Standard atlas of Clare County, Michigan : including a plat book of the villages, cities and townships of the county ... patrons directory, reference business directory and departments devoted to general information
Geo. A. Ogle & Co.

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Page  3 I I I II II F11 I f JNGLeUDIN& OF TYIVE VILLAGES., GITIES -AND TOWNSHIPS OF THE CIOUNTY.. MAP- OIF T ---+HE SA,N- ~ - Patrons Dirvectory, Reference IBusiness Directory, and Departments devoted to General Information. ANALYSIS OF THE SYSTEM OF U.S. LAND SURVEYS, D1GEST OF THE S-SYSTEM OF CI-VIL GOVERNMAENT, ETC. ETC. Compiled and ~ubl'shed 1.34- VA N B3U R E N ST.

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Page  5 i TABLUB Or GONTEINTS. G --- —RAL N — EX. G IE R N D E K. TITLB PAGE.....................A.......... TABLE OF CONTENTS..................... OUTLINE MAP OF CLARE COUNTY........ MAP OF THE STATE OP MICHIGAN....... MAP OF THE UNITED STATES............ MAP OF THE WORLD...................... PATRONS' REFERENCE DIRECTORY OF CLARE COUNTY........................ PORTRAIT DEPARTMSNI.................. PAGE 3 5 7 48-49 52-53 56-57 59 63 PAGR ANALYSIS OF THE SYSTEM OF UNITED STATES LAND SURVEYS.... Supplement I-I I DIGEST OF THE SYSTEM OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT..................... Supplement III-VI GENERAL INFORMATION REGARDING BANKING AND BUSINESS METHODS............................ Supplement VII-VIII ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY, CHRONOLOGICALLY ARRANGED.............................. Supplement X-XXII CLXARE COUNTY INDEX. Page. ARTHUR TOWNSHIP..........................................23 CLARE COUNTY, OUTLINE MAP OF............................ 7 CLARE, PLAT OF............................................... 45 CROOKED LAKE, PLAT OF....................................41 FAREWELL, PLAT OF........................................... 43 FRANKLIN TOWNSHIP.....................................39 FROST TOWNSHIP...............................................37 GARFIELD TOWNSHIP..........................................15 GRANT TOWNSHIP.................. 11 GREENWOOD TOWNSHIP................................... 29 HAMILTON TOWNSHIP...................................... 25 Page. HARRISON, PLAT OF..............,.............................41 HATTON TOWNSHIP..........................................21 HAYES TOWNSHIP......................................... 27 LINCOLN TOWNSHIP.......................................18-19 MEREDITH, PLAT OF.................................. 41 REDDING TOWNSHIP................................... 31 SHERIDAN TOWNSHIP..................................... 9 SUMME;RFIELD TOWNSHIP...................................35 SURRY TOWNSHIP..............................................13 TEMPLE, PLAT OF......................................... 45 WINTERFIELD TOWNSHIP............................... 33

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Page  55

Page  56 PATRONS' REFERENCE DIRECTORY OF Glare Gounty, Michigan. EXPLANATION.-The date following a name indicates the length of time the party has been a resident of the county. The abbreviations are as follows: S. for Section; T. for Township; P. 0. for Post-office address. When no Section Number or Township is given, it will be understood that the party resides within the limits of the village or city named, and, in such cases, the post-office address is the same as the place of residence, unless otherwise stated. -- - -- ---- - - - - ___ = Adams, Thomas G., Manufacturer of and Dealer in Dressed Lumber and Rough Shingles, S. 25, T. Summerfeld, P. 0. Harrison. Albertson, J. C., Postmaster and Dealer in General Merchandise, S. 7, T. Redding, P. 0. Pennock. Aldrich, W. E., Insurance, Harrison. Aldridge, A. C., Editor Clare County Cleaver, Harrison. Allen, Albert, Farmer, S. 21, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Allen, H. B., Dealer in Real Estate, Clare. 'Allen, James B., Farmer, S. 6, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Alley, W. J., Farmer, S. 17, T. Garfield, P. 0. Crooked Lake. Alwood, W. C., Farmer, S. 31, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. Amble, Trygue, Farmer, S. 8, T. Hamilton, P. 0. Harrison. Anderson, John H., Farmer, S. 4, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Applebee, Cyrus, Farmer, S. 8, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Served in Co. B, 184th Pa. Vol. Armour, John, Farmer, S. 29, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Artibee, Jos., Farmer, S. 20, T. Winterfield, P. 0. Winterfield. Artibee, Moses, Farmer, S. 16, T.-Winterfield, P. O. Winterfield. Athey, James, Farmer, S. 22, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. Athey, J. M., Farmer, S. 34, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. Austin, Thos. E., Farmer, S. 35, T. Redding, P. 0. Temple. Bailey, Charles E., Farmer, S. 10, T. Hayes, P. O. Harrison. Bailey, Edmond, Farmer, S. 15, T. Hayes, P. 0. Harrison, 1882. Bailey, F., Farmer, S. 29, T. Hatton, P. 0. Hatton. Baker, Dell, Farmer, S. 22, T. Redding, P. 0. Temple. Baldwin, C. H., Farmer, S. 24, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. Balsley, John F., Farmer, Cigar Manufacturer and Agent for American Fence Co., S. 18, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. Baluss, C., Farmer and Highway Commissioner, S. 11, T. Redding, P. O. Temple. Barber, I. H., Farmer, S. 26, T. Arthur, P. 0. Alward. Barlow, E. R., Farmer, S. 25, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. Bates, C. M., Farmer, S. 7, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Beauchanp, Felix, Farmer and Prop. Hotel, Meredith, P. 0. Skeel. Beck, John, Farmer and Township Treasurer, S. 31, T. Arthur, P. O. Clare. Becker, Wm. E., Farmer, S. 15, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Bell, Thomas, Farmer, S. 22, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Belling, Carl, Farmer,,S. 15, T. Grant, P. 0. Clare. Bingham, C. E., Hardware and Agricultural Implements, Farwell. Birdsall, Rev. S. W., Farmer and Minister, S. 1, T. Greenwood, P. O. Harrison. Blinco, William, Farmer, S. 30, T. Arthur, P. O. Clare. Bolton, W., Farmer and Justice of the Peace, S. 8, T. Hatton, P. O. Harrison. Bond, Fred., Farmer and Township Supervisor, S. 16, T. Summerfield, P. 0. Leota. Boner, E., Farmer, S. 33, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. Borst, J. R., Farmer, S. 7, T. Lincoln, P. O. Lake George. Served in Co. A, 50th N. Y. Vol. Engineers. Brandow, John, Farmer, S. 9, T. Hatton, P. 0. Harrisos. Brown, J. R., Real Estate, Harrison. Brown, Silas, Farmer, S. 8, T. Hatton, P. 0. Harrison. Brown, Varnam, Farmer, S. 33, T. Sheridan, P. O. Loomis. Served in Co. H, 49th N. Y. Vol. Inf. Bruce, R. W., Prop. Bruce's Hotel, Temple. Bruce, Samuel, Farmer, S. 22, T. Greenwood, P.. Harrison. Bryan, A. L., Farmer, Crooked Lake. Bryan, D., Farmer, Crooked Lake. Bryan, Geo., Farmer, S. 1, T. Arthur, P. 0. Wheatley. Budd, C. F., Farmer, S. 2, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. Budd, Fred. R., Farmer and Township Clerk, S, 22, T. Greenwood, P. O. Harrison. Budd, W. M., Farmer, S. 22, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison, Bulman, F. E., Farmer, S. 31, T. Winterfield, P. O. Marion. Burch & Wyman, Dealers in Grain Farm Produce and Agricultural Implements, Clare. Burnett, Chas., Farmer, S. 11, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. Butts, Chas. H., Farmer, S. 31, T. Franklin, P. 0. Harrison. Calkins, J. W., Prop. Calkins House, Clare. Campbell, D. J., Barber, Harrison. Campbell, Hugh, Farmer, S. 32, T. Winterfield, P. O. Grandon. Campbell, Ore J., Farmer and Highway Commissioner, S. 1, T. Hamilton, P. 0. Dodge. Caner, M. F., Farmer, S. 12, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. Canfield, A. R., Publisher Clare Courier, Clare. Canfield, J. H., Attorney, Harrison. Carey, Jasper, Farmer, S. 4, T. Frost, P. 0. Leota. Carncross, F. A., Farmer, S. 7, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Carrow, Nelson, Farmer, S. 22, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Came to Clare County in 1866 as a lumberman and in 1878 settled in Sheridan Township. Carson, R. C., Supervisor, Dealer in Improved and Unimproved Land, S. 21, T. Garfield, P. 0. Crooked Lake. Case, E. J., Prop. of Hotel, Farwell, Casey, F. R. & Co., Groceries, Harrison. Chaffee, E. S. & Co., General Merchandise, S. 15, T. Greenwood, P. O. Harrison. Chisholm, Adam, Farmer, S. 25, T. Grant, P. 0. Clare. Christian, Wesley, Farmer and Township Treasurer, S. 11, T. Lincoln, P. O. Lake George. Church, N., Farmer, S. 36, T. Redding, P. 0. Clarence. Clare County Savings Bank, C. W. Perry, President; Wm. Wolsey, Vice-President; C. H. Sutherland, Cashier. General Banking, CGlare. Clare Hardware Co., C. W. Calkins, Manager. Dealers in Hardware and Agricultural Implements, Clare. Clark, Alfred P., Farmer, S. 2, T. Arthur, P. 0. Wheatley. Clark, Chas. H., Farmer, S. 21, T. Surrey, P. O. Farwell. Served in Co. F, 4th Mich. Inf. Clark, Nelson H.,-Farmer and Township Clerk, S. 30, T. Frost, P. O. Harrison. Clements, W. S., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 32, T. Frost, P. 0. Harrison. Cleveland, N. H., Farmer, S. 27, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare, Cleveland, O. D. & Co., Electric Lighting. Prop. Cooperage and General Store, Harrison. Cochran, Robert H., Farmer, S. 11, T. Sheridan, P. O. Clare. Colley, S. C., Farmer, S. 36, T. Surrey, P. O. Farwell. Collins, L. H., Farmer, S. 32, T. Winterfield, P. 0. Grandon. Collins, W. H., Farmer, S. 26, T. Redding, P. 0. Clarence. Comer, D. W., Farmer, S. 25, T. Hatton, P. 0. Clare. Comer, Klebra, Farmer, S. 20, T. Grant, P. 0. Clare. Conner, Wm., Farmer, S. 11, T. Arthur, P. 0. Wheatley. Cook, Dick, Jr., Farmer, S. 9, T. Winterfield, P. 0. Winterfield. Cook, John, Farmer, S. 15, T. Winterfield, P. 0. Winterfield. Cook, Peter, Farmer, S. 16, T. Winterfield, P. O. Winterfield. Cook, N., Farmer, S. 16, T. Winterfield, P. 0. Winterfield. Cornwell, Wm. C., Saginaw Beef Co., Saginaw. Crawford, Thos., Prop. of Hotel, Temple. Crawford, Wm., Farmer, S. 12; T. Grant, P. O. Clare. Served in Co. I, 14th Heavy Artillery. Cross, WV. M., Postmaster, S. 25, T. Redding, P. 0. Clarence. Cummins, Geo. J., Attorney, Harrison. Cuppernull, B., Farmer, S. 1, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. Davis, D. N., Farmer, S. -26, T. Arthur, P. 0. Alward. Davis, Mrs. E. J., Farmer, S. 17, T. Winterfield, P. O. Wiiterfield. Davis, F. E., Farmer, S. 6, T. Redding, P. 0. Marion. Davis, Fred., Farmer, S. 34, T. Summerfield, P. 0. Harrison. Davis, William, Farmer, S. 3, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. Davison, Jas., Farmer, S. 16, T. Surrey, P. 0. Farwell. Davy & Co.; General Merchandise, Clare. DeBarr, Pitt., Farmer and Nursery Agent, S. 27, T. Greenwood, P. O. Harrison. Deits, C. J., Farmer, S. 17, T. Winterfield, P. 0. Winterfield. Dennis, E. M., Commercial- Traveler, No. 219 S. Jefferson St., Saginaw. Denno, David, Farmer, S. 31, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. Dillenback, Lester, Farmer, S. 8, T. Frost, P. O. Leota. Settled in Clare Co. in 1874 and moved to Frost Township in 1876. Doherty, F. B., Dealer in Hardware and Agricultural Implements, Clare. Dorsey, J. S., County Clerk, Register of Deeds and Abstracter, Harrison, Doty, A. E., Farmer, S. 15, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. Drake, Mrs. G. F., Harrison. Dudley, Jas. E., Postmaster, Harrison. Duncan, James, Dealer in Wines, Liquors and Cigars, Clare. Durfee, Clarence, Farmer and Highway Commissioner, S. 20, T. Hatton, P. O. Hatton. Dykstra, Abel, Farmer, S. 3, T. Winterfield, P. 0. Ansta. Dykstra, Wm., Postmaster and Dealer in General Merchandise, S. 3, T. Winterfield, P. O. Austa. Eddy, Theron H., Postmaster, Township Clerk, Farmer and Manufacturer of Lumber, S. 14, T. Arthur, P. 0. Alward. Edman, A., Farmer, S. 28, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. Empey, Val, Farmer, S. 20, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Erhardt, Wm., Farmer, S. 18, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. Erwin, Chas., Farmer, S. 22, T. Surrey, P. 0. Farwell. Finton, James, Farmer, S. 2, T. Grant, P. O. Clare. Fischer, Bernhard, Farmer, S. 18, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. Fleming, J. H., Farmer and County Superintendent of Poor, S. 29, T. Winterfield, P. O. Marion. Mr. Fleming came to Clare County in 1871 and settled in Winterfield Township. Served in Co. E, 4th Mich. Vol. Inf. Foster, M. C., Farmer, S. 15, T. Winterfield, P. 0. Winterfield, 1872. Fry, Wm. A., Farmer and Supervisor, S. 33, T. Redding, P. 0. Temple. Garchow, John F., Farmer, S. 22, T. Grant, P. 0. Clare. Garchow, Wm., Farmer, S. 23, T. Grant, P. 0. Clare. Garrety, Thomas, Farmer, S. 12, T. Hamilton, P. 0. Dodge. Garver, Chas. L., Farmer, S. 31, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. Garver, Mrs. Ellen, Farmer, S. 31, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. Gerow, Allen, Farmer, S. 29, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Gerow, S. W., Farmer, S. 20, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Gibis, George, Farmer, S. 22, T. Grant, P. 0. Clare. Gibson, James, Farmer, S. 26, T. Grant, P. O. Clare. Gilcher, George Farmer, S. 12, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Glare. Gilson, Edward, Farmer, S. 28, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. 'Glassle, Perry, Farmer, S. 6, T. Redding, P. 0. Marion. Glosch, Otto, Farmer, S. 27, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. Goodknecht, Anna, Postmistress, S. 29, T. Hatton, P. 0. Hatton. Gould, Albert W., Farmer, S. 24, T. Arthur, P. 0. Wheatley. Graub, Fred, Farmer, S. 23, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. Gray, Asa C., Probate Judge, Harrison. Green, George W., Farmer, S. 10, T. Summerfield, P. O. Leota. Grigsby, H. A., Farmer, S. 1, T. Garfield, P. 0. Crooked Lake. Gruno, Emil, Farmer, S. 5, T. Hatton, P. 0. Harrison, Guyles, Edward A., Farmer, S. 14, T. Redding, P. 0. Temple. Hale, Henry F., Farmer and Supervisor, S. 16, T. Winterfleld, P. O. Winterfield. Hampton, A. D., Farmer, S. 24, T. Grant, P.. Clare. Hampton, I. E., Farmer, S. 19, T. Sheridan, P. O. Clare. Hampton, James, S. 30, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Hampton, John W., Farmer and Supervisor, S. 19, T. Sheridan, P. O. Clare. Served in Co. C, Ohio Vol. Inf. Hanes, Henry, Farmer, S. 5, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Harger, D., Farmer, S. 25, T. Hatton, P. 0. Clare. Harper, W. W., County Poor Commissioner, Harrison. Hatch, Don S., Farmer, S. 25, T. Surrey, P. 0. Farwell. Hayner, C. E., Farmer, S. 16, T. Garfield, P. 0. Crooked Lake. Heckathorn. J., Farmer, S. 31, T. Winterfield, P. 0. Grandon. Heiser, Charles A., Farmer, S. 15, T. Arthur, P. O. Alward, Hess, F. L., Farmer, S. 13, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Coleman. HilBorn, W. R., Farmer, S. 17, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. Hildebrandt, W., Farmer, S. 34, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. Hinds, E.-S., Township Clerk and Dealer in Heavy and Shelf Hardware and Agricultural Implements, Farwell. Hoefle, Gottfrie'd, Farmer, S. 27, T. Hatton, P. O. Hatton. Holley, M. R., Farmer, S. 24, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. Hopkins, A. J., Farmer, S. 16, T. Winterfield, P. 0. Winterfield. Hosler, Wm. A., Farmer, S. 22, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. Howard, Mrs. C., Postmistress, S. 29, T. Winterfield, P. O. Grandon. Hubel, W. E., Farmer, S. 34, T. Grant, P. 0. Clare. Huber, S., Bunker Hill Ranch (S. & J. G. Huber, Proprietors), S. 6, T. Hamilton, P. 0. Harrison. Hughes Bros., Hardware, Agricultural Implements, etc., Harrison. Hunt, James, Postmaster and Farmer, S. 16, T. Winterfield, P. O. Winterfield. Huntley, A. P., Farmer, S. 20, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Husted, S., Farmer and Township Treasurer, S. 31, T. Franklin, P. O. Harrison. Hutchinson, Robert, County Sheriff, Harrison. Jackson, C. H., Farmer, S. 23, T. Greenwood, P. O. Harrison. Jackson, John A., Butcheer and Chairman Board of Supervisors, Clare. Jackson, John D., Foreman of Powell Ranch, S. 1, T. Hayes, P. O. Harrison. Johnn, Arthur D., County Surveyor, S. 29, T. Grant, P. 0. Clare. Johnson, Edgar, Farmer and Lumberman, S. 20, T. Winterfield, P. O. Grandon. Johnson, M. C., Postmaster and Dealer in General Merchandise, S. 11, T. Summerfield, P. 0. Leota. Johnson, Wm., Farmer, Blacksmith, Wagon Maker and Prop. General Repair Shop, S. 24, T. Surrey, P. 0. Farwell. Johnston, D. R., Farmer, S. 14, T. Grant, P. 0. Clare. Johnston, John R., Farmer, S. 20, T. Grant, P. 0. Clare. Kaul, John A., Farmer, S. 12, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Coleman. Kaul, Wm. G., Farmer, S. 12, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Keith, W. R., Farmer, S. 9, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Kelley, Hon. L. L., M. D., Physician and Surgeon. Member of the Legislature and Supervisor, Farwell. Kirby, C., Farmer, S. 7, T. Winterfield, P. 0. Marion. Kleiner, Henry, Farmer, S. 7, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Kraus, Matthew, Farmer, S. 18, T. Arthur, P. O. Clare. Kube, Wm., Farmer and Highway Commissioner, S. 14, T. Lincoln, P. O. Lake George.

Page  57 PATRONS' REFERENCE DIRECTORY. Lackie, Alex., Prop. National Hotel, Clare. Lacy, Arthur J., Attorney and Mayor, Glare. Land, Anson, ekarmer, a. 1Z, T. lHamilton, P. 0. Dodge. Lamb, Dr. G. S., Physician, Farwell. Lammon, C. A., charmer and T'ownship Clerk, S. 21, T. Winterfield, P. 0. Winterheld. Langin, William, Farmer, S. 34, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Loomis. Langworthy, E. J., Farmer, S. 8, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Larson, Ole, Farmer, Mason and Contractor, S. 33, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Loomis. Lautzenheiser, A., Farmer, S. 36, T. Hatton, P. 0. Clare. Lavigne, Pet er, Farmer, S. 21, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Mr. Lavigne came to Clare County in 1S66 and settled in Sheridan Township. Lay, Frank, Farmer, S. 16, T. Sury,, P. 0. Farwell. Lebnerz, A., Farmer, S. 35, T. Hatton, P. 0. Clare. Leitner, S. A., Farmer and Member Board of Review, S. 22, T. Arthur, P. O. Clare. Leonard, L. F., Groceries, Feed and Hay. Shipper of Farm and Forest Products. Village Treasurer, Farwell. Light, Rev. A. F., Minister, Harrison. Liscomb, Wm. L., oFarmer, S. 11, T. Greenwood, P. O. Harrison. llttleneld, J. L., Manufacturer of and Dealer in Lumber, Farwell. Livingstone, John, X armer, S. 2'i, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Loomis. Lloyd, C. B., Livery, Clare. Loctswood, 0., Prop. Jonnson House, Harrison. Lockwood, George, Justice of the Peace, lighway- Commissioner and Farmer, S. 21, T. Winterneld, P. 0. Winterfield. Long, Arthur, Prop. of Los Vegas Ranch, Supervisor, S. 3, T. Hamilton, P. 0. -Dodge. Looker, Wm. R., Farmer, S. 12, T. Hamilton, P. 0. Dodge. Louden, Elmer, Farmer and Township Clerk, S. 29, T. Franklin, P. 0. Harrison. Lower, James, Farmer, S. 31, T. Arthur, P. 0O. Clare. Lower, Mrs. M. B., Farmer, S. 31, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. Lyons, John, Farmer, S. 22, T. Hamilton, P. 0. Wheatley. McCarey, Freman, Farmer and Highway Commissioner, S. 23, T. Grant, P. 0. Clare. McClellan, Win., Dealer in General Merchandise, S. 12, T. Grant, P. 0. Clare. McDonald, John A., Farmer, S. 10, T. Hamilton, P. 0. Dodge. McGinnis, Jas., Farmer, S. 35, T. Surrey, P. 0. Farwell. McIntyre, G. W., Farmer, S. 34, T. Redding, P. 0. Temple. McKinley, William, Farmer, S. 31, T. Arthur, P. O. Clare. Served in Co. K, 151st Ohio Vol. McKinnon, H. N., Retired Farmer, S. 16, T. Sheridan, P. O. Clare. McLouth, Albert, Farmer, S. 33, T. Arthur, P. 0. Bard. Served in Co. B, 7th Mich. McMaster, D., Farmer, S. 11, T. Grant, P. 0. Clare. McNeill, J., Farmer, S. 35, T. Hatton, P. 0. Clare. McNeill, W. L., Blacksmith, Clare. McWatty, Mrs. Sarah, S. 1, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. McWatty, J. C., Farmer and Township Treasurer, S. 1, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. Magnus, Wm., Farmer, S. 22, T. Hatton, P. 0. Clare. Maltby, Thomas, Postmaster and Dealer in General Merchandise. Paul, Arthur, Farmer, S. 27, T. Redding, P. 0. Temple. Smalley, David, Farmer, S. 29, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Served in Co. Pease, Geo. B., Farmer, S. 27, T. Grant, P. 0. Clare. B. 74th Ind. Vol. Came to Clare County in 1867 and settled in Peek, Charles, Farmer, S. 27, T. Hatton, P. 0. Clare. Sheridan Township. Penrose, Orris, Farmer, S. 16, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Smith, Archie A., Farmer, S. 11, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Perry, C. H., Farmer, S. 14, T. Grant, P. 0. Clare. Smith, G. A., Farmer, S. 18, T. Sheridan, P. O. Clare. Perry, C. W., Attorney and President Clare County Savings Bank, Smith, John H., Farmer, S. 8, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Clare.. Smith, Mary, Farmer, S. 14, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. Pervorse, F., Farmer, S. 25, T. Hatton, P. 0. Clare. Smith, Willard, Farmer, S. 18, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Pfannes, Sebastian, Farmer, S. 6, T. Hatton, P. 0. Harrison. Spigelmire, Amos, Farmer, S. 25, T. Hatton, P. 0. Clare. Served in Pfetsch, Charles, Farmer, S. 12, T. Hatton, P.. Clare. Co. C, 25th Ohio Vol. Phillips, William, Farmer and Lumberman, S. 24, T. Garfield, P. 0. Spink, Frank, Farmer, S. 14, T. Arthur, P. 0. Alward. Crooked Lake. Sprague, Ralph, J., Farmer, S. 21, T. Greenwood, P. O. Harrison. Pixley, Byron B., Farmer and Township T reasurer, S. 33, T. Hayes, P. Sprague, W., Farmer, S. 21, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. 0. Harrison, 1880. Stanley, E., Farmer, S. 13, T. Grant, P. 0. Clare. Pomeroy, H. W., Farmer, S. 22, T. Hamilton, P. O. Harrison. Starkey, J. W., Farmer, S. 15, T. Greenwood, P. O- Harrison. Pomeroy, M. C., Farmer, S. 27, T. Hamilton, P. 0. Harrison. Starkey, Thos. W., Farmer, S. 22, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. Powlison, C., Farmer, S. 14, T. Garfield, P. 0. Crooked Lake. Stevens, E. J., Heading Manufacturer, Farwell. Presley, Joel I., Farmer, S. 32, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Stoll, Carl C., Farmer, S. 10, T. Grant, P. 0. Clare. Priest, Levi, Farmer, S. 27, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Loomis. Storms, Frederick, Farmer and Mail Carrier, S. 15, T. Arthur, P. O. Prine, Geo. A., F armer, S. 21, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. Alwood. Served in Co. A, 4th Mich. Inf. Pudvay, Liseam, Farmer, S. 21, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Sullivan, J., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 36, T. Hamilton, P. 0. GladPurdy, Wm. F., Farmer, S. 32, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. Win. Pyer, S. L., Farmer, S. 14, T. Surrey, P. O. Farwell. Served in Co. A, Sunday, Daniel, Farmer, S. 2, T. Grant, P. 0. Clare. 136th Nt Y. Vol. Sunday, L. W., Supervisor, Farmer and Stock Dealer, S. 31, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. Sutton, J. W., Farmer and Lumberman, S. 14, T. Lincoln, P. 0. Lake Quinn, John, Mayor and County Prosecuting Attorney, Harrison. George. Reed, Stephen, Farmer, S. 19, T. Grant, P. 0. Farwell. 0eeder, Dr. James A., Physician, Clare. Reid, Wm. D., barmer, Contractor and Builder, S. 20, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Reinhart, werner, Farmer, Mason and Contractor, S. 31, T. -Sheridan, P. O. Clare. Renner, J. 1., Farmer, S. 19, T. Grant, P. 0. Farwell. 0etan, A. S., —5.27, T. Garfield, P. 0. Crooked Lake. Rhodes, William, F'oreman J. F. Brand's Ranch, S. 33, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. Richmond, A. S., Livery, Farwell. Richmona, ira C., Farmer, S. 27, T. Arthur, P, O. Clare. Robbins, W., Postmistress, S. 12, T. Hamilton, P. 0. Dodge. Robbins, William, Farmer, S. 20, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. shobinettrIlenzo, 'armer, S. 32, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. tobinett;-4ilo, Farmer, S. 29, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. RobinSon, M. '., Dealer in Hardware, Groceries and Farm Produce and Manufacturer of Lumber, Crooked Lake. Robiinson, 0. D., Farmer and Highway Commissioner, S. 21, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Rodwell, Mrs. Mary J., Farmer, S. 29, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Roe.-'Duncan, Farmer, S. 20; T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Rogers, C. F., Farmer and Township Treasurer, S. 31, T. Winterfield, P. 0. Marion. Roland, C. E., Farmer, S. 30, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. Roland, Wm., Farmer, S. 22, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. Rood, F. C., Farmer, S. 30, T. Garfield, P. 0. Chippewa Station. Teall, Asher M., Farmer, S. 6, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Teall, Wm. A., Farmer, S. 7, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Temple, WV. M., Postmaster, Temple. Served in Co. K, Ohio Vol. Inf. Terry, H. A., Stockraiser, S. 2, T. Hamilton, P. 0. Dodge. Thompson, W. H., Farmer, S. 28, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Tiedeman, N., Farmer, S. 17, T. Grant, P. O. Clare. Timm, Fred., Farmer, S. 15, T. Grant, P. 0. Clare Toman, A.., WRetired, Harrison. Served in Co. G, 16th Mich., and Co. E, 7th Cavalry. Tower, T. L., Farmer, S. 18, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Trumble, Austin, Grocer at Brown's Corners, S. 36, T. Hatton, P. 0. Clare. Tryon, Alfred, Sr., Farmer and Highway Commissioner, S. 13, T. Garfield, P. O. Crooked Lake. Tryon, Volney, Farmer, S. 22, T. Arthur, P. 0. Alward. Turner, Burt, Farmer, S. 18, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. Vanbonschoten, Fred., Farmer and Supervisor, S. 16, T. Summerfield, P. 0. Leota. VanConant, E. C., Farmer and Township Clerk, S. 36, T. Hatton, P. O. Clare. Vanconant, Philip, Farmer, S. 2, T. Grant, P. 0. Clare, 1876. Vanderhoof, W. A., Farmer, S. 30, T. Winterfield, P. 0. Marion. Vannater, Ben., Farmer, S. 14, T. Arthur, P. 0. Alward. Vosburgh, J. A., Farmer, S. 15, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. Crooked Lake. R oss, Herman, Farmer and Supervisor, S. 13, T. Hatton, P. 0. Clare. Wagner, W. H., Hoop Dealer, Temple. Marr, Fred. J., Farmer, S. 24, T. Greenwood, P. 0O. Harrison. Rought, E. B.,, Manufacturer of and Dealer in Lumber and Shingles, Wait, D. R., Groceries, Farwell. Mater, D. E., Farmer and Township Treasurer, S. 14, T. Grant,, P. 0. S. 10, T. Summerfield, P. O. Leota. Walker, D. J., Farmer, S. 21, T. Greenwood, P. 0. Harrison. Clare.. -- Rowe, A. J., Farmer, S. 22, T. Surrey, P. 0. Farwell, 1876. Ward, David, Farm Implements, Hardware, Lime, Hair and Cement; Maurer, C. I., Dealer in Groceries and President Village Board, Far- Rowe, D. W., Farmer, S. 23, T. Surrey, P. 0. Farwell. Agent for J. I. Case Threshing Machine Co. Mail Orders a well. Roys, H. M., Druggist, Farwell. specialty. 'Phone No. 85, Clare. Merritt, Mrs. C., Farmer, S. 18, T. Hamilton, P... Harrison. Runyan, C. S., Farmer, S. 18, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Watkins, N. D., Photographer and Village Assessor, Farwell. Served Meyers, F. P., Farmer and Township Clerk, S. 9, T. Sheridan, P. 0O. Rutter, Alfred, Farmer, S. 17, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. in Co. A, 96th 0. V. I. Clare. Weeks, John W., Farmer, S. 9, T. Frost, P. 0. Harrison. Mickle, H. C., Farmer, S. 29, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. Welch & Bennett, Publishers Clare Sentinel and Dealer in Real EsMiller, Elmer, Farmer, S. 5, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. -Sanborn,. H., armor, 18, T. S'rrsy, P. 0 arwen tate, Clare. - oMline, Wim., Farmer, Watchman at P. M. Roundders, Joseph F. Farmer and Township Highway Commissioner, WhaleyRT., Farmer, Postmaster and Supervisor, S. 21, T. Frst, 32, T. Grant, P. 0, Clare. 7, T. Hayes, P. 0. Harrison, 1869 P. 0. Longlake. Morrissey, F. M., County Treasurer, Harrison. Saviers, L. & Co., Bankers, C.. Giddings, Cashier, Harrison. Wheeler, M., Groceries and General Merchandise, S. 14, T.Arthur, Morrison, William, Farmer, S. 22, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare Saxton, John J., Post master, Farwel l. P.. Alward. Morrow, Gideon, Farmer, Fruit Grower and Carpenter, S. 10, T. Hayes, Wheeler,. B., Farmer, S. 17, T. Winterfield, P. 0. Winterfield..O. 0 dadris on SSchelter, Ernest, Farmer, S. 10, T. Sheridan, P.0. Clare. Morse, J(hn, Farmer and Lan Estimator, S. 32, T. Winterfield, P. 0. Schermerhorn, L. F., F Farer, S. 14, T. Garfeld, P. 0. Crooked Lake Whitford, E., Farmer, S. 29, T. Winterfield, P. 0. Grandon. Grandon. Schermerhorn, S., Farmer and Township Treasurer, Crooked Lake. Whitlock, Chas., Farmer, Thresher and Manufacturer of Lumber, Morton, Samuel, Farmer, S. 15, Tf. Hamilton, P. O. Dodge. Schoeder John H., Farmer.,. Gn at PTO. Clre Laths, Crates and Cider, S. 11, T. Grant, P. O. Clare. Mott, Wm., Farmer and Highway Commissioner, S. 36, T. Surrey, P. 0. Schnk, Tudor, oarmer,, S. Sheridan, P. 0. lare. Wiesman, L., Dry Goods, Boots, Shoes, Clothing, etc., Farwell. Farwell. Sc Tfiodo, HrA&Athoro. Ser 22THy o P. Wilkins, Geo. H., Farmer, S. 30, T. Grant, P. 0. Farwell, 1867. Scofield, Mary A. & Arthur, Farmers, S. 22, T. Hayes, P. O. Harrison. Williams Henry, Farmer, S. 3, T. Mull, B, F., Farmer, S. 18, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. Shaffer, J. W., Farmer ant Traveling S alesman for Columbian ilienr F eS.,T. ttn, P.O. Harrison. Murphy, Wm., General Merchandise, Harrison. 'Food Ce,. 19, 7. Gorendl P. 0. Heron Williams, WVm., Farmer, S. 8, T. Winterfield, P. 0. Winterfield. Myers Bros., (F. M. Myers-WV. E. Myers-J. P. Myers), Farmers and Shaffer, H Farmer S19, T. Haeewo P 0. arrison. Wilson, E. F., Real Estate,- Saginaw. Ranchmen, S. 9, T. Arthur, P. 0. Clare. Sharp, eginad, Farmer and Supervisor, S. 31, T. Franklin, P.. Wlon, Sa muel, Farmer, S., T. Hamilton, P. 0. Dodge. Ha ooinl FupeWilson, W. Henry, Real Estate, Harrison. Nass, August, Farmer, S. 11, T. Grant, P. 0. Clare. Shea, John, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 25, T. Hamilton, P. 0. Glad- W gar. S Farmer and L berman, S. 14 T. Linoln, P.. Lake Nass, Gottleb J., Farmer, S. 10, T. Grant, P. 0O. Clare. win. George. Nederhood, Mrs. A., Farmer, S. 3, T. Winterfield, P. 0. Austa. Shea, P., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 25, T. Hamilton, P. 0. Gladwin. Wood, Frank, Farmer, S. 12, T. Arthur n o, P. o. Whea y. Neithercut, John M., Farmer, S. 30, T. Sheridan, P. Q. Clare. Sheardy, M., Farmer, S. 11, T. Garfield, P. 0. Crooked Lake. Wood, has., Farmer, S. 14, T. Greenwood P.. Harrison. Newberry, A. E., Farmer, S. 18, T. Hamilton, P. 0. Harrison. Shepard, W. H., Ranchman, S. 16, T. Grant, P. O. Clare. Woods, J. W. Farmer, S. 16, T Hayes P. Harrison Nixon, Robert, Township Treasurer, Redding Township, Temple. Sherwood, David, Farmer, S. 21, T. Winterfield, P. 0. WVinterfield. Woolston, Chales, Farmer, S 20, T. Sheridan, P 0. Clare Seamon, Grant, Farmer and Supevisor S 29 T. Greenwood P.. Les D., Fer ar and Township Supervisor, S. 9, T. T. Hayes, Haoison. P. 0. Harrison, 1873. O'Connor, J. H. & Son, Prop. Lewis House, Harrison. Si i Farmer, S. 35, T. Surrey,P.0. Farwell. Ott, John, Farmer, S. 12, T. Hatton, P. 0. Clare. Sillaway, L. D., Township Clerk and Prop. Hotel and Livery, Crooked Y k A Earmer S. 26 T. Redding, P. 0. Temple. Lake. Page, H-. C., Farmer, Harrison. Silver, W. S., Farmer, S. 23, T. Hamilton, P. O0. Gladwin. Park, Harry, Farmer, S. 15, T. Greenwood, P. O0. Harrison. Skeels, C. A., Farmer and Township Clerk, S. 26, T. Hamilton, P.O. Zimmerman, Paul, Farmer, School Director, Deacon of Sheridan Church Parrish, C. H., Farmer, S. 27, T. Arthur, P. 0. Alward. Gladwin. * and Superintendent of Sunday School, S. 21, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Parrish, Jerry, Farmer, S. 35, T. Hatton, P. 0. Clare. Slater, Louis E., Farmer, S. 9, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Clare. Clare. RESIDENCE OF E. J. LtANOWORTHY. STORE OEF DAVY & COMPANY.

