Standard atlas of Calhoun County, Michigan : including a plat book of the villages, cities and townships of the county...patrons directory, reference business directory...
Geo. A. Ogle & Co.

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Page  [unnumbered] INDEX Name Page (Townships ) Albion _... 95 Athens. - - - 105 Battle Creek._...... 85 Bedford......., _. 83 Burlington. 107 Clarence-. 75 Clarendon _. - -.._ 111 Convis.. -.. - 79 Eckford,..-. -- -- -- 97 Emmet - 87 Fredonia. _ 99 Homer.. - 113 Lee. - -- - 77 LeRoy.103 Marengo 91 Marshall 89 Newton 101 Pennfield 81 Sheridan. 93 Tekonsha 109 City of Albion (West Part) 58-59 City of Albion (East ") 62-63 City of Marshall (West Part) 50-51 City of Marshall (East ") 54-55 Athens (Village) - 71 Bedford " 67 Burlington " 73 Ceresoo " 71 Homer " 69 Marengo t_ 67 Tekonsha " 66

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Page  9 IC-AJJAMAZOO _ 4M I I lb ~1 ( 4 1111-1,-. Z\., L1 -A: 1 4m- i i I I, Cl ("I t- - - Pz, I, I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I. I I -Q.) -2: , I I FL- ' Mill ki t I L 11,11 CU C\l 41, J[ I[ I I I I - on CDC~C I tiatAIM). -, -11 -1 -I-,

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Page  10 I W. W ), ammm. W W - M I M- 11 v M. REEK C.Cy% VI ~ la j COAV~V CCIV l - CVIL C lCa I/ IAll." ~fli7 I ~ II ~y(HA/C Vk~l, ~ C/A/Il I i A V.C~I C CCI LJLJI ll CO IAN A nBlae=1 C.E3E on V AK Y ~ ~ ItI F ~ ~ ] ~ ~ L ~1rI t"y1l l/lC /11/ 1uL LJL1u__1RTICI/I/VILLi~II~ i VOCC soC1/ / -, 7 -.1 108 _e" C ml m

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Page  13 I c/aI cz"2 Z' ri C OiZ &'z a6 CITY.OF BATTLE CREEK AND E~NVIRONS, I KZ) W. Va2 of Section 5 T. 2 S.. R. 7 W. and S. Y2 Of S. W. '4- of SECTION, 32 T. I S., R. 7 W. of the Michigan Meridian Scale 400 feet toi inch,"' (?2.66 (c) Q ta 1a ia1 -i" - Oh,-21.5 N W, ''LE Z0 q 41T 2W~ A'Ozly: I:11 II I I. I;I ' I a~ K)1 IaI Z! p~ C //r'e 5. A- J)/a1z122er EC /0IVZ

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Page  15 f, I IC1 D-L -0 ~ &/ 21 X- I y, /,e> Q vt - & A - T. 2 S.-, R. 7 W. of the Michigan Meridian Scale 400 feet to i inch. 4y6Aq-44,ok, X K6,.! " t ", Equal-, — T17, i. I I I I I I I,I I - -- t{ /tkpin a246 Ir At -~4 21~ i1 ' -r a Th II PARKi( ' 1/) 7, N A I L I:A -. CE m LI --- L4x2;4 T - - I -f-U L. fi)aor 1AA ' D9C.-,c-GP 3C7Y/ON 7CCl R 25 -"j,- -,-1 -

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Page  17 T. 2 S., R. 8 W. of the: Michigan Meridian /5/G,/1 731i. SEE,6- PA46WS 36 L~-iI F0 WAS//VNG T( AW 20 23 232 / -B1 31211 F6 -f v-F 17I, COLLEGE- BL-OC 29 2 5AIV/TAR/L'M L-371 -5S _ J I 1\ i IN, I II , 1, i~ --------------- -- - 0, G 61 1 Z_ I I t \ I NKI I-V -I / 17 F-OR SEC7YIO/ /A2.5EE PAGE? /

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Page  19 C V ANCA'C t S 3 113119%3771151 41 44 0: K / A (4 44 1 44 K A3 -s-Q r 1* 4 44 IL-tnc-c - 9 44 444 — 4 4-. 2424, - 4 -4) 23 >Ns- 12 4311 442271 3432114' 3- 4 I k -- _ _____ <4 4 -iZt7 - -_ _ __ ___ - ;;t 17~tJL T/Th.:3 FOR1 SE-CT/C //,,SEE PACE.-,. 15I

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Page  21 __p/. _ __ _ __ _A- i;e'ag. -. M. '. RAW,! - _,_ _.- 5.3 W.- 'IN V4 - - - - pl*_ - 9_ TY OF B-jATTLE CREEKAND ENVIRONS East Part' of SECTION 3 T. 2 S., Rl. 8 W. of -the Michigan Meridian, Scale 400 feet to i. nch. THE-CITY OF BATTLE CREEKAND ENVIRONS East '1/2 of Section I11 T. 2 S., Rl. 8 W. of the Michigan Meridian Scale 400 feet to iinch FICOP: SECT/O7A/ 2 SEE PAG, /9 1.1..1 ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ FOR SCT/O /4 EE 4E 2. 5 II

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Page  23 SECTION123j T. 2 S. R.8 W. of the Michigan Meridian ~ Scale 400 feet to i inch 4OR SECT/ON /6SEE E 9 C ~ ~ 44 ~~s ~ C,,14C r ~~ ~A VA E o'' "O9 7-4'~A ~4 IdI 14 k AAV 9379 -W7 9, 39 3 M7 OL/I~ 3 93 23 39 4 -7-1 F-,. T

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Page  25 T 0 j- --- — - v To i _V_, I I I I I I I TECITY OF-BATTLE CIZEEKAND ENVII 25 Scale' 400 feet to tinch SECTION 71 and Norl T.2 S., R. 7W of Part of NtCIIUN I5 ie Michigan Meridian 6694*k XK6~ #_6' #,47 J-I A1 R- z~:fz C3z / 38s 2. 40 ,:, 5 Lz $S, WIa 7, z r L_ ", I L.4 23 %= 3~ 32 23g 223324l E ~7j323 z ff-.. Eiff.. — R+, I T_ _fl..I "I z —, 2_.:p,F, la - ".3 - Z. 30- __ 'El 11-1-11+17 I Z -1 7 1 3 X 3G t , f_1511 - - - IF 11 I -1 HI r H4ILL C aA4 EYrE R Y I I I I - I t I I I I I I I I I I I. I I K11V01WA1V A V_-. J- l TA iThi 03,- I 1 51 4. I I. I

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Page  27 THE CITY OFBTL REAND ENVIRONS ~P~oF BATTLE ICyEEK ~. ci~,~ ~T, 2 S., R. 7 W. of the Michigan Meridian Scale 400 feet to i inch C 5 44 1 D0 37 77 l47 67 - ROK7' 7 73 33 3 74 343 0 7 57 743770 743,07 57099) 67 N~4 3 3 3 zo )'93S Q 3 20 3 45 3 7 53 o( 0. 3467. S4 33 )3.F773 7463 3 404205' 337S37 53 33 723567 705. 33 03 7.7 74 ' 7 40 5 4 7 7 37 37 A 74 7 3175.7 70:97 s J3R a.7 359 7hfza~ / 9 3 — )9m-.73 - -

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Page  29 * 11 11THlE CITY OF BATTLE CREEKADEVRONS -i SECTION 14' T. 2 S-, R. 8W." of the Michigan Meridian9.and' Scale40 feet to inc-h North Part of SECTION 23/1SE ' I LL T 43 7 ~/ W3772 2 73 276Zs 224-3 2 All 2 AVE CAV 4 i1RAV 14 624 14Z V- - WNWzA~H ' V 747 J2 723763 /242 0/427 77 I 37 R23.1.1. I. J I

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Page  31 E CITY OF= BATTLE CRE EKAND ENVIRONS N.W. Y+ of Section 13 Scale 400 feet to i inch T. 2 S., R. 8 W. of the Michigan Meridian rCyEC J(tAM, SF y ea. CAyf9 & _o. I _ j FO f 4EC-/0O \/2 S~I?AGE 1213 j I I A4t.'F. ------- 31 THE JENNINGS LAND CO'S. FIRST ADD. TO BATTLE CREEK WA BASACOON HEIGH-TS LOCATED IN SECT/ON 2. PARK ST MARY LOCA 71ED //V S C'S- /a c/9 SCLE 3-0 -I I.' '~ '

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Page  36 .920 F BddcI 6&J/ Xx ~L3 109 [OR 5[CT/0N 2 C/TY Of OTTLO CRILK,500 PAO /,9 fOR 500TION/V/ CITY Of JAT, 300 PA00 17

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Page  44 . 1. I I. 1 LEVL PPI, MEADOW LAWN -PARKS ROBIWO 45 URANDLE N N - 6 OKFORD T;VD Soo5call&ooi- =f/![ck~ N $pi' KISTLERkS GROVE LOCATED N, SECTIONS?N ANN 29. y I -,gN11 t 7-, 3o ol"

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Page  79 29 1 -. — r CON VIS. Scale 2 inches to I mile.7ownship 7' South, SAange O of the.9ihichgan MJIeridian K A IA0AV Co. - A 11 - I.. I - I -- a' ',.6 a' _' R - - F C ci / / _ Q; a ICT zce X. BF 7 IC2IIer L -.' Pi - Y/.... - 1-1 I am I Cf ~~'Do Z ~ ~:F - C.Oc tJ\ U47 Nc __;j~-966 ci C I - - 1 7-1 I. 6;."H I, Alz 11 ao t)ef \ - C, /- - -1 <:.5.) AP, - xa zll-Z-a sv C, w L I - -4 - - -- 1 k:' —? _7 —ZZN z a's1' X,. K D WC, I I Z6'02C: X?2)2' I'~2 ~ '62761 ITO_, 6i6~ CZ e 2zz ft Gc 10.58/i 14766 V 92.'r ) -' _9 -7 9. X27G 2 i 2.667962 ---... r4_,07 ' $ t OE 'S Po~rner o%7,2i2 6Z- 2-. itc ~z4 D E75'~ '~0q). /V'5 zais /~? i/i S?.866 466Q ciQ cI ci I )4 t 4 —? S. S I 86 4 I -A O 1,. 'It, - -;-S — 4-' C,' '-J ti). kI A ( C Q) q). N ", J 1-1 I.1 I - I - -.. I - - - - I N (cO Y856 7 8Uj -7-725 2'61, ~~t 66/,-Z 6''V' ' K,- z- I-z' ff42z 466.-:s 7 l-.1f:4 -666 3-1 247.9:~' \\ _Zz-e ZZ, -2/lTh~-ns2i I —\4-iz76. 'c 2 ~ 7866 I _ 466 ~ 96 /~/~(7 6WA3 -P~47.3~s7ez~s~'5..9/27z'.s 6 n1f$6 1 ci!Ptl 66,6 j 6766 5'crze-.1cole d i'36.a.~ S/ est 3 66 - 766 Izec1 6~' 67j 6' 286) _ 1 -4~~0a.36 \ 46.1. __. 46\4, o. I. -9 I 772)i7'32 46 2o64- J75) z0&)/ 2775 __ ___76 a.-67 T 9,76~.29 Z'/~6 46 i l4~ "63 (c~..7725>Z 8 K 77-6 46, __ 76 A 6 7830 Z Z 3) - ai 1/iv2~0oit %~k2 0 3 "'- 86 66 ' '"7 ~ ' 6 r.<gy/f (.0. 63-87/7. 663- 7, C- IAi)7'...)662666 A6 r56 6 3a 20 Q6 67 6 / 3..51Z759.'Zt 7S ~ 2.~y 5~ ' E-T 7/T FS 7r- 772.9 e-72,7? '-1 20 I I.5629.3 2!ypZ> 62 643e6.8- C.St 775,,,/Q.3 6.1 73.6' 0 266 CD.96 40p256 A'f-A D.ITt. PTH-P.

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Page  81 81 - CS -, -,,, I-, - A - 11 ~~i -Q 11Z27)I I 1ci ) ___.1 TO0W N SHI P Scale 2 inches toImile V7'ownshp;I South, SAango 7 Wtest of the SAiehtgan MJeridian B3ARRY V — 1 Z~ *Z 0.T 7R72. co,,-;;?.6::Z I — I I//if c72 -~- C C;Z 2:, z 4 Z7~2(le/ c0 - ~;6.7 C '- 7 66 ~ 6'CI/IzC. 0/2 j -.R.~7-Apz~7 = Z 36~~ — 2~7 ) A r /7 '. /&77~F" &62'G 46 46:g: yz,7-z,,r t — - f~ 36 r a-, * 77 Z~226~7726 Y,766/,7 oz I... 11 6 0 6) Q) Fz V72 77if Gcos.h.s 10 - -060 0.K) r.1z.di4 5I75 77 z5-5zX 356 776 05:-> F; -? ( (r~ I k7w 4 Q),-,Q) Q) - Q j 'd; I 1;: I6 I. /72752Zj 7Th3 C I I76,!I,,777/2s P4 IPS9.S iz - -7.7 Cr'6 - 7.5-/ ---z2c' i27 46 (:>~ _ 1-. A~* oo 1~7 _ sc 67 - 7"'0). 0 ~ ' 9i71sZzI 2 -i > 9j QO 8 6 0~~~g~~ 7" 27/9/ 7 C: 76 4 ~ / z) ___ Y7 6) ~ (7(60j 7757 665 5 6 / 6761 6 6 4 0) 077 X2;V 16- 62'7.07 56732a, 7.q( ~ 77~7/'7 7D Qj 46762 ~ 6~27 / 7956., 77 0 K ~ 6. ~ 33212177C66 764 7 oo0(e77Z% Ot'67547 72c157Is4 W78:0. Z Zl Q 77 _7702 -7jzOz ~ A 5.9Q ~ 5~ O ~ ~ 72 6, 7J 46. 336 0.7617 o766 167 * L II/66t67 67t IC76 7 7 7/ (7 6, ~~~~~~~~~~. 776 ~~~~'- PACh,/EA o, / 72w75 6Z./67/26 ' 7. o 6 5 '3 ~ ~ 70 657 *Me.777/Lcrs 66 ~ ISC16/s ~ 64736 ~ 2C 7:7 (2 '7 (2 77-Mswsos ", 752 ~.619 7'. //f2Jo7cv 71 f2J~o-. 2716 7 7st 87 ~ 7/I ~ ' ~(36ZZQWoo ~?'2 7I 36 96 7 6 - 6 4 Z 57~I ~ ~ ~ ' -'. ( 9 'S8 0 77006 (3 6) 772O~ - -.657' 72' /762 it.9 Stc~zote K >2% 6.7-s 1, )677js96r' 6 o K Ii N (7 7q. -7 _____ 77' 6. 0.727 ~'0)35a7 37) 3 soleS Ctorz 6 66 77 77 46 / / 766 6 -(1 7/77/4 8885' LA/I'S l6rz /5/'5/ 27~-sztzs (6 46 46 .0c/6,05. 27 /43/2077557) - 66.5 7700z'6271z. 427?6767( St3czo.z.7.9Il Coos/s 00657 7)9/4 > 77.722z- 7 I2270772 -.4.. l7 I ley '-t IcF -.1 _Z C6 (26c5WA 46,~ -7 N C,1 73 /2%f~) 16~ 026.! 6.. K'. (5 6 Ko 61 77).76 '5"77. I ~. 6O (3' Kl 1 J 6 73 ) - ( uA1'~\. Kf,~ I I 27G. G630ZCz 76 3u Zle 3 (17 -Z/1 6 C:> 5AQ, -4,1 I.I I 6H r I I I I., 6 (21~! OF ISA.Q.- -. - I W4IL L061,- A.127 - 6 - 63 7;' 6.~ 0)07 So 167262 St6~e/ 766. 67 1. 6,~ I.) I. 6: ()0 (7j 46o GZ)7e7 16,-er I. I -,0 7 627 5. 5~ ~'6Zs7,251 737 I'll 2700 I.....5~7 '/283~ q 7 k (770 I ko s - ----- --- W 7/oct 7770. '7607 6.37?f( 736 (J1 I,, - - - - - - -1. -.. - I. ---..I I. I TZV)"

Page  82

Page  83 I I 83 C'ownshi,P f South, SAange 8 West of the Sehichigan 5'/epidian J5ARAK.OR A. 0Z J-.5- / /A/6 — - -.. - - I.4 —. ----E - - -_.-, '< ---, - -, — 5 — ~ - - - -~ 06027 1t_42 I2-, Q) Z46727 I72- 126062 II6 1462 I 7276271 i 2 6 Z- Z~ -1, 20 K Z c ~ I K 92 Z1. 2 kS 62.4o... 7617 462 O;~ -to4620.~2'<.27, 71662 j96 264(2~ oo 44-Y I I )1- I 4j2545~ IK/F 1 2227y1 oo i2k 1662 '13-86. ( 7,662, 6s -_~ K.7 b723 V V12o651250 (K 'K 462 7 _____ ___ ~ 211AT6IA i~22~ ~ I.26+47 - t 7/6 q2~2A 11-3.26 K —, ft 67'2 635A'zzl-'I 4462 6 __ __ _ __ -- __ __ _. _____ —_-__ -4 --- — 4 - k2'r __ +,I-. 2-51 Q2 1 662, N;K 2j 'K~i~ Z, 6,92z K-,c * 732:7_le.26.6~2727162 22 j1322 6,67 2766 162 _147O6_ C7~ 662Fo 71277612 46, ~ 21 j',4 762'C.26 /2/3652 26/24k.1~747Z26211c17c7z~ 40 40 77265 77774627.4 K 62 12 4. ~276. 2 (K K 2(3 7,2. 7 'Cleo K.2/6/6. K.~ K ~, )262 RI )__ 42 - 7'/ --- -J 4620 ---- Qze.Z52 (-3.5y 462 66_20.- 2/22~'4~i 40 Z1 -1462 K zl5? 1121 l '-6.~.65 1 12626....1 s az262 - 72 777777266~26. 577=97272676210,!~~ K~ I,742.9_Z 7626625 1 t22227 + (5Q,302 77 *1 K 1/2 (I %j 7474~1 I.1 4 I! F -- - I r I ~ - I - 4_ Ir~ —r — i4 - I- + 45 +2< 66'7 I526 C<32-1r~,Z t< 62? K) ~232-:NJ 40 '13 W. 542(3 KS "I - 126 - Alzzl 862e~ 1262 72n 6767 627726264 k) 20~22 —5 I166 I t I11 II LI' K2 I7762 W ~2~7 626262 716262 V K 75. - s 7/6+ -7=27_` 862_1 — 1722 ~ IJ K.. q/127 I 462 -2727 AYL'1Z 1262 6*02- ~2K ' 1'.7-~r- 7c I 27+2 146 862o.6?.7?29~ 462o 1 6+2~~1-go I~462k, 462 2625 I I i tI P I I, I 1; -40 6156 462-Y 6' K K KS KS?,Y 4 z-62_o 22 6647 6~i+. 2~2626r6 ~,,v~,.2 70 1 I / 5 Yh'2_90 I I I 1: " I.1 I I. I ll. I I -.. 'i E: - - - -:= - -, - -!= == =1 - - - - - - I - -11 -I- -., - mf,2621/6 5 31 72 66 ___ -- - — ' 1= 1 62~562z22 73626.1~-As' 62 /24 K KS 6,2767. 2(7 '-' - +2 6 2 <74 - - - '2714 I -K Z77~22-0; 716. 662,,~62 zoo 32< T<.4224. 1462 I 2266.6( 6.6 462'Y 'K 72734 'kS ~ KS 71 I ~76 -962 262 (.412~l AR& S KS,,, ~ 0.26+2 400 KSC IS e -" 4.673272.66 -76 6226 z'4 Y66 <7I KS KSl 1262 762~. I;c I2252. (462,4ze -7-4-7 5 K7,-4 i S(f I' 'K 75 524 226' 76 I <1'27 6.2~2, 1<.C42 2 40 62 46 21101 44.,. /6 I - ,, I ----------- i I - -. -1, - __ - 4..j = i. -I =-=-= =AE I 226257 547 54 4lizzg- K 5 75 222. <'.6 Ks 6552'2o270s > K -7 27 — 'KS - p22-22, (K K.7.42266 ~2~2 74<. <dci K K 72 K K.: (K 262661~2 -99 6'2227' 54 1212s.6 122617 -KS.2676226 2 - WoeIs.4 c206 12 I2377 66 -to 4 xi,.,~~2 2 '462_ /9< I I2 410 7</276 q*__. - I I. 5;9 - Fk Qi KC QK (-&, 276?.42762767 I 262~

Page  84

Page  85 85 - " L 22 L, , - -BATT".LE CR.EEKI< I UWNtMi-l~ Scale 2 inches to I mile.7Own~ship 20 South, 5?ange 8 WOest of the Mieihigan) 5/erid"an -B]RDFQRD --- ---- - - - - - i -- -- - -. -- - - czs (%J - -7- - -0 2 - -t 2",I I - --!~-7 21 N Z71 2S 224227. FZ~ez 022;,eZC6276 Z- ~34 -0 20- ~422 22-i~ 200 850 VI 7.1e I 12 -7 -57 y c0t) 1-0/ 72 %eb / / t26s y ~ 2 0 % 1;Z - - - - - - -- - - -- - - - -II 11 2 2 (210' 22 I 0 - & 24 ~~-6 I~2 Q0j2 21,,-2 72 40 -. I.:j f. I - I 1' 0 Z; I - r, I - IV.-A , u R) q -F, 1! - 4i 7. ei --- I - - - ZAF=A - I T-L - I P, i, -.-.1 I 2 -, 80 I I, - "I (22 0j 2(2 (2 12 1212 '2 1 671(278 Koc 4 128 - I I - - '11' - - - -- - - -- - - I I 40.4 -J. 12~' 11 -o10 1297 2 _.- 22 41 Fe I /720 r9 0)15-.~. -// J-. -,11 02/f1 IY 50 I 810:2_22 - 7222 40o "I -I. - - - I I K6 —*T -6-'.- 4 —, I'T I 04fA i w U -I-, -. -. - I -.. i- -;, - I11- c — --- 11 I. 1 /21112777 860 77" 72 z:? 2/I i 62zzA 0 2 2v I 01~l r -1 -. Q. -/.1 A -% I I i r) _- I. RN 4-0 Ol'S2;TA. (72~. -~21~76-7 - 80 IJ) - ( -1 (1 d L78~722779 7124 -c _ 229 2- - I I.Z 7 7I1 -40(2; ~ I 4a10I 0. - I — 7 — 02 If 210 '-~27 o ~0 c C C7'x72221 24-0 I I6:Y/co -, g( 897 —. ~67~ ~4,~7727 92 -~ 13 0 /8k-70 73 801 -.421 ?~4oi)e17.72~7 /28 6072cZ77c7. 02 80 880 282 - 7~7~1722782 7- 120 .224 - 27 -.7'22 op8 C 7.22c-8c'11.849 I 40 11) 40 /T vpR

Page  86

Page  87 _____ ____ ____ _____ ____ ____ __ 8 72'.... TOWNSHIP Scale 2incheto I,mile.Vownshzp 2 -South,.A~ange 7 7West of the M7iehigan!Jgeridian C k z 5 47 - /44 12~4 2s2~ ~ 40 /,O 7(26297(222' -:e 27 69d7-2. 2100 Th~'f?.67 6 -9'7 94,4 -40 74K 24~2 1 227'72Z 40 22922622" 120 I I.P. - I i - i - - 6h 7222 42-4-' 962Z 2 62 r.. 99 77 -.z~z -'-<" 276266 4-' 2761527 7TJ 40 - 72/02<226- j'24 -427.6: 74-269 4-2,2 0Aa 20427 ~' 92~' -20 5o~~22z-iol&.z" 2242~ - 120 ___ 401 0 0 '7 o 7~ K <77 N.J '77374 7779 797 7149 79 7< 6< 9420) (4 -74727~44 -i'z-.r77 12~" J~2<7co'9 * 124 - 120 '74 TBL~D~714 7<7 1.2472647 74A4-4 --& (7202j~ 120 22A4-2j'f =-LQImblz ---. 57<6 -7 I 142I-'e c>2402 3 A I I --- I I ".., - - - / j - -.z -- - - =F- - - - - - w - - == -, - fr&-` V` r -— O, -— I I I I. I / I II' I I —. - / I.1 i I I7 I7-oo4 22271 112 90 I , - -pf~4~,d 44 2 H- aH-. ';;% 44~ — I -~~- Hf M -.- `-., -4 A;;;: 4- 1~' ~7 A~ ~1.9212 102t - 74A' A. -,4 4 - r-IN4) rir 77 7 ~) 5 'zi57rz ~p I'< 120:<H'T2,T...J-T — H I I- 1 I 2- I lT- L. '2<.L-v.1222- - ~K - -~'L 271 2J1 7 I6: 7< I I Q7 120 - 1 '<' Io1 ~3.-; 71 9 ~7 DI7 77 *,( 2 7102<9 2'-A <7<24<9 7_l It 72920 9wT4 <) 21, 27<261\;F 2472z, 222 6.6I<!,27022.- CO 7' 77 <6zz. 1- 1< 7<2 '72<7 'FTOC'A-'. - 27267,P (676 66. <-"~<" p7 <'7 79 60 C, 7< 77 4- -77 1227<2474677 4<0 20 42 24-22<66226' 4 -2277.<55zz47 <74900f221< 40 120 779I I - I.1 I I - I.,. I I. - ' Z - :,Z - — & ------------ - -41, 7094, 7 '7'042/ I 7222 '975,z62 I 662776) 664-2,'A2-, 1<922 - 210 /6<2-A4, -40 6< -1 4006 '71 7- 6 L Lk, 794-4-< - 11 2?79 450 -t~ 42<7 i 6<2627cez 7'- 9626-7744 40K -- -120 _22.63).9-7j.40F 2 -- —. -.1 (24067<211A C7 0 4i-~L...... — 4 --- —===~I- - - -- '. __ ------ LA _ -- ATEJVZ7OAr

Page  88

Page  89 89 1 I I MARSHLL...... TO WNS HIP Scate 2inches tolImile.Vownship P0 South, 2ange ig West of the 7iehichgan 5Ieridian CQ-ZrVIS - I1 C 6 no 22 915v 79261 ~ - ~ 1 7!40 K -4 - '-fly 72 I 772/3 262.22 ---- I.1, -721 3122 2 22~2-Ilz l,-427)"-. 6y222 6723, 42 - c L 22 -, ' 2~2 — 21 ~- 2 0c Z 1262 26 //Z2/ 222 7657 7 22-2222262~72 C1 2~2-A1Z? / -22- ~ Z } ' 7227 j.1 1, -472 r262)1 I "I I 1, -,'I I - - - - I - 2./2 I72427 I -167112~ 6726222 lt~ W 26261 I 25i 6~71-2~2 '6 10 82 6 762_2222Z 21 23-q *. -0 - 2721 -,5 17 627 Z162 67. —P 17 21 C 21172 - ~12. ~6/1632lz-7 -2I Ij<11 22 J4JIKP 262 7222 222, 6722 W'267 6(2226122.; 27662122 22~-o j7 22.61 (22 7 62121/22~-22 2 2)32 (126).2626 62227 7~2~'~z 22 - 72222-21 - 22 222-77222716 ) 22)7 22 1221.2~229 I7zr'~62 2-22 262. ~22 2 ~2.22k re 72~> 22 7722 2< . 125~/7~ I __________________ ii __________ 111111i1v1!M; ---1-k-j111fw III I 41111- - I - I — I' — --- I 2 26 4 162 4< 2 22* 262~222.1 -2 2 2 222 62 2/ 17 71222 ____ -.2 * - *6222 2> (17 22 4222,72 4,- 227171 2 422)7 * /2 /2 12217 142~~ 212717121 22 ~2 222.26 /22) Pz _____ '12.22612 -722222 -` 22 j: ~422 162 I 'IL 22222 1176 2:: 23 \22 (2 P.1Z~2772-Z61?-5q 1:f 6E712277 226-i' 712222 A105f~ 72.11 _162 -. I I -19 I I 122 27) 11 2 2 4-) -.2 6222 6'62 2 — t224<227 2722222, ye272622 162 '2261 '~2 222~ 2 ~ 2P 222~ 6>' 22 ~ I71Q I2 22 22 22) 22 17 1212 a~-z-77 2 222 22~2' - 2)< 12~6 1662 2)22 912 2312,61 1222662222 2677 12231 222 1221 22 2< 82 22 2 <222.2- 22 -. 22222222 22rz 7* 2 A /126 205 C.ZI E26262762216 ~- 6 2 2 272 427 2 226 I 2 12222 11 2620 /2 I 12 6 ~ I 166 12262 I26 72 2. 12I 1~ 222221e 2V1 2121 I 2 ~7222, ~4,- 62z 7 2/2/~ i 7 ~ ~ 226 C 11.,.) 71 11 i- i. II. I 22 '2,I~ J I6221 I21 I`I1 2226 12 6 22222. 22 2.242 2 I ) 1 2. <2AT-,72, 271 2 7 22A 7122122)62z 211~ ~, I1 2 62 26 22 22 62742 2Z ~7 <2~ -;-l 9 7 222 1 C 11217 ~ (1 67212612 2226-Z 26 -17 2~272 —~ 6172762I 77 1126 7.1 - - 1~ -— A 7-2O I2 I K -, 22 2 11 22 I 32 27 42 223 1 -< ---4 223 22~-T 4< 2)22 22 2) <7222/2 62626~72262 22 6 7572167C.271 2~ 2 ~ 2~.6717112 72121167 22<2)27) 43 ~ 4<12322., 66 621262 712~-2 2i22A 22 62 2// 12 22 22 >2 '2 2~. 2.2622 /2 726 2 2 2 COA ~2222217223 07 412 1$2,2 22 -,' 2 22 " 2 2 -222-2 ~ 26>17I7(,' 2< 2 1122 11 da 97: 0 ____ ~2, (2 2 ro 22~1; 2~ I22 — ~2226 7 '~7 >24I I 22 '7 22 /.2 J 7 2 2 1 -.1 III - -. -; I ~2 I22 2,-2 _ - -' 22,2 N I ~ 2 2 <7% >2) 6) 2 I22"2)I22~ ___ I 2 1217'> __ FKJI%2DOAT/24 22. 22 821,-T 1111 22 4 22 4222. 2222'' /5~22 2. 612 /0 ~6 /2 121222~212 67717~2112122 672227272 2662 22 12662 ~12~- 612~j.' -> 862 i I 1. I 22/2222. '223-2 — 2/ 6'2422.2/1222222222 32* 122 172262.2 - 1222~7226 1662 * - 26426~277~- 2. I. I 11 6~ 1-77' C~7'12I 6 6' -' 0 -- - - 1167 612~2 2_22 262 — " 242766162 4< 22_V2422~2.z72 ~5.14 -f~2~2 1'r -- - - - - - - - I-I

Page  90

Page  91 1~~ &bcb 91 11 11 - I -- -- Llllo I I....... A4,AREP4G(D....... TOWNSHIP Scale 2 inches to I mile ~7owns~hip 2 South, AYange ~5 Vest of the 5Iizehigan 5Aleridian, 1. Tf'/N11 CED.A A /OJAPL1E 4/_I8 60 -14? 0-' e z~o72Cs Q2'7 40 U F3. 44 4:0. 7-7,. 7 66 CT or-2TY777-7 - - lc-_10 -Z 0 S. d z ufz "t 51?Z.-,7Z:2- 5-722ZZ,'Z-/,D 10,EA AIV r /04.- E- - o/(~~/F/&os I1~'047'C7 7VZ7v~z/z'yez- ~~ I 4o 774:4.4-44)94es 44)'- rS -22y 1 'egg: 14Z5..- ale (444008 7~0l 4W v~C(E,:/? (7/CIrt'8- I fr-n Sz'A.74:40 80 F?, f K. z ~ 41 ~0 -Z QFI ) 'i0. 0 -747e IAPVPZ1 14:7 4' 'K.5 L Z0'8 4) -2 —. C A- Z44~/ 4:80 04lb I.iL I I IWA PL- -- 090109. 4II, _A -, 444Z4 hec0Ylz: e <4K Z. I ) 1W - Y114.-. ii - I r --- i 4 i, -- gz s ) - - K ); 00 6 2703",Z) 00:) -1) Z7' 0 ____ - 0-.Va Y71 1 Z-/2 ~&,17,~Z'z ~770071 a 4:' 04-,v "- C ~ — 46 #: )74C 11.1 Al 70 K i77Acvzn I?. TI-Fl/leo ~oe 147G. 477?,.03, 'mon 4)'4472~ 2'4444 * ~0, 4' -1A 4r) 4) fQ 0i~ 4 — 4-)' Q44 K1~l 0-72, Z tale 00 -1 cfffj.,-. i N044 N ~ - r~~ 3 Q f C~ - ~ - P -4) K~ Q~~) I0 'SP~~ Fq. TNz',7C-0 — -Vo 40. CT& 7-2 72 - 2 6 cc, -=-, LI ff A-. AF - - - - - -tl-L 11 - C 1C I Q) 00 ' [8770~72 - 0-ap I IC? NJol e~w - CDse, 7, / li 7o 2s I I QLffj I. I - - 4.57,4: S4547 Cz Kl I 1 -N'-C~ I. 0) 'I' C. 00b,/ I 7 077 1-0 j 704 I.1 I I Z I - I., I % I 80lIC P504) Q)30. PF Q N, C F ~CL 4:41~. V4 K - 4~9 ) 4) C" 70 1 622300/0/ -$C a Jo - c - Q 1.1.1. Q 4)1.., C11 cr~ `4) _4e_ ' 7I 5 574- -2 RqC 041 C 7- SZZ'172 /V-V C-4 Q04) 444) (- 4~ - F - I:) Q 00 4400 4) 444) F /l'/APLE4I'D M /t4:7~Z147 K K):) - K )~ 5eaF 177?a7/ - -Z- C -F 1K 'J f 'D:4 "JFe).1. - I 4,94:404 '.446 8-0 "oy 4 0 S. 40 '9 I I iq I E- - - 4= - ---, - -, =-=: 'O I -..-. II 4)s (5~~r I ~0 '944 ~1 I 'KflC9 444I.oF-Iff III - b \4C F3 14~ fa wTC~ ~. j14 44 -. 5S t3ojp III F-w. /"'l C' - ~94 e -, C "-.~- Rss 001 _- X6e 9. _ 4:27 6 Z.24)7 49 14r F140 4) < " 1-4 Q - 455> I 4 ) 40-y 1-310 0: 44 K ~ 21_ Co4G) Z- Co'7 77~~ C1.l.Coepaz i1D.~ z7z27044-'035 l 1-00U Kj 0 ',4 7 Q74-4 I -01 F,-4) 1Q74 K)'4 K Ac-T I I 744- 7 ~774 0Z4441;; Q3 4 K) ~0) Fszl/er, K k~ 4) Z Q) ~q,TIV777 740!Z. 7) 704~'ZZ6,Ido1zm 40il I 14) K0 -~ a3 K 4)34-J 7K 4)4 /-///4: DALE [4 /4/ioGC( 0~77 801:~ I F044:7C, 'Z — h rp-ff.. — - I I F-i 4Z4 24)2. 772/14 >F74)7 F (~7 _;VZ~4Z - 'o-7 o-Z 74 7,aC, 24404.~z E128t7/o Id/OH/GAV/ - i4'-v-1 0")I J 7-RT A c /4r~ K) PLA/111S//14-' ~3F-1-~~c' PL4)AC INVC I . 4 , - - \ I.7 - - -; —; - -- - - - -- -- - - - -- - I 4) I ~7w-. l.4) K44 jU Coo 7230 14-Dc) 14 t 5 i 4).33 0-~ ---- - K). = 45: 00 - I 0 I - 1- 4 '2 0 4&2j C *F -- — i —~ CC scoo 17)r4 F 00 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~;FZ274ojm 270 "2 K~ J)F4

Page  92

Page  93 93 V. I:-_-, 6/ f- - l C ) SHiER-ID.AIN - - -1 -I -I -I-.-.-. - - - - - - T 0 W N S H I P Scale 2inches to Imile 7o'wnship 2 South, SAange 4 WZest of the 5Iiiehigan S'(eridian fTA DP>NACA7,) 117F471? ~ izy r Gf3e zvr ~7'a Zi ~z-zZ,'2 7'Zkza ez-,y7 j9 C> /Ic c 6 1 -4 6 1 7).7 Qj 1Jo.zz1o-7? ' Iiiqj'zye ~ e _ _ _ _ _ j > 4._4 _ _ _* ~ _ ~70~ef~z0 9 e~s-Jl~ro ~ J':/ld 7 P. AP 8 0 _ _ _ Z_ _ O 6 77 67' 7'o~ell '2,Z ZxZZ9/7-J-7 09 coo:9 X c/.~ * C, o c AVXl2ees (270)0 I'? ' ClJ '2 fn29) 7 0I'u "2 '. AtI* I 9640 ooleI ~ ~ 701S~e/gocsc o (I _ _ _ 0 -fi -_ cZ7Reoc SA 0 6-'s (76) (7-658~O-t fi97 6-77 116 '0I 6 12r Z- ".3p _bzz7 i - - - - W - I - -.. - - - - - 10y 140.I o-zl' 806 39-1 - '75 ClO,3 06-e7 110 10 *767 '623/77,7/S I16c 4.6 A3" - 3 00 0 Ij Q Ij 'Iti Qf 2 r Cn;Z. 290 -L Y Q I r-_ —4- -j I -,.1 6 -0 9 -- Pr 77- 07 Z. T 7 &56' I-a /zi/o ZZ - 17 -I0 325~ - 77.9 40 860 C. "i76,, 606 F 99 "9'2o zz h- 9N —i 2/cc/ 963. - I 1 I7 — QJ q Cp7.1. - ' — r 19 ' — I. -I.W I I Cr 3 il-q i Z"L — 1 -,, V I~s 40 I& I5I tI~I I 0) '. 9 CShe/2 1 AO 57 -0 0 I 11 I. - I= - - =- - - - - - - - Al-BRION2

Page  94

Page  95 95 ABIONP4 TOWNS HWI P T 0 W N S H I P Scale 2 inches to I mile g7ownship J5 South, 5iaynqe -4 Wiest of the.5Iiehtgan!?Ilertdian S~fIQRJPA-r 7 I _70aic - 90 --.07e.27 006 Cc 69. I (727/ispoz 2 ( 0 z.9-9K7 " 65 76z0.l K K) - -. I 11 11. I., - -. -- 11 1- 1 207(4~ - Q0 -/Z 1.0 K 6 K 0K I 40 coz 0-..4 Q0~, K 0016 ~7 557_ i7-~'~ 7 - 0 "43 '6.1 Nj 4 i~.9 0 K) K) G~o~~I'4/1720.roK)72 070, 76 7 Jfsz1 7K)-57II__;;o s;izszz 0 20 9.9 K ) I5c~ -f1o, 0000 __ 90 4.0 4.2-I.97 6. 7727"'1K) 3 K2 ' K) i~K7~ -~ Ki6$~c-'~> ~ 427.90<0 7407CG IK' 2.9 - K,1KJ 0 K) I ~80 -zz 7' 6Z616 60 70.07? 7 0.5 A06.9 4 - 6so T0 I.. Kj~j 0) ~'S 2LAOA20C I >54 _ __ 07 776..7 K 90 0 ~0 700 >,5'7 I ~ 77226 o,-0 0 4/f ~ K) - K K~o ' I ~- 0 K" 12I'37

Page  96

Page  97 97 - - nship J3 South,!J?ange S Vest of the 5ttcehtgan MYIeridian - ) TT 6 I'" Tr7?. ~~Jl - 7- 6 - - - - - -. I - I - -. -. I -, ci-_,- 1: -;,jr —. -5-6 1 I II -; O-,, %. N Q I. 11 "W 4 tj 11 q / i P. 'I 4. P. - -C, N J, N,, V * - -N- Z i ZNI f. lll:N- k, Ik0 5c, ":- 6 N - Q, 7 - zz,iz "I O S3 11 2 -, I _Izlo, I --- q Tp , 1. -A1 -- 07Zs k) e'2C t o " QJO 0 0 N k YA? ]~0z?7 I., - -, ~ -A N9o 131 <Z0 I 77 l~ -. /y~7e -7.60 - - I - I 4/10 /0091 ~-60 I I I I I.,. =- o o-~- 4- - a-=a EE - - - - ---- - - - ~ - * - - - - - I ic-63 065 o44o -' 0'~j AA2Z- XO-? 0 I w Fl 1-1 lzi li. Ql i I E\ 0 0 \&0 0' - o22755?o /0.5 Z1-i - Q5 I 0Z 0l KI "I A2=-V3 - 690 G0 13;c2 760.Z42 /7/06 Yo'z. 66j J --- I —6 I.J, I: f - - -I I { -, - -, 000', I 750 Q0 K K J3I6rz 4-So. N z7,ozI -A-/ f ~71~,7+ -0o 4/7/7 -p- 1) -,;-! z — ozIll, 4eO 3 10 o 6Z 7/?0- 0 543 6036ooo~e7 Z2'os7 60 ~ -N ~ ~Z 0 ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ lo0' - /c7 N0 0 ~ ' ~ 0'~O66~~ 67A' 77e77 0 ~ 6~$~3?7;o~' 0I oyzK I~ 60'4-~6~9f~67'776 /6 0 ooo 36 r 6 60 -ZI 600. A- I 7;'4- I 77oooo 0 0 N ' 70kaAZso I.X~ 066 \v~ ~IU~o >~Ao777 ~ ~ - '~'f", \~N0.30~0 &O Q Z6741A -j6a ~N Joo j.7,07777~6/ 70/70e7I~~67 I __ __ _ _ 0 NV _ 76905 c!9z 660 /6'Z. 47 -0~77o04q 0 0 6,6o - X.60. O7 O /3<76/0O CZ77IAJ~A/YJ1OAT

Page  98

Page  99 i IF, "n - - - > —Q - - — el 1z, - :, - - —,/ !, - " !, -, -1 0 M'.0 - FREDO)NIA s 99 I I TOWNSHIP -FORTRAN,, Scale 2 inches to Imile Jown'ship -3 South, 5?ange 0 West of the Mieithiqan!JIerdtan 0 79 /62.-97 '5i- / /1.;: — 72qrozz7zS c - 46 — -, 0 -- - - ~ - - - - — lvN- I I - - - -I - - - Sc 124 " a> F =. 1- R -; ~ " 95JW /201:-z. -#f * I K -...I - P '0 L7c25ocI U /4) I I. / I 4~ I 4 2 14 45I J.Z~czy 40 Vzj441 240 27?Czr 950 5":he' Ki J Ces. -/60E-5" - 0~ff.b" 4 I K~ ""I - U )rq -;, ',K Z) zlK9 6 I.1`/0'1~ Z) lz T )Act U ',,- 12 -IN, u 3 1 M \, /I (5j K 62 Os3os0rz7 l4r's' 25' I 5 4 K >- FU) (51 I I. , I I - - -. -- I 1 I I I.... 20 -7 '(14-44 1 - -- 40 K JUl11 0/40 l' pew/s /20 I.. K 45 (K> '25 53)44 K 65125 25,c6""'44& K 4'4444 K (2") 44,4 K~ SUZ VK 22 20 69 -17 Cc z —z "244 K 1 KCO) 4"' ~- -,~ K:, P/l 'Q (4444 40 K ox 4 ) 4K-6A —i 62 Oc l /(5 ~4 K' tK yo "K Coc1 k~ _~ 14'/1t,'R 564.4l 17a 'Sd Z )44/7.4wo, eX CZ71 li ) -UD,'a '~4 K.2c K. 40. 4 2000. 6'02 I I I Pi, 1111) I'k I iIZ I i-:i-1.LI II.( w II I", - I-I I-, I., I I ", I I I - I I I I i zI:i I I i " Mi, F -. 1 7m 7 1 1 i 1.11 ;f 1 >44 lVIJ/Sz/z Cc 6 0 20 4 46 4 t 719 lb-/, / KZc/e 540 410 K-I,44.51 z I4 " 4>0 -9 41 J5CZ277 LS//c3d6//~ /Li' 5 /(1ll qz es5 250 Ioa40 - KK.~-2Vc K e K6~~ (1 0 19 I `K zzc op/Uc7 K ~ 5 A') P,at (5 40 /d0.I - - - -. K (4)" / K" 1 s' K 1/K-i 25~6 4> 44.4 5144 45,44',O "4~ I K, 51944~ "K 0Z244.N,-~N-Azc " ~0 "'25 u)" 7i 95/7/v/ 7~~. o Qs I TWP1 U) ~ -'7 /71 71~ I214 K-44 S ffl Ky-K i 5 — 7 'IO K"'~ 40 254 6/ 1 (5 756si-D A14ros -D. 40 /'ow 01 - /-94 (I K /42 ~ /I 7~ 950 3776f /2o gt45cAoo ' i -P;K 4u "I -1 I I ) I I I I (1. /7 -j M.. 11 - - - ~I- I K /I.- - - I -- W~A~c 170 6/dq / 74 K~ 57~ 01Az /6 I 006 71Arlzlz. 7 - 20- Jtu/y' 60 4'0 t:4 I 9V 1 /20 Q, rk1 4 L4 I is'S 0 - -I~ I -- :, I - - -1 I "I 1 56K6S j1 ____ K K I zzzz43 ' -1/' C2 7/C-, -11 -9Z0 Glocso0 L= 40 - I - - I -.. V) >09.A (K' I U. 11C K Q, IL 53 Ca25OZ 2 - 950.- - — 4" 14) ~ 6 ==='===3 if4 i V -- + 5' S ----" c 0a, - 4 _IN R'17-% -9 Z-1 64 F l,'f_77a,5 77 10 40 - \-4- I I - 7- I 4>- K, k1 l 4s7 " ~ ~yS5-~5*/'/Z I f - Q ) M. r41.j~z Cr/Is 90 (5U Ko 0K; 4>' K8 So / (, PA roiczc/ /00 Z I.L4>. I pqD 40 Q I I "I I., -., ua zzrA' 430 '-4 0 1 V) K 4 40 cr7 -y '/Cz A;; ""4/25 1-, / "I,R la. '4',4 OKQh.74Z'" 40 Oascyc~tczy /601c~. 40 J'JD731 /E 60 " ~,; p40 /lcz q-107 40 4' C 7/C /00 -1. I 11.1 I. I., I 1 444'- /1162 901' - 1/4'7 /> E I XIY'es. 0~ /20 rrz-z~ 00277 40 -s 916 -t1 rl'2'y/7R1970-6O5. 160 950 -,ro//rz /4' 950;40 ZIPbe "A' >,'5;4, 4. cc/c 144:;-I;20,,I I O~c2 *-, ____ K,10- ~7 TflKONA-5HA I -F I - I -, - ?kr 11 Ir, C,CZ77 - - "- C- I i I M I 9,' 0 60- 40 - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. I4 5 -I 'Yvz~172I /211 P /00 V) p; k E wo u QC '41 Zs i,K ~ 4 ~~, /70/747 ___.410 A17N I I I I Fl'I I =2/cZZ0 77//)94 1,wp' I 2 2I.. L Ia1,-I — K,z~-1 - - ~ 4I 4,.[ / /i ff I ffi I 4'O4' 0 41a S '71i' - I.I 6 /''4 I P -- "155M~ 1 — ~ S6-.'d j I _ _ _ -1 R-M-110-11MIN.M.- -— Mw.11 Ma 60 - - -I. M - -- -.- M — I sell.,M.,,

Page  100

Page  101 lot AK NEWTON)1%1 TO0W N SHI P Scale 2inchesto I ile So-sipJ outh,.5ange 7 W2est of the 5Miehigan 59leridian /76 77 /zrzroe 0f' /w r 76 6 M-9 f Z. K KO K '6, A,. PC 12, - -. I.1. I - T6 ~) 0-5r 36-7cd I 6 6.' 460 400 0/1C fiI -46 -Z Z' 46 — 4-6) C 504 - 177.>4J J. 76 I I I I I NE -5oo o/ ZKa AC0c0 c' r7 6 6 60 K K) 6 - 6~K6606* 5> _ TJ/VP 73 / - 736/ '6 '6 K) / - K) ~~'J(~a,771D 5c277 El/c l9csis 2146 65>2 6 7K2/'Cc I 01011)6 / * >,.K 66 'AK"T. - ___ 6K '6 'K K K) 5> >7 K K) /7 /ee<J '2Z'Z7 56 K'6 0 * * 0 C. Cazry>- c '6> 04 epc Za /5>776 6O 166 40 7(5> Rr I Ow10 C5K7 76. 9' / 116 6I 46 -K '6 /50,- U _ _ _ I~V '-4/ 46< K v 6 66(~ K~ "I *z< 17'Z (3,z-Sc 46" 6o U Q'cZ - - ~ ~2c 7-I - -~/c(y 46 27'7'-&A. ) I M2- 4 ~:: — I., 60"-; ID5>. C WCirnC /36-1 41 ' t4K,12 '6a 121: O 6'4 4767-.u wcr'/ - 46~2. K- ~S.3 - I I '6K 116775(7/77 '6 '69 /66 K K)'6) /5'OA >2 Az'6, /7 46 K __ 5> K K) '6 *~L/Cooen -K 57 146 'rc /6/,, /66 /7a i~es -~ 46 7 / 55>66C '6 11 K) 1 >2 e~1 "I It r --- —-------- ~~- 66z CD I'll 757 Z Zl -675c36 660 "6.' 6 6 'K) W>26 96S;C>_2,;ip )" v I - -1 I '- I I-.I t K~ Q C(6 Q' Z 96~(1 I '66 '2i 66 K) *7>69 Q) > 901.~'~ 70 i, ' 6>./ '~ c-) I ' 61 - 1 [.,50 F,7r 9) - 5hcz zwz7,:j I- /00 k — N (j I -7. N Z I U) I I 11-i! _0 I (f) I I Q Ij k I '6 9 -'65>O 'K 125I (7) '<;6 *.0~ ~- 1'~ 96 Z '6 -4 v ) h46 C> 6 '6 6 QK 6 ' - K 0XV N >5ec 'r ) I I - I - - I I I I "I - -- - I / I I I I I I - - - I -= I '6 _K,; 7 " I ___ 77/67 77 K /36 ____ (C5077 36 K 2> 6'F//A' ,> 46 JO/cO 9. I I 9./S1 - - I - '6v.Q) 11"'' X0K Isc 'I. 6,: ' I C- '6 -C') 114_ I 372579l/ ">2>2 5> 177 ihK>)< ~ 69C 3'66> ~ pc~K57Koq16~c9w I 66 660 50K /5 A <IlK ~ __ 60/' ___ ____ 5,:43 5>5/77507 _17 o/c.K)706r/77..,-. Cho e__ 46 6 a JP '.fc//1 yr7 K) 1J > /50 K s;>2 /6 6 73 06 K ~77677- Casc K lss7 '66 '6.........6 K 66,s y. '~ 46 5> Kh o,7 6 "'62Z, Z; _ -CI 6C 1j31?oc1 A~o~z'/)oc'5, K 5

Page  102

Page  103 103 62 - FT LE RC)( L iii3VI TOWNS HIP Scate 2inches to I mile.7ownship 0 South,.5ange 8 West of the AXiehigan MlIeridian BA TTLISCREEK P//2 5 I's/6 7A JX1 42411c413______lze 62726 - - 62 6262/6062 5L62 726/icr 3423262C1 - /68 /92 22 Al/-I '-60 09 y23 6221)5 77222266 K 0) 6 1S862I 62/s. I h/00oo I.J22662 1~ ~ i/~,50v 4,~ 6o.o2 2862 ' 422~/-"'. I 62/6) c5 6242< I. 82 I 52c862s I *LOA'EEL AR N I * 262w 22> I62'il2 - cAoo/ 215.s66's5/S 662 I /22 7 PA/A A 6I6622 '246 /7x7//7 > 2 42 '2 726262/28 '/142>7 362 /0 72 KI 2 7A ~ W~z2. 4 /7 6o 8o 7846 16 _ 4 2 / K _ _ _ -A>' ~ 7422161 2K >6 72223 " 6.F70 e 640 3. 22 _ j2266/9 _ 6__ _ _? 9 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ ' "'/ / 7 1 / 6 2 2 1 ' /O___- - I3 4~2.~~1s&'~ ~2 Z 42> )5 Z6 1626aZ'175fl d 0 K1 I'-ef2 /. 62 6 j4.6 6 / Kyoyv6662 (7 K s'lro 62/3- 1 6 22/6222 220 0) 7'~~~~- /Z2 I6co/6 '2 ' 6102 44 -' 3 6 J9/- 000 /22(7/ 67 < 67~ - __ __ 82 262 6 - ~5~5 ~ 4.65? 62422.621' 262 Ki w 6 /62 /26 62292562 /2.62/7z2. __ ___Z82 82 Z Z,2___ Z______ __ _ _ _ __5_ _ _ - 5 74 /6 20 Z2 /4 26/>2>9/~ 27/21 62 92~r2 /6 /166/ ~376336 / 3 2/1 61 /5271J//162'6 ~4221o~ 34522261K 26 62662 d,2 772 Lc2456S< Y-4> /Z4 Z7~2 2X~ 2~~64/~> ~466613_ 674 2~6~. ~ 0 ~ ~ 60 422 /9 '244076/ 42'~ <2 4~ 622 94~6 1/33.1426. Zj \z oI 62A/6626 2/ /66 /~ \ K Q ~ ' 6 /223 / ~1 // -7616 K, 67 62. '~~- 6212625.2/ /s'~ 62662I -~ c/ ~ 42cw/ 7 1. 6c~42 \ -Z __ __ 42 ~~,.1211c 627 42 - 1 5 7 A1 I I)4 - 9-,-%6)6 47z-92/29 62 71~ 82 ~ '626/,622a /2 72s10 2 22622 K4 622 -~ I.) 6~ 4).C I k~ t_ 22- ) 2~ K~ s K /662zc - 77242I6' 1262 2,,,ZA/. 66 -'-/z- IKs ~ 42r6-.4//160 4 TH wP -.- - -- I A TI-/ki

