks. April 80--Irish revolution suppressed. May 3--Irish leaders of insurrection executed. May 4--Germany makes promise to change methods of submarine warfare. May 13-Austrians begin great offensive against Italians in Trentino. May 31-Great naval battle off Danish coast. (Battle of Jutland.) June 5--Lord Kitchener lost with cruiser Hamnpshire. June 11-Russians capture Dubno. June 29-Sir Roger Casement sentenced to be hanged for treason. July I-British and French begin great offensive on the Somme. July 6--David Lloyd George appointed secretary of war. July 9--German merchant submarine Deutschland arrives at Baltimore. July 23-Gen. Kuropatkin's Russian army wins battle near Riga. July 27-English take Delville wood; Serbian forces begin attack on Bulgars in Macedonia. Continued on Next Page

Page  15 A BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY OF THE GREAT WORLD VAR Aug. 2-French take Fleury. Aug. 8-Sir Roger Casement executed for treason. Aug. 4-French recapture Thiaumont for fourth time; British repulse Turkish attack on Suez canal. Aug. 7-Italians on Isonzo front capture Monte Sabotino and Monte San Michele. Aug. 8-Turks force Russian evacuation of Bitlis and Mush. Aug. 9--Italians cross Isonzo river and occupy Austrian city of Goeritz. Aug. 10--Austrians evacuate Stanislau; allies take Doiran, near Saloniki, from Bulgarians. Aug. 19--German submarines sink British light cruisers Nottingham and Falmouth. Aug. 24---French occupy Maurepas, north of the Somme; Russians recapture Mush in.Armenia. Aug. 27-Italy declares war on Germany; Roumania enters war on side of allies. Aug. 29-Field Marshal von Hindenburg made chief of staff of German armies, succeeding Gen. von Falkenbayn. Aug. 80--Russian armies seize all five passes in Carpathians into Hungary. Sept 8---Allies renew offensive north of Somme; Bulgarian and German troops invade Dobrudja, in Roumania. Sept. 7-Germans and Bulgarians capture Roumanian fortress of Tutrakan; Roumanians take Orsova, Bulgarian city. Sept. 10--German-Bulgarian army capture Roumanian fortress of Silistria. Sept 14--British for first time use "tanks." Sept. 15---Italians begin new offensive on Carso. Oct. 2S--Roumanian army of invasion in Bulgaria defeated by Germans and Bulgarians under Von Mackensen. Oct. 4---German submarines sink French cruiser Gallia and Cunard liner Franconia. Oct. 8-German submarines sink six merchant steamships off Nantucket, Mass. Oct. 11-Greek seacoast forts dismantled and turned over to allies on demand of England and France. Oct. 23--German-Bulgar armies capture Constanza, Roumania. Oct. 24--French win back forts near Verdun, in smash of two miles. Nov. 1-Italians, in new offensive on the Carso plateau, capture 5,000 Austrians. Nov. 2-Germans evacuate Fort Vaux at Verdun. Nov. --Germans and Austrians proclaim new kingdom of Poland, of territory captured from Russia. Nov. 6---Submarine sinks British passenger steamer Arabia. Nov. 7-Cardinal Mercier protests against German deportation of Belgians; submarine sinks American steamer Columbian. Nov. 8--Russian army invades Transylvania, Hungary. Nov. 9-Austro-German armies defeat Russians in Volhynia and take 4,000 prisoners. Nov. 1---British launch new offensive in Somme region on both sides of Ancre. Nov. 14--British capture fortified village of Beacourt, near the Ancre. Nov. 19-Serbian, French, and Russian troops recapture Monastir; Germans cross Transylvania Alps and enter western Roumania. Nov. 21-British hospital ship Britannic sunk by mine in Egean sea. Nov. 23--Roumanian army retreats ainety miles from Bucharest. Nov. 24--German-Bulgarian armies take Orsova and Turnu-Severin from Roumanians. Nov. 25--Greek provisional government declares war on Germany and Bulgaria. Nov. 28--Roumanian government abandons Bucharest and moves capital to Jassy. Dec. e--Premier Herbert Asquith of England resigns. Dec. 7-David Lloyd George accepts British premiership. Dec. 8-Gen. von Mackensen captures big Roumanian army in Prohova valley. Dec. 12---Chancellor von BethmanHollweg announces in reichstag that Germany will propose peace; new cabinet in France under Aristide Briand as premier, and Gen. Robert Georges Nivelle given chief of command of French army. Dec. 15-French at Verdun win two miles of front and capture 11,000 men. Dec. 19--Lloyd George declines German peace proposals. Dec. 23-Baron Burian succeeded as minister of foreign affairs in Austria by Count Czernin. Dec. 26--German proposes to President Wilson "an immediate meeting of delegates of the belligerents." Dec. 27-Russians defeated in fiveday battle in eastern Wallachia, Roumania. 