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Page  63 I II I I Itii PID —a) IDepa IrTsen PAGE 63 _ __ _ I Prosecuting Attorney FRANCIS M. MORRISSEY, County Clerk and Register of Deeds ROBERT CARSON, Supervisor. ASA C. GRAY, Judge of Probate JOHN J. SAXTO0. Pbstmaster. Parwel GEORGE P. DRAKE. C. W. PERRY. O. J. CAMPBELL, Highway Commissioner. PITT DE BARR. I W. L. McNEILI,. MRS. E. St. ROBBINS C. R. ALLEY. JOHN C. ALBERTSOK A. S. RICHIMOND. JOHN MORSE. H. CLEVELAND. 5.. H. COLLINS. L. WIESMAN. CARL C. STOLL. JOHN BECK. JOHN P. BROWN. C

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Page  I LaTiPT is'ANALYSIS OV THIS SYSTENI O, METE}S AND BOLJqDS. P to tie time of the PRevolutionary War, or until about the beginning of the present century, land when parcelled out, and - sd or granted, was describbed by 'Metes and Bounds," and that system is still in existence in the following States, or in DIAGRAM 1. toceportiono of them whioh had been sold or granted when the preoent plan of ourveyo was adopted, viz.: New York, hS Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delawalre, Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Texas, s and the six New Englaid States. To describe land by '" Metes and Bounds," is to have a known land-mark for a place of beginning, - - i and tlhen follow a line according to the compass-nieedle (or magnetic bearing), or the course of a stream, or track of an ancient high- S.* R. way. This plan has resulted il endless confusion and litigation, as land-marks decay and change, and it is a well-known fact that - the compass-needle varies and does not always point die North. As an example of this plan of dlividing lands, the following description of a farm laid out by "Metes and Bounds," isgiven: " Beginning at a stone on the Bal)k of Doe River, at a point where the highway from A. to- B. crosses said river (see point marked C. on Diagram 1); thence 40~ North of West 100 rods to a large stump; thence 10' North of West 90 rods; thence 15' Westof North SOaM rods to an oak tree (see Witness lree on Diagram I); thence due East 150 rods to the highway; thence following the course of the a- ' highway 50 rods due Nolth; thence 5' North of East 90 rods; thence 45' East of South 60 rods- thence 10' North of East 300 rods to the Doe River; thence following the course of the river Southwesterly to the place of beginning" This, which is a very simple and moderate description by " Metes and Bounds," would leave the boundaries of th&-iearm as shown in Diagram 1. - MCERIDIAANS AND BA~SE> LINES,. DLAGI-ILA~oA ___HE present system 1b0 167 of Governmental Situes~ West from Sr ushs. LTand SurvyWa adopted b ogres on the 7th o Mty, sAK ~ *~ r:.i1785. It has been in use N Io ME 'Mx i e.- ver since and is the legal aC method |of describing and dividing lande. It is called 4 the "Rectangular Systemi," s-at is, all its distne and -Wrs bearings are, measusred from ' two lines which are at right tngles to..acl other, viz.:+. -These two huis, frons which tao '.,,. 'the measurements are made, I idia which run North and South, A i~ ' "' 4f~ and the Base Lines, which -TM 45' on East and. West. These Principal Meridians are establiohed, with great asenracy by astronomi o erYiationo. Eat'h Principal oMeridian has its Base Line, and these two lines form the Oi asis or foundation for the ssa~sssa ~ xst~'0 ceoiT surveys or measurement of 11l the lands within the terAritory which they control. TSL o Diagraml'2shows all of the rincipallheridiansand Base K - ----- ines in the central portioio j" fthe United States, and __ Q"\ ~o. from it the territoygv 05' erned by each Meridian and.w r \ Base Line may be readily f55ss distinguished. Each Menidan and Base Line is marked 00 w TFa K~W5ith its proper number or name, ao are also the StandOsU~eu ard Parallels sod guide (or -~ ~~ -~ auxiliary) Meridiaus. -- ~Diagram 8 illustratewa meant when this method OU7, so termed the "Rectangular I& SAS.: System," a-nd how them-neasuements are bssed on lines oI ch run at right angles to Teachother. The heavy line JJ E R P R~ runni`ng North and South E R,,RONA,'R 3"i(marked A. A.) represents ~ I *i r~o.vXthe Principal Meridian, in... LiN eridian. The hesvv line 'A e T running East aiod West (marked B. B.) is the Base VA Line. These lines are need os the startiiog points or basis xf ' ST rtn~ of all measurements or oairL -A~ VA eys made in territory conSo t-oiled by the Silo Prisscipal o eridian. Th ae fact applies to all. other Principal J& 'S eridians and their Base:I'BTSV LLvines. Commencing at the "AUSTIN. Principal Meridian, at intervals of six miles, lines are 'V runNorthandSouth, parallel to the Meridian. Thto plan ocf/eiof s.,/e s followed both 'East and Wso est of the Meridian troughout the tercritoryi so' controlled by tio Merin I

Page  II These lines are termed "Range Lines." They divide the land into strips or divisions aix miles wide, extending North and South, parallel with the leleridian. " I~ Each division is called a Range. Ranges are numbered from one upward, comm cing at the Meridian; and their numbers are indicated by Roman IGl. - characters. For instance, the first division (or first six miles west of the Meridian i. Range I. West; the next is Range II. West; then comes Range III., DIAGAM S Tj IV., V., VI., VII., and so on, until the territory governed by another Principal Meridian is reached. In the same manner the Ranges East of the Meridian,~n, o"sToa mPa [. d ~BaEs^8.o..6.r PS_. are numbered, the words East or West being always used to indicate the direction from the Principal Meridian. See Diagram 3. [ I l Commencing at the Base Line, at intervals of six miles, lines are run East and West parallel with the Base L-Die. These are designated as Township - j Lines. They divide the land into strips or divisions six miles wide, extending East and West, parallel with the Base Line. This plan is followed both l L WJ North and South of the Base Line until the territory governed by another Principal Meridian and Base Line is reached. These divisions or Townships are u numbered from one upward, both North and South of the Base Line, and their numbers are indicated by figures. For instance: The first six mile division - -- - -L[ orth of the Base Line is Township 1 North; the next is Township 2 North-; then comes Township 3, 4, 5, and 6, North, and so on. The same plan is h I - - ~ IL followed South of the Base Line; the Townships being designated as Township 1 South, Township 2 South, and so on. The "North" or "South" (the - initials N. or S. being generally used) indicates the direction from the Base Line. See Diagram 3. - --,lls These Township and Range Lines, crossing each other, as shown in Diagram 3, form squares, which are called "Townships" or " Government Townships,' " * s which are six miles square, or as nearly that as it is possible to make them. These Townships are a very important feature in locating or describing a piece iX ' a [ I [ of land. The location of a Government Township, however, is very readily found when the number of the Township and Ratnge is iven. by merely ^ --- - r- counting the number indicated from the Base Line and Principal Meridian. As an example of this, Township 8 North, Range 4, West of the 5thl Principal ~ ~ t l L;f Meridian, once located on the square marlced * on Diagram 3, by coniting eight tiers north of the Ba-.e Li.e anid 4 ties: west of tlhe M ridian.; s - | TOWNSHIPS OF LAND. e. --- Al 1 4 1o DIAGRAM 4, l - OWNSHIPS are the largest sub- "i 1 ~ o divisions of land run out, by the A6Ri. 0jiaS. iOe 6,. la.lS~J^ gA. --:R --- —------—. --- —-----,. ' AL United States Surveyors. In the F s - - a ---- ----- Governmental Surveys Township 7 Lines are the first to be run, and a Township T~s -a 8- [ { 4 Corner is established every six miles and 7 marked. This is called "Townshipping." s - E_-= After the Township Corners have been care- 8o R fullylocated,theSection and Quarter Section - - Corners are established. Each Township is 82 R. six miles souare and containas 23.040 dares,_ or 36 square miles, as near as it is possible [_ to make them. This, however, is frel quently made impossible by: (1st) the presence of lakes and large streams; (2nd) by State boundaries not falling exactly on 1 Township Lines; (3rd) by the convergence of Meridians or curvature of the earth's surface; and (4th) by inaccurate surveys. J Each Township, unless it is one of the I exceptional cases referred to, is divided into 36 squares, which are called Sections. These Sections are intended to be one mile, or 320 rods, square and contain 640 acres of land. Sections are numbered consecutively from 1 to 36, as shown on Diagram 4. Beginning with Section 1 in the Northeast Corner, they run West to 6, then East to 12, then West to 18, and so on, back and forth, until they end with Section 36 in the Southeast Corner. Diagram 4 shows a plat of a Township as it is divided and platted by the government surveyors. These Townships are ij called Government Townships or Congressional Townships, to distinguish them from Civil Townships or organized Townships, as frequently the lines of organized Townships do not conform to the Government,I- Township lines. 8 B.4 R. Go R.j 126 R. Ie If I lo 1 1 - A.2.- --. n 119 20 1 S^ 113.4 R. I 115.8 R. 119.2 R. 122.6 R. 126 R.I 129.4 R...=l _ I __ _ I ___ __ _ SECTIONS OF LAND. L-1 e 3 2ls32h431 32 33 l may be subdivided, although the -ii Diagram only gives a few of the __ __ l many subdivisions into Which a..... section may be divided. All Sections (except fractional Sections) are supposed to be 320 rods, or one mile, square and therefore contain 640 acres-a number easily divisible. Sections are subdivided into fractional parts to suit the convenience of the owners of the land. A half-section contains 320 acres; a quarter-section contains 160 acres; half of a quarter contains 80 acres, and quarter of a quarter contains 40 acres, and so on. Each piece of land is described according to the portion of the section which it embraces-as the Northeast quarter of Section 10; or the Southeast quarter of the Southeast quarter of Section 10. Diagram 5 shows how many of these subdivisions are platted, and also shows the plan of designating and describing them by initial letters as each parcel of land on the r_ Diagram is marked with its description. As has already been stated, all Sections (except Fractional Sections which are explained elsewhere) are supposed to contain 640 acres, and even though mistakes have been made in surveying, as is frequently the case, making sections larger or smaller than 640 acres, the Government recognizes no variation, but sells or grants each regular section as containing 640.acres "more or less.-!: Ji] The Government Surveyors are not required to subdivide sections by running lines within A them, but they usually establish Quarter Posts on Section Lines on each side of a section at the n oints marked A. B. C. and D. on Diagram 5. After establishing Township corners, Section Lines are the next to be run, and section cor- -- ners are established. When these are carefully 5 DIAGRAM 5. located the Quarter Posts are located at points as Anearly equidistant between Section Corners as _ possible. These corners when established by Government Surveyors cannot be changed, even though it is conclusively shown that mistakes ef have been made which cause some sections or N -. E. /4N quarter sections to be either larger or smaller 1 ' than others. The laws, however, of all the |r States provide certain rules for local surveyors <. to follow in dividing Sections into smaller \160 A. parcels of land than has been outlined in the )[ A 2 1 60 A. c Governmental surveys. For instance, in dividCO [. ing a quarter section into two parcels, the dis-_ A N. I I o f -. E. 1/4 o ance between the Government Corners is care-.. - fuiylly measured and the new post is located at a L 80 A.. point equidistant between them. This plan is i. N of S.W. followed in running out 'eighties," "Iforties," ofj S.E. 4 S. E.I/4 "twenties," etc. In this way,/if the Govern[ (20aA.)- of S. E./ ment division overruns or falls short, each - S.| f S.W. ' portion gains or loses its proportion. This is (20_A.); 40 A. not the case, however, with Fractional Sections | SUBDVIDING A SECTION. along the North or West sides of a Township, -il - or adjoining a lake or large stream. %:~ 1 FRACTIONAL PIECES OF LAND. L,C cONGRESSIONAL Townships vary ~ --- —. l considerably as to size and boundaries.u \. )/ Mistakes made in surveyinsg and the r 1 ( fact that Meridians converge as they LI run North cause every Township to vary i 16 14 1;3 more or less from the 23,040 acres which a perfect Township would -contain. See ff Diagranl 4. In arranging a Township into LJf Sections all the surplus or deficiency of land.i_ is given to, or taken from, the North and L West tiers of Sections. In other words, all ni _ t Sections in the Township are made full- [ir3 LL 6 Q40 acres-except those on the North and [i 22 23 t * West, which are given all the land that is [Q I!2.XE i4t e left after forming the other 25 Sections. (J ^ | I Q5 QTIMBEB Diagram 4 illustrates how the surplus or 1Un __ ________ __ deficiency is distributed and the Sections it li - -ects. It will be seen that Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 18, 19, 30 and 31, are the 1i "Fractional Sections," or. the Sections Lii which are affected if the Township overruns Fi 27 26 25 or falls short. Inside of these Fractional ut-l Sections, all of the surplus or deficiency of. FilJ -- - land (over or under 640 acres) is carried to Lii the "forties" or "eighties" that touch thenll Township Line. T.llese pieces of land are Luff called "Fractiollsl Forties" or "Fractional [J -5c 1 - - ^ Elghtieso-' —as the case may be. Diagrams4 1ll1 and 6 show the manner of marking the F;34. | acreage and outlining the boundaries of these "Fractions." 1J Diagranm 6 illustrates how the surplus or fil ______ __ __ deficiency of land. inside of these Sections is I1J distributed a nd which "forties"or "eighties" Gj _________- it affects. From this arrangement it will be seen that in any Section that touches the North or West Township Linses, the Southeast Quarter nlay l1 be full-160 acres-while another quarter of the same Sectionl may be muchl larger or smaller. Fn Frequently these fractional "forties" or "eighties" are lotted as sl own in Diagram 6. They are L[ always described as fractional tracts of land, as the " fractional S. W. -.of Sectionl 6,"etc. Of course P1 -those portions of these Sections which are not affectedl by these vaiialions are described ill the usual LI manner-as Southeast a of Section 6. As a rule Townships ale narrower at the North than at tile -I. South side. The Meridialis of Longitude (which run North aned South) coinve ige as they runl North L' and South from the Equator. They beguis at the Equator wil h a dsfiIilte width betweeni them and ri gradually convergeuntilthey all meet at the poles. Now, as the Range lies are rul Nortl aid South; Li/ it will at once be seen that the convergence of Meridians will cause every Conlgression-al Townshsip [l (North of the Equator) to be narrower at its North than at its-Soutlh side, as stated. See Diagram Ll 4. In addition to this fact, mistakes of m-reasurement are constantly and almost unavoidably made [s in running both Township and Range _______ lines, and if no new starting points DIAGRAM 6 were established the lines would DIAGRAM 6. become confused and unreliable, and 4 R — the size and shape of Townships LOT 4. LOT 3. LOT s.. LO 1. materially affected by the time the la surveys had extended even a hundred 85 I 83 80.5 i miles from the Base Line and Princi- 62 AC. ES ACRES ACRES pal Meridian. In order to correct I the surveys and variations caused I I 53 R. by the difference of latitude and LOT a. straighten the lines, " Correction a4 * I Lines" (or Guide Meridlians and 40 A ACRES. Standard Parallels) are established at ACRES. frequent inltervals, usually asfollows: 1a n; W North of the Base Line a Correction is58 R. 8so R. _ Line is run East and West parallel LOT a. f 160 Rods. with the Base Line, usually every I - C twenty-four miles. South of the | s32 AC. _. Base Line a Correction Lineis usuallyC established every thirty miles. Both 64 R. R O. 160 ACRES. East and West of the Princtipal | LOt 7. ' Meridian "Correction Lines" are I. O |I! usually established every 48 miles. 1 37 AC. lOD All Correction Lines are located by l~ J 1 i careful measurement, and the suc- 74. 80 Rods. tee Rods. ceeding surveys are based upon PLAT OF A FRACTION1AL SECTION. them. ___ ]-!BiR ILEii fii ~1CEZ FET~F_171 a5_= ENTERED ACCORDING TO ACT OF CONGRESS, IN THE YEAR BY GEO. A. OGLE & Co., IN THE OFFICE OF THE LIBARIAN OF CONGRESS AT WASHINGTON. D. C.

Page  III SUPPLEMENT Mi. IDIGIF'IS' OF' F-IE 31F 3'F1>N OF' CIVI1L GXEk1IET The Bureau of Accounts, it. -which ail of the flintncet of the depart- approach of stormt IDIGEST OF= THiE SYSTEM osotions loidmiyfns.3n ins lo carheteoo of thebuioin rivetoteotd harors OF cd propeety of the departner-tet etc. War also haos pe OFThe Boreao of Rolls ad ILibrasry, wehich is chorged wtith the cus- The prtivatec tody of treaties, rolts, public dclctcents, etc.; hot care of revoelutionory $2,000 per yoea; C V L G V R M N,artchivs, of international c~oreis sieos,osuperintendence oflibeary, etc. tosttofthetsubor Tho Boroas of Statistics, fc3ss the preparation of reperts oo coototo those osentioned,a 'The chiefs ofaollof these bs-ureausrceceive $2,100 peeryeor. to ddi- The Coo-sasno WITH A REVIEW OF THE tion to thete there are cotteteesosl -with the Stote Departtoeot the offices asatloey of $7,200 of translator, t $2,100 per ose assistant secretocy, $4,500; secood foresc,touperintend DUIS ttoPWESOFTE RNCPLsFICASisSETO tatoosecretary, $3,500;thhcO assistantosecretary, $3,500; solicitor, oredcstcourts-oatoe DUTIS.A1D OWER OFTHEPRINIPA OFICIAS CNNETED $3,500, chief cleek, $2,750; cleek,- tot Secreetaey of Stote, $2,000; passport the enfocccoeoet ol WITH THE VARIOUS BRANCHES OF NATIONAL, STATE, clerh, $1,400. Resides these atisere areo the varoeius comtoprollers, oudit- General Seeps ths COUNTY AND TOWNSHIP GOVERNMENT. ooscescdositombWiI5soser cell op sets the thoussands. reoeired hortchoega _________DEPAIRT1MNT. ence Deportenoet TI5EA~T~a ~issuiog aromy ratioc. depoestmentof otil..eecseose.This departenet wa-s org-Eoccized in 1789, The heed of this depaet- plies, looks after tl NA IO A G V RN E T-sent, hnowne ao the Necretary tt ethe Treasury, is appolinted hy the Foes- st&cTcPy idoot, is ameomher of the Coabi —eC, ond receiv-es asa 1ay ef $8,000 perF required hy the dot 121 G3OVERNMENT of theUnitecdState siseoe oflimsitedoand coosot. The Toeasory Depsos-tret nt is see of the msost imoporta0nt g~docOso peciic powcees, strictly outlined anddefinedhby asweittenocon- heaoches of the natsionat gccovex- ceteot, asitS ta charegoCf the Sonocta1 The Topogeaphica stpituticon The constitution st-s odopted in I787, and, weith the affairs of the gov-eronment, ecisteody Of poblic foods, collectioo of revenuoe sueveys otodo loo amosendtoeots Shot hoavc since heen mode, it formoothelbasis of' cod moainteoaceoof publtic ct-edit. Asonog thematoe ioportaot dutics Iotpcctor-Geoeral' the enttire fohric of govoernment undee which wee liv-e. The 'devolviog upoe this depocosnotot c-axe the follociog IIt atteods to the cot- ords, pohlicationsss constitution ceateod three distiect hranches of governenset, each of Icion of cli interocI rev-enuoes a~ doteson imports, coa h pene- to this scoossec sehich is entieely separote aod distinct frets the othero. Tleothe tsoonof fruds ioshesedepart-acsects. Allclaim.odotoeesc S eehifyof executive, legislative and judicial depoetmteots. The consiitution spe- the Uoitecd States-or against Sheetsi cod oil the accoonts io wehich the Stotes it divided I cifically vs-cts the executive powcer in, the Presideot, hot ott omebeshs United Stotos coo interested, citiser As debtors 0r creditoes, most he set- Theo heod of ecccl of She cohinet are usually classed 'with the excuctive deportmsent- the sled cod adjusted itt the,' ToeaeoAmy Departmenot. This departenotolsoto ordeer froom headqt legislatis-e pow~ed is held by Coogress, cod the jodicial aethority is includes th oeoo h ~iss hc h ooeto oocd five ycs, h s-ested inthe Supremoe-Courtoandtvariousothercourtsstwhich Congeess motoeysoaeetsaeufactured. -lest TreasoeyDepartmsentouthoeizessthe andertonsoo,and thi boo provisded forio puessoe ce of She pros-isions of She constitutioo. or~ganztionso of octionaol banloko- cod has supert-tsion ot-er them-, has monoth aod rao IS hot beeo the aim of these pagesS oti cbo hs ifcc choege-of ie-ocs ocey, she, lighthooses, marineit hospitols, etc It ofceispropoetio beooehes of gos-erootent, cod So hreofly review the duties cod powers Sos chargg of ott snosoeys beloteolgtog to the Untted Stboes; destgnates brigodi- egenerals, of the principal officials cotteected with each departoetee depositortes of public motocys,- ke-eps a comoplete cod accoeate systeot The Peesidentoand Vice-Presideet are elected hy popolaes-ote, hot of accounting, showintg the rceci~pto cod disbuoemeotnts of the Treasury, the, s-ste of each State is separt-oe, to shot a -condidate otoy has-e clot-ge cod otokes deports at stated its~tos-o-T-vs showsing the cooditioo of poblic otjo-cycfte gecct eple -oeofte t aneycd yet foil to be finaoces, puhlic expeoditores oto -the public dehbt elected. The Presidentiacl election is hold ott the firt-o Tuetdoy oftee She Theee creo a great Imn vccry Jospoes fiil ototdwt the iThehod ofth fiest Monday int Nos-v he hePeietileetc c hsoino cod Treasury Depoertmeot, chief -Ltaotcsg which are the followiog, viz.: Pe-optsdb hfoe the s-aeious States, eoch Stote hoviog as osaoy electorsasoitS hoe rep- vate secretary of the hood of sec tdeportenteo, at $2,400 per Foor; theiee Thios drmpmentoteqt resenettis-os itt both branches of Congrests. The electors ote chosen by assistant secretaries, at $4,500 e~c-cto; chief coeSk, $3,000; chief of appoint- Ite etote,0 the ballots of the people of theit- States, cod ott the electors of a State otees dis-ision, $2,720; chief of teceecrants dis-isioo, $2,750; chief of public. os all other oatotes costtoe c tetoolcllge Th eeeoc oet e oc Sot O te otoeys div-isioo, $2,500; chief -of customse div-ision, $2,700; acting chief maode therefod by capitol ott the fit-st Wednesday itt Deceotber followieg a No tiottol dclc- of reves-ue mareioe dis-ision, $2,500; chief of stationery dis-ision, $2,500; consc fth ct tioe cod vote foc President oed Vice-President, certificates of which ore chicf of boons cod cureency di-" icitjO, $2,500 chief of mtitcellaneous dis-i- sssodet h forworded to the President of the Seoate, aS Woshingtoo, who, ott the Ston, $2,500; supers-isiog- spcc2,1J zagcot,$8 pec day; gos-erooteot actuary,ostoeyo-eth second Wednesdoy iso February opees the cerdtificates oand counots the $1,800; supees-ising aechitect, $4,5100;* steambcoat inspcctoe, $3,500; chief horeaous of the Nov s-otes inthe presence of both HooseseofCongress and decladesthecresult; Sot-coo oi Statistics, 03,000; life- otcs-tng tees-ice sopeeioteodent, $4,000 There are acoo cod She fleat step is the inauguratcon, which takes place os, She 45 aossistant, $2,500; commosisionec Td-tucco of Nav-igation, 03,600; stp~eritn feth poeo Macech. The lawpros-idesthatifneitherofthoecadidateshos-eaomaor~- tendent Uoitod States coost osoit edtcsecy 000 superoising totsoso ioo go ity thee the ouese of Representatis-es sholl elect a President froot the sscrgeoo genccel mareine hospito.l oervicce, 84,000; Brococ of Engraving Steoao Engtoeceto three candidates receiving the highest electorol vote. to electiotts of sond Priotiog, chief, $4,500; atttitsstaoO chief,$2,250; superintendent engroe- tion; Broeau of Fe, Ohio kind eoch Stote is entitled so only on vote, and two-thirds of the Ing diovisiono, 03,6000, Broeau of Oedocot Stotes fodot o quorum. -The foeegoiog will serv-e tot ttlcotwtsoy of the ltnesbof workattentded Cootsotrutioood R to iso the Treaosory Depadtmtent, sootl the noames of these offices eoplaino the or boreaous Ott 0000n, 1'OE0IDENT OF THE UNItTED STATES. brooch of workS they creo chacgecl with atteodiog to. There creo a ooum- ingtott, 0. C.; M0 Th Poido i Sehshsteooti- ofie o heUtiodSots bee of other iosportaot offices its she dc~eartment that shoold he mten- Iespectioct ond Sor, H hef eletedefoe the higho t CfPet-xeoutived offceisr of stoh y ofte States. tioned, amosng theot beiog she fc>1ibowingo body; Hydrosgraphit He s eectd fr te trmof ouryeas, nd eceve a alay O $5, 00. The Solicitor of' the TPErest~iry, oe chief attorntey, who deceis-es geece; Nauticol Al peoreoesoo. Heotst be thirty-ficeyeocs oldot-moroe,aondac otise-boeo 04,500 pee year foe attending1 tot O'he lega 1mottters cotteected with the Reor-adotieals citioes~oofthe Uoited Stotes. The President isecharged witha general departetot.e $5,000; copsains, $4, ssopoerisieoi!os-ertho fsibihfol etecutionooflaws passed byConggess, and T esosisef~oo~swocst-s4fipeetot looep t hot CompissiinirsofOs-ed elt esceehotiecedvpoetote00tpeofeaShengoorse(rankeof cephis oppostsupeCobisinover ofl eighuticiodewhotbentsofotehe hoods of nthe.ot-isoso depoty $2,250, has charge Hfcoil — Iccountsofts the revenue frots coo- $4,400; poy direcbo int a abietof igh oficalswh beometh heds f he ariustomssood disbuoeteotnts, cod Poer the boildhgoand repairiog of custoot ofcootmandees), $4 depeortmests,oand these departmtentsaeoeinteeded tobeotoanogedosod. hooscs. otto paid $4,400 pee conducted ott the 'Pescident directs. The President is Commanoder-ie- The Treasorerof the Untitel Statecs eeceives 00,000 peooyear,oassistChief of the Aermy oand Navy. He hso power to goaot pordonsoasdcre- oant treosorer $3,600, cod supoc-iioacotodent ci notiooal books (Rod. Dis-.) pries-es for ott offenses againost the United Stotes, escept iso cacos of fts $3,500, -The Treeatorer deccieso cod Seeps bth governenots fueds, peachotent; hot power, with theoadviceeondeconsentofthe Senote, to eihr thaqatr oe ino theo- Sub-Treesorses osr governmeote depot: This is ooe of t otohotdeaties. He soomifotes, and with the ods-ise ond conoseetofthe yitori bespadn tisoutupnbe r —Lxs drowe itt accoodance with the base metee Its head is Senaote, appofots Atobassodoos ond other public Minfsters ottd Consuols, ndets payioal inter0s0 opothe naticcs-es debt Presideot, cod deco alltjudgesof othe Osostpd States court0, aed ott othed excutiveoefficers ef ato Tcye Rei co-ste 00 the-r occo-LstL1r debiT slr f 400pr eaten a the Unoited Stotes, except in sucli coses wheoe the oppoinbtmeotsotoy be Ter n i sisat$,5 —he Registerfth cot spi ckoeeps ofe $4,000t pee DCongetosafeetihnst costed iso the varoufss "depoctotents." Wheno the-Senate is not ino sesofsionyocdhsossos$,5. WoRgse ep h cooso ogescot he coo appoint, subject to its octioso wheso it Freassembles. Ho hot public expeoditures ottd receiptst; receisves the retudns cod otakes out ev-erythieg oelatiog power, iso cerdtaiso extrdortdisooy occasions, to cell together both HCutes the officiol stateoetobs of Dositci-c Stotes commoerce ond navigation; htates macils; supe of onres, r ithr f tem i exrasesio; nd s eqire fom ecois-es frots fidst cornptrtollee, oandCommoissiooereof Cousotom 1 belcigb~ep Cfogeaoete~betioct-tsioooidqocdro cctountssandsvoucheos actdold tsl hemtand flbes the same. of oartsuprvs-e-ton tiote tso tiote tso coototunicote with Congress, ot to the stote of theUnioso, -The Coosptroller of the 4(Iooe1-Eoeny receives $5,000 peci year acnd his to theft- doties. oand offer ssoch suggestions 00 rcsotmmendotions os ho moy deets pt-oper. depoty $2,800, This hbureou is <solaarged with o genooool stopeos-isioso of to, pros-idiog fo He is empoweredssooappeov-e ocvetooaltmeaesuese adopted bs-Congress, the nationalbankscand atctes-s 4-onneocedsewith the issoiog of poper otebtihas hbeon f but itoisprovsided shot ooytmesurte otoy be posted over lis vt-oobyca mny they coo termted, e twothicdsovotesofCsontgress. TheDireocor of the Misnt x-ecois-es $4,500 peo otteso, ond is masotee-general, whc The Poesidesot coesolts freqoently with hfs Cobittet, asod nearlyoall chorged withoagesoeral sspecrvittfotr os-erall the coiooge of the gov-ern- theodirectiooond sL imortpados officiol ototters coe discossed by thot body. Iso cose She office oteot of theses-arious ho of Presidesotbeccomeos-oaoantthr-ough the deoth, removas-ortt resignaotiont Comsptrollers. The frcst o-,aod second coosptroollers are paid a the office" willshsow of She iocumbenoL the low peos-ides Shot the office tholl so tot-s be fitted salary of $5000 pee year, andS ea.t1Le of theit- depoties receive $2,300. The The floss assisoa by the Vice-President, Secoetary of State, oand other CabinoetMinisters fosc~tsobt eiesos ooiisteocstsoftesi-tcd $2,OO peroyear; cu] in regular order.diploomtoic soot-ice cod pubhic- lososeds, The second comtroploler res-ises teoident foee debit-s VICE-PRESIDENT.oad certifiesbtheaccooustsof th-oot arsyoandonavyand ofthe Peesion ollowances, $2.200; The Vice-Prettidoet of the Uttited Stateo is elected Pot-the toots of asod Iodioc Broeaos. fteebDs e foot- yeors, oand rceis-es a solary of $oo,ooo. Iso cose of the death, re- Auditors. There creo six o~L-tslbeeeebdwt h oos $1,800. motos-l or esignaticonof thePresidentt, the Vice-Preosidenot ssocceeds hiot. Deportentoteoach of whomt-oe ~ salary of $2,6000 pee ytfot- cod is The secondcassist The chief Sooty of the Vice-Presidoeb is to oct os the preetidiog officec of allowed c depoty a0 a salory eof $0,,H50per cottoot No one cAodittortakbes dit-isiones, indicoted theoSenate. He hot too voteiso the Senate,excceptfinocasesofoatie,C or conkoveranother. Theofiost osoditor receiveossoadadjuotstthe accounts Osueintenttdentt of osoeqsootdivs-isfeof theoeotbeos ofShot body. The Vice-Peesideot od- of the ooreveoe cod dithootooseoslot-5, appropriations cod eopendituroes oso iespectonos div-isittn, otinisters theoathhof office tothe Senators. accoont of the cit-il list cod ueotcl-ecspeciolactstof Coogress,ereporting getteoal superinbteno the bolooceo to the commoissiottooo of the custoots cod floss ctomptroller foreign maoils, $3,000 STATE DEPAR5TMYENT. rospctoively foe theio decisiono. -Xthe secoed oauditor des-otes moost of his The thiod assi! Thehod f hftdeoeotet t heOdt-eco e Sobe wo s p attentioot to oaosy affcaios; looks o~-cfte oil the occoonts relaoting to the poy, stoamp dis-ision oot poisotedhbythe Pcesidenot asa oteotber ofbthe Cabinet, cod receit-co a coth~gosocoto fseoeoo;tecstos oteo s c-eos-s$,5 e socyo 0ospcyoTho law provsides Shot incaeostheo~ffice of nance; oil accoountsrelainig to tlaeot Indian Departmsent; rspootiog tothe The fourth oss osiot becooesosvacant, throough the Sooth, removalorooeosignalos oftcodoopebc. h ho _,cotdito hastal occeounts foe sossetoec vfis-iohns,o a di both thePresident cod Vice-President, the Seceotory of Stcteoassootes of the oarmy, mtibitory ocodsetny. Ercoiticy rooods, fortificatonso qocarter- supervision, s-io.; the doties of the Presidency. The Secretory of State otoy be soid to ho `-ote oottococo eotot iis ooe o oteoo boe- $2,000; phee post of theoofficial Secretoaryof the Poesideet, ansdcountersignstaolicotmsoisioos ico prevsioos to 1817; foe oil peotys)ertyO losttie the militaory sees-ic ho $,0;iepso issotod by the Prestident. reports also to the secood coospteesoiDer. The fourth oauditor otto rcpoorts datioos, TheScreetary of Stoteoistheoheadofthe Depoartmettof Stoteaodfos to the secotnd comptroobler, aHd ccxttends to all occounts of the sees-ice Besides thes-oe the chief diploototic officeerof theUttited Stotes. totihis dopotentototod ceooocted wi~thtite cot-F The ~fe-haooditoereeports to the flosscooop- cooneeotd with tho oodo is opes-siso s oodotdte pbtc bofossceotig trfooio lerbc, ond odjosts cli accounts coesosoected with thoe diplomatoicsoervice of year;:oppointotest offoirs; to corresponodence, cootmissions or intstructions to or with puoblic the Depastenoeot of State. The t,4osth oouditor odjosts oil accounots gooe top etondeos ond Mittisters frots tho Uoited Stotes; orcto negotiations with Mittisters ft-ott tog foedh the toot-ice of theo Post ozzefice Dopotetont. $2,200 poer ooooos foreigo States; corts otemotoiasor0 other opplicotioots froot forcigners, oe DE foreign pusblic Mittisters, 00 citicoes of this cosetry in foreign laeds, or WASO mosnseT'AELTOENT. cootplications orising therefroot. The Secretory ef Stote otto Sos charge The Ioterioo Do of oil othot- buosiness conneected with foreign offairs, extroditioso oatotters The Wor eparyctmens -t was s C> ed in August, 1700, The hooad of oettoy of the Interic cod dipombactic officers; fornishiog passports to vs-sesob going to foreign this departosent is knoowo, os the $4;Eceetaey of Woo; is oppointed by the solary of $8,000 pcr coootries, et.,oandhos charge oftheGreaot Sealiof theUnitedhStates. President,andtreeoivesoaosolary P -68,O000perottoouo. TheoWorDepart- condoctedosost of Connoected with tho Depootoseot of Stole otod formsing a poet Of it In socos otteodsc to the executions of coal tows offectiog the Regular Armsy, offoirs, cod, like tsoo the greatworkof performsingand caringforethe duties ootlioedoaeethe ond corresit00 anod perotoeest esucb doties os osoybepros-ided forby aocnumberof studivb following bureauoso tolw 00 directed by the Preeidette~xt reltoive to otilitary fooces,osiiitoey isochooged withoag The Diploomatic Bureau, which books after the affairis pertoittieg to commoistionsoand the woolike ecc-sof the United looses, to forerte with the folbowing foreigno yeoos this departmtent also had ot-harge of Indion os welt as otitarcy 25, Alt matotteos con The Consolar Bureou, correspondene with consulates. ofcohtti o eobcsseedto the Deportenoot of the Ioteoioo. to the Indians oo Ic The Bureau of Indexses cod Aoehives, the duoties of which coo to The Woo Depaotmteot is olso resqaseicod, amotog other doties, to maitainbi or bouttoy laeds, St opeo the official maoils,prepare ott obsttract ofbthe dailycorrespondencoe Ithe signa otiecdesd os oio oeeotgctoso-toss $5 The tossd and on iedex of it, and soperintend otiscellanottus wook of deportmeteo. varouitts pointts een the coobittest, osod give telegraphic notoice of the sloe of statistics oel '.Thereis alsoomaintainted aCiv-ilEngineerinsgDethe aid of which is corrio d outo soch imtprovementes in assooay beoauthorized byContgress. The Secretaryof rvsionovooer the WestPoinbtMilitary Academty. tools foo she head of the Woo Deportmtent is paid aosistoot secretory, $4,500; thief cleok, 82,750. The linotes andoassistonts io she Woe Deportotent, escept re officers-ofthe RegulasrArmoy,whoare paid salaries ling General comesnext teo o the Secretory,oond reeiv-os ooo yoar, He oooksafterotheoarrongemetootfomifitary Is the recrusoioig sees-ice cnd disoiplioe of the oarmy, tot, cod 'in-ageneralisense is chorged withtseeing to teltowsaoodrogtoictiots of theaoesoy. The Adjuotontolts aed the orders issoed. The Quaooerncoso a of the boorocks ond the suopolies, etc.. thotomoy be ciy. The Coooitssoy-Goeneralis heodof the Sobsist-),oond hos osouperisionoooer the porchosingoand os. The jusdge Advocteot Geoneral is the hood of sheP itary justice. The Sorgeoo-Generalt,astheename itsoe ffoios of she oarmy reloting so sick,woonedd, hospisoaster-Getteral is the dihsbursintg offioer foe the motoey ocrtoteot. Theoo io olso the Ordnonce office,,orseoals,oesooies, theomanofoctoreeofcarms,oetc. I office hot chareg of ott plots ood deawings ofcall ocilitary puropos s. Resides these sheret ore the -Dopootoscot cd depoartmeots deos-tedbtoswar eecstioso it otay be ofint5eres5 tothe gooeraloeoder to C facts coocerniog the Regolor Armsy. The UniseS oo this porpose i5nto anosber of moibitooy districts. departenoto receiveos lobs geoneral iOtruti~tons oand iarters. Theotermtof soervceinothoeRgularArmsyis ay of 'pris-ate soldiers at tho start is $13peromonth isisoiocreaosedoaccordiogttime of service,Sbeitg $21 tiotts afteo twenty y servsotice. The poy of the ned to theirrank, 2o1sresoceiv-e$4,500 peryecr; $5,100; cod otajor geoerols, $7,680. NAVY IDEPAETJIENTr his epoeotoo is he eeeooey of the Novy, who is Poeidet, od oces-0 0 lotoy of $8,000 por annuso. elsogo wih te dtyo oteoding so the coestoocsopteo oo etpiyototofsvessels of war,oaswell ott ootoctd wth cs-l olofsooad oppropriatittes Congoess. The Secretaoy theoNavy hasdirect,d StatsetNavalAcadeoyc Annaopois, Marylaoe4; cooottodoersofsthes-eiossquoodrons; hasgeneral Morine Coops; and hot cooso of ott the several y Department. mberoofboureaus orgonized in the Nav-yDeportmtent moethorouoghly hoodling the wooS, aconog the which otoy be mteotiotted the following: Breaou of;Boreaouof'Medicine and Surery;RBureau of Nos-igoviinsad Clothiog; Breauo of Yards aned Docks; 0e; Broeouoof EquipmsentondReocruiting; Breauosof.epoir. Attached so this depootmtent coo otto officials b totheofollowiogomotterso MooinoeBoroocks, Washusu.of Hygiente; Nos-ol Dispensory; Boord of coy; Novy Sopplies and Accoounts; Navol Oboeocoo- Office; Liboary ond Woe Recoods; Noavol bIotelmaotac, etc. iso the Novy areepoido6,O000peryear; commoodoree,,500; lieutenoot-commanoders, $3,000; msedical direct-.s), $4,400;tsedicaltiospectors (rankof coososoders), es (raok of coptains), $4,400; poy insopectors (ronk.408, to the Engioeer Coops the chiof engionees ore year. ho mosot importoot bronches of the Notionaol Gov-ernithe Postmaoster-Geoerol, who is appointed by the is-es o solory of $8,000 poer coeos. The Post Office opoervsonos over the eoecutioosoof oil bows passed by theopostaltservice,and has genteralsoperv-isionsover to the gotheriog, carrying ood distrihbutioc of Uttited oinetods the distribuotiont and disposol of all msoseys:toopeiated foe, she deparotment; cod the instructiono over allpersonsinothe postalservice, withrefoerence rehoodling the geoeoralowork of the Post OfficecDepartouodonecessarysto createftourbureoaus, orooffices, as ach of which is presided os-er byoanoasoistantposto~ each reeiv-e$4,000 per acocoo; oreosttsubject to, opeocisioneofsheoheadoftho department. Aoreview reu ead their priocipolbofficiols, with thecoame of tveoy cearly tyhe workhaondled byoach. sb posmsotoso-generaltis allowedoachiefclerk at oeesotttdet f pst ffie spplies, $2,000; csperieby dcisoso $3Off; ciefdis-ision of solories cnd sopoiotedeotsotoy odoeyssco, o,00f soperbeeOfic, 2,08 cie dS-iiono of coots -.,cene antbpostmastter-genteralhas choregofo{ cot by the following- officiols whooareo u cot'1 railway adjostmteots, at $2,000 pee yc~ 0 of $2,000; chief of osoil eqoipomeot Sit-hoc ocOSO,00; doentrailwoyomailservice, $3,500, superitelecdent oboes postmsotesr-geoeral hot charge ofthe postage I the finoance divisioon, The chief of the forerte oseoso, cod of the totter $2,000 pet- y000, istattopostmast.oer-generalhsoneotrol ofoaonumber cosod by she fotbIowing officiots who ore ooder his 'hief of she divs-iono of appointmenots, who is poid chief of the divisios of hoods ood commoissions, FIce inspector, $3,000; ond the divisioo of maoil depreionos chiefs of diviionos oteotioned obovo theoe ore Post Office Departenoet a tow coeSk, at $2,500 poer coeSk, at $1,800; ossistoot ottorney-geoeeoi, $4,000; *disborsiog clerk, $2,100; cod o topogropher, at PAETS5ENT OF TUE tNTEROttt. opoeosob i tooee he totdiote cootrootof the See0, Hcsopyietobyth Presidett,attS rceivesba yco. I ths dpoeocotas the onose implies, is thopoticboboss obsig to domtestic oo internaol of sheothec oecosie dep enoots, ib is dis-ided in5o isonsoondbroancheo. TeSecretaoryof the bnertcior eoerot op~ervsison os-c poblic bussintessconnoected,ranches, viz.: 1st. Ticocoets of the United Stotes. nctced with poblic laeds. 3d. Everythinig relaoting Ldiot offoirs. 4th. All maotters concerning pensioens:h. The issoonce anod filing of pobtents ond caveats. nd distributbioso of publicotiosos. 755. The ceompilaatieg to edocastionaol otatters in the vacrious States. I I I ENTERED ACCORDING TO ACT OF CONGRESS IN THE YEAR A. D. toot, BOY ttsOo,- 4.5,,GeoLE & CO., IN THE OFFICE OF TEE LtIBRARIAN OF CONGIRESS AT WASHINGOTON, D. 0.