Page  104

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Page  106

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U 472,273 3,~331,0 2,03,424 244,4792 362... 22.f242.22A 2222 2222 22222R2.a,.......2...2.22.. 0a J 3ose 3122822 2,627,243 34,43996 646 121,0220 922 2,8 22222..........2......."Hv22 24222 2,472,797 22,762,172... 8,9,22 92 22...M., 226,2 2.3222 2472 14422 46,.3,84. 2424 18,796,00022 42 22,7 222..2. 2220 222 0. 32422r......... 02ehae 36428 3 22,22277 22,943002 4,2 23 4, 2222222.,222 222 42222 6763,289 5,6i 224,222o 8.2 2 o,93....4,9 2 2... 222 22 22 E2c2 2 2,2,27IN 1,347,592 5 4776820,0 4.32 4, 22. 2....... 2Ah 2,00 2,265 22 2 gyt............ 2ar 42o,222 1,822,05 667,577 500,743,817 51.44 62,o 92,222 6.27 96, 222ih...... 22 A2 22, 222224'" 72222e.............. ai 2o4,92 39,118,902 72,497,327 85,847o6,403 215012 629,2764222 27-85 49, 22i~ S...2.. 22 22l 4 1,82222222 t Ue22227 3232.I..... eri 208833 54,434,222 274,244,495 694,849,400 22.94 495,453,222 8447 993,2! 222. 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B& CAPITALS, AREA COMMEREC 89224ar 144 M ie OPULATION, 2it24244 NATIONAL DM5574... Rm io66United 12232s, 572tal, Per Capht E 3~32,9 3,2I8,32 433,1358122 82,540,4021,002 47285..... I... okio 342,433 42,732,241 20,622,603 242,497,243 4-72 92023 Sou 82,222 22,000,222 2247,i2........... o1ico 767,o 43,429 42027.7 6 175,945,345 32.99.The Hague 32,24 5.430.942 74576,364 463,I34,0424,6......... Managua 49,222 522,222 2,364,528 1,392,636 22018.. 742I32322232tani 124,445 222422232..I.. 72,37.391 32.99.. 02022202ucio 247,222 630,22 14.815 22,223,825 7248... 02.... 6,322a 42422o 622.22 16,737,5022 926... 2222. I. Lm 695.733 4,620o,22 2,573.8 23,1598,700 5422.. 2..... 4.. iso 36,226 5,423.232 263462 4289,400,942 25.22........ Buchres 48,307 5,9568642 238,3 27,7450 62 2t 2ete2b4 42420394 122,004,514 7,4,7 3414.042,734 24-21 32.. Sa 24lvdo 7,225 2,oo24,84 N6862,32 1.624,72 3167 Igo..... 332t Doming 18,045 6i0 2,700,57 526,212344 32.86 Belgra4 igo3 2,493,770 22222 42298,o,2 I... 04233.. adi 17670 18,8012374 25,576,788 2,o4i,389.972 110272 2222222222... Stockh43 32 172,876 5,221,291 4,122,237 92,833,336 27.22 322........ Ben 59l76 3232,43 225,3597 27,422463 9.2......Cons22332021l 33 8,22 40,44IGo 234.41 723,1223,400 29220 2P 222222222. 2W02432g202 023602 74,3073437...I 924033,637 02.42........... 0ontevideo 72,222 978,245 3,549,812 127,362,823 132521 I.. 722222 Craa 353,543 1350 222 2.736,726 493.35062! 2253 222223 YL r'I A bREVENUE. EXPENDITTRE, Al,24...................2,2 57t223 Per Capita. 572223 Pe7r.2 C 4.2224B22222022,. 5 $375.220.002 421.44 41396,422,222 $329q 2022, 22222,,,,,L 302......... 233,2259,222 2.90 212,64222 283 D1-................ 4 6i,26,oco2 22522 60,424,220 22.49 F h. -1022..............2 2,405,220.74 2,393,000 78 G22 22222h,, 2 I........ 27,220,222 2E$3 27,259,022 2226 Gf2 22 t............... 22,227,220 2.73 20,223,222 2.74 22 7,302,222 277 7,300,000 SI I 2322.22 I 22~ddSd....... 5733, 10250 62,170,0 0 2.46 M........................ 2201 42,324,222 2,12 35,906,22 6.73I ~ h"~ ~ 3 34I".A777-~'" 2.0,107,0032;38 2,216,929,0 86 222g 023332.......... 23 32,22 36 3,274220 325 222222222222 B 2 2,922.22o 32I3 2,722,20o 2.82.............. 222 23,6292220 537 14 8,246.5 S"g "...............2222 222 3 03,823,02 2.76 03,642.222 2.72 2 711:::: 222 193,077,020 2345 28 7,846,oo 11:1:1:1 1 4422 49712.000 9.56 46593.00 ~ 4 Um..2..... 2.... 2.. 2222.. 02 22,642,322 6.2 2o.963.220 422022222223, 81,450,220 36 8ioI 2200 2220 TW......... 1,6 694,62i,oo 8564 640.323,02,3,A,,,,i................. 32 2,703200 7.42 154232220 23-37 4.2 I's2 22h. 4",................ 2 822 F.t 2..6a 2.jS 242,........... 90 3 2 2 3 22222222322........2 N 222 32222................... 786...22242.....22.222...... 22.................. 22223222242i......... 4, 22............ 2122 P 4, 2........2...,22 I2 24lip,,II &.............. 222222342 232 A 2,S3. 2320u!.2. 2, 4299 23, 2222...........,8 9 Q2 -....32..202 82 4,242242 92442 T'4 24120 22 222............222, 222202232 2.................... 2223 222,, 433 ~,s,21,1202..1.1.......... 2,tBni d I d....... 222 22622 2,22g......23 2222. 222........, 222O 22922 ti2...3,898 - 2222022222222222,2,..,..,... 2 2.2 24.22,,,,,,, 2 222222...... 22....... 2332222 4 0 222 AMEICA 2222222. 34RI

Page  123

Page  127 PATRONS' REFERENCE DIRECTORY OF Calhour County, Michigar EXPLANATION.-The date following a name indicates the length of time the party has been a resident in the county. The abbreviations are as follows: S. for Section; T. for Township; P. 0. for Post-office address. When no Section Number or Township is given, it will be understood that the party resides within the limits of the village or city named, and, in such cases, the post-office address is the same as the place of residence, unless otherwise stated. Abbey, M. E., Farmer, S. 22, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Abbev was born in Calhoun County in 1866. Abbott, Mrs. Effie O., Farming, S. 5, T. Emmet, P. 0. Battle Creek, General Delivery. 1900. 6' Abbott, V. O., Farmer, S. 17, T. Albion, P. 0. Albion. Mr. Abbott was born in 1850. Ackett, John & Son, General Store, Eckford. Ackley, C. E., County Secretary Calhoun County Y. M. C. A., Marshall. Ackley, E. R., Real Estate, Battle Creek. Adams, G. W., Farmer, S. 20, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Adams was born in Calhoun County in 1884. Adams, Orwin, Farmer, S. 26, T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Adams was born in 1879. Albion, City of, Albion Garage, The, Automobiles, Bicycles and Supplies, Albion. Albion Lumber Co., Lumber Dealers, Albion. Albion State Bank, General Banking, Albion. Albion Township, J. L. Barkley, Township Clerk, S. 28, T. Albion, P. 0. Albion. Aldrich, C. A., Farmer, S. 32, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. Mr. Aldrich was born in Calhoun County in 1877. Allen, J. Edward, Farmer, S. 16, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. 1893. Allen, Irvie L., Proprietor Maple Leaf Dairy Farm, Breeder of Holstein Cattle, S. 29, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Albion. Mr Allen was born in Michigan in 1865 and settled in Calhoun County in 1893. He is married to Clara Stoddard. Mr. Allen has served as Road Com-? i missioner. Allen, John E., Farmer and Stock Breeder, S. 2, T. Eckford, P. 0. Marshall. 1893. Allman, Geo., Farmer, S. 11, T. Albion, P. 0. Albion. Mr. Allman was born in 1885. t Allwardt, Fred, Farmer, S. 16, T. Newton, P. O. Ceresco. Allwardt, F. A., Vice President City Bank of Battle Creek and Secretary Battle Creek Public Schools, Battle Creek. Amberg & Murphy, Druggists, Battle Creek. American Motor Co.. Automobiles and Garage, Battle Creek. Andre, Frank, Farmer, S. 9, T. Eckford, P. 0. Marshall. 1862. Andrews, W\. E., Town Clerk and Photographer, Homer. Ankney, S. P., Farmer, S. 19, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Ankney was born in 1868. Ansell, WV. J., Farmer, S. 35, T. Lee, P. O. Marshall. Mr. Ansell was born in 1894. Ansterburg, Wm. 1E., Farmer, S. 34, T. Albion, P. O. Homer. Mr. Ansterburg was born in 1856. Arnold, Henry, Farmer, S. 31, T. Tekonsha, P. 0. Tekonsha. Mr. Arnold was born in Indiana in 1859 and settled in Calhoun County in 1914. Arthur & Beck, Attorneys, Battle Creek. Ashdon, M. H., Farmer, S. 21, T. Le Rov, P. O. East Leroy. 1892. Ashley, F. E., Farmer, S. 23, T. Burlington, P. 0. Burlington. Athens State Bank, General Banking, Athens. Atkins Edward, Farmer, S. 2, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Atkins was born in 1884. Austin, A. R., Real Estate and Insurance, Albion. Avery, C. E., Livery and Sale Stables, Battle Creek. Avery, F. A., Farmer, S. 14, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. 1856. Avery, L. L., Farmer and Stock Breeder, S. 1, T. Albion, P. 0O. Albion. Mr. Avery was born in 1874. Backofen, E. A., Farmer, S. 26, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Backofen was born in Calhoun County in 1852. Badger, D., Farmer, S. 26, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Badger was born in Calhoun County in 1860. Badger, Mrs. E., Farming, S. 23, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Pennfield. 1913. Badger, J. H., Farmer, S. 22, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Pennfield. Mr. Badger was born in Calhoun County in 1868. Badger, W. H., Farmer, S. 8, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Badger was born in Calhoun County in 1866. Baird, R. M., Farmer, S. 21, T. Lee, P. 0. Marshall. 1914. Baker, Elmer, Farmer, S. 2, T. Emmet, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Baker was born in Calhoun County in 1865. Baker, L. J., Farmer, S. 32, T. Fredonia, P. 0. Marshall. 1898. Ball, James S., Grocer, Battle Creek. Ball, La Vern, Farmer, S. 16, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. Mr. Ball was h born in 1887. Barker, Samuel R., Farmer, S. 32, T. Emmet, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1903. Barkley, James, Farmer, S. 6, T. Albion, P. 0. Albion. Mr. Barkley was. born in 1880. Barkley, J. L., S. 28, T. Albion, P. 0. Albion. Mr. Barkley has served as Township Clerk. Barnes, Geo., Ex-County Treasurer, Marshall. Barnes, W., Farmer, S. 17, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. 1906. Barnum, E. L., Farmer, S 36, T. Marengo, P. 0. Albion. 1890. Barry, Frank MI., General Insurance, Battle Creek. Bartholomew, Noah, Farmer, S. 21, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. 1861. Bartholomew, S. C., Farmer, S. 4, T. Eckford, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. I S. C. Bartholomew, was born in Northampton County, Pennsylvania, April 21, 1857, and in 1876 came to Homer, Mich., where he made his home for ten years with an uncle who resided five miles northwest of Homer in Eckford Township. In 1886 he was married to Miss Alice C. Miller of Eckford Township, Calhoun County, where they resided for seven years, then moved to Burlington Township and remained for sixteen years. In Burlington Township he owned a fine farm of 44 acres whidh he sold and moved back to Eckford Townshi. and bought the 80 acres on which he inow lives and which is known as Pleasant View Farm. Bartlett, -B. B., -tarm-er, S. 9, T. Clarendon, P. 0O Homer. Bartlett, W. Henry, Farmer, S. 22, T. Clarendon, P. 0. Homer. Mr. Bartlett was born in 1863. Bascom, S. A., Dairyman and Breeder of Jersey Cattle, 220 Pearl St., Albion. 1866. Batdorff, H. H., Real Estate, Battle Creek. Bates, Ed E., Farmer, S. 6, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. 1868. Battle Creek Gas Co., Gas, Coke and Gas Fixtures, Battle Creek. Battle Creek Hack & Bus Co., Hack and Livery, Battle Creek. Battle Creek Lumber Co., Lunber Dealers, Battle Creek. Battle Creek Public Schools, Secretary Board of Education, Battle Creek. Battle Creek Sanitarium, M. W. WVentworth, Steward, Battle Creek. Battle Creek Sanitarium, Store Department, Battle Creek. Battle Creek Storage & Carting Co., L. B Alexander, Manager, Packers, Movers and Storers of Household Goods, Battle Creek. Battle Creek Taxicab Co., Battle Creek. Battle Creek Township, F. W. Van Vailand, Clerk, Engineer Water Works, S. 13, T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Van Vailand was born in 1872. Baty, E., Farmer, S. 33, T. Clarence, P. 0. Albion. 1865. Bauer, P. A., General Auctioneer, Athens. Baurs, August, Farmer, S. 35, T.Bedford, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1907. Beach, 0. H., Farmer, S. 22, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Baltle Creek. Mr. Beach was born in 1873. Beardsley, C. E., Farmer, S. 27, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Beardsley was born in Calhoun County in 1864. Beardsley, G. R., Farmer, S. 27, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Beardsley was born in 1876. Beattie, Rodger, Farmer, S. 7, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. 1867. Beck, Ira A., Lawyer, Battle Creek. Beckley, Mrs. L. A.. Farming, S. -2, T. Le Roy, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1867. Beckwith, J. C., Grain Elevator, Marshall. Belcher, C. P., Retired Farmer, Albion. Mr. Belcher was born in 1851. Bemer, Wm., Blacksmith and Supervisor, Albion. Bentley, B. K., Farmer, S. 29, T. Marshall, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Bentley was born in Calhoun County in 1868. Bentley Shoe Co., Battle Creek. Betterly, Walter, Farmer, S. 10 and 11, T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Betterly was born in Calhoun County in 1869. Binder, Robt. Co., Meats, Battle Creek. Bingham, Ralph, Farmer, S. 5, T. Clarence, P. 0. Olivet. 1875. Bird, Mattie E., Farmer, S. 23, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Bird was born in 1856. Blake, C. L., Plumber, Marshall. Blake, H. D., Machine Shop Work, S. 22, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Blake was born in 1871. Blanck, T. J. & Sons, Farmers and Stock Breeders, S. 34, T. IEmmet, P. 0. Ceresco. Blowers, N. A., Farmer, S. 15, T. Athens, P. 0. Athens. Boehmer, August, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 30, T. Lee, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Boehmer was born in 1882. Bolster, R. J., Dry Goods, Battle Creek. Boos, J. B., Wines and Liquors, Battle Creek. Bosley, W. E., Shelf and Heavy Hardware, Marshall. Boughton, C., Farmer, S. 14, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marengo. 1838. Bourdeau, A. C., Printer, S. 21, T. Emmet, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1890. Bowen, L. H., Clerk, S. 10, T. Bedford, P. 0. Bedford. Mr. Bowen was born in 1888. Boyce, F. N., The Ideal Laundry, Battle Creek. Bradley, Eugene, Farmner, S. 1, T. Eckford, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Bradley was born in 1881. Bradley, R. A., Farmer, S. 12, T. Eckford, P. 0. Albion. Mr. Bradley was born in 1884. Bradley Brothers, De alers in Coal and Hardware, Battle Creek. Bradstreet, Geo, Farmer and Gardener, S. 3, T. Le Roy, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Bradstreet was born in 1881. Brazie, M. L., Proprietor Palace Livery, Battle Creek. Brewer, C. R. Lumber Co., Lumber and Building Material, Battle Creek. Briggs, H. A., Real Estate, Battle Creek. Briggs, M. L., Farmer and Dairyman, S. 34, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Bristol, Glenn R., Farmer, S. 28, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. 1913. Brockett, L. B. & Sons, Dealers in Hardware, Battle Creek. Bromeling, G. M., Farmer, S. 9, T. Clarendon, P. 0. Homer. Brooks, J. P., Dairy Farmn, S. 33, T. Burlington, P. 0. Union City. Brooks Appliance Co., Manufacturers of Surgical Appliances, Marshall. Brown, C. W., Farmer, S. 30, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. 1864. Brown, M. E., Daily MsoontNewspaper, Battle Creek. Brown, V. and R. D., Farmers, S. 25, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Broxholm, Geo. C., Farmer, S. 7, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. 1911. Brunner, George, Road Commissioner, S. 9, T. Bedford, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1891. Bryant, C. S., Farmer, S. 18, T. Albion, P. 0. Albion.. Mr. Bryant was born in 1872. Brvant, Mrs. H. M., Farming, S. 18, T. Albion, P. 0. Albion. Buckley, J. J., Farmer and Dairyman, S. 11, T. Homer, P. 0. Homer. 1903. Bugden, James, Farmer, S. 17, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. 1902. Burkhardt, Chas., Farmer, S. 14, T. Burlington, P. 0. Burlington. Burrett, E. D., Farmer, S. 5, T. Convis, P. 0. Bellevue. 1883. Burrows, Wm., Farmer, S. 12, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Pennfield. Mr. Burrows was born in Calhoun County in 1847. Burt, Wm., Farmer, S. 11, T. Convis, P. 0. Bellevue. 1914. Burton, A., Farmer, S. 4, T. Convis, P. 0. Bellevue. 1870. Bushnell, H. D., Farmer, S. 6, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. 1889. Buskirk, Henry, Farmer, S. 27, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. 1854. Buskirk, Wm., Farmer, S. 24, T. Eckford. P. 0. Eckford. 1869. Butler, Alfred, Farmer, S. 30, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Butler was born in 1878. Butt, James, Farmer, S. 17, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. 1885. Butterfield, Wm., Farmer, S. 6, T. Clarence, P. 0. Olivet. 1882. Cable Piano Co., The, F. R. Lawrence, Manager, Pianos, Battle Creek. Cahalan, Rev. James, Catholic Priest, Marshall. Calhoun County Abstract Co., L. S. Page, Proprietor, Marshall. Calhoun County Officers:-Circuit Judge, Walter, H. North; Judge of Probate, Wm. H. Porter; Sheriff, E. J. Mallory; Clerk, Will A. Cady; Deputy Clerk, Agnes M. Sterling: Treasurer, William A. Lane; Register of Deeds, C. Howard Daskam; Prosecuting Attorney, Robert H. Kirchman; Assistant Prosecuting Attorney, A. F. Cooper; Court Stenographer, Roy E. Eldred; School Commissioner, Emma S. Willitts; Drain Commissioner, L. C. Williams. Court Comnaissioners:-A. N. Ford, Battle Creek; Chas. 0. Miller, Marshall. County Road Commissioners: - Frank Mahrle, Chairmtan, Marshall; Geo. R. Peet, Battle Creek; E. H. Puffer, Battle Creek. Boark of Supervisors:Albion Township, C. W. Kilmer, Albion; Athens Township, Erwin, W\arsop, Athens; Battle Creek Township, Clinton Rhodes, Battle Creek; Bedford Township, B. G. Morgan, Battle Creek; Burlington Township, Frank Pullman, Burlington; Clarence Township, W. A. Krenerick, Albion; Clarendon Township, Lewis R. Mead, Homer; Convis Township, J. E. Walkinshaw, Bellevue; Eckford Township, Lewis J. Decker, Marshall; Emmet Township, Chas. Hutchinson, Battle Creek; Fredonia Township, Fred Katz, P. O Marshall; Homer Township, Wm. T. Hamilton, Homer; Lee Township, George Rundle, Olivet; Le Roy Township, E. D. Bushnell, East Leroy; Marengo Township, Frank E. Smith, Marshall; Marshall Township, John Lee, Marshall; Newton Township, Ira Hagleshaw, Ceresco; Pennfield Township, Wm. S. Fruin, P. 0. Battle Creek; Sheridan Township, J. K. O'Hara, Albion; Tekonsha Township, Bert Shedd,, Tekonshla. Calhoun State Bank, General Banking, Homer. Callahan, J. H., Clifton and Bismark Hotels, 'Battle Creek. Callahan, Wm. H., Farmer, S. 9, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr;. Callahan was born in 1877. Carpenter, L., Farmer, S. 24, T. Bedford, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1885. Carr, E. S., Farmer and Stock Breeder, S. 33, T. Albion, P. O. Homer. Mr. Carr was born in 1863. Carver, Elizar, Farmer, S. 5, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Carver was born in 1881. Case, C. B., Farmer, S. 27, T. Burlington, P. 0. Union City. Case, Jos., Florist, Battle Creek. Casey, J. T., Jr., Farmer, S. 19, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. 1902. Cavanagh, Howard W., Lawyer, Battle Creek. Centner, Charles W., Dry Goods, Battle Creek. Central National Bank, Gal Ba l Banking, Battle Creek. Chamber of Commerce, Battle Creek. Chapin, E. W., Farmer, S. 22, T. Emmet, P. 0. Ceresco. 1880. Chisholm, T. J., Farmer, S. 19, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Chisholm was born in 1836. Church, T. E., Livery, Marshall. City Bank of Battle Creek, The, General Banking, Battle Creek. City Suburban Lot Exchange, L. E. Alderdyce, Manager, Real Estate, Battle Creek. Clapp, F. W., Lawyer, Battle Creek. Clarence Township, Bert C. Ringler, Township Clerk, Albion. Clark, Frank, Farmer, S. 26, T. Marengo, P. O. Marengo. Mr. Clark was born in 1868. Clark, Fred E., Farmer, S. 12, T. Eckford, P. 0. Albion. 1887. Clark, G. E. & Son, General Blacksmithing, S. 10, T. Bedford, P. 0. Bedford. G. E. Clark was born in 1860 and W. S. Clark was born in 1894. Clark, Jacob, Farmer, S. 18, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. 1872. Clark, 0. S., Lawyer, Battle Creek. Clark, Warren J., Farmer and Breeder of Jersey Cattle, S. 8, T. Fredonia, P. 0. Marshall. 1885. Mr. Clark has served as Town Clerk.

Page  128 2z8 Clayman, B. T., Farmer and Stock Feeder, S. 13, T. Emmet, P. O. Ceresco. 1900. Cline, Eli, Farmer, S. 30, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1851. Clothier, Geo., Farmer, Burlington. Clute, Geo., Farmer, S. 25, T. Convis, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Clute was born in 1874. Clute, Homer, Farmer, S. 31, T. Lee, P. O. Marshall. Mr. Clute was born in 1872. Cobb, N. A., Lawyer, Battle Creek. Coca-Cola Bottling Co., Manufacturers and Bottlers of Soda and Mineral Waters, Battle Creek. Coggan, S. W., Florist, Battle Creek. Cole, S. B., Contractor, Battle Creek. Coleman, Mrs. Geo., Marshall. Collyer, Geo. E., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 27, T. Albion, P. O. Homer.' Mr. Collyer was born in 1868. Collyer, Geo. W., Farmer, S. 20, T. Burlington, P. O. Union City. Comfort, T. G., Farmer. S. 20, T. Le Roy, P. 0. Climax. 1907. Commercial & Savings Bank, The, General Banking, Albion. Commercial Savings Bank, The, General Banking, Marshall. Consolidated Ice Co., Limited, C. D. Peters, Manager, Battle Creek. Converse, F. E., Farmer, S. 7, T. Burlington. P. O. Union City. Convis, C. E., Farmer, S. 32, T. Pennfield. P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Convis was born in Calhoun County in 1874. Convis Township, J. E. Walkinshaw, Supervisor; Walter Scott, Justice: Thos. Hamilton, Clerk, Marshall. Cook, Geo. W., Farmer, S. 16, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. 1874. Cook, R. H. & Co., Stock Breeders and Fruit Growers, S. 36, T. Eckford, P. O. Eckford. 1889. Coon, W. A., Farmer, S.-4, T. Pennfield, P. O. Battle Creek. Mr. Coon was born in 1872. Cooper, C. D., Farmer, S. 21, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. 1866. Corey, Elbert, Farmer, S. 29, T. Newton, P. 0. Union City. Cornell, E., Farmer, S. 31, T. Emmet, P. O. Battle Creek. Mr. Cornell was born in 1877. Cornell, W. E., Business-College, Battle Creek. Coss, A. B., Farmer, S. 4, T. Pennfield, P. O. Battle Creek. Mr. Coss was born in 1868. Cotton, F. D., Farmer, S. 18, T. Newton, P. O. Battle Creek. Courtright, Ray, Farmer, S. 15, T. Clarence, P. 0. Springport. Mr. Courtright was born in Calhoun County in 1873. Coy, James, Farmer, S. 4 and 5, T. Battle Creek, P. O. Battle Creek. 1911. Craig, J. P., Real Estate, S. 11, T. Clarendon, P. O. Homer. Mr. Craig was born in Pennsyvania in 1837 and settled in Calhoun County in 1906. He is a Veteran of the Civil War, having enlisted in 1862 and was discharged in 1865. He served as Sergeant in Company G 4th Michigan Cavalry. Crampton, O., Farmer, S. 16, T. Marengo, P. O. Marshall. 1903. Crane, Guy E., Harness, Battle Creek. Creps, W. B., Farmer, S. 22, T. Albion, P. O. Albion. Mr. Creps was born in Calhoun County in 1884. Crofoot, George, Farmer, S. 6, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Crofoot was born in 1848. Cronin, H. L., Grocer, Marshall. Cronkhite, R. S., Farmer, S. 33 d d, T. Bedford, P. Battle Creek. Mr. Cronkhite was born in 1885. Crosby, J. E., Farmer, 400 Lake Ave., Battle Creek. Mr. Crosby was born in 1853. Culver, F. W., Real Estate, Insurance and Supervisor, Albion. Culver, R. A., Farmer, S,. 33,. Burlington, P.. Union City. Cummings. Allen Realty Co., Real Estate, Battle Creek. Curtis,., L. armier and Dairyman, S. 18, T. Marengo, P. O. Marshall. Mr. Curtis was born in 1875. Cushman, Charles, Farmer, S. 36, T. Lee, P. O Marshall. Mr. Cushman was born in 1851. Custer, August, Farmer, S. 7, T. Clarence, P. O. Sringport. 1907. Cutting, A. F., Farmer, S. 28, T. Eckford, P. O. Eckford. Mr. Cutting was born in 1859. Cutting, Cleve, Farmer,'S. 26, T. Eckford, P. O. Eckford. Mr. Cutting was born in 1882. Daniels, Jerome, Superintendent of Calhoun County Farm, S. 19, T. Marengo, P. O. Marshall. 1913. Daskam, C. H., Register of Deeds, Marshall. Davis, E. G., Farmer, S 26, T. Athens,. O. Athens. Davis, J. Wendel, Rector Trinity Church, Marshall. Davis, Mary E., Real Estate, Albion. Davis-Fisher Co., The, Real Estate, Battle Creek. Day, Joseph, Farmer, S. 18, T. Eckford, P. O. Eckford. Mr. Day was born in 1886. Dean, H. W., Furniture, Tekonsha. Dean,., Prto Pt J. 25H. S, Proprietor Prospect Hill Farm S. 25, T. Sheridan, P. Albion. Mr. Dean was born in Calhoun County in 1879. He is married to Bertha Ringler. Mr. Dean has served as Justice of Peace. DeBow, C. C., Farmer, S. 8, T. Athens, P. 0. Athens. Decker, L. J., Farmer and Supervisor, S. 4, T. Eckford,. O. Marshall. Mr. Decker was born in 1880. Deihl, Jesse, Farmer, S,.,. Eckford, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Deihl was born in 1885. Demott, Ed, Farmer, S. 8, T. Battle Creek, P. O. Battle Creek. Mr. Demott was born in Calhoun County in 1864. Demott, Royr,Farmer, S. 8, T. Battle Creek, P. O. Battle Creek. Mr. Demott was born in Calhoun County in 1897. DePuy, Edward, Farmer, S. 4, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1882. Dewey, John A., Farmer S., T. Clarence, P.. Springpor. 1902. DeWitt, C. C., Wines, Liquors and Cigars, Battle Creek. Dibble, W. J., President Commercial Savings Bank, Marshall. Dickie, Samuel, President Albion College, Albion. Dinger, S., Farmer, S.. 20, T. Pennfield, P.. Battle Creek. Mr. Dinger was born in 1860. Disbro, Ora L., Farmer, S. 11, T. Burlington, P. O. Burlington. Dobbins Hardware Co., Dealers in Hardware, Battle Creek. Doly, Robert, Farmer, S. 10, T. Clarendon, P. O. Homer. Donovan, R. A., Real Estate, Battle Creek. Doobleday, Lee, Farmer, S. 33, T. Le Roy, P. O. East Leroy. Mr. Dooblday was born in 1888. Doolittle, B. G., Cashier First State Bank, Tekonsha. Doubleday, W., Farmer, S. 33, T. Le Roy, P. O. East Leroy. 1882. Dowding, Ben, Farmer, S. 33. T. Eckford, P. O. Eckford. 1896. Dowding, Geo., Farmer, S. 28, T. Eckford, P. O. Eckford. Mr. Dowding was born in 1860. Dowding, Henry, Farmer, S. 31, T. Lee, P. 0. Marshall. 1857. Dowding, Mary, Farming, S. 30, T. Lee, P. O. Marshall. Born in 1883. Doyle, J. E., Farmer, S. 11, T. Tekonsha, P. O. Tekonsha. Mr. Doyle was born in Rochester, N. Y., in 1858 and settled in Calhoun County in 1877. He is married to Emily Thunder. Dryer, James, Drain Dredging Contractor, S. 20, T. Lee, P. O. Marshall. 1890. Dunn, H. T., Farmer, S. 14, T. Eckford, P. O. Eckford. 1874. Dykeman, A. A., Mason, S. 23, T. Bedford, P. O. Battle Creek. Mr. Dykeman was born in 1849. Eastman, O. V., Livery, Albion. Eaves, E., Insurance, Battle Creek. Eckford Township, C. E. Miller, Township Clerk; L. J. Decker, Supervi PATRONS' REFERENCE DIRECTORY. sor; F. L. Sanders, Justice of Peace, S. 20, T. Eckford, P. O. Eckford. Eddy, Frank, Farmer, S. 1, T. Lee, P. O. Springport. Mr. Eddy was born in 1884 Eells, C. F., Farmer and Gardening, S. 3, T. Battle Creek, P. O. Battle Creek. Mr. Eells was born in 1875. Eitniear, G. A., Farmer, S. 17, T. Burlington, P. O. Burlington. Eitniear, R., Farmer and Road Commissioner, S. 23, T. Athens, P. O. Athens. Ellis, B., Farmer and Breeder of Thoroughbred Durham Cattle, S. 6, T. Tekonsha, P. 0. Burlington. 1857. Emmet Township, Wm. H. Pierce, Township Clerk; Charles Hutchinson, Supervisor, Ceresco. Emmerson Truck & Storage Co., Movers, Packers and Shippers of House hold Goods and Storage, Battle Creek. Enos, Z. H., Parmner, S. 19, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. Mr. Enos was born in 1862. Enquirer, The, Newspaper, Battle Creek. Etson, C. H., Farmer, S. 4, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Etson was born in 1835. Evans, Mrs. E., Faiming, S. 20, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mrs. Evans was born in 1866. Evening Chronicle, The, Newspaper, Marshall. Evening Statesman, The, Newspaper, Marshall. Fanning, C. W., Farmer, S. 13, T. Newton, P. 0. Ceresco. Farley, W. D., Furniture and Undertaking, Battle Creek. Farman, J. L., Farmer, S. 6, T. Athens, P. 0. Athens. Farr, H., Farmer, S. 31, T. Fredonia, P. O. Burlington. 1910. Fenton, A., Farmer and Breeder, S. 21, T. Eckford, P. O. E.ckford. 1861. Fenton, Ed M., Farmer, S. 15, T. Emmnet, P. O. Battle Creek. 1901. Ferguson, Mrs. Marion, Farming, Marshall. Findley, Chas. C., Farmer, S. 1, T. Albion, P. 0. Albion. 1910. Findley, H. L., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 30, T. Homer, P. 0. Homer. Mr. Findley was born in 1879. Finley, Clellan A, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 3, T. Homer, P. O. Homer. 1877. Finten, Geo. E., Farmer, S. 29, T. Burlington, P. O. Union City. First National Bank, General Banking, Marshall. First State Balk, General Banking, Tekonsha. Fisher, E. C., Books and Stationery, Battle Creek. Fisher, J. W., Farmer, S. 29, T. Lee, P. 0. Marshall. 1900. FitzJohn, D. C., Farmer, S. 12, T. Emmet, P. 0. Ceresco. 1863. Flynn, J. J., Farmer and Stock Breeder, S. 5, T. Marengo, P.O. Marshall. 1868. Ford, D. D., Real Estate, Battle Creek. Forman, Wm. G., Farmer, S. 9, T. gP.. Marengo, P.. Marshall. Mr. Forman was born in 1882. Foss, Clarence, Farmer and Stock Feeder, S. 32, T. Emmet, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Foss was born in 1888. Foss, J. W., Farmer and Stock Feeder, S. 32, T. Emmet, P. O. Battle Creek. Foster, Ed, Farmer, S. 11,1T. Bedford, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1882. Fox, John H., Farmer, S. 5, T. Newton, P. 0. Burlington. Fox, Dr. P. S., Physician, Athens. Fox, M. C., Farmer, S. 33, T. Emmet, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1900. Fox, Samuel, Farmer, S. 22, T. Fredonia, P. 0. Marshall. 1849. Fox, W. A., Farmer, S. 27, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Fox was born in 1858. Frasier, F., Farmer, S. 13, T. Pennfield, P. O. Pennfield. Mr. Frasier was born in Calhoun County in 1847. Freer, L. H., Farmer and Breeder of Thoroughbred Durham Cattle, S. 17, T. Fredonia, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Freer was born in Michigan in 1856 and settled in Calhoun County in 1907. French, Tom, Farmer, S. 10, T. Burlington, P. O. Burlington. French, W. R., Photographer, Battle Creek. Frost, F. V., Farmer, S 17, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. 1881. Frost, W. S, Farmer, S. 20, T. Eckford, P. O. Eckford. Mr. Frost was born in 1887. Fruin, Win. S., Supervisor and Farmer, S. 29, T. Pennfield. P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Fruin was born in 1876. Fuller, A. M., Farmer, S. 22, T. Athens, P. 0. Athens. Fuller, Mrs. M. M., Farming, S. 2, T. Athens, P. 0. Athens. Galloup, J. O., Iron Pipe, Fittings and Valves, Steam Fitters, Tools and Mill Supplies, Battle Creek. Garland, W. L., Contractor and Builder, S. 20, T. Albion, I'. O. Homer. Mr. Garland was born in 1857. Garratt, F. B., Farmer, S. 20, T. Pentfield, P. O. Battle Creek. Mr. Garratt was born in 1856. Gartner Baking Co., Wholesale Bakers, Battle Creek. Gauss, C. E., Gauss' Combined Treatments for Catarrh, Marshall. Gifford, John, Farmer, S. 20, T. Clarence, P. 0. Olivet. Mr. Gifford was born in 1873. Gildart, Wm. B., Editor Albion Leader and Dealer in Real Estate, Albion. Good, Alva, Farmer and Breeder of Thoroughbred Holstein Cattle, S. 27, T. Fredonia, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Good was born in Michigan in 1877. Goodrich, John C., Farming and Dealer in General Merchandise, S. 29, T. Fredonia, Ellis, P. O. Marshall. 1895. Gorham, C. E., President Filst National Bank, Marshall. Gould, O. H., Farmer, S. 4, T. Le Roy, P. 0. Climax. 1878. Granger, C. B, Livery, Albion Grant, W., Photographer, Albion. 1910. Green, B. K., Farmer, S. 2, T. Tekonsha, P. O. Tekonsha. Mr. Green was born in Calhoun County in 1859. He is married to Sabina Bretton. Greenfield, L. V., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 4, T. Lee, P. O. Olivet. 1905. Greenfield Real Estate Co., Real Estate, Marshall. 1890. Greenman, D. B., Farmer, S. 9, T. Marshall, P. O. Ceresco. Mr. Greenman was born in Calhoun County in 1860. Grill, Wm. I., Garage, Athens. Groesbeck, E., Farmer, S. 31, T. Emmet, P. O. Battle Creek. Mr. Groesbeck was born in 1883. Grundemann, Emil, Farmer, S. 1, T. Eckford, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Grundemattn was born in 1887. Guile, Stephen, Farmer, S. 17, T. Marengo, P. O. Marshall. Mr. Guile was born in 1860. Gurnflo. F., Livery, Battle Creek. Haas, John, Farmer. S. 3, T. Eckford, P. 0. Marshall. 1885. Hackett, Willard, Farmer, S. 14, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Pennfield. Mr. Hackett was born in 1855. Hadwin, H. W., Farmer, S. 36, T. Newton, P. 0. Union City. Hagelshaw, Ira, Supervisor and Farmer, S. 22, T. Newton, P. 0. Ceresco. Mr. Hagelshaw is olle of the representative farmers of Newton Township. He was born Nov. 25, 1875, on theold homestead where he now resides. He received a limited education in the district school of Newton and later attended High School at Battle Creek. He worked by the month on a farm for about eight years and at the age of 21 he took up the carpenter's trade which he followed for thirteen years with success. Mr. Hagelshaw, as the saying goes, is a "Jack at all Trades," as he says, and has gained a great many friends throughout the county. In 1910 he moved to the home farm with his parents. Mr. Hagelshaw was married to Miss Bessie Mallow of Athens Township, to this union have been born four children. His father, aged 82 years, is the oldest resident of Newton Township. He has resided on the old farm 47 years. Mr. Hagelshaw has been chosen by the people of his township to fill several offices and served them as Township Treasurer for the years 1910 and 1911 and as Supervisor for 1913 and until the present time. In politics he is a Republican. Haight, R. L., Farmer, S. 12, T. Eckford, P. 0. Albion. 1905. Halbert, J. G., Farmer, S. 10, T. Bedford, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Halbert was born in 1856. Hale, W. F., Farmer, S. 14, T. Clarence, P. 0. Springport. 1874. Hall, E. H., Real Estate, Battle Creek. Hall, Frank, Farmer, S. 36, T. Lee, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Hall was born in 1879. Hall, G. H., Farmer, S. 15, T. Emmett, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Hall was born in 1851. Hall, Homer, Farmer, S. 11, T. Le Roy, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1854. Halladay, J. F. & Son, Wholesale Grocers, Battle Creek. Halladay & Wilcox, Real Estate, Battle Creek. Halsey, H., Breeder of Jersey Cattle, S. 30, T. Homer, P. 0. Homer. 1913. Hamilton, Burritt, Lawyer, Battle Creek. Hamima, H. J., Farmer, S, 22, T. Burlington, P. 0. Union City. Hammond, J., Farmer and Stockman, S. 10, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Albion. Mr. Hamtnond was born in Pennsylvania in 1859 and came to Calhoun County in 1864. He is married to Miss Rose Keck. Mr. Hammond has served as Highway Commissioner and School Director. Hanchett, H. G., Farmer, S. 15, T. Eckford, P. O. Marshall. Mr. Hanchett was born in 1883. Hardt, Chas. and Frank, Farmers, S. 1, T. Homer, P. O. Homer. 1884. Harmon, Joe W., Market Gardener, S. 26, T. Bedford, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Harmon was born in 1879. Harris Brothers, Manufacturers of and Dealers in Harness and Horse Furnishings, Battle Creek. Hartman, Mrs. S. B., Fruit Grower, Athens. Harton, James, Farmer, S 10, T. Albion, P. 0. Albion. 1885. Hartranft, Peter, Farmer, S. 34, T. Emmet, P. 0. Ceresco. 1890. Hartson Edw, adward, Farmer, S. 27, T. Lee, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Hartson was born in 1862. Harvey, Charles, Livery, Athens. Haskins, B., Farmer, S. 17, T. Pennfield, P. O. Battle Creek. Mr. Haskins was born in 1844. Hatch, J. M. & Lons, Lawyers, Marshall. Hebble, A. C., Funeral Director, Battle Creek. Henry, Charles J., Standard Bred Poultry, S. 23, T. Burlington, P. O. B urlington. Henry, Ezra, Farmer, S. 5, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. 1887. Herman, Reni, Farmer, S. 17, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. 1898. Herron, Mrs. Etta C., Farming, S. 4, T. Tekonsha, P. O. Tekonsha, 1853. Married to Pete E. Herron. Hess. Charles H., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 28, T. Marengo, P. O. Marshall. Mr Hess was born in 1875. Hess, Edward A., Farmer, S. 28, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Hess was born in 1889. Hess, Mrs. J. J, Farming, S. 28, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Hess, John P., Farmer. Breeder of Shorthorn Cattle and Shipper of Stock, S. 5, T. Fredonia, P O. Marshall. 1874. Hess, L. D., Farmer, Breeder of Thoroughbred Poland China Hogs and Barred Plymouth Rock Chickens, S. 6, T. Fredonia, P. O. Ceresco. 1877. Hess, Philip, Farmer and Stock Breeder, S. 25, T. Emmet, P. 0. Ceresco. Mr. Hess was born in 1879. Hicks, Richard, Farmer, S. 8, T. Lee, P. O. Olivet. 1860. Hicks, T. V., Farmer, S. 16, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Hill, Addison, Truck Farmer, S. 28, T. Emmet, P. 0. Ceresco. 1903. Hillard, G. E., Farmer, S. 8, T. Lee, P. 0. Olivet. 1897. Hiscock, E. D, Farmer, S 4, T. Le Roy, P. O. Battle Creek. Mr. Hiscock was born in 1869. Hiscock, Fred C., Farmer, S. 9, T. Le Roy, P. 0. Climax. Mr. Hiscock was born in 1871. Hisler, Wm., Farmer and Stockraiser. S. 22, T. Homer, P. O. Homer. Hobart, E. N., Farmer, S. 28, T. Albion, P. 0. Homer. 1905. Hobbs, L. D., Grocer, Battle Creek. Hodwin, H. W., Farmer, S. 36, T. Newton, P. 0. Union City. Hoffman, Christopher, Breeder, S. 26, T. Bedford, P. O. Battle Creek. 1915. Hoffman, W. H., Farmer, S. 1, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Hoffman was born in 1880. Holmes, S. W., Farmer, S. 26, T. Athens, P. 0. Athens. Holmes, T. F., Farmer, S. 12, T. Emmet, P. O. Ceresco. Mr. Holmes was born in 1883. Hooper, J. L., Lawyer, Battle Creek. Hoover, E. L., Farmer, S. 30, T. Emmet, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1913. Houghton, E. G., Merchant, East Leroy. Hovey, E. F., Shoe Salesmian, S. 31, T. Emmlet, P. O. Battle Creek. 1906. Howell, A. E.. Veterinary, S. 31, T. Albion, P. 0. Homer. Mr. Howell was born in 1838. Howes, Saml. A., Real Estate, Battle Creek. Hovt, L., Farmer, Breeder of Percheron and Norman Horses, S. 33, T. Fredonia, P. 0. Tekonsha. Mr. Hoyt was born in 1841. Hubbard, O. L., Farmer, Marshall. Huff, Geo. S., Real Estate, Battle Creek. Huggett, Fred L., Farmer, S. 34, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Huggett was born in 1868. Hughes, Ed, Farmer, S. 16, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Hughes was born in Calhoun County in 1861. Hughes, Jamtes M., Retired Farmer, Marshall. Humphrey, J. C, Farmer, S. 35, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. Mr. Humphrey was born in 1853. Hutchinson, Charles, Supervisor and Farmer, S. 34, T. Emmet, P. 0. Ceresco. Mr. Hutchinson was born in 1858. Hyney & Young, Real Estate, Albion. Imus, Frank, Farmer, S. 17, T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1885. Jackson, John, Grain, Seeds and Wool Dealer, Homer. 1863. Jackson, John J., Farmer, S. 9, T. Athens, P. 0. Athens. Johns, H. W., Dyeing and Cleaning, Battle Creek. Johnson, A. G., Farmer, S. 2, T. Le Roy, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Johnson was born in 1854. Johnson, A. Morgan, Farmer, S. 11, T. Le Roy, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Johnson was born in 1887 and Mrs. Johnson was born in 1886. Johnson, Edwin, Farmer, S. 28, T. Emmet, P. 0. Ceresco. 1903. Jones, C. A., Farmer, S. 7, T. Newton. P. 0. Battle Creek. Jones, C. A., Farmer and Dairyman, S. 3, T. Emmet, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1896. Jones, Walter, Farmer, S. 8, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Jones was born in 1876. Jones, William, Farmer, S. 32, T. Marengo, P.O. Marshall. 1875. Joslyn, V. H., Farmer, S. 32, T. Battle Creek, P. O, Battle Creek. 1874. Jourdan, J. W., Farmer, S. 22 and 27, T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creek, 1876. Joy, Phillip S., Superintendent Electric and Water Department, Marshall. Judd & Simons, Livery, Battle Creek. I