1917 Jan. 1-Submarine sinks British transport Ivernia. Jan. 9-Russian premier, Trepoff, resigns. Golitzin succeeds him. Jan. 31-Germany announces unrestricted submarine warfare. Feb. 3-Presjident Wilson reviews submarine controversy before congress; United States severs diplomatic rlations with Germany; American steamer Housatonic sunk without warning. Feb. 7?-Senate indorses president's act of breaking off diplomatic relations. Feb, 12-United States refuses German request to discuss matters of difference unless Germany withdraws unrestricted submarine warfare order. Feb. 14----Von Bernstorff sails for Germany. Feb. 25--British under Gen. Maude capture Kut-el-Amara; submarine sinks liner Laconia without warning; many lost, including two Americans. Feb. 26---President Wilson asks congress for authority to arm American merchantships. Feb. 28--Secretary Lansing makes public Zimmerman note to Mexico, proposing Mexican-Japanese-German alliance. March 9-President Wilson calls extra session of congress for April 16. March 11-British under Gen. Maude capture Bagdad; revolution starts in Petrograd. March 15--Czar Nicholas of Russia abdicates. March 17-French and British capture Bapaume. March 18-New French ministry is formed by Alexander Ribot. March 21-Russian forces cross Persian border into Turkish territory; American oil steamer Healdton torpedoed without warning. March 22-United States recognizes new government of Russia. March 27--Gen. Murray's British expedition into the Holy Land defeats Turkish army near Gaza. April 2--President Wilson asks congress to declare that acts or Germany constitute a state of war; submartne sinks American steamer Aztec without warning. April 4-United States senate passes resolution declaring a state of war exists with Germany. April 6--House passes war resolution and President Wilson signs joint resolution of congress. April 8--Austria declares severance of diplomatic relations with United States. April 9-British defeat Germans at Vimy Ridge and take 6,000 prisoners; United States seizes fourteen Austrian interned ships. April 20--Turkey severs diplomatio relations with the U. S. April 28-Congress passes selective service act for raising of army of 500,000; Guatemala severs diplomatic relations with Germany. May 7-War department orders raising of nine volunteer regiments of engineers to go to France. May 14-Espionage act becomes law by passing senate. May 18---President Wilson signs selective service act. Also directs expeditionary force of regulars under Gen. Pershing to go to France. May 19-Congress passes war appropriation bill of $3,000,000,000. June 5-Nearly 10,000,00 men in U. S. register for military training. June 12-King Constantine of Greece abdicates. June 13--Gen. Pershing and staff arrive in Paris. June 15--First Liberty loan closes with large oversubscription. June 26--First contingent American troops under Gen. Sibert arrives in France. June 29-Greece severs diplomatic relations with Teutonic allies. July 9--President Wilson drafts state mAilitia into federal service. Also places food and fuel under federal control. July 18-War department order drafts 678,000 men into military service. Jnly 14-Aircraft appropriation bill of $640,000,000 passes house; Chancellor von Bethmann-Hollweg's resignation forced by German political crisis. July 18-United States government orders censorship of telegrams and cablegrams crossing frontiers. July 19---New German Chancellor Michaelis declares Germany will not war for conquest; radicals and Catholic party ask peace without forced acquisitions of territory. July 22-Siam declares war on Germany. July 23--Premier Kerensky given unlimited powers in Russia. July 28---United States war industries board created to supervise expenditures. Aug. 25-Italian Second army breaks through Austrian line on Isonzo front. Aug. 28--President Wilson rejects Pope Benedict's peace plea. Sept. 10-Gen. Korniloff demands control of Russian government. Sept. 11-Russian deputies vote to support Kerensky. Korniloff's generals ordered arrested. Sept. 16--Russia proclaims new republic by order of Premier Kerensky. Sept. 20-Gen. Haig advances mile through German lines at Ypres. Sept. 21-Gen. Tasker H. Bliss named chief of staff, U. S. army. Oct. 16--Germans occupy islands of Runo and Adro in the Gulf of Riga. Oct. 25-French under Gen. Petain advance and take 12,0.00 prisoners on Aisne front. Oct. 27-Formal announcement made that American troops In France had fired their first shots in the war. Oct. 29--Italian Isonzo front collaDses and Austro-German army reaches outposts of Udine. Nov. 1-Secretary Lansing makes public the Luxburg "spurlos versenkt" note. Nov. 9-Permanent interallied military commission created. Nov. 24--Navy department announces capture of first German submarine by American destroyer. Nov. 28--Bolsheviki get absolute control of Russian assembly in Russian elections. Dec. 6--Submarine sinks the Jacob Jones, first regular warship of American navy destroyed. Dec. 7-Congress declares war on Austria-Hungary. Dec. 8--Jerusalem surrenders to Gen. Allenby's forces. 