Page  IV I fii. SUPPLEMENT I\1. DIGEST OF TIHE SYSTEM OF' CIVIL GOVERNNIMENT. - - - He also has oversight over several of the Government's charitable and benevolent institutions. For the purpose of handling properly the business connected with most of the subjects tmentioned, there are bureaus organized for the purpose. The salaries paid to the principal officials connected with the Interior Department are as follows: First assistant secretary of the interior, $4,500 per year; assistant secretary, $4,000; chief clerk, $2,750; assistant attoefney-general (Dept. of Interior), $5,000; commissionee of the General Land Office, $5,000; commissioner of Indian affairs, $4,000; superintendent of Indian schools, $3,000; commissioner of the Pension Office, $5,000; medical referee, $3,000; commissioner of railroads, $4,500; commissioner of the Patent Office, $5,000; commissioner of the Education Office, $3,000; director of geological surveys, $6,Q00; superintendent of the Census Office, $6,000. DEPAITMIENT OF AGRICL[LTUJRE, This department was formerly connected with the Interior Department, but in 1889 it was reorganized and made independent, and the Secretary of Agriculture was made a member of the Cabinet. The head of this department is appointed by the President, and receives a salary of $8,000 per annum. The general duty and design of the Department of Agriculture is to acquire and diffuse among the people of the United States useful information on subjects connected with agriculture in the most general and comprehensive sense of that word, and to procure, propagate and distribute among the people new and valuable seeds and plants., The following is a list of the chief officials connected with the Department of Agriculture and their salaries, and the list will also serve to indicate the various lines of work handled by and the various duties which devolve upon the department, viz.: Assistant secretary of agriculture receives $4,500 per annum; chief of Weather Bureau, $4,500; chief of Bureau of Animal Industry, $3,000; statistician, $2,500; chemist, $2,500; entomologist, $2,500; botanist, $2,500; ornithologist, $2,500; chief of forestry division, $2,000; pomologist, $2,500; chief of vegetable pathology division, $2,000, microscopist, $2,500; director of office of experimental stations, $25,000; chief division of accounts, $2,500; chief of division of records and editing, $2,500; chief of division of illustrations and engravings, $2,000; horticulturist, $2,500. DEPARTMIENT OF JUSTICE, The head of the Department of Justice is the Attorney-General, who is appointed by the President, and receives a salary of $8,000 per annum. The principal assistant of the Attorney-General is the SolicitorGeneral, who receives $7,000 per year. There are a number of assistant attorney-generals who receive $5,000 per annum, and a special assistant attorney-general is appointed for nearly all of the various departments, including the Treasury, State, Post Office and Interior Departments. Besides these there are a number of special officials connected with the Department of Justice, such as examiner of titles, who receives $2,750 per annum; superintendent of buildings, $2,500; appointment and disbursing clerk, $2,000, -and attorney in charge of pardons, $2,400. The Attorney-General is the legal adviser of the President, and it is ard of weights and measures; to declare war; to raise and support armies (but it is provided that no appropriation for this purpose can be tfor a longer period than for two years); to provide and maintain a navy; to grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water; to make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces; to establish postoffices and post-roads; to promote the progress of science and the useful arts by securing for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries; to constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court; to define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas and offenses against the law of nations; to exercise exclusive legislation over the District of Columbia and places purchased for forts, magazines, arsenas, etc.; and further to make all laws necessary for the general welfare of the United States, and for "carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by the Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof." The Constitution expressly forbids Congress making any law respecting the establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. Congress cannot suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpjs except in cases of rebellion or invasion when the public safety may require it. No bill of attainder or ex:ost facto law can be passed. No tax or duty can be laid on articles exported from any State. No preference can be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one State over those of another. No title of nobility can be granted. Every law passed by Congress must be submitted to the President for his approval. If he returns it with his objections, or vetoes it, the measure may be passed over his veto by a two-thirds vote of both branches of Congress. The Senate, or the "Upper House of Congress," is composed of two Senators from each State in the Union. They are elected by the Legislatures of their respective States, for the term of six years, and receive a salary of $5,000 per annum. No person can be elected to the United States Senate who has not attained the age of thirty years, been nine years a citizen of the United States, and is when elected an inhabitant of the State from which he is chosen. The Senate has sole power to try all impeachments. Its consent and confirmation is necessary for all important officers appointed by the President. Its consent is also necessary to conclude ay t treaty. The House of Representatives is the " Lower House of Congress." Each State in the Union is divided into congressional districts, of as nearly equal population as is practicable. In each district a representative is elected by the people for a term of two years, and each is paid a salary of $5,000 per year. Besides these, a delegate from each organized Territory is admitted to the House of Representatives, who is not entitled to vote, but has the right to debate on all subjects in which the Territory which he represents has an interest. No person can be a representative who has not attained the age of twenty-five years, been for seven years a citizen of the United States, and is at the time of his election an inhabitant of the State from which he is chosen. All bills for raising revenue must originate in the House of Representati'ves. the duty ot the Department ot Justice to give all opinions and render TT G ME T all servic s equirings the skill of persons learned in the law necessary STATE GOVERNMENT. to enable the President and other officers of the various Government departments to discharge their respective duties. This department is PwF HE method of State government throughout the United States also required to prosecute or defend all suits or proceedings in which the follows very closely the general plan of government that preUnited States is interested. The Attorney-General has general super- [ vails in national affairs. The various functions of government vision over all the solicitors for the various departments; and also exer- 5 in State affairs are handled in departments, with a State officer cises general superintendence and direction over all United States at the head of each branch, and the lincs are clearly drawn marshals and United States district attorneys of all the districts of the between the executive, legislative and judicial powers. All the States United States and Territories. are governed under a constitution, which outlines and defines the powers which each of these departments shall exercise and possess. INDEPENDENT DEPARTMENTS. All of the most important State officials are elected by the people, but in many of the States the less important offices are filled by appointThere are several independent departments, which, although none ment of the Governor, by and with the consent of the State Senate. of them are as important as the foregoing, and their heads are not 5OFERNOR. Cabinet members, yet they form a very necessary part and attend to very important branches of the National Government. The Governor is the highest executive officer in all the States of the Government Printing Office. The head of this branch of public Union, and is elected by a direct vote of the people. The term of office work is the Public Printer, who is appointed by the President, and varies materially in the different States, ranging from two to six years. receives a salary of $4,500 per year. His chief clerk is paid $2,400 per As to the matter of salary that. the Governor receives, it also differs year, and there is a foremas of printing and a foreman of binding, widely throughout the different States and is subject to frequent change. each of whom receive $2,100 per annum. At the present writing two States-New York and Pennsylvania-pay Civil Service Commission. This commission consists of three corn- their Governors $10,000 per year; Illinois and California both pay $6,000 missioners, each of whom are paid $3,500 per year. The chief examiner per annum; Minnesota, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Missouri, connected with the commission is paid $3,000 per annum, and the Nevada, New Jersey, Virginia and Wisconsin all pay $5,000 per year; secretary $2,000. Maryland pa-ys $4,500; Michigan, Louisiana, Mississippi, Ohio, TennesInterstate Commerce Commission. This commission was created see and Texas pay $4,000, Florida and Arkansas pay $3,500; Alabama, for the purpose, and charged with the duty, of seeing that the laws regu- Colorado, Iowa, Kansas and North Carolina all pay $3,000; West Virlating interstate commerce were faithfully executed and observed, and ginia, $2,700; Montana and Washington, $2,600; the Dakotas and to prevent unjust discrimination eon the part.,~ railway corporations and Nebraska, $2,500; Connecticut, Delaware and Maine, $2,000; Oregon, coemmon carriers. The comm ission consists of five commissioners $1,500, and New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont $1,000. About appointed from different sections of the United States, each of whom the only statement concerning the qualifications required for this office receives a salary of $7,500 per year. The secretary of the commission that would be common to all the States is that he must be a citizen of a salary of $3,500 per annuoe. the State in which he is elected. In most of the States, in addition to Department ofLabor. The general design of this department isto the salary named, the Governor is furnished with a residence, which is collect, assort and systemoatize statistical details relating to the different known as the "Executive Mansion." branches of labor in the United States. The head of this department is The powers and duties that devolve upon the Governor are about known e,smmissioner of the Department of Labor, and he is paid the same in all of the States. He is charged with a general supervision a salary ise),00 per annum. His chief clerk receives $2,500 per year, over the faithful execution of the laws, and is the legal custodian of all and d; 'tg clerk $1,800. the property of the State not specifically entrusted to other officers by law, and is authorized to take summary possession of such property. He is expected to communicate by message to each'session of the State T. -scial powers of the United States are vested in the following- legislature such information or recommendations regarding State affairs named c. irts, viz.: The United States Supreme Court, consisting of ashe maydeem necessary and proper, and h is empowered to call extra one chief justice and eight associate justices; the United States Court sessions of that body whenever the public welfare may demand He of Claims, which consists of one chief justice and four judges; the accounts to the same body for all moneys received and paid out, and United States Circuit Court of Appeals; and the United States Circuit presentsestiates of amounts to be raised by taxation for various purand District Courts. All judges of United States Courts are appointed poses He has a negative (or veto) upon all laws passedby the Legislafor life, or during "good behavior." The chief justice of the United ture, but it is provided that measures may be passed over his veto by a States Supreme Court receives a salary of $10,500 per atnnum, and she two-thirds ottof that body. The Coernor is coscsander-to chiof of associate justices $10,000 each. The circuit judges receiveasatarycf the State milisror cavat forcesad has authorityto oath outsuch $6,000 each per annum, district judges $5,000, and judges of the Court foces o pesee peace adeeute the s he the caahoiies of Ctlaims $4,500 etch pee yeac. are unable to accomplish this. He may require the opinion of the vaciThe jurisdiction ofthe Unitd States Courts extends to all cases in o us State officers upon any subject relating to their respective offices, and law and in equity arising under the Constitution, the laws of the United examites and approvesthebondsofStateofficials. InmanyStatesthe States, and treaties; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public Governor has power to gant reprieves and pardons, after conviction, ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdic- for all offensesagainst the State except in cases of impeachment; but tion; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; to a few of the States the pardoning power is vested iea board selectet controversies between two or more States; between a State and a citizen for that purpose, of which the Governor is generallty tex-officio a tmember of another State; between citizens of different States; between citizens of The Governor has the appointmens t of a number of State officers, and in the same State claiming lands under grants of different States. In all many casesif an eectve office becomes vacanthe has power to fill it cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and by appointment; has power in many States to suspend a State officer, or those in which a State is a party the Supreme Court has original jurisdic- even a county officer, pending a legal investigation. The Governor issues tion. In the other cases the Supreme Court has appellate jurisdico otheStasfopatiesgon.gedwsith ecsime who escape to other States, and he has power to issue warrants for / LEGISLATTVE DEPARTMENT. fleeing criminals upon requisition of other Governors. The legislative powers of the United States are vested in a Con- LIEUTENANT.-GOVERNOR. gress, which consists of a Senato and House of Representatives, and which meets annually at Washing-Zn on the first Monday of December. The office of Lieutenant-Governor does not exist in all of the States The constitution gives to Congress the following general powers: To in the Union, at least not under this name, as in a few of the States this lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises; pay the debts of the officer is only known as the President of the State Senate. In some of United States; borrow money on the credit of the United States; to reg- the States the Lieutenant-Governor is paid a certain amount per day ulate commerce; to establish uniform laws on naturalization and bank- during sessions of the Legislature or General Assembly, and in others ruptcy; to coin money and regulate the value thereof; fix the stand- he is allowed a fixed salary, but it is provided that if the duties of Govi ernor should devolve upon him he shall during the continuance of such emergency be entitled to the emoluments thereof. The principal duty of the Lieutenant-Governor is to act as the presiding officer of the State Senate or Upper House of the State Legislature. In case a vacancy should occur in the office of Governor, the Lieutenant-Governor would act as Governor until such vacancy was filled by election; and in all cases where the Lieutenant-Governor is unable to act as presiding officer of the Senate, a President pro e tepz5eore is chosen by that body. The Lieutenant-Governr has no vote in the Senata except in cases of a tie or equal division of The members. SECLRETARY OF STATE. The office of Secretary of State is one of the most important offices within the gift of the people of a State, and the office exists under this name in every State in the Union. The Secretary of State may be said to be the official secretary of the 'Governor, and countersigns all commissions issued by the chief executive, and he is the custodian of the Great Seal of the State. As a rule it is the duty of the Secretary of State to call the House of Representatives to order and preside until a temporary presiding officer, or Speaker, is elected. It is his duty to see that halls are prepared for the Legislature or General Assembly; he prepares the fegislative manual and causes it to be printed and distributed; secures the printing and distribution of the State laws; indexes and files executive documents; provides and distributes election blanks; has charge of all books, bills, papers, etc., of the Legislature, and is practically "keeper of all public acts, laws, records, bonds, etc." The Secretary of State is required to keep a register of all the official acts of the Governor, and affixes the Seal of the State to all official commissions, etc., keeps a record of them, and is obliged to give any person a copy of the same when demanded. In all of the States the Secretary of State is ex-offcio member of a number of the official State boards, but no list of these could be given that would apply to all States, as they are different in the various States.: STATE AUDITOR. The office of Auditor of State exists under one nae or another in -'early every State in the Union. The title of this office, however, is not alike in all the States, as in many of them, notably California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and a few others, it is known as State Comptroller. In a few of the States, including Michigan and Pennsylvania, the office is called Auditor-General, and in two of the States the public accounts are audited by a Board of Auditors. In all the States, however, the duties that devolve upon this branch of the State government are practically the same, and a general explanation of the scope of work handled by the State Auditor in one State will apply, except as regards minor details, to all of the States. It is the duty of the State Auditor to keep the accounts of the State with any other State or Territory, and with the United States and all public officers, corporations and individuals having accounts with his State. He audits the accounts of all public officers who are to be paid out of the State Treasury, and all persons who are authorized to receive money out of the State Treasury. In fact, all claims against the State which are to be paid out of the State Treasury must be presented to the Auditor, who, after the same is adjusted, issues warrants therefor payable at the Treasury. A complete record of each warrant is kept by the Auditor, who also keeps an acecount with the State Treasurer, charging him with all moneys paid into the Treasury, and giving credit for all warrants paid, and the books and vouchers of the Treasury must balance therewith, as settlements are made between these two officers at stated intervals. In a number of the States the Auditor is charged with a general supervision over certain corporations, such as insurance and banking corporations and building and loan associations, and in some States is ex-offcio a member of a number of State boards. He generally has authority to make and execute satisfactions of judgments and assignments thereof in behalf of the State. STATE TREASURER. This is one of the most important executive offices in the gift of the people of a State. The State Treasurer handles vast sums of the people's money, and as a rule a very -heavy bond, ranging from $5500,00u up into the millions, is required of him; and generally the Governor is empowered to demand additional bonds if he deems the bond insufficient to fully protect the State. The duties of the State Treasurer are implied by the title of the office, and they are very much the same throughout all of the States of the Union. The State Treasurer is custodian of all the State funds. He deposits these funds in banks, which give bonds to secure the Treasurer or State against loss, and which pay interest on daily balances. The Treasurer pays out State funds only on warrants issued or signed by the State Auditor, or other proper official, and a full record of all warrants is kept in both the auditing office and Treasurer's office. The plan by which the Treasurer receives the revenues of the State is different in different States. In some States the Auditor issues an order for him to receive the same and charges the amount against the Treasury, In others he is charged with all moneys which he is entitled to receive, and then given credit for delinquencies. In still other States the Treasurer issues duplicate receipts for all moneys paid in, which must be countersigned by the Auditor to be valid, and one of these must be deposited with the Auditori so he may charge the amount against the Treasurer. In this way a double system is carried on-both Auditor and Treasurer keeping a full account of all moneys received and paid out, and their books and accounts-must balance, as at stated intervals the Treasurer must make settlements with the Auditor and submit books, vouchers, etc., to the Legislature. In most of the States the State Treasurer is required to publish at stated times, in the newspapers at the capital, an itemized statement of the public accounts, expenditures, funds, receipts and disbursements. He is also required to make a complete report and itemized statement to each session of the Legislature. In nearly all of the States the law is very explicit in outlining the duties of the State Treasurer, the followin g being very common provisions in relation to the office, viz.: That a complete record of all moneys must be kept, showing what is received or paid out of the various "'funds," which " funds " must be exhibited in separate accounts. In several of the States the Governor and one or two other State officials constitute a board, which must at certain times examine and check up the accounts, books and vouchers of the State Treasurer and ascertain the amntnt of funds in the Treasury. ATTOfRNE I —GENERAL., The Attorney-General, as the name implies, is the general legal counsel or lawyer for the various branches of the State government. In all of the States the powe-'. and duties of the Attorney-Ge.ral are very similar. It is his duty to appear for the State in al a actions and proceedings in the Supreme Court in which the State has an interest; to institute and prosecute in all courts all actions, either for or against a State officer, in which the State has an interest; to consult with and advise the various county or state's attorneys in matters relating to their official duties, and when public interest requires he assists them in criminal prosecutions. It is his duty to consult with and advise the Governor and other State officers, and give, when requested, written opinions on legal or constitutional questions relating to their official duties, and to give written opinions when requested by the Legislature or any committee thereof. It is also his duty ' prepare, when necessary, drafts for contracts or other writings relating to subjects in which the State is interested. He is required to enforce the proper application of funds appropriated to the variouo state institutions, and prosecute breaches of trust in the administration of the same; and when I -- ---- ---- I. -- ENTERED ACCORDING TO ACT OF CONGRESS IN THE YEAR A. D ns05. BY TSO. A. OGLE & CO., IN THE OFFICE 01 THE LIBRARIAN OF CONGRESS AT WASHINGTON. D. C.

Page  V SUPPLEMENT V. necessary plosecute corporations for failure or refu the laws; to prosecute official bonds of delinquent tions in which the State has an interest. The _ required to keep a record of all actions, complaints, STATE SUPERItINTENDENT OR SUPERBINTE3 JLIC N~STIR'UCTlO l. This is an office which exists in nearly every Stathree or four of tne States the management of the ec of the State is vested in a State Board of Educatior the secretary of the board assumes most of the detai of the States devolve upon the State Superintende given to this office is not the same in all of the State! called " State Superintendent of Public Instruction In Ohio, Maine.and Rhode Island, and a few others, "Commissioner of Schools." The duties of the State Superintendent are ver of the States, as he is charged with a general superv cational interests of the State and of the public school his authority is not limited to the public schools, an by law to demand full reports from all colleges, ac schools. It is his duty to secure at regular interval public educational institutions and file all papers, ments transmitted to himt by local or county school general adviser and assistant of the various county school officers, to whom he must give, when requ opinion upon questions arising under the school law. to hear and determine controversies arising under th ing to him by appeal from a county superinttendent He prepares and distributes school registers, school generally given the power to make such rules and necessary to carry into efficient and uniform effect th lawts relating to schools. The State Superintendent i a detailed report to each regular session of the State ing an abstract of the common school reports; a state tion of public schools and State educational instituti money collected and expended, and all other matte schools or school funds that have been reported to bidden ferom becoming interested m the sale of any scl or apparatus. STAITE LIBRARIAN. In nearly all of the States the laws provide for a the title of "State Librarian." As a rule the office i ment otf the G overnor, although ina few States it i and is filled by direct vote of the people. The Sta custodian of all the books and property belonging to and is required to give a bond for the proper discl and safekeeping of the property intrusted to his care States the State Library is an imetnsely important lection. In some of the States the Supreme Court jr library rules and regulations. In others they have E Trustees, which is sometimes made up of the Got other State officials, who constitute a board of oen management of the State Library. ADJUTANT- GENERAL. In nearly all of the.States provision is made fox eral, who is either elected by the people or appointee The name of the office implies the branch of work w its incumbent. It is the duty of the Adjutant-General mit all orders of the Commander-in-Chief with refer or military organizations of the State. Hekeeps a re officers commissioned by the Governor, and of all g orders and regulations issued, and of tall other matt men, property, ordnance, stores, camp and garrison intg to the State militia or military forces. PUBLIC EXABINER OR BANI EXA] This is a State office that is found in only abo States. In some States it is known as Bank Comptrolle duties which devolve upon this officer are handled bh in the State Auditor's office. The general duties and ing this work, in many respects, is very similar, but t ference between the various States in the officers Where this is made a separate State office, gener requirements are that he must be a skilled accountan keeper, and cannot be an officer of any of the publ interested in any of the financial corporations which to examine. He is charged with the duty of visiting financial accounts and standing of certain corporaeti organized under the State laws. In several of the Sta his duty to visit certain county officials at stated inte their books and accounts, and enforce a uniform syste by State and county officers. COI[MYIISSIONER OR SUPERINTENDENT OF In all of the States of the Union the department ance has grown to be an important branch of State method of controlling the insurance business differs r of the States, although they are all gradually moving tion, viz., creating a department or State office in relating to insurance and insurance companies are at mer years, in nearly all of the States, the insurance department in the State Auditor's office, and was han appointees. Now, however, in nearly all the Norther of the Southern States, they have a separate and department, the head of which is either elected appointed by the Governor. The duties and power department of the various States are very similar vision is that the head of this department must be ex ance matters, and he is prohibited from holding an ine ance company. The Commissioneror Superintenden extensive powers concerning insurance matters, and that all laws respeeting and regulating insurance ar panies are faithfeully observed; he issues licenses t panics, and it is his duty to revoke the license of any forming to the law. Reports are made to him at st: various companies, and he has power to examine ful tion, assets, etc. He files in his office the various doc insurance companies, together with their statements, intervals makes full reports to the Governor or Legis COlI4IISSIONER OR LAMBOR STATIt In several of the Stattes a "Commissioner of L appointed by the Governor, who is the head of what labor bureau. In a great majority of the States, ho of work is taken care of by a boardt of labor commissi statistics or by the State Auditor and his appointees. of this bureau or commission is to collect, assort an present in regular reports to the Legislature, statistic to the different departments of labor in the State, and mendations as may be deemed proper and necessa commercial, industrial, social, educational and sani the laboring classes. DIGESTr OF' THEri SYSTEM OF CIVIL GOV ERNMENT. sal to comply with OTHER STATE OFFICERS. that arises from si officers otr corpora-ee cQettes aelse pet kttteneyfieneeel ts teIn all of the States there exist one or more other State officers in jueicial businessopiniens, etc. eddition to those already mentioned, which are made necessary by local condition ote local business interests. It is, therefore, unnecessary to 0DRT OF PUB cmention any of these at length in this article. It may be stated, however, that in all of the States may be found two or more of the following State officers, and further, that each one of the following-named officers s it the Uniont. It t is found in some State in the Union, viz.: Superintendent or commissioner C ieeetie el intetests tof agriculture, commissioner of mines, secretary of agricultural board, but in tes se creteary of internal affairs, clerk and reporter of the Supreme Court, C~ 0 far as th commissioner of railways, commissioner of immigration, State printer, etetegem 1 work that in most Sttbidrladaeto cm ison,cmm t. T l sbinder, tnd ege i.e....ittie,.egis..tee. e eutch the...The full title S.... s, but it is gen erall sintendet of State land office, register of lands, commissioner of 6 differesnt r er Public ~ osch ools and lands, surveyor-general, inspector-general, State oil inspec- one office the office is termed tor, dairy commissioner. tnumtber of points it States differs. Th much alike in all STATE BOARDS. offices which are n deeiet te psivas a State. The following list of such State boards and bureaus includes A DTING OFF I reports from all all that can be found in the majority of the ittes s e eof them, eow- G e lip epets ad ed ee evert are only found n a few of the States, because they are of eca theGceerltyd he Offietes. He isthe eatuee ted aeeottytmadtetncessaryhbylthe existeeten e io ertintlcal theseutyetitdeto superintendents or conditions ore Psinets interests. It till else be obseseed thet tomte of t disceneitet a it lebd, his nySitted e the o d ed e same line of work e ehthat has already been.. count.auitore It is also his duty meetioned as belonging to soe e State officer. This grows froi the falt office is mered v ld h~efie is atoie e school laws corn- hat a few ofs the States pleace the emanagement of certain lines of work of this is intheStat or school official. in e hands of a State board, while in others, instead of having aState te plt e title of itcle blanks, etc., and is board they delegate the powers and duties to a single State official tte tt allo thae otute, hiese, hae aj o r ert oe the Statet boards mentioned tott In e f the, ntre ua ndtreony made ncsary yteeitne of cranlal the Scutyatesto e perovisieons of the fn this list, b tn es t hi iepy the lie of work each attends to, ount cerk or a s required to make tiz.: Raileroadand warehouse commissioners,board of equalization, board per yeare besides i Legeislature,tshtwes o tecettissiepeof agriicutuet,euiersssityterustees,Ptboaedt orpscomemissidonetteft o the Vondis veoylegse and P ons; the amount Of teed heltdeenflsse retueesTe, histeeicalibree yee eeeoahrdp seetriege n efnes or claimetion f s, live stock commesseioners, fish corn- maybested tat sea fItted P tpoe t The lawe-m intg poe to the State of fi er The is glti e offie. the acounty di selectie offie ethe epoer pines, od or I the be aslred e Gene ol e u h the i Stte, s ested rit bedty beoeied the Legisletete te Geeral the ceof ty c tye are hat L A eoth,e St a ts l ae p t maembeo tnst of LoeH se, destignented s o - ed gie ging edit af geref his l deistale si the thne faSte taed Heese te Repesetatees tee fete of lhb caing agatesteat bfel anete, e atesb they delegats the Lpowers ae d "thies te ts telte Steatt defic edesebe se n rs teguetetsesgeeeseesegultatns aeteyepesPes rteTheeteo Sdgee officeihundrst fore edthe teaesd t e Liebeyea tdp sionst ela- k. In a of the Setates, howevee erm e the "tit i at de ofiled. In all the ^eseeteeed eettefe shetthpthGeTteeeteepotteseteteedeeeptccetitees- ceiespeciel pedthecheis^Tetee e sfen eets lit, the Destee b w hie e g im p th e eline tote co sea tteasued Gythe mae Liebeeiaesse pstheevtheeriuse telthe iseteteid aeo y le iseaeedenthe thereith The teau ci th e GSt eetLbaregethem siththe repeitorte theUttditeus he Slta effit u - ' st te the Sttes, te o hs dutiGs cet; tsp thet ide ey t at pr t f l e an d cetgehouse ommoers t afr of eeqai atgiot to p th Gan e e et- ses telhe govere noseetee ct regelaTe tiAseme peeided by lo they eanthe ees tiete ad vathetedbe oPfLegislature ee ie, usa d aes e tll e the psoi ts edditional dties it pesdb or cIiissi o n git the universa S rule sinatee bot. Thee cmis e a ge lel proieb t ad h teie t the Boalite eirpse n of tfheitoltes, owane ceoissione ghe e nbtiharmn Ohee llf e gee ocne ts,;ortehkeg atyirevocahblhe gamo n t of t ecltestt l pety th T s eo t e peal ds etal Pptte hest he Legisete tdruhse peseeted toei the bGoee tet ispotaart ters relatience g to the his pp l. I e ihhlds his ppereoale l ettee ill, the else ot e coety. equtpage peetae. b e seay bereprthed bye lar ts hids veeStel the Legriletues hee therewith iThe t provisions ofthe a cwnstitution.TheLegislaturer o the re p s b nty o srk a tof shi ecerns tre toetesth the Gor eseoetes, fis o r - mot et e stat eas t SENATJE, he wse elected. I tl onee-belf tel the Stetes, es it om i e i heste The Seeoie y islsappres i net f orst o rdgna r nee s, la o r aniyss et f nere e ber ofede Iplean efcndute- whtich aSennto eis elected-thetere o officvpiagl f tet our Stry os l hee is te grere dii peaes. E cept it tht ee tre flt fte the Stetes the presidieg officee tl the te the fends Petes thlly speandeg, bthe saolly elected, S oae es es pesidig officee derieg the abseteo o f pr alvdon s a teebtnutortieIteend espert Peek- Lieuenaene-Goernoer. The peesiding efficee Pee ee etete, hoesere, in Ito les. He is. seqe t instituti cs, te the Steete, escept eee the hoerdy is equelp dirided. Ee y Seator est beep f egel it tayhbe hisdsEp e elGEEdLhithEieBdt.e all dcu en ts, aeed tad iespectnegehe ea iseth e por adssage o, of w t fd en ted itteuilSta If e tlet ts s t e itet offies the et se t be ppeinted elt te elf eteeys, cei islsets f minge b ya irevtal seo e a ppointettieg peatfic eera lseand iepee thfieery tae p te prme t L eis aeted effsep. Ithe teud i et tel Peebkeepieg R OUSE OF RRPRESENTAT5VFS. fettelesetases Th eee b ob e D uerten o th he Sleegislatgie, poee r fe pr ifen ot tthe So n v it aituos osey NsrBlating tl Rtoestte ass step oefnera I m teib r Sar et te th m e reiase S tate Rves ted Uion te so termed th e egislatuere, en ter ithe Setomes, evep e bee te the RetstwPehastherig the tegrnr'bv e betted it eehoesi itheve relatieng st fetes advoceating tee eppeiegh heeount y treasureeid geeRne net. T he Ste ei br, Tsember.ihe onseiste s of aimperacer eohmsen, e lenatetd e u s etret onelf oif tie y the Se ate Ho uses as ipeent saet veds e t tesinesseformed te JUD1CTARB. outcltyaims adnds 0 lied Pp him orte his cut or n ates nd manythe tee The Sen dicial Dteptet Ho usle e egil is oled enee l Asse m-y te mos t o tel the distiedepart ee t insuran he vt a sd p teatesl hre chesed geertee ena told hetbeisri t ee Stach of w ts ee oerdees y the peoople tc Na tiwi, as iSe to ecmees the dthe tel his depo aryent tepes tpwo e fd theressist. Ive imsi h'and ets vilupar ebe eep e tSc ingpr ad t e eiter s 11n aneer os thehbu ksad pwes prdesrient i p aied brches the gierelt. CO TY I teispietpi the uueal ulece, as teesiiptioegof ofd t he geS e etti eu s t he ala defutsd a eoreiz d es expecrt tooe theiten Pae-p ndvjeriodietihe thaf s ti edbe usess tnto tet e givevthe pepe sttoaw e Iits be c pan enteeto n nal n o f the S tea t esnsi peeot, hjoevr jdicina 1 eet ft is metged eted timesa e the eutheep ofe the Stas is Peeons ans the Seprteh touet, ead in oless qes- lisle ofte he jce te te L infeeteo thet o ceedi s o esf ae lved shich gice e e t e the aisdist, it is beth offices ae mesand enltietg sto she tcoert tl lest steemo. The Sutpaettate Goies ist are up o fe ap hied The d iesit one these vcers ee elected pbyp te th e b eern or ov, ot fietos redeey te aos, satil espce rvet.sno and tht e Senat.pamn is mateed bte TICS. (it thoese t te Stae s epbese ssuing cet ditit, b this is.Misso i, hi the Lee elp, es fi sveepral Setles s th he e pcosen the Gpernsor eo It K aeess, Mi hig eay e neesd te b wetre s t eed te ttet, ated aes eriginea jtrisdictiot ie este- the epesitee shes eseseheesee tel btee~~~~~~thtfse tterbpewtpfehfee. Tet he aetede ke hegeneeraldesign Veeatees ofhec ts e p ided the lson s titthhe edifeue or eestives te i re p rtsei 1a details reltieng ceuteey steels, superior cesets, etunicipalseourts, ceerts tel jestices tel the sided by lsthetoentl p coer niete g th the Sept ors ee ee o f the r i ou get, t lbs dightt i t eb sher Sta etes Pet s estaelithed roSidin an mae be irouSte s efoe the ordiyarl s k si.: Ths e egtisser rel~~~after to nsumbr vuh o f th~r rovenmAdutnt-GTe- hexpsa embrnh oseis give the solerpwronipahment, reuarties prvie bay (or they materallyin mny bt al impachmnts ust e tred by~theSenae. A a gnerawruen conty undsiouo inb the same drno-threi aprovision theSate itpotcall bilstfrraicsin revnu mutoinate i daily othr monvisions whc all o marrigtnter State Housermn. Ther is As generalprhbto ltetndcedto.'I foedr-~ Sga..hep.. gations ofcotasormakin ay JU irre. v.outcouernty of spca poiv ord ofabmiiay hi lee or hmuiies An esrbcomawmunty boar pansda S n I~ egThisdIs one office enertate and man p Te"Jdcial bypboth rnhe ft e Legi' sltuore ordeepresene tof the coy ~mst impv'ortanters distic israneliprantiand powru brnhesog ernorefrhis apovlf hewithhold thi Sapprva or waratosith by t~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~hepepeoNainasitbcms th uyoffhi deatmn topasupo ndhrwth. I eqia genea proeiprtaint measuresmyb reansd acts toftid boteho the Legislativean wexentv p~~~~~~~~~~ermoofieced n isur urnhs o h oenet O YI ~~~~~~t wleoes in any inou- twitsimosbenta gneral atice to gveros avetaie eiwor t of nsurnce as dscritionof te cos rutionaridmakeup o thejudiialoeparment Inn tthef t it is his duty to see of the various States. The coursaeodif ently arranedohasut ed smrged v 1idN R inuacvon hi ae-u ndo jrsitof tat itwudb slestoryogiehe p ulinfalstb co payt o cone-hInal of the States, exetaosiby on rto h hihstouiil weei smerge aernd time bythe auhritso the TeSenate is know ape oseo the Lgslauprem CourtGenerallessqes- til f the number off ly i dprmnto bl.Thei oariou Stions are divolved hc givth United senateCourial juistrictio, it isacoh offce are gnrlod u s relatng tofth conurt whif las resaorisec ted the tuperm Cour ofice maryin upo wo chief ou S tates duiery ofi ethere and at gretdifyars.usticep and thre sev ra asocit ustce or judes Sats mayhe proied similar ofieno th e vrof h ud eo whoatten d fob toh enawothevaios taeLetesatGvro,usalthfomougaPreosid. entf o erzi afely kerSaes the refi allyspeakfingter usally elected, who athe peopesiin efither during the Sabsenc lre or ever ais county auhriec StI. (ind thexer bok- theSteant-oerso. sTrepresenting ofcertandsrcs u this is note Misowevri, Oin o andHei lieo Sainstics"i eilture. In...lof the Stte......twhenS prm C uthaspeltejrs moreyi is cqally iied. Evr... may be termed the dictiuon bohi aw adiequestion, and thas origina jrsitio i re e- thearepoitor advcain nwisecting this brac dpoial cases manamssabea cof a nd measues breltightbeor the reenegislturasers a nd con htrfud ones, an bureatoft utionres no triallb uyingal o theimst mourt.n tt ofie thet retorder aporne loo loes Teeeatdesig Varios alo mdyther Goerourthe arpitet ns e aprovied ofonfrme byyh laws oftedfeet istruet ing prtic dssemvatiz, and Statssc asppellt ors ici rdsrct cuts, Senbate. corsp aymeatlngth isnad z etal ofbokelating countycors, suerocutsm nipa corscurtbfjusiescfth v ytecut, Lry onceningthe hat f th Supeme ourt andvaris gratlyin te diferet Sttes.thettatethav spr [I R N E tate s conditheUionso Beids thswermed therHue ofRereslrentatives, vaiouktercut are as oftexpecorer, bute t esalaishe to aiinsr avcaring for t eormousin ameauebought bef jdca ork vz:the bodeogwiste uch vast and complex business interests. The vais`, f )vided with the necessary officials for carying on the -such as clerks of court, court reporters, bqiliffeetc.;OUNTY GOVERNMENT. he principal county offices are concerned, the general ent and method of handling the public business is very same in all of the States; but the offices are called by games, and in minor details-such asntransfer ing from to ano esthe certain minorines workthere are a which the method of county government in the various e writer has adopted the names of the principal county host common in the Northern States, as in the Southand States there are scarcel y any two States in which of all the county offices are identical. ICE AND CLERIK OF THE COUNTY BOARD. principal auditing officer of the county is known as r " or " county clerk." In Illinois, Kansas, Missouri, ny other States the office is called" county clerk." In tnesota, North Dakota, Ohio and others it is termed In a few of the States under certain conditions this vith some other county office. A notable example e of Michigan, where they have one official, under the erk," who looks after about all of the work which in levolves upon both the county clerk and also clerk of e States a bond in a moderate sum is required of the ditor, and he is paid a salary of from $1,500 to $3,500 n some States being allowed certain fees, unless it is in heavily populated county, where the salary paid is of bher than this amonnt. No county treasurer or memtoard is eligible to this office. In general terms it rule the auditor acts as the clerk or secretary of the rd, although in a few of the States the court clerk is ter this matter. The clerk of the county board keeps of the board's proceedings and carefully preserves ords, books, maps and papers which may be brought or which the law provides shall be deposited in his ting office an accurate account is kept with the county lly they file the duplicates of the receipts given by er, charging him with allmoney paid into the treasury tor all warrants paid. The general plan of paying tunty is as follows: If the claim is one in which the d by law, or is authorized to be fixed by some other the auditor issues a warrant or order which will be rer, the certificate upon which it is allowed being duly cases the claim must be allowed by the county board, or presiding officer issues a warrant or order which lerk. A completerecord of all these county warrants nd the accounts of the county treasurer must balance bove in general terms outline the most important ich the county clerk or county auditor looks after in but in all of the States the law requires him to look other matters, although in these there is no uniformity s States, and no general description of these minor or ould be given that would apply to all the States., COUNTrY TREASURER. e which exists in all of the States, and it is one of the the various offices necessary in carrying on the busiIt is an elective office in all of the States, and the ually either two or four years, but a very common arious States is that after serving for one term as party shall be ineligible to the office until the interote term after the expiration of the term for which bhis provision, however, does not exist in all of the )f them the county treasurer is eligible for re-election terms. tlies of the county treasurers throughout the various ar. The county treasurer is the principal custodian eging to the county. It is his duty to receive and enues and other public moneys of the county, and I to be paid to him, and disburse the same pursuant lired to keep proper books of account, in which he r, just and true account of all moneys revenues and him, stating particularly the time, when, of whom or account each particular sum was received; and revenues and funds paid out by him according to ilarly the time when, toe whom and on what fund from. The books of the county treasurer must o the inspection of the county board, which, at stated his boce te nd makes settlements with him. In-some roevision f the law relating to county treasurer are f them provide for a county board of auditors, who ral times a year, to examine the funds, accounts and lasurywithout previous notice to the treasurer; and ted that this board, or the county board, shall desigPks) in which the treasurer is required to keep the sited —the banks being required to pay interest on lances and give bond to indemnify the county against rule the county treasurer is only authorized to pay i warrants or orders issued by the chairman of the attested by the clerk, or in certait cases on warrants eunty auditing office. A complete record of these is kept, and the treasurer' s accounts must balance st of the States the law is very explicit in directing accounts of the county treasurer shall be kept. LECORIDER OR REEGXSTER OF? DEEDS. he States the office of county recorder or register of with some other county office, in counties where the!low a certain amount. A notable example of this is tates of Illinois and Missouri (and there are others), with the office of circuit clerk in many counties. The ice is "circuit clerk and recorder," and the duties of ked after by one official. the county recorder or register of deeds are very us States, although in some of the Eastern and South-:e is called by other names. The usual name, howsrder or register of deeds. In Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, d many other States, it is called "county recorder." an, Minnesota, North Dakota, Wisconsin and many register of deeds." In all of the States this office is rein are kept all records relating to deeds, mortgages, acts affecting lands within the county. It is the duty register, as soon as practical after the filing of any ing in his office entitled to be recorded, to record the the order of the time of its reception, in books proy for that purpose; and it is his duty to endorse on ertificate of the time when the same was filed. All of te of the following provisions concerning the duties t these provisions are not common to all of the States, or recorder is not allowed to record an instrument of I I I I I PNTERED ACCORDING TO ACT OF CONGRESS IN a HEYEAR A. D. 1905, BY GEO. A. OGLl & CO., IN THE OFFICE OF THE LIBRARIAN OF CONGBES AT WASHIEGTON, D. C.