Page  129 Kahler, Henry, Farmer, S. 29, T. Athens, P. 0 Athens. J app Clothing Co., Clothiers, Hatters and Furnishers, Battle Creek. Katz, Frank G., Farmer and Carpenter, S. 10, T. Fredonia, P. 0. Marshall. 1875. g Katz, Joseph, Farmer, S. 15, T. Burlington, P. 0. Burlington. Keating, Scot, Farmer, S. 12, T. Lee, P. 0. Springport. 1884. -.eck, James L., Farmer and Stockman, S. 4, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Albion. Mr. Keck was born in Calhoun County in 1880. He is married to Miss Hattie Litka. Mr. Keck has served as School Director. 1-eet-Davis Co., Undertakers, Battle Creek. _ Kelleher, T. J. Co., R. P. Harris, Manager, Dry Goods, Battle Creek. Kellogg, H., Farmer, S. 8, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Kellogg was born in 1863. I Kellogg Toasted Corn Flake Co, Breakfast Foods, Battle Creek. Kelly, Dennis, Manufacturer of Thermostats, Marshall.,Kenyon, W. J., Farmer, S. 28, T. Fredonia, P.0.. Tekonsha. 1894. t Keys, A., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 21, T. Honler, P. O. Homer. 1913. _ Kidney, Wm., Parmer and Breeder of Thoroughbred Durham Cattle, S. 22, T. Fredonia, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Kidney was born in London, Canada, in 1843 and came to Calhoun County in 1847. ]Killin, John, Farmer, S. 8, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Killin was born in 1859..Kimball, Otis, Farmer, S. 19, T. Newton, P. O. Battle Creek. Mr. Kimball is a veteran of the Civil War. He was a member of Company A First Michigan Sharp Shooters and served nearly three years. He lost his right arm at Spottsylvania Court House. He is married to Miss Florence Stolt. They have two children, Courtland A. and Leonia R. The latter graduated from the public schools and later from Northwestern University. Mr. Kimball has a splendid home, the interior of the house being finished in Cherry and Sycamore. 0His library contains about two thousand volumes. Mr. Kimball is a man of character and culture, esteemed by his neighbors for qualities of mindndand heart. 192immel, M. L., Ditch Contractor and Merchant, S. 1, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Kimmel was born in 1881. Ki, Chas. F., and Stockman, S. 5, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Albion. Mr. Kimmer was born in Ohio in 1863 and came to Calhoun County in 1867. He is married to Miss Retta Kimball. Mr. Kimmer has served as Highway Commissioner, School Director and Moderator.;King, Geo. H., Farmer, S. 10, T. Clarendon, P. 0. Homer..King, H. C., Farm Seeds, Battle Creek. King, L. J., Farmer, S. 29, T. Albion, P. 0. Homer. Kingman, A. C., Lawyer. Battle Creek. Kirkpatrick, W. J., Dealer in Coal, Wood and Coke, Battle Creek. Kirschman, Robt. H., Lawyer, Battle Creek. -Kisinger, R., Farmer, S. 21, T. Le Roy, P. 0. East Leroy. Mr. Kisinger was born in Calhoun County in 1870. fKistler, C. E., Beadle Lake Resort and General Store. S. 20, T. Emmet, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Kistler was born in 1863. Kistler, J. H., Farmer and Blacksmith, S. 29, T. Emmet, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1860. X Kleckner's Music House, Pianos, etc., Battle Creek. Kline, Geo. W., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 32, T. Homer, P. 0. Homer. 1870. Kline, Walter D., Lawyer, Battle Creek. Knack, C. J., Farmer, S. 19, T. Albion, P. 0. Albion. 1888..Knapp, B. A., General Insurance, Battle Creek. -Knapp, T. C., Farmer, S. 34, T Burlington, P. 0. Union City..Knight, W. A., and 0. S. Clark, Lawyers, Battle Creek. -Knuth, Wm., Farmer, S. 21, T. Albion, P. 0. Albion. 1903. Koch, L. B., Farmer, S. 10, T. Clarendon, P. 0. Homer. Koons, H. F., Farmer, S. 36, T. Homer, P. 0. Homer. 1881..Kopp, Fred, Farmer, S. 25, T. Clarence, P. 0. Springport. 1881.,Krenerick, W. A., Supervisor and Farmer, S. 33, T. Clarence, P. 0. Albion. Mr. Krenerick was born in Calhoun County in 1877..1yes, A J. & Co., Groceries, Battle Creek. Lake, Guy, Farmer, S. 10, T. Clarenton, P. 0. Homer. 1iLamanaco, Sam, General Store, S. 31, T. Clarence, P. 0. Albion.;.Lambert Machine Co., A. P. Grohens, General Manager, Designers and Manufacturers of Coffee Roasting Machinery, Peanut Butter Plants, etc., Marshall. L arkin, W. L., Wholesale and Retail Beer, Battle Creek. Laupp, F., Farmer, S. 33, T. Lee, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Laupp was born: in 1863. Lawrence, C. E., Livery, Feed and Sale Stable, Tekonsha. 1901. -Lawley, Thomas, Farmer, S. 7, T. Tekonsha, P. 0. Burlington. 1870. L Lawton, S. W., Farmer, S. 33, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr..Lawton was born in 1867. Layher, C. P., Farmer, S. 29, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. 1885. Legge, F. H., Farmer, S 29, T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Legge was born in 1861. iLeggett, H. A., Farmer, S. 17, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. 1864. Leonard, Charles J., Farmer, S. 28 and 29, T. Burlington, P. 0. Union City. Leonard, P. A., Real Estate, Battle Creek. Le Roy Township, E. E. Bushnell, Supervisor; P. M. Voyce, Clerk; C. S. Andrews, Justice of Peace, S. 21, T. Le Roy, P. 0. East Leroy. Leterme Bros., Farmers, S. 9, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Albion. Leterme, Arthur, Farmer and Stockman, S. 9, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Albion. Leterme was born in Belgium in 1877 and settled in Calhoun County in 1909. X -Leterme, Edmund, Farmer and Stockman, S. 9, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Albion. Mr. Leterme was born in Belgium in 1881 and settled in Calhoun County in 1909..Lewis & Prescott, Lawyers, Battle Creek. Lincoln, H., Farmer, S. 31, T. Clarence, P. 0. Albion. 1863. _ -Lininger, Geo, Farmer, S. 25, T. Clarence, P. 0. Springport. 1847. Linton, Ed, Farmer, Honer. 1875. -Lockhart, Tuttle & Maurer, Real Estate Dealers, Battle Creek..Long, J. F., Farmer, S. 32, T. Lee, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Long was born in 1847. -Long, Wm. F., Farmer, S. 32, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Long was born in 1868. Lord, W. W., Farmer, S. 21, T. Marengo, P. 0 Marshall. 1891. Lowell, E. L., Farmer, S. 31, T. Newton, P. 0. Union City. -Ludlum, R. M., Lawyer, Battle Creek. i Lutz, Jacob, Farmer, S. 36, T. Emmet, P. 0O. Ceresco. 1873. Lybolt, C. W., Farmer, S. 4, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. 1902. - Lyman, C. E. Co., Insurance, Real Estate and Loans, Battle Creek. -McAllister, John, Farmer, S. 36, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. Mr. McAllister was born in 1871. McAuliffe, D. W., Farm Implements, Albion. -McCaffrey, Austin, Farmer, S. 18, T. Lee, P. O. Marshall. Mr. McCaffrey was born in Calhoun County in 1896. -McClintic, E. L., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 16, T. Homer, P. 0. Homer. 1877. -McClo, Mrs. Francis, Farming, S. 36, T. Lee, P. O. Marshall. Mrs. McClo was born in 1850. McClure, John H., Farmer, S. 36, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. 1910. AMcCormick, H. N., Farmer, S. 23, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. I McCormick was born in 1877. 2 -McCutcheon, A. L., Justice of the Peace, Real Estate and Insurance, Albion. PATRONS' REFERENCE DIRECTORY. McDonald, Geo. C., Farmer, S. 5, T. Clarence, P. 0. Springport. 1913. McGee, Guy, Farmer, S. 1, T. Albion, P. 0. Albion. Mr. McGee was born in 1880. 1IcGee, S. A., Real Estate, Loans and Insurance, Battle Creek. McKay, Alex A., Civil Engineer, Battle Creek. McKee, J. R., Monument Works, Battle Creek. McKenzie, Chas. F., Lawyer, Battle Creek. McKenzie. Mrs. Mary L., Farming, S. 18. T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mrs. McKenzie was born in 1853. McKinney, D. H., Farmer, S. 6, T. Albion, P. 0. Albion. Mr. McKinney was born in 1864. McMillen, Geo. H., Publisher, Athens. McMurtrie, Frank, Farmer, S. 18, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. McMurtrie was born in 1883. McNaughton, A. J., Monuments, Battle Creek. Machin, R., Farmer, S. 17, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Machin was born in 1852. Mack, A. P., Farmer, S. 17, T. Burlington, P. 0. Union City. Mains, A. J., Farmer, S. 34 and 35, T. Lee, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Mains was born in 1891. Mains, Fred, Farmer, S. 6, T. Lee, P.O.. Olivet. Mr. Mains was born in 1873. Mains, Harvy, Farmer, S. 8, T. Lee, P. 0. Olivet. Mr. Mains was born in 1868. Mains, John, FarmJohn er, S. 3, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Mains was born in 1863. Mandoka, Sam, Farmer, S. 20, T. Athens, P. 0. Athens. Mannings, M. A., Farmer, S. 1, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Bellevue. Mr. Mannings was born in 1860. Mapes, A. H., Farmer, S. 21, T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Mapes was born in 1888. Maple City Dairy Co., D. S. Birdsall, Owner, Creamery, Albion. Marengo Township, Burt Oxby, Township Clerk, F. E. Smlith, Supervisor, I. W. Van Sickle, Justice of Peace, S. 20, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Markham, Roy, Insurance, Battle Creek. Markle, Colonel W. O., Real Estate and Auctioneer, Albion. Marks, H. F., Farmer and Township T reasurer, S. 33, T. Clarence, P. 0. Albion. Mr. Marks was born in Calhoun County in 1875. Marsh, Wayne D, Wall Paper, Paints, Oils, Glass and Window Shades, Battle Creek. Marshall, J. L., Real Estate, Battle Creek. Marshall, City of, Marshall News, The, D. W. Knickerbocker. Editor, Marshall. Marshall Furnace Co., Manufacturers of Furnaces, Marshall. Marshall Marble and Granite Works, Monuments and Markers, Marshall. Marshall Plumbing and Heating Co., C. L-. Blake and H. L. Bailey, Marshall. Martin, Wm., Real Estate, Marshall. Maurer, Frank J., Farmer, S. 18, T. Homer, P. 0. Homer. 1914. Mecheml, Geo. W., Lawyer, Battle Creek. Meek, F. L,., FaPrer. -,- 3, T. Penndfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Meek was born in 1867. Mendoka, Sam, Farmer, S. 20, T. Athens, P. 0. Athens. Merchants Savings Bank, General Banking, Battle Creek. Merrill, D. L, Real Estate, Battle Creek Metzger. Harry, Farmer, S. 15, T. Emmet, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1912. Michigan Business and Normal College, Battle Creek. Michigan United Traction Co., Battle Creek. Milburn, E., Farmer, S. 12, T. Lee, P. 0.. Olivet. 1859. Milk Producers Co., F. W. Sullivan, Milk, Cream, Ice Cream, etc., Battle Creek. Miller, C. E., Township Clerk, S. 20, T. Eckfork, P. 0. Eckford. Miller, Chas. J., Farmer, S. 8; T. Burlington, P. 0. Union City. Miller, C. O., Attorney, Marshall. Miller, F. D., School Commissioner, Marshall. Miller Foyd, Floyd,Farmer, S. 5, T. Eckford, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Miller was born in 1883. Miller, Geo. L., Farmer, S. 6, T. Clarence, P. 0. Springport. 1875. Miller, H. W., Farmer, S. 5, T. Newton, P. 0. Battle Creek. Miller, Marion, Farmer, S. 22, T. Albion, P. 0. Albion. 1878. Miller, M. H., Farmer, S. 5, T. Clarence, P. 0. Springport. 1853. Miller, N. E., Farmer and Postmaster, Athens. Mills, Elliott, Farmer, S. 8, T. Athens, P. 0. Athens. Mitchell, A., Farmer and Fruit Grower, S. 9, T. Tekonsha, P. 0. Tekonsha. M. Mitchell was born in Calhoun County in 1883. He is married to Elsa Smith. Mitchell, Robt., County Road Commissioner, Battle Creek. Mix, C. C., Veterinary Surgeon, Battle Creek. Mohrhardt Frank, Frank, Farmer, S. 25, T. Newton, P. 0. Burlington. Moon, M. L., Farmer, S. 33, T. Bedford, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Moon was born in 1872. Moore, C. W., Farmer, S. 18, T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1905. Moore, Jacob, Farmer, S. 2, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Moore was born in 1849. Moore, Whitehill, Farmer, S. 28, T. Emmet, P. 0. Ceresco. Mr. Moore was born in 1855. Morehouse, R. M., Mail Carrier, S. 15, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Pennfield. 1890. Morgan, B. G., Supervisor, S 25, T. Bedford, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1872. Morgan, E., Farmer, S. 32, T. Emmet, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Morgan was born in 1867. Morgan, E. M., Farmer, S. 18, T. Emmet, P... Battle Creek. 1865. Morley Bros., Farmers, S. 20, T. Tekonsha, P. 0. Burlington. Morley,- Earl, Farmer, S. 20, T. Tekonsha, P. 0. Burlington. Mr. Morley was born in Michigan in 1874 and came to Calhoun County in 1876. Morlev, R. J., Retail Druggist, Marshall. 1914. Munger, E. C., Dairyman, S. 31, T. Emmet, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1863. Musser, B. F., Farmer, S. 20, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. 1909. Mustard, James H., Lawyer, Battle Creek. Newton, W., Farmer, S. 15, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Newton was born in 1843. Nichols, J. E., Real Estate, Battle Creek. Nichols, Lloyd. Farmer, S. 20, T. Clarence, P. 0. Albion. 1886. Noneman, E. C., Farmer, S. 23, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. 1885. North & Strong, Lumber, Sash, Doors, Shingles, etc., Battle Creek. Norton, Fav, Farmer, Breeder -of Thoroughbred Holstein Cattle and Poland China Hogs, S. 36, T. Tekonsha, P. 0. Tekonsha. Mr. Norton was born in Calhoun County in 1882. Nowlin, Frank E. Co., Limited, Wholesale and Retail Farm Produce, Albion. Oberhauser, John M., Farmer and Justice of Peace, S. 18, T. Newton, P. 0. Battle Creek. Old National Bank of Battle Creek, The, General Banking, Battle Creek. Olney, Wm., Farmer, S. 16, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. 1914. Onen, Bernard J., Attorney, Battle Creek. Osmun, V. S., Farmer, S. 25, T. Marengo, P. 0. Albion. 1908. Ostrom, William, Farmer, S. 23, T. Albion, P. 0. Albion. Mr. Ostrom was born in 1865. Ott, Emil, Farmer, S. 2, T. Eckford, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Ott was born in 1888. Ott, Thos. L., Farmer and Dairyman, S. 23, T. Marengo, P. 0. Albion. Mr. Ott was born in 1866. 129 Overholt, F. J., Dentist, Athens. Overley, P. E., Farmer, S. 12, T. Lee, P. 0. Olivet. 1915. Owen. A. L., Farmer, S. 15, T. Newton, P. 0. Ceresco. Owen, Vern., Farmer and Township Road Commissioner, S. 8, T. Le Roy, P. 0. Climax. 1864. Owens, Curry, Farmer, S. 33, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. Mr. Owens was born in 1891. Oxby, Burt, Township Clerk and Farmer, S. 20, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. 1892. Packard, Bert, Farmer, S. 15, T. Emmet, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1893. Page, E. R., Real Estate, Marshall. Page, Geo. W., Farmer, S. 27, T. Burlington, P. 0. Union City. Page, H. J., Farmer, S. 21, T. Lee, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Page was born in 1890. Page, J. C., Farmer and Highway Commissioner, S. 28, T. M1arengo, P. O. Marshall. Mr. Page was born in 1884. Page, L. A., Farmer and Stock Buyer, S. 33, T. Lee, P. 0. Marshall. 1870. Palmer, Frank, Automobiles, Motorcycles and Bicycles, Battle Creek. Palmer, L. H., Farmer, S. 17, T. iMarengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Palmer was born in 1890. Palmer, Peter, Farmer, S. 21, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. Mr. Palmer was born in 1881. Palmiter, Clarence, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 1, T. Emmet, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Palmiter was born in 1887. Palmiter, N. E., Farmer, S. 1, T. Emmet, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Palmiter was born in 1860. Palmiter, W. H., Farmer, S. 34, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Palmiter was born in 1858. Pamptopee, Steve, Farmer, S. 23, T. Athens, P. 0. Athens. Parker, H., Farmer, S. 8, T. Lee, P.. Olivet. Olivet. Mr. Parker was born in 1868. Parrott, S. M., Farmer, S. 17, T. Pennfield, P... Battle Creek. 1891. Parsons, Mrs. Henry, Farming, S. 33, T. Burlington, P... Union City. Patterson, D. J., Farmer, S. 16, T. Eckford, P. 0.. Marshall. Mr. Patterson was born in 1895. Payette, A. G., Miller, S. 10, T. Bedford, P. 0. Bedford. Mr. Payette was born in 1859. Peck, Lewis, Farmer, S. 7, T. Battle Creek, P... Battle Creek. 1889. Peek, J. C., Farmer, S. 1, T. Clarence, P. 0. Springport. 1866. Peerless Fixtures Company, Store Fixtures Marshall. Peterson, C. A., Hardware and Plumbing, Battle Creek. Phelps, W. C., Grocer, Battle Creek. Phillips, B. W., Farmer, S. 21, T. Newton, P... eresco. Phillips, Henry L., Garage, Battle Creek. Phillips. James, Farmer, Burlington. Philo, John H., Farmer, S. 31, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. 1894. Philo, W.m. H., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 17, T. Tekonsha, P. 0. Tekonsha. 1900. Piepkow, Gust, Farmer, S. 24, T. Clarence, P. 0. Springport. 1902. Pike, J. W. Jeweler, Athens. Pinnow, Harry, Farmer, S. 25, T. Pennfield, P... Battle Creek. Mr. Pinnow was born in 1895. Pinnow, John, Farmer, S. 25, T. Pennfield, P... Battle Creek. Mr. Pinnow was born in 1893. Pitt, W. D., Farmer, S. 22, T. Penn field, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Pitt was born in Calhoun County in 1866. Ponto, Frank, Farmer, S. 11, T. Clarence, P. O. Springport. Mr. Ponto was born in Calhoun County in 1884. Ponto, John, Farmer, S. 13, T. Clarence, P. 0. Springport. Mr. Ponto was born in Calhoun Countv in 1884. Ponto, Wm., Farmer, S. 14, T. Clarence, P. 0. Springport. 1872. Porter, W. H., Judge of Probate, Marshall. Post, C. W., Postum Cereal Co., Battle Creek. Potter, H. J., Farmer, S. 16, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Potter was born in 1886. Powers, J. M., Lawyer, Battle Creek. Powers & Co., Flour, Feed and Seeds, Battle Creek. Powers, Preston, Farmer, S. 26, T. Clarendon, P. 0. Homer. Mr. Powers was born in 1878. Powers, W. S., Lawyer, Battle Creek. Prine, D. E., Farmer, S. 36, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Prine was born in 1862. Pyramid Drug Co., Marshall. Radford, C., Farmer, S. 31, T. Le Roy, P... Climax. 1858. Radford1, E. J., Farmer, S. 25, T. Athens, P. 0. Athens. Randall, A. H. Mill Co., Milling, Tekonsha. Ranger, L. J., Farmer, S. 8, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. Mr. Ranger was born in 1875. Rapp, R. W., Farmer, S. 18, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Rapp was born in 1880. Rarick, Alvin A., Farmer, S. 28, T. Homer, P. 0. Homer. Mr. Rarick was born in 1880. Rarick, Geo. Wash., Farmer, S. 4, T. Homer, P. 0. Homer. 1885. Rathbun & Kraft Lumber and Coal Co., Dealers in Lumber, Coal, etc., Battle Creek. Raushenberger, Wmin., Superintendent Paint Department and Farmer, S. 19, T. Homer, P. 0. Homer. 1912. Raymond & Rice, Milk Dealers, Battle Creek. Reade, J. L., Real Estate, Battle Creek. Recorder Press Co., The, W. S Kennedy, Editor, Albion. Reed, Floyd, Farmer, S. 6, T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1889. Reed, Milton, Farmer, Gardener and Gravel Pit, Albion. Mr. Reed has served as Supervisor. Reese, Fred, Farmer, S. 6, T. Le Roy, P.. 8. Climax. 1887. Reese, James, Farmer, S. 9, T. Eckford, P... Eckford. 1875. Reese, John, Farmer, S. 6, T. Le Roy, P. 0. Climax. 1887. Reichow, Charles, Farmer, S. 34, T. Albion, P.. Homer. Hoer. Mr. Reichow was born in 1869. Reid, M. J., Farmer S. 11, T. Convis, P... Bellevue. 1869. Rendall, James, Retired, S. 32, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. 1866. Reniger, 0. J., General Contractor and Builder, Marshall. Retallick, N. E., Real Estate and Insurance, Battle Creek. Newton 1E. Retallick was born at Climax, Kalamazoo County, Michigan on June 3rd 1857 at the farm home of his parents, John T and Hilinda Retallich, where lived until 22 years of age. On October 17th 1878 he was united in marriage with Eunice A. Eldred, daughter of John Alonzo and Polly J. Eldred. and Sunday, October 17th 1915, they celebrated the 37th anniversary of their wedding. Mr. Retallick taught District School in Climax and Le Roy Townships during the winters of 1876-77 and 1880-81 inclusive, was Township Superintendent of Schools of Climax Township during the last year this law was in force and met with the other Township Superintendents in Kalamazoo, Michigan, where they elected the first County Superintendent. In the summer of 1881 he entered the service of the Chicago and Grand Trunk Railway Company in the extra gang on track work and in September of the same year was employed as freight brakeman, in which capacity he served for 18 months when he was promoted to Conductor, which position he held for a total period of about 14 years in freight and passenger service. He was in the retail grocery business for over three years and in the spring of 1902 he started in the Insurance business for the Continental Casualty Company and New York Life and his business has gradually developed into a General Insurance and Real Estate & Loan business, in

Page  130 I I30 which he is still engaged at Suite 705 Post Block, Battle Creek, Michigan. He, with his wife, has been a resident of the City of Battle Creek since September:1881, during which period he served the Fifth Ward as Alderman for two years. This matrimonial union has been 'blessed by the arrival of a daughter and son, both of whom are married and are raising children of their own. The son, Eldred A. is associated with his father in business. Rial, B. A., Farmer, Breeder ot Holstein and Jersey Cattle, S. 29, T. * Fredonia, P. 0. Tekonsha. 1871. Richardson, F. W., Farmer, S. 4, T. Athens, P. 0. Athens. Richmire, C. A., General Secretary, Y. M. C. A., Battle Creek. Ringler, Bert C., Township Clerk and Farmer, S. 27, T. Clarence, P. O. Albion. 1876. Ripley. Mrs. D., Farming, S. 9. T. Lee, P. 0. Olivet. 1901. Rivers & Petrie, Independent Garage, Battle Creek. Roat, Chas. E. Music Co., Music Publishers, Pianos, Victrolas, Sheet Music, etc., Battle Creek. Roatch, E. F., Ditch Contractor, S. 27, T. Newton, P. 0. Ceresco. Roberts, John J., Music House, Pianos, Organs and Music Merchandise, Battle Creek. Robinson, A. J., Auctioneer, Marshall. Robinson, D. A., Farmer, S. 9, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek..Mr. Robinson was born in Calhoun County in 1857. Robinson, Geo., Farmer, S. 27, T. Athens, P. 0. Athens. Robinson. Tom F., Editor The Register-Weekly, Union City. Rocco, Ed J., Farmer, S. 8, T. Tekonsha, P. 0. Tekonsha. 1877. Rocho, John, Farmer, S. 9, T. Newton, P. 0. Battle Creek. Rogers, Herbert E., Farmer and Breeder of Jersey Cattle, S. 14, T. Clarendon, P. 0. Homer. Mr. Rogers was born in Michigan in 1860. He is married to Jennie McKinzie. Rook, Harry, Farmer, Breeder of Registered Hampshire Sheep and Poland China Hogs, S. 14, T. Marshall, P. 0. Marshall. 1878. Root, S. B., Farmer, S. 3, T. Homer, P. 0. Homer. 1903. Ruddock, F. E., Farmer, S. 36, T. Convis, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Ruddock was born in Calhoun County in 1888. Rundle, Geo., Supervisor and Farmer, S. 7, T. Lee, P. 0. Olivet. Mr. Rundle was born in 1878. Russell, A. E., Farmer, S. 16, T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1900. His father, A. J. Russell, came to Calhoun County in 1900. Russell, A. G., Farner, S. 17, T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Russell was born in Calhoun Countv in 1888. Russell, A. W., Farmer, S. 17, T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Russell was born in 1879. Russell, F S., Farmer, S. 24, T. Lee. P. 0. Marshall. 1914. Ryan, Wm. J., Real Estate and Insurance, Battle Creek. Sabin & Bowne, Real Estate, Battle Creek. Salisbury, W. H., Farmer and Dairyman, S. 35, T. Emmet, P. O. Ceresco. 1900. Sampson, Edd L., Farmer and Fruit Grower, S. 2, T. Emmet, P. 0. P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Sampson was born in 1868. Samson, Chas. -G., Farmer, S. 36, T. Lee, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Samson was born in 1861. Samson, S. H., Farmer, S. 21, T. Marengd, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Samson was born ill 1857. Sanders, K. W., Farmer, S. 2, T. Burlington, P. 0. Burlington. Sandford Bros., Farmers and Dairymen, S.,21, T. Emmet, P. O. Ceresco. Sandford, H. H., Farmer and Dairyman, S. 21, T. HEmmet, P. 0. Ceresco. Mr. Sandford was born in 1881. Saunders, LaVerue, Farmer, S. 15, T. Clarendon, P. 0. Homer. Mr. Saunders was born in Calhoun County in 1893. Saxton, E. L., Dealer in Bicycles, Battle Creek. Sayer, E., Farmer, S. 19, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Sayer was born in 1852. Schmidt, Emil, Farmer, S. 35, T. Clarence, P. 0. Springport. 1881. Schmidt, Geo. P., Farmer and Daiayman, S. 35, T. Emmet, P. 0. Ceresco. Mr. Schmidt was born in 1865. Schmidt, John, Farmer, S. 22, T. Clarence, P. 0. Albion. 1889. Schmidt, Wm. F., Farmer, S. 29, T. Clarence, P. 0. Albion. Mr. Schmidt was born in Calhoun County in 1877. School District No. 1, L. Ott, Director; C. P. Way, Treasurer, S. 9, T. Convis, P. 0. Bellevue., School District No. 1, Fractional District, Lee and Convis Townships, Chas. Games, Director; Wm. King, Treasurer; J. B. White, Moderator; Bellevue. School District No. 1, Chas. W. Bird, Treasurer, S. 16, Frank Lampky, S. 4, Peter Schulz, Moderator, S. 8, Te. Newton, P.. Battle Creek. School District No. 2, Fractional, Geo. E. Romans, Moderator; D. H. McKinney, Director, T. Eckford, P. 0. Albion. School District No. 3, C. Dowding, Moderator; Jas. Ruddock, DirectorGeo. C. Clute, Treasurer; S. 36, T. Convis, P. 0. Marshall. School District No. 4, Mrs. Ray Brant, Treasurer; Vern Wagner, Moderator; S. 22, T. Convis, P. 0. Pennfield. School District No. 5, E. H. Hubbart, Director; C. H. Folsom, Moderator; R. Schultz, Treasurer- T. Albion, P. 0. Albion. School District No. 5, I. H. Cleveland, Director; G. E. Everest, Moderator, S. 27, T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creek. School District No. 5, Fractional Convis and Marshall, B. Walkinshaw, Moderator, Geo. Ranger, Director, Ceresco. School District No. 5 l,Fractional, Homer and Pulaski Townships, Geo. F. Weiss, Treasurer; Chas. J. Holmes, Moderator; Geo. Feighne, Director, S. 12, T. Homer, P. 0. Homer. School District No. 9. Wm. J. Manby, Moderator; A. H. Mapes, Treasurer; S. 21, T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creek. School District No. 11, J. F. Smith, Frank W. Carpenter, T. Bedford, P. 0. Battle Creek. School District No. 12, A. J. Schrag, Director, Battle Creek; Henry Randt, Moderator, S. 20, Ceresco, B. W. Phillips, Treasurer, S. 21, Ceresco, S. 20, T. Newton, P. 0. Battle Creek. Schram, I. W., Real Estate, Battle Creek. Schrimshaw, True, Farmer, S. 10 T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1914. Schroder Bros. Co., Department Store, Battle Creek. Schultz, C. M., Farmer, S. 18, T..Fredonia, P. 0. Marshall. Schumacher, Herman A., Lake View Farm, S. 20, T. Sheridan, P. 0. Albion. Mr. Schumacher was born in Germany in 1860 and came to Calhoun County in 1879. He is married to Miss Augusta Frederick. Schwark, H. J., Farmer, S. 34, T. Newton, P. 0. Burlington. Scott, Adam P., Farmer, S. 3, T. Marshall, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Scott was born in Eaton County, Michigan, in 1852, and in 1853, with parents, canle to Calhoun County and settled where he at present lives. His father, Archibald Scott, was born in Scotland and came to America when a young man and stopped in Canada, but in 1836 came to Michigan where he followed his profession of blacksmith. Mr. Scott has always been a farmer and successful, and has often held office of Highway Com-missioner. Scott, Walter, Farmer, S. 23, T. Convis, P. 0. Marshall. 1855. Sears, D. R., Farmer, S. 25, T. Lee, P. O. Albion. Mr. Sears was born in 1874. Sebolt. Marion, Farmer, S. 7, T. Clarence, P. 0. Olivet. Born in Calhoun County in 1865. Seedorf, J:-B., Farmer, S. 4, T. Athens, P. 0. Athens. Sexton, I. M., Farmer, S. 19, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. 1885. Shaffer, J. K., Farmer and Stock Feeder, S. 14, T. Homer, P. 0. Homer. 1910. Sharpsteen, M. C., Farmer, S. 27, T. Pennfield, P. O. Pennfield.- Mr. Sharpsteen was born in 1862. PATRONS' REFERENCE DIRECTORY. Shaw & McLinden, Undertakers, Battle Creek. Shebel, F. R., Farmer, S. 23, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marengo. Mr. Shebel was born in 1867. Shedd, Clyde M., Parmer, Ice Dealer and Breeder of Thoroughbred Holstein Cattle, S. 33, T. Tekonsha, P. 0. Tekonsha. Mr. Shedd was born in Calhoun County in 1882. Shedd, J. Earle, Farmer, S. 25, T. Tekonsha, P. 0. Tekonsha. Mr. Shedd was born in Calhoun County in 1880. He has served as School Director. Shelton, J. F., Farmer, S. 1, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Bellevue. Mr. Shelton was born in Calhoun County in 1857. Shepard, Mrs. W., Farming, S. 9, T. Clarendon, P. 0. Homer. Sherwin, Frank G., Dealer in Groceries, Battle Creek. Shilling, P. B., Farmer, S. 27, T. Clarendon, P. 0. Homer. 1882. Shipp, T. J., Farmer, S. 20, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. Mr. Shipp was born in 1845. Short, C. H., Farmer, S. 1, T. Lee, P. 0. Olivet. Mr. Short was born in 1859. Shouldice Bros., Metal Work, Battle Creek. Shoup, J. lIt., Farmer, S. 15, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Pennfield. Mr. Shoup was born in 1857. Shreve,, F. E., Farmer, S. 8, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Shreve was born in 1859.. Shultz, J. A., Farmer, S. 1, T. Emmet, P. 0. Ceresco. 1896. Simon, Frank J., Attorney, Albion. Simons, C. L., Insurance, Battle Creek. Simons-Leedle Furnace Co., Manufacturers of Furnaces, Marshall. Simonton, P. B., Farmer, S. 26, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Sine, Arthur, Farmer and Highway Commissioner, S. 28, T. Clarence, P. 0. Albion. Mr. Sine was born in Calhoun County in 1873. Sine, H. W., Farmer and Breeder, S. 24, T. Lee, P. 0O. Olivet. Mr. Sine was born in 1877. Slowey, W. E., Supervisor, Albion. Smith, Albert, Farmer and Road Commissioner, S. 31, T. Newton, P. 0. Union City. Smith, C. J., Farmer, S. 31, T. Homer, P. O. Homer. Mr. Smith was born in 1877. Smith, Earl, Farmer, S. 32, T. Convis, P. 0. Ceresco. Mr. Smith was born in Calhoun County in 1886. Smith, Frank E., Farmer and Supervisor, S. 16, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. 1880. Smith, F. P., Insurance Agent, S. 19, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. 1911. Smith, G. W., Farmer, S. 25, T. Marengo, P. 0. Albion. Air. Smith was born in 1861. Smith, H. E., and J. L. Smith, Farmers, S. 5, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Smith, Huber, Farmer, S. 1, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Bellevue. 1883. Smith, James T., Carpenter, S. 23, T. Bedford, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1907. Smith, T. J., Farmer, S. 35, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. 1883. Smith, V. S., Farmer, S. 30, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Smith was born in Calhoun County in 1884. Smith, W. L., Farmer, S. 9, T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Smith was born in 1871. Snell, James, Farmer, S. 4, T. Eckford, P. 0. Marshall. 1883. Snell, R. E., Farmer, S. 26, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Snell was born in 1889. Snell, W. B., Real Estate, Battle Creek. Snow, A. E., Farmer, S. 16, T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1877. Snyder Abstract Co., The, A. V. Watson, Proprietor, Marshall. Snyder, H. Harrison, Fruit Grower, S. 18, T. Bedford, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Snyder was born in Calhoun County in 1890. Snyder, Carl, Farmer, S. 14, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. 1908. Snyder, C. M., Farmer, S. 2, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1845. Snyder, H. V. & Son, General Contractors, Battle Creek. Snyder, Dr. P. M., Physician, Athens. Snyder, R. W., Manufacturer of Extracts, Battle Creek. Snyder, Wesley, Farmer, S. 26, T. Albion, P. 0. Homer. 1846. Spaulding, Frank C., Undertaker, Battle Creek. Spaulding, R. J., Real Estate, Battle Creek. Spier, Roy H., Real Estate, Battle Creek. Sperry, J. B., Real Estate, Battle Creek. Spooner, Henry, Faitmer, S. 36, T. Emmet, P. 0. Ceresco. Mr. Spooner was born in 1869. Springport State Savings Bank, General Banking, Springport. Standiford, Chas., Postmaster, Athens. Starks, Currell, Farmer, S. 8, T. Clarence, P. 0. Springport. Mr. Starks was born in Calhoun County in 1881. Steel, Chas., Farmer, S. 1, T. Marshall, P. 0. Marshall. 1909. Stephens, C. M., Real Estate, Battle Creek. Stephens, J. H., County Agent, Battle Creek. -Sterling Bros. Co., Cash Department Store, Battle Creek. Sterling, F. G., Farmer, S. 2, T. Le Roy, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Sterling was born in 1857. Steward & Sabin, Lawyers, Battle Creek. Stewart, Eugene, Laundry, Battle Creek. Stewart & Jacobs, Lawyers, Battle Creek. Stiles & Bowman, Liverv, Battle Creek. Stone, E. J., Farmer and Stock Breeder, S. 35, T. Emmet, P. 0. Ceresco. 1909. Strain, E. D., Wholesale Baker, Battle Creek. Stratton, E. H., French Dry Cleaning Works, Battle Creek. Stratton, W. F., Farmer, S. 36, T. Homer, P. 0. Homer. 1910. Strickland, Guv E., Stock Breeder and Fruit Grower, S. 16, T. Albion, P. 0. Albion. Mr. Strickland was born in 1877. Strong, Chas. S., City Treasurer, Battle Creek. Strong-Barker Hardware Co., Dealers in Hardware, Stoves and Implements, Battle Creek. Stuart, F. A. Co., Dyspepsia Tablets, Marshall. Sturgis, Joseph, Farmer, S. 27, T. Lee, P. 0. Marshall. 1876. Sweet, Charlie U., Farmer and Stock Feeder, S. 2, T. Marengo, P. O. Marshall. Mr. Sweet was born in 1882. Sweet, F. H., Farmer, S. 27, T. Fredonia, P. O. Marshall. Mr. Sweet was born in 1844 and settled in Calhoun Countv in 1865. Sweet, Jesse R., Farmer, S. 16, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Sweet was born in 1885. Taft, H. W., Real Estate, Battle Creek. Tanner. T. E., Farmer and Stockraiser, S 17, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. 1890. Tase, Wm. E., Farmer, S. 21, T. Athens, P. 0. Athens. Tekonsha News, The, Ben. F. McMilllen, Manager, Commercial and Job Printing, Tekonsha. Thomas, S. J., Farmer, S. 5, T. Convis, P. 0. Bellevue. Mr. Thomas was born in Calhoun County in 1863. Thomas, Theo. A., Farmer, S. 35, T. Eckford, P. 0. Homer. Mr. Thomas was born in 1877. Thompson, Edgar L., Livery, Albion. Thomson, R. R., Local Manager Commonwealth Power Co., Battle Creek. Thunder, WX. S., Farmer, S. 26, T. Emmet, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Thunder was born in 1884. Tillotson, F. S., Farmer, S. 28, T. Albion, P. 0. Homer. Tobey, A. J., Proprietor Long Lake Farm, Breeder of Thoroughbred 0. I. C. Hogs and Shorthorn Durham Cattle, S. 23, T. Fredonia, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Tobey was born in Michigan in 1878 and settled in Calhoun County in 1894. Tobey, Fred, Real Estate, Battle Creek. Tobias, J. E., Real Estate, Urbandale, P. 0. Battle Creek. Tomlinson, Ira F., Farmer, S. 25, T. Burlington, P. 0. Burlington. Torey, Charles, Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 33, T. Homer, P. O. Homer 1906. Tcwnsend, 0. S., Farmer, S. 19, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Townsend was born in 1859. Tuchtenhagen, Frank, Farmer, S. 7, T. Albion, P. 0. Albion. Mr. Tuchtenhagen was born in 18t6. Tuchtenhlagen, J. F, Farmer, S. 13, T. Eckford, P. 0. Albion. Mr. Tuchtenhagen was born in 1864. Tucker, Frank, Farmer, S. 3, T. Eckford, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Tucker was born in 1871. Tucker, H. C., Farmer and Stockraiser, S. 29, T. Marengo, P. O0 Marshall. Mr. Tucker was born in 1864. Tuller, Geo. M., Farmer, S. 4, T. Marshall, P. 0. Ceresco. 1883. Van Aken, H. C., Attorney, Battle Creek. Van Arman, Adna, Farmer, S. 27, T. Lee, P. 0. Marshall. Born in 1863. Van Arman, Fred B., Farmer, S. 6, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Van Arman was born in 1871. Vandegrif, H. L., Van Hurst Fruit and Poultry Farm, T. Emmet, P. O0 Battle Creek. Vandenheede, J., Farmer, S. 8, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. 1892. Vanntcker, Frank, Farmer, S. 18, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mrt Vannocker was born in Calhoun County in 1857. Van Schoick, D. H., Farmer, S. 34, T. Burlington, P. 0. Union City. Van Schoick, Orlie, Farmer, S. 35, T. Burlington, P. 0. Union City. Van Sickle, I. W., Farmer and Justice of the Peace, S. 3, T. Marengo P. 0. Marshall. 1885. Van Vleet, Wm., Fartmer, S. 8, T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1906. Van Voorhees, Frank, Farmer, S. 31, T. Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. Mr Van Voorhees was born in 1883. Van Wagner, W. A., Farmer, S. 17, T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1892. Veplanck, R. C., Farmer, S. 6, T. Marengo, P. 0. Maralall. Mr, Veplanck was born in 1861. Waffle, W. E., Proprietor Fairview Percheron Stock Farm, S. 25, T Burlington, P. 0. Burlington. Wagner, F. E., Sporting Goods, Motorcycles, Bicycles and Victrolas, Battle Creek. Wagner, James, Farmer, S. 27, T. Lee, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Wagnerwas born in 1853. Wagner, John A., Lawyer, Battle Creek. Wagner, Wm. N., Farmer, S. 19, T. Burlington, P. 0. Athens. Wagoner, John, Farmer, Stockraiser and Breeder of Shropshire Sheep, S. 15, T. Homter, P. 0. Homer. 1864. Waidely, Wm. F., Monument Works, Marshall. Wakefield, G. W., Farmer and Road Contractor, Augusta. Wales, Prank R., Farmer, S. 4, T. Marengo, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Wales was born in 1885. Walker, Horace J., Farmer, S. 4, T. Clarence, P. 0. Olivet. 1908. Walker Hose Clamp Co., The, Machine Shop and Garage, Battle Creek. Walkinshaw, C. C., Farmer, S. 13, T. Pentnfield, P. 0. Pennfield. Mr. WValkinshaw was born in 1854. Walkinshaw, J. E., Farmer and Supervisor,.S. 22, T. Convis, P. O0 Bellevue. Mr. Walkinson was born in Calhoun County in 1866. Ware, William E., Lawyer, Battle Creek. Warren, Levi S., Attorney and Conveyancer, Albion. Warsop, E. A., Farmer, S. 12, T. Athens, P. 0O. Athens. Waterman, B. O., Farmer, S. 7, T. Le Roy, P. 0. Climax. 1901. 'Wattles Hardware Co., Dealers in Hardware and Implements, Battle Creek. Weaver, W. H., Fartmer, S. 24, T. Marengo, P. 0O. Albion. Mr. Weaver was born in 1864. Webb, Mrs. Sarah E., Farming, S. 3, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1844. Weeks, R. B., Farmer, S. 21, T. Athens, P. 0. Athens. Weeks & Cooper, Attorneys, Albion. Weickgenant, Jacob, Dry Goods, etc., Battle Creek. Weigand, Chas., Farmer, S. 24, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Pennfield. MrWeigand was born in 1870. Weiss, George F., Farmer and Stock Feeder, S. 2, T. Homer, P. 0. Homrer. Mr. Weiss was born in 1862. Wellington, Perl, Farmer, S. 18, T. Athens, P. 0. Athens. Wells, Frank, Farmer, S. 29, T Eckford, P. 0. Eckford. Mr. Wells was born in 1877. Wells, Geo., Farmer, S. 1, T. Le Roy, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Wells. was born in Calhoun County in 1879. Wetzel, Frank, Landscape Gardener and Nurseryman, S. 4, T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1909. Wheeler, 0. K., Farmer, S. 28, T. Emmet, P. Ceresco. 1914. Wheelock, Charles H., Real Estate and Roofing Contractor, Battle Creek White, C. A., Farmer, S. 21, T. Burlington, P. 0. Burlington. White, J. E., Publisher, Marshall. Whitelam, R. H., Farmer, S. 10, T. Fredonia, P. 0. Marshall. 1880. Whitford & Ashby, Real Estate, Battle Creek. Whitmore, S. O., Farmer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure White Leghorn Chickens, S. 27. T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Whitmore was born in 1872. Whitney, Harlan Z., Civil Engineer, Battle Creek. Wilber, Silas W., Farmer, S. 16, T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creeks 1878. Wildey, C. E., Farmer, S. 3, T. Burlington, P. 0. Burlington. Mr Wildey has served as Chairman Board of Supervisors. Willett, W. C., Blacksmith, Marshall. Williams, E. S., Farmer, S. 15, T. Marengo, P. O. Marshall Mr Williams was born in 1888. Williams, L. C., Drain Commissioner, Marshall. Williams, R. C., Farmer, S. 24, T. Lee, P. 0. Olivet. 1857. Willison, J. M., Farmer, S. 29, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Willison was born in Calhoun County in 1849. Winegar, H., Farmer, S. 25, T. Lee, P. O. Marshall. Mr. Winegar was bo rnin 1875. Wirt, G. P., Farmer and Township Treasurer, S. 11, T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creek. 1900. Wolverine Auto-Cycle Co., Motorcycles, Bicycles and Sundries, Battle Creek. Wolverine Stock Farm, W. W. Sprague, Secretary, Farmers and Breeders of Holstein Cattle, S. 33, T. Emmet, P. 0. Ceresco. Mr. Sprague I was born in 1875.: Wood, Bert, Farmer, S. 25, T. Convis, P, 0. Marshall. 1910. Wood, M. T., Farmer. S. 21, T. Battle Creek, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Wood was born in 1870. Wood, W. D., Farmer, S. 26, T.-Burlington, P. 0. Burlington. i Wood & Woodruff, Dealers in Lumber, Coal, etc., Athens. Woodruff, F. G., Dealer in Lumber and Coal, President Athens State Bank, Athens. I Woodworth, C. M., Farmer, S. 20, T. Pennfield, P. 0. Battle Creek. Mr. Woodworth was born in Calhoun County in 1866. Wright & Shepard, Real Estate and Insurance, Albion. Yost, H. L., Farmer, S. 34, T. Albion, P. 0. Homer. Mr Yost was born in 1885. Young, Victor, Farmer, S. 12, T. Eckford, P. 0. Marshall. Mr. Young i was born in 1882. Zeigler, H. M., Pianos, Battle Creek. Zinn, A. K., Grain and Milling, Battle Creek. Zull, A., Farmer, S. 12, T. Emmet, P. 0. Ceresco. 1908. 'i -,.

Page  131 a I - tRDVERTISING 8EGTION. I I I The Snyder Abstract Co A. V. WATSON, Proprietor Offices Up Stairs in Post Office Block ' Corner State and Jefferson Sts. MARSHALL, - MICH. Stewart & Jacobs Attorneys at Law Kingman Building Bell Phone 290-J Citizens Phone 1216 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. P. D. Wright & M. 0. Shepard Real Estate and Insurance ALBION, - MICH. F. E. Shaw. F. E. McLinden. SHAW & McLINDEN Funeral Directors 35 South Avenue BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. WV. B. Snell REAL ESTATE Investments, Loans and Insurance 7 Main Street West BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. R. W. SNYDER MANUFACTURER OF Flavoring Extracts 66 and 68 E. Jackson St. BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Strong-Barker Hardware Co. Hardware, Stoves and Implements 25- 27 South Jefferson Avenue BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Walter D. Kline Attorney and Counselor at Law 305 Post Block Phone, Bell 499-J BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. The Morning.... Enquirer The Evening News BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Mrs. R. M...Morehouse DEALER IN General Merchandise PENFIELD, - MICH. Frank G. Sherwin The Red Headed Grocer 53 Main Street East BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Stewart Laundry EUGENE STEWART. Prop. 57-59 Main Street East BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Frank C. Spaulding Funeral Director Free Ambulance Service Both Phones Bell 324 Auto 1417 24 Marshall Street BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. E. L. Thompson Livery, Feed and Sales Stables Telephone 51 Corner Superior and Ash Streets ALBION, - MICH. Howard W. Cavanagh Lawyer 302-315 Ward Building BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Chas. M. Stephens Real Estate, Loan Agent and Renter Notary Public Bell Phone 1003-J 24 Main Street East BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Calhoun County Abstract Co. MARSHALL, - MICH. Commonwealth Power Company R. R. THOMSON, Local Manager BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. THE Wolverine Temperature Regulator Company DENNIS KELLY, Propriettr Manufacturers of Thermostats MARSHALL, - MICH. E. L. SAXTON DEALER IN Bicycles and Bicycle Sundries 143 West Main Street BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. L. C. Rivers. H. E. Petrie. Rivers & Petrie Independent Garage Used Cars For Sale at All Times Bell Phone 934-J 99-101 West Main Street BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. S. A. McGee Real Estate, Rentals, Loans, Insurance Suite No. 3 Marjorie Block Bell Phone 1313 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. W. C. Phelps Grocer PHONES Bell 502. Citizens 1678. 16 Jefferson Avenue S. BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Henry L. Phillips Jackson Automobile Garage Bell Phone 419- R 22-24-26 E. Jackson St. BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Milk Producers Co. Ice Cream and Ices Both Phones 47 Kalamazoo Street BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. A. J. McNAUGHTON Monuments Citizens' Phone 1.565 107 South Avenue BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. ALEX. A. McKAY CIVIL ENGINEER Plats Surveys 528 Post Building House Phone 547-W BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Royal Livery Barn Bus and Baggage Line THOS. E. CHURCH, Prop. South Eagle St. Both Phones MARSHALL, - MICH. The Marshall Daily and Weekly News D. W. KNICKERBOCKER, Editor and Proprietor MARSHALL, - MICH. 1. NV. Schram Real Estate, Insurance, Notary Public 267 West Main Street Bell Phone 771 Residence 1494-W BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Wayne D. Marsh Wall Paper, Paints, Oils, Glass and Window Shades 13 Jefferson Avenue North BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Maple City Dairy Co. D. S. BIRDSALL, Prop. Cash for Cream Cans Furnished for 30 Days Trial ALBION, - MICH. C. L. Blake. H. L. Bailey. Marshall Plumbing and Heating Co. 209 West Stace Street Bell Phone 382 Citizens Phone 15 MARSHALL, - MICH. E. R. PAGE Real Estate Broker Money to Loan on Real Estate Some of the Best Farms in Calhoun County for Sale at Reasonable Prices MARSHALL, - MICH. P. A. Mumaw. A. A. Mumaw. Marshall. Marble and Granite Works Monuments and Markers Bell Phone 88 MAR-SHALL, - MICH. P. A. LEONARD Real Estate Office 305 Post Building Bell Phones: Office, 2266-J Residence, 518-R BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. H. n1. Ziegler KIMBALL PIANOS AND PLAYER PIANOS 115 West Main Street Bell Phone 1010-R BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. A. K. ZINN & CO. DEALERS IN Grain, Hay, Flour and Mill Feeds 36 Liberty Street Elevator: 134 South Jefferson Ave. Phones: Bell, 1884-R; Citizens, 1050 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. B. A. KNAPP General Insurance Agency 30 Main St., West Bell Phone 347 Citizens Phone 1300 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. H. C. King Seed Co. Growers and Distributers of Newly Propagated Farm SEEDS 55 No. Wabash Avenue Bell Phone 470-J BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. L. B. Brockett & Sons Dealers in HARDWARE 59-61 W. Main Street BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. The Battle Creek Sanitarium ESTABLISHED 1866 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. - - ____ I I MI 'I -

Page  132 I RDVERTISING SEGTION - - __ - __ OFFICERS: Eugene P. Robertson - President D. A. Garfield, - Vice President. W. S. Kessler, Vice President. T. N. Brockway, - Cashier. Robt. C. Baker, - Ass't Cashier. Albion State Bank ALBION, - MICH. Lockhart & Tuttle & Maurer Real Estate Dealers We Sell Your Farms, Stores, Factories, Shops, Etc. BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Ben F. McMillen, Lillian C. McMillen, Publishers. THE Tekonsha News BEN F. McMILLEN, Manager Commercial and Job Printing TEKONSHA, - MICH. J. E. TOBIAS Real Estate and Insurance Agent CONTRACTOR AND BUILDER Justice of the Peace Notary Public Bell Phone 2030-W, Ring 1 Urbandale, Battle Creek, Michigan. Brooks Rupture Appliance Co. Manufacturers of Surgical and Orthapedical Appliances The Old National Bank of Battle Creek, Michigan United States Depositary FOUNDED IN 1851 JAY L. MARSHALL Real Estate, Investments and Rentals List Vour property with the man that can sell homes for everybody. Easy terms like rent. Come and see me. I do everything in Real Estate Business. Member of the Real Estate Board 16 W. Main St. Bell Phone 1629 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. John J. Roberts' Music House EiSTABLISHED 1868 Pianos, Organs and Musical Merchandise 61 East Main St. Y. M. C. A. Bldg. Michigan Phones: Store, 1376; Residence, 459 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. D. J. Powers. C. B. Powers. Powers & Company Wholesale-Retail Garden and Field Seeds Hay, Straw, Seeds, Berry & Potato Crates 35-37 West State Street Warehouse W. Hall Street BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. E. L. Markle. Colonel Markel. (Auctioneer.) Markle & Markle Real Estate Owners and Dealers in Improved, Partly Improved and Wild Lands Homer C. VanAken Attorney at Law Estates of Deceased Persons a Specialty 309 Post Building Old Phone 330. Citizens' Phone 1337 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. M. K. Sabin. S. L. Bowne. Sabin & Bowne Real Estate Investments, Rentals and Loans, Fire Insurance 59 West Main St. Bell Phone 217 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. W. E. Bosley, - President. G. E. Grant, - Vice President. R. F. Grant, ec'y and Treas. Established 1890 Incorporated 1909 Peerless Fixtures Co. Designers and Manufacturers of PEERLESS COUNTERS AND FIXTURES MARSHALL, - MICH. F. A. Stuart, - - President. M. W. Church, - Vice President. W. F. Church, Secretary and Treas. Pyramid Drug Co. Pyramid Ointment, Pyramid Pills, Pyramid Pile Remedy MARSHALL, - MICH. Frank E. Nowlin Company, Ltd. Wholesale and Retail Farm Produce Wheat, Rye, Oats, Corn, Hay, Straw, Feeds, Potatoes, Apples, Seeds, Beans, Flour, Fertilizer H. H. Batdorff, - 436 Lake Ave. Res. Phone 1011-J Bell E. P. Boggs, - 15 Broad Street. Res. Phone 2094-R Bell Batdorff & Boggs Real Estate, Loans, Insurance 220 Ward Block Bell Phone 955 Citizens 1228 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. C. J. Argubright. H. M. Heaney. David Sillers. Michigan Business and Normal College "The School That Gets Results" BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Lambert Machine Comp'y Established 1896 Re-incorporated 1904 Capital Stock $100,000.00 Designers and Manufacturers of Coffee Roasting Machinery, Peanut Butter Plants, Etc. MARSHALL, - MICH. Leo E. Wood. Frank G. Woodruff. Wood & Woodruff DEALERS IN Pine, Hemlock, Whitewood and Walnut Lumber Sash, Doors, Shingles, Blinds, Lath, Hair, Lime, Cement, Brick, Cedar Posts, Wood and Coal. BOTH PHONES ATHENS, - MICH. Wattles Hardware Co. Successors to V. C. Wattles & Son Stoves, Engines, Wagons, Implements, Windmills, Gas Ranges 21-23 State Street West Both Phones BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. M. L. Brazie PROPRIETOR OF Palace Livery Southeri Southern Surety Company Bonds ---Surety, Fidelity Insurance —Health, Accident SAML. A. HOWES, Agent 30 N. Jefferson Ave. BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. A. R. Austin Real Estate and Insurance Mortgages, Bonds and Investments Over Steel's Jewelry Store, 5 Superior St. Phone 138-1 Ring, Office 2 Rings, Residence ALBION, - MICH. Jacob Weickgenant Dry Goods, Ready-to-Wear, Shoes, Furniture and Floor Coverings 6-8 East Main Street Bell Phone 173 Citz. Phone 1308 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. A. G. Noble. H. R. Richards. The Albion Garage Automobiles, Bicycles and Supplies Machine Work and Repairing of all Kinds 112-114-116 Michigan Avenue Bell Phone No. 98 ALBION, - MICH. J. C. Beckwith Wholesale and Retail Grain, Hay, Seeds & Beans, All Farm Products Hay Barn —M. C. R. R. Elevators: Marshall, Marengo. M. C. R. R. Bell, Long Distance and Independent Phones MARSHALL, - MICH.,SCHLIT Made MilwauHkee Famous W. L. LARKIN THE Register-Weekly TOM F. ROBINSON, Publisher The only newspaper covering with its circulation Southern Calhoun and Northern Branch Counties. Established 1869 UNION CITY, - MICH. R. Binder Co. ESTABLISHED 1879 Beef, Pork, Mutton, Lamb, Veal, Fish, Poultry Provisions and Cheese Manufacturers of Blood and Bone Fertilizer Both Phones BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. E. W. Randall. F. E. Pritchard. A. H. Randall Mill Co. Millers of Michigan Winter Wheat FLOUR Buckwheat Flour a Specialty Bell Phone TEKONSHA, - MICH. Shouldice Bros. Eave Troughing, Blow Piping, Steel Ceiling, Siding and Sky Lights I I i --:,i 1 c,,p -i!kF:~; zC1 c_;~:r; ~~i ~i i:ila 1 ~-i:-a r Furnaces Roofing 111 West Main Old Phone 246 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. E. _L. NTorth. J..Strong. NORTH & STRONG LUMBER Sash, Doors, Shingles, Blinds BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. F. E. WAGNER Motorcycles, Bicycles, Victrolas Sporting Goods, General Repairing 931 West Main Street BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. MARSHALL, - MICH. Write Us at Albion or Alger, Mich. ALBION, - MICH. I. K. Stone, - - President. F. E. McNary, - Vice President. F. G. Thatcher, Recording Secretary. E. A. Richmond, - - Treasurer. C. A. Richmire, - General Secretary. R. D. Campbell, Assistant Secretary. F. E. Miller, - Physical Director. The Young Men's Christian Association BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Fairview Percheron Stock Farm W. E. WAFFLE, Prop. PURE-BRED Percheron Horses STOCK FOR SALE So. Mich. Phone 1602 BURLINGTON, MICH. lR. J. Morley Paint $1.50 Per Gallon Guaranteed for 5 Years Pure Drugs and Medicines PRESCRIPTIONS A SPECIALTY AND - Boarding Stable Distributer of the Famous Schlitz Beer 105-107 West Jackson Street In Brown Bottles-On Draught 101 E. State Street Bell Phone 2345 Citizens 1827 MARSHALL, - MICH. BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Bell Phone 758 Auto Phone 1190 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. M ara ----— ~ --- —---- P-~ ----~ ---- — r __ I-__~LU~~B I~~i~~~ - PPII~r~I~~~L sallbl~ -- - -~-~C -- I —~