1918 Jan. --President Wilson delivers speech to congress giving "fourteen points" necessary to peace. Jan. 20-British monitors win seafight with cruisers Goeben and Breslau, sinking latter. Jan. 28--Russia and Roumania sever diplomatic relations. Feb. 2--United States troops take over their first sector, near Toul. Feb. 6--United States troopship Tuscania sunk by submarine, 126 lost. Feb. 11-President Wilson, in address to congress, gives four additional peace principles, including self-determination of nations; Bolsheviki declares war with Germany over, but refuse to sign peace treatq. Feb. 13-Bolo Pasha sentenced to death in France for treason. Feb. 25-Germans take Reval, Russian naval base, and Pskov; Chancellor von Hertling agrees "in principle". -with President Wilson's peace principles, n address to reichstag. March 1-Over 75,000 American troops in France by this date. Americans repulse Germans on Toqul sector. March 2-Treaty of peace with Germany signed, by Bolsheviki at BrestLitovsk. M1arch 13-German troops occupy Odessa. March 14--All Russian congress of soviets ratifies peace treaty. March 21-On West Front German spring Offensive starts on fifty mile front. March 22-Germans take 16,000 British prisoners and 200 guns. March 23-German drive gains nine miles. Long Range "Mystery gun" shells Paris. March 24-Germans reach the Somme, gaining fifteen miles. American engineers rushed to aid British. March 2,5--Germans take Bapaume. March 27-Germans take Albert. March 28--British counter attack and gain; French take three towns; Germans advance toward Amiens. March 29-"Mystery gun" kills seventy-five churchgoers in Paris on Good Friday. April 4--Germans start second phase of their spring drive on the Somme. April 10---Germans take 10,000 British prisoners in Flanders. April 16---Germans capture Messines ridge, near Ypres; Bolo Pasha executed. April 28-British and French navies "bottle up" Zeebrugge. April 26--Germans capture Mount Kemmel, taking 6,500 prisoners. May 5-Austria starts drive on Italy. May 10--British navy bottles up 0Otend. Continued on Next Page

Page  16 A BRIIEF -HISTORICAA L SUMMML~IARYR OF -THE GRETT'OL WARe~ MIIay 24--British ship Moldavia, carrying Amierican troops, torpedoed;.66 lost. Ma 27--GermansI begin third phasee of drive on w'est front; gain ftve miles, M~ay 28--Germans take 15,000 prisoners in drive. M~ay 2"--ermans take Soissons and menace Reims.. American troops capture Cantigny. May 30--Germans reach the Marne, fifty-five miles from Paris.-. Ma~ay 81--Germans take 45,000 pris-- oners in drive. IJune I--Germans advance nine miles- are forty-six miles from.Paris. June 3-veGerman subm~arines att~ack U. S. coast and srink eleven ships. June 5i-U. S. marines light on'the Marne near Clhateau Thierry. June 9--Germzans start fouarth phase of their drive by advancing toward Noyon. June 10--U. S. ~Marines capture Belleau W~ood. June 12---French and -Americans start great counter attack. June Iri--Austrians begin another drive on Italy and take 16,,000 prisoners. June 17 Italians check Austrians on Piave river. June 19--Asustrians cross the Piave. June 22--Italiansr defeat Austrians on the Piave. June 23--Austrians begin great retreat across the Piave..July 18--Gen. F'och launches allied offensive, with French, American, British, Italian and Belgian troops. July 21-Americans and French capture Chateau Thierry. July SO0-German crown prince withdraws army from the Marne. Aug. 2-Soissons1 recaptured by Foch. Aug. 4--AmL~ericans take Fismes.. Aug. 5i--Acmerican troops landed at Archangel. Atig. 7--Americans cross the Vesle. Aug. 16--Bapaume recaptured. Aug. 28--Frenc~h recross the Sonnne. SepL 1-F-Eoch retakes Peronne. Sept. 12-Americans, launch successful attack in St. M~ihiel salient. SepL, 28--Allies w~in on 250 mile line, from North sea to Verdun. Sept. 29--Allies e-ro-as H indenburg line. SOPL. 30--Bulgaria