Page  VI o SUPPLEMENT VI. T T 'l CN - / J915iLe'1 -any kind unless it is duly executed according to law; he is not obliged to record any instrument unless his fees are paid in advance; as ta rue, it is unlawful for him to record any map, plat or subdivision of land situated within any incorporated city, town or village until it is approved by the proper officers of the same. In many States he is forbidden to enter a deed on the records until it has been endorsed " taxes paid " by the proper official; he is required to exhibit, free of charge, all records, and allow copies to be made; he is authorized to administer oaths and take acknowledgments. CIRCUIT Ot DISTRICT CLERK, Or CJLERK OP COURT. In nearly -e of the States, each county elects a "clerk of court or courts," sometimes also known as circuit clerk or district clerk, indicating the court sith which the office is connected. In some of the States, tas has already been stated, the office of clerk of court is merged with some other ceunty office. This is the case in Illinois antd Missourci, where in many counties ihet is connected with the office of ceounety recorder. In Mic higan, onte official tunder the name of "clerk " landles the busiress wthich usuily is given to the clerk of court and county clerk or aud teor. Int Wisconsin, Mieessouri, Illinois and other States the name used is " circuit clerk;" i Kansas, Minnesota, North Dakota and mane y others the office is called " leric of distreict court;" while itn many of the States, including Indiana, Ohio, Iowa and others, it is called simply "clerk " or "clerk of the court or courts. IThe chief duty of this official is to act as clerk of the district or circuite court, and sometimes other courts ofe inferior jurisdiction. It is the clerkt's duty to keep the seals and attend the estions oi their respective courts, preserve all the files and papers thereoft make, keep and preserve complete records oef all the proceedings and determinations thereof, and carrye oeeut such other duties as ma be required by the rules and orders of theier res ectie courts. They muste enter of recerd all judgments, decrees anTordes of eethe court as soon as possible eafter they arte rendered; keep all indictments on filce cas a peublic record, have authoreity to administer oaths, take acknowledgmeents; take and certify depositions, and are required to exhibit all records free of charge. In nearly all the States the lawe definesc the character of the record books which the clerk of court eust keep. Although there is no settled rule in this matter, the general perovisions are that he shall keep: First, a general docket or register of aictions, in which is entered the title of each action sin the order in which they are commenced, and a description of each paper filed in the cause and all proceedings therein; second, a plaintiff's indexs and defendant's index; third, ea juedgment book antd execution docket, ein which he enters ithe judgment in each action, time of issuing execution, scatisfactione, etc., and suech othert books as the courts or the laws may prescribe. SHERIFFP, In all of the Stateo the office of sheriff is one of the eost important of the counety offices. The term of officevaries in differenet States,being usually either two or four years, and in several of the States one parety cannot hold the office a stecond term consecutively. The general provisieons outlining the duties pertaining to this office eare very much alike in the various States, and the following resucie of his dutcies may be said to apply to all of the various States except in a few minor and unimportant detailse. The sheriff is charged with the duty of keepineg and preserving the peace in his counety; or, aes has been wrcitten, "he is the conservator ofi peacse," antd it is his duty to keep the same, suppress riots, affrays, fighting, breaches of the peatce and prevent crimet and may arrest offenders " on view" and cause them to be brought before the proper magistrate; and to deo this, or to execute any writ,e warrantest, process, order or decree, he may call to his aid when necessary any personte e te" power of the county." It is the dutys of the sheriff to serve and execute within his county, and return, all writs, warrents, process, orders and decrees of evey description thats may be legally directed and delivered to hin. He is a court officer, and it is his duty to attend, either in person or by deputy, eall courts cof record held in his county; by virtue of his office he has custody of the jail. It is his duty to pursue Tand apprehend felons and peecrsons chartged with crime and has custody of prisoners. He is noe t allowed to purchase eany property exposed for sale by him as sheriff. COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OlR COYlI3NISSIONIR Or SCHOO:LS. This is an office which exists under tone name ort another in nearly every State ins the Union.e The title of the office in a greact majoreity.of the States is "county superintendent," but int Michigan, Missouri, Ohio, New York, and possteibly one or tewo other States, the office is termed school commissioner," and in several of the States the laws proviede ifore a board of counety examineers or school commeeissioners, cwho are given constiderable ofi the work that in most of the other States is handled by the counety superintendent. The name of this office implies the duties which devolve upon it, and they eare verey mutch alike int all of the States. The incumbent of this office is charged withe a general supervision over teehe schooels of the county, and must be a fitting person as to education and moral character. As a rulet it is their duty to examine and license teachers, but in a few of the States provision is made for a board of examiners. County superintendents are required to visit and inspect the schools at regular intervals, and give such advice and instruction to teachers as may be deemed necessarty and proper. They are required to organize and conduct institutes for the instruction of teachers if deemed necessary, and encourage teachers' associations. They introduce to the notice of teachers and the people the best modes of instruction, the most approvted pleans of building and ventilating school-houses, etc., stimu-,ate school officers to the prompt and proper discharge of their duties. They receive reports from the various school officers, and transmit an abstract of these reports to the State Superintendedst, adding a report of the condition of the schools under their charge. In nearly all the States they are forbidden having any interest in the sale of any school fuirniture, apparatus or books used in the schools. In many States they have authority to annul a teacher's certificate for proper cause, and in general to take such steps and enforce such methods as will elevate and make more efficient the schools under their control. COUNTY. PROSECUTINQs O1 STATE'S ATTORNEY. There is a great difference between the various States in the-method of handling or attending to the legal business relating to county matters or growing from county affairs. In many of the States the official who attends to this line of work is known as the " county attorney,", in other States he is called the State's attorney or prosecuting or district attorney. In a few of the States they divide the State into districts embracing a number of counties, and a district attorney is elected in each district, who in some cases attends to all the legal work of the various counties, and in others he assists the county attorneys in their most important duties and prosecutions. Bet whatever plan may be followed in the various States, and-whatever title may be given to this office, the general duties of the office are very much the saee throughout all of the States. It is the duty of the county attorney to commence and prosecute all actions, suits, indictments, and prosecutions, civil and criminal, in any court of record in his county in which the " people of the State or county " may be concerned; to prosecute all forfeited bonds and recognizances, and all actions for the recovery of debts, revenues, moneys, fines, etc., accruing to his county; to commence and prosecute all actions and proceedings brought by any county officer in his official capacity; to defend all actions and proceedings brought against his county, or against any antssty officer in his official capacity; to give legal opinions and advice.1 - OF THE; SYiSTE3iVM1 OF CIVIL GOVENIV1IENT. to the county board or other county officers in relation to their official duties; to attend, if possible, all preliminary examinations of criminals. When requested, he is required to attend sessions of the grand jury examine witnesses in their presence, give legal advice and see that proper subpoenas and processes are issued; draw up indictments and prosecute the same. The county attorney is required, when requested y the- Attorney-General, to appear for the State in cases in his county in which the State is interested. The county attorney makes an annual report to his superior State officer of all the criminal cases prosecuted by him. PROBATE OR COUNTY JIUJDIE. The method of handling probate matters is not uniform throughout the various States. In many States the higher courts are given Jurisdiction over Dprobate matters, and in others they have created districts in which are held probate courts, whose jurisdiction extends over several counties and takes ile other matters besides purely probate affairs. In a majoeity of the States, however, particularly the Western and Northern States, the) elect a county or a probate judge, who holds court and handles the probate tmatters which arise within his cunty. The jurisdiction of these county or probate courts is not always confined otxclusively to probate affairs, beicng icfrequently extended to many other matters, tand they gen cectrally incluede esuch matters as apprenticeship affairs, adoptionse, minors, etc. In some of the States they thave both a county judge and a pchrobate judge, and in these cases the jurisdiction of the latter is cenfined to such t matters as are itn line withc proebate saffaires. In Missouri they have a probate judge, and also a county court, cornosed of cunty judgtes, in whom the corporate powerse of the county are vested — as the official county board. In Michitgan they khave a hprobate jeudge ad a probate register. The probate judge is generally given original jurisdiction n alle tatters of probate, settlement of estates of deceased persons,e appointement of guardians and carservators and settlement of their accounts. They take proeef of wills, direct the administration ofi estates, grant eand revoke letters testamentary and of administration, appoint and removetc e guardianes, etc. COUNTY SURVEYOR. This is ean office wshich is ommon to nearly all of the States. It is the duty of the cunty surveeyor to execute any survey which may be ordered by any court, orupon application of any individual or corporation, and preserve a record of the surveys acde by him. Nearly eall of the Stoates provide that cesrtain records shall be kept by the countey surepo, tnd prtide pealtyis for his failure to placee on record the surveys maede-byphi. Whie e is the official eounty surveyor, yet the surveys made by im notc clusive, h lin but may be revieswed by any compestet teibseel, atd Ihe ceesctness thereof may be disputed. COUNTY CORONEIR. This is anoether counety office which exists itn nearly all of-the States. In the average county there is note much work for the coroner, but ins the counties in which learge cities are located the office is a veory importanetone. Iengeneraltermsitmaybe statedthatthecoronerisrequired to hold inquests over the bodies of persons supp s ed to have mestwith violent or unnatural deaths. In most Stateskhkhsperttosimpstttla jury to enquire into the cause of death; but in seome of ithem this is not the case, eand he isgiven powerto act alone. He cansubpoena cwitnesses; administer oaths; in certain cases perovtide for a edecent burial, and can bind over to the proper court any pertson implicated int the killing of the deceased. O'THEP.: COUJNTY O1FFICESE. The county offices that have already been mentioned are the principal ones found in all of the States. There tare, however, ta few other county officials besides those mentioned which exist in many of the States, and which should bhe brieflyi mentioned in this connectieon. These are such offices as county physician, county assessor, county collectr, county poor comsmissioner or superintendent of cthe county poor-houste, master in cheancere or court commissioner, count extaminers, boared of equalization, boarted of reviews etc. The onames iof these oiffices imply the duties. These offices do not exist ic all of the States, but in nearlye every Statei the law provides for one or meore ofc these county officiaels. COUNTY BO36IRD. The powers of every county as a body politic eand corporate aree vested in a county board. This official county board is geeally termed the counety "botard of supervisors," or "board of commissiotners," but there are some exceptions to this, like Misesouri, where the county board is known as the "county court." There is considerable difference in the make-up of the county board in the various Staetes. In some it is made up of one menber from eachts township in the county. In others the counties are divided into districts, and ne member of the countsy board is chosen from each district. No general description of this could be given that would be accurate, as some of the States follow both of these plans. For instance, in Illinois some of the counties are governed by a bboard of supervisors, which is made up of one member from each township, while ohel counties in the same State are governed by a board of county commissioners, consisting of three or more members, each representing districts into which the counties in question are divided. The general powers of the county board throughout of all the States is about the same, except in minor details. It represents the legislative and corporate powers of the county. One of their number is always chosen as chairman or president, and acts as thepresiding officer. The couty board has general charge over the affairs of the county. It is their duty to provide county offices, provide desks, stationery, books, fuel, etc.; examine, investigate and adjust claims against the county, and have general care and custody of all the real and personal estate owned by the cousnty. At regular intervals they settle with the county treasurer; examine accounts and vouchers. They locate-county roads; determine the amount of county tax, and regularly publish a statement of their proceedings; make statements of receipts, expenditures, etc.; and make all contracts, and do all other acts in relation to the property and concerns of the county necessary to exercise its corporate powers that are not specifically delegated to other county officials. TOWNSHIP GOVERNMENT. T HE method of township government throughout the different States varies so much that it is impossible inthisarticletotreat of it more than in a general way. In many of the States the townships are not organized as bodies corporate, and in other States in some counties they may have township organization, while in other counties in the sameState itdoes not exist. Incases where there is no township organization the law provides that certain county officials shall attend to the local work, or that work which in other localities is assumed by the township officials. But even where they have township organization the plan of township government in the different States where it exists differs so widely that scarcely any two States may be said to be alike. About the only statements concerning the organized toenships that coeld be made which would apply to all the States are the following: Evety organized township in Its corporate capacity has power to sue and be sued; to acquire by purchase, gift or devise, and held propersy, both real end personal, for tHe use of its inhabitants, and againtcselland conveythesame; and to make all such contracts as may be necessary its the exercise of its powers as ae ownshipl. tn a greae many ci the States the township government is carried sn oiler a plen very similar to the county and, State governments, hIv ing various executive officers and a township board in which the corporate and legislative powers, of the. township are vested. In other States they follow a plee which reserves 1st the people all corporate and legislative powers, and therefore have no need for a township board, but have various other township officers to carrvy out the wishes and orders of the voters. Where thisplan prevails they hold what is generally termed "town meetings," at which every legal voter of the township has a voite. At these meetings reports are had from the various township officials, and the necessary measures are adopted and directions given for carrying on the township business. Still other States combine good features from both of the plans above mentioned, and besides the other usual township officials they maintain a township board, which is given certain restricted powers, such as those of a review or an auditing board, but they are not vested with the complete corporate and legislative powers of the township, this being reserved in a large measure to the voters, and all questions calling for the exercise of such authority are acted upon at the town meetings. In many of the States the township board just described is made up of three or more of the other township officers, who are ex-officio members of the township board, and they meet at certain times, perform the work required of them, and report to the town meetings. The principal officials in township organizations in nearly all the States are the following: " Supervisors, or trusteesl,". clerk," " treasurer," " assessor," "collector," "justices of the peace," " constables," " overseers, supervisors or commissioners of the highways," and " poundmaste-s," although as has been stated, many of the States do not have all of %ese officials. SCHOOL DISTRICT GOVERNMENT. T HE "common school system," or,to speak with greater accuracy the method of governing school districts, in the various Statee, differs widely, yet all follow in a general way one of two separate and clearly defined methods,being amended in minor respects to meet local conditions and ideas. All of these methods have their excellent points, and yet it has been claimed by eminent educators that no one of them is free from fault and objection, nor has reached perfection. It will be the aim in this article to briefly explain the principal features of the several methods,but it is not possible to go into detail in the matter of giving the system oe school government that is followed in each of the many States of thie Union. The constitution and statutes of all the States agree, however, upon several points. They aim to provide for a thorough and efficient system of free schools, whereby all the children of the States may receive a thorough common school education; they provide that all lands, moneyt and other property donated, granted or received for school, collegeecs-snary or ueiversity purposes, and the proceeds thereof, shall be faithfully applied to the objects stated; with two or three exceptions they provide that no appropriation shall be made or public funds applied in aid of aty church or sectarian purpose, or to support or sustain any school, acatemy, seminary, college or university controlled or run in the interest oa> any church or for a sectarian purpose; and they prohibit the various school officials from holding any interest in the sale, proceeds or profits of any book, apparatus or furniture used in the schools in which they, as officers, are interested. c In many of the States they follow what may be termed the "iindependent school district" method, inasmuch as each district, so far as its corporate powers are corncerned, is entirely separate and independent of other districts. Where this plan is followed the boundaries of each district are clearly defined, and each district is complete within itself. They elect a full set of district officials, and exercise their corporate powers and manage their district affairs within themselves. In this plan the corporate powers of the district are usually vested in a district board, which has general charge of the interests of the district, hires teachers, and makes such contracts and carries into effect such methods as is deemed necessary to raise the grade or aid in the efficiency of the schools. The measure of the authority given to these district boards is not the same in all the States, and in many States it is restricted, and a part of the corporate power is reserved to the people themselves, the officials being required, in all important matters, to carry out the wishes and orders of thepeople of the district as expressed and decided upon at the "district school meetings." I Another method which is followed in many of the States may be termed the "township system." In such States the law provides for the organization of each township for school purposes, or as one large "district," and each township, no far as its educational interests are concerned, is organized, has the necessary officials and becomes a body politic and corporate. As a general rule, where this method prevails, the townships are divided into three or more sub-districts. All of these sub-districts are atpart of the whole, and the finances and general business is generally managed by a township board made up of representatives from each sub-district. This board is generally clothed with the corporate powers, hires teachers, provides fuel and supplies and makes all the contracts necessary to carry on the various schools in the township. As with independent districts, the powers of this board are not alike in all States where the township system prevails, for in some States their power is very much restricted, and is limited to certain official matters, the corporate powers and right to make important contracts being reserved to the people, who decide on these questions at what are termed the school meetings. In a few of the States where they follow the township system they have no official board. This is the case in Indiana, where they elect a township trustee, whose duty it is to look after all the educational interests of the township, subject to the approval of the people at the regular meetings. In most of the States where the township system prevails the law provides for the organization, under certain conditions, of sub-districts into independent districts, which gives them the power to elect their own officers and act independently of the other schools in the township. w In nearly all of the States one of the two general methodsegiven above is followed, with certain changes to make the plan more efficient and satisfactory, and to better meet the desires and needs of the people of the different States. Many of the States combine good features from both these systems, as some of the States have the township system, wherein each sub-district has its own board, and so far as controlling its own affairs is concerned, is independent of all other districts. eBut local conditions have in many instances made special and local provisions necessary that are different in each State, and while there may be: a vast difference in the methods followed, their aim is the same, and, as a whole, the various systems have accomplished the result of giving throughout the length and breadth of the Union the grandest and most efficient system of free schools that the world has ever known. CITIES AND VILLAGES. I N all of the States the laws pro'vide for the local government of cities and villages, so that Zen they attain a certain population they may be seperated from, and thus manage their affairs independent of, the township in which they are located, both as to school matters and civil authority. In school affairs provision is made for handling the more complex educational interests of villages and cities-the school boards being made larger, and in many cases the scope of their authority is very much extended. In civil matters provision is made in all of the States for the organization of villages and cities as corporate bodies, seperate and distinct from the townships, and providing for the necessary officers to carry on the affairsof the musnicipality. ENTEED ACCORDING TO ACT OF CONGRESS IN THE YEAR A. D. 1905, BY GEO. A. OGLE. IN THE OFFICE OF THE LIBRARIAN OF CONGRESS AT WASHINGTON, D. C.

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Utp..otoeptptof thit,tho poopotofflitrOrtolt tofotht org oo-..Ep-otoooooeottoas the otto ooy bo. Whot tho bhootoototoot poyotoot On the it.o-. Ott -ototo-c to totifltotan totOt 000..toi ootpod to hi.oyotedotpboth.h. Pass btooktof-t.thgtbtttfttf tte btt kthettsatme thoog.ot Of thtooit 000d0dottooootoooooy toptottibitttt bo~ytot tJ~ otfttg" otoit.t po t. Att booboomake toM~ttootoo eotheot 00 ortt of tOf!t~y whpr Othoae ooatoeodfoo theio.toootttoftttvefytottttt Thoto itO ho oold otwtyo to tpft at the book beotot Otoy boto.-o dte,.tas tootto.:thot bonkti0000101 o.otobodotoo.toottto theopo too.t ftteo..poot inrdooiroo to otobo o "oight" o0 "Ototo dooft" 0po00 debtor, 0000 SPPll tion theobank wilt fornosh himwitbh blaob drofts0. 3TATEMENTS AND BALANCES. Fj'EW -toottfotfototgostotooooto.ot.bttooo ttll.ttbetitpp-ptpot atetinthiotopttto tootsa oothotttfttt. tocttttthmontOh, h.,'o Ott "Ottos Bot "h tol totty tho booboo. Th!. ottot op to od batance to ototk by dotoottog tte totot.otoot o thto too to-el. hec. wichtho tOn to. otttto toi " —tpO~dt"(ttOittet) to iog tho -tth. The tO.ctttttfbhttt ar to toldt. Othe'oto-o If aoy rootoo tottotooo t sottlt botttoporttt imeittely to tb, boo Othatitoooytbe i.,esttgttd ttttetfttteo. NDTIABLE PAPER PROOBABLY the grfotest footor to. thebotootooooo-oo of totoy Io'"Neg~tOi ott blPopeo,"ithtoo.twhiohti.-.ttoptt.boblthttb..toot..d.totttp-..ot Couldthoooossumedothe toot proporttooo thot ito too rooheott Atof toot cheobo, toofto an tbittt Of -h.togo. Th ttlt of pootoopo~ to too of the Ottoot fotot of nogottatto popot, otd t. 0b00 to too too o o tb of ceotoptos.Th.otbotofto toO tOec o-oottoooooato toct ltot dtyo dtthe motoottoportat ottributttof p-i.ry.tobllttcth.gad te oorbrocttotfiot0, tho potoot of trootftottop Ott oppe foto toot tOopto anoother.6 thot, theasgn.o llasm oto ototgtof -pl.titfopf. bototbyotot.0o~O tr btotootrt mtoority, to tho Popotootooto oftotoo fori otdotttoo. porhtttfIo-gotdtfttth, an wtO..t notieoottoop arfopeotottoop, th htoldbt. otttlttolyoootitloobo to -otpttoo A writttto.toot r.i. a oooo,o tpotfetly -ltdtts oootpot; btItt totiot.tbo oogottobto ottoto cetotttttqttotoo tto o. The fotto togooqo1.tot 000 tottopo totto; Ito ott bewtttoo -oot beootgot; pooptotio; tothtoo time ofoopoetooo.ttbtotttooott or..,htatyill btote immodottotyt; tot Iootty, tho totor 00 protooto bo ototopoototby word.t of otgottottttty-thot to pyableto 0 0 cfrtatn popot'o oftor 00 to PROMISSORY NO TES. fjCORDItNG to tho geotoot "toot -ttho,"ottotto by 0000001, a Otteo "" tot ti. totdero I0tto.tO ott ho-o ott Ott toqo~tott thot hoot boot ofottotot too oogottotto popto, othtoowiot, if tt fotto to oty of theoeomttttotit botooto..tott iottthtotItt-ottootol-ot otogoto.btttty. Cootrototootytoc pootottty votidttth-Atttttlof tthet-oqtottt, but thepy to nott potootothe poo-oiaroooootttowhichtottloog to Otto. o!.tfttotoy to ott pototooto y no0e0 Ototo Ortett wototo "tottopore totoot " boO tt toi to.t b.tototly tooetotto, 00 0 atndtoit t v010e to tooptitdtt oo-oy.tto dooft,othtot, Ortotdooto-ot. It..Iotttoooom.l-otftbottto~gtoot.. otttt ooo.tty thtotootptootto oobe ra0000000 ott too aro anotpttoo to thtt Botottot Ott totgtot p000i00 a waott of to atoo btt ottptottot -.fttoottoo -toIttoperttooto de Oootooo-o-ory. itototIt ha~thte 0000~fe,;ttotsbottwe.ttooootttp ptot 01. o pottoo, tot Otto to~l pplitto to todtottot pofttoo. otto thoto hot hooto of to tnoottot poottoofr, to tho oftottoot-ot of bootooto, btotot o.ttoototo dftotorvl. Tohooboootettofootooooy oftootottotootoof1 third poottot tf itO too to showo.t tht tor -o pittht- o -oot of otoottotOtto, thatittwas btttttdtty dooooo, OotfoodOr otooootor oot-oooyo 00, Otht Otho -tottto o ttt~got. ft tot to t pt tof Othot tototfooot gi.thttohotdo thtttbtolttttrgbttttotottto.1oftot.tttoot 'oootot ooot bo fottttttd. Of te po-tototot Oto nooooote c.dy attoitt teoot. dttoittithe. O.bjottooaoytdefenseot tot off whtth tho moker mOy hootofio.t t00 torigoinal ooto O ttppatyeeot t poybto tO the, ttoo of o.ttottyt itfot pttd o.titoo-tttomeditoOlytb gttooto thoootdoo —, otteootot, to o otoityot of ttt Stotot, 1-dre nqtottottit, ttttll to tototoot. ftte ohe otto tastott t tt wottt teo tdate. tpritotftoto totooto of tho Oti ot tt ootg. Whtot o notto fott tOe tottott~y, or.ttegtt httttoy, ito tooto poyttle Ott tat pootioto. If 0 00 to trtttttt tO togtt to Ott toty tot oto it 00000 tO Ott, corner thtwotttooooootooot-ottt Itttooto.yothooogotiotiiiotyoo..tottow~tot tinthttbotyottit toy otoitotr0oofoott A.iootloooiooto to ottotlwtyoooty. Ittooytboothtooooy got.otoodt...togtto thcprooo Hoot. dctt, or t fctottottog tottoot, 00 0 totbt too-E Otto.thrdpr. might bo tottootlo S otoittottt. roat t ctttstottttoti., ifttoottot oPto o p-ootfotototot ototitootttto; to, wtoot too potoitt to poy o totbt tM-tlty oppose ottpttttt pottoy. Oft. aottoto poyotlo ato tot.'it tttoooty tootootoy 0toot., Ott nte~ 00Ot tootan tO Ott stipoltetd tiot Ot co.titttet otootocietoottotod; tot it thooetr tot ofotto theopto -ott it, tOit to totttttoo,oro otttogret -tot tttooootttott t o,~ctDy offstfeo popotot. Thit to.t t ttoot th tth. Otot-, to tho Ott oty of late ypootth.. booooo.ttooaddig -oy -ith thitototoo,.ttoa-toto-of Ototooto... aloety ptttodtto aolistthing th.ttDyo ofGrace.'t Whopo Ott otto to to-offoot, htotoep, ant itt itot opotitttotty -otoot to the Iootru' 0000 thp 00000 i tootitlot to tho ttoto doyt 00 folty to thtogh it -001 00 ottp lotot, tot Ott Ottto totoot etotoop -oitootto.toO Otte OtpirtiootOof Otothredy ofterthottdtotot foo poy-eot. BILLS OF EXCHANGE, O t- fot-y. Thcy t-oftwtto kio, tho I. tooto'toF-Ig.tbill, tho.m.of whoO toply Ott ttfffre-to btotooo t the.T.thrt 0 poottet to Otho tttt tre oltod Otte Drower, Doo fO tot. Poyo. Th. tilt to 000 totdt teDa -. fh oottogooostoobey the tottr t. " et to" toe bill by tttg Otte wotrdo- ptedt'acossoit.ofoc 0n ioogotti.oooo too. Oo- it-o tthotbeootopothp -Aooopto.". Thot i.tO totottototott -tte 00g tototo odthO poopo ca totr. otto it to otheot boo tttotooot, wOtot oethod oft~ ttoase a too C.otdeintetly. Thebollottoig b t comm..forootfoott I~'otfoootootgo; $600 CoIttOt, IL-., toot t, Ott4. Stydyooaftoroigtg tpoyttoJohn. I;., oroodeo,Ot Si ttotd- Dtoll ro, ott hag ott o00000 attotO.. me sotlightttffin!o-ooti thottotitblty o tho 0000000 Ot tO. A hc tfqotoftooo-ooocptoooe,oasotot. 1.tottotttpoy thfotooto ofittotoptot Otto _tott -till topototto thoto, f.tto,.dttte, tooto t of otoot tooog f-dto O0 teoytt o t oit t. oo toatogo too ottot to Ito h o. tho othit,. totto.. htt cht.:,mt..c~f, to tho gotoot of to toplit btligottot tt 000 tttttt oootrtttg toOttoi t tooto-00 tott-otf Ctooto too-.I tooto poytblo immodittely, tot thoy oty to -tdt poyotlo ott.ftotoo toy, n intt Othioto thetp ottooilto too t bll of Y A.otototdoohook oqototoooooooptooof, stf-.ttpo0y-00o, itotiltytt Otho totot toototott ito toatto to btligotiot OgO1-tt 0 toot to Ot..o of Otottitot- totil -optyo-ot Whot otoptot by tho boob Ott toot 'Aoet~tt" ioooooo t.-~.itsfttowiththtttgt.tii-tofttttttttitt ItO to otoooottstaitdoto b~dtJd tot Oth-totito Otteb tottitibti to Ott httdeo." tht totot It thtogot ogo,.tootht Th' totot ot 0!h-ht to tot. ototty it Othotoot thototo-P tthiof. bll t-ot.g., tot tottht poitoipti dcttttooikithtooototto.ttt to t~..p..o.y dcloy it Ott, potoot-ott, to-t it to a ottoItot ap 0o'opoitI.. ottttitott t ol"of..tootho-oy, ithtthtodtoof thtotootl t Othottit -y li. t otttttoittoopbtotot oTto toloy. hootto, toatth hoitoot-olot, t-t it Ott, toot ohoit faii afto, to o,,,Id toot gtt Ott ototy to toot it hit., 00, tottot to~ 000000 Ott otoot, ttotobo.k 0000.tO ott Ott Oooeyofy ttho dr oo,O the.hoomoyltttoto ttttood-tototop~y-t. It toe tott.. 00 t t hoo o t Oo it t. ta thtto h.t to.t tho ot ght to 00000 Oh tO it, wtlO to potototo ttooopoyoot -itthot. tootoobl tiot. to tooterih 101 f.~t thotoito itooo (~thcr tb ptototy oth000t tot ttd tiy or -,dtoo Ott 00o100 Ifotoosh t i00 Ifogo itotiti t 000ldobtoooOtto t~tim itod. ott ottoogo tho 0000 Ot thO tt~otitt- ottoto. o forgedt. tot it to..titltotdtto ootht oo-ytfoooih p-7ty who00p-00-t~it. Iftit poyt ohekbof which thootooh.. booofoiooiy..d itoottoo, it oa. ohoogothtotoooio.iy withtttotoijgiooio.ooot, poooid thttttoo-t ti-tfifhtttnot tuttdttrfttlltttttatfIhypforgr yt-ototlttoy titiog it tor lootiogiti s-ot.ottoot ats otto ook tefogy oo tietotiottotsy. 1 of Otho Stotot tho Otto 0 Cotot to. doodtot to otoot otto. ottet 00 'ottoot" thot thtt 00- -.ttbtoothpttot. otthtythtdtttidtt tt'ttt...... maropotoohitot pak itoottt.t iopto... ogotottl goht...o t tor —tstott asobt ftottooa6ddt~to,.dtho t-dpooyoftithoototo tto Ito oo thot 00 of 00e0e too onl ottpreootio.ontheopoot ofoO-cottoooo. ot ea'.tttoeiptt.kt toto ttotott.d oss. Stot,tho-e-o, dottt Ott p000 tf toottoot0to ood~..i ois 00.l ot appooooo tot Otto- ig.tho toot —ly the pittos it tit tioto-t ittoptiobit -tlo to mtto Otto pyoyblo "to -d-o' sohosbto mtto thottto oyo-ettoftheoooyoi,"tooi. -ootortttyoooioY suchoceka t hebotbotok Ott e to to p00000.. fj DRAFoT to ofofmoof 00.. 't obilltet tottoge."1 oTto Otooftooto of bills of oo-hoog....ttty oolltt11 doftoo ' -ththboottdoft (.-toot-og.) otd tho-tightt Ot- too.drft." OTte bob tgfttio, totiiioi~t.tstt 000'p.p0000, tho toot 00 o oheot, tot tht Otoot to totoy pplitot to 1 hl to - bytt tot b0n u000 f ottotwhich itotay hoto it toot thettittok, topoot it. "otootopoodtoot" A tooft to toot -yooo. otlttop yttl Ottt 0 tbe...ttoitgiott tot i.ooiobiotoioeto ooke Otto- poythit2 to Ott 0 00 totto. Toeytfe oogtiobio tot oto to tosttoofo ittotl oittotoby eotooooooo t of dtoftttttost,toit-, byoappyiytg to thotbot thot totoo it, thf pypotot 000 bf stopped, tot Oftef tho ctpi-ottoo of Othoty toot o topiiootooit to btoototd Tho "Sight Dooft" to.7 Tito fDotft," it ohiot tt it rooto to poy ftOOO to-.tyby lootitto., adot -- otbEtotobttoptopotp Of beog an dcrtot poy toohotckOrt ttitd paoty,ooC.d-ttttofoo...ipt to thtotbtt O t.itti plt to it. tOtdiog, tho foiio 0 g bfiog o genffal tforOtttt 0HooAGO, toot t, toot. Ato 00gh 1000.oy toyo ftno tott ottoa h,-.-a e Oopay to tho ENDORSEMENTS. 0t g.t, oty poyoe -o hOttttfC thotobac ofo.yo ohtc,,doft, totoooetot't toto-pty ooothboplooig of theooom ttf tthtttttI,,0.t~o.h. qo ooitoi hopooioot itlOt toittyotopoth, 00btopitt tot ato.t'i tic.for qo.ifitooot.ttttottttttothtopoit-oooottiot itoi-tto otytheo 'toto SIto- Of btototo" 00 totootoott to tottoty 000000 tho tito-ItO tootot Ott i.too-ttot, tho Io- to -o.toiotodtoioiotly ogaiooi hi-t, tot,asi oootooo —rytfoohimoto eotooooto poootitio,othot1oopooooop nthtt abtoooooofo.pooitooo oo.itftoot thotttohi.o-ootooootowasomadtoft theo go tf11 f idibootitg thttthto -IdtopoyittIf tto poytototilo ottdto. 00e00 OO't1 tpt0000 000 oaoot to tho i.toototo t 000000 too Otte tO' tdooo,,-,toftt 1f ithtttttoo sth 00000 l000000 ottiotootoototoootit. ft thiopoo h-'tt,cthotr liobilityoa. ootoooooo 00 j000,.ti ottot. Bto thetotwotot OPOOP ttltooo totooto too ofito Ott Ottof to ottiogo toototop toooto tho othoto Ottit libiohity to tootoolot 00000. Etoty ctook,tdtott,Obilt of oootooge, ott tor othtpoogotjpI.~ iootrt. 0000 which to otto! poyotio to o cnt~ttit "00000 or ortoo" o~t toto Otto O.dtrt.fct O thfO part iaedyttotttpa thO titlttifd,tttt ototootofheo ttoy rt madtipaytbltttt'toootpt' t io gooooollyooottooyttotttfth'Ory to -ho-t 00 trofer it mtto to OeqOOir 000 fOr000 froo 0ho 0e tecrfO i t. plato tis ttdoooo etothee Thtrefrt tfttOl kitdttofttpdo-t-t -htohhooittb metiOttedft OthiootoottThefirt ttthOet ortOOOt,"t"t-ttp t blank," it mtobtog -Oith tho 00000 Imoply plooo hi. tigoatto- tO the boob of thoooooot-ith.ttotooti..t oroqoolittooti.of tooobot. TOit poooootheotitleoto the iott-ott,aod, fr.- thto timeO., it beoo py Otto to botafto, tot tho Otitl p otto. Ott toittoop, -ottt foot-b.q totter t-fi t to 00i00tO ito byttog it payohi o 00 som other poolorf PI- -cothop qootiftoottor O -totitito to Otte enorto mot. 00000 oppotiotto O-trtotopt bototopg o btook totootootot,"1 h.o 0000 0000 put i~t.oioto..otyottofeqoot toitto of it too Othtogtt imtDsrc it b -rti~ thc..dti.. or toow..dtotoomet, o,tbyt'-iti~gogter tte ettdtrtomtt of Otte otigitot p0y00, word.t makinogit poyoblo to himootf Or 0000e other pot ty, "opI totop," TOit potot toot tooo tooitot by Otho Otpremotott.ototteotoalttf Ohe Stotes, Thopotooofootomoy be, ootr ted otr qootifiedti to number of -yI. tOne otiothto.olltdto"ftll etor.-.oot," oop. otIn Otho bootoess -rit Ott oto-iply Otto oot of tho 00000 oooot making I poyoblet000000 oteetoti. p0yee or otter. Tototht., thee dtt..too tto..tooeob.obokf teit-eto thtt dipoctiooo, to: O1 opyto tot. Oto, oo g-dep,t1 an plogeo tis igoate beotw itO. Thto toot nott tiot hi. iabiitty 0000. entoroer, bto thetfi0000t0 theistoet -.toO000 Othto.tioot pass Othotogh John 00ms, ott it -.toba hooistndoto tootoobfottooit wilbeopaidtor' I Entepot acottoottg to Act of Cotgreoo, io tto yeo.1905, ty -Got. A. Oooo & 00.,1 inltf offto of Otto Libraoptoot o Congotot, 00 Washio P