Page  133 IAEDVERTISING SECOTION I.,.., I I I. I I MERCHANTS SAVINGS BANK Battle Creek, Michigan. Capital, $125,000.00 Surplus, $40,000.00 DIRECTORS R. F. Hoffmaster. A. M. Minty. F. H. Boos. A. 0. Jones. M. Lafever. H. A. Rowles. L. M. Turner. OFFICERS Edward C. Hinman, - President. Frank Wolf, - Vice President. Carroll L. Post, - Vice President. Howard B. Sherman, Vice President. Frank G. Evans, - Cashier. Wm. W Smith, Ass't Cashier. E. D. Albertson, Ass't Cashier. Dav id Miller, - - Aditor. Safety Deposit Boxes for Rent Form the habit of doing yourbanking at the Central National Bank BATTLE CREEK, MICH. H. T. Halliday, - Bell Phone 1476-T C. B. Wilcox, - Bell Phone 862-R Halliday & Wilcox Real Estate, Loans and Insurance Largest Listing in the City 16 East Main Street Bell 2100 Citizens 1275 Battle Creek, - Mich. OFFICERS A. M. Mintv, - President. R. F. Hoffmaster. Vice President. A. O. Jones. - Vice President. H. A. Rowles, - - Cashier. We have a large list of city property and investments. Also make a specialty of farms. If you have a farm for sale we would like to list it. Bell Phone 347 Citizens Phone 1300 30 Main St., West, Battle, Creek, Mich. FAVORITE Black Percheron Stallion No. 79701 OWNED BY C. A. JONES R. F. D. No. 2 Battle Creek, - Mich. W. S. Keet. T. H. Davis. W. M. Davis. Keet-Davis Co., Inc. Funeral Directors and Embalmers 80 East Main Street Office Phones: Bell 1248-J Citizens 1039 Battle Creek, - Mich. JOHN C. GOODRICH DRY GOODS, GROCERIES Boots and Shoes, Hardware, Wall Paper and Gents' Furnishings Carriages, Harness, F a r m Implements and Field Fence Shipping Point-Ceresco. P.O. Address-Marshall, R.F.D. No. 2 Ellis, = = Mich. W. J. KIRKPATRICK Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Coal, Wood, Coke Cement, Lime, Brick, Plaster, White Sand, Marble Grit, Baled Hay, Straw, Feed Office and Yards: 128-130 Jefferson Ave., S. Bell Phone 60 Citizens Phone 1073 Battle Creek, - Mich. OFFICERS Chas. C. Green, - President. E. R. Morton, Vice Pres. and Cashier. F. A. Allwardt, 2nd Vice President. N. E. Hubbard, 3rd Vice President. N. Y. Green, - Ass't Cashier. THE CITY BANK of Battle Creek, Michigan Incorporated 1871 Capital and Surplus, $200,000.00 CUMMINGS-ALLEN REALTY CO. Real Estate, Loans, Insurance, Home Builders, Contractors Suite No. 3, Marjorie Block Office, Bell Phone 1313 Residence, Bell Phone 2157-J BATTLE CREEK, - ICH. D. M. Dobbins. S. F. Dobbins. B. R. Petrie. Dobbins Hardware Co. Wolverine Furnaces, Peninsular Stoves, Builders' Hardware Yale Art Hardware, Yale Chain Hoists, Factory Supplies 36 East Main Battle Creek, = lich. S. C. Fisher, - - President. T. P. Davis, Sec'y and Treas. THE Davis-Fisher Co., Inc. Real Estate and Fire Insurance We Buy, Sell, Rent or Exchange City and Farm Property 301/2 N. Jefferson Ave., Op. Ward Blk. Phones: Bell, 1913; Citizens, 1471. Battle Creek, = Mich. The Cable Piano Co. Factories, Chicago & St. Charles, Ill. State Office, Detroit, Mich. The World's Greatest Manufacturers of Pianos and Inner Player Pianos Branch Store, 100 W. Main St. Bell Phone 2363 F. R. LAWRENCE, Mgr. Battle Creek, - fich. E. P. Keep, President. R. E. Waldo, -Vice President. B. G. Doolittle, - - Cashier. F. D. Rice, - Ass't Cashier. First State Bank of Tekonsha, Michigan Established 1877. Incorporated 1902. W. H. Bradley. F. J. Bradley. Bradley Brothers DEALERS IN Fuel, Hardware, Lowe Bros. Paints Ward Building, 43 Jefferson Ave., No. Telephones Battle Creek, = Mich. City-Suburban Lot Exchange L. E. ALDERDYCE, Mgr. Real Estate, Fire Insurance and Loans Suite 603 Post Building Bell Phone 463-W Battle Creek, - Mich. COCA-COLA Bottling Co. M3anufacturers and Bottlers of Soda and Mineral Waters Bar Supplies and Glass Ware 55-57 Monroe Street Bell Phone 171. Citizens Phone 1739. Battle Creek, - Mich. Wm. F. Waidely Monument Works Manufacturer of all Grades & Styles of Marble and Granite Monuments and Markers All Work Neatly Done With Pneumatic Tools Cor. Exchange and Green Sts. Marshall, - Mich. McBeth Livery and Boarding Stable STILES & BOWMAN. Props. Calls Answered Promptly, Special Attention Given to Boarders 52 S. McCamly St. Bell Phone 78. Citizens Phone 1078. Battle Creek, = 'ich. FIRST NATIONAL BANK Marshall, Michigan CAPITAL AND SURPLUS, $175,000.00 THE Evening Statesman Oldest Newspaperin Calhoun County, Established 1839 Marshall's Daily Newspaper Reaches more homes in and around Marshall, the county seat of a prosperous agricultural county of 75,000 people, than any other newspaper published. Marshall, - Mich. Chas. A. Peterson Plumbing, Hardware Steam and Hot Water Heating Fireproof Safes and Vault Doors a Specialty 37 Washington Ave. N. Bell Phone 772 Residence Phone 1228-R Battle Creek, - Fich. Nashville Book Co. (Incorporated) Southern Office, Nashville, Tenn. Northern Distributing House, MARSHALL, MICH. J. E. WHITE, Proprietor Marshall, - Mich. THE WALKER HOSE CLAMP CO. Expert Automobile Repairing, Overhauling and Rebuilding Sheet Metal Specialties, Fine Die Designing and Building, Machine Work to Order 53 River Street Telephones: Bell, 1768; Auto, 1194. Battle Creek, = Mich. Harris Brothers Manufacturers of and Dealers in Harness, Horse Furnishings, Robes, Whips, Brushes, Trunks and Bags 23 Jefferson Ave., South Bell Phone 623 Battle Creek, = Mich. C. E. Gorham, - President F. A. Stuart, - Vice President C. H. Billings, - - Cashier G. E. Grant, - Ass't Cashier L. J I j I I J. M. Moses, - Editor. F. R. Moses, - Business Manager. MARSHALL EXPOUNDER, Established 1836 The Evening Chronicle Established 1879 J. M. MOSES & SON, Publishers Chronicle Building, 225 W. State St. Marshall, = Mich. L. M. Schroder, President. Sherman Schroder, Secretary. Schroder Bros. Co. INCORPORATED Dry Goods, Women's Garments, Millinery, Draperies Mail Orders Solicited 33-35-37 Main Street, West Battle Creek, = Mich. Donald J. Sterling, - President. Geo. W. Leedle, - President. 1 F. A. Stuart, - - President. Geo. R. Sterling, - Vice President. L. E. Brooks, - Vice President. I l |sher J. C. Stuart, - Vice President. Fred S. Sterling, - Sec'y and Treas. W. R. Simons, - Sec'y and Mgr. E C. Fis H A. B. Osborne, - Sec'y and Treas. Sterling Bros. Co. Cash Department Store I Simons-Leedle Furnace Co. MANUFACTURERS OF The Dobbins Tubular Warm-Air Furnaces Mantles, Grates, Tiling and Fire Place Goods Flarshall, - Fich. Wholesale and Retail Books, News, Stationery, Athletic Goods and Office Supplies Typewriters Bought, Sold and Rented 12-14 Main Street, West BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. F. A. STUART CO. INCORPORATED Stuart's Dyspepsia Tablets, Calcium Wafer Compound, Charcoal Lozenges Marshall, - Mich. Sterlings Sell it for Less Battle Creek, = Flich. - ----- l E

Page  134 I fADVERTISING SECTION I - I I W. J. Dibble, - - President. E. G. Brewer, Vice President. W. T. Phelps, - Cashier. The Commercial Savings Bank Marshall, Mich. DIRECTORS William J. Dibble. Edgar G.. Brewer. William E. Bosley. Myron S. O'Keefe. Frank G. Seaman. Charles P. Cook. Charles L. Dibble. Winthrop T. Phelps. N. E. Retallick & Son Dependable Real Estate Dealers "Million Dollar" Fire Insurance Co's Biggest and Best Companies Writing Life, Accident, Automobile, Plate Glass, Liability, Live Stock Insurance, Shrety Bonds, Loans. Tenants Secured Rents Collected NOTARY PUBLIC Bell Phone 24 Citizens 1524 Residence, 251 E. Main St. Bell Phone 1023-J BATTLE CREEK, MICH. F. J. Herrick, - President. F. L. D. Groff, - Vice President. W. H. Barney, - Sec'y and Treas. Albion Lumber Co. INCORPORATED LUMBER DEALERS Interior Finish and Fine Mill Work a Specialty General Contractors, Plumbing, Heating and Electrical Work Office, 121 East Cass Street Yard and Mill, 123-127 East Cass Street PHONE 87 ALBION, - MICH. FRANK PALMER DISTRIBUTOR OF Automobiles Motorcycles and Bicycles Sundries and Supplies Bicycles, Sundries and General Repair Work We Also Fit Side or Internal Wire Rubber Tires on Carriages 40-50 Jefferson Ave. N. BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Ryan Bro's Agency Real Estate Department The Earth is the Basis of all Real Wealth City, Suburban and Farm Realty Insurance, Bonds, Loans, Investments Loan Agents for Wisconsin National Life Insurance Co. Reference: Any Bank in City Brombsrg Building Bell Phone 2148 BATTLE CREEK, = MICH. B. T. Skinner, C-Chairman. Edwin Barnes, - Vice Chairman. Chas. E. Roat, - Secretary. P. D. Ferguson, Treasurer. A. C. Kingman, - Director. Chas. E. Roat Music Co., Limited Music Publishers Pianos, Victrolas, Sheet Music, Etc. 60 Main St. West BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Wolverine Auto-Cycle Com'y Motor Cycles, Bicycles and Sundries Prest-O Welding Machine Work, Repairing of all Kinds 59 South Jefferson Avenue BATTLE CREEK, = MICH. The Crystal Sand and Gravel Co. J. B. Sperry & Son, Owners and Mgrs. Fifty Acres of the Finest Gravel in the State of Michigan in all Commercial Grades Good Road Gravel, Roofing Gravel, Torpedo Sand, Crushed Stone 3-, 2- and 1-inch Stone, "Canary Bird Seed" Sand, Cement Faced Brick and Block Main Office, 12 Main St. E. Banks at Level Park, Mich. Bell Phone 650-J BATTLE CREEK, = MICH. H. K. Whitney, Consulting Engineer. A. A. McKay, - County Engineer. A. H. Chase, C. E., - Manager. Whitney Engineering Co. Surveyors and Engineers Civil Accurate, Efficient and Economical Engineering and Surveying at the minimum of cost consistent with careful work. We have the only complete records from the United States Surveys, right down to date, of Battle Creek and Calhoun County. 303 Ward Block Bell Phone 583 BATTLE CREEK, - 1ICHE. C. C. MIX, M. D. C. V. S. With Facilities for the Scientific and Humane Treatment of all Diseases of Domestic Animals Surgery in all its Branches CONSULTATION FREE Honor Graduate Ontario Veterinary College. Honor Graduate Cleicago Veterinary College. Office and Infirmary 105 West Jackson Street Bell Phone 1927. Citizens 1827. BATTLE CREEK, = MICH. La Rose French Dry Cleaning Works E. H. STRATTON, Proprietor Expert French Dry Cleaning and Dyeing All work positively guaranteed first Class LA ROSE CLEANS CLEAN 93 West Main Street Half Block West of Post Tavern Bell Phone 1081 Citizens 1282 We Call for and Deliver Work to Any Part of City, Free of Charge BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. W. Et. Emmerson.. - President. House Phone: Cit. 1605. Geo. W. Sargeant, - Sec'y-Treas. House Phones: Bell 240-R; Cit. 1864. Emmerson Truck and Storage Co. Authorized Capital $20,t00.00 Movers, Packers, Shippers, Storage Dray and Transfer Work Office, M. C. Freight House Phones: Bell 248-J; Cit. 1244. BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. i I i Wm. E. Bosley. Daniel W. Bosley. W. E. Bosley & Son SHELF AND HEAVY HARDWARE Builders Hardware, Mechanics Tools, Blacksmith's Supplies, Barbed Wire and Wire Fencing Plate Glass, Window Glass, Sash and Doors, Belting, Cordage, Binder Twine Paints, Oils, Varnishes, Etc., Brushes and Painters Supplies, Sewing Machines, Refrigerators Sportmans Goods, Stoves, Steel Ranges, Housefurnishing Goods, Plows, Plow Goods TIN SHOP IN CONNECTION Agents The Citizens Mutual Fire Insurance Company, of Calhoun County 115 W. State St. Telephone No. 217 MARSHALL, - MICH. Battle Creek Storage and Carting Co. L. B. ALEXANDER, Mgr. Packers, Movers and Storers of Household Goods Covered Vans, Open Drays and Express Wagons. Carting Agents to and from M. C. R. R. Agents for Trans-Continental Freight Co. Cut Rates to Western Points Office and Warelhouse 50 & 52 Madison Street S. Both Phones 1800 BATTLE CREEK. - lICH. Imperial Dye Works H. W. JOHNS, Prop. WE DYE TO LIVE Ladies' and Gents' Clothing Cleaned, Dyed and Pressed Dry Cleaning a Specialty Work Guaranteed Satisfactory Goods Called for and Delivered 135 West Main Street Bell Phone 1830-J. Auto Phone 1503 Battle Creek, - Mich. Rathbun & Craft Lumber and Coal Co. DEALERS IN Lumber, Lath and Shingles, Hard and Soft Coal and Genuine Gas Coke GENUINE SCRANTON COAL Interior Finish, Sash and Doors, Cement and Lime, Brick and Plaster Planing Mill in Connection Office and Yard, 57 McCamly Street South Michigan Phone 37-,. Citizens' Phone 1037. BATTLE CREEK, = MICH. DIRECTORS Homer C. Blair, - President. Dr. W. C. Marsh, - Vice President. Clas. Bigelow, - Cashier. E. R. Loud. Hon. E J. Wolcott. B. D. Brown. F. F. Hoaglin. Hon. Washington Gardner. Dr. Samuel Dickie. The Commercial and Savings Bank Albion, Mich. Safety Deposit Boxes for Rent We Issue Savings Books and Certificates Bearing Interest We Loan on Improved Real Estate Security with Privilege of Making Partial Payments French Studio W. RUPERT FRENCH, Proprieter Fine Portraiture, Commercial Photography Copying and Enlarging, Frames and Moulding Specially Equipped for Party and Banquet Flashlight Photography Residence: 17 North Kendall Street. Bell Phone 301 F-2 139 West Main Street Bell Phone 301 F-1 Battle Creek, - Mich. Samuel F. Dobbins, - President. Charles W. Dobbins, Vice President. C. S. Stout, Secretary. Marshall Furnace Co. Established 1881 Incorporated 1908 Manufacturers of the Celebrated Wolverine Furnaces For All Kinds of Fuel Experts in Heating and Ventilating Buildings Fireplaces, Mantels and Tiles MARSHALL, - MICH. Charles H. Wheelock Roofing Contractor Composition and Fire-Proof Roofing, Asphalt and Asbestos Shingles Metal Lath, Sheathing, Roof Paint, Tarred Felt Beaver Board, and Other Building Material WHOLESALE AND RETAIL Battle Creek, - Mich. BURRITT HAMILTON Cawyer Kingman Building 56-62 West Main Street BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Geo. S. Huff Real Estate Exchange Farms and City Property, Loans and Insurance Over Old National Bank Bell Phone 144. Citizens Phone 1592 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Jesse M. Hatch. Blaine WV. Hatch. J. W. Hatch. J. M. Hatch & Sons Lawyers Hatch Block MARSHALL. - MICH. HYNEY & YOUNG Real Estate, Insurance, Rentals Bonds and Investments Room 5, Dunham Block Phone 97 ALBION, - MICH. The Kapp Clothing Co. Clothiers, Hatters and Furnishers Bell Phone 412 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Gauss' Combined Treatment FOR CATARRH Gauss' Catarrh Elixir Gauss' Antiseptic Catarrh Balm MARSHALL, - MICH. L. D. HOBBS GROCER 217 West Main Street I j 231 Bell Phone 510 Citizens 1154 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. ---- _ _ _ I

Page  135 1001000~ -- 9~'L ~ c ~L~b ~ F L~ ~lL- P - i fDVERT181NG SEGTION I -- -- L~ - - --- -- - - - - -- I-. -- - -- L" - - ~I -- - - — — -''"- Springport State Savings Bank GENERAL BANKING SPRINGPORT, - MICH. Jesse Arthur. Ira A. Beck. R. G. Leitch. ARTHUR & BECK Counselors at Law 207-8 Ward Bldg. BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. DONOVAN'S Real Estate, Insurance and Loans 11 West Main St. Bell Phone 176-r BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. FARLEY JOHN A. WAGNER William E. Ware Weeks & Cooper Walter S. Powers Chas. F. McKenzie Lawyer 214 Ward Building Bell Phone 32 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. CASE THE FLORIST Ward Building 41 Jefferson Ave., N. Bell 790 Citizens 1212 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. The Frank M. Barry General Insurance Agency Lawyer 309 Post Buiding BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. ROY MARKHAM Insurance No. 15 West Main St. BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Amberg & Murphy Drug Co., Ltd. LAWYERS ALBION, - MICH. SEE BRIGGS FOR Real Estate and Rentals ATTORNEY BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. LAWYER Suite 306 Post Building BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. I " K I A4,91 W. PIKE; H. A. Briggs SNYDER ewe er Fire, Life, Accident, Prescription Liability, Plate Glass | Room 405 Post Building Bell Phone 499-J BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. J. 0. GALLOUP Druggists UNDERTAKING Iron Pipe, Fittings and Valves Reliable Furniture and Rugs 37 East Main Street Bell Phone 99 Citizens Phone 1199 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. GUY E. CRANE Horse Tailor 15 Jackson St., W. Bell Phone 45-J BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Chas. W. Centner The Style Shop Wearing Apparel and Furnishings for Women Bell Phone 159-J Auto. Phone 1159 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. F. GURNFLO Livery and Boarding Stable 36-38-40 Water Street Old Phone 1047-J Citizens' Phone 1430 BATTLE CREEK,. MICH. Steam Fitters' Tools and Mill Supplies 43, 45 E. State St. BATTLE CREE K, - MICH. C. R. Brewer Lumber Co. Wholesale and Retail LUMBER And Building Material 111 Marshall Street BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. C. B. GRANGER Albion House Barn Taxicab Service, Carriage and Auto Livery Phone 79 ALBION, - MICH. C. C. DeWitt Wines, Liquors and Cigars BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. BATTLE CREEK. - MICH. American Motor Co. Experts and Garage in Connection 99-101 Main St. W. Bell Phone 141 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. P.A. BAUER General Auctioneer 15 Years Successful Experience Farm Property a Specialty Satisfaction Guaranteed Bell Phone 25 ATHENS, - MICH. I.L. ALLEN Dairyman and Breeder of Graded Holstein Cattle ALBION, - MICH. Battle Creek Taxicab Co. Micheal Dempsey, Mgr. CARRIAGE RATES Day and Night Service 67 East Jackson St. Phones: Citizens 1672; Bell 71 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. 214 Ward Building Bell Phone 32 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Bernard J. Onen Attorney AND Counselor BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Athens Garage And Machine Shop WM. 1. GRILL, Prop. Automobile Accessories, Vulcanizing, General Machine Work ATHENS, - MICH. George W.Mechem Attorney BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. W. C. WILLETT BLACKSMITH MARSHALL, - MICH. 0. V. Eastman & Son Livery, Sale and Exchange Michigan Ave. Telephone 24 ALBION, - MICH. Athens, - Michigan ATHENS, James M. Powers 0. J. RENIGER ATTORNEY Suite 2, Kingman Block BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Edward D. Strain Wholesale BAKER 71-73 S. Monroe Street Gen'l Contractor and Builder MARSHALL, - MICH. CHARLES 0. MILLER Attorney at Law MICH. BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. MARSHALL, - MICH. I. W:,: f i.:.::;. \: w::.:!,.::,S; J. R. McKEE Monument Works South and Virginia Avenues BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. James H. Mustard Lawyer 604 Post Bldg BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Wm. Martin REAL ESTATE MARSHALL, - MICH. Battle Creek Hack and Bus Co. Old Reliable Hack Line 79 S. Division Citizens Phone 1115 Bell Phone 115 BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. The Ideal American Laundry 33 East Main St. Both Phones BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. C. E. AVERY Livery and Sale Stables Good Rigs at Right Prices 24 W. Jackson Street Bell Phone 206-R BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. I II M ' iI L I I ~P --- rl ---1~_ - -- - I I I W.

Page  136 I I ell I li,- —;L. I 16U-fl`-' lp 1 C I..-,State Bink ieneral Banking I6ieneralBantkitg HOMER, - MICH. R. M. LUDLUM Lawyer 314 New Ward Bldg. BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. C. E. LYMAN CO. Insurance, Real Estate and Loans BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Kleckner's Music House 179-181 Main Street West "BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. A.C. KINGMAN LAWYER Kingman Building BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. ATHENS, - MICH. Robert H. Kirschman Attorneyat Law BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. T. J. Kelleher Co. Dry Goods.BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Joseph L. Hooper Attorney and Counselor; 307 Ward Building BATTLE -CREEK, - MMCH. JOHN' JACKSON Grain, Seeds and Wool HOMER, - - MICH. N. A. CO BB LAWYER BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. DR. P. S. FOX ATHENS, - MICH. Adrian F. Cooper ATTORNEY ALBION, - MICH. Gartner Baking Co. Wholesale BAKERS 11-17 Hamblin Avenue - BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. MARY E. DAVIS Real Estate and Fire Insurance FRANK W. CLAPP MILLER& MILLER.0trncv a Attorneys 11 Eaw I BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. H. W. DEAN Furniture and Funeral Director, TEKONSHA, - MICH. H. L. Cronin Groceries, Provisions and Dinnerware MARSHALL, - MICH. CONSOLIDATED ICE: COMPANY, LTD. 7 East State Street BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Cornell Shorthand School ARCADE at Law MARSHALL, - MICH. Albion Evening Recorder W. S. KENNEDY, Editor ALBION, - MICH. A. C. HEBBLE Funeral Director 108 West Main Street BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. CHARLES J. HENRY Standard Bred Poultry R. F. D. No. 2 BURLINGTON, - MICH. Lewis & Prescott Attorneys and Counselors Old National Bank Building BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. J. S.- BALL GROCER 25 Jefferson Ave., N. BOTH PHONES BATTLE CREEK, - MICH. Win. Bemer BLACKSMITH ALBION, MICH. CHARLAS HARVEY LIVERY ATHENS, - - MICH. ALBION, - MICH. BATTLE CREEK, - MICH.... I ; 11 I - I.. 11 I I --- I_;_ I I I -1 I.! I I I

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Page  139 I PAGE 139 ILLUSTRRTION3. 1....+ SAMUEL DICKIE, L. C. WILLIAMS, ALBION, MICH. MA'RSHALL, MICH. CHARLES HUTCHINSON, C. O. MILLER, R. F. D. No. 3, MARSHALL, MICH. CERESCO, MICH. ARZA L. McCUTCHEON, Justice of the Peace, ALBION, MICH. PIERCE B. MITCHELL, DECEASED, Mr. Mitchell was a veteran of the Civil War, and was a farner for many years, then engaged in the real estate business. Mr. Mitchell was a remarkable man, having been totally blind for many years and was one of the oldest and best known citizens of Calhoun County. J. E. TOBIAS, Justice of the Peace, Notary Public, Real Estate and Insurance, URBANDALE, BATTLE CREEK, MICH. VIEW OF MAIN BUILDING, BATTLE CREEK SANITARIUM, BATTLE CREEK, MICH. GUY E. STRICKLAND, IRA HAGELSHAW Proprietor of Indian Spring Stock R. F. D. No. 2, Farm, R. F. D. No. 1, CERESCO, MICH. ALBION, MICH. H. C. TUCKER, JOSEPH STURGIS, R. F. D. No. 7, MARSHALL, MICH. MARSHALL, MICH. GEORGE RUNDLE, R. F. D. No. 1, OLIVET, MICH. MR. ALEX MCKENZIE, DECEASED AND MRS. MARY L. McKENZIE, R. F. D. No. 3, BATTI, CREIK, MICH. MR. AND MRS. EDWARD Z. BROWN, R. F. D. No. 5, BATTLE CREEK, MICH. MR. AND MRS. WM. KIDNEY, R. F. D. No. 5, MARSHALL, MICH. MR. AND MRS. JOHN ROCHO, BATTLE CREEK, MICH.

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Page  153 PAGE 3IL 5 t ILLU8TRTION8 HOME OF C. B. CASE, UNION CITY, M.ICH. PINE LODGE, The suburban residence of Charles H. Wheelock, who- is also owner of "The Oaks, "a fifty-four acre tract lying between Brownlee Park and Greenfield Park, one quarter of a mile east of Pine Lodge. The Grant Trunk R. R. shops are located on a portion of the 153 acres purchased from Mr. Wheelock off from the south end of his Pine Lodge Farm and the Flowing Wells, from which the water supply of the City of Battle Creek is obtained, are located on the north end of the farm, in close proximity to the Battle Creek River. The tract of land lying between the Pine Lodge residence shown in this cut and the river is platted and known as Wheelock's Pine Lodge Tract. Because of abundant supply of pure water, furnished under a pressure of froen 80 to 100 pounds, for the use of Battle Creek. —the available supply of electricity either for commercial or family use, a long stretch of the main line of the Grand Trunk Railway, with abundant root for side tracks, level land and close proximity to the Battle Creek River, with desirable boating and fishing privileges, the Pine Lodge Tract is a most desirable piece of property either for residence or manufactories. FARM BUILDINGS OF H. C. TUCKER, R. F. D. No. 7, MARSHAL.L, MICH. RESIDENCE AND BARNS ON EVERGREEN LAWN FARM Henry Spooner, Proprietor, R. F. D. No. 2. CURESCO. MICH. RESIDENCE OF D. E. PRINE, R. F. D. No. 5, BATTLE CREEKC, MICH. HOME OF R. KISINGER, R. F. D No. 1, EAST LEROY, MICH. SCENES ON FARM OF J. L. SMITH BATTLE CREEK, MICH. SCENE ON THE GREEN VALLEY FARM, A. W. Russell, Proprietor, R. F. D. No. 8, BATTLE CREEK, MICH. SUNNYSIDE FARM, Home of Frank E. Smith, R. F. D. No. 1, MARSHALL, MICH. RESIDENCE OF F. D. COTTON, R. F. D. No. 2, BATTLE CREEK, MICH. RESIDENCE OF W. H. PALMITER, BATTLE CREEK, MICH. RESIDENCE OF MR. AND MRS. JOHN ROCHO, BATTLE CREtK, MICH. RESIDENCE OF JOHN A. WAGNER, BATTLE CREEK, MICH. RESIDENCE OF MR. AND MRS. B. W. PHILLIPS, CERESCO, MICE. RESIDENCE OF BERT RINGLER, R. F. D. No. 2, ALBION, MICH. H W. DEAN, Furniture and Undertaking, TEKONSDA, MICH. SCENE ON FARM OF GEO. LININGER, SPRINCPORT, MICH.

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Page  I I! UNITED STATES LAND SURMEYS SUPPLEMENT 1. ANALYSIS OF THE SYSTEM O F United States Land Surveys 1 - METES AND BOUNDS a T P to the time of the Revolutionary War, or until about the beginning of the present century, land, when parcelled out, and sold or granted, was described by "Metes and Bounds," and that system is still in existence in the following States, or in those portions of them which had been sold or granted when the present plan of surveys was adopted, viz.: New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Texas, and the six New England States. To describe land by "Metes and Bounds," is to have a known land-mark for a place of beginning, and then follow a line according to the compass-needle (or magnetic bearing), or the course of a stream, or track of an ancient highway. This plan has resulted in endless confusion and litigation, as land-marks decay and change, and it is a well-known fact that the compass-needle varies and does not always point due North. As an example of this plan of dividing lands, the following description of a farm laid out by "Metes and Bounds," is given: "Beginning at a stone on the Bank of Doe River, at a point where the highway from A. to B. crosses said river (see point marked C. on Diagram 1); thence 40'~ North of West 100 rods to a large stump; thence 10~ North of West 90 rods; thence 15~ West of North 80 rods to an oak tree (see Witness Tree on Diagram 1); thence due East 150 rods to the highway; thence following the course of the highway 50 rods due North; thence 5~ North of East 90 rods; thence 45~ East of South 60 rods; thence 10~ North of East 200 rods to the Doe River; thence following the course of the river Southwesterly to the place of beginning." This, which is a very simple and moderate description by i" Metes and Bounds," would leave the boundaries of the farm as shown in Diagram 1. i MERIDIANS AND BASE LINES DIAGRAM 2 am S - roar.crMArnswo n-\MO SA14 Sf14,1 D 1.C1RAL 5AJ'ARD 5n / Z. — 'RI ASI iW'~ u I dn-.slis~ - 1 s91O0ex 0~50 li- ha rrr~lFESC',- '1~is A 5 0CAEO /0 / ~A! 0 'oO ~ 0-4-I u~O"~~ -b ans.g -/ I I II I 1 i I ~ ~_ THE present system of Governmental Land Surveys was adopted by Congress on the 7th of May, 1785. It has been in use ever since and is the legal method of describing and dividing lands. It is called the "Rectangular System," that is, all its distances and bearings are measured from two lines which are at right angles to each other, viz.:-l-. These two lines, from which the measurements are made, are the Principal Meridians, which run North and South, and the Base Lines which run East and West. These Principal Meridians are established, with great accuracy. Each Principal Meridian has its Base Line, and these two lines form the basis or foundation for the surveys or measurement of all the lands within the territory which they control. Diagram 2 shows all of the Principal Meridians and Base Lines in the United States, and Irtm it the territory governed by each Meridian and Base Line may be readily distinguished. Each Meridian and Base Line is marked with its proper number or name. Diagram 3 illustrates what is meant when this method is termed the "Rectangular System," and how the measurements are based on lines which run at right angles to each other. The heavy line running North and South (marked A. A.) on Diagram 3, represents the Principal Meridian, in this case say the 5th Principal Meridian. The heavy line running East and West (marked B. B.) is the Base Line. These lines are used as the starting points or basis of all measurements or surveys made in territory controlled by the 5th Principal Meridian. The same fact applies to all other Principal Meridians and their Base Lines. Commencing at the Principal Meridian, at intervals of six miles, lines are run North and South, parallel to the Meridian. This plan is followed both East and West of the Meridian throughout the territory controlled by the Meridian. L, Entered According to Act of Congress, in the year 1909, by Geo. A. Ogle &Co., in the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington D. C. '

Page  II SUPPLEMENT l I UNITED STATES LAND SURVEYS 117 These lines are termed "Range Lines."- They divide the land into strips or divisions six miles wide, extending North and South, parallel with the Meridian. Each division is called a Range. Ranges are numbered from one upward, comm ring at the Meridian; and their numbers are indicated by Roman characters. For instance,-the first division (or first six miles) west of the Meridian 1i, Range I. West; the next is Range II. West; then comes Range III., IV., V., VI., VII., and s o on, until the territory governed by another Principal Meridian is reached. In the same manner the Ranges East of the Meridian are numbered, the words East or West being always used to indicate the direction from the Principal Meridian. See Diagram 3. Commencing at the Base Line, at intervals of six miles, lines are run East and West parallel with the Base Lite. These are designated as Township Lines. They divide tihe land into strips or divisions six miles wide, extending East and West, parallel with the Base Line. This plan is followed both North and South of the Base Line until the territory governed by another Principal Meridian and Base Line is reached. These divisions or Townships are numbered from one upward, both North and South of the Base Line, and their numbers are indicated by figures. For instance: The first six mile division inorth of the Base Line is Township 1 North; the next is Township 2 North; then comes Township 3, 4, 5, and 6, North, and so on. The same plan is followed South of the Base Line; the Townships being designated as Township 1 South, Township 2 South, and so on. The "North " or "South" (the initials N. or S. being generally used) indicates the direction from the Base Line. See Diagram 3. These Township and Range Lines, crossing each other, as shown in Diagram 3, form squares, which are called "Townships" or " Government Townships," which are six miles square, or as nearly that as it is possible to make them. These Townships are a very important feature in locating or describing a piece of land. The location of a Government Township, however, is very readily found when the number of the Township and Range is given, by merely counting the number indicated from the Base Line and Principal Meridian. As an example of this. Township 8 North, Range 4, West of the 5th Principal Meridian, is at once located on the square marked * on Diagram 3, by counting eight tiers north of the Base Line and 4 tiers west of the Meridian. DIAGRAM a. e TOWNSHIPS OF LAND. 'y OWNSHIPS are the largest subdivisions of land run out by the J United States Surveyors. In the Governmental Surveys Township Lines are the first to be run, and a Township Corner is established every six miles and marked. This is called "Townshipping." After the Township Corners have been carefullylocated,the Section and Quarter Section Corners are established. Each Township is six miles square and contains 23,040 acres, or 36 square miles, as near as it is possible to make them. This, however, is frequently made impossible by. (1st) the presence of lakes and large streams; (2nd) by State boundaries not falling exactly on Township Lines; (3rd) by the convergence of Meridians or curvature of the earth's surface; and (4th) by inaccurate surveys. Each Township, unless it is one of the exceptional cases referred to, is divided into 36 squares, which are called Sections. These Sections are intended to be one mile, or 320 rods, square and contain 640 acres of land. Sections are numbered consecutively from 1 to 36, as shown on Diagram 4. Beginning with Section 1 in the Northeast Corner, they run West to 6, then East to 12, then West to 18, and so on, back and forth, until they end with Section 36 in the Southeast Corner. Diagram 4 shows a plat of a Township as it is divided and platted by the government surveyors. These Townships are called Government Townships or Congressional Townships, to distinguish them from Civil Townships or organized Townships, as frequently the lines of organized Townships do not conform to the Government Towarship lines. U SECTDONS OF LAND. d 1 A ________ 3 - '-13l3 32 33 TAGRAM 5 illustrates how a section may be subdivided, although the Diagram only gives a few of the ______ many subdivisions into which a_ section may be divided. All Sections (except fractional Sections) are supposed to be 320 rods, or one mile, square and therefore contain 640 acres-a number easily divisible. Sections are subdivided into fractional parts to suit the convenience of the owners of the land. A half-section contains 320 acres; a quarter-section contains 160 acres; half of a quarter contains 80 acres, and quarter of a quarter contains 40 acres, and so on. Each piece of land is described according to the portion of the section which it embraces-as the Northeast quarter of Section 10; or the Southeast quarter of the Southeast quarter of Section 10. Diagram 5 shows how many of these subdivisions are platted, and also shows the plan of designating and describing them by initial letters as each parcel of land on the Diagram is marked with its description. As has already been stated, all Sections (except Fractional Sections which are explained elsewhere) are supposed to contain 640 acres, and even though mistakes have been made in surveying, as is frequently the case, making sections larger or smaller than 640 acres, the Government recognizes no variation, but sells or grants each regular section as containing 640 acres "more or less." The Government Surveyors are not required to subdivide sections by running lines within them, but they usually establish Quarter Posts on Section Lines on each side of a section at the noints marked A. B. C. and D. on Diagram 5. After establishing Township corners, Section Lines are the next to be run, and section corners are established. When these are carefully - DIAGRAM 5. located the Quarter Posts are located at points as ' _ _- - nearly equidistant between Section Corners as S ~ possible. These corners when established by Government Surveyors cannot be changed, even though it is conclusively shown that mistakes have been made which cause some sections or N. E. 1/4 quarter sections to be either larger or smaller than others. The laws, however, of all the )Q States provide certain rules for local surveyors < to follow in dividing Sections into smaller 160 A. parcels of land than has been outlined in the )A 10 e GCovernmental surveys. For instance, in dividC ing a quarter section into two parcels, the disi N. 1/3 of s. E. \/l4 ance between the Government Corners is carefully measured and the new post is located at a 80 A. point equidistant between them. This plan is 3 N. % of S. / followed in running out "eighties," "forties," of. S. E. '/4 "twenties," etc. In this way, if the GovernA.) of. E.'/ ment division overruns or falls short, each S.f S.F. 4Y portion gains or loses its proportion. This is 2_______ A)- 40 A. not the case, however, witcli Fractional Sections STT3BDIVIDIXNG A SECTICOlT. along the North or West sides of a Township, or adjoining a lake or large stream..- i FRACTIONAL PIECES OF LAND. C 0ONGRESSIONAL Townships vary. t considerably as to size and boundaries. 1 Mistakes made in surveying and the fact that Meridians converge as they run North cause every Township to vary 1 14 more or less fromn the 23,040 acres which a perfect Township would contain. See Diagram 4. In arranging a Township into Sections all the surplus or deficiency of land - l - is given to, or taken from, the North and West tiers of Sections. In other words, all Sections in the Township are made full2 23 Q. 640 acres-except those on the North and 223 West, which are given all the land that is ~ Sleft. after forming the other 25 Sections..I i an sTMBEB Diagram 4 illustrates how the surplus or a L _ L deficiency is distributed and the Sections it -— ects. It will be seen that Sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 18, 19, 30 and 31, are the "Fractional Sections," or the Sections which are affected if the Township overruns 27 2 26 or falls short. Inside of these Fractional Sections, all of the surplus or deficiency of land (over or under 640 acres) is carried to the "forties" or " eighties" that touch the Township Line. These pieces of land are called "Fractional Forties" or "Fractional Eighties," as the case may be. Diagrams 4 -4 35 36 and 6 show the manner of marking the 4 ~5 acreage and outlining the boundaries of these "Fractions." Diagram 6 illustrates how the surplus or deficiency of land inside of these Sections is distributed and which "forties"or "eighties" it affects. From this arrangement it will be seen that in any Section that touches the North or West Township Lines, the Southeast Quarter may be full-160 acres-while another quarter of the same Section may be much larger or smali r. Frequently these fractional "forties" or "eighties" are lotted as shown in Diagram 6. They are always described as fractional tracts of land, as the "fractional S.W. i of Section 6," etc. Of course those portions of these Sections which are not affected by these variations are described in the usual manner-as Southeast 4 of Section 6. As a rule Townships are narrower at the North than at the South side. The Meridians of Longitude (which run North and South) converge as theyrun North and South from the Equator. They begin at the Equator with a definite width between them and gradually converge until they all meet at the poles. Now, as the Range lines are run North and South,. it will at once be seen that the convergence of Meridians will caune every Congressional Township (North of the Equator) to be narrower at its North than at its South side, as stated. See Diagram 4. In addition to this fact, mistakes of measurement are constantly and almost unavoidably made in running both Township and Range lines, and if no new starting points were established the lines would DIAGRAM 6. become confused and unreliable, and / - R. - the size and shape of Townships OT 4. LoT S. LOT M. OT x 1. materially affected by the time the surveys had extended even a hundred ' ~ 45 D: 42.5 Is 40.5 miles from the Base Line and Princi- 23 SAC. ACRES. ACRES. 2 ACRES. pal Meridian. In order to correct l 1 the surveys and variations caused 53 R. by the difference of latitude and I LOT a. straighten the lines, "Correction. Lines" (or Guide Meridians and AC 40 8O ARES. Standard Parallels) are established at 29 ACRES. frequent intervals, usually as follows: O ~ North of the Base Line a Correction (5 1 58 0. __ — l Line is run East and West parallel or G. 160 Rods. with the Base Line, usually every A twenty-four miles. South of the /|32 AC. Base Line a Correction Line is usually a: established every thirty miles. Both | 064 B. 0 P 160 ACRES. East and West of the Principal ot 7. 1 -Meridian "Correction Lines" are. usually established every 48 miles. / 37 AC. O0 All Correction Lines are located by careful measurement, and the suc- I 74. 80 Rods. 160 Rods. ceeding surveys are based upon PLAT OF A FRACTIONAL SECTIO1I. them. _ Entered According to Act of Congress, in the year 1909, by Geo. A. Ogle & Co., in the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington, D. C. U

Page  III SUtPPL FMEN-Tr I.. - DIGEST OF TH E: SYSTrEM OF - iVIL GOV \/ERN M ENT - DIGEST OF THE SYSTEM OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT WITH A RE1VIEW OF THE Duties and Powers of the Principal Officials Connected with the Various Branches of National, State, County and Township Government. NATIONAL GOVERNMENT T HE GOVERNMENT of the United States is one of limited and specific powers, strictly outlined and defined by a written constitution. The constitution was adopted in 1787, and, with the amendments that have since been made, it forms the basis of the entire fabric of government under which we live. The constitution created three distinct branches of government, each of which it entirely separate and distinct from the others. They are the executive, legislative and judicial departments. The constitution specifically vests the executive power in the President, but all members of the eabinet are usually classed with the executive department; the legislative power is held by Congress, and the judicial authority is vested in the Supreme Court and various other courts which Congress has provided for in pursuance of the provisions of the constitution. It has been the aim of these pages to explain each of these different i branches of government, and to briefly review the duties and powers of the principal officials connected with each department. The President and Vice-President are elected by popular vote, but the vote of each State is separate, so that a candidate may have a large majority of the aggregate popular vote of the country and yet fail to be elected. The Presidential election is held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, when Presidential electors are chosen in and for the various States, each State having as many electors as it has representatives in both branches of Congress. The electors are chosen by the ballots of the people of their States, and all the electors of a State constitute an electoral college. The electors meet in each State at the capital on the first Wednesday in December following a National election and vote for President and Vice-President, certificates of which are forwarded to the President of the Senate, at Washington, who, on the second Wednesday in February opens the certificates and counts the votes in the presence of both Houses of Congress and declares the result; and the final step is the inauguration, which takes place on the 4th of March. The law provides that if neither of the candidates have a majority then the House of Representatives shall elect a President from the three candidates receiving the highest electoral vote. In elections of this kind each State is entitled to only one vote, and twothirds of the States form a quorum. PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. The President is the highest executive officer of the United States. He is elected for the tertm of efour years, and receives a sealaery of $75,000 per annum.e He must be thirty-five yeares old or morene, and ea nativeborn citien of the United States. The President is charged with agenerale supervision over the faithful execution of laws passed by Congress, and has supervision over all executive departments of the government. He appoints a Cabinet of nine officials who becomne the heads of the various departments, antd theste depacrtments are intended eto be managed and conducted as the President directs. The President is Commanderin-Chief of the Army and Navy. He has power to grant pardons and reprieves for all offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment; has power, with the advice and consent of the Senate, eto make treaties. He nominates, and with the advise and consent of the Sena te, appoints Athmbassadores nd other public Ministers and Consuls, all Judges of the United States courtse, and all other executive officers of the United States, except in such cases where the appointments may be vested in the various "departmeents." When the Senate is not in session th can appoint, subject to its action wthen it reastsembles. He has poeer, in certain extraordinary occasionse, ento call together both Houses of Congress, or either of them, in extra session; and is required froen tinme teo time to communoicate with Congress, as to the state of the Unioen, and offer such esuggestionse or recommtendations ats he may deem propner. He is empowered to approve or veton all measures adopted by Congress, but it is providled thatany measure cay be patssed over his veto by a two-thirds vote of Congress. ' The President consltse frequently with his Cabinet, and ntearly all importante official meatters are discussed by that body. In case the office of President becomes vacant through the death, removnal or resignation of the intcumbent, the lanw provides that the office shall in turn be filled by the Vice-President, Secretary of State, and other Cabinet Ministers in regular eorder. VICE PRESIDENT. The Vice-Presidernt of the United States is elected for the tern ofi four yeares, and receives a salary ofni $12,000. In canse of the death, removeal onr resignation of the President, the Vice-President succeeds hiS. The chief duty of the Vice-President is to anct as the presiding officer of the Senate. He has no vote in tche Senate, except in case of a tie, or ae equal division of the members of that body. The VicePresident administers the oath of office to the Senators. STATE DEPARTMENT. The head iof this department is the Secretary of State, twho it appointed by the President as a nmember onf the Cabinet, and receives a salary of $8,000 per year. The law provides that in case the offince of President becones vacant, through the death, removal or resignation of both the Presidett and Vice-President, the Secretary of State assumest the duties of the Presideecy. The Secretary of State may be said to be the official Secretary of the President, and countersigns all commissions issued by the President. The Secretary of State in the head of the Departmente of State and is the chief diplroratic officer of the United States. In his department and under his supervision is conducted the public business relating to foreign affairs; to correspondence, commissions or instructions to or ith publice Ministers from the United States; or to ncegotiations with uinisters from foreign States; or to memorials or other appli cations from foreigners, or foreign public Ministers, or citizens of this country in foreign lands, or complications arising therefrom. The Secretary of State also has charge of all other business connected with foreign affairs, extradition matters and diplomatic officers; furnishing passports to vessels going to foreign countries, etc., and has charge of the Great Seal of the United States. Connected with the Department of State and forming a part of it in the great work of performing and caring for the duties outlined are the following bureaus: The Diplomatic Bureau, which looks after the affairs pertaining to foreign governments. The Consular Bureau, correspondence with consulates. The Bureau of Indexes and Archives, the duties of which are to open the official eails, prepare an abstract of the daily correspondence and an index of it, and superintend miscellaneous work of department. The Bureau of Accounts, in which all of the finances of the department are looked after, such as the custody and disbursement of appropriations; also indemnity funds and bonds; also care of the building and property of the department, etc. The Bureau of Rolls and Library, which is,harged with the custody of treaties, rolls, public docuenets, etc.; has care of revolution ary archives, of international commissions, superintendence of library, etc. The Bureau of Statistics, for the preparation of reports on commercial relations. The chiefs of these bureaus receive from $2,100 per year to $2,300 per year. In addition to these there are connected with the State Department the offices of translator, at $2,100 per year; assistant secretary, $5,000; second assistant secretary, $4,500; third assistant secretary, $4,500; solicitor, $4,500; chief clerk, $3,000; clerk to Secretary of State, $2,500; passport clerk, $1,400. Besides these are the various comptrollers, auditors, clerks and assistants, which number well up into the thousands. TREASURY DEPARTMENT. This department tvas organized in 1789. The head of this departmnent, known as the Secretary of the Treasury, is appointed by the President, is a neentber of the Cabinet, and receives a salary of $12,000 per armnum. The Treasury Department is one of the most important branches of the national government, as it has charge of the financial affairs of the government, custody of public funds, collection of revenue and maintenance of public credit. Among the many important duties devolving upon this department are the following: It attends to the collection of all internal revenues and duties on imports, and the pretention of frauds in these departments. All claims and demands, either by the United States or against them, and all the accounts in which the United States are interested, either as debtors or creditors, must be settled and adjusted in the Treasury Department. This department also includes the Bureau of the Mint, in which the government coin and moneys are manufactured. The Treasury Department authorizes the organization of national banks and has supervision over them; has charge of the coast surveys, the lighthouses, marine hospitals, etc. It has charge of all moneys belonging to the United States; designates depositories of public moneys, keeps a complete and accurate systerm of accounting, showing the receipts and disbursements of the Treasury, and nakes reports at stated intervals showing the condition of public financee, public expenditures and the public debt. There are a great many important officials 'connected with the Treasury Department, chief among which are the following, viz.: Private secretary of the head department, at $2,500 per year; three assistant secretaries, at $5,000 each; chief clerk, $3,000; chief of appointment division, $3,000; chief of warrants division, $3,500; chief of public moneys division, $3,000; chief of customs division, $3,000; acting chief of revenue mnarine division, $2,500; chief of stationery division, $2,500; chief of loans and currency division, $3,000; chief of miscellaneous division, $2,500; supervising special agent, $8 per day; government actuary, $1,800;, supervising architect, $4,500; steamboat inspector $3,500; chief Bureau of Statistics, $3,000; life saving service superintendent, $4,500; assistant, $2,500; commissioner Bureaus of Navigation, $3,600; superintendent United States coast and geodetic survey, $6,000; supervising surgeon-general marine hospital service, $4,000; Bureau of Engraving and Printing, director, $5,000; assistant director, $3,500; superintendent engraving division, $4,500. The foregoing will serve to show many of the lines of work attended to in the Treasury Department, as the names of these offices explain the branch of work they are charged with attending to. There are a number of other important offices in the department that should be mentioned, among thenm being the f ollowing: The Solicitor of the Treasury, or chief attorney, who receives $4,500 per year for attending to the legal matters connected with the department. The Comemissioner of Customs, who receives $4,000 per year and his deputy $2,250, has charge of all accounts of the revenue from customs and disbursements, and for the building and repairing of custom houses. The Treasurer of the United States receives $6,000 per year, assistant treasurer $3,600, and superintendent of national banks (Red. Div.) $3,500. The Treasurer receives and keeps the government funds, either at headquarters or in the Sub-Treasuries or government depositories, paying it out upon warrants drawn in accordance with the law, and pays all interest on the national debt. The Register of the Treasury is paid a salary of $4,000 per year and his assistant $2,500. The Register keeps the accounts of public expenditures and receipts; receives the returns and eahes out the official statements of United States commerce and navigation; receives from first comptroller and Commissioner of Customs all accounts aced vouchers acted on by them and files the same. The Comptroller of the Currency receives $5,000 per year and his deputy $3,000. This bureau is charged with a general supervision of the national bantks and matters connected with the issuing of paper nion ey. The Director of the Mint receives $4,500 per annum, and is charged with a general supervision over all the coinage of the government. The Comptroller of the Treasury receives $5a,500 per year and his assistant $4,500. This bureaut has chaige of the auditing system of the Treasury. With the exception of the postal revenue accounts, the comptroller prescribes the forms of keeping and rendering all public accoin ts. Auditors. There are six auditors connected with the Treasury Department, each of whom receives a salary of $4,000 per year, and is allowed a depete at a salary of $2,500 per annuee. No one auditor takes rank over another. The first auditor receives and adjusts the accounts of the revenue and disbursements, appropriations and expenditures on account of the civil list and under special acts of Congress, reporting the balances to the commissioners of the customs and first comptroller respectively for their decision. The second auditor devotes most of his attention to army affairs; looks after all the accounts relating to the pay, clothing and recruiting of the army; the arsenals, armories and ordnance; all accounts relating to the Indiatn Department; reporting to the second comptroller. The third auditor has all accounts for sustenance of the army, military academy, military roads, fortifications, quartermaster's department, certain pensions, claims arising for military service previous to 1817; for all property lost in the military service; he reports also to the second comptroller. The fourth auditor also reports to the second comptroller, and attends tonl a accounts of the service connected with the navy. The fifth auditor reports to the first comptroller, and adjists all accoants connected with the diplomatic service of the Department of State. The sixth auditor adjusts all accounts growing from the service of the Post Office Department. WAR DEPARTMENT. The War Department was organized in August, 1789. The head of this department is known as the Secretary of War; is appointed by the President, and receives a salary of $12,000 per anneum. The War Department attends to the execution of all laws affecting the Regular Army, and carries out and performs such duties as ncay be provided for by law or directed by the President relative to military forces military commissions and the warlike stores of the United States. In formner years this department also had charge of Indian as well as military affairs, but this has been transferred to the Department of the Interior. The War Department is also required, among other duties, to maintain the signal service and provide for taking meteorological observations at various points on the continent, and give telegraphic notice of the approach of storms. There is also maintained a Civil Engineering Department, through the aid of which is carried out such improvements in rivers and harbors as may be authorized by Congress. The Secretary of War also has supervision over the West Point Military Academy. The private clerk for the head of the War Department is paid $2,500 per year; assistant secretar y, $5,000; chief clerk, $4,000. The nost of the subordinates and assistants in the War Department, except those mentioned, are officers of the Regular Army, who are paid salaries and perquisites. The Commanding General, next to the Secretary, looks after the arrangement of military forces, superintends the recruiting service and discipline of the army, orders courts-martial, and in a general sense is charged with seeing to the enforcement of the laws and regulations of the army. The Adjutant-General keeps the rolls and the orders issued. The Quartermaster-Geer-Genral has charge of the barracks and the supplies, etc., that may be required for the army. The CommissaryGeneral is the head of the Subsistence Department, and has supervision over the purchasing and issuing army rations. The Judge Advocate General is the head of the department of military justice. The Surgeon General, as the nanme implies, looks after the affairs of the army relating to sick, wounded, hospital, etc. The Paymaster-General is the disbursing officer for the money required by the department. There is also the Ordnance office, controlling ordnance store, arsenals, armories, the manufacture of arms, etc. The Topographical office has charge of all plats and drawings of all surveys made for military purposes. Besides these there are the Inspector-General's Department and departments devoted to 'ar records, publications, etc. In this connection it may be of i+erest to the general reader to refer briefly to a few facts concerning the feguiar Areny. The United States is divided for this purpose into a number of military districts. The head of each department receives his general instructions and orders from headquarters. The term of service in the Regular Army is three years. The pay of private soldiers at the start is $15 per month and rations, and this is increased according to-time of service. The pay of the officers is proportioned to their rank. The pay of officer' in active service was fixed by an act of Congress May 11, 1908, as iollows: lieutenant-general $11,000 per year; major-general $8,000; brigadier-general $6,00; colonels from $4,000 to $5,00; lieutenantcolonels from $3,500 to $4,500; majors from $3,000 to $4,000; captains from $2,400 to $3,360; first-lieutelants from $2,000 to $2,800; secondlieutenants from $1,700 to $2,380. In case any officer below the grade of major required to ice mounted, provides himself with suitable mounts at his own expense, he receives an addition to his pay of $150 per annum if he provides one mount; and $200 per annum if he provides two mounts. The pay of retired officers was fixed as follows by the act of May 11, 1908: lieutenant-generals $8,250 per annum; major generals $6,000; brigadier-generals $4,500; colonels from $3,000 to $3,750; lieutenant-colonels from $2,625 to $3,375; majors from $2,250 to $3,000; captains from $1,800 to $2,520; first lieutenants from $1,500 to $2,100, and second-lieutencants $1.275 to $1,785. NAVY DEPARTMENT. The head of this department is the Secretary of the Navy, who is appointed by the President, and receives a salary of $12,000 per annum. This department is charged with the duty of attending to the construction, armament, equipment and emcploycment of vessels of war, as well as all other matters contnectel with naval affairs, and appropriations made therefor by Congress. The Secretary of the Navy has direct control of the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland; issues orders to the commanders of the various squadrons; has general authority over the Marine Corps; and has control of all the several bureaus of the Navy Department. There are a number of bureaus organized in the Navy Department for the purpose of more thoroughly handling the work, among the most important of w-hicl may be mentioned the following. Bureau of Steam Engineering; Bureau of ledicine and Surgery; Bureau of Navigation; Bureau of Provisions and Clothing, Bureau of Yards and Docks; Bureau of Ordnance; Bureau of Equipment and Recruiting; Bureau of Construction and Repair. Attached to this department are also officials or bureaus to attend to the following matters: Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C.; Museum of Hygiene; Naval Dispensary; Board of Inspection and Survey; Navy Supplies and Accounts; Naval Observatory; Hydrographic Office; Library and War Records; Naval Intelligence; Nautical Almanac, etc. The admiral of the navy (line) is paid $13,500 per year; the first nine rear-admirals each receive $8,000 per year and the second nine $6,000; chiefs of bureaus are paid $6,000 per year; captains $4,000; commanders $3,500; lieutenant-comncanders $3,000; lieutenants $2,400; junior grade lieutenants $2,000; ensigns $1,700; chief-boatswains, gunners, carpenters, sail makers, $1,700; midshipnmen at sea $1,400; midshiprten at acadeny $600. In the Marine Corps the major general receives $8,000 per year; colonels $4,000; lieutenant-colonels $3,500; majors, $3,000; captains (line) $2,400; captains (staff) $2,600; first lieutenants $2,000; second-lieutenants $1,700. An increase of ten per cent is allowed them when ocl sea duty, or on "shore duty beyond the sea." Chaplains of the rank of lietiternant-conmmander or higher rank receive the pay and allowance of a lieutenant-cormmander; those appointed prior to July 1, 1906, who have the rank of lieutenant receive $2,800; and others are paid according to their rank in the foregoing list. Naval constructors receive f romn $3,200 to $4,200 per year; assistalit naval constructors $2,000 or the pay of rank according to the foregoing table; warrant officers $1,125 to $2,250. Petty officers and chief petty officers receive salary ranging from $33 to $77 per mnonth. First class seanen receive $26 per month; seamen-gunners $28 per month; firemen, first-class, $38; ordinary seamen $21; firemen, second-class, $33; shipwrights $27; apprentice seamen $18; coal passers $24. The term of enlistment in the United States 1(avy -is four years. POSTOFFICE DEPARTMENT. | This is one of the mcost important brarcnes of the National novernment. Its head is the Postmaster-General, who is appointed by the President, and receives a salary of $12,000 per antnum. The Post Office Department has supervision over the execution of all laws passed by Congress affecting the postal service, and has general supervision over everything relating to the gathering, carrying and distribution of United States mails; superintends the distribution and disposal of all moneys belonging to, or appropriated for, the department; and the instruction of and supervision over all persons in the postal service, eith reference to their duties. In providing for handling the general work of the Post Office Department it has beeie found necessary to create four bureaus, or offices, as they are termed, each of which is presided over by an assistant postcnaster-general, who each receive $5,000 per annume; are all subject to the direction and supervision of the head of the department. A review of these various bureaus and their principal officials, with the name of the office, will show very clearly the work handled by each. The first assistant postmaster-general is allowed a chief-clerk at $2,500 per year; superintendent of salaries and allowances $4,000; superintendent of division appointments $3,000; superintendent of city free-delivery service $3,000. The second assistant postmaster-general has charge of the following divisions, indicated by the following officials who are under his control: superintendent of railway adjustments $3,000 per year; chief of division inspection $2,000; chief of division of contracts $2,000; chief of division of nail equipmentn general superintendent of railway mail service $4,000; superintendent of foreign mails $3,000. The third assistant postmaster general controls the following divisions: superintendent of money-order division $3,500; superintendent of registry system $2,500; superintendent of division of finance $2,250; superintendent of division of stamps $2,500; also the post-card agent and the stamiped-envelope agent at $2,500 each. The fourth assistant postmaster-general controls the following divisions: Superintendent rural free delivery service $3,000; superintendent of post office supplies $2,500; superintendent of dead-letter office $2,750; topographer $2,750. Besides the various chiefs of divisions mentioned above there are connected with the Post Office Department a law clerk, at $2,500 per year; appointment clerk, at $2,000; assistant attoreney-general, $5,000; a disbursing clerk, $2,250; also the auditor of the post office department, at $4,000. i 14 i I I# ____ --- --- _ _ __ __ 1 ^*opyrstnte iyrs, Uy uCU. At. Ogle & CC %.,