surrenders, after successful Allied campaign in Balkans. OeL 1-FIirench take St., Que~ntin. OeL 4A-Austria asks Holland to mediate with allies for peace. Oct " -Peruanes start abandonment of Lille and burn Douai.. -OcL 6-G-ermany asks President Wilson for armistice. Oct. 7I-Americans capture defenses in the Argonne. Oct. 8--~President W~ilson refuses armistice. Oct. 9--Allies capture Cambrai. Oct. 10--Allies capture Le Cateau. Oct. 11--American transport Otranto torpedoed and sunk; 500 lost. Oct, 18---Foch's troops take Laon and La Fiere. Oct 14~4-British and Belgians take Roulers; -Preslident W~ilson demands surrender by Germany. Oct, U~--British and Belgians cross Lys river, takre 12,000 prisoners and 100 guns. Oct. 16---Allies enter Lille outskirts. Oct. 17 --Allies capture Lille, Bruges, Zeebrugge, Ostend and Douai. Oct. 18~--Czecho-Slovaks issue declaration of independence and seize Prague. Oct. 19--President W~ilson refuses Austria peace plea and says CzechoSlovak state nriust be considered. Oct 21 -Allies cross the Oise and threaten Valenciennes. Oct. 22-HI3aig's forces cross the Scheldt. Oct. 23--President W~ilson refuses latest German peace plea. Oct. 27-German government asks President 'Wilson to state terms. Oct. 2S--Austria begs for separate peace. Oct 219-Austria opens direct negotiations with Secretary I.Ansing. Oct; 30---Italians inflict great defeat on Austria; capture 33..000;. Austrians evacuating Italian territory. Oct 31-Turkey surrenders; Austrians utterly routed by Italians; lose 500,000; Austrian 'envoys, under white flag, enter Italian lines. NOT. I-A\llied Conference at Versailles fixes peace terms for Germany. NoT.'3--Austria signs an armistice virtually amounting to unconditional surrender. NOT. 4--Allied terms are' se nt to Germany. NOT. 7-Germany-'s envoys enter allied lines by 'arrai~gement. NOT. 9-K~aiser 'Wilhelm abdic~ates and crown prince renounces throne. NOT. 10O--Former Kaiser Wilhelm and his'eldest son,, F'riedrich W~ilhelrri flee to Holland to escape widespread revolution throughout Germany. NOTo. 11--Germanny signs armistice. ending war. 1919 June 22--German Envoys sign Allied Peace Terms at Versailles. June 2S--German National Assem-- blyy at WVeimar approve Peace Terms, thereby form~ally ending the 'World W~ar. _ __ I PRONUNCIATIION OF NAMES OF TOWNS IN BELGIUMAD R ýNCE Aerschot-Air- shot Alost-Aah-lawat Andenne--ahn-den Antwerp-A-hntt-werp Arlon-Aahr- long Beaumont--Bo-mong Binche-Ban-jhe B3lankenberghe--Blanken-behr-yeh Bouvigne-Boo-veen-ye Braine I'Alleud--Brainluh-leuh!Braine le Conte--Bralnluh-Cont Bruges--Breezh Brussels-Brurs-elz Charleroi-Shar-lah-rwah Chimnay-Shih-may Cortemarck-Ko rt- mark Courtrai-KEoor- tray Diest--Deest Dircant--Dee-nahng Dyle--Deel Dixmude-DTee-mneehd Eghez~ee-Ei~gg-a-zay9 Enghien-ABhn-yang F~urnes-FPeern Gembloux-Gahon-bloo Genappe--Zheh-napp Gh eel-GaailGrammont--Gram-mong Haele~in-Hah-l~en Hal--Hahl Hammie--]EIlahm Hasselt--Hah-selt Hetrenthal e-Haeir-en-tale Heyst--Hiest Jodoigne--Zho-dwan-yd Jorigres3-Zhong-r Knocke-K'noe-keh La Belle Alliance--law-v Bell-Ah-lee-anz Laeken-Lah-ken, -La Roche--Lah Rosh L'iege--Lee-ayzh Lierre Laa-airr Ligny--Leen-yee Limburh--Lam-bour Lipramont "Leep-rahmong Lokeren--Lo-ker-yen Lombartzeyde--Lom- bartz~ide Liouvaiii-loo-ven M~~alines' Mah-leen Manage-MBah-nahzh M'arienbourg--Mah- reeom-boor M\~iddelkkrerke-Middlele kierk MIons-Mologs Mont. St. Jean-ML~ong Sang Zboi ig Namur-Nanh-muhr N~,eerw;inden-Nair-vin- den N~,eufchateau-Nuf -shah -to Nyieu port--New- port Nievelles--Nee-vel Nonov*,-No-nov Ostend -Os-tend OSttignes-Ot-teen-yeE Oudenard-O(~od-n-ard Percvy a--P~ir-ve~ez Ra~millies-n~ah- mee-y ay Ramseapelle-Rahms-ke~kpel-leh Renaix--Reh-nay Roulers--Roo-lay Sambre--Sahm-br Seraing--Seh- rang Soigilies--Swahn-yee St. Trond--Sang; Trong Ta-mise--Tah-meez Ternionde -Tair-m ond Terveureul-Ter-voo- ren Thielt--Teelt Thourout--Too-roo Thulin-Twang Tir~lemont-Teer-leh-mong Toilgres--Tong-r Tou rnay--Toor-nay Verviers-Vair-vee-ay Vilvord&--Veel-vort Virto n-VPeer- tong Vise--Vee-zay W~~aremme-Wah-remre Wi~avre--W~ahv-r Y pres-E~ep-r Y ser-Efie-say Zeebrugge-Zay-bruggeh France Aire Aair Aaisne-A-in Amiens-Aah-mee-ang Ardennem--ahr-(Ien Ardres-ALhrd-r Argonne~-ahr-gon Arieuxe--ahr-yuh AhrmentierPres-hhr-maihntoo-air Arras-Arrah Audruieo--O-dree-ko Bailleul-B~a-yeul Barleduc--Bar-leh- duke B~eauvais-Bo- vay B3eaufort--Bo-for Beau vals-tao-vay Belfort--Bel-for Bergues--Bairg Berl aim ont-B3air- lehniongg Berry au Bac--Bair-ree-obak B3esanconn-Beh-zahngsolag