Page  VIII SUPPLEMENT VIML i I i I GENERAL INFORMATION ON BANKING AND BUSINESS METHODS. Another oy nfr fee limetiting the tedoremtettt is to enabte the payee (wenht it teemde payabie toehis trere) ito ttaitferhit titlt to the ntrutmeitetwithotttbetemitng reposibletforiitspepytent. ted -aittghthpie ptety to whoIt J.ttranseferredtaeeuetetetrespoeeibiliipty.ernitg peymenti. To do thit thteendorserewrites the wotde "Withoutt Rettitteet"ve histtignattre, whithihes the effect if retiteteihieg hit title weithoutiteakh tng hiteiabebi to the heidee it tete the pepte feti.tte thke it tip. Attotheetmetthod of littitieg the tederetmettt i tteitite it tetiditiottit,a good Ititttttite tf tihith it the itt.ittitg. "Pep it Jthn Site tr order ttponhistdtlittetig t the tirttXt~eiteeittetiittet-ttetdeed t lttt, blck 4 etce.," beltow whith the etidettetpiaepe htt tigeetiti. 1Re maeItietptyable it "A. D. teiy,' eI h i equivieintt wtrd., it ithith tete "A. te fatitheendorertthtt the poeetti tu mtu hit etilit-etett et he se fit, adetethterto ei.etttereie-ie.hi.eiiehiiity, teth -etithep "t~itipieptioi tieeof deteeedt" methtgehi. endtre.eteite"getteteleadepeieittgtteety tt paymtetnte1toal ftitrethtldere, etc.thet h.tetiept, hy hit pedetetmettt tithe tneeaseetr letsettn the lithilitiy et tep pthep endttter tie the Antendeeeer, asettrue, it entitled it tetei~titt ettit- it tee tht pepte falstittpayIti. Thit ietheett.e teeetieiry.1 ftehe TTeitedtitteee, etit h.. beet a trtle f the I"tee' merehaet" itt peep petite. A ftew etdfittitet, hoevetryof the genettt it,pt eetehaet" httehbeeetetdhbyptateteiei teverttiof the Statet, retateige toiegetiabhiepepet, it theepieg the eedtteet'e teabtitty by renderteg hit ttettatt ehe.tiete itietd tf tieditit...i, emehieg noticetttnectetspyt.eite he -teffete deteege thteegh weeeeef it,etreeqetr' tttttjtdgttttthittteitt~bf..t-,~7dhtf.tthtee.,hthtid. Iethte~bteet, hoever't,eofestetutttyprpeeititteifthiehkied,e.d thtey.iy etiet ietafew ef thttttatet, thet tt hei d eedeteete they eteet heeve petmtip eoticeeefttt-pepeitt,eed Ittmyee h..idttheebe ageratrlteieethe'"la-t mertchtnt"thedet tietptietti negottiahie tepee as eedtteete wehptttttittled ito nttite ete ditphttged by -.ett pftpttt.e. The demitee,.tietit ted preteete.ttbethead. -ttpditg ttthetteetof the ptttehter.ptyahle. The tetem Pottiesit tpplit~dt. thtefpte.IpA -thbye an thptitd petite (tteeaiy a Ntattey Pehliie), wihetehy he te Pttteel et pteettihd maner eIetetitiegptheit ~eetei. bill, deeft, h-k or other egptithlepeper bes b~eet petenttedit etta(:epta.ete et papymeet, as the Pete teyphe, ted beeteemfeted. Thit, andtheep.titt f tht "Pettett," whithtth tt.tbeset tt all endoeteet ted paetiee te the ppete it te netify theet oftizally ef Itt GUARAN Tr. fj AAN 1 id oneewhei hetbeud it aetther foe the felittientt efa q pr-teit,eet f aneeegepeteet,etedehbyeihied pepty. Thltittkndfteetrttetsteeepppemtpn. Atetrding ttthtte -t~tttteee f-dt11ittmeetthete-ewrittee, ted tetet. it itettt.led intttuteet theeeepei~thbeett-eidepetipett teppert it, A. eeteieuit eeotptgtilebh,eeeastt hettftttedhbythe teeei fette. if it hadhtbe..tgtte.tohi- ehtht gee-tetp, betthie depeedeeup.e thetwtrdieg,ets,if itt-tteieeall thet~har-tetittiitof a ette, pepehie to tedet or heaere, it -teiliehehldeegttiehle. A3.ttete-ttefpeeeeeipty eecottttd tticttiy, ted, it theliahility ti the prietipal he teetetiellyevariedhby the eptelf the patyttpatateetd,ewtih.te thetonenteettithe geeeettr, the gteeettt itditpht-pd. Tht gttp.tetpeietit.dlthtgepdif tht iithility eh biigatioe it rettetd, op tetedied hp itt' or tthtttii, etleit h. it ytear, -hith wastetettwed ft tee petite tepee withitt eheepe eftiiee thtputtttehtd that the rtipitl-tettItitttlIdtttbE heidtafter the ittetteee. The gttttppttht a eltett.-deptetheegh thte deht,easit thettte ithtpe-megeee-ttpfttethe debtofetele A g-eettettethtpeye the deht pf the prleeipei it.titiled it deteetd fepte the t-edite- eli the teeperitlee he hplde,tortfthee.ttepthpe-d whip2h depl.etthi debt; tndie.-Stieteethe feditte lttlbaeihep..thpeegtee.ttpeeuiih. h.. teettd s-:,h et pesibiltPeie f i-hete tepetitiet ted edheitited legat rtmeteeti epeieet the pti-ttpti. If th dhtebt rbligattlttbeheitttittetetd andttttmpletedhbtftte thte g eaty epgivie., thtete mut bte a ew ttideepp. o the geetetip it -pid. Apeuratyeipi e.thbiedilet.esltttheegeteeteeh..tottcpepfit.eeeeepteete.,hbetthe law p ---teethi. wtietehe.te oftfetofpguaranty..d -ttetf the party tpwhoteit iegivee,,.eeheasdtliveeyptfpgppdtpee.teedieg eyedi a.,. ttep B Pt te pffpt, tt gitttete e tutuet operationpe e ot btied thepttfettetipthe h..te-heptip~Epio theeptepta~eetpeewilltfiotd hi- -.tebeeb epppetee ityt teehekhitetelfeelfe. Appeditte teepgive hi. dehtee tee ied.elppp Pt, ewpeedtp tithptt diteheepgiep the geereetpp,eel1-s it h.eld`hveeetheeffep-t pfeprejedlieplhe itereeetsof teiy,eteaeytimee,epy ebt aned.,eat once, haeetheeright teeprteed eptiettthtdehtte. Whe-tetehtE,.h.ehetteilueet.theee.etpetheeinetieeie.dithe geeeeett ie ieiktd it, he teetthae -eeetpebleet.tiee-ed eeitei-.deemeedeetelif it preveeetthe guarantorfe.tettffeeie Itiie,ietetepetee, diff~i-t tpte.y-ptdeuponit eettt the q~ettitet of legpleiiiehiity —hethepn the p-!.teie PP teet pepfo gitpide deiivered origeinlptreite,teas t pay fe oet'stt-egod., i.which case iit eed.t bte Ie eeetinglit, e peteiseete pep the debt er geeteety the ptttieitf himtettwhom the gPodt aeedeliveted,i 'e hipheete ittetet be it -eitieg. The queettion generaip repiitet itselif intoe thiet T. whpte did. the seiilergite ted wteethettptied ito pie teedit f Thie it e qietetitn et f-ttetdent tfiew. Ifihthhe bek f elletshowththht heppared them to the petty ito whee he delieteed thete, it it elteiti itepoihle forehite ito htld the ttherppety pri~ti,hbt if.the e thereheedititt h.-.that h. egeteded the getde itt heitg told it the peety whtte it is, detited it held, bet deli,. ered thittetteaether perty aed tit tt..ho-.eihi. b~ok,it I..t egaeeded tet.geeeee.ty,hbetea. rigitel etir teepeiotie,ee.d -Ied eehitthe peptypliahie. Inteneeeel,epeeeeeatpt ofeehillppeplttep t eetitled te stth trtiA edt e~atenetlte a.a.etderetttI. eetitledtp,hbetionly..."h otletitas ethtllae.ehimeifrtm acteelietet a he oteae tpthehetwanteof nettie hit defenet..let. h.t can thee thet it wee teteeiethi withheld end that hetufeeid thieiehy. Therei eteetmhred differeneeinethepeffepte f aegeer.teetf the I pepteet,"toreef the -tpillttipe' Ipfadebth. te thetfirs eaet, the tedttettit. pPa.lo to the geeeateetatteatyetite In thetlattper,the creditte meett ethaetet hit letgl rettedietst ettlettl~g it. ACCOMMODATION PAPER. p - -epettttette billet epte it ete fte -ehith tht tehe -ptoo mterehash t.epeipedt nopetnideratipe bet ha. lent ht.tnaeteaedeeedit totttete etdete the dpae-e, paepe orholdereH.Rtithboed ttelte the peetite jest a.etoepletelypsetiithere we'eeeegeed epetideettitie, ftp, if thitees ntepthe eeee,iet-.udbtefneveie.tethep.tety.etteteted~ttd. Heiteetillewed itt etuptwateofeeetideettieittst.dtfenetas atgaiest atyphilder tee vattee. Butihetisnothiteh.det-tht ptttytwho- he thetseaeemedatet, no maetter how the ieett~etee 'ttayhbtdtruwt /oEN TIFICA TION. eaet eete itteedetiet it el thet. it t.eeeteep, bet tnly beteete the b..kheeeeiie..pi.theheeepttdintegrityefhit pestt-eet, khopeieg that antteptepper eteeetepedeeothbe itreduetd,tforieecaeeeef thit hued the betk teeeeeti the tteh. Getettlly epthieg, hit-eter, it ita.ala Itettithit trilttwithhtahkets, aseittsheuld be,totequirettheir cutotmert ito tetdreteeetdratste orheheeks hieh ete hiteettd. toe tht etetegee. te thit &aethe etdoettebeeoeteepittteettyiabebtoiethehbankIf eeyyo altof the datect r ec theek pteee teetihiete. Aetedilltteteeetehilhttstfrquetley mtde by peetidtthettre atktd it Ideniuify others is ito iterei indicate thet they keeow the petty ito he tht payteenamed iethe cthi rthbet thitiigeeit.eofthte ptyptepeppetypiettr rett. Thit itdtne by writinge the wored.thigeetuee O.tK."he.dethe prtyi't etmeteadtigeiegit. Thiithee tbe effeet iigeeeetttieg thtt the pertyt. t.thtbttthtt~hteek ordrateeI. goid willbe pid, bttttt -rly as.pleetd. thattthetigtee. et.tre I. pted the pe1yltiabilitpeeteeted iethet hp-pill evete, 11iletei —pi pe-m~td.,eht thiltty.epd jetulpist,Pfoeit throwst upon theip the betite pit the ehith RECEIPTS AND RELEASES. $ NP1 ekeheedgdpeteet thete ttI iiieity bet beet palt itta retteipt, A etteipt -hich reed. "I. fellthitigh diitttd titb tr..gepevidteneeI. byp.e.e...eliegiplly eie. Ifthe perttytigeiegit eee show aneti o it-pill bt ediitied It hit efept,. R —ptittfetemoneep willbe held itpen te t~ttt~I., ted ith patyit hitidiep it tetit abide the...e.itit itfee.e- tpiptipiPRpet thegeti- ethelte-btepiegt dte ~ieiteeetritt jeetipe, A eeeipt -iypbtitfdiff~eeet degreeetitfe-piieiteei, astheteeet "Pelt' o t"teteited PttYtetti" writtient..bll. A retle.ete" I ietiplyp forte ireeceipt, bet it etite biediep epite ithe ptitit, letti-ph itt, it peep' eely deew.e,.ediee...,epdf eedtr iieit I..eeptepte dtefetseteep. actionpbastdttitheiditbtspprtiaiittit.. etetd. Rteeitptielttettitfftfrptt teteIpte. Aeeleete tip Ithe eatueeeptetwritten -etr..te.d thpeefoee eteeotibepiotitetledeore..t-~diett~d bye-deitt,-eietitithe geeped ef:feted, Pet ifitepwodseeetetbigeeet, - tety haeteithteiof teeo -.rtee teeeeings, etideepe it-e-1eble ito dteieeiiee tht teetelep. /NIFANTS AND MINORS. etueee,t.d theeftetf beiegeanieeeet,pete-itpp, iitteepefhem. The ge~eteet-eiepylawepiey be eteted es bei.getb tt the epeteep2t PP a etieaet meietett.titeiwaypt-tid, bttie -eidable,t..d intteeatyeeepeeieieieptietitet.deelgiting etuidity ti theit, -peiete ipt,eee Byie. tbeitgpeidthle, buttpt-epid iethpipieittit,pt-ea..thpt thteeifetith..theeighit t ditteppe ted tepel lbe -tpeteti eithet, befite pp -ithle -!-etepeble timet aftee h.tee htbit tetlititpy. R. etep dt thie hp-peed tti!yp but eeeet.ekehItpidgmeietthetpthe debt te.ste it nitt teetehee.d it mtit betsub' eheettialy t ee- peeteise. AGENCY mattter ftageettee.dtgety, -hithteeetbetlitets-. ettehpldeeddtpet..edtheeptghlt,. TheeeI~ietltefepeiiipitlitndtpe~ttImplietthet the prietipeleett byad theoeph theepgeet. Aeptiecietl Iteteept.Ihlteifrthte atteefithe gepet oplpeehei he bet eteely giveen fell eethpeitt, tt the egee.t,eoewen heeh.h.tbthietwords,terhi.tete,eorbothb, eeited orpeeteitted thetptersoneith-hbethehttgent dta.tittbeieve hi-etipthed eith thie ttthteity. Thi Isittpoiit htititi-thi iteitep 1-.. dereteed, bet etidpeepiel. Agepeeelagpeti.ppe tuthepleed teeepeetpethieptieeipet te eli hWt, ore it,.i bit b.iletit itf e peetitelat tied, ted hit poereeeitlieittd byithtpp-piieopet.d th —teietf tthe bp.Ie.eth._It te-p -— eed ti tteeeit. Ifih.titpitt. pet ae the genere ageent, tht pe!ieteet it biteed, teveti the gepet hit tetitt euthbitity, bet doete not gobeyited thb.teeeel.d....I eeipeiifihe bptleete. tecthiep, ore ew speptifed thiept,.r eeepeeiftedie I tiepewok. Ifthbie ipeeti egeetee-Eed. hi' tethiteity, it etey be eteted aspan iteeei eetrialehe rtet thettihepriitip.1iienottbeeed, beetti the petty deeliigteith theeageet the euthoittiy piete titithe gepet. iE~peelelpy it thie the tete wehere the pertit kpe e that the gepet hed btee. iteee easpep~ed it ettie~dig te pet' tleiteee.depeefitd liitetefeworkittieeted with theb.eI~e.eof the peiepipet. Tehepeet,ho-eeere.ieetb...tdby..yteee!iale.eeteeetio...eptiteit. ati.ite -edtteeetly by the pe!Itlpet tf ehIeb he bed et tetetee.blepe etey teteitei heeleg eptite. The eethtrityped. tiepetteephbe givetebytht prieelpelby -~itiepiteetelly, or mayphetitpitedtifiteeeetai. -te. Thee Iftapeetee pet hi.egoodt.pit the eeetedyitieeeothee whose bet~eete it i toeselieehpititde, he tethirtti..tihe -.hple woppld tt belitee thetithiepeteet hee thete fit, e.Itl ted tey perepe beyieg thete hiteettly, it thie belitf, tttldhitidtheem.,dtit nottdleteittthte athiteityte.ititita ithaeieeei-tiy ca., bet lute by ted petteits e piersont Pt g tt edtdtat with thet teppithed aepet, te I..e an ep' peeteeityef iedeenifyiepghb lthiete a tedoptitit ted tonitpte-tti. of tht eacts of the egtit. A prieeipeliiebeed by tht ateteefen getet tepee efter ithietreteet ofthistgetp, ifetehreeeeceti.. h..teot beetteaedi pebilit orPt.k. toetht pety deaeitg with theepget. At eptet tee getetellypbeheld peeteetty ipttbleifbh.teaeepeede.teieathprity; bet thie I noet thbtpte if the party with wheteh.edeeltthtetethatthte athplty wasteeneteeided. ORIGIN AND RIS TORY OF RANKING. INetee~el, -bethteepybe teidit be,:r epeitititetlee o edteitet.iiteeedit. JothntdyK...... c..Id htthat "the.-hItethtit~ fthemdterneewtrp tee beeteer,ef.teed by the indiretct gepepytf tht e-ediit yitit, ted beehe ted baherseeaeethe mtthineryhby -hih thit itdep.'. ittetIlit mteetytendit. t~pre-teeti-e, thtt~i-tieitiepentte,t aet1y thtetemtl eheepetof "Teede" emeplietd iethettttlemenetitf beitetttandtstellperehtttbesad paymeete. Thittftetiei ileesteted bytht operatlions of the Nee Ytek,ea-tig The ete-heepee.haet beet abett 800I000P teiIIeep ite dediete deeieg the ps thiety yetee tehiles thit baleeteeipeid it mtiteiy hvee beet ebitt di,0t t oript itebitefettepee peutte ifhe etei.telif the tettlte-ette. Itlh. eepey beet elieted thatlthe heleeti itt beekitg oelgieeted tith thbitVttetieitmeteeytht.epte whoditplayed theiet-aeeeeeedteeeepe te thtestreetsaeditheeeeppiied thit.eieeeeditfeheepe. Aittediegtethe teekeftVte~iee,thieh wasetftetded it 1172teed wee baetd ep..eeferetd tetept the pitenetett. teede depotitedit it-iped be teet.ereeedte etheet pe the biekt if the heek at the piteet ef the tepe, bet thepeiteid not te withdraw.e The tepetteatl tepltiet itt the tipitith dbti tee heedled tinetdt.tiil 179. tInd140, thttBttkptofettiel.eet -a.etered. Ate. peitid mtuthiteetlee thae thlt, the Jeehith t.eiey-deeleet htitentetd -thtt tree keewtete 'ftetege bill.eo ettithenge," bet it it teIdithat thie beth westhe fret iesttittlte. that e bueieetof egpptiatiegeand hetdiieg theme. Theteehkeo Gieeeeetetetecedtperetleioet.407eaud feeeetetett.reei..oee oftthe peieeipal beke PP Eerepe, It the teest hi itseeteieruletteg notet-whit-h wetee petted oely by tetdtretetet, eot beitig peyeble ito be.-ee. The teet of Reetbeep, etablisihed it t619 wee e betk ef both deposit eede!ieeiatieehbaedpene silvetybeee. Tht beek,tlike eaeelypeleo thet teerly timee, had, teepriteiptl ebject, the peetettlioe of the petiple tftte tpee, eteeted, elIipped ted plegped telet, er teee of ceetainem pitettthet,ere eedpeed ietteedeede.Ie. Th.ireetedy geterely adepted was ttilockhppthe dtheed aed deepoietedep aeedeieieethe etditt trteetidtferthitt VTei~it. titthereb et.peeegie.tottiete.eetheeeghout Etirepe,tettpoftihetebeiegppitetfttigoertenteeet-tele,tand ittmaey taeetteitetidtat-id.tiitte-eteItehepiegthe dtt~titiettof etpiret. Itt 1694 the taek pPf tEpglaed tet tihlithed, atd theret ieee betitg institutioneitthee-.ideidqalttit.ttphp teetgepeteeefeeationaletteeepet. TheteehkptfY-eepeweeieehpri.pdteltp tt.It ep nt e fittal agient ef tht goterteetet at it thee ef Pepleed. It deet e.t -pilet pp dieberee the reteteitete the et.u;heqeee but it ieedt te it leegely, tehile itt credits, it thit fiteteif ci-teiaeti~g.teettetd tthee aepetenese, h... bornethegoverneitetsafelypthrotgh-.tetetdietey netede Ittitclieted thet theteirttpegeeted beekhiethe Ueited Statete bed itt origineiethttiteteetieetftabaekieg coptepee titheet chartee Jtte tith, 1780, by the pit~etet itt Philedelphie, ted Perte tetite by Peitretee wattaehe ieee it, itt the em.eeteareI.efeeiteet thtitipropoeeedeetiup.Teet peare feter-ttd,e " piepettel eheptept" -ee peettedipo the Bankhotetoeth Atepip- t ePthildedilphie. InttltdtthetStttt Rfeeeitheeetts ieeitrpiteted the t...eeetheett. Beeh. ThebttktiftNewee-Yotkti-echtepteid it Neeth, 1791, pithiteph it bed beet doitie 1-.ipeseeipe t78R, pedee rteile-e tf..t ctl.dee-p by Al.eeedte Retiltitt. Mitt itt the..etettitetipt tee stiil tieited tuiiteetwastptti-tdt lt179. Th.emtteefthtie eteth wae e.ed by theittitldhStttte.Git-tppttp, betltettthe Goeepeiet itieueeet -pet Iel1843the bepk iiid. Sttte btek.tweeetitgpdei-deepidly, ted prieetehbeekieptfeemepeeeg eintoepi~ttee tied the b.ei-.ieittbttkibig teemed imte-e pritpprtioe.. Int1863,thtbiNppAT.-A Bititie TEithi- edipteitd tidp iild64the tioiiel BeeP itieetept the Treiteey Repatmieiet -pet itgptiied, the t-hief iofeet lith,_ 1.the eptlplp t the — tettmy. In M.teh, 1865. ane.,tet peeeedeprteiditpeee. lt- pet(,-pet. Pee t-i eit-etieeey peteittit thitti bitek ieeped tfty tleeietd -eekIep an epeeptipe ie titiliti baet.. Thisehedthettiefii ftieeiithieSttieieheik teeeiiePt if —.e AttheNietip...i beekiep tyttemeh..yppeti pee iftiheemotit eiteleei- adiat-t tef~teeity mtethede the epeid he...e. Peiwe, it -iii be PP iptereet ito -ce-te heretpmetofit.i peieeipeei feteeee Under thiect Netliteelibeetktety be.epeeieed byeityenumbttppter ppppp.. o.ti hanib five. Npt le.. thanioep' thitditt the eapitei mtet be lepettedp Pjpinited Pitite. hppdi, epoeehi,-h, eiree_7Itiieglepitttemty be iiueed eeeeitit 9pper eet ituthe parettiuetifihe t-edt. Thteseeipeeteget-teeeepi-ble tppieeie thbT7eiied titttt it.1 phetetietti ititept fbe diipe. pp itepiptp, ipitepest P.tChit peblit debt ted it tedetepitit.o ptbe tetipepi -epetey. The Neteitio. beeke tee Pt. eateptfieiteeeptellpeed by theee-ipe ttitpe-h-eeteee ieiitiitebyithe I-etofhthe ttte, tthte..k. -y tbhept7per Peet. Shbehobltd-tette held itdidlidetllyIp iibie, eqeebly ted rattablyp eli.1 debit. if t the epitept itt the mtupet Pt theit stitep, it addition Pto the tmtitet ite.tied theteip. Thetbtekt E~ etteired, btforetihe deelettipe itfe dieideed,Pto teeplet feedeetilttetehietthepmuhl hi..tto e0pttteeet.tfthie-pitel;tand totttttand btdittbttettitibde dteed-teedtti-et peitiit.bttpte ety ditideed te deeslted. Areti-ee tety be epppiteid by thp pimtettellee Pto eIte. tie.edee hi.tuepettiuiitethe hfeaietpofeayeeipbepk -h'ieh helltfil te hetppgitdiit.leefeietmtieyeieetvepoetehie!hitmty btepetiepventt Whilp theet haet beet tetional beeP etlrete, thepe h.t et-e beet anylo.t the peeplewhatevertepthe leitp ey be bpoeghttfprtpyti~tttetttfttheeih~teitft.bepktiftphe dieeetittithtii h-iiieeit eiitpe the law;.ed lee..h —!. thty -ty be hilddleiiabe ththaieidieidtieieetptty. Theet tee itih-E~eptipietiepe ithe l. —..(eh as if iutet the peplIlbi. titeepal.tetloaeIeytit thyittt bi-tttet- tmoeppth tbeiepter ett. et the (!pt rthit hoitile Pt etytreel estteti as it reqeieed for bttkilgpptepseti,torthe gettiiitiittiigo o. pitethteepeetyeofthitbtek Pete pedeellygrptiteig ieee depleg the psti tet ytetr, asitihi Unteld Stitet bpedt teeleble treeqo.hg eboe peteand thert~ei f ittitereetup.Ipe thetptheeit bitt littleprfttth beehertip. A bethe teasttheeeIttof thpeiepioigttte.erhinotdpekeitid ipt-poeible t geit e.gnra. iptipet.btteielifih theeittee thet wede plyt tilitheStateiei The itee.,h. —ttrt, pride tie ted eeqtiret Stte beehe te hitld e epetele -epi,ep..d itt tepitlaie lteeetie they eteke tell tieteteete asttittheieee-uditIleand thteptpfie aee exemtletd intoi by -~teiet Stitet ttfeielti tt f-q-et ueetl.The It-p oP tui'the Stietee hae pepehede. high degreeeifteteeeetlit Iethemetthitdiifteepeieiepand Pet.eitigeStete beeke, ted ihe timetiept-tii titeedeete ted etliebility ef the.. itstii ititeio tiflpet credit teptn the I-t tedee tehich they etiet. CEANING ROUSE, ~3HP tiieeeig-Roitete it thit pl.p eh-ete the epeheepe itt the beebe tee -tde iptili he peheeiei pulitie pP theeworld. Theieleeritphiteieeye. temewestit tst peithiiuhed lit Liedie boite the bepietitgpftihe preetee.eeehey. Pt-twtt pirt ipippdped pi~t thieeeentey by the beekhpf theehity otfiNew YPteeetipe tiuppleilipan tundperihttitiptpfthe New' Yitek CleeriegpHouse, whleheiteteeeeeipeeiietttti tPIP~,t,183 Atthet timetit toniteitedittftfify-tep beite, bet Bt-pitf thtet ereettitittie...ed bepepupeof theie itaiplitt, titmee~t lie. rteqteeeti. Pleaitig Ritsete haet titee beet eittbliiht~d Ieeeply.1ioft~he pri.eeIp.uIhti..if thte iotel-eet. eeeiue.iti-ttebeekheeeivettleegeeeit fiepbill.epeeedeCheeptponpther deeteet, vartipoues thee dee ithby ithee beehi. It It, It like tete iteelf ithe dphtit Pt otiher beehi, whiph Pt-t detitug the dey ptteivtd itt billt hiteie it,.t.,eteetete Pitt teph heph, tetey metitettg. hi teee ep iti. -eeiteewith eeeyitth-ebeeh,eid tete.d it.eporteeeper,gttoepresep tthe blilt.ted ph-ehe.tite-iteeledithe debteehaeeheteepey-eeet The bel.eepe Pee dleited bytepyentee it pitld, tehlth bteete it 1tborhiet, deegetrtit, ted tittpliteted, thee thit baleeet tetee setiled Pelt -pettily inteted itt deily-e plan thet eeteited1 ghepetteith tind eeil. Thieteet ohbviated by the _~eleele.gho-it tpytem, theitegh -hi~hhthe tettle-etpt tree. 1la peuhyte.d qieheh-lytfepted thet le New Votkthe tet....ptiiteeIeite. tuhpg day haeeeeeoteted tetverei300,000t00J adjuteintgewhich theei-ih.epge-ee sttlted i.the pae ef anthottitBetide...,itgteevut mtitpt of ite,?k bookhheepingetidteeeeteeebled the bethtbyee itedeld teetreegthee eeehiothere- ieuietetfieeiteteettaedteeeenial peeie.Th.tfihlteitigie.thteteeeeeieehiphthe tetlte~tee pee -.ede it ebitet pit the el.itetg-ho..tiet Ptihie -tittity: The teepeietie pypteided weith ptthtitlitetptdttkt,..eftt aeeh beehthetuipe -emtbee of the titttotieaeth desk bte.iep ted tetebee ef tht beth. Eteh beth it etpetettted verey etItegu, itt the hpee tieed fee -tittieteti, by tR eeikti, ete eteeeeegeeehwhe bingswiih himetheheeht, deftit, pie., thetbhi.bekha.t teetiietd dtriei the dey peepheit epit thet ithtee beetk -ttaltd thtttitehaegtit,"ead theiehe -ee...etedtpreeach beekeedepleped it etteoeitptt Rtihepeitside Pt eth eteelitte itt t lipiteeehie~h aepplieted the eteptetept the etelite iteeti which it eeet.The mtiet.-geee taee theie plheet lee. IIee oettideithe epte Pt deik.,.e-h tppoeite the desk tie eietediit hi.tbanh,-ehile tmeth dpih itte Iiehewith aeh..t eettaieleg theeat..etftteluthe bttkt htthtet.. piodertasthhedtpki,tiwith the tggree gtttetiute w.t hihthhi.tbttP'eettttttpth.ttagaintttetphhebt. Jsti prepeioptotthe hpupyted foe etehiepthe Cpphetpe. thtet-agtertihetbhi. p.ittib..uandetII.ethe heueeetititede. Atee igeeltthe bellieiegtee.d eeh epe cotaitehhg thee(he-hkie, ftp the beth repretteted ati thet Pith it the tlepk h ethetideph, titgethtee itht peleted leiptio he hepheI.tehet-ee otdter,with tht eteptit opeeteite eph beth. The elpet eeceiede~g it, eigts aederetitettit titheemestegepe,ewhotimmedietelyeeeeeeee..tethe eet desk;lihtete eteeuiihtiheh..tmd. tettepletitirui ted ha. tgeie eeeehed the eteetig teinti AlP theiotheete-etttgeetetmoeipgiit the - ttieitettt..ttht-etitgte hae.,by thittetitiehitedeietytbtithted deiieretd itee-h eteetythieg hi. beeP held tee it, tehiegeer-Eeept fotethettet tedatithitt.tee tiete e-th bee h..tetti~etdtlith-titehttgti thtttetteytothtrtbtekhhttagainttit. Thit epetetiet evet Ie the greetestieaeeehgbhouteeeeily coteetet fepetPe.tit it, it the eleehit iteeediately -tee ftete the tlip.e. Pt ehi tee eheete the eggrEegate- teteitt tfrtm peth beth, ted the diftiptet betepeet the total eteeeet brtughthy theme,tehithet Pete shotietehetbalteeedue tieoefeom the leherieg hitete i eteh beth. Tbheit.rpopttd ito theiti btekt, tnd the belaete it paid ito etedet feitt the etteeheg hoete, the, et otee tettliet the epcouttet beitwteen allthe betke, The ihete tee'peteed" retettiy, ted gteieineteser eeiedftett teepee, t-etiteit, tie, -Il eletteet epeetteeg it tigi et iteegeetete the Pete titihy Rep AGebe di Pp it the tetee itt the httee itt itt Ceegeete, tiWeebieg eDt), USUr6a 106CColl-al.9 to Act Of 0olagress. in the year 1905, by GRo. A. OGrB & Co., in the office of the Eibraria,, of Congress, at Washington, D. 0.