Page  IV CUPPLEMUIS IV 3 f -, - i:al, J I I I i I DIOESm OWF mHE ES m E 3 - E M OWF CIVIL. OOVERN M E Nm-I DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR. life, or during "good behavior." The chief justice of the United ation for various purposes. He The Tnterior Departmept it under the immediate control of the Sec- Stte Supreme Court receives a salary of $13,000 per annuto, and laws passed by the Legislature, I eto ofthe Interioret. Ien is ppointedbythePresite nto d oedt teves the associate justices $12,000 each. The circuit judges receive a sal- be passed over his veto by a two t salary of $12,000 pee year. to this departtent, at the natetimpes is art of $7000 each pet annuoo, district jodgos, $6000, and Court of ernor is commander-in-chief of tl toeedootodooetof the pobio booos tolotig to doeto o o Claims, judges receive $6,000, and chief justice $6,500 per year. has authority to call out such f affairs, and, like most of the otherooxecutive doeprtments, it divided The Jurisdiction of the United States Courts extends to all cases tho loot obe the liool tothoei ito oo oumbeo of subdivfionstd branches. ThoSeretaryof the inoaw andfqn qityterisigtindoeheCoostieotion, eheo f 'eo qoi thooi otheo Ioterior' ft chotged with o geottol topereitito 0000 poblic busie efUnted Statet, aod treotiet; to all cteet affectfog teobottodots, othee foot telotfeg to theft teepeetive oe conectd wththefolowig ranhes vz.:1st Th cnsu ofth poblic mionetetrs tod coosolt; to oll cases of odoieolte' ted ototitimoe hods of Ocatet offiiols. to tote ooeted otati.t thA foterseog nectoe with putt.c The oto veryt jotisdietion; to conttoeeties to ohith the efited Statee shttt be a ganet rteprieest td pordoot, ati thefte Selttee.t 3d. Alliansott r 0 tooted offith. poti d. 3d.mttr Eoeny portey; to etontroveeteiee betoeeo two ot motoe Stotee; betoween a Stote the Stote exceept ie cttet of foot thiog tetesons tore bounty Theoitssuancba.nA tfingtae00 d a eitizen of tnothet Seate; betwtee citizens of different Statet; the pardonoig pwpooet i votteed eoogeeot tbottde Oh.h itooetd00 of betoeeneoitizeesoeottbeoameo Stoteotolaioig loodeeundergraotseof ofowhichthe ovoetnor isgenetal patents and caveats. 6th. The custody and distribution of publications. different States. tn aot casettaefecting atbostedors, other pobtic min- bas the appoilntmet of o numebe 7th. The compiltiotfe of etoeietice tetoting to educttiotnol toatteet ine the ietete ted eonsule, ted thote io -ohich o State it o potty the Sopremte if to eteetiveotftiee betomtet vtto otefoot Stotee. He otto hoe eoteright oero setoerat of the Goer L outt hoe otigheol jutisdiction. to the otbeteotees the Suptemoe poiotoett; hoe phoet io otony So oterite chotitoble ted benevoltent ioetitoeioot. Foe- the pup CotSoC potoejoidofe.ootoe ohe, edo haodling ptopetty the bosenesse onnto ed with most of the tubjects Court has appellate jurisdiction. t county officer, pending a legal menetiooed, tebee tee boretoot organoeod foe ebe poepose. rqiiin pnteeeuie The talaroes paid to the peioplpotfecitle coooected oith the e-.LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT. wihh cieio o estet to other S terofo Depaetmentt tee at fotetee: Fleet ossistontsecreteatre of the The legielaeiee peowers of tbe Unoited Setateetro otested i Coo- eatot foe Seteein orimtioals 0000 interior, $5,000 per year; assistant secretary, $4,500; chief clerk, $3,000; gress, which consists of a Senate and House of Representatives, and LIEUTENAI assistant attorney-general (Dept. of Interior), $5,000; commissioner of which meets annually at Washington on the first Monday of December. The offo of Lietoo cat-Ho the General Land Office, $5,000; commissioner of Indian affairs, $5,000; The constitution gives to Congress the following general powerst To State fo the ioo, at leatoet eot superintendent of Indian schools, $3,000; commissioner of the Pension lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises; pay the debts of States thise efficet it ooty knoo Office, $5,000; medical referee, $3,000; commissionero of the Patent the United States; borrow money on the credit of the United States; to otee of the Sttee the Lieoten Office, $5,000; commissioner of the Education Office, $4,500; director to regulate commerce; to establish uniform laws on naturalization and mddetrig ses of te I of geological surveys, $6,000; director Reclamation Service, $7,500. bankruptcy; to coin money and regulate the value thereof; fix the i othetehe it ll0oo a fS d standard of weights and measures; to declare war; to raise and sup- duoties of f loveeoerhould deooe DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. port armies (but it is provided that no appropriation for this purpose tiooance of such emergencg be en Theoteoototooteyeocadenhhoettet te obe fore onogereperfodthantoeooyears);etoprovideoonde maiofoe no priocfpoltduty oftheLieuetenant This department was formerly connected with the Interior Depart- o foavye to gpantletr's"o marqu an r andme rl con- oicardo h ftae SeneorU inent, but in 1889 it was reorganized and made independent, and the cerning captures on lan and wate; to make rules for? th over-nment ~ofcaer a, vacnc should occure in t Secete'of Agerficlotureowasmde toemoberof tho CabineL The a on r b f Goveooototthootdrno c tas foeetn head ofpthiedepartoentse apofto redby thaePesdenet,aodreeies o t to pro mothe tahedpod reossolfoscience Dbdthosetfouateye fto eai ldcseseCretoe salyof Agof0topt eto toeoug foe liiteed timees, to authote ted inoentot, the ectlusivo tight at peeidieg officel of the Seont. The genertl dote ted doefgo of the Depetoar ento andto theft retpeotiot writins and e dietovetie; to conesitute teibooatl be' that bode'. The Lietoeoaot-Ho to aeceqie tend diaste tae og the people of the oited Settee utefol inferfiot to the Sopremee Cort; to defon tod puofer piracie and cet in casestoefee te ed hofoeaetefoeoeeohjeets coonected dithagnnu tcuief oiethee mostgeotal felonies esi a committedn oisshehighseas ad offense cagaftthe lawofe ted comprehensfie sense of that coed, tnd to protret, propagate ted naatfon; to exertcie o ecltouie oglegslation over the Distrfct of Colofmebio SECRETAs histib5teo aongethepooplteg new an aluabltegeedest and ptnots. d peplace puchae t fo forets, agaozpestio ent, etc.;a fodotrthaer The toof see Sea $3,500; ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o dTrcto offc the ofcofeprmnsttos$400cheot deso reacsCnrescnt uonte ivpr fte, naseceary of Str The fottocweg l ea liet of the thief ofei tooro, coneted cith the to mcake alt lootoeoeeeoey foe the gecetat wtiftee the Uitefd oiehie the gift of the people of Deptenttee of Ageiooltreee tod theft soaties, ated the tietitt alo als etoatee, td foe tortiyg ifo eoieeeoion th fotegoig pooes, tde int ceree to infdicte the variooeati oo of wokth hoadled b' tend the vetioo all othee pooese cesed be' the Constitution fe the Goenement of the ihee te boe to tee'utate ific thc U deetfee whith dtevolve opoo the depatmeneet, viz.: Assistant setrettaty Uoited Setatee, tee fee toy departmenet 00 offter tereeof." The Coo- eodoehefooeeeee' of aogeictlte ereveye $5.000 pee tofeoauo; thief of Weather Boteto,, tommte eapetety foeideC ce a og tee' too teeeoeg the o o fseted he the thief $6,000; thief of Doetto of Animal Iodoetey, $5,000; etatfeteciac, $3,5000 establiehoteet of tell gion, ot peohibiefg the freet texetie theetof, 00 Ste Gtot Sat the State. As Re eheotft, $5,000; entomeologiset $,000; botaneis, $3,250; thief of forestee abeidgino the frtedon of epethe, or of the petre, 00 the tight of he of State tpolly thesiote offRet dtfisioe, $5,000; pooiologee, $3,000; plaet pathologiet tod phytiologiet, people $12,0bl to assemvblet td to petitiote the Goottomeet fer ere- lt C reepthtey p o oo pep are, $3an00 ditectot of the offtce of expeitmeet etionse-, $5,000;c thie fere ilge of tt e 'oeebly; hat the hllr the slate11 ditoeeenerl, wcoueseie td diebusemeote, $3,200; editotr, a agri- ofwrwo Shatbes etreus extep 10 thett i of rehellioo0 ineveted when td distebete e setuet the pit1 catesiste, $3,500; dietetor of publie roado, $3,000; etatistical aentiastpeci the pebit safetye oty teqoire it. No bill of attaindee tee pe Poet facto iodexees atd Slt texetoive dotne eahige of oveetigatione of paodetionte aotd dietributio, $3,000; thief taw eca be paosed. No tot or dote tot be tlad on cttlntes elpected blanks; hoe eharge of all booke, of bilotgieat toreyee, $3,000; thief of boreto of toils, $3,500; thief of froom tee' State, No peefterencte toe be givene by tee' tegolation of aod isprateically "keeper of alltI bereau of plac incedute fe Tearge of Steed diestribOuio, $5,000. Ineomtere 00 eteven to the porol of on State ovee thote of toother. The Secretary of State it rteqtt Nostitleofcnobilhtycanhe graoted. Everylawopassed be'Cogreese cal acteofetheGovernor, aod af DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. meet he teboitted to the Pretedene foe hit appeovat. If he retuees eaal tommis siooe, etc., bee Pt r The head of the Department of Justice it the Attorneyi -Generae, h, hthe hit objectano, tee vetoes it, the fromweh e may be potted ver t ny peetsoe tnopy of the sates ttho fs appoiced he the Presidect anted eteee a ealaee of $13,000 pee ee hos sto h a toothired clle fea both beanches of Congeste. the Seteetaryt of State ft ex offlc ae00m. The peineipat atistete oif the Ateoeney-General is the Solici- The Steele, or the "Upper Houee of Congress," ft composed of boterdse hlv0n liet of thete tco tor-Geerea, oho teoives $7,5o per yearte. Thete ere a ntmber of two Secatot froo oath State in the UnionHs. Thee' ate elcted h States, at thee tee differente ic t ooltnt attorney-generals oho treteive $5,005 per oftePei, ted a speeial the Legietutese of theft etpeoctie Statee, foe a teer of seie ydeahS, tfistatet attocey-gepctl ist appointed fore etorle all of the oeios ano ad eceeve a salary of $7,500 per year e. No peeton toe be eleeted STATE departmente, isaloding the Teoeproe, State, Poet Ofin e ted Inteeiot to the United Snetes Sentate who has not attained the age of thietye The ofop of Auiditoe of Salot Depintgeint. Beeide thete there tee Anoteotber of speiatl orfnieye tot- years, been teice years a ciiotien of the Hefted States, and it auhee teehl evtee State if the Duioe. ncted with the Department of Justice, teeh as attornee in eharge of eected at inthabitane of the State fomo hith he if ehototne The See- cot alife in alt the Settee, aast tttes, $2,750; thief clerk ated Stpeeietendeot of buildings, $3,000; fpt al has sole pooer to tee alt impeaehments. Ite tocent ted confirm- etefet, Florida, Gtoegia, iatyb poietmoeetclerk',$2,000;oattorneye'inchaege of paronse,$2,750; tolicitot ationos eesseeaee'forealleimportanteofficersappointed bythe President. Soteth Cteolina, Tecneettee, Teat inteeo teen t Cee, $4,500;uperinenden Lofprisons destapisone r, $3i Its osent istlsotneesaeytoondea'nteete' w tll m n ai o 050; thief exaotioto, $2,750; thief of divisione of acouneets, $2,500: die- The Housee of Represeeeeeteiveoe ft the "Lowoer Housee of Gongrees Stat Conn etleanoaeth tofies calfeodo buorotg olerk, $3,750; eolsicioe foe department of tootetee ted laboe, Eteh State ie the Honot ft divided lets congreessooal districts, of States the pebtie actoouts ace at $5,000. as neeoele eqeetl popuelation ats it praetiaoble. It eacth dietoot t tep- the Statto, howevee, the dtiets I The Attoncey-Geneal ft the legal Sadisee of the Pretidet, tad ft senteative fts eleeted bye the people foe a teto of too yearn e, and eath State Governent ace pretoticall t the dutot of the Deparentar of Jsteice to glee alt opriointe ad is paid a entalta of $7,500 por ye'earo ids fe tihese, a delegate feote the stope of worvo booted by oender allevices requerig the salleof peen leanedie the law eaf orhganized Teritoreeis eadmihed toi heotmenotse Rpresentatefces, apply, exceept tetegaods minoo $cetet0e to enable the fPotident aed other oficers of the aeriouhs who f cot ettihted to a voe, beet hoa the tight to debate on alt oub- dote of the State Aeditotr to bo Gonoleteet dwpirtmete to dietharge thod The epective detfee. Thi jc betws t whih the Tereitoee whith he teprsct hoe t r tee. N he State. teeTooter Sat ortorritory, and ofel depaetensctuietsl eof oqoied toproeecteeoredefed oatlhe sui o poted- pereoered unb ee a epentatuiove whoihas otlathineed theageofe e twenty p eeowoporations an d indiefdueals logo jn wohich the Hefted Setatee it iotereseted. The Attoreyee-General Seve y'ears, beene foe seveet years a eititee of the Uteited Statee, and it auddits the aetountes of alt poblit hsat geenera soperoviioo over al the tolitofre fore the various depart- at the iche of hies e eltien fo i habita n of the State feom wehfh he State Toeatote, ted alt peesoce omeee;raod teo cee r 7ee,generl superintendenoe aenddiceteione oere iehoste. Alrta Sblfotraingtevncue euestedrgeatehihepeople, of ot i of the Stae Tre r. It f alt Hueted States e hals osa d Ucited statesdistict 00t attoneoys of all, Repetsentatives are to paid out of the State VT the dieteicts of heh Hnited Settee tod Tertitooiee. floe, who, aftee the etme t adjuset the Toetest'. A tcompete rece DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AND LANGE. Auditor, who alto eepes oan a. The Depaertment of Commete ted Cabot woe establised fe Fb- STATE GOVERNMENT bt with allt moneye pateid iStoe l roooyl1O3. The geo tdeeign ofe hie deparetmentieeoeoeovaeeeely in th colleotace p tan dead the boosh tee ted tysteotatte setatisetal detaile telatieg to the Slftten bracohee f HE method of State govertente thtoughout the enfted Statese eate theeeot to as settets or tahoe taed amersmcete f the Hoited Settee. The hood of thie Sep aote- folowes vety eloseolt the genterl plant of governmete jt that pee- s getet dterv ie.ost e 00 tmer boet, benew as the Seret m sary of Coaerce and Cabot, ist ppoiteed ae t It eatgea t tae Thentowootingoth oee ofgoeeo ret te Tosuperpoto n oevted borldic vey morat rnceso teNaina Gvrnet.Pnnyvania ind Natina affars. nthevaiou functions oflOO gorvernment bnin ^corpciorain.iand agains b G lhe Pro ment, is a ce aember of the Cabieae oted teiecee a eat t'f in Halo aftirs tee boodted ie depaeto0ente, with a Stole officer States is ot aemberof $1,00o0 per aPubl. Therfolowhing arethepooprincipalo esdentcidlder hio ti the head of oath branch, nand the anoo 00e cleeale' dote.... off aatsio revesThe commisione of the burete be5weto the te e He f teae' oat auchoofiee to toabe te beteto toghere with th foeatae paid; excut, lgisatve and jWs. heStates nd assignette theteof ite behl of omanufateoreeve, $4,000 per year; coo soeee of the boretu of tot- ate governed undet a eoonstitusoss, cwhiih outllines ated defines the poweet poatifonS, $5,000; co mmissioneo of the bocat of labot, $5,000; dereetor which oath of these depaotmente ehall tetetcie ansd posette. Alt of STATEI of hretau of the oensus, $7,000; tuperintendot of the totet teed gDeo the asot itoportatet State e3title tee eleoted be' the people, bet t Thienis ee fthe toetete deti bic u nrv iey, e a600 salary of b oure u per satistics atfu xeuin ftha, 400 su erisn Thi t elglc so an f top b ish one ofte them os t in the d y, e o e e0Yg of the Statee the ltte nieportnt offictes ate sted be appoipteet the people of a State. The Seat. iThpejoudigeceeal ofwterasbof tinpecioetateiserve, $4,000;i omtmeiolone of He eovernorbe 'anwichte h yonenaofe thoeate Senoae. people'smoneenaod eas aueoa of bueate of seheoiee, $6,000; tootietioter of bjrtte of Unaigateio 000 atep brese theotlowteteq $4,000;commisoisioner-generalof bueaueoof immoigrationeandonataliza- GOVERNOR. eeooup.bino thoemilonseisorequd theeuat $5,005; Cl oeteo ofic bcoes of etecie, $5,000. a fr d The Governor ft the highees texttetie offoc iteaer the States of itnuffocence to fele' proteet the S INDEPENDENT DEPARTMENTS. the Hniob, and it eleted by a doette vole of ehe people. The tere The don tiet of the State Tere of offiet varies materially i e thetdiffetenS Satets toagineg freo two to office,and tbee ae rey im n hl Thete ace seveoal iedependeot depaotoentos, which, altchoogh nonet six e'ears. At to the meatter of ealate' that the Governoo rteeies, it of the Hnobo. The State Teea of eheot ace at imeportant at the foregohng, ated theft beadst 000 nte alto differs widely throueghouet the different Setatee teed be tsubject t0 funds' He depoehes thete funde Cabineettmembers,-e'tethey'formeaverytetessearyoepatoeaned attendto feequenteehange. At the present wrhitigthree Statee-NewoYork, the TreasuereoroStateeagainetlI vete' imeporteant branchee of the Natiocal Goveecteeot. Pentetyleateia ted New Jersey pay theft Govetnote $10,000 pet year; balanete. The Treeteuoet paeys ee Goernecment Peintiog Office. The bead of thit branch of peeblic Illiteoit $12,000; Califoteia $6,000; Minnesota, todiant, Alabama, Cot- toed ot signed by the State Au, workabethe PublicPrioere,who isappointed by'thePreeident, and orado, Loueisiana,Missouri,Montana, Virginia andWisoonsinaltpae' fulloreooedofalltwarrantesti reevsa salaee' of $5,505 pee ye'eo. Die thief cerek is paid $2,450 pet $5,055 pee year; Kentoebe' $6,550; Maetachesettee ated Ohio $5,000; No- Treasuree's offto. The eeoca be'i e'eae, ated theret it a fotetean of poiotiog ted a foreeoan of bitediteg, vadta, Cooteettieut, Michigao, Tcetnetse, Toette ted Waebiogtoc, $5, 00001 of the State it iffeSette lee each of whom otecefee $2,100 pee aetetec O000; Maryland ted Oblahotea $4,500; Miesistippi, Atbaesas, Florida Atedietere eet to eorder foe bloc Cieil Service Commeission. Thie commteissioneeoneistto of thbete ted Sooth Carotina $3,500; Iowa, Georgia; Idaho, Kaotas, Noeth Lar- tmouotet eagainset the Treteutet. I commiselsieooter, oath of whom are paid $5,500 pet e'ear. The thief olicca, Nooth Dabota teed Rhode telaod $3,000; Weet Virgioia $3,700; eye whioh he is entitled to oteceie texamiertt econected with the eoommifssion it paid $3,000 pet toteot, Sooth Dabota, Nebtaeba teed Wyomiteg $3,500; Delawate, Hoboe, New~ cese. to still otber Setatee the T andetheseetaryoee$2,500. tHamepshireeandUtah$2,000; and Oregon and Vermonot $,500. allsmoneystpaidin, which muttb Itoeceeate Commeece Conmmisfion. This commtissione was cre Aboul the one' etatetente concternleg teh qualifications tequioed foe callS, and oee of tesoe etoet be fee the puropose, ated eharged with the Sole', of setiteg that the toot thie offto that woolS be tomoteon to all the Setatee it that be otoet be mae' eharge the aetootet againot i eegtttatiteg inetoertate totmeotet wert faithfotte' teteteeted ted obserteed, a eititeec of the State io whith be it elected. to motot of the Statet, tysteot be tattled 00-both Aodii andlto poeventeunjustdicrieeinationconotebpartoforailwayveorpora- inoaddhtionteotebe salaryenameed,the Govercor isefornished wihba councleefallmoneooyseooeoivedan tioee andooo moeooearriers. Theeoomotiteioncooeiste ofseeneeoeo - tresidenot, whichbisbknowneasthe "Eecutivef Mansone." counetemust balanceoaseattate( mitefootee appoioted frtote diffeotot seoetione of the Heeieed Stoles, oath The toewers teed doulies that devolve cpon ehe Goveroro ate about settelemeetot wieh the Auditor aol of whom rcetives a ealate' of $10,050 pee e'ear. The seeoeetaee' of the the tamet fee oil of the Statee. He be charegd whth a geotoal supervision Cegielaturce. to meost of the Sc; cmisoreevsa ealate' of $5,005 pet aneeum. over the faithful etectioono of the loot, teed it the legal etetoditee tef to peeblith at elated ticese, 10 telse JUDICIARY. alt the properte' of the Seate neoe specificialt' etetootted 1o othet officoer statemcent of the public accoun1 be' too, ted is atohoeioed to lobe tsotoaty posesseion of toth propeoty'. dieborseotmeets. Do be alto reqoi The jeedicial poweot of the Hciteod Statee ace vested in the fotlow- Re it etepected to toototnicate be' oteetage to eath tsetsiote of the ietoemioed etatemetet to oath setee; iteg teamed cour1s, viboe The Heeited States Supretoet Courot, toesietiog State tegielatote teeth iteforota1ion 00 recomeeetdations tegaodineg of the Seates the Iaw it very C of oct thief justiee and eight aetooiate jseticoes; the Hoited Setatee State affaire tshe tee' dtteemecesseary aned proper, teed hoe tote- Stae Toeasuetethe followioghofi Ceeuet of Clabmst, whith tontiete of oct thief ljuetieo teed foot jodgee; pootered to Itl etoa teetiotes of ehat body whtenetert the poblio welfate to the offto, oboe: Tbat a tomsple the Hoited StateseCircuiteCourteof Appeals;andtebUnihedStateseCircuit tote demated. Re actoonte to the esame bode' foe all motooys reteived ehowiog ohat it oteceived 00 pal, ted District Courts. Alltjudgeseof Unhed StateseCourtseareappointed for teed paid out, ted poetteetsesotimatoes of amontoos to be raised be' toe- "funds"e eut be cxhibited 10 s i I has a negative (or veto) upone altl tut it is provided that treasures elay thirds vote of that body. The Gov-:h State omiliteary or naval forces, and orces to preserve peace and execute es are unable to accomplish this. He various State officers upon any subffices, and examines aned approves the y States the Governor has poter to tr conviction, for all offenses against eachment- bhot fe a few of the States i a board selected for that purpose, ely ex-officio member. The Governort. of State officers, and in many cases ent he has the power to fill it by apates to suspend a State officer, or even investigation. The Governor issues of other Seates fore parties charoged ctates, and he has power to issue woarequisietione of other Governors. fT-GOVERNOR. vernor does not exist in all of the under this name, as in a few of the as the President of the State Setnate. ant-eGovernor is paid a certain amountc Legislature or General Assembly, and salaery, buhot it its perovided that if the e upon him, he shall during the contitled to the emolumentes thereof. The -Governor is to act as the presidleng per House of the State Legislature. Il the office of Governtor, the Liettenantountil such vacancy waos filled by eletLieutenant-Governor is unable to act We, a President pro teofpore is chosen vernor has no vote in the Senate exlivision of the members. Y OF STATE. te is one of the most imeporetant officese a State, and the office exists tnder nion. The Secretary of State may be of the Governor, and countersigns all executivee, and he bis the custtodian of a rule it is the doutyl of the Secretaery etooentatives to order and preside unor Speaker, is elected. It is his duty c fort the Legislature or Geoeral Ase omanual teand causes it to be prinoted ng and distribution of the State laws; aents; provides aned distributes e lection bills, papers, etc., of the Legislature, public acts, laws, records, bonds, etc." ed to keep a register of all the offifixes the Seal of the State to all officordt of them, and is obliged to gicve tvhen demanded. In all of the States fio member of a number of the State.1d be given that would apply to all te various States. AUDITOR. oe exists tnder one name or aecotner in The title of this office, however, is teny of them, notably California, Concnd, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Ls, and a few others, it is known as the States, including Michigan and Auditor-General, and in twco of the Sdited by a Board ofAuditors. In all:hat devolve upon this branch of the the same, ated a general explanation of the State Auditor in one State cwill letails, to all of the States. It is the p the accounts of the State with any a the United States and all public offihaving accounts with this State. He efficers who are to be paid out of the who are authorized to receive money Lct, all claims against the State which teasury must be presented to the Auded, issues warrants therefor payable at rd of each warrant is kept by the nt with the State Treasurer, charging he Treasury, and giving credit for all I vouchers of the Treasury must baloe made between these two officers at the States the Auditor is charged with n corporations, such as insurance and gand loan associations, and in some a number of State boards. He genO execute satisfactions of judgetents f of the State. 7REASURER. ortant executive offices in the gift of O Treasurer handles vast sums of the very heavy bond, ranging from $500,ired of him; and generally the Govdditional bonds if he deems the bond state. isurer are implied by the title of the soe same throughout all of the States surer is custodian of all the State in banks, which give bonds to secure toss, and which pay interest on daily eLt State funds only on warrants isditor, or other proper official, and a cept in both the auditing office and bhich the Treasurer receives the revdifferent States. In some States the to receive the same and charges the n others he is charged with all mone and then given credit for delinquenreasurer issues duplicate receipts for oe countersigned by the Auditor to be e deposited with the Auditor, so he She Treasurer. In this way a double:or and Treasurer keeping a full acd paid out, and their books and ac1 intervals the Treasurer must make I submit books, vouchers, etc., to the ctes the State Treasurer is required newspapers at the capital, an itemized s, expenditures, funds, receipts and red to make a complete report and eeci of the Legislature. In nearly all oplieit in outlining the duties of the ng very common provisions in relation te record of all moneys must be kept, d out of the various "funds " which eparate accounts. In several of the II -I J Copyright, 910, by {eo. A. Ogle & Co.

Page  V SUPPLEMENT r r i I I I II I ' DIGiEST Or CTH E SYS-TEM OF- CIVIL I I States the Governor and one or two other State officials constitute a board, which must at certain times examine and check up the accounts, books and vouchers of the State Treasurer and ascertain the amount of funds in the Treasury. ATTORNEY-GENERAL. The Attorney-General, as the name implies, is the general legal counsel or lawyer for the various branches of the State government. In all of the States the powers and duties of the Attorney-General are very similar. It is his duty to appear for the State in all actions and proceedings in the Supreme Court in which the State has an interest; to institute and prosecute in all courts all actions, either for or against a State officer, in which the State has an interest; to consult with and advise the various county or state's attorneys in matters relating to their official duties, and when public interest requires he assists them in criminal prosecutions. It is his duty to consult with and advise the Governor and other State officers, and give, when requested, written opinions on legal or constitutional questions relating to their official duties, and to give written opinions when requested by the Legislature or any committee thereof. It is also his duty to prepare, when necessary, drafts for contracts or other writings relating to subjects in which the State is interested. He is required to enforce the proper application of funds appropriated to the various State institutions, and prosecute breaches of trust in the administration of the same; and when necessary to prosecute corporations for failure or refusal to comply wih th e laws; to prosecute official bonds of delinquent officers or corporations in which the State has an interest. The Attorney-General is required to keep a record of all actions, complaints, opinions, etc. STATE SUPERINTENDENT OR SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. This is an office which exists in nearly every State in the Union. In three or four of the States the management of the educational interests of the State is vested in a State Board of Education, but in these cases the secretary of the board assumes most of the detail work that in most of the States devolve upon the State Superintendent. The full title given to this office is not the same in all of the States, but it is generally called "State Superintendent of Public Instruction or Public Schools." In Ohio, Maine and Rhode Island, and a few others, this officer is termed "Commissioner of Schools." The duties of the State Superintendent are very much alike in all of the States, as he is charged with a general supervision over the educational interests of the State and of the public schools. In many States his authority is not limited to the public schools, and he his authorized by law to demand full reports from all colleges, academies or private schools. It is his duty to secure at regular intervals reports from all such educational institutions and file all papers, reports and documents transmitted to him by local or county school oficers. He is the general adviser and assistant of the various county superintendents or school officers, to whom he must give, when requested his written opinion upon questions rising under the school law. It is also his duty to hear and determine controversies arising under the school laws coming to him by appeal from a county superintendent or school official. He prepares and distributes school registers, school blanks, etc., and is generally given the power to make such rules and regulations as are necessary to carry into efficient and uniform effect the provisions of the laws relating to schools. The State Superintendent is required to make a detailed report to each regular session of the State Legislature, showing an abstract of the common school reports; a statement of the condition of public schools and State educational institutions; the amount of money collected and expended, and all other matters relating to the schools or school funds that have been reported to him. He is forbidden from becoming interested in the sale of any school furniture, book or apparatus. STATE LIBRARIAN. In nearly all of the States the laws provide for a State officers under the title of "State Librarian." As a rule the office is filled by appointment of the Governor, although in a few States it is an elective office and is filled by direct vote of the people. The State Librarian is the custodian of all the books and property belonging to the State Library, and is required to give a bond for the proper discharge of his duties and safekeeping of the property intrusted to his care, as in many of the States the State Library is an immensely important and valuable collection. In some of the States the Supreme Court judges prescribe all library rules and regulations. In others they have a Library Board of Trustees, which is sometimes made up of the Governor and certain other State officials, who constitute a board of commissioners for the management of the State Library. ADJUTANT-GENERAL. In nearly all of the States provision is made for an AdjutantGeneral, who is either elected by the people or appointed by the Governor. The name of the office implies the branch of work which is handled by its incumbent. It is the duty of the Adjutant-General to issue and transmit all orders of the Commander-in-Chief with reference to the militia or military organizations of the State. He keeps a record of all military officers commissioned by the Governor, and of all general and special orders and regulations issued, and of other matters relating to the men, property, ordinance, stores, camp and garrison equipage pertaining to the State militia or military forces. PUBLIC EXAMINER OR BANK EXAMINER. This is a State office that is found in only about one-half of the States. In some States it is known as Bank Comptroller and in others the duties which devolve upon this officer are handled by a "department" in the State Auditor's office. The general duties and plan of conducting this work, in many respects, is very similar, but there is a great difference between the various States in the officers who attend to it. Where this made a separate State office, generally speaking, the requirements are that he must be a skilled accountant and expert bookkeeper, and cannot be an officer of any of the public institutions, nor interested in any of the financial corporations which it may be his duty to examine. He is charged with the duty of visiting and inspectng the financial accounts and standing of certain corporations and institutions organized under the State laws. In several of the States it is made his duty to visit certain county officials at stated intervals, and inspect their books and accounts, and enforce a uniform system of bookkeeping by State and county officers. COMMISSIONER OR SUPERINTENDENT OF INSURANCE. In all of the States of the Union the department relating to insurance has grown to be an important branch of State government. The method of controlling the insurance business differs materially in many of the States, although they are all gradually moving in the same direction, viz., creating a department or State office in which all matters relating to insurance and insurance companies are attended to. In former years, in nearly all of the States, the insurance business formed a department in the State Auditor's office, and was handled by him or his appointees. Nowa, however, in nearly all the Northern States and many of the Southern States, they have a separate and distinct insurance department, the head of which is either elected by the people or appointed by the Governor. The duties and powers of the insurance department of the various States are very similiar. A general provision is ethat thead of this department must be experienced in insurance matters, and he is prohibited from holding an interest in any insurance company. The Commissioner or Superintendent of Insurance has extensive powers concerning insurance matters, and it is his duty to see that all laws respecting and regulating insurance and insurance companies, are faithfully observed; he issues licenses to insur' — anlce companies, and it is his duty to revoke the license of any company not conforming to law. Reports are made to him at stated times by the various companies, and he has power to examine fully into their condition, assets, etc. He files in his office the various documents relating to insurance companies, together witfe their statements, etc., and at regular intervals makes full reports to the Governor or Legislature. COMMISSIONER OF LABOR STATISTICS. In several of the States a "Commissioner of Labor Statistics" is appointed by the Governor, who is the head of what may be termed tth labor bureau. In a great majority of the States, however, this branch of work is taken care of by a board of labor commissioners, a bureau of statistics or by the State Auditor and his appointees. The general design of this bureau or commission is to collect, assort and systematize, and present in regular reports to the Legislature, statistical details relating to the different departments of labor in the State, and make such recommendations as may be deemed proper and necessary concerning the commercial, industrial, social, educational and sanitary conditions of the laboring classes. OTHER STATE OFFICERS. In all of the States there exist one or moretheher State officers in addition to those already mentioned, which are made necessary by local condition or local business interests. It is, therests. t is, therefore, unnecessary to mention any of these at length in this article. It may be stated, however, that in all of the States may be found two or more of the following State officers, and further, that each one of the following named officers is found in some State in the Union. viz.: Superintendent or commissioner of agriculture, commissioner of mines secretary of agricultural board, secretary of internal affairs, clerk and reporter of the Supreme Court, commissioner of railways, commissioner of immigration, State printer, State binder, land agent or commissioner, commissioner, register or superintendent of State land office, register of lands, commissioner of schools and lands, surveyor-general, inspectorgeneral, State oil inspector-general, State oil inspector, dairy commissioner. STATE BOARDS. Besides the officers and departments which have already been mentioned, there are a number of State boards or bureaus that are necessary in carrying on the complex business connected with the government of a State. The following list of such State boards and bureaus includes all that can be found in the majority of the States; some of them, however, are only found in a few of the States, because they are of a local nature and are only made necessary by the existence of certain local conditions or businessinterests. It will also be observed that some of the boards named cover the same line of work that has already been mentioned as belonging to some State officer. This grows from the fact that a few of the States place the management of certain lines of work in the hands of a State board, while in others instead of having a State board they delegate the powers and duties to a single State official. All of the States, however, have a number of the State boards mentioned in this list, the names of which imply the line of work each attends to, viz.: Railroad ad warehouse commissioners, board of equalization, board or comission of agriculture, university trustees, board or commissioners of public charities, canal commeissioners, penitentiary commissioners, board of health, dental exami ters,trustees of historical library, board of phartlacy, commission of'claims, live stock commissioners, fish commissioners, inspectors of coal mines, labor commissioners, board of education, board of public works, board of pardons, assessment commissioners. LEGISLATURE OR GENERAL ASSEMBLY. The law-making power of every State is termed the "Legislative Department." The legislative power, according to the constitutions of the various States, is vested in a body termed the Legislature or General Assembly which consists of an Upper and Lower House, designated usually as the Senate and House of Representatives. In a few of the States the Lower House is called "The Assembly." In most of the States the Legislature meets in regular session every two years, but this is notthe universal rule, as in a few of the States the law provides for annual sessions. In all of the States, however, a provision is made whereby the Governor may, on extraordinary occasions, call special session by issuing a proclamation. The Legislative Department has the power to pass all such laws as may be necessary for the welfare of the State, and carry into effect the provisions of the constitution. The Legislature receives the reports of the Governor, together with the reports of the various other State officers; they provide by appropriation for the ordinary and contingent expenses of the government; at regular times provided by law they apportion the State into political districts, and make all other provisions for carrying on the State government. There is a general prohibition against the passage of any ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or making any irrevocable grant of special privileges or immunities. 'Any measure to becone a law must be passed by both branches of the Legislature, and then be presented to the Governor for his approval. If he withholds his approval (or vetoes it), the measure may be repassed by a two-thirds vote of the Legislature, when it will become a law notwithstanding the Governor's veto. SENATE. The Senate is the Upper House of the Legislature or General Assembly. The various States are divided into senatorial districts, in each of which a Senator is elected-the term of office varying from two to four years. Except in three or four of the States the presiding officer of the Senate is the Lieutenant-Governor, although a President pro tem. is usually elected, who acts as presiding officer during the absence of the Lieutenant-Governor. The presiding officer has no vote, however, in the Senate, except when that body is equally divided. Every Senator has one vote upon all questions, and the right to be heard in advocating or opposing the passage of any measure brought before the Legislature. In filling all of the most important State offices that are to be appointed by the Governor, the appointenlts oaist Lbe approved or confirmed by the Senate. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. The Lower House of the State Legislature, in nearly if not quite all the States of the Union, is termed the House of Representatives. Like the Senators, every member of the House has the right to be heard in advocating or opposing any measure brought before the bodyof which he is a member. The House is given the sole power of impeachment, but all impeachments must be tried by the Senate. As a general rule, there is a provision that all bills for raising revenue must originate in the House. JUDICIARY. The "Judicial Department" is justly regarded as one of the most important and powerful branches of government of either the State or Nation, as it becomes the duty of this department to pass upon and interpret, and thereby either annul or give validity to all the most important measures and acts of both the legislative and executive branches of the government. Its s impossible in a general article to give a detailed review or description of the construction and make-up of the judicial departments of the various States. The courts are so differently arranged both as to their make-up and jurisdiction that it would be useless to try to give the reader a general description that would accurately cover the ground. In all of the States, except, possibly, one or two, the highest judicial authority of the State is known as the Supreme Court, and unless questions are involved which give the United States Courts jurisdiction, it is the court of last resort. The Supreme Court is made up of a chief iustice and the several associate jusstces or iudoes as may be nrvcied \OER N MME NTfor by the laws of the various States, usually from four to six. Generally these officers are elected by the people, either from the State at large or (in three of the States) as representing certain districts, but this is not the case always, as in several States they are chosen by the Governor or Legislature. In all of the States the Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction both in law and in equity, and has original jurisdiction in iremedial cases, vandaedczas, habeas corpfs and cases relating to the revenue, but there is no trial by jury in this court. Various other courts are provided for by the lacws of the different States, such as appellate courts, circuit or district courts, probate courts, county courts, superior courts, municipal courts, courts of justices of the' peace, etc. The jurisdiction of all these courts is, of course, inferior to that of the Supreme Court, and varies greatly in the different States. Besides these, where tbhre are large cities, various other courts are also established to aid in caring for the enormous amount of judicial work that arises from such vast and complex business interests. The various courts are also provided with the necessary officials for carrying on the judicial business-such as clerks of court, court reporters, bailiffs, etc. COUNTY GOVERNMENT O far as the principal county offices are concerned, the general arrangement and method of handling the public business is very much the same in all of the States; but the offices are called by different names, and in minor details-such as transferring from one office to another certain minor lines of work -there are a number of points in which the method of county government in the various States differs. The writer has adopted the names of the principal county offices which are most common in the Northern States, as in the Southern and New England States there are scarcely any two States in which the names or titles of all the county offices are identical. AUDITING OFFICE AND CLERK OF THE COUNTY BOARD. Generally the principal auditing officer of the county is known as the "county auditor" or "county clerk." In Illinois, Kansas, MIissouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, WVisconsin and many other States the office is called "county clerk." In Indiana, Iowieoa, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Ohio and others it is termed "county auditor." In a few of the States tinder certain conditions this office is merged with some other county office. A notable example of this is in the State of Michigan, where they have one official, under the simple title of "clerk," who looks after about all of the work which in most of the States devolves upon both the county clerk and also clerk of court. In all of the States a bond in a moderate sum is required of the county clerk or auditor, and he is paid a salary of from $1,500 to $3,500 per year,. besides in some States being allowed certain fees, unless it is in a very large and heavily populated county, where the salary paid is of necessity much higher than this amount. No county treasurer or member of the county board is eligible to this office. In general terms it may be stated as a rule the auditor acts as the clerk or secretary of the official county board, although in a few of the States the court clerk is required to look after this matter.' 'The clerk of the county board keeps an accurate record of the board's proceedings and carefully preserves all documents, records, books, maps and papers which may be brought before the board, or which the law provides shall be deposited in his office. In the auditing office an accurate account is kept with the county treasurer. Generally they file the duplicates of the receipts given by the county treasurer, charging him with all money paid into the treasury and giving credit for all warrants paid. The general plan of paying claims against a county is- as follows: If the claim is one in which the amount due is fixed by law, or is authorized to be fixed by some other person or tribunal, the auditor issues a warrant or order which will be paid by the treasurer, the certificate upon which it is allowed being duly filed. In all other cases the claim must be allowed by the county board, and the chairman or presiding officer issues a warrant or order which is attested by the clerk. A complete record of all these county warrants or orders is kept, and the accounts of the county treasurer must balance therewith. The above in general terms outlines the most important branch of work which the coutyclcnty clerk or county auditor looks after in most of the States, but in all of the States the law requires him to look after a number of other matters, although in these there is no uniformity between the various States, and no general description of these minor or additional duties could be given that would apply to all the States. COUNTY TREASURER. This is an office which exists in all of the States, and it is one of the most important of the various offices necessary in carrying on the business of a county. It is an elective office in all of the States, and the term of office is usually either two or four years, but a very common provision in the various States is that after serving for one term as county treasurer a party shall be ineligible to the office until the intervention of at least one term after the expiration of the term for which he was elected. This provision, however, does not exist in all of the States, as in some of them the county treasurer is eligible for reelection for any number of terms. The general duties of the county treasurers throughout the various States is very similar. The county treasurer is the principal custodian of the funds belonging to the county. It is his duty to receive and safely keep the revenues and other public moneys of the county, and all funds authorized to be paid to him, and disburse the same pursuant to law. He is required to keep proper books of accounts, in which he must keep a regular, just and true account of all moneys, revenues and funds received by him, stating particularly the time, when, of whom and on what fund or account each particular sum was received; and also of all moneys, revenues and funds paid out by him according to law, stating particularly the time when, to whom and on what fund payment is made from. The books of the county treasurer must always be subject to the inspection of the county board, which, at stated intervals, eaminres his books and makes settlements with him. In some of the States the provisions of the law relating to county treasurer are very strict; some of them provide for a county board of auditors, who are expected, several times a year, to examine th& finds, accounts and vouchers of the treasury without previous notice to the treasurer; and in some it is provided that this board, or the county board, shall designate a bank (or banks) in which the treasurer is required to keep the county funds deposited-theb bans being required to pay interest on daily or monthly balances and give bond to indemnify the county against loss. As a general rule the county treasurer is only authorized to pay out county funds on warrants or orders issued by the chairman of the county board and attested by the clerk, or in certain cases on warants or orders of the county auditing office. A complete record of these warrants or orders is kept, and the treasurer's accounts must balance therewith. In most of the States the law is very explicit in directing how the books and accounts of the county treasurer shall be kept. COUNTY RECORDER OR REGISTER OF DEEDS. In a few of the States the office office of county recorder or register of deeds is merged with some other county office, in counties where the population falls below a certain amount. A nota ble example of this is found in both the States of Illinois and Missouri (and there are others), where it is merged with the office of circuit clerk in many counties. The title of the joint office is "circuit clerk and recorder," and the duties of both offices are looked after by one official. The duties of the county recorder or register of deeds are very similar in the various States, although in some of the Eastern and Southern States the office is called by other names. The usual name, however, is county recorder or register of deeds. In Illinois, Indiana, - _P__YP_ -- -- -- t-pcgl 19W by De.A gl a J copyright, 910o, by aeo. A. Ogle & Co.