Bethune--Bay-toon Blamont--Blah-mong Bordeau--Bor-do Boulogne-Boo-Io ne-ye Bourbourg--Boor-boor Bou rges--Boo rzhh Brest--Brust Breteuil--Bre- toy Ca lais-K ab- -lay Chalons sur Nlariie--Shahloiig- seer- M~arti Camb rAi--Kong-b ray Chambley--Shahm-blay Chantilly-Shang-tee-yeo Chaumiont--Sho-mong Cherbourg--Sher-boor Compeigne-K~ong-pee-enn Conde-Kong- day Crecy--Bray-see Denain--Deh-neh Dieppe--Dee- epp Douai--Doo-ay Duunkerque -Daihn-kbeerk Eperna y-A~y -pair- nay Epitial-AyLy-pee-nal Etain--Ay-tang Etappes-ABy-tapp F'ontaine-F~ong-ten Fumnay-FPee-mray Givet--Zhee-vay Gralvelines-Grahv-leen H~avre-ABv-r Hazebrouck-ABhz-bruk La Bassee-Lah-Bah-say Laon--Lohng Lens--Lahng Liancourt-Lee-ong- coor Lille--Leel Longwyy-Long-vee Luneville-Leen -veel Lys--Lees M~all) laquet--Mahl-plahkay Marne Mharn Marseilles-MRar- say - yeh Maubert-M~o-bair Maubeugeý--Afo-berz M3eaux-Mob~ Mieurthe et Moselle--Murtay-Mo-sel Meuse -Merz Mtezieres-Ml~ay- shee-air Montideer-Al~ong-tee-- dyay Montffauco n-Mong-f d; kong, M;~ontmedy-M~ong-mehdee M~ontreuaill-Mong-troy Nancy-Nnihn-miw Nanteuil--Nong;-toy Neuilly--Noy-y ee Nord--Nor Norvelles--No-vel Noyon--Nwah-yoiig Oise W~7ahz Orleans 'O0r-lay -ong Oye--Waah Pas de Calais--Pah-dKah-lay Peronne--Pair-run R eim s-RRenh Roubaix--Roo-bay Rouen--Roo-ong Sedan--Seh-dong Senlis--Song-lee Soissons-Swah- song: Somme-S-Lim St. Armand--San-Tarmong St. Die--Sang-Dee-ay St. Mviihiel--Sang-Meal St. Omer--San-to-mair St. Pol--Sang-pohl St. Quentin--Sang-kong-- tang St. Remy--Sang-Ruh-me Toulon--Too- long Valenciennes--Val- longs-yenn Varenes--Vah-ren Verdunn-Vair- dungE Vervins---LVer-vang Vitry--Vee-treo Vosges-Vohzh Woevre -Wuh-vr Zaydcoote -Zaid-kobt SEE FOLLOWING PAGE FOR THE PEACE CONGRESS TERMS AND SUMMARY OF THE LEAGUE O AIN

Page  17 A SUMMARY OF THE CONSTITUTION OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS The Proposed Signatories of the League--are to be the Associated Powers which drew It up. Other states may later be invited to come in. The Powers, whose members prepared the League are as follows: (A) The United States, the British Empire, France, Italy and Japan described in the League Constitution as the five allied and associated powers, and (B) Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, China, Cuba, Ecuador, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, the Hedjas, Honduras, Liberia, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Portugal, Rumania, Serbia, Siam, Cechoslovakia, and Uruguay. Germnany may later be admitted. 1eminbership-The members of the league will be the signatories of the covenant and other'states invited to accede, who must lodge a declaration of accession without reservation within two months. A new state, dominion, or colony may be admitted provided its adwission is agreed to by two-thirds of the assembly. A state may withdraw upon giving two years' notice, if it has fulfilled all its international obligaSee re,ariat-A permanent secretariat will be established at the seat of the league which will be at Geneva. Assembly--The assembly will consist of representatives of the members of the leagu.e, and will meet at stated intervals. Voting will be by states. Each member will have one vote and not more than three representatives. Counilel--The council will consist of representatives of the five great allied powers, together with representatives of four members selected by the assembly from time to time; it may co-operate with additional states and will meet at least once a year. Menibers not represented will be invited to send a representative when questions affecting their interests are discussed. Voting will be by states. Each state will ha-ve one vote and not more than one, representative. Decision taken by the assembly and council must be unanimous except in regard to procedure, and in certain cases specified in the covenant and in the treaty, where decisions will be irmaments-Tle council will formulate plans for a reduction of armaments for consideration and adoption. These plans will be revised every ten years. Once they are -",ith any party to the dispute which complies with it, if a member fails to carry out the award, the council will propose the necessary measures. The council will formulate plans for the establishment of a permanent court of international justice to determine international disputes or to. give advisory opinions Members who do not submit their case to arbitration must accept the jurisdiction of the assenmbly. If the council, less the parties to the dispute, is unanimously