Page  IX ANCIENT, M"EDIEVAL ANID MODER N HISTRY Copylopht, 1894, by 91. A. Ogle & CO. The chief aim of this Chronological History is to give in a comprehensive and attractive formD the principal events of the history of the world free from unnecessary details. For convenience this history is arranged-unde-r-1-. Ancient History, 11 Medieval History, 11II Meodern History. The latter is given-First. From the beginning of the Sixteenth Century to American Revolution. Second. From the birth of the United States to the present time by countries. Ancient History 8200 -T..o fOoot Egypti0o 0992109, 09001 M11071. 101)SIOCO,%00 Egypto07o dyoooty. PhotoOo 10111 to 9o.oo 9120 9CC9210~ by 270 tho 419 11109920 0A01099k70 2200 T91 -lo 075018 77-,id loood 2100 ATh.50-11Eg-ptia9 dyooody 129eggpts 200 of 90299 71mb Chotod. 1590 Bloth ofp A9909o9.hEy-dnty 1488 910110509 sO Aoto h., - Isoof. erd b 1800 1111957 to 01909 est 108117101111 of59 ohooloo.51ihoAoo 22o0lTob- Egoypto, fohu o 6d91 9099 0293 91077 g17bg0010. 85011995B. C.od 06081 912117009 of 99i8l 01110 0500 11509011100 o 197 f-okod 10091 Egyptia 22 yamid01 b9lost 0099 1120900 0912110 110111211blis 7.f10850 109r1ep~oody 79800009000 UI,~ of tho ldhbt os 0111 20 opoUtolo a51e 59n 2741281 021e gyt 200 o 09o' 120.251 1079 fonedot o 1411 Booth of Moob ah0aAm o 077980al 1124 tb-hoa 70187 o Cb 1472 Ab901h2, Oof 50ifoo f1 ISyoia. 01842 DEthod, 170010 001ifn 111 18556O1o l1fo ob 150 RIofool 91001 o21 whho con11e99207. 0183 ElBioto aob910078111 20771094 1800 111117 0959101799017yhp1t0.17 17120 AEoopi..o m911119 10119614. d oun 8118 9171170091 o 911019 A90105074. ipia 11824 Ptgioti7g hof phoottlt of tof th 0017 -02500 A g0a1d1h 11A1 of.279079 0080 M.. obo 07r4 0 b oo 8080e11491112 I. Ehoy107 dEgytfoy p82 01076 Atbo oog f fooodod 150 tTh 0b90410I lofBbyloon1041 111 a~pine.bi1.fpou11071719thEyta y 0188 891111 91117011 hldPa1d9e1tabl. 110 yioat Ptoyl.1507BoylfI 00ff7 1R91072 2f0411 ods 0111 pofph.ft ia 1008 Ettttolttof tohlf alooaeto.toGc 8800919Th. 097 — Chottotdyo.y1 h 00490 90014911011 il,.e 8000 Dooth of 19980.. n ~. 1090 Dpothu of tolod. C ooho,.04.11ff 17103 097 91979111i- 191. todol 9ttpyiod. 1120970ii-I 712111 491g EoooIso tatol 84047 K1ig lIlot ofb. 0917-094 the Ialghltfer 139 sihd, 21 117 j1dg todofIl thoIpo 13t4 Cootilthbitto0 o9o191s 8600 0130 091iQtl91oin of IhBo blloKl 11000 135 t Eg117o oing 0tf420M of110100 1350 IOlaot flto wth to, o egtol of011107 001326 lba6119 th 71901711ibout~ 1j20gygyptian Obfflikg 0060r91t 9090111 Rb dth thbe 0 1 01l~ 17017.Aopo by1 tbQigdo12 oft of109. 210184119. 001 1991999, Kiog of Egypt, ooptoool aod 957 Abijoh, Kiog of J8099, 0111001 the 91101 05009 09171 f 0950991, Egypt Atlo —day22 II., 91117 of All,!, 0916 9195000091 foood 00007001050~s by 9111 Poophot 1119291 800 Syol991okolyowaropoooof0094 900 110711105 of09 ooh -lploandtftde 800 Oohothoyha~t 0111011t tho A919on2toso 895 91209271 of 110192in tof 077791. LAllsti-70910-701 9119 ofpalla 190 091 Aolyoiaoo oIgaotooodo Babyl~onia 110 Tho Astsl90 0101 Phootoloa. 860 90980401'!- -050q9191 017192 on0l 010201010 0009l0111111.100 091 Egypttool 191 -01t 709117082 00t42 27 IC000th7171101..a. 101. 6947 Oobyfo 111019100150 ofbl tohod 0110a looOl-i9 etho04abyio8 091101 77 091 91159009 of t1011 Oltoy11O. 180 ypol. 10090 5091ow thO 994200io0009100. 7t47 BabyonoId2pedn o9f5911 9190149008. 7451-10 Oo-o thf alf8.9 of- 1,gat Piog If 111I fognds bth91110 Cooioth. EodpCire 160 91111 0,iI fy, Pale0414. 714 Roth- otto gdof9y IModlo, 1090414 by-u t~ y1o11- fo 11414. -~-ih yi lg~togtfJ~o h. Syr iOafO beof 191 19 691iO. 1-16 Bobkito 10477100100 00417t inobJpoah1 717 od.yitototblolydftth 12101070180. 711179199. ops t Jo ti.,011 of 0fooo PhI ot.h-11109 th9 Egsypl, i111000001 698 M 8.'II, Ki pt of JotlIf11110h100 101990yp di~id t Egypt — do1o2 byi ohl 0083 C'.. bCtol 01081001 11101119171) of 70206h. o oot 081 Coattlo of to 110119 by As oby 1hldos l 618 Poylntootuto dog10 to Egytd aynd P1 -14Ctouoflolo o Ath.,ool- pothlhioGbod. 600 Albo invasio91191 bttfe 0119 112099,~ Obs.of 21,g19ob1l1 oG54e1109 Woo-62 Rot1oog Md o 94A Lydnlo.1Kigf 569 09e Pythto1 190011 begino to b7 8111 -0100291191, haoiop ygbgltgO ogaiot Btbytog, 91 911919110 by 01989900911229. -.067 N1o~b99oho71o99 4009017e P9191091 09900099, 91119099 ood Abodoogo Itt5109019 909719 ood dostooyed by No0500 If thg k17170009 tf Jodoh. 110 Booth of Pooto11doy, tyrtnt If Atboens - 990 Csoppo 9101110901110 5t 00911. 0118 A-sA8~fio of 81001671 0017907, 01919 570 Cloil 9r197 tog7090 570 A00o~t. -ig..I 11 Egypt. 18) Egypt by9094 0 1119899011111170 1116 Th. 10719 011110 of 00001 909171-44,000 1111 Booth of0199b011ha11207. 0095001471 Kiog 91 Bobylo.. - 5 00 P9110100801s b —oop 1t79115 of Ath11gs. 054, ACa9,...tbfgiy. ooObopoooofooo 900 11099 Ot81l-lo foouoded by Pyros - Itt Boirthol 1577f 9o71491o18d21d1B 211 467 f 54Cyooqet 00119611101 B -pto.- fC. by91910 Koofoylo,9919 1111 90701 1710 Phb. 009r1041 of thrge0151.. 5- Fl 0911 Lydibobg 000 0090 154 Cyr..oa1, —5.gAof Mii 19170 909191091. 1400 P5y000a1, Pyothaotf0000a 98 o419 99109 of 119010r (91 B 0l.C.091 131ho 010091 ofn loft 119071n,009191161. 1007101111 01009 t 911 epti01101 thpoo J-.120 100 of tCo9f1byooot. Je..le 535 oobuodiogofDohio toopl 011-901040 th 01100919 oit 01100101791.edy 608 90001179101 tyoa1tof 9719171 997900 9110at bo Sothtttof 7001115001 thI Magian. 1700 Coytho of 000190021111to.111 110 1171117 of 90111by-to 7101 o1 480. ho ogyolt of Egyo by901 (Pooby o.s 498 itth of 007950911 (1111d 10, C. 400). Cfoo~tflo bo10019od by 0.19111192 484 _Opihofp 01 000 07011014 4902111111911011101 of Dario Loo 011901011114.i Coo91Olli tbook b0 90g07 910108 C CogS 482 e1re17 PofoDaoiu gooditlo b ttodio Moo40604i8t ofgPodtoC ie P B.ol t. 4319101. 0 oil d Cr ton9d9tr1111b9 is 09111d0111250 011 118070R ofitblodl o 4t99017218 0114u ano T-qui1007 9.1717700 48 Cootol 18 ldy 1 oofo 0h ii~~d 100991000t frylo Atheo 491 4toe by t.pbl919011 Th.~ of tHo. 711161 dlod. oflo 11. C.881 54t BS919108: o 0b 4111fOh 077 by th o re. 401 Si.geof10 11..0 by AllL ~.. 40) Burito of SaI i bto ylofl ff Llt1td and B99 Tho gf1to th 91-o.topy ofGOeoece ll 47Battlb of 70afpf oo-tilu 7.. 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P4 Cy ThibtybYy- h1100 011019thnsad 4118 lioth of D thllte At y11t, 041100148 Opolto of dofoaod b Metga-, 405 Oho HobLaws, Molob, ophoo 400h11110 o Oyovrotofoo da 44010 Athb.lly 9915811 tOp toh 1P0i607 111870670 of Aigi.. btodo 9thi thim (died 410 Boiolig of Nbo1h o 0ioah go 10911 tooooio o f J Osloit -byilto0701 Roman C11gsolaofTholgo. 011110091.d 442 oytioo tyt gio t nof 0001 p 471 -h ot o ou 110 4)Roeifi~db Egoott 004iblfioooe I Pi1oo lloMollu S-po Sp10111670 ome 401 110 99 of Pbo100. 141i11 006.) 400 Romedi 1.1,of Cylo agbo 00 0000 99u 4331T191ty otwh bohelo agf Coolyo90a1 M,11tho atronomod7r,11f 117i 100d. 199 Cooth of 98904011,. 080 C900npaigo old 71091 tf DClyoylidot 000 F otO 9091p0110 of 0.1110907 to Aoio. 399 Poo-ooo0o0401101;Loo 094 0109250 ootiot tho 0.thoolooo0111 dgfoot Tbo Co'iothtoo Woo b11gIos. 090 h. 9090110 90091 of 9090919 33T.Lo50g Woall. of 0t.0901 001000111 by 890 OgO 110700111 by 110910289. 308 90911040 19f110A11 oO oigO 807 Pogo of th.10lot~ol, 1070 005 ViBofoo of Dio P709100 080at oog irh oflyothi oopo9oooo 0 808Oe oa of tho C11,~ f110 RomeThohot h -8 Cloth of Ao00olthoool, (04 4702) 20 GC Oh ofti 0.71ph A 19.b.!~dt -l 07 0007 of th g Codntia g Ploido 0784 Pithofo Aooo.tloo111701 001nOiuthorofd1promiooorplooo rotp oph Avioogdaioledot ooehoognty. 3867 Batbtl9 91 Polpi.9h Og Pook t P 914th Poftoh91116 Cad-ea -tTebs ithof 7o-stObo9991 (diod 2040, 3001918117 off701670097p od 01671 10298 P1 boigt loSp ro ool11090. 79R1g111100f1th96Cad-. byPIpds 300-0h0 00000 91001 5840 091h001, 70000 158Pac Soootooooo Woon tnd 10109011 oo 2110_tgolY of 01109411da -if r tihi, Sa0191721t of 9010 ot1791101 boood C37 o 1077110 Ph- lol10105000 Iod11po~o119 of Phodoo 909 999167l o 054 Eoyoasy f 0.0109019 thgtholGo..kt.051 golo Mosthoog 00111191,ad mas 852 Co91oltwo o 411110 bd at y R Phtgplf P63ohoaotoia000018 1770 Hiho Pri010 000 011100401 ooook 0111 007006 0111d260, 8110 ituoio01 Pofpritto dofo 11nd9 00011. 3467 to 011117ol P90011ut Phg~tO of uto ho0.pyl. i 362 o46y6ot war witoooho tye 0000., Etu 341040Phlip of 0M odotg oopodtloa t 040 PThitbo o buldoloth boT.god by KIM60Py of 0 oloos 00 t... 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Page  XIII ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MNODERN HISTORY. 1487 J.-IM I., If Slistland, 18894131. 1509 01933 VIII. King of Eglalnd; he m81rJ.1.111. 31191811 Kilg. Iill C1th13iI18 If A3rg.ot Albelt V.,D0kM if Alilitlil sbtiIs Bl- Venice lilipped of itl TIItaianpssl os h.-iii Ild Hi11g83y, 158 is -9d. EM- 1511 R1....!. gliii iliv-ded by 1913111 11438 U51i313rity sf F11-1iiy fiouided. Oj~d. f91181 San Sebastian. Th.1 P,.-13115 Ssnetilil; Albert V., if 1111 P831 Julils II. fiolEI the Holy Leaguie Aiustlil, 31191811 E13pe33 of Gl- 19ithFlrdiialdand Venicel. lilY' Vl1Msy- subdues 3891.. 1439 Csoi1cil of F11. 3. - 81512 Selin I. madeIKilig If T9l3key by Jau1 -TilIf E-p.3I1I1 limitld to th1 All- a13811. 111313Hpsburg. P188c1 de LIe. diiscoveis the Floida 1442 Batij1 8f VIsIgK Tu131 391818 by Hun- 18110. 1.413 313111 of Nill,; Tu3k1 g3in defeated. Birth If T9i~to-1tt, p1111131 dild 1194. 1415 B1399 of L1811340 dl Viol. Na1v1331 1a115118 19 91111. Th. lArabillINight. ilued~ 15118 Enlalldlinvadls FIaicl. 1411 Niyh11I1 V. y131, 119911 of Guiiilgatl C3 Spur1; 311193 -1849 Th. 0193111 It Mill.. S99otl.aid 811111 3nlg1d. Alyhollo V. at Aragon. 11991e 91 3108811 Fi18d; Scots 81111118. Ploook', '5R1y331s-." 311301 939ss91 031 Isth-.ii If 0131o1, 1459 8131 01411 811y1ti 114 881303131 931 Pa8f10 91111. 31313 31g1119 b118181. LI. Xs., Popy, 119311 litlr1tI1 1118 1415 U180ivlriiy of Glasglo 151814. 81511 W.1-y's 19313 b11111 in 51111d8 1451 3131 D1ug111 M.ydlyd by 81315 II. 1115 118111 91 Thl A313hd91hy If A-tli. 9311198, 1it1113 i 3181I. 8911111 th1 Itlilill, SwiuM a1n8 10313113 p-111,,b Fr33d81i110810. 0131811.. 1111 Constantinople 31311318 by MohIMM.d M..i18i18a1 I. 11113e19 131 Hungarian II.; Eld ofthl EastilylE-i-l19111 Eld of th1 331133 ald E1gli1h 1913. 3311381 1. 31311 1113 of 331191 Th. M~zayi. 31311 i11118. 38311 Eltnglih 33911~i~1.451-71 W., If 131 180111. 319tw118 0133 VI. 38313 If St. T.Iyl a; di18 10982. a1d th1 Dlke 1f Yl rk, 1 ft3rw51d8Ed- 15199 Death of3F1d11ood, K8iogf Sp1I.. wa1d IV' Ru183 111 Clydilal 1981191.C 313111 o StI. Alb.ll. 03~139 I. 1111g of 19111. 1456 311111 of 33113381; Turkl r31p11118 by AeesiI of 9 131 09111 of Austyia. 1151 33181313k III. divids Austril 19813 311 1517 313999911irs 13113911 1 footing i 810311. r111t8311. 1118K I. 8111111 M.181lk.1l 118 1881 1418 Piul IL. 3931 1t 5-8. Egypt to 131 01091881 5118313. 1410 3i1th 1f9Lk1It1; did1528. 1111313 3118111 1111 19013 08311931810801 1931 191391 3011113 039131. i1 11318118. 1403 3119838 IV. depol.1; 011y VI. 91f5 Eng ernado d1C0rdovy1di119veys1theMoL11i1 xi. 11113 of 3311.1. LlthI3 13111111 3513111311 131 Diblo 1818 Iva., 131 03111, of 11511111, 191181 t31 118 Litlygy 81 013181.188813 11111811 1E8P1- 38313 sI 913315Y; 8898 3518. 1113 T1kiGh 1913 19113 VI~iII. 1118 G~ijIv. 3131031111. 1108 Y131111, 1518 1414 '1L1130- of 131 Ptbl11 Good," 10318183 by 3831111., 181p181,11191ted3E3p1r0r01 131 103111, 1351811 119181. 11318113 as 0311115 V. 1411 38313 of 33111811; 8818 1581. 1118 "38118d of 131 Cloth of Gold' 18111813 91 1498 Th. I `t' 011113 y131131.- 3381111 i. 1981 011hH 3r VIII. 1430.'98 L...Io dl 11188c1 101381318. 318301 Passes 1330133 M~glil..l 1411 L113u1 of I118811 C81811 Igaitst 113 1135181.. 1913k1. 1511 Bat111 of 1111;. 11u1181 8111111 P01118. William 010101 11113811311 1310t 3131113 1113181 LuthI3 1110181u1i81t1d 1t 131 Batt111 of T91193113133 Coqlssl ~ byCor~te.. WIIwiIk, 3813g111113. 01133 VIII. 113118 131 -Defelde: If 131 01313h of Dr13, 3111113; 8118 1313. 31it3" by 131 P8p.. 1413 3131301f 0011131.ilFac n S311 8p1in 1t1w1r. Bi1th 0f1M11h11lAngelo0.architect ad 15218C9rt11181d13g3v3113 of 1813830 by 11313103, 8838 1501. Ca].V 1474 33313 of Arillto; 83ed1811. 039311 V..thivso fEgnd 3138d15118 II., If AIIIg.n 1931sI~- h LovrI, 31311s, 39181811118. 31111a, of L ---1 118 0111311. 15811111111n Leagl 1318111 33511111 I. 1415 3819138 IV. 813181 331191nc. 01118191 VII., P.P. 11 0o1eK 8110 111113a. 008811311 301111378 by 131 3p11191383 31313 of 383 81h1 31r111111. V13a11ai'1 88110313111 i1 510313 Amer3 -14711 318181 of 1113111. 11.. 1-411 R1118a1 1913 19113 1913113 31113 If 5111198; 4818 1516. - Artois and Burgudy.iteld to Fra11 1114 11tt11118t 0f1N1w1F3ois111Canada9. 38313 of Titill. 3191113'; 8118 1571. 311111s 1 3133.fetdadtknpioe 1411 1111e of 01131101 181381318. by3 0313111 V. 1411 11801 of Al9bI 114 0111111, 11113 31asan1s' WIr in 113811.y 3~1381111 11 a 1d131111ls. Albert of Bra1deoburg 118311511 LIIh34380 11111011a1 p193 in 5111181 811130318. P3u111a 114 3111 of 301118. 1103118181 II: 11311 0138110. 0516 FI-dilnd-I 111111 38311881 and Hun14811 311811333 IV., of N1130313.g p-h13113 g133 to Asra B3118113138 13918 113811818. 3111330 811103131 tho 10111 If Q8111.. 1481 I-11 th181 3 18111 of 331 0113 of 318118 1. 8111111 131 011313311.38313 91 51133111, pa1101r; 4118 1520. 193181111 1119 1911811811 3ubli1h1d. 1483 31313 1f 1113311 011911; died 1511. 1511 01318111 1aptur1 1118. Ed19ld V.181d81Ki8g 0111gla1d8Apri Ppa 311191. 18 Inu1d1red n3th1 T.,1K 1-urr-ti.. olf11lri1191lsuppr....d, 1 08135134 III. u1u3p1 131 333111. Jull 251 11111. 0313111 VIII. King of F351113 01113 of 111131133118. 1i313 of Llth1r; dild 1541. 33313 If 01189111; 8818 1510. 18484 13111 8131818 by T91311, f1311 1t0 81 11110111., 1111111 8311811311, 3111. 1485 391190313 31118. 081111311 Bourbon 1t Rome8. Aoguot 20, d111h of 11813138 I. 811811 V., tf 13613118, 31111.. 01133 VII.r1111911. B1313 of P. 191101111. 3131113; 4118 1581. 1113 01133 18113811 38811311.t 81113113 of 1119 DiIt 1t 111138. 01318113. 3. Dill 301181 0131 of Good Hp i 0013n191331 81381aI s~ig. tet fpa a 1417 1931 00u31 of 131 1111 03118313 8111- 331118 381131313if 111 Povlen,1 04183311..Agsug.~e.i.p~;Isd 0E134 11111114 ll and11 d1ath of 3301111118 3.1311 1931 19111811tofR131 331111 Al1 Ch ldl l VIl Poll nn an. Sw91It.-lad. 313180394 dVfI. 14513811 131-'lItaly 1013q11red by 0313111 V. 14101881 1111101-318 AII 8 15811181gu of 118113114 1031818 by Probesa14 831103131 A18131a, 0913311r 12; 1111 yP111 0131er Cb, 0118313 28; 01311, DI- 38311 313r3111 01113. in 111113 A-eI3134110 111113 031181114 1- 41 1111111 otea.d 111031 336 1011 093 111 5111 33811113 3311 1831131 1 01113 30333 dconquer 3833 Adaa ldI 331111.:iigu resetalshd 1 11413111.1511 Fr11... 1,01f3313113 LWarI 31111 1111 1 ulld18133 0111n 481311 01131811, 18 g 13331 31313 T Iy f 1o131gg81, 3111w11; 4114 11 153 Iva. 301131. frM.crel 1414 t31311 VIIr.g151181 81133r 11411153411 3ir13 of 1101t1g11; 8114 1118. 5113111e VI. 193tlyad oqer h 00111 81 191131, 31331, f011818. 11118 ppl 1t- 8 1111 1134 1931 AlabaptiIt 1913 1313 1131u31 1181 -14113031111 Aper 11 311114, 14115111 101118g. 0313811ran. 01133 VIII. 11 113118 '0114 If 131 Spai 1131111 to AuItriI 33131181311111e 038313';a111303813 of 131. 3031 of -f Philip I. Iihtehers f All- 051313131..p1diti.1 to 331 Gulf of 131 gll ald Cstle.lSt.11L51wr..C11 1491 0101881813 118331813,L 8811o J 1n 114 a 5d1Reellio of 3089311138 in 1re1118. 11133331 01418111 Bay, 811Y31. Fo'-odot1.o of 83-1u11 8381r, 1418 10u111 XII. King If 11139. 001811181 8118; 3031 1413. 310111e of 1.13111o; 111t133 of 131 191131. 3118er. " dvygetr n 119111i. 00111413113r B1a8il 4Jan 3131311 113. adacn 33111u 31 It 10131 013313, 131 P8rt1g111e, 11141 i. 331111, 313 851111883 11138. 011103181 11130114 to 3131 3111 481111 -000fed1r1til1. 01818331, i89ar-g-e-I i. Englnd4 513330 13111 183311 into 011311111. 11331111301 of 18011111313 in 31g1114. 1111183 e~d..1341 131111 131 1313t 11111111 18111 011118311 113 0 111 13nhi out 313111 114 1111 Sppr3...110 of 131 Anabapt1Ist, and 881103131 -1308 i1311 on 131 11118 of 81113 ofJh o f8318 113811. H118u311. 118 18318111; 131 c1a1t1 If A... 301131 31311418; 111133 181331f t. 33110. 510331831 21T.Pr~u. 19131161 g311114 Macao, 011n1. I503 511g131 of 11t11818 i1 M —181.. 1931 Bou1e5ard1, 31311, 19181811114 1181111911., o Fra1111., 1.v1d11Spai. 1187 31318i83 11333111181 of thl1monasteries. Portugllle in 114ia. 11113 of 8111 813181u1. 31113 of Wyatt; 4id1342011 31133118513 of 01113. 31113 of 1111801, 311103131; 4114 1111. 1119 Adoption of 831 111 13110111, 3111114. 1104 11113 If Q1111 11131131l of 33131. 33311t 3411101 of 03018191111 511511 3113. 00118311, 19031114 by 131 1811331111011 031818118 Aglgican 111111g3. of 311 13118111, r111111 to 33111, No- 1148 311311801 of 030181911. 511831 7. 031111~ 383111814 tthOtoo83 m01181 318 -1135 11313 of 8031 1110x; 88ed1411. 3131. 11501 D1ath of C13118311,M111 20; 3111 013ViII. 181111a Aoll f 1111 t83at8dWith1th ba131 ing1attude1by1a41ar 81813; d4v5o318July09; m111111 the 3311113 G85138181t1 011311111 0019134, AguSIt K. 8831111.a 3038; 4118 1883 811811 V., of 11011114, 4111. R.I. f 031311119., of S3ai1, 11011l- 51113 13011181814 08111 I 11811;1 -1114d. ge1cy30f0C3rdi1al1Beat.. 31303 of 3311111 Xa11313; 4ied 1353, 31183 of 01110131; d4ed14 571. 19811811 4113831314 b3 110181 114 P1113. 31313 of 0333138 918183381118; 4114 1101. 1101 1111311 81 0118331, 311t11 10u11 8111. Ore11111 s1111 do-s 831 A18a1o1 to 831 114 51111831111, 1113111 1911311. sea. 1841 03118 1913013 11311i91 of 5101111 pol 31188. Do Solo 81190513103 188181193i 51o1 01113 VIII. ta1-9 th1 title 81 King 13 1844 Iv10 IV., 031 191338311, 318311, 1t 833 ag. 01133 ViII. 18133111 010913813 Pa-3 D1ath of Cop33oii98; 303 —1100. 11544 031101 1111381 10111 019881 Cooofld.-ly. 3338301191110; 88ed1815. 51183133~t13 oft Ko1iglb13g 10u1818 by 1141 Iva. IV. 130911 by 131 3183883..3, AIIII "19ul533L811.~"P,-.adP. AlllhailllT.oph11s10593311115 11-1 01111i 9. of 031853 113119 014 Dethof m.,ti. Luther. 511 11111 1547~5 3131 eV. of 10933 31311, 111k11. W — E81n3 190. 191311ts~ h.do33r1100a1Is D54 Eal of 19191031 0010001; 30111190. 181 Eoythof 91nr 113893101,3311 1111193 loo oKin 001181 3813188831 011ttl of 381308 151k 3 03111 b 3831301f 383 Woia C1lI.ig3; 43rn1818. 118113 191813.i 81311 f0133118 1548 11,11' 9 Chr..ic 138i8113d L549yE 8811o GLoyd 330911181 510131of tog.fd 8113 10oh, 381 Duk81133 131S 11313 of 00033; 4114 8180. 153238,3oo of 011-Pi.ip P34113 4318l3118. Duk11111f Sof P,. I1t ltI 1h311114 Met 118'lfll 1118311801d83d11by th1 D11 -5111308 31111 of APIrbIII Phill I. K' of 13811'.-I 311811 of 3ir 1811188 33118hdie 16811 1588 0111a 1811 byor 831ht 311113, in o 11133, of July1 18, 818118 18111111he 131 311113183 19943 to-a 3111113 131311,n N193311 of 011313die 013311618114 180 i3311tXh Kl of Sp.1..,; 11111139If 1931 3111381 311111 of 0311a 01114 Birth Qf~ Sif 39031 18138101 1586 -150 -01133393of "11110"t (311ng1313 1183813. ofl 5118810, 33013111, 1113138. A111ig11119 pa of 113113,u31.8;113 41183Ch Vl, 381of 11ai 3313, 333181 tre 11181113 11911 13018 13131 Sp 411a1 33 1183313, 18. 11183188, Mueyd 13, 184 157 5133110 of 1183819011. 11h83188 598n 0803133ke 411811 13114t ll M83l51y. etke 181338 1111801 3110181 M1113118 of 1113313 431 1080., aris h BI —lIbofs1334111 19h3311 3091 Engla1. 1559 5113 110 ofn WIIfI oFr 03111Igll 18111113 of ILt..u1311018119 311111, Wil133 C1 11i1l 18111138y in EglalIdf 1116, CarlllllitX. of 0183 rII.. ee of315,81 B1383 If 131 89810; 4314 1311. 33113383i~ of P0013198. egu i 33183irt of 13848 51311 3131132 414161 13111.ou W4.Frne 16 Malllf 138 II P1lotphtIf., of 11318113 1931eHoly 1183a131 111181x b Gugiise.,A. 0, 1118 1931 3111111 19111Dy1 t 1381 03811 e1' 1516 18383 of Bootoo; diod 1680. 813131314d b3 11111301 19131111 31303 of 31189303,; diud 0085. 13113 of 011111111 118 Slilklllplall 1-507 Biyth of 5113310, P1a11t3; 4318 1626. Har13d513 er 81118133 ati1o8n888 313118. 1579 -leagol of Utr31931 1117 LaI891uo, of P08804, 1811931. oO M-l 09113r ildlp.,dlo.K Pinlod 93818 to 1193811 Fit'g1ald8'. 03813 313183801. uppr.-.d3. 1618 1931 thiry y3113' 1913 beginl in 30311818, Sir 351183Dyko 11183 in tho b11111 315911 Ith Prooltlotat, 89411 131 1580 Alvo, of 13811, 15188131 383t8081; 131 E111t03 31380i01, aod 031 01130111 11 -33pit8 139311111 31108191 09103 11151 -1181 L.ogol, 311091c. Si, Wailt5Rl3Ogh ll.Cutcd. 3133139 0133 10303311 of 018131911, 81 lMltthi8I II.,.of Hllglyy abdicates; ac. 13810113K, Aotfl.ilia oalt llrvlyEyd by Zol-he Bith of A3l..a3d3, of 11131113; ditd nd81401309. 980. 1K111131 1819 33318131d1 1531081 C 811381 10933135113 u0pp-s1d. 8080 Eols-it- of B.-C-Idt8, 08181134. 1850 30111c 30, 5131911181, 1181414 3331s- 19,31 510h 31130 81818 118 3881311134a P""0. teld ElltIdia Co1plly. 0110 Birth of 1Hu30 0301811; 811 108C65. 1888 B10131 01 Prague; 831318 of 081g13111 0584 Wiliam1 of 031131 18111111101. 3301310101. 03133 III. 913138 by 819131s 03118118; 303805111 033111 t 333180803, by 33 ot of 383181h.. 108 339od 0118 0WI 1111108. 1991...Ht Dt!...h WIl th18 0018111 1031813ve Dyoth 803511 dfsParll by1 621,Ilt of~M 1118d 3 Hladit 1610. 1,3t33111 Pydooy bilio. 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Page  XIV UYI -- I -- - - -- - - - - - - - ---- -C3 — - - - -- - --- ---- -- I --- - - - - -- -- ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. 1648 Canadians at war with the Indian0. Th. Ho... of Brandenburg acquire 1101 -b-,,tadt and Mind... N.- A-.terd.- 88111i0s aboot 1,000 11 -h bitant.. 16401 Trial..d ecui of Charles 1. M...-r. and Opt- of D-hghd, Ioland, by C,,.-,.Il. C..f...i.. of Faith. 1650 Marquis of.o.t.o.. beheaded in Sootland, 1651 Ltopold I. -add King of H..g.,y. Charles II. oont.d at Scene, Scotland, Battle of Woreest.,, Sept. 3,.nd defeat Of roy.1ists. Charles IL fl-.s to F —..e -'Barecb.-.- P-rli.-nt. Birth of 01101181'died 1715. English N-vigati.. Act. 1652 Eogland at 081 with Holland. Th. Dutch, 80de1 V01 Tr.-p, "sweep the Ch..-el.De Ruyter defeated by Blak.. 1651 Negro 18180811ti8n 11pp00811d in Me0 -Pe... betw-e England and Holland. Death of Van T,,.-p Long 5801181108 di0.81011 by Cromwell, April 10. H8 b-.o1 Lood Prlt-81t-, Dec. 16. 1654 Jesuit8 8111bi1h themselves among the Onondaga I,.q..i.. Russia. viet-i-e in Poland. 1655 Sp1i8 and England at war, which lasts five yeaas. 1656 R101188 T0008 of Ni1et1, 60 Wilm, with Poland. P081118 d81lar0d independent of Poland. PFtdoic Willi8. the Great Elect1r. Jamaica,onq..r.d. 1600 C81,.0ti0. givel C0501011 Power to 1 0 -point his scesr Death Jf Ad-ir.1 Blake. 1658 Ac e-io. of L..0ld 61.. 1 1 Germany. Death of 0155 Cromwell; Richard 00810111, his s81, 18180110 him. 1650 Auto de f1. of the Inquisition, 18xi8. Richard 5081111 resign8 title of Lord Prot — tor. peace of the Py-neces. 1660 Th. rest.-ati.. Charles II. r0tu,.6 to England; the m1 narehy r-.tstblished. Birth f8 Stahl; died 1734. 1661 Death of MaP 0 6 1 11 0 181bert, Minister of Finance, i France. Aolf-tio8 of the Marquis of Argyle, in Difth of De Foe; died 1731. Th. Royal Palace at V81 1 aille0 0. m8116 ed; court opened there i0 1672. 1662 Terrible earthquake i0 Pekin; 3001000 live. lost. 108 of 08if1618ty, May 19. The Ch.-ch of England.. t... d Charles -arries Catherine of Braganza,, May 20. 1663 CP.1.0da becomes a royal government unde, -..i. XIV. Earthquake i. Canada. Birth of Cottn Mather; died 1728. 1664 Frant 0 begins.,,,with Holland. New Jersey Old t. Lord Berkeley; settied at Eli..bethtow.. The English take New Amsterdam and name it New York. N-rth Car.1ina settled. D. C,:,-ells g.,ernor i. Canada. W., with the Mohawks. 1665 Sec8nd Dutch war with England. Death of Philip II.; regency of Ann8 t Th. Great Plague in L610180 Western Australia named New Holland, by Dutch ' g,.'ted to Fre.nch West India Company. 1666 Dt R 1yt0r defeated by tMon8 1 0ohawk 8 illg8;0 destroyed by the Grcat fit, in L..don. The FA- 14h Academy 0f Sciences found-,ed, 1667 Perpetual di1t ab8lish8 8 ffic8 of stadthold — in H.11..d. First Russia 18101 built. Diith Of Swift; died 1745. New York City; 384 house,,. 1668 Triple Allia811, England, Holland and Swede..nited against Fra-ce. Treaty of Lisbon. Spain recognize,; Portugal's indlepend'ussia. ambassadors "ent to France and Spai.. 1670 France and Sweden break the triple Alha-.c, and declare war against Holland. First settlements of English iP South Cha08. Ely0-es, Paris, planted. 1671 Birth of Steele; died 1729. 1672 C1011 and TPre110 overrun Holland. Perpetual 0di8t 1f 1667 revoked. William of Orange, 1tadth8ld8r. The De Witt. assassinated in Holland. The Holland dike. p...nd, and French' driven Out, Th. F-ech acquire Pondicherry, India. "080t,1 de F81080ac, Govern0 1 of Canad.. Paris Academy of Music f...ded._ Birth Of Addison; died 1719. 1671 Virginia granted to Arlington and Culpepper. Di-vovric. of ',AaquettO and Joliet in, the northwest. 1674 Death of the poet Jo1. 1Milton. Disc....y of the Mississippi. 1685 King Philip'8 war I. New England. Birth of Clark0; died 1729. 1677 William of Orange -aries IMary. "Par1dis8 Lost" " 0rst published. 1678 Russia, begin. war with the Turks. Peace of Ni0egue8, France. England alarmed by Tit.. Oater, stories Af 6 f 00 001 010pish plot." Sir Edward Berry Godfrey found -urdered. Expediti.. of L. Salle. -,s, Buny-n 's "Pilgri- Pr.,s" ublished. Birth of ho011br 8118 died 1751. lfXJ9 Hhtbea. Corpu. Act pa.... parliament. A-chbishop Sharpe murdered -by.,venant0 1 1, who defeat C01ve7hou1 a 8 1 Lond.. Hill, but are routed at Bothwell Bridge. 1080 East India Company begins trading in China, 0811.ti 81 of Lord Stafford, De1. 29. Mississippi rive, expl.,,.d by Hen.;pin. Chal111668 South 8 arolina, 5ound0d. The E81luiO8 Bill, England. Origin of the Whig and Tor0. Mahbatta power begin8 in Ind011 1681 La Salle 8 ails do08 the Mississippi, and.a-,)s Louisiana. D. Fr..tenae r-called from Canada. 11ig1 of I,6 and Peter I., the Great, I. Russia. 10Murder of L0 Sall, 18 Loui0ia01. The C..sacks subdued by R-M —a 1682 WiT."a Penn..ttles i. Pennsylvania. Delaware granted to PeP.. 1683 Sobieski, of Poland, raises the sieg1 of Vienna. Discovery of Ryp House plot, to secure 81cces0ion for Duk61 of 8on11outh. 1810uti6 of Lord Russell, July 21, and Algo=nol Sydney, De0. 7. Caaarenews war wife, tile Iroquois. 8187met 1. besi8111 Vienna, but fa8ls. 1684 Gr0010 1nvaded by the Venetians. Birth1 of Berk1ley; died 1753. 1685 Revocation of Edict of Nantes; terrible 888067utions of French and Protestants follow. Ace... 0on of James 8. of England. Argyle's rebellion suppressed, and his e.-cution Duke 1f Monmouth, natural son of Char811 II., land1 at Lyme, June 11; proclaimed king at Taunton, June 20. 8685 Battle of Segemo1r, July 6; defeat and -xcti". of Monmouth. 788as c060011ed by Spaniards. Birth of Handel; died 1759, Birth of D-ho; died 1750. 1601 WilliA t D.-pi- landl in A'0111181a. Louistarri.2 Mlight de 5MaiI.t ots. Alliance bet —mn Russia and Poland 0,0188t the Turks. Birth of All.. Ramsay; died 1757. Birth,f Y60 Mg: died 1765. 1687 AthP80 captured by the Venetians. Hungari.. c,.,,n declared to be I. the Austriah -081 line. Aecec..i.. f Joseph I. Madam Guy.., and the "Quietists,` per-t.3td. 00088 Trial 08d 1860ittAl of the 1 eve1 bish1p1, J... 30. Abdi-ati.. and flight of James II., Dee. 23. Landing of the Prince of Orange o English soil. P010t'1 Variations 1 1 sued. Birth of Pop1; died 1744. 1689 WilliP 1 and Mary proclaimed King and Qu0801 Feb. 13. J.llt II. land6 i8 Ireland. Peter the Great, sol. s-vereig. in Russia. ClAo —ho..dC rebellion in Scotland 1upp-,.sd. King William'. war. F,,mch and Indians ravag. New England fr'.tier. Canadi....pediti.. fail.. The Toleration Act pass.. Parliament. Iroquois lay waste the Island of Montreal. Ifro 18 10gai made Governor of Canada. France at war with England. Birth of M8110sq1110; died 1755. 1660 French and India8 destroy Schenectady, New York. 10 8sa1 o of S8101 Fall.. SiDgo of lLdoyo A I 18.y. Bi=olo c1888100 in America resolve 11 'Cad anada. Unsuue...ful attack made on Quebpa by the British fleet. Spain join. the -Grand Alliance" PoirtFranc.. William III. lands i.,Ir.1and, Jun. 10. Battle of the Boy.., July 1; James def..ted. 1691 French invasi..,.f Spain. Aragon and C8talni raH-gyd. Treaty of Limerick deprive. am off 1 power in Ireland, and grant8 amnesty to rebels. 1692 Beginning of the English national debt. I...-..ction in the City of M-i-co, Maod f 00 of Glencoe. Battle. i. Steinkirk and Landen. Birth of Bradley; died 1762. 1693 Battle of Marsaglia; the Duke of Savoy defeated by the French 8 1der C8tint. 1694 Bank of England established. Mary, Queen of England, di... Dicti...,,y of French Academy issued. University of Hall. founded. Birth of Bishop Butler; died 1752. Birth of V.1tair.; died 1778. Birth of Cherttrfitld; died 1773. 00695 Turks again 91vad1 Hungary. 13.yl.'. Dicti...ry published. Ab8litip of censorship of the English P"-.7. Namur falls. 1696 Trinity Church, New York, founded. 1697 P.-.e of Ryswick. Treaty betw-en England, France, Spain..d Holland. 0et.8, ofm, 0f Russi., visits Holland and 11ngland, and 10. s useful trades. Peter suppress.. the -..spi,.cy of the St-UU;t, and punishes its members with b."bar... cruelty. End of King Wilh.- "s war Birth of H11 0rth, painter; died 1774. 1698 Death of Fro0 0 01ac. First P101titio1 treaty, regul t s Spanish succession, and cedes territory to Fr -.e Th. Darien..pediti.. Salls. 00111d East I0diP Company formed. Birth of Savage; died 1743. Birth of Warburton0 died 1779. 1699 Peace of Carlowitz, between Turks and the Allies. The More8 ceded to Venice. Further egplorations of the Mississippi Folilod.s "T0lem 1qu1" issued. 1700 The French in Canada make peace with the Iroquois. Second Partition treaty in Spain, declares. the Arch Duke Charles next in. suecession. 1 Charles 80. of Spain, the last of the House of Austria, dies and is su15 ceBded by Philip V0; of the House of Bourbo.. 1701 18ar of the Spanish succession begins in Italy..d continues until 1713. Death of James Ii., bo..Ile, at St. 0erMai., Sept. 16. Spain allied with France and Mant... Th. French found Detroit. The Pr...!.. -...rchy established by Frederic0, and recognized by Leopold, of Germany. Russia at war with Swede0 0 Total defeat of Peter at the battle ofl board, by Charles XIIp. Cen801 of N8w York g10ve ",000 inhabitants. 5711 Death of Wil0 81 I81. of England. Anne succeed. to the English throne, March 80 Beginning of "Qof81 Anne's War.0 1 Prusri. takes G..lders fr.- the Dutch. Holland, Austria and England declare war with France arld Spai.. Treaty of French with the Five Nations. Massachusetts frontier ravaged by I81 di..s. P110 Peter f8 81ds St. Petersburgh, and makes etth apital-.f the empire. Potr'g'.l joins alliance against Spain and Fran e. Iprish parliament petition,; for..!on. Birth of Jonathan Edward1; died 1758. Birth of Job. Wesley; died 1794. 1708 0 Battle of Blenheim; English and their allies, under Marlborough, victorious over the French. The English capture Gibraltar. Peter abolishes the Strelit., or royal body guard. Engl~and passes the Irish "Popery Act." Batotle of 1 1anwerth.1. 1705 Charles 0ck11wledgd King of Spain at Joseph I. becomes Emperor of Germany. 1706 Defeat of the ]French at Ramill... Battle of Turin. The French raise the siege and surrender Naples and Lombardy. Birth of,Be. Franklin; died 1790. 1707 1181 of England and SP8tland a0 the Kingdom of Great Britain. Nuenb1rg seized8 and 1 ecklenburg purchased by Frederick 1. Holland, Germany and England at war against Fr..ce.. First cxpeditio. against Port Royal, Nova. Scotia, fails. Defeat of the allies at Almauze. Death of Aurung..b.. Birth of Fielding; died 1754. Birth of Buff..; died 1788. 1708 Mantua ceded to Jo-eph I., of Austria. Th. French squadron routed by the English,..der Admiral Byng. Discovery of Herculaneum. 1709 England determines upon the.onquest of Canada. Battle of Pultowa; -Pet., totally defeats Charles XII., of Swede., who file. to Turkey. 14, 000 Swedish prisoners sent by Peter to colonize Siberia. 1709 Battle of Malploquet; Marlborough again defeat. the F~rench. Birth of 911061 Johnson; died 1784. 1810 Capt06 0 of Port Royal, 100, Scotia, by the English, and name changed to Al-..P.Ii.. Root of Spaniard., under Philip V.,10a battle of Alo. 0 88;1 S-h —11'.l' riots I. Great Britain; dissenting meeting houses destroyed. The "Tattler" first published. 1721 Attack and repulse of English fleet on Q-bbec. Russia at war with Turkey. Aooooi70l of Ch0rle VI., of Germany. A 110ve market opened in Wall Street, New York. Birth of Hume; died 1716. 8712 The principality of M1urs acquired by Prus.'a Pea10 of Aargaul end of the religious war j. Switzerland. A-s.iiion of Charles as Emperor of Austr-a Birth of Roil0au; died 1879. 1710 Treaty of Utrecht b1tw101 the great power., and terminates. the wars of Que.. Anne. Newfoundland and Nova S(coti. ceded to England. Italy divided; 1 part of tho Duchy of Milan,gilven to the Emperor of Austria. 110011081, Spain, besieged. FrederiP 1 William I. becomes King of Pr...Ia. Peter takes the title of Emperor of Russia, 1irth of Stern1; died 1768. 1714 Death of Queen Anne. George I. 1100111 King of England, Aug. 1. 1110varia0 100018117 begins. Treaty of Ra1tadt; Austria acquires the NI-~th-land.. Birth Of Wh018114110; died 17700 Birth of Gluck; died 1787. 1715 Rebellio. I. Scotland under the Earl of Mar. Battle. of Presto. and Sheriffmulr and defeat of the rebels. Landing of the Chevilier at Peterhead, December 22 -Louis XV., King of France, with the Duke of Orl.... Regent. Austria acquire8 Naples8 Milan, etc1 Russia adds Eitho.ii, 00700118, 11d a large part of Finland to the Empire. Pet., visits Germany, Holland and F;ranc.. Osoup1ti1n of the Mlo 1 by Turkey. Rule of Cardinal Albr..! i. Spain. Pru. sia and Swed.. at war. Death of Louis the Great;.-ession of Louis XV., hi gr8 dio,. 1716 Great 0ra of speculation. George Law'. finaatcO.1 schemes. The village charter of Brooklyn first jss..d. The septennial Dill passed in England. Birth of Garrick, 10100; died 1779. 1717 New 0,1ean. f-,-ded. Belgrade ab..d...d~by Turkey. 2718 The Duke of Savoy become1 King of Sardinia. Peace of P......wit.. Austria gains additional territory. R...!...p.1. the Jesuits. Turkey reestablishes supremacy in Greece. Arch of St. Denis, Paris,0 completed. 1719 Battle of GI- 08hi8l. Ostend Fast India Company founded. Moh.-med Shah..,lends the throne of lndi.. 17bi0so0 Crusoe published, 1720 Sardinia is made. kingdom. L.,'. Mississippi Sooth 11. Bubble, and other sch.-e., collapse. Widespread 81081790i11 distress. 1721. Birth of S-.11st; died 1771. Bi9th of Foott, act.,; died 1777. 1702 The Porg1g10t Sancti80 settle7 the Imp1rial Crown of Germany on Maria Theres.. Death of the Duke of Marlborough. 1723 Th0 Jes5it..pelled 851m China. Birth of 1181ld1, painter; died 1792. Birth of Ad1m Smith; died 1790. Birth of Blackstone, jurist; died 1780. 1714 PhIlip V., If Spain, 0bdic8t09, but r.' su118 power upo0 the death of Lo0001, hi..... "0Wood'8 hbf-p-oo-." Great.xcit.-cnt in Ir ',"and. Modern History at Oxf.,d University. Guy'1 Hospital founded. 1725 Death of Potop, the Great. Cather0ne 1. becomes Empress 80010101.The New York G.-U,2e founded. A1ad1my of Sci-lO-t, St. Petersburg, establilhed. 1828 Prussia 807lud71 a league with 1108rmany' Bioth of Hutto1; died 1797. 1727 Death of George I., and..Cession of George 100, 11 England, Jun50110 Death of Sir I...c Newt —. 1728 Birth of Goldsmith; died 1774. 1719 A city library f108110 It New York. Birth of L0011ing; died 1781. 1730 Peter II., the last of the R8manoffs, deposed. Anne, Duchess of C..,I..d and daughter of Ivan IV., become, EmP0 1 of Birth of J. Watt; died 1819. 1781 Birth of Cavendish; died 1910. Birth of 01wp01; dild 1800. 1132 Birth of George W08higt11, Feby. 22. 1733 Georgia settld by Oglethorpe. Birth of Wieland; diod 1813. 1734 "01101tt8 Philo.ophique8" burnt by the hangm... Bioth of Priestly; died 1804. 1735 Charles1 the so1 of Philip '., conquers Naple; and rrowned king of the tWSieili.., Birth of Jo5110 Adams; died 1826. 1736 Marpigij Of Maril Theres0 to Francis I., Duke of Lorraine. War between Spoa8 and Portugal. Birth of Mozart, 1usici08; died 1792. 1787 f-1-gary.l1i- at war with the Turks. Birth of Gibbon, hiltoria.; ditd 17940 1738 Birth of B1810mi We0t, painter; died 1820, Birth of Sir Willi098 Herschelf died 1822.:L739 England agal. decllrr- war with SP-ilnTreaty of D.1grad. betwee. Russia, Au.tri.. d Turkey. Russia renn —,2-s he, right:. the Bllackl Sea. Invasion of India by P-rsia. Delhi -`,ked by Nadir Shah. iMethodism begin,, in England. Prohibiti — Of the Publfeati.. of DeNate. in England. 1.740 Death of the Etuper.,, Charles VI.. Of Germany, last of the M-Wleline of the H.-se of Hapsburg. Maria Theresa, hi. dtughter, becomes QU... of Hungary and Empress of GelFrederick the Great, King Of Prussl — prussi. dvan..d to the rank of. firstcia.. power.f Iva. VI. an in an, emperor of Russia. New yo'rk Society Library founded. Swedenborg fl-urish... 1741 Prussia, Bavaria, S —..y and Fran.. make war upo. Marla Theresa, who receives support from Great Britain. Prussia. victory at M.1Wit7. Breslau ceded to. Prussia. Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the Great, impri..ns Ivan VI. for life and Teig.. mn hi. stead. Russia at war with Sweden. 1742 Th. Elea-o of Bavaria elected Emperor of Germany a. Charles VTI. 1743 The French defeated at Dettingn by the English. Birth of Thomas Jefferson; died 1826. 1744 Hostilities renewed in America between P01160 and England, known as King G-orge' sWar. Friesland...... d to Prussia. 1745 Capture of Louioboog by Massachusetts 1iliti0, 01der Popperell. Francis I., Duke of Lorrain0, consort 98 Maria Theresa,.1ected Emperor of GerTh. young pretender lands at Mllida.,t,'.d. Defeat of the Royalists at Pre0110 Pan1, Jan. 17, and i-Ssi6o of England. Dirth of Hannah M010; died Birth of John Jay; died 1829. Birth Of B..j.-i. Rush; died 1813. 1746 Royalists agai defeated at F08kirk, Jan.:L7 -Total defeat of the Pretender, at Cull0 - de.,April 16. Vi'0otri.. of Marshal S.60. invasion of Shirley, N-v Scotia. French and Eoglish struggle fos pos0881000 of India. Capture of Madras by the French. 1747 Th. French invade Flanders. Stadtholdership revii-d i. 11.11..d. Eoo-utioo of Lood Losot in England. Kloprtock'. Messiah issued. Birth of 089id, p001;.; died 1825. 1748 Th0 Peace of Ai 11 Chap00118 Th. House of Aurtrl. confirmed in the p1...0510i of 01il05190 Franc. takes. p.,t of Fl..d-... 1749 De La J..quille b-.-mes g.,.rnor of Canada. French lo-r ih upAo Nova Scotia. Birth of Gpdthi; died 1832. lDirth of Laplace; died 1827. Birth of Playfair; died -.,-750 Treaty of Madrid, betw...- England and Spain. Th. first theater in New York opened. Dit 102010ry of Pompeii. Pao1i's7 P7rsip lvt olt, 1819. 1751 0Lord C51e take0 Arcot, India. Diderot and D Al.-bert French E-cy-,lopedle. Birth of Sheridan; died 1817. piyth of J1018 Madip0; died 18361 010152 T 18 Mquis Duquesne Go1880 r of Canad11; h. prepare1 for war with Great Britain and hol 81., ops 0 The French dispute the clai80 of Virgin to, the valley of the Ohio. New style of year introduced into E010 land; Sept. 3 c1unt1 d a1 Sept. 14. The Journals ordered to be printed by the British Parliament. 17586 Hostilities begin i the AP1er1an 1olo-' nieP; French seize Huds16 Bay C801 p..y. trading post.; George Washington sent to St. Pierre. Charles III. King 8f Spain. 1754 Kentucky settled by Daniel Boone. Peace between France and England; India. Fort Necessity built at Great Meadow.; Washington surrenders it to D. Vilhiere with honors of war. King0, 17w Columbia, College, New York, chartered. 1755 Braddock and his to y-defeated by the Frt o 1h and Indians. Defeat of Di011,50 at Lake George. French Acadians take. from their homes. Frontier settlemento in New York and Pennsylvania harassed by the French and Indian.. Niagara..peditio. fails.,Lisbo. destroyed by.. afthquak.. Birth of Dr. H8181mann1 died 1843. Birth of Mrs. Sidd11b, 1090; died 1831. 0756 War declared betw00 b Franc1 and E810 land. Beginning of the S1ve1 Y1. ' War. Austria, Russia and Franct allied against Pr...ia. Frederick invader S...ny and captures S.... army. Moltcalm sent to C..da and seizes Osw-go' New York. Th0 0 1qu01 t 8 f India begun by Great Britain. Ad-h-al Dyng e...uted, March 14. D 6wlh, Viceroy of Bengal, 1 aptures Calcutta after a heroic defeat. by H.1w.11. Th1 Black Holi tragedy, Junt 20. 1757 Fort Willi7. Henry, on Lake George, captured by 100111018 Lord Clive's vi.ctori.. in India; take. Calcutta, January 2; Chander..g.,e, March 23. Battle of Pla.-ey, June 23,.stablishes English power I. Indi.. Battle of the Prague, May 6, victory of Frederick. Frederick defeated 1. the battle of Ko080, May 18. Defeat of Prussia1 at Battle of 81r1800. Austria 011190101 treaty with Franto for division of Prussia.Victory of Frederick in the battle. of R..b-ch, Nov. 5,..d, D.C. 5. Att01mpted a01 p dinati 00 of King Louis of Fr 1801 by Damien. g Birth of Trumbull; died 1804. Birth of Ale...der Hamilton; died 1804. Birth of J. P. K.-bl., act..-; died 1823. Birth of C..o-va, -nulptor; died 1822, 1758 Louisburg captured by the English, n de, W.Ife. Cap. B-t..n Island and Prince Edward'. Island captured. Aberer.-bie defeated by M-fitaint, at Ti...d,)rog.. Fort Frront.... capitulates t. Bradstreet; Fort George built. General Forbes -3aptureF Fort Duquessfr.- the French. Prussia.. defeated at the Battle of Hochkerch.. The French seize Fort. St. David and A-cot, Indi.1759 'Fort Niag~ar. -pt.,,.d by the British,July 23. Th. aband-. Ticonderoga and Crown Point. Datth, of the Plains of Ababaam. Death of the French and English c-nl -dndr., NI-A,-alt and Wolf., Sept. 13. CQuebec.urr..d.-s to the English.,ha,'es Ill., King of the two Sicilie~s, b —me King of Spain. Th. Prussia.. defoattdd~i. the battle. of Mlnder., C-,nrsdd-f..d Ma-h.. Th' French drive. back in lndi.. Engl..d. obtain. -uh territory from Subadhar, Of Birth of Robert Bur..; died 1796.,CBirth of Schiller; di d 1805. Q.,:bubc att.-:ked by the French und,)r D. Lev!. Montreal captured by the English. Surrender of Canada to G,..t Brital.. Death of George HI., of England, and suece..i.. of George ITL, Oct. 25. Berlin captured by the Austria.,; and 13, -eof T.,g..; defeat of the Austrians. Thu-ot's invvsi.. of Ireland. C..t. retak.. Arc.t, India.1761 George III. marries Charlotte S-phi-, -f r-1,1-b-ug, Strelit.. Th. French r-r-d-de Pondicherry, in India. 1762 Revoluti,,. at St. Petersburg. Peter III. tnurd-led, and Catherrl. H.. called the Great, b.,,. — E-Pt ss of Russ!.. Spai. again d-l-aes war against England and P-ttugal, and the Iatter country. Battle. of Freiberg and Burkersdorf; Austria.. defeated in Sile,;ia, by Fred-.rick. Jesuits banished fr.- Fran-e Lord Rut., Pr!-. Minister, England. 1763 Peace of Paris. Can ad. ceded i. Great Britai.. Pondicherry rest...d to Fr.-... Governor Murray appointed gove —o of Canad., and first i.:t,.due.. Englisb law.. 176a Close of the Seve. Year.' W.,. Treaty of 10iub0rt1burg; Siesia added to Prussi.. Treaty of Madrid re018001 peace bet —.fOSpain, Portugal and England. Joh. Wilk... —eted for sedition. Boploortions of Willis and Carteret J. A'strmli.. Great defeat of native princes, It battlI of Buy.r, India, Oct. 23. Pontiac'0 war; India7, capture English fact. and -as.-re inhabitants. Th0 Sandy Hook lightho 16019rst lighted. 0. Granville, English Prime Minister. Birth of 5. Paul Richter; died 16825. 17164 0urder7of Ivan VI., by order of the E1 -pr... India.. sue for peace. End of Pontiac'. war. British parliament decreep heavy duties onimport.. The 0116810, St. Genevieve, Paris, Modern History. From A. 0. 10115 to the present t811, by Countries. CHINA. 0793 RDotptiol of the English Embassy at Pekin. 1812 Edict 111001t Christianity because of J"suits. 1816 Failure of L-rd A-bert's Embassy. 1832 Kingdom of Korea established. 1934 Opo 80 trade prohibited. 1839 Opium sei..d, a..iing trouble with British' Chinese outrageo 11 Canto08 Hong Kong captured. Naval battle.. 1840 Trade 1ith England f8rbidde0 by the Cant.'..a coast blockaded. W., end. i.. truce. 1841 War r510101 owing to-h.l.'80 bad faith. Vitory of the British. Treaty g1951g England Hong Kong and - 6,000,000, repudiated by Emperor. 1842 Treaty of p 1..e, at Na1ki, with England, August 20. 1001 Koog oeded to England. Th. Chi.... iti... non Amoy, Fo08hoof18, Ning1 8 and Sl..ghl8.p sued to British.P Chi0 payl5 $01,000,060. 1843 Treaty ratified by 00178 Vi99ri and the Emperor Ta..-K-" g. 00on0 Kong charter issued, April 5. 1810 RebtiOoi in 1600181801. 1853 and Shanghae take' by rebels. 1856 R811110 Of -1 owing to Chinese ootrages On Erpas 0100115re Elliott, 10. 8. N., destroys0 Chi.... fleet.,857 13Iockade of Cant --- 1858 Capture of Cant18 by English an81 Free-h. Treaty of Lood Elgin. Chi01 pirates destroyed. 1859 C010er01, treaty with U0it70d State1. English Envoy attacked by Chinese. 1860 England and France at war with Chi... E. `panAlU..s victori.... Treaty of peace signed October 24. 800_18de0 of Pekin, Oct. 12. Ratiticatito of treaty with Russia. China011 8ed to pay ind 8105ty, and to Former treaty -tifit-d 1861 Allies restore Canton to thl Chi008. Rebels defeated by Fr1nch and English aid. 1864 Soloide of Tie0-wa g, the= 1-be 17010181 1865 PrilsI Ku1 g becomes 100111 80P116 minority of emperor. 1868 Burlingame Embassy visit United State. and sig. treaty. 1869 Burliname, Chinese Embassy, received at P1 8 1 1 1 1870 French consul and many priests -1.-..,!red at Tlen-tsi.. 1871 Chinese apologi- end give Indemnities. Marriage of Emperor. 1873 Ki-TSialg of age; Emperor a. TuSg-`hi, Jan. 22. - 1875 Death of the Bmperl0, Tung-Chi, Jan. 22; accession of Ts0i-Ti0, bo. 1871,... of Prince Chan. First Chi0es11 018,ly fr8m Sh91gh10 to W...ung opened. 1877 Terrible flmi.l thr8ugh9ut thlt Empire. Edict forbidding opium smoking. 1880 Seri08 trouble0 with Ru-fia. 1881 Treaty of Pe... concluded with Russia. 1883 Sacking of Europe.. quarter in Canto.. 1004 Treaty of 810 with F0ranc1, May II. The 8mp-a111 G-ler11 -gt lllntiol the in -0du01ti0 of railways, June 20.'1 TVe Chinese Government declare waragainst France, Aug. 15. French destroy Kinp1 i FortP at I oooho', Aug. 28. Repuls of 1he French at Tam10 1. Fr...h admiral declare. all the For111an ports t8 be blockaded. Inuretoni Korea. Ass... ".ti..of thg Kiog'. 100, De00 4. Bh1mo, Korea, captured by the Chinese, 1885 La006on,10. Cochin Chi00, captured by the FrI~l, Feb. 02; evacuated March 28. 01,60 -oo-luded with FrP110, April 6; signed at Ti8-t9111, 5une0.1885 Ad00001ty Board 0012610, 007. 15. 1888 Marriage of the Emperor hFeb. 25. 1890 British Coo..late at Ching-Ku1g-Foo 1001118, Feb. 6. 1891 Fl..d. and f.-ine 1. the Nortber. Distribo, Apoil. 1894-5 War with Joplo t8d eo.titoed defeats ffthe Chinese.,mies and n-le... 1895 Pelot concluded with J5101, China payl.g a large i18111ity and relinquishing her claim. on Core.. M0,18100 of 10911901610917.lthe interior. 1,00 LL Bx-11 i~prisi- i. Chi... 1901 Chi0011 p0ov,17 —t agree1 to term1 de-..ded by the, p —..s INDIA. 1675 Nabob of Odh beh.oes tributary to British. East India Company made receiver of Bengal, 11har and Orissa. 1766 Treaty with Ni91 of the Deccan. 1767 Alliance of Ni78 and Hyd1 1 A01; 101 attack the British and are defeated at Vellore. 1769 Hyder All. a Musselnon adventurer, W ---`h-s onMadras..d.-ppels Eng1,,h to form.lane 1770 07001bl1 fami801 179 Oolgal. 9771 Th0 M10 17tta1 enter Delhi. 1772 Warren Hastings becomes governor tr Bengal, 1774 0070ce of Governor General created. F, hi]a.-y defeated. 1705 Be01106 ceded to the East India C01 -posy; bharge. of bribery Igai..O W1arren Hastings. I i

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In8188t1h6871178l8.e27816f 88127778 1788,78 818111 7811 88188118e Juf 081781 G 78 111 8F77121 76881 81.7 081717 d 7811t771 8817. 18 A18r171t Sf atA1s11 PIi, Fby 1788 018778712o 717871 1678887 S 8hb86tsit 21; 7117762, No, 2.uiAiaM7o,2278 h..,b Jul8719 1K81147718 858 ii fth meo At2111 o117881 AVien.ofA..71 I,8787111 Captur of Dl~i fom therebel, S-Et- is3 Commncemet of h18qurrel 7t11T8882, 071efS. 87718611i. o f 1187 S of C1186i1l78awnoe 1l.A1Siit~no l.adrI 8787178871861881 S668782 71888787 888667 781187118 8 7188f. 18712 hi. f 1876age Mllrbth 818o 811,D~tl 7f17117.Ja.2.Sr -1- Egl 61871 Fr2nc fleet. 611oft81 781218ff.117 1 188118 71111 ca7p6ur8e1,Luyc87i786117M88811182788281187' 78 71178 2 7811h77811y -01177 21v 8772718,Al, 1 88 -882181 of 7,6851e 1778178188ffne R Sdf 87187 at 1681728, 4u1y 41 8711178le e~tr h B7181188 Sea.78711111rA82-181d 726l 182. nacun ffa 882.87 Algt 1781187878 87h71881. 88771 fetId 8Trial 87 2;51177I 7 f-N1hii8t171111 l 81,8718.8 Lod...g 1187117 87181 f 818. 11 18108 1111t7 87. 888111fIin811, 7818111ff, 4717 1.y 3 d-a. T8ryy, Dcigii0,7byo Gl8,A.01&02 8883 A17ide8t8t th8881 01177126 17187128, Dec. 7o1. Soud.,kin, 1h211 of 768i161 11a1K 0071868 f8 A~l..ider Ill., C..r of 281 1111 8811281, Aug. 21.81688 Alti-J818778 riot, r7151t01g i8 th1 8,188 ofi 8877 o 717101, 4186 10. 18885 Att8,k of th1 88111811, 68317 812. 888170ff, 871 Afghan 7012818818187r 11793 41871 87782218 77r82 8111 Asjitil p77 7di7d1 April0f 2888121888171 71894 Al.... d7 III., 0887 97 all 861228, d118 1718 8711 267711818 876 Nicholi, II. to 7876 8717 278188i87 t6 41711 818.8900. 11107,Ot71 at St. 7717711377, 6,560 810178 TURKEY. 6-700 878811261 of All Bep 1877711118, in 1787 5787 87888 888161 ad Austr28; 812781 o7 17888 711 771171, Suot37o 887116,e 8788 18869 758821 of8Aboukir; F7,18h8victoriou. 18871 71. Engli1h aid 8111 Tuk1; 88p011on 88718818 1117 718211d 681 887861821. 826888711 IV., Suit11, 1181 01118668d IT., 08268.. 1818 828518771 of 8218110181; 71718e1871 87 -1682 T77187 717 7u7117126; 77661 87821~ 1,8 -1826D_. WiP 721 87118 177181 16gApt. 1821.-cti188i 171178687 8nd W8allahia i8782 pf 81228 7fgG781818S 8171e 1 1881 B8ttl8 of 808718.; 81177878h 88718 df 1838 86127112 11877i018Surrender1 08181182 11181 of 81101; 211718187821111871. Ar's 1831. 3187181 8111me 73781 118821 of 1176701; 717718811s81178118 82111871 Al811y 1177,88a 1781 1882 88187e 1711f K.ich186718228 21def1at8of 07188u;ian..te, i876t18ti8Pl87 Offe88d 118 nd18 871611iv 771171 7878811 811,sia. 71112 at77 86178 787 7617 71hpth 7718lnd 7687171, 7178818, a717d All-~i 718111eat with,811,1 Mehemet Ali 181d17V818r6y, 828771180,e A5llReblli1118 16817 71111,1788218 1852 r12t 771108 881881718 din 81861172. 76131188 81718; 78611 771887 pow7185 ligld, Fra7878, 78u87118 8781187738M11 41881 828181188178 E8gl8d171 87117878118 877h 788 118671p 8er 81rte 11871171. in 1888 87118 17II01811271 108171787 f gleets 8112ar Od881.. dbok 818 d881 818 8218181b 587 8811177 of 71178118118an 88t8171871.r 11 817 of18 88 78811;. o 2887812~S 71118in 81g715d1pend7176 of 77771garnted 8586 Apfli t 7181180 16776811887Egypt 86671 t 668t812 7118218776 071621.. 871181 7188 DglillI Ill 1872 17b81u 16811 Suit 11 78768 o 71878r 8t0871 18817178111 and 8087 70177868h o 7S68d7276h1 I7s7117 881121 I 1 71677111168 AebllinlSpprsse b 17731771. 189 Sue81Ca.28.. 7u~td 881121i oaul Baker878 1781871171, F. I1872 87k8r888tur 7188ft6r c1iis1de-b. S817810 7687of7881Adt 18 1873 By Ith 8 s 118, 816921 8172171di8786 1871 771817tin 7187 87211 byvilil 8711d 8 881876111it 17177688171 Ith 881188; 11818 71781111 17u7171l 81 Armenia; 72,871 1111180188, 4677 6; 1858766718, 4677 28; 67776817 188622-; 81 th1 888718 7186, A 676182126; 8888118871768178 t7 721612, Sept. 7-8,1 87711 27s 112 7 808111711s; 71l81f8087P1188, 71171782, 17011611178288h,; 77ty7t1of Tuy1, 8171. 78; 7180712 of Mehemetl All a. 108888817 11 -h11f; 171117881 78283 877121118.; 6161181 P8188 g8181 Tu7k821 811807681 61 Armenia; 13818 878017 of 6881168, 78188 6 888671 tf A78dj.8811, IstI 15; 88281872 8ak1 881- 87 term, 887. 16; 271771831 of 721717a 2878 77817688 uate 11686881171708 808776871 817181 of 767117; 77111877877 87118ty of 71871 1ig1188 MaIPSh 6, 0681178171 87 th1 7687175 at Berlin, 18 Tr1aty of Berlnraified, Aug.3 87126 1711171, 4627 7, 1176711 Cyp1781 8861,1111879ialtey 87188 861181 111818 Ftb, 1. 1112118 d81a8d8 1f6rm1 i71 7717117. 8818,r 71 8i 71871.s 2180 711 70871,1 7677128 77187811i dlaiy in 18178887g 7708117081 6f 117288 8761187. 87118 18718 demonstration. 0118761 of D68sig.., 868. 26.,8161 C..f.,c15l of th1 7687171 88 C0ostl.i888 -82881118718118 178781171, triedfof078r 887 77 Abd871-A~i, a68 7671888188 7, 81818; 81187 81881188 168787181 17 D17,11 67 ibolition of 8187771 in gypt. 1882 7181 70711 dec~lile t3 enter 881711187 61 Pow8717171180876.817671.t 1168 S8ubs81877188181 871111788d y18111 7861176 81781711 to 1188 troops to 1177t. 1168,f8761 8111 16888788118, laoliltsl 0176201 18, 8871, Dec. 6. Praersoffre 88178M81820u81 of-718876707 88 4618871," Dls. 83. Ar1bi 712118, E7778817 128181817 71 5717, hlad. opposition to thIKhldi-,e AiIIged 768172787 1118811 Apabi 71188, 822881877 tf Wi,,11181 to i2881711816108a A21osa87ria, 8217. 68 Jun. 18, 8 piot 8718118 861 in Altad i.,th 71268718 1812187 308 7t71, 788787- 711828 8708 18 aid 881 Apai -A1S6 f2otifi..ti1n, a1d 887188117 to87bl7688p thf52 Sue. Canall. 81 12;miral5S1y81178t61k1781111agd811 811, 16d 887816 57012117i8. forts81JAl8 -8188 818111888 of 77767128 878811677 8118 o 7h1dip 78111r~ him 76887,l 81.16887808 177871 th8EKgiooh trb, 88, Skirpt8h bPtwel8 lgyptia.. and th1 Th.761 fgypl sal118t11 Atg.kir -- B88811 of A7 8.111,K7b 687 of 1786228h 17778,3 Egy88196788 Prmy i mtdSet 8118 of 828188 Spt 821181. 178 18189181ot 8 1116118i. 80687281shaa hi.817lf8781118. 1d0012Nov 883 6 718, 71P11178111271,J. 8 810E yp6t. 81661 Af87 788118, All. 68. 16-78. 707g8871 8676, 917. 19 0118111is tr11p 821881177. 817 7...r 1175 t11P1117 March8 1818276 118 11 86111188 of 08789 KI677711118. Brti byis 81, y 87118 t.m1 h 114 1111 of 1678t 1778 itp 826 818. g 18817111111a8 flag hig1t6817 Pitflhat d 111111 If87118 181,. h 11111 171111 I 1. i 1, j ii I I i I I 1,11 evil, - Copyright-.- 190.-, Y co. A. Ogle & Co.