Page  VI R. I I J i SUPPLEMENT VI_ DIGEST OFF "THE SYSTEM OF CIVIL GOCVERNMMENT i - -- Iowa, Missouri, Ohio and many other States, it is called "county recorder." In Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota', Wisconsin and many more it is called "register of deeds." In all of the States this office is the repository wherein are kept all records relating to deeds, mortgages, transfers and contracts affecting lands within the county. It is the duty of the recorder or register, as soon as practical after the filing of any instrument in writing in his office entitled to be recorded, to record the same at length, in the order of the time of its reception, in books provided by the county for that purpose; and it is his duty to endorse on all instruments a certificate of the time when the same was filed. All of the States have some of the following provisions concerning the duties of the recorder, but these provisions are not common to all of the States, viz.: The register or recorder is not allowed to record an instrument of any kind unless it is duly executed according to law; he is not obliged to record any instrument unless his fees are paid in advance; as a rule, it is unlawful for him to record any map, plat or subdivision of land situated within any incorporated city, town or village until it is approved by the proper officers of the same. In many States he is forbidden to enter a deed on the records until it has been endorsed "taxes paid" by tlhe proper official; he is required to exhibit, free of charge, all records, and allow copies to be made; he is authorized to administer oathls and take acknowledgments. CIRCUIT OR DISTRICT CLERK, OR CLERK OF COURT. In nearly all of the States, each county elects a "clerk of court or courts," sometimes also known as circuit clerk or district clerk, indicating the court with which the office is connected. In some of the States, as has already been stated, the office of clerk of court is merged with some other county office. This is the case in Illinois and Missouri, where in many counties it is connected with the office of county recorder. In Michigan, one official under the name of "clerk" handles the business which usually is given to the clerk of court and county clerk or auditor. In Wisconsin, Missouri, Illinois and other States the name used is "circuit clerk;" in Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota, North Dakota and many others the office is called "clerk of district court;" while in many of the States, including Indiana, Ohio, Iowa, South Dakota and others, it is called simply "clerlk" or "clerk of the court or courts." The chief duty of this official is to act as clerk of the district or circuit court, and sometimes other courts of inferior jurisdiction. It is the clerk's duty to keep the seals and attend the sessions of their respective courts, preserve all the files and papers thereof, make, keep and preserve complete records of all the proceedings and determinations thereof, and carry out such other duties as may be required by the rules and orders of their respective courts. They must enter of record all judgments, decrees and orders of the court as soon as possible after they are rendered; keep all indictments on file as a public record, have authority to administer oaths, take acknowledgments; take and certify depositions, and are required to exhibit all records free of charge. In nearly all the States the law defines the character of the record books which the clerk of court must keep. Although there is no settled rule in this matter, the general provisions are that he shall keep: First, a general docket or register of actions, in which is entered the title of each action in the order in which they are commenced, and a description of each paper filed in the cause and all proceedings therein; second, a plaintiff's index and defendant's index; third, a judgment book and execution docket, in which he enters the judgment in each action, time of issuing execution, satisfaction, etc., and such other books as the courts or the laws may prescribe. SHERIFF. In all of the States the office of sheriff is one of the most important of the county offices. The term of office varies in different States, being usually either two or four years, and in several of the States one party cannot hold the office a second term consecutively. The general provisions outlining the duties pertaining to this office are very much alike in the various States, and the following resume of his duties may be said to apply to all of the various States except in a few minor and unimportant details. The sheriff is charged with the duty of keeping and preserving the peace in his county; or, as has been written, "he is the conservator of peace," and it is his duty to keep the same, suppress riots, affrays, fighting, breaches of the peace and prevent crime, and may arrest offenders "on view" and cause them to be brought before the proper magistrate; and to do this, or to execute any writ, warrant, process, order or decree, he may call to his aid when necessary any person or the "power of the county." It is the duty of the sheriff to serve and execute within his county, and return, all writs, warrants, process, orders and decrees of every description that may be legally directed and delivered to him. He is a court officer, and it is his duty to attend, either in person or by deputy, all courts of record held in his county; by virtue of his office he has custody of the jail. It is his duty to pursue and apprehend felons and persons charged with crime and ha's custody of prisoners. He is not allowed to purchase any property exposed for sale by him as sheriff. COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT OR COMMISSIONER OF SCHOOLS. This is an office which exists under one nane or another in nearly every State in the Union. The title of the office in a great majority of the States is "county superintendent," but in Michigan, Missouri, Ohio, New York, and possibly one or two other States, the office is termed "school commissioner," and in several of the States the laws provide for a board of county examiners or school commissioners, who are given considerable of the work that in most of the other States is handled by the county superintendent. The name of this office implies the duties which devolve upon it, and they are very much alike in all of the States. The incumbent of this office is charged with a general supervision over the schools of the county, and must be a fitting person as to education and moral character. As a rule it is their duty to examine and license teachers, but in a few of the States provision is made for a board of examiners. County superintendents are required to visit and inspect the schools at regular intervals, and give such advice and instruction to teachers as may be deemed necessary and proper. They are required to organize and conduct institutes for the instruction of teachers if deemed necessary, and encourage teachers' associations. They introduce to the notice of teachers and the people the best modes of instruction, the most approved plans of building and ventilating school-houses, etc., stimulate school officers to the prompt and proper discharge of their duties. They receive reports from the various school officers, and transmit an abstract of these reports to the State Superintendent, adding a report of the condition of the schools under their charge. In nearly all the States they are forbidden having any interest in the sale of any school furniture, apparatus or books used in the schools. In many States they have authority to annul a teacher's certificate for proper cause, and in general to take such steps and enforce such methods as will elevate and make more efficient the schools under their control. COUNTY, PROSECUTING OR STATE'S ATTORNEY. There is a great difference between the various States in the method of handling or attending to the legal business relating to county matters or growing from county affairs. In many of the States the official who attends to this line of work is known as the "county attorney," in other States he is called the State's attorney or prosecuting or district attorney. In a few of the States theydivide the State into districts embracing a number-of counties, and a district attorney is elected in each district, who in some cases attends to all the legal work of the various counties, and in others he assists the county attorneys in their most important cduties and prosecutions. But whatever plan may be followed in the various States, and whatever title may be given to this office, the general duties of the office are very much the same throughout all of the States. It is the duty of the county attorney to commence and prosecute all I actions, suits, indictments, and prosecutions, civil and criminal, in any court of record in his county in which the "people of the State or county" may be concerned; to prosecute all forfeited bonds and recognizances, and all actions for the recovery of debts, revenues, moneys, fines, etc., accruing to his county; to commence and prosecute all actions and proceedings brought by any county officer in his official capacity; to defend all actions and proceedings brought against his county, or against any county officer in his official capacity; to give legal opinions and advice to the county board or other county officers in relation to their official duties; to attend, if possible all preliminary examinations of criminals. When requested, he is required to attend sessions of the grand jury, examine witnesses in their presence, give legal advice and see that proper subpoenas and processes are issued; draw up indictments and prosecute the same. The county attorney is required, when requested by the Attorney-General, to appear for the State in cases in his county in which the State is interested. The county attorney makes an annual report to his superior State officer of all the criminal cases prosecuted by him. Hi PROBATE OR COUNTY JUDGE. The method of handling probate matters is not uniform throughout the various States. In many States the higher courts are given jurisdiction over probate matters, and in others they have created districts in which are held probate courts, whose jurisdiction extends over several counties and takes in other matters besides purely probate affairs. In a majority of the States, however, particularly the Western and Northern States, they elect a county or a probate judge, who holds court and handles the probate matters which arise within his county. The jurisdiction of these county or probate courts is not always confined exclusively to probate affairs, being frequently extended to many other nmatters, and they generally include such matters as apprenticeship affairs, adoptions, minors, etc. In some of the States they have both a county judge and a probate judge, and in these cases the jurisdiction of the latter is confined to such matters as are in line with probate affairs. In Missouri they have a probate judge, and also a county court, composed of county judges, in whom the corporate powers of the county are vested-as the official county board. In Michigan they have a probate judge and a probate register. The probate judge is generally given original jurisdiction in all matters of probate, settlement of estates of deceased persons, appointment of guardians and conservators and settlement of their accounts. They take proof of wills, direct the administration of estates, grant and revoke letters testamentary and of administration, appoint and remove guardians, etc. COUNTY SURVEYOR. This is an office which is common to nearly all of the States. It is the duty of the county surveyor to execute any survey which may be ordered by any court, or upon application of any individual or corporation, and preserve a record of the surveys made by him. Nearly all of the States provide that certain records shall be kept by the county surveyor, and provide penalties for his failure to place on record the surveys made by him. While he is the official county surveyor, yet the surveys made by him are not conclusive, but may be reviewed by any competent tribunal, and the correctness thereof may be disputed. COUNTY CORONER. This is another county office which exists in nearly all of the States. In the average county there is not much work for the coroner, but in the counties in which large cities are located the office is a very important one. In general terms it may be stated that the coroner is required to hold inquests over the bodies of persons supposed to have met with violent or unnatural deaths. In most States he has power to impanel a jury to enquire into the cause of death; but in some of them this is not the case, and he is given power to act alone. He can subpoena witnesses; administer oaths; in certain cases provide for a decent burial, and can bind over to the proper court any person implicated in the killing of the deceased. OTHER COUNTY OFFICES. The county offices that have already been mentioned are the principal ones found in all of the States. There are, however, a few other county officials besides those mentioned which exist in many of the States, and which should be briefly mentioned in this connection. These are such offices as county physician, county assessor, county collector, county poor commissioner or superintendent of the county poor-house, master in chancery or court commissioner, county examiners, board of equalization, board of review, etc. The names of these offices imply the duties. These offices do not exist in all of the States, but in nearly every State the law provides for one or more of these county officials. COUNTY BOARD. The powers of every county as a body politic and corporate are vested in a county board. This official county board is generally termed the county "board of supervisors," or "board of commissioners," but there are some exceptions to this, like Missouri, where the county board is known as the "county court." There is considerable difference in the make-up of the county board in the various States. In some it is made up of one member from each township in the county. In others the counties are divided into districts, and one member of the county board is chosen from each district. No general description of this could be given that would be accurate, as some of the States follow both of these plans. For instance, in Illinois some of the counties are governed by a board of supervisors, which is made up of one member from each township, while other counties in the same Stte are governed by a; board of county commissioners, consisting of three or more members, each representing districts into which the counties in question are divided. The general powers of the county board throughout all of the States is about the same, except in minor details. It represents the legislative and corporate powers of the county. One of their number is always chosen as chairman or president, and acts as the presiding oficer. The county board has general charge over the affairs of the county. It is their duty to provide county offices, provide desks, stationery, books, fuel, etc.; examine, investigate and adjust claims against the county, and have general care and custody of all the real and personal estate owned by the county. At regular intervals they settle with the county treasurer; examine accounts and vouchers. They locate county roads; determine the amount of county tax, and regularly publish a statement of their proceedings; make statements of receipts, expenditures, etc.; and make all contracts, and do all other acts in relation to the property and concerns of the county necessary to exercise its corporate powers that are not specifically delegated to other county officials. TOWNSHIP GOVERNMENT HE method of township government throughout the different States varies so much that it is impossible in this article to treat of it more than in a general way. In many of the States the townships are not organized as bodies corporate, and in other States in some counties they may have township organization, while in other counties in the same State it does not exist. In cases where there is no township organization the law provides that certain county officials shall attend to the local work, or that work which in other localities as assumed by the township officials. But even where they have township organization the plan of township government in the different States where it exists differs so widely that scarcely any two States may be said to be alike. About the only statements concerning the organized townships that could be made which would apply to all the States are the following: Every organized township in its corporate capacity has power to sue and be sued; to acquire by purchase, gift or devise, and hold property, both real and personal, for the use of its inhabitants, and again to sell and convey the samne; and to make all such contracts as may be necessary in the exercise of its powers as a totnship. In a great many of the States the township government is carried on after a plan very similar to the county and State governments, having various executive officers and a township board in which the corporate and legislative powers, ot the township are vested. In other States they follow a plan which reserves to the people all corporate and legislative powers, and therefore have no need for a township board, but have various other township officers to carry out the wishes and orders of the voters. Where this plan prevails they hold what is generally termed "town meetings," at which every legal voter of the township has a voice. At these meetings reports are had from the various township officials, and the necessary measures are adopted and directions given for carrying on the township lousiness. Still other States combine good features from both of the plans above mentioned, and besides the other usual township officials they maintain a township board, which is given certain restricted powers, such as those of a review or an auditing board, but they are not vested with the complete corporate and legislative powers of the township, this being reserved in a large measure to the voters, and all questions calling for the exercise of such authority are acted upon at the town meetings. In many of the States the township board just described is made up of three or more of the other township officers, who are ex-officio members of the township board, and they meet at certain times, perform the work required of them, and report to the town meetings. The principal officials in township organizations in nearly all the States are the following: "Supervisors, or trustees," "clerk," "treasurer," "assessor," "collector," "justices of the peace," "constables," "overseers, supervisors or commissioners of the highways," and"poundmasters," although as has been stated, many of the States do not have all of these officials. SCHOOL DISTRICT GOVERNMENT T HE "common school system," or, to speak with greater accuracy, the method of governing school districts, in the various States, differs widely, yet all follow in a general way one of -— two separate and clearly defined methods, being amended in minor respects to meet local conditions and ideas. All of these methods have their excellent points, and yet it has been claimed by eminent educators that no one of them is free from fault and objection, nor has reached perfection. It will be the aim of this article to briefly explain the principal features of the several methods, but it is not possible to go into detail in the matter of giving the system of school government that is followed in each of the many States of the Union. The constitution and statutes of all the States agree, however, upon several points. They aim to provide for a thorough and efficient system of free schools, whereby all the children of the States may receive a thorough common school education; they provide that all lands, moneys and other property donated, granted or received for school, college, seminary or university purposes, and the proceeds thereof shall be faithfully applied to the objects stated; with two or three exceptions they provide that no appropriation shall be made or public funds applied in aid of any church or sectarian purpose, or to support or sustain any school, academy, seminary, college or university controlled or run in the interest of any church or for a sectarian purpose; and they prohibit the various school officials from holding any interest in the sale, proceeds or profits of any book, apparatus or furniture used in the schools in which they, as officers, are interested., In many of the States they follow what may be termed the "indepent school district" method, inasmuch as each district, so far as its corporate powers are concerned, is entirely separate and independent of other districts. Where this plan is followed the boundaries of each district are clearly defined, and each district is complete within itself. They elect a full set of district officials, and exercise their corporate powers and manage their district affairs within themselves. In this plan the corporate powers of the district are usually vested in a district board, which has general charge of the interests of the district, hires teachers, and makes such contracts, and carries into effect such methods as is deemed necessary to raise the grade or aid in the efficiency of the schools. The measure of the authority given to these district boards is not the same in all the States, and in many States it is restricted, and a part of the corporate power is reserved to the people themselves, the officials being required, in all important matters, to carry out -the - wishes and orders of the- people of the district as expressed and decided-upon at the "district school meetings." Another method which is followed in imany of the States may be termed the "township system." In such States the law provides for the organization of each township for school purposes, or as one large "district," and each township, so far as its educational interests are concerned, is organized, has the necessary officials and becomes a body politic and corporate. As a general rule, where this method prevails, the townships are divided into three or more sub-districts. All of these sub-districts are a part of the whole, and the finances and general business is generally managed by a township board made up of representatives from each sub-district. This board is generally clothed with the corporate powers, hires teachers, provides fuel and supplies and makes all the contracts necessary to carry on the various schools in the township. As with independent districts, the powers of this board are not alike in all States where the township systemn prevails, for in some States their power is very much restricted, and is limited to certain official matters, the corporate powers and right to make important contracts being reserved to the people, who decide on these questions at what are termed the school meetings. In a few of the States where they follow the township system they have no official board. This is the case in Indiana, where they elect a township trustee, whose duty it is to look after all the educational interests of the township, subject to the approval of the people at the regular meetings. In most of the States where the township system prevails the law provides for the organization, under certain conditions, of sub-districts into independent districts, which gives them the power to elect their own officers and act independently of the other schools in the township. (In nearly all of the States one of the two general methods given above is followed, with certain changes to make the plan more efficient and satisfactory, and to better meet the desires and needs of the people of the different States. Many of the States combine good features from both these systems, as some of the States have the township system, wherein each sub-district has its own board, and so far as controlling its own affairs is concerned, is independent of all other districts. But local conditions have in many instances made special and local provisions necessary that are different in each State, and while there may be a vast difference in the methods followed, their aim is the same, and, as a whole, the various systems have accomplished the result of giving throughout the length and breadth of the Union the grandest and most efficient system of free schools that the world has ever known. CITIES AND VILLAGES N all of the States the laws provide for the local government of school matters and civil authority. In school affairs provision is pendent of, the township in which they are located, both as to they may be separated from, and thus manage their affairs indecities and villages, so that when they attain a certain population made for handling the more complex educational interests of villages and cities-the school boards being made larger, and in many cases the scope of their authority is very much extended. In civil matters provision is made in all of the States for the organization of villages and cities as corporate bodies, separate and distinct from the townships, and providing for the necessary officers to carry on the affairs of the municipality. L Lap_~~r ~ ODt~aAtg~~ao - %opyrlgnt, 910, Dy Ueo. A. Ugle &t Co.

Page  VII GE GENERAL INFORMATI ON SUPPIEMENT Vn NERAL INFORMATION ON BANKING AND BUSINESS METHODS. = I I ION Banking and Business Methods. RELATIONS BETWEEN A BANK AND ITS CUSTOMERS. N business life there is no more complex or important relation than that which exists between the business men generally and the banks, and it should be guarded with jealous care, so that both may tth may retain the full confidence of the other. Business development in the United States has progressed with such gigantic strides that it has long since passed the stage where it is even possible to carry on business without the agency of banks. They are today a necessity in the transaction of business and making exchanges. It has been said, and with a great deal of truth that in the present day the entire and sole object and result of business is the transfer of credits on the books of the banking houses; and that about the only use to which money is put is in making small change or paying balances. Business, in the most general and comprehensive sense is almost wholly carried on by the aid of banks with checks, drafts and exchange. And it will be seen what a very important part the element of confidence plays in business life, when it is remembered that every check or draft that changes hands, implies the confidence on the part of the party receiving and accepting it, that it will be honored at the bank when presented. OPENING AN ACCOUNT tomer of a bank is the interview wi thte banker, either th Pre.ident, or Cashier, as tho e case may be. If unknown to the banker it is necessary for some one who is known to identfy and vouch for the applicant as being honorable and straightforward, for banks are compelled to be careful in this matter as they subsequently must handle all the checks, drafts and exchanges thatthe prospective customer employs in his business, so that while tile busines of an honest man is valuable to them and is appreciated, that of a dishonest man is shunned by them as an element of risk and danger-the same to them as to every one else with whom he deals. The identification and reference, however, being satisfactory the prospective customer is given pass book or account book, writes his signature in a book kept for that purpose, is made known to the receiving and paying tellers, makes his first deposit and is then a full fledged customer and depositor of the bank. DEPOSITS. D EPOSITS are made in the following manner: A "Deposit Ticket" or "Deposit Blank" is furnishett utme d thhe enters upon this a full description of all the items which he desires entered to his credit, stating whether it is gold, silver or currency and making a sepaate entry for each draft or check that he deposits. In entering such items as drafts and checks some banks require a separate entry for each item which will show upon what bank or at least what city or town each draft or check is drawn. After having endorsed his name on the back of all checks and drafts he hands the "Deposit Ticket," together with all the items named upon it, and his Pass Book, to the receiving teller, who examines itO, checks off the various items to see that they are all there, and enters the total amount to the customer's credit in the "Pass Book;" and it is also carried to his credit from the Deposit Ticket onto the books of the bank. The "Deposit Ticket" is an important feature of the transaction, and the customer is reuired to fill this out with ink. It bears his name and the date and is carefully preserved for future reference by the bank to settle any dispute or difference that may arise. As all men are liable to error the depositor, to prevent mistakes, should always see that the amount of the deposit is correctly entered in his book before leaving the bank. If a deposit is made when a customer has not his "Pass Book" a duplicate ticket should be taken, and the amount entered properly when next at the bank. It will be seen from the above that all checks and drafts are entered to the credit of the customer at the time he deposits them, the same as cash items. The depositor, however, is held responsible for the on-payent of all checks, drafts and other items de posited as cash until payment has been ascertained by the bank. The bank, however, must use due diligence in attending to them within a reasonable time. If a check or draft is held beyond a reasonable time and, meanwhile, the bank upon which it is drawn fails, the receiving bank would be copelled to lose it. What is a reasonable time, according to decisions of the courts, depends upon the circumstances and varies in different cases. In cities, where they have a Clearing House, checks on other city banks are expected to reach the Clearing House on the next day succeeding the tie of the deposit; but as to checks and drafts drawn upon other or distant cities, a reasonable time must be allowed tor htheo to be presented for payment. If the banker, however, is negligent concerning it, he must stand the loss. Such cases very Dtelyi if ever, occur, and it may safely be stated that in the absence of any special or unusual conditions for all items such as checks, drafts, etc., the banker only receives them for collection for fthe account of the depositor and therefore acts only as his agent and as such is charged with using only due diligence in attending to the business. DISCOUNTS, LOANS, ETC. T- HE word "Discount" is applied to interest when it is deducted from the amount at the time a loan is made-in other words, interest that is paid in advance. It is the general rule of banks in making "short time" loans to customes to give credit for the amount of the loan, less the interest. Many business men fail to obtain the full benefit that a bank can give them, through hesitancy or diffidence in asking for a loan; and in manyinstances will borrow of a neighboring business man and thus, frequently embarrass him, rather than go to the banker, whose business it is to help him through such times of need, when possible. This is what banks are established for, largely, and they are always glad to "get their money out and keep it out" provided they can be reasonably sure of its return. If an applicant is unable to furnish reasonable security, or is irresponsible or unworthy he must necessarily be refused, but in securing money which he cannot guarantee the return of, whether it be from a banker or another business man he does an injustice to the interests of business generally. However, every business man in need of financial help, whether his needs be great or little, should go to the banker first and submit the situation, securities, etc., to him, as of all men he is by training the best judge and advisor in such matters. He may be compelled to decline to give the required aid, but this refusal should never be taken as a personal matter, as it must be remembered that he has othat he has other interests to serve and depositors, stockholders and directors to protect before following his own personal desires. COLLECTIONS. T N leaving notes or other items for collection the customer writes on the back of eachthhe words: "For Collection for Account of," and places his signature below it. Upon receipt of this, the proper officer or clerk of the bank, will enter the items eitems either in the back of the customer's "pass book" or give a separate receipt as the case may be. When the bank receives payment on the items the customer is notified and the amount is entered to his credit both on his Pass Book and on the books of the bank the same as any other deposit. A bank in receiving paper for collection acts only as the agent of the customer and does not assume any responsibility beyond due diligence on. its part. All banks make collections either in or out of the city where they are located for their customers at very moderate rates. These items should always be left at the bank before they become due, so as to give the bank time to give an abundant notice to the -.. parties. If the customer desires to make a "sight" or "time draft' upon a debtor, upon application the bank will furnish him writh blank drafts. STATEMENTS AND BALANCES. A FEW words concerning statements and balances will not be inappropriate in this connection. Every customer of a bank should always and without fail, once in each month, have his "Pass Book" balanced by the banker. This rule should always be observed to correct any error that might occur and avoid loss and complications. The amount of deposits is added up and a balance is struck by deducting the total amount of the customer's checks which the bank has either paid or "accepted" (certified) during the month. The cancelled checks are returned to the customer. If any error is discovered it should be reported immediately to the bank so that it may be investigated and rectified. NEGOTIABLE PAPER: P- ROBABLY the greatest factor in the business world of today is "Negotiable Paper," without which it is not probable that business development could have assumed the vast proportions that it has reached in America; and without which the business of the civilized world could not be carried on. This term includes a variety of instruments, such as promissory notes, checks, drafts and bills of exchange. The bill of exchange is one of the oldest forms of negotiable paper, and has been in use for a number of centuries. The draft and check came into use at a much later day, and the promissory note is a comparatively recent invention, and has very largely taken the place of the bill of exchange as it was used in former times. The most important attribute of promissory notes, bills of exchange, and other instruments of the same class, which distinguish them from all other contracts, is their negotiability. This consists of two entirely distinct elements' or branches-first, the power of transferring the paper from one owner to another, so that the assignee shall assume a complete title, and be able to sue on it; second, the effeet upon the rights of the parties produced by such a transfer when made before maturity, in the regular course of business, for a consideration to a purchaser in good faith, and without notice of any defect or defense, whereby all defenses of the maker (with few exceptions) are cut off, and the holder becomes absolutely enti Lied to recover. A _ i-tten orde o or promise may be perfectly valid as a contract; but it will not be negotiable unless certain requisites are complied with. The following requisites are indispensable: It must be written; must be signed; it must be absolute, not depending upon any contingency; it must be to pay oy ey in a certain amount capable of being certain by computation; the time of payment must be certain or such as will become certain; but when no time is expressed the law implies that payment is due immediately; and lastly, the order or promise must be accompanied by words of negotiability-that is, payable to a certain payee's o.der or to bearer. PROMISSORY NOTES. A CCORDING to the general "law merchant," unaffected by statute, a promissory note is the written promise of a perL son, called the "maker," to pay a certain sum of money at a certain time to a designated person termed the "payee" or to his order or bearer. It must have all the requisites that have been mentioned for negotiable paper, otherwise, if it fails in any of these matters it becomes a contract, as it thus loses the element of negotiability. Contracts may be perfectly valid without all of these requisites, but they do not possess the peculiar qualities which belong to promissory notes. It is customary in all promissory notes to write the words "value received" but this is not absolutely essential, as a consideration and value is implied in every note, draft, check, bill of exchange or endorsement. It is the common law of both England and this country that no promise can be enforced unless made for a consideration or sealed, but negotiable instruments as a rule are an exception to this. Between the original parties a want of consideration can be pleaded a defense and would operate to defeat a recovery. It would have the same effect as between an endorser and his endorsee, but this only applies to immediate parties or to those who had notice of the defense or became holders of the paper. after maturity. It may be stated as an almost invariable rule that no defense will operate to defeat the recovery if the paper has been negotiated and passed into the hands of an innocent purchaser, in the regular course of business, before maturity and for value. The absence of any of these elements, however, will allow a defense to be set up and will defeat recovery even in the hands of third parties if it can be shown that there was either: a want of consideration, that it was obtained by duress, or fraud or circumvention, or larceny; or that the consideration was illegal. In order to cut off these defenses and give the holder the absolute right to recover, all of the conditions named must be fulfilled. If he purchases the note even one day after it becomes due it is then subject to any defense or set off which the maker may have against the original payee. Demand of payment for a note must be made at the place where it is payable at the time of maturity; if not paid notice must immediately be given to the endorsers, otherwise, in a majority of the States, all endorsements that are not aualified will be released. If a note is not dated it will not defeat it, but will be considered as dated when it was made; but a written date is prima facie evidence of the time of making. When a note falls due on Sunday, or a legal holiday, it becomes payable the day previous. If a sum is written at length in the body and also in figures at the corner the written words control it. It destroys the negotiability of a note to write in the body of it any conditions or contingencies. A valuable consideration is not always money. It may be either any gain or advantage to the promisor, or injury sustained by the promisee at the promisor's request. A previous debt, or a fluctuating balance, or a debt due from a third person, might be a valuable consideration. So is a moral consideration, if founded upon a previous legal consideration as, where one promises to pay a debt that is barred by limitation or by infancy. But a merely moral consideration as one founded upon natural love and affection is no legal consideration- No 'consideration is sufficient in law if it be illegal in its nature, or if distinctly opposed to public policy. If a note is payable at a bank it is only necessary to have the note at the bank at the stipulated time to constitute a sufficient demand; are no nd there to meet it, this is sufficient refusal. DAYS OF GRACE. -In a great many States three "Days of Grace," as they are termed, are allowed on negotiable instruments beyond the date set for payment. This is not the universal rule, however, as the tendency of late years has been toward doing away with this custom, and a number of States have already passed laws abolishing the "Days of Grace." Where the rule is In effect, however, and it is not specifically waived in the instrument the payer is entitled to three days as fully as though it were so stipulated, and the holder cannot enforce collection until the expiration of three days after the date set for payment. BILLS OF EXCHANGE. TrHE "bill of exchange" is an open letter or order whereby one person requests another to pay a third party (or order. or bearer) a certain fixed sum of money. They are of two kinds, the Inland and Foreign bills, the names of which imply the difference between them. The three parties to the bill are called the Drawer, Drawee and Payee. The bill must be presented to the Drawee and if he agrees to obey the order, he "accepts" the bill by writing-the word "accepted" across its face and signs his name below it-and thus becomes the "Acceptor." The instrument is usually made negotiable and the payee can transfer it to others by endorsement, which method of transfer may go on indefinitely. The following is a common form of an inland bill of exchange: BIEL- OF EXCHANGE. $600 CHICAG0, I0L., June 1, 1894. Sixty days after sight pay to John Sims, or order, Six Hundred Dollars, and charge same to my account. To HENRY HOLT & Co., JOHN DOE. Boston, Mass. I CHECKS. A CHECK on a bank is one form of "Inland Bill of Exchange," but there is some slight difference in the liability of the parties to it. A check requires no acceptance, as a bank is bound to pay the checks of its depositors while till in possession of their funds, and the drawer of a check having funds on deposit has an action for damage fo or refusal to honor his check, under such circumstances, on the ground of an implied obligation to pay checks according to the usual course of business. Checks are usually drawn payable immediately, but they may be made payable at a future day, and i this case their resemblance to a bill of exchange is very close. As stated, check reuires no acceptance, so far as payment or liability of the drawer is concerned, but it creates no obligation against a bank in favor of the holder until acceptance. When accepted by the bank the word "Accepted" is stamped on its fact with the signature of the banker. It is then said to be certified and thereafter the bank is liable to the holder. As soon as the check is "certified" the amount is charged against the account of the "d rawer" the...a a if paid, and it is considered paid so faras the "drawer" is concerned. The drawer of a check is not a surety in the same sense as is the drawer of a bill of exchange, but is the principal debtor like the maker of a note. He cannot complain of any delay in the presenttent, for it is an absolute appropriation to the holder of so much money, in the hands of the bank, and there it may lie at the holder's pleasure. The delay, however, is at the holder's risk, and if the bank should fail after he could have got his money the loss is his. If, before he presents the check, the bank pays out all the money of the drawer, then he may look to the drawer for payment. If the holder of a check transfers it to another he has the right to expect that it will be presented for payment within a reasonable time. He has the right to expect that it will either be presented the next day or started to the point on which it is drawn. If it is held beyond a reasonable time and a loss is occasioned thereby, the party responsible for the delay must bear the loss. If a bank pays a forged check it is so far its own loss that it cannot charge the money to the depositor whose name was forged. But it is entitled to recover the money from the party who presented it. If it pay a check of which the amount has been falsely and fraudulently increased, it can charge the drawer only with the original amount, provided the drawer himself has not caused or facilitated the forgery by carelessly writing it or leaving it in such hands as to make the forgery or alteration easy. In some of the States the Supreme Court has decided in cases where,,-checks were "raised" that the drawer must bear the loss as they had failed to take reasonable precaution to prevent it. Perforating and cutting machines are on the market which make it almost impossible to raise or alter the amounts so as to avoid detection, and the tendency of the decisions is to regard the use of these as only a reasonable precaution on the part of check drawers to save their bank from trouble and loss. Some, however, adopt the plan of writing the amount in red ink across their signature. If many persons, not partners, join in a deposit they must join in a check. If a payee's name is misspelled or wrong in a check, the usual plan is to endorse it first exactly as it appears and then sign the name correctly. There is no settled rule as to how checks should be drawn. In nearly all the cities it is an almost invariable rule to make them payable "to order" so as to require the endorsement of the payee; but in smaller towns many check drawers make them payable "to bearer," in which case they require no endorsement, and if lost or stolen may cause loss-as whoever presents such a check at the bank is entitled to payment. DRAFTS. forms of bills of exchange called "drafts" are the bank draft (or exchange) and the "sight or time draft." The bank draft is, to all intents and purposes, the same as a check, but the term is usually applied to "checks" drawn by one bank upon funds which it may have in some other bank, termed its "correspondent." A draft is but very seldom made payable to bearer, it being almost an invariable rule to make them payable to a certain payee or order. They are negotiable and can be transferred indefinitely by endorsement. If a draft is lost or stolen, by applying to the bank that issued it, the payment can be stopped, and after the expiration of thirty days a duplicate will be issued. The "Sight Draft"' or "Time Draft," in which case it reads to pay after a certain number of days, is a very common method of making collections to-day by creditors, and it serves the double purpose of being an order to pay to a bank or third party, and is also a receipt to the debtor. It is simple in its wording, the following being a general form: $1000 CHICAGO, June 1, 1894. At sight (or so many days after sight as the case may be) pay to the order of Bank One Thousand Dollars and charge to my account. JOHN SIMs. To GEO. SIMS, NEW YORoI, N. Y. ENDORSEMENTS. HE signature of any payee or holder on the back of any check, draft, note, bill of exchange or other negotiable instrument is termed his "endorsement." It simply means the placing of'the name of the holder, or payee, on the back of the instrument, thus indicating that, for a consideration, he has relinquished his title to it, and in the absence of any condition or qualification expressed in the endorsement, it implies that the endorser will see that the instrument is paid in case it is not taken up by the maker or payor. Where the instrument is made payable to "bearer," as to "John Sims or bearer," no endorsement is necessary to pass the title-it passes with delivery and any holder may collect or sue upon it the same as if he were the payee named therein. In a case of this kind if any holder endorses the instrument, the law is construed strictly against him, and, as it was not necessary for him to endorse to pass title, the law presumes in the absence of a positive qualification that his endorsement was made for the purpose of indicating that he would pay it if the payor failed to do so. Where several payees are named in the instrument it must bear the endorsement of all of them to pass the title and make one transfer of it. In this case, however, their liability as endorsers is Joint, not several. But where two or more holders endorse one after t0e other in making a transfer from one to the other their liability is several, not joint. Every check, draft, bill of exchange, note or other negotiable instrument which is made payable to a certain "payee or order" must bear the endorsement of the party named, to pass the title, and even in cases where they are made payable to "bearer" it is generally customary for the party to whom a transfer is made to require the person from whom he 'secures it to place his endorsement thereon, There are several kinds of endorsement which should be mentioned in o thet "blank endorsement," or "endorsement in blank," in making which the payee simply places his signature on the back of the instrument, without condition or qualification of any kind. This passes the title to the instrument, and, from that time on, it becomes payable to bearer, and the title passes with delivery, until some subsequent holder sees fit to limit by making it payable to some other payee, or places some other qualification or condition in the endorseoent. When a negotiable instrument bearing a "blank endorsement" has once been put into circulation, any subsequent holder of it has the right to limit or restrict it by writing the conditions over his own endorsement. or, by writing over the endorsement of the original payee, words taking it payable to himself or some other party, "or order." This point has been decided by the supreme courts of several of the States. The endorseoent may be restricted or qualified in a l-. —ber of ways. One, which is called a "full endorsement," is very common in the business world. It is simply the act of the payee named making it payable to so e other certain payee or order. To do this, the endorser writes on the back of the instrument, the directions, as: "Pay to John Sims. or order," and places his signature below it. This does not limit his liability as an endorser. but the title to the instrum ent m ust thereafter pass through John Sirs, and it must bear his endorsement before it will be paid or honored.. 1 i I I I COPYRo0iT 11910. BY GEO, A. OGLE & CO. LI I d I

Page  VIII a L SUPPLEEMNrT VIU. GENERAL INFORMATION ON BANKING AND BUSINESS METHODS. Another common form of limiting the endorsement is to enable the payee (when it is made payable to his order) to transfer his title to the instrument without becoming responsible for its,payment, and making the party to whom it is transferred assume all responsibility concerning payment. To do this the endorser writes.the words "Without Recourse" over his signature, which has the effect of relinquishing his title without making him liable to the holder in case the payer fails to take it up. Another mthhod of limiting the endorsement is to make it conditional, a good illustration of which is the following: "Pay to John Sims or order upon his delivering to the First National Bank a warranty deed to lot 5, block 4, etc.," below which the endorser places his signature. He can also make it payable to "A. B. only," or in equivalent words, in which case "A. B." cannot endorse it over. In fact, the endorser has the power-to limit his endorsement as he sees fit, and either to lessen or increase his liability, such as either "waiving notice of demanid" making hi endorse' ment a "general and special guaranty of payment" to all future holders, etc., but he cannot, by his endorseent, either increase or lessen the liability of any other endorser on the instrument. An endorser, as a rule, is entitled to immediate notice in case the payer fails to pay. This is the case in nearly all of the United States, as it has been a rule of the "law merchanft" for many years. A few modifications, however, of the general "law nierchant" have been made by statute in several of the States, relating to negotiable paper, in changing the endorser's liability by rendering his contract absolute instead of conditional, making notice unnecessary unless he suffers damage through want of it, or requiring a judgment to be first recovered before he can be held. In the absence, however, of statutory provisions of this kind, and they exist only in a few of the States, it may be said that to hold endorsers they must have prompt notice of o.-p.yn.t, and it may be said to be a general rule of the "law merchant" that di parties to negotiable paper as endorsers who are entitled to notice are discharged by want of otice. The demand, notice and protest may be made according to the l aws of the place where payable. The term Protest is applied to the official act by an authorized person (usually a Notary Public), whereby he affirms in a formal or prescribed manner in writing that a certain bill, draft, check or other negotiable papei has been presented for acce ptace or payment, as the case may be, and been refused. This, and the notice of the "Protest," which must be sent to all endorsers and parties to the paper is to notify them officially of its failure. GUARANTY. A "GUARANTOR" is one who is bound to another for the ifulfillment of a promise, or of an engagement, made by a a tihird party. This kind of contract is very common. According to the "statute of frauds" it must be in writing, and unless it is a sealed linstrument there must be a onsideration to support it. As a rule it is not negotiable, so as to be enforced by the transferee as if it had been given to him by the guarantor, but this depends upon the wording, as, if it contains all the characteristics of a note, payable to order or bearer, it will be held negotiable. A contract of guaranty is construed strictly, and if the liability of the principal be materially varied by the act of the party guaranteed, without the consent of the guarantor, the guaritor is discharged. The guarantor is also discharged if the liability or obligation is renewed, or extended y law or otherwise, unless he in writing renews the contract. In the case of a bank incorporated for twenty years, which was renewed for ten years more without change of officers, the courts held that the original sureties could not be held after the first term. The guaranty can be enforced even though the original debt cannot, as is the case in becoming surety for the debt of a minor. A guarantor who pays the debt of the principal is entitled to demand from the creditor all the securities he holds, or of the note or bond on which declares the debt; and, in some States, the creditor cannot fall back upon the guarantor until he has collected as much as possible from these securities and exhausted legal remedies against the principal. If the debt or obligation be first incurred and completed before the guaranty is given, there must be a new consideration or the guaranty is void. A guaranty is not binding unless the guarantor has notice of its acceptance, but the law presumes this acceptance when the offer of guaranty and acts of the party to whom it is given, such as delivery of goods or extending credit are simultaneous. But an offer to guarantee a future operation does not bind the offerer unless fh has such notice of the acceptance as will afford him reasonable opportunity to make himself safe. A creditor may give his debtor some indulgence or accommodation without discharging the guarantor, unless it should have the effect of prejudicing the interests of the guarantor, in which case he would be released. Generally a guarantor may, at any time, pay a debt and so, at once, have the right to proceed against the debtor. Where there has been failure on the part of the principal and the guarantor is looked t, he must have reasonable notice-and notice is deeumed reasonable if it prevents the guarantor from suffering from the delay. It is, in many cases, difficult to say-and upon it rests the question of legal liability-whether the promise of one to pay for goods delivered to another is an original promise, as to pay for one's own goods, in which case it need not be in writing; or a promise to pay the debt or guranty the promise of him to whom the goods are delivered, in which case it must be in writing. The question generally resolves itself into this: To whom did the seller give and was authorized to give credit? This is a question of fact and not of law. If the books of the seller show that he charged them to the party to whom he delivered them, it is almost impossible for him to hold the other party for it, but if on the other hand it is shown that he regarded the goods as being sold to the party whom it is desired to hold, but delivered them to another party and it is so shown on his books, it is not regarided as a guaranty, but an original or collateral promise, and would make the party liable. In general, a guarantor of a bill or note is not entitled to such strict and exact notice as an endorser is entitled to, but only such notice as shall save him from actual loss, as he can not make the want of notice his defense unless he can show tha t it was unreasonably withheld and that he suffered thereby. There is a marked differenice in the effect of a guaranty of the "payment," or of the "collection" of a debt. In the first case, the creditor can look to the guarantor at any time; in tihe latter, the creditor must exhaust his legal remedies for collecting it. ACCOMMODATION OF PAPER. A N accommodation bill or note is one for which the acceptor or maker has received no consideration, but has lent his fname and cre dit to accommodate the drawer, payee or holder. He is bound to all other parties just as completely as if there were a good consideration, for, if this was not the case, it would be of no value to the party accommodated. HIe is not allowed to set up want of consideration as a defense as against any holder for value. But he is not bound to the party whom he thus accommodates, no matter how the instrument may be drawn. IDENTIFICATION. HE mere act of identifying a party or making him known to a banker carries with it no liability on the part of the iparty who thus performs it, unless it can be shown there was fraud or collusion. Customers of banks are frequently asked to identify and make known to their own bankers, strangers who desire checks o ddrafts cashed or other accommodations. In some cases a mere introduction is all that is necessary, but only because the banker relies upon the honor and integrity of his qustomer, knowing that an improper person would not be introduced, for in a case of this kind the bank assumes all the risk. Generally speaking, however, it is an almost invariable rule with bankers, as it should be, to require their customer to endorse all drafts or checks which aret honored for the stranger. In this case the endorser becomes personally liable to the bank if any or all of the drafts or checks prove worthless. An endorsement which is frequently made by parties who are asked to identify others is to merely Indicate that they know the party to be the payee named in the check or that the signature of the payee or party is correct. This is done by writing the words "Signature 0. K." under the party's name and signing it. This has the effect of guaranteeing that the party's name is as written and that it is his proper signature. It does not guarantee that the check or draft is good or will be paid, but merely as expressed, that the signature is correct and the only liability assumed is that he will pay the amount in case the signature proves a forgery. Many banks, however, will not accept papers endorsed this way and justly so., for it throws upon them the burden of the risk. RECEIPTS AND RELEASES. ANY acknowledgment that a sum of money has been paid is a receipt. A receipt which reads "in full" though adA, mitted to be strong evidnce is by- no means legally conclu~ive. If the party sigfning it can show an error or mistake, it will be admitted in his favor. Receipts for money will be held open to examination, and the party holding it must bide the resuilts of such e-xamination- the great aim of the law being to administer strict justice. A receipt may be of different degrees of explicitness, as the word "Paid" or "Received Payment" written on a bill. A "release" is simply a form of receipt, but is more binding upon the parties, inasmuch as, if properly drawn, under seal, for a, onsideration, it is a complete defense to any action based on the debts or claims so released. Herein, releases differ from receipts. A release is i n the ature of a written contract and therefore cannot be controlled or contradicted by evidence, unless on the ground of fraud. But if its words are ambiguous, or may have either two or more meanings, evidence is receivable to determine the meaning. INFANTS AND MINORS. HE incapacity of a person to make a valid contract ma arise from several causes, and the fact of being an infant, or minor, is one of them. The general rule of law may be stated as being that the contract of an infant or minor is not always void, but is voidable, and in many cases special exception is made, giving validity to thei r contracts for necessaries. By being voidable but not void in themselves, means that the infant has the right to disavow and annul the contract, either before or within a reasonable tinie after he reaches his imajority. He may do this by word only, but a mere acknowledgment that the debt exists is not enough, and it must be substantially a new promise. AGENCY. HERE are a few well-settled and Important rules of law governing the matter of agents and agency, which every business man should understand thoroughly. The relation of principal and agent implies that the principal acts by and through the agent. A principal is responsible for the acts of the agent only when he has actually given full authority to the agent, or when he has by his words, or his acts,,or both, caused or permitted the person with whom the agent deals to believe him clothed with this authority. This is a point which is not always thoroughly understood, but it is a well-settled principle of law. There are two kinds af agents- general and special. A general agent is one authorized to represent his principa l n all his business, or in all his business of a particular kind, and his power is limited by the usual scope and character of the business he is empowered to transact. If he is given out as the general agent, the principal is bound, even if the agent transcends his actual authority, but does not go beyond the natural and usual scope of the business. On the other hand, a special agent is one authorized to do only a specific thing, or a few specified things, or a specified line of work. If this special agent exceeds his authority, it may be stated as an almost invariable rule that the principal is not bound, because the party dealing with the agent must inquire for himself and at his own peril, into the extent and limits of the authority given to the agent. Especially is this the case where the party knew that the agent had been or was engaged in attending to a particular and specified line of work connected with the business of the principal. The party, however, 'is not bound by any special reservations or limitations made secretly by the principal of which he had no reasonable or easy means of having notice. The authority of an agent may be given by the principal, by writing or oral, or may be implied from certain acts. Thus, if a person puts his goods into the custody of another whose business it is to sell such goods, he authorizes the whole world to believe that this person has them for sale; and any person buying them honestly, in this belief, would 4ld d them. If one, knowing that another had acted as his agent, does not disavow the authority as soon as he conveniently can, but lies by and permits a person to go and deal with the supposed agent, or lose an opportunity of indemnifying himself, this is an adoption and confirmation of the acts of the agent. A principal is bound by the acts of an agent even after the revocation of his agency, if such revocation has not been made public or is unknown to the party dealing with the agent. An agent can generally be held personally liable if he transcends his authority; but this is not the case if the party with whom he dealt knew that the authority was transcended. ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF BANKING. N general, banks may be said to be credit institutions or dealers in credit. John Jay Knox once said that "the exchanges of the modern world are barter, effected bythhe indirect agency of the credit system, and banks and bankers are the machinery by which this is done." Metallic money and its representative, the circulating note, are only the small change of "Trade" employed in the settlement of balances and small purchases and payments. This fact is illustrated by the operations of the New York clearing house. The exchanges have been about 800,000 millions of dollars during the past thirty years, while the balances paid in money have only been ibout 36,000 miiofns, or about 4 per cent. of the amount of the settlements. It has always been claimed' that the business of banking originated with the Venetian money changers who displayed their wares and moneys on the streets ffd thus fsuppied those in need of change. According to the most eminent authorities the earliest banking institution in Europe was the Bank of Venice, which was founded in 1172, and was based upon a forced loan of the government. Funds deposited in it could be transferred to others on the books of the bank at the pleasure of the owner, but they could not be oithdrawn. The perpetual anniuities of the British debt are handled in a very similar manner at the present day. The Bank of Venice was continued untl 1797. In 1401, the Bank of Barcelona was formed. At a period much earlier than this, the Jewish moneydealers had invented what was known as "foreign bills of eixchange," but it is said that t his bank was the first institution that made a business of negotiating and handling them. The Bank of Genoa commenced operation in 1407 and for centuries was one of the principal banks of Europe. It was the-first fto issue circulating notes-which were passed only by endorsement, not being payable to bearer. The Bank of Hamburg, established in 1619, was a bank of both deposit and circulation based on fine silver bars. This bank, like nearly all of that early time, had, as a principal object, the protection of the people from worn, sweated, clipped and plugged coins, or coins of certain empires that were reduced in standard value. The remedy generally adopted was to lock up the debase d and depreciated coins and' circulate the credit granted for them. Various other banks sprang into existence throughout Europe, many of them being powerful government agencies, and in many cases exerted a wide influence in shaping the destinies of empires. In 1694 the Bank of England was established, and there is no banking institution in the world equal to it in the management of nationalifinances. The Bank of France was authorized in 1800. It is not a fiscal agent of the government as is that of England. it does not collect or disburse the revenues of the exchequer, but it lends to it largely, while its credits, in the form of circulating notes and other acceptances, have borne the governm.ent Safely through extraordinary needs. It is claimed that the first organized bank in the United States had its origin in the formation of a banking company without charter June 18th, 1780, by the citizens of Philadelphia, and first action-b: Congress was taken June 22, of the same year, in reference to this prop6sed association. Two years afterward a "perpetual charter" was granted to the Bank of Nlorth America at Philadelphia. In 1784 the State of Massachusetts incorporated the Massachusetts Bank. The Bank of New York was chartered in March, 1791, although it had been doing business since 1784, under arfssitices of association drawn by Alexander Hamilton. Most of these institutions are still running and have been converted into national banks. The Bank of the United States was organized in 1791. The most of the stock was owned by the United States Government but later the Government interest was disposed of, and in 1843 the bank failed. State banks were organized rapidly, and private banking firms sprang into existence and the business of banking assumed immense proportions. In 1863, the NffATIONAi BANK SYSTEM was adopted an d in 1864 the National Bank Bureau of the Treasury Department was organized, the chief officer of which is the comptroller of the currency. In March, 1865, an act was passed providing for a ten per cent. tax on notes of any person or State bank issued for circulation, and making an exception of National banks. This had the effect of taxing the State bank circulation out of existence. As the National banking system has proven one of the most efficient and satisfactory methods the world has ever known, it will be of interest to review here some of its principal features Under this act National banks may be organized by any number of persons not less than five. Not less than one-third of the capital must be invested in United States bonds, upon which circulating notes may be issued equal to 90 per cent. of the par value of the bonds. These circulating notes are receivable at par in the United States in all payments except for duties on imports, interest on the public debt and in redemption of the national currency. The National banks are required to keep a certain reserve; they are authorized to loan money at the rate of interest allowed in the various states- when no rate is fixed by the laws of the State, the banks may charge 7 per cent. Shareholders are held individually liable, equably and ratably, for all debts of the association to the extent of the amount of their stock, in addition to the amount invested therein. The banks are required, before the declaration of a dividend, to carry one-tenth part of their net profits of the preceding half year to a surplus fund until the same shall amount to 20 per enft. of the capital; and losses and bad debts must be deducted from net profits before any dividend is declared. A receiver may be appoi ined by the comptroller to close up under While there have been national bank failures, there has never been any loss to the people whatever on the circulation. A suit may be brought for forfeiture of the charter of a bank if the directors shall knowingly violate the law; and in such cases they may be held liable in their individual capacity. There re other restrictions in the law-such as, for instance, the prohibition against loaning to any one borrower of more then ten per cent. of the capital; or the holding of any real estate except such as is required for banking purposes, or the granting of loans upon the security of the bank stock. The national bank circulation has been gradually growing less during the past ten years, as the United States bonds available are quoted so high above par and the rate of interest so low that there Is but l ittle profit to the banks in it. All of the State have law regulating State banks and providing certain restrictions, but as the laws of the various States are not alike it is impossible to give a general description of the matter that would apply to all the States. The laws, however, provide for and require State banks to hold a certain reserve, and at regular intervals they mlake full statements as to their condition and their affairs are examined into by certain State officials at frequent intervals. The laws of all the States have reached a high degree of perfection in the method of regulating and overseeing State banks, and the almost universal, soundness and reliability of these institutions reflect credit upon the laws under which they exist. CLEARING HOUSE. HE Clearing-House is the place where the exchanges of the the bank are made in ill the principal cities of the world. The clearing-house system was first established in London about the beginning of the present century. It was first introduced into this country by the banks of the city of New York organizing an association, under the name of the New York Clearing-House, which commeniced operations Oct. 11, 1853. At that time it consisted of fifty-two banks, but five of themi were soon closed because of inability to meet its requirements. Clearing Hiouses have since been established in nearly all of the principal cities of the continent. In all cities a bank receives large amounts of bills and checks on other banks, so that at the close of each day's business every bank has, in its drawers, various sums thus due it by other banks. It is, in like manner, itself -the-d-eftor of other banks, which uhave during the day received its bills and checks drawn upon it. Prior to the establishment of the clearing house it was necessary for each bank, every morning, to make up its account with every other bank. an d to send its porter or agent to present the bills and checks so reeived to the debtor banks for payment. The balances were adjusted fby payments in gold, which became so laborious, dangerous all_ complicated that the balances were settled only weekly instead of daily-a plan that resulted in great risk and evil. This was obviated by the clearing-house system, through which the settlements are so simultaneously and quickly effected that in New York the transactions in one single day have amounted to over $300,000,000, in adjusting which the exchanges were settled in the space of an hour. Besides saving a vast amount of work, bookkeeping and expense, it enabled the banks by united aid to strengthen each other in times of excitement and financial panic. The following is the manner in which the settlementf are made in about all the clearing-houses of this country: The clearing-room is provided with a continuous line of desks, one for g-ch bank that is a member of the association, each desk bearing the name and number of the bank. Each bank is represented every morning, at the hour fixed for settlement, by two clerks, one a messenger who brings with him the checks, drafts, etc., that his bank has received during the day previous upon the other banks-called the "exchanges," and these are assorted for each bank and placed in envelopes. On the outside of each envelope is a slip on which are listed the amiounts of the various items which it contains. The messengers take te lae i ifi their places in a line outside the row of desks, each opposite the desk assigned to his bank, whiTe at each desk is a clerk with a sheet containing the names of all the banks in the same order as the desks, with the aggregate amounts which his bank's messenger has against each bank. Just previous to the hour fixed for making the exchanges the manager takes his position and calls the house to order. At a signal the bell rings and each messenger moves forward to the desk next to his own and delivers the envelope containing the checks, etc., for the bank represented at that desk to the clerk at that desk, together with a printed list of the banks in the same order, with the amount opposite each bank. The clerk receiving it signs and returns it to the messenger, who immediately passes on to the next desk; then to the next, and so on until he has made a complete circuit and has again reached the desk of his own bank-the starting point. All f the other messengers moving in the same manner, each messenger has, by this means, visited every bank and delivered to each everything his bank held for it, taking a receipt for the same; and at the same time each bank has received all the exchanges that every other bank had against it. This operation, even in the greatest clearing-houses, only consumes from ten to fifteen minutes. This enables the banks to know at once the exact balance for or against it, as the clerks immediately enter from the slips on their own sheets the aggregate amount from each bank, and the difference between the total amount brought %by' them, which at once shows the balance due to or from the clearing house to each bank. This is reported to their banks, and the balance is paid to or drawn from the clearing house, thfus a t once settling the accounts between all the banks. The lists are "proved" carefully and certain fines are laid for all errors, tardiness, etc.; COePYRmGT 1910 Br GEO. A. OGLE & CO