agreed upon the rights of it, the members agree that they will not go to war with any party to the dispute which complies with its recommendations. In this case, a recommendation by the assembly adopted, no member must exce.ed the armaments fixed without the concurrence of the council. Prbgrams will be revised every ten years. Once they are adopted no member must exceed the armaments text without concurrence of the council. All members will exchange full information as to armaments and programs, and a permanent commission will advise the council on military and naval questions. "Preventing of War--Upon any war, or threat of war, the council will meet to consider what common action shall be taken. Members are pledged to submit matters of dispute to arbitration or inquiry and not to resort to war until three months after the award. Members agree to carry out an arbitral award, and not to go to war with any party to the dispute which complies with it; if a member fails To carry out the award the council will propose the necessary measures. The council will formulate plans for the establishment of a permanent court of international justice to determine international disputes or to give advisory opinions. Members who do not submit their cases to arbitration must accept the jurisdiction of the assembly. If the council, less the parties to the dispute, is unanimously agreed upon the rights of it, the members agree.,hat they will not go to war with any party to the dispute which complies with its recommendations. S, In this case if the necessary agreement cannot be secured the members reserve the right to take such action as may b~e necessary for the maintenance of right and justice. Members resorting to war in disregard of the covenant will immediately be debarred from all intercourse with other members. The council will in such cases consider what military or naval action, can be taken by the league collectively for the protection of the covenants and will afford facilities to members co-operating in this enterprise. Talidity of Treaties-All treaties or international engagements concluded after the institution of the league will be registered with the secretariat and published. The assembly may from time to time advise members to reconsider treaties which have become inapplicable or involve danger of peace. The covenant abrogates all ob igations between members inconsistent with its terms, but nothing in it shall affect the validity of international engagement 'such as treaties of arbitration or regional understandings like the Monroe doctrine for securing the maintenance of The M1andatory System--The tutelage of nations not yet able to stand by themselves will be entrusted to advanced nations who are best fitted to undertake it. The covenant recognizes three different stages of development. requiring different kinds. of mandatories. Communities like those belonging to the Turkish empire which can be provisionally recognized as independent, subject to advice and assistance from a miandatory in whose selection they 'would be allowed a voice. Communities like those of Central Africa, to be administered by the mandatory under conditions generally approved by the members of the league where equal opportunities for trade w~ill be allowed to all members; certain abuses, such as trade in slaves, arms and liquor, will be prohibited, and the construction of military and naval bases and the introduction of compulsory military training will be disallowed. Other communities, such as Southwest Africa, and the south Pacific islands, will be administered under the laws of the mandatory as integral portions of its territory. In every case the mandatory -will render an annual report and the degree of its authority will be defined. The MHuonroe Doetrine--is fully safeguarded by the League, which provides that no intervention in American affairs is to be allowed. General Itternational Provisions--Subject to and in accordance with the provisions of international conventions existing or hereafter to be agreed upon, the members of the league will in general endeavor, through the international organization established'by the labor convention, to secure and maintain fair conditions of labor for men, women and children in their own countries and other countries, and undertake to secure just treatment of the native inhabitants of territories under their control; they will entrust the league with the general supervision over the execution of agreements for the suppression of traffic in women