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Page  XVIII ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODEEN HISTORY. __ 1387 N88-88-y and Denmark b87888 88888dorate kingdom.,,... rule,, and remained so until 1814. 1407 By the Treaty of 08888., 88ed.8 j88888 the e..fod.,.ey or Scniainkingdo-, 1448 Christi0 8 I. of Oldenburg be8888 king and added Schl-sig and Holstein to the kingdom. 1520 S8de8 88888888d fr88 the f888 88887, Gusta,.. Vas., he, future king, became 8 8dependent in 1523. 88 88888 V88' died in 88 8 8 8 1523 Luthe-a religion established in De.mark, 1537 Catholi,!i-..ppr....d and ch.,oh a-,oxed to the e-..n 161 L G..ttv,,. Adolph --- The U.. King of th. 3N.,th and 13.1-rk Of Protestantis- -n Germany, beo.-oe king of Sleden. He -.7 " important facto' in the Thirty Years' War..d -3s killed at 'h battle Of hutt-. i. 1632. 1864 Ch8888s XII. 888888 king of S8ede8 8 after 88. gi-g 8-8887ssf8l 8 8r with Russia he -a defeated by Peter the Great at P08 8888 8. 1709 88d b88888 a f-giti'.. 1792 Gust.,.. 111...'.sslnated..d.".ced8d by G8888888 IV. The l8tt88 being 888 88 8, was dethroned. 1809 Charles XIII. 88888ed8d t8 the th-888 of 1810 8or want of 8 legitimate 8 888, 88888a78tte87, 87888 88 08.t C8888, 888 88 N88888on'888 877888 s, was 8 le8088 — ow priiic. Of S-ede.. 1814 Norway take. from Denmark 8 8 d give8 to Sweden as ind.-.ity for h., los... 8 8 Finland by the 8 8 li888, 8 d Lau8788 b.,g -as give. to Denmarki I. e.1818 Beriiadottc.c-.ded the th,... of S-e de. and Norway, where lit. d.-orid-.nts.-e still..tted. 1863 Inure.oni Schleswig-Holstei...d L..,,..b.,g arsisted by P.... i... Austria, resulted I., the loss of the.. privicee to Donm. k. Christi.. IX. e,.-..d king of Donui-k. 1872 Osc-, 11..c-ndd the th-ii. of Swede. and Noi-ay. 88893 Viking ship built at Christian0, Sweden,8.,id..iled for the World's Fair at Chl'ag., Ap'il 9. Dr. N..s... the Arctio PI.,,.,r,..!led fr.- Christ!aii., Sweden, June 24. GERMIANY. 1765 Joseph HI. bee.-.s Emperor. 1766 eorai d edd to Fr..... 1769 C —veti.. bet,... Prussia and Austria. 1772 Germany sha... I. the partition of Poland, 178 8 W.8 with Turkey. 1790 Leopold II. become. Emperor. b71cnernebtw... the Emperor and Frederiek of Fr..ia -1792 Aec...ion of P-necis IL. of Austria. 1793 Rev.1t 1. th. Rhenish pr-l...... Prussian...i.. D..tzic..d acquire Posen. 1795 Warsaw coded to Prussia in the division of Poland. W., vwith France. 1797 Ace,-.i.. of F,.&eIek William Ill., of Prussi.. 1801 Prussia....i.. Ila....r. Treaty of I,...Vill.; Germany I.... the Netherland., the Itali.. state. and torrioiswest of the RbI... 1804 F~rauci i. 11. ce the title of ]Em7888r of Germany, and 7'88 —8 that of E-rer., of Austria.:L805 Treaty of V!.,,,, Napoleon establishes the kingdoms of Wurtemburg and B7ia. 1806 Dissolution of the Ger-.. Empire. For-.ti.. of the C..federatio. of the Rhlne Prussia....I.. Ian...VW., declared against Napoleon, Sept. 24. Battle. of Auorstadt..d Jena; French 8nt888r Brli8, Oct. 21. 1807 The kingd-m of Westphalia established by NapoIeon' Treaty of Tilsit between France and 1808 Serfdom abolished I. Pru..I.. 1810 North Germany.....ed to France. 081 A..lh.'e. concluded with Austria and Russ!.. 1818 The war of Liberatio8, against Napoleon, begins. The French.,aeuat. Berl!., March 4. W WPar declared ggai..t Franc., March 16. Silesia invaded 7by Nap8leo8, May 31. 88y defeated by Bl88he8 at Kat8bach, Aug. 16. Allies completely defeat Napoleon at 88ip7ic, Oct. 88. 1814 Fra088 8878888 by the allies. Battle. of Brie..., C ---., and Lao..,815 C..gres. of VI""'a 'Ina overthrow of N.P.I.... Formation of the Ge-aaic Confedera1817 I..u-.ection in Breslau put down. I1818 Th. Z.Ilverein (commzercial union) formed' 1819 Anti_"-'-luti ---'y Congg"'s of Carlsbad. 1-832 Death of Goethc, German poet. 1833 Other G.- n tat.. join the Zollvvr-in. 1834 Thuriingia..d Saxony jet. the Z.11 -1840 Aecession of Frederick Willi.- IV., of Prussia. 1844 Attempted...... 1-ti.. of the Prussian King, 1848 Ins..reeti.. in B-rl1.,..d revolutionary mvmn throughout Gerin.-Y. (;ei —. National Asserobly -..t. in F'rankfort.1849 The German Natl... Assembly felects the King Of Prussia Enipr.,. Germany, March 28. He deell... the ii-or,..d recalls the Prussian member. of the Assembly. F,.inkf.,-t Assembly removes to Stuttgart. Aiistria protests gai..t Illia... of "rus-.i. and -11ce Germ.. States, 1850. T...ty between Bavarl., S..,.y and Wurte-burg, F'eb. 27. Parliament meet. at Erfurt. Th. German C..federati.- meet. at F-.nkfort, Sept. 2. HHrse-C.-Ie invaded by the, f-ee.s of Austria, Bavaria, and Prussia, N v. 12. 1851 Rear orobly of Diet of German C..fed-.ratio. at Fraakf.,t. 18-53 Insurri-ti...,y plot I- 13-11. 1857 Revision Of the German Confede-atio.. Meeting Of an...,-bly of the Germ --- Confederation at Fr..kfort, at the e-11 of Austria. Trouble. I. H....-Cassel. The.1-tor..t.,or.d by the C..fedr. — ti".. 1859 B,,,,r-, and thee G. -n tat..' manifest a willingness to assist Austria.garret the F~rench I. Italy. 1860 Quarrel with Denmark about the Danish duchies begins. Federal Diet maintains Ile-e-Casssel Constitution against Piu..i.. Holstoin-Schleswig dispute with Donin k. 1861 Death of Frederick Will'iam IV.; acces-io. of William 1. National Assembly meet. at Heidelberg. Attempted assassination of the IKIng.' 1862 Th. National A...mbly, at B-11.n, deelare. in fOfr of U.1ficati... Bismarck become. Prini. Minlster. 1863 Th8 Lower 8ouse closed, for the se88..d tini., by Willi.- 1. German states, except Prussia, meet at F88kf887t, and approve 7 8788 of fed1864 Th. q...... with Denmark results in war with that kiigd-m Th. D.... are defeated and forced to..rr..dor the duchies. Pea88 r78888ed, 8 8t. 30. 1865 Th. Gastit covi. in It give. great offeiiee to the GO ---. Diet. Prussia..d Austri. c.]led up.. to give,.P Holstein' -hioh they -f.-se. 1866 W88 between P 8si8 and Austria, 88 8 their r-p-etive allies. Austria defeated. S..Qny..d Holstein invaded by Pr...i.. Pr...1. -.kes P --- ith the several G.'-.. states. North German C..fdo-rti.. formed, Aug. I&. 1867 F888ati88 of the new Z8888erei8788 y elude8 B778888, 88888788bu8g, Ba788 8 888,,armstadt, and Prussia. 0868 South German 8ilit88y 78888888 by 8 pointed. 1870 F-eoc dol.-rs - g agiipt Germany. M..ieh, Stuttgart,..d Other cities, deel-r f.,..i.. -ith North Germany. 88888778, W888. bu8g, HP..88, Darmsta7 8 and Fpp.,t P,.sjia. 888888888of b8887y the Germans. UP 8 p.,.11.1,ed — cces of the Gerro.. t'..PF. The E88 7888, 8888878888n III., and two F'onch -rie ad. prii...e by the German.. North G-..a Parliament opens at Ber-,iii, Nov. 24. Th. Germa- empire formed. Th8 Imperial Crown offered to the King of Pi-.i.,. D-c 10, 1871 King William I., of Prussia, proclaimed 888pe88 of Germany at Versail8es. Pri.,-! Bi.-.,ek become. Ch..,oll.". Su'eessf.I el... Of the F-enh war. Th8 Germans 88888py Paris, 8 8d deprive France of Lorraine. Treaty of peae. with Fr..c,. ratifled, May 16. Triumphal..try of the vhAtoriouu. Gman army int. Berli.,.Juo. 16. German Parliament opened by the E --- 88888r, O8t. 16 8 1872 Th088esuits ex8888 led fr7 8 the empire, July 5' Meeting of the E-p.,.-s of Gr-may, Russia,..d Austria, at B-rli., Sept. 6. Bi-,ark -agains the premiership of 1878 National Liberals 8 8 8 8 8 ed 8 the 8888 -Trouble. with the R-.a Catholic ch rch. Monetary 888 law passed, Ju88. A3 Germany -olv-v~ the last payment of the F-ech iid-mity, Sept. 5. 87884 Civil 88-riag bill passed. New military..d press law,;. Attempt to V.. Bi-ePine ro ns marek, July 13. Bi~inarvk rsg Ch..-II.-bsip, Do.. 16. Resigi-tioin -itlidraw. 88ivi8 g a vogt of 88888888888 1875 Th. Imperial Banli bill adopted. Visit of the Emperor to Italy, Aug. 17. Government aid withdraw. fr.- Cath-.1io clergy. 1876 Germany take. part in the Eartti,. q...Visit of Queen Vkt-1. I.t Berlin. Trbubl. with R.=a Cattholio Church. Inundati... I. Prussia. Th. C-a of Russia visit. Germany. 18,Z7 Cod. of laws assected Mareh 21. Sec..d resigi-ti.. of Bisiuarck; resig— tion gai. withdraw.. 1878 Attempt to,.Flsiats the Emperor WilII.- by I-Iodol, a... iali-t, May 11. A..e..d atte-pt to.-sassi-ate the Ernper-r, who is wounded. Th. CF --- Prine. take. charge of the Eropir.. Death of King George of I-laov.,, Juno 12 ' The Berl88 C7878re8ce of th8 G88 78 P88 -or.. Suppress8888 of 88y newspaper7 and elubs. Regency of the Cr878 Prince. 1879 Th. Emperor resume. the government. -Proteotioriists' bill adopted, May 9. Meeting of Bisroarek and And,.ssy, at Vi —88, Sept. Cod0 of law8 passed 88 1878 go78 i888 operation. 1880 Small 8tat8 outvote Pr8887., S887y and Bavaria 80 8 88 88p duties. Bi888 "osig.. a third tirn.,..d the state. yield. "New Liberal" party formed, Aug. 7881 German Reichstag 8pened, Feb. 16. _The Liberal. sucuesful I. the Octob., elections. 8882 Imperial e88ript of8Ja8. 4 88878ts 78 tr.-. Tighten of the E-pi,.,,..d slight constitutional restraints; eesoript.odified by cxplaiiati-n Di88888888 88ood8 88 Germany, 888. 6. 1883 Grand celebration in Berlin up88 the tw..ty-fifth nnnve,.ary of the ---- ring. of the Crow. Prineo..d Princes-. The Emperor 8pp88Pts the King of r888 to the —.mad of the Sehloswig-Holstein 88hl88 regiment, Sept. 27. 8Death of Willi88 R. Wagner, G888. 888888888 88ged 69, Feb. 13. 1884 C088fere8 88 of the Great Power0 upon Egyptian fl..nces, Aug. 2. Germany o-cuple. the C.-oli.. Islands, Aug. 20. Death of P8in88 Frederi0 k Charles of Pr78888, 878d 57, June 15. Coiivnti.. between Prussia and Austri.. 1887 S0pt88888888r 8 bill passed M7 r8h 11. Ecc1-i-atie.1 bill P....d, April 27. 1888 Death of Emperor William8 M788h 9. Fred8ri8k 8 88. be88me 8 Empe8 88, March 078888888L 888888887888,887 8 88ilhelm II., Emperor8 June I8S 88889 S8878 Agreement s8878 d, J0888 14.:1,90 Von Caprivi..oileeds Bi.mar-k as Chancllor, Mareh 19. Heligoland transferred to Germany by England, Aug. 9. 18Q1 Th. Empress Friedrieh Visits Paris, Feb. Rigid passport regulations.f.... d I. Al.." oraie Death of G-n V.. Moltk., April 24. 183 rizcs Margaret, sister of the Emper.r weds Prince Charles Frederick of H-ss, Jaii.25. Unveiling of the statu. of William I. 19 atr Pem.. 184Cpivi -lgigs the Ch..-Illorshp of the B-pir...d is succeeded by Prince,on Hoh..loh.. 1895 Grand 7888br8ti88 by 088888 v8888888 of the twenty-fifth...iversari.. of Gr.,-.lott., Sod-n, to. ' allebration - d.... I dem...tratio. at Kiel.. -cce.-t of the opening of the great c...I connecting the Baltic with 17ne North Sea. 1898 Prince 88888888k d88d, July 80. 1905 G'eet -c-l strike, Jan. PRUSSIA. 8780 Death of Frederic0 8 the Great, Aug. 77. 1792 War with Fr..e. i. consequence of the Frenlch vevclqti... Battl' of Va _y, Sept. 20. Deelsiv. defeat of the Prussian army of invasion. 888 77888 8888 788 88787788 888 1793 Prussia s.1... D..tzlc..d acquires P.1795 W~arsaw ceded to Prussia in the partition of Poland. 1798 Frederick Wil7ia78 I88., of Prussia, bee-..s E-p.,., of Germany. 1801 Pri-si... oiie, Hanover. 1805 Treaty of Vi88 8a. Downfall of the German Empire. 1806 P788888 se8888 H888888, P8888. Pr8-888 j8888 the 888i 8888888880t Fr888e. Battle. of Jo —.d Auerstadt. P.-I. Psueo.-b. to Nnpole... Napoleon issues the Berlin Decr... 1807 Peaeo of Tilsit. Napol... rest-e....-half of hi. do8888888 to the Ki8g of Prussia8 I,908 C..'onti.. of Derlir.,.rfd.- abolished 1. P-&'.rt 1812 Prussia e-nludos an with R.,-.ia and A,-tri.. 1813 The Fr. eh -oucut. Berlin, March 4. Th..,,~ of hib-.ati.. beg... Uprising of the p.opl.. 8888 888888808878 formed. Battle of L88ps77, Oct. 16. 1814 The allies invad. FE~nioo. Complete d.foat of Napole... The Pi-u..i... oocupy the Fre- --- capital. 0 8 8 87Treaty bf P. C..g,...res of Vi -,.; '-.,-anic C..fed-.ati.. formed. Prussi. onto,. the H.Iy Alli..ce.. 1817 Establishment of the 88ii 877y of Ed --- 81818 888888 of the P8888888 Z8888888-8 1819 C..gres. of C.,lbad. Death of M-shal Blueh-r, Sept. 12. 1840 A... I.. of F,.d.deii!k Willilti IV., of Prussia. 1844 Attempt the King of Pr-1-.i.. 1848 Revoluti.. Of 1848. Berlin d88 788d 88 8 stage of 888g8, N8v. 12. Th. Constituent A8088bly 888ts in Brandonburgh Castle, Nov. 29. Til. King dissolv.. the A-eembly,..d issud- a oew Constitution DD- 5. 1849 Th,, Gerro.. National Assembly offer the - lmyrial Crew. of Germany to 'h. King of Pru..i., March 28. He deel lin.. it, April 29 -MM.rtial I., declared throughout the kingd.-, May -Lo. Oceupati.. of Carl.,uh. by the P,-s si-.s, June 23. The revoluti.. i. Baden.-mpletely 'rushed, 1850 Th. K'n take. to the.., C.-.tituti..' Feb. 6. Attempt to a.....i..t. the King, May 22. Treaty of Ponce with Denmark. P-.!.i refuses to joill the r..trieted Diet Of Frankifort. Prssi..r.. Austria of her intenti.. to ujli.1d the C —stituti.. I. Hoss — CasE3.1, Sept. 21. Th8 PP887 ia8 888 y 8888 788 s H888 e, Nov. 12. The Prussian tr8P 8 8 withd88 8 8 fr88 B de,,, 111v- 14. The C.-ointi.. of 01-ut..move. the -1, - of the trouble, and rsoe ec to Germany, N-v. 29. 1851 Visit of the King to Russia. 1852 The King re-establishe. the Council of the stat... it esistEed prior to V1348.,853 8lot 78888t th8 g088888888t di8 8ve8.d in Berlin, 1854 Wav.,iig Poliev of the government e spoeting the E~astern qullti... orsi emisnutr.1 in the Crinio.1i Pru. 1...ter. int. treaty with Austria. 185 Prussia net allowed to take part I. the C..fer..'. at Vie.... 1856 C= Ps art il. the C..ferenoe at Paris. 07P88-88in88 be88787 Reg,8t in Pr-87 Quarrel with Switzerl..d about Neuf,!h.tol. Prussia ielinquish.. h., elaini for P pcuniary compensation. 1857 Sori... ill...s of the King. Th. Pri.,. of Prussia, Emperor William I., made Regent. 1858 P 8Fr88 8880 88ri8k Willi888. 788 of the Crew' Prine., married to the Princes. Royal of Erigland. 1859 F —nc-Itali.. -.r. Pruusia remains neutral, but threat..8888g. 88 8 1860 Federal Diet nitirit Hsr~-l.. e C..stituti.. Prussi.. I861 TWilli.- I. b.,-.-.. keep up.. the death of hi. r the,, Frederick Willi.- IV., fa-. 2. National Arsoolati.. meet. at Heidsl-, 788888, 8 L8ip8ig student, 8tt88pt8 to assia the King. Th. King and Queen crow..d at K..Igsbe.-g. 1862 Th. National Assembly at B~erlin declare. in favor of unifloati... Thq government defeated I. the elee0 t"' iBisiarck S-,,,h hue. mad. Pro'"tr Th. Chamber in ormed by him th t the Budget is deferred until 1863; protest of the deputies against this~a uncen-tituti...1, Sept. 30. Th. Budget passed by the Chamber of Poor. without the.-,and-..t of the Ch.-be,. Th. Ch.-b., decea.e- the oct of the P-.r uncensttjttIonal, Oct. 11. close of the v... i. of the Chambers by the King, Ort. 13. 1863 C..tinuati.. of the quarrel between the Government..d the Chamber. Th. King the sossi.. a s.. nd time..d -esv..e t. gov.,. without 8 Parliament, May 887. 1_862 Severe... trioti..., ira-osed upon the Press,June I. Th8 C8888078 Prince d8savow8 p8rt888 til. in the oecont ecti.. of the min186 W, Ju.. 5; d- -e rcahed. 184 m"a with Denmark about the Danish duehl... H.11tei. i... dd by LPrussia. Denmark port. bl..kaded. De - -rk forr-d to give up the d-chies,..d make peaee. Treaty tgiied, Oct. 30. 18685 8uarrel between the government 8 88 the Chamber of Deputies over the army budget. Th. budgot being rejected the king prorogues the parliament, and declares he will rule without it. The King arbitrarily soi7,es..d disposes of the revenue July 5. C..v..ti.. of Gjttein. Di.-arek-isit. Napoleon III., at Paris. 1866 The Diet demand. the surrender of Holstei. by Prussia and Austria, which they rei-e Pru..ia'. -fr.-.-y with Belgium. Attempt.. Bisroarck'. life, May 7. W., with Austria and he, allies. Battle of Ssdowa, total -defeat of AusTreaty Of peace with.several German states and Austria. Forma tion of the North German Confederati"'. uuder the leadership of Pru.ia.. Hanover an-e ed to Prussia. 1867 Extraordinary se-lion Of the Prussian Diet. First meeting of the new German Parlidment, 1868 Prussia passes the Rbhine navigation. treaty. 1870 Franc. declare,; war against Prussia. r. i.i receive. the support of German Stat.. France invaded tby the German army un 88r command of K8ing Will88am, of Prus(See Germany and France.) The king of Prussia elected Emperor of go, any. 1871 King William proclaimed Hniperor of Germany and o,,-wned at Versailles,,82Trouble with the R-.a Catholl. loi-gy. C888 0re8ti88of the 8 8w poor8 by the govern888t to e.87y its 88788788 88 parliamen t' 1873 Trouble. with the Wibma. Catholic bish-.Ps. The starop Tax. 1874 Trouble. with the R.-a. Catholic bishThe Old CBthalin bishops give. slanrid by the govvo-eet. Attempt to a.,;ass.i..t Bismrn-k, July 1875 C-foron-c of the R.-a. Catholie bishOp. at F.Id.. Religi8 88 git8tio8. 7 Prussia. G-o-ineent aid withdraw. fr.- Cath878 88 8rgy. NoTw Coistitution adopted by the P-ot-..t..t State Ch.,,b. 1876 The G --- —- -ad,? the Offic!i- lang..g. in P.Isa Plnd. Dop..iti.. of Catholi, Nshopp. 1. M.ster and C.loggi888 8t i8788877ti878 in Prussi8. (See Ge,-any.) Great Britain and Ireland 1765 American Stamp Art passed, M.-ch 221. Death of the Pretender, at R.-o. Porey'. Reliqu'. published. 1,766 Birth Of I.,aa, Disraeli; died 1818. 1768 8888888 t8888788 I Aadeiny of art. foundd. 1769 hotte'r of Junius. W'att's cngiO.. Ark-right'. J...y. Birth of the painter, f~wec;died 1830. 1770~ Lord North,. inisitry. Cook'. Voyages in the South Sea. 1771, English debates opport,3d. Birth of Sir Walter Scott; died 1832. H'stipgs, I. Indi.. 1774 Suicide of Lord 011".. 1775 C_.- --- ent of the Aniric.. R...luti-"; (soo United States.) Birth of Charles Lamb; died 1835. 1776 "Wealth of Nations" d87 li8888 " d fall. 1777 Royal Marriage A8 88 Birth of T. Campbell; died 1844. 1778 D8888 of the E888 of 8hath888 Relief bill for Irish Catholi-s pa...d. Birth of H. Hall.-u; died 18594 17701 Rodney'. victories. Eliot at Gibraltar. 1780 Lord Georg8 Gordon'8 "N. P88888 888 byt Birth of Chaniiing; died 1842. 17 781 Trial 78d 8 8qu8tt 88 of Gordo88 1782 8 E 8gla8d 888788.8dgs the i888pe7de8ce of the United State8, N88. 30. Lord R-kiringb-'s — od minisitry. G,.tt..'. Irish Con-tituti... -78 8 C 8aliti7 n 888 887888 England war,; with Tipp..-Saib. 8 8784 Settlement of Upper Canada. Birth of Shorid.. Kii.-les; died 1862. 1785 Birth of D8 Q8 8 88ey; died 1860. 1786 Attempted asasnto f the Ki.9 by Margaret 8888 888 088, 888877 88 Birth of Dr. Ch.1moe'; died 1842. 17888 Trial of War888 HPsti78 Birth of Lo-d Byr..; died 1824. Lord.. Time. founded. Birth of Sir 1-I. Davy; died 1829. 1790 B8we8888 J8888 8 published7 1791 Bi-ilighara riot.. Pal.. aid "People's Frieid.1792 First c..Iiti — against rne 1793 E88gland b8gi87 88 with Fr88788 1794 Suspriri.. of the Habo.. C.1p.. Act. English..,;editi.. to Dunkirk; Lord How.'.viet-ry ever the fleet. 1795 Aequittal of Warr.. 11-ting., April 23. Birth of Carlisle; died 1881. Cap. of Good EHope doubled. Prn.e of Wales -a,,i.. Caroline of Bi -i ik. 0'..g' club. formed I. Loridon. 1796, Hngland take,, the Sp, - I.I..d.. Birth of Prii.-s Ch.,Iott.. 8887 7ash payment8 suspended, Feb. 27. Death 8f Ed78888d 888ke, July 29. "Th. Anti-J.-obi.." 17598 Battle of the iTl great victory of Lord Nelson over the F'rench floot.,-Tabea, Corp.. Act again suspended.' S! d-ly Smith at Aere. Great Irish rebelli..; defeat _of thl, Irish ' Battle of Ki88p888, May 23. Battle of Ant,!-; i(A-oy of the English. 1-799 Irish rebellion e.-pletely,.ppressed. 180( Hatfield attempt. to..s... hat. the King' Malt. N'en Birth of Lord Mao..Iay; died 1859. 1801 U.!.. of Great Brital. and Ireland. Nelson '. _ictory at Copprihage.. Haboas Corp.. again...pended, April 19. 8888e of Ami8 78, Oct. 8 7 1802 Birth 8f Land8...8r, p7-88; died 1873. 1803' War declared against Fra-... Mahr'tt.t Irdi. W.,. Emmet'. i...i-ecti.. I. Ireland. Reecut!" of ETet' Sept. 20. 1805 Battle of Trafalgar, 0(ct. 21; victory and death f'NN~lson. Birth of Lord Be-..nfiol'd. 1806 Birth IfWillim E. Gladst.... Death,, of William Pitt..d Charles J.-'. Fe.. 1807 Order., I. C'..cil against the Berlin Dee,.e, J.-. 7. The African slave trade abolished, March 25. Death of Cardinal Henry Stuart, claimant of the English Cr-.n 1809 W.Ii..Iey ra-ses the Dur.. Battle, of Cor...a; J... 16. 11Q..rt'rly R.,!.-" f...ded. Inipaaoli-t of the Duke of York. Walchere, exppditi.., August. Death Of Sir Job. M —re Investigation it.o c..duet of Princ... Caroli'.. Birth of C' D.,wi.-, died 1882. Birth of Alfred T...ys... 1810 The King d-clared i..4.e, N.,. 3, Great financial orisi.. Irish agitati.. for repe.1 of the uniorn. 1811 Th. Pr!.,!. of Wales declared Regent, Feb. 5. Suddite riot., N-v Th. Rem.. Catholie Board formed by Daniel O'C....11, Dec. 26. Birth of William M. Th-kkeray. Died 1S63. 1812 English tti — Ciudad, Roedirg. an6 Badaj... Lord Tiverpo.1 Premier. Assassination of Mr. Perreival ' the -Prime Minister, by 13.lljngba-, in the House. Beginning of the eocod war with the United States, J... 18. Birth of Charles Dickens; died 1870. Birth of Robert Browning. 1814 Peace with France. Pe-c with the United States. Birth of Charles Roads. Treaty of Ghent, Dec. 14. 1815 France renews war with the allies. Battle of Waterloo, and final overthrow of Napoleon I., Jun. 18. Peace with Franc.. Insurrection in Tipperary, Ireland. Princes. Charlotte in"'ies Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg. I _ _I_ _ __ _ 1816,V~cultumal -.d We --- —- air,. 18187 87878 p87i.8888 resumed. Habea' Corpprls act again suaspende~d. 818th of P8888888 Charlotte, 888. 6. T,1.1 of L.,d T1.-..d.,quittnl. 1818 0-888 of J8 Anthony 88roud8. 1819 Q8888 V88 0788887 8, Ma8 84. Pool'. Curreo-y Act. Birth of R-skiii. 1820 Death of Ge-888e I08., Jan. 89. 1888 St7 8t conspiracy 888covere888eb8 20., Trial of Queen Caroline. Birth of Herbert Spencer. Birth of George M,~D~iiald. Death of Queen Carol88, 8ug888. Great outrage. in Ireland. 1821 G... g IV. — wnd. July 19, 1822 King George IV. visit. sootlad.l "W~hitcboy" outrages in Ireland. S.1eid. of Castlereagh. 1823 First Moehanio.' Institute, held. Agitati.. about tests,..d c.,porat!013 1824 E-glisli-Bu-...e war. Death Of Lord Byron in Greece. 1825 Th. great.. —Dani crsil First railroad I. Engg'-dTh.-.. t...Olomened `Birth of Wilkie C.11i"'. 1827 Lord Priin. Minister. Lord P88888-888 Foreign Secretary. '88Bttle Of Navarino. The I8li.. defeat the Turkish and Egypti-n fl.,Ettr 1829 R. —n Catholic Relief Bill passed, April 12. Great Riots in L..d... IS30 Death.F G-e-go IV. Willi.- V. -.t.t the threat, J... 26. Ministry of the Dike~ of W.Ilingt... Openirg of the Liorr..I and M.-hoester 1821 The bridge opened. Th. ref-in bill rel'-ted by the Lordr, Oct. 7. Eniots I. Brist.11 Oet. 29. _1r G,.y'p iiiistry. 11132 Fasssgo of the English Rof-r Bill, Death Of Si, Wialter S'-tt, Sept. 2. Passage of the IJsh Rot_ B ill, Aug. 7. 1834 Sl-,ery iiiesinth, olnis Trade....nan repeal iidts. Lord Mollb.-On's -iniitry. 1835 C.,porati.. Reform Act passed, Sept. 9. Sir 8888 7 Peel Prim8 Mi88te8. 1887 Death8of William IV. Victori....eeeds-t. the th-oe, Ju.. 20. Hanover separated fr80 Great Britain. 8-5 Que.. Victoria or. -red, J... 28. Irish Poor Law bill passed, July 31. Visc...t Melbourne'. ruirii-ty. 1889 England at war with Chi0 8 8 A-sasiiathmn of Lord N.Y.thbury in ireland. 1840 P'..y postage iaprtd Th. Q.- in-aries Pri.-e Albert of S...-Coburg, Feb. IO. p0.f-d'. assault On the Q-!.., J... lo. 1841 888th 8f A0bert Edward, Pri888 of W78,78 Nov. 10. Ministry of Sir Robert Pool. 1842 Job. F-enis attEellpt, to kill the Queen, May 20; 8. 888d attempt b8 B..8,8 June 3. o-om t.. estblishod, Aug. Peae' with China, D.,. 1843 Q""e Viet-i. isits F,.-,.. 1844 Th. Emperor of Russia..d King of the F' -ch visit EnglandTrial' of O'D....ll, at Dibli:O, for sodition. his -uvjcjion, fine..d inipris-n roent,..d subsequent lele-oe from prison, Sept. 1845' Si, Robert Peell Tw tariff. Great faminiri I. Ireland. P...yito - T-et-i..a,.,sy. Ainti-c.-n law.9itati-ii Great raii oad ppeule. ns 1846 Repeal of the... h3,ws, J-.e 26. Great e.-in-eial r-..c Food lets in Tipp... Y. Russell forms now rn'nistry. 1847 D'.th of O'C-1-11l, 1May 15. $50,000,0,30 exp..ded by the government foli relifo Irish 1848 Chartist i Lndn Irish reb.l1i.., headed,by Smith, O'Brien, Meagher, and othe,,;,up the leader...doinec to doetii, O'ct. 9. Chol-r in Ireland. 1849 S..ben 'o of Irish insurgents conimuted to tranprain bos ncibred:estate. Act passed. Choler. reapl? in Engl..d. TheQ&ee ist Ireland. 1850 Death of Sir Robeft -eel,..d the Duke of C.-bridg.. P to...ault. the Q..... 1-851 TTE) frst "Great Exiiin opened, May 1. First gold frrves.-o Australia. 1852 Death oP' Wellitigtoil Sept. 14. Great riots I.- B-If..,. Aboi —o.n b.,.i,,. Prime Mi-I-ter. 1853 Eiiglisb.d French fleets enter the Bosphorus, Oct. 22. P-t... I bet,... EnglandI Austria, Fr ----..d Prussia signed, De.. 5. 1854 A-11i..e. bet'llec England, Franc., and Turkey, March -12. W., declared against Russia, March 28. Crystal P.I.-e opened by Ile Queen. Treaty -itb the United State,;, regarding fishery elinis. 1,8515 Resignatdon of the Aberdeen minisitry, J... 2. Lord Pal-.rst.. appointed Prime Min-!.ter. Visit' of the Emperor..d Empress of Fri~.ce to England. Th. Queen..d Pri.ce Albert VI-it Fr. -e 1856 Peace with Russia p-ellaimed, April 19. W., with Chi.. (q. 1.) England at war with Persi.Herat tal~e. by Persian., Oct. 25. English tazke B.hir.. Dec. 10. 1857. Beginning of the Indi.. mutiny (see InCdi.l,r..t comrilpanic; it I. relieved by the -r-eiisi.. of the Bank Charto, Act of 1844. Persian -ar elosed by treaty of Tehera.. HHi,.t restored. 1858 M-rriago of the Princes. Royal to Princet - F-derick Willi.- of P-usiiaJan. 25. Derby-Dlsra-.l inisitry formed, Feb. 26: Jewish di-abilitie. removed, July 23. Th. Coin.piraey and Volu"teer bills Passed. The Indi. Bill passed, Aug. 2. Th. g........ I Of th6 Easi India ComP..y cea..., Sept. 1. 1859 England d-hir..s h., neutrality in the A.-tr.-Itali.. war. Derby miiilt'y defeated on the reform bill' Orgaiiizatio. of,.Iunt..r for,,,inlerst.n-Russoll.1nstry formed June 18. Lord Palmerso resign. 41d return.. Lord Stanley Secretary for India. 1860 Commercial treaty with France. Peace eff-ttd with China, Oct. 24. Th. Prince of W.I.. vis. ts the Uinlted State. and Canada. ISU Deatth of the Duch... of Kent, the Queen'. moth.. C.-Plioad...s with the United State..,or the sei zre of M~essrs. M..-..d Slidell, from. British..II te.-e, by the U, S, stearo- "S.. Jaei.-, " N-:. 8. They are -,,Ceare by the U. S. go-, er.-..t, Dec. 28..Death of Albert the Prince C....,t, Dc. 14,Q Th p,-lairn. neutrality I. American war. L - ~r 3 _ _I_I_____ - -~ — 111111 - - - -- -- - I ---