Page  IX I I i ANCEN; EDIEVA2L AkND MOCDERNq HISTORZY Copyright, 1912, by Gee. A. Ogle.& Co. The chief aim of this Chronological History is to give in a comprehensive and attractive form, the principal events of the history of the world free from unnecessary details. For convenience this history is arranged under-I. Ancient History. II. Medieval History IL Modern History. The latter is gie-rs.Fo thhgnigofheSx teenth Century to American Revolution. Second. From the hirth of the United States to the present time hy countries. Ancient History 40 04 Bibliool -o-ott of the oooottoo OttO to1oo L Kiefg of Bh.byoo.. 000 Tho! rtoot hyptioo dyoooty -eoto M-ooo 80000Ooooo,00 000 0 otyoooty. hgypttootooooopote hott.. oI Phootojo 0.0d to hope hooo pootlod by 2000 Tyoo ood tido. fooo doof. toot Tho 0 h bgypttoo dyoooty hogio.. Th.oPyrooid T.-b. er0ot0d. 2000 Moot Pot i..bth Egypotot dyoooty. Motoo 00 A,_.....oo fO4t Tho tototo. tO30t Tho Otooottto Coooooob. Tho HOittitoo to potdootoot. foot T~hoboo, Egypt, Otooto.. Otti Alogod boooootoo of tholtoo otooo tootl obooootooo ooot by Oo11o~hooo to Aoiotottoo tbo ooottoot ootoot to of 22000 Th. Otto dypooty to Chioo foootot. Coooifoooo foitiog poohohly to.c 20030 Pigot Poooioo tyototy foootot. 0000 Aopo-ooobot 1. ftooto 0000, Egypttot toot Pyooofto hoi~t ototh of ftoophto. 0000 Tho Obo.tot of Qo ooo-te. 0000 Rotgo of Utotob of Cbotto.. 0000 Utooo oootoo to Hooooo. toot Stoyto, Hooooo fototot. 0000 ABoobtho oootoo ooh Cotf toot Cotoo of Abtoht-toto. oooiA 1882 toooph oti ]bh-tMyt to22 OMootoo-t. to.h. OtytO.. hbt Mo0 Hko ooopt toot hosphtt ofd it.ofyo oo Egypt. 170Aohoooodi-.-ifotot 0th tl hoottt yofty. 61oo-toooo 0.- Aoocto 00t Ehg.pito o. f582 Bltotooi~ of Agooto, tot Oto of thootot.Dtooooooyofhooo. A.367 fotoototfig og of S.tho oloohttood tooo lL530 ootoo- of tho Ooootoo frotom Egypt. 10500 bTog of Bbytt ooooet of 002yloogto ofOhf Afoyotoo t 9thoe. ti. 1000 Ehot, oooo totf, oft Mugoof P-c. 0000 -dgto, h.o of Mth. lhbti~.G — ff00 Too 000 oeo -othhototghod 0000 etootOhofhototo ohoogoot fho Egyptto 0020 Egyptgtoo Hhtfrom otootof. 145t Dhtogoo of My. oooo ooooo.. tot ofoto tottod thoto I~ i,oooiooC. ~. 00001Mto of3 tHo Aooyoioouje toopsixoo. do 1000 HOtotoe, f tho 00d0ge of tho otgo o 04000 Ahoooo to o f ~y. -tootoel augt toot Too CHtoouitoto.yCo~t 0000 200., HighgOtoft Mofaboo 000 oth oh tg 0000er Ifotoe.B.. 0000 toototo tofoo tho. Pheottoo. 30000 TLctho tbtiooo templeoooo Vohyfoo 0. I tot pohis' g o ho oohtl toot Ttgfot Ptoo Deottoo Bobft hot f 000 0000 Pelopoo ottlfo fo AothtMof 0000 iSoo tooofoh thf,. Ehoptttoo. 00009 Tydoo hotoho getho tootfo tthy.dg. 12 tohop ootooo ig tho Egypto thopo 0000 Etog ttooo of Tygoo, oI o hofoooto 01000 too.oototO gYto ooMo 0000 Hfoo- tofooto hoffb Ph-totot o 00084 Thoyoooof tot~! boyho Ahooloto 10001 Booth ofghDooetO. Iral OofocoAlb hoonogo fEog-. 200 NOofootooo Toopt hooto yl. ih~ 1143 oJpthh.jd oeIsa. 000o Thegooptt o Pi hoho of. l i.-d g B Oolooooos htp2o3 ohotIt, thoean ofooot pof hot goot by1 Dhoojytopoh of Pootgoo 000 Booth of OSooto-. Revoltt of tho Too Totbhoo Diiiuitoo htogtt-t of IoIooI tot Tho ktoototo of fotoof, eftohliohot ooto 000 Ohoho.k, biog of Egypt, ooptoooo oot 000 Ahitob, hiog of Jotob, tofootstOho Kog 00Tb, toottoo of Thohoo, Egypt. doyto 0., 2000i of At poto. OtRhottoog toooot oootgotto toot. Ott06 oo Ot tflctot oith tootto poottotot by tb(o toophot Elijbh 000 2000000 of tho otothcopog ofH-t 000 hOlt h toooofotot to hooooo. Ott1 tohooho phot totooto tho Aco-tto-, Potoh tO Ahoh, K2000 srel 000 Miotolo of Eliobo tho Propbot. Ott Stooooo 0000000 by tho tyttoth Atolto ot O pot Ly,~ogus op pt. 000 Tho A. yo!ooo ogon Oopodo Bohytto~t.. 00 lotooOtco by Dido tho Tyoro.. 000 Tho Aoyo-ioo 0000000 Phootoi.. Ott Aoo;yooo otoqoott octop thototooog.e, Ott.. tytoooo ko ho.-I Otycpoo gooto toeot bon Elitt, oGoogc. Ott AooyitooootooT-. Ott Bohylto bootto tohoot to Acyii hot Tb,- Egyptiooo tho coot pocoofot 0.0020 E79 oo o-ooi o cO.bfl hot. 000 Coottocottot of tho Olyotptoto, Fiost oothootie dtoe to Gtoo hiotooy. Ott Tho htooooooo Ot Cotopot.. 000R.- Hcfooototbyflcto 0002 Athoco potoblohoo tooootof ioofoot of pcrpotoot A-oh.o.. 000 Oobtoo coo folow tho ohdutionto of tho Othiopio Ootop-dtot. 000 Bthylto totooootoot of Htooooh. hotgoo botoooo Hocoo oot Sohiooo 000 P.0 ot.o.ot tho cooo of Titltth Pt1og,x oot fooot the tot Aotyotoo 20pfth Aooyoio topotto PoIootio.. Ott Pohoh, totog of fooooO, hooiogot tooOtt Tittoth Pifotop tottgoyt Syroo. Oooool fooco 00 oftt...o cith Syoto oooioot totoh. Oyo-o booooto oohitoo to Aoporo.. Ott Htogoloto aolishho Otototoy to totoh. Oft Aotyrooofoooot Socoooootooooy tho Tho Khfogdoo of OToot tootoopot. 0007 Atopoiooo totoffy tofoot tho Hittitoo. 000 Ho-t Pootptio, Ottog of Etch. Ott S-oohoobof, tho Aotyotoo, Ocooto Egypt. 000,000 Attyotoot tootooyot to 000 ctght 7tt foogoo of Aooyofo otoqooo Bohpfoo.. 000 Moooooh, htog of todth. Of 000 itolotoy 00 toto.h 000 Gygot fHood.toho tot Lydiaf dy-oty, Ott Egypt dtoitot ho-tcoo 00~ Ktogo. 000-000 Sootot Mocootoo Woo, ootoo Ari. 000 Arohooohip of Athoo cotoe aoooo.1 000 Foot hotddto Koog of Aooyoto. Bohytton bocoroe firo roht ofo. o 000 tobooot by Assyrians. 67f Aoopotooooqoooo Egypt. 00071 coot rtoogyo to Egypt oot ooo 000 Albho 0000200 tot bottls of tho Hooatt BRoo of Mogoobo, 00000. 667-625 Roigy of Aootobhoot-po.I btog of Aooyoo.. 000 Soo 00ght hotoooo Cootof ant Coreyob. Tofftoo Ho'Otbfltoo tofoot.tOho Abboot oot tottooyo Alho boogo. 000 Thohoo. dtroytopo by Aooyrtoaoi. 000 Mototoy, Iotal foootot. 000 Bytoottoo foootot by Mogooiooo 0000 Byso Of 000 Bopohtotto oopofot fotot Gre00th 000 Mottoo Mooo.ooboy foootoA 000 Egypt otopootoot of Aosyto.. 0004 o oc0 dyoooty, Motto, toototd by 000 Cpooto foootot. 000 Acoo Mott- oyb oBc f~t o of Ooyithtoob. who.objogof 0 Botto, Otoly, Otooto.. coog of toith. 000 boooo to of Atoy,1o by the SOoy0Othi-. 020 Bobyfoo totopootoot _do Hohopooc Htooo.oh tohoo by thf Motob At;yotto Ecpire ooto. HIilkth ditOc —~ tho Booh of Otto foc, totoctb. poo.phot. Topttook 00000 Afotto. 010 E~t~to of Mogttto. Hooho 00. Egypt, ottc-pto ft oo otool.00.00 Otto Ootbooto of Otto Poioog afteo o boos of 1000,000 cob. 0015 The PCtof Mofoto Boc, fo Of optod. fboho II. of Egypt dofootot by Hobo. Joooctoho proopbeoy of tbo ooevebfy potot top~totty. toho~tboot, bhiotob l0f Bootof p.ophootoo ot Bohylo.. 000 tohotobot -o.Ito foto B~hyloo. Ott Tho Pboooo Mootto 10re00 oooooo) of 000 Coptooo of tooobtbo- by Ho~hoobtoo Sotoot o.tottoty. 000 Botootoh -.odo Kitg 000 tho oocoot ttoooo o ohtot of Pootto for throo 004 Pot, of toloo ot Athooo poblibhet. Ott Tho 0000 ctoo coo of GOtotooto-Ooobo, Ootoo, Poototoor Oittooto, Chiloo, Thboto, CUoohotto oot Ott.. Woo hotooo Motto? tot Lytio. 000 Tho Ppthtoo 00cc bogiot to ho oobcbootot oooory tooyr. tootoeobo, hooog ohoelotd ogtost Bobybooi Obehootgot by Nf~ohoohdooto. 000 Ho~hoohotooooo tooto Phoototo.. Shottoob, Mothoob oct Abotoogo Poophootot of O~ih 000 Joooooboo tthoo oot dootooyot by N.Eot of tho bKtogtoo of totob. 000 Booth of Pooto.tog, tpOOB of Athoob footy ya. Toetoo botco Motfo tot Lytto. 000 Coppoo -cy totoot atO Rotoc. 000 NHo~hoobtoooo toket Tyoe. Ott A-ooooto ot toyiot Tullios, Roco. tOO Citoil cop to Egypt. 000 Actotti r000i0 to Egypt. 000 Egypt oooooooot by Hob~htohtoo.o... 000 Tho OooOt toofo of Hoco to~o-84,7000 Hobooitot btog of Oohylo.. Ott Pittrotooto hootoo Opooth of Atheuo. boot. fbobb.. t5t Aooooooo hogtoo to behooc.Porsioo Ecoito fototot by Coy-o.. 000 Booth of S~oitood ttiot B. C. 0000. 000 CooqoootO of Lptto oot otptooo of Coo.o. by Pyoto. 000 Booth ob Phoftoi., tOpotot of Agyigootooc Ott Poll of bytiao Ocptoo. 000 Cyroo 000000 Aoio Mtnort to Pogoto. 000-000 hot of Pyothogorof. Ott (ofootot Moooofllot fototot by Phoob5tt Bootot itotopoet. bootooitiog 00 tho Cpooo 0000000 Bobybo.. Otlhbo.oo. btotig of Bobylto, Oo 1. 500 Cyr.oo ot.toh, toptiotity of tho toco Cyoto to toh frtoC --- thoo.-.o - 000 Otoboilttog of tho Tocpfo occoooo. Thoopit fOrot oohttttt tooootp. 000 Ooootoo boooooo y Totto, bio toghBoo hoohot0 Oooootoioo Soperbto ho bC iog of Rtoco. 000 Poippootto,, 000000 of So-.o (pot to tooth B. C. 0220. 000 Roigon of BooHoo 0 bogiot fteot ootooof totoott, tho Mogto.. 000 Booath of Cyoot. Aoooototooof Ctobych. 000 Cooq.t ooof hgypt Birth of Etohylot tttot B. C. 4200. Th.o tocole of Ioio, Egypt, oc.pbotot. Scoodi, ototot tho Pcttoo thooob tofootot by Boott, 5tt. 022 Booth of Cocbyoo.. 521-485 11,gy of Dooti. L. (HyotoopioO bKiog Oft Sihbyltoo booko bhooght Hoc- CPoc. Bocot of BooHoo fop ochotiltoog tho 00 Borb of Pictop (diot B. 0. 0000. 000 Tbo Tocplo oboioto oott deotottt. Htppooohoo ofW.. Hippi.oorobotio Athoo.. 000 Crootoo toottoy. Ohoot.. OEopob1oo of tho Tooqoot Hroot Eoc. Fooodtottooof tho Ropohtlio. oioBoohts oot Tooqotoioo CoO1ottooo Tho Pisottpdt oypoiiot froom Athoof. Athoot 0 i7oEpbict. 000 Coccooo.1btrooty bofooooCoorthogooot 000 Firot trotty hofoooo Otoo. tot 0h thogo. Tho Soythioo Popodttito of Bot-t.s 5oot Copttol ot Moot Coopltotd otot totO 000 Boo.. og of Sootto by tho fotot do 000 Tho eooott of tho fojot ttoooO 000 Pooosiooooooo CPypot. 007 Hoto 0Lttleo oLk RtocOlo. Toottio tot bio botio obtot tofootot by PFtot oothoolo dto. Oo O-o bitotoy. 000 Hliottoo, tho Potooto, soot to Oh, oatoo Iby Doofo.. 000 Etoth of Sophoteof tttot B. P. 40000. Heooot of tho bototooo titot by Atbooo, soppoottot. Ott. Tortto atO Hoc aoppoitteo. tOO fotopootoo of tho Lottot otogyood. Coojob t Oobo by Potoo Mooti-t 00000. olooto). Tho Lotto Loct.g 000 Fitot Popott top itito, ooto- Moo Mottdtoo~tyotoot.rot.Athos. 49tt Cotfo.oot ttooiott foo Otoot. Ho, Ot Tby Oth, Totofoot. 000 Sotoot Pototto oopoAtit.o, oct00 Botto oct Aotopbtooott. Thoio tofoot, oct ototoyp of Mlttotor atO 000Ctooh oo b tot tof To-thto oooo to 4t8 Coofitoot. ofitttooc Otot siege of oto. by tho Volosoi... 400 Egyp~too rooott. tirot Agoottto too of Pootoo poopotot. Ott AopotH.o of Xeoooto I., OKtog of Poot.t. Ototoo tyotot of Optotoot Ott Rooooooy of Egypt by Otto Pootfoot Booth of too~too ditto tftto B. C. 4000). 000 Booitboooo of AittodtotOho toot by tho Ohiol oot gpeteot~O ooio of Otto of by Oh Pootooo, tot Ot ftooooo Ott Boftlo of Thoocopyfo-fo1 of Lotootto. 000 Bottfo of Botfoob-ototo of, ThociooXoooo deootoopo Atfootti. Otoot ootoof 0000Wy by 0othotoo.~ DeofatO of tho Coothootoitoto by toboo:,t o Ohobh of Etotpito, (tiot B. 0. 0000). 000-000 Aoooogoooo Oh. Ott, t. Of8) Boooho phitosophy ott Athoot 000 Bottp~tioo of Athooo by M-dtoott, Poocoo. dofootfod 20 Pltoto otot Myotbo 00?Ogfoto M of thf ooprcooco of Athooo Tho PobtO potiob to bottlo oith tho 000-000 Hoito b-ot tyotooto. 000. 13oiho-oot of Throittopfoo. 000 Bith~ of Thooydftoo (tiot BftOO B. C. 4000). PiotO PohOltfoB Loot. Elootfoo of piobofoo cogittootot gto-o to 000 lVbotooy of Ci-to opop tho Poootooo of Ao~oti, ORocot tohoo. Sototto~of Appito Ctootfot. 000 Pootofot bootot to toko p000 io thb of Mppooo by tho Atgtoo.. BDftgooo of Appofooto Oootottoo. 000 Flight of OTtoooftootoo to Potot.. Siooo of N.oo.. Bottloo 00 tho Eoopoooto. Phboofoooo oittog Poo Ot -,to dofootot by tho OGttoko oodto Ctct.. Bofoo of Aot.ooco'Stt.i.oPoi.. 004 Booot of tho HOttit of Opooto. 4tt Bgypt otoolto ogotoof Pootf. (thtt otoott it.oppoototd to tOO.) Pirth of Boco too oot Htppo-toto Obooth tiot it B. C. 357). OTto Atbootto oo Egypt. of L-y..oto Otto ootoo (buiot 0000.1 Bofot Otto W.-.tdootb t - 007 Po~tto of Toooo2.. 000 Tho Loog Wo11t of Afthoo oooopltotot. 000 Tho Ottooko dofoot tho Pootsoao tO Salaot Oitgtoooto killt bio dooghtoo to tBOO boo fr-Apptot Ctootto.. Apptoo PltotogEtc 000,Bo~t y of Pt~hot tofoot ofAithoo. 00 yooo tobtoh, Agob.tgoooo tot to Abootoouo tof Athoototohoopft 44 oeo~tt of CotootBO Mogot o. t 000 A thoio Ptoo t Toot P4 Thotto botocto topoocot tO Athtooo... B-Itheof AooobooAthoot. ibt Otorte o 000 ihocoo veo.-poooottiofc.o 44 OBOh oot Cootootfo ofToobyioi oo Booth of tpoofhon ooottthis.icoo (die Bouuoot Op.ofo Optotoh 000 B.oth of booooto to 0000il. 0003To8t8 ThotcooohAtoot Atot Cootilto. of itho tboot booti~ogdOcootytdoot Siegttot botiogiot f - byOoAhott Pe0he. Booth of Spcioo.. 6i.R. 000 O Sb ol'opitgoftoo.,., Ott Biotootoof Myetti 0d0. 83) P24 oo- ldeoofto -ootto Othetfy Coot oo ofd Ototioo o Otbod.ea Ptt Alttttototooototoottf 00 Ottt. of i Egoctoy the Cyto,(totau 000) 000 Ofto of tyttoobs 00 'ofoI ot. otoo of Hfto-t C.p Cootttooooof Ottolgi Poopth Hoooo BO otieget of pAtottoooo. hoPoi 000 Booootoo of Oyttoco o yt, oO Frtoo thog.i Oho oooot..too Scototy 000Thto pioboto toottoito ofRoc obtootot 4000 totoot footooo of Sifily by tho Cotoib Ott Bot~tl, of Aogtoooo. CPooocootboot of tho too gootooto Bioyoio tyotot of Sypototo; t oogy thioty-(ogtoyho. 000 Athooo totboo by Lyototop. hot of tbo Pobopooooioo Woo. itooootof tho OToity Oprtoot of fpooooot oopoocooy.d 000 Thotoybotot -tottto dtootottfo gooco000B -tho Phtooot(h ot 000 4t tptioo yt h ooo h too88 Cthottoo f ltooo- oto tooobo 000000 POIfCtO fo- foo 000 Booth of toooofoo. 0008 Crooootgo totd pooooe of Bootopytfto,. 000, Pitot Cootoigo of Ag oof1oo toAsa Tho toooo tittototo C.-oillo. o.toptot 000 G-ooo.o oo-tifooo ogofoff Spooto;Ly 000 Pootitootooftt tbO 'Athooftos oot dofoot tho Spartooo tO tho oo bottlo of tho Tho CPootohfoo Wo, bo~gto Tho oooootttottloofoooo 000 Tho Loo.g Wollo of Athoots Oosteoo by 0002 el Tootooototbyoco. 000 C.-oll..oiooottoobottootoilidt Tho Ro-t.' dofootod by otooo.o toot Oftoto of tho CPoptfof 000 Viotooy of Biooyottoo of Hobofob Tho Gaoobo opo~ltot fooc Roco oot oity t8ot Pooco of Aotofottob, Pooodo Coook itioo tot loft stbfocttotbo Poooot. Copd tog gooh o CHthottfot to.,,o- o 000 DBfotO of tho Pototoot ootop Eooooooo. 34 boo tooh t of ooo ooigfy Oho Oyo~to oedt htg-ooigtototo00 000 Bototlo of L-hPtoot-t-b.oib Birth of Boooootbtoo (tieot BOO). Ott BooDfthoflto~toph-to. Hoight of Sportaoo pOOH. 000 Otootooy of tho Potcoo by Polopid~.. boo pooto thot BOOe 00001 tbhall hi Ipthofo.. 000 Bottlo of Looct-oo toooo. 000 PoooohotcooolthboooootSpartoa 000 Vttcto.y of Booctot..otto oveo tbo SgpiPooodtoofo of Megopobft. Aioototo of Photo io Thootoby. 3050 Echooty of Poitpidoo, the G-oot to Alritotolo goof to Athtto0 tot oocobo owit Ploto tcooty yoot.. 000 tooboo Pofo by Otto High Pofgo~t. EBort of OZoto, Oh, Stoic (tiot 000). h.itoti-o of pooAoohiot BOO 0000ff 000 otO Pioooo. tOzleloted Logcootof M.PCtot-o BOO-tOO Hoco coot cith the Gools, EOotBotfio of (obooo.). Viotoop oot tooth of Bpooofoooto, 000 Tho S.oottoto hootd tho Tooplo of Ritbooto of Poooooo fototot. 000 Boofoooiog offtho SooitfWar iotttroef iogo of toboo by Philfp bO. Phootto (tor Sotoot) W., h~gtgio. hopodtitfo of DO. oo o Sicily. BOO SooooSacreotWorfthePh-o! — ototOho Tocpbo of Dtlphit TooootO of 20..., of Ephotos, boooot. BDto ooyoI Dftopofto fooc Syooacus. Pofto Moooio, Botfiot Boost Pio~boboo BDo. Ott Ectd of tho Soofot Woo io Gooooto Ootooootooooe of chodto, Pot, Phiot oot Byooootioc ackoocbotgo hot Atboot, 0005 BeootH of Ao~obooo, tho Poosioo, 0005 Biogo ob Mo~booo, Gotoeoo. 000 Booothtco toiioooo bio 000s Pbilippi.. Phootof r ooooto 0 oo Oho Pootito n toohy. 001 C. Moooioo OtotOoo Boost Plbohiooocoto, Sftociooo oooit tot dtoooy Sido... 000 Tho Ho-t Popilto tofooti tho Goofo, BOO 0yp,-hot; to~to by Pttlp~o of Moootoo.. Totooty boctweo Poorthgo oot Hoco. 000 Sootootop of Phooto to Philop. Philip dototefo to ithe Acphyotloofo Biooyotoos oooooo thttytoooy. 000 Pirott-ocoto coo ttgooi.s B 0tt 0 0 Mt 0 b"' otf " Echoty- of Dooohooo Bot bbot l Phifip. MotioY ot boo ot,,,.e 000-000 Pttilot oO Moo toof' oopodti~oonoo Bioth of EPtotot (tiot 000). 000 Popiothot toot Byotoito botiogo by PhitOip. Vitotoy of Tf-.Ifooo 000 hOb Coottb. goo too ot OtthP.00 Botitl of Mt. Tooooioo,, Hoooo. 000 toooo HRott Potibifo Itot. bTotr Sacoot Woo boogioo ttocoo Phi Op 000 Philtp 000,00 of tho Acphyoffoofoi Philip oott~gtooo Otooto., I i i II i Z__ Ii

Page  X ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL, AND MODERN HISTORY. lIP Fisst Rlisss Plshliss prsl82t 337-885 Tbs Lat1n Wsp bsgirs; After t35 336 bMsds if Philip. 185 Alssssd p d-stsy. Thbsbp; is cho5e5 gss-silissss 5f lbs Gssekip Athess hssisg ssbssittd. Mispoissi Esspiss fssssed. tsbss Asd Tyrs bsslsgsd by 352 Cspts-ssflTyse asd pssqsst oflEgypt Alpsssdsii, Egypt, fsspdsl ss tbs Egyptiss siiiisps Isbssiil. Tsssly bsltss Aissssdfs ssd Rolseb Alssssls sisils Jssslsss ssd wlshssip. it tbs Tssspls. 311 Pbssicis siblisi by Alssxsndsr. Vsysph-I lisisobi fsss lbs Isdss I Alsissds s.pisssds by Al ssader iss 55ia 2 slsssss it APsbylss. abyon Astiplss, sn Mspsslisk sssl. ss~ 512 isl-lsy I. i5iT5h 8113p- sle.b Aligypt.iss Syisgs. 118 Pisisesy hIss, i.- se S5tp, i225 ve5th 888 Tbsbpsssbsilltb Egssdyptb. tlm O2 isssswsl i Aslipisi 511 Pbygbs. o Il Ssil tsrisbly d51 bssylsitius.n Vislss.1y SotFlslssss sJd-5.s1s. Appiis ettly sit sqssdssb dQ.,e35Tbs gssii,bssiss bysCl.i. y 1151.91381 S. ibs Piosssssa Ws..We 885 ibistspsss Plisssist ils Ilst lb,,s Kisnis ii sdissss. All pisps 81Wbys byd Pssslsii. sl BoThs if Ipsi b-srilssssyFllsss Ciss 30 bisb bss pp- Cisissds Hbil. syslst. 8917Albss blliss ssl 1t2bp-s byd Rhssdii. 281 Shipg Is RssieI byss lDs-ssiiss P 211 Btlbs Plpiisiiss bsssil..12Y ~t FinTbaTis diissi..o lsaWIP ss dsiisos-. jigitheias 18r — 881 PisigsIpAssbSsss1ud,-222.) ri..I 281 Tbs thss.stl bsss., by55 21 Eosss 299At-pbisil Isl ssd biskis by 21etlbs. Pbuiisdsipbsis, spl bdssossts Psarnissy 184 Tbs pbiiisslisii e sol Essss lsii Gis atssl Mnill-. Sssssd-billi if C sbsP Vsti bils 281 Tess Thi1d Ss~itbeysbs W isr ifd Epliil. stisg I iss toil Vsp-. s 287 iBist o Aii-Psspsdiids 12 Esiissdsfpilsd, why bPy-ssb tlems. -k Ispli s5o lbs.ulti.slI. posersAn 28 l-sis si. is Isy ssisde by Pyssbesms ISot s Osbgs1ud 1821 Th.pi bstsoss A-ibsssme. Ssl 1,28 hs gOpu 158t ieas f-dsl~dl 211 Blb s Gsiiisibss lipd W81. hS pissatleoiii ofLabsike V 11)-.. 108 Ppypiiss Rssis. 282 Asiipisi Lssslss pissisi tfsslv it. 21 R-is sissyeisited s ' ipy, issli BsissII of Chy~sippisil. 27) Asigsi ai. deisatsd sbss Ayhs at AsI.-ips.sosIlIiy CbeSslpty sf- Aslsiiil(Pisls 21.d3, Pysssrhss lesesibsly. V7lsgypisy -b.Piiis 81 Myls. Hi-18 IsIps if Asibs s 2881 2181 f —i-s 1isli~syh5Igue s811ls. Csiibs pisiiss.,~g. sssispsts5R Als mss.e Cl hs bisliss 81 ArP81812. i.)-a, Dyslst.y 81 D7215Iis ChisMl 15554 256 Plslsss v355.r Rlh Rg720 Ove thesCl 25 D55e51 ifd 02pt1beg11Is s by C thes s A50ps.tis. bisp il Pns ndeendntlis ApiastyIV bils 21 17hi1..f.dd 248 Ths plsys sI Luisiss Assssiss sibib281 Ossisisl 81 Spaiin sllssptsl by lbs Cs — Isisiss ii S-d185k Asl Cisssil by lbs 288 Ths pitss if lbs Tsspls If J...1 18 isss.. N. s-op ssistisg 1t lbs lisp. 281 Asliutison DOisisiskssli.. 211 Atbiss jhiss lbs Aibsos Lsigls. 881 Glsissssii Wis spith Aibsi Ls~gss bsgis.. 821 Issisisu if Clllss ssl It Sp151a. 221 Isisssi Ci-Iipiss G.Ii aSd bstles If 251 Ptslsisy IV. spipss is Egypt. Psfsits Asliisbss III. 52 Syrik sI R.pbi.. Ps1ii Ciallipkl bssisss. R-ss. Psis 221 111811 sf Ssliisi2. Assil liPd Asligos.s Ills Spsrta. Philip V. sI Missed.. Allsians bslssss Philip a51 Ashsiss Iglis- Ptliiss 818 IH-lsbil. 11i iisli Spais. 2ll Asliissssssss Plstissis. Sissl Sf ISpisliss by Hissibil. Issisl. Ilysiss wip. 2218 ISsis Posh Miii bpisl.. Pyssssss ssl lbs Aips 'isli Itliy. Basles if lbs Tississ snd lbs Tribil, ssl dsfssI if Sipio. 2ll Hissibsi 51215 lbs Apsss.issl Bittlil if bobse Ts.i-ius., Pl.isisii 885 Thili t. t1175 IsPisssIti R-sIt if Cspioo. All us if Hlssslbol sitb Philip V. if 124-21 2 Si so isl siptise 81 Sysissss by 114 Fislt Cissspspplu Wsr. Pysistissi ssu Rhilss. 112 Bhtlls if Asitsogis. Greeks s-iskl if sit bisgbl 18 lisP. 2155 G,-ss sisobsds tsosty ssith lbsR — lpiisl Philip V. if M11111.. De2511 isd dsith If lbs Itsi Isipiss is Spigh by Hl.lssbsb (lipius-sspsdsbyliiR-. 085q5111 if Mils by Aslischss. Batlls if Pufisgs. liP B11111 if lbs Mt-rlhs; Hsslssbil Is fssts Asnd by lbs Rso-ss. 'Gold sissy 5ssS oiissd is 288 Ptlolsoy V. Ths dssliss if Eipypth 114 F. Cisss.ius ISipi. s.s.lils lbs 151 Sisoe of tiJes.. 218 Hisslibo1 Isisi Isly. AttOls isd Ibslliss 171r sith Philip. 818 Difsot if Hossibsl ot 1117, is Afyiss by huhpi Afososul thops; sndloflthelS-idlPusie Wluo-ill Fiskt Misslosil War Alss ottiuk Mlssodis ssd dsfsll Philip. 181 T. Qsillss F15515152 psisllisss libssty ti Sysis bpsssss Isidp-slsl t of gypth 819 BPttls sf lyssisphols. Fbilbp 1sf pils by Pouil Pslsstiss osd cP.Silpisi soiqisisd by Aslisbusi lbs Gosot,. 1d1 -.iisl dss ts bbm by lbs pslse pith Ro.-s. Ths Ps,,stts Iluos psittss. fit Dysl-ty si H.s, Cinbas, 58111e1. Hsssibii jiiis Astilisbu-. l9t Bipth if Hilppi.h.,,, list syissoolsi 112-211 Mios betw-io lbs Rlsois 201d AolioFbils~siili p1118r of lbs Afibsop. Ussoi dsslapid fsee from1 Msilon by Fbillpiliso 1sf 5ts Nllibis, If Sparta. Sparta2 ji-oo lbs Ashelil hsu~is 190 BEstls if Mipylsil. 111 Thp lsws 114 dissipliss of by-sipy sbsopotid by Pbiispisosol. 558 Dsuth if Pilitus 5183 Issth sf Hospibsi assd Isipli. Lysist~ss pisrili of lbs Asbpss Leg5I.s 182-174 E-spiosibtlil ofMiloil. 511 Ftlis-y VI. s-lg51 11 Egypt. ThbP Villi.os iL.,,, lslss. 171 Ps —uo KIbg sI Msss~il.. lilibosy il C.Iiiiipitel to G-sis. Phososis, p1 Pont53. 55451 Pphlsgis-i 111 Antiochi2 -koi 1711 on Epypt. 1ll Astiihibu Sokes Jfg-ilsl-u 40,100i lssss 31ii oil Tsoople piolloged Elyth p5 Altsis, Essluli li-oos.tls (dieS 765. 111 Elttll If Pyldol, viltosy if P-Ili-s FPtIJ- 55erppy —ppMsiP1dsoi55llld ilipsisi II. vi lat Ellis~. Al~siblul- Epiibo-!s takes Jpoosle-pls BEgiossog sI lbs Ma-iuplhs. wss of1 -161 silos Mossbiss d,05115 lbs ISo so-' ill si-sili Jssolss,-, ossipt ltsp CiIlit -o o go Ephuss oil Aihso. 1 615 liledi~isils sf Iths T-splo., POii thisooss Aibsos. -op-o-sds~ ot FillS sissly if Tisissi pifyiioous It 8661425 Hllppio-h- lulii. 105 Rise if lbs Ph.,osi An pul ddls-ols. ill Doesth oP Apliusbi.. Helsistsiiiuddl by Astisp!hil V. Espuols, phi tskis BEslboosl ssd bosoig-JsAliso, biS -ksbi pilii sith Shp li-s Clyslss 1101 Lbys siP~sil sfos Egypt. 108 BlIbt si 81. Ppsilss ISIPOI, PRo-s ostos (diid 90). 161 Vislosy sI Jillis Mpssibes It All.s. Psobssy of Psssilsb Piogsiss 824 Aliispss betsseis Rosle p1d JsldsI. bulbs. kpsiob-isllossols Sills. 11,5 Atbsnins2 fi-d by R-ss. 150-111 Lssitsisl MiW. Visilhss ilsosoalls Pbs Losisllsnsf. 211 Third P81101 Mili bigins. Scipios sisulss. Afsiiu.. Asdrilsios is Mosplsplo 241 Blibt of LIslios lisI 103. 140 Ths Asbsi siss silth Rust bspgl.. 146 Ptloisoy VI. 111ll1 05 bstlel. Cssthage tsbss by Islipio andI dIsstppys by osdss of ths Rosous Sentel. Cssisth 'tsbss us destrsoysd by M-sso Pspsisss of Afsis. sossltlilil Gsssss b-soos a loR-s pri-sIs.c 845 Ftlolssy VII. ssigss, sosssl ClsIopaitra -toll- of, Ptolssoy VI. Dsssslsiss lissli Is Sysia. 144 Vhs Topsy of Zips tskis by lbs Jsws. bssoss isdspsndent. Rile, l thsA — toiss y -tsy. 81.483 Blibt of Atlosls Rosli a. surlts (disd 70). 142 loipii Afslisus. (Mipos) li-.~ Clsssss 140 Birth ol 555li.... Risos -t5b (disd Sisoo -oil heisiitasy psisss of lbs Isusilo furiliy ibsisho by Rust. 181 Biulb sf L. Gissoliss huh1 (disd 78). tiP Iluus-s of Jhdss. 184-13I Ssriiis Miss 5ly. Sip!lius slavss eskl, 111e issqtssd soil 181 Lssss p5 Tibesia. (Issihis passedl 21 188D. Pissiiu- Niissip hysria, rspstisd. 129 Hyssossssibissl Id-usosi -s —isosis 12 lid Iso sy Osuth o Oiilo Pluu-us -111 sasd L. Isrlos pspulss L. Cs2iiil Aslipitil, liooli jlsill, lul123 ISlpl fibsl oil dpslssys Ni-ssli.. Euuui Cisisy losS So ilistbige. 121 CIvi s-is ii uope r.ssisg pp~ps Apsisis 517 Ptls-y VIII. rigipy jsistly pIth hi. 21 Bioth ii Visso (dild 2S). Rlsiius T oh l 8151151]- lolsi Jp-p s.sblisl lusoili.. Alibi buss (lisd B. C. Of). 108 Blibt uP Pi-poy Asd pf Ci —so 802 Violisy ul 81101sf Pv5r lbs Tsslssss oP Aqi- lSuuS (Aiu). S.dSi vsslsoiisbsbreasultin Slily. 801 V~ilstoy If M-isu ~oir ths Cisbol st Bo-lls u Andpo EsdOlihswl. C. Mssius bors -150 (died II). Sioth E.L. App. Slolisps T~iboss Ilioso). It Ptolssoy Apius isosis Gyssi. 15 Bilth sI Lusotiiu (dIsd 11). 18 S.ulb pp lbs Eiphiplis. li-IS Tbs Shisis os Mush Miss ho Itsly. Thse oyos, t loish sssssils, ips losully dOf-tp1. II soli ill sig ilH. PndS.pllus Vep~.1 Bgo. of Moi.ut(Is 8) P8 M risstil81.ispsys.bp Ti6Reoslti Ln sO~g Aoss isouspos Thbsii 18eSloh sf 81osiu Aod resI. ofSl).1. Ath Vbsbss by lsysI. Bissupofi S1.stf R isos4. 18-hlhisNi p Isty, hil bty.I ~i 18 Css-lsbl of Pusops otl PsosslI.. hlplb' Ci 5sil W-sIsol Sflli. b —lus lbstphools. 79Abith. of Isibopisgopbi llls A8. 551ft L~ifd-oso (10 C1,,. 0. It.1y 78Asllu-bs - A oliu ilsbosidb- Ps 74-PO6 of M~is oof (Isill 4). d. 53 f1ssrtlss fobs by Itbie bosis p slis. byo Ciso. dfae n ~nb rb0C-lsihiss 5ssf bibsosy it Crso... EIibt sf Isusil (diod 19). 69 Vhs-yCoil bovehus.. 67 Cypsli bssusss so tkuss pstisisbs f thouse sot itosurs, 1..d edd E6 s bt of (duId 11. C Musli-hof ACh~i-s byth Mill. P Eusso psusi Msslss. sf Pcops IsEppS PLsloso filsupsu Lisla latipsR.- isis Pgypisis Iboossbd. th pr. f P9 Isti f v Istosdisi A. fhs 17slypfAlp 111111 8f-Thepluss. 45 Misis Is d Ipul.vit eet hollis- uf 81111 u p1 lbsFpst Csso- Puis Fo~s ts ITepssle7 it J 1r-s, Pd41d115. Fills ofCiI5 s yMio lh..s slIlbl. dliphl of Spihi 4 Attlsbs of Ph oslr-l fRsts 44 Cosisth Andl Cssthsgsssobalt. 41 Clss.pslss, plil.sS her blothsi PtIsessy Soss-sl Tlsksool-ol-C. Os-isss 81. Ass lisp. 81. bspids.. Bisth If Osid (dIpd A. Di. 51). PsI pf lbs Rloplid. 42 BiStlil of Phiiippi. 41 Psfsst sind dssith of Bisots iil bolus Vhs Vsisssoisi m.lslps sI lbs R-.os 48 Mlsllngof AntonyoAndil-lsputrisat Ts 40 slsssl lbs Gsist soos kbig uf thp Jewss. Lblbsiy of Pispisou ti Asusiditi.. 81 Jssilbis tsbss by Heiss usol tho Agiippo c-11-5 lbs Rhlss. 36 Sisiluo P.uspsiul dIvhes fssst hisly (psI Is desth iS). Lbpslls dspsitvsd 51 pisios. 1sf sit p1 Astolsy Is Psilbis. 35 Mas btloois Ostoill 1151 Astosoy. Psloblls~bssstolf lbs R-so.s sophis.00 1111 fp A,~i-hs Ostusisspiiisfsl. Suliulsd if Asolosy snd Cl-spslss. Citsiisusopf Pbs bisl Atuis bilsillusi 10Th Pif at of hoIsois. 27 Asgslu 0,t101 Is,sdl Gosilsss Ifthillsl o Asubut.yslC —. P7-7 thsoplsslldi-solls byArpp111b P51 24lDp feasils Rissll s. pA50 IfRsos 23 Ve'hssil of Pisss- pps biRhli IS BlsthsolsDi.I.bil. ssspl go ls lii7-7 T spl soJ-.~~ - b~l yHrd SAVgripps instsssl isA ls bhs h5 Dsslslies pf lbs- Rvsolsos Rhsois liu sod.i. Ibss G(p-.ll by PDoOsssso.S. p 24 PDisth of ADtystus sss ABiissuh of A-sthitus, e1 Psigbito.U 1411C.llsy ys~sit sie.i.sssy Pi-Ol lllibsslups vshisol pp Gush li Dehs ilss.lOs h, 18- Vss~.b.~.dithss, Aui..pibyii thlis G si. 11de ARsipplsil d5. tdbislshil. derA, It Mushi, Fssfis of id.~ II uosIl ofDet er ipA-e~rus of Astipyll, R1o.P-h. Blithr p5- 1.5hsP-th (isS 111.e. M.Phs Sssiip Isobsstsdol Is ta Rostp. 41 CPoullis. Esopsl 51 Rssop. 126-37odluss P rqti-sl t Mp.suplp. 48Th Pupsdlsiu of. Ciu..s ~lo~ tIsilulsi. hL-iissis if AsihotisePlpigisds the 01 sthi ritiesdgieA by.Pbs Rssssos rope hglsppisf l1s. b isIh 10d 0) Vbsupco IPoos-l ofuusoos.r -,p.fl 37 As-..s. osi C~isphus p5Rosililse lss pslsisss I Rosep s..(id9 Seisor b. —tRoe 58 huptbi EslpulorI Rostu R-isl. 55Bisth pf Tss~tisli —sid 5171). Apsiplss so Ai.slPslabyIsi.. Flisthl ss Asssf soi1-ie 1714. 08yhP. Pssl 5 AMR-.psi.e VisLondy f..edb Su hiiu R.-111.. Bisuths of IssossIsi~d busss Coospdisrsylu R~oma. II Difoth ofd sills. C-ta.;ta Idfptls Nspsoslls. o 7015.t Pritoasin sA R-ssbul 54Vh CgiplsI. pi, IsiousClanss ad er Vs BrthopbT11iVs.psdisd 117V(?)h 598B-11tahie ptois lubldoby Agipipilis fos Alssos.. by e- V byl N-biu Ptisosandisss-sssiust a. 61 Ali fsi AgheoBuitonPh dTup. B Asopbiibl tl of Vsisos Bfisshof~so ssPssss if Ri..,s.did1 64 R-sos s-ups s-s. d0yb IS psiolti Iflthe IfJe psos B6 RJoseph gsopsln 15 ssssssso11-stsif 68 Desathslip ofAN- lo s. sssl 01-11 kisl. bif f.sisISlssbtosI ItVsiti.. killped.lioo 10Ci~ii.lh d If litit Muslp (-sShI) hIS 101 hsbiussstissondpTiHuh 104 histh if Hemdsoi~ AMl-s., u.tsiq..iss. (dIsI 110). 114-sill7 T-ljus. sypolitios to lbs lust. 817 Hasdrias ssopssss. Pip iboodiss Shp ssq-ots If Tsssi.. Ths E~hupbsul push lbs isltss- bosid — usy of Ohs so-pill. hSitoss if Ant.... sI (Hdiouuss pssgil. Bioth oi Biio, hilbi uf byonsI; disd Bioth of bitot d ipS 2005. 125 FusSt upiltgy its uhs Chibstsi-i ln11515 sil ut Atbhss by Q.sdsslus Anud Apis110 Bipth if AppukhssEss.bsbpbs, hsiilss If thi Js-,. Edilt.- p irpslt.s oP Hadrian. tub A.ulisii Pi-lu Viol oP Apbissius (GlubAsol Dybo) Sill Copoq-usss of Lbui-is hlobiu-s in Bpitsis.. 147 Dpvopht tspsoflousuil ituos uoi lislubliubous-t of sI~ss psov161 PolySoy h-.. siibioisVisu.yjlu~. outCpuuiu ius tyoflop Iso osh 5sssi -s fPihpso 171080IussofwithuthooiI —ultuiksoiP hioh ophiloisoph(eri Ps,-i). b R e 16 t Dih of L Tilullss (lp. Pt 175 iul I ituou buySi. ti oSpiss I 517 ChspiosisstiosG.Iussui-tiii. hpfvs suf tull uf th gis of C 11 f 15P li dsops PPusIs.P. slbs 15 Stoslis osoi A,-ipysertos. Pupl -fIssloso b r so —oss 185 Blibt pP Plutho pdiiohphs2 Sho3 Il) 118 Bisth ofPisoussl if Ahdllso24is. 1so9 Fp2 1 soit si- A l glbsd Russoss s-illd l 15 Dsioptbuluf sospisb.y t ep. I P 105 sod Plpiy is pb-i-Nissspbss, SipsPlsisios if lbs lips PosllsA Ikoglo B38 tVlpop of Sosisub f 1 P-tholu of Albs Cssuis VhsC...I odpt-iod PAsisuss II lihbi 141Gufi-u dofsf P- upil lisp of 158 Psotu.ts olossth plslihH~i-,fls b 20 lIps'i o.ofss ofi1 ibo psopss by. lbI 211 ADppsiisss bist Yol s bk psps 108 -sisupiti-oP-hip C-teb id Buspyodiusos 21 Pis.tosullostuf S thboill witt th 25 eTbs.lsto lbhi(,. Oshlpof Epbsss, lo.ofis bye D..,hid, ytp-shs4. At P35 Auoo-pil sop Ssvls.o tsosp Ith P lbsCohstoi Ii ls 202 P-sepsdtios of AusslhissIsPlssps 274 jPinlyf ilshold o (Sdill III). 'po 217 Poriaus doll tlb Sapssoss K ust Gush I. Phissilil toe A-bsissb f54 Dhoslitiss sospissofEs-,i.os. heCri P8 Vslosy io of 0 th55115 ops Msobyolto Diolsiosh ol lbs- sndpi,; 111loiuis ssossl yCoosllis 517A htpp ofiA-s bsudl byt Pissthsi piIll IrPsssiilos of the C~hslsslss by-P-fif so 15 AlissltstpIf —bsfsus th 1 F —I Cosostilusof (tho Csph) posllssl 1 25 Tp-sos byk lbsyIoth Gt. 105 ESou~l sI-Mussoti.s `ia. take51015. - 260 soutil- s if -lploips I