and children, etc.; and the control of the trade in arms and ammunition with countries in which control is:iecessary; they will make provision for freedom of communications and transit and equitable treatment for commerce of all members of the league, with special reference to the necessities of regions devastated during the war; and they will endeavor to take steps for international prevention and control of disease. International buIreaus and commissions already established will be placed under the league, as well as those to be established in the future. Amendments to the Covenant Amendments to the covenant will take effect when ratified by the council and by a majority of the assembly. Regarding Gerian-y--The covenant of the league of nations constitutes section 1 of the peace treaty, which places upon* the league many specific duties in addition to its general duties. It may penalize Germany at any time for a violation of the neutralized zone east of the Rhine as - threat against the world's peace. It will appoint three of the five members of the Saar commission, to oversee its regime and carry out the plebiscite. It will appoint the high commissioner of Danzig, guarantee the independence of the free city and arrange for treaties between Danzig and Germany and Poland. It will work out the mandatory system to be applied to the former German colonies, and act as a final court in part of the plebiscites of the BelgianGerman frLontier, and in disputes as to the Kiel canal and decide certain of the economic and financial problems. An international conference on labor is to be held in October under its direction, and another on the international control of ports, waterways and railways is foreshadowed. SUMMARY OF THE GERMAN PEACE TERMS Signed by the German Peace Delegates on June 28, and Ratified by the German Assembly oil July 9, 1919. S 4 The treaty of peace between the twenty-seven allied powers on the one hand and Germany on the other is the longest treaty ever drawn. It totals about 80,000 words, divided into fifteen main sections, and represents the combined product of more than a thousand experts working continually through a series of commissions for the five and a half months since Jan. 1.8. The treaty is printed in parallel pages of English and French, which are recognized as having equal validity. It does not deal with questions affecting Austria, Bulgaria and Turkey except in so far as binding Germany to accept any agreement reached with those former ) Following the preamble and deposition of powers comes the covenant of the league of nations as the first section of the treaty. The frontiers of Germany in Europe are defined in the second section; European political clauses are given in the third. Next are the military, naval and air terms as the fifth section, followed by a section on prisoners of war and military graves and a seventh on responsibilities. Reparations, financial terms and economic terms are covered in sections eight to ten. Then comes the aeronautic section, ports, waterways and railways section, the labor covenant, the section on guarantees and the final clauses. Germany by the terms of the treaty restores Alsace-Lorraine to France, accepts the internationalization of the Saar basin temporarily and of Danzig permanently, agrees to territorial changes toward Belfrium and Denmark and in East Prussia, cedes most of upper Silesia to Poland, and renounces all territorial and political rights outside Europe as to her own or her allies' territories, and especially to Morocco, Egypt, Siam, Liberia and Shantung. She also recognizes the total independence of German-Austria, Czecho-Slovakia and Poland. Her army is reduced to 200,000 men, including officers; conscription within her territories is abolished; all forts fifty kilometers east of the Rhine razed; and all importation, exportation and nearly all production of war and material stopped. Allied occupation of parts of Germany will continue till reparation is made, but will be reduced at the end of each of three five-year periods if Germany is fulfilling her obligations. Any violation by Germany of the conditions as to the zone fifty kilometers east of the Rhine will be regarded as an act of war. The German navy is reduced to six battleships, six light cruisers and twelve torpedo boats, without submarines, and a personnel of not over 15,000 troops. All other vessels must be surrendered or destroyed. Germany is forbidden to build forts controlling the Baltic, must demolish Helgoland, open the