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Page  XX ANCENT M SUPPLEMENT XX. IANCIENT, MEDIEVAL A1ND MODERN HISTORY. '0776 Battle of T-litoi; Washingio (01ss 9) defeat. RNol and hisoll 01111 (loss 1,000), Dec. 06. 1777 Battle of Poltototo, Washingtof (loss 100) defeat M1wh1ood (loss 400). 0att10 of bf1nigt.o, Vt.; St111 (1011 3_00) defeats B-u and Bremen (loss 600). bDttl of Bilfdyp ilt; Howe (l0ss 5001 defeats Washihogto (10ss 1,0000, Sept. Arrival of Lafayette, who is 1adf a Maj.,-Ge..,.l 1. Continental Army. Philadelphia occupied by the British, of G01110tow1; How0 (toss 6000 defeats W.OhiOgt.o (0011 1,200), Oct. 3-4. Second battle, 010r Stillwgteoo Gen. Gtl"' (I..o 350) defeats Burgoyne (lss 000), Oct. 7. Aootootoo of Bitttynt, at Saratoga, with 5,752 Pttt to Gates, Oct. 17. Article of Confederation adopted by C001 greot, Nov. 15. A-irimrl r.-ggnizd by Franc0, oDi. 16. 1778 Treaty with Flan-. concluded, Feb. 6. Philadelphia evacuated by the British, June 18. Battle of 11110outh; Washington (lss 230) defeat0. Clint. (loss 400), J... 26. Massacrc of Wyoming Valley, July 3. Count d'Estaito P with twelve ships of the, tIkfo o 01Dgates, and French Phfooo, S 11ive.. Bottlt of Rhode Island; Sullivan (1,ss 211) defeats Pig0t (loss 260), Aug. 29. America.. retreat fro- Rhode Island, Aug. 30. Say....h..!..d by the British, D... 29. Repulse oof AmericaPf at Briar Creek, March 3. 1779 f, o Haven plundered by the British, July 5o Fattirftld and GLoo' Fa-0000 CoInecticut, takeo by the Boitihh,, utly 7. Stlty Point takeb by the Apoiitans, July 16. Charleston, t C urrePdeed to he British, kty 12t Battle of C.-d., S. C - Cornwallis (loss 325) defeats Ge.eeral"Gates (I..., 730), Aug. 16.,B-sedict Arnold betrays and des"fts hib country. Maj., Andre captured, Sept. 23, and hung ty a spy, Oct. 2. 1781 Battle of Cowpens,; American General Morgan (I... 72) defeat. Tarlet.. (loss 800), Jit. 17 0 Assembling of C01gres1 h March 2, artDo 't01 of Confederation having been ratit Sod by.11 theoStato O 1 Defeat of General Greene by Cornwallis, at Guilford. Battle of Eutolt Spring0; General idotl (loss 555) defeato Stewart (IOss 1,100), Sept. S. The traitor, Aoold, burns Netb London, Sept. 6. Surrender of Lord Cornwallis, at Yorktowb, with 71073 me0, to Wihilogtiol Oct. 19. 1782 InDubo-01111 of the United States acknowledged by Holland, April 19. 1783 tooypend 10011ck1wledgid by Sweden, Denmark, Sp101 and Pr011 10 Armistice with Great Briti.n J... 20. Whac with GPpht Britain, a0 Treaty1 of Paris, Sept. 23. New York -vacllated, Nov. 25. Rcsignati.. of General Waphingto., Dec. 1784 Treaty of peace ratified by Congress, Jall, 4, 1785 John Ada1 o sent to England as first A-b...ador from the United State.. 1786 Cott.. intt.ddc,.d Int. G...gia. Shay'. rebellion in bl.....husett.. Dtotil.. l. t Pmb11 at Annapolis, nd 111 ofo d 1 Convention to rovipo o rticl.. of Coof01 Woati hio 1787 Meeting of CW -eitiot at Philadelphia, George Wo.hingtol proidiog. Co111tit0tio0 of the United States adoptDood, Sept. 1o7. 1788 Constitution ratified by all the States except Rhode Island..d North Car.Pmalcipoft.o of slaves by the Ouake00 of Philadelphia. 1789 First C..gree. - ts at New York. George WPphitdto. elected first Toreloo d..t of the United State.. Worth C.-II..a ratifies the Constitution. 1790 Death of BePjami. Franklin, April 17. Rhode Island ratifies the C...tituti... Hamilton'ooI p.0cial schemes proposed. 1791 Bank of the United Stateo established, at Philadelphia. Vermont admitted as the fourteenth State. Indians defeat St. Clair. 1.792 Kentucky admitted as the fifteenth state' The Columbia river disc0 1 t.d by Captai. Greyy0.sh101gt10 City 0 ho010 ao the ob pity of the -epublic. 1793 t of the cotto gi. by Whitney, resulting in the -91.Iti..izing of the `igt"', of 110101. Trouble with the French Ambassador, Genet. 1794 Washington'1 second term as President begins. bWhisky rebellion In Pennsylvania. France recallo Genet. Jay'. treaty W'ith Great Britai.. 1795 Congress ratifies Jay'. treaty. 1796 Te-e-..e admitted as the sixteenth state. 11-ig..d..n of George Washington. 1797 Job. Adams inaugurated as President. Treaty with France.-ule~d. 1798 War With Franc. threatened. 1799 Death of Washington, at Mt. V-ron, Dec. 14. 1800 The Government,.-.,.d from Philadelphia to Washington. Treaty regnrd with France.. General Bankruptcy Law passed. 1801 Inaaggrati.. of Th.-.. Jeff.,,..n as President. New York E-nffig Post: established. War with Tripoli commenced, June 10.:L02Dth of Arnold, June 14. 182Ohl. admitted.., the sc-enteenth 'State. P.,t of New 0,1.... closed by Spain,..d American v... *I forbidde. to PMs down Mississippi river. 1803 Louisiana purchased from the French; $15,000,000 paid.fctrdtBotn '1804 A.,.. B.-r kill., Hamilton in. du.], July 11. Frigate -President- destroyed at Tripoli by Decat.,, Feb. 4. Fort De.,,bor., p.....t site of Chicago, Lewis & Clark'..pediti.. tarts the plains. 1805 Treaty of peace with Tripoli, J... 4. le. irst becomes an article of commerce. Sezr f -red American vessel. by England. Lewis and Clark arrive at mouth of the Columbia river. 1806 American commerce affected by blockade of French and English coast.. 1807 Bish vessel. ordered to leave United State. waters. Trouble with England respecting 'he rights of neutral.. Attack pn thetAmertcan ship "~Chesapeak,," by h.e British ship, "Le — pard," June 22. H b.,g... American ships declared, Dec. 22. Acq,,Ittal of Aaro. B.-r o. halge of.onspiracy. I 1807 The first coast survey ordered by Congl..,;.., m1000ta0ion of slaves forbiddeo by ConEli Toory Dmanufactures first wooden Fulton's Irst successful steamboat. 1808 Abolition of the slave trade, Jan. 0. F —... order. the s.1-ur. and conftiscatiPo of America0 vessels. First printing ooich oest of the Missi..ippi, established at St. Louis. First Bible Society founded, ii Philadolphia. 1809 First iooltmills started, in New York. E10hioo repealed, March 1. James Madison P Pt id f1t. Itror between Franc. and England forbidden. 1810 132 c..fl-cated Alueric.. vessel. sold by Napoleon. First 00 otp ct-e of steel p10 1 beguno First agricultural fair, held at Georget.,.. 011010 ioo lay deovooed o0 VermontHartford Fir. Insurallc. Company Inc. — p-rated. 1811 Engagement between 'U. S. frigate "P1...0id0," and British Poop, "Little Belt." Dopodati.o. on American 0ssels by Fr-nc. and England. Stevens dPoofis plan for plating vessels. First -aotfootuotf of 101110 by machill-y. Battle of Tippecanoe; Gen. HDoiloo defeats Tecumseh, Not. 7. Ropiratioo made by the British for the attack 00 the "Chesapeake." Great earthquake at 011 Madrid, Mo. Astor's fur company..tabliheb post of Astoria. Breech leading IfI..,1.v..ted. 1812 Emb10ooo laid for ninety day0o Louisiana admitted into the Union. Congress lIviol a tax of $3,010,000. Additioo.l force of 35,000 men authorifed. Detachment of militia, not exceeding 100,000 me1, uthoooid. War declare'd against Great Britain, Jull. 12. British orders in council revoked, Jun01 23. Van Her.. defeated, Aug. 5. Defeat of Miller, Aog. 0. 0en. Hull invadeo C01110, July 12; sur-,..d... Maeki..-, July 17. Hull ourropodoo Detroit with 2,100 men, Aug. 16. Th0.Ale0,'" a British ship of war, captured by the "-EOo.,t Aug. 13. The "Gue-iier.,". British frigate, captured by the "-Conttitutio ('0101 Iooiifode"), Capt. Hull, Aug. 19. Ge.n. Harrison take. command of the N.,thw-stel,..-,y. Queenst0o- attacked, unsuccessfully, by the A01110iiaos, Oct. 13. Tho "Frolic," a British ship, captured by the U. S. loop of war 0111P0 -Both vessels Oft.,-l011 taken by the bytOic-'oi," a British 74. Th. "Maced..lan,". British frig-te, captured by the "Uoited Stateo," Comll modoo o DeOatur, Oct. 25, The "Javo." a British frigate captured by the "Conotitutio.," Capt. Bainbridge, Dec. 29. 1813 At the III --- Raisin, the British and Indian. surprise and defeat WinchesTeo. Most of the Americans were 11.To oed by the Indian, who weOp left unprotected by G01. P01011f, July 13. Tho "Peacock," a oriotsh 1hip, captured by the fgoo Ott,- Feb. 23. ThD inauguration of J01es Madison as President, March 4. The Creek India. k subdued by Gen. The A00ri00n coast blockaded by the British. Duel between G1en. Jack0.p and Col. BeltotYork (now Toronto) in Upper Cago Li 1 taket by the American1, under Gen. PikM, who was killed, April 27. Th. "Chesapeake" frigate take. by the British frigate "5ann"June 1. First.olling roill at Pittsburgh. St....typing first Introduced!.to AmerI... Death of Capt. Lawrence, of the "Ch, 10 peak)." Battle of Fort George, May 27. British attack on Sackett't Harbor repulseo p, May 28. Fort. Meig. and Stephenso. attacked byithe British and Indians. Th0 U. S. brig "Argoo f " taken by ito British loop "PPlican," Aug. 14. The British brig -B.Xer"!.ptiWed by the U. S. brig "Enterprose," Sept. 4. The British fleet, 63 gun0, 01 Lake Erie, captured by the ASoric fleet, 56 gunT0 under Commodore Ferry, Sept. 10. Matooebt of Fort Mimk," AAl., by the Indiano, Aug. 30. Battle of Poilliatoburg; Nov. II. Burning of Newark, Canada, Nov. 12. Buffoloo burned by the British, DA. 13. The British capture Fort Niag001, Dec. 29. Niby.t. frontier favood by the British, IDec. 30. len. HaItrikon, after having crossed o,1 Canada, defeat0 and dippotDo the British army under Gen. P2100, (btg,) the River Thoooo; death of Tecumseh, Oct. 5. 1814 The frigate "Es000" captured, at Val101010, by two British 101 Battle of Horse Shoe Bend, March 20. The "Epeof 101 o0 British vessel1, pt-red by the -P..c.o.k,- April 24'. O.Weg. bombarded..d take. by the British May 6. Th..iner, British vessel, captu,.d, by the -W..p,- J... 25, Fort Erie captured by the Aulericans under Gen. 13-w., July 3. Battle of Chippow.. BlIow. defeat. Dl:-. —od, July 5. 3Battl. of Bridgewater, Lundy'. Lane. Brown..d Scott defeat D —.llnd "'nd Ri.1, July 25. The British bombard St..ingt.., C.-.., Aug. 9. Battle of Fort Erie, Aug. 15. Battle of Bladensburg. British General, Ross, defeat. Winde,, Aug. 24. British enter Washington, and bur. the public building.. Alexandria taken by the British, Aug. 29. Th. "Av...". British vessel, captured by the "W-sp," Sept. 1. Attack o. Fort 'Bower (now Morgan) Ala., Sept. 5. Th. British fleet o. Lake Champlain, 95 gun., Commodere Downi., captured by the A-cric.. fleet, of 86 guns, C-m modor.,..d their arnly defeated at Pllatt,;b.,g, by Gen. M.comb, Sept. 11. British expelled from Pellsa-l.a, by Jackso., Nov. 7. Battle on Lake Borgne, L.., Dec. 14. Battle be]., Mew 0,1-.ns, Dec. 22. Jethro Wood patent. his ow. pl-w. Perkins make. first t,.el plate. for engraving. M....' re at Fort Dearborn, (Chicago) by Indians. Attack o. Baltimore. Bombardment of Fort McHenry. British defeated, and Gen. Ross killed, Sept. 14. Treaty of peace with Great Britain.igned, at Ghent, Dec. 24. 1815 Battle of N,,w Orleans. Defeat of the British, With the less of theho 00le 1, Gen. P0ckel0ham, by Gen. Jako, J... S. Capture of the frigate "P-ooideoP by the British q..ddr.., J-n 15. Treaty of Ghent ratifed by the Senate, Feb. 17. 'Potitotio" 011captures the "Cyane" and -I,.-lt,- Feb. 20. War declared with Algiers. The "Poogoin" captured by the "lforllct," March 23. Commodore D1010tur sent igalnt Algiers. Dototur captures Algerine frigate, June 17. Hullt flirst manufactures.xes. 0110000 galo and flood lo New England, Scpt. 23. 1816 Indiao o admitted as a State. Second United State0 bank chartered. St- first applied to paper making. Elotdotof JaSo01 Mototo, President. Mrs. Emma Willard opens her girl,' school at Troy. This was know0 as the year without a..-mer. 181P Illinois dtitt.d into the oUnion. Pe..i..s granted revolutionary soldier,. Jackson lobduoo Indians if Georgia and Alabama. Erie C... I -—.cd. Mississippi admitted lito the UnDoI. Harper Orot. poblishing house footfod. Clymer invents Columbiai printing press. New England Deaf and Dumb 0Asylum founded. 1818 Foundation of the new Capitol laid, at WiohiIgtl1, Aog. 14. Plo.acioo, Fla., captured from the 011.0sh. Op- Soo!ksoi. 1819 Th0 "Oitotnag," the ffolt oteam pockot that cr10000 the Atlantic, makes 1 voyage to Liverpool. Th1 forst permanent Lodge of Odd Fellow1 founded, Oo Baltimore, April 26. Alabama admitted into the Union, Dec. 3'4. 1820 Passage of the Missouri Compromise. Olorida 01ded to the United States by Spain for $5,000,000. Main0 admitted 10to th0 Union, March 15. Heated discussion in Congress on the sl.,.ry question. Percu11010 capi for guns 01rst intr1 dueed. 01-1ection of James Monroe as President. P010ol1um first discovered in Ohio' Mioifitt-od tooads lt introduced. Death of Daniel Been.. 1821 Missouri admitted into the Union, Aug. 10. Sockso. take1 possession of Plotida, July 21. Burne0t 1rst introduces lithography. StraO hats trst 1ad0 from American 1822 Tho United State01 iknto.ldge the 1ndspoldo'ce of the South American R0 -public.. First English fir0 in California 0pens house at Motteooy. Death of MNj.-GDo. Stark. First cotton 10ill built it Lo t,,-1 Elliott 10ak11 frst p01tfor1 0cal0. War with the Cuban p0010110 011 first loce...fully introduced in B001 to". 1823 Th0 Monroe doctrine, June 18. First gas eompaty It New York. First teachers' seminary opotod in Co0 -cord, Vt. 1824 Tho principlet of Robert Ow 0 preached. Pi.. first 1ad0 by machinery. First reformatory schotl founded tn New York. Act passed to protect and -ourtgl cftto. manufacture.. Convention with oreot Brit.0o to suppress sl01e trade, March 13. Convention with Russia to 1111tio0 to 11rth010t boundary, April 5. Arrivpg of Lofiyott. on a visit to the U. S. 0lection of John Quincy Adams as Presldent. 1825 Th. Capitol at Woohington completed. First edge tool -ufactry established. Smith, a trapper, performs the lourney to C.IOfoool. and found rolso-. Departure of Lafayette for FrancP, Sept. 7. 1826 Deaths of Thomas JeffSl ool and John Adams. Convention with Great Britain concerning Irldemnltle.. Fiftieth anniversary or American Indep..d —`-' July 4. Great anti-masns.. tmet Abd'Iction ff Willre, Morgatn. oodn Von Humboldt visits the United State.. Opening of the Erie CoB D, Oct. 26. Duel bett-e. Henry Clay,-.d 3',,hn Randolph. PloIot's first f000 -p1ooof safe1 E 182 o Treaty with Creek oo tan1 c00clud11d. Treaty with the K.ttlootndians, and the great ood little Otl ooli Treaty with the Republic of Colombia. C?.tinued ffitens. excitement over the 0Morgan affair" o o First railroad built at Quincy, Masso0 oloootto, ld operated by horse power. 1828 Passage of the Prtoo PtiPo Tariff Bill. Sandpaper and e-.r5y first made. First locomotive introduced from Eogland, by the Delaware and Hudson C...l Company. a3ltimB,. and Ohio railroad commenced. Congress -akks pro-1.1o- for offic-.s of the revolutionary 0ar. DT —,0at and Rfep1011100 first chosen by their -pectiv political oktoes. General Jackson elected Prestd-nt. Treat0 of Peace 1ith Br1010 and Buenos Ayr... OboE0o1g ill first 01Ot Ated. 1829 Andrew Jack..-, President. oppose. the project to recharteo the o ank of the United State.. Ilp of000101 of MPootol reloooifd. Webster'g groat speech iof Cfogrpf, Jan. 26. Virginia passes lesolutio. gaIiist Tariff bill - First Asylum for the Blind rttblisbed.,,,i-t Horticultural Society formed. Remoo-0 of 700 officeholder. by Jackson. 1-820 Cgunuerc!ial treaty With Turkey. South C.17.1h,. ssefts "S~ta~tes Rights". Th. M-..o church founded by Joseph Sulith April 6. Building of the South C.-Ii..a r.11,..d. A-cerican Institute of Learning founded. G...t debate bet,... Webster..d 1831 Intense Tariff and Free trade excitement. G-,-i... start. the "Eiberator" anti-,;Iavelry paper. Death of Jam.s Monroe, July 4. M... lg — wig msaehi... patented. Guthrie discover. chloroform. H-,. 1.... ts first practical pi. machine. Butt,,,, first made by machinery. Wc,,t'r. College of Teacher...tblished. I832 P-esidellt Jekkso. veto.. the Bank Bill. _e protective tariff rue..ur. passed. South C-Iillna unlification movement. Ui S. frigate -Potomac," attacks Qualla Batoo, Fjeb. 6. First cas. of asiatio cholera In U. S. June 21. Black H.,k war, and his capture, Aug. 27. University of New York organi..d, Sept. 26. Re-election of Andrew Jacks.. as Presldent' Death of Chsrrbm Carroll, last surviving signer of Declaration of Independence. I 1832 Morse invents electric l o goot telegraph, Cholera in New York, 3,400 deaths. F-Iirbalnk's Scale first patented. 0833 ThE President 0 0moves the public de001it0 fr.- the Bank of the United Jackson begins hi. second ter-, March 4. The Southern States hold a stOtes-right Tonvo 1 oti0 o 0t Cloy'M Compromise Tariff law p11110 Gayltr invents first practical safe. Death of John Randolph, May 24. Removal of 1101010 India tribe0 west of the Mississippi. doot Ooublooyliodol printiog-preso constructed. First suooou.ful reaper patented. Erioooo inotots the o.l-oio 1gin0. 1034 CPogooo.s ptoes o vote o ftoensure glf iost the President for removing bank deposits; rub..quently..pullged. L-cifer -.tches first -ade. Walter last ill-ut. first s.,Ing -achin1, but fails to perfect and patent. Dr. Howe in.-.t. raised alphabet for use of the blind. o8oGreat fir0 10 N tp York. Congress ooloblisot branch mint1 in Georgia, North C000000, and L00isiaa.. Government purchase Cherokee bonds for $5,200,0000 New York Herald established by BenDeath of Chief Justice Marshall, July 6. Roger Botoks Ta01y, appointed Chief Justice. Seminole Indian war renewed. Got first introduced into Philadelphia. B.oot make. irst gold pens with dia-..d points. G... bec.-e... article of commerle in the U. S. M...acr. of Maj. Dade and his command in Florida. 1836 Tho national debt virtuallo paid. Arkoooat admitted 0nto the Union. Battle of Sa0 Jacinto, TSf.; Sa1 i Ann. defeated and a prisoner, April 21. Bequest of James Smithson to the U. S. of o515,169. Smithsonian Institute at Washington founded. Death of James Madison, June 28 Governor Call, of Georgia, Inva&e Sem-!..I. country. Sam Houston elected President of Texas, Oct. 22. Martin Van Buren elected President. Burning of the Patent and General Postoffice at W gshiIgt io E Texa. declared independent. Sa00 Colt invent the revolver. First National Temper.ood Convention held at S-tatg.. AdaWls' great debate for the right of peitSion. Death of Aaron Burr. SIo-l and Wiotneboo1 Indian. removed beyond the Mississippi. Scott subd... the Creek Indians. 1837 Great financial crash and panic throughout the country. J.arnde. originates the express business. Michiga. admitted int. the Unio-. 1838 First 0.e produced in the country. Wilk.0' exploing expedition to the South - Pole. United States Bank suspends specie paymeoot, Oct. 5. Mor-.. war in Missouri. 1840 Intense political..citeme-t. The Log Cabin c0 lpaig o o Election of Willia- Henry Harrison as President. Goodyear 1.-ets culcanied rubber. The first steam fire engine constructed by Ericsson. Sub-Tl-...-y bill becomes a law, June 30. First W pohingt.oia0 Society founded. Motoy' Etkprois Company orgabi1ed1 Wilkes discover. Antarctic continent. 1841 " Willi0 1 H. Harrist inaugurateO, March 4, die. April 4; Job. Tyler, V!..-Pr..i&.nt, inaugurated President, April 6. McLeod difficulty. Webster's (Noah) Dictionary orst published. Sub-Troooury bill repealed, Aug. 9. Bankruptcy Act b011001 a law, A1 io 18. Imprisonment for debts due the go~vernBoot abolished. Greeley establishes the New York Tribune. 1842 KiDgfot0 produceb the first sample of pure cor. starch. Mutiny on United States brig of War -S._ees,1 instigated by Midshipman Spencer. Tbe F-lrier community excitement. Fremont'. expedition to the Rocky M.UnAshburton or first Washington Treaty 1 ig0oed, with Englandol Augt 9 M Bunker Hill -— u ---t connpieted. TeWootoatioo of war with Seminoles. Lucifer oote ot first Aado by machinery. President vetoesbill for National Bank. Dorr ro.oioP. I Rhode Island. Bankrupt Act repealed, March 3i Death of Dr., Oct. 2. 1843 Willialn Mille, and the "Millerites." $30,000 voted by C10gre00 to aid Morse tf establish telegraph lines. Fremont elre Columbia River, W11-l N o oot Valley, and Klamath Lake. Great c.-et visible during the day. Death of Noah Webster. WildO-to patentofor ofo 007oof safe. 1844 Eplosion of the gun, the o peace-maker," killing the Secretaries of NaVY and State. Commercial treaty with China. First telegraph Mo.. from Washington to Baltimore. First anti-.1-very candidate nomlnatad for the presidency. Th. "M~ida.," milnt America. steamboat, rounds Capg of Good Hope. Ja-es K. Poll, elected President. Mor"oo war oo Illinois, murder of Smith; Dtighot Young seleetod at hi0 uccossol iO Copper discovered in MAichigan. Texas asks for..n..at1.-. First telegraph line, 1845 Tex.. nne..d by Act of Congress, Mex_.o take, ffene Florida and Iowa ad-itted into the Ifnion. War declared by Me.1c., June 4. Naval school at Annapolis p-.nd. Eli.. H.,e produces hi,;' first sewing machi... Great fir. in Pittsburgh. Serious fir. in New York, 300 buildings burned. Death of Justice Joseph Story. First -a..f.,tu-e of files. Zachary Taylor, with 4,000 troops, ad-c'cd to Corpus Chi'isU, Te.... Negotiations toward purchase of San Domingo. Death of Andrew Jack..., June S. Free Soil p.,ty originated. 1846 Northwestern boundary fixed at 498. Hostilities begin I. M-e..o Battles of Palo Alt., May 8, and Resaca de I. Palma, May 9, victory of Gfen. Taylor. Mata-.ras taken, May 18. New Tariff bill pas-ed, July 28. President 'vetoes River Harbor bill, Aug. 3. 1 "Wil... Proviiol" against -xtension of slavery paase. the House. Gun-cotton invented. Great II ' 1 Loui.,111.. Ether first used as an anesthetic by Dr. Jackson. 1846 Gen. Kearney takes poioessioo of New 01010, Aug. 18. Co.-ootro Stockton blockades M,1icaP Nports on Pacific commit. 0onterey take1 by Gen. Taylor, Sept. 24. Eight dayo ' opo obtio granted. California..pediti.., under Sp... sail. frTo New YoroO Sepo. 2S6O. Tobb.-., Mexic., borubarded by Perry, Oct' 25' Tao0pic0 taken by G.o. Conner, Nov. 14. Kearney defeats M-iiall. at San Pa.Mull, Dec. 6. Col. Do~niph.. defeats Mexicans at Dr.Men. Taylor relieved by pen. Scott. Th. Mor-... driven from, N..,.., 111.,.W. dulitted as a State. 1847 Kear..y victorious at S.. Gabriel..d Mesa, Cal. Jan. 8, 9.. lea.n C.nWgl-w to raise I... of 001 000,000 01 pooperty of the clergy, Jan. 8. R.-,.It of Mexicans I. New Mexico against United States, Jan. 14. Defeat of ittoofeots at Canada, New Mexico, Jan. 24. Battle of Buena Vista, Feb. 23; Taylor defeat. Santa Anna. Bottl- of Sacr-o10to; defeat of MexicnFeb. 28. Duo. Kearney declareo California a part Vf the United States, March oo elra Cr.. take. by l,-y and navy, March 28.. Alvarado lpoitulateoo April 2. Battle of Poooo 00rd00 April 0; Scott defeats Mexicano; al.o at Contreras, Aug. 20. Molino del Rey taken, Sept. S. Gen. Scott ootero the city of 010ic0, Sept. 15. 1848 Death of John Quincy Adams, Feb. 21. Gtold discovered lo Collfootia, Morch. Oneida Community, New York, stabIished. Wiscotooo admitted i001 the U.1010 May 29. Missouri Compromise rupoolud. bluotio. of Zachary Taylor as President. Pooor stoli of Woohiugtoo Monument laid. Oregoo Territorial bill passed, Aug. 13. First receipt of Pokifornio gold at United State,3.nlilt, Dec. 8. Treaty signed with Mexico, Feb. 2. Upper California ceded to United, State.. ooouoooofolp beuilgo Pueblo, held by America100 Sept. 13 to Oct. 12. Huotantib takeo by Americans, Oct. 9. oyaoftos captured, Oct. 20. Great 010item00 it Rochester, N. Y., tood by "Spirit rapping.." Food sent to top-,ing Ireland. Lo. Angeles, Cab., take1 by Kearney, and a system of government orgaoo Ized. 1848 Great ofopoo St. Louis.oot mifO 0Pbrof. Webster murders Dr. PagifiP0 Nov. 23. United Stateo gold dollar first coined. Californi. adopt. a'..'.titution pl,.hibiting slavery. Death of So-o K. Polk. June 15. 1849 Filibustering Phpeditiolp against Cuba forbidden by the President. Visit of Father Mathew, the temperance advocate. Capt. Millie invents the Minie...real bullet g 1Mason and Dixon's II.. surveyed. Cholera visit. the United State., severe at Cinci...ti..d St. Louis. California Constituti0 formed at M011 ter,. Great rio~t at Astor Place Opera House, New York. 1850 Treaty Sith England for A transit 011 across French A-b...ador dismissed from Washington. Death of Job. C. Calhoun, March 31. Congress passes the Oreg.. Donation Law. Uncle Tom's Cabf t frst published. Watch.. first -ad. by machinery. Fugitive SI --- Law po.oo.d. Death of Zachary TayloritJuly 9. Grinnell Arctic C.Iiforni. admitted a. a Free S ate Sept 9. New Mficot and Utah organized as ter"itories, Sept. 9. Visit of Jenny Lind to America, Sept. 12. Dahlg00 1n invents the cast-irot gu0 f1851 Appearu po of the great sea C.rpottCompletion of Erie railroad. Coroie-tol. of laid, July o 1 First A0ylun for Idiots established iO New York. California Vigilance Committee formed. American yacht victooious at regatta in Lend.., Eng. 2 rightful catastrophe at public school building, New York. Congressional Library destroyed by fire, Dec. 24. 1852 Dispute o ith England about the 11herie.. Expedition to Japan, bnde CO. Perry. First ptreet-Pailway in New York. Deaths of Henry Clay, June 26, and Daniel Webster, Oct. 24. Treaty of Commerce with Chili. Branch mint established in S1- Frtli Franklin Pierce elected 0resident. 1853 Crystal Pa oPo, Ne f York o opened. Treaty with Mexico, fLo purchase of Treaty with Russia. Exploration. for. transcontinental railway. Yellow fever I. New York. Children'. Aid Society, New York, founded, Walkpoi filibustering e0 1ditio. to So-.or...eico. 1851 Commooitoio l Treaty with Jap01 signed, Marh 11 -Americat' or bt wotiPlthiog Socitformed, Less of th. steamhip Arctic. Cubans..1-e American mall-stea-cl 1110k W0011ol, Feb. 28. First railway from. Lake Michigan to the Mississippi, the Rock Island. AmericaP ship 1 NCog bombards Gr0ytown, Central Americaoo refusal to Pay for property d..troyed, June 12. Invention df the Jrg. Tower for oo.nolld 1000 by E0 00ooolf Reciprocity Treeaty with Engl..d; settle-.nt of the Fishery question, Aug. 2. Bill passed orgallizing K.nss- and Nebraska as Te-ritorie., repealing the Compromise of 1820, hhilh..eluded.1 —ey fr.- the entire Louisiana Pur'bar., May 24. Massachusetts Aid Society send out settlcr. to Kansas. A. H. Reeder, of Pennsylvania, aPpointed Governor of K...-s 1855 Territorial L-giriatur. of Kansas meet. at Shawnee, July; great emigration to Free State men meet in convention at Topeka and form a F-ee State co-stituti.., Oct. 23.,Hostilities between the Fr.. and Slave state settlers begin. Sioux Indians defeated by Gen. Harney. Paraguayan attack' United State. steamer, "Wa h-Tic. Completion of Niagara Suspenslon Bridge. Court Claims established. William. Walker unsuccessfully invades Nicaragua. Dispute with G-eat Brital. concerning recruiting for the Crimea army. A1 Cl - r 1- 14 _,h _ P. -- rn - __ -~-~- -B N - -*'6 "I ~ -lIJ

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Page  XXII _______ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND MODERN HISTORY. 1876 Opening of the Co.t... 1.1 E.hibiti.. at Ph'l.d.lphi., May 10; it Closes, Nov. Io. S-i... difficulties bot,.o. Americans..d Chi.... in California. B.'sti.g of at W-p-st-, destroying of doll... -'th of p-p.fty, March 3. Death of Alexander T. Stewart, April 10. W., with Sitting Bull and the Si.... M ----ele at H.-b.I-g, S. C., June. _-e- of Gen. Custer..d hi. -m-..d, by the Si.u. I.dl..r, July 2. C.-P let!.. of the First On- Hundred Y..,. of A-eic.. I-d.po.d...e; great 10.ili.g throughout the United State., July 4. Castle Garde., N. Y., destroyed by fire, July 9. Y... go, Brother. and Northfield Bank,.bb.Iy, AII'..t of WSePMt-.7;r,-d, at Vigo, Spain, Sept. 8 Yellow fever in G... gi., September. Trial of Molly M.gui,,,.r, October. Dastardly tto-pt to.h the g,.v. of President IA-c.l., N.V. 7. Burning of the D-kly. Theater, 276 If'.. lost' D". 5. First for r,3-.ti.n built, at Washington, Pe..., D- 6. Th. Arhtabul. railroad be,,.,, Dec. 1877 Close of the I.di.. WThe Elect... I Commission Bill passed by Congress, Jan. 25, 26., Rutherford B. Hay.. declared President, March 2. Blue Glass -,i.. Death of C.... Ii.. Vanderbilt, J... 4. G-at Railroad ri.t., East and West, July and August. 1.878 Yellow fever epidemic along the Low,, Mississippi. Meeting of the Claim. C.MmI.-.I.., Feb. 27. - Fe-! --- attempt - -, —Id invasion of C-n.d ", May 29. Death of Robert Dal. Owe., June 24. The C.1... do P.t,,ifl.d Giant humbug. Return of Henry M. Stanley fr- Aftican..PI... ti... I August. Death of Digh.m Young, Aug. 29. Death of Oliver P. Mort-, Nov. 1. earthquake h..ks in New England and -iddle States. Ku-T.- Bill Passed by Congress. Death of Benjamin P. Wad., March 2. Development of the telephone and phonograph. Bankrupt Bill passed May 10. Death Of William Cullen Dy..t, June 12. India. outbreak in W.,; T.I,,!-. t.,Y, July. Chinese Embassy Visit. the United states. Silver Bill passed by both Houses of C-gres.. Yellow fev., in the South. Gold sold at par-th. first time in" 1862-D.e. 17. 1879 R...mpti.n of p-i. payment., Ja..-:L. Death of Richard Henry Dan., Feb. 2. Great fire at R..o, Nov., March 2. New Co-tit-ti- of California d.ptod, May 2. Death of Wilh.- Lloyd May 24. T.-ibl. t-.d. 1. Kansas, Nebraska..d Mi —ri, May 30. Bill to site of Washington'. birthplace., passe. both H...... Juno 10. Waterspout in Black Hill. -::a...r, great I-7. f Property and life, June 12. Di.-r"'.7 to,,-. east..d West, July. Great fire at Deadwood Dal, Sept 26. Death of Go.. Joseph ho.k, Oct: 131. Death of Zachary Chandler, Oct. 31. lob C..hing di.. at Madrid. E..d.." of from South to West. James Russell Lowell made Minister to England.,880 Fall election. favor R.p.bli-.. Death of Frank Leslie, J-. 10. City Hall, Albany, destroyed by fire, Feb. 10 Terrific trade sweeps over part. of W'Tte- and Southern States, April S. Great forest fiIes 1. Southern New Jer-..Y, April and May. Collision on Long Island Sound d..tr3ys the team.'." Fund -St..Ingto"11. Centennial -I.b-ti.. of the capture of A.d,., Sept. 23. Garfield and Arthur -I.4ted by ChiCag. Republica. C.n,.nti..,, June 9; H..e., —k and English by Cincinnati D.-..Ia ic C Atleth. G.Id-e-I Election, the Reppb1 an -.didat.. ee.r.d 213, out of 369 electoral Vote. Nov. 6. 1881 Mle`t-"-I College vt. c...ted, Feb. 9. Three P., cent. funding bill passed, March 2. St"-er Corwin sails for the Arctic reg, --- in...... h of the Jeannette, March 4. Revised New Testament issued, May ZO. St., -ut. frauds exposed, May 26. Th. great C-ot. of 1881 first see., June 20. Sitting 13.11, Chief of the Sioux, surrond.-, July 31. James A. Garfield inaugurated, March 4. Contest between Garfield and Senator C..kli.g (N. Y.) about New York, May. Commercial treaty With Chin. signed, May 5. Great Britain pay. 215,000 award for damage done to America. fisheries in Fort... Day affair. Ass... inati.. of President Garfield by Charles J. Guite.., at Baltimore allway depot in W..hi.gto., J.lsf 2. Death of President G.'fl.ld at Elb-.., N. J., Sept. 19, b.ri.1 at Cleveland, Sept. 26. Vice President Arthur becomes P,,sido.t, Sept. 26. Sr-i.1 re,.i.. of the Senate, Oct. 10. The celebrated G.iteau trial beg!.., N- 14. New. of d-t-Ctio. of Jeannette, Arctic `-P,.,i.g vessel, D.C. 30. 1882 G.1t.., e..Viet.d Ja.. 25;.-t-ced Feb. 4. hanged June 30. A.tI _Chinese bill (tw..ty ye.-) passed... h 23; Vetoed by the President April 4 -Se_ ", p — Ed-..d,; A.ti-P.Tygamy Bill, Feb. 16; approved March 23. Appoftiwruo.t bill Pa.,;.. the House, Fe b. 17. U11-t Mississippi overflow, wide d..tI-,,Ctj -1 and less of life. Von Bill Pass.. both riff C. —is Houses, May 6-9; approved May 15. _3ill..t..di.g National Bank Charters p-,,-d May 19. Violent C at Grinnell, I.., June 8. Se,-..d AIti-Chi.... bill (to. years) p.-.d; ig.,2!d by P... Went Arthur, May 6. C.Ili.i.. of the Scioto on, Ohio ri,.r, 59 P.... I'. d,.-..d, July 4. Ri-, and Harbor Bill passed -or the TPresident'. -,.to Aug. 2..etu- of the of the North P.]' "p.diti... Star Route trial Id.d by -rdi- of jury, Sept. 11, equitti.g Turner. o.-,ieti.g Mi..r..d R.I-d.11, ad di.agC.J.g as to Brady, the Dorsey brothers,.d Vail. Ste.-e, Asia fenId.,r.. Lake Ilu'.., t00 I've. I..t, Sept. 14. Utah Commission complete. registration of Veto-, Sept. 18ti2 Th. FPeidlitot Ctil itrotut Billpt s tuntu, Bit, 2i. bitt HitJ.t, 4iyti Dreiditt it titit-tiptu Bitud payyOd it. Vitoi it-todiut N,-idittititt, Mtt, Citit uiitg Ati ith. Moutt, tiltu, itOuatifod tintttitOhio it-_5by t it. itt h Ciiti, Oil. itt1. bthttitittit Mttaitci 2iuttOti uidh o tytitd H SttOephtNit, age DOtitittf DPeteti lii u tutu9, Npit, 4, Cyiltti itidittuy it, MotiFit 8'it lbt tututuadi- intlow. and G lit giat Bittutoitt Cit-ilti uuvitte Att Nots Vbuth Hititi.i itl Atuty6 0.,b Stitiutu-rPrtonsi uof ith t-ittliid ittititutu yitttitd buy it,.Smt' Suttut N. V.l iudt,3 iyu.uyutititi Att~ tugdu Au.4 dNtttth, utt Pait Notl Otdfral Tp., bt ittot Ftt. 0. iturdti.uiudtdMit~t..Itb.S u th ut-uuNpt.luiGen Sheidanbuy ditty ft thtilt itutithit S.itldu itatud Ot 10, itm. n whittydiit Au. Nov. Bitt outitidotu d at — utulitititulu.r~tityi tuuttuittitn C.Itttuuto. tatlt tNgud Bitei utitt. s in uidt- dithitt puitud uditui it CitLuthtiiitit btyirthN. 1 -Fu.u.i, t21, tttltd ibu CGtittutiurithrituesoutittOnt,Softhe H.ittV _ubu tliauditdryit Muititiitt, Futuitit totdStt.Su,- tot, C.. B tutigahtyoftti yutal TidiAt I tui- toor thu Dli, t VTo bitl Apttu it BJti Oit tiu"t Mortriui R. Waiti, itgtd 72 yitars, Martb 23 DBity tuitit of U. it boudit bitit., Apuil tiei, Aprit 00; ou-flttiitd bt ttit tintiti, Chti ---.t Vuitty yutiitud by B. S. tinttiti, itiueti-u it ittitdutuitu by ul~t~itttity iftut Siti. 1, 1889, Ptitui N. V. tuttMity it; ttpprtoitd byitht ovoror,Wittiigttui ut 1sut, Mty 24i iLuit Ot.-G Ptilip H ihtridant - fitt-d it Otutal uitt. Artuy, Siun it Nitiuiiil Diptutiuitr t utif6.ti. atil St. TttPtituroitt tettud... Ctluu Cl.Bit uiuiiii tilt, tiidi6 t tyOi it tti y thuuti iti yisietidJuul 13tb Th, Psid uoli it ibidthB. Cit. Ot iteButit i Btil'l ftriddty H.y Muruuay Siets Me rtiitud itpiuithtd Ftiht it Sanidiu m i, depatitutytrti.-, fi.thtitu pitag ututthitye, tupiet ii tuitutit -.! uuoId, ftht Ui. S c. B. tuG~titJi CM.u Sietludu apoited BU. outSuat.t Auj~t.thosltutit tuuutyi, Wuidet. e..ti thutU.tS.ut-putt b Btiltpttibpuitoitititguitn o, Muyes 51 -Ciptemsbeir Ibt Wttiultitit2 uonututcautol Nittl. Cdttttii Piuid Ntiiutitttituityf Btutiow utoititO bt Thl.i _MrCuitut-ttiputi ltutu At. N,d Suckd But. iet Ca. ubulii, Otulliutu LordtuekiltiuWeptBit iiduMiniutlor Dot;-id S.byutheu sPreiutdeit; Out-tu20i Cutou dufitui But.didt..etd -6 tf thit Cutduatht tiu1ti, Btnd Cou5, tulut Suit-il. Fa. t,u ttU.tuS. sit tutf Nuitiutito utod WYtlUt suiitut ouii Cutthtyti t eadtur~tu-tof Clsv. osut it Pttltittbrg d Ritdingi, bst N. V., Won totittt, ui Aupattuubddtp itf Agitt iftib utoittutu Tutt. Sthutiut;f utut Hiundi Sutt DaOtipit Ttuontt Cutituti tuu~ttstBu, iretdb Wittg-toi, Fib. 20. tittt uit WorWItst u i bnuurtuud i.tSWsMtiuttt Situ Oklttuot tutu dtitus bysed CMtitd7o tittitugu toy titdt byah- titouttuit Wi~tte-~.1 yit Whiigo'.... yutti wothtlti Bil prpirty triyd, Mootit Vt Iupyg-g.tit btt- shittii it hitS Mitt-i pith. Mit-h t Iniutuur utn utti uliMri togrs Mutiti ti Aotiu-hu Outut Suth DAkotttu aduutid but ttpuiltutout 2t.-tut itt0 Otid Atoy. futtdthu Otpyit Atu... it. lth Autut-Dis. Minister, G. W. Bluit, Putt 13ut-ittild RGitituitun, N. D. opetitd fttthio-tthiMiy ii, VTie Ptut-iuu Pout' fuirmud att CitStutuls.utui Cittyt.M20 u lut, 111t, ounoiltd, Jout 30 Tht Cootfu No-out puluohts Stattttfod Utttti~ttytwithtauopi~tiitpooltton hi uOf t uti nOt Sttibo tia. -ittitiit it Iuittiutut i ith U. it, J...ti it Pitrt ittipiliitt utilc htt in ft-om CuliItuitnuttiutul Pisttul Cuttutti titd itt Vituti d-tlut ti hold itut Cuitui..t it Wauittigtit Jt"t it C.urouroialutruluaty with Sp.!.,soigned Atg-iultut-l Dtu.t —tiltttuiti30 ti it utf utut U. S. Nutiti ut olw, J-y tutul hid tguiu t thti Otton a-.! tiu' itu Otit Itat.,etO Su Duig., Suil. 12t. Stoutuut iftottutlliJitk-itutvuih~dou itututuiV., Jlyo 21l.i ittdotouttuitdousetd fheii firstt.m Th. tM iti, M,-kithit Ott itButi tuiuu uttiPp 5ut 1th. t-, uul i-.5 Cherotdeititutitutudi, Buitituury itt tutu Ctootutist. Aituty t.ttOttiuuuu iteotuupt itt-it, Ott Mitli Aiuioutititftheitlutitiuue,i tuitetd U6. t 31itdu g.ilti 9 t tti. tii hitan ittit B ita Ou.putoit tSopt. tttuuhiuutuy, SBtt. 28, Ltei tlttti Cutnourt, itui, tuu u-ituii atuitit Alt" M., p... t dt FttOcttt du. i EqVtut-titi ou~t uupit ofG-,ItGt a titOmmett, sueuty WtoitiiiithtGSuitn itn ituttudui Ouit. itiit iugiutt,UttS.t ovinttldtidiutidttigtuati Thuiout bhill fitird Mssultti ith r o bututu Wuut iti-.. pOittitd caueto t,; Airgumitt linthuouut Sa tHy t itliuttu Ouiutit theU BSprm ityrtti Novtt.Atu9 t ThugPt-uimetul tutou titptlut tuorit, 'h..t..tiSputaotiu Diu 7ltu. tt DItuiNOStat OutmurolCuItnittits h,P Pitty ATtiu3-,1 utliutivupudilil Huoritaritd Puai0u W.iit-i toreign FupuitFutby thoTriffi Stot itn. Wui toiuothuttWotrldtiluilutit tut tO Hubtot GFtubutd Pu2 dty4 i dTh usuituit butbHohIts dolt-. pidi, withoidgta duly COtge eadn too.yuid-,thltf-the Cut.tote C iom Cusutuhituit- Ut-iu tuluti tFtui Silvutr,oithi-debateiltlutongrss Vtcu PuiEdtuaditionTieaty ind Ntuuloiutig 1tuole ttititwith ttlyige utttd, Aproil ut 00. HRtotuig uuttoiu Oi orutrtds Aui Bhitt Auyght 'r wt om, 1892 Dithl it J. 0. Whitt~itr tutt t-Pt. it Nitty Hotit gtoito bryetkl Ott utrttilig Pot-tol peuiluti it h.t Chit-ttig io Dditio utu i..y uthd tiuldisi F.!, bitd P-it, tutt tuhstugud it. hi2t1 Bi Dutii, tMiud-ittuiidt-yit315tbuild Otts Vithuil, Bitt. i Anad Btuhi t -utitut dtutlilltd P. Wutlto ititiit putuiki iti huh~~d Pu a.tii idi DSit.adotfitytuitui it1 BHy9 Si tubuttti tittt itt- Bitn rtuodutCiuitho ity uGu tttuldsuaitt ist D.uut2i Ditt.t Out tut Outeirtipitd as Put-it Mitt- it. Prifuituigg Outtedbitluu uotu itty D utuitritut it ti.ti2u9y Gt iltgut W't Vidositid gitupit iotl Chltui By si th Fin.Wotiti Sitiy ilhitt Nfot VPupidet Rihi. Sit ites J duaituttt uth thu CyUt.tttu. Alth~i itito, J..ttt usttuu7 tDll i Biul it ExtruititioW Ctrity.ufittidtu tuitu hilt, Muuyb uI' futtatou"Uuitlt utIt P itietuClev CutdtitItlutuu utdt4t-d pti O ithliut tutu oluuuit-tut-u it. tat Pait FOhlu, Apt-il it C, Ahitil Out I duhitnid h -itut Mity gosi noi f Cut.. Cutgudptiry. Aitttitdg tut it-utldututlud, 24utte lst t upltoilih-tttduliuuy Otou~itg Seaubiottutt-putwirdit-lfivur titi Ciititit, duty 1-tu GriutO;tuuit diulutht it, dtitt toO. CWtb-iti dalolt it ien t ig~uy 1killit, Aog 00.edSpt.2 Nto Vldoi bi,!, el.- itht CitaobtOut. ubt by o 18pu0, it.Vp ititio,,ig.ihtu i.ptuitn it hl r Aouutyt itutuw Yt r Sltitoetl lit B1itb Ditut-o thlut Wuit..,i Jaton. t,3 ut dittrttoyer offtt toe subfldurtitli Ait DithuB it, Geotgs W.Cil.t titUttuttt puttu j -uaist ttiitutt Phiadepg-a GhulttIutN-utuiy bil titbi, btiy 0h tittt BidittORittut-Mthituitttyhtbyt-d ttitvutduilltMtChtituut30 tbyu B~thtittgitoSea d ittued AprilpuCSittiualitouthi uthdttugft- fO.d 136itditi tcodit mihity uterd tustritkytini tCti, Asp hi V-t biltg tu Oh b fytrs.tu ttb Bit.n iti u y Giitttt uOttuub milesud lup rit.a, u. 5 til rmoqitolVt.uu Chitituo dtittud, Buu.2 flttrtuuunut wtohuut ralouldt-ito ttulus Cit to riott lui Stdutod ut-u ul -I I 1 I I i I Copylight, 1905, by G-eo. A. 0gle & C,

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