Page  XI V 4 j i ANCIENT. MEDIEVALI AND MODERN HISTORY. I I I I 315 Rtote protlaios 'Christiant~ y. EditS.0 Niottoodi Sto top Slit ptrsttu EditS tf AMtoo, by Co.tootliot tst Li814 Wro littoiito tht twoo top~orstt. 816 Pirth itt St. Mortto, Pitlitp tS Tooth. 823 C~onstantitt ttlt Otypttt 924 Coo.t.tittopit ftottddt t~dlttott ts thet topitol of Slit topto, Itt (tot 334). 352 Fttttslttot Ctoooil tf Slit Chitrtl Ctofrt-ty wittl Atits. 505 C.tootoottt St., Ci.ttotoo ant Ctttttttttt, St. jotot titoyttttt Ntyphilot Mttt tithtt gospetsh 34t Sytod tI Sttdto.. t4t Uttttt Bitthop tf Slit GOttls (dttd aSS). 8tt-t2 R-oo1t tf Mogetttto.. D05045.d by tt4 Btti th ofSt. Atg.ttttt (dttd 4tt). Ott Vitorty tf Jotti oto Slth Atttottt atArg-t-ttttt (Sfto-litt). FptSo~olt!tt ttnr S elitgtoosotolr. i 363 otttti. Wart. O ooo t6t tol-it Sttt Stod tt- Slint ttttper ors. t-69Th tttdot. tt SitaWttS isttriVton55 gStti..od Sit. d PtotottOsO 93) 878 h,. Slin.thesttb Slitso Gaull. 879 Dlith tSos tS tqttttISi P75 goor ithttte Qttlitd. 38 A-ot lit -pot Sli OtheWlilitiV 890 vt.ttS ttyytthet ttungtts. Dtttl Vi- ttlOowsthety Htottttosettli 3tt Sithototo Poptt. P tti Slitd Wt3t. 374 Clitdt-tioplttthett e etdSli tlief Goths.t 379 ttheot Gett Slitperoofth 381 tSStotsG.r tootS Sl tteltt ast Con-tl SSSgttb rte.bpohtibittepttd sdit158 387 Dttbtlt ttstttt ofs TI s Brttt ttlos Dathtt tt Atotgry SattN-o-t. 4063 Votdott, Aott ttt WSttt tot 39 Setth ofSThedoto't bot 18 400 Stot o eropot by Atte t.t SToeH.. tf vAdet thee. - poics y95 tAg..ti -t.dt BStopttl sOf HIPPt (diet. Pttttpotatttitf Slitf Cpowteir Stde Hott 426Th D rtliofs aSk atidttot. ooi9 gi Ototos Siet. Spoottl otlits 9 it bottitd (407). 403 oBttli tt P1tlittot ttipt Issto 481 Seltt litot AlrCttttiilitto S pis. s t55 55The too ttttott, Stu ttttStt. nvd 4090 Th.tRodot 1sti.t rian f89 Sl Vostoto wottaottt 418l~t. 440 Lttk of (Slit bytot Atl-ityo ttt 442 Tgi.t bgi.ytot VboutthstoS ttt4. tgotot Slth Soot.. 450 Detht tt S~lt. td- St 451eStpottot tteSbotSrbynAthlo. F23Dethl lio TOths Cotot batvSenina tt Stt5otyiyt-ttt. ttttttttt btgins, ash 45 bttoott Sthirty by ASrit STheToottttot Sot g pblth. 457 b~ttr.tgt tattoid Sli tttof to Pstat.npe tyt ytttt35 ttot () 429-STh Ottdl ot e Stotoseicivae.f 402 SThd Cotnottt tt Scl htfolid St Ehsyttt Ot SR2Stl Pttic Stttt (Ott 52ela). 475 Kooott Atofthoit PHtyot ot li W38 TtS (.ittn bode 476)i.hd 489Th Odttotottttt u otpi s.thts ttt tt 476 PMtligtlistsf tot Siton togtitS sor Sit 477 Stott Stoth SotSt tSSt 480 Attili tt Ptth t (atttt 848). 481 Cdosit a.(~otottt ttigatt Sit Attg 449 PThRobc, pCiotoylt OttO.l-S 451 tIv I.. otfi~ Slit by ttilat 489 Ottoogotli Ittod tyttily. 491 it toiuittSltd itOtd t ttt 494 Theitdotito ettabitlitt. thet strttgoth~it totogdtt ot Itooy, S.totl Ooootoiy Sot botgtoy, topiota t Soottot. 45TotirdSot S Slit tbttof.S Wtot~i t 496 Ctoott iot bootr tobotoots ChlI~ttttoooty. ittLaw b otft Sotyotty po~bitlit.hd 502 Chb.obooo Slth Ptoooo, t.-togo2thSb liotob totytot. 506-42 Thli Koo ittOtg Atibt told So So. bogtood. 907 Cl-oo. bottog tttqtttt Slth otootoy troot Slit iyoto tt o tht Lttts. 5 0006 S10 littitotot tit othettoot.1oth lit Sotc boo esttoblitbot by OCtots to Ditotott.otf Slit motnirchy botooto Ciot-,it -514 oio~ittto, Slit Gothi bttit~g- Co.tototi519 Cttdto3 totodsthel Ktogtto-oft Witttto 927 fJ-tiotot I. botioto. toytoty itt Pott.. 9520 ~totioio Ctdt ptblitlitt. 970 elttttooto 00000e0 Attito. 500 It~lt tootdi.SjptootSo Gth 944 SArtb of Gottoty of Tools (tiet Sit). 900 Noittliotboto otoodoot to Btitoto. itit Thit Aogiot toot. Slit SHtpotoby-Attittt Doo-, Meritioto, 90 S2oTto, tho Cotogototl, titftobit to tooly by Slit Soopotto gosotoit N.-too tot t?4 N-ooo i-totooos ithttitt powty to Ittay. 960 boogoot Mtoy t. ot Sootltot 0) 961 tooth it? Cittoot. Cit four stons diodt tbt btottt.o bittttit thto.. 502 St. Colootbo itoodt to Scotlttio. t6t C.ot-otoytitpl dtoooiytt by hute. 004 biSttoy itt Gild.t (?). 7565 Ditoth of JOtototos I. Pthiitb-tt betosoet Otog. it Otot. 509 Ittoy titooot by Slit Loogoboodi tftto Cotototy, obo itoot Slth Kibtgtoo of Ltoobotdy. Ntotot go —o it Itily. S7t Bitoth of Mobht.ottd (OttO Ott). 577 Bottle itt Dotbooo; WstoiSootis dtfeot Slit 590 iotAs toto~ty do.ttttyit by loot. 9984 Fitoolit otot Itooty ott Otte repelttd. Tht Moyott of Slit potoo tiht-r.1-tC Sot Ot~gorogt of ttottt. ftooodt So Strit.i. 0508 Footto topellito troit Spait by Stooto L1 t9t GCegootiy I., Slit GCott, bitototoo Pope. tOO Thetbooobottt be.-ttfltttiottttttt550 St. Aooo9tittt ttottot So Eootittd. 090 Eitbo!ibtlit Kttog iti Keto, ootbtoott Chrb Siootty. Ott Itoty totototd by toitooo.itotots 600 Soott Soo-ott Bittotoit; o.i dtitto bobk. 001 Thli Ptottott tokt cotooyottt to Syriti, Egtypt,..ot Atto Mitorot oitt b-itoge 61 c'pt.ritootd to Spatt. 008 Cl'ttttit tt. Oi~ of Footoot. 014 Jootoootto ooyttoot by PtotItttt tot Mobottootd -etitiy ItotosMootS tttt — th 1,- or Atolb ittolit os tootototoySotot0 t28 Dottlitt, Slit Sotoi.oto ith li Fotobs," b O-. ig. R,,titos ott tolittoes Slth Sottit toO Pt poitoit LotS.. 6tO Mobottood ooutottt MitoS titsttlletd ast 091 ttoib itt Mobhoto-d. tOit tootitot tyteadt tbottoh Persia. tOO Thli Ktoito ptobitlittc. t3t Syoto otopld bySoots C-iott tt., sonot f Doobtlo, 05ng itt 009 CO -too tit~tt~ts O o tltCto 000 Atootodotot Libooty blrtto. 058 Rhodto; tttet by olthttots t5t Clotoot Sit. btoot Otitt of FEtooeh 602 So ltoity, Co-otott SI., toopoioo of Slit toot, So dO4tfioid by Slit Ltobotdt. t6ot Coootootttittp bototogd by Soarotto.. 001 SoPtooo Ootott toto Syot.i Ott-tO ittoobot tgood otto. So Syol.. 509 Co~oottodo. Slth tots bitt of tlit Btittont, Pottottoos ittoopy Btt1grto, tot North-to 595 Mitbotoit, losS of Slit tMttoibootts, too 699 Siotot dolts Polittoot ibot Watts ott t8t Sto-t toittd So Wtsst.. IS Ftooot, P.toto O~ctt o Tbtooty. 094 soot d-ootot~dlby WeostSot..... 690 Aoooo he flA ditt5OgeottVett 709 Th. too —tt ivtet i 0toob 5t er thoto Kiog Rodootiob. 511 Thli So-otto. -tto trott Attito tt Syatn. 711 Thli Cothito Ktogdoto oo tyoot ovoothtlooo by Slit Atolb.. Po;tobtoboott of tho toottos btotgdooo of 514 Chiostit Motot, toyto of Slit tibooot atO 7ot6 toodoytoditot Cottlio Mtotobcy footdo2d tot 7it Leton otd A~tttotos ftoooot.toot t KiotOto- by Pooy., whbo ohookit ths toot q-tstt oftoot totSa. OitinO tCtSp tott Chaltto MottA oretitd Dtbt of Fotote. 7tt PopetGitOrty t he oo~totiEto7tt Bottlt tf T-t, tor Poitiots t oosittg dtft o f OlthStoto by tho Ftotli.. 0239 ChbtoA? Mrtto oooqttt Provenct. 046 l1itot stottittoot tot b-iotoot Flopoot 700Ciotoo of Footo obdiootts. 0512 Poypot, Slit thttt, stot of Chiottos Martot, beooooot Ottg of Footoe. 054 Poptot gvots Ro-tooto S the Pote. Alittotooto 5. liotoeto Kiog of Ctordovo. 7tt Poof ototot. RItoototoSo Slit Sts oft 700 -,ttootootoo of Tottdt. 768 DStoh of Peittt, tyho Is toteoded liy his Sottwoot Chlistttoto ott Csttototo, 'hli ttle iot Foott tt Geootty. 551 Chaltotoott ootos loot.. 772-085 Choorttttgot. Sfter t stvets sloglft..tottoo Slth Stoots; Slthey eso b-too Chrliitstbniy. 774 Ch~lotootogos tott Ittty afttr on qo,,etitg Slit LtobAttds. Btgtttltt of thet otti oft thvlbtry. Ch~lts-osoo notstsoo..ofolly invadsbt 7tt Sot.....t.tobdtt by Chaleobogtse, lit787 Thli Dottos ltd Sot Eotgltotd. 595 -Ot Ch~ltottotoo -ttblithe Slth MotgaReign of Alftono, Slit Cliosto ts Spotot Stottpooodtoto of Clritiantst ostolihedit. 000 Thit Attot s Sbtos by Chitttootto.. 000 Cbititoooogo tottotd st Rtooto; hot~oots Popetor of tht Wets by Popt 8021 Rooio, thet No —o, etttoliltsh Ohs first gotod, sod btoooto. good too t. 800 Wso betooooet Slits oot P(Oypotsoostto 814 boots S., Propoot,. dethitootd, hot to010 red t otii hitoot 5yooot),totqot 010 Mittcoh-. of Slit BYosooto Ooytttr, tootdt thet Aoooootooo dyoooiy. 8tO is, boot (ot. Otto ytoos ltott, -tto anod Nttlitobrio)oae....otototo 828 h S Slibitotos....toyy Dslootti. Oil Thli S.ooot 11toptotohy todt totd Poisott kiog of Wtssto., botoot kiog Poglood. 880 Loois Slit Dobtoslot Sotoootod lot Fttoot. s09-40 Looto ttio.-tot litiosoy Sotot 84i Gottoo y-.iot osiott ilioio iodtptt804 Tttoty of Vtodoot Sth too. of Looio ditid_ this sopitot. Spait to..sgot by tht Nittbt-.. 000 PtBioo ittan eootos itootoodoti. Ott Rototto -oos-thy -toolitthid by R-tit 8500() Stottt oott PottS otittd otdot O-totil. tot Noothboot pilloget,.8tt OtttssttooktCo.ta~totttopto. 000 BSosilos Doyttotty ootdtt ato Cooot..tbooito" 000 totodoot of Noo.o.t toosotot,! by Sosooho 075 Choolot, ths Boid, EitootStoytiio ptoibotootby Zodeotho..OttoJbolitliysi805-1000 Asoglo-Stotit Chl.itotoi. it77 boott IC Oisg tot Poo-t 000 Alfoed tho Cotot doioto fitoo Etgttod. too Poto.itoooo Co..tocl of Cotst-titopl.. (Gote Chootht) 0801 Doanit-ottot So!tltood. 808 Pools otitaobtd. by Niotthiotot 890 Itoly..oli!ttotd to thoo ho boos Popioe. Alfosd ot Eotglotd toot Ot Cotoot, toO esotblitshes o todt tO foot, t gtosoitoo otbtit tot S tooty; ho coutooty tot totostootoyt of itht Kiog089 Thli Ceroao., totto Attold, tolog Root. ADo ooDth of Poolfott thotretotl li ot 004 boo ol isotodot Gloeb Epiret tttter lohg. stootitotie. Ott ttotb of Lools tht Child, loot tt Slit Gtooto Csyoitgitogtos 511 Rolltthili Ntoobth t bhtooott Robeito, Coks of Otrotsoy. 058-to 4ttoooy S.,thO Ftowter, otiig.s to Gttmanyt ooqc.sois Slth IoT-, Dooto, V~oSlot Itoty iootodod by Slit Stgtotdloott 98i bitt boipeo-t otol tShi Byooootio Pot005 Atootstto tttr-vogs Scotland. 934 Heooty C. of Gtooossy dtAtot Slit Datst. Ott Otho Slit GrettO. t Gtrotoy. 807 Aithlttto otta o Eost oitotoy tot-rtohot toott, Soots, Atc., sot beootos flost Ottg tf PEtitood. t3t boot OV. sot Fotosoo folbdoot Huogh toypet, bootS itt Prtth Ott Cobs totodtt Itoiy. 065 Cobs Slit Coetit bitotoot Pooptrorot f Slit WI~ Soty aoOdootoylouoited. 000 Atoslibtoitotofi Etootod, Slit Mootyt, ot 882 Bottlit oot Sosiooteltt CObs III. of Cooooooyttttototli ybtool.k ttttSaroototh t8t botlh Ctttt biotoot Oitg of Fttotoe. Ot SS todtoioni otototo A.oit, CototY of Bstil St. of Rotolo, ott eobtsoot Ch.-i. itootiy. t9t COto SOC mobot thet Gooton Popotoo 080 D.tito of St. Atoibeito, who Ottot itotttoott Chlitiolboity ito. Poooto. too Oitobttt, totlv-solt OC, Poyt. loot Citoot Itoly, bootot tooh osd yowooofol -0002 liotot t bsooot to Etgtod by PElthli Rotoo of Ritboot 25. is Sogoody. 300i3 ottyt, Otoog tot tototoo, vtoges flth Pthl-tt lotes tt Nototody. Moloolo 55. Otog of Sottolsod. 0014 Bottlit ol 0000.800- BotSi -C it o Cotolot.tiotls dofetot tht Botgooob.. 10005 bloto-io S. dOtot R0sitoo is dit-idtd. lost Etholotd Otto; Otootod Irottoltot att Cootts Ooditid Eoglood. ttoly ittdot by Noothboot. 101tO Cooto~, Slit toot, betoooot Kisog 9f SRl l0t9 Thli Motoos eoteto Sols. 0006 Sotobo OC. ot Nstootot fotodo thes Oitg10001 DSnlit Soto ctyot.y tottd.yd Pbytolots Rotolot etttdoand booot Closottto thpe 10ot Moots drtiveSO fboo Solandt. 900 hei~ Cnf..o yt, Ki og of EFglatdt totWtlooo. of Nooooot y bootort Oogsod otoototdli. Oft Godfr PogoOOsosot. 102Willof C, Olig. llthetoo, t wothto theg 1000 Noot.os ogendfo- Itt SltSty ttis Sstt.oott Ill t Slitlttt fd ty Gitogooilp S.,thL FaoirtKiss oott-ttcel L.tolgtty of Sc~fltpttyd o ooo Stoopll PS. of litosoy tispvods EnlstStdt 1008 Ot wittot Pthobttili l.t~g toot otllodt Ol-t. Psth tNto-ogs.., d Ot? owtytSP Ktbog oott tots, Jpsotsy t t Wiilloty I. tot ho lip-boo t rooto.d ig 10847 tt tSP.feusa o Roosm itroue.E S1li1 Pot sitsd. Sf Sthto twot ttScliesso. Clitosol 055. eo42blishpo li ot sP 0086 D.-.odoy Book totpltott Oft Etoglant logy Witloiam 55. -toooot Ototg of Eogland. 0098 Utbot II. Poote. 10000 Mootot toboot by Hoooy so. 0001 Tht Ssootosf0 Sotoit lovtto thetAfotoon Moos to thlir aid to doivitog hook tho STli Moot, ofotS Slth Chlittttss tot s~iss 0095 Fo-tltgl bootoo s styastol pototipaltty WtOOboo ot Moitootboop. 0006 Foo-t Cootot bopt.. VePtoi tEdo tooopyltd (0). 1008 Woo betw-ooo Fosoog ttt Pttglaod. Jtoostbot toptottd by Godtoty ds 1P0otb 1.100 Hlitooy C. sotootoo Otg of Pnglood. Gooott a ohottootosiotooig tho Saont 0504 Coototoo ooytoos Atost Otto Moloo boooo s toot toottliSc. Sooty b. 0dAots bit boothoot Robegt, a504 gotot Nootototy. 1000 Atottot C., Svot~losd. 1000 hoots VI. ts Coot (thet L.ttty), Oiog of toot Stoy P. of Gototoop.. Oodts Itoly. 1114 totoy P. ototi-s Motttt.oft Eogtatdo 011 i-tooooty of Botog.o totooditt Soolid tosoodoto!d toto Esoglibt. t1tS Ploy of St. Cotbootbo sO D-otoble. 01120 Ritt of iho b~oobood (It.ty) titiish 0121 Otietty ot Wotos, NAtttoto Slit Poapoo oodPopo. 1124 Do-id 5. Kisog of SootlotO. 0120 E Pot tothli glooy of Potto. SVitlriets too tht EOteto Epo9r.. Ot3.5 Stooybto boototo Kitg of PsoglsAn ttoooyt Attghtot, Mood, diospot. tlit L.,,!t Pt. goont. lettooo of losoohiss It Slit bototo ol the SottootO, Atog. St. 1109 Pootogol bittoots o kiogdoo Moot toots ito Etitlood otd doftoot Sts th-;to.towtolid ot Wiotbtottr, Mttolh 01043 Motos tool.1itnlo Spaint. 1144 AlpbtosO of Lsotoo doettt thet Motors soot StootO Cottsdt L.boob P85. 0 Ftooos - to Cotood ISTT of Cotossoy.. tod Asto~d by Cottk tootoboty, A. 50. it48h Cooto tbooditoo by Rogot tot Sicol.. toot7 Moot is dtf.too by Stoylios, aod retorss llott AIttbtoto bogotds ytob0liod. 1t52 Fottiob Ooobooooo.. ood. Poperorooft 1000 Moot ototoot,; a yooot toith Sttephts. Molooto tO. Ottog of Soo~tOan. 1154 Ftotoio5 Bb.-btot itootos Itolp. Hetoy OS., Oitg of EoglAtd, thet fOtt Plottgott, otototd Dittooibeo 19. Ad~itio tO. Ptops C..ottitottioos tI Ctoo-doot enatoet On Etoglotd. 1lit6 Moogoo-ito, Auttrot, tods t liereditary dooby by Fottdtol I. 1t61 Woo of Cootbiph oot Chbellineso i 1t62 Barbaroytto dOtttoys Miloan. 0101 Boobon ft...oottO by o otonyo froo tlie 1185 Witliam otlt b itto Kitg sot Soollood. 1008 Attoos of Ctsotodot otd Northli pon~s. The boobood hosgto fooooet togttist Slit 1108 Coot-citoty of Patis toosodtO.1ttO Tho.-o S ooboto rostdott tn Eo-gland 1172 Th. S1ttts toSSld. omlitt goetocl n q.ost. tot Asio. Tottosod otoqoto lip Slit Pogltih. lO SoOtot btrgoot o. h dmioistoo at toSIOt l.ip Slit booishtd hooEpto. d 11-80 Cloott Cbiof tootiot of Eoogtotd. Phlitbo 5. (Aogootos) Oio~g of Fostot. 0000 Ctooo1 roobtt t dogtst of Eootilis law. 30109 Peace of Cosottoto.stobitooSlise th titoe tiliot of Stolp. tot85 Pto-btoots of Atoboo tot Vaotts toosooto 0009 Thiot C-dooie by Esoglotd, igaoto ant Cototoy. Sttgt of Aote liogoo. SfobotO C toot-soo Sit Eoglosod, SoyC. 5. TotoibA rott.ttt itf Ot- St Loodot. 1100 Fottootiob C. (Barbottott), tottototd. Godot of. Toototo hotighitt establisihedt. Htooty P. isooo.os Iotly. Cootoitoy itI COto.d footdot, t581 Riobsod C. joins tohe Cousades. Atot o~tyrod. to ttt dtyttO o Pitgrto. Olooto.- ol Cyprot footted. toto0l ttthbtd I., Coot do Li..o, ottt pybotser iotooooopy-by Hooty IV: tita~oos (0104) tot otittO0t. Ottotoototo SOS..tFoyldt 0000 Jobs boototo Kitg of Pootosot, Mop 57. 0000 Cototodty tot toottoosoot.. Ito A. 1001 Fo.totl Cotodo; otybot of Zloas Otto Ototttooty tosS to Entgtott. Lotito yosoo.t osd ditido Cgtotc. tots7 Albgtsoloot 1008 Cibo cotoo-ot Epototo tot Cittosp ato Psotoot isotooditotd by tho Poyst Ott09 Foooooh Coosoto ogobost iho Atlbeggtito. totot Oitioso -totlihtobo. 121t Woo Cetot. V-oict andGtO to213 Bottlo~ of Mooct; toooot tot Albigttssit. Iotoodiot ot EooglotO t oootd. 01210 Atootottot St. of So~tlood. Ootto Moogot Ch-to. ttgod ot Rososopytd,, Biothi of Rtogot Boooo (tod lotS2). 01006 Hoty ttC. betotooto oitg i_ Ensgland, to2to Fifthl tot-to by Gioosso otot SH.12t2 Poototto PrsC b-nootPo. oto Itp Thli Toototit Koightsl otsdetakeosheIlit qoott of Poloot. 1123 Toot., 001ototoo o tsogt portO of Rusia~. Ltois VITT ff1htsg of Frostet 1t24 Ltoistftoototohi.tth. to22t SC. boO. beotoos hong Ltols IX. Of Sltt togot ISX. Popest 1008 Slo.tgh Cousodo; Fosettitli IL. at Acre. to2O Tot ytarst toote oti th fi Ottotot. Joosotoo esotototOs Slit Chlistoiaos. Frtdotitk ot-dot Ktog of Jetotstoem. 1201 UCi,-otooi tt Ctobridge fountded 1300 Ftll of HubotS Os Sotgli. 1103 Woos bototitn Cootile tot Mtoor, toO osplotit, of Cotdotoo, Sot-Slft Toteot, otod -othertoticto by Fgtttsosot ITT 1258 Thbo Moogotooto inoosdt Rtsttt 123t Woo botoito thes Popeoto atod the Loot1237 Thli Ctotod Dtlie Jtio (RstiaS) tloin St 1000 Mootblih hKitogdit of Gtootttt foottdet by Mooitooto tI 01009 Soottt C-fdt, hy Thibisod, Coonttof2 0201 Tootoot i!tttbb~h Slit eoyttt of Oolit of Koottoliok. 0240 itosootoott~sdlbytlioCtottototst D..-!.-,.de Roosoi,otid te dttAtetdliy 124t Thli flosootott Loogot fotitt. 1006,Foottotok II. of AostrS bilotd o baotlet 12518 Ltotts OAtt Kiog Sooty of PEoglaot. 10011 catsutedt by theg S-totgo; truct Atr Otto yots. Moottbkos osts Pgoypt 1t25t Ritt of Motito footily to Itolp. 00125 Alostttot N.-otkit A otodt Goitd SDtke of Rtoia, tott tigots os Atoosodot C. 1154 COtt-.o of itBootS. cq~itstI ho Ao1259 Otlt Khob bittds Pobiot. 0000 Ototop~ w001 wi~th H..goop soot Sptyio. t26l-68 Bsottos' Woot it Esglsotd. 1263 CtO oibtttt.. s Coolttlio.. 0005 Thli foost oo~gioot Paoliaostot of Potgtttot PiothOlio Dosott d iod 1321. 1281 NoAplI tO toiotly itosotooto lip Chalefis of Asobso. 1268t Niosth Citsodt, lip LtIs tSP. totd Pdotood, Potnto of Wstith 1100 boots ISP. ditI st Catoohogst Phitlt l11b (tho IIotty) ihg sot Frosost 1201. Tbo O.ogtih qo-,t Po.tOoti.e 0801 Roign of Edotot I. sof Pogtood; Ottooto Otottol toho Ioptobal Crowntt of Goottoy. ito7l Raotolph, Coosot tI HtpslutgO sbostt E —,of Gttotty; toottoosot rtfoos to ockowooltdgt hrot. 1004 N..otit p0St St Ohs rotiysO faoily of Rodoylph oskos waor uons O~totoea, ast goios Aostoto, Cotitlitt toO Styots 1ott6 Soooo of Hoysboog, it AssItSi, foostdtd. 0200 Ottlt of thet VstootiS, Mitoto. 5501 tootlia. Otopsts, otosootog ot toioitotos by sho Frttotoh. agobnts Atogoto; Slit Prootli 1003 Wotto tobjo.ttodtSo Eogloood. 00285 Philip IV. (tbs Fttot) Ototg o0 Fttttt. l28t hosolgoboog toote Slit otpitol otf PoiaS. tott toots botitlit fotoo Pngtsodt 1000 Nihobotst SO. Popo. 1280 Seoottd of thet Mongolsh Chriti~tn poottr to Sytit dettboyed. 1296 toocbotlasdolidot by lttt Sit Williao Wtolloo fight. Ifoo flit Oode potdtotoof totolaotd. 1199 BatOtl it Folkioto; Boots tot Doulgfs tO-.~s Ip Peotablshsthet5 is. E piro. 1000 Mootoot beioomet tlio oaptoyl of Rossta. 3l301 Phlip ISP. qoo.-ittt oitih thbs Popet Chiobos of Vaotos tst Itatlp. 21301 ihotO o.oo~ttotts of Stotes-Gitsott St t03 PEototd 1. bootodos Stotttd. toLitt Rtboot Boose iroowood os Kttg of 9c01 -22807 Edot-ot IL. rototstto, Joty 8, Olitg.f 1307-10- Phitit ootppotfest Oth Knight. T-spoto, tot liotos toho CGtod Mostot at 3o3i8 Fopt ClostoS P. resoves Sto Avignoot, ito Alboott I., of` A-trtt. attttopts to soth Aoo tho Sotbot owbo hots itotolte to Aooo Wiltiam Seot. (0) 1309 STli 800.1 rtIttt,soofsl.:1010 Hotty Ptb. sobdots Oth Ltombardos. 3000 botis SP. toso Fotdosiok of Atstotacon tosod too tho Coottn Eoyboet Biosth of Botoaooio; Ott 0 1375. l3lt BsOttl ot Booookb.oo thSli tocls, o Ott Rtobert Bost, dotoot thes Eogltis Lo~it ISP Kint tot PGeoooy. 1315-t25 Itotootototot of Eittglih Btootol Tbo Sot..ttOotolty Aetott tohe Austriaso at 25016 Jobt t., ot pothotooot soot ot Lottt X., Kitg, Ott. tO tht oge of fosoo doys. Philip St. (tho boog) Kioog tot Fosttte 20012 Battle of Mo.~olifol Lotts SP deastsof Chiotlos ISP. Otog of Ftotoe. 18204 Bithl tot Jobn Witklifft; diot 1184. 1028 Gtooooy otoditd lip Toolis. 1020 PEotood ITS. sototod, ho.. 29, Ktog of Eoglootd. Isottyttte001 of Sotot 200,000 Motors bitooghto hoot Alrioo by Slit Ktoog of Gyotodst 1118 Chooto otbt Fsto, of Ftoote dtol Phlubp PI., of Oho H{oose of SVsloit, reigsts 1329 Dooid OC. Oitg of Scotlboso. 00813 STli toots dOietttsd by PEdtoot St SalS1107 Woo bitsotoot Fotooe ottd Flosotert. Btirth of Froi~lott; dttO lO0t. 1081 Fiyst Soot sot C.ot apyotointot. -1000 Sloth of Goohstd Citoot; AltO 13888 BoOttl of Tooifo tot Sp.!.; Motoos Stotr lily defeatoot by Alpoboos XIC, of Ci.s 1146 Bottse of Cttops Ftttooh, totdtr Phlip, t~ooAt, by tbs Potgti-b, ondeot Pdtad Ill., oso thSl Btook Pittoos Botlet of Dootlis, tit Sootlosod 1347 SlThe Eng05th tolis Cototh. Stiosoi, Oatt of Slit Ttlibonsot, etablishet lI34t UTiorotAy tot Pttgoe foosoto.d 1809 Dtotphitp otoeoed So Poonost S Ths blotS dAthl Oso EngltAnd ISIS Godot of tht Cootoo iostituted lip Ed. wttO tot tobso SC. Ktog of Fototoo. 1152 Mtoioot Fsboto oto Vootto 1001 Totur sobs Ctsrotot... 0080 _Rtosooi slisin tot Roost 2059 Boot~to of Poititots, Soytoobeto '19t 9,000 Bogllis dtfoat 60,000 Foteolih Slit Blots Ptintet lobo Johnt II. ctptotvs SI Lttondo, whlioe hes diot. Chisoos SO., of Coomaop, Aigli Slth CotltI Sbu, Ohs boss o t Slit Gotrot 8855s l~suootitoo oft Slit Jooqottlo 5t Fussoce. to360 Pstoe os BitAgop, betwesn PEglitli oand 3181 ItSly otittoo lip Ohs Ftes hostes. 1162 STli Etglioh loootage otdt-sd Ott bs used St logol potoeditgsf Engltand, 1861 Aoustrtto aoquiotes lth Tytol. 3560 Chaleoso P. (thet WIs) KOtog of Francet. Phlitp, tlit Sold, Doks ot Botgoody. Toitoty listoso Aostria toO Btoleiso. 1366 H. SVan Eyok, paiter~o, hoop. 1100 STli Mootodsbos totqotr Aromesia. Lostglootto "tP5-. Plttwoo.n." 1870 Pope Ctogotp SXt. Boot tt Avigtson. 2571 Sotttt Slots begits wt-tl Rolistt IL- of 1300 Dsathl of Potttooli. Rebeliottos agtast Slit FPope. 5005 Dootli of Bitootccog. 1.V - 4 I I

Page  XII i -I I I II i q I I ANCIENT — M A M H R..1ANCIENT -I - MEDIEVAL ~AND MODERN HISTORY. I 1j70 Richard 7 I. King of England, June 22.!.-Papacy restored to Rome.s1880 B3ttl of the Do2; Dinitri I, of Rua-, 4si 2 -defeats 1tie 1a2. WWye1kiffe' trans2a2o2 of the Bible pubi lshed.Thomas A. Ke2pis born. Russia wrar with the'~ Tartars. Charles VI., King of France. 1581 Watt Tyler's insurrection in London crushed. Ghiberti, 2rtit, born; died 1455. 2S82 "Lege2d of Good Women," England. 1383 The Tartars burn Mo2cw. 12285 Death of Joh Wyekliffe. 1386 Jo21 of 0h22nt in Spain. Battle of Le21p7ch; defeat of the Aus. t22ans by the Swiss, and death of Duke Leopold. 1827 Ger02an Empire divided. F72 Angelic, paint22, b722; died 1448. 12388 Battle of Chevy Chase, or Otte0bur72, between Scots and English. 1189 Margaret of Nor01y. 1390 The Eastern E2pire lose1 power in A2ai. Robert 282. King of S12tla2d. The Canterbury Tales published. J. Van Eyck, painter, b722. 1192 The Portuguese di4cover the Cape of Good Hope. 1391 Tamerlane, the Tartar, invade2 Ru1214. The Wakefield and Tw,,eley 2y7t2rie2. 1896 Battle of Nic2e2l7s, the Turks, under Baj11et 22, defeat the Hungarian Christians. 1897 Persecution 24 the Wyklifites or Lbo1 0rds. 7 1L899 Henry z1:,wedKn f ECgad Sept. 37 th; Order of the Bath f12 2ded. 1400 Birth of DelIa Robbia, architect and sc27pto2. Death of Cha-cr and Froisart. 1401 Rebellion in W2272e; G02ndowe2 and the Perairs defeted. 1402 Battle of Angora; Ti7o7r the Tartar defeats tile Turks and captures Bajazet!. M2212cci2, p7inter, b722. 1405 P7027 James of S12tla2d captured. 1406 Albany, 27g22t, in S2otl22d. 1407 F72222 interdicted by the Pope. 1409 Council of Pi... Alexander Y. made Pope by council of P7... 1410 Sigismund of Hungary b7c2m22s E7per2r of G222a2y. 1411 U022202ity of St. Andrews f22nd2d. Battle of H0rl2w; the Lowland defeat the Hi0hland S1cts. 1412 Birth of F72 Filippo Lippi, painter. 1412 Henry V. 2r2w2ed, March 21, King of England. 1414 Council of Constan0 2; Pope John XXIII. deposed. Sigismuod, King 2f B1he2i2, Emperor of Germany. 1415 Battle of Aginco.rt; 10,000 Engligh, under Henry V., defeat 50,000 Freoh. Jobh 122s and Jero e o f Pragu2 e burned at the 2take, betrayed by Sigi202d. 1416 Th. pa72tisa1 of H021 take up a222; a se-vere war,,ensues. 1417 Cobhm 2 burnt..1419 Th. fussites take Prague. 1420 ps1, 7 captured by the English; Treaty of Troyes; Henry win0 the French 22212; birth of Jo3. Wessel. 1422 Henry VI. proclaimed King of Franc7 and England. Ott0011 E07pir2 22it2d by Aourath 22. 1323 Ja1e ~. 72igns in S21t24d. 2425 War between MilananVei. The Paston Letters. 1429 Jo22 of Arc rai200 siege of Orleans, defeato the E1gli2h at Potoy, and drives them from all their conquests in France except Calis.I Ch0a72 VIII. King of F02222. 21430 Henry VI. crowned at Pari, in Decem. ber Amur1th7 0. 22nquer7 Macedonia. Humophrey Duke of G022222ter. The Medici at Florence. 1481 J... of A-e burned at Rouen. 1433 Liobon the capital of Portugal. Council of Basle. Birth of Tho.-a Malory. 1485 Treo of Arras, between France and 122gu2dy. Sicily and Naples uoited. End of Hussitewr. War of Turks with Venice. 1436 Invootion of Printing by Guttenberg. 1437 J31e1 I., of Sootlod, 2 2urdered. J32e1 II. b7c2272 King. Albert V., Duke of Autria, obtains Bohe70i and H00g2ry. 10d is made Empe122 of Ger212y. 1438 Uniooosity of Florence foondod. The Pr7gm2ti2 Sanioo on; Albert V., of Au0tia, bec722s Emperor of Ger1419 Council of Floren1e Tit22 of Emperor limited to the Autrian Hapsburgs~Tk 1442 Battle of Vasog; Turks rou2e2 by Hun1441 Battle of Nis02; Turko 1g2in d40eated. 1445 Birth of Leona2r2 o do Vini. The Arabian Knights issued (7). 1447 Nicholas V. Pope. Duke of Glouester ourderod. 1449 The Cfoozs at Milan2 Alphonso V. at Aragon. Pe 0k' 2 "20epresor." 1450 Jaok Cade'o insurrection. Early English Ballads. Birth of D0n22r; died 1530. 1451 Uoiooosity of G022g10 founded. 1452 Earl D02glas2 22der2d by James 0I. The Archduchy of Austria ora.with 2220regn po2er, by Frederick III. 1452 Constantinople captured by Mob.2alnmed I2.; end of the Eastern Eopir.. End of the French and Eoglish 0g22. The Moarin Bible issued. 1455 —'71 War of the 1ose0, between Henry VI. aod the Duke of York, 0ft0022d0 Edwa1rd IV. ]Battle of St. Albans. 1456 Battle of Belgrade; Turks r2puls2 d by 1457 Fredoriok III. divides Austria with hi7 relatives. 1458 P72 II. Pop7 at Ro07. 1460 Birth of Skelton; died 1528. The Turko oonquer Goeece. 1406 Edward IV. depo472 Henry VI. of Eogland, Loot, xI. King of Fr7222 14622 Iv02, the Great, of Ru20i2, founds the mo2der Ru.sian Empire. 1463 Turkish War with Venic. 0loe, of A0stria'1 war with Frederick 1460 "League of the Public Good," formed by the nobles, 2g2i20t Louis. 1467 Birth of 1222120; died 1536. 1468 Tho Coventary mysteries. 1470-92 Loren2 0 de Medici fl2u0rised. 1471 League of Italian 0itie2 against th0 Turks. William Caxton 21t0bli7he2 first English p0i1ti1g-pres. Battle of Tewkesbury. Warwick, king-1aker. Birth of D0r2r, painter; died 1528. 1472 Birth of Copernicus. Birth of Michael Angelo, architect and sculptor; died 1556. 1474 Birth of Ariosto; died 1533. Ferdinad I2., of Aragon, 1022ie1 I2 -bell7, of Leon and Castile. 1475 Edward IV. invad14 Franc7. Ivan i7tr2du201 ca22on 20d fir02a02 into Russia. A. D. 1475 Birth of Sir John Fortescue.. 1476 Battle of Murt0 7 0. 1477 Russian war with Tartars. Arts2 11d Burgundy united to France by Maximilli 22122212. Birth of Titi71, painter; died 1576. 1478 Duke of 0 0 1re 4 1rd e4ed. 1479 Union of Aragon and Castile, under Ferdinan.d and Isabe1ll. Great invasion of Russia by Tatrs. 1480 Mongolian power in Russia destroyed. Mohammed 71. takes Otranto. 0481 Frederick IV., of Nure1b2rg, p72ha072 Brandenburg from Sigismund. 1482 Ivan a110mes the title of the C012 ol BiRth of Raphael, painter; died 1520. 0483 Birth of Stephen Hawes; died 1512. E142rd V. 7040 Kiog of 717004; April 8 murdered In the Twr Richard 111. usurps the throne, June 25. Charles VIll. King of Fr70e. Birth of Luther; diod 1546. 1484 Spain invaded by ourks; first auto 4 fe at Seville. 1485 Bosworth Field. August 22, deoah of Richard I. Henry VII. owned. 1486 Henry marries Elizabeth, daughter ol Edward JV. BT DiV. rounds Cape of Good Hope. 1L487 Th. Court of the Star Chamber ini-,~ tuted in England; Provinc joined to France. 1488 War betwe~en Russia arid Sweden. The Yeoman of the Guard organized i England. 1490 Leonard7 d4 Vinci, painter, flooihd. 1491 bCharles VI7. 7 a1200 Ann of Britt70y. Alexander VI. Pope. Sev2igord defeat1 and annihilates the Tartars. 1492 Coloubuo sails froo Spain, A0g72t 3, and discvers America, October 12; di472vers Cub0, October 28; Hayti, December 6. Foodio......d 2027e222 02212 and 4 stroys the Moorish poe nSpain. Ce02 Borgia poio70ns Pope Ale02 0der vii. Ooooy 2022 272 200707207 of 021207. Warbeek's insurrectioo; quelled in 1428. Spa812o persecutioo of the Jews. 1491 Treaty of Barelooa, between France and Spyio. League betwe71 Ru0sia and D00112k. Birth of C0rreggi2, painter; d42d 1504. 0494 Charles VII. invades Italy and conquers Naples. Lollards p2r2e02t0d to Eoglaod. 1495 P0yni2gs' Act in I0el04d. 1496 Naples lost to C0720e1. Spain a10202 to Aostrio by the otrriage of Philip 0. with the b iohreo of Argon and Castile. 1497 Cabot discover4 Labrador, June 26; and s2222y0 H0d241'0 Bay, July 3. 1498 L..oo X1I2 King of F02212 1499 Th, French unit. with Venice and seizee Milan. Battle of L2pant0; victory of the Turks. Mohammdans. expelled from Spain. Swiss Confederacy independent. Perkin Warbeck executed. 1500 Pi..o. dioovers 711il, January 26. Cabral, the P0rtugu072, 124ds in Brazil, May 2. 1501 Brale adSchaffhansen join the Swiss Confederation. Negro s1ave2 i0poted into is11pa0iola. 1502 Spanooir 222s c0mpelled to adopt Christianity. Co2177bs 2a2l7 02 722 fourth voyage and di4ov227 various 020es on the 0001t of Honduras0 and e0plo2es the coa0t of the 241042; disovers and names Porto Bell, Nooveber 2. 1503 Reign of Monte20 07 in exico. Louis X1I0, of Fr0noe, i01de0 Spain. Portug0270 in lodia. Bioth of 07100; diod 0524. Birth of Meodoo., historin.; died 1575. 1504 Death of Qoo I07bell0 of Spoin. B12i2 explored by Amoeries V70puci22. Columbos, worried by the 710chi2ti2n2 of h72 e2e002s, return2 to Spain, November 7. 1505 Birth of Jobo Knox; died 1572. 1506 Death of COooubus, 2a2 2; 72 122 treated with the ba720t ingratitude by the Sp07i02 G02r2nme2t. Buchanan born; died 1582. Rule of Charles V., of Spain, in Holland. Birth of Fr00ci2 Xavier; died 1552. Yocatan discovered by Solis and Pi01n. 1508 League of Ca02bray, between L20i2 XII. and M21i2illia2, ag1i0t Venice. 1509 Henry VIlI. King of England; h7 7arrie0 Cath0rin2 of Aragon. Veoioe 1tripped of ito Italian possession7. 1510 Russiat again invaded by Tartar7. Execution of Dudley 10d F12p2o0. Ojed0 founds San Seba7tia0. 1511 Pop0 Julius II. foros tbe Holy League with Ferdinand and Venice. Velas.quez subdues Cuba. 0512 Selio 2..4de King of Turkey by JaotsPonce de Le.. discovers the Florida coast. Birth of V72ari, painter; died 0200. Birth of Tintoretto, painter; died 0222. Nava.rre anne0d to Sp272. 1513 England iovade- France. Battle of Ooinegat or Spurs; Frenh defeat. Sootlood invodos Englood. Battle of Flodden Field; 82ts dofeoted. 78b17 c22000s the 020th7u2 of Dorien,.nd discoers the Pacific oen Lto x., Popo, 72co22age0 literature ood the arts. 1514 Wosey'so power begins in England. 1515 Battle of M2rig2270. Francis I. defeats the Italians, Swiss and Maific 1. secu re the Hungarian Francis i. bocoo- Kiog of Fran7e. Firot EngIsoh p2022 history. Birth of St. T72re22; died 1582. 1516 Death of Ferdinand, King of Spaio. Rulo of COroinol Ximenoo. 72har1e 2. King of Spain. ceession of the H...e of Austria. Tuook gait Egypt. 2207 Elroopoeao toot 270422. f..o.og 0. Co.. Ii.defeats Mamelukes.. dnd~ai[s Egypt to the Otto.-. Empiro. Luther begins the work of refor-ontoo in Germany. Fernando de Cordova discovers the Mexican coast. Luther tra.!2te0 ood p7blishe0 the Bible and Lit.,,y in German. Birth of Sorey; died 1547. 1518 Grijafva pe7etoateo ioto Yucatan, and names it /',w Spain. 1519 Cortez lands i., Mexico. Ch0721 I., of Spain, ele0ted E1pero0 of Germany 2 Charles V. 1520 "Field of the Cloth of Gold" meeting of F071i0 2. with Henry VIII. 1Babo7 p72220 through Ma gellen'1 Straits. 1000 Battle of Raoao; Rsia dofeIto P7Olad. Martin Luther exeomnn-ied.atted Diet of W.o-..s Cooqoost of Moxico by C o. Hooy 00fIII., tyled the "Defendor of the 0207 ooto o oohe P op f2. France and Spain ar war. 15212 Cortez made o ero of M1ex.ico byCharles V. A. D.' 1522 Firs Scot h invasfoG of England. The Looooo, P01i00 c222e2e2 d. Cfeoloot V7I. 78 10at 8R0e. Berner's Fesat H02d2r20 conoueoo-d by the Spaniard0. Verazzani's discoveries in North AmerBgirth of Ronsard. died 1586. 1524 Settlement of 77 France (Canada). 1525 Battle of Pavia. Francis L. defeated and taken prisoner by Char'01 V. P0e01270' War in Germany. Albert of Brandenburg embraces Lutheaimand becomes Duke of East Prsi.i.a nd Fief of Poland. 1526 Ferdinand 1. unites Bohemia and Hungary to Austria. 0Piz1rr di4222202 the 02ast of Quite. 8eli0 I. defeats the Hungarins. Mongol dynasty founded in India. Tyndale's new Testament published. 1527 G 47010 capture2 Rome. Papal -a,,. In01r2e02tio of 2200202e2 suppressed, in Spain. Death of i~achiavelli. Birth of Ca020001; died 1579. Saokville, e0rlie1t d410ati2t, born. 1528 012720020 expedition to Florida 0ast. Consable Bourbon at Rome. James V., of Scotland, reigns. Birth of P. Ver7nese, painter; died 1588. 1529 Diet at Spieoo, Germany. Turks invade Austria. Fran00 ad Spain sign treaty of peace at Cambria. Sir Thooas More, Chancellor. 1530 Tho Augsb.rg Confession published. Pe'oeootioo of Protetants begun in El and death of Cardinal Woloey. Ref7r02tio 7 makes great progress in Switzerland. Italy conquered by Charles V. Russia makes peace with the Tartars. 0121 22222 of 822127114 2022204 by 000020..0t poio.o.. Firs0 Europe1 7 Colony in South A02200 San Vineente 'foneded. Royal printing press e2tablish17d 1 France Elliot'. "'Governor issed. Death of 2120207; born 1484. 1532 France a~nneeBitay Co0q2e7t of P0r2 22gins. Calvin at Genea 1538 Ivan 22, C02r, noted for his cruelty. Henry divorce4 C0th0ri7e, and marries Anne Boleyn. Birth of Montagu2; died 1592. The Hotel de Ville, Paris, founded. 1534 The A0abapti2t war; they capture Munster. Heory VI71. is styled "Head of the Church"; 17th0rity of the Pop0 of R702e abolohed in the kingdoo. Carter'0 07p4ditio2 to the Gulf of the Rebellion of Fitgerald in Ireland. Foundation of Je7uit - 1de 4. C22eggi0 died; boon 1492. 251 Executio n of Sir Thomas M ore, in EngCa1020 tcond 2 1oyage, enters and nmsthe St. Lawrence, ascends the ri22r 02 far a0 present 2it0 of Mootreal. Mendooa found1 B70220 Ayr02, and c0 -quers adja1e1t country. California 22pp77d0 to hooo be72 di4c20 -222d by an expedition fitted out by Corte und2 r Grijaloa. Cromwell, 2ic20-genral in England. Suppression of 0002ster20s in England. Coverdale's Bible issued Mendoza erects the first Mexican mint. 1536 Supp2272i22 of the Anabaptists, and death of Jobo of L20yde2. Anne BIoly beheaded; Henry marries J..e Seymour. The Pootugoose granted Maeoo, 00ina. The Boulevard1, Paris, c0202enced. 1537 E1gli7h 2 1pp277020 of the monasteries. Death of Jan. Sey02ur. Pilgriage of Grace. 1539 Adoption of the 1i2 12020102, England. Fi00t edition of Cromwell's Bible published. Cranmer's Anglican Liturgy. 1540 Execution of C, ---ell. Greece subjected to t27 Ottoman E-. pire. Henry. VIII. 220rri0 Annie of Cleve0, January 6; divorced July 0; 1r0rie0 C0therin2 Howard, August. J30es V., of Scotland, die. Mary pr220aim0d Queen of Scots; regoooy of Cardinal Beat10. Birth of 02020ig07; died 1577. Birth of Gilbert ( 2agnetis2); died 1603. Oreian.a sails down the Amaon to the 1541 Great Tartar inva0ion of Russia repelled. Do Soto di47c27r the Mississippi River7 1542 Cather-ine Howard executed. Henry VIII. takes the title of King of Ireland. Robervo.t expedition to the St. L21 -rence. 1543 Ivan IV., the Terrible, reigns, at the age offoren Henry Viii. marries Catherine Parr. Death of Cope27i2us; born 1472. 1544 Grioo L2ag20 join0 S0i2s Confederacy. F022 at war with England and Spain. Eng1ish inoooion of France under Henry Vill. Birth of Tasso; died 1595. University of Kooigoboog founded by Duke Albert. 8545 I oan IV. 2r001ed by the Patriarch. Pope Paul III. erect0 Parma 02d Placetia ioto o Duchy. A01h28 "T02ophilus." Council of Trent. 1546 Death of Martin Luther~ Fr0002 2onlodos p70c8 with England. Asaination of Beat7n, regent of Scot1546-'52 Chorlt V., of Ger021y, 70kes 187 00 the Prooteotots, hoo are a88i7t0d later by Henry 21. 1547 Earl of tourrey 10g0204, executed. Death of Henry VI70. Edward VI. reigno under pr7te0t0r1hip of the Duke of Somr-set. Henry 08. King of of.....y. Death of Victoria C021200; boot 14 The S-al-dic wr Birth of Cervantes; died 1610 1548 Hall's Chronicle issued. 1549 Execution of Lord Seym-, England; 0rr00t of hiO brother, the Duke of So2-:1550 John Knox's Sco.tch reformatio.. Udal, orliest E1g8ih omoedy. Birth of Coke; died 1634. 5501 Wiltool' Art of Rhetoric poblishod. 81552 The Book of C00020 Prayer published in~ England. Dueof Somerset beheaded. Meoto ooooossfollyt defended by the Duke Of uise. Close of religious war 28 2erma8y by the Pea-e of P-ssan M22c20 of COaza, 2220i8. Birth of Sir WValter Raleigh; died 1610. 1553 Mary Todor, daoobter of Catherine of Aragon, ooccoodt Edward, July 6. Lady7 J38 Gray prol,,aimed Quo of England, July 10, but rolinqoisheo the title. A/ D. 1553 Restores the Roman Catholic religon in IEglgnd. Trade between England ood Russia beg72 by the "Russian C0 7pany." Se007t0s booot by C01vi2. Birth of Hooker; died 1600. Birth of Spe2ser;,odiod 1599. 1554 Lady Jano Gray and Lord Guilford Dudley b7h02d8d. Mary 2maries Philip of Spain. Birth of Sir Philip Sydney; died4 1586. P02200uti0 of Protestants in England. Siberia;discvered. Wyatt's insurrection suppressed in Eg' land. 1555 Th7 English 222tyr7, Latimer, Ridl72, Rogers, and Cra0ner burned at the stake. Philip II. rules in Holl0d. Religions p7e2 of Augsburg. Bale2 "King John" issued. 1556 Charles, of Spain a2d Germany, retires to 8 monastery. Philip I02 King of Spain. Ferdinand, his brother, s124eeds in eraany. Reign of Akb0r, the greatest sovereign of Hindoostan. 1557 Spain at war with France. Battle of St. Quentin; Philip gains 1 decisive victory. Alva takes Rome. 1558 C012is retaken by the French. Mary, of Guise, in S1ctland, marries the Dauphine. Eli1beth accedes to English thbone, November 17., R1-est2blih02 the Church of England. 1559 Francis IT.- King of Fra022 Treaty of Cateau-Ca0breris signed. Wilfiam Cecil Secretary in Englatd. 1560 Charles IX. King of Franc; 2egency of Catherine de Medici. The G-nv ~Bible~ issued. Birth of Southwell; died 1596. Persecution of Protestants beg.n in Spain. 1561 Birth of B14o0; died 1626. Mary Stuart8 oeign in Sct021d. Religious war1 in Franc 1562 M22282re of Protestant0 at Vooty. Huguenot0 defeated at Dreux by 0ui2e. Russia and Sweden unite goinst Poland. Port Royal, Carolioa,, foonded by Huguenots. 1563 Guise killed at the.iege of Orlea01 Temporary peac with the Huguenots. The Escurial Palace of Spain founded. Tusser's Bucic~s issed. Birth of Drayton; died 1631. 1564 Maoioillosh 02. King of Germany. Florida colofnied by H2guenots. Birth of Shakespeare; died 1616. Birth of Galileo; died 1640. The Toilerie, Paris, beg7.2 1565 Philip e0t0blishes the I0q1i8itio0 it Hotland. Mary Queen of Scots marries Lord Darnley. St. Aogutine, Florida, founded by Melende.. 1566 Confederacy of.'Gu00 " (beggars) 2gain0t Philip's cruelty. Murder of Rizzio, by Darnley, March 9. 1567 R74igiou1 100s res28ed in France; Hug087 0t0 defeated at St. Denio. Alva enters the Netherlands. Assassi0tio8 of Darnley, Feb. 10; Mary accused of co~nnivance. Mary 0arri2 Brothwell, May2 15; abdieates in favor of her sn J32es VI., Earl of Murray, regont. 1568 Mary escapes froo prison, i defeated by Murray, at Longsido, M2y f3, and seeks shelter in England. 112h2p's Bible issued. 1569 Huguenots defeated at Jornao and 2o2 -contour. 1570 Rebellion of MO2l0S02e0, in Spain, put down. Iva.n 228sa0res 25,200 persons a0 Novgo. rod, R7220a. Hungary definitely annexed to Au0tri. Muoray murdered; Lennox becomes reg20t. 1571 Birth of Kepler; died 1600. Spain allied with Venice and the PopF against the Turks. Battle of Lepanto; Turkish power crip0 pled. Moscow, Russia, burned by the 'oartars. Lennox 24rdered; Mar becomes regent. 1572 Rebellion of Williom of Orange against Philip's tyranny. Ma222cre of St. Bartholomew, Fr0212, AUgust 24. Henry of 2avarre marries M2 g2erite, of Valois. Birth of Inigo Jones; died 1652. 1574 Apoeesion of Henry Ill., of France, the last of the VaIlos. Birth of len Jon312; died 1637. 1575 Elizobeth, of England, declines the so0 - ootreignty of Hollotd. 0rth of Guido R701, painter; died 1642. 12006 Ghent pacified. Provinces in Holland 1nite against Spo... 00221001n of Rodofph 222, of 000080.y Frobobtoshe oter San Froncisoo Bay. The Holy Catholic League orgooizod. 1576 Birth of Burtoo; died 1640. Birth of Fletdher; died 1625. 1577 Birth of Rubens, painter; died 1626. 1579 League of Utrecht. Northern provinees of Hollaod de0lare their independence Fitzgerald's Irish oobellido suppressed. Sir Foancis Drake lands in the Molucca. 1060 AlVa, of Sp.!o, 0o0q00rs Portugal; the onited province ren2un0e the80 alleglance.k Eoglish take f2rtre0 of S17e2i20, in Ireland, fro0 Italians, and butcher 782 prisoners. Birth of Alexander, of Sterling; died 1640. 1581 Camp0'1 Je00 it 0:0 cspiracy suppressed. 1582 Saute Fe, New Mexico, founded by Espejo. 158t Birth of Hugo Gootios; died 1645. 1584 William of Orange ossassiooted. Henry 712 killed by Jocqooo Cle020t; 077221i20 of Henry IV., of Navarre, fir2t of Bourbon line. Expedition of A0id.4 ond Barlow to 1080 Soothoo 72020020 of Hoflood 2074224 by the Duke of P0m. Treaty of Peace betweeo Holland Old England. Failure of Raleigh's Roanoke 2sltnd settlemets. Davis Strait discovered by Davis. 1586 Battle of Zutphen. Sir Philip Sydney killed. Birth of Beaoooot; died 1616. 1587 Prince Maurice becomes Stadtholdr of Holland~ Execution of Mary Queen of So Its Frotheringay C02tl0. 1588 Assassination of the Duke of Guise and hit brother, by order of the King. De0tr02tio0 of the Spanish Ar ada 1ff the Eoglish coab. 1590 Battle of 1-ty. Henry IV. defeato the Leogoe. Baroeooldt, grand Pensionory of Hloland. 1591 Birth of Hoo.ik; died 1624. 1592 Sigi000n d, of Poland, in Sweden. Birth of Qoooios; diod 1644. Birth of Gassendi; died 1655. 2590 o Heny IV. 0d4pt0 tho C othe oli foth. 1594 Birth of Shirley; died 1666. A. D. 70595 Shkespeare's poe0s first i24ed. 1596 Capture of Codio by Essex. University of B10200102 founded. Birth of Descartes; died 1650. 1597 B12on's 01ay2 published. 1598 Death of Philip II., of Spain. Philip 102. King; he banishes 300,00 Moo00 froo Spain by A. D. 1610. The Netherlands ceded to Austria. Edict of Nootes in fao.r of Protestant2 by Henry IV. 2ri7h rebellion of 00N0, or Tyrone; defeat of the English at Blackwater. Henry IV. 021 mi222 De 72 Roch1 to co0q272 C022d4, 12 1which he fil2. R7ssi0 for 700 year7, 7e1o22es eotiot. Bedleigh founded. 1599, Appen-el oins;the Swiss Cantons. Birth of V71dy0k, painter; died 1641. Birth of Velasquez, painter; died 1660. Modern History. 1600 Maurice, of Holland, invade1 Flanders. The Dutch East India Company chartered with 1 capital of $360,220. Ch0u71i8 s trading voyages to T7d4us022, Canada. Birth of the painter, Re7 brandt; died 1669. BiSth of Claude Lorraioe, painter; died Portuguese introduce tobacco into Indi.. 1601 Execution of the Earl of E1se2, Febru. ary 25. Alleged discovery of Australia by Portu1602 Siege of Geneva, Swit8erland; Charles of Saopy defeated. Champlain's expedition to the St. Lawrenc. 1603 Deoth of Queen Elioabeth; ac2 1000io of 4ames IV., of Sctland, to English Crown, 20 J31e0 I. Union of England and Scotland, March 4. 1604 Firot 0ettle2ent0 in Nova Scotia by Acadians. Port Royal, on Bay of Fundy, ftouded. Hampton Court Conference. 8605 Dis.overy of the Gunpowder Plot to blow up Parliamen t. 1606 Great fire in Costantinople. Matins at Moscow.I Demetriu0, 2 pretended son of Ivan, and mayPoles massacred. Liberty of w207hip given to Protestants, in Austria, by' peace of Vien7.7 Australia observed by the Dutch. 8ilk and otheo manufactures introduced 28into France. Mantug ceded to, the Emperor of Austria. Birth of Coneoiefo; died 1684. 1007 SeOoooot -of 32222210wn, Va., by Lord 1608 Quebec founded by Chmploin. John Sigismnd' poeoted El ctor of Brandoonbog and Duke of Prussia. Ulster settlemento 14de by the En15isk, Birth of John Milto.; died 1674. 1609 Trooo off Antwerp01 independence of united provinces of Holland. Mori202e0 expelled from Spain by Philip The Dooay Bible first issued. Peace between Spain and the Dutch. Henry Hudsoo discover4 Hudson River. Ch-plpioto' dtooooolo lo 0221 Chmlinsdscvre in Canada. Virginia obtaios a new charter. Hawk011 at Mogul Court. King J380 d42ive2 the Irish from Ul2ter and divides the land1between England and Scotland. 1610 "King Jame1' Version" of the Bible 1,completed. oenry IV. of France assassinated; M1rie de Medici Regent. L ouis XIII. King of Fran00. The Palais-Royal, Paris, built. 1611 The title of Baronet created by James I. 0ha71plain 220022 to A00eric, found2 70100822. otd 72 'in 207200 command in Canada. Issue of the English Bible, "King James' Version." Carr, afterwards So21r2et, favorite in England. 1612 Mathias beomes Empero r of Germany. English f20torie established in 24di1. Virginia receives a third charter Death of Prince Henry. 1613 Accession of the Ro7 anoff Dyn08ty 71 Russia. Michael Fedor-itz Czar. Champlain explores t1e Ottawa River, Canada. The Ov7b70y murder, England. Louis XIII. assumes the exercise of the Government. Prinoess Elizabeth, of England, marries Frederic, Eloctor of P01atin. 1614 English defeat Portuguese in 10mbay. New A002terda, now New 7Yk, 2built; by the Dutch. Smith explores the New England coast. Dutch settlement1 in New Jersey. Napier's Logorithts. 1615 Villi7'0 Duke of Buckinghom, favorite. 1616 The p722e0t Titog Dynasty in China establihed by M280tch2u Tart7rs. Death of C00v1t0s and Shakespeare. Harvey disoovero circulation of blood. 1617 Lad2sians, of Poland, marches on Mae — cow. Finland coded to Sweden. 1168 Th. thirty years'1war begins in Bohemia, between thb Protestants, under the Ellotor Palatine, 2nd the Cat01li B12 -varian Leagu.,. Sir Walter Raleigh executed. 2atth21s II., of Hungary, abdicates; atcession of Ferdinand II. Australian olast surveyed by Leachs and others. Kepler'7 Law2 published. 1619 E1e0utio2 of B120204dt, H0lla4. The Dutch visit India and est0blis7 a united East India Compa0y. 1620 Battle of Prag0e; defeat of Hungar1ans Protestants. Puritans arrive a Plymouth. "Great Patent" to Virginia compan0 is2 sued. Dutch 2200els with first 2egro slave enter James River. Navarre annexed to France. 1621 Spain 11d Holland at War. Philip IV. King of Spain. The Dutch West India Company for2ed[, Lord B7200 impeached 1nd overthrow2 10622 Seld8 and Py0 imprisoned. Birth of Moliere; died 1673. 1623 New Hampshire first settled. Firot 28ditin of Shakespeoreo' work1 1624 Richeliu's reform0, begins with22 flinaces. England de4l0r00 war with Spain. 1625 Prince Frederick Henry r2igs in Holland. Ac002012 of Foodinand 2IL, of Hunga07. Aeeesioo of King Charles I., of E021 -land; he oorro Princess Henriett M0ria,0 of072020. Huguenot upr.isig. 1626 Death of Lord Bacon. L I I

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