Kiel canal to all nations and surrender her fourteen submarine cables. She may have no military or naval air forces except 100 unarmed seaplanes until Oct. 1 to detect mines, and may mnanufacture aviation material for six months. Germany accepts full responsibility for all damages caused to allied and associated governments and nationals, agrees specifically fo reimlburse ail civilian damages beginning with an initial payment of 20,000,000,000 marks (about $5,000,000,000), subsequent payments to be secured by bonds to be issued at the discretion of the reparation commission. Germany is to pay shipping damage on a ton-for-ton basis by cession of a large part of her merchant coasting and river fleets and by new construction; and to devote her economic resources to the reb~ulding of the devastated regions. She agrees to return to the 1914 most-favored nation tariffs without discrimination of any sort; to allow allied and associated rationals freedom of transit through her territories, and to accept highl, detailed provisions as to pre-war debts, unfair competition, internationalization of roads and rivers, and other economic and financial clauses. She also agrees to the trial of the former kaiser by an international high court for a supreme offense against international morality and of other nationals for violation of the laws and customs of war, Holland to be asked to extradite the former emperor, and Germany being responsible for delivering the latter. The league of nations is accepted by the allied and associated powers as operative and by Germany in principle, but without membership; but membership is to be given her a little later after complying with the first of the Peace Term requirements. Similarly an international labor body is brought into being with a permanent office and an annual convention. A great number of international bodies of different kinds and for different purposes are created, under the league of nations, some to execute the peace treaty. Among the former is the commission to govern the Saar basin till a plebiscite is held fifteen years hence; the high commissioner of Danzig, which is created into a free city under the league, and various commissions for plebiscites in Malmody, Schleswig and East Prussia. Among those to carry out the peace treaty-are the reparations, military, naval, air, financial and economic commissions; the international high court and military tribunals to fix the responsibilities, and a series of bodies for the control of international rivers. Certain problems are left for solution between the allied and associated powers, notably details of the disposition of the German colonies and the values paid in reparation. Certain other problems, such as the laws of the air, and the opium, arms and liquor traffic, are either agreed to in detail or set for early international action. The preamble names as parties of the one part the United States, the British empire, France, Italy and Japan-, described as the five allied and associated powers, and Belgium, Bolivia, China, Cuba, Ecuador, Greece, Guatemala, Htaiti, the tedjaz, Honduras, Liberia, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Rumania,' Serbia, Siam, Czeeho-Slovakia and Uruguay, who with the five above are described as the allied and ass0ciated powers. ad on the other part, Germany.

Page  18 -HE. FORMER EMPIRE OF TURKEY IN ASIA Since the! end of the War Armenia, Mesopotamia, Syria and Palestine have been taken from Turkey and placed undE

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Page  [unnumbered] ATLAS AND PLAT BOOK OF LAPEER CO. 1921 RECEIVED: Paper bound with cloth back tight to spine. Front cover free and lower right corner missing. Book was wire stitched through the side, sewing sound. First few pages are rather worn at the fore edge. At the back revised atlas of the world was wire stitched through the signature fold and hung in on cloth hinges. TREATMENT: Peel off cloth. Pick to pieces. Number unnumbered pages. Wash, dry, press, deacidify, and laminate. Guard folded pages. Stub for thickness. Add endsheets. Bind in scrapbook style binding. MATERIALS: Wei T'o deacidification solution. Ehlermann's PVA LAL 215. Swift's ZF 295 glue. PROMATCO endsheet paper, reinforcing paper, nylon laminating tissue. Ademco unsupported lamatec. Davey "Red Label" binder's board. Acid-free conservation mounting board. Library buckram. 23K gold. McBee sawtooth lockpins. ANN FLOWERS ^AP DATE COMPLETED: June 2, 1982

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